School Safety Guide_E_3r1

School Safety Guide_E_3r1
Health and Safety Guide
3rd Edition
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
Emergency Information
Poison Control Centre
Company Emergency Phone Number
Prepared by
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
In collaboration with
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
© CCOHS, 2004
School Worker’s
Health & Safety
3rd Edition
Published 2001
ISBN 0-660-18378-1
DSS Catalogue Number CC273-3/01-1E
Canada $10.00 (+ GST)
USA/Other $10.00 (USD)
(Prices subject to change without notice)
Ce guide est aussi disponible en français comme
Guide santé sécurité des travailleurs scolaires (2e édition).
Contactez le Service à la clientèle de CCHST à
1-800-668-4284 ou [email protected]
Personal Information
This handbook belongs to:
Medical Conditions
In case of emergency please notify:
School Workers
Health and Safety Guide
Performance Objectives
This is your guide to working safely in schools and other
educational institutions. It will enable you to:
✎ Recognize workplace hazards.
✎ Prevent accident and injury by safe work practices and
use of personal protective equipment.
✎ Deal with accidents and emergencies.
✎ Understand your duties and rights as given in
occupational health and safety legislation.
✎ Contact government departments to find additional
health and safety information.
This guide covers workplace conditions and work
practices involved in teaching programs, extracurricular
activities, and facility maintenance in schools. The subject
matter is selected to suit the occupational health and safety
needs of teachers, sports activitiy coordinators, school
administrators, school board employees and facility
management staff. It provides safe work practices for
performing a wide range of tasks.
Target Audience
This guide is for workers, supervisors, teachers, principals,
school board officials, and health and safety committee
members in schools and other educational establishments.
In this guide, supervisor means the person to whom you
report. A supervisor could be a Principal, Vice Principal,
Office Superintendent or Facility Manager.
School employees include teachers, administrative staff,
facility management personnel and maintenance staff.
These employees perform a wide range of tasks, many
of which can cause bodily injuries or illnesses. You can
prevent such injuries and illnesses by following safe work
practices and using proper protective equipment.
Examples of some injuries and illnesses are:
✎ cuts and amputations from the use of machine
equipment in shops and gardening tools
✎ bruises and abrasions from plants and trees
✎ burns from hot soldering irons, burners, heaters,
and hot engines in auto shop
✎ electrical shock or electrocution from contact with live
electrical parts or electric powerlines
✎ slips and falls in wet and/or cluttered areas
✎ soreness and pain in hands, wrists, shoulders or back
as a result of doing repetitive work, working in an
awkward posture, applying too much force over and
over again, operating vibrating equipment or lifting
heavy loads improperly
✎ itching, swelling, redness of the skin as a result of
exposure to very hot or very cold weather, or contact
with plants and animals
✎ burns and skin disorders as a result of contact with
laboratory chemicals, cleaning solutions, pesticides, or
contact with plants and animals
✎ illness as a result of a contact with people with
infectious diseases or contaminated biological wastes
✎ allergies as a result of dust inhalation, contact with
plants and animals, and insect bits and stings
This Guide provides ways of working safely to prevent
these injuries and illnesses.
Many health and safety behaviours are learned by example.
Children and youth model what they observe. Comprehensive
safe school plans and programs should focus attention on
the strengths and experiences of students, teachers,
administrators and other school personnel.
Section I
Basic Rules of Safety
1. The Law Says . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Elements of On-the-job Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3. Safety Tips for New Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Safety Tips for Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5. Safety Tips for Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Section II
Maintaining a High Standard of Safety
1. OSH Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Workplace Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Accident Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Section III
Emergency Preparedness
1. Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2. Fire Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3. Eyewash Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. Emergency Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Section IV
Classroom Safety
1. General Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2. Science Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Section V
Arts and Crafts
1. Arts and Crafts Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2. Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Section VI
Industrial Technology
1. Hand Tool Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2. Drill Presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3. Wood Turning Lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4. Band Saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5. Circular Saws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6. Planers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7. Grinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
8. Soldering Irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
9. Gas Welding and Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Section VII
Maintenance and Custodial Practices
1. Office Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2. Ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3. Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4. Powered Boom Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5. Manual Materials Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6. Lock-out Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7. Confined Space Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
8. Toxic Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
9. Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
10. Basic Electrical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
11. Grounds Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
12. Waste Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Section VIII
Sanitation and Infection Control
1. Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2. Infection from Blood and Body Fluids . . . . . . 79
3. Biohazardous Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Section IX
Sports and Activities
1. Sports and Sporting Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2. Off-Site Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Section X
Work Environment
1. Indoor Air Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2. Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3. Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4. Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5. Working in Hot Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6. Working in Cold Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7. Portable Classrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
8. Asbestos Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9. Ultraviolet Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10. Electromagnetic Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Section XI
1. Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs) . . . . . . . . . 106
2. Computer Workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3. Working in a Sitting Position . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
4. Chair and Work Surface Adjustment . . . . . . .113
5. Workstation Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Section XII
Personal Protective Equipment
1. General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2. Safety Glasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
3. Safety Footwear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4. Safety Headwear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
5. Hearing Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6. Hand Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7. Respirators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Section XIII
Health and Safety Legislation
1. Legislative Responsibilities in Schools . . . . . . 134
2. Canadian OH&S Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
3. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
System (WHMIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) . . . . . . . 143
5. Public Health Promotion Legislation . . . . . . . . . 144
6. Fire Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
7. Building Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
8. Environmental Protection Legislation . . . . . . . . . 145
9. US OH&S Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Section XIV
Information Sources
1. Canadian Government Departments with
Responsibility for OH&S . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
2. US Federal Safety and Health Agencies . . . 156
3. State Occupational Health and Safety Plans . 160
Section I
Basic Rules of Safety
1. The Law Says...
2. Elements of On-the-Job Safety
3. Safety Tips for New Employees
4. Safety Tips for Supervisors
5. Safety Tips for Teachers
1. The Law Says...
Health and safety laws are meant to protect you.
By law your employer must provide you with a safe and
healthy workplace.
It is your supervisor’s responsibility to make sure that you
understand the safe way of doing your work.
Working safely is your responsibility. You must use
personal protective equipment required by your employer,
follow safety procedures required in your area and report
any hazardous conditions you are aware of.
If you think a task is dangerous for you or your co-workers,
you have the right to refuse to do that job until it can be
done safely. You must report to your supervisor your
intention to refuse dangerous work.
2. Elements of On-the-Job Safety
1. The right way is the safe way of doing your job.
Follow instructions. If you don’t know, ask.
2. Know potential hazards in your work and ways of
working safely to prevent such hazards.
3. Know safety rules for specific jobs and be able to
explain these rules to fellow workers.
4. Follow emergency procedures in case of fires,
medical emergencies, and need of rescue squad.
5. Report all injuries including minor scratches, cuts,
burns, slips and falls. Your employer needs to know,
in order to take corrective action to prevent future
injuries. Follow your school’s procedures for
reporting injuries.
6. Know where emergency equipment is located, such
as fire extinguishers, eyewash stations and safety
showers, and learn how to use this equipment.
7. Use personal protective equipment as required by
your employer. Such equipment includes, but is not
limited to, safety glasses, hearing protectors,
respirators, safety boots, hard hats, gloves and face
8. Learn special safety procedures for particularly
hazardous work such as vessel entry, confined space
entry, electrical work and welding.
9. Follow electrical safety rules when using electrical
equipment, grounding portable electrical tools and
working near overhead power lines.
10. Know how to protect yourself when working
outdoors in very cold or hot weather or in direct
sunshine (UV rays).
11. Perform a circle check before taking out a vehicle.
12. Lock out and tag energy sources (electrical,
mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, etc.)
of all machinery and equipment under maintenance
or repair.
13. Report unsafe practises and unsafe conditions.
14. Wear clothing that’s appropriate to the tasks you
perform. Do not wear loose sleeves, cuffs, rings,
bracelets, nor anything else that may get caught in
moving machinery and cause injury.
Off-the-job safety is equally important.
Safety should not stop when you leave your
school or workplace.
3. Safety Tips for New Employees
When you are starting a new job, ask your supervisor
or employer the following health and safety related
What are the potential hazards of the job?
Is job safety training available?
What safety equipment do I need to do my job?
Do I need to wear personal protective equipment
Will I receive training on how to use the PPE?
What do I do in case of fire or another emergency?
Where do I find fire extinguishers, first aid kits,
first aid rooms and emergency assistance?
What are my responsibilities regarding health
and safety?
In case I notice something wrong, to whom
should I report?
Who is responsible for answering safety related
What do I do if I get injured, or have an accident?
4. Safety Tips for Supervisors
Explain the importance of safety to employees.
Implement safe work practises.
Give praise for safe behaviour.
Solicit participation.
Reward for participation.
Set an example.
Promote safety by providing books, videos,
literature etc.
✎ Visit school areas regularly.
✎ Know employees personally.
✎ Improve and simplify safety continuously.
5. Safety Tips for Teachers
Materials in this guide will assist you in integrating safety
in your practice of conducting classroom, science
laboratory and technology shop activities. A safety lesson
is ideal for the first few days at the beginning of a
semester. As a start, you may use the following tips to
integrate safety as a part of the subject you’re teaching.
Toxic Chemicals
WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
Make sure students understand the importance of :
✎ product labels on the containers,
✎ material safety data sheets,
✎ safe work practices and personal protective equipment.
Eyewash Stations and Emergency Showers
✎ Keep clear access to the eyewash at all times.
✎ Use eyewash station for rinsing chemicals or foreign
material from the eye.
✎ TIP: Ask students to do a routine check to ensure
eyewash is in good working order.
✎ Use emergency shower (deluge shower) for chemical
splashes to the skin
(See pages 21 & 22 for more information on Eyewash Stations and
Emergency Showers.)
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
✎ Know where safety glasses/goggles, aprons, lab coats,
gloves are located.
✎ NEVER work with chemicals without using
appropriate PPE
Make sure that:
✎ fire exits are not blocked;
✎ exit lights are properly lit;
✎ fire alarms are by the door, visible, and within easy
✎ Fire extinguishers (usually dry Chemical type “ABC”)
are on the wall near a doorway.
✎ Smoke detectors are located on ceilings and are
routinely tested.
✎ Do not stay too long in a highly noisy area.
✎ Use ear protection if noise is too loud.
✎ Stop using a vibrating tool if you feel tingling
in your hands.
✎ Restart after the tingling disappears.
Slips, Trip and Falls
✎ Clean up spills and clutter immediately.
✎ Use proper ladders to work at heights.
Electric Shock
✎ Prevent contact with live electrical wires.
✎ Ensure that electrical equipment and power tools are
properly grounded or insulated.
Machine Guards
✎ Do not operate a machine without its guards.
✎ Lockout machinery and equipment if you clean,
oil or adjust it.
✎ Remember, interlocks are not substitute for lockout.
✎ Do not look directly into a laser beam or laser pointer.
Tools and Equipment
✎ Never operate a tool or equipment unless you have
“hands-on” training.
Biological Hazards
✎ Prevent contact with body fluids like blood, vomit, etc.
Section II
Maintaining a High
Standard of Safety
1.OSH Responsibilities
2.Workplace Inspections
3.Accident Investigation
4.First Aid
1. OSH Responsibilities
A chart like the one below will help you to keep track of OSH
reponsibilities in your school.
Keeping current with health and
safety legislation
John Smith
Developing an OSH policy for the
Janet Jones
Developing safe work procedures
Taking action on an OSH committee's
Andrew Carr
Providing OSH training and
Sam Smitt
Providing hazard information
Doing preventative maintenance
Purchasing equipment and supplies
Providing first aid
Monitoring employee health
Planning fire protection
Conducting safety inspections
Preparing records, statistics
and reports
Conducting accident investigations
Planning safety audits
Ensuring contractor safety
Inspection and testing of boilers,
elevators, fire extinguishers, etc.
Conducting emergency drills and
developing emergency evacuation plan
Health and safety orientation for
new employees
Dave Burns
John Smith
Dave Burns
Dave Burns
Janet Jones
Janet Jones/Tom Lewis
Sam Smitt/Janet Jones
Janet Jones / Tom Lewis
Andrew Carr
John Smith
John Smith/Tom Lewis
Dave Burns
Janet Jones
2. Workplace Inspections
Occupational health and safety legislation requires regular
workplace inspections. The purpose of an inspection or
safety tour is to identify unsafe conditions, as well as
unsafe practices, and to recommend corrective actions.
Inspection Team
Inspection teams may consist of a mix of personnel such
as employees, supervisors and managers.
Generally, the legislation sets out
procedures for designating a
person or persons to carry out
workplace inspections.
Inspection team members
should always use the
required personal protection
to protect themselves and
to set a good example.
Roles and Responsibilities
The inspections are undertaken in accordance with
a schedule agreed on by the Health and Safety Committee
(JHSC). The inspection teams generally use a checklist as
a guide for conducting inspections.
Inspection Reports
Inspection reports are communicated to all levels of the
organization. Posting inspection reports on the bulletin
board, reviewing them at joint health and safety
committee meetings, and sending sending a copy to
the management for review are all good communication
✔ Satisfactory ✗ Unsatisfactory, requires attention
❏ Proper manual lifting
❏ Smoking only in safe,
designated areas
❏ Proper use of water hoses
❏ Safety procedures in place for
sports/outdoor activities
❏ Other
❏ Eye/face protection
❏ Footwear
❏ Gloves
❏ Protective clothing
❏ Head Protection
❏ Aprons
❏ Respirators
❏ Other
Fire extinguishers
Proper type / location
Fire equipment maintained
Emergency exits/lighting
Sprinkler systems
Storage of flammable materials
❏ Lawn mowers
❏ Power tools
❏ Hand tools
❏ Snow blowers
❏ Machine guards
❏ Belts, pulleys, gears, shafts
❏ Oiling, cleaning, adjusting
❏ Maintenance, oil leakage
❏ Other
❏ Proper storage areas
❏ Proper storage of flammable
material (oily/greasy rags, etc.)
❏ Proper disposal of waste
❏ Floors (clean, uncluttered, dry)
❏ Maintenance of yards,
parking lots
❏ Other
Machine grounding/GFI
Electrical cords
Electrical outlets
First aid kits in rooms / vehicles
Trained first aid providers
Emergency numbers posted
All injuries reported
MSDS*/ Labels
Dust / vapour / fume control
Safe use of ladders / scaffolds
New processes or procedures
carried out
❏ Other
*MSDS=Material Safety Data Sheet
D = other
C = do within 2 weeks
Department/Areas covered:
Time of Inspection:
Inspected by:
B = do within 3 days
Priority Codes: A = do immediately
Analysis and comments:
Date of Inspection:
Copies to:
3. Accident Investigation
The purpose of an accident investigation is to find the root
cause of the accident and NOT to blame people for the
accident. Accidents as well as incidents (close calls, or
near misses) should be reported and investigated.
Investigation Team
The accident investigation team generally consists of
the following:
✎ Manager/supervisor
✎ An expert (if appointed)
✎ Health and safety committee representative(s),
certified member (if possible)
✎ Other persons as required
Roles and Responsibilities
You must report any occurrence of an accident or an
incident to your manager/supervisor immediately.
Your manager/supervisor is responsible for conducting the
accident investigation and notifying the health and safety
committee and other people as required by legislation and
your organization's procedures.
Accidents involving injuries are reported using a form
prescribed by Workers Compensation Board. The accident
investigation report generally includes the following:
✎ Name and occupation of the employee
✎ Location and time of accident and injury (if any)
✎ Name(s) of witness(es)
✎ Description of the tasks, including the equipment and
working conditions
✎ Description of what happened to cause the accident
✎ Name of the person(s) completing the report
✎ Recommendations for corrective action
✎ Name of physician or surgeon, if any
Reported by
Location of the accident
Tasks being performed when accident occurred
Names of persons affected
Nature of injury
Possible cause of injury
Equipment, tool, substance being used prior to accident
Property, Equipment Damage
Damaged items
Type of damage
How did the damage occur
Work Being Done When Accident Occurred
Description of work
Names of persons involved
Equipment(s) and tools used
Details (How accident occurred):
4. First Aid
First aid regulations require that employers must provide
first aid facilities, equipment, and trained personnel in all
workplaces. People who hold valid first aid certificates
should make sure that the contents of first aid boxes are
regularly checked and maintained.
For information regarding first aid kits and first aid
training, please contact the local St. John Ambulance
Association or the Canadian Red Cross Society or any
approved organization.
In case of injury or onset of a disease:
1. Promptly obtain first aid.
2. Notify your supervisor/employer.
3. Ask for a treatment memorandum to take to a medical
practitioner or hospital of your choice.
4. Complete and promptly return all forms received
from the Workers’ Compensation Board.
5. Your supervisor should decide on the need for an
accident investigation.
