Hawking Technology HWC54D User manual

Hawking Technology HWC54D User manual
Trademarks & Copyright
Windows 95/98/ME and Windows NT/2000/XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corp.
All other brands and product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means or used to make
any derivative (such as translation, transformation or adaptation) without the express written
consent of the manufacturer as stipulated by the United States Copyright Act of 1976.
FCC Warning
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the regulations for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial
environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if
not installed and used in accordance with this user’s guide, may cause harmful interference to
radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause
harmful interference, in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at
his/her own expense.
CE Mark Warning
This is a Class B product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio interference, in
which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
HAWKING LIMITED WARRANTY
Hawking Technology guarantees that every HWC54D Hi-Gain Wireless-G CardBus Card is
free from physical defects in material and workmanship under normal use for two (2) years
from the date of purchase. If the product proves
defective during this two-year warranty period, call Hawking Customer Service in order to
obtain a Return Authorization number. Warranty is for repair or replacement only. Hawking
Technology does not issue any
refunds. BE SURE TO HAVE YOUR PROOF OF PURCHASE. RETURN REQUESTS CAN
NOT BE PROCESSED WITHOUT PROOF OF PURCHASE. When returning a product,
mark the Return Authorization number clearly on the outside of the package and include
your original proof of purchase.
IN NO EVEN SHALL HAWKING TECHNOLOGY’S LIABILTY EXCEED THE PRICE PAID
FOR THE PRODUCT FROM DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THE PRODUCT, ITS
ACCOMPANYING SOFTWARE OR ITS DOCUMENTATION. Hawking Technology makes
no warranty or representation, expressed, implied or statutory, with respect to its products or
the contents or use of this documentation and all accompanying software, and specifically
disclaims its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose.
Hawking Technology reserves the right to revise or updates its products, software, or
documentation without obligation to notify any individual or entity. Please direct all inquiries
to:[email protected]
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 1
1.1
Features ......................................................................................................................... 1
1.2
Specifications................................................................................................................ 1
1.3
Package Contents .......................................................................................................... 2
2 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE ..................................................... 3
3 CONFIGURATION UTILITY ......................................................... 6
3.1
Site Survey .................................................................................................................... 6
3.2
Profile............................................................................................................................ 7
3.2.1 Configure the Profile ................................................................................................ 8
3.2.2 Enable WPA in Windows XP ...................................................................................12
3.3
Link Status (Obtaining an optimal Wireless Connection) .......................................... 14
3.4
Statistics ...................................................................................................................... 17
3.5
Advance ...................................................................................................................... 17
3.6
About........................................................................................................................... 19
4 TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................................. 20
1 Introduction
Thank you for purchasing the Hawking Technologies Hi-Gain Mini USB Wireless-G Adapter. The
HWU54DM complies with the IEEE 802.11g standard, which supports up to 54Mbps high-speed
wireless networking. It is also backwards compatible with IEEE 802.11b devices. The HWU54DM is a
high quality, high performance wireless product that has been designed with Hawking’s Hi-Gain
Technology for improved distance and throughput. Using a unique swivel-and-rotate design paired
with a 5dB/5dB Patch antenna, the adapter ensures you’ll get the greatest signal coverage wherever
you are. Just point the unit in the direction of the wireless signal source and you’re sure to get the
highest signal strength. The LED Signal Strength Indicator provides you the information you need to
make sure you’re getting the most from your wireless connection.
For wireless security issues, this card supports 64/128-bit WEP data encryption that protects your
wireless network from eavesdropping. It also supports the WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) security
standard that combines IEEE 802.1x and TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) technologies. Client
users are required to authorize before accessing to APs or AP Routers, and the data transmitted in the
network is encrypted/decrypted by a dynamically changed secret key. This card also has built-in an
AES engine which ensure the highest degree of security and authenticity for digital information and it is
the most advanced solution defined by IEEE 802.11i for security in wireless networks.
The power consumption of the card is also very low. Furthermore, this card provides several levels of
power saving modes allowing the user to optimize the battery life of their notebooks.
1.1 Features
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Works with both IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g products.
Rotate and Swivel design for maximum reception adjustability
Designed with Hawking Hi-Gain Technology
Signal Strength Indicator shows current wireless signal reception information
Directional 5dBi/5dBi Hi-Gain Patch Antenna for increased Wireless Distance and elimination
of wireless interference from laptop components
High-speed transfer data rate - up to 54Mbps.
