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Sound Localization in Partially Updated Room Auralizations
Samuel W. Clapp and Bernhard U. Seeber
Audio Information Processing, Technische Universität München, 80333 München, [email protected]
Introduction
The design of this room was chosen so that the receiver
would encounter a large number of strong early reflections.
Room auralization is an important and versatile tool with
many applications in both psychoacoustic research and in the
design of new spaces (or renovation of existing spaces)
where the acoustics play an important role [1]. Creating a
room auralization requires a room impulse response, which
contains the information on how the room transforms a
sound signal between a given sound source position and a
given receiver position.
Three different linear source trajectories, located at different
distances from the receiver, were used to simulate the
impulse responses. Sources were simulated with the
directivity of a human speaker, after the measurements of
Flanagan [3]. The speaker was oriented along each trajectory
line. A floor plan view of the receiver position and source
trajectories is shown in Figure 1.
Room impulse responses can be obtained either through
measurements in a real room or through computer modeling.
With computer models it is simple to adjust aspects of a
room that in reality would require extensive renovations,
such as changing surface materials or the positions of walls
and ceiling. Due to the increasing power of modern
computers, a developing area in room auralization is the
implementation of real-time capabilities, where source and
receiver positions can be changed, and the room impulse
response updated, while the simulation is running. This
requires the efficient calculation of updated room impulse
responses to produce a realistic impression of movement for
the listener.
The room simulations in this study are based on the image
source method, where the spatial and temporal information
of individual sound reflections is determined by
geometrically reflecting the source position about the wall
surfaces, which was developed for arbitrary room geometries
by Borish [2]. An Nth-order reflection is one that is reflected
over N surfaces before reaching the receiver. Computation of
the image sources becomes more costly with increasing
order N, as the number of possible image sources increases
geometrically.
The main question asked in this study is how much of the
room impulse response must be updated, in order for a new
source position to be localized to the same location as if a
complete new room impulse response had been calculated
for that position. This question is relevant for real-time room
acoustic simulation with moving sources, as it may be
possible to only calculate a room impulse response up to a
given order of image sources within the time dictated by the
latency requirements.
Methods
Simulated Room
A rectangular room was used for all test conditions in this
study. The dimensions of the room were 5 x 9 x 2.3 meters,
with a volume of 103.5 cubic meters. Frequency-dependent
absorption coefficients based on real materials were applied
to the room surfaces: heavy carpet on concrete for the floor,
and unglazed, painted brick for the walls and ceiling. The
broadband reverberation time was approximately 1 second.
Figure 1. Floor plan view of simulated room showing
source trajectories and receiver position.
The acoustic simulations were generated using the image
source method by Borish [2]. Image sources were calculated
up to order 200, to model the high reflection density of late
reverberation. A 10% temporal jitter was applied to image
sources beginning at 5th order, to simulate the effects of
diffusion.
Test Environment and Rendering
This study was conducted in the Simulated Open Field
Environment (v3) at the Technische Universität München
[4]. The environment consists of 96 small loudspeakers
arranged in a ring of 1.2-meter radius, with an angular
spacing of 3.75 degrees between loudspeakers. Auralizations
were rendered using the nearest-loudspeaker method, with
each reflection mapped to the loudspeaker closest to its
angular position. Reflections from outside the azimuthal
plane were mapped to the loudspeaker located nearest the
cone of confusion on which the elevated reflection sits.
Localization judgments were solicited with a laser pointer
controlled with a track ball (ProDePo-method) [5]. The laser
pointer projects onto a white paper ring that sits just above
the loudspeakers.
Test Conditions
All 15 source positions were simulated up to the maximum
image source order (200). Six different source movement
scenarios were considered along each trajectory, as shown in
Figure 2. For each source movement scenario, a “hybrid”
auralization was created using image source locations up to a
certain order from the “new” position, and all higher order
image sources from the “old” position. The “cutoff” image
source order was one of four values: 0 (i.e. direct sound from
the new position, all other reflections from the old position),
1, 3, or 7.
For the Position 1 to 3 scenario, the old source position was
located approximately 19 degrees to the left of the new
source position, while the median response was
approximately 14 degrees to the left, not a 100% error, but
still substantial.
Because this room has a relatively low ceiling of 2.3 meters,
many early reflections reach the listener due to ceiling and
floor bounces. These reflections originate from the same
azimuthal location as the source. Thus, for an update of
order 0, there is still a lot of sound energy originating from
the direction of the “old” source position, which clearly has
an effect on listeners’ localization judgments.
Figure 2. Six source movement scenarios considered along
each trajectory.