Your employer should post the names and workplace
telephone numbers of the people who have agreed to
provide first aid at the workplace.
Some types of injuries and illnesses may require special
first aid procedures and immediate medical care.
These include:
Sports activities
Chemical exposures
Heat Stroke
Hypothermia (cold exposure)
injured person.
WAIT for a qualified person
to administer first aid.
Section III
1. Emergencies
2. Fire Safety
3. Eyewash Stations
4. Emergency Showers
1. Emergencies
Emergencies can be of two types:
Natural emergencies include floods, earthquake,
tornadoes, wind storm, snow storm etc.
Technological emergencies include fire, explosion,
building collapse, radiation, toxic substance
spill, loss of power, water, communication, etc.
The Canadian Standard CSA Z131-M91, published by the
Canadian Standards Association, provides guidelines
for emergency planning. In the US please consult OSHA
publication “Emergency Preparedness and Response” or
OSHA Standard 29CFR1910.38.
2. Fire Safety
Four Elements—oxygen, fuel, heat, and chain reaction
must be present to cause a fire. Remove any one of these
four elements and the fire will go out.
Take the oxygen away from a
fire by covering it with a wet
blanket, throwing dirt on it or
covering it with chemical or
mechanical foam. These prevent
oxygen from getting to the
source of the fire.
Take the fuel away from the
fire. This can be difficult and
dangerous. Pump contents of
flammable liquid storage to an
isolated, empty tank. Close a
valve to stop the flow of liquid
or gas from the tank.
Cool a fire source by applying something which absorbs
heat. Water is the most commonly used cooling agent.
Chain Reaction
Interrupt the chain reaction of the fire by using chemical
extinguishing agents such as dry chemical foam or carbon
Classification of FIres
Fires are of four types:
Class A fires involve burning of ordinary materials such
as wood, cloth and paper.
Class B fires involve burning of flammable liquids and
gases such as paint, gasoline and natural gas.
Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment.
The fuel burning could be A, B, or D.
Class D fires involve combustible metals such as
magnesium, titanium, zirconium and sodium.
Fire Extinguishers
SELECT and locate fire extinguishers according to:
✎ the type of potential fire hazard
✎ the degree of hazard
✎ the area to be protected
IDENTIFY locations.
LOCATE extinguishers along aisles that provide access
to an EXIT.
LOCATE extinguishers to minimize travel distance.
LOCATE extinguishers according to fire regulations and
National Fire Protection Association Standards.
KEEP extinguishers fully charged and in their designated
REPLACE used extinguishers with spare extinguishers
during recharging.
INSPECT extinguishers at least monthly to ensure that:
✎ they are in their designated places
✎ they have not been tampered with or used
✎ their gauges indicate they are fully charged
✎ they are not corroded or otherwise impaired
✎ they are not damaged
✎ the maintenance record tags are up-to-date
SERVICE extinguishers at least yearly. Where needed,
recharge or repair to ensure operability and safety.
ATTACH a tag to show the maintenance or recharge date
and signature or initials of the person who performed
the service.
ENSURE that extinguishers are tested according to
manufacturers’ recommendations.
DO NOT ATTEMPT to handle fires beyond your
capabilities. Leave fire to Fire Department experts.
DO NOT OBSTRUCT fire exits or obscure them from view.
Use of Fire Extinguishers
Small fires can be put out using portable fire
extinguishers. You should be trained in order to be able to
use fire extinguishers. The type of extinguisher to be used
depends on the type of fire.
Wood, paper,
Type A;
Type A-B
paints, oils,
Type A-B:
Type B-C;
Type A-B-C
fuse box
Type B-C;
Type A-B-C
Bucket of Sand
3. Eyewash Stations
ENSURE that an eyewash station is located
within 10 seconds travelling time and less
than 100 ft from the hazardous work.
TEST plumbed eyewash weekly
CHECK portable eyewash weekly. Refill as needed.
KEEP bowl clean.
IDENTIFY location of eyewash:
✎ distinctly
✎ uniformly
✎ graphically
DO NOT BLOCK the actuator (push handle).
Operating Procedures
REMOVE head covers.
Pop-Off Cover
MAINTAIN contact
with water or fluid
for at least fifteen
CALL for assistance.
83.8 – 114.3cm (33 - 45 inches)
LOWER head so
that both eyes
are flushed.
Refer to ANSI Z358.11998 “Emergency
Eyewash and Shower
Equipment” for further
An Emergency Eyewash Station
4. Emergency Showers
ENSURE that shower is located within
10 seconds travelling time and less than
100 ft from the hazardous work area.
CHECK that the location is away from electrical
apparatus and power outlets.
TEST shower weekly.
IDENTIFY location of shower.
✎ distinctly
✎ uniformly
✎ graphically
DO NOT BLOCK the actuator (pull handle).
Stay-Open Valve and Actuator Ring
STAND under shower
head immediately.
175.3 cm (69 inches)
61 cm
(24 in) max
83.3 – 114.3cm
(33 to 45 inches)
PULL actuator ring.
(The actuator is
the pull handle)
REMOVE contaminated
clothing rapidly
while under water
STAY under water
stream for at least
fifteen minutes.
CALL for assistance.
Shower Head
208.3 – 243.8 cm (82 – 96 inches)
Operating Procedures
Foot Pedal Actuator
An Emergency Shower
Section IV
Classroom Safety
1. General Safety
2. Science Rooms
1. General Safety
Periodically inspect (preferably at the beginning of the
school term) the general condition of the classrooms and
the building facilities. You may use the following checklist
as a guideline. Add or delete items of inspection as required.
✔ Satisfactory
✗ Unsatisfactory, requires attention
OSH legislation
Posted (as required)
Clean, dry, uncluttered, non-skid
Ceilings, walls, windows
Clean, dry, dust/mould-free
Good general condition
Tidy, uncluttered, well illuminated
Exits and signs
Visibility, illumination
Proper type, condition, access,
Intensity, glare
Thermal comfort of occupants
Condition of ducts, odours, noise
Fire extinguisher
Proper type, location, inspection/
Waste disposal
Waste disposal containers,
recycling containers
Clean-up routine
Established responsibilities,
Electrical equipment
Power outlets, extension cords,
portable electrical equipment
First aid procedure(s)
Posted, first aid box accessible,
staff adequately trained
Emergency procedures
Posted, clear, staff trained
Labels, MSDS, training provided
Safety rules
Posted, clear, understood
Hazard warning signs
Posted, visibility
2. Science Rooms
Chemical Storage
MAINTAIN inventory of chemicals and make sure that
material safety data sheets (MSDS) are available for
each chemical.
ESTABLISH a separate and secured storage area.
IDENTIFY and properly label all products before storing.
MAKE SURE that the chemical storage area meets the
requirements of the local fire code.
MAKE SURE that smoke detectors and fire extinguishers
are installed and maintained in good working order.
POST the name and telephone number of the emergency
contact person(s) responsible for the chemical area.
ENSURE that all staff are informed and trained in
emergency procedures.
DATE all chemicals on receipt.
DISPOSE of chemicals which are not needed and
chemicals with lapsed expiry date.
CLOSE caps and lids tightly before storing the
SECURE the storage shelving firmly to the ground and
the walls.
USE shelves with lips to prevent bottles from rolling off.
WOODEN storage shelves are best suited for general
USE metal shelves for flammable products to reduce fire
MAKE SURE that the chemical storage area is ventilated
separately from rest of the building.
WHEN STORING two chemicals side by side make sure
that they are compatible and will not react to produce
a hazardous chemical reaction.
FOLLOW recommended cleanup procedures in case
of spill.
DO NOT STORE chemicals in fume hoods.
DO NOT STORE chemicals in refrigerators unless
appropriate and unless refrigerator is “spark-proofed”.
DO NOT STORE chemicals on the floor or on open
shelves or counter tops.
DO NOT STORE chemicals above eye level.
DO NOT STORE chemicals over or near a sink.
DO NOT STORE nitric acid with other acids.
DO NOT STORE together non-compatible chemicals
which produce hazardous chemical reactions.
Examples of hazardous chemical reactions are:
1. Acids and bases.
2. Flammable/combustible liquids, greases, and
ordinary combustibles, oxidizing materials, such
as nitric acid, perchloric acid and sulphuric acid.
3. Glycerol and solid potassium permanganate.
Periodically inspect (preferably at the beginning of the
school term) the general condition of the Science Lab(s).
You may use the following checklist as a guideline—add
or delete items of inspection as required.
For Additional Information
1. Contact your Principal or Health and Safety Officer.
2. Contact the CCOHS Inquiries Service
Phone: 1-800-263-8466 (Toll free)
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
✔ Satisfactory
Room No.
✗ Unsatisfactory, requires attention
❏ Hazard warning signs
❏ Equipment
❏ Gas and water taps
❏ Electrical outlets
❏ Emergency equipment
(fire, eyewash, etc.)
posted, condition, location
condition, location
condition, location
condition, location
availablility, condition, location
❏ First aid box
❏ Broken glassware disposal
availability, contents, location
❏ Labware cleaning facilties
condition, location
availability, condition, location
❏ Procedure(s) for: purchasing,
storage, use and disposal
established, availability, location
❏ MSDSs and labels (labels for
biological specimens stored
in chemical solutions included)
availability, location
❏ WHMIS training
❏ Authorized access only
❏ Procedures for toxic substances
❏ Procedures for compliance with
established, posted
health and safety regulations
❏ Emergency contact procedures
established, posted
established, posted
❏ Safety and emergency
procedures for students
established, posted, understood
❏ Student awareness of potential
hazards,(ie. long hair, jewellery,
understanding of safe practices
❏ Written procedures for activities
established, posted
❏ Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) availability, condition
❏ Equipment operating instructions
for students
❏ Experiments thoroughly tested
and approved
❏ Pre-test all steps before class
❏ Safety shield to protect students
(as required)
❏ Smallest possible quantities used
❏ Exhaust/fume hoods for hazardous
gases and fumes
condition, location
availability, condition, location
❏ Procedures explained in detail,
including safety precautions
❏ Supervision at all times
❏ Enforce use of PPE; ensure long
hair is secured
❏ Local exhausts and fume hoods
operating (if required)
❏ Procedures for open flames
❏ Follow clean-up procedures
responsibility assigned
responsibility assigned
availability, condition, location
established, explained, posted
established, explained, posted
❏ All water and gas taps closed
❏ Fumes, smoke and vapours
responsibility assigned
cleared before turning off
exhaust fans
responsibility assigned
❏ Chemicals returned to storage
responsibility assigned
❏ Working surfaces and floor
cleaned, dry and uncluttered
responsibility assigned
Section V
Arts and Crafts
1. Arts and Crafts Materials
2. Photography
1. Arts and Crafts Materials
Commonly Used Products
Art and craft materials that may cause adverse health
effects include the following:
Paints, pigments and solvents
Dyes and stains
Pottery clay
Sculpture and moulding materials
Wood preservatives
Printing inks and washes
Aerosol sprays, glues, adhesives and permanent
✎ Photographic chemicals
Health Hazards
Health hazard resulting from exposure to a particular
product will depend on the product ingredients, route of
entry into the body, and the amount of intake (dose).
Routes of Entry
Toxic substances may enter the body through one or more
of the following routes:
1. Inhalation of dusts, fumes, mists, vapours, and gases.
2. Ingestion of contaminated foods and drinks, and
smoking of cigarettes that could be contaminated by
not washing hands after handling chemicals.
3. Absorption through skin, wounds, cuts and the eyes.
In addition, allergic reactions can occur as a result of skin
contact with certain metals, epoxy resins, amines, and
some other materials.
SUBSTITUTE toxic products with less toxic ones.
FOLLOW safety measures recommended in material
safety data sheets (MSDS).
OBSERVE good personal hygiene.
WASH hands before and after eating, drinking and going
to the washroom.
DO NOT MIX contaminated protective clothing with
your normal clothing.
CHECK MSDS for potential hazards and safety
MAKE SURE that ventilation and exhaust systems are in
good working order.
USE approved flammable liquids storage cabinets for
storing flammable materials and ensure that the
storage area has automatic sprinkler systems and
appropriate extinguishers.
ENSURE that smoke detectors are in working condition
in areas where art materials are used and in all
chemical storage areas.
ENSURE that emergency phone numbers are posted in an
accessible, visible location.
Flammable and Combustible Materials
KEEP containers of flammable and combustible liquids
closed and covered.
FOLLOW methods recommended by the National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA) when transferring
GROUND any metal drums which contain combustible or
flammable liquids that could be ignited by static
electricity created by pouring (e.g. petroleum-based
solvents like toluene). Also ground metal solvent
container into which solvent is poured.
DISPOSE of waste liquids, rags, or paper soaked with
flammable or combustible liquids in approved,
fireproof waste disposal cans with self-closing tops,
and dispose of the waste daily.
STORE combustible solids in sealed containers to
prevent fires.
STORE flammable and combustible liquids in approved,
labelled containers in flammable liquid storage
WET-MOP or wet vacuum explosive dusts and
combustible solids (if compatible with water) and
store in approved self-closing waste cans.
DO NOT SMOKE in any room with flammable
DO NOT STORE flammable or combustible liquids near
doorways or escape routes.
DO NOT USE space heaters near flammable materials.
2. Photography
WEAR an approved dust
respirator, goggles and
rubber gloves, when
pouring developer
WASH gloves before
MAKE SURE eyewash facilities are accessible and
functional in the darkroom area.
USE TONGS, not bare hands, when using developer
WASH with plenty of lukewarm water for 15–20 minutes,
following eye splash or serious skin exposure. Seek
first aid and see a physician as soon as possible.
MAKE SURE that ventilation system adequately removes
the acetic acid and other harmful vapours.
STORE concentrated acids and other corrosive chemicals
on low wooden shelves in ventilated cabinets.
Section VI
Industrial Technology
1. Hand Tool Operations
2. Drill Presses
3. Wood Turning Lathes
4. Band Saws
5. Circular Saws
6. Planers
7. Grinders
8. Soldering Irons
9. Gas Welding and Cutting
1. Hand Tool Operations
WEAR safety glasses or goggles.
ENSURE that you are properly trained in the safe use
of hand tools.
USE good quality tools.
SELECT the right tool for the job. Substitutes increase
the chance of accidents.
MAINTAIN tools carefully. Keep them clean and dry, and
store them properly after each use.
KEEP tools in good condition at all times.
INSPECT tools for defects before use.
REPLACE or REPAIR defective tools.
KEEP cutting tools sharp.
REPLACE cracked and broken handle on files,
screwdrivers, hammers, or axes.
REPLACE worn jaws on wrenches, pipe tools and pliers.
REDRESS burred or mushroomed heads of striking tools.
USE tools designed to allow wrist to stay straight. Avoid
using hand tools with your wrist bent
PULL ON a wrench or pliers. Never push unless you hold
the tool with your palm open.
KEEP the work area clean and tidy to avoid clutter which
may cause accidents.
DO NOT USE tools for jobs they are not intended to do.
DO NOT APPLY excessive force or pressure on tools.
DO NOT CUT towards yourself when using cutting tools.
DO NOT HOLD the stock in the palm of your hand when
using a cutting tool or a screwdriver.
DO NOT WEAR bulky gloves to operate hand tools.
DO NOT CARRY a sharp tool in your pocket.
2. Drill Presses
Guidelines for Safe Use
READ owner’s manual and
follow operating
WEAR safety glasses.
Hand feed
CONFINE long hair to
prevent it from getting
caught in rotating
ENSURE that drill press
has a start/stop button
within easy reach.
to floor
USE a brush or rake to
remove cuttings.
REMOVE burrs from a
drilled hole.
USE a clamp or drill vice
to prevent work from
Lubrication Line
LUBRICATE drill bit when
drilling metal.
Use a clamp to hold
the workpiece in place
REDUCE drilling pressure
as drill breaks through
the workpiece. This
prevents drill from
pulling into the work
and breaking.
KEEP drill bits clean
and sharp.
KEEP floor around the drill press
free of oil and grease.
KEEP the working surface clean
of scraps, tools and materials.
KEEP guards in place.
Keep guards in place
DO NOT WEAR any loose clothing or ties. Roll sleeves
above the elbow to prevent them from being
caught in revolving parts.
DO NOT WEAR rings, watches, bracelets or gloves
while working with a drill press.
DO NOT SET speeds, or adjust or measure work, until
machine is completely stopped.
DO NOT LEAVE chuck key in drill chuck at any time.
DO NOT HOLD work by hand when drilling holes larger
than 12 mm (1/2 in.) in diameter.
DO NOT PLACE hands under stock being drilled.
DO NOT STOP rotation of chuck and spindle by hand.
DO NOT REMOVE a broken drill with a centre punch
and hammer.