High throughput allows for the transfer of data heavy multi-media files.
Supports 64/128-bit WEP, WPA (TKIP with IEEE 802.1x) and AES functions for the highest
level of security.
Automatic fallback increases data security and reliability.
Supports the most popular operating systems: Windows 98SE/Me/2000/XP.
USB2.0 Compliant & Bus powered
1.2 Specifications
•
Standard: IEEE 802.11b/g
1
•
•
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Interface: 32-bit Cardbus
Frequency Band: 2.4000 ~ 2.4835GHz (Industrial Scientific Medical Band)
Modulation: OFDM with BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM (11g)
BPSK, QPSK, CCK (11b)
•
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Data Rate: 54/48/36/24/18/12/11/9/6/5.5/2/1Mbps auto fallback
Security: 64/128-bit WEP Data Encryption, WPA, AES and IEEE 802.1x
Antenna: Hi-Gain 6dBi Patch Antenna (Fold-Up and Swivel)
Drivers: Windows 98SE/Me/2000/XP
LEDs: TX/RX, Link
Transmit Power: 16dBm~18dBm (Before Antenna)
Power consumption: Tx: 350mA, Rx: 250mA
Receive Sensitivity: 54Mbps OFDM, 10% PER, -70dBm, 11Mbps CCK, 8% PER, -86dBm,
1Mbps BPSK, 8% PER, -92dBm
•
•
•
•
Dimension: 8(H) x 118(W) x 54(D) mm
Temperature: 32~131°F (0 ~55°C)
Humidity: Max. 95% (NonCondensing)
Certification: FCC, CE
1.3 Package Contents
Before you begin the installation, please check the items of your package. The package should include
the following items:
•
One Hi-Gain Mini USB Wireless-G Network Adapter
•
One CD (Driver/Utility/User’s Manual.)
•
One Quick Installation Guide
If any of the above items is missing, contact your supplier as soon as possible.
2
2 Installation Procedure
Before you proceed with the installation, please notice following descriptions.
Note1: Please do not install the HWU54DM into your computer before installing the software
program from the CD.
Note2: The following installation was operated under Windows XP.
Windows 98SE/Me/2000.)
(Procedures are similar for
Note3: If you have installed the Wireless adapter driver & utility before, please uninstall the old
version first.
A. Insert the Installation CD into your CD-ROM Drive. The Utility splash screen will appear. Click
Driver & Utility Setup to begin setup initialization.
B. Setup will initialize automatically.
C. Setup will ask prompt you to accept the Licensing agreement. Select Yes to continue.
3
D. The system will begin to install the software utility for the HWU54DM. Follow the instruction of the
program to plug in the Mini USB Adapter into the USB port of your desktop or laptop computer.
E. The system will automatically detect the Mini USB Adapter and copy the necessary driver files over.
F. Windows Hardware setup will present a list of drivers for installing the HWU54DM. Select
Hawking HWU54DM Hi-Gain Wireless-G USB Adapter. Click “Next” to continue the hardware
installation.
4
G. Windows will display the Windows “Hardware Installation” warning screen. Click “Continue
Anyway” to proceed with the installation.
H. Click “Finish” to complete hardware installation of the HWU54DM.
5
3 Configuration Utility
The Configuration Utility is a powerful application that helps you configure the HWU54DM and monitor
the link status and statistics of your wireless connection.
The Configuration Utility appears as an icon on the system tray of your Windows operating system
while the card is running. You can open it by double-clicking on the icon.
You may also “Right-click” the icon, which will bring up the following options:
z
Lauch Config Utilities
Select “Lauch Config Utilities” to open the Configuration Utility tool.
z
Use Config as Configuration Utility or Use Zero Configuration Utility as Configuration
Utility
Select which of the two configuration modes you would like to use.
z
Exit
Select “Exit” to close the Configuration Utility tool
3.1
Site Survey
When you open the Configuration Utility, the system will scan all wireless channels to find all access
points/stations within the accessible range of your card and automatically connect to the wireless
device with the highest signal strength. When using the “Site Survey” option, all nearby networks will be
listed. You can change your connection to another network or you may add one of the networks to your
own profile list.
6
Parameter
Description
Available Networks
This list shows all available wireless networks within range of your
card. It also displays the information of the networks including the
SSID, BSSID, Signal Strength, Channel, Encryption,
Authentication and Network Type. If you want to connect to any
networks on the list, double-click the item on the list, and the card
will automatically connect to the selected network.
