FalCon eXtra
Manual for Use of
FalCon eXtra
© 2005 FalCon GmbH
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without prior notification.
© Copyright 2005 FalCon GmbH, Falkner Consulting für Messtechnologie. All Rights Reserved.
MS-DOS and Windows are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation.
Content
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................... 1
Which modules can be included in FalCon eXtra .....................................................................................................1
FalCon Quick View....................................................................................................................................................1
FalCon FrameMerge ..................................................................................................................................................2
FalCon ImagerControl................................................................................................................................................2
FalCon Animator3AX ................................................................................................................................................3
FalCon MovXact ........................................................................................................................................................4
FalCon Mov3D...........................................................................................................................................................5
FalCon Mov6D...........................................................................................................................................................5
FalCon MovBag .........................................................................................................................................................5
FalCon CamFolder .....................................................................................................................................................6
Which programs supplement FalCon eXtra..............................................................................................................6
FalCon Quick View DB .............................................................................................................................................6
FalCon Customer View..............................................................................................................................................7
Installation ....................................................................................................................................................................8
Running the setup program ........................................................................................................................................8
Installation of the Hardlock Driver...........................................................................................................................10
System requirements..................................................................................................................................................12
STANDARD MENUS .................................................................................................................................. 13
The File menu .............................................................................................................................................................14
New ..........................................................................................................................................................................15
New Analysis ...........................................................................................................................................................16
Open .........................................................................................................................................................................17
Print Setup ................................................................................................................................................................20
License .....................................................................................................................................................................20
Program Settings ......................................................................................................................................................20
Exit ...........................................................................................................................................................................22
The View menu ...........................................................................................................................................................22
Tool bar ....................................................................................................................................................................22
Status bar..................................................................................................................................................................22
The Language menu...................................................................................................................................................23
Deutsch (German) ....................................................................................................................................................23
English .....................................................................................................................................................................23
The Help menu (?)......................................................................................................................................................23
Help Topics ..............................................................................................................................................................23
Program Warnings....................................................................................................................................................24
About .......................................................................................................................................................................24
PICTURE..................................................................................................................................................... 25
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Content • i
The File menu ............................................................................................................................................................ 26
JPEG Settings .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Page Preview ........................................................................................................................................................... 29
The Edit menu ........................................................................................................................................................... 30
Color Depth ............................................................................................................................................................. 33
Dither....................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Median Cut .............................................................................................................................................................. 34
Black/White............................................................................................................................................................. 35
Gray Values............................................................................................................................................................. 35
16 Colors ................................................................................................................................................................. 35
256 Colors ............................................................................................................................................................... 35
True Color ............................................................................................................................................................... 35
White Balance ......................................................................................................................................................... 36
Daylight................................................................................................................................................................... 37
Tungsten Lighting ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Neon Lighting.......................................................................................................................................................... 37
No White Balance ................................................................................................................................................... 37
Selection by Cursor ................................................................................................................................................. 37
Input White Balance ................................................................................................................................................ 38
Set Color Gain ......................................................................................................................................................... 39
Input Black Level .................................................................................................................................................... 39
Color Matrix ............................................................................................................................................................ 40
Ekta ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Neutral..................................................................................................................................................................... 41
DCS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Brightness/Contrast ................................................................................................................................................. 44
Gamma of Monitor.................................................................................................................................................. 47
Sharpening............................................................................................................................................................... 50
Sharpen by Filter ..................................................................................................................................................... 50
Sharpen by Frequency ............................................................................................................................................. 57
Sharpen by Intensity................................................................................................................................................ 57
Remove Sensor Edges ............................................................................................................................................. 58
Equalize Different Sensor Sensitivities ................................................................................................................... 59
Optimize .................................................................................................................................................................. 59
Copy ........................................................................................................................................................................ 60
Picture Size.............................................................................................................................................................. 60
Flip and Rotate ........................................................................................................................................................ 61
JPEG Settings .......................................................................................................................................................... 61
Reset Settings .......................................................................................................................................................... 61
AVI FILE CREATION ..................................................................................................................................63
The File Menu............................................................................................................................................................ 65
Page View ............................................................................................................................................................... 66
The AVI-Creation Menu........................................................................................................................................... 67
AVI Creation: Document Window and Functions ................................................................................................. 68
Enter ........................................................................................................................................................................ 69
Add .......................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Remove.................................................................................................................................................................... 71
AVI Create .............................................................................................................................................................. 71
Preview.................................................................................................................................................................... 72
Recording Rate ........................................................................................................................................................ 72
Selection .................................................................................................................................................................. 73
Insert........................................................................................................................................................................ 73
Insert - Logo ............................................................................................................................................................ 74
Insert - Text ............................................................................................................................................................. 75
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Insert - Time .............................................................................................................................................................75
Insert – Picture Number ...........................................................................................................................................75
MULTI AVI CREATION............................................................................................................................... 77
PICTURE TRANSFORMATION ................................................................................................................. 79
FRAMEMERGE .......................................................................................................................................... 81
COMPRESSION ......................................................................................................................................... 83
The File Menu.............................................................................................................................................................84
Page Preview............................................................................................................................................................85
The AVI Compression Menu.....................................................................................................................................85
AVI Compression: Document Window and Functions...........................................................................................86
Search.......................................................................................................................................................................87
Add AVI...................................................................................................................................................................87
Delete .......................................................................................................................................................................88
Compress AVIs ........................................................................................................................................................88
Compressor options..................................................................................................................................................88
AVI VIEWER ............................................................................................................................................... 91
The Movie Menu ........................................................................................................................................................92
Display Time/ Picture Number.................................................................................................................................95
Time Display Format ...............................................................................................................................................95
Go to Time/Image ....................................................................................................................................................96
Playback Speed ........................................................................................................................................................96
Set Start Time...........................................................................................................................................................96
Image Size................................................................................................................................................................97
Master Panel.............................................................................................................................................................98
Film Stripe Overview ...............................................................................................................................................99
Info .........................................................................................................................................................................100
MEASUREMENT DATA VIEWER............................................................................................................ 101
The File Menu...........................................................................................................................................................102
Open .......................................................................................................................................................................102
Page Preview..........................................................................................................................................................103
Graph: Document Window .....................................................................................................................................104
Changing the Diagram Output Area.......................................................................................................................104
Changing the Document Window Size ..................................................................................................................104
Access to Graphs via Mouse ..................................................................................................................................104
Synchronizing Graphs and AVIs with Master Panel..............................................................................................105
Synchronizing Graphs and AVIs with the Mouse ..................................................................................................106
The Graph Menu......................................................................................................................................................107
Load Additional Graph...........................................................................................................................................109
Delete Graph ..........................................................................................................................................................109
Select Active Graph ...............................................................................................................................................109
Header Data............................................................................................................................................................110
Scaling....................................................................................................................................................................111
Layout of Axes .......................................................................................................................................................113
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Content • iii
Font and Color for Labeling of Axis ..................................................................................................................... 114
Define Colors ........................................................................................................................................................ 115
Show Graph Values............................................................................................................................................... 116
Cursor at Graph ..................................................................................................................................................... 118
Zoom with Mouse ................................................................................................................................................. 118
Moving the Time Window .................................................................................................................................... 119
Legends ................................................................................................................................................................. 119
Copy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 120
PROGRAM SETTINGS .............................................................................................................................121
Page Preview ............................................................................................................................................................ 124
ETHERNET CONTROL.............................................................................................................................125
Entering the test name ........................................................................................................................................... 125
Ethernet Control .................................................................................................................................................... 126
Ethernet Control - Test .......................................................................................................................................... 127
Ethernet Control – Films – Overview – Set-up ..................................................................................................... 128
Ethernet Control – Films – Overview – Control ................................................................................................... 129
Ethernet Control – Films – Overview – Download ............................................................................................... 130
Ethernet Control – Films – Camera Data .............................................................................................................. 132
Ethernet Control – Films – Picture Data ............................................................................................................... 133
Ethernet Control – Change... ................................................................................................................................. 134
Ethernet Control – Deleting Defaults .................................................................................................................... 134
IMAGERCONTROL...................................................................................................................................135
The Aim of ImagerControl ..................................................................................................................................... 135
Supported Imager Types ........................................................................................................................................ 135
Installation ............................................................................................................................................................... 136
Execution of SETUP on the Host .......................................................................................................................... 136
Execution of Setup.exe on the Slaves.................................................................................................................... 136
Program Settings ..................................................................................................................................................... 137
Settings on the Host................................................................................................................................................. 137
Program Settings ................................................................................................................................................... 137
AVI-Settings.......................................................................................................................................................... 138
Directories ............................................................................................................................................................. 139
Search Path ............................................................................................................................................................ 140
Slaves (Optionally) ................................................................................................................................................ 141
AVI Reductions (Optionally) ................................................................................................................................ 142
Support of logical variables:.................................................................................................................................. 144
Settings on the Slaves .............................................................................................................................................. 145
Test ........................................................................................................................................................................... 147
In General ................................................................................................................................................................ 147
Test Definition ......................................................................................................................................................... 149
Cameras.................................................................................................................................................................... 151
Presettings ................................................................................................................................................................ 151
Imager Type Specific Presettings .......................................................................................................................... 152
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
An overview of all cameras....................................................................................................................................158
Control ......................................................................................................................................................................159
Description ................................................................................................................................................................161
Pictures......................................................................................................................................................................163
Insert .........................................................................................................................................................................163
Optimize ....................................................................................................................................................................166
Overview on all cameras ........................................................................................................................................167
Film............................................................................................................................................................................167
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................167
Resolutions.............................................................................................................................................................168
Auto-Download.........................................................................................................................................................169
Automatic Processing...............................................................................................................................................169
File Management ......................................................................................................................................................169
Possibilities................................................................................................................................................................169
HW-Remote Control ................................................................................................................................................170
In General .................................................................................................................................................................170
Functionality.............................................................................................................................................................170
Setting of the input channels: .................................................................................................................................170
Setting of the output channels: ...............................................................................................................................170
Settings in the Software..........................................................................................................................................171
Telnet-Commands ....................................................................................................................................................171
CUSTOMER VIEW.................................................................................................................................... 173
MOVXACT – IMAGE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................. 175
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................175
1.
Measuring Object Positions........................................................................................................................176
2.
Calibrating Measurement Value Output.....................................................................................................177
Work Steps in a MovXact Analysis .......................................................................................................................180
General Information ...............................................................................................................................................181
MovXact Terms .....................................................................................................................................................182
MovXact Cooperating Partners ..............................................................................................................................185
Marker Types + Algorithms....................................................................................................................................186
The File Menu...........................................................................................................................................................190
New Analysis .........................................................................................................................................................190
Open .......................................................................................................................................................................192
Save As...................................................................................................................................................................193
The Analysis Document Window............................................................................................................................194
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Content • v
The Analysis Image and Zoom............................................................................................................................... 198
The Analyze Menu................................................................................................................................................... 203
The MovXact Settings Dialog ................................................................................................................................. 205
The Interactive Measuring Dialog ......................................................................................................................... 212
The Set Up Markers Dialog .................................................................................................................................... 223
1. Set up without Marker Defaults......................................................................................................................... 223
2. Set up with a Marker Default List ..................................................................................................................... 229
3. Set up with a Marker Default File ..................................................................................................................... 229
Marker-Specific Tips............................................................................................................................................. 229
The Track Markers Dialog ..................................................................................................................................... 232
Special Mode Group.............................................................................................................................................. 235
The Dropout Help Dialog........................................................................................................................................ 237
The Calibration Dialog ........................................................................................................................................... 242
The Calibration/Time Dialog.................................................................................................................................. 247
The Calibration/Camera Dialog............................................................................................................................. 248
The Calibration/Scale Planes Dialog...................................................................................................................... 253
The Calibration/Depth Dialog ................................................................................................................................ 256
The Calibration/2D Coordinate System Dialog .................................................................................................... 260
The Diagrams/T-Diagrams Dialog ......................................................................................................................... 264
The Diagrams/X-Diagrams Dialog......................................................................................................................... 269
The Diagrams/Save Curves Dialog ........................................................................................................................ 271
The Edit menu ......................................................................................................................................................... 277
The Edit/Markers Dialog ........................................................................................................................................ 278
Edit/Markers – Basic Settings ............................................................................................................................... 278
Edit/Markers – Template....................................................................................................................................... 279
Edit/Markers – Methods ........................................................................................................................................ 280
Edit/Markers – Trajectory ..................................................................................................................................... 285
The Edit/Contours(t)............................................................................................................................................... 288
The Edit/Stencils Dialog.......................................................................................................................................... 288
The Edit/Export Dialog........................................................................................................................................... 289
The Edit/Import Dialog........................................................................................................................................... 294
The View Menu........................................................................................................................................................ 299
The Marker Defaults (*.mrd) Document............................................................................................................... 300
The Picture List Document (*.pli).......................................................................................................................... 301
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
How Do I Measure Differences to Position? ..........................................................................................................303
How Do I Measure an Angle? .................................................................................................................................305
How do I Measure the Impact Angle in a Top View? ...........................................................................................308
How to adjust a perpendicular view ? ....................................................................................................................312
MOVBAG – AIRBAG ANALYSIS............................................................................................................. 315
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................316
The Interactive Measuring + MovBag Menu.........................................................................................................318
The Contour-Options Dialog: Methods..................................................................................................................320
The Contour-Options Dialog: Display....................................................................................................................326
Coordinate System + Scale ......................................................................................................................................329
Diagram Output: T Diagrams.................................................................................................................................331
Diagram Output: X Diagrams.................................................................................................................................332
CAMFOLDER – CAMERA CALIBRATION.............................................................................................. 335
Terms.........................................................................................................................................................................336
The File Menu...........................................................................................................................................................337
Working with the Menu...........................................................................................................................................338
The Camera Folder Document Window ................................................................................................................339
Insert Items into the Camera Folder ......................................................................................................................340
Calibration Measurement........................................................................................................................................344
Tab Control Points .................................................................................................................................................344
Tab Image Points....................................................................................................................................................346
Tab Parameters.......................................................................................................................................................350
Tab Evaluation .......................................................................................................................................................355
Layout for ASCII-Control Point Diagrams ...........................................................................................................362
Coded Markers.........................................................................................................................................................363
Tips When Making Recordings of the Test Panel .................................................................................................364
MOVXACT3D............................................................................................................................................ 369
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................370
Tracking data: control and unknown points ...........................................................................................................370
Calibration measurements ......................................................................................................................................370
? Position measurements ......................................................................................................................................370
? 3D measurements ..............................................................................................................................................370
Terms.........................................................................................................................................................................371
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Content • vii
Requirements for 3D Measurements ..................................................................................................................... 371
Work Steps............................................................................................................................................................... 372
Calibration Measurement....................................................................................................................................... 373
Layout of ASCII Point Tables ................................................................................................................................ 374
Coded Markers ........................................................................................................................................................ 376
ANIMATOR3AX.........................................................................................................................................377
FALCON QUICK VIEW DB – CLIENT / VISAVI.......................................................................................379
Quick View DB / VisAvi Toolbar ........................................................................................................................... 381
File Menu ................................................................................................................................................................. 381
Database Server Selection....................................................................................................................................... 382
Database Default Setting......................................................................................................................................... 383
Work Directory ....................................................................................................................................................... 388
Test Navigation........................................................................................................................................................ 390
Toolbar .................................................................................................................................................................. 391
Tree Window......................................................................................................................................................... 392
Properties Window................................................................................................................................................ 393
Filtering ................................................................................................................................................................. 401
Filters for Text Fields ............................................................................................................................................ 403
Filters for Date....................................................................................................................................................... 404
Filters for Numbers ............................................................................................................................................... 405
Filters for Yes/No.................................................................................................................................................. 406
Sorting Options...................................................................................................................................................... 407
ISO Export ............................................................................................................................................................... 408
Administering the Archive...................................................................................................................................... 410
Authorized PCs...................................................................................................................................................... 411
Edit User................................................................................................................................................................ 412
Editing User Groups.............................................................................................................................................. 413
Picture File Format ................................................................................................................................................ 414
View ...................................................................................................................................................................... 414
Camera Number .................................................................................................................................................... 415
CD ......................................................................................................................................................................... 415
Access to Films ..................................................................................................................................................... 416
Access to Measurement Channels ......................................................................................................................... 417
Tests.......................................................................................................................................................................... 418
Test New/Copy/Select ........................................................................................................................................... 418
Edit/Run Test......................................................................................................................................................... 420
Edit Test – Test – General ..................................................................................................................................... 421
Edit Test – Test – Access Limitations ................................................................................................................... 422
Edit Test – Film – Overview – Setup .................................................................................................................... 426
Edit Test – Film – Overview – Control ................................................................................................................. 427
Edit Test – Film – Overview – Ethernet................................................................................................................ 428
Edit Test – Film – Overview – External................................................................................................................ 429
Edit Test – Film – Camera..................................................................................................................................... 430
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Edit test – Film – Picture Settings ..........................................................................................................................432
Edit Test – Measurement Value .............................................................................................................................433
Enable Test.............................................................................................................................................................435
Revoking the Enable for a Test ..............................................................................................................................437
FALCON DB-SERVER ............................................................................................................................. 439
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................439
Tasks of the Program...............................................................................................................................................440
The Main Window....................................................................................................................................................441
Connections............................................................................................................................................................441
Database Used ........................................................................................................................................................442
Open Connections and Tables................................................................................................................................442
File Menu ..................................................................................................................................................................443
If the Server is Working .........................................................................................................................................443
If the Server is Not Working ..................................................................................................................................443
Open Database .......................................................................................................................................................444
Verify CD...............................................................................................................................................................444
Exit .........................................................................................................................................................................445
Settings ......................................................................................................................................................................447
Times for Writing CDs ............................................................................................................................................447
Backup Destination ..................................................................................................................................................448
System Administrator ..............................................................................................................................................449
Permitted Domains...................................................................................................................................................450
Save for How Long...................................................................................................................................................450
Jukebox Administration ..........................................................................................................................................451
Importing Graphs ....................................................................................................................................................455
Database Backup ......................................................................................................................................................456
Start CD Write .........................................................................................................................................................456
Connected Users .......................................................................................................................................................456
MODIFY SAMPLING RATE ..................................................................................................................... 457
What Is Modify-Sampling-Rate? ............................................................................................................................457
What Does Modify-Sampling-Rate Do? .................................................................................................................457
Background...............................................................................................................................................................457
Interactive Operation...............................................................................................................................................458
Batch Mode ...............................................................................................................................................................460
IMC-TELNET............................................................................................................................................. 461
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Content • ix
GLOSSAR .................................................................................................................................................463
INDEX ........................................................................................................................................................465
x • Content
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Introduction
Which modules can be included in FalCon eXtra
FalCon eXtra offers technical users of high-speed image technology a
complete set of program packages, all of which deal with picture processing,
AVIs and picture evaluation.
The various modules are integrated into a single uniform user interface that
conforms to MS Windows standards.
FalCon Quick View
The FalCon Quick View module provides both quick creation of picture
sequence files as well as convenient viewing with the use of a sequence and
measurement data viewer.
This module also supports Ethernet control of high-speed video cameras: set-up
and identification of cameras, mode control and rapid download of picture data
via Ethernet.
Digital sequence pictures can be prepared and improved to create a "Video for
Windows" file (AVI) from them. FalCon Quick View’s batch capability
makes automatic processing possible.
Different picture file formats such as Bitmap (BMP), Tagged Interchange
Format (TIF), JPEG (JPG) and raw picture files of NAC, Redlake, Weinberger
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Introduction • 1
and Photo-Sonics are supported. Pictures can be processed in terms of black
level, gamma, brightness, contrast, white balance, color matrix, sharpness and
color depth. Since many of these processing functions are only possible for
pictures with a color depth of 24 bits, the other input formats can be converted
into true color.
The various input formats can be mixed to generate AVI files. Titles created with
a graphics program can also be inserted. AVI files are (at first) created
uncompressed and thus without any loss in the individual colors.
The files can then be compressed so that the AVI files can be played back more
rapidly and also to save storage space. Since the program uses the "Video for
Windows" interface Version 4.0 of MS Windows, all supported (and installed)
compression and file formats and hardware accelerators can be used.
A viewer for AVI files makes it possible to watch several videos simultaneously.
The replay speed and size of the picture can be changed as well. Functions for
single-step, positioning, autorepeat and excerpt playback are also available.
It is also possible to represent measurement data as time diagrams. Supported
input file formats include PIAS, DIAdem and ISO-Crash. As soon as an AVI file
is played back with the aid of the master panel, a cursor follows the
measurement values synchronously in the time diagram. When this marker is
moved interactively, the AVI files are also automatically positioned to the
corresponding picture.
FalCon FrameMerge
The module FrameMerge offers you the comparison of several video
sequences by image overlapping or by split-screen/mosaicing.
The features of this module are orientated to applications in the field of crash
tests: For combining different cameras, image sections and camera positions, the
user is able to choose individually per sequence the picture processing,
rectification, window section and size.
The positions of the single sequences can be chosen within a 3x3 mosaic or they
can be adjusted in an overlapping image by translation and rotation. The
transparency might be selected per channel. Different modes help to enhance
small differences.
Beside the visualization in FrameMerge the overlapping sequences can be
exported also in common single file formats or AVIs.
FalCon ImagerControl
FalCon ImagerControl offers exactly the power you need for your test objects
and crash systems. From a small test bench controlled by PC to a large system
with a large number of auxiliary computers.
If read and processing times were already not acceptable at a resolution of
512x384 pixels, you will have to count on times that are as much as 6 times
longer for the new high-resolution cameras. For example, if you have needed 6
minutes per view up until now, they would be ready after 1 hour when using 10
cameras. In the future, however, this could last for as much as 6 hours!
We have taken measures to respond to this situation. What could be more
obvious than distributing the task over several computers? Don't worry, though,
you won't have to run from screen to screen. As it was previously, you will only
have one control computer. The rest takes place invisibly to you: You will just
be surprised that processing could possibly be that fast. A load balancing process
comes into play that takes into account the performance capacity of the auxiliary
computers, the image size and the desired read interval. And if you happen to be
2 • Introduction
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
on a trip with your laptop computer and no auxiliary computers are available, the
laptop does all the work, and you don't need to reconfigure anything.
•
Use of parallelly working computers (clients).
•
Consistent multitasking on each computer is good for multi-CPU
computers, but doesn't save any time for single-CPU systems.
•
With the integrated original data viewer, you can see the data immediately
after the download.
•
If you want, an uncompressed film sequence will be created with rapid
image optimization only. While you are viewing this QuickLook sequence,
the final and definitive AVI is being created in the background.
•
If you want, image distortion correction can be performed immediately.
•
Auto download starts automatically after read initiation and AVI
generation.
Support of many camera types in mixed-operation mode
•
Support of AOS, NAC, Photo-Sonics, Photron, Redlake and Weinberger.
•
Unrestricted mixed-mode operation is possible without losing the features
of a given manufacturer.
Remote control
•
Remote control via PLC is possible.
•
Remote control can be controlled by Telnet. The same is true of test and
camera definition.
•
The status of cameras is also available as TTL signals.
FalCon Animator3AX
The Animator3AX serves for an easily understandable visualization of
calculated 3D animations and high-speed images of a crash test. The exact and
time synchronous overlapping of simulations and real films enables the
comparison and verification of the movements of dummy and vehicle.
The viewer Animator3 of GNS GmbH, which has been set up in the
calculation departments, has been integrated into FalCon eXtra with all its
characteristics and the established command interface. For users in the crash
departments a user surface compliant to Windows has been added, so that a
department-overlapping work in the field of vehicle development is made easier.
During overlapping the view of the simulation movie is precisely aligned with
the outer orientation of the high-speed camera. It is suitable to evaluate the
spatial position necessary for this purpose and the optical characteristics of the
camera in use in advance by means of methods of image measurement
technology (Module MovXact and Mov3D).
Main features
•
Time synchronous overlapping of the image information gained from
simulation and test in the vehicle's coordinate system.
•
Line of sight automatically adjustable or interactively adaptable.
•
Rectification of lens distortion in images.
•
Storage of the moving overlapped images as AVI.
•
Comparison presentation of several tests or views at the same time.
•
All Animator3 standard functionalities, such as switching on and off of
parts, measurement of points and distances in a model, selection of the type
of presentation.
•
Possibility of user specific configuration of the user surface.
Preconditions for the use of the Animator3AX:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Introduction • 3
•
•
•
•
•
•
Crash video as AVI (compatible with FalCon Quick View, image
frequency and T0 contained in the header).
CAE model data are present as an import format of Animator3.
Information about model and test coordinate systems.
Camera position (static or dynamical) sensible for an automatically
comparison.
Camera calibration recommended.
Import format of camera data: FalCon formats or ISO MME 13499.
FalCon MovXact
The FalCon MovXact module allows you to precisely analyze image
sequences with the methods of image measurement technology. In addition to
robust, automatic marker tracking, customer-specific calibration and processing
of measurement results is supported. Measurement graphs and individual
measurement values are displayed to fit the image data precisely, are shown
numerically, and are written to standardized file formats.
The program interface combines typical work steps in clearly designed dialogs
so that the user can evaluate both series tests and special tests quickly,
reproducibly and accurately.
Data Management
•
Import/export of picture and measurement data
•
Calibration parameters and settings
Interactive measuring
•
Point, distance, angle and area measurements
•
Recording of outlines (contours = f(t))
•
measuring by planar stencils
Automatic measuring/marker tracking
•
Parallel procedure with sophisticated combination of the methods
•
Easy setup of markers (auto-centering)
•
Supported marker types:
MXT MarkerXtrackT (5 and 6-point markers),
DOT (1-point markers),
QUAD (quadrant = 4-segment markers),
CODE (= coded markers, AICON)
COR (any picture sections)
•
Dropout handling with group model
Calibration of measurement data
•
Distortion correction according to picture source
•
2D reference levels: coordinate system and scale
•
Depth correction
•
Frame rate and T0
Measurement data processing
•
Reference with respect to time or marker
•
Temporal SAE filtering and differentiation
•
Extraction of additional variables, for example resultant, angle, and MXT
angle
Representation of measurement data in a picture or diagram
•
Overlay graphics from picture measurement data
•
Analysis picture with zoom window and movie representation
4 • Introduction
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
Quick Look spatial diagrams (x-y) and time functions (a-v-s)
FalCon Mov3D
The image analysis software Mov3D offers you the possibility to analyze 3D
motion of dynamic recordings:
Using the 2D module MovXact you track objects in several stereoscopic views.
Photogrammetric methods (“triangulation”) enable you to calculate 3D curves.
•
Easy management of multi views within one test file
•
Interface to 3D control points
•
New type of marker CODE (= coded ring marker, by AICON)
•
Calculation of camera position using known control points
•
Calibration of camera and lens with powerful distortion correction.
•
Use drag&drop from module CamFolder.
•
3D calibration and output of x-y-z displacement/time diagrams
FalCon Mov6D
The image analysis software Mov6D offers you the possibility to analyze 6D
motion of rigid objects by the means of one camera:
The 6D-parameters contain position (x, y, z) and orientation (w, j, k) in space.A
so-called 6D-object consists of at least four markers, whose geometry to each
other mustn't vary (= "rigid" by definition). You just have to enter the premeasured control point data into the program, which determine the geometric
model.
Using the 2D module MovXact you track the markers of the object in one
monocular view. Photogrammetric methods enable you to calculate 6D
trajectories, which are relative to a start value or to a superordinate coordinate
system.
•
ASCII interface for 6D-objects with 3D-control points
•
6D-calibration and output of x-y-z displacements and w-j-k angles as time
diagrams(with a-v differentiation etc. see MovXact)
•
and as in Mov3D:
•
type of marker CODE (= coded ring marker, by AICON)
•
Calibration of camera and lens with powerful distortion correction
FalCon MovBag
The analysis module FalCon MovBag extracts outlines from recordings of
airbag tests and measurement variables derived from them. The measurement
methods detect brightness and color saturation differences (absolutely or relative
to a reference image) using adjustable parameters. The picture processing tools
are designed primarily for tests on a test stand. User control is analogous to the
MovXact analysis system.
•
Automatically determining contour graphs that change over time
•
Display in the image overlay and diagram
•
Derivation of specific measurement variables:
Maximum expansion, area, center of gravity
•
Measuring discrete points, markers or areas
•
Calibration of results with free selection of the coordinate system
•
Export in Multi-D format, DIAdem etc.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Introduction • 5
FalCon CamFolder
The Quality Assurance in Image Analysis:
Camera Calibration and Distortion Measurements (ISO)
•
Calibrate cameras with a powerful range of distortion parameters
•
Calculate the distortion index according to ISO 8721 / SAE-J211/2
•
View the results graphically
•
Folder file with camera/lens combinations
•
Access and view of camera data by tree view: camera name – lens name
(focal length) – calibration (focusing + date)
•
2D or 3D test fields with pre-measured control points eg from Aicon
•
Support automatic setup by coded marker targets (AICON)
Which programs supplement FalCon eXtra
Additionally further FalCon programs exist, which supplement the prodct
portfolio offering a user interface related to FalCon eXtra:
FalCon Quick View DB
FalCon Quick View DB is more than a product, it is a concept. It consists
basically of two separate programs: a database server and a client program.
The features offered by the server include automatic data backup, CD burning,
access protocols, access protection, automatic data importing and much more.
In addition to the functions familiar from FalCon Quick View (picture
processing, picture optimization, AVI creation and compression, synchronized
representation of measurement graphs and AVIs), the client receives additional
functions for managing the archive, performing tests, controlling cameras and
transferring picture data from the camera to the host, not to mention one of the
most important features, a "Navigator". This Navigator is the interface to the
database, and can be used to perform searches. The Navigator window is divided
into two sections: the left side contains a tree structure of the selected
tests/film/pictures/measurement data, while the right side contains additional
information related to the item selected on the left side. To display the
films/pictures/measurement graphs, simply double-click or drag with the mouse.
Another very convenient feature is performing tests with camera control: you
can set parameters for, monitor, or download from as many as 255 cameras in
parallel. Once the test has been performed, all you need to do is click with the
mouse and the system works automatically for you: transfer of picture data from
the cameras to the host via Ethernet with simultaneous creation of AVIs, transfer
of data to the server and compression of the AVIs. The server in turn backs up
the data automatically on CD – depending on the capacity of the CD changer,
you will only need to become involved very infrequently (typically twice a year);
otherwise, everything runs automatically.
6 • Introduction
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
FalCon Customer View
Presentation tool:
Creator
complete version
FalCon Customer View makes presentations of AVIs, pictures and
measurement graphs as easy as child’s play. The five data areas of a so called
test file – films, measurement data, pictures, documents and layout – can be
filled in with "drag-and-drop". You can create various groupings within the
individual areas – similar to a directory tree – except that in this case you also
have the additional possibility of assigning descriptions to the groups or entries.
For example, to show the location on the object where a measurement channel
can be accepted, you can insert icons in positioning pictures that can be freely
defined. Of course this works in reverse as well: clicking on a symbol within the
picture immediately causes the corresponding entry to be selected within the
tree view. All associated data of a complete test or a series of tests can thus be
combined together to provide an overview, or can be archived.
The Customer View has display modules for AVIs, all commonly used picture
formats (including of course the Kodak Bayer format and the Weinberger BLD
format) and the most important measurement data formats (including DIAdem,
ISO-Crash and others). Pictures can be edited as in the FalCon Quick View
module. Almost everything can be included under the "Documents" tab: text
files, Excel spreadsheets, databases and even independent programs. Doubleclicking on a document starts the corresponding program (the one associated
with it through the Windows registry).
The layout files are an especially important feature: they determine the way in
which the screen is divided up, for example at the top left an AVI positioned on
picture 23 at normal size; at the top right an enlarged view of a JPEG picture; at
the lower left a small window with a measurement graph; and at the lower right a
large window with several measurement graphs After this, you simply create a
new layout, save the screen distribution setup and you’re done! To bring back
the same arrangement later on, simply double-click on the layout file. It’s that
easy to create presentations and to highlight important details in the results!
Distribution tool:
An additional feature is integrated for service providers: simply clicking with the
mouse will create a "customer version". This also assigns a directory in which all
data will be copied based on a specified directory structure, no matter where the
original data comes from. The Customer View also makes certain that files with
the same name are not overwritten, and that files used multiple times are only
copied once. An installation director is created automatically. A special viewing
version of the program can be installed on the customer computer with it. Now
just burn the entire directory onto a CD – and that’s it.
Viewer
customer version
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Viewer version, which permits viewing only, contains all the options
listed above, except that in contrast to the Creator full version, no new
documents (test or layout files) can be created and no changes can be saved.
There are no limitations on the distribution of this customer version.
Introduction • 7
Installation
This section describes the installation of FalCon eXtra for Windows
9x/NT/2000. FalCon eXtra offers you a setup program for this purpose. It leads
you step-by-step through the automatic installation of FalCon eXtra.
The setup program verifies the system configuration (see System Requirements)
and prompts you for the directories needed for the installation. Then it creates
the target directory and copies all files to it. Finally it creates a new program
group with a new icon for starting FalCon eXtra.
Running the setup program
Place the CD-ROM in the D: drive.
Run D:autorun.exe and select Installation from the FalCon wizard screen.
The setup program now loads and decompresses some files and then displays a
welcome page.
The installation now recommends a drive and a directory in which to keep the
program files. The default is:
C:\Program Files\FalCon\<Optional Module>\.
You can also indicate a different directory here (with drive and pathname). If the
directory does not yet exist, it will be created.
The setup program now installs the files and creates the program group FalCon
with an icon to start the program.
After a few minutes you will see a message indicating that the installation was
successful. FalCon eXtra is now successfully installed on your system.
An UNINSTALL procedure for de-installation is automatically created. Please
note as well the file RELEASE.WRI, which contains a description of changes
and additions made to the program that do not occur in the manual.
License protection is ensured by means of a security device = hardlock
(“dongle”). The security device contains the licensing for the individual
modules. The corresponding driver must be installed separately (see instructions
below).
To start the program with a specific selection of individual modules, the
following additional parameters can be entered in the link to the program to be
run:
8 • Introduction
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
-no_splash
: without FalCon starting image
-demo
: Demo version only
-no_qv
: without Quick View
-no_ic
: without ImagerControl
-no_3ax
: without Animator3AX
-no_mx
: without MovXact
-no_3d
: without Mov3D
-no_36
: without Mov6D
-no_mb
: without MovBag
-no_cf
: without CamFolder
for example
C:\Program Files\FalCon\eXtra\eXtra.exe -no_mx
The standard icon for FalCon eXtra is the red X.
Other icons can be selected to draw a distinction between different links. To do
this, select Properties/Link/Other Icon.
Note:
Install the Help files and the camera specific Dlls for ImagerControl
additionally if necessary!
Start the program now. A FalCon-eXtra splash screen or startup screen makes
reference to the current version group:
The name of the licensed party appears in the status line.
Licensed to ‘MyCompany’
If you can only start the program in the demo version, please follow the steps
that appear below for installing the license protection security device.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Introduction • 9
Installation of the Hardlock Driver
Licenses are protected by the security device (= dongle).
Plug the security device (for individual licenses) into the parallel interface
LPTx or the USB-interface of your computer.
If you have computers networked together inside a house, a server dongle can
also be used so that the program can be started on multiple computers
(simultaneously depending on the number of licenses you purchased).
If you have a (site-related) company license, the license query generally takes
place through a server dongle. Licensed computers can be separated from the
company network and then will also run independently without a dongle. Note,
however, that this applies only for the associated program module with a site
license.
Please refer to your system support person if you have questions regarding the
extent of the licensed program.
Pay attention to the notes (chapter Standard Menus/File/License) for an
optimzed operation with workstation and server licenses.
To operate the security device (also called a hard lock) under MS Windows, the
associated drivers must first be installed. To do this, place the CD-ROM in the
D: drive.
Workstation hardlock
For individual license security devices that are connected to your computer, start
the installation program:
D:\FalCon\Hardlock\Driver\hldrv32.exe
The Wizard recognizes your operating system and leads you through the
installation.
Server hardlock
To set up a server security device, the drivers only (!) must be loaded onto the
server. Start the associated installation program:
D:\FalCon\Hardlock\Driver\hlsw32.exe
While FalCon eXtra is being started, your workstation computer will search
through the network for the server dongle. You can speed up this „log-in“
process by entering the correct IP address of the server in a (new) environment
variable for the workstation.
Start\Settings\Control Panel\System Register Environment:
Variable
:
HLS_IPADDR
VALUE
:
127.10.5.0
(server address with leading zeros!)
Additional information for the
system support person
On the FalCon delivery CD and the FalCon web site you find the Aladdin
Diagnosis Tool and the Aladdin Server Monitor.
You can obtain additional information and downloads from the Internet
addresses below:
www.aladdin.de
www.hardlock.com
10 • Introduction
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Note:
You require administrator rights for changes in the system directory!
Problems?
Start the hardlock tool DiagnostiX (Aladdin) and enter our module number
“20458”. (29809 is just the Aladdin default number)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Introduction • 11
System requirements
FalCon eXtra was developed for the IBM-PC and compatible systems.
FalCon eXtra has the following requirements:
•
A 486 machine with coprocessor or better
•
640 KB RAM and at least 32 MB of free "extended memory"
•
At least 30 MB free on the hard drive (for the installation without help
files)
•
Microsoft Windows 9x, NT 4.0, 2000 or XP
•
Some FalCon eXtra features require state-of-the art MS Service Packs
•
A MS Windows-compatible graphics card
•
True-color color depth (24-bit), to display the documents with the correct
colors; 256 colors are not sufficient
•
Minimum resolution 1024x768, recommended resolution for MovXact,
Mov3D/6D, MovBag and CamFolder 1280x1024.
•
The layout of the dialog boxes is designed for Small Fonts, 96 Dpi.
•
If there are any conflicts with old installations of the demo please remove
all entries in the registry via the Windows program regedit:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\FALCON\EXTRA]
12 • Introduction
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Standard Menus
The menu bar in FalCon eXtra depends on the type of document that is
currently open. Many menu entries are always the same:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
File
Basic functions for opening, closing, saving, and printing files,
for setting up the printer, license management, and program
settings, and for a list of documents most recently opened and
the program most recently exited.
View
Determines the arrangement of document windows and tool
bars on the screen.
Language
Sets the language of the user interface.
Help (?)
Displays program information and brings up online help.
Standard Menus • 13
The File menu
In the File menu you can create new documents, open existing ones, set up the
printer, expand licensing, adjust parameters for the program or exit the program.
In the basic menu, in other words before you open a document, the following
menu entries are available:
New
Creates a new document
New Analysis
Creates a new MovXact analysis document
Open
Opens an existing document
Print Setup
Selects a printer and a printer link
License
Manages the license keys for the program modules
Program Settings
Opens a dialog box to set global parameters
Exit
Exits FalCon eXtra
Depending on the types of individual documents, this list will be expanded with
special menu entries (see description there). When a document is open, the basic
entries are:
14 • Standard Menus
Close
Closes the active document
Save
Saves the active document
Save As
Saves the active document under a new name
Print
Sends the active document to the printer
Page Preview
Shows what the appearance of the printout will be
Send To
Sends the active document by e-mail
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
An additional tool bar is available to you for frequently required menu entries:
Creates a New document
Opens a new analysis with MovXact or MovBag
Opens an existing document. FalCon eXtra displays
the Open dialog box where you can find and open
the desired file
Saves the active document or the active template under the current
name. If you have not yet given a name to the document, FalCon
eXtra displays the Save As dialog box
Provides information about the version of the program
Starts context-sensitive help.
New
Use this command to create a new document in FalCon eXtra. You can select the
file type of the file to be created in the File/New dialog box. It is not possible to
create picture files (Bayer, BMP, Motion, JPEG, BLD or TIFF files) as new
files.
Indicate the document type you would like to create (depending on the modules
that are licensed, it is possible that your selection may be restricted).
Marker Defaults *.MRD : Marker defaults for eXtra MovXact.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Standard Menus • 15
AVI Creation *.BAC : A document for creating a Video for Windows file
(= AVI). You can combine various individual pictures of different file formats,
for example Bayer, BMP or TIFF files, into an AVI file. It is also possible to
insert logos and text passages. The AVI file is saved in uncompressed format.
This means it may be a very large file in some circumstances, but on the other
hand you do not have to deal with loss of quality. If you only want to view the
AVI files you have created on the screen, you should compress them after
viewing them. If you need the AVI file for analysis for which reproduction
of detail is highly important, however, for example for automatic point tracking,
you should make use of an uncompressed file.
AVI Compression *.BAP : A document for compressing AVI files.
Depending on the type of compression you have selected, it is possible to
achieve compression rates of well over 90%. No general rules can be given for
this, since results will depend greatly on the nature of your data and the quality
requirements. Compression by 90% will still generally ensure a reasonable level
of quality for the picture in question. You should note, however, that
compression generally requires a good deal of computing power. It may
therefore require several minutes.
Multi AVI Creation *.MAV : A document for creating multiple AVIs
simultaneously. To do this, the user selects from picture files within a compact
document dialog box, makes and checks settings for optimization, and may also
select optional compression.
Picture List *.PLI : A container file to describe an associated list of picture
files. The picture sequence defined in this manner can serve as an input sequence
during a MovXact analysis.
Picture Transformation *.TRA : A document for converting various
sequence file formats with simultaneous post-processing. For example, an AVI
file can be divided up into a sequence of individual pictures. You can select a
rectangular section from the area of the picture, or you can process the pictures
in terms of contrast or colors. These steps can be performed individually,
picture-by-picture, or globally for all pictures together.
QuickView Settings *.PSE : You can selectively save settings for the Quick
View module. FalCon eXtra automatically saves the last settings to be used so
they are available for you when you start the program again. You can save the
settings you make for a specific type of test, for example, by using the settings
files.
Ethernet Control *.ETH : A document to control Ethernet-capable high-speed
video cameras. The cameras are identified on the network, parameters are set for
them, and the test is prepared. After the impact test, picture data from the
cameras is downloaded and AVIs are created in parallel.
The documents can be saved. Using batch files facilitates work procedures that
are frequently repeated.
Shortcuts
Tool bar:
Keyboard:
Ctrl+N
New Analysis
You can use this command – which is not the same as creating a new document
with New – to define a new MovXact or MovBag analysis.
The Open command is used to open an already existing file:
16 • Standard Menus
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Open
You can create new
documents with the
command New
Use this command to open an existing document in a new window. Multiple
windows can be opened at the same time. You can use the Window menu to
switch back and forth between several documents that are open.
The following options will help you to indicate the file to be opened:
File name
Enter the name of the file or select it from the list. This
box displays only file with the filename extension
selected by you in the File type box.
File type
Select the type of the file to be opened.
You can specify these additional details under Find:
Drives
Select the drive on which FalCon eXtra saved the file
you want to open.
Directories
Select the directory in which FalCon eXtra saved the
file you want to open.
Network
Use this button to assign a link to a network drive to a
drive letter.
Shortcuts
Tool bar:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Keyboard:
Ctrl+O
Standard Menus • 17
Viewing Documents
File types supported by FalCon eXtra:
Movie
*.AVI
"Video for Windows" file
Measurement Data
*.*
PIAS measurement data = work file (please note: since work
files have no one definitive extension, all files are displayed).
*.DAT
DIAdem measurement data
*.ISO
ISO Crash measurement data
*.DAT
Dats measurement data
*.TBL
Motion measurement data
*.MME
Multimedia Data Exchange Format
*.BAG
eXtra Multi-D Meßdaten
Pictures
18 • Standard Menus
*.BAY
Kodak Bayer picture
*.BLD
Weinberger picture (image sequence)
*.CIN
Photosonics picture (image sequence)
*.TIF
TIFF picture
*.JPG
JPEG picture
*.BMP
Windows bitmap picture
*.MOT
Motion picture
*.WMF
WMF picture
*.EMF
EMF picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Working Documents
FalCon eXtra document types:
MovXact, MovBag
*.ANA
MovXact or MovBag analysis
*.MRD
MovXact marker defaults
CamFolder
*.CFO
CamFolder camera calibration database
*.APT
CamFolder or Mov3D ASCII point table
Quick View
*.BAC
Creates AVI files from picture files
*.BAP
Compresses AVI files
*.MAV
Creates and compresses several = "multi" AVI files from
picture files
*.PLI
Container file for a picture list
*.TRA
Picture format transformation
*.PSE
Quick View settings
*.ETH
Ethernet control
*.FBT
FalCon eXtra batch file
Customer View
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
*.CVT
Customer View test file
*.LYT
Customer View layout file
Standard Menus • 19
Print Setup
With this mask you can select the printer you would like to use for document
printouts. The printer you select is only valid until you exit the program. When
the program starts up, the Default printer is automatically selected. The
Default printer is defined in Windows system control. If you want
FalCon eXtra to send files to another printer, you can select it in the Name list
box.
The Portrait and Landscape option buttons determine the orientation of the
printout on the paper.
You can use the list boxes Size and Source to specify the format of the printer
paper being used as well as the paper tray to be used (only if your printer uses
more than one tray).
The Properties box provides you with additional printer-specific setting
possibilities, such as color mixing, print density, resolution and much more.
License
Modules can be activated selectively. Please use the FalCon hotline to obtain the
introduction, how to set the Workstation and Server hardlock checks, or ask
for the necessary activating codes.
Program Settings
In this dialog box you can make global settings for the FalCon eXtra program
package.
20 • Standard Menus
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Check the Big buttons with text check box if you would like the icons in the
tool bars to be displayed with a brief description, for example:
In dialog boxes of several document types, Pictures are displayed reduced or
enlarged. See for example Picture size in the Picture document. Without
explicit interpolation (= None mode), this can result in visible artifacts when the
zoom factor is high. To do this, select a smoothing interpolation type from the
list box, for example Bilinear.
Note that the amount of time required internally for processing while displaying
the picture or refreshing the screen may increase significantly!
From the two list boxes you can actively select File types that are
automatically linked with the FalCon eXtra application program through the
Windows registry. When you double-click on a file of the appropriate type,
for example in the Windows Explorer, FalCon eXtra is started and the document
is displayed.
The Recommended list contains typical high-speed picture and measurement
data as well as all document types native to FalCon eXtra. Verify in the
Additional list which files you would like to open predominantly with FalCon
eXtra.
Note: Please refer to the newest Release Notes for changes of these settings!
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Standard Menus • 21
Exit
Use this menu entry to exit the FalCon eXtra program. If you have made changes
in the document but have not yet saved, the option to save the document appears
once more. All settings for the picture processing functions are stored in the
registry, so that when the program is started again they are will also be available
again.
The View menu
In the View menu you can specify the properties that determine the screen
makeup. You can determine whether you want to work with tool bars and a
status bar.
The following commands are available in this area:
Tool bar
If the tool bar is displayed, a check mark will appear next
to the menu entry for this command.
FalCon eXtra uses five different tool bars, each of which
can be turned on and off independently.
• Default
• Measurement data
• Picture processing/optimization
• Movie
• Analysis
Status bar
If the status bar is displayed, a check mark will appear
next to the menu entry for this command.
Tool bar
Use this command to show or hide the tool bars. The tool bars contains a number
of buttons for the most commonly used commands in FalCon eXtra, such as
Open/File. If the tool bars are displayed, a check mark appears next to that
menu entry.
The tool bars can be moved with the mouse. When you do this, FalCon eXtra
takes note of the arrangement you select, so that changes made in one session are
also available when the program runs at a later time.
Status bar
Use this command to show or hide the status bar. The status bar describes the
action that is being run by the selected menu entry of a button that was clicked
on the tool bar, and displays the status of keys that can be determined. If the
status bar is displayed, a check mark will appear next to the menu entry for this
command.
Depending on the document that is active, additional information about it may be
displayed in the status bar.
You can also see on the status bar whether you are working with a licensed
version of FalCon eXtra or with a demo version. If you have a test security
22 • Standard Menus
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
device for an evaluation phase, the expiration date is indicated here. Please note
that not all functions described in this manual are available in the demo version.
The Language menu
Here you can determine which language the program will use.
The following commands are available in this area:
Deutsch
Switches the program to German dialog boxes.
English
Switches the program to English dialog boxes.
Deutsch (German)
Use this command to switch the program to the German language. If you are
already using the German version, a check mark appears next to this entry.
Please note that this change does not apply to menus that are already displayed.
To switch the program over completely, restart FalCon eXtra.
English
Use this command to switch the program to the English language. If you are
already using the English version, a check mark appears next to this entry. Please
note that this change does not apply to menus that are already displayed. To
switch the program over completely, restart FalCon eXtra.
The Help menu (?)
The Help menu contains the following commands that provide you with support
in using this application:
The following commands are available in this area:
Help Topics
Displays the index of topics for which help is available
Program
Warnings
This contains a record of references and warnings that can
be generated when FalCon eXtra is started.
About...
Displays the version number and lists the active modules.
Help Topics
Use this command to start online help. An overview of topics for which help is
available will appear.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Standard Menus • 23
Program Warnings
References and warnings may be generated when the program is started. As
a reminder, a record of these messages appears here. In addition, immediate
display can be turned off when the program is started. This is recommended,
for example, to suppress the reference to switching to true color mode during
constant screen setting with 16-bit color depth.
About ...
Use this command to display the version number of your copy of FalCon eXtra.
This contains a reference to the Copyright.
If you would like to activate or extend your test security device, click on the red
X icon with the right mouse button. You will be prompted to enter a license
code. Please contact the FalCon hotline for this purpose – without exiting the
dialog box!
A square section of text lists all activated modules as well as special procedure
with your sub-version number.
For customer support, questions or comments, please contact one of the
addresses listed here.
24 • Standard Menus
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture
The Pictures document type comprises the single picture document formats
Kodak Bayer (BAY), Weinberger (BLD), Tagged Interchange Format (TIF),
JPEG (JPG), Windows Bitmap (BMP), Motion (MOT) and the metafile formats
(WMF and EMF). This type provides the functions for processing pictures and
for the types of processing described below. At the same time, the features of
the basic menu (not described again here) are expanded accordingly.
Load a typical picture (from the File/Open menu) and then perform an
optimization in individual steps. For each of the individual steps you have the
option of using the Test function to evaluate the effects immediately and if
necessary of making other settings. If you have made incorrect entries, you can
use the Original picture function (in the View menu) to return to the initial
picture. With the exception of the Black Level (where the correction takes
place as soon as the program reads in the file) and White Balance (the program
always accesses the original picture), the correction functions always work with
the currently displayed picture. All the settings you selected for optimization will
be saved in the registry so that they will automatically be available again the next
time you start the program.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 25
The File menu
In the File menu you can create new documents, open existing ones, close and
save picture documents, create a printout, set up the printer or exit the program.
Please note that only the additional menu items corresponding to the document
type under discussion are explained in this section.
Page Preview
Shows the document on the screen as it would look if it
were printed out
JPEG Settings
Default settings for downloading and saving JPEG
pictures
JPEG Settings
JPEG is a standardized method for compressing true color and gray value
pictures. The design of JPEG is optimized to “real world” pictures, for instance
photographs or video pictures. Cartoons, line drawings and other “artificial”
pictures can result in poor quality when they are compressed and/or very limited
compression.
The process that produces JPEG is not free of loss. This means that the output
picture will not be identical to the input picture. For this reason, JPEG should not
be used if you want to or need to maintain precisely the same pictures. For
typical “real world” pictures, however, it is possible to achieve very good
compression for barely perceivable tradeoffs in the quality of appearance. If a
lower picture quality is tolerable, astonishing compression rates are possible.
You will need to reach a compromise between the size of the file and picture
quality.
You should avoid compressing a JPEG picture several times. Otherwise, loss of
picture quality will accumulate and you will end up with disappointing results.
Instead, you should process the pictures in a format where quality is not lost (as
26 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
long as you don’t save the pictures in FalCon eXtra, this is guaranteed) and not
save in JPEG format until the processing is complete.
To avoid having to set or confirm the settings for processing files every time
JPEG files are opened or saved, a general setting that you can make using this
dialog box is available.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 27
The meaning of the setting options:
DCT method:
Integer
Fast integer
Float
Dither:
Floyd-Steinberg
Ordered
None
Several methods are available to calculate the DCT
(Discrete Cosine Transformation): The float DCT
method is much more precise than the integer method,
but also much slower, unless your computer has an
extremely fast floating point processor. Please note that
the float DCT method can lead to different results on
different computers, whereas the integer method should
have the same results on all computer systems. The fast
integer method is much less precise than the other two
methods.
Floyd-Steinberg dither is relatively slow, but it
generally produces the best results. Ordered dithering
is a compromise between speed and quality (only
possible with one-pass color reduction). No dithering is
very fast, but usually produces incorrect results. These
settings will not have any effect unless color
quantization is performed (only if you are working in
true color mode).
Smoothing (read)
A faster routine, but one with a lower level of quality is
used for decoding.
One-pass color
reduction
Uses a single-pass method instead of a two-pass
method for color quantization. The one-pass method is
faster, but produces lower quality. The one-pass
method is always used for gray value pictures, since no
improvement can be achieved in that case with two
passes.
Smoothing (Write)
Smoothing the picture to suppress dither noise
The input range extends from 0 (no smoothing) to 100.
Smoothing is often helpful when saving
256 colors. A factor between 10 and 50 generates
smaller and better pictures. Too large a factor,
however, will decrease the sharpness of the picture.
BaseLine Format
Always creates a JPEG file in “BaseLine” format with
8-bit quantization, even with the low quality setting.
Optimization
Performs optimization with “entropy encoding”
parameters. If this setting is not made, pre-set
parameters will be used. Optimizing the parameters
requires somewhat more time, but the JPEG file that is
produced is smaller. This setting has no effect on the
quality of the picture.
Progressive file
Creates a “progressive” file, which means that the file
will contain several individual picture versions of the
image at increasing levels of quality. This may be
useful if the file needs to be transferred over a slow
connection. The recipient will thus very quickly
receive a picture, even if it is of poor quality, and this
will be improved as the transfer or download
progresses. The finished file contains the picture at the
same quality as a non-progressive file, but the size of
the file is about the same – in fact the progressive file
is usually even somewhat smaller.
You should note, however, that not all JPEG decoders
can process progressive files.
28 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Quality
The quality setting is a compromise between file size
and quality. The higher the quality, the greater the size
of the file.
Generally the setting that will be selected is the one
where there is no appreciable deterioration of quality.
Settings between 50 and 95 are suitable for this. Start
with the basic setting of 75 and change it in increments
of 5 or 10 until you are satisfied with the results. The
optimal setting may, however, differ from one type of
picture to the next.
Settings above 95 are not recommended for normal
use, since the size of the picture increases drastically in
this range, but with only a minimal increase in quality.
In the other direction, settings lower than 50 produce
very small files, but are associated with poor quality.
Settings between 5 and 10 are only suitable for pictures
intended to give a rough view.
Please note that settings under 25 create a 2-byte
quantization table that not all JPEG decoders can read.
(To avoid this, choose BaseLine format).
The default values for JPEG files are read from the registry and are saved there
when you exit the program. They are filed there in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\JPEG_Options]
Page Preview
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 29
Use this menu entry if you want to be able to evaluate the appearance of the
printout.
The Edit menu
You can use the Edit menu to perform various types of processing on pictures. It
contains the following menu entries / sub-menus:
30 • Picture
Color Depth
Changes the color depth of the picture file.
White Balance
Performs a white balance.