DO NOT LEAVE drill press running unattended.
3. Wood Turning Lathes
Guidelines for Safe Use
READ the operator's manual carefully. Learn the
applications and limitations of the machine.
WEAR safety goggles or face shield at all times.
USE stock free of defects.
HOLD tools firmly with both hands against the tool rest.
HOLD the stock securely on the faceplate or between the
USE only those tools that have been furnished or
USE sharp, well-maintained chisels and gouges.
OPERATE lathe at low speed with moderate depth of cut
to prevent flying splinters during roughing operations.
Speed of the lathe depends on type of wood, diameter
of stock, nature of work being done and type of tool
ADJUST tool rests parallel and as close as possible to the
stock and high enough so that tools will cut into the
wood slightly above the centre of the work being
REMOVE tool rest when sanding or polishing.
HOLD sandpaper in the fingers and press lightly against
a small area at the top of the rotating shaft when hard
sanding. This will keep the sandpaper from catching
and pulling your hand around the stock.
DO NOT WEAR gloves, loose clothing or rings.
Clothing should be worn snugly with shirts tucked in.
DO NOT USE makeshift tools.
DO NOT USE stock containing checks, splits, cracks,
or knots.
(of turn)
Tool Rest
To make a faceplate turning, the tip of the chisel is steadied by
the one hand, which holds the edge against the tool rest, while
the other hand guides the tool. Note that the tip of the chisel is
held higher than the handle.
4. Band Saws
Guidelines for Safe Use
WEAR safety glasses or a face shield.
ENSURE all safeguards are in place.
ENSURE the blade runs freely in and against the upper
and lower guide rollers.
ENSURE the machine has been properly oiled.
ENSURE the blade is under proper tension.
ENSURE the band saw is securely anchored to the floor
to reduce vibration.
ENSURE all band wheels are enclosed.
ENSURE that the band saw is equipped with automatic
tension control.
KEEP the floor around a band saw free of obstructions.
ADJUST guard height with 3mm (1/8 in) clearance of
FEED with body to side of stock.
USE band saw blades which are sharp, properly set and
suitable for the job.
HOLD stock firmly and flat on the table. This prevents
the stock from turning and drawing your fingers
against the blade.
RELEASE cuts before long curves when doing intricate
scroll-type work.
PROVIDE adequate lighting at the machine table.
A light fixture with a flexible connection can
provide essential lighting.
DO NOT ATTEMPT to back the stock away from the
blade while the saw is in motion if work binds or
pinches on the blade.
DO NOT STOP the band saw by thrusting stock against
the cutting edge or side of blade immediately after the
power has been shut off.
DO NOT REMOVE sawdust or cuttings from the table
by hand. Use a stick or brush.
DO NOT LEAVE the saw running unattended. Turn off
the power and make sure the machine has stopped
LOCKOUT power source when cleaning, oiling or
Wheel Guard
Adjustable Light
Adjustable Guard
Wheel Guard
5. Circular Saws
Circular saws are designed for right-hand operation;
left-handed operation will demand more care to
operate safely.
Trigger Switch
Safety Switch
Motor Housing
Electrical Cord
Bevel Cutting Angle
Adjustment Knob
Lever for Retracting
Lower Blade Guard
Front Clamp Screw
Retracting Lower
Blade Guard
Main Shoe
Cutting Depth
Adjustment Knob
Guidelines for Safe Use
WEAR safety glasses or a face shield.
WEAR approved respirators when exposed to harmful
or nuisance dusts.
USE a sharp blade that is designed for your work.
CHECK the retracting lower blade guard frequently to
make certain it works freely. It should enclose the
teeth as completely as possible, and cover the unused
portion of the blade when cutting.
ALLOW the saw to attain full power before cutting.
ENSURE the retracting lower blade guard is fully
returned before laying the saw down.
DISCONNECT power supply before adjusting or
changing the blade.
KEEP all cords clear of cutting area.
USE two hands to operate saw; one on trigger switch,
other on front knob handle.
KEEP upper and retracting lower blade guard clean and
free of sawdust.
KEEP motor free from accumulation of dust and chips.
CHECK saw for proper blade rotation.
SECURE work being cut to avoid movement.
DO NOT USE a saw that vibrates or appears unsafe
in any way.
DO NOT FORCE the saw at any time during cutting.
DO NOT CUT materials without first checking for
obstructions or foreign objects such as nails and
DO NOT HOLD or fix the retracting lower guard in the
open position.
DO NOT PLACE hand under the shoe or guard of the
DO NOT OVER-TIGHTEN the blade locking nut.
DO NOT TWIST the saw to change,
cut or check alignment.
DO NOT CARRY saw with finger
on the trigger switch.
proper footing and
balance at all times.
(fixed to stock)
(fixed to stock)
(fixé à pièce)
DO NOT RIP stock
without using a
wedge or guide
that is clamped or
nailed to stock.
6. Planers
Belt Guard
Cutter Head
Trigger Switch
Front Handle
Infeed Table
(Front shoe)
Outfeed Table
Cutter Blade
Cutter Retained
Edge Guide
Guidelines for Safe Use
WEAR safety glasses or a face shield.
USE blades of the same weight, and set at exactly the
same height.
ENSURE blade locking screws are tight.
REMOVE adjusting keys and wrenches before turning
power on.
DISCONNECT the planer from the power supply before
making any adjustments to the cutter head or blades.
Secure Work
SUPPORT stock in a
comfortable position
for doing the job
safely and accurately.
supply to dump
out chips.
Support stock for safe
accurate planing
DO NOT PUT finger on any object in deflector to
clean out chips while planer is running.
CHECK stock thoroughly for staples, nails, screws or
other foreign objects before using planer.
START a cut with the infeed table (front shoe) resting
firmly on the stock, and cutter head slightly behind
the edge of the stock.
USE two hands to operate planer; one on the trigger
switch, the other on front handle.
KEEP all cords clear of cutting area.
DO NOT OVER-REACH. Keep proper footing and
balance at all times.
DO NOT SET planer down until blades have stopped
7. Grinders
(6 mm from
Fixed Screen
Toughened Glass
Tool Rest
(3 mm from
Guidelines for Safe Use
FASTEN pedestal and bench grinders securely.
ENSURE all the guards are in place and secure before
using a grinder.
ADJUST tool rests to within 3 mm (1/8 in) of wheels.
Never adjust rests while wheels are moving. Work rest
height should be on horizontal centre line of the
machine spindle.
MAINTAIN 6 mm (1/4 in) wheel exposure with a tongue
guard or a movable guard.
STAND to one side of the grinder until the operating
speed is reached.
BRING work into contact with the grinding wheel slowly
and smoothly, without bumping.
APPLY gradual pressure to allow the wheel to warm up
evenly. Use only the pressure required to complete a
MOVE the work back and forth across the face of the
wheel. This prevents groove forming.
DRESS wheels
Do frequent
light dressings
rather than
Dressing Tool
SUPPORT dressing tool to apply leverage without undue
effort. With revolving cutter dressing tools use the
lugs as anchors.
REPLACE worn wheels if they cannot be dressed.
ENSURE the grinder speed does not exceed the operating
speed marked on the wheel.
VISUALLY inspect wheels for possible damage before
WEAR eye, ear and face protection. Metatarsal safety
boots and respiratory protection are advisable
depending on the work. Wear gloves only where
DO NOT GRIND wood, plastics and non-iron metals on
ordinary wheels.
DO NOT USE a wheel that has been dropped.
DO NOT LEAVE grinding wheels standing in liquids.
This causes balance problems.
DO NOT GRIND on the side of a regular wheel.
8. Soldering Irons
Tip Holder
Soldering Tip
Indicator Light
Power Cord
Soldering irons must be properly cleaned and tinned as
well as heated to the correct temperature.
Guidelines for Safe Use
TURN ON exhaust fan.
USE fluxes with care—clean work area and material
when soldering is completed.
CLEAN pieces to be soldered and make sure they are
tight fitting.
TAKE CARE when using hot equipment and materials.
TURN OFF all soldering equipment when finished.
9. Gas Welding and Cutting
Equipment Connection
Oxygen cylinders have right turning valves and
connections. Fuel cylinders have left turning valves
and connections.
1. Crack open cylinder valves slightly and then close
immediately. This blows out dust and grit that could
restrict the gas flow or damage the regulator.
2. Attach the oxygen and fuel gas regulators to their
cylinders. Tighten nuts with a proper wrench.
Never force poor fitting connections.
3. Install non-return valves and flashback arrestors on
the torch and regulator end of the hoses.
Outlet pressure
Cylinder contents Pressure
adjusting screw
welding or
heating tip
Torch body
flow check
4. Connect the green
(black) hose to the
oxygen regulator and
the red hose to the fuel
gas regulator.
5. Connect torch green
hose to the oxygen inlet
and red hose to the fuel
gas inlet. Finger tighten
hose nuts before using
a wrench. The wrench
may damage
unprotected threads.
Guidelines for Safe Use
KEEP cylinders, secured
upright in a cylinder
trolley for firm support.
EXAMINE hoses before use
for signs of damage.
Secure connections with
clips or crimps. Check
connections and nonreturn valves regularly.
STAND to one side of
regulator face when
opening the cylinder valve
outlet. Open cylinder
valves slowly.
OPEN cylinder valves only with approved keys or
SELECT the proper welding head or mixer, tip or cutting
nozzle from charts supplied by the manufacturer and
screw it firmly into the torch.
USE table tops made of fire brick or steel plate. Regular
brick may pop or explode from heat. Keep flames and
hot metal off concrete.
LEAVE the valve wrench on the fuel gas cylinder
whenever the valves are open. This permits
emergency shut-off of the gas.
WEAR CSA (ANSI) approved welding goggles.
USE a welding helmet when recommended.
AVOID loose clothing with cuffs, pockets, or other folds
that could trap sparks. Tape them closed if necessary.
WEAR appropriate protective gloves, clothing, and a
leather apron to protect against flying sparks and hot
metal objects.
WEAR CSA (ANSI) approved safety shoes appropriate
for the task.
COVER any nearby flammable or combustible materials
(e.g. wood floors, walls and classroom projects) with
fireproof materials such as fibreglass blanket.
DO NOT USE excessive force to open or close cylinder
DO NOT CONNECT hose longer than needed. Keep
hose from becoming kinked or tangled.
DO NOT USE tape to repair a leaky hose.
DO NOT HAVE oil or grease on any welding and cutting
equipment. Oil or grease may cause an explosion.
DO NOT WELD near spray paints, solvents, or other
flammable materials.
DO NOT WELD in presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon
solvents (non-flammable but they form phosgene in
presence of UV) used frequently as degreasers metal
could still be wet; vapours could be in work area.
For more detailed information on welding, see the
Welders Health and Safety Guide from CCOHS.
Section VII
Maintenance and
Custodial Practices
1. Office Safety
2. Ladders
3. Scaffolds
4. Powered Boom Platforms
5. Manual Materials Handling
6. Lock-out Procedures
7. Confined Space Entry
8. Toxic Chemicals
9. Painting
10. Basic Electrical Safety
11. Grounds Maintenance
12. Waste Disposal
1. Office Safety
Most office accidents result from slips, trips and falls,
lifting objects, being caught in or between things, and
punctures or cuts.
Filing Cabinets
PLACE cabinets so that the drawers do not open into the
LOAD cabinets starting from the bottom for stability.
SECURE cabinets to wall or floor.
USE handles to close drawers to avoid catching fingers.
CLOSE cabinet drawers when not in use.
AVOID overfilling cabinets to prevent paper and staple cuts.
DO NOT KEEP heavy objects on top of tall filing
DO NOT OPEN more than one drawer at a time.
Floors and Stairs
CLEAN up spills and tracked-in rain or snow.
PICK objects up off the floor. Even paper, pencils and
rubber bands can cause trips and falls.
USE slip-resistance preparations on linoleum, tile, or
other polished floor surfaces.
SECURE carpets and rugs.
USE handrails on stairs.
REMOVE stairway distractions such as mirrors,
decorations or posters.
WALK on the right.
INSTALL mirrors at blind, busy corners.
DO NOT STORE boxes, equipment, or supplies outside
doorways or in aisles.
DO NOT CARRY loads that obstruct vision.
DO NOT RUN, especially near corners.
DO NOT PARTICIPATE in horseplay.
Office Equipment
USE fingertip guards when handling paper.
STORE pencils and pens point down or flat in drawers.
SHEATH scissors, letter openers, razor blades or other
sharp tools before storing.
USE paper cutters safely:
✎ keep knife blades in locked position
✎ use proper guards
✎ maintain firm grip on blade handle
✎ do not cut too many papers at once
USE staple removers to remove staples.
FILE sharp edges off metal furniture.
USE a proper ladder or step stool to reach high places.
Do not use a box, desk or rolling chair.
Office Machines
USE proper guards on machines.
OBSERVE directions and cautions when cleaning, oiling
or adjusting machinery.
CALL service for repairs.
DISCONNECT and replace frayed electrical cords or plugs.
UNPLUG equipment when not in use or before making
2. Ladders
INSPECT ladders before each use for:
✎ missing, cracked, split, worn, loose or broken rails,
braces, steps or rungs (they are loose if they can be
moved by hand)
✎ sharp edges on rails and rungs
✎ twisted or distorted rails
✎ loose nails, screws, bolts, hinges or other metal parts
✎ rough or splintered surfaces
✎ damaged or worn non-slip feet
✎ missing identification label
✎ corrosion, rust, oxidization and excessive wear,
especially on treads
✎ defective locks that do not seat properly when ladder
is extended
TAG defective ladders and take out of service.
DO NOT MAKE temporary or makeshift repairs.
DO NOT TRY to straighten or attempt to use bent or
bowed ladders.
DO NOT USE furniture as a substitute for a ladder.
Setting Up Portable Ladders
Falls from portable ladders are a major source of serious
injury. Be aware of possible hazards and take proper
precautions to prevent falling.
USE ladder designed for your task. Consider strength,
type and CSA approval.
GET help when handling a heavy or long ladder.
KEEP ladder away from electrical wires.
CLEAR debris, tools and other objects from area around
base and top of ladder.
TIE OFF ladder at
the top and secure
bottom to prevent
it from slipping.
SET UP barricades
and warning signs
when using ladder
in a doorway or
PLACE ladder feet
1/4 of ladder’s
working length
away from the
base of the
EXTEND ladder at
least 1 m (3 ft)
above the landing
LOCATE ladder on a
firm footing using
slip-resistant feet
or secure blocking,
or have someone
hold the ladder.
REST both side rails
on top support, and secure ladder
to prevent slipping.
Non-slip Feet
WEAR suitable footwear.
DO NOT USE ladder in a horizontal position as a
scaffold plank or runway.
DO NOT USE makeshift items such as a chair, barrel or
box, as a substitute for a ladder.
DO NOT SPLICE together short ladders to make a
longer ladder. Side rails are not strong enough to
support the extra load.
DO NOT USE ladder in passageways, doorways, driveways
or other locations where a person or vehicle can hit it.
Erect suitable barricades or lock doors shut.
DO NOT PLACE ladder against flexible or movable
DO NOT STRADDLE the space between the ladder and
another object.
Working on Portable Ladders
CHECK for overhead electrical wires before setting up
TIE OFF yourself with a safety harness when working
3 m (10 ft.) or more off the ground or when working
with both hands.
CLEAN muddy or slippery boot soles before mounting
ladder. Avoid climbing with wet soles. Ensure that
footwear is in good condition.
FACE the ladder when going
up or down and when
working from it.
KEEP the centre of your
body within the side rails.
ENSURE that only one
person is on a singlewidth ladder. Only one
person is allowed on each
side of a double-width
MAINTAIN three point
contact by keeping two
hands and one foot, or
two feet and one hand on
ladder at all times.
GRASP rungs when climbing
ladder, not side rails. If
your foot slips on ladder,
it is easier to hold onto
rungs than to side rails.
Maintain 3-point
WEAR protective footwear with slip-resistant soles
and heels.
ENSURE that all electrical equipment used during ladder
work is in good condition and properly grounded.
REST frequently to avoid arm fatigue and disorientation
when the work demands reaching and looking up
above your head.
DRAPE your arms over a rung and rest your head against
another rung or side rail if you become dizzy or
panicky. Climb down slowly.
DO NOT CARRY objects in your hands while on a
ladder. Hoist materials or attach tools to a belt.
DO NOT WORK from top three rungs. The higher a
person goes on a ladder, the greater the possibility
that the ladder will slip out at the base.
DO NOT OVER-REACH from ladder, move the ladder
as required.
DO NOT USE ladder near electrical wires.
Hazard Warning Sign
3. Scaffolds
TEST all scaffold planks before use.