Test Format
For each trial in this test, a stimulus was played, after which
the laser pointer was activated, and test subjects could move
it to the direction from which they heard the sound source
originate. The test was performed in complete darkness, to
avoid the possibility of subjects using visual anchors to
make their localization judgments. Subjects were free to
move their heads at all points during the test. When the laser
was activated, it was positioned within a region of ±20
degrees around the “true” geometric source position.
Before beginning the main portion of the test, each subject
completed a training session of 30 trials, with no feedback
given, to become familiar with the testing environment and
methods. Each subject completed 8 runs of the experiment.
The total time for completing all runs was around 90-100
minutes.
Results and Discussion
Selected results for the trajectory located furthest from the
receiver are shown in Figure 3. The plots show the
localization results (medians and upper and lower quartiles)
from two source movement scenarios from this trajectory.
Both start at Position 1 and move to Position 2 (right side of
the plot) or 3 (left side). The dotted lines show the azimuthal
angle corresponding to the old position (i.e. Position 1) in
relation to the new position. The responses are plotted in
degrees relative to the median of the “Total” condition (i.e.
the most accurately simulated, up to order 200).
In both cases, for the 0 th order update, significant
localization errors were made in the direction of the old
source position. For the Position 1 to 2 scenario, the median
response was 7.5 degrees to the left as compared with the
“Total” condition, a 100% localization error that indicates
subjects were localizing directly to the old source position.
Figure 3. Localization results for far trajectory, with source
movement scenarios starting at Position 1 and moving to
Position 2 (left) and 3 (right).
Both source movement scenarios show the same overall
trends for the higher update orders. 1st order update
conditions also show an error in the direction of the original
source position, although it is not as large. 3rd and 7th order
update conditions exhibit median localization judgements
that are within 1-2 degrees of the “Total” condition. This
seems to indicate that for this particular room, a 3 rd order
update is sufficient to achieve similar median azimuthal
localization results as would be obtained with a complete
update to order 200. (However, some differences exist in the
variance and distribution of responses.)
The nearer source trajectories generally showed the same
trends, but with lower errors for the low update orders.
However, there were two notable exceptions. The first
occurred with the Position 3 to 5 scenario, the results for
which are shown in Figure 4. Here there is around 100%
localization error for both trajectories, which is not seen in
the other scenarios. This is most likely due to the particular
geometry of this condition. Because of the low ceiling and
the fact that Position 3 is much closer to the receiver than
Position 5 (for these nearer trajectories), the ceiling and floor
reflections from the “old” position (Position 3) actually
reach the listener before the direct sound from the “new”
position (Position 5). Therefore, in these conditions, listeners
are actually localizing “correctly” as predicted by the
precedence effect. This represents a scenario that must be
very carefully considered in a real-time auralization system.
Figure 4. Localization results for Position 3 to 5 source
movement scenario for middle trajectory (left) and nearest
trajectory (right).
The second exception occurred with the Position 1 to 5
scenario, the results for which are shown in Figure 5. Here,
the individual responses for the 0th order update are shown,
rather than the medians and quartiles. From this it can be
seen that listeners may have perceived a split auditory
image, with a number of responses at the old source location,
and a number of responses at the new source location
(Subjects could only give a single response with the laser
pointer and were not given special instructions on how to
respond if they perceived multiple sources). These results
may also be explained by the particular geometry of this
condition. The old and new source positions are separated
by large angles – 67.5 degrees for the middle trajectory and
112.5 degrees for the nearest trajectory. The direct sound
will arrive first from the new position, followed by several
strong early floor and ceiling reflections from the old
position. However, due to the large angular separation, a
split image is perceived, rather than a single, fused source.
Figure 5. Localization results for Position 1 to 5 source
movement scenario for middle trajectory (left) and nearest
trajectory (right).
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Bernstein Center for
Computational Neuroscience Munich, BMBF 01 GQ 1004B.
References
[1]
M. Vorländer, Auralization: Fundamentals of
Acoustics, Modelling, Simulation, Algorithms and
Acoustic Virtual Reality, First ed. Berlin, Germany:
Springer-Verlag, 2008.
[2]
J. Borish, “Extension of the image model to arbitrary
polyhedra,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 75, no. 6, pp.
1827–1836, 1984.
[3]
J. L. Flanagan, “Analog Measurements of Sound
Radiation from the Mouth,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol.
32, no. 12, pp. 1613–1620, 1960.
[4]
B. U. Seeber, S. Kerber, and E. R. Hafter, “A
System to Simulate and Reproduce Audio-Visual
Environments for Spatial Hearing Research,” Hear.
Res., vol. 260, no. 1–2, pp. 1–10, 2010.
[5]
B. Seeber, “A New Method for Localization
Studies,” Acta Acust. united with Acust., vol. 88, pp.
446–450, 2002.
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