Rescan Button
Click “Rescan” button to collect the information of all the wireless
networks nearby.
Connect Button
Click “Connect” to connect to the selected network.
Add to Profile Button
Add the selected network to Profiles list.
3.2
Profile
The “Profiles List” is for you to manage the networks you connect to frequently. You are able to
Add/Delete/Edit/Activate a profile.
Parameter
Description
Profiles List
The profiles list display all the profiles and the relative information
including Profile Name, SSID, Channel, etc.
Add/Delete/Edit Button
Click these buttons to add/delete/edit the selected profiles.
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Activate Button
Click “Activate” to connect to the selected profile.
3.2.1 Configure the Profile
System Configuration
Parameter
Description
Profile Name
Define a recognizable profile name for you to identify the different
networks.
SSID
The SSID (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) is the unique
name identified in a WLAN. The ID prevents the unintentional
merging of two co-located WLANs.
You may specify a SSID for the card and then only the device with
the same SSID can interconnect to the card. If you want to add
one of the networks nearby to the profile list, pull down the menu,
all the networks nearby will be listed and you can add one of them
to the profile list.
Power Saving Mode
The power saving function is only available when the network type
is in Infrastructure.
CAM(Constantly Awake Mode) – The card will always set in
active mode.
Power Saving Mode – Enable the card in the power saving mode
when it is idle.
CAM When AC Power – Select this option to automatically switch
the card from power saving mode to CAM mode while the power
of your laptop computer is supplied by the AC power but not
battery.
8
Parameter
Description
Network Type
Infrastructure – This operation mode requires the presence of an
802.11 Access Point. All communication is done via the Access
Point or Router.
Ad-Hoc – Select this mode if you want to connect to another
wireless station in the Wireless LAN network without going
through an Access Point or Router. Peer to Peer.
Transmit Power
If you wish to lower the transmit power of the card to save the
power of your system, you can select the lower percentages from
the list.
11B Preamble Type
The preamble defines the length of the CRC block for
communication among wireless stations. This option is only active
in the Ad Hoc network.
There are two modes including Auto and Long Preamble. If
“Auto“ mode is selected, the card will auto switch the preamble
mode depending on the wireless stations which the card is
connecting to.
RTS Threshold
Minimum packet size required for an RTS (Request To Send). For
packets smaller than this threshold, an RTS is not sent and the
packet is transmitted directly to the wireless network. Select a
setting within a range of 0 to 2312 bytes. Minor change is
recommended.
Fragment Threshold
The value defines the maximum size of packets; any packet size
larger than the value will be fragmented. If you have decreased
this value and experience high packet error rates, you can
increase it again, but it will likely decrease overall network
performance. Select a setting within a range of 256 to 2312 bytes.
Minor change is recommended.
Channel
This setting is only available for Ad Hoc mode. Select the number
of the radio channel used for the networking. The channel setting
should be the same with the network you are connecting to.
9
Authentication vs. Security
Parameter
Description
Authentication Type
This setting has to be consistent with the wireless networks that
the card intends to connect to. All security keys within a network
must match to allow successful communications.
None – No authentication is needed among the wireless network.
Shared – Only wireless stations using a shared key (WEP Key
identified) are allowed to connecting each other.
WPA-PSK –It is a special mode designed for home and small
business users who do not have access to network authentication
servers. In this mode, known as Pre-Shared Key, the user
manually enters the starting password in their access point or
gateway, as well as in each wireless stations in the network. WPA
takes over automatically from that point, keeping unauthorized
users that don't have the matching password from joining the
network, while encrypting the data traveling between authorized
devices. The encryption methods are including TKIP and AES.
Note that this option is only available for Windows XP.
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Parameter
Description
Encryption Mode
None – Disable the WEP Data Encryption.
WEP – Enable the WEP Data Encryption. When the item is
selected, you have to continue setting the WEP Encryption keys.
TKIP – TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) changes the
temporal key every 10,000 packets (a packet is a kind of message
transmitted over a network.) This insures much greater security
than the standard WEP security.
AES – AES has been developed to ensure the highest degree of
security and authenticity for digital information and it is the most
advanced solution defined by IEEE 802.11i for the security in the
wireless network.
Note: All devices in the network should use the same encryption
method to ensure the communication.
WPA Pre-Shared Key
The WPA-PSK key can be from eight to 64 characters and can be
letters or numbers. This same key must be used on all of the
wireless stations in the network.