REPORT any damage to scaffolds immediately.
PROTECT all planked or working levels with proper
guardrails, mid-rails and toe boards on all open sides
and ends of platforms.
INSTALL and SECURE all necessary planks, decks and
guardrails before work begins.
USE proper fall protection.
DO NOT USE scaffolds for the storage of materials.
DO NOT OVERLOAD a scaffold.
Scaffolds must be able to support at least four
times their designated load capacity.
Wooden guard
(secured to fra
4. Powered Boom Platforms
READ the manufacturer’s
operating manual and
familiarize yourself
✎ manufacturer’s warning and caution
signs on the machine
✎ location of all emergency controls
✎ daily maintenance checks to perform
✎ applicable regulations
CHECK for overhead powerlines before
moving the machine or operating the platform.
LOCK, or otherwise prevent its unauthorized use, before
leaving the machine unattended.
KEEP platform load below maximum rate working load
(RWL)—preferably below 2/3 of RWL.
LABEL all controls with action and direction.
KEEP guardrails in good condition and make sure that
chain or gate at opening is secure before moving
SHUT OFF power and insert required props before
servicing machine or checking for problems.
POSITION boom in line with direction of travel
wherever possible.
KEEP ground personnel away from machine and out
from under platform or bucket.
MAKE SURE that extension cords are long enough to
reach the expected platform height.
DO NOT JAM controls through neutral to reverse
direction of movement or operation. Move control
gradually, pausing slightly in neutral for safe, smooth
5. Manual Materials Handling
Lifting boxes...
STORE and work with
materials at waist
and try to lift item
from floor all at once.
...from the ground
RAISE the item
REST the item on
the edge of your
other knee.
PUT one knee
against the item.
STAND upright.
PULL the item
up your leg.
CARRY the load
with your back in
the upright position.
Transferring Weight
Use the following sequence of motions for moving heavy or bulky
REDUCE the load on your back by transferring weight.
SHIFT your body weight from one leg to the other.
AVOID twisting your back.
PULL the material toward you.
TRANSFER your weight
to the lift side.
LIFT only to the level
SHIFT your weight to
your other leg.
PUSH the material
into position.
6. Lock-out Procedures
The purpose of lock-out is to protect a person working in
a confined space, a vessel, machine or moving equipment.
Accidental starting of machines while someone is working
on them is one of the major causes of amputations and
serious injuries.
Established Procedures
In most instances, your school/board will have an
established lock-out procedure. In the event that the
school does not have an established procedure, use the
following safe work procedures as a guidance to develop
MAKE SURE that you possess an individually numbered
lock and key if you are required to enter a confined
space, vessel, machine or work on moving equipment.
SHUT OFF the machine or equipment, then disengage all
sources of power and lock them in the OFF position.
RELEASE the build-up of air, hydraulic, steam or gas
pressure and ground electric charge build-up before
starting work and valves locked in OFF position.
NOTIFY users of work being done on machine or equipment.
INSTALL your personal lock on the Control Devices or
on the “Lock-out Board” provided.
MAKE SURE that neither the lock nor the signs can be
removed by another person.
FOLLOW procedures in compliance with legislated
safety requirements.
NEVER HAVE another person remove your padlock or
block signs.
DO NOT RESTART a machine unless all the safeguards
are in place.
7. Confined Space Entry
In Canadian federal legislation, confined space is defined
as follows:
Confined space means an enclosed or partially
enclosed space that
(a) is not designed or intended for human
occupancy except for the purpose of
performing work,
(b) has restricted means of access and egress, and
(c) may become hazardous to any person entering
it owing to:
(i) its design, construction, location or
(ii) the materials or substances in it, or
(iii) any other conditions relating to it;
Canada Occupational Safety and Health Regulations (SOR/86-304)
Legal definitions of confined space may vary slightly from
one jurisdiction to another.
In Ontario occupational health and safety legislation,
a confined space is defined as follows:
Confined space means a space in which,
because of its construction, location, contents
or work activity therein, the accumulation of a
hazardous gas, vapour, dust or fume, or the
creation of an oxygen-deficient atmosphere may
[Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Industrial
Establishments R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851]
Check your OH&S legislation for the definition of
confined space applicable to your workplace.
Hazards of Working in a Confined Space
Entry and working in a confined space requires special
care because of the following special features:
1. Design, construction, and location can restrict
movement and exit/getting out.
2. Configuration can trap a person inside.
3. Lack of ventilation can cause oxygen deficiency (less
than 18% oxygen) and build up of hazardous gases
such as hydrogen sulphide and methane.
4. Working inside a confined space may result in the
generation of noise, hazardous gases, vapours, dusts
and fumes, which may accumulate to unsafe levels.
5. Adverse psychological effects due to the feeling of
being in the confined space.
Safe Work Procedures
Your employer is supposed to develop procedures for
working in confined spaces. A confined space entry
program includes the following elements:
✎ Job pre-planning
✎ Equipment inspection
✎ Identification of hazards
✎ Location of hazards
✎ Precautions and procedures for working
✎ Purging or ventilating prior to and during work
✎ Equipment for safe entry and exit
✎ A system to control entry by unauthorized persons
✎ Training on precautions and procedures for entry
and work
✎ Arrangements for rescue
✎ Communication – keeping in touch with outside
✎ Secure closing of confined space entry after the work
is done.
8. Toxic Chemicals
MAKE SURE that you receive training in the safe use,
handling, disposal and clean-up of hazardous
chemicals and products.
ENSURE that all containers are properly labelled.
READ the label and be familiar with the potential hazards
of the products you use.
MAKE SURE that you know where to find Material
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the products you use.
Your supervisor should provide this information to you.
STORE chemicals and products in a designated area only.
STORE only the products you require and quantities
needed for your work.
LIMIT access to main storage area and the janitorial
USE gloves or other protective equipment/clothing, dust
masks, and aprons as required by your employer.
FOLLOW directions given in training programs and in
written personal protective equipment (PPE) program.
DO NOT MIX chemicals and cleaning products unless
you are sure that it is safe. For example, mixing
ammonia and bleach will produce a highly toxic gas.
DO NOT LEAVE open containers of flammable products
such as kerosene, paintbrush cleaner, varnish, etc.
DO NOT DISPOSE of flammables in the municipal trash.
Ask your supervisor about the proper disposal
9. Painting
FOLLOW recommended procedures for equipment and
material use.
FOLLOW safety guidelines for ladders and scaffolds
when working at heights.
Surface Preparation
WEAR appropriate respirator to prevent dust inhalation.
FOLLOW special procedures recommended for
prevention of lead exposure, if lead paint is suspected.
APPLY paint in a well ventilated area.
Build up of paint
fumes may be
harmful to your
Disposal of Paints
and Containers
DISPOSE of paints and paint cans
in accordance with local
environmental protection acts
and regulations.
10. Basic Electrical Safety
INSPECT tools, power cords, and electrical fittings for
damage prior to each use. Repair or replace damaged
SWITCH OFF tools before connecting them to a power
DISCONNECT power supply before making adjustments.
ENSURE that electric tools are properly grounded or
double-insulated. The grounded tool must have an
approved 3-wire cord with a 3-prong plug. This plug
should be plugged in a properly grounded 3-pole
outlet.TEST all tools for effective grounding with a
continuity tester or a ground fault circuit interrupter
(GFCI) before use.
KEEP power cords clear of tools during use.
SUSPEND power cords over aisles or work areas to
eliminate stumbling or tripping hazards.
REPLACE open front plugs with dead front plugs. Dead
front plugs are sealed and present less danger of shock
or short circuit.
Open Front Plug
CHECK power cords and plugs daily. Discard if worn or
damaged. Have any cord that feels more than
comfortably warm checked by an electrician.
ELIMINATE octopus connections.
USE extension cords only to temporarily supply power
to an area that does not have a power outlet.
ENSURE that the extension cord is adequate for the
length of cord and the power (wattage) requirements
of power tools, etc.
KEEP power cords away from heat, water and oil. They
can damage the insulation and cause a shock.
DO NOT WEAR gloves, loose clothing or jewellery
while using rotating power tools.
DO NOT BYPASS the switch and operate the tools by
connecting and disconnecting the power cord.
DO NOT USE electric tools in wet conditions or damp
locations unless the tool is connected to a GFCI.
DO NOT CLEAN tools with flammable or toxic solvents.
DO NOT OPERATE tools in an area containing explosive
vapours or gases.
DO NOT USE light duty power cords.
DO NOT CARRY electrical tools by the power cord.
DO NOT TIE power cords in knots. Knots can cause
short circuits and shocks. Loop the cords or use a
twist lock plug.
DO NOT PLUG several power cords into one outlet.
DO NOT DISCONNECT power supply by pulling or
jerking cord from the outlet. Pulling the cord causes
wear and may cause a shock.
DO NOT USE extension cords as permanent wiring.
DO NOT ALLOW carts and trolleys to pass over
unprotected power cords. Cords should be put in
conduit or protected by placing planks alongside
11. Grounds Maintenance
General Precautions
TRAIN your helpers to ensure that they can handle the
tools and understand job hazards.
IDENTIFY and destroy poisonous plants such as poison ivy.
PROTECT against insects with insect repellents when needed.
REST periodically during strenuous jobs such as digging
or sawing, especially in hot weather.
MAKE sure emergency numbers are clearly posted.
KNOW location of first aid kit and how to use the contents.
DO NOT TOUCH stray or dead animals. Contact an
animal control agency for removal.
Personal Protective Equipment
WEAR high-cut safety footwear with top caps and
reinforced soles.
USE approved head protection when working under low
branches and falling objects.
WEAR sturdy gloves with grips.
USE vibration absorbing gloves while operating
vibrating equipment.
WEAR rubber or plastic gloves when handling fertilizers
and pesticides.
WEAR proper sunglasses when in direct sunlight for
extended periods.
WEAR a brimmed hat and comfortable clothing that
provide sun protection.
USE eye protection when power tilling, breaking up
rocks or concrete, using strong cleaning agents,
spraying or dusting.
DO NOT WEAR loose or torn clothing.
SELECT the tool suitable:
✎ for the task
✎ to your body size, shape, strength
ENSURE that tools are in good repair.
FASTEN handles securely.
FINISH handle surfaces so that they are smooth.
REPAIR or replace worn or damaged handles.
KEEP cutting tools sharp.
PUT tools away when job is finished.
STORE tools where they cannot trip workers.
PROTECT cutting edges.
Refuelling Equipment
SHUT OFF engine and allow it to cool.
FILL the fuel tank before starting a job.
POSITION yourself comfortably so that you can refuel
without slipping.
REMOVE the fuel cap slowly, holding it at the semilocked position until pressure is released.
ALLOW the nozzle to empty by keeping it in the filler
opening for a few moments after shutting off fuel
REPLACE the fuel cap after checking to see that its
venting is not clogged.
STORE fuel in sturdy, approved containers identified
according to WHMIS requirements.
HAVE fire extinguishers and other firefighting equipment
DO NOT SMOKE or have an open flame while
refuelling. Gas fumes are heavier than air and will
drift downward from the container. The vapour, not
the liquid, burns.
DO NOT SPILL any fuel on equipment. If you do, wipe
up and allow any residue to dry before starting the
DO NOT RUN if your clothing catches fire. STOP,
DROP and ROLL. Quickly remove the blazing
garment, or drop to the ground and roll slowly,
or wrap yourself in a blanket.
Stop, Drop and Roll
12. Waste Disposal
SEEK information/advice from your municipality and
public health department regarding litter control and
environmental standards.
MINIMIZE potential for environmental damage.
AVOID mixing hazardous waste with general waste
MINIMIZE waste by composting vegetation waste.
AVOID burning if it will be a nuisance to nearby residents.
ENSURE that someone watches fire until it is completely
RECYCLE paper, glass, metal and plastic products
whenever possible.
DO NOT BURN green vegetation, especially poison ivy
or similar plants.
DO NOT BURN plastics, rubber, tires, or any other
materials known to produce smoke.
DO NOT ADD any more materials that burn slowly if a
fire produces dark smoke.
DO NOT THROW away excess chemicals which could
contaminate streams, irrigation or drinking water.
Section VIII
Sanitation and
Infection Control
1. Sanitation
2. Infection from Blood and Body Fluids
3. Biohazardous Waste
1. Sanitation
It is important that all school facilities are free
from garbage, debris, filth, and potentially
infectious materials.
FOLLOW procedures and
safe work practices
recommended by your
CHECK product labels
and MSDS to
know the potential
hazards and safe work
practices for all cleaning
and disinfecting product
you use.
WEAR personal protective equipment and clothing
recommended by your supervisor.
USE cleaning agents approved by the Board to ensure
proper cleaning.
ALWAYS clean and wash surfaces/areas thoroughly
before disinfecting them.
USE germicides or diluted bleaches (e.g. sodium
hypochlorite) to disinfect areas as required.
REPORT to your supervisor all spills, accidents,
incidents and other hazardous occurrences.
DO NOT EAT, DRINK, or SMOKE while using a
cleaning agent, bleach, disinfecting agent, or other
chemical products.
DO NOT LEAVE open containers of bleaches, paints and
solvents in the washrooms or other areas used by staff
and students.
2. Infection from Blood and
Body Fluids
Contact with blood and body fluids visibly contaminated
with blood may transmit illness.
Cleaning and Decontaminating
Blood-Contaminated Areas
WEAR gloves and use disposable towels or other means
of cleaning that will ensure against direct contact with
blood and body fluids.
DECONTAMINATE the area, with an approved
germicide or 1:100 solution of household bleach.
WASH and disinfect all the equipment used in the
cleaning task.
DISCARD all soiled cleaning materials in a leak-proof
plastic bag, according to local/public health
regulations for the disposal of infectious waste.
1. Wet Hands
WASH hands thoroughly with warm water and soap, after
removing gloves.
2. Soap
3. Lather
CHANGE gloves after each task or exposure.
DISPOSE used gloves as contaminated materials.
Hand Washing Guidelines
WASH hands regularly,
especially after each
WET, SOAP and LATHER for at least ten seconds.
WASH and scrub under the nails and cuticle.
RINSE thoroughly and dry.
3. Biohazardous Waste
Occasionally, you may encounter
discarded hypodermic needles,
syringes, condoms, blood, objects, materials or fluids
contaminated with blood and body fluids. You must
exercise special precautions in handling such materials/
objects. Often these biological wastes are contaminated
with germs which can make you ill. Major concerns are
the spread of hepatitis B and AIDS.
ASK your supervisor for training to be able to:
✎ understand potential hazards
✎ be familiar with regulations
CONSIDER all biological wastes as infectious.
HANDLE all contaminated wastes carefully to prevent
body contact and injury.
WEAR puncture-resistant gloves and safety boots
appropriate for the situation.
DISPOSE of infectious waste in a puncture-resistant
container such as a bucket or box with a secure lid
and lined with leak-proof, puncture-resistant plastic.
POST a biological hazard symbol on the container.
WEAR leather gloves to empty waste paper baskets, etc.,
by holding container on the outside; do not handle by
inserting fingers inside the container.
CALL your local public health department or police for
further assistance.
DO NOT LOAD the container beyond its capacity.
DO NOT COMPACT infectious waste. This process may
disperse the contamination.
DO NOT MIX infectious waste with trash.
DO NOT REACH into any waste container or receptacle
which may contain hazardous waste.
Section IX
Sports and Activities
1. Sports and Sporting Activities
2. Off-site Activites
1. Sports and Sporting Activities
Sports and sporting activities are known to be high risk.
They can result in serious accidents to staff and students.
The following guidelines are intended to prevent accidents.
DEVELOP emergency plans with specific assigned
duties and names and telephone numbers of persons
to be contacted.
CONDUCT all sports under the supervision of a
competent person.
ENSURE that first aid supplies are easily accessible and
a trained first aider is always present for all
CEASE outdoor activities if lightning storms occur or
appear imminent.
MONITOR students carefully when activities occur in
either cold or hot conditions.
INSTALL, maintain and inspect all equipment regularly.
ENSURE suitable clothing is worn.
ENSURE all sporting equipment meets the established
INSPECT equipment and play areas before each activity.
Ensure that the equipment and areas continue to be
safe during the activity.
PLACE soft barriers and padded mats where falling and
running into objects are likely to happen.
CHECK regularly that all hanging objects and wall
mounted gymnasium fixtures to ensure that they are
well secured and inspected annually by a competent
person to ensure their structural integrity.
CLEAN all floors and ensure that they are free of hazards.
ENSURE adequate lighting for the activity area.
STOP all activities immediately if the equipment or the
area become dangerous and may likely injure someone.
PLAN activities to ensure sufficient time for pre-activity
warm-up and post-activity relaxation and stretches.