Color Matrix
Specifies the color matrix to be used.
Brightness/
Contrast
Adjusts the brightness and contrast.
Gamma of Monitor
Performs a gamma correction for the monitor.
Sharpen
Specifies the sharpening algorithm and the degree of
sharpening to be used.
Optimize
Performs an optimization (use of all set parameters).
Copy
Copies the displayed picture to the clipboard.
Original Picture
Shows the unprocessed original i.e. original picture.
Optimized Picture
Shows the processed, i.e. optimized picture.
Move
Allows you to move large pictures indirectly.
Picture Size
Changes the display size and the window size.
Flip and Rotate
Flips and rotates the picture.
JPEG Settings
A dialog box for setting all JPEG parameters.
Reset Settings
All picture processing parameters and JPEG
parameters will be reset.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
A few extra commands are available if you are working with Weinberger
pictures (BLD).
Tip:
Remove Sensor
Limit Lines
Removes the transitions between segments of the
picture sensor.
Equalize Sensor
Sensitivities
Equalizes the light sensitivities of the segments of the
picture sensor.
You can reach the Edit menu by clicking with the right mouse button within the
picture document.
An additional tool bar is available to you for frequently required menu entries:
Performs a white balance on daylight.
Performs a white balance on tungsten lighting.
Performs a white balance on neon lighting.
Turns white balance off.
Performs a white balance on a section selected with the cursor.
Performs a color adaptation on EktaPro 1000 HRC.
Performs a neutral color adaptation.
Performs a color adaptation on DCS.
Performs a color adaptation defined by the user.
Optimizes = performs all selected optimization steps.
Tip:
Press simultaneously dthe Shift key and this Optimize
button. The button remains in „pressed“ status. After each change
of an optimization parameter the fully optimized picture will be
displayed automatically (= online followup) !
Copies the displayed picture to the clipboard.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 31
Shows the unprocessed i.e. original picture.
Shows the processed i.e. optimized picture.
32 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Color Depth
In the submenu Edit/Color Depth you can process pictures in various ways
related to the number of bits saved for each element in the picture.
Dither
Specifies whether a dither algorithm should be used for
converting to a lower color depth.
Median Cut
Specifies how color should be distributed for a color
reduction.
Black/White
Creates a binary black/white picture.
Gray Values
Creates an 8-bit gray value picture.
16 Colors
Creates a 4-bit picture (16 colors).
256 Colors
Creates an 8-bit picture (256 colors).
True Color
Creates a 24-bit picture (true color, 16 million colors).
If the picture is already in a certain color depth, it will appear in gray, i.e.
inactive.
Note:
Color optimization (white balance and color matrix) is only possible with true
color pictures.
Dither
Since errors are impossible to avoid during color reduction, the resulting picture
may have a somewhat “angular” appearance. This situation may be remedied by
smoothing the picture with a dither procedure. The “Floyd-Steinberg algorithm”
is exceptionally well suited for this purpose, since it will distribute an error that
has occurred over adjacent points that have not yet been processed. In simpler
terms this means that the error occurring during color assignment is calculated.
This involves specifically three signed (preceded by + or -) error values: red,
green and blue errors. These error values are then added up and distributed on a
percentage basis over neighboring points that have not yet been processed. This
makes it possible to compensate for errors that have occurred with the next color
assignment.
Floyd-Steinberg procedure
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 33
The method for creating the target picture with Floyd-Steinberg dithering may be
described as follows:
for (y = 0; y < Y; y++)
for (x = 0; x < X; x++)
{
w = qx,y;
k = f(w);
zx,y = K;
e = W – pk;
// for all lines
// for all columns
// read orig. color
// determine index
// color assignment
// determine error
// correction for 3 adjacent points
qx,y+1 = qx,y + e * 3/8;
// below
qx,y+1 = qx,y + e * 3/8;
// right
qx+1,y+1 = qx,y + e * 2/8;
// below right
}
If you have selected the dither algorithm for color reduction, a check mark
appears next to the Dither menu entry.
Median Cut
To perform a color reduction, a frequency analysis is first performed of the
colors being used. Based on this, a color table with K colors must be selected in
such a manner that the target picture can be optimally displayed with the table.
Heckbert provides two different algorithms for this: the Popularity and the
Median Cut algorithms.
The Popularity algorithm was developed in 1978 by two independent groups:
Tom Boyle and Andy Lippman of the computer architecture group at MIT, and
Ephraim Cohen of the New York Institute of Technology. The Popularity
algorithm ensures that the K most frequent colors of the source picture will be
accepted into the color palette. At first glance, this idea would appear to be the
optimal solution. K x 32,768 computing steps are required to select the colors
from the frequency table. The Popularity algorithm produces very usable results
for many pictures, but is totally inadequate in other cases.
Less satisfactory results are achieved especially if K takes on a very small value
or if there are many different colors in the picture. The Popularity algorithm
tends to represent large areas of the source picture very well, but to represent
others poorly. Since the algorithm cannot determine which areas of the source
picture contain relevant vs. redundant information, however, it is impossible to
determine the quality of the target picture in advance.
We consider two examples below: Each color occurs exactly once in a picture.
How should the K most frequent colors be selected then? A picture shows a
sunset over the ocean. The picture is characterized mainly by dark blue tones
(the sky and the sea), which make up more than 90 % of the total area of the
picture. Only the setting sun and the reflections on the water show hues ranging
from yellow to red (less than 10 % of the surface area of the picture). The K most
frequent colors are in all probability tones of blue. Only if K is sufficiently large
will the color palette also contain a few colors for the sun as part of the
Popularity algorithm. But it is precisely the sun and the reflections on the water
that characterize the picture.
The Median Cut algorithm avoids the errors of the Popularity algorithm by
ensuring that every color of the palette covers approximately the same number of
colors in the source picture. This is achieved through a recursive calculation
specification. It might be imagined for this purpose that the spectrum of colors is
organized as a three-dimensional cube. In our case we will use the frequency
table for this.
34 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Next we divide the table into two sections so that approximately the same
number of points from the source picture are located in each half. This results in
two rectangles that can each again be divided into two halves with approximately
the same number of points. It is important to make the division of each rectangle
within its longest edge. This iteration is repeated a sufficient number of times
until the result is K rectangles. Each rectangle then represents one color that will
be entered into the color table. The characteristic color of any given rectangle is
the result of the average value formed by all colors of a rectangle, taking into
account their frequencies.
If you have selected the Median Cut algorithm for color reduction, a check mark
will appear next to the Median Cut menu entry.
Black/White
The Black/White menu entry creates a binary picture file with a color depth of
one bit. This results in color states of only black and white. Even if this results in
the smallest size for picture documents, this form of representation is actually
suitable only for text documents.
Gray Values
The Gray values menu entry creates a picture file with a color depth of 8 bits.
No colors are available, however; this method results rather in representing 256
shades of gray (gray values). This will a produce an excellent, clear picture.
After true color representation, this is the best form of representation.
16 Colors
The 16 Colors menu entry creates a picture file with a color depth of
4 bits. This results in 16 as the number of colors represented. The system color
palette is used as the basis for color reduction.
256 Colors
The 256 Colors menu entry creates a picture file with a color depth of 8 bits.
This results in 256 as the number of colors represented. A dithering algorithm
can be used for color reduction of true color pictures. The new distribution of
colors can be based on the Popularity or on the Median Cut algorithm.
True Color
A picture color in True Color has a color depth of 24 bits. 256 gradations are
thus available for each of the three primary colors, and the total number of colors
is over 16 million. Even if the best color resolution is achieved in this case, it
also correspondingly involves the greatest requirement for storage space. In
addition, the size of the file also dictates that the time required to load the picture
will also increase.
If you convert a picture document to a greater color depth, initially there will be
no gain in better color, but color optimization (white balance and color matrix) is
only possible with true color pictures.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 35
White Balance
In the Edit/White Balance menu, perform the processing required to achieve a
neutral color for the picture.
Different lightings have different color temperatures, in other words they invoke
different color falsification. The human eye can adapt very quickly to this, or to
put it another way, if we have no frame of reference, hues appear to us as neutral
– often erroneously so.
If we look at pictures that were taken with different types of lighting, however,
the eye has a point of reference and the shifts in color become visible. A typical
example is photographs that were taken in some cases with natural light and in
other cases with artificial light. This is the reason why appropriate filters are
used for photography, or why different types of film with adapted sensitivities to
colors are used.
Such shifts in color can be easily removed in electronic picture processing by
strengthening or weakening the primary colors red/green/blue. This process is
referred to as white balance.
The following menu items are available:
Performs a white balance on daylight.
Daylight
Performs a white balance on tungsten lighting.
Tungsten
Lighting
Performs a white balance on neon lighting.
Neon Lighting
Suppresses white balance entirely.
No White
Balance
An interactive selection of the color value for which the
Selection by
white balance is to be performed, using a pipette cursor.
Cursor
Numeric entry of the color values to be balanced to
Input White
white.
Balance
Allows you to intensify or weaken the primary colors.
Set Color Gain
Sets the limit up to which a element in the picture can be
Input Black
represented as black.
Level
Note:
White balance is only possible for true color pictures.
You can change the default settings in the registry, but the color values must fall
between 1 and 255 to avoid oversaturation.
36 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Button:
Daylight
The Daylight menu entry performs white balance for daylight lighting. For true
color pictures, 256 quantization levels are available for each of the three primary
colors. The color black is represented by (0,0,0) while the color white is
represented by (255,255,255). The color value (175,224,129) is considered
neutral for white balance with daylight. This results in an intensification for all
red points in the picture by a factor of 1.28. Green points are unchanged, and
blue points are intensified by a factor of 1.74.
You can change these default settings by inserting or altering the following lines
in the registry.
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\WhiteBalanceDaylight]
RedFactor=175
GreenFactor=224
BlueFactor=129
Button:
Tungsten Lighting
The Tungsten Lighting menu entry performs white balance on tungsten
lighting.
The color value (120,100,80) is considered neutral for white balance with
tungsten lighting. The result is that there is no change for any red points in the
picture. Green points are intensified by a factor of 1.1 while blue points are
intensified by a factor of 2.51.
You can change these default settings by inserting or altering the following lines
in the registry.
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\WhiteBalanceTungsten]
RedFactor=221
GreenFactor=200
BlueFactor=88
Button:
Neon Lighting
The Neon Lighting menu entry performs white balance on neon lighting.
The color value (132,221,99) is considered neutral for white balance with neon
lighting. This results in an intensification for all red points in the picture by a
factor of 1.67. Green points are unchanged, and blue points are intensified by a
factor of 2.23.
You can change these default settings by inserting or altering the following lines
in the registry.
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\WhiteBalanceFlorescent]
RedFactor=132
GreenFactor=221
BlueFactor=99
Button:
No White Balance
The No White Balance menu entry suppresses white balance.
Button:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Selection by Cursor
Picture • 37
The Selection by Cursor menu entry performs white balance on the color
element selected by you.
As soon as you have selected this command and the mouse cursor is located
within the picture, the cursor changes into a cross-hair pointer. The individual
color values are displayed in the status bar in the lower part of the window. You
can select the desired color value by clicking with the left mouse button. To
cancel the command, select any other command, press the right mouse button, or
select the Selection by Cursor command again. The result (the balanced
picture) will immediately be displayed according to the values on which the
cursor is currently located.
After the area to be represented as neutral has been specified with the cursor, the
intensification factors for the colors are calculated as follows:
MaxColor
=
RedFactor =
GreenFactor =
BlueFactor =
max(RedInput, GreenInput, BlueInput)
MaxColor / RedInput
MaxColor / GreenInput
MaxColor / BlueInput
All color points are accordingly displayed with the color relationship you
indicated as neutral gray.
These entries are saved in the registry in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\WhiteBalanceUser]
RedFactor=...
GreenFactor=...
BlueFactor=...
Input White Balance
The Input White Balance menu entry allows you to determine numerically the
color composition to be represented as neutral. The currently used values are
presented as defaults.
The intensification factors are calculated as follows for white balance input:
MaxColor
=
RedFactor =
GreenFactor =
BlueFactor =
max(InputRed, InputGreen, InputBlue)
MaxColor / RedInput
MaxColor / GreenInput
MaxColor / BlueInput
All color points accordingly become neutral gray with the color relationship you
indicated.
These entries are saved in the registry in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\WhiteBalanceUser]
RedFactor=...
GreenFactor=...
BlueFactor=...
38 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Set Color Gain
The Set Color Gain menu entry intensifies the primary colors according to the
color factors you enter.
Every color point is now intensified or weakened according to the gain factors
you entered.
The Same values for all colors check box allows you to make a uniform
setting by entering only one numeric value.
If you are working with gray value pictures, the input dialog will look like this:
These entries are saved in the registry in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Color-Boost]
BlueFactor=...
GreenFactor=...
RedFactor=...
GainFactor=...
Input Black Level
The Black Level Input menu entry is useful for suppressing noise. This occurs
specifically at lower intensity. Black levels are used to specify limit values
beneath which a picture element will be represented as pure black.
Each color point is converted according to the limit values you entered:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 39
OutColor
= 0, if InColor < BlackLevelColor
OutColor
= InColor - BlackLevelColor, else
where color = Red, Green or Blue
If you are working with gray value pictures, the input screen will look like this:
These entries are saved in the registry in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Black_Level]
Red_Black=10
Green_Black=10
Blue_Black=10
Grey_Black=10
The preset threshold of 10 should be maintained the same for all colors!
Note:
This gray value adaptation is very specific for Kodak Bayer sensors. For this
reason, it is only active in the *.BAY file format.
The adaptation is only (!) performed when the picture document is read in, in
other words when the document is opened or reopened. If you want to be able to
evaluate the affect of your entries, please close the document and open it again.
Color Matrix
A color matrix is used to optimize colors. It is used mainly to balance the
differing color sensitivities of the picture sensor for the three primary colors. In
addition, it also takes into account one color “overpowering” another color.
The 3x3 color matrix transforms the input colors red/green/blue into a new color
triad. In addition, you can adjust the individual gain.
The calculation for this is performed as follows:
Pixel
COLOR new
= (
Pixel RED old * Factor line COLOR column RED
Pixel GREEN old * Factor line COLOR column GREEN
Pixel BLUE old * Factor line COLOR column BLUE
* Gain COLOR
+
+
)
where color = Red, Green or Blue
The following options are available:
40 • Picture
Ekta
Performs a color adaptation on EktaPro 1000 HRC
Neutral
Performs a neutral color adaptation (no change in colors!).
DCS
Performs a color adaptation on DCS.
User Defined
Performs a color adaptation defined by the user.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Note:
You can only process a true color picture with a color matrix!
Button:
Ekta
The EKTA menu entry uses a color matrix for which an optimization is
performed on an EktaPro 1000 HRC picture sensor.
You can use the TEST button to get a quick view of the change resulting from
your entries. The input picture is always used as the starting point for this. This
means that if TEST is performed several times, as long as the other entry values
are unchanged, the process will always lead to the same result.
If you make certain that the sum of each line is 100 and that the gain factor is set
at 1.0 for the line, the result will be no falsification of color. Only saturation and
brilliance will be improved. Under certain lighting conditions, however, it may
be a good idea to deviate from these settings.
As soon as you change the settings, the changes will be applied to the User
Defined color matrix. The user-defined color matrix will also be saved in the
registry so that it will be available again when you restart the program.
The values set for the matrix are also read from the registry but are not written
back. They are filed there in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\CMatrix-Ekta]
LineRedRedFactor=112
LineRedGreenFactor=38
LineRedBlueFactor=-50
LineGreenRedFactor=-25
LineGreenGreenFactor=144
LineGreenBlueFactor=-19
LineBlueRedFactor=-25
LineBlueGreenFactor=-50
LineBlueBlueFactor=175
Red-BoostFactor=100
Green-BoostFactor=100
Blue-BoostFactor=100
Button:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Neutral
Picture • 41
The Neutral command uses a color matrix for which no color modification is
performed.
Please note the instructions on using the EKTA menu entry.
The values set for the matrix are also read from the registry but are not written
back. They are filed there in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\CMatrix-Neutral]
LineRedRedFactor=100
LineRedGreenFactor=0
LineRedBlueFactor=0
LineGreenRedFactor=0
LineGreenGreenFactor=100
LineGreenBlueFactor=0
LineBlueRedFactor=0
LineBlueGreenFactor=0
LineBlueBlueFactor=100
Red-BoostFactor=100
Green-BoostFactor=100
Blue-BoostFactor=100
Button:
DCS
The DCS menu entry uses a color matrix for which an optimization is performed
on a DCS 200 HRC picture sensor.
Please note the instructions on using the EKTA menu entry.
The values set for the matrix are also read from the registry but are not written
back. They are filed there in the following manner:
42 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\CMatrix-DCS]
LineRedRedFactor=259
LineRedGreenFactor=-94
LineRedBlueFactor=-65
LineGreenRedFactor=-50
LineGreenGreenFactor=153
LineGreenBlueFactor=-3
LineBlueRedFactor=-122
LineBlueGreenFactor=-147
LineBlueBlueFactor=369
Red-BoostFactor=100
Green-BoostFactor=100
Blue-BoostFactor=100
Button:
User Defined
The User Defined menu entry uses a color matrix for which an optimization is
performed based on user entries.
Using the Defaults drop-down menu, you can apply the values for EKTA,
Neutral or DCS to the matrix.
Please note the instructions on using the EKTA menu entry.
The values set for the matrix are also read from the registry but are not written
back. They are filed there in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\CMatrix-User]
LineRedRedFactor=
LineRedGreenFactor=
LineRedBlueFactor=LineGreenRedFactor=
LineGreenGreenFactor=
LineGreenBlueFactor=
LineBlueRedFactor=
LineBlueGreenFactor=
LineBlueBlueFactor=
Red-BoostFactor=
Green-BoostFactor=
Blue-BoostFactor=
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 43
Brightness/Contrast
You can use this menu entry to optimize the brightness and the contrast of the
picture.
For a picture to be perceived as having good quality, it must have a balanced
amount of brightness and sufficient contrast. Contrast is especially important,
since pictures with little contrast give an effect of being flat and poor in detail.
Furthermore, color pictures must not have any obvious color faults. If the source
of the picture does exhibit deficiencies in this regard, it is still possible to make
considerable improvements through some specific post-processing steps. Of
course, you should not expect miracles.
A frequent problem in this area is too much or too little light when the picture is
taken. Little can be done in the case of shots taken with too much light. A
characteristic feature of photographs taken with too much light is that areas of
the picture with high brightness are uniformly white when saturated. All details
were irretrievably lost in these areas when the picture was taken. No picture
processing program in the world can bring them back again. The situation is
more favorable for photographs taken with too little lighting. Often details are
retained in this case, but they are too dark to be recognizable. Much can be
accomplished for such pictures through post-processing.
In particular, it is absolutely essential when optimizing brightness and contrast to
make very specific changes, since it is especially easy to lose information from
the picture in this case. For digitized pictures, the brightness of an element in the
picture or of a color percentage is expressed by a numeric value between 0 and
255. The range of valid numbers is thus extremely limited. If numeric values
come about as a result of a picture processing operation that fall above 255 or
under 0, then those numeric values will be limited to 0 or 255.
Every change in brightness or contrast either compresses areas of brightness, i.e.
elements in the picture, that previously had distinguishable brightness levels, but
will henceforth have the same value, or brightness values are pushed out beyond
the limit values. Both of these processes are synonymous with a loss in picture
information.
What exactly does the term “contrast” mean? In any digitized picture, there is a
minimum difference in brightness between two gray value levels. If the
44 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
digitization is based on 8-bit resolution, the brightness values or color
percentages are subdivided into 256 levels. An element in the picture may thus
have a value of 100 or 101, but 100.3 is impossible. The minimum difference in
brightness in a picture of this type is thus one level.
When contrast changes are made, only the brightness levels that are possible
within a picture are changed. It is easy to see from the example above that there
is no problem in increasing the brightness increments. If only 128 levels or
brightness are permitted instead of 256, the minimum difference in brightness is
two units. This increases the contrast considerably, since differences in
brightness are more sharply distinguished from each other. On the other hand, it
is not possible to reduce the increments in brightness, since the minimum unit is
1, which cannot be reduced due to the digital nature of the picture. When
contrast is reduced, it is much more common to align all brightness values more
closely to the average gray value, typically 127.
When contrast is increased, elements in the picture beneath a certain threshold
value become black, and those above a certain threshold value become white.
The remaining values are then distributed over the entire range of brightness.
There are fixed designations in picture processing for these three populations of
brightness values. Picture elements beneath the lower threshold value are
referred to as Shadow, picture elements above the upper threshold value are
High lights and the remaining elements in the picture are referred to as Middle
lights. If a global change in contrast is made, shadow, high lights and middle
lights will automatically be generated. They depend directly on the contrast
value that is selected. The contrast that can be achieved in this manner is
satisfactory, but usually not optimal. To allow you to make changes in contrast
more selectively, a setting option is available with which you can choose the
shadow, middle light and high light areas individually.
The “Shadow/Middle lights/High lights” is the best function in most pictures for
optimizing contrast. As you are about to see, this is actually a combined function
in which brightness and contrast are changed simultaneously.
When you use this function on the picture, the following takes place: All
brightness values that are less than or equal to the Shadow value become black.
This brings with it a significant advantage. In areas of the picture with limited
brightness, there is typically a considerable amount of noise. A surface that is
actually black thus becomes slightly gray. These fluctuations are eliminated by
selecting a shadow value. The deep black areas that are thereby created
contribute greatly to contrast in the picture. At the same time, all brightness
values greater than or equal to the high lights value become white, which will
also improve overall contrast and will lend a certain brilliance to the picture.
What happens to the remaining brightness values depends on how the middle
light value is set.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 45
To see how this works, let’s take a look at the formula used to calculate the
brightness values.
OutColor
= ((InColor - Middle) * Contrast) + 127
where:
Middle
Contrast
= Middle light grey value
= 127 / (High lights - Shadow)
Contrast is a positive floating decimal point value, typically between 0 and 2.
This looks very similar to a global contrast change, but is different from the
latter in one decisive way. For global contrast change, the average value is
always 127; for the “Shadow/Middle lights/High lights” function, however, it
can be freely selected. If the average value is less than 127, the elements in the
picture will be made brighter; if it is greater than 127, they will be made darker.
The “Shadow/Middle lights/High lights” function is exceptionally well suited to
giving a picture that last touch of perfection in terms of brightness and contrast.
The effect of the picture’s brightness should not be misused, however, to
brighten a picture that is already too dark, or to darken a picture that is already
too bright. You should make changes of this type with the gamma function first
and then add a final touch to the picture with the “Shadow/Middle lights/High
lights” function.
You can use the TEST button to get a quick view of the change resulting from
your entries. The input picture is always used as the starting point for this. This
means that if TEST is performed several times, as long as the other entry values
are unchanged, the process will always lead to the same result.
If you are working with gray value pictures, the input dialog will look like this:
The default values for the calculation are read out of the registry and are written
back into it when you exit the program. They are filed there in the following
manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Saturation-Highlights]
RedLow=30
RedMiddle=127
RedHigh=255
GreenLow=31
GreenMiddle=127
GreenHigh=255
BlueLow=48
BlueMiddle=150
BlueHigh=255
GreyLow=21
GreyMiddle=102
GreyHigh=255
46 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Gamma of Monitor
In general, monitors represent digitized pictures too dark. The reason for this is
that light emitted by the phosphor does not increase linearly with the intensity of
the electron beam, but rather exponentially. This phenomenon has been
recognized ever since there have been CRT Braun tubes. The phenomenon is,
however, unknown to users who are just beginning to process pictures. This
explains the amazement if the picture that is displayed may not appear like the
original. After the first reaction of astonishment and disbelief, the next impulse
is to reach for the brightness controller on the monitor. Unfortunately, the
narrow control range for brightness and contrast is a true hallmark of less
expensive monitors, and so this first attempt to correct the problem is in most
cases inevitably doomed to failure. The second impulse is then to turn to the
brightness function, and thereby the disaster runs its course. It is seldom
recognized that the monitor is responsible for the too dark display of the picture.
The discrepancy described above between a digital brightness value and the
brightness value perceived by the eye is generally referred to as a gamma error,
because the mathematical function most often used to correct the error depends
especially on a device-typical constant referred to as “Gamma”. This is a
measure of the deviation in brightness for an input/output device. For computer
monitors, the value is mostly between 1.8 and 2.1.
To be able to export a picture with the correct brightness, the picture data must
be post-processed with the following function:
OutColor
where:
InColor
OutColor
ColorMax
= ((InColor/ColorMax) ** (1/Gamma)) * ColorMax
= Input brightness value
= post-processed brightness value
= max. possible brightness value = 255
The following table provides an overview of the extent to which brightness
values are changed by the gamma correction with the function described above if
the gamma value is 2.0.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 47
Input value
255
191
127
64
32
16
8
4
1
0
Output value
255
220
180
127
90
63
45
32
16
0
As you can see, the lower values in particular must be brightened enormously
before that can be displayed at the correct brightness by a standard monitor. A
conversion function of this type is referred to in picture processing as a gradation
graph.
In the simplest case, for Gamma equal to 1.0, the gradation graph is a straight
line rising at a 45º angle, as shown in the following illustration. In this case the
picture data is unchanged, and the output values correspond directly to the input
values. As you can see, the functional nature of a gradation graph is extremely
simple. You simply need to find an input value along the ordinate axis, draw a
vertical line to the gradation graph and thus determined the output value on the
abscissa axis.
In the second illustration, you can see how the gradation graph of a gamma
function appears when the gamma value is 2.0. The rapid rise especially for
lower gray values is readily apparent.
48 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Take another look at the table above. After the first brightening step, the first
level after black has a value of 16. The brightness increments are especially
pronounced in the lower level area, which corresponds to high contrast. The
brightening also results in an increase in contrast at the same time. Aside from
that, very bright areas on the screen are shifted to pure white. Thus details of the
picture are lost in the upper brightness area.
Of course there is nothing about this phenomenon that is specific for the gamma
correction. It is simply a basic principle that as a result of the limited range of
values from 0 to 255, details in the picture will be lost if the brightness or
contrast is changed. Such operations should therefore be used sparingly.
You can use the TEST button to get a quick view of the change resulting from
your entries. The input picture is always used as the starting point for this. This
means that if TEST is performed several times, as long as the other entry values
are unchanged, the process will always lead to the same result.
If you are working with gray value pictures, the input dialog will look
like this:
The default values for the calculation are read out of the registry and are written
back into it when you exit the program. They are filed there in the following
manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Monitor Gamma]
BlueGamma=2.2
GreenGamma=2.2
RedGamma=2.4
GreyGamma=1.3
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 49
Sharpening
Sharpen by Filter
You can use this menu entry to sharpen a picture, i.e. to enhance the edges in the
picture. The degree of sharpening should only be adjusted sharply enough so that
no noise appears in the surfaces.
50 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
A “digital filter” is used for this purpose. Probably no other area of digital
picture processing is so heavily involved with mathematics as designing and
using digital filters. To be able to use them correctly, at least a superficial
acquaintance with the theory is not only necessary, but also helpful.
We will limit ourselves essentially to demonstrating just what is meant by digital
filters.
What are digital filters? First we will demonstrate the manner in which digital
filtering works. To do this, you should first take a look at how picture data is
arranged in the memory of a computer. For gray value pictures, the brightness of
a picture element is defined by a numeric value between o and 255. A digitized
gray value picture that has been recorded in the currently common resolution of
640 x 480 pixels, thus consists of 640 x 480 = 3,072,000 such numeric values.
As a rule, these are stored one after the other without any gaps in computer
memory. The brightness value of the picture element, which is represented in the
upper left-hand corner of the screen is the first value. This is followed by the 639
other picture element on the first line, followed in turn by the 640 elements in
the second line of the picture and so forth. A small excerpt of the stored picture
might look like this:
Pixel
Line 0
Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
0
15
17
22
23
1
80
85
95
200
2
81
97
96
90
3
82
87
100
101
Line 478
Line 479
3
2
8
8
12
10
11
12
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
638
110
115
110
100
639
112
116
112
99
15
15
17
12
Since it is common practice for technical programming reasons, the number used
to begin counting the elements in the picture or the lines on the screen is not 1
but rather 0.
Each element in the picture can be unambiguously identified by indicating a line
and column value. For example, if we refer to picture element (= pixel) (3,0) in
the picture, this means the element on the far left in line 3, the one with the
numeric value 23.
Color pictures are stored in the same manner in memory, except that in this case
a picture element is typically defined by three numeric values one after the other,
which indicate the red, green and blue color percentages of the color of the
picture element.
The principle of digital filtering is based on the changing the value of a element
in the picture in an exactly determined manner that depends on the adjacent
elements in the picture. What is the purpose of this? For an answer, consider one
of the most simple digital filters, a so-called mixing filter.
In the following example, a picture will be smoothed by taking average values to
reduce its effective resolution by cutting it is half both horizontally and
vertically. This averaging is a very simple procedure. We simply need to add
together the brightness values of the four adjacent picture elements, find the
average value and replace the values of the four elements in the picture by the
average. For the first four picture elements (0,0) (0,1) (1,0) and (1,1), the average
value calculated is:
(15 + 80 + 17 + 85) / 4 = 197 / 4 = 49,25
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 51
This value must be rounded off to 49, since only whole numbers are permissible.
This averaging is performed block by block for the entire picture matrix =
bitmap. The appearance of the matrix at the end of the process is:
Pixel
Line 0
Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
.....
Line 478
Line 479
0
49
49
85
85
1
49
49
85
85
2
86
86
96
96
3
...
86 ...
86
96
96
638
113
113
105
105
639
113
113
105
105
5
5
5
5
11
11
11
11
14
14
14
14
Smoothing a picture by taking average values is a simple example of how picture
elements can take on new values as a function of their environment. It represents
one of the simplest digital filters.
You can also see by way of this example why digital filter operations are only
possible with gray value and true color pictures. The filtered values can only be
calculated if the values of the picture element can directly indicate the brightness
or the intensity of a color percentage. This is not the case with palette pictures.
Here the values of picture elements represent only references to a color table.
Furthermore, the result of filtering may be color or gray values that were not
previously part of the picture. Such new values of picture elements can only be
added directly into the bitmap for gray values and true color pictures.
As a rule, however, filter operations are somewhat more complicated than the
mosaic function described above. It is therefore useful to define such filter
operations in general terms. Typically the factors by which the brightness values
are multiplied are arranged in a matrix. This matrix is referred to in mathematics
as a convolution matrix, since the mathematical link performed as part of the
digital filtering is referred to as a fold or convolution. This matrix is also referred
to in the context of digital picture processing as a convolution mask, since it is
placed over a bitmap like a mask and thereby defines which picture elements can
be processed at what time and which factors the input values should be
multiplied by.
In the case described above, the convolution matrix is very simple, since the
factors are all 1. The matrix is:
1
1
1
1
It may sound highly complicated now if we say of a picture matrix that a
convolution is performed with this matrix. What actually happens, however, is
very simple. Beginning in the upper left-hand corner, the mask is placed over the
bitmap, the picture elements covered by the mask are multiplied by the
associated factors (also referred to as coefficients), the products of the
multiplication are added up and the sum is then divided by a standardization
value. It is also a simple matter to calculate this standardization value. As a rule
it is the sum of the coefficients, in our case 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4. The input values
are replaced by the average value and the mask is moved on by two picture
elements.
Essentially, two classes of digital filters may be distinguished, namely low-pass
and high-pass filters. In the context of picture processing, the term “low-pass
filter” is understood to mean filter operations (convolutions) that have the goal
of filtering out high frequencies, i.e., strong details, and thus smoothing the
picture. At first this might not appear to make any sense, for why would
someone be interested in reducing details in a picture? But sometimes this is
necessary, and you have already become familiar with a highly efficient lowpass filter above, namely the averaging function that was just described.
The term “detail” must be understood in a somewhat wider sense in the context
of digitized pictures. A detail is not always something positive – noise in a
picture is just as much a detail as a fine figure. Every difference in brightness in
a bitmap represents a detail in this extended sense. In order to reduce picture
52 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
noise, it may therefore be necessary to filter a picture with a low-pass filter that
suppresses high frequencies and retains low frequencies, even if the sharpness of
the picture suffers as a result. The art is in finding the correct compromise.
Unfortunately, there is no way an unfeeling mathematical function can
distinguish between a desirable detail and an undesired one.
The function of high-pass filters can be derived automatically from the definition
of low-pass filters. High-pass filters work in exactly the opposite manner to lowpass filters. They leave high frequencies in the picture unchanged and smooth
areas in the picture that contain few details. High-pass filters are used for a
number of purposes, including extracting details such as edges from pictures or
sharpening pictures. Each pronounced jump in brightness – and that is precisely
what an edge is – represents a strong detail and accordingly a higher frequency.
If the filter is suitably designed, the picture can be changed so that the jumps in
brightness stand out more strongly, or so that in extreme cases only the edges are
left.
This brings us to the most complicated part of the topic, namely the design of
digital filters. As you have seen by now, digital filters are nothing more than
matrices of coefficients that are placed over the picture and which assign new
values to elements in the picture as a function of the environment of these
elements.
Practically every digitized picture first appears diffuse and fuzzy. The reason for
this is that the picture is reduced into a limited number of picture elements when
it is recorded, and this makes the transitions between object boundaries softer. In
principle, this distribution into a limited number of picture elements has the same
effect as smoothing, which entails a loss of detail. This deterioration of the
picture can be very nicely corrected by a digital filter that reintensifies the jumps
in brightness along the boundaries of objects.
In the case of edge sharpening, the optimal coefficient matrix for filtering has the
following general form:
-1
-1
-1
-1
X
-1
-1
-1
-1
A brief explanation of how this matrix is derived appears below, since it is very
simple for edge sharpening.
To increase the sharpness of the picture, the jumps in brightness along the
boundaries of objects must be intensified. How can this be achieved? If the
brightness curve in the area of an edge that separates two objects from each other
is measured with a photosensor and then displayed graphically, the result is the
slightly sigmoidal graph shown in figure A.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 53
54 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The brightness does not change abruptly, but rather over several picture
elements. The problem at hand is to accentuate the brightness transition more
strongly. To do this, the bright picture elements on the edge transition must
become even brighter and the darker elements must be made even darker. We
therefore first search for the areas in which brightness changes most strongly.
The simplest way to determine the rate of change of the value of a function is by
taking the first derivative, since it indicates the slope of the curve. In our
example, the first derivative yields the curve shown in Figure B). The change in
brightness increases in the area of the edge, then reaches a plateau and finally
falls back off to zero. We are looking for the areas with the most pronounced
jumps in brightness. To do this, we must take the second derivative, since the
second derivative of a graphic function indicates how the slope of the first
derivative changes. As Figure C) illustrates, the most pronounced jumps in
brightness are located at the beginning and end of the edge. It is these jumps in
brightness that must be intensified. To do this, the second derivative is inverted
and then added to the output function. The result is the brightness curve shown
in Figure D). The edge area now stands out especially strongly since the changes
in brightness are essentially intensified at the beginning and end of the edge.
What remains after all this mathematics has been applied to the problem of
sharpening the edges of digitized pictures is the handy convolution mask:
-1
-1
-1
-1
X
-1
-1
-1
-1
This mask is different in a number of respects from the simple mixing mask you
became familiar with above. To begin with, it is larger. It contains nine
coefficients instead of just four. This is the most common size for filter masks. It
is also referred to as a 3x3 matrix. Secondly, one of the coefficients is clearly a
variable. A third difference is that here there is another rule, by which the result
of the filter operation is assigned to the input values. First the size of the matrix
and the assignment of the result.
For normal edge sharpening, only one new output value is calculated from nine
adjacent input values per operation. The relevant value is the one located in the
focus of the mask. For a 3x3 mask, the focus is the middle of the mask, where
the variable coefficient is located in our example. This is a significant difference
in comparison to the mixing operation discussed above, during which four
picture elements were replaced simultaneously during each pass. Accordingly,
the matrix is only moved over by one picture element after each operation for
edge sharpening. Please note that only the unchanged input values are ever used
for calculation. The calculated output values are entered into a new bitmap.
One special feature of 3x3 filter operations is that the input values of the first and
last row of the picture as well as the first and last picture elements of any given
line are not changed. Instead, they are taken over directly into the new bitmap.
We now come to the coefficient designated with X. The intensity of the edge
sharpening can be affected with this value. It determines the percentage of the
second derivative that will be added to the original picture. The higher this value
is, the more intensive will be the result of the sharpening effect. The following
formula is used to perform the calculations:
X = integer (100 / S - 1 + 8)
where:
S
"integer"
= degree of sharpening in %
= rounded off to the nearest integer value
The value of the degree of sharpening is synonymous with the percentage-based
addition of the second derivative. In principle, it would also be possible to permit
a floating decimal point value for X, but calculations with floating decimal
values are performed much more slowly by a computer in comparison to
calculations with whole numbers. Since S appears in the denominator, we must
further restrict the possible percentage values to account for the fact that a
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 55
sharpening value of 0 is not permissible. In any case, this would make no sense.
For the case where X = 0, the value of X will be set to 1.
For a sharpening of 20 %, for example, X would then have the value:
X = integer (100 / S - 1 + 8)
Let us now calculate by way of example the output value of picture element (1,1)
of the picture matrix shown above, where the degree of sharpening is taken to be
20 %. The calculation will then be as follows:
P(1,1) =
1/4 * ( (-1 * 15)
+
(-1 * 17)
+
(-1 * 22)
= 1/4 x (-15 -80 -81
= 1/4 x 545 = 136
+ (-1 * 80) +
+ (12 * 85) +
+ (-1 * 95) +
-17 +1020 -97
(-1
(-1
(-1
-22
* 81)
* 97)
* 96))
-95 -96)
The scaling factor of 1/4 is derived from the sum of the coefficients =
Scaling factor = 1 / (-8 + 12) = 1/4
For a gray value picture with a resolution of 640 x 480 picture elements, this
calculation must be performed for 478 lines with 638 calculable picture elements
each, thus 304,964 times. For an RGB color picture, the amount of calculating
time is tripled, since the filtering must be performed with every color channel. It
is understandable that this would take some time. For an HSV picture, on the
other hand, the filtering would be no more calculation-intensive than for a gray
value picture, since only the intensity portion (the V value) needs to be filtered.
On the other hand, though, additional time is required for conversions RGB →
HSV → RGB which completely eliminates the speed advantage for filtering.
After all the theory, we now turn to a few practical tips for working with the
sharpening filter. Unfortunately this picture processing operation has not only
positive, but also negative effects on the quality of the picture.
The most undesirable side effect of edge sharpening is the increase in the amount
of picture noise. The function falls into the category of high-pass filters, which
intensify details and thus unfortunately also picture noise. It is easy to try this out
for yourself. Open a picture, and try sharpening it at different degrees of
sharpening. One reason for this noise coming about is that because of the limited
precision in measuring, equally bright surfaces are not recognized as being
uniform. Digitization results in what was previously a homogenous surface
becoming heterogeneous. This is not noticeable at first glance, since the
deviations are relatively minor, and are moreover restricted primarily to the
darker portions of the picture. For the sharpening function, however, these
differences in brightness represent edges, and are thus intensified. As the degree
of sharpening increases, the noise becomes ever more visible. The greatest
degree of sharpening that is appropriate depends greatly on the quality of the
picture. Generally, pictures begin to look unnatural with a degree of sharpening
of about 30 % or greater. Often, because of limited picture quality, even this
degree of sharpening is no longer practical.
Special problems may result from sharpening color pictures if the color channels
have a different primary noise. This is the rule for digitized video pictures, but
may also occur with other pictures, especially if a color is represented to a
limited extent in the picture. The result may be color borders or specks of color
associated with edge sharpening.
The default values for the type and factor of the sharpening are read out of the
registry and are written back into it when you exit the program. They are filed
there in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Sharpen]
Sharpen-Type=1
Sharpen-Factor=10
56 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Sharpen by Frequency
You can use this menu entry to sharpen a picture, i.e. to enhance the edges in the
picture. The degree of sharpening should only be adjusted sharply enough so that
no noise appears in the surfaces.
With this procedure, the picture is first calculated without sharpening by taking
the average value with each of the adjacent picture elements. This picture, from
which sharpening has been removed, is then extracted from the original. The
picture representing the difference, which contains only more of the strong local
changes, is intensified (multiplied by the sharpening factor) and is then added
back to the original. In this way the edges are accentuated. Because of the
accentuation of local frequencies, this procedure is referred to as the
Frequency method.
The default values for the type and factor of the sharpening are read out of the
registry and are written back into it when you exit the program. They are filed
there in the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Sharpen]
Sharpen-Type=1
Sharpen-Factor=10
Sharpen by Intensity
You can use this menu entry to sharpen a picture, i.e. to enhance the edges in the
picture. The degree of sharpening should only be adjusted sharply enough so that
no noise appears in the surfaces.
For “normal” sharpening by convoluting the three color channels red, green and
blue (RGB) are considered independently of each other and are processed
separately. For this procedure, the picture is first transformed from the RGB
color space to the YUV color space. Y here represents the luminance or
intensity portion of the picture information. U and V are the chrominance
portions. The Y channel is now considered independent and (analogous to a gray
value picture) is sharpened by convolution. The original chrominance channels
are then added and the reverse transformation to the RGB color space is
performed.
Since only the brightness values can serve as the basis for accentuating edges,
significantly fewer color artifacts are produced at the edges with high brightness
contrast.
The default values for the type and factor of the sharpening are read out of the
registry and are written back into it when you exit the program. They are filed
there in the following manner:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 57
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Sharpen]
Sharpen-Type=2
Sharpen-Factor=10
Remove Sensor Edges
The recording sensor of high-speed video cameras is divided into several
segments. Since it often happens that the “border points” of a picture sensor have
differing (mostly lower) light sensitivity, the limits of the individual sensor
segments are often visible in the complete picture. FalCon eXtra can largely
compensate for this through interpolation with the adjacent picture elements.
This menu entry is currently active only for the Weinberger BLD picture
document type.
You can select from the following options:
None
There is no removal of sensor edge lines.
Mode 1
Only the adjacent picture element in the direction of the sensor
center is used.
Mode 2
Two adjacent picture elements (in the direction of the sensor
center) are used.
Mode 3
Four adjacent picture elements (in the direction of the sensor
center and width) are used.
Mode 4
Six adjacent picture elements (in the direction of the sensor
center and width) are used.
The loss of sharpness that automatically arises can be compensated for with the
sharpening function.
The default values for removing sensor limit lines are read out of the registry and
are written back into it when you exit the program. They are filed there in the
following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Weinberger]
Remove_Lines=3
58 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Equalize Different Sensor Sensitivities
The picture sensor of the Weinberger video camera (b/w version) consists of 16
separate sensors each with a resolution of 64 times 256 pixels. Since the
possibility cannot be excluded that the individual sensors have different
sensitivities to light due to manufacturing, the result may sometimes be a “tile”
effect. To eliminate this defect, a darkening or brightening can be defined for
each sensor segment.
Since sensor sensitivities are constant, however, this only needs to be determined
a single time. An Automatic function performs a calibration of this type, but it
also possible for you to do it manually.
For strongly structured pictures, the automatic function can lead to undesired
results. For this reason, an even surface should be used for the calibration. The
automatic function is optimized for this application case.
FalCon eXtra can equalize this by selectively moving the various segments.
The default values for equalizing sensor sensitivities are read out of the registry
and are written back into it when you exit the program. They are filed there in
the following manner:
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\FalCon\<Program>\Weinberger]
Equivalate=
Button:
Optimize
Several steps are involved in optimizing pictures:
•
Black/white equalization
•
White balance
•
Removing sensor limit lines (for Weinberger pictures only)
•
Equalizing sensor sensitivities (for Weinberger pictures only)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 59
•
•
•
•
•
Color gain
Color matrix
Brightness and contrast
Sharpening
Gamma correction
You should load a typical picture for this purpose (from the File/Open menu)
and then perform an optimization in individual steps, if possible in the order
listed above. For each of the individual steps you have the option of using the
Test function to evaluate the effects immediately and if necessary making other
settings. If you have made incorrect entries, you can go back to the initial picture
at any time with the Original Picture function (in the View menu). With the
exception of the Black Level (where the correction takes place as soon as the
program reads in the file) and White Balance (the program always accesses the
original picture), the correction functions always work with the currently
displayed picture.
If you have reached a satisfactory result with the individual steps, you can
perform all the individual functions in a single step with the Optimize function.
All the settings you selected for optimization will be saved in the registry so that
they will automatically be available again the next time you start the program.
Please note that optimization is only permitted for gray value or true color
pictures.
Button:
Copy
Shortcut:
The Copy menu item copies the currently displayed picture to the clipboard.
This makes it possible for other Windows applications to read the material and
to insert it into a WinWord document, for example.
Ctrl+C
Picture Size
This sub-menu allows you to select a magnification factor for displaying the
picture document. You can also adjust the size of the window to the picture size.
The following options are available:
You can enter the percentage of the original size.
Zoom Factor
Displays the picture at half the original size.
50 %
Displays the picture at the original size.
100 %
Displays the picture at twice the original size.
200 %
Window Size to Adjusts the window size to the picture size. The window
is enlarged sufficiently so that the picture can be
Picture Size
displayed completely and the scroll bars disappear.
60 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture Size to
Window Size
Tip:Tip:
The zoom factor is adjusted so that there is room for the
picture in the window.
The following shortcuts are also available for quick settings:
•
"Home"
Original size
•
"End"
Maximum size
•
" - " (Num)
Reduce current size by half
•
" + " (Num) Double the current size
Flip and Rotate
This sub-menu allows you to flip and/or rotate the picture as soon as it is loaded.
You can select whether the picture should be flipped vertically or
horizontally and whether the picture should be rotated by multiples of 90
degrees.
JPEG Settings
This menu entry refers to the same dialog box that you can open via File/JPEG
Settings.
Reset Settings
This menu entry is used for a defined reset of all picture processing and JPEG
parameters. The following message window asks you to make a selection;
You have two options:
Neutral
Values
All values are set so that using the processing functions
has no affect on the picture, i.e. initial picture = output
picture.
For example no white balance is turned on, the Gamma
value = 1 and the sharpening factor = 0 %.
Default
Values
All values are set so that the default values are optimal for
processing Kodak Bayer pictures.
For example color matrix = Ekta, Gamma = 1.9,
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Picture • 61
sharpening by frequency with a factor of 10 %.
62 • Picture
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
AVI File Creation
Attention:
Since eXtra Version 5.00 the cocument type AVI File Creation is no
more supported. Use Multi AVI Creation instead!
A “Video for Windows” file (AVI) is composed of several individual
pictures:
You should load a typical picture for this purpose (from the File/Open menu)
and then perform an optimization in individual steps. For each of the individual
steps you have the option of using the Test function to evaluate the effects
immediately and if necessary of making other settings. If you have made
incorrect entries, you can use the Original picture function (in the View
menu) to return to the initial picture. With the exception of the Black Level
(where the correction takes place as soon as the program reads in the file) and
White Balance (the program always accesses the original picture), the
correction functions always work with the currently displayed picture. All the
settings you selected for optimization will be saved in the registry so that they
will automatically be available again the next time you start the program.
When you have achieved a satisfactory result with the individual steps, create a
batch file for generating an AVI file. To do this, use File/New to create a new
document of type AVI Creation (*.BAC).
Assign a name for the AVI file and then specify which pictures you want to
insert into this file (with the Add command). The number of pictures that can be
inserted is limited in this case to 25 in the demo version.
Note: MS Windows sometimes mixes up the order of selected files in the case
of a multiple selection . To avoid this, select the last file first, then go to the first
file and select it by clicking with the mouse while the “Shift” key is held down.
Begin creation of the file with the Create AVI function. If you have selected the
preview, the program will show you overview pictures of reduced size for each
individual pictures.
In the full version of the program, you can also perform the creation process in
batch mode. To do this, start the program with the name of the batch file and
with the additional program parameter “/q”.
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AVI File Creation • 63
Then you can also compress the AVI file that has just been created as well.
Compression saves space on the hard drive and makes it possible to replay jitterfree. The main disadvantages of compression are the high amount of computing
time usually required and the loss in quality typically associated with it.
64 • AVI File Creation
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The File Menu
In the File menu you can create new documents, open existing ones, close and
save picture documents, create a printout, set up the printer or exit the program.
Please note that only the additional menu items corresponding to the document
type under discussion are explained in this section.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Print
Prints a text log of the document.
Page Preview
Shows a text log of the document on the screen as it
would look if it were printed out.
AVI File Creation • 65
Page View
Use this menu entry if you want to be able to evaluate the appearance of the text
log.
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The AVI-Creation Menu
The individual menu entries are:
Enter AVI File
Name
Enter the name of the AVI file to be created.
Add
Adds individual pictures to the creation list.
Remove
Picture
Removes individual pictures from the list of pictures to be
inserted.
Create AVI File
Begins creation of the AVI file.
Setting Tab
Submenu for menu-controlled selection of the following
setting tabs:
Preview
Allows you to have a preview (in an overview picture of
reduced size) of the currently selected individual picture.
Recording Rate
Rate
Specifies the recording rate (frames per second) of the
AVI file and the T0 time (ms).
Selection
Specific selection of individual pictures from the list.
Insert
Choose a logo and descriptions for inserting into the AVI
file.
The individual functions are described in more detail below.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
AVI File Creation • 67
AVI Creation: Document Window and Functions
The input dialog box is divided into three areas:
•
Output AVI file
•
Settings for the AVI file
•
A list of the individual picture files to be inserted into the AVI
The individual functions are:
68 • AVI File Creation
Enter
Enter the name of the AVI file to be created.
Add Pictures
Adds individual pictures to the creation list.
Remove
Removes individual pictures from the list of pictures to be
inserted.
Create AVI
Begins creation of the AVI file.
Preview
Allows you to have a preview (in an overview picture of
reduced size) of the currently selected individual picture.
Recording Rate
Specifies the recording rate (pictures per second) of the
AVI file and the T0 time.
Selection
Specific selection of individual pictures from the list.
Insert
Choose a logo and descriptions for inserting into the AVI
file.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Enter
The following options allow you to specify the name and location of the file to
be used for creating the AVI file.
The following options will help you to indicate the file to be opened:
File name
Enter a new file name to save a document under
another name. FalCon eXtra adds the extension
corresponding to the type specified by you in the Save
as type box.
File type
Select the type as which the file will be saved:
*.AVI
"Video for Windows" file
You can specify these additional details under Save in:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Drives
Select the drive on which the file will be saved.
Directories
Select the directory in which you want to save the
document.
Network
Use this button to assign a link to a network drive to a
drive letter.
AVI File Creation • 69
Add
You can use this command to select existing picture documents that are to be
included in the Create AVI list.
The following options will allow you to indicate the files to be added:
File name
Enter the name of the file or select it from the list. This
box displays only file with the filename extension
selected by you in the File type box.
File type
Select the type of the file to be opened:
*.BAY
Kodak Bayer picture
*.BLD
Weinberger picture (image sequence)
*.TIF
TIFF picture
*.JPG
JPEG picture
*.BMP
Windows bitmap picture
*.MOT
Motion picture
*.WMF
WMF picture
*.EMF
EMF picture
You can specify these additional details under Look in:
Drive
Select the drive on which FalCon eXtra saved the file
you want to open.
Directory
Select the directory in which FalCon eXtra saved the
file you want to open.
Network
Use this button to assign a link to a network drive to a
drive letter.
You also have the typical Windows option of multiple selection.
Please note: that Windows sometimes mixes up the order of selected files in
the case of a multiple selection . To avoid this, select the last file first, then go to
the first file and select it by clicking with the mouse while the Shift key is held
down.
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
If you want to add Weinberger picture files containing multiple pictures, you
must indicate which pictures are to be added:
Remove
To remove a picture document from the list of pictures to be added, select the
corresponding picture in the list with the mouse. As soon as you have selected
the picture document, the Remove button is activated and you are able to
remove the file from the list. This process removes the picture document only
from the list, not from the hard drive.
AVI Create
Use this button to begin the creation of the AVI file. As soon as the creation
process is underway, you can stop it by clicking on this button (its label then
changes to Cancel).
No other buttons can be activated during the creation process. A progress bar
appears in the upper section of the window. The number of the picture
currently being processed is also displayed:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
AVI File Creation • 71
Preview
As soon as you have selected the picture file (by clicking with the mouse) an
overview picture of the picture file appears in the preview tab. While the AVI
file is being created, the individual pictures also appear on this page. This
preview can be used as a rough control of the settings.
Please note that the interpolation type you selected under File/Program
Settings is used to calculated the reduced picture view.
Recording Rate
In this tab you can indicate to the program the recording rate (unit fps =
frames per second) at which the AVI file will be entered. Generally this is the
recording frequency. This information ensures the correct time reference will be
used for movie display and measured data synchronization.
You can also indicate the Start Time T of the AVI file (unit ms). If the entry is
a negative number this means that your AVI file begins before T0. This entry
can still be changed later during movie display.
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Selection
In this tab you can specify the number of pictures from which one will be added
to the AVI file. If you have also selected the option “With deleting from
disk” the picture files will simultaneously be deleted from the hard drive.
Use this setting with caution!
FalCon eXtra asks you one more time whether the deletion is actually
intentional.
You can also use the option Sort by Image Number to have the picture files
sorted. This function works only with Kodak Bayer pictures, however, since the
picture number is only stored internally in these pictures.
For the display and to store the document, you can choose whether you will use
only the file names of the picture files or whether the path will appear before the
file name. If you want to insert picture files from different directories, you must
select the check box Names together with path. To use the AVI creation
document as a batch file for different directories, however, it may be more
practical to use the option pictures names “without” the path (directory).
Insert
On this tab you can insert a logo and a descriptive label onto the pictures in the
AVI sequence. These items are superimposed on the pictures and are
permanently “burned in”.
The items can optionally be inserted In All pictures or Only in the one
indicated. You can use the list box to specify the location at which the item is to
appear on the picture.
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AVI File Creation • 73
The settings are saved in the registry so that only minimal effort is required of
the user to repeat the layout for the next AVI creation process.
Example of an AVI picture with inserted logo and text passages
Insert - Logo
You can use any individual picture file, for example of type Windows Bitmap
*.BMP, as a logo. To do this, enter the complete file name using the “…” Open
dialog box.
Please note that the color value “completely white” (RGB = 255,255,255) is
interpreted as “transparent”. At these spots on the logo picture the picture
underneath it will be visible.
Example of a logo picture
74 • AVI File Creation
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Insert - Text
As a descriptive Text you might enter the test number or the test code, for
example. You can use the Font button to select the font type and size as well as
the color.
Insert - Time
If you are not using FalCon eXtra AVI Viewer to display AVIs or if you are
forwarding the AVI file on to a customer, you can permanently insert the
calibrated time – according to T0 and the recording rate – into the picture. The
numeric format of the time value is automatically created according to the setting
in the Movie-Player!
The following entry fields will provide you with flexibility in labeling pictures.
•
Pre-text
, for example
“Time:” or “T =”
•
<Time> , for example
0.010 (time value)
•
Post-text , for example
Unit “s” or “ms”
Insert – Picture Number
Along with the time, you can also have the associated picture number appear.
Please note: The number of the sequence pictures begins at 0!
The following entry fields will provide you with flexibility in labeling pictures.
•
Pre-text
, for example
“Picture”
•
< No >
, for example
15
•
Post-text , for example
“#”
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AVI File Creation • 75
Multi AVI Creation
In Process …
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Multi AVI Creation • 77
Picture Transformation
In Process …
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Picture Transformation • 79
FrameMerge
In Process …
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FrameMerge • 81
Compression
To allow a “Video for Windows”-file (AVI) to play back faster and also to
save storage space, you can compress the file. The file type still remains AVI.
The main disadvantages of compression are the high amount of computing time
usually required and the loss in quality typically associated with it.
You can use File/New to create a new document of type Create AVI (*.BAP).
Then you can select one or several AVI files to be compressed and set the
options for compression (the algorithm, quality, etc.) before starting
compression.
To repeat the same settings save the file as a batch file. Since the program uses
the “Video for Windows” interface Version 4.0 of MS Windows, all supported
(and installed) compression and file formats and hardware accelerators can be
used.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Compression • 83
The File Menu
In the File menu you can create new documents, open existing ones, close and
save picture documents, create a printout, set up the printer or exit the program.
Please note that only the additional menu items corresponding to the document
type under discussion are explained in this section.
84 • Compression
Print
Prints a text log of the document.
Page Preview
Shows a text log of the document on the screen as it
would look if it were printed out.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Page Preview
Use this menu entry if you want to be able to evaluate how a printout of the text
log will appear.
The AVI Compression Menu
The individual menu entries are:
Destination
Directory
Enter the name and the complete path of the destination
directory for the compressed AVI file to be created.
Add AVI
Use this option to add AVIs to the creation list.
Remove AVI
Removes entries from the AVI list.
Compress AVI
Files
Begins compression of the AVI file.
Compressor
Options
Here you can make adjustments to the compression
program and to its parameters.
The functions are described in more detail below.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Compression • 85
AVI Compression: Document Window and Functions
The input dialog box is divided into three areas:
•
Target directory for the AVI output file
•
Settings for compression of AVI files
•
List of AVI files to be compressed
The individual functions are:
86 • Compression
Search
Use this search dialog box to enter the name and the
complete path of the target directory for the compressed
AVI file to be created.
Add AVI
Use this option to add AVIs to the creation list.
Delete
Deletes entries from the AVI list.
Compress AVIs
Begins compression of the AVI file.
Compressor
Options
Here you can make adjustments to the compression
program and to its programs.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Search
The names of the original and
compressed AVI files are
identical!
To avoid having to assign a new name for each file when several AVI files are
being compressed, the output files are created with the same name as the input
files.
Since Windows does not distinguish different versions of a single file, however,
they must be saved in a different directory. You can use this dialog box to
specify the target directory of the AVI files to be compressed. For each file to be
compressed, FalCon eXtra checks whether it is really to be created in a different
directory, and if necessary prompts you to enter the target directory again.
Add AVI
Use this command to select existing AVI files for compression.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Compression • 87
The following options will allow you to indicate the files to be added:
File name
Enter the name of the file or select it from the list. This
box displays only file with the filename extension
selected by you in the File type box.
File type
Select the type of the file to be opened:
*.AVI
“Video for Windows” file (AVI)
You can specify these additional details under Look in:
Drive
Select the drive on which FalCon eXtra saved the file
you want to open.
Directory
Select the directory in which FalCon eXtra saved the
file you want to open.
Network
Use this button to assign a link to a network drive to a
drive letter.
You also have the typical Windows option of multiple selection.
Please note: Windows sometimes mixes up the order of the selected files
when you have made a multiple selection. To avoid this, select the last file first,
then go to the first file and select it with “Shift” + mouse click.
Delete
To delete an AVI file from the list of files to be compressed, select the
corresponding file in the list with the mouse. As soon as you have selected the
file, the Delete button is selectable and you are able to remove the file from the
list. This process removes the file only from the list, not from the hard drive.
Compress AVIs
Use this button to begin the compression of the AVI file. As soon as the
compression process is underway, you can stop it by clicking on this button (its
label then changes to Cancel).
No other buttons can be activated during the compression process. A percentage
<..%> appears just after the AVI file that is currently being compressed to
indicate how much of the file has already been processed. After the compression
has been successfully completed, <compressed> appears and FalCon eXtra
begins to compress the next file from the list.
Compressor options
88 • Compression
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
You can use this dialog box to specify how the AVI files should be compressed.
Since the program is based on the “Video for Windows” interface Version 4.0 of
MS Windows, all supported (and installed!) compression and file formats and
hardware accelerators are available.
Please note: Depending on the operating system, the design of the dialog box
may be slightly different. The list of available compression programs depends on
the procedures installed in Windows.
The higher the Compression Quality you select, the less loss of detail will
occur in the individual pictures, but at the same time the degree of compression
will be reduced – in other words the amount of space required for storage that
you save will be less. Depending on the application and compression program,
you may have to determine the optimal value for a given case by trial and error.
If exact positioning of the picture within the AVI file is required, you should
select Key Frame Every for each individual picture. This does, however,
increase the size of the compressed file.
The Data Rate must be determined if you want to play the compressed AVI file
on CD-ROM and if the only way to achieve jitter-free playback is with doublespeed CD drives. Making this restriction will automatically result in loss of
detail and is generally not required for hard disks.
Please note: If your AVI recording rate is much greater than 25 frames
(pictures) per second, the result in this case will be very poor and computing
times will also be extended!!
A simple computing example will illustrate this point:
At a recording rate of 1000 frames/s and with the data rate restricted to
300 KB/s, the compression factor would have to be 2000. But no compression
algorithm is capable of achieving compression of this magnitude.
Tip:
If you are working with high-speed videos, i.e. typically with recording rates of
1000 frames/s, remove the marking from the Data Rate check box.
You can use the Preview button to test compression of several pictures so that
you can check your settings. The option for preview only appears if you have
already selected AVI files for compression.
When you press the Configure button, a number of special settings appear
(which ones depends on the compression program).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Compression • 89
90 • Compression
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
AVI Viewer
The document type “Video for Windows” (AVI) provides access to a viewer
for AVI files (= Movie-Player). In addition to the usual features of a projector,
you can specify the size of the picture, playback speed, playback interval and
other modes. It is also possible to play back multiple picture sequences with
synchronous pictures.
In the following section, the synonymous descriptions picture sequence or
movie are used for a displayed AVI (file).
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AVI Viewer • 91
The Movie Menu
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The Movie menu contains the following menu entries/commands:
Show Time/ Image #
Switches the display in the title bar from time to
picture number.
Time Display Format
Makes it possible to set the format for time
display in the window title bar.
Play Forward
Switches the playback of a picture sequence to the
forward direction.
Play Backward
Plays the picture sequence backward.
Stop Playback
Stops playback of the picture sequence.
Step Forward
Shows the following picture.
Keyboard: Right-arrow
Step Backwards
Shows the previous picture.
Keyboard: Left-arrow
Go to Start
Jumps to the beginning of the picture sequence.
Keyboard: Home
Go to End
Jumps to the end of the picture sequence.
Keyboard: End.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Go to Time/Image
Moves to a picture number.
Playback Speed
Adjusts the playback speed.
Set Start Time
Sub-menu used either to assign the T0 time to the
current picture or to specify the start time of the
picture sequence.
Image Size
Allows you to change the display size.
Flip Image
Flips the picture on the horizontal axis
(display with right and left side reversed).
Please note: This feature is not supported by all
AVI compressors!
Master Panel
A control panel for synchronizing several picture
sequences and selecting a sequence interval.
Master Panel
Topmost
Prevents the master panel from being hidden
behind other windows.
Use Joystick
As an additional option, a joystick can be used to
play back a picture sequence.
Film Stripe Overview
Creates an overview sketch in the form of a “film
stripe”.
Move
Makes it possible to move the picture window
using the arrow keys.
Copy
Copies the current sequence picture to the
clipboard. Shortcut = Ctrl+C.
Info
Displays information about the AVI file.
AVI Viewer • 93
Tip
You can reach the Movie menu by clicking with the right mouse button within
the picture document.
Demo version
The master panel is not available in the demo version of the program.
An additional tool bar is available to you for frequently required menu entries:
Jumps to the beginning of the picture sequence.
Shows the previous picture.
Plays the picture sequence backward.
Stops playback of the picture sequence.
Switches the playback of a picture sequence to the forward
direction.
Shows the following picture.
Jumps to the end of the picture sequence.
Turns the master panel on or moves it to the foreground.
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
You can use the slide control (on the lower edge of the window) to control
playback the speed individually.
Some menu entries refer to sub-menus or open dialog boxes in which you can set
additional parameters.
Display Time/ Picture Number
Here you can select whether you would like to have time values or picture
numbers displayed in the title bar of the AVI window. A check mark in front of
the menu entry refers to the selection Time.
The time value of a picture is calculated based on the parameters entered in the
AVI file:
Time t = T0 + picture number / frame rate
The times/picture numbers of the picture sequence interval (start and end) appear
after the value of the current picture.
Picture number
Time values
Time Display Format
Here you can adjust the display format for time values in the title bar of the AVI
window. For image frequencies above 1000 Hz with the unit of measure s, it is
appropriate to use 3 fractional digits after the decimal point, whereas for
frequencies up to 1000 Hz and the unit of measure ms, an integer output is
sufficient.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
AVI Viewer • 95
Go to Time/Image
Entering a picture number facilitates fast and precise positioning within the AVI
file. The positioning can also be achieved by entering a time value, however, or
explicitly in terms of time T0 (= 0 s). FalCon eXtra automatically calculates the
time given the picture number and vice-versa.
Playback Speed
Here you can enter the playback speed to be used for playing back the picture
sequence. The unit of measure is pictures/s = fps (frames per second). If you
have selected a playback rate that is too high, FalCon eXtra will skip over
individual pictures so as to approximately simulate the speed you entered.
Please note: Playback speeds that can be achieved depend on your computer
configuration and the compression of the AVI file.
Set Start Time
In this sub-menu you can assign the time value T0 (= 0 s) to the currently
displayed individual picture, or you can enter the start time for picture # 0 using
ms as the unit of measure.
96 • AVI Viewer
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
A start time – and thus T0 time – must be set to make it possible to synchronize
the AVI files in correct chronological order among themselves and with the
measurement curves.
Please note: If the AVI file is not read-only or if it is not on a read-only
medium, for example on a CD-ROM, the corresponding entry for the start time
is changed in the file. The next time the file is opened, the value that is set here
will be retained.
Otherwise you will be given a message indicating that the change will only be
applied to the currently opened picture sequence:
Image Size
This sub-menu allows you to select an enlargement factor for the picture. The
following options are available:
Zoom Factor
You can enter the percentage of the original size.
50 %
Displays the picture at half the original size.
100 %
Displays the picture at the original size.
200 %
Displays the picture at twice the original size.
The currently displayed size (as a %) is displayed in the title bar of the picture
window.
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AVI Viewer • 97
Master Panel
All settings and defaults you make with the master panel will apply to all open
AVI files. Only the scaling of the slide control applies for the last window to be
active.
You can reduce the size of the master panel dialog box by clicking on the
Options buttons:
Use the Set Start and Set End buttons to specify a segment (= interval) within
the picture sequence that is to be played back. When you have selected a range,
it will be displayed in blue. You can remove the selection by clicking again; you
can change the limits of the interval by clicking twice (1 x = remove + 1 x = set
new).
If you want to be able to control the sequence from the keyboard, the slide
control in the master panel must be the active element (“dotted frame”).
You can select from the following options under Display:
•
No Auto-repeat Beginning – end
98 • AVI Viewer
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
•
Auto-repeat
Shuttle Mode
Beginning – end – beginning – end – ...
Forward – backward – forward – …
The selection Time-Synchronous or Picture-Synchronous indicates
whether synchronization is to be formed in reference to the picture number or
time.
All other functions that are available here have already been described above.
Film Stripe Overview
You can use this tool to design an overview of the temporal flow of the picture
sequence in the form of a “film stripe”.
First use Start Picture and End Picture to select the interval to be recorded
for the overview.
You can drag the window frame with the mouse/cursor (horizontally, vertically
or both at the same time) to change the surface of the film stripe.
FalCon eXtra automatically calculates – while maintaining the page relationship
– how many individual pictures will fit into the film stripe, rounds off this
number to a whole number and thereby determines the lower temporal frequency
for the display.
To insert the results into a report, copy them to the clipboard.
Examples:
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AVI Viewer • 99
Info
This dialog box provides a list of the most important parameters of the AVI file.
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Measurement Data Viewer
The Measurement data viewer is used to display measurement graphs.
Measurement data can be displayed from the following file formats: DIAdem
(DAT), ISO-Crash (ISO), Dats (DOK) and PIAS work file (*.*).
There is no limit on the number of open diagram windows and the number of
graphs within a window, other than the RAM resources of your computer.
As a rule, the measurement channels contain time graphs. Therefore, the
following assignments will generally apply:
X-axis of the diagram = Abscissa = Time
Y-axis of the diagram = Ordinate = measurement values
The viewer for data in the (new) ISO Multimedia Data Exchange Format (MME)
is explained in a separate chapter.
The chapter "MovBag Airbag Analysis" contains the description of the
dedicated file type for Multi-D measurement data (BAG).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Measurement Data Viewer • 101
The File Menu
In the File menu you can create new documents, open existing ones, close and
save picture documents, create a printout, set up the printer or exit the program.
Please note that only the additional menu items corresponding to the document
type under discussion are explained in this section.
Open
Use this command to open an existing document in a new window. Multiple
windows can be opened at the same time.
If you open a measurement data file containing multiple measurement
channels, you must indicate to FalCon eXtra which graph is to be displayed.
The entry dialog box depends on the individual file format:
Example: ISO Crash format
X-axis implicitly = time
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Example: DIAdem format
Select X- and Y-axis
To the extent they are available, all monotonic ascending channels are displayed
for you for the X-axis (time axis). This channel is used for synchronization with
AVI files. The channel for the Y-axis (values axis) can be freely selected.
The Identification output fields provide you with additional information on the
respective channels.
Page Preview
Use this menu entry if you want to be able to evaluate the appearance of the
printout.
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Measurement Data Viewer • 103
Graph: Document Window
Changing the Diagram Output Area
By double-clicking on the graph (within the rectangle defined by the axes)
you can move the effective output area or adjust its size.
If you position the cursor in the rectangle that is now selected (“cursor with 4
arrow heads”), press and hold down the mouse button, you can move the output
area. If you click on one of the black edge points of the selected rectangle
(“cursor with 2 arrow heads”) and hold it down, you can change the size of the
output area.
As soon as you have changed the size or position, the program returns to its
normal display mode. To leave change mode without making any changes,
simply click anywhere outside the graph.
Changing the Document Window Size
Move the cursor up to the edge of the window: The cursor changes into a “cursor
with 2 arrows”. If you press the mouse button and hold it down, you can change
the area of the document window to the desired size by dragging the edge.
Access to Graphs via Mouse
If a document window contains more than one graph, you can use the mouse to
access the active graph (= graph in the “foreground”):
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Press down the right mouse button. A “hand cursor” appears. Now while you are
holding the button down, you can drag the (active) graph out of the diagram
window.
If you release the mouse button outside of the diagram window: A pop-up
menu appears in which you can choose to delete the graph (in other words to
remove it from the diagram), or to copy it and enter it in a new diagram window:
On the other hand, if you release the mouse button in another diagram
window: A pop-up menu appears in which in addition to deleting the graph,
you can move it into the new window, which means it will be deleted in the
source window, or copy it there (in which case it will remain intact in the source
window).
Synchronizing Graphs and AVIs with Master
Panel
As soon as the master panel of the AVI viewer is activated, a movie
marker appears in the graph diagram: Cross-hairs mark the spot on the graph
where the time value corresponds to the picture position of the AVI:
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Measurement Data Viewer • 105
If playback of picture sequence(s) is running, movie marking automatically
follows along synchronously! At the same time, all displayed AVI and
measurement data windows are synchronized through the master panel.
The time and the corresponding measurement value appear in the status bar.
Status bar
Time values (unit of
measures!)
Requirement: The time values of the graph must be available in the SI unit s
(seconds). For the measurement values to be correctly assigned to pictures, the
corresponding time intervals of graph and sequence must agree, or must at least
overlap.
Synchronizing Graphs and AVIs with the Mouse
Cursor to move
movie marker:
It is also possible to move the movie marker using the mouse. When you do this,
the program positions automatically to the corresponding picture in the AVI file
or files.
Move the cursor up to the vertical bar in the movie marker. A prominent “cursor
with two arrows” then appears. If you press and hold down the mouse button,
you can control synchronous playback of the AVI at the same time by moving
the horizontal cross hair.
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The Graph Menu
The Graph menu contains the following menu entries/commands:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Load additional
graph
Makes it possible to display for additional graphs
in the diagram.
Delete graph
Deletes a graph from the display list.
Select Active Graph
Specifies the active graph.
Header Data
General information about the graph.
Scaling
Determines the section of the graph to be
displayed.
Layout of Axes
Determines the display form of the axes.
Define Colors
Specifies the colors for the graph and the movie
marker.
Show Graph Values
Displays the measurement values at the cursor
position.
Cursor at Graph
Allows the cursor to run along the measurement
Measurement Data Viewer • 107
value graph.
Tip
Y-Mouse-Zoom
Makes it possible to enlarge a section within the
range of values through mouse entry.
X-Mouse-Zoom
Makes it possible to enlarge a section within the
range of times through mouse entry.
Time Window to Left
Moves the X-axis around the display range to the
left.
Time Window to
Right
Moves the X-axis around the display range to the
right.
Legends
Entry dialog box for descriptive captions.
Copy
Copies the content of the window to the clipboard.
You can reach the Graph menu by clicking with the right mouse button within
the graph document
An additional tool bar is available to you for frequently required menu entries:
Header Data
Scaling
Layout of Axes
Define Colors
Show Graph Values
Cursor at Graph
X-Mouse Zoom
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X-Mouse Zoom
Time Window to Left
Time Window to Right
Load Additional Graph
You can use this menu entry to add additional channels to your diagram, thus
making it possible to display multiple measurement data graphs in a window.
The dialog box Load Additional Graph appears (equivalent to opening a new
document), except that no new window is opened here. Instead the graph appears
in an existing window. The same scaling is used to display all graphs.
The number of graphs you can display in a diagram is limited only by the
resource of your computer.
Delete Graph
Use this menu entry to delete graphs from the diagram again. The deletion here
refers only to the display within the diagram. The files remain intact on the hard
disk.
Select the channel to be deleted (additional information is available in the
Information output field) and then Delete by clicking on the appropriate
button.
As soon as only one graph is displayed, this dialog box closes automatically.
Select Active Graph
As soon as multiple graphs are displayed within a diagram, you can use this
dialog box to determine on which of the graphs the following commands or
functions will take effect.
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Measurement Data Viewer • 109
The Identification output field provides you with additional information on the
respective channels. The active graph is so to speak in the “foreground”. The
graph’s file and channel name are displayed in the title line of the diagram
window.
The graph also determines the source for the measurement values selected by
mouse and for the values that will be generated during synchronization with AVI
files.
Header Data
Icon:
This dialog box contains information about the graphs contained in the diagram.
110 • Measurement Data Viewer
Channel file:
The file name of the measurement values.
Y-Channel name
Output of the channel name (ordinate values).
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Date of creation
The date when the graph was created.
Number of values
(total)
Indicates how many measurement points are
stored in the file.
Sampling rate (Hz)
The sampling rate of the graph, given in the unit
of measure Hz = values/s
Data type
The storage type of data in the file.
X and Y:
For both axes:
Identification
The “label” of the axis.
Unit
The unit of measure.
Range from
The lower limit of the range of values.
Range to
The upper limit of the range of values.
The command Update Max/Min causes the program to recalculate the range
limits (maximum and minimum). The result is not saved.
Scaling
Icon:
In this dialog box you can specify which section of the measurement data file
should be displayed. You can also change the scaling of the diagram axes.
The following choices are available as settings for the X-axis scale.
Scaling on
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
A Selection of the measurement channels displayed
or scaling Only on one individual measurement
Measurement Data Viewer • 111
channel.
Automatic
Displays the entire (i.e. full time range) or the
selected graph(s).
Manual
Displays an interval between the limits from and to.
The following choices are available as settings for the Y-axis scale (for both
axes).
Scaling on
A Selection of the measurement channels displayed
or scaling Only on one individual measurement
channel.
Automatic full
value range
Automatic scaling to the full range of values of the
selected graph(s).
Automatic in
displayed Xrange
Performs auto-scaling using the displayed X-range
(= time interval).
Manual
Displays an interval between the limits from and to.
You can also change the segment that is displayed by clicking and dragging with
the mouse if the X/Y-mouse zoom has been activated by using the tool bar.
You can configure a dual-axis layout by selecting different graphs in the Y-axis
(left) and (right) as the basis of scaling:
Example of a dual-axis layout
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Layout of Axes
Icon:
In this dialog box you can specify how the axes are displayed and labeled: The
X- and Y-axes have their own separate tabs available for these settings:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Show axis
Determines whether the axis will appear on the graph.
Show labels
Determines whether the numeric entries should
appear on the axis.
Show unit
Determines whether the unit of the axis should be
displayed.
Float format
Floating decimal point display of numbers on the
axis.
Engineering
format
Numeric display in engineering format (exponent
always in steps of 3).
Exponential
format
Numeric display in exponential format.
Mantissa and
exponent
Numeric entry on the axis with exponent and mantissa
together.
No. of
fractional
digits
Determines the number of digits after the decimal
point.
Color as
MeasGraph
Uses the color of the graph as the axis color.
Font + Color
Selection of the font and the color for labeling of the
axis.
Measurement Data Viewer • 113
Mantissa and exponent
separate
Mantissa and exponent
together
Examples of X-axis labeling
Font and Color for Labeling of Axis
All fonts that are installed in Windows are available to you to display numbers.
The “Sample” output field provides you with a preview of your selection.
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Tip
A smaller font size, for example “8”, is recommended for clarity and readability
even in small diagrams.
You can specify the color of the axis and captions here at the same time. It is
also possible to select the axis color and the graph by using the check box in
the axis layout dialog box.
Icon:
Define Colors
Here you can specify the color of the movie marker and the colors for displaying
the graph. To distinguish between multiple graphs in the same diagram, you
should select colors that contrast as much as possible amongst themselves to
represent graphs that will appear together.
You can adjust the specific color values by clicking on the “Color of Graph”
button.
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Measurement Data Viewer • 115
Show Graph Values
Icon:
If a check mark is displayed next to the setting Show Graph Values, the Xand Y-values of the measurement channel will appear in the status bar. In this
case you will only be able to determine the value on the X-axis (generally the
time) with the cursor position.
The following examples show the cursors and the output for the cases of
measured value display marked “with” and “without”. (The green graph is the
active graph):
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Measurement Data Viewer • 117
Cursor at Graph
Icon:
If a check mark appears in the menu next to the setting Cursor at Graph, the
X- and Y-values of the measurement channel will appear in the status bar and
the cursor will follow precisely along the course of the active graph as the
mouse is moved.
Zoom with Mouse
Icons:
If you want to enter the range
using numbers, select
Scaling
You can select the option Zoom with Mouse in the X- and/or Y-range either in
the tool bar or in the menu. As soon as one of these options is active (the button
on the tool bar remains depressed or there is a check mark next to the menu
entry) you can use the mouse to select a range along which an adjusted scaling
will automatically take place.
Click on the left limit of the desired segment, hold the mouse button down and
drag to form a rectangular area.
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Example for X- and Y-zoom
Moving the Time Window
Icons:
To move the X-axis (usually the time axis), click on the corresponding buttons
in the tool bar. The window will also be move so that it displays the area around
the selected area.
In the example above, a zoom in the X-interval from about 50 to 120 ms is
shown (a segment of 70 ms). The Time Window to Right command displays
the graph from 120 to 170 ms while Time Window to Left shows the interval
from -20 to 50 ms.
Please note: This function is only practical if the entire time range is not
already being displayed! As long as the entire time range is being displayed,
running this function will result in an empty window!
Legends
You can enter descriptive captions or “legends”. In this manner you can use brief
references to expand on the graphic output for a log or for a customer view
layout.
Use the following dialog box to enter these captions or legends. You can select
positioning based on Units in the graph or Pixels (points on the screen):
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Measurement Data Viewer • 119
Example for legends
Copy
Keyboard shortcut:
Ctrl + C
120 • Measurement Data Viewer
The Copy menu item copies the currently displayed diagram to the clipboard.
This makes it possible for other Windows applications to read the material and
to insert it into a WinWord document, for example.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Program Settings
This document is used for specific storing and loading of settings for the Quick
View module. FalCon programs automatically store the last settings that were
used in the Windows registry. You have the option of selecting only the relevant
areas but of leaving all other settings as they are.
This document type is used primarily for different types of tests.
Use the "arrow" buttons either to move only the selected ranges of settings or all
settings from one list into the other. The currently active items are displayed on
the left side of the page, while the stored items or the items to be stored are
displayed on the right side.
The majority of settings under an entry are hidden.
Entry
Type of color matrix
EKTA matrix
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Values
The color matrix to be used
The values for the EKTA color matrix: Red, blue,
green, 4 each
Program Settings • 121
Neutral matrix
122 • Program Settings
The values for the neutral color matrix: Red, blue,
green, 4 each
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
DCS200 matrix
User matrix
Type of white
balance
Daylight balance
Halogen balance
Neon balancing
User balance
Color gain
Brightness/contrast
Gamma values
Sharpening type
Sharpening factor
Black balance
Line deletion
Brightness balance
Picture alignment
Compression
options
Master panel
settings
Directory default
settings
Font X axis
Font Y axis
Numeric entry on X
axis
Numeric entry on Y
axis
Color settings
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The values for the DCS200 color matrix: Red,
blue, green, 4 each
The values for the user color matrix: Red, blue,
green, 4 each
The white balance to be used
White balance values for daylight: Red, green and
blue
White balance values for halogen lighting: Red,
green and blue
White balance values for neon lighting: Red,
green and blue
White balanced user entry and mouse: Red, green
and blue
Linear color gain Red, green blue and gray
Values for the linear brightness/contrast
adjustment: Red, green blue and gray, 3 values
each
Gamma brightness adjustment Red, green blue
and gray
The sharpening algorithm to be used.
The factor for sharpening
Values for black balance: Red, green blue and
gray
The type of line deletion
Values for sensor brightness balance: 16 values
Rotate: 1 value, flip: 2 values
The compression algorithm, data rate, quality and
key frames
With/without options, playback speed,
time/picture display, auto-repeat/shuttle, playback
speed, T0 time
Opening file type and directory, directory for
compressed AVIs, directory for inserting pictures,
insertion file type
Font for the time axis
Font for the values axis
Format, places after decimal point, entry on
axis/labels, exponent/mantissa, color
Format, places after decimal point, entry on
axis/labels, right/left flush, color
Color of graph, color of movie marker
Program Settings • 123
Page Preview
The printout of stored program default settings facilitates a log in overview list
format.
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Ethernet Control
Attention:
Since eXtra Version 5.00 the document type Ethernet Control is no
more supported. Use ImagerControl instead!
The Ethernet Control document type is used to control Ethernet-capable
high-speed cameras (=images) Currently Kodak RO and HG 2000 are
supported. As soon as the Weinberger Speedcams are Ethernet-capable, it will
be possible to control them as well. You can also mix different types of cameras
within a test. In addition to control, pictures are also transferred from the
cameras and if desired an AVI file can be created.
You can also obtain a version that downloads the cameras in parallel, thus
achieving overall shorter download times. The advantages of speed are found
only with RO images, however, and then only if you are downloading from at
least 3 cameras.
Entering the test name
First you must assign a test name. This name will be used as a prefix for the
individual AVI files and sub-directories for the raw data pictures.
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Ethernet Control • 125
Ethernet Control
You can use this dialog box to control how the test is carried out and/or to
modify the test.
The name of the test appears at the upper left of the dialog box. Under the name
are the tabs for the individual areas Test and Films. Select the area you would
like to edit.
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Ethernet Control - Test
The fields in this dialog box are informative in nature. They provide additional
information, but are not urgently necessary for the program to run.
Test date is a date field. You should enter the current date as its setting.
Measurement engineer is a text field indicating the person responsible for
the measurement procedure.
Test engineer is a text field indicating the person responsible for the entire
test.
Film engineer is a text field indicating the person responsible for the cameras.
Vehicle type is a text field describing the test object.
Description 1 is a text field provided for additional description of the test.
Description 2 is a text field provided for additional description of the test.
Comment is a text field provided for additional remarks.
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Ethernet Control • 127
Ethernet Control – Films – Overview – Set-up
You can use this tab to give a quick definition and setting of the cameras. Note
that you cannot make film table entries in their entirety with this mask. This
means that if you do not make the entries in the other tabs the program will
work with the basic settings.
The list box in the upper area of this tab shows an overview of the defined
camera. A control signal shows the activity of the Ethernet download: Gray
indicates that communication with the camera is inactive or has been stopped.
Green is the status during online identification of the camera. The signal flashes
Red as soon a communication with the individual cameras has taken place.
Select the cameras in the list box for which you want to make settings. To select
an individual camera click on it with the left mouse button. To select a range,
press the "Shift" key as soon as you have clicked on the last camera. To
(un)select specific additional cameras, press the "Ctrl" key while you are
clicking on the appropriate camera line.
As soon as cameras have been selected, the Remove button for deleting a
camera from the test and the Apply button for modifying the settings become
active. If you have selected multiple cameras and then click on Apply, only the
parameters Frames/second, Pre-History, Exposure time, Aperture and Focal
length will be applied, but not the camera number, the view or the description,
since there is no way these values can always be valid for more than one camera.
Don’t forget to set the camera
type!
(Films – picture data)
If you perform the Add function, the program will check to make certain the
camera number and also the picture view are not already being used.
For a description of the remaining parameters, refer to the description of the
following tab.
You can use the Identify button to verify that the program can access all the
cameras, and only exactly the cameras you intended, and also to transfer the
settings to the cameras. If the program does not find a camera or finds a camera
for which no test is defined, an appropriate message is generated. As soon as the
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program has identified the camera, the status of the individual camera is
displayed in the list box.
To obtain a Printout of the cameras, lenses, focal lengths and apertures in use to
pass on to the studio, click on the Printout button. The text file
"EthernetSetup.txt" will be generated internally.
Ethernet Control – Films – Overview – Control
In the Network selection box you can select which network card the program
should use for communication with the cameras. Take care that the network card
to be used has the right settings in terms of the TCP/IP address and the subnet
mask. For an introduction in these subjects, please consult the manual for the
cameras.
Activate Sync if possible if you need to synchronize a number of cameras.
Only HG 2000 cameras can be synchronized. To do this, all cameras must be
running at the same image frequency.
Attention:
Use this setting only with caution!
If the cameras are not receiving any hardware sync signal, it will no longer be
possible to access them and you will lose your recording! Consult the manual for
the cameras on this subject as well.
You can use Start to start the recording. Start is only possible if the status of the
camera is READY. Make certain that the camera leaves this status again after
about 60 seconds if no trigger has been initiated in the intervening time. In
general, this function is performed by the measurement technology hardware.
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Ethernet Control • 129
The cameras must go into the RECORDING status. So as not to interfere with
the recording, there is no more querying of the camera status after this.
Use Triggers to send a command to the cameras that will initiate the trigger.
This function is only a test function! During the test, this function must be
generated by a TTL signal from the test process control.
Stop is used to terminate the recording mode.
To be able to film an additional test after a recording you must Clear the
cameras’ memory. This brings the cameras to the READY status.
You can use Live Low Light and Normal Light to switch the cameras into
live picture mode (feedback in Status). The picture of the selected camera(s)
will be displayed on the (optional) TV monitor.
Via the command button Playback you may open a pannel for playback of
recorded sequences:
Ethernet Control – Films – Overview – Download
Use this tab to download picture data from the cameras, to create AVIs and to
compress and display AVIs. Don’t forget to select the cameras, since all actions
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to be performed here will only be performed for the cameras that are currently
selected!
The unit of measure for entries made in this dialog box is ms. Individual
millisecond values can only be achieved for cameras that record at 1000 frames
per second. If you are using cameras with lower frame rates (500 or 250
frames/s) the time for the start and end frames is therefore rounded off
accordingly.
As soon as the test is recorded (this is indicated by the REC DONE camera
status), first select the camera that recorded at the highest frame rate. In addition,
the T0 time should be clearly discernable in this view if at all possible.
Continue changing the value in the T0 frame entry box until you are certain you
have identified the T0 frame.
To display the frame, click on the T0 Frame button. Then select all cameras and
visually inspect the T0 time of all cameras. Usually you will know how much
time you need before T0. Enter this value under Start Frame and verify it is
correct by clicking on the corresponding button and examining the result
visually. Proceed in the same manner with the end frame, except that here you
will use the unit of measure ms to enter the Download interval As soon as this
preparatory work is complete, all you need to do is click on the Download
button and the program will perform all the necessary steps for you. First of all
the picture data is downloaded from the cameras. You can select for this process
whether data should be downloaded simultaneously (option) from the
cameras. Since the ROC imager can only deliver its data very slowly to the
Ethernet, running a simultaneous download of several cameras at the same time
results in a savings of time for 3 or more cameras. During the download
procedure, if desired, the program will simultaneously generate the compressed
AVI file which is immediately displayed as soon as the last picture of a camera
is transferred to the PC.
The raw picture data is stored upon Download in separate sub-directories (=
name like AVI file name). In addition, the AVI films can be generated
automatically, and if desired can be compressed.
Adjust the picture optimization parameters based on an individual picture. The
values can be internally assigned to the selected cameras with the Save Picture
Optimization button. The parameters can also be selected individually and
differently for each camera. Don’t forget to save individually, however.
Otherwise the AVI will be created with the current default settings. This could
result in inadequate processing for colors, brightness, contrast, and sharpening in
the results.
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Ethernet Control • 131
Ethernet Control – Films – Camera Data
Use this tab to verify the settings of the camera data visually. To change the
values, switch to the Overview tab and then to the corresponding sub-tab.
AVI file is a filename formed automatically from the “test name” and the
"View". The film is saved under this name.
Imager ID specifies the camera with which the recording will be run or was run.
In addition, the program retrieves the address of the camera from this field if it
downloads the picture data via Ethernet.
Frame rate specifies how many frames per second should be recorded by the
camera.
Pre-History is available only in case of HG2000 cameras. Here you can fix
how many images before the trigger may be kept without overwriting.
Exposure indicates the duration of the exposure for each individual picture or
frame. The entry is followed by the unit of measure µs, and the range of your
entry depends on the frame rate. The smallest value is always 53 µs and the
largest value is 993 µs at 1000 frames/s, 1993 µs at 500 frames/s, or 3993 µs at
250 frames/s. (frames/s often appears as fps).
View describes the view of the camera = view of picture. This name is used to
specify the AVI file name.
Aperture is an optional text field whose value you can pass on to your studio
with the printout for the correct setting.
Focal length is an optional text field that may remain empty.
Description is an optional text field in which you can enter a description of the
camera view or the test.
Start time is a numeric value that is absolutely required. (Units for times are
ms; for meaning see above)
T0 time is a numeric value that is absolutely required.
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Download interval is a numeric value that is absolutely required.
Ethernet Control – Films – Picture Data
The Picture data tab contains additional information and a specification of
how the AVI film should be generated from the pictures.
Lens is an optional text field. Enter a description or designation of the lens to be
used here. May remain empty.
Comment is an optional text field.
AVI Compression is a list box. Here you can set which compression algorithm
should be used for the film.
AVI Quality is a numeric field. The entry must fall between 0 and 100%. An
entry of 0% results in the replacement value of 0% quality. This field must not
remain empty.
Key frames is a numeric field. Key frames determine how jitter-free a film can
be projected backwards. A smaller value results in a larger film file, however.
See also the section on AVI compression.
Resolution width is a numeric value that is entered automatically by the
program. It is used to provide information to the user about the expected
resolution.
Resolution height is a numeric value that is entered automatically by the
program. It is used to provide information to the user about the expected
resolution.
Picture file format is a selection box that is automatically filled in by the
program when the film is generated.
Depending on the type of imager you are using, select Kodak ROC or HG
2000. This setting is very important: If the setting is reversed the cameras will
not be installed correctly and it will not be possible to transfer images.
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Ethernet Control • 133
If you are using HG 2000 cameras you can select the Split mode. You can use
this mode to record multiple pictures – but with reduced resolution. The image
frequency of 2000 frames/s is only available in Split mode.
Make certain that only an active Apply transfers the values into the film data
set.
Ethernet Control – Change...
You can use this dialog box to assign a new test name. This test name will be
used as a prefix for AVI files and sub-directories with the raw data.
Ethernet Control – Deleting Defaults
The program records your defaults for camera number and picture view so that
they will be available for you again when you create a new Ethernet control
document. You can use this dialog box to delete settings you will no longer
require in the future. The program can record up to 100 pre-settings.
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ImagerControl
The Aim of ImagerControl
FalCon ImagerControl serves for controlling high-speed video cameras
(= Imagers). Here all new Imagers of AOS, NAC, Photo-Sonics, Photron,
Redlake and Weinberger are being supported. In so doing, the workload can be
distributed on several slaves.
In the basis version, Imagers of only one manufacturer are being supported; the
complete version allows an arbitrary mixture of different manufacturers within
one test. The complete version moreover allows the parallel workout of the
download and the creation of AVI.
Supported Imager Types
Currently (2/2005) the following are being supported:
AOS:
AOS VitCam Imager
NAC:
NAC K3 Imager
NAC K3R Imager
NAC RX4 Imager
NAC RX5 Imager
NAC RX5 RM Imager
NAC RX5 Pencil Imager
NAC K6000 Imager
NAC HIDCAM Imager
Photo-Sonics:
Phantom V4 Imager
Phantom V5 Imager
Phantom V6 Imager
Photron:
Photron Ultima 512 Imager
Photron Ultima 1024 Imager
Photron Ultima AXP Imager
Redlake:
Redlake RO Imager S/W
Redlake ROC Imager Color
Redlake HG2000 Imager
Redlake HG-TX Imager
Redlake HG100K Imager
Redlake HGLE Imager
Redlake HG-TH Imager
Redlake MotionPro HS-4 Imager
Weinberger:
Weinberger VISARIO Imager
Weinberger LT800 Imager
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Weinberger LT400 Imager
Weinberger VISARIO G2 Imager
Weinberger MotionFire Imager
Weinberger MotionNear
New imager-types are permanently integrated.
Installation
This chapter describes the installation of FalCon ImagerControl for Windows
2000/XP. ImagerControl for this purpose offers a program called SETUP,
which is easy to handle. It guides you through the installation step by step,
whereby carrying out the installation automatically; you may, however, also take
the decisions by yourself.
SETUP verifies the system configuration (see the system’s preconditions) and
asks for the installation folder. Then SETUP creates the destination folder and
copies all data to this folder. At last SETUP installs a new program group with a
symbol for starting FalCon ImagerControl.
Execution of SETUP on the Host
Put the CD-ROM into drive D:
Choose Execution... from the starting menu. Enter D:SETUP in the command
line and press the return key.
SETUP now loads and decompresses some data and then shows a welcome page.
The installation now recommends a drive and a folder for the storage of the
program data; the default is:
C:\Program Files\FalCon\ImagerControl \
Here you may also indicated another folder (with drive and data path). If the
folder not yet exists, it is being created.
SETUP now installs the data and creates the program group FalCon with an
icon for the starting up of the program. After a few minutes you will see the
information of successful installation. Now the ImagerControl has been
successfully installed on your system.
SETUP automatically creates the procedure UNINSTALL for the de-installation.
Please pay also attention to the file RELEASE.TXT, in which changes of the
program and extensions are being described which have not yet been introduced
into the handbook.
The standard symbol for FalCon ImagerControl is a modem.
In addition to the installation folder a sub-folder \..\ is being created which
contains the setup-program for the single slaves.
Execution of Setup.exe on the Slaves
Install the program IcSlaveServer.exe on the slaves according to the description
given above.
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Program Settings
Settings on the Host
Before you can work with ImagerControl, you have to configure the settings
and the single slaves (optionally). For this purpose you have to close the
currently open test file and then choose from the menu File the entry Program
Settings.
The dialog which is being opened is being distributed onto several pages
depending on the respective task; choose the tab control ImagerControl first.
Program Settings
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In the upper area of this tab control you determine the Default Settings for
cameras/views which are to be newly added.
In the group box File structure it is determined whether the input dialog and
storage structure should be made MME-compatible. Please mind that when
you use slaves or if AVI reductions should be made, this control box has to be
marked. Otherwise you may determine (later on) name, storage location and
compression parameters for each AVI file separately.
Choose the Working disc here on which your data should be stored. They are
always stored in:
\ImagerControlData\<test name>
and in the subdirectories determined in accordance with the MME-definition.
AVI-Settings
Determine here how the AVI-files are to be compressed.
Attention!
The same compressor has to be installed on the slaves!
In the group box AVI Time format you may choose the unit for the indication
of the test time (s or ms) as well as the accuracy (number of fractional
digits).
In the lower part of the tab control you may determine whether a QuickLook
AVI file is to be created during the AVI creation. This „QuickLook“ is being
executed without compression, without distortion correction and without inserted
overlays. The advantage is that you can have a first impression of the view while
the „final“ AVI file is being created in the background.
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Directories
By means of adding folder names you can motivate ImagerControl to
automatically create the desired subfolders when setting up a new test.
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ImagerControl • 139
Search Path
This tab control is necessary for the definition of the Search Path , i.e. of the
interfaces at which the respective Imager types are to be searched.
In the list boxes of the IP-addresses of Redlake you can determine which
interface card of your computer is to be used.
In case of the Imagers of the type HG2000 and HG-TX the DataGrammSize
(DGS) can be determined in addition. The higher the selected value is, the faster
the download of the raw data images. Attention has to be paid that not all
firmware versions of the Imager do support this feature. In case of a bad Ethernet
connection it may also be necessary to reduce this value. If the download often
causes errors, the value should be reduced. The default value of 12288 is being
supported by all firmware versions and is often a good and safe setting.
In addition it can be selected whether the Video Output Signal should be
activated for all HG 2000 in the Live Mode: All, if a monitor is available for
each Imager or for a video multiplier, or Single if the respectively selected
Imager should supply the signal, i.e. if only one monitor is available for several
Imagers.
In case of the HG100K/LE the Delay determines the time difference between
the single parts of an image to be downloaded. In this case it is the pulse of
network ticks, its range is from 1 to 65000. The smaller the value the faster the
Imager’s data can be downloaded. Smaller values, however, demand a respective
Ethernet connection. Values below 12000 can be reached with G-Bit networks
only.
In case of Weinberger and Photron cameras, the IP-address of the
remote system has to be used, and for the Visario camera in addition the Port
used in the program Param_Bo.
In case of NAC Memrecam Imagers, you only select the type of connection
(Ethernet or Fibre Channel).
For all other Imager types no settings are required.
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Slaves (Optionally)
Slaves serve to accelerate the download of the Imager’s data and the creation of
the AVIs, since with their help a parallel download is being achieved. In the best
case one slave is available for each Imager.
ImagerControl automatically determines your control computer as Local. If no
slave is available, you can make the host carry out all work which is to be done.
In order to exclude defined slaves, please remove the hook at Active. A case for
this would be the temporary absence of the slave.
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ImagerControl • 141
In order to add a slave, press the button Add. You only need to insert the slave’s
computer name. Press Verify in order to test the connection to the slave. If a
connection is possible, a hook shows up in the box Verify, and the indication
which type of Imager the slave will process is automatically updated. Should a
defined and activated slave not be available when opening an Imager control file,
a respective warning hint shows up on the screen; in most cases you may
nevertheless be able to carry out the crash test – only the processing time will
take a bit longer.
ImagerControl is trying to distribute its tasks to the single slaves in such a
way, if possible, that the shortest processing time is achieved. The following
have an influence on the distribution:
•
Number of CPUs of the slave
•
Frequency of the CPUs
•
Resolution of the Imager
•
Number of single images to be processed.
AVI Reductions (Optionally)
In case of high resolution Imagers the size of an AVI file may become too large
– even in compressed form – to be able to be transferred over to one network
respectively. ImagerControl here offers the option AVI Reductions, with the
aid of which AVIs with a smaller resolution can be produced automatically.
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In this tab control you insert the parameters in the following working order:
To which Original Picture Size the definition should refer to? (in the example
to 1504 x 1128 pixel).
How large should the additional AVI become? Press here the upper push button
Add.
Insert the desired size under „New Picture Size“.
If you leave the input box for the new name empty (recommended), the name
is given automatically such as:
<Original Name>_<width>x<height>.avi.
Choose a Sampling Rate Divider if you want to achieve a temporal
subsampling. (Example: Original is being produced with 1000 fps, divider is ½,
then the reduced AVI is produced with 500 fps.)
If you leave the values 0 for new start time and new duration, the reduced
AVI has the same time interval as the original-AVI.
In case of Image Interpolation you should choose Optimum, in order not to
achieve artifacts when reducing (or enlarging).
There is no restriction regarding the number of reduced AVI to be produced. The
AVIs are being set up by the slaves or the control computer (if no slaves are
available).
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ImagerControl • 143
Support of logical variables:
For a user-defined automatic creation of file names of the reduced AVIs, logical
variables may also be used. At the moment the following are being supported:
•
Test name:
($TEST)
•
View:
($VIEW)
•
X-Resolution
($XRES)
•
Y-Resolution
($YRES)
•
Sampling Rate
($SRATE)
•
Duration
($DURATION)
•
X-Position
($XPOS)
•
Y-Position
($YPOS)
•
AVI-Directory
($MOVIEDIR)
A presetting is:
($MOVIEDIR)\($TEST)_($VIEW)_($XRES)x($YRES).avi
All characters which do not correspond to the logical name are being
maintained!
Please do not forget to indicate the file extension .AVI.
The tab control Extended is insofar self-defining and only necessary if you
extract a part area of the image or if you want to choose another compressor.
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Settings on the Slaves
On the slave computer the program IcSlaveServer has to be started.
The settings correspond to the Master-Program, even if only a small amount is
necessary here:
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ImagerControl • 145
In addition you have to define here how long the data have to remain on the hard
disk. This is of help if the slave computers work without control.
In addition, a Watch-Program is active which monitors the slave computer and
starts it up again, if necessary.
After completion of the settings, please close the program and start it up again.
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Test
In General
Open a new document of the type ImagerControl (*.IMC) by pressing
File/New.
While the actual file window is situated only minimized at the left lower
window frame, an extensive dialog is being opened with all possibilities of
camera control and video generation..
In the example you may see the whole dialog – after a successful crash test – in
an overview:
In the central and right hand area the respective settings and actions of the
Imagers are being carried out.
In the upper area you will see an image strip (Thumbnail strip) of all defined
views. As soon as an image is available from a view/camera, this is being
presented in a miniaturized view. Below the single image areas the name of the
view, the status of the Imager and the current Imager’s temperature (if available)
are being shown..
In the left hand area either the single images or the AVIs are being presented,
while the resolution area for image formats of up to 512x384 is sufficient; bigger
resolutions are automatically being reduced to the resolution limit.
Zoom into the images in order to be able to better evaluate the details:
Enter the Preview Zoom Factor in %, where the presetting Auto means that
the whole image is being presented. Which partial area is presented is visible in
the overview (Thumbnail):
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ImagerControl • 147
The presented = zoomed image area is indicated normally, everything outside
inverted. With the help of the mouse button 2 within the thumbnail you can shift
the sector.
In addition you can choose the type of processing of the image enlargement:
(Compare: presetting of the zoom window in MovXact.)
For the essential working steps press the control buttons Test, Cameras,
Pictures and AVI Videos:
First of all define a test, give in the respective camera parameters, prepare the
test. After shooting the pictures and after downloading evaluate the image
processing and create the AVIs.
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Test Definition
When defining the test, only the test name is absolutely necessary, since with
the test name the storage area on the hard disk is also determined. All other
indications are also transferred into the ISO MME/MII file, but they are not
absolutely necessary for the execution of the test, as is also the case for the
inputs of the test objects.
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ImagerControl • 149
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Cameras
Presettings
Press the button Add Camera in order to begin with the definition of a new
view.
All indications in the tab control Settings are absolutely necessary, apart from
the text box Aspect ratio, which describes the ratio of width to height of a
sensor point.
The View name defines the name of the AVI file together with the test name.
Choose the respective Camera type. In so doing the settings to be chosen
below are changed in accordance with the respective characters of the Imager.
Please do never forget to put in the Camera Number so that ImagerControl
can respond to the respective camera. ImagerControl is configured in such a
way that it always chooses the highest possible resolution with regard to a given
frame rate. Please therefore mind that when changing the scanning rate the
resolution may also change. Please also mind that the search path necessary for
this Imager is also put in (see below).
For this purpose use the button Available Cameras:
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ImagerControl • 151
In the upper area you will determine which type of Imager you want to use and
via which interface the communication is to be done. If slave computers are to be
used they will be named slaves here and the interface of the slaves is set on the
slave computers. If you always use the same configuration, this may be taken
over as a presetting. By so doing the preset search path with its communication
parameters is automatically incorporated into each new ImagerControl file.
In the lower area the Search for the Imagers is started, which are then listed.
From this list they may then be taken over into the test via the key Add. Here a
multiple selection within the list is also possible.
Here the Redlake Imagers have a special feature: They need a Power-Search
after having been cut off from the power supply. This search is only necessary
once. In common networks, i.e. in networks where exactly one main computer is
being used, the power search can be used without hesitation.
However, please mind that in case of several control computers in the same
camera network this search (= Sending of Attach) will assign the cameras to the
current computer so that they are secured to it. After a power search in such
networks a normal search is therefore to be carried out on the other computers in
order to be able to address the cameras..
Imager Type Specific Presettings
Depending on the type of Imager, further special settings may become necessary.
The possible parameters may be seen from the manuals of the respective cameras
of the respective manufacturers.
Please pay attention that these presettings are only possible when the
communication with the Imagers has been set up.
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Redlake RO/ROC
Redlake HG2000/HG-TX
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ImagerControl • 153
Redlake HG100K/HG-TH/HG-LE
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Weinberger Visario/G2/LT800/LT400
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ImagerControl • 155
NAC Memrecam fx Family
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NAC HiDcam
Photron FastCam Family
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ImagerControl • 157
AOS Vitcam, Weinberger Motion-Fire/-Near
An overview of all cameras
In the dialog Camera Overview you can easily control the settings of all
Imagers and also put all Imagers on the same value. If you want to change all
Imagers at once, select the whole column by clicking on the column headline.
Should you use different types of Imagers and should the desired settings not be
possible, the next possible value is chosen automatically.
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Control
In this tab control the actual Control of the Imager is carried out. Always install
a connection with the Imagers first by pressing Verify Cameras or Get
Parameters.
In case of NAC Memrecam there is in addition the button Disconnect which
has to be pressed before the physical connection with the Imagers is interrupted.
In case of the NAC HiDcam the command Rescue exists which can read data
from the interface card as long as the computer is not shut down..
Attention: Source of errors!
Please mind that only the cameras which are marked (with a red hook) in the
right hand Camera Selection List are being addressed.
However, this selection only applies if the Imager which is active in the
Thumbnail strip has also been selected in the list above. If, however, an Imager
has been chosen in the Thumbnail strip which has not been selected in the
camera selection, then the settings and command only apply for this Imager.
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ImagerControl • 159
Example 1:
Commands only apply for the Imager Sled.
Example 2:
Commands apply for the Imager Sleds, Vehicle 3, Vehicle 5 and Vehicle 7.
The Playback functions only apply for one Imager. In order to make this clear,
the list camera selection is faded out as soon as the mouse is in the box Replay.
With the marking Global Download frames the control may be effective on
all Imagers, but it is also possible to define different time intervals per Imager.
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Description
All inputs on this page serve the description and are also being transferred into
the ISO MME/MII file; they are, however, not necessary for the execution of the
test.
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ImagerControl • 161
Pictures
Insert
Corresponding to the possibilities known from FalCon eXtra, you may insert
additional information into the AVI as an overlay. At this point reference is
being made to the manual of FalCon eXtra.
Inserting means burning!
The insertion is carried out directly into the selected single images of the AVI
file and may not be changed in the AVI file later on. Should a change become
necessary in the file, the AVI file has to be created anew. Hint: the raw picture
data are never changed by doing so.
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ImagerControl • 163
(This dialog will appear in your Windows language.)
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra ImagerControl
ImagerControl • 165
As soon as you choose a new image or Apply the settings, you may see the end
result in the preview. By the compression in the AVI file an „unreadability“
(often in red writing) may be caused.
Attention: Source of errors!
All settings apply as in the case of Control for the respectively selected views.
Optimize
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In this tab control you determine how the images are being optimized, i.e.
processed. An exact description of the possibilities and the effects may be taken
from the handbook of FalCon eXtra module QuickView.
Clicking on the button Picture files opens the picture in a separate window.
Attention: Source of errors!
All settings apply as is the case in Control for the respectively selected views.
Overview on all cameras
This Overview serves for controlling the image processing parameters of all
cameras; a changing is not possible in this list.
Film
Overview
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ImagerControl • 167
The meaning for the settings Global AVI Settings has already been described
in the chapter Control.
The upper area shows the settings for the AVI Generation. The creating of the
AVI is started by pressing Start. If a presetting is present, the QuickLook-AVI
is produced first and as soon as it is completed, you may have a look at it and
record while the final AVI is being generated in the background.
As soon as the AVI is presented as a preview on the left hand side, the current
values of the AVI can be read off by pressing Info. Should divergences occur,
have a look on QuickLook (compare the meaning in Program Settings), which is
also visible from the Prefix „Fast_“ above the image window.
In the lower area you will find the control elements for playing the AVI video.
The field at the right hand side defines the output speed in frames per
second. Full Screen leads to a full screen indication of the AVI file. Stop the
output by pressing Alt F4 or by closing the window (X).
Resolutions
By pressing the button Resolutions all AVIs to be generated are shown (for
the meaning see Program Settings).
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Auto-Download
Automatic Processing
Auto Download enables an automatic test procedure:
•
Automatic detection of the trigger (in intervals of every 2s or 60s)
•
Download of all cameras
•
Creation of the AVIs (optionally)
Preconditions:
•
ALL cameras are in the state Ready or
•
ALL cameras are externally put to Ready by the test control.
•
Camera and download parameters are set.
•
Image optimization and AVI creation have been prepared.
File Management
Possibilities
Use this dialog box in order to manage and record the files.
The functions Copy, Move, Delete and Execute are available. Here it may be
selected to which data (Pictures or Movie) and to which View (Imager) the
command should refer to. Depending on the command a destination file or a
directory have to be indicated.
Execute serves for the execution of a batch-file, this automatically having the
following parameters:
<TestName>
<AviName.avi>
<RawData Directory>
<Customer Name>
<ImagerNo>
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ImagerControl • 169
HW-Remote Control
In General
The option HW-remote control serves to control the test procedure via TTLsignals regarding the state of the system and to remotely control via TTL-signals.
Functionality
For the input/output a TTL-card of the company Meilhaus is being used. This
provides 10 input channels and 8 output channels.
Setting of the input channels:
Bit 0:
Bit 1:
Bit 2:
Bit 3:
Bit 4
Bit 5 – Bit 9:
Resetting of the Imager
Ready of the Imager
Recording of the Imager
Downloading of the Imager
AVI-creation
Address Coding of the Imager
By means of the 5 Bit to the address coding, 31 Imagers may be separately
controlled; is the address being set to 0, this applies to all Imagers, i.e. an
unlimited number of Imagers is controllable..
Setting of the output channels:
Bit 0:
Bit 1:
Bit 2:
Bit 3:
Bit 4:
Bit 5:
Bit6:
Bit 7:
Standby
Ready
Recording Done
Downloading
Fast Create AVI
Normal Create AVI
Fault (is also being set in different states)
Free
Which status is being set depends on the address coding of the input channel!
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Settings in the Software
Here it is being set how often the input channel is addressed per second.
However, please pay attention: in this case it is an asynchronous addressing and
also the processing time (sending of the commands to the Imager) is not exactly
predictable.
In the lower area of the dialog the input and output channels are presented.
Telnet-Commands
ImagerControl can be completely remote-controlled. This, however, is an
option which has to be licensed separately. As the interface the Telnet-Protocol
has been chosen, which may also be used in different operating systems
overlapping. All commands use pure ASCII code, thereby the interface may also
be controlled by hand. As Separator between the command and the respective
parameter serves the <TAB>. All commands are case-insensitive and may – as
long as they remain clear – be shortened; in the description of the single
commands this is marked by [ ]. All commands which have not been recognized
are answered by the error code OK – no known command. If the number of
parameters of a command is not correct, this is being answered by the Error 2
<Command> with x parameter. In case of the answers <TAB> is also being
used as separator.
Most of the commands occur in pairs, i.e. there is always one SETxx and one
GETxx-command. The GETxx-commands obtain their meaning in particular if
changes made by the user interactively are to be traced back.
All commands are ASCII codes, the description of the type of parameter only
serves the purpose of describing the ASCII format!
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ImagerControl • 171
Login
Open a Telnet window. Use „Start – Command – Telnet“ in Windows. Connect
with the Host by entering the IP-address of the Host, or if you are using the local
computer by means of entering Localhost. After logging in, the ImagerControl
automatically changes into the remote control mode. (See here also Quit and
User interface Login/Quit)
Login and Password the only
case-sensitive commands!
You are being asked for the Login and Password. As Login use Hentschel and
as Password FalCon.
Please contact FalCon for the separated manual with all Telnet
commands!
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Customer View
In Process …
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Customer View • 173
MovXact – Image Analysis
Introduction
The FalCon MovXact module allows you to precisely analyze image sequences
with the methods of image measurement technology. In addition to robust,
automatic marker tracking, customer-specific calibration and processing of
measurement results is supported. Measurement graphs and individual
measurement values are displayed to fit the image data precisely, are shown
numerically, and are written to standardized file formats.
Along with the other modules of FalCon eXtra, the module offers primarily
functions that are customized for use in applications in the crash area of the
automobile industry. Typical tasks include qualitative control and quantitative
analysis of motion processes:
•
Visual analysis, quality assurance and presentations
•
Analysis of component tests, test measurements (measurements of
individual images)
•
Analysis of impact tests, motion studies (marker tracking)
The program interface combines typical work steps in clearly designed dialogs
so that the user can evaluate both series tests and special tests quickly,
reproducibly and accurately.
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 175
The MovXact image measurement system encompasses two essential
tasks:
1.
Measuring Object Positions
The objects to be measured are usually “indicated” (i.e. marked) with the aid of
adhesive markers. For this reason, measurement points are referred to below as
markers. A marker position is indicated with x and y coordinates (floating
decimal point values) with pixels (= picture elements) as the unit.
Positions of a marker that is moved are derived from an image sequence.
They are stored in a field with the image number as the index (= trajectories)
and are displayed as trajectories.
markers
trajectories
A
B
C
D
E
#0
#max
In addition to the x,y position, an individual trajectory value also contains the
status and the method by which the position was measured or tracked as well as
the measurement quality and marker-specific parameters such as the diameter or
the MXT model.
The goal of marker tracking is to fill the trajectory matrix.
Please note:
•
Measured trajectory values (= raw measurement data) are uncalibrated, in
other words the unit in which they are saved is the pixel.
•
Spatial coordinates x,y are left handed with the origin in the top left corner
of the image.
•
Image numbers (= index) start with 0 and end with the length of the
sequence minus 1.
Preparation of the impact test:
•
Estimate the expected size of the markers in the digital image. Depending
on the amount of space available for the object, select the appropriate
physical marker size and the optimal marker type (see “Marker Types +
Algorithms” on page 186).
•
Example:
Marker diameter on object 60 mm ? 10 pixels in the image
Solution A:
•
Use DOT marker (works well for “small” markers)
Solution B:
•
Increase diameter to 100 mm ? 16.6 pixels and use MXT marker
(robust “crash-safe” tracking)
•
•
•
176 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Use adhesive markers with a high level of contrast (black/white) and a
highly matte, non-reflecting surface.
Avoid oblique views of markers. Automatic measurement tolerates only
moderate compression of perspective (for example at a ratio of 1:1.4 for an
MXT marker).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
2.
Calibrating Measurement Value Output
Data are calibrated in terms of time and space for physically relevant analysis of
the measurement results.
The entire calibration sequence is not traversed until diagrams or individual
values are written, but calibrated values are not stored in an internal
measurement value matrix (like the trajectory matrix). This means that if there is
a change in calibration settings, the program will access the original raw
measurement data again each time. This makes it possible to avoid potential loss
in accuracy because of re-calibration.
The following calibration steps are implemented in MovXact:
Time
Equidistant frame rate and T0 start time
Location (2D) Camera distortion, scale planes, depth and
2D coordinate system
Preparation of the impact test:
Time:
•
Log the camera settings, frame rate and T0 start time.
•
In the case of digitized film image sequence, it is better to determine the
average film speed subsequently using a mapped real-time clock.
•
If you would like to determine the T0 image interactively afterwards, we
recommend a flash that is clearly visible in the image.
Image with T0 flash
Camera distortion:
•
Log all descriptive camera and lens data.
•
Demonstrate with the support of a quality management system that the
camera/lens combination you are using is distortion-free as defined by ISO
8721 / SAE-J211/2 or adjust the parameters to correct for the distortion.
•
If the sequence was digitized with the aid of a TV converter card, it is
essential to record what pixel side ratio was used for the A/D conversion.
The value must be checked at regular intervals!
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 177
Pillow-shaped distortion and offset of the optical center of projection
Scale planes:
•
You require (at least) one linear scale to scale image coordinates in [pixels]
to physical positions in [m]. To avoid residual errors in the event of
inadequate correction of distortion, this should be located in the “region” of
the center of the image (even if the target object is usually located right
there). It may have any orientation, so it does not need to be arranged
horizontally or vertically, for example.
•
The scale must be oriented vertical to the camera’s direction of view! The
camera must not be tilted, i.e. it must not be rotated up or down, to the left
or to the right. The plane defined by the scale and the camera axis
(=coplanar to the sensor/image plane in the camera) is designated as the
scale plane.
•
Measure the length of the scale to a precision of approximately 1 mm.
•
Define the beginning and end of the scale with the aid of markers.
Depth:
•
If a measurement point is not in the scale plane, the trajectory in the image
is subject to what is referred to as a parallax error. This error is constant
for motions running coplanar to the scale plane, and can be compensated
for with 2½-D calibration. To do this, you need the relative depth of the
measurement point to the scale plane as well as the distance from the
camera to the measurement plane.
•
It is important to note that the camera must be aligned exactly orthogonally
in direction and inclination to the scale plane! Use a bubble level, angle
measuring device and plumb instrument as aids.
•
Please note: Distances must be measured parallel to the camera’s direction
of view. An “oblique” measurement from the camera or from the scale to
the marker will generally result in errors!
(It is best to measure the camera distance from the camera housing, since
the position of the specific lens focal point is generally not known.)
178 • MovXact – Image Analysis
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.
.
marker
motion plane
scale plane
camera plane
Diagram illustrating depth correction
2D coordinate system:
•
Extensive parameters are available in MovXact for controlling the origin
and orientation of the coordinate system. For purposes of simplification
and to make it easier to reproduce operation, these positions can also be
identified by markers.
•
If you want to move the coordinate system dynamically with the object or
vehicle, attach the markers onto the vehicle. When you do this, avoid
places that will be deformed during the impact.
Vehicle-related coordinate system
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 179
Work Steps in a MovXact Analysis
The following diagram illustrates the data interface for import and export as well
as the internal components that are combined to form function blocks:
Measured Data
Evaluation
Measured Data
Viewing
v - a - phi
filter - reference
diagram
numerical
Measured Data
Calibration
Measured Data
Viewing
space
time
overlay
Image
Viewing
Image
Measurements
analysis image
zoom window
automatic
interactive
MovXact Image Analysis
image sequence
calibration data
marker defaults
measured data
log file
clipboard
MovXact components and data flows
Prepare all the calibration data required for the analysis (usually in the form of a
log) as well as an image sequence.
Depending on the analysis task at hand, you should already be familiar with the
requirements for the results to be exported at the beginning of the analysis if at
all possible. For example, diagrams in file or graphics format, images with
overlay drawings or just individual extremes of measurement variables.
The typical work steps are grouped together in compact dialogs:
•
Creating a new analysis
•
Setting up markers = positioning and naming
•
Tracking markers and/or
•
Measuring markers and objects interactively
•
Setting the calibration
•
Preparing and displaying measurement data
•
Logging results
All measured image data that is generated as well as calibrating parameters and
program settings are only stored in an analysis file. This facilitates consistent
additional processing after an interruption in an analysis session and also makes
it easier to back up data for archiving.
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General Information
•
•
•
1.1.1.1.1.1.1
Recommende •
d
window layout
We recommend a screen resolution of 1280x1024 pixels with 24-bit real
color for working with MovXact. A setting with only 256 colors is not
sufficient. The layout of the dialog boxes is designed for “small fonts”.
Maximize the eXtra main window to the entire area of the screen.
The positions of all dialog windows in MovXact are saved in the registry:
This makes it possible for you to reproduce optimized window layout for
the way you run the program.
For both ergonomic and physiological reasons (at least for most righthanded users) we recommend the following layout:
Analysis document window on the top right
Analysis image at the top left and
Main dialog boxes at the bottom right.
Recommended window layout
•
1.1.1.1.1.1.2
Tips
•
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
In the German version, all dialog fields or ASCII files use a decimal point
for floating point numbers instead of a comma, which is generally used
in Europe as a decimal character.
You can end keyboard input by exiting the input text box. Click on
another dialog item or (!) press the Tab key.
Use this feature for individual image output: Edit the image number. The
corresponding image will be displayed after you press the Tab key.
In most tree view controls, after you click on an individual item or line,
the line is highlighted in blue and a fine dotted border indicates that it is
active. You can then “scroll” up and down in the list with the aid of the
arrow keys.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 181
MovXact Terms
Analysis image
The image window for interactive measurement and
graphical overlay display. It shows an individual image of
the analysis sequence in its original size.
Calibration data
All settings and parameters of the calibration procedure in
time and space:
•
Time: Frame rate, T0
•
Camera: Pixel side ratio, distortion
•
2D measurement: Scale plane(s), coordinate system
and depth correction
•
3D measurement: Camera positions, coordinate
system
Calibrated
measurement
data
Results derived, calibrated and (in some cases) postprocessed from calibrated measurement data.
Contour (t)
A list of graphs as f(image number)
Time or space functions can be written as diagrams or
saved as files.
In contrast to stencils, graphs (design and geometry) are
different in every image in this case.
Graphs can be recorded automatically in the MovBag
module as surface graphs of airbags, or they must be
entered interactively in each image.
The data structure contains attributes similar to markers.
Here as well, access is possible only by name:
Basic settings:
•
Name
•
Relative depth and reference plane
•
Graphic colors
and:
•
Graph list as f(image number)
Graph
A line or a number of lines that are not necessarily
connected with each other.
A line is a series of points (usually entered interactively).
It does not necessarily have to form an enclosed area.
Image sequence
A sequence of images having the same size and color
depth.
Supported file types:
Video for Windows AVI or FalCon PLI.
The file should contain information for the frame rate and
T0 time.
Access to individual images is possible via the index from
#0 to #sequence length-1.
Marker
182 • MovXact – Image Analysis
(Generally) a marked measurement point.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The data structure contains all parameters and attributes
required for measuring, tracking and calibration.
Basic settings:
•
Name
•
Marker type
•
Type of motion
•
ISO/SAE filter frequency
•
Relative depth and reference plane
•
Graphic colors
and:
•
Tracking methods
•
Setup attributes: Position, size, image number,
marker model and template
•
Trajectory (measurement values as f(image
number))
A unique name is used to obtain access to the marker. The
index of a marker in the marker list is not used for
identification.
Marker defaults
A list of pre-defined markers with basic settings and in
some cases control point coordinates
Marker depth
The distance of a marker from the reference plane in the
camera viewing direction (unit is mm):
Positive value = behind the reference plane.
The marker depth must remain constant in time for 2D
measurements.
Marker model
Type-specific attributes for modeling a marker:
Geometry, orientation, gray value distribution (especially
for MXT procedures)
Measured
image data
All measured objects defined in images and the
corresponding non-calibrated measurement results.
Methods
(Tracking)
A selection of active methods and parameters for marker
tracking
OverlayTrajectory
A graphic display of a curved path through space in the
image overlay.
Picture list PLI
FalCon eXtra Document “Picture List”
Setup image
The image in which a marker is “set up”, i.e. found semiautomatically or programmed interactively.
Stencil
A graph whose form and geometry can be interactively
defined in a setup image.
The data structure contains attributes similar to markers.
Here as well, access is possible only by name:
Basic settings:
•
Name
•
Relative depth and reference plane
•
Graphic colors
and:
•
Graph (const.)
•
Setup image number
•
Reference marker list
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 183
“Motion” of the stencil can be modeled by means of a
link with reference markers: Form = const. and geometry
variable as f(reference points, image number).
Application cases:
•
Viewing with measured reference points
•
Measuring of reference points by adapting the graph
interactively
T-Diagram
A graphical representation of measurement results in the
x/t (temporal) diagram.
Template
An image view as a marker prototype.
When setting up the marker, position, size and shape are
determined.
This template that is saved with the marker is used for the
COR (static) tracking procedure. The template from the
“previous” image is used for the adaptive COR procedure
(adaptive).
Trajectory
Sequence of measured values of a marker with the image
number as the index.
So-called gaps arise within the trajectory when individual
values are not or have not yet been measured.
Trajectory value
The result of interactive or automatic measurement of a
marker (unit is pixel).
In addition to the x,y position, it also contains the status
and the method by which the position was measured or
tracked as well as the measurement quality and markerspecific parameters such as the diameter or the marker
model.
184 • MovXact – Image Analysis
X-Diagram
A graphical representation of a trajectory or of a graph in
the x/y (spatial) diagram.
Zoom window
The Zoom window displays a magnified segment of the
analysis image.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact Cooperating Partners
MovXact has been developed in cooperation between FalCon GmbH and the
IngenieurBüro Dr. Gerhard.
IITB FhG Fraunhofer Institut is the license provider of the MarkerXTrackT
algorithm (MXT).
AICON 3D Systems GmbH supports all photogrammetric tasks in the
Mov3D and CamFolder modules.
Please refer to the contact addresses indicated in ? / About:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 185
Marker Types + Algorithms
MXT
Marker type:
5- / 6-point markers (FhG-IITB)
Definition:
Marker diameter / point diagonal = 1.6
Individual point size = point diagonal / 4
Point angle = 90 degrees (MXT-5) or 72 degrees
(MXT-6)
Minimum size about 12 pixels
Setup:
Automatic detection in the search area
Tracking:
Marker-based MarkerXtrackT procedure
“Find the best correspondence with the model from the
previous image”
Model with compatible transformation: including rotation
and zoom.
Unique detection of closely adjacent markers is possible
with a different relative rotation position
Special feature:
Pre-processing (“Spots”)
= f(diameter, sensitivity)
186 • MovXact – Image Analysis
“Suitable for crashes” extremely robust against changes
in lighting and geometrical changes (rotation and
compression).
In addition to the position, the MXT angle is also gained
as an additional measurement variable.
Measurement accuracy < 0.2 pixels
Marker model
(geometry + measurement quality)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
DOT
Marker type:
1-point marker
Definition:
Pulse duty factor of
marker diameter / internal diameter = 1:1
Minimum size about 7 pixels
Setup:
Automatic centering in the search area
Tracking:
Marker-based DOT procedure
“Find the exact center of the light surface of the circle”
Model = surface of a circle with light/dark contrast for
surrounding
Special feature:
Rapid automatic measurement, even of small markers.
Measuring accuracy < 0.2 pixels
QUAD
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Marker type:
Square marker
Definition:
Strong light/dark contrast
(note for yellow-black markers!)
Recommended size > 15 pixels
Setup:
Automatic centering in the search area
Tracking:
Marker-based QUAD procedure
Model = circularly symmetrical template
Special feature:
Measurement accuracy > 0.3 pixels.
Tip: If at all possible, avoid in measurement-related use!
MovXact – Image Analysis • 187
CODE
Marker type:
Point marker with code ring (AICON)
Definition:
Point marker like DOT
Additional ring with thickness = DOT internal diameter
Code = number of marker
Recommended size > 15 pixels
Setup:
Automatic centering and code detection with free search
in the image
Tracking:
CODE procedure like DOT
plus detection of the correct code
Special feature:
Application for control points on test fields or in searches
with 3D analysis
COR
Marker type:
Structured image view (template)
Definition:
Recommended size > 20 pixels
Setup:
Interactive definition of center and size
Tracking:
COR process (= correlation/“matching“ of image
templates)
“Find the best correspondence with the template”
Standard model with a non-adaptive template
(static from setup image) and
translatory motion (without rotation)
Special feature:
188 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Flexible measurement of measurement points not
identified with markers.
Please note: Recommended only for use with fixed
rotation position.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
PIX
Marker type:
1 image “point”, i.e. pixel
Definition:
Only coordinates of a pixel
Setup:
Interactive position input with cursor
(in zoom with sub-pixel accuracy)
Tracking:
Manual position input supported by automatic motion
forecasting or
geometric extrapolation of virtual markers with the aid of
the group model
Special feature:
Manual measurement of scales or non-identified
measurement points.
Measurement accuracy > 1/zoom magnification of pixel.
Notes:
•
All procedures work in a black/white extract of the color image, i.e. do not
use any color markers for marker identification. For most digital video
cameras we recommend using the green portion of the image for this.
•
The markers should have a high level of contrast.
•
The markers should definitely be matte, i.e. non-reflecting.
•
The physical size of the markers is derived from the recording geometry
and the camera resolution. All markers are freely scalable!
The basic factors and mathematical relationships important for the success of
the automatic measurement are explained in greater detail in “Edit/Markers –
Methods” on page 280.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 189
The File Menu
The File menu allows you to create new analyses, to open existing ones or to
close and save analyses.
Please note that only the menu items relevant to the Analysis document type,
along with additional menu entries that may come into play are explained in this
section.
New Analysis
Creates a new analysis document.
Open
Opens an analysis.
Save As
Saves the session of the analysis or marker defaults.
New Analysis
A button is also available for you in the standard toolbar for this menu entry.
For an analysis, select
•
a unique name:
This name serves to unambiguously identify the test and is used in a few
places in the program as a presetting for result files.
•
a directory for the analysis data:
Both the analysis data and all result files are stored in this directory. You
will need write access rights to it.
•
(at least) one image sequence per view:
of sequence type AVI (= Video for Windows) or PLI (= picture list).
190 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
(Slowly) clicking twice on the name field of the view will allow you to edit the
preset name “View#” to another name. Double-clicking on the image sequence
file causes the dialog for selecting a file to appear.
Note on the sequence type:
Recommendation
In general, we recommend using an AVI sequence. The individual images
within the AVI video are already post-processed, i.e. converted from the format
of a specific manufacturer of the high-speed camera to a commonly used format
and optimized. Image access time is minimized for later measuring, but also for
viewing any desired individual images.
This is particularly applicable if the AVI sequence has also been compressed.
In this case, however, caution is warranted: commonly used compression
procedures reduce not only redundancy, but also (slightly) the image
information. For this reason, we recommend high compression quality and a
good algorithm (Intel/Ligos Indeo 5.1).
The compact and standardized AVI container format is preferably suitable for
simply forwarding images within or outside the company.
Alternatively, image sequences consisting of individual images (= picture lists
*.pli) are also supported. Please note in this regard that image optimization must
be verified in the MovXact Settings menu and adjusted if necessary. The
optimization steps are performed again each time the image is accessed. This
reduces performance when running the program.
AVI and PLI:
difference in measurement
accuracy?
Does marker tracking based on original individual images return more
accurate results?
There is no difference in terms of image quality and measurement accuracy
between the two types of sequences, if both AVI and individual images are
uncompressed and the same optimization parameters are used.
If you would like to edit multiple views of a test or several tests that belong
together in a single analysis session, insert the additional image sequence files in
the table. (You can also come back and perform this step later).
To accept the settings and calibration parameters of another already existing
analysis, click on the Import button (see user information in “The Edit/Import
Dialog” on page 294). Otherwise the basic settings will be read from the current
user-specific registry.
After you confirm with OK, a new document Name.ana is created in the
corresponding directory.
You are then asked to enter the accompanying information for the analysis in a
dialog box:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 191
Date entries are made with the calendar dialog that is part of Windows. The
pre-setting for company is imported from the hardlock and for Operator from
the Windows login.
Please note: Some pieces of information are automatically entered in the file
header when creating ISO or DIAdem result files.
Open
When you open an analysis file Name.ana, the current directory of the file is
accepted as the analysis directory – no matter what directory is entered inside the
file.
While the data is being read in, the program checks whether the image
sequence file resides in the directory that was entered while saving. If it is not
found in the original directory, a search strategy is executed: The appropriate
path is determined automatically if the analysis file was copied over together
with the image sequence file (to a common directory or to directories with the
same relative path, i.e. a sub-directory or parallel directory).
This makes it possible to open all analyses that were archived together with the
image sequence on CD-ROM, for example, without any further input from the
user.
If the image sequence is not found under the paths or under the filename,
however, the user still has the opportunity to participate in the search
interactively:
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
While an analysis is being read in, the descriptive attributes of the image
sequence that was detected are compared with the parameters stored in the
analysis file.
The following attributes must agree:
•
Image size = width and height
•
Number of images = sequence length
•
Color depth
The following are not taken into consideration:
•
Filename
•
Date of creation
•
Frame rate and T0 time
•
Compression algorithm and compression quality
The following is checked, however:
•
File size or level of compression:
An evaluation that was created with an original sequence can also be
opened later with a compressed version of the image sequence. However, it
is not advisable in this case to mix measured image data derived from two
different image sequences.
A window will appear with a message to this effect.
If you do not have or no longer have the right image sequence, you can still open
an analysis file, but use of the dialogs will be limited (no access to images is
possible, so no new measurements are possible either), but the measurement
results can be monitored and post-processed.
Save As
You can save an evaluation *.ana under another name or save only the basic
marker settings in the form of a marker defaults document *.mrd (you can
select whether the markers of the current view or the union of all sets is saved.)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 193
The Analysis Document Window
After you have created a new analysis or opened an analysis file Name.ana,
the Analysis document window appears. It is identified by the red X icon
and has the title Analysis:
The analysis parameters specified when creating a new document (name,
directory and image sequence) can no longer be modified here.
You can use the ? buttons to bring up an overview of image sequence data.
You can also control or modify information about the analysis:
(Identical to the menu entries Edit/Information...)
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Analysis document window lists the measured image data for each view in
the separate properties tabs. The lists are at first empty after the new analysis is
created, i.e. no measured image data (markers, trajectories, contours or stencils)
have been defined. The number of objects is indicated in the title of the
properties tab in parentheses.
Tip
A red arrow icon indicates the selected measurement object. For further details
that do not appear in the list, click on the Edit button (identical with the Edit...
menu item) or double-click on the list item.
If you would like to sort the lists, the fastest way is to click on the column
heading, for example Name for a list of marker names sorted in ascending or
descending alphabetical order. You will find the same function by going to the
menu item View/Sort Measurement Objects...
Example: Sorting by names
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 195
(Slowly) clicking twice on the name field of a measurement object will allow
you to edit the description. You will find the same function by going to the
menu item Edit/Rename Measurement Object... Note that identical names
of multiple objects are not permitted and that renaming is only possible when all
dialog boxes are closed.
You can add a New View by specifying an additional image sequence to be
analyzed in the following dialog:
If the direction of view on the scene and the impact situation is similar to the
currently selected view and you can import many of the calibration settings,
click on OK in the following message window:
A Defaults properties tab is always created in addition to the views. Here you
can load pre-defined markers that make it significantly easier to set up markers.
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Open an import file of type *.ana (= old analysis), *.mrd (marker defaults) or
*.apt (ASCII point table).
All markers will then be automatically read in with their corresponding names
and parameters. (Please note: no geometric features yet in Version 3.x!). The
control point attribute is only evaluated in Mov3D.
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 197
The Analysis Image and Zoom
Analysis Image
The Analysis Image window serves to measure and display measured image
values. It shows an individual image of the evaluation sequence in its original
size.
The analysis toolbar can be used to turn the analysis image on and off.
The title bar of the window contains the following information:
•
•
•
•
Title = “analysis image” or current name of the “analysis+view” (see “The
MovXact Settings Dialog” on page 205)
Image number #
Time in ms or s (see “Units:” on page 245)
Brightness in % if < 100%
You can open the Edit menu through the menu bar:
Clear Overlay
Deletes all entries in the graphic overlay of the image.
Accumulate
Overlay
Disables deletion of the graphic after a change has been
made to the drawing object (for example marker) or
after the image has changed. As a result, all subsequent
graphic drawings are saved and will accumulate.
Intensify Overlay
Lines
All lines (except for crosses, rings and rectangles) are
drawn thicker.
Default
198 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Intensified (thicker)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Brightness
Changes the brightness or sets the image with a new
constant gray value. You can use this mode to copy
graphics without image content, for example. Tip: A
white background is interpreted as transparent during
AVI generation.
Save As
Saves the image including the overlay as a TIF, JPG or
BMP image.
Copy
Copies the image including the overlay to the
clipboard.
Ctrl + C
Zoom Window
An enlarged view of the analysis image makes it easier to see details and to
enter positions interactively more precisely. The Zoom window is available for
this purpose:
The analysis menu bar or the analysis toolbar can be used to turn Zoom on
and off.
You can open the MovXact settings menu through the menu bar:
...
The Zoom combo-box contains the following menu items.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Magnification
Magnification factor = only uneven numbers to allow
for symmetrical centering of integer values of pixels.
The value that is displayed is displayed in the title bar,
for example (3x).
Follow
continuously
Indicates whether the Zoom window should
automatically follow the cursor during interactive
entries in the analysis image.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 199
Image window
Width x height of the magnified section in pixels.
Interpolation
The type of calculation used to determine intermediate
values when the image is magnified:
•
None = Pixel repetition with block formation =
“nearest neighbor”
•
Linear = Bilinear interpolation between 4
adjacent values
•
Cubic = Cubic interpolation between 16
adjacent values
Zoom view (7x): None, Linear and Cubic interpolation
The internal calculation time for zoom display depends heavily on the type of
interpolation selected (None = very fast). You should therefore select a type of
display that corresponds to the performance capability of your PC and does not
cause any discernable delay for viewing images and measurement values.
Tip
During interactive cursor entries, however, you should not avoid using linear or
cubic interpolation, since only in those cases will the magnified detail be
reproduced physically “correct” and no alias effects (= distortion) will be
derived from the image signal.
No matter what the magnification factor is, overlay graphics will not been drawn
“thicker”. The line thickness remains 1 pixel in screen units, and texts retain
their size.
You can copy the content of the Zoom window into the clipboard by using the
item in the menu bar or with Ctrl+C.
To work elegantly and quickly with the Zoom settings, use the following
mouse actions and keyboard input sequences (shortcuts):
Position of the
image window
Drag in the analysis image while holding down
Mouse button 1
or
Shift + Left/Right arrow + Up/Down
Size of image
window
Drag in the analysis image while holding down
Mouse button 2
or
Ctrl + Left/Right arrow + Up/Down
Magnification
factor
Shift + Screen Up/Down
Please note: The analysis image must remain “active” for these procedures
(title bar not gray).
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Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Interactive Entries in Analysis Image + Zoom
Begin interactive input by clicking on the (typical) buttons Set Up or
Measure. After that, the current dialog will be disabled (“gray”) and a cursor or
search area will appear in the analysis image.
Tips and shortcuts
Typical mouse actions and keyboard shortcuts for entry are shown below:
Cursor:
Adjust position
Move mouse
or
Left/Right arrow + Up/Down
OK
Click mouse button 1
or
Enter key
B/W search frame:
Adjust position
Press mouse button 1 within the rectangle and
drag
or
Left/Right arrow + Up/Down
Adjust search
frame
Press mouse button 1 on the border of the
rectangle and drag
OK =
start search
Click mouse button 1
or
Enter key
Cursor search frame:
Adjust position
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
like cursor…
Adjust search
frame
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow + Left/Right = height +
width of rectangle
OK =
start search
like cursor…
MovXact – Image Analysis • 201
General:
Cancel
Esc key
Pop-up menu
Click mouse button 2
Pop-up menu /
settings
Ctrl key activates settings
MXT, DOT, QUAD, CODE:
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow + Left/Right = min + max
diameter
COR:
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow + Left/Right = height +
width
Stencil:
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow = zoom
Ctrl + Left/Right = rotation
The Zoom menu item in the interactive entry pop-up menu refers to
additional features to help you work with the program:
Show
Opens/closes zoom.
Follow
Continuously
Automatically causes the zoomed image view to follow
the cursor during interactive input.
Shift + F5-key
Center on Cursor
Centers the zoomed image view around the current
cursor position once (!).
F5 key
Switch to Zoom
Window / Analysis
Image
Switches the focus of input from the analysis image to
the Zoom window and vice-versa.
Esc key
See also “Marker-Specific Tips” on page 229 in the section Set Up Markers.
Please note:
If you switch back and forth between the analysis image and the Zoom window
during input, keep in mind which window the active input cursor is in. In the
basic setting, the cursor appears as a crosshair cursor with an inverted gray
value. In the “other” window, the corresponding position is marked dynamically
by a large green cross, i.e. it follows the motion of the current input cursor, but
serves only for purposes of visualization.
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The Analyze Menu
The Analyze menu contains all the necessary work steps in the following menu
items / sub-menus:
MovXact Settings
Selection of settings for displaying images and
graphics as well as basic settings of measurement
methods.
Show Analysis
Image
Opens or closes the Analysis Image window.
Show Zoom
window
Opens or closes the Zoom window.
Display Image
Sequence
Opens the AVI file in its own video window.
Interactive
Measuring
Interactive measuring and image-based measured data
output of markers, contours and stencils.
+ MovBag
Optionally airbag analysis.
Automatic
Measuring
Automatic image measuring with the setup and
tracking steps.
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Calibration
Selection of calibration methods and corresponding
parameters.
T-Diagrams
Diagram output of x/t-diagrams (temporal graphs).
X-Diagrams
Diagram output of x/y-diagrams (spatial graphs).
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An additional tool bar is available to you for frequently required menu entries:
MovXact Settings
Analysis Image On/Off
Zoom On/Off
Set Up Markers
Interactive Measuring
Track Markers
Calibration
T-Diagrams
X-Diagrams
Selects a view from among several or the defaults list = the same as
clicking on the properties tab.
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The MovXact Settings Dialog
You can select this dialog in the Analyze menu under MovXact Settings.
This dialog includes the following combo boxes:
Zoom window:
The extensive options for selecting parameters are explained in the section “The
Analysis Image and Zoom” on page 198.
Please note:
Avoid changing the zoom factor interactively in the analysis image (using the
mouse) while the Settings dialog is open, since the dialog parameters cannot be
properly imported.
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Analysis Image:
Technical background
Image-based digital color cameras:
A video camera should optimally use a separate CCD chip for each of the three
primary colors to take true-color images. For technical reasons, this is not
practical (at least for high-speed cameras). Because of this, only a single sensor
is available. In principle, it is “color blind” and works simply as a brightness
sensor. What makes it color sensitive is a chess-board-line or line-shaped grid
made up of red, green and blue color filters (Color Filter Array CFA), that
alternate in front of the sensor cells. This makes it possible to interpolate the
color and brightness values for an RGB pixel from the information of a group of
adjacent sensor cells. Seen from a physical point of view, this type of filter
system thus corresponds to a reduction of the actual color resolution to one-third
its original value. However, a sophisticated system of interpolation makes it
possible to alleviate this effect.
FalCon eXtra uses an internally developed set of interpolation algorithms to
create brilliant images that are true to detail with the lowest amount of artifacts
possible. You should therefore make note of camera-specific algorithms and
your version number for images from the manufacturers Kodak/Redlake,
Photo-Sonics and Weinberger.
Note: The Bayer color mask used for Kodak/Redlake cameras was named after
a Mr. Bayer and has nothing to do with the location of the FalCon corporate
headquarters in Bavaria, Germany (Bayern in German).
If the analysis sequence is colored (RGB) only one black/white extract is
used for all tracking algorithms for automatic marker detection. The options
available here are:
•
Luminance =
The physiological brightness signal corresponding to the eye sensitivity
graph
•
Green =
Only the green portion of the color signal; which contains the portion with
the major contribution to luminance.
For all current digital high-speed cameras, the sensor image is recorded by
a color mask on which the number of green pixels is twice as frequent as
for red and blue. The green image therefore (theoretically) has twice as
high a basic resolution.
We therefore recommend this setting, also because extraction occurs only
by removing the relevant portions without any additional computation
processes, which means it is optimal in terms of computing time!
•
R+G+B =
The sum of the three color channels Red, Green and Blue / 3.
•
fr x R + fg x G + fb x B =
The weighted sum of the three color channels. The weighting factors are
standardized to f internally (fr + fg + fb = 1).
This option is somewhat academic in value and serves to facilitate visual
examination of individual color percentages. During the MovBag analysis,
the color saturation of the image is used among other things as a feature. If
you enter fr = fg = fb = 0 as factors, the result will be – for b/w display –
the extract according to the color saturation).
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To display the analysis image, you have the option of switching from colored
to monochrome display of the b/w extract.
= color
= B/W
Please note:
This setting refers only to screen reproduction (including zoom) and not to
internal tracking algorithms!
The title bar of the analysis image is “Analysis Image” by default. Mark the
Analysis name checkbox if you want it to display the current name “Analysis
+ View”.
=
=
Tips for the image list
If you are working with an image list as an image sequence format (instead of
an AVI), you can also Optimize pictures during the analysis.
This is not necessary if the images are already available with white balance, for
example in TIFF format. For images in BAY raw data format or with heavily
falsified color reproduction, however, subsequent optimizing is always required.
After you have marked the appropriate checkbox, the analysis image is
optimized and displayed according to the current image processing parameters
that were read from the registry when the analysis was created.
If the settings do not match, click on the Parameters and follow the
instructions:
Note the modified title bar of the window and the active toolbar for image
processing.
White balance and in some cases a gamma correction should usually be
sufficient for analysis. Avoid unnecessary sharpening.
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After the optimization steps are in agreement, click on the Apply button: The
individual image is closed and the analysis image is automatically opened again.
Prediction:
Using “jiggling” cameras
that move along with the
object
During marker tracking, positions in the current image at any given time are
predicted (for more information, see “Edit/Markers – Methods” on page 280).
If the entire image field is subject to shaking or jittering motions, as is
frequently the case for cameras that move along with the object, an image status
correction can be added to the position prediction. The predicted position is then
corrected according to the translation determined for all “fixed” markers, i.e. it
is subject in addition to the deviation of the quasi immovable markers defined
As a reminder, the status of this checkbox is depicted in the Measure
Interactively and Track Markers dialogs with a “filmstrip icon”:
= image status correction Off
= image status correction On
Please note:
This setting has no effect on either image display of the analysis image or on
later calibrations or diagram output.
Measurement cursor:
In general, the crosshair cursor is the best tool for entering positions in the
image. Try out the alternative types for special tasks:
Whereas this measurement cursor is monochrome, the display cursor in the
zoomed image follows (or vice-versa) as a large bright green cross. This
overlay color is also used for lines when stencils are entered. If you have
trouble seeing thin lines, the color palette offers a wide range of options to
choose from.
Trajectory Display:
The following options are available for displaying measured values and
trajectory values in the overlay of the analysis image.
Note that changes will not have a direct effect on the overlay that has already
been drawn, but rather only when it is redrawn.
Position measurement values:
The Name setting is always recommended for texts that are very short in length.
Trajectory:
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Crosses
Lines
Intensified lines
Crosses mode only seldom improves the clarity of the display. To highlight a
thin trajectory, use instead Analysis Image/Edit/Thicken Graphic Lines.
Gaps:
If trajectories have gaps in them because it was not possible to measure some
positions, for example because they were hidden, there are different ways of
showing the gaps in the overlay:
•
Visible
The trajectory is interrupted where there is a gap.
•
Interpolated The gap is bridged by a straight line where the gap was.
•
Dotted
The same as interpolated, but with a dotted line.
Visible gap
Interpolated
Dotted
Identify special status:
This checkbox allows you to get a quick overview of the tracking status based on
the overlay trajectory.
When it is marked with a check, all trajectory values of standard markers that
were not measured automatically are identified by small blue squares: All
manual or edited positions or positions measured with group, extrapolation or
stencil. To indicate interpolated gaps (see above) small blue arrows are shown
at the beginning and end of the trajectory gap.
Status “Not automatically measured”
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Status “Gap”
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MXT Algorithm:
Here you can switch back and forth between Version 1 (= V1-4) and Version
2 of the MXT procedure. Currently the following messages appear:
You can find the current sub-version number in About.
Please see the Release Notes for ongoing changes or results in work groups!
Coordinate System Display:
The default settings for display of the coordinate system are:
•
Axes
yellow
•
Grid
orange
•
Scale
cyan
Adjust the colors if they do not provide enough contrast to the background.
Note that changes will not have a direct effect on the overlay that has already
been drawn, but rather only when it is redrawn.
In addition to the combo boxes described above, the following buttons are also
available:
Methods:
Here you can modify the settings for tracking methods.
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You can select the individual methods and their minimum quality levels for
each marker type. In addition, it may be practical to use different basic
settings for the marker colors.
The next setup is performed for a marker, these parameters will automatically be
entered in the marker.
Of course, you can also reset all values back to the factory settings.
Please note:
This step should only be performed by an expert with sufficient experience. In
particular, you should consider very carefully the results of saving in the registry
(with the Save as Default button)!
Service File:
We have implemented a service interface with our cooperating partners FhG
IITB and AICON for internal quality assurance. All call parameters and results
are logged in an ASCII service file. When you click on the Service File button,
it remains in the depressed state until you end the log by clicking on it again.
The following message appears:
All routine calls will be saved for setup and tracking for the MXT procedure, and
calls for calculating camera positions and parameters will be saved for the
AICON program DLL.
All entries are appended continuously. You should therefore delete the file
before making a log for a specific error or problem and then exit from recording
mode shortly thereafter. The text file allows the program developer to retrace
any errors or problems.
Save as Default:
All changes to settings are at first only valid in the current analysis and are saved
with it. They are thus retained when the analysis is closed and reopened.
If you would like to accept the settings for all new analyses after this, however,
click on the Save as Default button: The parameters will be noted in the userspecific Windows registry.
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The Interactive Measuring Dialog
You can select this dialog in the Analyze menu under Interactive Image
Measuring. If the option for Airbag analysis is licensed, the MovBag module
name appears in the title bar of the dialog in addition:
This dialog can be used for two different areas of application:
•
Interactive input of new measurement values and
•
Visualization and numeric output of values that have already been
measured.
The Images Viewer with the buttons Go to Beginning and Go to End plus
Forward and Backward supports a step width > 1 during both display and
measurement.
You will find the following measurement object types in the tree view control:
(see “MovXact Terms” on page 182 for an introduction).
The right side of the dialog contains the following general buttons:
If you click on one of the “Object Folders”, the Set Up button is activated. You
can define new objects with it.
If you select a “subitem” instead, for example a marker name, you can perform
new measurements with the aid of the Measure button.
You can use the Show button to open the analysis image. The display then
follows automatically if changes are made to the measurement object or the
image number.
The Coordinate system and Grid checkboxes switch to the respective display
in the overlay (see also the section “The Calibration Dialog” on page 242):
Please note: The coordinate system and grid display are displayed according
to the depth of the selected measurement object!
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The Edit button is (only) a shortcut for bringing up the Edit dialog (which can
also be selected using the document window or menu) with the current
measurement object being previously selected.
Please note:
Depending on the current spatial calibration, the results of the measurement are
generated in pixels or in calibrated units (with different numbers of places after
the decimal point) (see “The Calibration Dialog” on page 242 ff). The
coordinate system that is selected also affects the designations of the abscissa
and ordinate.
If a measurement value is not present or the calibration is not valid in the
selected image, the text fields of the measurement variables remain empty.
The combo boxes in the middle part of the dialog depend on the type of
measurement object:
Markers Measurement Object
The marker type is displayed in the Marker combo box as a reminder.
You can use the Difference to pos. in Image checkbox to generate the
difference in displacement between different images or times as a measurement
variable.
To enter a measurement point quickly and without complications, add a new
marker here (of type PIX) with Set Up.
The position is predicted “as accurately as possible” during measuring:
prediction based on previous measurement values, similar to automatic tracking,
or measurement values that are further back or forward as well. If the prediction
works successfully from immediately adjacent values (= ± step width) the
measurement cursor is in the Zoom window immediately (if it is open), since
usually only small manual corrections are required in addition. You can exit
Input mode by clicking on mouse button 1 or by pressing the Enter key.
After that, the following dialog will ask you to make a selection:
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 213
Depending on the current measurement direction, the Forward or Backward
button is “pre-selected”, i.e. you can implicitly click on this button again simply
by pressing Enter.
A warning will appear before you overwrite automatically measured trajectory
values.
If you move the dialog window close to the zoom window so that it is not
covering the analysis image, this position will be noted internally and restored
automatically the next time you open the program.
The position, the 2D resultant and the color of the pixel are generated as
measurement variables.
Application tip
Try to measure a trajectory manually as a practice exercise by making the cursor
entry with the arrow keys on the keyboard instead of with the mouse, with a
rough step width of 5 images each, for example and confirming both interactive
input and the measuring Done dialog with the Enter key.
We recommend you work with the Zoom window in Linear or Cubic
interpolation mode.
Contours(t) Measurement Object
Definition
A contour(t) consists of a list of graphs as f(image number).
In contrast to stencils, graphs (design and geometry) are different in every image
in this case.
This measurement object type is used primarily for the airbag analysis module
MovBag.
Simple interactive input is possible here as well, however. Please see the
introduction to entering a graph in the next section “Stencils Measurement
Object” on page 215.
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Since contours change over time, you must confirm the graph in each image,
adjust it (accept the lines as predicted but change the geometry) or reenter and
then confirm in the Measuring Done dialog (see “Markers Measurement
Object” on page 213):
This process is naturally very time-consuming and is only practical in interactive
mode for a very rough view of motion processes in a few images.
The included surface that is enclosed by the line each time is generated as the
measurement variable. (Note the correct entry of the depth value in the basic
settings).
Stencils Measurement Object
Definition
A stencil consists of a graph whose form and geometry can be interactively
defined in a setup image.
“Motion” of the stencil can be modeled by means of a link with reference
markers: Form = const. and geometry variable as f(reference points, image
number).
Set up a stencil in an image in which measurement markers are also visible or in
which measurement values are already present (from later reference markers).
After you click on the Set Up button, you will be in interactive input mode. The
crosshair cursor will be in the center of the image and you can specify the first
point of the graph with mouse button 1. Then you see a (bright green)
connection line from this point to the current cursor position. Now click in the
analysis image point by point to set up a continuous line:
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 215
You can click on mouse button 2 to bring up a pop-up menu with the
following options:
Zoom Window
Use Track Continuously mode for automatic zoom
window centering around the current cursor position,
or switch to the Zoom window for finer position
input.
Next Point
Continue with input of the next point on the line.
Repeat Point
You can correct the position of the last point.
Tip:
Repeatedly bringing up this menu item will allow you
to recursively delete a number of incorrect entries at
the end of the line.
Close PolyLine
The first point on the line is copied and inserted as the
last point. This unambiguously “closes” the line.
New PolyLine
A graph may consist of a number of lines that are not
connected to each other. Begin here with a new starting
point.
Example with three lines:
OK
The line input is complete. The following dialog
prompts you to name it.
Specify the reference markers here (or later) and make
certain the depth value is entered correctly.
Cancel
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Exits setup without saving.
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You will find some cryptic information in the status line containing the
following details:
•
o = all lines are closed
•
u = not all lines are closed, thus some are open
•
II = there are no line intersections on any lines
•
x = not all lines have line intersections on them
Example:
•
•
•
•
39 P
1L
u
II
39 corner points
on 1 line
line not closed
line does not cross itself
The position of the selected reference marker, of the center of gravity
and the surface are generated as measurement variables in the dialog.
The center of gravity of the surface with a closed graph or the center of gravity
of the line with an open graph is calculated as the center of gravity. If both
closed and open lines are present, weighting is only performed in reference to the
surface; open lines are taken as zero for weighting.
Please note:
The surface can only be calculated if all lines are closed and every line does not
intersect itself. (In the case of a closed lines intersecting each other reciprocally,
for example the “Olympic rings”, the entire surface is calculated as a summed
surface, but this may not actually be physically relevant).
Example of the above:
If you would still like to correct or change again after setup (or after an import
from an ASCII file), set the image number to that of the setup image and click on
the Measure button. A message window then appears and offers you the
following options:
The stencil requires reference markers for a valid definition of its motion. Click
on the
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button to make a selection.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 217
Visualization with premeasured reference markers
If you now increase the image number with the spin box, you will see that the
stencil moves “along with” the reference markers.
Depending on the number of valid reference points in the setup image:
•
only translatory motion in x and y is calculated for 1 reference point.
•
a model with translation, rotation and change in size is calculated for more
than 1 reference point (= similarity transformation, see also Group
Model).
The reference marker selected in the stencil combo box (list box if reference
markers) is highlighted in the overlay with a yellow circle:
The following example shows the overlay display of a typical stencil with three
reference markers:
•
Visible MXT marker
? yellow circle with cross
•
DOT marker with trajectory value
? vertical cross
•
Hidden MXT marker without measurement
? slanted cross
value (position is calculated geometrically like stencil)
•
Center of gravity determined for the stencil
? blue circle with cross
Stencil with three reference marks + center of gravity
Stencil with “motion” according to reference points
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Interactive measurement of
reference markers
A stencil is a suitable way to Measure marker positions that are temporarily
hidden, for example. It is essential in this case for the reference markers to have
a valid measurement value in the stencil’s setup image.
By interactively adjusting the graph of the stencil to the content of the image (for
example the heading border) during the measurement process, you can determine
the required geometric parameters to transform the stencil from the last “valid”
image to the current image. It is also important in this case to put a similarity
model (including rotation and change in size) in place beginning with two
reference markers.
The Measurement results are then the trajectory values of the reference
markers that are “extrapolated” by using the same geometric transformation that
was used when approximating the stencil graph. The stencil itself is “only” an
auxiliary graphic item in the form of a rigid outline cursor that serves as an aide
to input.
When you click on the Measure button, a special crosshair cursor appears in
the (predicted) place of the reference marker selected in the list box along with a
graph that also depends on mouse movements: You can now justify the position
of the graph with the aid of the mouse. The highlighted cursor serves only as a
centering aid in case this marker is not visible yet.
There are two ways to change the rotation position and size. As for Set Up
Markers, the following pop-up menu appears after you click on mouse
button 2 within the analysis image window:
In the Settings menu entry you can adjust all parameters for the similarity
transformation (x,y shift, angle and zoom):
The display is updated to reflect all changes as you make them.
You can also change the parameters from the keyboard:
Up/Down Left/Right arrow
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow
Ctrl + Left/Right arrow
= translation ± 1 pixel or
= translation ± 1 / zoom magnification
= zoom ± 0.5 %
= angle ± 0.5 degrees
You will find the values in the status bar:
or
If the position is correct (= graph and image object covered) exit input mode by
clicking with mouse button 1 or press the Enter key and continue in the
Measuring Done dialog (see “Markers Measurement Object” on page 213).
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Measurement Object Distances
Definition
This is a pseudo measurement object. In fact, it is rather a tool for calculating or
viewing distances or for cursor-controlled measurements.
A distinction is also made for this measurement object between output of
markers that have all previously been measured and interactive input of
positions.
These options are distinguished according to the mode by which the direct
distance between two points is defined or entered:
•
From: marker, origin or cursor
•
To: marker or cursor
It follows that these combinations are supported:
From
Marker
To
Marker
Display of connecting arrow between two trajectory
values
or
interactive cursor input for each of the positions.
(prediction similar to the markers measurement
object).
From
Origin
To
Marker
Display of the connecting arrow between the origin of
the coordinate system (0,0) and the trajectory value of
the marker
or
interactive cursor entry of the marker position with the
beginning of the arrow defined as fixed at the origin.
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(This is only useful if the coordinate system has
already been validly defined)!
From
Marker
To
Cursor
Interactive input of the cursor position. The beginning
of the arrow remains fixed at the marker position if the
trajectory value is already present.
From
Origin
To
Cursor
Like From Marker To Cursor, except that the
beginning of the arrow remains fixed at the origin.
From
Cursor
To
Cursor
Interactive input of two cursor positions.
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Please note
All positions entered with the aid of the cursor are calibrated according to the
relative depth of the measurement point: It is therefore important to specify the
correct cursor depth in each case!
While the cursor type specified in the MovXact Settings is used for From
Cursor, you have the following selection for To Cursor:
You can use the Vertical Ruler cursor type, for example to determine the
maximum motion forward in the x direction. You can easily make precise entries
in Zoom mode with Track Continuously.
“Vertical Ruler” and “Horizontal Ruler” measurement cursor
For measurements To Cursor, the Measuring Done dialog offers the
additional options of saving the cursor measurements in a marker trajectory:
If you only want to read measurements in the dialog, mark the checkbox Store
into:. The auxiliary marker has a fixed name, for example
“ToCursor_Crosshair”, and is created automatically internally as a PIX marker.
Tip:
Quickly fill a trajectory with a few measurement values using this method of
storing values. Then you can elegantly determine the maximum value in the
Diagrams dialog and prepare a log printout.
The distance as a 2D resultant and in percentages of the coordinate axes
as well as the angle of the direct section are generated as measurement
variables.
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The Set Up Markers Dialog
You can select this dialog in the Analyze menu under Automatic Image
Measuring/Set Up Markers.
All measuring points must first be initialized interactively: define the setup
position and the size (semi-automatically or manually).
In the following section, an MXT marker is used to explain how this feature
works. This is followed by marker-specific details.
1. Set up without Marker Defaults
First, select the marker type from the list box.
Only if you can already estimate the marker diameter in the unit, enter a rough
interval for the diameter (min and max) of the marker (approximately
± 5 pixels) and ignore the remaining parameters at first.
Only if you would not like to set up the marker in the first image (#0) do you
need to edit the corresponding image number or adjust it with the aid of the
spin box. It will prove very handy to open the Zoom window in addition to the
analysis image.
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Now start the setup.
Please note:
You are now in interactive input mode: All entries in the dialog are disabled
(“gray”). You must exit or cancel input mode before any further action.
The search area is displayed in the analysis image as a black/white hatched
search frame (default setting).
Move the white/black hatched search area in the image to the position of the
marker to be located and adjust the size roughly. There should be only one
marker in the window. A search area that is too large will lengthen the amount
of computing time required!
Move the search frame:
Click on mouse button 1 within the rectangle and
drag with the mouse while holding the button down.
Adjust the size of the search frame:
Click on mouse button 1 on the edge of the rectangle and
drag with the mouse while holding the button down.
In general, you will now find the remaining processing steps by clicking on
mouse button 2 within the analysis window. The following pop-up menu
appears:
The options for using the Zoom window during setup are explained in the
section “The Analysis Image and Zoom” on page 198.
In the Settings menu item you can adjust the diameter interval of the marker to
be set up:
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You can check the values visually in the analysis image or in the Zoom window.
The inner ring must be smaller and the outer ring larger than the limiting border
of the marker. A rough setting will suffice.
Tip
An elegant way to check the diameter interval without bringing up the Settings
dialog is to click on the Ctrl key and hold it down.
The Zoom window is auto-centered to the cursor position and the green rings are
displayed. You can also change the diameters from the keyboard:
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow
Ctrl + Left/Right arrow
= min. diameter ± 1 pixel
= max. diameter ± 1 pixel
Now select Start search in the pop-up menu.
Tip
You can also select this function with shortcuts:
Double-click in the analysis image or
press the Enter key
For a short time, the search area now flashes as a blue rectangle in the overlay
of the analysis image. After a few seconds, the results of the marker search are
displayed.
If the search was not successful, please check whether the marker type, the
target diameter interval and the search range match and then repeat the setup
process. In the case of an MXT marker, at least one marker center must fall
within the search rectangle for it to be recorded.
After a successful search, evaluate the position displayed in the overlay.
The geometry and type of marker have now been specified. You will find the
values in the status bar (unit is pixel):
•
•
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Coordinates x and y in the image coordinate system (origin top left)
Diameter d = outer limit of the adhesive marker
phi = MXT angle. MXT-5 markers have an angle of 0 degrees if they are
arranged in the position of a vertical cross (modulo 90 degrees!). The positive direction of angular rotation is counterclockwise (= mathematical
definition).
MovXact – Image Analysis • 225
•
Quality q = f(distortion of the geometrical model and image comparison to
optimal marker)
In the Marker Positioned dialog, be sure to enter a name for the
measurement point:
(If the marker default list in the Set Up dialog is filled, the markers will
appear here in a selection list with the appropriate marker type).
You can change the following basic settings here (or at any time later in the
Edit/Measured Image Data menu):
Motion Type
Default setting = Moving. Select the type Still only
for spatially fixed markers (with minor fluctuation in
image status).
Group
During automatic tracking, members of a marker group
that have dropped out can be extrapolated
geometrically using other members of the group (see
“Special Mode Group” on page 235). You can select
group members quickly with the
button.
Filter Frequency
Default setting = 0 Hz = unfiltered. Select a fixed filter
frequency if you would always like to display T-diagrams of this measurement point filtered. This filter
meets the requirements of ISO 6487 = SAE J211/I
(4-pole Butterworth). The corresponding CFC
(channel frequency class) is derived from the filter
frequency / 1.66.
Depth
to Plane
Relative depth to a reference plane in the camera’s
view direction (default setting = Standard): Positive
value = behind the plane,
negative value = in front of the plane.
Graphic Colors
A bright color is recommended as the color for the
image overlay, while a dark color of the same color
type should be selected for diagrams (because of the
white background).
Please note: If you have entered the marker name before starting the setup
procedure, this dialog will be skipped (= shortcut).
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You can use the Repeat button to return to interactive input mode again. The
focus for cursor input will then be in the Zoom window for greater detail.
After you have closed this dialog with the Define button, the defined marker
appears in the tree view control of the Setup dialog.
The min and max diameter interval is automatically adjusted to the last
marker to be set up:
Min and max diameter = Integer(diameter found) ± search border
The search border depends (to a very minor extent) on the diameter of the
marker that was found according to the following assignment:
3 pixels
4 pixels
5 pixels
6 pixels
7 pixels
@ marker diameter <= 13
@ marker diameter <= 20
@ marker diameter <= 30
@ marker diameter <= 40
otherwise
Repeat setup now for all markers to be measured.
The Cursor search area mode is also available as a quick way to set up
markers of equal size.
In this mode, the size of the search area should be previously adjusted. Then you
can start the automatic search process simply by placing the cursor and clicking
on the approximate marker position.
If you would still like to or need to change the size of the rectangle (during
setup) you can use the special keyboard assignment:
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow
Ctrl + Left/Right arrow
= height of rectangle ± 1 pixel
= width of rectangle ± 1 pixel
If you need to adjust the diameter interval, bring up the Settings dialog in the
pop-up menu.
If more than one marker is found in the search area, you can confirm
(= Define) or reject (= Cancel) them individually in a box above the Marker
Positioned dialog.
You can also delete unintentional or incorrect entries from the list.
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If you would like to correct a marker or set it up in another image, double-click
on the marker in the marker in the tree view control. This will accept the name
(and all other basic settings and previous measurement values), then you can
begin with the new setup process. Before the “old” marker is overwritten, you
will be prompted to confirm the action.
The dialog also contains the following setting parameters:
Template shape
The Template shape indicates whether a rectangular
or round image view is selected for tracking with the
correlation method (COR). You can use this parameter
to make a distinction of markers in the image overlay.
Quality min.
The quality of an automatically found marker must be
greater than this limit value. Generally, the quality of
markers is > 50%. At 25%, the default setting of this
parameter is very low, so that even “poorly
represented” markers will at least still be positioned.
After a visual evaluation, you make the decision
whether to accept or discard the marker.
MXT spots min.
To successfully detect an MXT marker, at least the
minimum number of detected points must be achieved,
for example just 4 “spots” are sufficient for an MXT-5
marker.
Sensitivity
The higher the sensitivity setting, the more details will
be detected as spots (=MXT points) with even a small
amount of contrast. You should only reduce this value
(default setting 100%) if the image has very stark
bright/dark transitions – for example caused by image
sharpening or AVI compression.
A control function is available to check image processing for MXT, DOT and
QUAD markers. To use it, click on a defined marker in the tree view control
(MXT: double-click) and then click on the Shows Spots button. For MXT
markers, you see all extracted spots the MarkerXtrackT algorithm used to
attempt to model a marker. For DOT and QUAD markers, you see the interim
result after extraction of “bright” surfaces of a suitable size.
MXT spots (high sensitivity)
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2. Set up with a Marker Default List
If the basic settings of markers were loaded in the Defaults properties tab in the
analysis document window, you can make elegant use of these during setup.
They appear under the Defaults / Control Points icons in the tree view
control of the Setup dialog:
You will also find markers that have already been set up in other views in the list
under some circumstances. If pre-measured 3D coordinates are available for a
marker, it is designated as a control point (see 3D Analysis). This is indicated
by a black dot in front of the marker name.
When you click on a default marker, the name and type are immediately
accepted into those fields in the dialog. Double-clicking on the marker in the list
is equivalent to clicking on the Set Up button.
Now proceed as you would for “normal” positioning of a marker. After it has
been successfully defined, the marker is accepted into the upper list of Defined
Markers (without any further question to determine a name).
3. Set up with a Marker Default File
The document type eXtra Marker Defaults (*.mrd) is ideally suited for preprocessing standardized tests.Markers are recorded and stored there with their
name, type and basic settings. (See the section “The Marker Defaults (*.mrd)
Document” on page 300 of the manual)
If you do not want to read in a marker defaults file entirely in the Defaults
properties tab of the analysis document window, you can also interactively
import the markers individually during marker setup:
1.
Open the marker defaults document.
2.
Select a marker in the defaults list
and
3.
Drag the “marker object” into the Setup dialog while holding down mouse
button 1, and release it when it is in the dialog (= Drag and Drop). The
marker type will be retained if the default marker is of type “?”.
(= undefined),
or
4.
Copy the marker – also using Drag and Drop – into the Marker
Positioned dialog, which is already open.
Marker-Specific Tips
Marker setup was explained in the previous section using an MXT marker as an
example. In this section you will find additional tips and marker-specific
information.See also the overview in the Section “Interactive Entries in
Analysis Image + Zoom” on page 201.
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OK / Start Search:
Enter key
Start the search in black/white search frame mode:
Double-click on the analysis image
Cancel setup:
Esc key
The black/white search frame can be moved with the
aid of the keyboard keys:
Up/Down Left/Right arrow
= translation ± 1 pixel
MXT
The diameter of an MXT marker is defined by the
outer limit of the black circle area, thus not by the inner
white spots.
The measurement quality of a marker depends on the
distortion of the geometrical model and an image
comparison to an optimal marker.
DOT
The effective diameter of a DOT marker is defined by
the width of the black ring, thus not by the size of the
inside white dot!
The measurement quality of a marker depends on the
comparison of an ideal circle marker (side ratio of the
ellipse and the real surface).
QUAD
Only the maximum diameter needs to be specified.
Select this barely short of where it should be to avoid
incorrect interpretations.
CODE
Only the maximum diameter needs to be specified.
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If the name text box contains a valid code name
(= C_#), the program will only search for a marker
with exactly this code.
If there are CODE markers in the defaults list, you
have the option of searching for any codes or only
default codes.
The search can take place either in the entire image or
in a search window that you enter.
COR
You can define templates for the correlation method
interactively by entering the position and size using the
cursor.
Select meaningful image views with a stable
shape > 20x20 pixels in size.
You can change height and width or the diameter using
the keyboard without bringing up the Settings dialog.
Ctrl + Up/Down arrow
Ctrl + Left/Right arrow
= height ± 2 pixel
= width ± 2 pixel
PIX
Manually selecting points with the crosshair cursor is
supported by the following (alternative) keyboard
entries:
Mouse movements:
Up/Down Left/Right arrow
= translation ± 1 pixel or
= translation ± 1 / zoom magnification
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The Track Markers Dialog
You can select this dialog in the Analyze menu under Automatic Image
Measuring/Track Markers.
When setting up a marker, the position in an image is determined. Now fill the
trajectory of the marker with positions that are measured along the image
sequence, if possible automatically.
The parameters in the Sequence combo box determine the Interval of the
image sequence to be analyzed. In general, this is the entire sequence from #0 to
#n-1. For example, if the image with the number #0 contains a title image
without any markers, place the beginning of the interval on Image #1. We
recommend placing markers at the beginning of the sequence and tracking in a
forward direction. Only in special cases should you select the backward
mode, if measurement values are already present within the sequence in an
image. You can use the Starting image input box with its buttons Go to
Beginning/to End and increment/decrement image to determine the
actual starting point of tracking.
A marker can only be tracked if its position can be predicted from the previous
adjacent image. This means that tracking of a single marker cannot be started in
any image at all. (See “Edit/Markers – Methods” on page 280)
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trajectory values
A
A
A
A
A
A
#0
#max
Start of marker tracking with successful prediction from adjacent image
(A = Setup image)
In the Marker combo box you can decide whether several markers
(= selection) or only one marker will be measured. All markers that
can be automatically tracked are available for selection, i.e. no PIX markers:
The following keyboard shortcuts can be used with this selection dialog, which
is used several times in the program to allow for multiple selections:
Ctrl+A = Alt+A
Alt+N
= Select All
= Select None
In addition, you can also specify a marker (preferably at least one!) that you will
observe in the Zoom window during tracking. (Note that no marker is preselected as the basic setting!)
If you would like to direct your attention specifically to only one marker, click
on the Only option box: In addition to the marker name list box, the marker type
is displayed for control purposes. During the measurement, you can see the
structure of the trajectory in the automatically tracked Zoom window as well as
the current measurement results in the status bar. If problems occur, you can
respond interactively with Dropout Help, for example.
The following modes are available for you:
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 233
•
Automatic:
•
All tracking methods are used, including dropout help, group
model and extrapolation (see “Edit/Markers – Methods” on page
280) to measure a marker successfully. The image overlay, Zoom
window and status bar provide you with feedback on the progress
of tracking:
•
•
•
•
•
For step-by-step control after each image, mark the appropriate
checkbox.
The loop through the image sequence is only interrupted if no
more markers can be measured in an image. (You can also switch
into Dropout Help through the query in a message window).
•
•
Dropout Help:
•
If no prediction is possible, not even for one marker, or if
none of the marker-specific methods (MXT, DOT, QUAD, COR) is
successful, the program interrupts tracking and offers you the
option of intervening interactively in the Dropout Help dialog.
•
•
Manually:
•
If automatic image measurement is not possible, for example
because markers are covered over or because of poor
reproduction conditions, you can enter the positions manually
with the mouse and cursor in a purely interactive measurement
mode. User control is according to the Measure Interactively
dialog, except that the step width in the image processing loop
is implicitly 1.
To start tracking, click on the Measure button: Now the selected markers are
measured image by image and the results are stored in the trajectories. If you
would like to cancel or interrupt the loop after processing the current image,
click on Stop.
After tracking is complete, you can get an overview of the results in the
Analysis Document window (Trajectories properties tab)
or check the individual values in the Edit/Marker Trajectory dialog or with
the Trajectory button. The fastest way to open marker-specific settings that are
active for tracking is with the Methods button.
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Recommended procedure:
Practice has shown that it is best not to track all markers simultaneously, but
instead to proceed in the following order:
•
Track all fixed (i.e. non-movable) markers with a close capture range in
Automatic mode.
•
Track all (presumably) “simple” markers together.
•
Track all markers where complications are expected individually in
Dropout Help mode.
You can turn on Image status correction in the MovXact settings for
Prediction (see “Edit/Markers – Methods” on page 280). As a reminder, the
setting of this parameter is illustrated here with a “filmstrip” icon.
= image status correction Off
= image status correction On
Special Mode Group
If you have selected the Only (one marker) option box, you can use the Group
button to obtain an alternative version of the dialog that also contains the Group
field.
You can use the Group Model tracking method (see “Edit/Markers – Methods”
on page 280) as a special tool for geometric extrapolation of grouped markers
with the “same” motion. A message window provides you with information
about the group as well as how full the trajectory is.
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 235
Please note: Gaps within the trajectory can be filled with this function. No
values that have already been measured will be overwritten (see also
“Edit/Markers – Trajectory” on page 285)! Before repeating the call, the new
values to be calculated should be selectively deleted.
Since the measurement runs based on a purely geometrical calculation, no access
to the image is required. To speed up the procedure, you can therefore click to
remove the marking in the Overlay display checkbox.
Tip
Virtual markers
This procedure works with markers of type PIX.
For, example, place a PIX marker on an unmarked spot (“nose”) of a rigid body
(“head”). If additional markers are now positioned on the body and then tracked,
the virtual PIX marker can be extrapolated as a member of the group.
Measurement of the virtual marker “Nose” with the aid of the group model
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The Dropout Help Dialog
The Dropout Help dialog appears if you cannot reliably measure a marker in
Dropout Help tracking mode or if you specifically bring up the dialog after
checking an image measurement.
Tip
Since this dialog requires an in-depth understanding of the tracking methods
used and contains highly complicated procedures, we recommend studying and
testing its functionality by using a typical but still “simple” image sequence.
Force the dialog to open by explicitly clicking on Dropout Help in Check
after each image mode.
If you are tracking several markers at once, you can get an overview of the status
after processing the current individual image by selecting a specific marker.
Only the dropouts (= default setting) or all markers now appear in the
marker list box.
The option that was determined as the “best” one after going through the
tracking methods is active in the Methods option box. If you would like to
select another method, the checkmark in the Status column lets you know
whether the measurement value has a valid tracking status. This is the case if a
method was applied and the quality limit for this method is at least that of the
minimum quality (see details in the section “Marker Types + Algorithms” on
page 186). Click on the right button, Methods to make any settings required for
the minimum quality limit of the current marker.
If you Continue tracking or exit the image loop (= Stop), the current
(modified) status will be accepted (marked checkbox = basic setting).
You can tell by the icon in the right part of the dialog whether the current
measurement value is evaluated as:
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 237
•
valid (= green checkmark)
•
invalid (= red cross)
or
.
The options in the Mode combo box correspond to the options in the Track
dialog. Changes take effect when you Continue tracking, starting with the next
image. This is a convenient place to switch back into purely manual mode if
automatic tracking is no longer working well.
Example:
No MXT marker could be successfully detected because of marker(s) being
covered (measurement quality 0%). The alternative COR (static) method that
was performed delivered a measurement quality of only 48%, since this value
falls below the minimum threshold of 50%, a dropout was detected. The COR
(adaptive) method has not been performed automatically yet (it should be
disabled in the basic setting), so the measurement quality is 0%, the status
checkbox is not marked and you will see a red cross icon after selecting the
option box.
Select the option box that belongs with COR (adaptive) and click on Run (or
double-click on the selected option entry) to use the method in the search area
displayed in blue. If the search is successful, the measurement quality will be
greater than the minimum value and the green OK icon will indicate the valid
trajectory value.
A repeated use of the MXT method would not yield any other value in this
example. Only if the prediction was defective and the marker was not recorded
in the search area will the correct order be as follows: First correct the prediction
manually or enlarge the search area and then run the MXT method again.
The Dropout status
appears here at the top of the list of possible
tracking results: a marker is identified as a “dropout” during automatic tracking
if no prediction is possible based on the temporally adjacent measurement
values. If the marker has actually disappeared from the image field or is no
longer visible for the remainder of the sequence, you can force an interruption in
tracking (of this one marker) by actively setting the status (for example from
Predicted to Dropout).
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Within the Prediction option box you can tell from the status whether
prediction was possible. The descriptive text box indicates the type of the
prediction. If no marker-specific method was successful, i.e. if the Prediction
option box is selected, it shows the following states:
•
Prediction = OK,
Icon
When the measurement value is accepted, it takes on the status
Extrapolation.
Example:
Prediction for Image #60 based on the (3) preceding adjacent values,
mode = tangential.
•
Prediction = not OK, Icon
No measurement values are present in the immediate temporal vicinity.
When the measurement value is accepted, it takes on the status Dropout.
Example:
Prediction for Image #70 based on the nearest possible adjacent value in
Image #60, mode = still (= static, from Image #60).
Performing the prediction interactively can result in two different
consequences:
•
Move = correct the (blue) search area with cursor input so that you can
then use an automatic measuring method.
You can use the pop-up menu Settings to enlarge or reduce the search
area by adjusting the capture range.
Search area width = template width + 2*capture range
Search area height = template height + 2*capture range
•
You can also modify the capture range using the keyboard:
Ctrl + Up/Down + Left/Right = capture range ± 1 pixel
Move the measurement position with the cursor to accept this value as a
manual entry.
In both cases the status = OK,
Icon
The Group method offers you the possibility of using the group model or
checking it here. The brief info (? button) displays the members of the group for
you:
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MovXact – Image Analysis • 239
If you would like to use this method in several or many images with one
following after the other, we recommend you switch into automatic mode or into
the group only mode in the Tracking dialog:
The Stencil method allows you to measure the current marker interactively with
the stencil model (see user information in the section “The Interactive
Measuring Dialog” on page 212). The brief info (? button) displays the
assigned stencils and reference markers for you:
If you would like to use this method in several or many images with one
following after the other, we recommend you switch into Measure
Interactively dialog.
New setup
240 • MovXact – Image Analysis
In the case where a marker is covered over – for a specific period of time – and
cannot be measured by another “dropout method”, but will reappear at a later
time, use the procedure available through New setup!
First search for the image number after which the marker will again become
fully visible (use the spin button to move sequentially higher through image
numbers):
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Example: Marker “disappears” in Image #38 and reappears starting with Image #90.
Then set up the marker “as usual” and follow the instruction in the message
window:
Now if you continue with tracking, the trajectory will contain gaps (in the
example above, from Image #38 to #89).
You can get an overview of how full the trajectories are in the Analysis
Document window:
through the Trajectory properties tab in the Edit dialog:
and through the trajectory in the overlay (depending on “Settings”, here
gaps = dotted):
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The Calibration Dialog
You can select this dialog in the Analyze menu under Calibration.
This dialog contains all the settings required for temporal and spatial
calibration. No measurement data are calibrated within the dialog, however.
Instead parameters are simply prepared for later conversion of image units into
physical units.
The following overview will introduce you to the possible parameter settings:
242 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Time
Conversion of image numbers (= Index #0 to #n-1) into
time values. Basic setting = marked.
Camera
a) Camera and lens logging
b) Correction of pixel/page radio if ? 1:1
c) Correction of camera/lens distortion.
Basic setting = marked, but parameters not calibrated
2D measurement
Calibration to a two-dimensional coordinate system that
lies coplanar to the plane of the camera.
Scale planes
Conversion from coordinates in the pixel unit to
calibrated positions.
Basic setting = not marked.
Essential for a “valid” spatial calibration!
Depth
Correction of depth-dependent differences in size =
parallaxes.
Basic setting = marked.
If objects do not fall within the plane defined by the
scale, their depth distance must be known.
2D coordinate
system
Definition of a coordinate system based on the origin
and alignment of the abscissa.
3D measurement
Calibration to a three-dimensional spatial coordinate
system.
Camera
positions
See the Mov3D section.
3D coordinate
system
See the Mov3D section.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Summary
The effect of Temporal calibration is as equidistant scaling with an offset
correction:
t(i) = t(0) + image number(i) / frame rate
2D spatial calibration passes through the individual steps in the following
order:
•
Camera: Correction of distortion errors
x’ = f(x, calibration parameters)
•
Camera: Rectification of the pixel/side ratio
x’ = x ∗ pixel/side ratio, y’ = y
•
Depth compensation = parallax correction:
x’ = F ∗ ( x – xpp) + xpp , where F = 1 + dR / dC
•
Scale scaling
x’ = x ∗ scale factor
•
Mirroring of the y image axis (? math. right-handed coordinate system)
x’ = x, y’ = – y
•
Naming of the image axis
x, y ∈ { x, y, z }
•
Movement by the origin
x’ = x – x0
•
Alignment of the abscissa
x’ = x ∗ cos f ’ – y ∗ sin f ’
y’ = x ∗ sin f ’ + y ∗ cos f ’
•
Mirroring of the ordinate (? user-defined left-handed system)
x’ = x, y’ = – y
or
(optional)
Please note:
Changes in parameters are not valid unless they are explicitly inserted into the
internal analysis data with Apply!
This will only take place automatically without any further questions or
prompting if this button is already displayed in the depressed state (= pressed).
Please note:
In some parameter dialogs you have a choice between a static and a dynamic
definition of parameter (see Static checkbox).
For the Static setting, the parameter in question is only calculated in the
specified reference image and thus remains the same for all image numbers or
time values. For marker parameters, a trajectory value must be present in the
reference image for a valid calibration.
= Dynamic
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Alternatively, a dynamic definition causes the parameter to be determined
separately for each image. With this setting, the corresponding trajectory value
is always required as well to ensure a valid calibration for a given time/image
number. This requires trajectories that are as full as possible.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 243
You have the additional option in some parameter dialogs of copying the current
settings/parameters from the current view into a selection of other views. To do
this, click on the button with the Copy icon next to Apply.
This copying function makes it easy to repeat similar tests or series of tests with
the same parameter settings.
The Preview provides you with a summary of all settings as well as diagnostics
for the cause of an error in the event of problems.
The following example illustrates a sample “valid” calibration:
•
•
•
•
•
•
244 • MovXact – Image Analysis
The frame rate is set to match high-speed recording.
T0 is plausible.
The camera is not calibrated, but the X/Y side ratio is correct for all
common digital cameras.
The scale and coordinate system are valid over the entire length of the
sequence of 109 images. This results in a maximum of 109 calibrated
trajectory values.
The effective scale in the mm/pixel unit provides a clue for the angle of
observation.
A depth calibration of 2½-D scenes is generally required.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
On the other hand, the following example results in an overall “invalid”
calibration:
•
The coordinate system (with origin and direction) is indeed valid over the
entire length of the sequence of 109 images, but
•
The scale is completely undefined (valid in 0 images!).
•
The cause is presumably a reference marker that was subsequently deleted
or a static reference image in which no trajectory value was measured for
the scale.
Please note:
The more parameters you apply as dynamic (in the lower-level dialogs), the
greater care and attention you must exercise in selecting the correct reference
values.
If a measurement graph is too short in the later diagram output or if it cannot be
calculated at all, use the Calibrating Preview to check the maximum possible
image interval (and thus indirectly the time interval as well).
Units:
The units of calibrated values can be adjusted in the corresponding lowerlevel dialogs.
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The program uses the following conversion factors for non-SI units:
•
1 mile
= 1609.344 m
•
1 in
= 0.0254 m
(= standard inch)
•
1g
= 9.80665 m/s²
•
1 degree
= 180 / p rad.
If you would like to save the current settings in the Windows registry, click on
the Save as Default button: When a new analysis is created, these units will
then be used as the basic settings. (This selection therefore does not apply to
analyses that are already saved!)
Please note:
SI units (m, s, m/s² and rad) are assumed for result output to ISO channel files.
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The Calibration/Time Dialog
Since all commonly available digital high-speed cameras take images using film
with temporally equidistant sampling values, this is the mode that is
implemented in MovXact.
In normal cases, the AVI or images list should contain the correct frame rate
and T0 time. (If you are working with FalCon eXtra for AVI generation, this
is ensured). To close the dialog again quickly, check the values for plausibility
and note the time output in the title bar of the current analysis image.
If the T0 start time does not agree, however, you have two alternatives:
•
Enter the time value T for Image #0, or
•
Using whole-number increments (with the aid of the spin buttons), search
for the image number corresponding to the T0 time (= Image # for T0).
The time output T for the last sequence image is only for the purpose of
information concerning the calibrated time interval.
Time calibration
Image numbers are converted into time values during the calibration:
t(i) = t(0) + image number(i) / frame rate
[s]
where
t(0)
Image number(i)
Frame rate in [Hz]
= T0 time in Image #0,
= Image #i, i= 0 to length of sequence -1,
Please note:
The changes only refer to the current analysis sessions, not to the AVI itself. For
time-synchronous reproduction of AVI videos and measurement graphs, you
may need to enter the correct values into the AVI files in addition. You can set
the starting time of the AVI interactively in the Movie menu. The easiest way to
set the frame rate is with the FalCon accessory program ModifySampleRate.
The T0 speed is also displayed here as a reminder. If necessary, you can
change the value in Analysis Info.
The ISO-SAE low-pass filter for measurement graphs that is used for diagram
output is actually designed for signals of electrical measurement value recorders.
As a rule we recommend sampling signals equidistantly at a high sampling
rate before filtering. Because of this, 10,000 Hz is used here as the basic setting.
(Changes to the parameter are generally not required).
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The Calibration/Camera Dialog
Example: Non-calibrated camera
Camera calibration, as the term is used when speaking of photogrammetric
topics, refers to determining the parameters of the “internal orientation”, as it is
called, of individual cameras.
It is useful to consider the entire recording system with camera, transfer units
and image converter. The camera model thus contains the focal length, principal
point position and distortion parameters for optical reproduction. In the case of
film cameras or analog recording media, the scanner or the analog/digital
conversion must also be taken into consideration in the recording sequence.
Please note:
The term camera calibration thus always refers to the combination of the
camera housing (/system) and lens. We therefore make frequent reference below
to the “camera parameters” to be calibrated. These include the main
“lens/distortion parameters”.
The calculation of calibration parameters returns proof of the measurement
accuracy that must be obtained (in accordance with ISO/SAE). In addition, it is
not possible to calculate exact measurement results until the recording system
has been calibrated.
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Example of severe lens distortion with shift of principal point
Depending on the data or laboratory measurements available, the dialog above
provides the following options:
Logging Camera Data
You can use the text fields of the dialog to log all camera and lens data (step 1 of
a quality management system).
Correction of the pixel proportion
All commonly used digital high-speed cameras have exactly square pixel sensor
elements: the pixel proportion x:y is thus 1:1.
Please note
If the AVI video was digitized with a TV scanner, for example, this is generally
not guaranteed!
If the size of the images is 720x576 pixels, for example, they were presumably
sampled according to EBU-Standard CCIR-601 for digital television. Since
television images are recorded at an observation ratio of 4:3, the pixel grid
would be of the same shape (= 1:1) for the typical PC image format of 768x576.
The pixel ratio of “720 images”, however, is 720:768 = 1:0.9375 the image will
be compressed in the y direction, albeit barely discernibly.
For rectification only the ratio of pixel width to height is required; the actual
physical values may not even be known. For example, enter the following x,y
pixel sizes to achieve a ratio of 1:0.937: x=1.0, y=0.9375 or x=10000, y=9375.
(The X/Y ratio is refreshed after keyboard entry is complete, for example after
the Tab key is pressed).
Rectification of the
pixel side ratio
Image coordinates are converted to a square grid during calibration:
x’ = x ∗ pixel side ratio
y’ = y
[pixel]
where
pixel side ratio of A/D conversion ∆x : ∆y
To determine the side ratio, we recommend measuring the test recording of a
grid table (interactively) and simply determining greater width or height
percentages manually.
Please note:
Studies have demonstrated that the pixel side ratio of a scanner does not remain
constant at all. Both temporal fluctuations as well as deviations in the same
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models were noted. We therefore recommend that you re-measure the calibration
parameters at regular intervals (Step 2 of a quality management system).
Correction of camera/lens distortion
Example: Calibrated camera
There are three ways to set the parameters for distortion correction:
1.
You can calculate the calibration parameters in dialogs designed for this purpose
that can be opened with the Calibrate button.
Please note:
Recalculation is only possible if the Mov3D or CamFolder module is licensed!
See the information on working with these dialogs in the relevant parts of the
manual.
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2.
You can also insert the parameters from an existing CamFolder file:
After you click on the CamFolder button, a CamFolder file is automatically
opened under the last path to be used for files of type *.cfo. (If more than one
file or no file are found there, you will have to make a selection in an auxiliary
dialog). In the tree view control of the camera/lens combination, click on the
correct calibration measurement and drag the “measurement” into the dialog
box of the camera parameters using Drag and Drop. Then let go of it and the
complete measurement (with all internal measurement data) will be copied into
the analysis.
a) Select measurement in CamFolder
b) Drag the selected measurement while holding down mouse button 1 (= Drag)
c) The cursor changes into a “+” icon in the target dialog
d) Release the mouse button (= Drop): The measurement is copied and inserted
Of course, in addition to this, the image sizes of the camera to be inserted and
the analysis sequence must agree.
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3.
You can import the parameters. Accepting parameters from another analysis
(file type *.ana) or from another formatted text file (file type eXtra ASCII
*.txt, see “The Edit/Import Dialog” on page 294) are supported.
If the calibration status is “Calibrated...” you can no longer make changes to
the descriptive data for camera and lens: The text boxes are gray, which means
that input is disabled. Reset will delete only the actual camera parameters but
retain the descriptive data as well as the control point and measured image data
of the calibration measurement.
Correction of camera/lens
distortion
Correction of camera distortion is performed automatically for all MovXact
output of calibrated measurement values (Step 3 of a quality management
system):
x’ = f(x, calibration parameters)
[pixel]
where
Calibration parameter = principal point and set of distortion parameters
f() = iterative rectification rule = inverse distortion
Depending on the computer and the extent of the parameter set, you may notice a
delay when complex diagrams with numerous measurement values are being
displayed.
Demonstration of quality
assurance
If the distortion index in accordance with ISO/DIS 8721 or SAE J211/2
(Revision Mar95) has already been measured (see section CamFolder) the
value will be displayed in the unit [%] calibrated or uncalibrated.
When you switch back and forth, you receive additional information about the
measurement (Step 4 of a quality management system):
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The Calibration/Scale Planes Dialog
You require a conversion factor in [mm/pixel] or (at least) one linear scale
in the image to scale image coordinates to physical positions. In actual practice,
it should be defined based on two markers or PIX points.
Measure the length of the scale to a precision of approximately 1mm.
To avoid residual errors in the event of inadequate correction of distortion, this
ruler should be located in the “region” of the center of the image (even if the
target object is usually located right there). It may have any orientation, so it
does not need to be arranged horizontally or vertically, for example.
∆sW
A
.
scale plane
B
camera plane
image plane
∆sI
Scale markers A and B on a plane coplanar to the camera plane
Important
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The scale must be oriented vertical to the camera’s direction of view! The
camera must not be tilted, i.e. it must not be rotated up or down, to the left or to
the right. The plane defined by the scale and the camera axis (= coplanar to the
sensor/image plane in the camera) is designated as the scale plane.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 253
Scale scaling
Image numbers are converted into plane positions during the calibration:
x’ = x ∗ Scale factor / 1000
[m]
where
x
Scale factor
∆sW
= Image coordinates in [pixels]
= ∆sW / ∆sI in [mm/pixels]
= Distance in [mm] = pre-measured length of ruler
in “world coordinates”
∆sI
= Distance between the two markers measured in the image
= Hypotenuse ¦(xA(i) – xB(i)¦in [pixels]
“static”
= f(Reference image(r)) = const. or
“dynamic” = f(Image number(i))
where f() = f(trajectory values of reference markers MA,B)
Tip
If the marker distance will only be calculated in one image, namely the
reference image, mark the Static checkbox. (In practice, this is usually the
correct setting, especially if the scale should become deformed in the course of
the impact test.)
Do not remove the check mark unless you actually want the depicted length of
the ruler to be variable. The scale factor will then be determined dynamically
for each image separately. (You can use this setting to more closely approximate
the plane of movement, within certain limits, or to compensate for distortion that
is uneven through the image.)
Please note:
In Version 3.x, the image number of the reference image is identical with the
parameter of the 2D coordinate system with the same name for the definition of
the scale plane(s)! (Please let us know what your needs are for two individual
parameter values).
Enter the distance from the camera to the scale plane (= camera distance) in
this dialog. It is not actually needed, however, until depth calibration. (In
practice, it is best to measure the camera distance from the camera housing, since
the position of the specific lens focal point is generally not known.)
It is also possible to determine the camera distance with the depiction equation.
A trigonometric comparison results in the formula:
f / ∆sS = dC / ∆sW
where (all in [mm])
f
dC
∆sW
∆sS
=
=
=
=
(calibrated) focal length
Camera distance to scale plane
Distance between two markers on the scale plane (world”)
Distance between two markers on the “sensor”/film plane
of the camera
And with the conversion:
∆sS = ∆sI ∗ pixel size / 1000
∆sI
pixel size
= Distance between the two markers in image coordinates
in [pixels]
= square mean between pixel width an pixel height in
[µm/pixel]
the resulting camera distance is:
dC = f ∗ ∆sW / (∆sI ∗ pixel size / 1000)
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This function is available through the
button next to camera distance.
The calculated value and the calculation path with the intermediate values are
listed in a message window:
Even if this approach may sound somewhat theoretical, it can still lead to correct
results in actual practice. A prerequisite for this, however, is that the values for
focal length and pixel size be known as precisely as possible. (The formula is
also suitable for calculating absolute depths of any marker pairs, which need not
lie on the scale plane. Please let us know what your needs are in this regard).
As soon as you have clicked on the Accept button, the coordinate system in
the analysis image is updated. You can see a sample ruler at the upper edge of
the screen with information on an appropriate standardized length and the name
of the plane.
If there is an additional grid icon marked, an equidistant grid is displayed. The
standardized mesh width is displayed in cyan.
A question mark refers to a defective or (in the current image) insufficient
definition of the scale:
The default setting is the Standard Plane. You can use the New button to
define additional planes. (And remove them again with Delete). Theoretically,
the scale scaling can thus be made in reference to local areas of the image. In
some circumstances, depth calibration may not even be required because of this,
if you only want to measure objects in the planes.
However, real applications remain very limited!
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Example:
Second scale plane with deviating depth:
The Calibration/Depth Dialog
If a marker is not in the scale plane, the position in the image is subject to what
is referred to as a parallax error. This error is constant for motions running
coplanar to the scale plane, and can be compensated for with 2½-D calibration.
To do this, you need the relative depth of the measurement point to the scale
plane as well as the distance from the camera to the measurement plane.
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x’
dR
marker
motion plane
.
x
.
scale plane
dC
camera plane
image plane
principal point
image center
Diagram illustrating depth correction
Important
To do this, the camera must be aligned exactly orthogonally in axis A
(=horizontal tilt) and vertical tilt T to the scale plane!
(Swing S can be compensated for later by the selection of coordinate system).
Distances must each be measured parallel to the camera’s direction of view. An
oblique measurement along the direct connection line from the camera to the
marker will generally result in errors! Instead, measure distances between
virtual planes (camera/image/scale and marker motion plane) that are to be
thought of as parallel “glass surfaces” in space.
.
dR
A
B
dC
.
dR
A
B
.
marker plane
.
scale plane
dC
camera plane
Depth measurements in space parallel to the camera’s direction of view!
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The Depth Parameters dialog lists the depth distances of all markers in [mm],
both the relative Distance to the scale plane and the Total Distance to the
camera that is derived from the sum of the camera distance + relative distance.
(you should already have correctly enter the Camera Distance to the scale
plane in the Scale Plane Parameters dialog).
You can also see the sign rule in the front view in diagram format (bottom
right). Markers with positive relative distances lie behind the scale plane in the
direction of view, markers with negative depths are in front of it:
Depth compensation
Depth-dependent differences in size are compensated for during calibration with
a trigonometric formula:
x’ = F ∗ ( x – xpp) + xpp
where
xpp
F
dR
dC
= Principal point coordinates
= Correction factor (dC + dR) / dC = 1 + dR / dC
= Relative depth (relative distance)
= Camera distance to scale plane
The principal point of the image is the reference point of optical projection. If
it is not known through a camera calibration, it is conveniently “assumed” to be
the middle of the image.
If you have already entered depth values in the basic settings during marker
setup, you can use this dialog now to check them.
If you would like to correct some of the values, click on the marker in the
corresponding line. The depth value is accepted into the Enter sub-tab. Now
edit the value (either as a distance to Plane or to Camera) and accept it by
clicking again on the marker or selecting another marker in the list.
Markers that are assigned to the scale of a reference plane must by definition
also lie on this plane. The relative depth (= 0 mm) cannot be changed!
Special method v=const.
Video recording in automobile impact tests often begins a few images before
T0. If you know the quasi constant speed v0 shortly before T0, you can
estimate the depth dR of a marker with the procedure Calculate via v-const.:
The path a marker has covered in a time interval ∆t between image A and B is
v0 ∗ ∆t. The difference in path ∆s on the virtual scale plane can be calculated
using the calibrated trajectory values. Let the distance dC from the camera to the
scale be known. A trigonometric comparison results in the formula:
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∆s / dC
= v0 ∗ ∆t / (dC + dR)
where
Difference in time
Difference in path
Speed
Camera distance
∆t
∆s
v0
dC
= t(A) – t(B)
[s]
= ¦(x(A) – x(B)¦
[m]
in [m/s] from the entry in [km/h]
in [mm]
and thus the relative depth:
dR = (v0 ∗ ∆t / ∆s – 1) ∗ dC
[mm]
Interestingly, not even dC needs to be measured precisely beforehand, since only
the ratio dR / dC goes into the depth calibration as input.
Enter the exact speed T0 speed in the Calculate via v-const. sub-tab. (The
value is taken over from the Analysis Info as a default setting). Select an
interval of several images as the image difference and then click on the Depth
to Plane button. The calculated value is then generated and the calculation path
with the intermediate values is listed in a message window:
Please note: This procedure is not suitable for slide tests where the speed
before T0 is zero!
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The Calibration/2D Coordinate System Dialog
Extensive parameters are available for controlling the origin and orientation of
the two-dimensional coordinate system.
Please note:
If the scale plane(s) are not set up yet, and the corresponding checkboxes are not
marked yet, the coordinates cannot be converted into physical units and the
uncalibrated image coordinate system is valid: The axes of the abscissa x’ and
the ordinate y’ are identified with an apostrophe, but the coordinate system is
defined as right-handed with its origin in the bottom left corner of the image for
a simpler evaluation of the result.
Mirroring of the y image axis
In the calibrated basic setting, the origin lies in the middle of the image and
the axes run parallel to the edges of the image, with the abscissa running from
left to right (= like the image axis x’) and the ordinate from bottom to top (=
right-handed, mathematically correct:
x’ = x, y’ = – y
Naming of the axis
First name the axes (x, y or z) according to the vehicle or dummy-related
direction in accordance with ISO/SAE.
x, y ∈ { x, y, z }
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The depth and its sign in the camera’s direction of view are then derived
automatically.
If you would like to align the coordinate system based on pre-defined
measurement points, you can use the Markers option box for this purpose,
choosing markers from the selection lists for the origin and direction of the
abscissa.
Movement by the origin
Movement of the coordinate system by the origin means subtraction of all
coordinates in mathematical terms:
x’ = x – x0
where
x0 origin
“static”
“dynamic”
= image center
or
= f(Reference image(r)) = const. or
= f(Image number(i))
where f() = trajectory value of reference marker M0
If you consider the trajectory x’(M1) of a marker M1 as a function of a markerrelated, dynamic origin x0(M2), you can also interpret this as the distance ∆x12
between the two markers.
The direction of the abscissa can be precisely determined by the straight
line connecting two markers. You can also enter an offset numerically, which
is often practical for a rotation of ±90 or 180 Grad, or it can be entered with the
button using the cursor:
7
The straight line through the two points in the image specified interactively
determines the offset that is entered as a new numeric value.
Alignment of the abscissa
The coordinate system is now rotated according to the specified direction of
the abscissa:
x’ = x ∗ cos f ’ – y ∗ sin f ’
y’ = x ∗ sin f ’ + y ∗ cos f ’
where
f’
f
f Abscissa
=
=
=
=
“static”
=
“dynamic” =
f – f Abscissa + f Offset
actual angle arc tg (y / x)
Target direction of the abscissa
image center
or
f(Reference image(r)) = const. or
f(Image number(i))
where f() = f(trajectory values of reference markers MA,B)
= arc tg ((yA(i) – yB(i)) / (xA(i) – xB(i)))
Please note:
In Version 3.x the image number of the reference image is the same for the
origin and abscissa direction and is also identical with the scale plane(s)
parameter with the same name! (Please let us know what your needs are for
two/three individual parameter values).
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Mirroring the ordinate
The right-handed setting refers to the conversion of the right-handed image
axes to the new 2D coordinate system. (The spatial coordinate system is always
right-handed). If the checkbox is not marked, the ordinate is mirrored (= lefthanded!):
x’ = x, y’ = – y
Tip:
Dynamic coordinate system
(optional)
If you want to move the coordinate system dynamically with the object or
vehicle, attach the reference markers onto the vehicle. When you do this, avoid
places that will be deformed during the impact.
Thus, the correct setting is certainly “Dynamic Origin”.
If the vehicle nods or the camera rotates around the optical axis (= tilting), you
can compensate for this with “Dynamic Abscissa Direction”.
As soon as you have clicked on the Accept button, the coordinate system in
the analysis image is updated. If there is an additional grid icon marked, an
equidistant grid is displayed parallel to the coordinate axes.
Please note: The coordinate system and grid display are displayed according
to the depth of the selected origin!
A question mark refers to a defective or (in the current image) insufficient
definition of the coordinate system:
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Tip:
User information
How do I enter the individual parameters correctly?
•
Avoid setting all parameters at one time by running through the “threefinger rule” in your mind.
•
Instead, proceed step by step and click on the Accept button each time
after you have entered a parameter to assess the result visually in the
analysis image.
•
Have patience with incorrect entries and learn how different entries can
come to the same result, for example:
•
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Direction of the abscissa between marker M1 and M2 =
Direction of the abscissa between marker M2 and M1 + 180 degrees
Test the coordinate system visually by running up through the reference
image number with the spin button: Evaluate whether setting is actually
correct for the desired dynamic.
Please note: Restore the image number again before accepting the
parameter as OK the next time).
Use the Preview to test the sequence interval with valid calibration after
all parameters have been set.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 263
The Diagrams/T-Diagrams Dialog
You can generate measurement data as a x/t-diagram with the aid of this
dialog.
The entire calibration sequence is traversed each time the Display Diagram or
Save Graph are given (“online”). This means that the calibrated values are not
maintained in an internal measurement value matrix (similar to the trajectory
matrix). Instead of this, if there is a change in calibration settings, the program
will access the original raw measurement data again each time. This makes it
possible to avoid potential loss in accuracy because of recalibration.
Measurement graph postprocessing
You can display calibrated displacements along the coordinate axes in the form
of diagrams in this dialog. In addition, however, you can also choose from an
extensive selection of post-processing options:
•
Calculating resultants or angles
•
Forming spatial or temporal differences
•
Differentiating
•
Filtering
The abscissa of measurement graphs contains time values. Since
uncalibrated trajectories may have gaps, the time values are not necessarily
equidistant. Additional gaps resulting from undefined calibration may occur in
calibrated measurement graphs.
Please note:
In Version 3.x, gaps in diagrams are bridged linearly, i.e. a straight connecting
line is drawn between the ordinate values!
Select Temporal Differentiation for the ordinate:
•
s
displacement (or undifferentiated measurement variable)
•
v
speed
•
a
acceleration
as well as the coordinate or measurement variable to be displayed
(= from) selecting from:
•
x
abscissa of the coordinate system (name as calibrated)
•
y
ordinate of the coordinate system (name as calibrated)
•
resultant
¦x¦
•
angle
arc tg (y / x)
•
angle(MXT)
internal angle of the MXT model
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The absolute angle of a marker position x,y is defined in terms of the coordinate
origin, which is often not a useful measure. Use the Reference Marker method
for relative angle differences.
Please note: The angle is undefined at the origin (= 0,0)!
If an angle graph extends beyond 180 or even 360 degrees, jumps will be
corrected in the diagram output based on the “arc tg” modulo definition.
To obtain relative measurement results, you can set the following methods for
Reference to reference values:
•
Marker
x’(t) = x(t) – xR(t) for all time values t
Spatial distances and
angle differences
between two markers
Temporal displacement
differences of a marker
Offset compensation
of measurement graphs
•
This method appears to move the coordinate system to a new
“dynamic origin” of marker MR . The result is independent of
the coordinate origin that is actual set!
•
The reference is formed in spatial coordinates before (!) the
resultant or the angle are calculated.
•
The s-x/y/resultant is thus the spatial distance and the s angle is
the angle of the connecting line between the points of the
current marker M and the reference marker MR.
•
Position
•
This method moves the coordinate system statically by the
position of the current marker either at time tR or else in
Image # iR.
(Cannot be clicked on simultaneously with Reference Marker).
•
Diagram value m’(t) = m(t) – m(TR)
where () = post-processed measurement graph
•
This method moves the measurement graph by the amplitude value
for TR so that it goes through zero at time tR or else in Image
# iR.
•
In the case of displacement graphs s-x/y, the results are
identical to the Reference Position method. If you are measuring
an angle, however, the “finished” angle diagram is moved by
the selected angle offset, whereas with the Reference Position
method the spatial coordinates x,y are first subtracted and
the angle is then calculated. (Since the resultants are also
no „pure displacement curves, the explanation given above for
angle diagrams analogously also applies for the offset
equalization of resultant curves.)
x’(t) = x(t) – x(TR)
Temporal differentiation of a signal m(t) takes place in the following order:
•
Equidistant sampling (linear filling of gaps):
•
?T = 1 / frame rate
Differentiation according to the symmetrical quotient rule:
dm(t) / dt = ( m(t + ?T) – m(t – ?T)) / 2 ?T
under the assumption of constant increase on the edge
•
dm(t) / dt = ( m(t + ?T) – m(t)) / ?T : first value
dm(t) / dt = ( m(t) – m(t – ?T)) / ?T : last value
Reverse sampling back to the original time grid (with gaps):
The result – depending on the measurement variable – may be a speed
diagram of displacement or angle.
Note that any filtering is not performed until after the differentiation.
Differences from the application before the differentiation can only be
determined in transient behavior at the beginning and end of the signal.
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Note for experienced users: This order can be changed (filtering before
differentiation), by setting the filter sampling rate (basic setting 10,000 Hz) to
“exactly” 10,001 Hz.
When calculating acceleration, the differentiation algorithm is traversed twice
in a row, thus:
Differentiation + (Filtering) +
Differentiation + (Filtering)
In MovXact, the 4-pole Butterworth time filter is implemented in accordance
with ISO 6487/SAE J211/1 to smooth measurement graphs.
Choose a filter frequency from the selection list or edit any value [Hz]. The
theoretical channel frequency class (CFC) is derived according to:
CFC = Filter frequency / 1.6666
The sampling rate recommended in the standard is part of the Time
calibration. Changes to the parameter (basic setting 10,000 Hz) are generally
not required.
“Switching on and switching off artifacts” for low-pass filtering would arise at
the beginning and end of the finite time signal. For this reason, pre- and postevent data are added to the measurement graph before filtering. The result of
mirroring boundary values with the first or last signal value is that the filtered
signal is covered with the first/last curve value (matching the magnitude of the
first unfiltered sample point). The required pre-event/post-event interval is
calculated automatically according to the filter pulse response, since the
minimum 10 ms that are required for low filter frequencies < 100 Hz are not
sufficient. You can see the effective interval length under Info. It is logged in
FalCon eXtra ASCII file format.
You can import the frequency value with the
button as a basic setting of the
current marker. This value is then automatically displayed again every time this
marker is selected again.
Please note: 0 Hz := implicit without filtering!
Now it is finally time to Display diagram:
First select a marker on the marker view control and
•
click on the Show button
266 • MovXact – Image Analysis
•
or double-click on the Marker object
•
or drag the Marker object while mouse button 1 is held down onto
the free/gray background (Drag and Drop).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Diagram window now appears in the left corner of the screen (or at the
Drop point).
(A DIAdem channel file of type R32 is created internally. This file is
continuously overwritten during subsequent calls).
You can find all necessary details about available diagram functions and how to
work with them in the section Measurement data Viewer.
Tips
We recommend you limit the size of the diagram window and set the fonts to
the smallest possible values (8 pt) so that you can open several windows next to
each other simultaneously.
It is best to close the analysis image to prevent the diagram windows from
covering each other up.
You can create logs quickly and easily by copying the diagram to the clipboard.
Keyboard shortcut Ctrl + C.
The title in the diagram window depends on the MovXact setting Analysis
Image Window Title:
“Diagram / Channel name”
or
“Analysis name +View name" / Channel name"
Please note:
In Version 3.x, you can only synchronize measurement data with AVI sequences
(and thus not with the analysis image). In addition, make note of the time
unit [s].
If you want to compare multiple graphs in a single window, drag an additional
object into a diagram window that is already open with Drag and Drop. The
scaling is automatically adjusted to the extremes of all curves.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 267
Now your work will pay off – If you were careful in the preceding steps (marker
defaults, set up markers, etc.), the diagram colors of the individual markers
(see “Edit/Markers – Basic Settings” on page 278) should now all have
different values. Instead of displaying a curve, you can also save it. When you
do this, all the currently set post-processing steps are executed precisely (see
details in “The Diagrams/Save Curves Dialog” on page 271).
Click on the Info button to get an overview of the number and value ranges of
the measurement values:
Via this message window you can also display a diagram with Maximum
marked:
The legends are displayed with the size and font they are saved with internally
in the Quick View part of the program.
Try double-clicking on a caption: You can move it with the cursor or change its
size!
268 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
If you would like to tidy up the screen, click on the Close All Diagrams
button or select the entry Windows/Close All Measurement Graphs in the
Measurement Graphs menu.
The Diagrams/X-Diagrams Dialog
You can generate measurement data as an x/y-diagram with the aid of this
dialog.
The diagram output that is normally optimized for measurement channels (with
monotonically ascending abscissa) serves here as a Quick View for an evaluation
of spatial trajectories and stencils after calibration.
For quick visualization, we recommend a window shape that is practically
square and selecting equidistant scaling of both diagram axes.
For clarity, mark the checkbox and Orientation Like Image Axes.
Otherwise, the axis alignment will be set as in the calibration coordinate system,
i.e. if the ordinate axis z is pointed down, the spatial graph will be on its “head”.
The axis designations x', y' refer to the image axes.
As you already did for temporal graphs, insert a number of objects into the
common window with Drag and Drop.
Form a reference to a reference marker or an individual position similar to
what you did in the temporal graph dialog. Here, however, the Position setting
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 269
or Diagram value have the same meaning (= Subtraction of a marker position
x(TR)).
Compare the options to the output of contours(t) in the MovBag section of the
manual
The Info message window gives you a statistical overview of the measurement
values:
Use the Start and End option of the trajectory to display with associated time
values:
Tips
270 • MovXact – Image Analysis
You can create logs quickly and easily by copying the diagram to the clipboard.
Keyboard shortcut Ctrl + C.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Diagrams/Save Curves Dialog
Instead of displaying a curve, you can also save it. When you do this, the
calibration and post-processing steps that are currently set are executed exactly.
When you click on the Save button in the Diagrams dialog, the modal dialog
Save Curves appears:
Example: x/t-diagrams are saved as time and ordinate channels
Example: x/y-diagrams are saved as two displacement channels
You can save each graph in its own individual file or several one after the
other! in a container file.
Important!
The save directory is always the analysis directory!
Note: If you would like to write the positions of all markers in a uniform
coordinate system without any additional post-processing, use the Edit/Export
dialog.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 271
Channel names are assigned according to the outline “Marker Name” +
“s/v/a” + “Ordinate”, but they can be edited subsequently. If a marker is
defined in more than one view, the “View Name” appended in addition.
The channel description is not entered until a later diagram display as an axis
label. The units are imported from calibration.
Choose the file type from the selection list (see details below):
You can use the ?- buttons to check whether a file already exists with the
name and file type entered. In the case of DIAdem files, you also receive a
message indicating what channels are already contained:
If you click on the Save button, a new file is created or (after confirmation)
replaced or the channels are appended in the container file.
272 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
DIAdem Real32 /64 Format (*.dat)
Two files are created: Name.dat with the ASCII description of channels and
Name.RS32/64 with the measured channel data in real format.
The header of the *.dat file may contain up to 100 lines of comments. A
selection of comments has been implemented in MovXact as was proposed by
GfSGmbH to support ISO files in DIAdem. The contents of the comment lines
(Key 102) are drawn from the analysis information, while the description
lines (Key 106) correspond to the English ISO-Ext texts.
Note:
If a measurement graph contains gaps (image measurement value is not present
or calibration is not valid), either no values will be written (in which case the
values of the time channel will not be continuously equidistant) or the channel
values will be set to No Values according to the DIAdem definition (see
corresponding checkbox).
Please note:
No-Values are not yet supported in FalCon eXtra.
Please read the release notes for the current additions!
Example:
DIAEXTENDED
{@:ENGLISH
#BEGINGLOBALHEADER
1,WINDOWS
2,{@R:1.02 eXtra
100,eXtra MovXact by FalCon GmbH
101,Driver
106,Name of the laboratory
:
102,FalCon GmbH
106,Contact name of laboratory :
102,Willi Falkner
106,Contact phone of laboratory :
102,106,Contact fax of laboratory
:
102,106,Name of customer
:
102,FalCon Demo Crash
106,Laboratory test ref. number :
102,Tracking004 – Left
106,Customer test ref. number
:
102,Tracking004 – Left
106,Title
:
102,Tracking004-Driver (from FalCon MovXact...)
106,Medium No./number of media :
102,
106,Type of the test
:
102,Bendix Sled Test
106,Date of the test
:
102,26-Jul-2000
103,Willi Falkner
104,19.12.2001
105,10:28:36
111,9.9E+34
#ENDGLOBALHEADER
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 273
eXtra ASCII (*.txt)
ASCII text file with structured layout and commented list of parameters and
measurement values. See “The Edit/Export Dialog” on page 289 for a detailed
description of the format.
Example:
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
:-> FalCon-eXtra-ASCII
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Version:
105 E (eXtra ASCII)
Date:
26-Jul-2001 10:44:00
Analysis:
File name:
Tracking004
Head-Cheek-s_x-t.txt
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
:-> Diagram_f(t)
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
@Abscissa:
> Channel name:
Head-Cheek-t
> Label:
t
> Unit:
s
@Ordinate:
> Channel name:
Head-Cheek-s_x
> Label:
s_x
> Unit:
m
Curve values:
109
Time filter:
> SAE-4PBW:
60 Hz
> Pre/Post-Run:
16.7 ms
Index:
(:0
1
2
3
4
...
107
108
:-)
274 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Abscissa:
Ordinate:
-0.005000
-0.004000
-0.003000
-0.002000
-0.001000
0.008123
0.008276
0.008389
0.008457
0.008499
0.102000
0.103000
0.052258
0.045147
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
ISO 13499 Int/Ext (*.iso)
Two files are created: Name.iso with the text description of channels and
Name.### with the measured channel data in ASCII format. A distinction is
made between the “international” definition Int and the “German = extended”
version Ext.
Since there is no time channel to write to for this data format, the time axis is
only determined implicitly on the basis of T0 and frequency and gaps must be
interpolated in the measurement graph. The graph is then written as a table with
an equidistant time grid.
Note that in accordance with ISO the filename must be no longer than eight
letters. It is however possible to write in MovXact:
Only measurement graphs in SI units are permitted:
Example of “Int”: *.iso
FalCon GmbH
Willi Falkner
FalCon Demo Crash
Tracking004 – Left
Tracking004-Driver
(from FalCon MovXact...)
1/1
Bendix Sled Test
2000-07-26
1
0.000000
0.000000
SAE J211/ISO 4130
1
Head-Cheek-s_x
eXtra 1.02
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 275
Example of “Int”: *.###
/Tracking004 – Left
/1
/Head-Cheek-s_x
/s_x
/s_x
/SAE 4 Pole Butterw.,f=60 Hz,Pre/Post-Run=16.7 ms
/36
/0.000000
/0.001000
/m
/-0.005000
/109
0.008123
0.008276
0.008389
...
Example of “Ext”: *.iso
Name of the laboratory
:FalCon GmbH
Contact name of laboratory :Willi Falkner
Contact phone of laboratory :Contact fax of laboratory
:Name of customer
:FalCon Demo Crash
Laboratory test ref. number :Customer test ref. number
:Tracking004 – Left
Title
:Tracking004-Driver
Medium No./number of media :1/1
Type of the test
:Bendix Sled Test
Date of the test
:2000-07-26
Number of test objects
:1
Name of test object 01
:Velocity test object 01
:0.000000
Mass test object 01
:0.000000
Sign convent./Instr.Standard:SAE J211/ISO 4130
Number of channels
:1
Name of channel 001
:Head-Cheek-s_x
Data Format edition number :eXtra 1.02GmbH
Example of “Ext”: *.###
/Customer test ref. number
/Test object number
/Name of the channel
/Location
/Direction
/Prefilter type
/Channel frequency class
/Channel amplitude class
/Sampling rate
/Unit
/Time of first sample
/Number of samples
0.008123
0.008276
0.008389
...
276 • MovXact – Image Analysis
:Tracking004 – Left
:1
:Head-Cheek-s_x
:s_x
:s_x
:SAE 4 Pole B....
:36
:0.000000
:0.001000
:m
:-0.005000
:109
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Edit menu
In the Edit menu you will find menu entries whose functions you can bring up
either from the Analysis Document window or with the Import/Export interface:
Information
Shows information about the analysis or the current
view and gives an overview of the image sequence.
(Identical to the ? buttons in the document window)
Measured image
data
Opens the modal dialog for editing data of
measurement objects (similar to the tabs in the
document window)
Export
Opens the modal dialog for logging the analysis and for
file export of measurement data.
Import
Opens the modal dialog for importing prepared
analysis settings and test data.
Rename
measurement
object
The name entry of the current measurement object in
the document window is placed in editing mode.
(Identical to clicking twice with the mouse)
trajectory values
marker
+ template
B+
graphs
contour(t)
B
#0
stencil
B+
#max
1 graph
#i
MovXact measured image data
The Basic settings G retain the name of the measurement object and the
parameters Depth and Graphic Color.
Additional items saved for Markers are the marker type, motion type, ISO/SAE
filter frequency and active tracking methods for each marker individually.
During setup, image numbers, the marker size and an image view are saved as a
template. Stencils also contain the name of the selected reference markers.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 277
The Edit/Markers Dialog
You can use the modal dialog Edit/Markers to check the settings of both
numeric and visual output of measured image values.
If the analysis image happens to be closed, you can open it with the Display
button. Dialog output and graphic display of measurement values take place
automatically after the respective markers are selected. Changes must be
confirmed by accepting them explicitly. If you Delete a marker (or several at
the same time) the definition is completely deleted with all trajectory values.
Tip
Multiple selection
You can select multiple markers simultaneously by holding down the Shift or
Ctrl key while selecting multiple items from the marker list. After that the
Trajectory tab is automatically opened. In this multi-selection status you can
observe and compare trajectories and delete either trajectories or even entire
marker definitions.
Tip
Moving through lists
As in most Windows tree view controls, after you click on a marker in the name
list, the red triangular arrow then indicates the marker, the line is highlighted in
blue and a fine dotted border indicates that it is active. You can then “scroll” up
and down in the list with the aid of the arrow keys.
Edit/Markers – Basic Settings
The marker features Name and Type are only displayed here. You can also
modify the following basic settings after setup:
Motion type
Default setting = Moving. Select the type Still only
for spatially fixed markers (with minor fluctuation in
image status).
Group
During automatic tracking, members of a marker group
that have dropped out can be extrapolated
geometrically using other members of the group (see
Marker Methods Group Model). You can select
group members quickly with the
278 • MovXact – Image Analysis
button.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Filter frequency
Default setting = 0 Hz = unfiltered. Select a fixed
filter frequency if you would always like to display
T-diagrams of this measurement point filtered.
This filter meets the requirements of ISO 6487 =
SAE J211/I (4-pole Butterworth). The corresponding
CFC (channel frequency class) is derived from the
filter frequency / 1.66.
Depth
to Plane
Relative depth to a reference plane in the camera’s
view direction (default setting = Standard): Positive
value = behind the plane,
negative value = in front of the plane.
Graphic colors
A bright color is recommended as the color for the
image overlay, while a dark color of the same color
type should be selected for diagrams (because of the
white background).
Edit/Markers – Template
Depending on the type and the algorithm, the position and diameter/size are
automatically or interactively determined during setup. A template is saved for
each marker (except for those of type PIX) by the program (= image view) as a
prototype any correlation tracking (COR method). The parameters of this
template are Setup Image, Sub-Pixel Position, Size and Diameter.
The template shape can also be selected later as rectangular or round.
If previously measured 3D control point information is available for this
marker, its spatial coordinates X,Y,Z are displayed in the unit mm.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 279
Edit/Markers – Methods
You can get an overview of the definitions of marker types as well as the
algorithms in the section “Marker Types + Algorithms” on page 186.
The basic factors and mathematical relationships important for the success of
the automatic measurement are explained in greater detail in this section.
During tracking, the position of a marker is predicted from a “previous”
adjacent value and a search window is determined. With the aid of one or more
automatic detection procedures, the actual position in the image is then
determined for which the image content has the best match with the marker
model or the marker template. The measure for this match is judged based on an
empirical quality value in the range from 0% to 100%. For a successful
measurement, the measurement quality must be greater than the threshold
value of the minimum quality (basic setting 50 %).
In view of a dropout that is as low as possible, the procedures are linked
according to an order of priority, and the quality criteria can be determined by
the user. The combination of different methods ensures high stability for the
measurement.
The possible procedures and methods are applied during automatic tracking in
the following order with the goal of measuring a valid, plausible trajectory
value:
•
Prediction
•
MXT, DOT, QUAD, CODE = marker-specific algorithms
•
COR (static)
•
COR (adaptive)
•
and
(only in Automatic mode i.e. not in cautionary Dropout Help mode)
•
Dropout Search
•
Group
•
Extrapolation
280 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Prediction
The search window is determined by its position and size. These factors
significantly affect the change of hits of the tracking algorithm, robustness
against similar hits and the duration of processing.
The position of a marker is predicted as accurately in terms of the motion as
possible to limit the extent of search area. During tracking the prediction process
accesses measurement values that have already been determined from “previous”
images (depending on the direction of tracking).
The following prediction modes are automatically optimized:
•
still:
The same position as in the previous image,
Model = static repetition of position;
always valid for markers of motion type fixed
•
linear:
Linear extrapolation of translation between the two previous images
Model = constant direction and speed of motion.
•
tangential:
Extrapolation of curved motion between the three previous images,
Model = constant change of motion and constant acceleration (within a
limited tolerance interval).
•
+ Image status correction
In addition, the translation determined through all “fixed” markers can be
used to improve prediction. This corresponds to an image status correction
of the position prediction (see corresponding checkbox in the
“Edit/Markers – Basic Settings” dialog on page 278). To do this, the
predicted position is corrected (beginning back at a “fixed” marker) by an
average deviation of the “fixed” markers – measured from the previous
image.
The search window is placed symmetrically around the predicted marker
position. Its size is derived from the template size, the capture range and an
individual factor:
Search window range = template range + factor ∗ 2 ∗ capture range
where
Factor = 100 %
Standard setting
= 150 %
if markers are of motion type “moving”
only a still prediction is possible
= 225 %
if – after unsuccessful marker detection – the method
Dropout Search is active
= 75 %
for image status corrected prediction
The basic setting of the capture range is 5 pixels. Generally it should be
increased or decreased only rarely.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 281
#0
# -1
predicted
position
# -2
search area
y
capture
range
x
search area
Prediction of the search window: position and size
MXT Method
The marker-based MXT = MarkerXtrackT algorithm finds the marker by using
a comparison with the marker model from the previous image. It is thus highly
adaptive in terms of rotations.
The measurement quality of a marker depends on the distortion of the
geometrical model and an image comparison to an optimal marker.
The specification range is (Version MXT 1-4):
•
Perspective compression = distortion < 1:1.4
•
At least 4 of the points including the center of the marker must be visible
•
Dynamic changes:
Angle of rotation < 20 degrees, compression < 10%, size < 10%
The measurement quality of a marker depends on the comparison of an ideal
circle marker (side ratio of the ellipse and the real surface).
The minimum number of points used during setup (=4) as well as the
sensitivity do not need to be changed by the user in normal cases.
DOT Method
The marker-based DOT algorithm finds the marker by means of a center of
gravity calculation of the bright center surface. A clear contrast between light
and dark is required here for the surrounding black ring or for the surrounding
area.
The measurement quality of a marker depends on the comparison of an ideal
circle marker (side ratio of the ellipse and the real surface).
Tracking in 3D scenes
During tracking in typical 3D scenes, the diameter of a reproduced DOT marker
can become significantly smaller or larger, depending on motion of the camera
towards it or away from it.
Solution:
The target diameter is adapted when the calibration setting 3D measurement
is active: the program searches for a marker with the size predicted from the
previous image.
In the case of 2D measurement, the diameter from the setup image is used as
a target value.
282 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
QUAD Method
The marker-based QUAD algorithm finds the marker by means of a symmetry
balance of the four squares. This requires an unambiguous light/dark contrast
between the “chessboard fields” that is as clear as possible.
The measurement quality of a marker depends heavily on the symmetry of the
marker along its entire diameter.
CODE Method
The marker-based CODE algorithm finds and names the marker with a free
search in the image as well. A subset of 79 ring codes was specified for crashrelated applications.
COR (static)
During the correlation procedure, the marker template is compared with the
content of the current image at all possible positions within the search window,
i.e. the template is moved in a meandering pattern (normalized correlation). No
rotational motion can be modeled based on only translatory comparison steps.
The initially whole-number optimum match is refined with the aid of a
polynomial interpolation of correlation values to sub-pixel values.
For the COR (static) method, the template remains static, i.e. the template
prototype programmed in the setup image with teach-in is always used no matter
what the current image number is. Because of this, changes in size or shape
cannot be recorded.
COR (adaptive)
Correlation with an adaptive template = virtually defined in the previous image.
An adapted image template that was virtually extracted at the marker position in
the previous image is used to determine the position in the current image
(= automatic teach-in).
This procedure is well suited for sequences with constant change of marker
shape, for example because of rotation, but is unfavorable if there are changes
caused by markers being covered over.
Please note:
Since the risk of false interpretations is very high, this method is not marked in
the basic setting. Make certain you use a relatively large meaningful template
extracts and analyze the trajectory results “online” during tracking to interrupt
the process if necessary.
COR (static)
COR (adaptive)
setup image
# -1
#0
Correlation with static template from setup image
or with adaptive template from adjacent image
Dropout Search
If you have been unable to reliably predict the marker up to this point, it is now
assumed that the predicted search area is unable to capture the marker.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 283
In this case, Dropout Search next attempts to find the marker in a second pass
with the aid of a still prediction and an expanded capture range (see above). The
marker-specific algorithms and correlation procedures are tried again in the
“new” search area.
(Dropout search is only used for markers of the moving motion type with
previous linear or tangential prediction.)
still
prediction
# -2
# -1
tangential
prediction
225%
capture
range
# -3
y
#0
100%
x
Dropout search = repeated search in a “new” search window
During tracking, you can recognize this procedure from a repeated display of the
blue search window with expanded size (just a “short flash”).
Please note:
This procedure will only lead to success if the reason why detection failed
initially can actually be traced back to inadequate prediction. On the other hand,
if the marker has disappeared, the result may even be an adjacent marker that is
incorrectly “captured”.
Group
The marker position can be extrapolated geometrically using the group model
without having recourse to image information (= automated dropout handling). It
is assumed in this case that all markers within a group (rigid body) are subject to
the “same” movement.
If the group consists of two members, a translatory model can be calculated. For
a valid grouping of a given marker, a measurement value of another group
marker must be present. The measurement quality is then 100%
(= unambiguous).
If there are three or more markers, a model with similarity transformations
(including rotation and change in size) can be calculated. For a valid grouping of
a marker, measurement values of at least two other group markers must be
present. If more than 2 markers are contributing to the regression calculation of
the model, the heuristic measurement quality returns a message about the quality
of the model that is determined: For example, Quality 100% = measurement
error 0 pixels (= unambiguous), 50% = 5 pixels and 1% = 9 pixels.
Members of a group that were in turn themselves measured through a group do
not contribute to calculating the group model. As a reference image, every image
“in the past” is sought, in which the current marker or the marker to be tracked
was measured “normally” i.e. not through a group.
Tip
Group in 2½-D
284 • MovXact – Image Analysis
If spatial calibration is activated with depth calibration, the group model is
calculated taking into account depth correction, i.e. markers that do not lie on a
plane will also be handled correctly geometrically in 2½ -D space.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
C
C’
?
A
A
B
B
# -1
#0
Extrapolation of marker position C' from measurement values of the group in Image # -1
and # 0
Extrapolation
The temporally predicted position is accepted as a “plausible” measurement
value for the maximum number of images specified.
This method helps the so-called “T0 flash image” (= markers that are too bright
and illuminated) to survive through tracking without interruption. The basic
setting for image number is therefore 1.
Tip
If this problem does not occur in your applications, we recommend you remove
the marking in the checkbox. Check the default settings in Settings/Methods
as well.
Edit/Markers – Trajectory
In this properties tab, you can create a numeric and visual overview of measured
trajectory values. The number of measurement values and the image interval
that was measured (from the first to last value) appears in the table heading.
Example:
Image sequence with 100 images = #0 - #99:
1.
50 values in the interval (10-59) (with no gaps)
? continuous measurement values in this sub-interval, i.e. without gaps
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 285
2.
50 values in the interval (10-99) (with gaps)
? the number is < (99-10+1 = 90), thus indicating trajectory gaps
The Image Number, x and y Position in pixels are listed in the table as well
as the Tracking Status and the Tracking Method used. Measurement gaps
are written as “blank” lines:
You can also read additional parameters for an individual measurement value
such as diameter, angle of rotation and measurement quality in the status bar:
Tip
Moving through lists
As in most Windows view controls, after you click on an individual
measurement value, the red triangular arrow then indicates the value, the line is
highlighted in blue and a fine dotted border indicates that it is active. You can
then “scroll” up and down in the list with the aid of the arrow keys. The display
in the analysis image and Zoom window automatically follows the current
position.
You can use the Display All button to control whether the entire trajectory of a
marker or just the selected measurement value of an image in the overlay will be
displayed.
In addition to visualization, the following options are also available for
processing measurement values:
•
Edit measurement value
•
If you select an image number from the list with the
mouse/cursor, the corresponding measurement value will be
accepted into the text fields under the table.
•
•
•
Now you can edit the position and insert it into the trajectory
by clicking on another measurement value. The measurement
status should be entered after this.
•
•
Entering a measurement value with the cursor
•
You can also enter the position interactively with the cursor.
When you click on the appropriate button, the measurement
cursor is immediately in the Zoom window (if it is open), since
most of the corrections will involve fine details. You can exit
from input by clicking mouse button 1. The measurement status is
then manual.
•
286 • MovXact – Image Analysis
•
Deleting a measurement value
•
You can delete an individual measurement value or an interval
of measurement values by using the standard Windows methods of
selecting multiple entries in a list by holding down the Shift
or Ctrl key.
•
Deleting “All” measurement values
•
This button leads to a dialog in which you can actually delete
all trajectory values (except for the one in the setup image!).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
•
You can also delete only very specific measurement values with
certain status features.
•
By selecting the status:
•
•
and optionally the method:
•
•
•
The number of values to be deleted (to which the selected
features apply) appears in the lower text box.
•
Overwrite protection
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Changes will not actually be made to the data record or analysis until you have
clicked on the Accept button or confirmed acceptances when changing
markers.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 287
The Edit/Contours(t)
You can use the modal dialog Edit/Contours(t) (at first only) to check basic
settings. For numeric and visual output of measured image values, use the
Measure Interactively dialog:
The Edit/Stencils Dialog
You can use the modal dialog Edit/Stencils (at first only) to check basic
settings. For numeric and visual output of measured image values, use the
Measure Interactively dialog:
288 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Edit/Export Dialog
The modal dialog Edit/Export allows you, among other things, to create ASCII
logs or result tables in text format as well as DIAdem files.
First select the filename and file type (the default setting is “Analysis NameExport” in the analysis directory) and the file type.
Then mark the checkboxes of the data records you would like to export into
the file. Depending on the file type and measurement objects present, however,
not all input boxes can always be selected.
The following section describes the file types based on how they are used with
examples:
Type
eXtra ASCII (*.txt)
ASCII text file with structured layout and commented list of parameters and
measurement values.
Application
Text log for documenting all parameters as well as results.
Layout
The following interface description of the file format will only be of interest for
users who would like to import the data to an external program.
•
Access to/identification of the sections is based on keywords, for example:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 289
:-> FalCon-eXtra-MovXact
•
•
•
A keyword starts at the beginning of the line and is composed of
the identifier “:-> ” (with a space) and a word (without
umlauts). The following line can always be skipped.
A valid FalCon eXtra ASCII file must contain at least the keyword “:>FalCon-eXtra-ASCII”.
The parameter “Version” is then expected: The version number of the
log format and language identification (important for keywords!) “D” for
German or “E” for English.
Parameters are composed of:
1. A description (one or more words concluding with “:”)
2. Parameter value(s) and in some cases
3. Unit of measure or comment, for example:
Color resolution: 8 bit
•
•
Units are specified after the numeric parameter values as text, for example
time in s, displacements in mm.
The setting of checkboxes is identified by a number 0 or 1 followed by a
description, for example
Right-handed:
•
The setting of an option box is identified by a number 0, 1, 2 … followed
by a description, for example
Origin:
•
1 Markers
Ref_Left
Ref_Right
1 On
800.000000 mm
or
Scale:
Value:
•
1 Marker
Please note: Depending on the setting of an option box, the number of
following parameters may be variable, for example
Scale:
Marker A:
Marker B:
Static:
Marker distance:
•
0 Off
0 Value
2.580000 mm/pixel
A log of a camera calibration consists of the following subsections with
the “@” identifier:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
:-> Calibration camera <Tracking004>
[email protected]
Camera ...
@ Lens ...
@ Calibration data ...
@ Parameters ...
@ Positions ...
•
and optionally
@ Control points [X,Y,Z: mm] ...
@ Image points [Image#, x,y: pixel] ...
•
Measured image data = uncalibrated raw measured data are stored in the
left-handed image coordinate system (origin top left). Each measurement
object is identified by its name, and the corresponding line begins with the
special character “@”, for example
@Marker:
290 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Ref_Left
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
The values table begins after the parameters of the basic setting and the
column headings. The values table is enclosed with the special characters
“(:-” and “:-)”, for example
Image:
X:
(:0 111.492
1 111.240
2 111.370
3 111.185
...
127 109.836
:-)
•
Y: Phi(MXT): Q: Status:
Method:
238.590
238.002
237.522
238.081
-43.0
-42.8
-42.7
-42.6
81
82
82
82
automatically
automatically
automatically
automatically
MXT
MXT
MXT
MXT
237.009
-42.4
81 automatically MXT
Calibrated measurement results are listed similarly in the coordinate
system of spatial calibration, for example:
@Marker:
Head-1
Abscissa, ordinate: x,z
Minimum (x,z):
-147.431154 , -506.392357 mm
Maximum (x,z):
354.055668 , -317.146661 mm
Image:
(:0
1
2
...
127
:-)
x [mm]:
z [mm]:
Time [s]:
-146.563363
-146.731326
-146.337476
-501.448131
-501.584136
-502.148209
-0.0220
-0.0200
-0.0180
-62.710165
-452.483875
0.2320
Note:
The relative line number after the keyword should be used to extract parameters
instead of the description (which is text). This makes it easier to maintain the
interface when there are version changes.
Type
ASCII Table (*.txt)
ASCII text file with a simple layout in table-format
Application
Table output of measurement results as a template for post-processing in
external programs.
Layout
The file format is limited to a sparsely commented sequence of measurement
value tables:
The measurement objects are identified by name, and the corresponding line
begins with the special character “@”.
This is followed by a comment line with the column headings: Coordinate and
unit.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 291
The table of measurement values begins just after this and ends with a blank line,
for example
@Marker:
Head-1
Image:
x [mm]:
z [mm]:
0
-146.563363
-501.448131
1
-146.731326
-501.584136
2
-146.337476
-502.148209
...
127
-62.710165
-452.483875
Time [s]:
-0.0220
-0.0200
-0.0180
0.2320
Please note:
If the trajectory or calibrated measurement graph has gaps, the image numbers or
times in the list do not increase equidistantly and must therefore be evaluated
when they are imported into another program together with the coordinate
columns.
Type
eXtra Analysis (*.ana)
MovXact evaluation file
Application
Saving of selected portions of the analysis as a template for later import
when a new analysis is created.
Layout
The file format corresponds to the internal (not the externally compatible)
format of MovXact evaluations.
The file contains only data from the currently selected view. Use the command
File/Save As to save all views and all data records together.
The file internally identifies which data records have been saved. If this file does
not contain any analysis parameters or image sequence information, it can no
longer be opened “normally” and then serves only as a template for importing
into a new or existing analysis.
Note:
Since measurement data depend heavily on the size of the image and length of
the analysis sequence in question, they cannot be accepted into another “foreign”
analysis.
Type
eXtra Marker Defaults (*.mrd)
MovXact marker defaults file.
Application
Saving of selected portions of the marker name list with the basic settings
as a template for later import into a new analysis.
Layout
The file format corresponds to the internal format of MovXact marker defaults
files.
You can save either the markers of the currently selected view only or the
markers of all views (= union). (Identical with the File/Save As command in
terms of content).
Open the document in FalCon eXtra to check the marker data or to post-process
the data.
292 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Note:
Marker defaults contain neither measurement values nor geometrical setup
parameters (position and size), but rather only the basic settings such as name
and colors.
Please read the release notes for the current additions!
Type
DIAdem Measurement Data (*.dat)
DIAdem container files with calibrated measurement data.
Application
Fast save of all marker measurement data in a uniform coordinate system.
Layout
DIAdem file format R32.
Two channels are written for each marker with calibrated displacement
coordinates.
Marker
= Head
Channels = Head-s_x and Head-s_z
In addition, a channel Time-t is written with equidistant continuous time values.
Note:
If a measurement graph contains gaps (image measurement value is not available
or calibration is invalid), the values (according to the DIAdem definition) are set
to No-Values.
Please note:
No-Values are not yet supported in FalCon eXtra.
Please read the release notes for the current additions!
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 293
The Edit/Import Dialog
The modal dialog Edit/Import is used to read in specific pre-settings or to
import ASCII measurement data:
First select the filename and file type:
Then mark the checkboxes of the data records you would like to import into
the file. Depending on the file type, however, only a few input boxes will be
available for selection here.
The following section describes the file types based on how they are used with
examples:
Type
eXtra ASCII (*.txt)
ASCII text file with structured layout and commented list of parameters and
measurement values.
Application
Import from camera calibration logs and marker / stencil measurement
data.
Layout
Please note the principle features of the ASCII interface description in the
Edit/Export dialog.
294 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
1.1.1.1.1.2
calibration
Camera
•
A log of a camera calibration consists of the following subsections
with the “@” identifier:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
:-> Calibration camera <Tracking004>
[email protected]
Camera ...
@ Lens ...
@ Calibration data ...
@ Parameters ...
•
and (ignored during import):
@ Positions ...
@ Control-Points [X,Y,Z: mm] ...
@ Image-Points [Image#, x,y: pixel] ...
If you would like to fill a file with data from external measurement
programs for later import, we recommend creating a sample
file with export and post-processing it with the editor.
The file must contain at least the following value ranges:
Pixel size >= 1.0 µm,
Focal length (nominal and calibrated) >= 1.0 mm
Focussing >= 1.0 mm
Additional value ranges are not checked here, which means that
any incorrect edited information in the text file (for example
plus or minus sign errors) may lead to arbitrary results.
The parameter list is evaluated selectively during import according
to the following outline, since some of the information is
redundant:
0 :is not evaluated. Values are calculated
from the values provided using pixel size.
1 :is evaluated.
Parameter values are expected in the units of the example shown
below. The units themselves (= texts) are not checked.
[email protected] Parameter
------------------------------------------------0 Method:
0 Full evaluation
1 Focal length:
4.520000 mm
0 Principal point:
6.4600 , -12.7200 pixel (lh)
1 A1:
-1.13547900e-002
1 A2:
2.38893800e-004
1 A3:
-1.68637700e-006
1 B1:
1.16748300e-004
1 B2:
9.88407600e-005
1 C1:
1.05322200e-004
1 C2:
3.57463100e-004
0 R0:
213.333333 pixel
0 Sensor size (S):
8.192000 x 6.144000 mm
1 Principal point(S): 0.103360 , 0.203520 mm (rh)
1 R0 (S):
3.413333 mm
0 Stand. error (org): 4.305906 pixel
0 Stand. error (cal): 0.068043 pixel
The physical sensor size (S) is derived from the parameters listed
under “@ Camera” image size ∗ pixel size.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 295
The values for principal point and R0 parameter are indicated
(redundantly) both in image units [pixels] and in terms of the
sensor (S) in [mm].
Please note:
The y coordinate of the principal point is defined left-handed
in the image and right-handed on the sensor
(mathematically correct).
1.1.1.1.1.3
Marker
measurement data
•
An option is available for experts to import measured image data from
other evaluations or from synthetic pre-settings. Data that are read in can
then be used like “normal” measurement objects.
Only the name and in some cases the control point coordinates are read in
from markers, along with measured image values. (The other basic
settings are ignored).
The values table is surrounded by the special characters “(:-” and
“:-)”. The image number must fall within the valid sequence interval.
The image number of the first valid value determines the setup image.
Gaps in the table are interpreted correctly.
A valid table file therefore has the format shown in the following example:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++:
-> Markers <Tracking004>
[email protected]
Marker:
MyTarget
...
Control pt.(X,Y,Z): 900.0 123.0 875.0 mm
...
Image:
X:
Y:
(:0
396.00
337.00
1
369.87
345.63
2
3
315.13
348.78
5
262.61
333.02
6
239.20
318.56
7
218.65
300.25
:-)
The imported marker is interpreted as of type PIX, and the status of
the measurement values is manually measured. In the
example below, there are gaps for image #2 and #4:
296 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
1.1.1.1.1.4
Stencil
measurement data
•
If you would like to import “nice looking” (ideally shaped) outlines as
stencil graphs, you can import measured image data from ASCII files and
adjust them to the actual image in terms of position, size and direction of
rotation in the setup image for the stencil.
Only the name and the setup image (if not equal to 0) are read in from
stencils, along with the corner points of the graph. (The other basic settings
are ignored).
The values table of the line or a several separate lines are surrounded by
the special characters “(:-” and “:-)”. The sequential index in the table is
not interpreted.
A valid table file of a stencil with two lines therefore has the format shown
in the following example:
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++:-> Stencils <Tracking004>
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
[email protected]:
MyHead
...
Setup image:
40
...
Index:
X:
Y:
(:0
189.000
108.000
1
175.000
100.000
2
177.000
86.000
3
173.000
84.000
4
180.000
72.000
5
187.000
53.000
6
206.000
47.000
:-)
(:0
1
2
216.000
217.000
218.000
54.000
75.000
89.000
:-)
Type
ASCII Table (*.txt)
ASCII text file with a simple layout in table-format
Application
Import from marker / stencil measurement data.
Layout
The file format is limited to a 2-column table measurement value (image
coordination x,y in pixels) with any header.
(See commented file type “eXtra ASCII (*.txt)” on page 289)
1.1.1.1.1.5
Marker
measurement data
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
Only trajectory values of a single marker are read in. The measurement
value table begins with the first pair of numeric values in the text file and
ends with the last one. The index applies implicitly in the table as the
image number as well as setup image #0. “ImportMarker” is also set
automatically as the name of the PIX marker.
A valid table file therefore has the format shown in the following example:
MovXact – Image Analysis • 297
TestData
R&D Corp
396.00
369.87
315.13
262.61
239.20
218.65
1.1.1.1.1.6
Stencil
measurement data
•
July 26, 2001
Brechenbacher
337.00
345.63
348.78
333.02
318.56
300.25
Only the corner points of a single stencil were read in with just one line.
The values value table begins with the first pair of numeric values in the
text file and ends with the last one. The index in the table applies implicitly
as setup image #0. “ImportStencil” is also set automatically as the name of
the stencil.
A valid table file therefore has the format shown in the following example:
TestStencil July 26, 2001
R&D Corp Brechenbacher
189.000
108.000
175.000
100.000
177.000
86.000
173.000
84.000
180.000
72.000
187.000
53.000
206.000
47.000
Type
eXtra Analysis (*.ana)
MovXact evaluation file
Application
Reading in specific pre-settings and default settings from an existing
evaluation.
Layout
The file format corresponds to the internal (not the externally compatible)
format of MovXact evaluations.
•
For example, if you are reading in the calibration settings (scale and
coordinate system) of an already existing test, you may thus be able to
“copy” many parameters.
•
You can use the Import button in the Create New Analysis dialog to
import both descriptive data of the views as well as their complete spatial
calibration settings. All markers will also be inserted automatically into the
Defaults property tab. An underscore “_” is added to the imported
evaluation name to avoid unintentionally overwriting the file.
Please note:
If the coordinate system depends on marker positions, for example, you must
first set up these markers and if necessary track them before the calibration can
actually be validly performed (see also “The Calibration/2D Coordinate
System Dialog” on page 248).
298 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The View Menu
In the View menu you can specify the properties that determine the screen
makeup. You can determine whether you want to work with tool bars and a
status bar.
The following commands are available in this area:
Tool bars
If the tool bar is displayed, a check mark will appear next
to the menu entry for this command.
Status bar
If the status bar is displayed, a mark will appear next to
the menu entry for this command.
Sort
measurement
objects
These commands (together with the following sorting
options) indicate the criteria by which measurement data
lists can be sorted in the Analysis Document window.
However, you should use direct sorting by clicking on
the column heading in document window, for example
Name for a list of marker names sorted in ascending or
descending alphabetical order.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 299
The Marker Defaults (*.mrd) Document
The document type Marker Defaults (*.mrd) is ideally suited for preprocessing standardized tests. Markers are recorded and stored there with their
name, type and basic settings.
You can create a new marker defaults document with File/New or export an
existing evaluation *.ana into to the *.mrd file format:
Now select the following for each marker to be inserted:
•
Name and type
•
Tracking parameters: Motion type and Group name
•
Calibration parameters: Filter frequency (0 Hz := unfiltered) and Depth
for the standard plane
•
Graphic colors for Overlay (bright) and Diagram (dark)
Then click on the green insert icon in the toolbar to append the marker in the
left tree view control.
You can delete a marker with the red icon in the toolbar, or by clicking on the
marker object in the list and then dragging and releasing it onto the screen (Drag
and Drop).
= Insert/Change Marker
= Delete Marker
You can find both of these along with the Delete All Markers in the Markers
menu:
Application
Import a marker defaults file into the Defaults properties tab of the Analysis
Document window or drag individual markers into the analysis during setup with
Drag and Drop.
For more information on working in the Set Up Markers dialog, see subsection
“3. Set up with a Marker Default File” on page 229).
300 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The Picture List Document (*.pli)
As an alternative to AVI sequences, image sequences consisting of individual
images, referred to as picture lists (*.pli) are also supported.
Create a new picture list document with File/New.
Now insert the frame rate and the starting time T0 for image #0.
You can use the Add command to select existing picture documents that are to
be included in the list.
You also have the typical Windows option of multiple selection.
Please note:
Windows sometimes mixes up the order of the selected files when you have
made a multiple selection. To avoid this, select the last file first, then go to the
first file and select it with “Shift” + mouse click.
With the aid of image selection, you can remove images from the displayed
list at a regular whole-number interval (every nth image) and even delete
these images from the computer’s hard drive if you wish.
You can see the image in the list you have currently clicked on in the preview
window.
Finally, save the list as a new document Name.pli.
Definition
The picture list is only a container description of the addresses (paths) and names
of the individual image files. The size of the file will generally be only a few
KB. Thus, it does not contain the actual image data.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 301
Application
Specify the picture list as a sequence with Create a New Analysis.
(In Version 3.x, individual images cannot be copied into other (sub-) directories.
The path specified in the picture list must be valid!)
Please note in this regard that image optimization must be verified in the
MovXact Settings menu and adjusted if necessary.
During processing in MovXact, the color mask interpolation and all optimization
steps are performed each time an image is accessed. This reduces the
performance of the program.
AVI and PLI picture list:
difference in measurement
accuracy?
Does marker tracking based on original individual images return more
accurate results?
There is no difference in terms of image quality and measurement accuracy
between the two types of sequences if both AVI and individual images are
uncompressed and the same optimization parameters are used.
302 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
How Do I Measure Differences to Position?
In answer to this question, we present a brief introduction to the most important
basic principles and settings for angle measurement.
You will find all details in the descriptions of the dialogs, as well as information
to assist the user in running the program.
Requirement for calibrated measurements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measure marker positions: set up and track automatically or measure
interactively.
Calibration dialog: Mark the Scale Planes and Time checkboxes.
Time: Check the frame rate and T0.
Set up the 2D Coordinate System.
Select Scale Planes.
In the case of measurements outside the scale plane:
Mark the Depth checkbox and enter the camera distance and relative
depth(s).
Select Units.
Differences to Position of a Marker as f(t)
•
•
•
Diagram output of a T-diagram s-x,y or s resultant
Info displays extremes and standard deviation
No reference:
•
Displacements are defined in reference to the origin of the
coordinate system.
•
With reference to position:
•
This “temporal difference” is practically a “static” shift of
the origin of the coordinate system to the position xT
x’(t) = x(t) – xT
where
•
•
xT = position of the selected marker in a specific image or at a specific
time T.
With reference to diagram value:
Moves a measurement graph diagram m by an offset value such
that the graph goes through 0.0 at the specified abscissa
value:
m’(t) = m(t) – mT
•
•
The result is thus not obligatorily the difference between
spatial coordinates: In the case of s-x,y, the method happens to
be identical to Reference to position, but in the case of other
post-processing methods, such as resultant or angle, this is
not so!
Distances between Two Markers as f(t)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
•
Diagram output of a T-diagram s-x,y or s resultant
With reference to marker M2:
•
This “spatial difference” causes a “dynamic” offset of the
origin to the position of marker M2 at any time t. ?x is the
distance between the two markers.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 303
•
(The origin of the coordinate system is irrelevant because of
the subtraction).
?x(t) = x1(t) – x2(t)
•
(Similarly, it is also possible to generate a graph of the
angle of the connecting section as the output).
Difference to Position of a Marker between Two Times
•
•
•
In some cases, it will only be necessary to measure the few trajectory
values that are actually required: automatically or interactively.
Select the measurement object Markers and marker M in the Measure
Interactively dialog.
Numeric input of individual values x, y, resultant and angle.
Display of the calibrated trajectory value x with difference to position in an
image T:
?x = x – xT
Distance between Markers at a Given Time
•
Select the measurement object distances and markers MA and MB in the
Measure Interactively dialog:
Display of difference to position as x, y and resultant.
?x= xA – xB
304 • MovXact – Image Analysis
•
Analog output with selection From Markers To Cursor or From Cursor
To Cursor.
•
Please note: The relative depth must be (previously) set for the
cursor positions in order to make any depth corrections!
•
Note: You must make entries manually with the cursor in the
Zoom window for a precise measurement. This increases the
measurement accuracy (especially for Zoom display with linear
or cubic interpolation) from ± 1 pixel to ± 1/magnification
factor pixels.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
How Do I Measure an Angle?
In answer to this question, we present a brief introduction to the most important
basic principles and settings for angle measurement.
You will find all details in the descriptions of the dialogs, as well as information
to assist the user in running the program.
Requirement for calibrated measurements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measure marker positions: set up and track automatically or measure
interactively.
Calibration dialog: Mark the Scale planes and Time checkboxes.
Time: Check the frame rate and T0.
Set up the 2D coordinate system.
Select Scale Planes.
In the case of measurements outside the scale plane:
Mark the Depth checkbox and enter the camera distance and relative
depth(s).
Select Units.
Angle of a Marker as f(t)
•
•
•
Diagram output of a T-diagram with the ordinate angle
Info displays extremes and standard deviation
No Reference:
The angle is considered the angle of the section between the marker
position x and the origin of the coordinate system. The absolute value is
determined in terms of the abscissa axis of the coordinate system.
phi(t) = angle(x(t))
where
x = position in the calibrated coordinate system
•
x
phi
•
•
0,0
•
With reference to position:
•
This “temporal difference” is practically a “static” shift of
the origin of the coordinate system to the position xT
phi(t) = angle(x(t) – xT)
where
xT = position of the selected marker in a specific image or at a specific
time T.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 305
•
With reference to diagram value:
•
Moves a diagram m by an offset value such that the graph goes
through 0.0 at the specified abscissa value:
phi(t) = phi(t) – phiT
Angle Differences between Two Markers as f(t)
•
•
Diagram output of an angle T-diagram of marker M1.
With reference to marker M2:
•
This “spatial difference” causes
origin to the position of marker
practically the distance between
between them is the angle of the
•
(The origin of the coordinate system is irrelevant because of
the subtraction).
•
phi(t) = angle(x1(t) – x2(t))
a “dynamic” offset of the
M2 at any time t. ?x is
the two markers, and the angle
connecting straight line.
x1
phi
x2
•
•
•
•
•
Please note: The individual angles of the markers (the respective
sections from marker to origin) are not subtracted.
phi ≠ angle(x1) – angle(x2)
In addition:
With reference to diagram value:
Moves the graph of the angle so that the graph goes through 0.0
at the specified abscissa value:
?phi(t) = phi(t) – phiT
•
The graph thus describes the course of the change in the angle
relative to a selected point in time. The coordinate system is
practically rotated about the angle phiT.
•
The alignment of the abscissa of the coordinate system thus
becomes irrelevant. Only relative values are taken into
consideration.
•
phiT
x1T
x2T
•
•
•
•
306 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Tip:
If the two markers fall within the same depth plane if the X/Y
pixel side ratio of the camera sensor is 1:1 (which is always
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
true for high-speed video), the result is the same even without
spatial calibration, i.e. the settings of the origin, abscissa
direction and scale have no effect and can be bypassed.
Angle of a Section to a Time
•
•
Numeric output of individual values in the Measure Interactively
dialog.
Select measurement object Distances and markers MA and MB:
Display of the absolute angle value of the connection section (in the current
image) in reference to the coordinate system.
phi = angle(xA – xB)
•
Analog output with selection From Markers To Cursor or From Cursor
To Cursor.
•
Please note: The relative depth must be (previously) set for the
cursor positions in order to make any depth corrections!
•
Note: You must make entries manually with the cursor in the
Zoom window for a precise measurement. This increases the
measurement accuracy (especially for Zoom display with linear
or cubic interpolation) from ± 1 pixel to ± 1/magnification
factor pixels.
MXT Angle of a Marker
•
•
•
•
•
•
Diagram output of a T-diagram with the ordinate angle(MXT):
The angle is the internal angle of the MXT marker model. It is
independent of the position x of the marker and the alignment of the
coordinate system!
Compare
No Reference:
MXT-5 markers have an angle of 0 degrees if they are arranged in the
position of a vertical cross (modulo 90 degrees!). The positive direction of
angular rotation is counterclockwise (= mathematical definition).
phi = MXT angle(model)
With reference to marker M2:
In this case, the individual MXT angles of the two markers M2
and M1 are subtracted:
?phi = MXT angle1 – MXT angle2
•
phiMXT
•
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 307
How do I Measure the Impact Angle in a Top View?
During so-called guard railing tests vehicles are imaged by a crane camera. In
these top view scenes the impact angle is an important analysis parameter.
We show two different possibilities, how to measure angles in such an
application and how to select the settings.
Choose the solution which is appropriate to your task!
t -3
t -2
t -1
t0
A Angle of the Impact Trajectory
•
The angle between the position of a marker MA at time t<0 and the position
of the same(!) marker at T0 t=0 is measured.
t -3
t -2
t -1
t0
phi(t) = angle(xA(t) – xA(T0))
•
308 • MovXact – Image Analysis
This complies to the exemplification, that the origin of the coordinate
system, in which the angle is to be measured, is fixed (= static) on the T0position.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
t -3
t -2
t -1
(t 0)
•
•
T Diagram output of a curve from marker MA = Front:
Ordinate s of Angle
with Reference to Position 0 ms.
or
marker Front as origin of the coordinate system Static in reference image
@T0:
Note:
•
•
•
•
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The sign of the angle depends on the orientation of the coordinate system!
Align the abscissa axis of the coordinate system exactly on the straight line
of the “guard railing”.
The measured angle does not describe the local curvature of the trajectory
(= mean values of the angles measured relatively to the time values ± ?t),
but it is the angle to the position at the impact time.
The accuracy of the angular measurement decreases while approaching the
impact point, because the sections ?x, ?y are getting smaller and smaller.
The arctan ?y/?x and thus the Angle at T0 is (because of ?x=0)
undefined!
MovXact – Image Analysis • 309
B Angle of the Vehicle’s Longitudinal Axis
•
The angle between the positions of the two markers MA and MB is
measured as a function of time.
t -3
t -2
t -1
t0
phi(t) = angle(xA(t) – xB(t))
•
This complies to the exemplification, that the origin of the coordinate
system, in which the angle is to be measured, is dynamic on the position of
marker MA.
t -3
t -2
t -1
t0
or with dynamically shifted coordinate system:
t -3
offset
t -1
t -2
t0
•
T Diagram output of a curve from marker MB = Back:
Ordinate s of Angle
with Reference to Marker MA = Front:
310 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
or
marker Front as Dynamic (= not static) origin of the coordinate system:
Note: (see also A)
•
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
The measured angle describes the rotation around the vertical axis of the
vehicle = Yaw.
If the two markers do not match the longitudinal axis of the vehicle
exactly, the corresponding angle offset needs to be measured and corrected.
MovXact – Image Analysis • 311
How to adjust a perpendicular view ?
∆sW
A
.
scale plane
B
camera plane
image plane
∆sI
Scale markers A and B on a plane coplanar to the camera plane
•
•
For 2D analysis you require (at least) one linear scale to convert image
coordinates in [pixels] to physical positions in [m].
The scale must be oriented vertically to the camera’s direction of view!
The camera must not be tilted, i.e. it must not be rotated upwardly or
downwardly, to the left or to the right. The plane defined by the scale and
the camera axis (=coplanar to the sensor/image plane in the camera) is
designated as the scale plane.
How can you aligne the camera exactly orthogonally in axis S ?
= rotation around the front-to-back axis (line of view, longitudinal z axis)
= swing or roll.
•
•
Use a spirit-level and/or align the image borders to (horizontal) lines in the
live image.
This alignment is not critical!
You might adjust it later during the calibration by orientation of the
coordinate system.
How can you aligne the camera exactly orthogonally in axis T ?
= rotation around the side-to-side axis ( lateral x axis)
= pitch or horizontal tilt
•
•
Use a (digital) spirit-level.
Measure the height of the lens axis to the floor; then a point on the object
with the same z-coordinate should be imaged in the center of the image.
How can you aligne the camera exactly orthogonally in axis A ?
= rotation around the vertical (y axis)
= yaw or axis or vertical tilt
•
•
312 • MovXact – Image Analysis
Try to measure the angle with a triangle ruler, if the camera distance is
quite small (Sled Test)
or
Draw parallel (black) lines on the floor of your test area (Full Scale Test).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
•
Stand the camera so that its body is approximately over a line.
Check the live image:
Is the line located in the center of the image?
Is it vertical to the horizontal border line of the image (assumed that swing
is almost 0 degrees)?
scale plane
camera plane
Warning
The proposal above ignores the influence of the principal point.
If known, align the view acc. to the corrected image center which is shifted by
the value of the principal point.
Note:
If you already have premeasured principal points in the image, you may measure
the camera‘s position with the aid of the module FalCon Mov3D and even
apply inversly in case of a 2D-evaluation (to a certain point), thus being able to
correct possible wrong angles of the camera viewing direction.
Tip
During depth calibration (= compensation of parallaxes, see p. 264 ff) you will
need the distance of camera to scale plane as well as relative distances of the
markers.
Drawing a grid (mesh size e.g. 500 mm) on the floor will enable you to:
•
Reproduce the camera location,
•
Have a rough estimate for the camera distance and
•
Have a reference for the relative distances
•
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact – Image Analysis • 313
MovBag – Airbag Analysis
The evaluation module MovBag extracts outlines from recordings of airbag
tests and measured values derived from them.
It offers the following features:
•
Automatically determining surface graphs that change over time
•
Display in the image overlay and diagram
•
Derivation of specific measured values:
Maximum expansion, area, and center of gravity with output similar to the
eXtra MovXact analysis system
•
Measurement of discrete points, markers or areas
•
Calibration of measurement data with free selection of the coordinate
system
•
Export into Multi-D format, DIAdem etc.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 315
Introduction
MovBag records airbag outlines as contour graphs = f(t). The available image
processing tools are designed primarily for tests on the test stand. Measurement
methods detect differences in brightness and color saturation (absolutely or
relative to a reference image) using adjustable parameters.
A largely automatic measurement process is supported by the following
boundary conditions:
•
The airbag envelope is suitably illuminated and is “bright” in comparison
to the direct environment.
•
A white balance according to the color of the surface, in this case silver,
ensures that the airbag appears without intense color, in other words that
the color saturation is at a low level.
•
The background of the scene is structured so as to ensure differentiation
with the surface of the airbag. Accordingly, a (relatively) “dark” and
“saturated” area that is as homogeneous as possible is recommended. If a
monochrome image sequence (KODAK 4540) is evaluated, the brightness
gradient between the background and the airbag should be very
pronounced.
•
Bright or even white labels, bars, etc. in the area of the airbag surface
should be avoided. By setting the “region of interest”, however, it is
possible to mask out all non-relevant areas, for example visible headlights.
The menus and dialog boxes of MovBag offer you the following processing
and editing options:
•
If multiple airbags or objects are visible in the image field, they can be
measured separately.
•
The outlines are displayed graphically in the image overlay: Options
include color, filling, background mask, the coordinate system with axes
and grid.
•
An overview diagram with legend serves as a log recording the temporal
sequence. Options include the sequence interval, increment and
background mask.
•
Spatial diagrams of calibrated graphs can be displayed as plots or exported
into tables or standard file formats (DIAdem).
•
A Multi-D format is used for visualization of the temporal sequence of 2D
diagrams. Several diagram sequences can be displayed simultaneously with
AVIs and this makes comparisons between multiple tests possible. Of
course this file format is also supported by the modules eXtra Quick
View and FalCon Customer View.
•
Specific measured values are derived from the contour graphs: Maximum
expansion, area, and center of gravity. These measured values are
calibrated and post-processed according to the extensive options of the
MovXact analysis system. The values are generated numerically and as
time graphs (with calculation of v(t) and a(t)).
MovBag has extensive operating features that you have already become familiar
with in the MovXact image measurement module and in the Quick View
viewer module.
•
Creating a new analysis
•
Setting up marked markers
316 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
•
•
Setting up the calibration:
Time + coordinate system + scale
Output of results
You will need the following as input data:
•
Image sequence (AVI or PLI image list)
•
Scale parameters (if possible in the center of the airbag = steering wheel
level)
The steps for editing Measurement and Diagram output in particular are
described in the following sections.
Terms
The terms “closed graph” or “closed polygon” are used synonymously with the
term outline.
A contour in an image may consist of multiple individual graphs(!) and they do
not necessarily need to be connected to each other. The term Contour(t)
describes the temporal sequence of the contour. Its position, shape and size may
vary from image to image.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 317
The Interactive Measuring + MovBag Menu
You can record the contour in the menu Analyze/Interactive Measuring +
MovBag. First click on the Contours(t) "folder" in the tree list with the "halfmoon" icon (= time-variant shape).
You can define a contour with the Set-Up button. The suggested name is
"Airbag" or "Airbag_#":
The contour still does not contain any measured values, i.e. no sequence of
outlines.
Now adjust the measurement methods with the Settings button.
If the settings (from the registry) already correspond to your test environment,
you can simply begin immediately with a test measurement. Mark the Check
check box, set the Increment to 5 or 10 images, for example, and press the
Measure button: After an individual image is processed, the result is displayed
in the overlay. You can control the remaining steps with the following selection
dialog:
318 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
If you are satisfied with the sample results, return to the beginning of the
sequence interval, set the value of the increment to 1 and start the
measurement without check mode. If you would like to stop the measurement
loop during processing, click on the Stop button (instead of Measure).
In the Options/Display dialog box, select which measured variable should be
displayed in the Measured values dialog block.
Example: Measured value = max. expansion to the abscissa:
Please note: Displacements will only be displayed in the calibrated unit [m] or
[mm] if the spatial calibration has been set. Otherwise the output will be shown
in the [pixel] unit.
Tip
To test the coordinate system and the scale calibration, select the display in the
overlay of the analysis image.
Overlay display: Coordinate system with grid
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 319
The Contour-Options Dialog: Methods
Now adjust the parameters for automatic measurement by clicking on the
Options button.
As reference image enter the number of the starting image in which the airbag
is not yet visible. This image serves as the "background reference" for the
"difference from reference image" extraction methods.
“Empty” reference image
320 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
You can use the search area to specify which region of the image should be
evaluated during the automatic measurement. No use is made of all static image
contents or of dynamic processes outside of this window, i.e., they are ignored.
You can select between a rectangular window and a polygon.
Entry of the rectangle search area:
Move by holding down the left mouse button.
The size can be adjusted on marked corners
Entry of the polygon search area:
Click with the left mouse button = new polygon point
Click with the right mouse button = context menu
Context menu with polygon entry
Tip
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
To estimate the required search area, represent an image which the airbag has
approximately its maximum extent. Here you can easily specify a separating line
that fits precisely.
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 321
Adjusting the search range in an image with a "blown up" airbag
Note: The necessary processing time during the contour measurement is directly
proportional to the area of the search window. You should therefore mask out
irrelevant areas, thereby cutting down on computing time.
For automatic measurement, you can combine methods whose threshold
parameters can be adapted to suit individual scenes. These methods are based on
the technique of extracting an area mask from the image. It is therefore possible
to detect several subareas within the same image if masked regions are not
touching. The outlines accordingly form the bordering lines (graphs) of these
subareas. They are always closed.
(The alternative method for extracting contour lines based on gradient transfers
results in line fragments that are not necessarily connected with each other. This
approach is not used in MovBag!)
The quasi binarization of an individual image into the scene contents "airbag" (=
marked subarea(s), mask) and "background" (= remaining surrounding area) is
supported by the following methods:
Brightness - absolute method:
Based on the assumption that the airbag to be extracted is brighter than the area
surrounding it, all pixels in the image that are brighter than the minimum
threshold are marked as the airbag mask (=1):
Airbag-Mask(x,y)
= 1, if H(x,y) > min value.
= 0, else
with
H(x,y) = brightness of the point at the coordinates x,y
The spin buttons make it possible to set the value quickly in increments of 5 %.
If a color sequence is present, brightness values are calculated according to the
MovXact settings of the analysis image (s/w):
Brightness = monochrome excerpt, for example green percentage
322 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
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Too low a threshold results in detecting multiple subareas
in the "bright" background
Brightness - difference from the reference image method:
In this method, the assumption is made that the airbag is brighter than the
background that is visible at the same location in the starting image=reference
image.
All pixels in the image that are brighter in image n in respect to the reference
image r by the minimum threshold are marked as the airbag mask (= 1).
Airbag-Mask(x,y)
= 1, if (H_n(x,y) - H_r(x,y) ) > min value min.
= 0, else
with
H_n(x,y) = brightness of the point at the coord. x,y in image n
H_r(x,y) = brightness of the point in the reference image r
Too low a threshold results in detection of several subareas
in the background that is not constant over time for example with fluctuations in illumination
Desaturation - absolute method:
In this method, the feature "color desaturation" is examined instead of
"brightness".
An image with low color intensity exhibits a high level of color desaturation. An
image with strong colors is considered highly saturated, in other words the
desaturation level is low.
Use this method by arranging the scene so that the color in the background of the
airbag is as intense as possible (even blue screen curtain). You can define the
while balance for image preparation interactively on the airbag surface, which
results in a "gray" (= uncolored) reproduction.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 323
Airbag-Mask(x,y)
= 1, if E(x,y) > min. value
= 0, else
with
E(x,y) = desaturation of the point at the coordinates x,y
Risk of detecting subareas with low-color-intensity scene contents
(white license plate, black steering wheel)
Desaturation - difference from the reference image method:
Similarly to the method above, the comparison of desaturation values can also be
drawn between the current image and the reference image:
Airbag-Mask(x,y)
= 1, if (E_n(x,y) - E_r(x,y) ) > min. value
= 0, else
with
E_n(x,y) = desaturation of the point at the coord. x,y in image n
E_r(x,y) = desaturation of the point in the reference image r
Detection of subareas with non-intense-color scene contents
in front of an intense-color background (in the reference image)
In addition, the following methods are available for post-processing subareas
independently of images:
Polygons - minimum area method:
Already in the first milliseconds of the blow-up procedure, small arbitrarily
formed subareas can be extracted. Often, parts of the cover or reflections are
masked as objects and their outlines (polygons) are extracted. If you want to
suppress these effects, select a minimum size for the subareas. (Unit pixel²).
Airbag-Mask(x,y)
= 1, if within a subarea > min. value
= 0, else
Polygons - maximum number method:
324 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
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Alternatively to the method above, you can also assign how many subareas you
are expecting or the maximum number you would like to extract. To do this, all
subareas determined by the methods above are sorted by size and the ones that
are too small in the established order are deleted.
Airbag-Mask(x,y)
= 1, if within a permissible subarea based on
a size sort with # < max. number
= 0, else
Combination of methods:
The methods can be used in the following order if they are selected and the result
images (binary masks) can be combined with each other.
•
Brightness - difference from reference image → Mask
•
Desaturation - difference from the reference image → Mask*
if mask is already present:
Mask = Mask OR Mask*
else:
Mask = Mask*
•
Brightness - absolute → mask*
if mask is already present:
Mask = Mask AND Mask*
else:
Mask = Mask*
•
Desaturation - absolute → mask*
if mask is already present:
Mask = Mask AND Mask*
else:
Mask = Mask*
•
Masking with filled polygon if search area = Polygon
Mask = Mask AND Polygon Mask
•
Polygons - minimum area:
Number contiguous subareas (all enclosed "holes" are filled in this process)
and delete area patches that are (too) small from the mask.
•
Polygons - maximum number:
Limit the number of subareas by small areas being deleted.
•
Each subarea is now described by a circumscribing polygon whose corner
point coordinates are stored as graphs of the contour.
Activate the individual methods by marking the check boxes. To quickly check
through the settings, click on the Test button. You can use to forwards and
backwards spin buttons to move through the sequence of images to the desired
location. The increment set in the main dialog applies here!
Do you want to save the settings for the next analysis as the basic setting in the
registry? If so, click on the Save as Defaults button.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 325
The Contour-Options Dialog: Display
Here you can select the mode for the Display of contours:
The graphic color of the outline should be clearly visible in the image overlay,
on the transition from the airbag to the background. If you would like to be able
to distinguish several subgraphs from each other easily, select the AutoColor
mode: When you do so, graphs sorted by the enclosed areas are automatically
displayed in the color sequence red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, and cyan. The
Fill mode fills the graph with the contour color.
Examples: Contour color = green (left), with filling (right)
326 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
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Contour color = AutoColor with filling (left),
without filling with background mask gray (right)
The Background mask serves to mask out all areas in the image that are not
enclosed by the outlines. This mode may be useful for a report or masking into
other image documents. Select an appropriate color (basic setting = gray).
With the Meas. value check box you can select whether a measured value
should be displayed in the image overlay (blue circle with a cross) and in
addition should be output numerically in the main dialog. The following
measured values are available:
The "maximum expansion to the abscissa" will cause the point on the outline
that has the greatest positive value in the direction of the abscissa to be detected.
Its vertical distance to the ordinate axis is maximum. In contrast to this the
measured point for "expansion on the abscissa" lies directly on the abscissa, i.e.
it is the point where the graph intersects the abscissa. The ordinate value is
identical at zero.