WEP Key
(Key1 ~ Key4)
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data transmitted in the
wireless network. There are two types of key length: 64-bit and
128-bit. Select the default encryption key from Key 1 to Key 4 by
selected the radio button.
Fill the text box by following the rules below.
64-bit – Input 10-digit Hex values (in the “A-F”, “a-f” and “0-9”
range) or 5-digit ASCII characters (including “a-z” and “0-9”) as
the encryption keys. For example: “0123456aef“ or “test1”.
128-bit – Input 26-digit Hex values (in the “A-F”, “a-f” and “0-9”
range) or 13-digit ASCII characters (including “a-z” and “0-9”) as
the encryption keys. For example:
“01234567890123456789abcdef“ or “administrator”.
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3.2.2 Enable WPA in Windows XP
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a specification of standards-based, interoperable security
enhancement that strongly increases the level of data protection (encryption) and access control
(authentication) for existing and future wireless LAN systems. The technical components of WPA
include Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) for dynamic key exchange, and 802.1x for
authentication.
There are two types of WPA security: WPA-PSK (no server) and WPA (with server). WPA requires a
Radius Server to complete authentication among wireless stations and Access Points. Typically, this
mode is used in an enterprise environment. WPA-PSK uses a so-called pre-shared key as the security
key. A pre-shared key is a password that every wireless station must use to access the network.
Typically, this mode will be used in a home environment.
To enable the WPA function in Windows XP, the following software systems are required:
1. Windows XP Service Pack 1 with Windows XP Support Patch for Wi-Fi Protected Access program
in addition.
2. Configure the card using Wireless built-in utility (Wireless Zero Configuration).
z
Note: When using the Wireless Utility there are two function selections when you open the
execute the program. You can select to use the XP’s built-in utility with full WPA function. If
“Use XP Wireless Zero Configuration” is selected, you can only configure the advance
setting or check the link status and statistics from the “RaConfig” utility.
1.
2.
From here, right click the
icon to select “View
Available Wireless
Networks”.
Press “Advanced” button
from “Wireless Network
Connection”.
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3.
Press the “Configure” button to configure the
WPA function for the current network.
Note: Uncheck “Use Windows to Configure my wireless network settings”, the “RaConfig” utility will be
enabled again.
Parameter
Description
Network Authentication
Open –No authentication is needed among the wireless network.
Shared – Only wireless stations using a shared key (WEP Key
identified) are allowed to connecting each other.
WPA – This mode is for enterprise with an authentication server
(Radius Server), WPA-enabled access point, and a WPA-enabled
client. Once WPA is enabled, all clients and access points on the
network must be WPA-enabled in order to access the network.
WPA-PSK – It is a special mode designed for home and small
business users who do not have access to network authentication
servers. In this mode, known as Pre-Shared Key, the user
manually enters the starting password in their access point or
gateway, as well as in each PC on the wireless network. WPA
takes over automatically from that point, keeping unauthorized
users that don't have the matching password from joining the
network, while encrypting the data traveling between authorized
devices.
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Parameter
Description
Data Encryption
WEP – In WPA or WPA-PSK mode, WEP is also able to be the
encryption method for the transmission data.
TKIP – TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) changes the
temporal key every 10,000 packets (a packet is a kind of message
transmitted over a network.) This insures much greater security
than the standard WEP security.
AES – AES has been developed to ensure the highest degree of
security and authenticity for digital information and it is the most
advanced solution defined by IEEE 802.11i for the security in the
wireless network.
Note: All devices in the network should use the same encryption
method to ensure the communication.
3.3
Link Status
From the “Link Status” option, you can view all the information of the network you are connecting to.
You can use this tool in while at the same time repositioning the Hi-Gain antenna to find the optimal
location for antenna placement.
Parameter
Description
Status
Display the SSID and MAC ID of the network the card is
connecting to.
Current Channel
Display the number of the radio channel and the frequency used
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for the networking.
Parameter
Description
Current Tx Rate
Display the transmission rate of the network. The maximum
transmission rate is 54Mbps.
Throughput (Kbits/sec)
Display the speed of data transmitted and received.
Link Quality
This bar indicates the quality of the link. The higher the
percentage, the better the quality.
dBm
If you want to know the signal strength in the unit of dBm, select
this check box.
Signal Strength
This bar shows the signal strength level. The higher percentage
shown in the bar, the more radio signal been received by the card.
This indicator helps to find the proper position of the wireless
device for quality network operation.