Pre/Post Activitiy Exercises
2. Off-site Activities
FOLLOW school and board policy and procedures.
OBTAIN parental consent for each student for all off-site
COMMUNICATE to parents and students specific
expectations for all off-site activities.
PROVIDE adequate supervision for the students’ activity,
transportation and accommodation.
TAKE attendance and roll call regularly to ensure that all
participants are accounted for during the entire
ENSURE that first aid supplies are easily accessible and a
trained first aider is always present for all
DEVELOP and implement emergency plans with specific
assigned duties and names and telephone numbers of
persons to be contacted.
Section X
Work Environment
1. Indoor Air Quality
2. Noise
3. Ventilation
4. Lighting
5. Working in Hot Environments
6. Working in Cold Environments
7. Portable Classrooms
8. Asbestos Management
9. Ultraviolet Rays
10. Electromagnetic Radiation
1. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the total indoor
environment including:
✎ air contaminants entering the building with outdoor
air intake by the ventilation system,
✎ airborne biological agents such as mould, fungi, and
substances from plants,
✎ emissions from furniture, carpets, carpet glues, paints
and varnishes,
✎ tobacco smoke, carbon dioxide in the exhaled air,
body odours, perfumes from building occupants,
✎ toxic gases, vapours, fumes, etc. from laboratories,
photocopiers and other processes and activities taking
place inside the building, and
✎ indoor environment factors such as temperature,
humidity, noise, lighting and air movement.
Recognition and Control of Indoor Air
The best method of determining whether or not there is
an indoor air problem is to ask people. A wide variety of
questionnaires are available to perform occupant response
Monitoring of indoor air contaminants is needed to plan
remedial action. As a starting point, one must make sure
that the ventilation is adequate. This is done by
measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) level in the air.
Ventilation rates required to maintain low level of CO2
help improve the overall indoor air quality by dilution of
indoor contaminants. Indoor CO2 concentrations below
1000 ppm (parts per million) are generally accepted as a
good indicator of ventilation effectiveness. The
concentration of CO2in outdoor air is about 350 ppm.
The ASHRAE 62-1989 standard of the American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers is the most widely used standard for
ventilation and indoor air quality.
Symptoms of Poor Indoor Air Quality
Health and comfort effects believed to arise from poor
indoor air quality are collectively known as Sick Building
Syndrome (SBS). The symptoms of SBS include
headache, fatigue, dry throat, shortness of breath, skin
irritation, dizziness, itchy eyes, bleeding nose and general
malaise or non-specific illness.
Excessive Fatigue
Sinus Congestion/
Itchy/Watery Eyes
Dry/Sore Throat,
and/or Cough
of Breath
Stomach Upset
Skin Irritation
2. Noise
People who operate noisy equipment such as tractor lawn
mowers, circular saws, wood planers and vacuum cleaners
are likely to be exposed to harmful levels of noise.
Noise is too loud when:
✎ You have difficulty talking to someone at arm’s length
✎ You feel ringing sound in your ears after prolonged
✎ Your hearing is numbed at the end of the work shift
and comes back the next morning
Noise exposure for several years can cause permanent
hearing loss which cannot be cured by medical treatment.
Everyone is not equally affected. However, as the level of
noise and exposure time increases more and more people
are affected.
The loudness of noise is expressed as sound level in
dB(A), A-weighted decibel units.
Wood hogger chipper
Power mower, snowmobile
Chain saw
Lawn mower
Sidewalk snowplow
Salt and sand truck
100 - 110 dB(A)
95 - 105
95 - 105
95 - 110
90 - 100
90 - 100
Exposure limit
85 - 90
Vacuum cleaner
Normal conversation
80 - 85
60 - 65
30 - 40
Noise regulations set exposure limits at 85-90 dB(A) for
an eight hour exposure, five days a week. The purpose of
these limits is to prevent/minimize chances of hearing loss.
Check with your local occupational health and safety
agency for the exposure limits that apply to you.
The best method of protection against noise is to use
quieter machines. As an interim measure you should use
hearing protection as required by your employer.
3. Ventilation
The purpose of ventilation is to control the temperature,
humidity, odour, and airborne contaminants and to
introduce fresh air.
Types of Ventilation
1. Dilution ventilation dilutes contaminant volume by
bringing in outside air and exhausting used
(contaminated) air.
2. Local ventilation exhausts the toxic gases, fumes,
dust and vapours before mixing occurs. Fume hoods
are the most commonly used type of local exhaust
Dilution ventilation is used when:
contaminant is relatively non-toxic
there are large number of sources or mobile sources
emission sources are widely distributed in an area
diluted air is not contaminated
Local ventilation is used when:
✎ contaminant is moderately or highly toxic
✎ single or small number of fixed sources are present
✎ direct worker exposure is possible
Ventilation standards are defined in building codes. The
ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air Conditioning Engineers) Standard 62-1989 is
referenced in most building codes.
4. Lighting
IDENTIFY sources of glare. Place a mirror on the desk
and look for images. Bare light bulbs or bright lights
reflected in the mirror cause glare.
POSITION desk with window to the side of the worker.
POSITION desk so that ceiling lights are to the sides.
Avoid placing desk where light fixtures are directly in
USE indirect lighting to avoid shadows.
CHECK fluorescent lights for flicker. Replace fluorescent
tubes regularly and maintain fixtures properly.
LOOK up and away from work frequently to rest the
WORK from good, clear copy. Higher light levels are
required for poor copy.
ENSURE that storerooms, corridors and stairways are
well lit.
ADJUST window blinds or drapes to control light levels
and glare.
USE non-glare finishes and neutral colours on
walls and furniture. The colour and
finish of a surface determines
how much light it reflects.
USE adjustable task lights to
increase light levels when
DO NOT HANG glossy pictures or
objects where light will reflect into eyes.
Appropriate light levels depend on visual preferences and
type of work. In the following chart, the higher ranges are
for workers with poorer vision and for work requiring
high speed or accuracy
Coat Rooms
Stock Rooms
Traditional Office Tasks
Conference Rooms
Drawing Offices
Check with the occupational health and safety department
in your jurisdiction for regulations regarding light levels.
5. Working in Hot Environments
Working in hot environments can be uncomfortable and
also, may adversely affect our health. How hot we feel
depends on temperature, humidity (moisture content of
the air), wind speed (air movement), and the type of
In the weather forecast, the degree of environmental heat
is often given in terms of humidex which is determined
by taking into account the temperature and humidity of
the ambient air.
20 - 29
30 - 39
40 - 45
46 and over
Varying degrees of discomfort
Many types of labour must be restricted
Potential Health Problems
Heat Stroke
The most serious heat illness is heat stroke. Signs of heat
stroke include dry, hot skin due to failure of sweating and
complete or partial loss of consciousness.
Heat stroke can be fatal and requires prompt
first aid and medical attention.
Other Health Disorders
Less severe health problems include:
✎ Heat edema—swelling of the ankles.
✎ Heat rashes—tiny red spots on the skin that cause a
prickling sensation during heat exposure.
✎ Heat cramps—sharp pains in muscles resulting from
the failure to replace salt lost from sweat.
✎ Heat exhaustion—weakness, dizziness, visual
disturbances, intense thirst, nausea, headache,
vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle cramps, breathlessness,
palpitations, and tingling and numbness of the hands
and feet.
✎ Heat syncope (fainting)—caused by the loss of body
fluids through sweating and by lowered blood
pressure, due to pooling of blood in the legs while
working in a standing position.
If you notice any of the above symptoms go to a cool place.
Preventing Heat Related Illnesses
✎ Acclimatization—People who work regularly in hot
environments develop a certain degree of tolerance
(acclimatization) for heat. Most of the acclimatization
occurs in the first three or four days, and complete
acclimatization may require seven to eleven days.
✎ Clothing—Loose cotton clothing provides adequate
protection in hot and humid conditions.
✎ Work/Rest Schedule—A schedule of work-rest
periods is generally recommended for working in hot
conditions. Ask your supervisor about your board's
policy in this regard.
✎ Drinking Water—You should drink plenty of cool
10°–15°C (50°–60°F) water every 15 to 20 minutes
even though you may not feel thirsty. Thirst is an
inadequate indicator of the body’s need for water.
6. Working in Cold Environments
Working in cold weather can be dangerous to the
unprepared, and to people without adequate protective
clothing. Two types of cold hazards are common:
hypothermia and frostbite.
Hypothermia can be fatal. It results from the cooling of
the deep inner body or “core” to a temperature below
34.5°C (94.1°F) due to prolonged exposure to cold.
Persons exhausted during physical work are more prone
to hypothermia. The victim can become listless, confused
and make little or no effort to keep warm.
The hypothermia victim should be immediately warmed,
either by being moved to a warm room or by the use of
blankets. In severe cases of hypothermia, immediate
medical care is necessary.
Consumption of alcohol does not increase
tolerance for cold. Instead, it increases the risk
of hypothermia.
Frostbite is freezing of the body tissues as a result of
extremely cold temperatures or contact with extremely
cold metallic objects such as an automobile or a fence.
Effect of Wind
At any temperature, one feels colder when it is windy.
The combined effect of cold and wind speed is expressed
as "wind chill" or “equivalent chill temperature” (ECT).
For exposed skin, continuous exposure should not be
allowed when ECT is -32°C (-25°F) or lower.
Protective Clothing
Multiple layers of light weight loose fitting clothing provide
better protection against the cold compared to single thick
layer clothing. Eye protection must be separated from
respiratory channels (nose and mouth) to prevent exhaled
moisture from fogging and frosting eye shields. For work
in wet conditions, the outer layer of clothing should be
waterproof. Clothing should be kept clean. Dirt destroys
its insulating ability. Clothing must be dry.
Gloves should be used below 4°C (39°F) for light work
and below -7°C (19°F) for moderate work. For work
below -17.5°C (0°F), mittens should be used. Felt-lined,
rubber bottomed, leather-topped boots with removable felt
insoles are best suited for heavy work in cold.
More than 50 percent of body heat can be lost through the
head when the rest of the body is covered. A wool knit
cap or a liner under a hard hat reduces excessive heat loss.
7. Portable Classrooms
Health Concerns
There are reports that students and teachers in portable
class rooms experience symptoms such as:
✎ irritation of nose, throat and skin;
✎ nose bleeding, muscle aches, extreme fatigue;
✎ breathing problems from allergic reactions such as
✎ cold- or flu-like symptoms: runny nose, phlegm in the
throat, coughing, wheezing;
✎ hoarseness and sore throats;
✎ itchy and inflamed eyes;
✎ nausea, joint pain, and headaches.
People who have allergies are more likely to be affected
compared to others.
Cause of Sickness
The possible cause of such sickness is believed to be poor
indoor air quality and indoor air pollution. Similar illness
can occur in any classroom with inadequate ventilation.
Lack of adequate ventilation results in build-up of moisture,
dusts, organic vapours, and emissions from the human
body in the indoor air. High moisture content of the air
(relative humidity) results in moulds and mildew growth.
Moulds release spores into the building air. Inhalation of
spore contaminated air increases the risk of allergies and
other illnesses. All exposed persons are not equally affected.
However, as level of air contamination and/or exposure
time increases more and more people are affected.
The (Ontario) Inter-ministerial Committee on Indoor Air
Quality (1987) and the ASHRAE 62-1989 standard on
indoor ventilation recommend that an outdoor air supply
of 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per occupant is necessary
to provide a healthy indoor environment. This ventilation
rate assumes that the outside air is evenly distributed in
the room.
High density of children in the classroom, water leakage
and wet clothing are the main sources of moisture in a
portable classroom. Moisture condenses on walls, windows,
ceiling and other surfaces and serves as a site for mould
growth. Mould growth may not be visible when condensation
of the moisture occurs inside the wall. Absence of water
staining on walls does not necessarily rule out the presence
of mould.
How To Know if A Portable Classroom
Has IAQ Problems
Widespread complaints of colds, allergies, fatigue, or flulike symptoms by teachers and students indicate potential
indoor air problems. The following are typical patterns of
the onset of these health problems:
✎ the symptoms are widespread within a class or school,
✎ the symptoms improve when the students or staff
leave the school building for the day, and
✎ persons with allergies, asthma, or chemical sensitivities
are affected indoors but symptoms disappear outdoors
Control Measures
Mould Removal
REMOVE water-damaged wallpaper, carpeting, foamrubber carpet pads, drapery, upholstery fabric and air
CLEAN baseboards, hardwood floors, ceiling tiles,
cement, wood beams, framing and roofing material.
VACUUM the entire area and immediately discard the
disposable bags.
STEAM clean all carpets and dry quickly.
MINIMIZE dispersal of any mould into the air.
WEAR correctly fitted mask with a HEPA (high efficiency
particulate air) filter to avoid breathing any airborne
mould spores while removing moulds.
DISPOSE of the material in sealed plastic bags, and if
you know that the mould is one of the toxic varieties,
treat the bags like hazardous waste.
DECONTAMINATE the mouldy areas. A 10-percent
solution of household bleach can be an effective
disinfectant. However, it should be used only by those
trained to use it safely using appropriate chemicalresistant gloves, respirator and chemical splash
SCHEDULE cleaning when the building is unoccupied to
minimize the exposure of other people to airborne
mould spores.
Mould Growth Prevention
ENSURE there are no leaks from roofs and broken water
BLOCK OFF areas where moisture can seep through
cement foundations and can dampen the floor,
carpeting and walls. This will minimize condensation
and indoor dampness.
ENSURE that the heating, ventilation and air conditioning
system provides adequate outside air, air filtration and
exhaust of air contaminants. A minimum of 15 cubic
feet per minute (cfm) of fresh air per occupant should
be flowing through the room at all times.
ENSURE that filters are changed or washed, and that the
water reservoirs are treated or changed regularly.
USE dehumidifiers to reduce humidity to 30- 50 percent.
If humidifiers are needed in winter months to
overcome dry indoor air, make sure they do not use
re-circulated water.
CLOSE windows tightly during winter months. Poor
ventilation and poor air circulation can cause
accumulation of humidity and growth of microorganisms, including mould on window frames.
When the renovations are being done:
REPLACE the affected material,
ENSURE adequate ventilation, and
INSTALL proper air – vapour barriers.
8. Asbestos Management
Asbestos is a well known carcinogen. Exposure to
asbestos has been linked to mesothelioma (a rare type of
cancer of the pleura-covering of the lungs and the inner
surface of the chest wall), asbestosis (scarring of the
lungs), and other cancers which may appears 10–20
years or more after exposure. Identification and removal
of asbestos containing materials is the best method of
eliminating the risk of harmful exposures.
In the past, common uses of asbestos included:
✎ insulation, fire proofing, sound proofing, ceiling and
floor tiles, acoustic spackles, and vinyl asbestos floor
✎ thermal insulation on pipes, boilers, and ceilings, fire
protection on structural steel beams;
✎ lining of heating and ventilation duct work, window
glazing, and adhesives.
Now asbestos is not used in these products but some of
the older, installed products may still contain asbestos.
When contained in stable solid building materials,
asbestos is not released into the air and hence, does not
pose health risk. Renovation work or damage to building
materials can produce dry, crumbly (friable) material
capable of releasing asbestos fibres in the air. Airborne
asbestos fibres enter the lungs with the inhaled air.
Specific procedures and precautions have been developed
to prevent the release of asbestos fibres in the air.
Extreme caution is necessary to protect children from
asbestos exposure.
The US government has adopted the Asbestos Hazard
Emergency Response Act (AHERA–40 CFR 763) in
1987. In Canada, guidelines are available from school
boards and the government health and safety departments.
In consultation with the health and safety committee,
each school should establish their own asbestos
management plan. The following is a general outline of
the actions recommended to control asbestos exposure:
ARRANGE inspection by a qualified person to identify
asbestos containing materials in the school.
IDENTIFY type and location of all asbestos containing
materials present in the school.
MAINTAIN an inventory of all asbestos containing
materials by location. This inventory should be used
by the school maintenance staff repair workers
performing work on or near asbestos-containing
ESTABLISH an asbestos management plan and strategy.
POST warning signs in all routine maintenance areas to
inform maintenance personnel that asbestos is present
in the school.
ASSIGN responsibility to supervise the implementation
of the asbestos management plan.
TRAIN the custodial staff in asbestos awareness and safe
work practices.
ESTABLISH a procedure for reporting damaged or
exposed materials that may cause asbestos exposure.
ESTABLISH procedures for proper removal and disposal
of asbestos containing materials and ensure that all
employees understand and follow these procedures.
NOTIFY utility workers and other personnel working in
areas where asbestos containing material is present.