Selected measured value = Max. expansion to the abscissa (left),
selected measured value = expansion on the abscissa (right)
Please note: In order to achieve physically meaningful measured values, the
coordinate system must be set up and it must be calibrated in terms of a scale.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 327
To quickly check through the settings, click on the Display button. You can use
to forwards and backwards spin buttons to move through the sequence of images
to the desired location. The increment set in the main dialog applies here!
An overview diagram with legend serves as a log recording the temporal
sequence: To do this, select the sequence interval in the unit [image number]
(the corresponding time values are calculated according to the calibration
parameters), the Increment and if necessary the Background mask mode.
Overview diagram with the interval 5 to 89 ms, increment = 10 ms,
with background mask
Do you want to save the settings for the next analysis as the basic setting in the
registry? If so, click on the Save as Defaults button.
328 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Coordinate System + Scale
The calibration takes place in a similar manner to the MovXact analysis system.
We recommend that you mark a few measurement locations in the scene, on the
basis of which the coordinate system can be defined and a scale can be set up. To
do this, use a adhesive markers of the type MXT or DOT that can be set up
automatically. Of course you can also interactively specify each position as a socalled PIX marker (= marker type without area, input with mouse+cursor).
For a typical "steering wheel" scene, the center should be designated or should
be determined by means of a "flag" or "flyer". This point serves as the Origin of
the coordinate system.
If you have not provided any additional aids for adjustment, enter the Direction
of the abscissa interactively in the reference level parameter dialog box by
specifying two cursor points. (It may be possible here to determine the direction
of the ordinate based on the angle of the steering wheel and then to add an offset
of 90 degrees).
Use two markers to determine the Scale that are located in the center plane of
the airbag. The spatial calibration is then valid in this plane. If this recommended
procedure is not possible, note that depth correction must taken into account:
Entry of the camera distance to the scale plane and the entry of the relative depth
of the contour in the Edit dialog box.
"PIX markers" for the origin, scale (top - bottom)
and direction of the abscissa (top - bottom + 90º )
Resulting coordinate system
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 329
The following entries are necessary in the Calibration/Reference plane
parameters for the above example.
(No check mark in the Right-handed check box causes the direction of the
Ordinate axis "z" to be downward.)
330 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
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Diagram Output: T Diagrams
Time diagrams of measured values can be displayed and stored in the
Diagrams/T Diagrams dialog box. As object, select your contour ("airbag") in
the group Contours(t) and then choose the Measured value to be extracted
from the list:
After you have clicked on the Display button, a diagram window is opened with
the measurement graph. (Depending on the extent of the outline in time and
space, this may require several seconds!)
Expansion graph
The Save subdialog box supports the following standard file formats:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 331
Diagram Output: X Diagrams
In the Diagrams/X Diagrams dialog box you can display and save outlines as
individual spatial diagrams or as sequences of graphs. As object, select your
contour ("airbag") in the group Contours(t).
A viewer is opened for spatial graphs in the All images mode. Using the slide
controller, move within the sequence interval and display the graph for the
selected point in time.
Please note: Select the Orientation as image axes to obtain a view similar
to the image segment (axis designations x', y'). Otherwise, the direction of the
axes should be set as in the coordinate system of the calibration.
X diagram viewer ("Bag")
332 • MovBag – Airbag Analysis
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
With the aid of the Master Panel, you can synchronize this "movie diagram"
with the display of AVI sequences.
The FalCon-specific Multi-D file format eXtra MovBag is suitable for the
export of 2D+t diagram data with the file extension ".bag":
In Image only... mode, you can display a "normal" diagram of an individual
spatial diagram belonging to an image or point in time.
The Save subdialog box supports the following standard file formats:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovBag – Airbag Analysis • 333
CamFolder – Camera Calibration
The image analysis software CamFolder is the module for the quality
management of all kinds of use in image measuring technology. It enables the
calibration of cameras and the distortion measurement according to ISO/SAE
but also a simple and clear storage of all measurement results in one “folder“.
For this purpose you first of all enter the known camera parameters and the lens
parameters as well as of the single measurement. For the calibration you need the
images of a premeasured test panel. Its control point data and the image point
coordinates to be measured are being evaluated with an equalization method to a
set of parameters, which describes the complete distortion of the camera.
The results can be evaluated numerically but also graphically.
Within various FalCon eXtra program modules you can use the calibration
measurements simply via Drag&Drop, i.e. correct measured data or images (=
rectification according to the inverse distortion).
Characteristics:
•
Camera calibration with individual distortion configuration
•
Calculation of the distortion index according to ISO 8721 / SAE-J211/2
Rev. Mar95
•
Calculation of the optical performance according to SAE J211/2 Rev.
May2001
•
Graphical visualization of the results
•
Folder file with camera-lens-combinations
•
Access and visualization of camera data in tree structure:
camera name – lens name – calibration measurement (focus + date)
•
2D- or 3D-test fields with premeasured control points, for example by
AICON
•
Support of automation by means of coded markers (AICON)
Instructions for use of Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 335
Terms
Camera calibration
Calculation of the camera parameters − including camera position −
(method = extended backward cutting)
here the whole image recording system is called camera:
camera-housing with requisite image sensor/film level +
lens with a defined focal length with zoom lenses +
focusing at a defined lens distance
Camera parameters
Interior orientation =
calibrated focal length + position of principal point + distortion parameter
(including indication of a second zero crossing)
Camera position
Exterior orientation = position (3D-coordinates) and alignment (3 angles)
Camera orientation
The camera can move about three angles:
tilt
(“movement of the camera upwards and downwards“)
axis
(“movement of the camera to the left and to the right“)
swing
(“tilting of the camera about the optical axle“)
Control point
Point on the test field with known 3D-coordinates
Image point
Point in the image with 2D-coordinates
Principal point
Projection center in the image coordinate system („perpendicular foot point of
the optical axle“) lies approximately in the center of the image.
Test panel
(Often planar) object with known control points, also „test field“ according to
ISO/SAE with at least 80 markers on 5 rings, AICON-test panel in addition with
CODE-markers and elevated points on posts.
For more information about the technical background, the meaning of the
various distortion parameters and practical hints for camera calibration please
refer to FalCon Homepage: Download/Documentation.
336 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
The File Menu
In the File menu you create a new Camera Folder, open existing files or close
and save files.
You save the Camera Folder as a file of the type *.cfo.
A directory tree of its own is recommended, whose sub-specifications contain
the image data of the calibration measurements.
When a camera folder is opened, in the background a backup copy is being
created automatically. In the copy‘s file name the date and the time are being
recorded. When closing the original file, you may actively delete this backup
copy.
Recommendation
In order to avoid an inadvertent overwriting or deleting of numerous calibration
data, it is also recommended to delete the backup copies on a weekly basis, for
example. By doing so, probable intermediate steps may be restored.
Should you like to free the camera folder for a in-house access, simply set the
access rights as protected. Thus, the user has only access to the results when
reading and cannot delete any data inadvertently or manipulate them. In this
case no backup file is being created automatically when being opened.
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 337
Working with the Menu
In the menu Edit you will find the following menu entries/commands:
New Camera
Change of the input mode for the describing
parameters of a new (empty) camera.
New
Change of the input mode for the describing
parameters of a new camera, of a lens or a calibration
(depending on the current selection of the tree view).
Delete
Deletes the currently selected element in the tree view.
Modify
Change in the modification mode for the currently
selected element in the tree view.
Copy
Paste
Copy an element and insert it at another place in the
tree.
However, please pay attention to the fact that the
camera type (image format and pixel size) has to be
compatible.
Sort by Names
Sort the elements in an alphabetical numeric series.
Delete All Point
Data
For all kinds of calibration measurements the control
point and image point data are being saved, as a rule.
If the camera folder contains many single
measurements, the file can become very large.
Recommendation
Since the end users will probably have access to the
end results (=camera parameters) only, it is
recommended to set up a file copy for this purpose, in
which all point data have been deleted.
Some commands can also be given by clicking the Mouse button 2 on an
element present in the tree view control.
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The Camera Folder Document Window
When setting up a new camera folder the document window is being opened. It
shows the title of the folder file:
On the right side of the window you will find the buttons with the following
functions:
Close
Closing of the document by asking whether you would
like to save the file if modifications of the data have
been recognized.
Import
Add a new element (camera, lens or calibration) into
the tree view control.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected element in the tree view.
Preview
Preview of a measurement as ASCII-protocol file
Export
Export as:
eXtra Camera Log File (*.txt) (= ASCII)
MME Correction Parameter File (*.cor) (= ISO)
Presetting of the file name =
Camera name_lens name
@nominal focal length_focusing
e.g.
Camera #1 HG_Lens #1 (F)@28_1800-mm.*
Import
Import of:
eXtra ASCII (*.txt) (= ASCII)
eXtra Analysis (*.ana) (of MovXact)
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 339
eXtra Camera Folder (*.cfo)
MME Multimedia Data Format (*.mme)
Calibration
Start of the calibration measurements with the working
steps described below.
Reset
Resets the calibration status to non-calibrated and
internally deletes the calibration parameters.
Parameters
Shows the distortion values of a successful calibration
measurement.
Hint:
When opening a camera folder file again, the form of the structure view set on
storing (= with/without subgroups of lenses and calibrations) is being restored.
Insert Items into the Camera Folder
Camera
Use first of all a unique name, best with the company‘s internal camera Id. For
a later updating of the folder it is recommended to determine the name giving as
soon as possible and also to keep it!
The manufacturer can be chosen from a list or can be input via the keyboard:
340 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
(As of date June 2004)
There is a list of current camera models fitting with the predetermined
manufacturers. Chose the type from this list or enter your name via the
keyboard:
(Example Redlake MASD)
The text field film/scanner gives you the possibility of putting in a further
description of the filming system if you do not use a digital high-speed video
camera.
The image size (width x height) has to correspond to the images used for the
calibration but also with the pictures of the real test. For this purpose you chose
one of the combinations supported by FalCon:
(Example Weinberger AG / Visario)
If possible, do not modify the predetermined pixel sizes, which correspond to the
manufacturers‘ data. From the ratio X/Y-pixel size the X/Y-side ratio (here
only as output value) results.
In general the ratio with (almost) all digital cameras is 1:1.
In case of digital conversion of analogous films or TV signals different values
often result! The exact value has to be determined in such cases in advance via
an analysis, empirically or by means of the scanner data!
If, for example, the EBU-format (CCIR 601) with 720x576 pixels is being used
instead of the typical PC image format with 768x576 pixels (= square image
points, width/height = 4:3), it has to be checked whether a square-like pixel
screen in the ratio of 1: 768/720 = 1 : 1.066 was present when scanning. For a
correction of such a type of image converter, please insert the following values:
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 341
Lens
Use a clear name, best with a company internal lens Id as well as a short name
of the type or kind of adapter used (C-mount or F-mount).
For a later adaptation of the folder it is recommended to determine and also to
keep this name giving as soon as possible!
Chose the manufacturer or type or insert the name via the keyboard. All
types of lenses already contained in the tree structure have already been
proposed in the selection list.
The input of the zoom area makes sense for the marking of vario lenses, even if
these indications are not being used during the following calibration.
The nominal focal length or the real/estimated focal length at zoom lenses is
an essential identification value in the tree view (see name extension [email protected] 28)
and also serves as an initial value during the fine calibration of the focal length.
Calibration
Indicate the distance to the calibration lens or the focus setting of the
lens as most important parameter.
Recommendation
The two values may well deviate in practice! If possible, use reproducible
values: only scale values of the lens or only real distances, while the focusing
has to be determined visually by means of a sharp definition pattern.
The additional comment serves as a free possibility of description, the field of
input behind the focusing serves as a short comment, which is also indicated in
the tree view. The presetting of this text is mm, you may also insert, however,
markings of different calibration measurements in different periods: 10/2002,
07/2003. This can be used in the comparison of measurements, where a camera
with identical lens and focusing has to be examined in regular time intervals.
After the import of the prepared calibration it shows the status not calibrated:
342 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
After the completion of a successful calibration measurement (see below)
the respective status is updated. The measurement is marked in the tree view
with a green tick as ok.
Special use:
Folder for camera positions
You may also use the camera folder as a clear record for measured camera
positions (see the 3D-symbol next to the measurement).
Here two kinds of procedure are possible:
•
•
Import a calibrated camera position from a Mov3D-Analysis (= file type
*.ana)
or
Calculate the camera position here in the CamFolder with the method
positions only. Since with this method the calculation of the camera
parameters is not possible at the same time, a (rather complicated) trick has
to be used: You first calibrate the camera as usual. Then it is recommended
to make a complete copy of the calibration measurement in the folder list
(with the help of the function modification and the input of a new short
comment) before overwriting by means of a new calibration. Now put in
the control points in the scene as well as the matching image sequence
instead of the test field data. Pay attention that you do not reset the
parameters already present before calculating the camera positions in the
register parameters, because then the outer orientations are being
optimized with the help of the indication parameters determined
beforehand.
The Distortion Index is being recorded as uncalibrated and calibrated with the
method used:
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 343
Calibration Measurement
We now guide you through the working steps, which are required for a
successful calibration. Chose a calibration entry in the camera folder tree view
and make a double click or press the button Calibrate.
Working steps:
Carry out the working steps in the following order:
•
Reading in the control point-data of the test panel
•
Measuring the image points
•
Calculation of the camera parameters
•
Evaluation of the results
You may find this structure on separated tab dialogs in the modal dialog Perform
Calibration. If you want to save intermediate steps while working, press the
button Save with the marked option save control and image points.
For this purpose the following data should be prepared:
•
Control point data of the test panel
•
Image sequence with (several) pictures of the test panel
Tab Control Points
I
For the calibration a premeasured test panel is a prerequisite. The coordinates as
well as the names/numbers of the single measurement points are taken as
„known“ values for the later calculation of the calibration parameters.
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Import these so-called control points from a file with the file extension *.apt
(= ASCII-point table). When reading in, different table layouts are being
supported (see table below). The FalCon eXtra ASCII-format with the
indication of the type of mark is recommended; in case of raw data layouts the
input of the used unit may be necessary before read-in.
You may now get an overview over the single points in the name list; the tab
title shows the whole number of control points (in round brackets). The marker
type as well as the 3D-coordinates X,Y,Z is being shown for the currently
selected point.
Attention:
For a later prediction during the image measurement it is a prerequisite that the
X- and Y-axis in general lie in the level of the test panel and the Z-axis is
directed from the panel to the camera (= inverse to the camera viewing direction,
„depth“).
For special purposes you may also delete single points from the list or delete
them all.
As a means of control you can use the control boxes ISO/SAE Target and 2DTarget, which deliver you feedback whether the control point data correspond
to the regulations according to ISO/SAE (and permit a later calculation of the
indices) and whether a planar test field is present:
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 345
Attention:
When again importing the control point file all currently existing control point
and image point measurements are being deleted! This function thus corresponds
to a resetting of the point data.
Tab Image Points
I
It is the aim within this tab dialog to measure as many image points as possible
to which the control point coordinates are related.
You first enter the name of the image sequence file, which contains pictures
of the test panel from one or more views.
Via the buttons situated below you can chose the image number, show the
analysis picture and also all image point measurements in an overlay
view.
If a measured value is present in the current image, there is a green tick in
front of the marker name in the name list; a tick in light gray color shows that
although no value is present in this image, there is one in the other images of the
sequence; if there is no tick at all, this serves as a hint that this point does not
show an image point measurement yet.
In the matching display element of the group box point this status is also
indicated and the number of measured values (for the current point) is shown in
all images.
In addition you may read off the total number of the measured values in the
image and the number of points with at least one image point measurement (see
the tab title in round brackets).
Auxiliary tools are at hand for the real measurement, such as are known from the
image analysis with MovXact: set-up and track markers. All automatically
measurable markers are being supported, i.e. no markers of the type COR or
PIX.
Become acquainted with the most important principles and working steps how
you can measure the image points automatically, if possible:
346 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
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Measure Single Points
•
•
•
•
Recommendation
•
First chose a point from the list, the position of which you can clearly see
in the image (it would be ideal if the list was sorted such that this is the
first point in the list.)
Make a double click on the listing or press the button 1xMeasure.
The further use is analogous to the manual setting-up of markers:
positioning of the search window, adjusting of the diameter interval
(depending on the type of marker) and starting the search.
As soon as the marker has been successfully detected, the search
diameter interval Ø will be automatically adapted in the dialog.
Adapt the diameter interval interactively on such a large scale that also
markers with possibly greatly differing sizes (depending on the image at
tilted test panels) may be captured.
Repeat this step for a second point.
For a quicker setting of markers of the same size the mode cursor
search is available.
Attention:
The following parameters, which can be adjusted in the MovXact-dialog SetUp Markers are fixedly preset here:
Quality min.
= 25 % at single point measurements
= 35 % at multiple point measurements
MXT-points min. = 5
Sensitivity
= 100%
The position of all further points may now be predicted:
With the aid of two image points a 2D-model (similarity transformation) is
being calculated for the prediction. From three points onwards the 2D-model(+)
is being described by an affine transformation, and from four points on a 3Dmodel is added.
Chose – in particular in case of three-dimensional test panels or inclined views –
the mode P+2D+3D as scheduled Prediction (the presetting is an Picture-toPicture+2D-Model for performance reasons; select the 3D-prediction
explicitly before a new measurement.)
The real, active prediction (→) can be checked in the neighboring text field.
•
Repeat the single point measurement for a third and fourth point. After the
selection of the marker the search area is marked as blue in the analysis
image.
•
•
The further markers should now be well determined by means of the 3Dmodel or at least with the 2D+-model. (Check by means of example points
from the list, probably also by means of multiple choice.)
Should the markers systematically lie only roughly in the search area, the
search window can be enlarged with the parameter capture range (see
MovXact manual).
However, please pay attention that two or more markers do not lay inside
of a search window!
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 347
Measure All Points
Via the button All Points you have the following possible choices to measure
points automatically:
•
A: Measure all (via Strg/Strg+shift) selected points from the name list.
•
B: Measure all points from the marker type CODE.
Tip: For this purpose it is not necessary to measure=set-up points
manually. This largely facilitates the procedure!
•
C: Measure all unknown points in the image.
348 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
•
D: Measure all unknown points in all images. This mode enables a full
automatic measurement, since first all CODE-markers are being searched
and then the residual points can be predicted and localized with the help of
the 3D-prediction.
Measure in All Images
This mode serves for the measurement of static test panels with several images
from the same view.
For this purpose measure the points in advance in the image #0 and then start in
one image greater than 0 with the scheduled prediction P=Picture-to-Picture.
Via the button All Images you have the following selection choices:
•
A: Measure all (via Strg/Strg+shift) selected points from the name list.
•
B: Measure all unknown points.
•
C: According to ISO/SAE-standard for the calculation of the
Distortion Index the 40 single circle diameters of the 5-ring-test panel
have to be measured in 40 different images. For this method ‘40
images’ named here, however, only one point pair has to be measured in
each image. It is required, however, that you have been able to detect all
points in the first image beforehand, so that the prediction may become
true from image to image.
Note:
This mode only serves for the fulfillment of the minimum requirements of
the ISO/SAE-standard formulated originally in order to detect image
deviations of celluloid films in the calculation model. For the determination
of the camera‘s principal point and the distortion parameters a
measurement of all points in all images is rather recommended.
In modern digital cameras the interframe measuring noise can be neglected;
thus the method ‘1 image’ suffices for the index calculation.
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 349
Delete Point Measurements
Via the button Delete you have the following possibilities of selection:
•
A: Delete the measurements of the (via Strg/Strg+Shift) selected points
in the current image.
•
B: Delete the measurement of the selected points in all images.
•
C: Delete all measurements in the current image.
•
D: Delete all measurements in all images.
Tab Parameters
I
For the control points with known coordinates now point measurements are
present in several images. With the aid of an equalizing calculus of
observations (= extended resection in space) the camera parameters (= interior
orientation, distortion) can be calculated; at the same time the camera position
(=exterior orientation) is being determined for each image.
The camera parameters contain:
350 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
•
•
•
•
•
Focal length
Principal point
Radial-symmetric distortion A1, A2, A3
Tangential and radial-asymmetric distortion B1, B2
Affinity and non-orthogonality C1, C2
For a practical use several so-called methods are at hand with which you can
precisely and quickly select a subgroup of parameters:
Full evaluation
All parameters
Standard evaluation
Focal length and principal point + A1, A2
Full evaluation
without focal length
All parameters without focal length and principal
point
Standard evaluation
without focal length
Only A1, A2
Individual evaluation
Selection of an individual subset or even editing of
values
Only positions
No parameters, only outer orientations
Depending on the position of the measuring points in the image section, on the
tilting of the test field and on the number and kind of the measuring images you
chose the specific method:
•
Full evaluation:
If you have measured enough measuring points according to the
recording scheme 7+ (see below) and/or if the image material has been
converted analogously/digitally, e.g. by a film scanner or a TV-card, and/or
of you achieve significant improvements in the exactness compared to the
standard evaluation, e.g. with fisheye lenses with very short focal lengths,
then this it the right method!
•
Standard evaluation:
In case of only slightly distorting lenses often the radial parameter of
higher order A3 as well as the asymmetric parameters B1,2 and C1,2 can
be neglected (proof of significance compared to standard deviations).
Chose this method if no significant advantage in exactness can be achieved
with a full evaluation. The parameters calculated then show a higher
stability, in particular if the image field has not been completely covered
with measurement points.
This method may serve as „standard“ tool!
•
... without focal length / without principal point:
If the requirements for the determination of the focal length and the
principal point are not fulfilled, you restrict yourself to a method without
the calculation of these parameters.
The focal length can only be determined safely if the calibration images
contain spatial information: test panel with elevated points and (best in
addition!) tilted camera positions. For the principal point pictures with
tilting around the direction of view have to be made ready, otherwise the
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 351
•
•
principal point‘s position strongly correlates with the position parameters
of the exterior orientation.
Individual evaluation:
This method gives a person skilled in the art the possibility of interfering
with the selection of parameters or even to edit numerical parameters.
Only positions:
With the aid of a conventional resection in space only the exterior
orientation is being measured.
On the one hand, the person skilled in the art can draw conclusions from
this about the stability and accuracy; on the other hand camera positions
can be measured in real scenes with this auxiliary mode if the camera has
already been calibrated beforehand (see special use in the chapter
importing elements into the camera folder).
The calculation uses defaults – in particular pixel size and the so-called 2nd
zero crossing R0 (= 2/3 of the maximum image radius) –, about which you do
not have to worry, however (see control button).
After starting the calculation you may follow the convergence of the iterative
optimization in a progress window:
During the determination of first approximation values you will get a short view
about the (over-) determination of the equation system:
In the example below there are a total of 420-point measurements present in 4
images, i.e. 105 per image on the average. Since for every point the x-value and
the y-value have been measured, there are 840 known determined values.
As unknown parameters there are (at a full evaluation) 10 for the distortion,
focal length and principal point included, plus (in this example with 4 images)
4∗6 of the camera positions = 34.
Thus the equation system has been sufficiently over-determined!
Within an iteration loop the standard error decreases. If a presumably false point
measurement (= so-called „blunder“) is detected, this will be excluded from the
calculation internally and a new iteration loop is started.
352 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
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If the improvements do not significantly reduce the residual errors, one has
arrived at the successful end:
If you automatically delete presumable false measurements in this window,
you need not find and eliminate these points one by one later on.
The calibration measurements can have the following states:
(see round brackets in the register title)
not calibrated
p
only positions calculated
e
camera parameters edited
+
successfully calibrated
The standard deviations enable a person skilled in the art to draw
conclusions about the plausibility of the single parameters and the method used.
The matching symbol button σ (sigma) shows a warning hint if:
•
σ of the focal length is bigger than 0.1 mm or
•
σ of the principal point coordinates is bigger than 0.1% of image width
0.5 pixels or
•
the absolute value of a parameter is below 3∗σ
otherwise a green tick signalizes OK.
(In a standard evaluation a high sigma value of parameter A1 does not cause a
warning, if A1 could be determined enough reliably.)
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Click the matching control box σ for the numerical values.
Via the button Positions you gain feedback about, among others, the camera
distance in the z-direction and the orthogonality of the direction of view.
At any time the point measurements can be repeated or supplemented or another
method can be chosen and then the calculation can be carried out anew. Here it is
recommended to reset the parameters in advance, either explicitly via the
button or via the message box:
354 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
Tab Evaluation
I
The tab Evaluation allows a numerical and graphical evaluation of the
parameters measured.
If a test panel according to ISO/SAE is present, start the determination of the
Distortion Index here.
Via the upper buttons you can choose the image number and show the
analysis image.
The actual image, however, is opaquely covered with the evaluation Graphics,
which you can choose from the list:
Grid
The red, square grid shows the undistorted ideal state,
whereas the blue grid is subject to the distortion
according to the measured camera parameters.
The size of the principal point can be easily recognized
from the shift of the two grid centers.
If you remove the check mark With Principal Point,
both grids are being centered to the center of the image
(:= principal point = (0,0).
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Raster
Analogous to the grid the distortion vectors can be
indicated within an even raster. In case of only small
amplitudes the vector length can be reinforced with the
enhancement factor.
Image points
In this mode you can see the distortion vectors at the
image points effectively measured.
Residual errors
This mode best serves to demonstrate the quality of the
distortion measurement: the residual error of a single
measurement is defined by the difference vector
between the image point measurement and the control
point projected into the image.
In case of a well-determined camera position as well as
exact camera parameters you have to strongly enhance
the error vectors in order to be able to estimate them
visually. If you remove the check mark calibrated for
comparison reasons, you will clearly see the effect of
the distortion correction.
356 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
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The red error vectors should not show any preferential
direction or tendency, thus resemble a heap of
pinheads; this is a sign that the set of parameters used
(= method) sufficiently well models the real lens
errors.
When marking the box All Images, one obtains a
superimposition of the diagrams from all images. The
image field should best be completely covered with
image point measurements!
Via the additional button „...“ one has the additional
possibility of showing and deleting single
measurements:
ISO/SAEmeasurements
Instructions for use of Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
According to the ISO/SAE-Standard (Mar95) for
the calculation of the distortion index, the 40 single
circle diameters of the „5-rings-test panel“ have to be
CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 357
measured. In this diagram the deviations of each circle
diameter are marked from the average circle diameter
value at a point pair opposite each other respectively.
(Opposite points on a circle have the same length of the
error vector.)
According to the SAE-Standard (May2001) only 21
points of the „1-Ring+X-Star-pattern“ contribute to the
calculation of the Optical Performance. In the
diagram the residual errors of these points are shown.
Radial-symmetric
distortion
The radial-symmetric distortion represents the
biggest influence among the image errors. Since a
physically correct distortion curve (= monotonously
increasing with the image radius) numerically
correlates with the focal length, a linear part of the
function is split off in the parameter model used,
resulting in the curve obtaining a second zero
crossing R0.
With this auxiliary model the values for A1, A2, A3
but also (!) for the focal length can be optimized
independently from each other.
358 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
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In the dialog the numerical values for the average standard errors are given
in the two units pixel and mm, compared with not calibrated (=only the
camera position is taken into consideration) and calibrated.
The error (standard error e) is either being calculated only for the actual image
or for all images according to the following formulae:
e = S j all-images ( S i all-points | (x image ij – x c-point* ij) | / n
[pixel]
with
x image ij
2D-coordinates of the image point i in the image j
x c-point* ij
2D-coordinates of the control point i projected into the image
plane
The projection contains the exterior orientation (= c. position)
but also the interior orientation (=camera parameters)
n
2 ∗ number of all image point measurements in all images
– number of determined parameters npar
npar
number of camera parameters evaluated
(depending on the method used, a maximum of 10)
+ number of images ∗ 6
(corresponding to the 6 parameters of the camera position for
each image)
and analogously
e = S j all-images ( S i all-points | (x image* ij – x c-point i) | / n
[mm]
with
x image* ij
3D-coordinates of the image point i projected into the space
from image j, where the Z-coordinate (=distance from
camera to test field) is taken from the control point as given
value.
x c-point i
coordinates of the control point i
For the completion of the camera calibration and in particular for the quality
management it is recommended to calculate the Distortion-Index according
to ISO/SAE (Mar95).
First chose an image with a top view as orthogonal as possible, in which all 80
points of the test pattern are visible and press the button Calculate in the group
box ISO/SAE.
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CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 359
According to the original version of the standard, the 40 single circle diameters
of the 5-ring-test panel have to be measured in 40 different images (method ‘40
images’). This formulation has been chosen in order to be able to comprehend
image diffusions of the celluloid film in the calculation model. In case of modern
digital cameras the interframe measuring noise, however, can be neglected;
method ‘1 image’ thus suffices for the calculation of the index.
Have all requirements for the marker names been fulfilled?
Then you will receive the following protocol of results:
The nominal value of the Distortion Index should be smaller than 1.0.
Even if you try during the calibration recordings to adjust the camera tilt and
direction as accurately as possible, in practice it is almost impossible to achieve
an optimal orthogonal direction of view. Before calculating the distortion index,
the camera position is thus first „aligned straightforwardly“ in the software and
only then is the rectification according to the calibration parameters carried out.
You may estimate the effect according to the intermediate values:
•
Uncalibrated without consideration of the camera position
•
Uncalibrated with consideration of the camera position
•
Calibrated
with consideration of the camera position
Hint:
When using the AICON-test field with highly accurately premeasured control
point coordinates a distortion index of < 0.1% may be generally achieved!
360 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
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In accordance with the new standard SAE (May2001) several error values are
to be determined for the complete evaluation of the Optical Performance.
Have all requirements for the marker names been fulfilled?
Then you will receive the following protocol of results:
The nominal value of the Overall Error should be less than 0.25% for a
system with high accuracy.
Remark:
The original test panel according to SAE J211/2 May2001 only shows 21 points.
Although the edge points of the X-star cover the image edges better, in contrast
to the version of Mar95, but the lower number of measuring points and the
formulae for the calculation of the errors, which are not very suitable in practice,
neither allow competent statements about the quality of the camera system nor a
sufficient basis for the determination of the camera parameters.
If you intend to calibrate cameras and if you intend to rectify distortions, this is
no supplement for a test panel with more than 80 points (e.g. according to
ISO/SAE Mar95)
Instructions for use of Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 361
Layout for ASCII-Control Point Diagrams
Control point coordinates are ready in ASCII-files with the extension .apt.
As diagram layout there are supported:
x
y
z
Name
Name
x
y
x
z
y
z
: Name implicit = Index
Header: IMETRIC_Software_(C)
Text
Name
x
y
z
: Imetric-Format, marker type = DOT
FalCon eXtra-Header
x
y
z
Name
Type
: FalCon eXtra file format
For example:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
:-> FalCon-eXtra-ASCII
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Version:
4.00 E (FalCon eXtra)
Datum:
22-Feb-2004
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
:-> Control-Points [mm] X,Y,Z
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
600.0
400.0
200.0
A00
CODE
#105
800.0
200.0
200.0
C_12
CODE
1000.0
600.0
0.0
B00
MXT-5
1000.0
100.0
0.0
C00
DOT
...
Hint:
The Marker Name may be (only) a number or an index. Coded AICONmarkers require the Code Number as extension (e.g. #105) or they have to
show the name C_# (with # = code number).
In the FalCon-Format the unit of the X, Y, Z-coordinates may follow after the
key word Control-Points in square brackets, whereas in case of other layouts
they have to be explicitly indicated in the read-in dialog.
362 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
Coded Markers
Coded markers are available for navigation in test fields or defined coordinate
systems. Markers according to the AICON specification are supported in
Mov3D and CamFolder:
To make it possible to assign the same points of an object in images from
different cameras, points must generally be numbered. Point numbers may be
coded in the form of a binary code arranged around the actual measurement
point for an automatic measurement. The appropriate image processing
procedures are then used to measure the image coordinates of a point, and then
to detect and immediately assign its point number. Markers are invariant to
rotation, i.e. the alignment and position on the object play no role in detecting
the marker number. The code is unique and unambiguous for all positions.
If an object has been provided with coded markers, no manual assignment of
point numbers needs to be made for these points. This not only speeds up
measurement, but also prevents incorrect numbering, which could result in
problems for a subsequent calculation.
Depending on the design and coding depth (12-bit or 14-bit), varying numbers
of different point numbers can be distinguished. 12-bit coding, with a total of
147 different numbers, is sufficient for most applications. The 14-bit version
makes it possible to distinguish 516 numbers. Depending on the application,
markers of different point size and different materials can also be used (standard
foil, retro-reflective foil).
The markers show the following radial scanning ratio:
Outer diameter of the code-ring : diameter of the center dot =
3:1
Inner diameter of the code-ring : diameter of the center dot =
2:1
For Crash-Test-applications Subsets have been selected which show significant
distinctions to MXT- and DOT-Markers as possible (79 or 76 codes for 12 Bit or
14 Bit, respectively).
For a robust recognition of the markers the recommended size is > 15 pixels.
Examples for coded markers:
Instructions for use of Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 363
Tips When Making Recordings of the Test Panel
For the determination of the camera parameters images have to be made with the
camera to be calibrated. When doing so, the following hints and tips out of
practice should be paid attention to and may also serve as direction of use:
Protocol of the Camera Data
Before recording the single calibration images, the focusing of the lens is carried
out in accordance with the distance intended in the crash and is fixed with
suitable means. Draw up a short protocol with all data of the camera system,
which you may require for a later input into the CamFolder or for a repetition
of the shootings, among others:
•
Camera number, camera manufacturer, camera type
•
Lens number, lens manufacturer, lens type
•
Nominal focal length, focusing, diaphragm/aperture
•
Illumination, frame rate, shutter speed
Versions of the test panel
CamFolder supports various test panels measured in advance:
•
2D-test panels,
„point-raster“
•
364 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
2D-test panel, in particular according to ISO 8721 / SAE-J211/2 Rev.
Mar95 = „5-ring-pattern“
(use the type of measurement markers as used in the crash test!)
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
•
2D-test panels in accordance with SAE-J211/2 Rev. May2001 =
“1-ring + X-star-pattern“
(use more measuring points to increase the measuring accuracy!)
•
3D-test panels with elevated points
•
3D-test bodies,
e.g. measuring spaces with „starry sky and starry walls “
(no application suitable in practice)
The AICON-calibration panels are light but also stable thanks to their carbon
fiber material (CFK) with aluminum-honeycomb-structure. The version in
accordance with ISO/SAE standard-size is recommended, with five elevated
points on 200mm-posts. In addition to the 5-ring-pattern (a mixture of MXTand DOT-markers), about 20 CODE-markers are contained, which enable an
automatic image measurement.
These test fields have been highly precisely measured in and are being
delivered with an AICON-certificate. The basis scale used for this purpose has
been calibrated according to DKD (Deutscher Kalibrier-Dienst = German
Calibration Service).
Recommendation
A matching aluminum-box protects the panel in the crash hall and serves for a
safe storage.
Instructions for use of Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 365
Recording Positions of the Test Panel
In order to ensure a sufficiently accurate determination of, in particular, the
distortion for the whole image format, the panel has to be recorded taking up the
complete format, if possible. This taking up of the complete format does not
necessarily have to be the case in one image; depending on the focal length and
the surrounding conditions several images may indeed become necessary. It is
important that in the sum of the images the format is used.
Since in most cases only one test panel with predetermined size is available, you
may, for example, make several orthogonal shootings of the test panel, in which
case you have to shift the panel in each case respectively.
Horizontal covering of the image field with the help of three images
Horizontal and vertical shift of the test panel in five images
Note:
Only when using the image format completely, the distortion values can be
determined which are representing the complete image field. If, for example, for
the calibration measurement no image points are available in the edges, the
optimization of the parameters can lead to a result, which does not describe these
edge zone physically correctly. When correcting the distortion later on during the
calibration of the location of a real test, the objects to be followed should
therefore not lie in these image areas; otherwise the positions and displacements
may show uncontrollable errors!
For a safe and exact determination of the principal point, a tilting around the
axis of the camera viewing direction (shooting axis) is sensible, where the best
results can be achieved if a tilting around 90° and also around 180° is carried
out.
Tilt around the recording = tilting: Ò Ô Ñ
366 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
Tilting of the table relative to the camera lead to inclined images of the panel
(images made from different directions or with different inclinations), which
improve the spatiality of the calibration images. In particular in case of longer
focal lengths they stabilize the determination of the focal length.
Tilting around the vertical test panel axis
Tilting around the horizontal test panel axis
When using a two-dimensional calibration panel, inclined images are even a
prerequisite for the calculation of the focal length, which would otherwise not be
possible with images vertical to the calibration panel only. The reason is that a
change in the focal length has the same effect than the change of the shooting
distance, and thus the parameters are not to be determined independently from
each other.
Carrying out in practice
In order to facilitate the procedure and also for reasons of simple reproduction it
is recommended to carry out the recordings in a laboratory environment,
which may show, for example, the following auxiliary means:
•
working bench with markers or stops for the tilting angles
•
wall brackets with tilting mimicry
•
suction elevator for manual movements
•
calibration frames with several tilting axes according to Dr. Wiggenhausen
(University of Hanover)
•
Homogenous, dark background
•
Bright, indirect illumination
Image scheme with 1 image
Basically the calibration is already possible with one image; here also it is
important that the image format is well filled. Since usually an image is shoot
vertically to the test field for a good use of the image format, this arrangement is
not favorable for the use with a planar test field.
Instructions for use of Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
CamFolder – Camera Calibration • 367
Recommendation!
Image scheme with 7+ images
When carrying out calibrations in practice, images are recommended at the
following positions of the test panel:
•
3 orthogonal images with tilting around 0°, 90° and 180° around the view
axis
•
2 tilts around the vertical high axis (direction angle about ± 20°)
•
2 tilts around the horizontal lateral axis (inclination angle about ± 20°)
•
n orthogonal images with different horizontal and vertical shifts to cover
the image field (= optional „+“)
Illumination
The recordings should be carried out under illumination conditions as are the
case in real crash tests, so that a constant diaphragm adjustment between the
calibration and test recordings is guaranteed, if possible. (Use the frame rate as a
variable parameter if the illumination is not sufficient, which may be reduced
compared with the test.)
Whereas the visual assessment is important when recording crash tests, attention
should be paid to the requirements of a highly exact and automatically image
measurement in case of calibration images:
•
Avoid overexposure and highlights.
The maximum brightness of > 250 should not be achieved in the white
areas of the measuring points.
•
Avoid strong underexposures.
Even if the contrast of the image is being equalized internally
(normalization to minimum and maximum), the image noises may increase
in an undesired manner and lead to a deficient detection of the markers.
•
Avoid uneven illumination.
•
Avoid a bright background.
When searching in the whole image the contrast corresponding to the
global extremes is stretched, so that local spots or shadows can no longer
be equalized.
•
Recommended focusing:
only indirect illumination => no reflections
brightness of the white point areas = about 200
brightness of the background < 150
= rather too dark than too bright as subjective impression!
Preparation of the images
The preparation of the images should in most cases be restricted to a simple
white balance. Only in case of very weak illumination a gamma correction may
become necessary. You better do without an additional sharpening or an AVIcompression.
368 • CamFolder – Camera Calibration
instructions for use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact3d
The image analysis software Mov3D offers you the possibility of analyzing 3D
motion of dynamic recordings:
Using the 2D module MovXact you track objects in several stereoscopic views.
Photogrammetric methods (“triangulation”) enable you to calculate 3D curves.
Features:
•
Easy management of multiple views within one test file
•
Interface to 3D control points
•
New type of marker CODE (= coded ring marker, by AICON)
•
Calculation of camera position using known control points
•
Calibration of camera and lens with powerful distortion correction.
(Use Drag and Drop from the CamFolder module)
•
3D calibration and output of x-y-z displacement/time diagrams
(with a-v differentiation etc. see MovXact)
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact3d • 369
Overview
Data necessary for successful 3D analysis:
Data
Control point data
Tracking data: control and unknown points
Image sequence
(per view)
Calibration measurements
Sequence of test target +
Camera - lens - data
(per camera)
+
Control point data
in ASCII file
? Position measurements
3D control points with
tracking data +
calibration measurement
(per view + per image)
? 3D measurements
Tracking data of unknown
points +
calibration measurements +
position measurements
( n * 2D ? 3D)
370 • MovXact3d
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Terms
Camera Parameters
Interior orientation =
calibrated focal length + principal point + distortion parameters (incl. fixed
second zero crossing)
Camera Calibration
Calculation of the camera parameters − incl. camera position −
(method = extended resection in space)
Camera Position
Exterior orientation = station/location (3D coordinates) and axis (3 angles)
Camera Axis
The camera can rotate by three angles:
Tilt
(“move up or down”)
Axis (“move left or right”)
Swing (“rotate around line of view”)
Control Point
Point on object or test target with known 3D coordinates
Image Point
Point in image with 2D coordinates
Unknown Point
Point to be measured: calculation of actual 3D coordinates with measured image
coordinates, camera parameters and camera positions
(method = intersection in space)
Object Point
Point in 3D space
Test Target
Object with pre-measured control points, also “test panel”
Requirements for 3D Measurements
A successful 3D measurement requires the following calibration settings:
At least two views from different points are included in the analysis session.
(Same) control points and marker targets with the same name are set up and
measured in the single views.
The 3D Measuring option is selected in all views that should be involved
during 3D analysis.
Time calibration is valid in all 3D views.
Assumption: All cameras run synchronously (as possible within 1 line).
The frequencies of the image sequences need to be equal or integer parts of the
maximum occurring frequency (= max. frequency / n).
The T0 start times should be in the raster of the maximum frame rate: T0(n) –
T0-min. = 1 / max. frequency
The camera positions are calculated within the overlapping time interval; for
this measurement data of at least 4 control points per image are necessary.
Alternatively the positions may be defined as “static”.
Pay attention that the cameras should be calibrated before this calculation.
A triangulation on the basis of the measured image coordinates must be
possible (“intersection in space”).
Own scales or rulers are not necessary for calibration.
The scaling is implicitly included in the control point information.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact3d • 371
Work Steps
Mov3D is based on a number of image sequences (= views) of a test.
As before (2D), you can use measurement of trajectories (setting up and tracking
markers) to go to two-dimensional raw measured image data.
A new feature is that a few (at least 4) “control points”, as they are known, must
now be previously measured in space and their spatial coordinates must be saved
in an ASCII file.
If the cameras have not yet been calibrated in a pre-calibration or lab calibration,
specific calibration image sequences must also be analyzed and distortion
parameters must be calculated.
Work steps:
Perform the work steps of a 3D evaluation in the following order:
1. Create new analysis
Enter one view per camera with the corresponding image sequence.
In the Defaults property tab of the document window, import control points
as "Prepared", i.e. markers that have not gone through Setup yet from files with
the corresponding file extension *.apt (= ASCII Point Table). The measured 3D
coordinates x-y-z are listed in a table. When they are read in, different table
layouts are supported. We recommend you use the FalCon eXtra ASCII format
and indicate the marker type.
2. Read control point data
3. Set-up markers
(control + unknown points)
The task of setting up markers is facilitated by a defaults list from which you
can draw the necessary control points and pinpoint them in the image. The
CODE marker type facilitates rough orientation.
As with previous marker types, the markers to be evaluated are set up as “new
points”.
4. Track markers
Track all markers within the overlapping interval of views.
If the control points are fixed in space and the camera is limited to one exact
point in space, there may be no need to track the control points.
5. Calibrate cameras
Enter the characteristic values for the camera and lens. After you have measured
a test field, calculate the distortion parameters. For information in this regard,
please refer to the operating instructions of the CamFolder module. You can
also accept a previously performed calibration measurement from the
CamFolder document window using Drag and Drop. The status should be
“Calibrated/Calculated”. A status of “Calibrated/Edited” or even “Not
Calibrated” is possible, but only for test purposes.
6. Calculate camera positions
The location and orientation of each camera is calculated one image at a time if
3D spatial coordinates and 2D measured image data are available for at least 3
control points (selection of active control points is possible). Assuming the
control points are fixed in space and the position of the camera in space is also
fixed, calculation in a reference image is sufficient.
372 • MovXact3d
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
7. Set calibration parameters
Select 3D Measuring in the Calibration dialog in each view that will be used
for the 3D measurement. If all requirements for 3D calculation are fulfilled (see
below), a green check mark appears by the side.
You can use the Preview button for detailed information.
8.Output diagrams
You can generate one-dimensional trajectories of new point coordinates x, y or z
in the T-Diagrams dialog. Additional processing, for example for
differentiation or forming references, is similar to MovXact, as is data export.
Note that coordinates of new points are present in the coordinate system
specified for the control point field!
9. Output 3D measurements
In the Export dialog you can generate calibrated 3D results in the coordinate
system of the control point field. File type ASCII Table *.txt. In addition to 3D
coordinates, the corresponding standard deviation of measurements as well as a
list of control points used is generated.
Calibration Measurement
Mov3D and CamFolder contain the measurement of camera calibration
parameters:
Work steps:
Perform the work steps for a calibration measurement in the following order:
1. Enter camera and lens
features
Enter the descriptive features and manufacturer-specific data for each
camera/lens combination. The measurement itself is identified by the focussing
distance.
2. Read control point data
Import Control Points from files with the corresponding file extension *.apt
(= ASCII point table). Different table layouts are supported for the read process.
We recommend you use the FalCon eXtra ASCII format and indicate the marker
type.
3. Measure image points
First set up two points manually.
A 2D model (similarity transformation) is calculated with the aid of two image
points for Prediction of the remaining points. For three or more points the 2D
model(+) is written by a compatible transformation.
The actual prediction (→) with the aid of a 3D-model can only be turned on by
explicitly selecting a “…3D” target prediction (with 4 or more points).
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact3d • 373
4. Calculate parameters
Depending on the distribution of measurement points in the image view, the tilt
of the test field and the number and type of measurement images, select a
specific method with an explicit selection of distortion parameters.
The calibration measurement may have the following states:
- not calibrated
p positions only calculated
e distortion parameters edited
+ successfully calibrated
In the Positions... sub-dialog you can generate the camera rules and
orientations after the calculation is successfully complete.
5. Evaluate the results
The Evaluation property tab only allows for numeric and graphic analysis of
the measured parameter.
If a test target is present in accordance with ISO/SAE, start the determination of
the “Distortion Index” here.
For information on the theoretical background and practical information on
camera calibration, please visit the FalCon homepage and go to:
Download/Documentation.
Layout of ASCII Point Tables
Control point coordinates are provided in files with the extension .apt. The
following are supported as table layout:
x
y
z
Name
Name
x
y
x
z
y
z
: Name implicit = Index
Header: IMETRIC_Software_(C)
Text
Name
x
y
z
: Imetric Format, marker type = DOT
FalCon eXtra-Header
x
y
z
Name
Type
374 • MovXact3d
: FalCon eXtra file format
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Note:
The marker name can also be (just) a number or an index. Coded AICON
markers should have the name C_# (where # = code number).
Only mm is set (at first) as the unit of measure.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
MovXact3d • 375
Coded Markers
Coded markers are available for orientation in test fields or defined coordinate
systems. Markers according to the AICON specification are supported in
Mov3D and CamFolder:
To make it possible to assign the same points of an object in images from
different cameras, points must generally be numbered. Point numbers may be
coded in the form of a binary code arranged around the actual measurement
point for an automatic measurement. The appropriate image processing
procedures are then used to measure the image coordinates of a point, and then
to detect and immediately assign its point number. Markers are invariant to
rotation, i.e. the alignment and position on the object play no role in detecting
the marker number. The code is unique and unambiguous for all positions.
If an object has been provided with coded markers, no manual assignment of
point numbers needs to be made for these points. This not only speeds up
measurement, but also prevents incorrect numbering, which could result in
problems for a subsequent calculation. Depending on the design and coding
depth (12-bit or 14-bit), varying numbers of different point numbers can be
distinguished. 12-bit coding, with a total of 147 different numbers, is sufficient
for most applications. The 14-bit version makes it possible to distinguish 516
numbers. Depending on the application, markers of different point size and
different materials can also be used (standard foil, retro-reflective foil).
For crash test applications a subset of 79 codes has been selected.
The markers exhibit the following radial ratio:
Outer diameter of the code ring : diameter of the center dot =
3 : 1
Inner diameter of the code ring : diameter of the center dot =
2 : 1
Examples of coded markers
376 • MovXact3d
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Animator3Ax
In Process …
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Animator3Ax • 377
FalCon Quick View DB – Client /
VisAvi
FalCon Quick View DB / VisAvi is more than a product, it is a concept. It
consists basically of two separate programs:
•
a database server and
•
a client program.
The features offered by the server include automatic data backup, CD burning,
access protocols, access protection, automatic data importing and much more.
In addition to the functions familiar from FalCon Quick View (picture
processing, picture optimization AVI creation and compression, synchronized
representation of graphs and AVIs), the client described in this chapter receives
additional functions for managing the archive, performing tests, controlling
cameras and transferring picture data from the camera to the host.
A data base navigator is integrated to link in a test database . This navigator
is the interface to the database and makes it possible to find and view the
corresponding graphs. The individual files can be displayed by doubling-clicking
or drag-and-drop. Since the data in question is usually confidential, access is not
direct, but rather via a server, which first verifies authorization for access and
permission for access to the desired file, and makes a record of all access to
measurement data and films. Database functions also make it possible to perform
searches based on selectable criteria.
An additional area is devoted to performing database-supported tests. The
parameters for individual cameras can even be specified before a test. The
program takes on the task of setting parameters for the camera, controls
recording (thus it does not take place via process control) and transfers the
picture data via Ethernet from the cameras to the control computer. At the same
time, the corresponding AVI file is automatically generated while the program
is reading from the camera so that all AVIs are available immediately after the
test. Next the unprocessed data (Bayer pictures) are transferred to the database
server and are saved there automatically. The compressed AVI files are also
created on the server. The measurement data for the respective tests are
automatically saved by the database server. As a result, the films and
measurement data are available in the database navigator for authorized users a
short time after the test.
An additional portion of this chapter is dedicated to the administrative
functions for the database server.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi • 379
380 • FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Quick View DB / VisAvi Toolbar
Normally the toolbar is located underneath the menu line. If you wish, you can
also move the toolbar around.
Establishes a connection with the server. If there is already a
connection, this button is inactive (gray).
Interrupts the connection to the server. If there is no connection, this
button is inactive (gray).
Displays tests to which you have access in the database Navigator.
Please note that this function will reset the filter you are using. This
button is only active if there is a connection to the server.
Displays a portion of tests that are accessible to you in the database
Navigator. The last filter you used will also be used here. This button is
only active if there is a connection to the server.
Opens a window with which you can export the measurement data to
ISO-ASCII format.
The individual functions can also be reached via the Test navigation menu.
File Menu
The File menu is expanded in comparison to the basic version with the
following settings or selection options:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Server selection
Specifies the database server
Database default setting
Specifies the appearance of the navigator
Work directory
Specifies the local directory in which copies of
the files will be stored.
FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi • 381
Database Server Selection
To be able to work with the database, the program must first know which
database server it can communicate with. Normally this setting is made
automatically when the program is installed. Thus you will only rarely need to
make an entry in this place. If the following message appears, the program is
unable to set up a connection to the database server.
If no connection is established even after repeated attempts, check first whether
the correct setting has been made under the Server Selection menu entry.
You can choose whether to enter the name of the server (usually SRV1) or its IP
address. Using the IP address will generally result in faster communication, since
a conversion from name to address does not have to take place for every client
request. If you are not using TCP/IP, however – and thus no IP address is
available – you must access the server through a name. If you know neither the
IP address nor the name of the server, please consult with the person responsible
for your system.
If the correct name or address is set here and you still cannot establish a
connection, this could be caused by network problems or maintenance work on
the database server.
Please note that the setting of the server to be used can only be made if you are
not connected to the server.
382 • FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Database Default Setting
In this dialog box you can specify how the tree window in the Navigator will
appear. In addition, you can select whether better quality of AVI files is more
important to you or whether you place more value on rapid transfer of files from
the server. If you have administrative rights for the program, you can make
additional settings governing the appearance of the tree window for the
Administration Database areas.
You can select both for films and for measurement channels whether you want to
have only the name or the descriptive label or both displayed.
The following illustration shows only short names displayed for tests:
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi • 383
Here you see an example of a display with long names for tests. You can also
see that if no description is entered for the tests, nothing is displayed.
If you would like to have both short and long names displayed, they will be
separated by a vertical stroke "|". Another rule that applies here is that if the
description is not present, nothing will be generated.
What was said above applies correspondingly for films and measurement
channels.
Here is the output if you select short names for films.
An example when selecting long names for films:
An example when selecting long and short names for films:
An example with short names for measurement channels:
An example with long names for measurement channels:
384 • FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi • 385
An example with short and long names for measurement channels:
If you have administrative rights for the database, you can specify how the tree
window will appear in the following dialog box.
This affects the list of PCs that are allowed to have access to the server and also
the administration of users.
Here you see an example of the representation of the tree if you have selected
System number under Authorized PCs:
The following example shows a list based on Ethernet address:
This example shows how the tree will appear if you sort and list by Location.
386 • FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
In the table of users you can select whether you want to have the User ID (short
descriptions) appear in the tree window or the Family name as in the second
example.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi • 387
Work Directory
All data – both films and graphs – is administered centrally by the server and is
stored there. To ensure that only authorized users will be given access to the
data, and that each instance of access can be securely recorded, access is only
indirect. To facilitate this, the individual client transfers the data to his or her
local drive. The Work directory menu item is used to determine where local
data should be saved.
You can specify the work directory by clicking on the Search button. The
following input mask then appears:
Even if a network drive can be selected here, we recommend you specify the
work directory on a local drive. This is the only way to achieve the desired
388 • FalCon Quick View DB – Client / VisAvi
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
performance. All the program wants at this point is the name of a drive. The
name of the directory is provided by the program itself. In other words, even if
you select a directory, it will be ignored by the program. The program always
uses \FalconData\<Username>$.
The local work directory also serves the purpose of a cache. If you want to view
films or measurement data, the program first checks to make sure the data is not
already in the work directory, in which case there would be no need to transfer
the data from the server.
You can also specify in this dialog box how the program should administer
drive space. You specify how much area should remain free on the drive. The
entry should be made in MB. At the same time the program shows you how
many MB are currently free on the selected drive.
In the lower area of the dialog box you can determine the deletion strategy of the
program. If you select Delete oldest files, your work directory will use as
much disk space as possible and will only delete files when there is no longer
sufficient disk space available. This setting works well if you frequently access
the same files and individual instances of access are spread out over a long
period of time.
The selection Delete files if older than is the most economical in terms of
disk space used. Here you can also see after how many days the files are to be
deleted. Select here an amount of time after which you will normally no longer
need a test.
If you select Delete files only manually it is left up to you which files will be
deleted when. In this case the program will generate a message if the amount of
free space remaining on the disk falls below the minimum amount.
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Test Navigation
The database Navigator is used to make inquires about data within the database.
You can imagine the test database as a hard drive on which the individual tests
each represent one directory. If there are films or measurement data for the test
in question, they will be filed under one subdirectory for each test. If you see a
“+” sign before an area (here either a test, films or measurement values), there is
additional data available for this area. To make this data visible, click on the “+”
with the mouse. The “+” sign then changes into a “-” sign. To close the substructure, simply click once on the “-” sign. The information on the object
selected in the left window of the navigator is displayed for you on the right side
of the window. Since in reality we are working with a database rather than a hard
drive, however, you have the option of searching for tests, films, or
measurement values, and only the areas you want will be displayed.
The database Navigator is only available if you have established a connection to
the server. As soon as you start FalCon Quick View DB, the program
automatically creates this connection. Since the data is almost exclusively of a
confidential nature, a procedure takes place in which access is monitored, i.e.
both you and your work station must be registered. If this registration has not
taken place, the program displays a message informing you of whom you may
see to be registered.
All access to films and measurement values are recorded in a log and can
therefore be reconstructed. You should therefore take the usual steps to ensure
security:
1.
Change your password regularly.
2.
Do not select a password that would be easy to guess, such as your first or
last name.
3.
Never share your password with anyone. No one else – including the system
administrator – needs your password to do work, set up the system or
perform similar administrative procedures.
4.
Lock your work station or log off as soon as you leave your PC, even if you
are just leaving to get a quick cup of coffee.
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The Navigator is composed of three areas:
1.
a toolbar for navigating within the database.
2.
a tree window for graphic display of tests.
3.
a properties window.
Toolbar
Normally the toolbar is located above the tree window. If you wish, you can also
move the toolbar around.
Jumps to the first record.
Goes to the previous record.
Helps you to find specific tests.
Goes to the next record.
Goes to the last record.
Positions to a specific record. To do this, enter the test name and then
click on this button to see an immediate display of the test.
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Please note that the functions of database Navigation will work in terms of a
particular area with the toolbar above .
An example:
You have currently selected a measurement channel: Thus the functions of the
toolbar refer to the measurement channels of this test. Clicking on the "Go to the
last data record" button will cause you to jump to the last measurement channel
in this test, but not to the last measurement channel of the last test.
Tree Window
The tree window can be used for easier navigation within tests. If you see a “+”
sign before an area (here either a test, films or measurement values), there is
additional data available for this area. To make this data visible, click on the “+”
with the mouse. The “+” sign then changes into a “-” sign. To close the substructure, simply click once on the “-” sign
If you would like to see a film or graph displayed, either double-click with the
left mouse button on the film or measurement channel or click on the entry with
the left mouse button and then move it to the working area. If you want to see all
the films or measurement channels of a test, just move the hierarchically superior
term (here Films or Measurement values) onto the working area.
To have more graphs displayed within a graph diagram, all you have to do is
move the graphs that are to be added from the tree window into the diagram
window.
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If you are assigned to a user group that can also export Bayer pictures, select
here either the term Films – if you want to see all films – or an individual film
and then execute the entry Export Bayer pictures from the menu.
Properties Window
The right side of the Navigator shows additional information on the item
selected in the tree window. We will make no attempt at a complete description
here. To obtain more information on this topic, please consult the section
Performing/Editing a Test.
The properties of a test displayed in the Navigator:
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Properties of a film camera: displayed in the Navigator:
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Properties of Film – picture settings displayed in the Navigator:
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The properties of a Measurement value displayed in the Navigator:
The properties of a Picture displayed in the Navigator:
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The properties of a Document displayed in the Navigator:
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Selecting an Individual Test
You have two options available to position the Navigator for an individual test:
1.
Select the entry Select individual test in the menu.
The following dialog box appears:
Enter the full test name or parts of it in this dialog box. If you only use parts of
the name, don’t forget to the replacement characters "*" or "?".
If you do this, only the tests that meet the search criteria you specify will be
displayed in the Navigator.
2.
You can also enter the name of the test in the Test name entry box.
Then click on the
icon. This causes the current tests in the Navigator to
remain visible. The program can only be positioned to the selected test. Note
also that for this method the test name must be specified exactly; no place
holders are permitted in this case. This method is also only permitted if the
properties of the test are displayed.
Filtering
Filtering is used to search for specific records. Since databases contain a large
number of entries, you can use this function to display only one partial range of
entries. The last set of selection criteria you used is saved so that it is available
again the next time you start up the program.
The individual selection criteria are always linked with "AND", in other words
all criteria must apply for the data record to be displayed. Within a selection
criterion, the conditions can be linked by either "AND" or by "OR". "AND"
means that all conditions must be satisfied, while "OR" means that at least one
condition must be satisfied.
You have the option of entering the SQL statement directly in this dialog box ,
or for less experienced users using a help dialog box. Depending on the type of
database field involved, there are a number of different dialog boxes. Since the
use of the help dialog box depends entirely on the type of database entry, the
entries for each possible field are not described here. Instead, we limit ourselves
to one example each for the various types of database entries.
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Filters for Text Fields
Text fields are database entries consisting of a sequence of letters and/or
numbers.
Inserts the wildcard character "*" for 0 up to any
number of characters. Example: "*98*" will find all entries
containing the sequence "98", thus such entries as "98-FC-13"
and "97-FC-198".
Inserts the replacement character "?" for any character
but exactly 1 character. Example: "9?-FC-13" will find all
entries beginning with "9" and ending with "-FC-13", for
example "97-FC-13" and "98-FC-13".
Inserts the number replacement character "#" for one
number. Use this button if you are searching for only
numbers at the place where the character is inserted. Example:
"*#" finds all entries ending with a number.
Inserts the special character replacement character
"[ ]". Use this button to search for characters in the entry that
are otherwise reserved for special characters. This includes the
wildcard character, the replacement character and the number
replacement character.
Inserts the range character "[a-z]". You can use this to
specify a range from which the character may come. Example:
"*[c-f]*" will find all entries that contain either a "c", "d", "e"
or "f" at any location (because of the * at the beginning and
the end ).
Use this button if you want to link individual limitations with
each other. "AND" means that all conditions must be satisfied
for the entry to be found.
Use this button if you want to link individual limitations with
each other. "OR" means that at least one condition must be
satisfied for the entry to be found.
Deletes the last condition entered.
Accepts the conditions that have been entered for the search.
Interrupts the entry of search conditions and discards the
entries.
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Filters for Date
Date fields are entries that can contain both a date and also a time.
Use this button if you want to search for a date or a time that
lies before (excluding) your entry.
Use this button if you want to search for a date or a time that
lies up to (including ) your entry..
Use this button if you want to search for a date or time that
corresponds exactly with the time you are making your entry.
Use this button if you want to search for a date or time that
does not coincide with the time you are making your entry.
Use this button if you want to search for a date or time that
falls at or after (inclusive) the time you are making your
entry.
Use this button if you want to search for a date or time that
falls after (exclusive) the time you are making your entry.
Use this button if you want to link individual limitations with
each other. "AND" means that all conditions must be satisfied
for the entry to be found.
Use this button if you want to link individual limitations with
each other. "OR" means that at least one condition must be
satisfied for the entry to be found.
Deletes the last condition entered.
Accepts the conditions that have been entered for the search.
Interrupts the entry of search conditions and discards the
entries.
In the remaining fields of this dialog box you can enter the year, month, day,
hour, minute and/or second.
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Filters for Numbers
Number fields are entries that can only contain digits – with the exception of the
signs “+” and “-”, the decimal point “.” and the exponent symbol “E”. No
distinction is made here between fields that can only contain whole numbers and
those that can also contain numbers after the decimal place.
Use this button if you are searching for a number that is less
than (exclusively) your entry.
Use this button if you are searching for a number that is less
than or equal to (inclusively) your entry.
Use this button if you are searching for a number that is
corresponds exactly to your entry.
Use this button if you are searching for a number that is not
equal to your entry.
Use this button if you are searching for a number that is
greater than or equal to (inclusively) your entry.
Use this button if you are searching for a number that is
greater than (exclusively) your entry.
Use this button if you want to link individual limitations with
each other. "AND" means that all conditions must be satisfied
for the entry to be found.
Use this button if you want to link individual limitations with
each other. "OR" means that at least one condition must be
satisfied for the entry to be found.
Deletes the last condition entered.
Accepts the conditions that have been entered for the search.
Interrupts the entry of search conditions and discards the
entries.
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Filters for Yes/No
Boolean fields are used if they may only contain the entry Yes or No.
Use this button if you want to see only records in which Yes
is assigned to the field.
Use this button if you want to see only records in which No is
assigned to the field.
Accepts the conditions that have been entered for the search.
Interrupts the entry of search conditions and discards the
entries.
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Sorting Options
Here you can specify the sorting order in the tree window. You have the option
of selecting any database entry from the selection box, based on which the tree
will then be built up either in ascending or descending order, depending on your
selection. If the first sorting criterion does not have to be unambiguous, you can
set a second or even a third sorting criterion. Sub-sorting will then be performed
based on these criteria.
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ISO Export
Please note: ISO Export is only available when using PIAS
Workfiles.
The ISO Export document type is available for you to export graphs in ISO
ASCII format. To do this, create a new document of this type, either with
File/New/ISO Export or by using the
window appears:
button from the toolbar. The following
This window, like the Navigator window, is divided into two sections: On the
left side you can see a tree window in which the tests to be exported are
displayed with the corresponding measurement channels. If you see a “+” sign
before an area (here either a test or measurement values), there is additional data
available for this area. To make this data visible, click on the “+” with the
mouse. The “+” sign then changes into a “-” sign. To close the sub-structure,
simply click once on the “-” sign
To insert a measurement channel for export, click on the corresponding channel
in the Navigator window, hold down the left mouse button and drag the channel
into the tree window of the ISO export document. Here you can release the left
mouse button again. To select all channels of a test displayed in the Navigator
for export, drag the term that is one level higher, Measurement values, from
the Navigator window into the ISO export tree window. Please note that exactly
those channels that are currently displayed in the Navigator are selected for
conversion. In other words, you can make a selection by setting an appropriate
filter.
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On the right side you see the properties of the currently selected item in the tree
window. Most values are read from the measurement channels. Only in the case
of entries that are not available in the channels are settings used that the program
notes and uses for newly inserted measurement channels/tests. The following
values do not originate from the measurement channels and should be adapted
accordingly to the test in question.
•
Name of the laboratory
•
Contact name of laboratory
•
Contact phone of laboratory
•
Contact fax of laboratory
•
Name of customer
•
Name of test object
•
Velocity of test object
•
Mass of test object
Since the format that is generated is an ISO format, we will not go into any
further detail at this point on the meaning of the values, referring instead to
ISO 13499.
As soon as you have made changes in the properties, please click on the Save
button.
You can use the Delete button to delete individual channels, or all tests from the
list of channels to be exported.
If all fields have been filled in as you wish, generate the ASCII files by clicking
on the Create ISO button.
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Administering the Archive
If you have administrative rights for the database – i.e. if you are assigned to
Group [1,1] – you can administer the archive. If you do not have these rights, the
following menu is not visible.
Exactly as in the Navigator, the window consists of the three areas Toolbar, tree
window and properties window. There are two extra buttons in the toolbar:
Modifies or enters the record.
Deletes the record from the database.
For these two functions, the program queries you again whether you really want
to execute the function:
and
The functionality of the tree window corresponds to the Navigator tree window,
and will not be described again here. In reference to the appearance of the tree
window, please consult the section on the Database setting.
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Authorized PCs
In this table you can specify which PC access to the database server should be
allowed from. The Ethernet address is used as identification since it is
permanently associated with the network card and cannot be modified.
The System number is an optional text field that describes the PC. Enter the
workstation name of the PC here. The field can remain empty.
The Ethernet address is an unambiguous text field that identifies the PC.
There are two simple possibilities for identifying the Ethernet address: Use the
NT command "IPCONFIG /ALL", where the physical address corresponds to the
Ethernet address, or start the program and if your PC is not yet authorized, a
message will appear indicating that you should have your PC registered in the
database with the address that appears in the output. Entering an Ethernet
address is mandatory.
Location is an optional text field that is intended to facilitate finding the
physical location of a PC. The field can remain empty.
FastEthernet is a Yes/No field. Here you can specify how the PC is connected
with the server. The user will only have the option to choose between
compressed and uncompressed films if you specify that the PC is connected with
the server with FastEthernet. If the user requests an uncompressed film, but the
film is no longer available on the server (see storage times in the Server
Administration manual in this regard) the compressed film will automatically be
transferred instead. The program does not verify as part of this process whether
your setting is actually available, i.e. you can also have access to uncompressed
films on a PC that is connected with the server via normal Ethernet. You should
exercise caution in using such misrepresentations, however, since the transfer
times of uncompressed films for a 10 MB/s connection take a considerable
amount of time. This trick should only be used if the best quality of films is
truly necessary on this PC, for example for picture analysis and marker tracking.
Domain member is a Yes/No field. Here you can specify whether the user can
or must be verified by means of a domain controller.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to refuse access to a PC quickly and
without deleting it from the database.
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Edit User
In the users table you can specify who is allowed to log on to the server. Please
note that you must also enable the PC from which the user will be accessing the
database.
User ID is an unambiguous text field that the user describes. You can enter the
internal designation here, for example. The User ID is the name under which the
user logs on for Windows. An entry is required.
Family Name is an optional text field that provides additional information on
the user. The field can remain empty.
Department is an optional text field that describes the department to which the
user is assigned. The field can remain empty.
Cost center is an optional text field that describes the department to which the
user is assigned. The field can remain empty.
User group is a mandatory selection field that assigns the user to a user group.
User groups are used to give or remove authorization for access in a simple and
rapid manner. For more detailed description see below.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to prevent access to a user quickly without
at the same time deleting the user from the database.
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Editing User Groups
In the User Groups Table you can create groups to which you can assign
individual users. The advantage of using groups is that authorization rights can
be assigned quickly to a larger number of users, namely to all members of the
group, In addition, there are pre-defined groups that have special rights.
Group [1,1] includes all database administrators, i.e. users with all rights in
terms of the database.
Group [2,1] has the right to access Bayer pictures.
The Main group is a mandatory whole-number field. An entry is required, and
may range from 1 to 999.
The Sub-group I is a mandatory whole-number field. An entry is required, and
may range from 1 to 999.
The combination of main group and sub-group must be unambiguous.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to prevent access to a user group quickly
without at the same time deleting the group from the database.
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Picture File Format
The Picture File Format table contains the following picture formats for
processing.
Picture File Format is an unambiguous text field. It is used to determine
which picture formats are to be processed. An entry is required.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to exclude the use of a picture format
quickly without at the same time deleting it from the database.
View
The View table is used to provide a simple description of the different camera
positions.
View is an unambiguous text field. It describes the view in other words the
segment of the picture that is shown, and is also used to determine the name of
the film when the film is being generated. An entry is required.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to exclude the use of a view quickly
without at the same time deleting it from the database.
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Camera Number
The table of camera numbers displays the inventory of available ROC/HG
images.
Camera is an unambiguous text field. According to the definition, this field also
contains the TCP/IP address of the imager. An entry is required.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to exclude the use of a camera quickly
without at the same time deleting it from the database.
CD
The table of CDs the point in time at which the individual CDs were created.
Please do not change the entries in this table. They are automatically
administered by the database server.
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CD Name is an unambiguous text field. No distinction is made here between
the two CDs to be created, since they are always created at the same time. An
entry is required.
Creation Date is automatically supplied by the server program as soon as this
CD is described.
Storage location is a numeric field. The slot in the CD jukebox is stored here.
If the program is working in automatic storage mode, this is identified by the
entry "0".
Removal date is a date field. If the program is working in automatic storage
mode, the removal date is the same as the creation date.
Active is a Yes/No field that is used to exclude the use of a CD quickly without
at the same time deleting it from the database.
Access to Films
The table of access to films contains a log recording all instances of access to
individual films. The entries are made automatically by the database server.
User ID contains the user who had access to the film.
Access from contains the PC from which access took place.
Accessed on contains the date of the access.
Access to film contains the name of the film.
Test contains the corresponding test.
The table is filled in automatically by the server program. All procedures
transferring film data to the PC are recorded. In addition, the film file is
modified so that a record of who retrieved it from the server is also stored in it.
No log is kept to record repeated access to the local copy of the film.
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Access to Measurement Channels
The table of access to measurement channels contains a log recording all
instances of access to individual measurement channels. The entries are made
automatically by the database server.
User ID contains the user who had access to the measurement channel.
Access from contains the PC from which access took place.
Accessed on contains the date of the access.
Access to measurement channel contains the name of the film.
Test contains the corresponding test.
The table is filled in automatically by the server program. All procedures
transferring graphs to the PC are recorded. No log is kept to record repeated
access to the local copy of the measurement channel.
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Tests
If you have authorization to create or modify tests (i.e. you must be a member of
Group [1,1]), the program makes additional menu items available to you:
Under Test New/Copy/Select you can specify the test with which you would
like to work.
With Test Edit/Run you can control a test or modify an existing test.
You need to use Enable Test to make it visible to other users.
Revoking enable of the test hides the test.
Test New/Copy/Select
This dialog box is used to specify the test you would like to work with.
Depending on the entry you can create a new test, copy an existing test or select
an existing test for editing.
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To create a test from scratch, enter a new test name on the top left and leave the
Copy from test field blank. To make a copy of a test (including a sample test),
select the template in the list at the right or enter the name of the test. If you
create a copy of a test you can choose whether the access authorization and film
definitions should also be copied along with it. To prevent the lists from being
filled in automatically, remove the check for Show list by clicking on it with
the mouse. To find a specific test or to limit the list, click on Search:
Enter the full test name or parts of it in this dialog box. If you only use parts of
the name, don’t forget to the replacement characters “*” or “?”.
If you have selected an already existing test on the left side and have
nevertheless entered a template on the right, the program will ignore the copying
so as not to overwrite the existing definitions. The following message indicates
this incorrect entry:
At this point we will describe the makeup of a test name. If you do not restrict
yourself to the following syntax, the program will not accept your entry and will
display a message indicating what the structure of test names should be.
A Test name must be of the following structure:
YY[YY][-]TT[T][T][-][NN][N][N]
•
Two or four digits indicating the year Y
•
An optional hyphen “-”, which will be automatically supplied by the
program if you do not enter it
•
Two, three or four letters for the type of test T
•
An optional "-", which will be automatically supplied by the program if you
do not enter it
•
A test number N made up of two, three or four digits
Values in [] are optional.
Depending on customer a Test name convention can be different !
The program automatically converts test names to upper case letters.
If you click on Accept, the program automatically takes you to the point where
you can run or edit the test.
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Edit/Run Test
You can use this dialog box to control how the test is carried out and/or to
modify the test.
The name of the test appears at the upper left. Under the name are the tabs for
the individual areas Test, Film and Measurement value. Select the area you
would like to edit.
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Edit Test – Test – General
Most fields of this dialog box are filled in at the time when the server assigns the
measurement data to the test. Please note that this may result in entries that you
make being overwritten.
Test date is a date field copied over from the measurement data.
Measurement engineer is a text field copied over from the measurement
data.
Test engineer is a text field copied over from the measurement data.
Vehicle type is a text field copied over from the measurement data.
User group is a selection box you can use to automatically specify who will be
allowed to have access to the data in the test. An assignment of the test to a
group made at this point will not need to be repeated later for access
authorization.
Description is a text field copied over from the measurement data. This field is
also displayed in the Navigator tree window if a display of the long test name is
desired there.
Description 2 is a text field copied over from the measurement data.
Film engineer is a selection box in which you can select your name. The test
can then be enabled only for you or an administrator.
Don’t forget to click on the Save button if you have made modifications.
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To delete a test with all the associated data – films, Bayer pictures and
measurement data – from the database, click on the Delete button. The program
again queries whether you really want to delete the test.
Edit Test – Test – Access Limitations
This tab is used mainly to adjust access authorization for the test. You can also
see where the data for the test is stored.
Directory provides information on where the data is stored physically on the
server. Since the server automatically performs the administration of data and
directories you cannot change this setting.
CD name indicates the CD on which the data for the test is archived. Since the
server automatically performs the administration of data and directories you
cannot change this setting.
Online time indicates the time at which the test was created. This time should
not be confused with the test date!
You can use the remaining buttons to make settings controlling who has which
access rights to the data for the test. If you do not grant any authorization – and
also did not copy any while creating the test, and do not grant any while
enabling it (see further below) – only administrators (Group [1,1]) and member
of the group to which this test belongs (see previous paragraph) will have access
to this test. It is also possible for you, however, to grant rights to groups or only
to individual users here. Specific access rights should be granted to individual
users if you cannot bestow these rights on an entire group. You also have the
option of removing these rights from individual users, even if these users are part
of an authorized group.
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Since all dialog boxes are used in the same manner for individual permission or
prohibition, just one sample dialog box is described here.
In the left list box you see the groups/users who have authorization rights. To
insert an entry, select that entry in the selection box and click on the Insert
button. The entry is immediately brought over to the list window. To delete an
already existing entry, click on the entry in the list field and then click on the
Delete button. You can also copy entries from an existing test. To do this,
simply select the Just like button. Then if you select a test, the resulting entries
will be displayed in the list window.
The following dialog box is used to select a test from which the entries will be
copied.
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Edit Test – Film – Overview – Setup
You can use this tab to give a quick definition and setting of the cameras. Note
that you cannot make film table entries in their entirety with this mask. This
means that if you do not make the entries in the other tabs the program will
work with the basic settings.
The list box in the upper area of this tab shows an overview of the defined
camera. A green dot is located underneath this table. It turns red as soon as
communication has been established with the individual cameras. Select the
cameras in the list box for which you want to make settings. To select an
individual camera click on it with the left mouse button. To select a range, press
the "Shift" key as soon as you have clicked on the last camera. To (un)select
specific additional cameras, press the "Ctrl" key while you are clicking on the
appropriate camera.
As soon as cameras have been selected, the Remove button for deleting a camera
from the test and the Apply button for modifying the settings become active. If
you have selected multiple cameras and then click on Apply, only the
parameters Frames/second, Exposure time, Aperture and Focal length will be
applied, but not the camera number, the view or the description, since there is no
way these values can always be valid for more than one camera.
If you perform the Add function, the program will check to make certain the
camera number and also the view are not already being used.
For a description of the remaining parameters, refer to the description of the
following tab.
You can use the Identify button to verify that the program can access all the
cameras, and only exactly the cameras you intended, and also to transfer the
settings to the cameras. If the program does not find a camera or finds a camera
for which no test is defined, an appropriate message is generated. As soon as the
program has identified the camera, the status of the individual camera is
displayed in the list box.
To obtain a Printout of the cameras, lenses, focal lengths and apertures in use to
pass on to the studio, click on the Printout button.
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Edit Test – Film – Overview – Control
In the Network selection box you can select which network card the program
should use for communication with the cameras. Take care that the network card
to be used has the right settings in terms of the TCP/IP address and the subnet
mask. For an introduction in these subjects, please consult the manual for the
cameras.
You can use Start to start the recording. Start is only possible if the status of the
camera is READY. Make certain that the camera leaves this status again after
about 60 seconds if no trigger has been initiated in the intervening time. In
general, this function is performed by the measurement technology hardware.
The cameras must go into the RECORDING status. So as not to interfere with
the recording, there is no more querying of the camera status after this.
Use Triggers to send a command to the cameras that will initiate the trigger.
During the test, this function is only a test function. It must then be generated by
a TTL signal from the test process control system or from the measurement
system.
Stop is used to terminate the recording mode.
To be able to film an additional test after a recording you must Clear the
cameras. This brings the cameras to the READY status.
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Edit Test – Film – Overview – Ethernet
Use this tab to download picture data from the cameras, to move it to the server,
to create AVIss, or to compress or display AVIs.
Don’t forget to select the cameras, since all actions to be performed here will
only be performed for the cameras that are currently selected!
The unit of measure for entries made in this dialog box is ms. Individual
millisecond values can only be achieved for cameras that record at 1000 frames
per second. If you are using cameras with lower frame rates (500 or 250
frames/s) ) the time for the start and end frames is therefore rounded off
accordingly.
As soon as the test is recorded (this is indicated by the REC DONE camera
status), first select the camera that recorded at the highest frame rate. In addition,
the T0 time should be clearly discernable in this view if at all possible. Continue
changing the value in the T0 frame entry box until you are certain you have
identified the T0 frame. To display the frame, click on the T0 Frame button.
Then select all cameras and check the T0 time by inspecting all cameras. Usually
you will know how much time you need before T0. Enter this value under Start
Frame and verify it is correct by clicking on the corresponding button and
examining the result visually. Proceed in the same manner with the end frame,
except that here you will use the unit of measure ms to enter the download
interval As soon as this preparatory work is complete, all you need to do is
click on the Display AVI button and the program will perform all the necessary
steps for you. First the program will download the picture data from the
cameras. You can choose for this whether the download from the cameras should
be simultaneous. Since the ROC imager can only deliver its data very slowly
to the Ethernet, running a simultaneous download of several cameras at the same
time results in a savings of time for 3 or more cameras. During the download
procedure, the program will automatically generate the compressed AVI file,
which is immediately displayed as soon as the last picture of a camera is
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transferred to the PC. In the next step the program transfers the pictures and the
AVI file from the database server. To allow you to evaluate the final result, the
film file that was created on the server is transferred back to your PC. Messages
are displayed to indicate how the work is progressing.
You also have the option of bypassing this automatic process by clicking on the
individual buttons and performing each step individually.
Edit Test – Film – Overview – External
Use this tab if you want to prepare data for which the camera is not directly
connected with the PC. This may be necessary, for example, if you have
performed tests off-site. To do this, load the pictures onto the PCMCIA hard
drive by clicking on the appropriate button directly on the camera. For
instructions on this procedure, refer to the manual on the cameras. Otherwise, all
functions are performed in the same manner as in the previous section. There
are, however, two exceptions:
You can only evaluate the data from one camera. If you try to do more, the
following error message will appear:
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Secondly, you must indicate to the program where it should read the picture data
from. The following dialog box appears: Select the appropriate directory .
Edit Test – Film – Camera
Use this tab to make further settings for the camera.
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Film name is a text field that is automatically composed of the test name and
the view. The film is saved under this name. This name is put together
automatically by the program. Do not make any changes to it.
Camera-number is a selection box that specifies the camera with which the
recording will be run or was run. In addition, the program retrieves the address
of the camera from this field if it downloads the picture data via Ethernet.
Pictures per second is a selection box that specifies the rate (how many
pictures, or frames per second) at which the camera records.
Exposure time indicates the duration of the exposure for each individual
picture. The entry is made in µsec. and the range depends on the your pictures
per second entry. The smallest value is always 53 µsec. The largest value at
1000 fps is 993 µsec; at 500 fps the largest value is 1993 µsec and at 250 fps it is
3993 µsec. The abbreviation fps here stands for frames per second.
View is a selection box that describes the view . Your selection is also used to
specify the film name.
Aperture is an optional text field whose value you can pass on to your studio
with the printout for the correct setting. This field can remain empty in reference
to the database.
Focal length is an optional text field that may remain empty.
Description is an optional text field in which you can enter a description of the
camera view or the test. This field also displays the long name of the film in the
Navigator tree window.
Start time is a numeric value that is absolutely required. The entry is made in
ms – for the meaning, see above.
T0 time is a numeric value that is absolutely required. The entry is made in
ms – for the meaning, see above.
Download interval is a numeric value that is absolutely required. The entry is
made in ms – for the meaning, see above.
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Edit test – Film – Picture Settings
The Picture settings tab contains information on how the film should be
generated from the pictures.
Lens is an optional text field. Enter a description or designation of the lens to
the used here. May remain empty.
Distance to the object is an optional numeric field. This entry can be used
for picture analysis or marker tracking. It also provides the user with an
impression of the expected view. May remain empty.
Compression type is a selection box. Here you can set which compression
algorithm should be used for the film. Since the compression can/must also takes
place on the server, but the client cannot know which compression procedures is
installed on the server, the only way to add a new procedure is through a
modification to the program. May remain empty.
Compression quality is a numeric field. The entry must fall between 0 and
100%. An entry of 0% results in the replacement value of 100% quality. This
field must not remain empty.
Key frames is a numeric field. Key frames determine how jitter-free a film can
be projected backwards. A smaller value results in a larger film file, however.
See also the section on AVI compression.
Resolution width is a numeric value that is entered automatically by the
program. It is used to provide information to the user about the expected
resolution.
Resolution height is a numeric value that is entered automatically by the
program. It is used to provide information to the user about the expected
resolution.
Picture file format is a selection box that is automatically filled in by the
program when the film is generated.
The Parameter file contains the values that will be used for image
optimization. If nothing is indicated here, the current default values will be used.
This can, however, result in a later reconstruction of the film file exhibiting other
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results in terms of colors, brightness, contrast and sharpening. The parameter file
is saved together with the picture data on the corresponding CD. If you use the
Search button to select a corresponding file on your computer, the program will
automatically transfer this file to the server.
Remark is an optional text field and at the same time the long name in the
Navigator tree window. It may remain empty.
Edit Test – Measurement Value
Since the channels belonging to a test are automatically assigned by the database
server, there is no way for you to define additional measurement values. You
can, however, delete measurement values by clicking on the Delete button or
you can modify them in the database with Save.
Measurement station name is the internal short description of the
measurement value and is a text field in the database. This field must not remain
empty.
The Measurement station description is automatically copied over from
the measurement data, is a text field, and is at the same time the long name in the
Navigator tree window. It can also remain empty.
You can save additional information on this measurement value under Remark.
This is an optional text field that can also remain empty.
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Enable Test
A test is not visible for the other users of the database until the engineer
performing the test enables it. Bring up this menu entry to go to the following
dialog box.
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All tests that have not yet been enabled are listed here. Normally, this list should
not be too large. Since tests for which no film technology was used are also
saved in the database, however (i.e., these tests were automatically imported into
the database), these tests must be separately enabled.
Use the Search button to produce a limited list of tests that must still be
enabled. On the usage of the search dialog box, please see above.
If you have copied a test, you were able to select whether you also wanted the
access rights to be copied. You were also able to distribute the edited access
rights/limitations for the test. If you want to maintain these rights as they are, use
the Enable without default enable button.
If you have not yet distributed any access rights, or if you want to overwrite the
existing rights, you can use the Enable with default enable button for the
search. Please note that this will remove all existing access rights, and only the
default enable rights will be registered.
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After clicking on the Default enable button to edit, the following dialog box
appear:
All groups that have already been entered for which access rights have been
granted are listed in the large window. To insert additional groups, select a group
in the User group selection box and then click on the Insert button. The group
is immediately brought over to the list window. To delete a group from default
enable after it has already been entered, click on the group in the list window
and then click on the Delete button. You can also copy the default enable from
an existing test . To do this, simply select the Just like button. Then if you
select a test, the resulting enable will be displayed in the list window.
Revoking the Enable for a Test
If you want to make an enabled test "invisible" again, simply undo the test
enable.
All tests that have already been enabled are listed here. To search for a specific
test or to limit the list, use the Search button. Select the test from which you
would like to revoke the enable in the left window by clicking on it with the left
mouse button and the click on Reset. Resetting the enable does not change
access authorization. Instead it makes the test as a whole invisible.
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FalCon DB-Server
Introduction
FalCon Quick View DB is more than a product, it is a concept. It consists
basically of two separate programs:
•
a database server and
•
A client program.
In addition to the Viewer functions familiar from FalCon Quick View, the client
contains additional functions for managing the archive, performing tests,
controlling cameras and for transferring picture data from the camera to the host.
Almost the entire control process of database functions takes place by means of
the client section. It is described in more detail in the FalCon eXtra manual.
The DB Server program is used to manage the digital data archive. The features
offered by the server include automatic data backup, CD burning, access
protocols, access protection, automatic data importing and much more.
Although the client program gives the appearance that it is accessing a database,
the only connection to the database is created by the DB server. All “database
access” of the client is only simulated there; the actual access takes place on the
server side. This makes it possible in principle to exchange the database system
currently being used, MS Access, with another one, for example Oracle, without
having to make any changes in the client.
Directory structure
The data is stored on Disk D: of the server: The year number of the test name
forms the root directory, while the type of test forms the directory under it and
the test number in turn forms the name of a sub-directory one level lower.
Here is an example: Test 98-FC-13 is stored in directory D:\98\FC\13. A
sub-directory is created for each of the individual forms, using the name of the
film, and the Bayer pictures are stored in the sub-directories.
Please note:
Since it is assumed that the DB server will only be operated by experienced
Windows users, basic knowledge of Windows is required.
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Tasks of the Program
The main tasks of the DB server are:
•
Simulation of database functionality for the clients.
•
Verifying users for access rights.
•
Verifying PCs for access rights.
•
Making data available (=video, pictures, graphs) insofar as the user has
appropriate authorization.
•
Automatically saving data on CD and on backup computers.
•
Automatically saving the database.
•
Automatically importing measurement values.
If you find the description of a particular functionality missing in this manual,
please consult the Client manual, since it is the client that executes the
functionality. Managing the database from the client offers the advantage that
authorized users can make changes from every authorized workstation without
having to go to the server computer. Only functions that actually require physical
access or functions that are responsible for the basic configuration of the
program need to be performed directly on the DB server.
The DB server shows you which users are currently connected with the server,
when they last had access to the server, how many tables are currently open and
which database the system is working with.
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The Main Window
Connections
This window displays who is attempting to log on to the DB server. The
following line indicates whether the attempt to log on was successful and the
port through which the connection was created, or the reason for which the
connection was declined.
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Possible reasons for which a connection is not created are as follows:
•
The user has no access rights to the database → Please use the client to
make the entry with authorized users.
•
PC not configured for access → Please use the client to make the entry with
authorized PCs. Not that depending on the message, the PC may also need
to be entered as a domain PC.
•
Domain unknown → Enter the domain as authorized for access. See further
below.
•
Number of connections / port number exceeded → DB servers have 1024
port connections available (in the range from 2200 to 3224). As soon as
another user logs off, the port will be released and will be available for
additional connections.
•
DB server currently saving on CD → To ensure that the data are burned
correctly onto the CD, the DB server will not set up any connections at this
moment. If necessary, reschedule the time for writing the CDs. See further
below.
•
Number of open tables exceeded → MS Access has the limitation that the
number of tables open simultaneously is restricted. (Microsoft has promised
a modification in the next version). It is possible to open about 95 tables
simultaneously with the interim update from MS. The DB server always has
4 tables open (basic load). Under normal circumstances, one table per user
will be added to this number, so that about 90 users can access the server at
the same time. Users that are currently performing a search require about
5 tables. You should therefore make certain that users exit the client
program in a normal fashion if possible so that the corresponding tables are
released again on the server. See also the display for connections.
Database Used
The status bar of the program indicates which database is currently in use.
To switch database, you must stop the server – menu
item in the File menu – and then another database may be selected.
Open Connections and Tables
The status bar of the program indicates how many users are currently logged on
to the server.
The display is refreshed every 10 seconds, and also whenever a user logs on or
off. Please note what was said earlier about the number of possible connections
and the maximum number of tables open at the same time.
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File Menu
If the Server is Working
As soon as the DB server starts up, it automatically goes into server mode. To
select a new database, use the menu entry Close. Please note that as a result, all
connections with the clients will be interrupted.
If the Server is Not Working
To place the DB server in server mode, use the menu entry Start Database
Server.
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Open Database
To select a new database, use the menu item Open Database. The following
screen appears:
The database you selected is opened and is displayed in the status line. The
program notes the last database to be opened and automatically uses it the next
time the program is started. Please note that the program only “notes” this if you
exit the DB server with Exit, not, however, if you abort the program with the
menu item Cancel program and restart.
Verify CD
To test individual CDs in addition to the automatic testing, select the menu item
Verify CD.
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In the left window, select which CD you would like to verify. On the right, select
whether you want to test CDxxxxA, CDxxxxB or a special case. A special case is
present if the program was not able to write to the CD provided for that purpose
and used a reserve CD. A special case can only arise as long as the CD is still in
the jukebox. To do this, proceed as follows:
•
Open the Windows Explorer.
•
Open drive Z.
•
Enter the appropriate name.
Press Accept to begin the verification process. If the CD is no longer located in
the jukebox, the program will prompt you to insert the appropriate CD into the
CD drive.
All tests that are on the CD will be verified. The Status line displays the file that
is currently being accessed. At the end, an overall status – hopefully error-free –
will be displayed.
Please note that a complete verification is only possible if all data can still be
located on the hard drive of the server. Bayer data, for example, is deleted after
3 months (see further below), and so it cannot be tested after that point.
Exit
Select the menu item Exit to leave the program in a normal manner. This menu
item is the only way to ensure that all settings will be saved with new values and
will be available the next time the DB server is started. This normal exiting is
only possible, however, if no clients are connected with the server, or if
connected clients confirm that the connection is being interrupted. The menu
entry Cancel program and restart is available to exit the DB server without
the conditions described above. In this case, however, modified basic settings are
not saved with the new values. This canceling and restarting is performed even
after the CDs have been written. This frees up tables of users who did not log off.
You should take care that CDs are written at a time when no clients are normally
connected with the server.
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Settings
The individual menu entries are described in more detail below:
Times for Writing CDs
Strategies for saving
The DB server saves the data on 2 CDs each. Information that is saved includes
measurement data, Bayer pictures, and the database and files that will be
required to regenerate the films. The program attempts to make the best possible
use of the CDs. A test will be burned onto CD at the earliest on the second night
after the test was performed, but no later than 7 days. This initial delay was built
in because the measurement data is often not yet available for the server on the
same day. The program searches for all the tests that are to be saved. As soon as
there is a combination that will fill up at least 600 MB on the CD, the data is
burned onto the CD. To fill up the CD, the program runs through a simple loop
in which at each iteration the largest test is selected for which there is still
enough free space on the CD. If there are tests that are older than 7 days, then
they will be written to the CD in any case, even if more space is left over.
If a test is modified after it has already been burned onto CD – for example if
more measurement data is added to it – it will be burned onto CD again.
The dialog box above determines when to begin writing to the CDs and at what
point in time the last write process should begin. Please note that the final time
does not mean that the write process must also be complete at this time. Here is
an example:
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Example:
The write procedure for a CD pair begins at 3:55 am. Normally, about 1 hour is
required to burn and verify a CD, which means that in this case the writing will
be complete by about 5:55 am. If it so happens that it was not possible to write
one CD without errors, however, then the write process will last until just before
7:00 am. The situation is even worse if several attempts are required to produce
a CD that is free of errors.
After the write process is complete, even if there was no need to burn any CDs,
the files whose “expiration date” has been exceeded will be deleted. As a rule,
data is not deleted until it has been backed up on CD.
Upon completion of the writing and deletion process, the server automatically
exits and starts itself again. This automatic mechanism is only activated,
however, it the program had finished writing and deleting within the allotted
time, i.e., before the time for the end of the write process was reached.
Backup Destination
To prevent the case of a total loss of data in the event of a failure of both the
hard drives and the jukebox, data is saved on a remote computer (only as AVI
files) until such time as the CDs have been removed from the jukebox. The
probability of such a failure is very slight, since it could only be caused by
events such as a fire in the server area. If possible, select a computer for this
purpose that is set up in a building far away.
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System Administrator
Enter the name of a contact person here to whom users can refer when they are
unable to gain access to the server. The text you enter here will be displayed for
the client along with a message explaining why access was refused.
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Permitted Domains
Enter the names of the Windows NT domains from which clients should receive
access here. Enter the name in the lower entry box as well and then press the
Add button. To remove a domain, select it by clicking on it with the mouse and
then click on the Delete button. The DB server is configured so that up to
20 domains can be entered.
Save for How Long
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In this dialog box you can specify how long the types of data in question should
be kept on the hard drive, and thus be directly accessible for your users. The data
will not be deleted until the respective test has been burned onto CD.
You can also specify a minimum amount of free storage space on the hard drive.
If your system falls below this level an alarm (both visual and acoustic) will
warn you.
A backup of the database will be performed every night at midnight. In this
dialog box you can specify how many copies – and thus how many previous
days – should be created. These backups will be copied to the backup computer.
You must make certain that this computer is available at midnight. If the backup
computer is turned off at night, you must let the DB server know that no backup
computer is available. See above. In this case, however, no other data will be
backed up on the backup computer. If the backup destination is not available, an
error message will appear on the server.
Jukebox Administration
Here you see the contents of the jukebox. The CD pairs must each have the same
amount of free space. CDs for which the storage space is 650 MB have not yet
been written to. If Incorrect is entered as the name for a CD, it was not possible
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to write to the CD without errors, or a difference was determined during
automatic verification. In this case, the program used one of the reserve CDs.
You will find the name on one of the places you reserved for the reserve CDs.
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When you remove the CDs and fill the jukebox with new CDs,
handle the CDs very carefully! Even the tiniest traces of sweat or
dust can render CDs unusable. Wear special gloves if possible. If
the error rate is greater than 5%, either you have not been working
carefully enough or you should change the brand of CDs you are
using. If this does not result in any improvement, the writer in the
jukebox should be checked.
In terms of handling the jukebox, reference is made here to the Jukebox manual.
First remove all magazines. Be certain not to mix them up, however. Then
replace the CDs that are marked as defective with those from the reserve area
that are free of errors. Only then should you remove the CDs and place them in
their corresponding sleeves. The CD pairs must be kept in different places. Move
the remaining CDs to the beginning of the jukebox and make note of the starting
number – it will be required below. Use the following dialog box to
communicate to the DB server how the jukebox is filled.
The beginning and ending position can usually be taken over unchanged. For CD
pairs, begin by entering the number of the first CD (see above).
The program generates an optical and acoustic warning if less than 5 pairs of
CDs (a total of 10 CDs) are available.
Here you can determine the range in the jukebox from which the program will
take reserve CDs. If you incorporate the information above, you can keep the
error rate down to 15%. If your error rate is higher, however, you should provide
a greater range for the reserve CDs.
The program generates an optical and acoustic warning if less than 5 pairs of
CDs are available.
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With this program item you can communicate to the DB server which CDs you
are going to remove. The DB server will then delete the corresponding tests from
the backup computer.
Use this dialog box with care, since it will result in your backup being deleted.
You can use this dialog box to play back tests on the hard drive of the computer
again. Select the appropriate test in the left window and determine on the right
side what type of data is to be restored.
To start the restore process, press the Accept button. If the required CD is no
longer in the jukebox, the program will prompt you to insert the appropriate CD.
Please note that you must extend the times that determine how long various
types of data will be saved on the hard drive accordingly to ensure the data will
not be automatically deleted the next night. Don’t forget to exit the DB server
with Exit so that your settings will be retained!
Importing Graphs
The DB server checks in the mailboxes every 15 minutes to see whether new
measurement data is present. The program scans the “L:” and “N:” disk drives
to determine whether there are any sub-directories containing a file “Free.dat”
The content of this file has no significance. Its mere presence communicates to
the server that the data in this directory must be imported into the database. The
directory name is used as a test name for this purpose, and must correspond to
the test name conventions. All PIAS work files in the directory are inserted into
the database. Since the channel name of the work files is often incorrect, the
name of the work file is used as the channel name. If the file “Graphs.usf” is
also located within the directory, then the channel description will be taken over
if the channel occurs in the file.
If you select this menu item, the program attempts to import measurement data
immediately.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
FalCon DB-Server • 455
Database Backup
With this menu item you can cause the DB server to create a copy of the
database being used. You have already determined how many copies exist under
the menu item Save for how long.
Start CD Write
Use this menu item to start the CD write process immediately. Please note that
the DB server cannot accept any additional connections during this time and will
serve the existing connections at a very slow rate.
Connected Users
When you select this menu entry you can see who is currently connected to the
server and where the connection originates from. The display also indicates
when the user in question last had access to the server. Please note that there is
no dynamic update of the list.
You also have the option of canceling selected connections. To do this, select a
connection in the list and then click on the Terminate connection button.
This could be necessary, for example, if no open tables are available and you see
a user that has not accessed the server for several thousand seconds. For further
information, see Main window – Connections.
456 • FalCon DB-Server
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Modify Sampling Rate
What Is Modify-Sampling-Rate?
ModifySamplingRate is an accessory program of FalCon, not maintained as
a product. The program is made available to our customers at no cost as
shareware.
The program may be forwarded to third parties if the source from which it is
obtained is indicated.
What Does Modify-Sampling-Rate Do?
ModifySamplingRate is used to display the frame rate of AVI files, and
modify if it is necessary.
The T0 time (beginning time of the AVI file) can also be changed.
Background
Each AVI file contains a header specified by Video for Windows. This header
also contains the frame rate of the file (= sampling rate or recording speed of
the camera). The entire duration of the video is calculated from the sampling
rate and the number of images.
Two entries are used for the frame rate: dwScale and dwRate. According to the
AVI definition, dividing dwRate by dwScale yields the recording rate in the
unit of measure [fps] = frames per second.
FalCon AVI Viewer also uses these values except that FalCon multiplies the two
values instead of dividing one by the other.
This trick is used first to reach a recording speed that the Windows Media Player
is capable of displaying (in the range between 1 and 25 fps) and secondly to be
able to use the actual high-speed recording speed in FalCon products, since this
speed is permanently entered in the header.
In our opinion, this “adapted” use of variables makes it much simpler to handle
videos. Additional text files that would otherwise be necessary can quickly
become confused or forgotten during a transfer – this source of error is
eliminated. Each AVI file is thus capable of existing on its own and carries all
relevant and necessary information within it.
ModifySamplingRate finds a combination of numbers that yields the actual
recording speed when they are multiplied by each other, but also yields a
compatible value for Windows when one is divided by the other. Priority is given
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Modify Sampling Rate • 457
to the actual frame rate. In some circumstances, the result may be a value that is
unfavorable for Windows.
A couple of examples of this:
Frame rates:
Actual
Value for Windows
Value for FalCon
100
25
100
200
12.5
200
500
20
500
1000
10
1000
997
997
997
The T0 time is entered in the header as an additional parameter, since usual
Windows applications start from an implicit starting time of 0 s in image # 0.
The time value is written to the AVI file both as an integer value entry in [ms]
and as a floating point number (for times between the millisecond grid).
Interactive Operation
Start the program without any additional parameters. The following dialog
appears:
Use the Enter button and the Name an AVI file dialog to select the AVI file
you would like to modify.
The values read from the file are written in the Read combo box.
Now enter the desired frame rate for FalCon in the New combo box (Image
frequency for FalCon = actual recording rate).
As soon as you exit the input text box (by clicking on another box or pressing
the Tab key, for example), the figure for frame rate (image frequency) with the
gray background for the Windows Media Player is automatically recalculated
(Image frequency for Windows Media Player) and displayed.
In this interactive mode you can only assign the frame rate for FalCon
applications, thus not for the Windows Media Player.
Alternatively you can enter the frequency for the Windows Media Player as
master; in that case the frame rate for FalCon will be derived accordingly.
Until 30 fps both frequencies are identical.
458 • Modify Sampling Rate
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Special Case:
In order to get the correct NTSC frequency for Windows applications, e.g.
Adobe Premiere, enter exactly(!) 29.97 fps as Image frequency for
Windows Media Player. The corresponding FalCon frame rate will be
299700 fps.
If necessary, adjust the T0 start time in Image #0 as well (T0 start time at
image #0).
If you would like to accept the values into the file (writing) click on the Apply
button. A confirmation question now appears:
After you respond to this with “Yes”, you will find the new values in Read.
Now select the next AVI file to be processed or exit the program with the Close
button.
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Modify Sampling Rate • 459
Batch Mode
There is no further input or output on the screen when you use this mode.
If errors occur while the program is running, the exit status is set to
EXIT_FAILURE (== 1), otherwise to EXIT_SUCCESS (==0). You can query
this status through ERROR_LEVEL.
Various parameters are available to communicate commands to be executed by
the program:
•
/W means that the frame rate should be set to the Windows frame rate.
The default setting is the frame rate for FalCon programs.
•
/Q means that the frame rate should be set to the FalCon frame rate.
(= default setting)
•
/AVI
+ name of the AVI file to be processed.
Please specify the complete path. If blanks “ ”occur in the name,
delimit them with double quotation marks (“).
•
/RATE
+ frame rate = the sampling rate in frames per second [fps].
The default setting is 1000 fps.
•
/T0
The T0 start time of the video in ms. The default setting is 0
ms.
Example:
modisara /Q /AVI=J:\AVI\CRASH.AVI /RATE=1000 /T0=-5
460 • Modify Sampling Rate
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
IMC-Telnet
In Process …
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
IMC-Telnet • 461
Glossar
DIAdem
ISO-Crash
PIAS
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Glossar • 463
C
Index
1
16 colors 35
2
256 colors 35
3
3 or more 131, 428
Cache 389
camera 6
Camera 128, 132, 396, 415, 128–31, 128–31, 132
Changes 431
Clear 130, 427
Close 13, 443
Color depth 33
Color gain 123
Color Gain 39
Color matrix 40
Color optimization 59
Color settings 123
Compression 64, 85, 86, 89
Compression options 123
Compression type 432
Consult 393
Control computer 379
Convolution 50
Copy 108, 418, 423, 436
Cost center 412
Create 63, 71, 418, 422
Create AVI 71
Create AVI 68
Ctrl 128, 426
Cursor at Graph 107, 118
CVT 19
A
Access 379, 387–88, 387–88, 416, 421
Access 386, 388, 411, 416, 421
Access authorization 379
Active 411
Add 63, 67, 69–70, 69–70, 85, 67
Add AVI 87
Add pictures 68
after 389, 427
AND 401
Aperture 128, 132, 426, 431
AVI 66, 133, 379, 383, 130–31, 130–31, 432
AVI Compression 133
AVI file 132
AVI Quality 133
AVIs 130–31, 130–31
B
BAC 16, 19
Backward 93
BAP 16
based on 379, 386, 406–7, 406–7
before 131, 379, 390, 392, 404, 408, 428
Bereich MOVIE 338, 339
Black balance 39, 123
Black/White 35
Brightness balance 123
Brightness/contrast 44, 123
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
D
Data navigation 390
Database 439, 441–42, 447, 451, 455
Dats 101
Daylight 37
Daylight balance 123
DCS 42
DCS color matrix 42
DCS200 matrix 123
Default enable 436
Default settings 121, 124
Define Colors 107
Delete 73, 88, 389, 411, 127–28, 127–28, 433, 437
Delete graph 107–9
Deletion strategy 389
Department 412
Description 127, 128, 132, 384, 393, 412, 414, 421,
426, 132–33, 431, 433
Diadem 101
Digital filter 50, 57
Directory 387–88, 387–88, 422, 430
Directory default settings 123
Dither 33
Document type AVI viewer 91
Domain 411, 442, 450
Double click 392
Double-click 379
Download interval 131, 133, 428, 431
Download interval 133
Drag and drop 379
Drive space 389
Index • 465
E
I
Editing the tool bar 31, 108
EKTA 41
EKTA color matrix 41
EKTA matrix 121
enable 412
Enable 418, 435
English dialogs 23
ETH 16
Ethernet 130–31, 130, 132, 379, 411, 130–31, 428,
431
Ethernet address 386, 411
exactly 128, 403
Exactly 410, 426
excluding 404
exclusively 390
Exit 13, 22, 455
Exposure 132
Exposure time 128, 426, 431
Identify 128, 426
Image number 93
Images menu EDIT 203
including 404
Incorrect 451–52
Individual steps 25, 63
Installation 136
Intensity 57
Interpolation 58
interrupts 403
IPCONFIG 411
ISO-Crash 101
F
FalconData 389
Faster 83
FastEthernet 411
File 13
Film engineer 127, 421
Film name 431
Filtering 401
Flip 61
Focal length 128, 132, 426, 431
Font X axis 123
Font Y axis 123
for 401
Forward 93
fps 428, 431
Frames/s 131, 132
Free.dat 455
Frequency 57
G
Gamma 47
Gamma values 123
German dialogs 23
Graph area 107
Graphics card 12
Graphs 115
Graphs.usf 455
Gray values 35
greater than 405
greater than 405
K
Key frames 133, 432
L
Language 13
LANGUAGE 23
Layout of Axes 107
Lens 133, 432
less than 405
License 14
Line deletion 123
Load additional graph 107
Loading 121
Location 386, 411
Login 172
Long name 431
Long names 383–84, 383–84
M
Main group 413
Master panel 98
Master panel settings 123
MAV 16
maximum 442
Measurement engineer 127, 421
Median cut 34
Memory 12
Menu entries 13
Menu item Cancel program and restart 444
Mouse Zoom 108
MOVIE 91
MRD 15
MS Access 442
Multiple selection 63, 70, 88, 301
N
H
Halogen balance 123
Hard drive 451
Header Data 107, 110
Help 13, 15, 23
466 • Index
Navigator 379, 383, 389–90, 389–90, 393, 410, 421,
431, 433
Neon 37
Neon balancing 123
Network 129, 427
Network problems 382
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Neu 14
Neutral 42
Neutral color matrix 42
Neutral matrix 122
New 14
No 406, 411
No balance 37
not 128–31, 379, 382, 384, 388–89, 388–89, 392,
401, 404, 406–7, 406–7, 415, 419, 127–31, 421,
128–31, 432, 437
not equal 405
Numeric entry on X axis 123
Numeric entry on Y axis 123
Remove 71
Remove sensor limit lines 58
replay 91
Resolution 133, 432
Right mouse button 31
Rotate 61
Run test 419
S
Page Preview 14
Password 390
PCMCIA 429
Performing tests 379
PIAS 101
Picture alignment 123
Picture data 130–31, 130, 379, 130–31, 428, 132, 433
Picture file format 133, 414, 432
Picture number 99
picture size 91
Picture view 128
Pictures – FILE area 26, 65
Pictures - menu EDIT 30
Pictures document type 125
PLI 16
Popup menu 31
Ports 442
Preview 63, 67, 72
Print 13
Print setup 14, 20
Printout 129, 132, 426, 431
Program Settings 14
Projector functions 91
PSE 16
Save 13
Save As 14
Scaling 111, 118
Select 389, 418, 421, 436
Select Active Graph 107, 109
Selection 67, 73
Selection by cursor 38
Send To 14
Sensor limit 58
Sensor sensitivity 59
Server 379, 386, 387–88, 387–88, 411, 415, 421,
130–31, 130–31, 133
SETUP 8, 136
Sharpening factor 123
Sharpening type 123
Shift 128, 426
short names 383
Short names 383
simultaneous 428
Simultaneous 131
Sorting order 407
SQL 401
SRV1 382
Start 129, 411, 427
Start database server 443
Start time 132
Start time 132
Start Time 93, 96, 431
Status bar 22, 299
Stop 93, 130, 427
Storage location 416
Storing 121
Sub-group 413
Synchronous 98
System administrator 382
System number 386, 411
System requirements 12
Q
T
Quality 383, 411, 432
queeries 422
queries 422
Terminate connection 456
Test database 379, 390
Test date 127, 421
Test engineer 127, 421
Text Fields 403
Time Window to Left 108
Tool bar 15, 16, 22, 299
Toolbar 390–91, 390–91, 410
Topmost 93
TRA 16
O
off 390
On 418
Open 13, 16, 22
OR 401
P
R
Recording rate 67
Recording Rate 67, 72
registration 390
Registry database 121
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
Index • 467
Tree window 387, 391, 406–7, 406–7
Triggers 130, 427
True color 35
Tungsten 37
Type of color matrix 121
Type of white balance 123
U
User balance 123
User defined color matrix 43
User group 412, 421
User matrix 123
V
Vehicle type 127, 421
Video for Windows 63, 83
View 13, 22, 60, 128, 131, 132, Error! Not a valid
bookmark in entry on page 132, 414, 426,
428, 431, 132–33, 132–33
View of picture 132–33, 132–33
W
White balance 36
White balance input 38
Work directory 381
Work Directory 387–88, 387–88
Work File Values 107
Y
Yes 406, 411
468 • Index
Manual for Use of FalCon eXtra
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