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Reading the Link Status Page and Obtaining the Strongest
Connection
The Link Status page gives you information regarding your current wireless channel,
transmit rate (speed) and link/signal quality. You will use this utility to figure out which
antenna position results in the best performance and connection.
1) First you must determine where the location of your Wireless Access Point is within
your network.
2) Position the directional antenna towards the location of the Access Point.
3) While viewing your Link Status utility, rotate the antenna clockwise and
counter-clockwise slowly to figure out which position gives you the highest Link
Quality and Signal Strength. Once you have determined which position gives you
the best signal, leave the antenna in that orientation.
4) When you are not using the Hi-Gain CardBus Card, fold down the antenna to its
16
original closed position to avoid damage when travelling.
3.4
Statistics
This option enables you to view the available statistic information with its Tx counts (Tx success, Tx
error, RTS Success and RTS Failed), and its Rx counts (Rx success, Rx error). You may reset the
counters by clicking ”Reset Counter”.
3.5
Advanced
This option enables you to configure more advanced settings, for example: wireless mode, protection
mode and etc.
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Parameter
Description
Wireless Mode
802.11 B/G mix – If you have a mix of 802.11b and 802.11g
wireless stations in your network, it is recommended to setting the
card to this mode. This mode is also the default setting.
802.11 B only – This card can be compatible with both 802.11g
and 802.11b wireless stations. If there are only 802.11b wireless
stations in the network, you can set the card to this mode.
Tx BURST
Tx Burst enables the card to deliver the better throughput in the
same period and environment.
B/G Protection
If you have a mix of 802.11b and 802.11g wireless stations in the
network, it is recommended that you enable the protection
mechanism. This mechanism can decrease the rate of data
collisions between 802.11b and 802.11g wireless stations. When
the protection mode is enabled, the throughput of the card will be
a little lower due to more complex data packets that must be
transmitted.
Auto – Based on the status of the network and automatically
disable/enable protection mode.
On – Always enable the protection mode.
Off – Always disable the protection mode.
Parameter
Description
ADHOC_OFDM
When the network type is in Ad Hoc mode, that the card can only
work in 11b data rate. It is defined by Wi-Fi organization. If you
want to enable the data rate up to 54Mbps (11g), select
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“ADHOC_OFDM”.
Tx Rate
There are several options including
Auto/1/2/5.5/11/6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54Mbps for you to select.
When the “Auto” is selected, the device will choose the most
suitable transmission rate automatically. The higher data rate you
designated in the network, the shorter distance is allowed
between the card and the wireless stations.
When the wireless mode is “802.11 B only”, the maximum data
rate is 11Mbps (11b) so that there are only “Auto/1/2/5.5/11Mbps”
options you can select.
Turn Off RF Button
3.6
If you want to turn off the radio of the card temporarily, click this
button. To turn on the radio, click this button again.
About
By choosing this option, you can click the hyperlink to connect to the website for the information of the
wireless chipset vendor and review basic information about the Utility such as the Driver, Utility and
EEPROM Version. The MAC Address of the card is displayed in the screen as well.
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4 Troubleshooting
This chapter provides solutions to problems usually encountered during the installation and operation
of the adapter.
1. What is the IEEE 802.11g standard?
802.11g is the new IEEE standard for high-speed wireless LAN communications that provides for
up to 54 Mbps data rate in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11g is quickly becoming the next mainstream
wireless LAN technology for the home, office and public networks.
802.11g defines the use of the same OFDM modulation technique specified in IEEE 802.11a for
the 5 GHz frequency band and applies it in the same 2.4 GHz frequency band as IEEE 802.11b.
The 802.11g standard requires backward compatibility with 802.11b.
The standard specifically calls for:
A. A new physical layer for the 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) in the 2.4 GHz frequency
band, known as the extended rate PHY (ERP). The ERP adds OFDM as a mandatory new
coding scheme for 6, 12 and 24 Mbps (mandatory speeds), and 18, 36, 48 and 54 Mbps
(optional speeds). The ERP includes the modulation schemes found in 802.11b including
CCK for 11 and 5.5 Mbps and Barker code modulation for 2 and 1 Mbps.
B. A protection mechanism called RTS/CTS that governs how 802.11g devices and 802.11b
devices interoperate.
2. What is the IEEE 802.11b standard?
The IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN standard subcommittee, which formulates the standard for the
industry. The objective is to enable wireless LAN hardware from different manufactures to
communicate.