For Additional Information
1. Contact the CCOHS Inquiries Service
Phone: 1-800-263-8466 (Toll free)
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
2. Government of Manitoba
Web Site: (search for Asbestos
in Schools)
3. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Web Site: (search for Asbestos
9. Ultraviolet Rays
In summer months, outdoor work may cause damage to
the skin and eyes due to ultraviolet (UV rays) radiation
exposure. UV rays are an invisible part of sunlight.
Besides direct exposure to sunlight, harmful UV ray
exposures are possible due to reflections from water, sand
and concrete.
Effect on the Skin
UV rays cause darkening of the skin, skin burns and
erythema (reddening of the skin). Prolonged exposure
increases the risk of skin cancer.
Certain substances increase the risk of damage due to
UV radiation. These are known as photosensitizing
agents. Such agents include certain medications,
tranquilizers, cosmetics, plants, weeds and coal-tar
creosote. If you are using medication consult your doctor
regarding the possibility of photosensitizing action. In any
case, take steps to decrease exposure to UV rays.
Effect on the Eyes
The eyes are particularly sensitive to UV radiation. A
short exposure can cause pain and temporary effects such
as watering and blurred vision.
UV Index
The Environment Canada weather forecast service rates
the UV intensity as UV index on a scale of 0 to 10. The
implications of the UV index are summarized in the
following table.
May to mid
Sunburns and skin
damage can occur
in less than 15 min.
Minimize exposure.
Take full precautions.
7 to 9
May to
Sunburns and skin
damage can occur
Minimize exposure to
sun if possible.
Take full precautions.
4 to 7
Spring and
early Fall
Take precautions to
limit exposure to
the sun.
Moderate periods in
the sun may still
cause burning.
Fall and
Minimal precautions
necessary for normal
Long periods in the
sun may still cause
skin damage.
*Over Southern Canada
The following practices are recommended to minimize
UV exposure when working outdoors:
✎ Avoid midday sun (10:00 am–3:00 pm).
✎ Wear clothing that is tightly woven to block
✎ Wear a broad-brimmed hat that will shade your face,
neck and ears.
✎ Apply waterproof sunscreen with a sun protection
factor (SPF) of 15 or higher to all exposed skin.
✎ Wear UV filtering sunglasses.
10. Electromagnetic Radiation
Computer monitors, commonly known as video display
terminals (VDT) emit electromagnetic radiation in two
frequency ranges—extremely low frequency (ELF) and
very low frequency (VLF). The source of ELF radiation is
the electrical power supply to the VDT. The frequency of
ELF radiation is the same as the frequency of electric
power which is 60 cycles per second or 60 Hz in North
America and 50 Hz in Europe. The source of VLF
radiation is the electronic components that produce
pictures and letters on the VDT screen. The VLF radiation
from a VDT is in the 15-30 thousand Hz range.
There have been numerous studies to investigate a possible
link between VDT use and adverse health effects, mainly
on effects on pregnancy. Results obtained to date have not
provided conclusive evidence of association between VDT
use and adverse health effects.
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH), Health Canada and several other
expert organizations have recommended exposure limits
for electromagnetic radiation. These exposure limits are
intended to prevent immediate health effects due to currents
induced in the body by the external electromagnetic
radiation. The levels of electromagnetic radiation form a
VDT are far lower than these recommended exposure
There are no exposure limits applicable to long-term
effects such as adverse pregnancy outcome because there
are no dose-response data for such effects. In view of the
scientific uncertainty, prudent avoidance is often advised.
This is achieved by reducing exposure time and keeping a
good distance from the monitor. Both ELF and VLF
radiation levels rapidly decrease as distance from the
monitor increases. At about one arm length distance from
a VDT, the electromagnetic field is extremely low.
Section XI
1. Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs)
2. Computer Workstations
3. Working in a Sitting Position
4. Chair and Work Surface Adjustment
5. Workstation Exercises
1. Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs)
Repetitive motion injuries (RMI) are injuries of the
muscles and joints in the body. These are also known as
musculoskeletal injuries (MSI), culmulative trauma
disorder (CTD) and work-related musculoskeletal
disorder (WMSD).
Contributing factors to RMI problems are:
✎ static body positions which cause muscle tension, require
energy, and reduce the flow of blood to the muscles.
✎ repetitive motions which cause tiredness, pain and
possible overuse injuries.
✎ uncorrected vision, glare or shadows which force
workers to use awkward body positions to see work
✎ workstations which are too high or low and have
needed objects placed too far away from workers.
✎ improperly adjusted chairs which place pressure on
the underside of the legs, back of knees and impair
blood circulation.
✎ hard floors which cause feet and legs to ache if
workers walk or stand for long periods.
Preventing Repetitive Motion Problems
The key to preventing RMI is to avoid long periods
working in one position and repeating the same motions.
ENSURE that chairs and work surfaces are adjusted
properly and there is enough space to work in a
comfortable position.
ELIMINATE glare by properly positioning lights and desks.
ELIMINATE shadows by using task lamps.
ADJUST window curtains and blinds as conditions vary
through the day.
VARY tasks to change body position and mental
activities. Good work/rest schedules help.
PLACE frequently used items within easy reach. Store
infrequently used items farther away.
The VDT Workstation
Ceiling light fixtures
❯ filters to evenly disperse light
❯ located to side of computer screen
❯ neutral, non-glare finish
on walls and furniture
❯ minimum of noise
Document holder
Task light
❯ located at right angle
to computer screen
❯ blinds help to reduce
❯ movable and adjustable
Computer monitor
❯ adjustable screen position
❯ adjustable brightness and contrast
❯ thin, detached,
and movable
Foot rest
Arm rest
Wrist rest
❯ swivel
❯ wheels or casters
❯ stable base
❯ adjustable seat
height and angle
❯ adustable back rest
❯ breathable fabric
on seat
❯ contoured front edge
of seat
❯ arm rest
❯ adjustable work surface height
❯ adjustable keyboard height
2. Computer Workstations
Computer workstations must be adjustable to accommodate
the individuals using them. Use the following checklist to
identify possible problems at computer workstations.
✔ Satisfactory
Workstation No.
✗ Unsatisfactory, requires attention
❏ spacebar not higher than 6.5 cm
(2.5 in) above work surface
❏ directly in front of operator
(if used primarily for text entry)
❏ detachable and moveable
❏ forearm and upper arm form
80°–100° angle with upper arm
almost vertical.
❏ wrist relaxed, not bent
wrist rests provided.
❏ top of screen is about eye level.
❏ viewing distance is 30-60 cm.
(12 in. to 24 in.)
❏ free of glare or shadows.
❏ sharp, easy-to-read images that
do not flicker.
❏ located away from, or at 90° angle
to windows
❏ adjusted to make height suitable
for the individual and work surface
❏ adjusted so no pressure on backs
of legs,
❏ adjusted so feet flat on floor (or foot
rest used)
❏ 5 wheels or castors (suitable for
floor surface)
Chair cont.
❏ swivel base
❏ adjustable from sitting position
❏ breathable upholstery fabric
❏ adjustable for both height and angle
❏ supports inward curve of the lower
Work Surface
❏ adjustable height
❏ sufficient leg room to change
position of legs (without getting up)
❏ sufficient to hold work materials
❏ frequently used items close by
❏ infrequently used items stored away
❏ does not produce glare or shadows
on screen
❏ allows worker to read characters
easily on screen and source
ceiling flourescents oriented
lengthwise to sides of computer,
fitted with diffusers or parabolic
adjustable task lights available over
source doc uments
room lighting is uniform and
slightly dimmer than usual office
general work areas have indirect or
diffuse lighting
❏ wall colour neutral, not too bright
❏ Shiny surfaces and objects are
covered or removed
❏ windows have blinds or curtains to
prevent glare
3. Working in a Sitting Position
“Good” Body Position
There is no one single body position recommended for sitting.
Every worker can sit comfortably by adjusting the angles
of the hips, knees, ankles and elbows.
The following are general recommendations. Occasional
changes beyond given ranges are acceptable and
sometimes beneficial.
KEEP the joints such as
hips, knees and ankles
open slightly more
than 90°
KEEP the upper body
within 30° of upright
ALWAYS keep the head
aligned with the spine.
KEEP upper arms vertical
to 20° forward.
Hip Angle
Knee Angle
Ankle Angle
KEEP elbows at an angle
between 90° and
KEEP forearms between
horizontal and 20° up.
SUPPORT the forearms.
KEEP the wrists straight and
aligned with the forearms.
PLACE the working object so
that it can be seen at
viewing angle of 10° to
30° below the line of
KEEP shoulders low and
KEEP elbows tucked in.
Elbow angle
TUCK chin in and do
not bend forward
when looking down
and forward.
Upper arm
CHANGE positions
frequently within
CROSS legs alternately.
Line of sight
AVOID side bending.
AVOID forward bending.
DO NOT SIT for more than 50 minutes at a time.
What to Avoid While Sitting
Poor arrangement of the workstation fosters an awkward/
poor body position. Poor body position hinders breathing
and blood circulation and contributes to injuries affecting
people's ability to move.
AVOID sitting on a chair that is too high.
AVOID bending the head forward. This prevents neck
AVOID sitting without lumbar support. This prevents
back pain.
AVOID working with arms raised. This prevents neck and
shoulder pain.
AVOID bending wrists. This prevents muscle cramps.
AVOID working with unsupported forearms. This
prevents shoulder pain.
AVOID cramming thighs under worktable. This reduces
blood circulation.
AVOID working with legs dangling. This destabilizes the
body and causes tiredness.
AVOID pressure on underside of thighs. This reduces
back flow of blood and can cause swelling legs.
AVOID sitting on a chair that is too low.
✎ It disrupts blood circulation in lower legs, causing
✎ It puts pressure on internal organs.
✎ It creates too much pressure on buttocks and
causes discomfort.
DO NOT WORK with a worktable that is too high.
✎ It prevents use of proper lumbar support and can
cause back injury.
✎ It overstretches spine and can cause back injury.
✎ It forces the head to bend forward and can cause
neck injury.
✎ It stresses shoulders and causes pain.
✎ It tires the whole body.
DO NOT SIT on a chair that has poor support. It can
overturn, injuring you.
4. Chair and Work Surface Adjustment
35–51 cm
15–30 cm
20–30 cm
CHOOSE a chair
95–110 °
Allow clearance
✎ a backrest
for legs to cross
which is
shaped to
support the
38–43 cm
lower back
✎ a seat height
and depth
which does
not put
45 cm
on back of
thighs or
✎ a seat that curves downwards at the front edge
✎ a stable base
✎ a swivel mechanism
✎ arm rests which do not prevent the chair from
being drawn up to the work surface or interfere
with natural movement
✎ breathable fabric on the seat
✎ controls that can be used while seated
TIGHTEN the chair backrest so that it does not give way
with body weight.
READJUST the chair throughout the day to help vary
body position.
Chair and Work Surface Adjustment
STAND in front of the chair.
Adjust the height so the highest
point of the seat is just below the
knee cap.
SIT so that the clearance
between the front edge of the
seat and the lower part of the
legs just fits a clenched fist.
ADJUST the backrest of the chair
so that it supports the V-hollow
of the lower back.
ADJUST the work surface
to the height of the elbows
with the arms hanging
straight by the sides.
RAISE the chair to get the proper arm and upper body position
if using a fixed height work surface.
ADJUST the chair height so elbows are about the same height
as the work surface.
USE a foot rest if feet cannot rest flat on the floor or if there is
pressure on the back of the legs. The foot rest should be
adjustable and support the whole foot.
Work Surface
MAKE adjustments so work surface is the correct
working height.
ENSURE that the work surface is large enough to hold
STORE frequently used items in the most convenient
AVOID cramping legs under work surface.
AVOID over-reaching and twisting.
DO NOT STORE materials under the work surface.
5. Workstation Exercises
Neck and Shoulders
Raise the top of your
shoulders toward your
ears until you feel slight
tension in your neck and
shoulder. Hold this feeling
of tension for 3-5 seconds,
then relax your shoulders
downward into their
normal postion. Repeat
2-3 times.
Sit or stand upright.
Without lifting chin,
glide head straight
back. Hold for 20
counts and repeat
5-10 times.
Drop your head slowly to the left, trying to touch
your left ear to your left shoulder. Repeat on the
right side. Slowly drop your chin to your chest,
turn your head all the way to the left, and then to
the right.
Roll the shoulders—raise them up,
pull them back, then drop them down
and relax. Repeat in the opposite
Back, Sides
and Legs
Drop left shoulder reaching
left hand toward the floor.
Return to starting position.
Repeat on right side.
Grasp shin, lift leg off the floor. Bend
forward, (curling the back) reaching
nose toward the knee. Repeat with
the other leeg.
Hold one foot off the floor, leg straight. Alternately
flex ankle (pointing toes up). Extend (pointing toes
towards the floor). Repeat with the other leg.
Place feet shoulderwidth apart, heels on
the floor, Swing toes
in then out.
Interlock fingers, palms up.
Stretch arms above the head
until they are straight.
DO NOT ARCH the back.
Sit forward on the chair so that your back
is not touching the chair back. Place feet
flat on the floor. With a straight leg,
lift one foot a few inches off the floor.
Hold momentarily, return it to the
floor and repeat with the other leg.
Hands and Forearms
1. Start with hand outstretched.
2. Make a fist. Keep your thumb straight and not
tucked under your fingers.
3. Touch your fingertips to the base of
your palm, keeping your thumb straight.
4. Slide your finger tips up your plam so the tips
of your fingers are near the base of your fingers
and you feel a stretch. Don't force your fingers
with your other hand if something hurts.
Start with arm in hand-shaking position
and slowly rotate palm down until you
feel a stretch. Hold 3-5 seconds. Rotate
palm up until you feel a stretch. Repeat 3
Keeping elbow straight, grasp involved
hand and slowly bend wrist down until
you feel a stretch. Hold 3-5 seconds.
Relax. Repeat 3 times.
Grasp your hand and hold your fingers with the
other hand. Slowly bend your wrist down until you
feel a stretch. Hold 3-5 seconds. Relax. Repeat
3 times. Then slowly bend your wrist up until
you feel the stretch. Hold and relax as above.
Gently bend wrist from side to
side as far as possible. Hold
3-5 seconds. Repeat 3 times.
Sitting with your elbows on a table and
palms together, slowly lower wrists to table
until you feel a stretch. Be sure to keep
palms together throughout the stretch. Hold
5-7 seconds. Relax. Repeat 3 times.
Section XII
Personal Protective
1. General Guidelines
2. Safety Glasses
3. Safety Footwear
4. Safety Headwear
5. Hearing Protection
6. Hand Protection
7. Respirators
1. General Guidelines
Any personal protective equipment (PPE) should meet
standards that are specified in OH&S legislation such as
CSA (Canadian Standards Association) in Canada and
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) in the US.
You should consult your OH&S legislation to determine
applicable standard.
Hard Hats
Wear CSA or ANSI approved hard hats when:
✎ working on or near construction projects,
✎ trimming trees, and
✎ doing any work that has potential for head injury.
Safety Glasses and Goggles
Wear CSA or ANSI approved safety glasses/goggles that
are appropriate for protecting the eyes from:
✎ extremely bright light and ultraviolet radiation
(UV rays),
✎ flying objects, and
✎ very hot, poisonous, and irritating liquids.
Ear Plugs or Muffs
Wear appropriate ear protection to protect ears from
excessive noise exposure.
Wear respirators as required by your employer while
working in an environment where there is danger of
breathing air contaminated with toxic gases, vapours,
fumes and dusts.
Safety Footwear
Wear safety footwear with metal box toe and puncture
resistant sole while doing grounds keeping or
maintenance work.
Wear appropriate type of gloves when working with chemicals,
solvents, or toxic substances as well, to protect hands from
flying objects and from contact with vibrating machines.
Head Protection
hard hat
Eye/Face Protection
safety glasses
Hearing Protection
Gloves and Mitts
Leather gloves with
ballistic nylon
on the back
Leg Protection
Trousers or chaps
with sewn in
ballistic nylon pads
Foot Protection
work boots
* In the US use personal protection approved by an appropriate authority
such as NIOSH, OSHA, ANSI. If in doubt, ask your nearest OSHA office.
2. Safety Glasses
Selection of Safety Glasses
Lenses CSA Z94.3/ANSI Z87.1-certified safety glasses
have glass, plastic or polycarbonate lenses. They are
stronger than regular lenses, are impact-resistant, and
come in prescription and non-prescription (plano)
Lense Markings The manufacturer’s logo is marked
(or etched) on all approved safety lenses.
Frames Safety frames are stronger than street-wear
frames and often heat resistant. They are designed to
prevent lenses from being pushed into the eyes.
Frame Imprint All CSA-certified safety frames have the
imprint “Z94.3” stamped on them and may have CSA
logo imprinted on the temple.
Adjustable Arm(s)
Top Shield
Side Shield(s)
Lens Marking
Correct Fit of Safety Glasses
ENSURE your safety glasses fit properly. Eye size,
bridge size and temple length all vary, so safety
glasses need to be individually assigned and fitted.
WEAR safety glasses so that the temples fit comfortably
over the ears. The frame should be as close to the face
as possible and adequately supported by the bridge of
the nose.
Proper Care of Safety Glasses
Safety glasses need maintenance.
CLEAN your safety glasses daily with recommended
lens cleaning material. Follow the manufacturer’s
instructions. Avoid rough handling which can scratch
lenses. Scratches impair vision and can weaken glass
STORE your safety glasses in a clean, dry place where
they cannot fall or be stepped on. Keep them in a case
when they are not being worn.
REPLACE scratched, pitted, broken, bent or ill-fitting
glasses. Damaged glasses interfere with vision and do
not provide adequate protection.
3. Safety Footwear
Safety footwear is designed to protect
feet against a wide variety of injuries.
Impact, compression and puncture are the most common
types of foot injury.
CHOOSE footwear according to the hazard. Refer to
CSA Standard Z195 “Protective Footwear” or ANSI
Z41 in the US.
SELECT CSA-certified footwear. Ensure that it has the
proper rating for the hazard and the proper sole for
the working conditions.
WALK in new footwear to ensure it is comfortable.
LACE up boots fully. High-cut boots provide support
against ankle injury.
USE a protective coating to make footwear waterresistant.
USE metatarsal protection (top of the foot between the
toes and ankle) where there is a potential for injury.
INSPECT footwear regularly for damage.
REPAIR or replace worn or defective footwear.
safety shoes
Suggested Protective Footwear
Grade I will withstand 50 lb weight dropped from a
height of 22 in.
This grade of boot is suitable for workers in the
following fields:
✎ freight companies
✎ auto industries
✎ steel mills
✎ paper mills
✎ construction
✎ lumbering
✎ mining
Grade II will withstand a 50 lb weight dropped from a
height of 16 in.
This grade of boot is suitable for workers in the
following fields:
✎ warehousing
✎ paint companies
✎ machine shops
✎ home appliances
✎ auto industries
✎ fire department
✎ aircraft industries
Grade III will withstand 50 lb weight dropped from a
height of 10.5 in.
This grade of boot is suitable for workers in the
following fields:
✎ light manufacturing
✎ hospitals
✎ retail stores
✎ service stations
✎ supervision
✎ security
✎ office
✎ ambulance staff
4. Safety Headwear
Headwear consists of a shell and the
suspension. These work together as a
system and both need regular inspection and maintenance.
CHOOSE the correct headwear for the job. Refer to ANSI
Standard Z89.1 (1997) or CSA Standard Z94.1,
Industrial Protective Headwear.
Protective headwear are of the following two types:
Type I
Hat (full brim)
Type II
Cap (with or without peak)
Protective headwear ( safety hats and caps) are
classified as follows:
Type A
General Use, Limited Voltage Protection
Type B
High Voltage Protection
Type C
General Use, Metallic No Voltage Protection
Type D
Impact and Penetration Protection
INSPECT headwear before each use
CLEAN the suspension and shell regularly.
DO NOT TRANSPORT headwear in rear windows of
The shell is rigid and light, and is shaped to deflect falling
objects. Correct maintenance is important.
INSPECT and replace a shell that shows signs of wear,
scratches or gouges. A shell exposed to heat,
sunlight and chemicals can become stiff or brittle.
REPLACE headwear when hairline cracks start to appear.
These cracks will spread and widen.
REPLACE headwear that has been struck, even if no
damage is visible.
REMOVE and destroy any headwear if its protective
abilities are in doubt.
DO NOT DRILL holes, alter or modify the shell.
Alterations may reduce the protection provided by the
DO NOT PAINT the plastic shell. Paint solvents can
make plastic headwear brittle and more susceptible to
cracks. Instead, use reflective marking tape to make
number or symbols for identification purposes. Metal
headwear may be painted.
DO NOT USE winter liners that contain metal or
electrically conductive material.
DO NOT USE metal labels on Class B headwear.
DO NOT DRAW chin strap over brim or peak of Class B
The suspension system holds the shell away from the
head and acts as a shock absorber. It also holds the shell
in place on the head and allows air to flow freely.
ADJUST headband size so that headwear will stay on
when wearer is bending over, but not so tight that it
leaves a mark on the forehead.
ENSURE that the suspension is in good condition. The
main purpose of the suspension is to absorb energy.
LOOK closely for cracked or torn adjustment slots,
frayed material or other signs of wear.
CHECK suspension lugs carefully. Perspiration and hair
oils can cause wear. Long periods of normal use can
damage the suspension.
REPLACE suspension that has torn or broken treads.
DO NOT PUT anything inside headwear. There must be
a clearance inside the headwear while it is being
worn. In the event of a blow to the head, that space
helps absorb the shock.
5. Hearing Protection
Hearing protectors reduce the amount
of sound energy reaching the ears and
hence, reduce the risk of hearing loss.
SELECT hearing protection that is correct for the job.
Refer to CSA Standard Z94.2 Hearing Protectors or
ANSI Standard S12.6.
Earplugs are inserted to block the ear canal. They
may be premoulded (preformed) or mouldable.
Canal Caps are comprised of two ear plugs held over
the ends of the ear canal by a rigid headband.
Ear muffs are comprised of hard outer cups, soundattenuating material and soft ear cushions which
fit around the ear and hard outer cups. They are
held together by a head band.
DO NOT USE radio headsets as a substitute for hearing
DO NOT MODIFY hearing protectors.
Proper Care of Hearing Protection
REFER to manufacturer’s instructions.
CHECK hearing protection regularly for wear and tear.
REPLACE ear cushions or plugs that are no longer
REPLACE unit when head bands are so stretched that
they do not keep ear cushions snugly against the head.
DISASSEMBLE ear muffs to clean.
WASH hearing protectors with a mild liquid detergent in
warm water, and then rinse in clear warm water.
ENSURE that sound-attenuating material inside cushions
does not get wet.
Proper Fit of Hearing Protection
FOLLOW manufacturer’s instruction.
ENSURE hearing protector is tightly sealed within the
ear canal or against the side of the head.
• Small and easily carried.
• Designed so that one size
fits most head sizes.
• Convenient to use with
other personal protective
equipment (can be worn
with earmuffs).
• Easily seen at a distance to
assist in the monitoring of
their use.
• More comfortable in hot,
humid work areas.
• Not easily misplaced or
• Convenient for use in
confined work areas.
• May be worn with minor
ear infections.
• Require more time to fit.
• Less portable and heavier.
• More difficult to insert
and remove.
• Less convenient for use
with other personal
protective equipment.
• Require good hygiene
• May irritate the ear canal.
• Easily misplaced.
• Less comfortable in hot,
humid work areas.
• Less convenient for use
in confined work areas.
• More difficult to see and
monitor usage.
6. Hand Protection
Hands are the most vulnerable to
injury from accidental contact with
tools, machines, chemicals, and hot and cold objects. In
some circumstances gloves may provide adequate hand
protection. Barrier creams are used in situations where
use of gloves is not practicable for protection against
chemical exposure.
Selection of gloves depends on the type of exposure.
Different types of gloves are available to provide
protection against different types of exposure. Consider
all potential exposures when selecting gloves. Check
MSDS of chemicals to determine suitable gloves. Consult
local safety supplier to select from available types of
Protective Creams
Barrier creams may be used for protection against chemicals,
solvents, fumes, dusts and micro-organisms in cases
where all other methods of protection are impractical.
The application of barrier cream before starting the work
provides a protective layer which limits the contact
between the hand and the hazardous substances.
The advice of a specialist should be sought in the selection
and correct use of a barrier cream which will provide best
7. Respirators
A respiratory could save your life or
prevent serious illness or disease.
However, in schools dust masks will probably be the most
commonly used respiratory protective device (eg. in wood
working shop).
FOLLOW the respirator protection program developed
by your employer/supervisor, including training and
fit testing.
USE the type of respirator as prescribed by your
INSPECT before and after each use and during cleaning.
INSPECT equipment designated for “emergency use” at
least monthly, in addition to after each use.
REPLACE all parts that are cracked, torn, broken,
missing or worn.
FOLLOW manufacturer’s instruction and CSA Standard
Z94.4 or ANSI Z88.2 for care and maintenance.
The following sections apply to respirators other than
dust masks.
ENSURE that there are no holes or tears.
INSPECT for cracked, scratched or loose-fitting lenses.
For full facepiece, check for missing mounting clips.
ENSURE that metal nose clip forms easily over the
bridge of the nose on disposable respirators.
CHECK webbing for breaks.
LOOK for deterioration of elasticity.
TEST excessively worn head harness.
Inhalation and Exhalation Valves
ENSURE valve and valve seat are free of detergent
residue, dust particles, or dirt which may cause a poor
seal or reduce efficiency.
REPLACE missing or defective valve cover.
Filter Element
ENSURE that filter and mask are certified for use together.
CHECK filters to see that they are approved for the hazard.
INSPECT both filter threads and facepiece threads for wear.
CHECK filter heads for cracks or dents.
CHECK end of service life indicator on gas masks.
Check expiration date.
Repair, Cleaning and Storage
FOLLOW manufacturer’s instructions.
WASH with a mild dish detergent or a combination of
detergent and disinfectant. Use a brush and warm
water (49–60° C).
RINSE with clean water, or rinse once with a disinfectant
and once with clean water. The clean water rinse
removes excess detergent or disinfectant that can
cause skin irritation or dermatitis.
DRY on a rack, clean surface or hang from a clothes line.
Position the respirator so that the facepiece rubber
will not “set” crookedly as it dries.
STORE respirator at the end of each shift to protect it
from dust, sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessive
moisture, and chemicals.
CLEAN and disinfect shared respirators after each use.
PERMIT only trained and qualified personnel to repair
RECORD repairs and/or inspections.
CHECK for distortion caused by improper storage.
DO NOT CLEAN with solvents.
DO NOT MIX parts from different manufacturers.
Section XIII
Health and Safety
1. Legislative Responsibilities in Schools
2. Canadian OH&S Legislation
3. Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
System (WHMIS)
4. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
5. Public Health Promotion Legislation
6. Fire Code
7. Building Code
8. Environmental Protection Legislation
9. US OH&S Legislation
1. Legislative Responsibilities
in Schools
The legislation applicable to schools prescribe general
and some specific safety responsibilities and cover all
occupants which includes students, staff, Board staff, and
visitors. The safety responsibilities include the following:
School Board/Trustees
COMPLY with the duties of the employer as stated in the
Health and Safety Act.
ESTABLISH fire drills and emergency procedures.
MAINTAIN school buildings, furniture and equipment in
proper repair.
OBTAIN adequate insurance for building, equipment,
employees, and volunteers while under the jurisdiction
of the Board.
DEVELOP a policy statement that includes safe school plans.
ENSURE a safe and peaceful school.
ASSIGN responsibilities.
MONITOR compliance.
PROVIDE training.
INVESTIGATE incidents of unsafe conditions, violence
and vandalism.
DEVELOP corrective action plans.
Director of Education/Supervisory Officer
SUPERVISE the use and maintenance of the building and
property of the School Board.
VISIT schools and classrooms as the school board may
ASSIST eachers to bring about improvement in the
quality of education.
MAKE SURE that the schools are conducted in
compliance with the Education Act and Regulations.
PREPARE an annual report on the performance of the
schools in his/her jurisdiction.
REPORT to the appropriate medical officer any
unsanitary conditions in the building or premises.
FURNISH the minister with required information about
schools in his/her jurisdiction.
CONDUCT fire drills and emergency training during the
school year.
INSPECT the school and report on its condition and
required maintenance and alterations.
BE RESPONSIBLE for the health, safety and comfort of
the pupils and staff.
INSPECT the school premises weekly and make
recommendations to the Board regarding repairs,
maintenance and alterations.
REPORT to the Board and the Ministry of Health any
suspected cases of communicable diseases.
PROVIDE training in safe work practice.
Teacher In Charge of Organizational Unit
ASSIST in planning and organizing emergency drills.
ASSIST in the organization and management of the
ASSIST principal in adequate supervision of the pupils.
MAINTAIN equipment and supplies.
MAINTAIN order and discipline in the class.
PROVIDE effective instruction, training and evaluation.
BE RESPONSIBLE for student supervision.
BE RESPONSIBLE for safety.
2. Canadian OH&S Legislation
The purpose of Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S)
legislation is to protect you, the employee, against hazards
on the job. It outlines the general rights and responsibilities of
the employer, the supervisor and the employee.
The law makes both you and your employer jointly
responsible for workplace health and safety legislation.
What Does the OH&S Legislation Say?
Each of the provinces and the federal government have
their own OH&S legislation. The details of the OH&S
legislation vary slightly from one jurisdiction to another
but the basic elements are the same.
Most Canadian jurisdictions have a general duty provision
in their OH&S legislation which requires employers to
take all reasonable precautions to protect the health and
safety of employees.
New legislation, commonly known as Bill C-45, was
proclaimed into force on March 31, 2004. If this OH&S
duty is disregarded and bodily harm or death results, an
organization could be charged with criminal negligence.
For further details refer to the Justice Canada website at
Government’s Responsibilities
Government is responsible for ensuring compliance with
health and safety legislation. Responsibilities of
government include:
i) to develop and enforce occupational health and safety
legislation regarding workplace inspections
ii) to designate safety officers who conduct workplace
inspections to ensure compliance with the legislation
iii) to disseminate information
iv) to promote training, education and research
v) to take action in case of noncompliance
Employee’s Rights
i) to refuse unsafe work
ii) to participate in workplace health and safety
activities through the Joint Health and Safety
Committee (JHSC) or an employee health
and safety representative
iii) to know actual and potential dangers in the
Employee’s Responsibilities
i) to work in compliance with the OH&S act and
ii) to use personal protective equipment and clothing
as directed by the employer
iii) to report workplace hazards and dangers
Supervisor’s Responsibilities
i) to ensure that employees use prescribed protective equipment
ii) to advise employees of potential and actual hazards
iii) to take every reasonable precaution in the
circumstances for the protection of employees
Employer’s Responsibilities
i) to establish and maintain a joint health and safety
committee, or cause employees to select at least
one health and safety representative
ii) to take every reasonable precaution to ensure the
workplace is safe
iii) to inform employees about any potential hazards
and provide training to work safely
iv) to provide personal protective equipment and
ensure workers know how to use the equipment
safely and properly
v) to immediately report all critical injuries to the
government department responsible for OH&S
vi) to train all employees on how to safely use, handle,
store and dispose of hazardous substances and
handle emergencies
Joint Health and Safety Committee (JHSC)
i) must be composed of management and employee
ii) at least half the members of the committee must be
employee representatives
iii) must meet at least once every 3 months; 1 month
in some jurisdictions
iv) must be co-chaired by one management chairperson
and one employee chairperson
v) employee representatives are elected or selected by
the employees or their union
Role of the Joint Health and Safety Committee
to act as an advisory body
to identify hazards and obtain information
to recommend corrective actions
to assist in resolving work refusal cases
to participate in accident investigations and workplace
Work Refusals
You can refuse work if you have reason to believe that the
situation is unsafe to either yourself or your co-workers.
i) You must report to your supervisor that you are
refusing to work and state why you believe the
situation is unsafe.
ii) You, your supervisor, and a JHSC member or
employee representative will investigate.
iii) You return to work if the problem is resolved.
iv) If the problem is not resolved, a government health
and safety representative is called.
v) Your supervisor may assign you reasonable
alternative work.
vi) The inspector will investigate the situation and give
a decision.
Worker OH&S Concern
(Work Refusal)
Reports to Supervisor
Supervisor and Worker
attempt to resolve
Union/H&S Rep
H&S Comm. Member
Call Government
Assign reasonable
alternative work
Assign work being
refused to another
Decision of the
Further Government
Further Employer
Action or Appeal of
Government Directives
Work Refusal Flow Chart
Work Stoppage
Work stoppage legislation applies to Ontario only.
Certified members of the Health and Safety Committee
may direct the employer to stop work if all of the
following three conditions exist:
i) Health and safety legislation is being violated.
ii) The violation poses a danger or a hazard to
iii) Any delay in controlling the danger or hazard may
seriously endanger an employee.
Ask your Health and Safety Committee for detailed
procedures for work stoppage.
3. Workplace Hazardous Materials
Information System (WHMIS)
WHMIS (Pronounced whimiss)
WHMIS applies to all Canadian workplaces. It requires
that all workers who work with or near a hazardous
substance (controlled product) be informed about its
potential hazards and recommended safe work practices.