3. What does IEEE 802.11 feature support?
The product supports the following IEEE 802.11 functions:
z
z
z
z
z
z
CSMA/CA plus Acknowledge Protocol
Multi-Channel Roaming
Automatic Rate Selection
RTS/CTS Feature
Fragmentation
Power Management
4. What is Ad-hoc?
An Ad-hoc integrated wireless LAN is a group of computers, each has a Wireless LAN adapter,
Connected as an independent wireless LAN. Ad hoc wireless LAN is applicable at a
departmental scale for a branch or SOHO operation.
5. What is Infrastructure?
An integrated wireless and wireless and wired LAN is called an Infrastructure configuration.
Infrastructure is applicable to enterprise scale for wireless access to central database, or
wireless application for mobile workers.
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6. What is BSS ID?
A specific Ad hoc LAN is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). Computers in a BSS must be
configured with the same BSS ID.
7. What is WEP?
WEP is Wired Equivalent Privacy, a data privacy mechanism based on a 40 bit shared key
algorithm, as described in the IEEE 802 .11 standard.
8. What is TKIP?
TKIP is a quick-fix method to quickly overcome the inherent weaknesses in WEP security,
especially the reuse of encryption keys. TKIP is involved in the IEEE 802.11i WLAN security
standard, and the specification might be officially released by early 2003.
9. What is AES?
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), a chip-based security, has been developed to ensure the
highest degree of security and authenticity for digital information, wherever and however
communicated or stored, while making more efficient use of hardware and/or software than
previous encryption standards. It is also included in IEEE 802.11i standard. Compare with AES,
TKIP is a temporary protocol for replacing WEP security until manufacturers implement AES at
the hardware level.
10. Can Wireless products support printer sharing?
Wireless products perform the same function as LAN products. Therefore, Wireless products can
work with Netware, Windows 2000, or other LAN operating systems to support printer or file
sharing.
11. Would the information be intercepted while transmitting on air?
WLAN features two-fold protection in security. On the hardware side, as with Direct Sequence
Spread Spectrum technology, it has the inherent security feature of scrambling. On the software
side, WLAN series offer the encryption function (WEP) to enhance security and Access Control.
Users can set it up depending upon their needs.
12. What is DSSS?What is FHSS?And what are their differences?
Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) uses a narrowband carrier that changes frequency
in a pattern that is known to both transmitter and receiver. Properly synchronized, the net effect
is to maintain a single logical channel. To an unintended receiver, FHSS appears to be
short-duration impulse noise. Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) generates a redundant
bit pattern for each bit to be transmitted. This bit pattern is called a chip (or chipping code). The
longer the chip is, the greater the probability that the original data can be recovered. Even if one
or more bits in the chip are damaged during transmission, statistical techniques embedded in the
radio can recover the original data without-the need for retransmission. To an unintended
receiver, DSSS appears as low power wideband noise and is rejected (ignored) by most
narrowband receivers.
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13. What is Spread Spectrum?
Spread Spectrum technology is a wideband radio frequency technique developed by the military
for use in reliable, secure, mission-critical communication systems. It is designed to trade off
bandwidth efficiency for reliability, integrity, and security. In other words, more bandwidth is
consumed than in the case of narrowband transmission, but the trade off produces a signal that
is, in effect, louder and thus easier to detect, provided that the receiver knows the parameters of
the spread-spectrum signal being broadcast. If a receiver is not tuned to the right frequency, a
spread –spectrum signal looks like background noise. There are two main alternatives, Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).
14. What is Hi-Gain and dBi?
Hi-Gain is Hawking Technologies high performance wireless distance extending product line. It
encompasses a group of products and technologies used to help solve distance issues
accompanied with WiFi products. A unit of measurement on antenna strength and power is dBi.
The higher the dBi or gain level of an antenna the more powerful it is.
15. What is the difference between directional and omni-directional antennas?
Directional and omni-directional antennas determine the wireless output pattern of antennas.
In standard installations it is normally the wireless access point that uses the omni-directional
antenna (360 degree wireless output) while the clients (desktop or laptops) that use the
directional antennas (concentrated narrow wireless signal) to create a stronger link directly to
the access point.
16. How do I get an Optimal Wireless Connection with the HWC54D?
If pointing the antenna directly at the access point is not providing a sufficient signal connection
then you can try bouncing the signals off walls. Wireless signals can reflect off walls or through
windows to get to their desired location so try different positions to find the best antenna
orientation for your network.
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