WHMIS requires that information be provided in three ways:
l. All controlled products used in the workplace must
have a WHMIS label on the container.
2. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and hazard
information must be readily available in the
workplace. A MSDS summarizes the health and
safety information about the product.
3. Workers must receive training to be able to recognize
and work safely with chemicals.
Causes Burns
Cause des brûlurs
Very Toxic Material
Produit très toxique
Avoid Contact with Skin
Éviter tout contact avec
la peau
In case of skin or eye
contact, flush with copious
amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek
medical attention
En cas de contact avec la
peau ou les yeux, laver à
grande eau pendant
15 minutes et consulter
un médecin.
See Material Safety Data Sheet
Voir la fiche signalétique
ABC Chemical Company Ltd.
Fabricant de produits chimiques ABC
The HAZARD SYMBOL is an important part of the
WHMIS label. It warns the user that a particular hazard
exists. Actual hazards from toxic substances depend on
the amount (level and duration) of exposure. A brief
exposure at high levels may result in chemical poisoning
within hours. Prolonged exposure at low levels may
cause illness after several years.
Compressed Gas
Contents under high pressure.
Cylinder may explode or
burst when heated, dropped
or damaged.
May catch fire when exposed
to heat, spark or flame. May
Flammable and
Combustible Material burst into flames.
Oxidizing Material
May cause fire or explosion
when in contact with wood,
fuels and other combustible
CLASS D, Division 1
Poisonous and
Infectious Material:
immediate and
serious toxic effects
Poisonous substance. A single
exposure may be fatal or
cause serious or permanent
damage to health.
CLASS D, Division 2
Poisonous and
Infectious Material:
other toxic effects
Poisonous substance. may
cause irritation. Repeated
exposure may cause cancer,
birth defects, or other
permanent damage.
CLASS D, Division 3
Poisonous and
Infectious Material:
infectious material
May cause disease or serious
illness. Drastic exposures may
result in death.
Corrosive Material
Can cause burns to eyes, skin
or respiratory system.
Reactive Material
May react violently causing
explosion, fire or release of
toxic gases, when exposed
to light, heat, vibration or
extreme temperatures.
4. Material Safety Data Sheets
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provide health,
safety and handling information. Manufacturers are
required to produce an MSDS for their products
particularly for hazardous products. An MSDS
provides the following information: (ANSI Z400.11993 Standard)
Section 1. Product and company identification
Section 2. Composition/information on ingredients
Section 3. Hazards identification
Section 4. First aid measures
Section 5. Fire fighting measures
Section 6. Accidental release measures
Section 7. Handling and storage
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Section 11. Toxicological information
Section 12. Ecological information
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Section 14. Transport information
Section 15. Regulatory information
Section 16. Other information
5. Public Health Promotion Legislation
This legislation is to ensure the well being of all
occupants of the school building and to prevent spread
of disease. The act sets standards for sanitation and
cleanliness. Washrooms, kitchens, eating areas, water
quality and infectious diseases are high priority items.
The Public Health Promotion Act is enforced by
the public health department.
6. Fire Code
The fire code establishes fire safety rules. The main
components of the Fire Code applicable to schools
a) building design criteria for fire prevention and fire
b) guidelines for the maintenance of the building
facilities and fire protection/prevention systems,
c) procedures for evacuation in case of fire, and
d) procedures for fire drill.
The local fire departments also provide fire safety
education and training. Standard procedures for school
activities must be in compliance with fire code.
The Fire Code is enforced by the local fire
7. Building Code
The Building Code sets standards and guidelines for
buildings, structures, facilities and systems. Heating,
ventilation, storage facilities, renovations, and
maintenance are all covered under building code.
The building code is enforced by the provinces
and the township.
8. Environmental Protection
The purpose of the environmental protection legislation is
to prevent deterioration of the environment. Its relevance
to schools is to ensure that the school activities and the
substances released from the school activities do not
deteriorate the environment. The act specifies procedures
for the storage, use and disposal of substances whose
uncontrolled release can adversely affect the environment.
Schools must be registered as waste generators and waste
disposal must be done in compliance with the legislation.
The governmental environmental agencies in
your jurisdiction enforce the Environmental
Proctection Legislation.
9. US OH&S Legislation
General Outline
In the United States (US) the Occupational Safety and
Health Act is popularly known as OSHAct. The
Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA)
is responsible for administering the OSHAct.
The OSHAct does not cover the following four categories
of people:
✎ self-employed persons
✎ farms which employ only immediate family members
of the farm employer
✎ employees covered by other legislation
✎ state and local government employees
OSHA regulations are published in Title 29 of the Code
of Federal Regulations as:
✎ 29 CFR Part 1910— Occupational Safety and
Health Standards
✎ 29 CFR Part 1926—Construction Standards
These standards define exposure limits, exposure
monitoring methods, medical surveillance and protective
Duties of Employers
The OSHAct sets out two main duties for employers:
✎ Employers must provide a workplace which is free
from hazards that are known to cause or likely to
cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
✎ Employers must comply with occupational safety
and health standards under the Act.
Duties of Employees
Employees must comply with occupational safety and
health standards, rules, regulations and orders which are
applicable to their own conduct and actions.
Key Provisions
Some of the key provisions of the OSHAct are to:
✎ assure, insofar as possible, that every employee has
safe and healthy working conditions
✎ require employers to maintain accurate records of
exposures to potentially toxic materials or harmful
physical agents and inform employees of the
monitoring results
✎ provide for employee walk-around or interview
of employees during the inspection process
✎ provide procedures for investigating alleged
violations, at the request of any employee or
employee representative issuing citations and
assessing monetary penalties against the employer
Hazard Communication
The intent of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard
is to provide employees with information and training
about the potential health hazards from exposure to
workplace chemicals. The Standard requires that
employee training include:
✎ explanations of the requirements of the standard;
✎ identification of workplace operations where
hazardous chemicals are present;
✎ knowledge of the methods and observations used
to detect the presence of hazardous workplace
✎ assessment of the physical and health hazards of
those chemicals
✎ warnings about hazards associated with chemicals
in unlabelled pipes;
✎ descriptions of hazards associated with non-routine
✎ details about the measures employees can take to
protect themselves against these hazards, including
specific procedures;
✎ explanation of the labelling system;
✎ instructions on location and use of material safety
data sheets (MSDSs);
✎ details on the availability and location of the hazardous
materials inventory, MSDSs, and other written hazard
communication material.
Hazard Warning and Symbols
Chemicals produced in the USA come under OSHA
Hazard Communication Standard. The label on the
container must warn about potential hazards of the
product. OSHA does not require hazard symbols on the
label, however, the skull and crossbones symbol is
acceptable on containers of highly toxic substances and
the flame symbol is acceptable on containers of
flammable substances.
Section XIV
Information Sources
1. Canadian Government Departments with
Responsibility for Occupational Health
and Safety
2. US Federal Safety and Health Agencies
1. Canadian Government Departments
Responsible for Occupational Health
and Safety
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and
Safety (CCOHS)
Client Services
135 Hunter Street East
Hamilton, ON L8N 1M5
Phone: 905-570-8094
Toll-free:1-800-668-4284 (Canada and US only)
Fax: 905-572-2206
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
Inquiries Service
(free answers to your OH&S questions)
Phone: 905-572-4400
(8:30 AM to 5:00 PM EST Time)
Toll-free: 1-800-263-8466 (Canada only)
Fax: 905-572-4500
E-mail: [email protected]
OSH Answers Web Site:
Federal Jurisdiction
Labour and Workplace Information
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
Ottawa ON K1A 0J2
Web Site:
Regional and District Offices:
Web Site:
Provincial Jurisdictions
Workplace Health and Safety
Alberta Human Resources and Employment
10030-107 Street
Edmonton, AB T5J 3E4
Phone: (780) 415-8690
(Edmonton and surrounding areas)
Toll-free in Alberta: 1-866-415-8690
Fax: (780) 422-3730
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
British Columbia
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia
6951 Westminster Highway (Richmond, BC)
PO Box 5350 Stn Terminal
Vancouver, BC V6B 5L5
Workplace Safety and Health Inquiries
Phone: (604) 276-3100
Toll-free in B.C.: 1-888-621-7233 (SAFE)
Fax: (604) 244-6490
Health and Safety Emergency and Accident Reporting
Toll-free in B.C.: 1-888-621-7233 (SAFE)
After hours: 1-866-922-4357
Web Site:
Workplace Safety and Health Division
Manitoba Labour and Immigration
200-401 York Avenue
Winnipeg, MB R3C 0P8
General Inquiries: (204) 945-3446
Toll free in Manitoba: 1-800-282-8069
After hours: (204) 945-0581
Fax: (204) 945-4556
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
New Brunswick
Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation
Commission of New Brunswick
1 Portland Street
PO Box 160
Saint John, NB E2L 3X9
Phone: (506) 632-2200
Toll free: 1-800-222-9775 (NB, PEI, NL, QC, ON)
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: (506) 633-3989
Health and Safety Emergencies
Toll free: 1-800-442-9776
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: (506) 633-3989
Web Site:
Newfoundland and Labrador
Occupational Health and Safety Division
Department of Government Services
15 Dundee Avenue
Mount Pearl, NL A1N 4R6
General Inquiries: (709) 729-2706
Toll-free in NL: 1-800-563-5471
Fax: (709) 729-3445
Serious Workplace Accident Reports
Phone: (709) 729-4444 (24 Hours)
Web Site:
Northwest Territories and Nunavut
Workers’ Compensation Board of Northwest
Territories and Nunavut
PO Box 8888
Yellowknife, NT X1A 2R3
General Inquiries: (867) 920-3888
Toll free: 1-800-661-0792
Fax: (867) 873-4596
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
PO Box 669
Iqaluit, NU X0A 0H0
Phone: (867) 979-8500
Fax: (867) 979-8501
Toll-free: 1-877-404-4407
E-mail: [email protected]
Nova Scotia
Occupational Health and Safety Division
Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour
5151 Terminal Rd., 6th Floor
PO Box 697
Halifax, NS B3J 2T8
General Inquiries: (902) 424-5400
Toll free in NS: 1-800-952-2687
Fax: (902) 424-5640
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
Ministry of Labour
Occupational Health and Safety
655 Bay Street, 14th Floor
Toronto, ON M7A 1T7
General Inquiries: (416) 326-7770
Toll free in Ontario: 1-800-268-8013
Fax: (416) 326-7761
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
Prince Edward Island
Workers’ Compensation Board of PEI
Occupational Health and Safety
PO Box 757, 14 Weymouth Street
Charlottetown, PE C1A 7L7
General Inquiries: (902) 368-5680
Toll-free (in Atlantic Canada): 1-800-237-5049
Customer Liaison Service: 1-866-460-3074
Fax: (902) 368-5705
Web Site:
Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du
Québec (CSST) (Occupational Health & Safety
1, Complexe Desjardins, Tour Sud, 31 étage
Case postale 3, Succursale Place-Desjardins
Montréal, PQ H5B 1H1
(514) 906-2911 Emergency 24 hours PreventionInspection Services
Phone: (514) 906-3000
Fax: (514) 906-3200
Web Site:
Saskatchewan Labour
Occupational Health and Safety Division
400 - 1870 Albert Street
Regina, SK S4P 3V7
Phone: (306) 787-4496
Toll-free in SK: 1-800-567-7233
Fax: (306) 787-2208
Web Site:
Saskatoon Office:
122-3rd Avenue North
Saskatoon, SK S7K 2H6
Phone: (306) 933-5052
Toll-free: 1-800-667-5023
Fax: (306) 933-7339
Yukon Territory
Yukon Workers' Compensation, Health and
Safety Board
Occupational Health and Safety Branch
401 Strickland Street
Whitehorse, YT Y1A 5N8
General Inquiries: (867) 667-5645
24-hour Emergency Line for Reporting Serious
Workplace Accidents and Injuries: (867) 667-5450
Toll-free in the Yukon: 1-800-661-0443
Fax: (867) 393-6279
Workplace Accidents and Injuries
Phone: (867) 667-5450 (24 hrs)
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
For an up-to-date listing of information sources visit
2. US Federal Safety and Health Agencies
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,
Mail Code 3213A
Washington, DC 20460
Phone: (202) 272-0167
Web Site:
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH)
Education and Information Division (EID)
4676 Columbia Parkway
Cincinnati, OH 45226
Outside the US: (513) 533-8328
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
200 Constitution Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20210
Phone: (202) 693-2000
Emergency reporting
Toll Free: 1-800-321-OSHA (6742)
Web Site:
A listing of the Regional Offices follows:
OSHA Regional Offices
Region 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont,
JFK Federal Building, Room E340
Boston, MA 02203
Phone: (617) 565-9860
Fax: (617) 565-9827
Web Site:
Region 2: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands,
USA Dept. of Labor – OSHA
201 Varick St., Rm. 670
New York, NY 10014
Phone: (212) 337-2378
Fax: (212) 337-2371
Web Site:
Region 3: District of Columbia, Delaware,
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, WestVirginia
The Curtis Center, Suite 740 West
170 S. Independence Mall West
Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309
Phone: (215) 861-4900
Fax: (215) 861-4904
Web Site:
Region 4: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,
61 Forsyth St. SW
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
Phone: (404) 562-2300
Fax: (404) 562-2295
Web Site:
Region 5: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
230 South Dearborn St., Rm. 3244
Chicago, IL 60604
Phone: (312) 353-2220
Fax: (312) 353-7774
Web Site:
Region 6: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico,
Oklahoma, Texas
525 Griffin St., Rm. 602
Dallas, TX 75202
Phone: (214) 767-4731
Fax: (214) 767-4693
Web Site:
Region 7: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska
City Center Square
1100 Main St., Suite 800
Kansas City, MO 64105
Phone: (816) 426-5861
Fax: (816) 426-2750
Web Site:
Region 8: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota,
South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming
1999 Broadway, Suite 1690
PO Box 46550
Denver, CO 80201-6550
Phone: (720) 264-6550
Fax: (720) 264-6585
Web Site:
Region 9: American Samoa, Arizona, California,
Guam, Hawaii, Nevada
71 Stevenson Street St., 4th Floor
Suite 420
San Francisco, CA 94105
Phone: (415) 975-4310
Fax: (415) 975-4319
Web Site:
Region 10: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington
1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715
Seattle, Washington 98101-3212
Phone: (206) 553-5930
Fax: (206) 553-6499
Web Site:
e l e c t r o n i c
FREE Trials are available!
Contact Client Services at 1-800-668-4284
or [email protected]
e-Learning courses
Accident Investigation
Electrical Hazards
Health & Safety Committees
Health & Safety Training for Managers and Supervisors
Health & Safety for Managers and Supervisors in the
Canadian Federal Jurisdiction
Ladder Safety
Office Ergonomics
Office Health & Safety
Personal Protective Equipment: The Basics
Preventing Falls from Slips and Trips
WHMIS for Managers and Supervisors
WHMIS for Workers
Chemical information
MSDS and FTSS (300,000 Material Safety Data Sheets)
References to oh&s books, journals, articles and reports
OSH References [CISILO (English/French), HSELINE, Canadiana,
OSHLINE® with NIOSHTIC®, INRS Bibliographic]
OSH Researcher*
Regulatory information
Canadian enviroOSH Legislation
Canadian enviroOSH Legislation plus Standards
National Labour Operations Resources*
*available only on CD-ROM
in this series
❏ Cold Weather Workers Safety Guide
❏ Emergency Response Planning Guide
❏ Food Service Workers Safety Guide
❏ Groundskeepers Safety Guide
❏ Health and Safety Committees Reference Guide
❏ Health and Safety Guide for Libraries
❏ Indoor Air Quality Health and Safety Guide
❏ Mould in the Workplace – A Basic Guide
❏ Noise Control in Industry: A Basic Guide
❏ Office Ergonomics Safety Guide
❏ School Workers Health and Safety Guide
❏ Violence in the Workplace Prevention Guide
❏ Warehouse Workers Safety Guide
❏ Welders Health and Safety Guide
❏ Wellness in the Workplace
❏ Working in Hot Environments: Health and Safety Guide
For more information about these titles
905-570-8094 or 1-800-668-4284
Fax: 905-572-2206 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
Canada’s national centre for occupational
health and safety. We provide unbiased
information, advice and training on how to
prevent illness and injury in the workplace.
When you have a question about health or
safety, remember to use these FREE services:
Confidential Inquiries Service
[email protected]
OSH Answers on the Web
For more information about CCOHS
products and services:
905-570-8094 or 1-800-668-4284
Fax: 905-572-2206 E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
135 Hunter Street East, Hamilton Ontario Canada L8N 1M5
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF