The Welding Handbook - WSS Products

The Welding Handbook - WSS Products
The Welding Handbook
Maritime
Welding Handbook
Welding and
Related Processes
for Repair and Maintenance
Onboard
14th edition
1st revision
Notice: All welding is carried out on the welder’s own risk and account. Welding should be executed by a qualified and experienced
welder and adequate safety measures should always be adhered to. The information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook are based
on general information and knowledge at hand and are believed to be accurate and reliable, but the information and guidelines are not
to be taken as a guarantee or warranty for a special purpose. The information and guidelines are provided to the welder solely for his
own consideration, and Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS assumes no legal responsibility or liability for eventual damages and/or losses
should the information and/or guidelines turn out to be incorrect or un-suitable. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is not liable for any loss or
damages whatsoever and howsoever arising which is due to force majeure, other events beyond the reasonable control of Wilhelmsen
Ships Service AS or events that could not reasonably be foreseen by Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS when this Welding Handbook was
made. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is in no event liable for indirect, incidental or consequential damages or losses, including damages for loss of profits, resulting from lack of conformity, including but not limited to loss resulting from goods or software not working
when connected to other goods/software or for any related cause thereto. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS’s liability shall in any event
not exceed the total purchase price of theWilhelmsen Ships Service AS goods used during the welding operations. These conditions
are automatically accepted by anybody using the information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook.
INTRODUCTION
A ship at sea depends upon the knowledge, skills and self-reliance of the crew to carry
out necessary maintenance and repair work. One of the important skills required is a
good command of modern welding techniques.
The purpose of the Welding Handbook for maritime welders is to provide guidance
in modern welding and related processes and to provide the welder with a source of
practical information on the right solution to specific onboard welding problems.
Experience gained from user contact and welding training of crewmembers showed that
documentation aimed specifically at on board welding solutions was needed. This led
to the development of the first welding handbook for on-board repair and maintenance
welding already the 1950es.
This edition of the UNITOR Welding Handbook builds upon all the earlier editions and on
Wilhelmsen Ships Service’s business activity.
Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS enjoys close co-operation with its customers and
would like to thank the many who have taken the effort to contribute with examples of
successful solutions to real life maintenance situations.
Unitor’s business activity
traces back to 1905 and
the company NAG with
Acetylene production as
a basic activity. The first
maritime deliveries from
this period were supply
of Acetylene as fuel
gas for the guiding light
beams from numerous
lighthouses along the
long and weatherbeaten coast of Norway.
The focus changed
towards gas and arc welding techniques when these were developed to useful
production and repair methods through the 1930es.
A main objective became to develop and maintain a range of welding equipment that
is suitable for onboard welding, backed by a worldwide service network, training and
documentation.
In 1943 the company name was changed to UNITOR. Mergers and increasing activity
in the department for sales to ships led to the establishment of this department as a
separate company; Unitor Ships Service AS in 1968.
In 2005 the company was bought by Wilh.Wilhelmsen ASA and the brand Unitor is now
incorporated in Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS, a part of Wilhelmsen Maritime Services
AS, a company in the Wilh. Wilhelmsen Group
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 Safety in Welding
9
1.00
2 Solutions
2.01Introduction & quick guides to processes 35
2.01
2.02 Filler material consumption 47
2.02
2.03 Metal identification 50
2.03
2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 55
2.04
2.05 Problem steels 62
2.05
2.06 Stainless steels 65
2.06
2.07 Cast iron 78
2.07
2.08 Copper and copper alloys 104
2.08
2.09 Aluminium 112
2.09
2.10 Evaluation of welds 114
2.10
3.01 Coated Electrodes 125
3.01
3.02 TIG Welding Rods & Fluxes 197
3.02
3.03 Wires for Wire Welding 215
3.03
3.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes239
3.04
3.05 Brazing Rods & Fluces249
3.05
3.06 Cold Repair Compounds275
3.06
4.01 Electrode welding & gouging 331
4.01
4.02 TIG Welding 379
4.02
4.03 Wire Welding 401
4.03
4.04 Plasma Cutting 439
4.04
4.05 Current Distribution System 453
4.05
5.01 Ac/ox cutting, welding, brazing 457
5.01
5.02 Gas Supplies and gas distribution system 509
5.02
3consumables
4arc welding and
cutting Process
& equipment
5gas welding and
cutting process &
equipment
527
6miscellaneous information
6.00
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 SAFETY IN WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Welding instructions and training . . . . 12
Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.04.01 Arc welding face shields . . . . . 14
1.04.02 Protective goggles . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.04.03 Welder's protective clothing . . 20
1.05
Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.05.01 Welding curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.05.02 Welding blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.05.03 Fire extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.06
1.07
Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.06.01 Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.06.02 Fume extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.07.01 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.07.02 Work place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.07.03 Hot work procedure . . . . . . . . . 32
1.07.04 Operator protection . . . . . . . . . . 32
2 SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.01.01 Quick reference for cutting . . . 2.01.02 Quick reference for joining . . . 2.01.03 Quick reference for rebuilding,
hardfacing and coating . . . . . . 2.01.04 Quick reference to
cold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.02Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . . 2.03 Metal identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . 2.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.02 Unalloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.03 Low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.04 Heat resistant steel . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.05 Low temperature steel . . . . . . . 2.04.06 Weathering steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.05 Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06 Stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
37
38
41
43
45
48
53
53
53
53
53
54
54
62
65
65
2.06.02 Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . 2.06.03 Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 2.06.04 Martensitic Stainless Steel . . . 2.06.05 Duplex Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 2.06.06 Clad Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06.07 Stainless Steel corrosion types 2.06.08 Storing and handling of
Stainless Steel onboard . . . . . . 2.06.09 Grinding/cutting consumables
for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07 Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.02 Grey cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.03 White cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.04 Malleable cast iron . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.05 Ductile cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.06 High alloy cast iron . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.07 Identification of cast iron . . . . . 2.07.08 Preparation of the
work piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.09 Arc welding of cast iron . . . . . . 2.07.10 Braze welding of cast iron . . . . 2.07.11 Cold repair on cast iron . . . . . . 2.08 Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.02 Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.03 Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) . . 2.08.04 Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.05 Nickel bronses (Cunifer) . . . . . . 2.09 Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Evaluation of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.01 Typical welding faults . . . . . . . . 2.10.02 Inspection of welded joints . . . 2.10.03 Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
68
69
70
71
72
74
75
78
78
79
80
80
81
82
83
84
87
95
97
104
104
104
105
106
107
112
114
114
118
123
3 CONSUMABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
3.01
Coated Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.02 Types of electrodes . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.03 Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . . 3.01.04 Classification and approvals . . 3.01.05 Welding positions . . . . . . . . . . . 126
127
128
134
140
148
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
3.01.06 GPO-302 N
General Purpose Electrode
For Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.07 GPR-300H
High Recovery Electrode
for Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.08 SPECIAL-303 N
Double Coated Electrode for
Mild and Ship Quality Steel . . . 3.01.09 LH-314 N
Low Hydrogen Electrode for
Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.10 LHH-314 H
High Recovery Low Hydrogen
Electrode for Ship Quality Steel
3.01.11 LHV-316 N
Vertical Down Welding Low
Hydrogen Electrode for
Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.12 LHT-318 N
Electrode for High Temperature
Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.13 LHL-319 N
Electrode for Low Temperature
Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.14 LHR-320 N
Electrode for Weathering Steel 3.01.15 TENSILE-328 N
Electrode for Difficult-toWeld Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.16 IMPACT-329 S
Electrode for Heat Resistant
Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.17 WEARMAX-327
Electrode for Joining & Wear
Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.19 18/8-321 N
Electrode for Stainless Steel . . 3.01.2023/14-322 N
Electrode for Stainless Steel . . 3.01.21 DUPLEX-325 N
Electrode for Duplex Steel . . . . 3.01.22 PICKLING GEL
Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel 3.01.23 NIFE-334 N
Nickel Iron Electrode for
Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180
182
3.01.24 NICKEL-333 N
Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron
3.01.25 TINBRO-341
Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . 3.01.26 ALBRONZE-344
Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . 3.01.27 ALUMIN-351 N
Electrode for Aluminum . . . . . . 3.01.28 CH-2-382
Electrode for Chamfering . . . . . 3.01.29 ACA-384
Electrode for Air Carbon Arc
Gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02
184
186
188
190
192
194
TIG welding rods and fluxes . . . . . . . . . 197
3.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
3.02.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
3.02.03 IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
3.02.04 ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
3.02.05 18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
3.02.06 IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
3.02.07 ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
3.02.08 IALBRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
3.02.09 I-FLUX-238 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
3.03 Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
3.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
3.03.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
3.03.03 Storage and handling for
Flux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
3.03.04 GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
3.03.05 MS-W-201 Selfshield . . . . . . . . 222
3.03.06 Coreshield 8 Selfshield . . . . . . . 224
3.03.07 S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
3.03.08 S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
3.03.09 Icuni-W-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
3.03.10 Ialbro-W-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
3.03.11 Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
3.03.12 Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
3.04
Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . 239
3.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
3.04.02 MS-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
3.04.03 Alumag-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
3.04.04 Aluflux-234 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
3.05
Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
3.05.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
3.05.02 Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
3.05.03 FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
3.05.04 FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
3.05.05 Cast Iron-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
3.05.06 AG-45-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
3.05.07 AG-60-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
3.05.08 Tin-241 AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
3.05.09 Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . 268
3.05.10 Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . . 269
3.05.11 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . . . . . . . . 270
3.05.12 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . . 271
3.05.13 Albro Flux-263 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
3.05.14 Cast Iron Flux-236 F . . . . . . . . . . 273
3.06
Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
3.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
3.06.02 Typical application areas . . . . . 276
3.06.03 How do Polymers work? . . . . . 278
3.06.04 How to prepare the surface . . 279
3.06.05 How to apply the product . . . . . 280
3.06.06 Polymer Kit-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
3.06.07 Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . 284
3.06.08 Leak Stop - Pipe repair . . . . . . 286
3.06.09 Metalgrade Ready-Stick . . . . . 290
3.06.10 Metalgrade Express . . . . . . . . . 294
3.06.11 Metalgrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . 296
3.06.12 Metalgrade Hi-Temp . . . . . . . . . 302
3.06.13 Aquagrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . 306
3.06.14 Ceramigrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . 310
3.06.15 Ceramigrade Liner . . . . . . . . . . . 314
3.06.16 Ceramigrade Abrashield . . . . . 318
3.06.17 Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . . . . . . . 322
3.06.18 Rubbergrade 6 Remould . . . . . . 326
4 ARC WELDING AND CUTTNG PROCESS &
EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
4.01
Electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . 4.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.03 Power source characteristics 4.01.04 Selecting power source . . . . . . 333
334
337
339
340
4.01.05 UWI-150 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.06 UWI-203 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.07 UWR-320 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.08 UWI-500 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.09 Primary extension cables . . . . . 4.01.10 Secondary cables . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.11 Electrode holders, cable
connectors & return
clamp assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.12 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.13 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . 4.01.15 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.15 Electrodes for electrode
welding & gouging . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.16 Air Carbon arc gouging . . . . . . 4.02 TIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.03 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.04 Tungsten electrodes . . . . . . . . . 4.02.05 TIG torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.06 Regulator & accessories . . . . . 4.02.07 Preparing the torch . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.08 Welding parameters . . . . . . . . . 4.02.09 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.10 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.11 Rods and Flux for TIG welding 4.03 Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.03 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.04 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.05 UWW-161 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.06 UWF-102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.07 Regulator & accessories . . . . . 4.03.08 Application areas . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.09 Preparation for welding . . . . . . 4.03.10 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.11 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.12 Wires for wire welding . . . . . . . 4.04 Plasma Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
346
348
350
357
358
361
368
369
371
372
375
379
380
381
382
384
386
389
391
392
393
396
398
401
402
403
409
410
412
418
424
426
427
429
432
436
439
441
443
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
4.04.03 Plasma cutting equipment . . . . 4.04.04 UPC-1041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.05 Cutting technique . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.06 Maintenance and
trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.05 Current Distribution System . . . . . . . . . 444
445
488
450
453
5 GAS WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESS &
EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
5.01 Ac/Ox cutting, welding, brazing . . . . . 459
5.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
5.01.02 The Combination Torch UCT-500 462
5.01.03 UCT-500 Components and
spares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
5.01.04 The Unitor Workshop Cabinet 466
5.01.05 Welding and grinding goggles 468
5.01.06 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
5.01.07 Portable gas equipment . . . . . . 470
5.01.08 Gas hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
5.01.09 Hose connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
5.01.10 Gas regulators for cylinders . . 478
5.01.11 Flashback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
5.01.12 Flashback arrestors . . . . . . . . . 481
5.01.13 The acetylene/oxygen flame . . 482
5.01.14 Operating instructions for
UCT-500 cutting torch . . . . . . . . 484
5.01.15 Cutting procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 486
5.01.16 Common cutting faults . . . . . . . 488
5.01.17 Operating instructions for
UCT-500 brazing, welding &
heating torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
5.01.18 Maintenance of blowpipes . . . 492
5.01.19 Heating techniques . . . . . . . . . . 494
5.01.20 Flame straightening techniques 495
5.01.21 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . 497
5.01.22 Butt joints for gas welding
of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
5.01.23 Consumables and parameters for
gas welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
5.01.24 Soldering and brazing
techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
5.01.25 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
5.01.26 Consumables and parameters
for brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
5.02 Gas supplies and gas distribution
system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.02 Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.03 Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture 5.02.04 Carbon-Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.05 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.06 Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.07 Rules & Safety precautions
for handling and use of
Gas cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.08 Gas Distribution System for
Acetylene and Oxygen . . . . . . . 509
510
511
512
513
514
516
520
522
6 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . 527
5.04 International system of units . . . . . . . . . 5.05 The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.06 General conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . 5.07 Roman numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.08 Metric and decimal equivalents
of fractions of an inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.09 Wire cross section AWG/mm2 . . . . . . . 5.10 Common gauge series for sheet
thickness and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11 Physical properties of some
elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.12 Hardness comparison table . . . . . . . . . 5.13 Corrosion of galvanic couples in
sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14 Temperature scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15 Pressure variations related
to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16 Abbreviations and welding
terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
529
530
531
532
532
533
534
535
536
538
539
540
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
1.00
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Welding instructions and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Introduction
Welding and related thermal processes utilize compressed gas and/or
electric current to provide a concentrated heat source which melts
or burns away steel and other metals. Proper safety precautions are
required to avoid accidents related
to the gas and power supplies, to the
sparks, heat, fumes, and visible and
invisible rays from the heat source.
Authorities in most countries have
laid down regulations and guidelines
related to welding and other hot work
processes, their application onboard
ships, the equipment to be used and
the protection of the operator.
These regulations must be available
onboard, and be known and adhered
to when hot work is to be done.
A welded component that fails may
represent a safety hazard to crew,
ship and cargo. Classification societies and other authorities have
consequently issued regulations and
welding procedures for a number of
applications onboard. These should
be known and followed wherever
applicable, and welding should be
performed by qualified personnel
under proper supervision.
In this chapter as well as in other parts
of the handbook, you will find guidelines on safe handling of equipment,
how to protect yourself, and safety
precautions that should be observed
when welding and related thermal
processes are used on board a ship.
You will also find extensive information on how and where to use filler
materials, and some guidelines as to
identifying metals.
This handbook, however, cannot be
considered to be a complete manual
for each of these areas, dealing in
detail with all the aspects of the various items.
Additional information
should be sought in other publications
from Wilhelmsen Ships Service, from
authorities and others and by attending training courses. Approved Unitor
welding courses will deal in detail
not only with the technique required
for a successful weld, but also with
the safety aspects around welding
onboard.
SAFETY DEPENDS ON YOU
Do not install, operate or repair equipment for welding or related thermal
processes unless you are thoroughly ­familiar with:
– The Instruction Manual for the equipment to be used.
– Rules and regulations relating to the handling and installation of the
equipment.
– Rules and regulations relating to hot work onboard.
– Proper use of protective equipment and accessories related to the hot
work, like fire extinguishers, fume extraction equipment, etc.
– Proper use of the filler material and fluxes for the job.
10
SAFETY IN WELDING
How to use the Handbook
Read this first
Familiarize yourself with the chapter you are now reading, and follow the
advice given here whenever you weld. If you know little about welding and your
objective is to become familiar with the welding processes on a self-study basis,
start with the chapters at the back of the book and follow the processes from gas
to flame, from primary power to arc and then through consumables to solutions. If,
on the other hand, you have a basic understanding of welding, read the book from
the beginning, starting with the chapter on solutions.
1.00
When facing a problem
Consult the solutions chapter. Here you will find quick guides to cutting,
joining, rebuilding and coating, as well as information on how to identify
metals, des­c­rip­tions of the most common metals, and a number of examples on
welding applications. You will also find tables for calculating filler material
consumption.
Use the consumables correctly
When a solution is found you should check the specifics of the consumables you are going to use. The descriptions given in the chapter on consumables
will not only give you technical information on the consumables, but also advise if
special procedures should be followed for the particular product at hand.
The process
Before commencing work, take the time to check the details of the equipment and the technique you should use from the section on processes. You should
also read through the special instruction manuals for the process and equipment
you are going to use.
Power and gas supply
Safe operation and successful results depend on you being familiar with
these chapters, and also the instruction manual on the specific power
source you have onboard. Ensure that the gas supply is in proper order and
correctly maintained, that the welding machine is suited for the process at hand,
and that the cables are of correct size.
Cold repair components require no outside energy. The energy is built into
the products and is released when the base and activator is mixed together.
In order for the chemical reaction to take place, the temperature must be above
+5°C.
The remaining questions
Reading through the handbook you will come across terminology and
abbreviations you may not be familiar with. These are explained in an extensive “Abbreviations and welding terminology” section in the “Miscellaneous
Information” chapter. In this chapter you will also find a number of useful tables
and comparisons.
11
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Welding instruction and training
As the world’s leading welding supplier to the marine industry, Wilhelmsen Ships Service has designed and
certified a number of well recognised welding academies around the world. These ­academies offer tailor made
solutions for maintenance and repair welding onboard vessels.
It is crucial that pressurised gases and arc welding equipment are handled in a safe and secure way, and
safety related issues are always a top priority for running the vessel. The consequences of not adhering to
correct safety procedures can be both hazardous for the crew and damaging to the vessel. Therefore, health
and safety issues are an essential and an important part of the welding training offered.
Welding and related processes are complex and require hands-on training, which teaches skills that are
otherwise difficult to obtain. By attending the our approved training academies, the vessel’s crew will be
certified and trained to perform quality welding repairs onboard.
Working in the ship’s operating environment, in awkward positions, and with the numerous kinds of metals
onboard, can be very challenging. These are all elements the crew must take into consideration in order to
work effectively. The Wilhelmsen Ships Service approved academies offer both practical and theoretical
training as to how to select the correct welding methods and filler materials. These courses aim to help
shipboard welders overcome the daily maintenance challenges onboard.
In order to meet world fleets logistical time challenges and requirements, we endeavour to offer flexible
solutions, and can therefore arrange courses throughout the year. The pupils can be enrolled and trained at
short notice, and courses may be tailor-made to fit the pupil’s individual needs.
Over the years, thousands of seafarers have completed our courses, ensuring that high quality workmanship is
carried out onboard the world’s fleets.
The courses offer training in the following processes:
• Stick electrode welding
• TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding
• MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding
• MAG (Metal Active Gas) welding
• Plasma cutting
• Gas welding, brazing, soldering and cutting
• Cold repairs using cold repair components
Materials:
• Steel
• Stainless Steel
• Copper and copper alloys
• Cast iron
• Cast steel
• Aluminium
Throughout the years thousands of seafarers have completed our courses, ensuring that good quality
workmanships is carried out onboard the world’s fleet.
To sign up or to obtain more information please contact your local Wilhelmsen Ships service office or the below
academies.
Unitor Welding Centre – Piraeus, Greece
Contact:
[email protected]
Phone:
+ 30 210 4239 100
Internet site: www.wilhelmsen.com/shipsservice
Toplis Ofshore Training Center – Manila, The Philippines
Contact:
[email protected]
Phone:
+632 5237070
Internet site: www.toplistraining.com
International Maritime Training Centre – Mumbai, India
Contact:
[email protected]
Phone:
+91 22 2570 5570
Internet site: www.imtcmumbai.org
Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific – Bataan,
The Philippines
Contact:
[email protected]
Phone:
+ 632 7849100
Internet site: www.maap.edu.ph
Norwegian Training Centre – Manila, the Philippines
Contact:
[email protected]
Phone:
+632 8120 742
Internet site: www.ntcm.com.ph
12
People Soft Inc. – Antipolo, the Phillippines
Contact:
[email protected]
Phone:
+ 632 4210994 & 421-0998
SAFETY IN WELDING
Personal protection
Why do you need protective equipment?
1.00
Protection against electric shocks
Electric shocks can be the cause of two types of accidents:
– Direct accidents caused by the shock itself can be anything from minor burns to heart failure.
– Indirect accidents caused by falls from scaffolding and platforms.
Protection against burns
Burns may be caused by hot work pieces, sparks, molten metal, red-hot
electrodes etc.
Protection against ultraviolet and infrared light
Many welders have experienced the discomfort of arc-eye or “sunburnt” skin on unprotected parts of the body, usually due to insufficient
or incorrect protective equipment.
Protection against chemicals
Most of the products in the Unitor Cold Repair Component range are to
be considered harmless. Nevertheless we always recommend that one
does the mixing and application in a ventilated area and always wear
the gloves supplied with the set, when handling polymer products.
Protection against flying chips
When using a chipping hammer to remove slag from the weld, there is always
a risk of flying chips which are a potential danger. The chips are sharp and can
cause serious damage to the eyes.
General body protection
A welder at work is isolated from his surroundings. He must concentrate on the
welding operation and cannot see what may be happening in the surrounding
area. He must therefore always wear a safety helmet, safety shoes etc. which
will offer him protection against accidents beyond his control.
A welder must always use complete personal protection equipment – but
it is also important that he uses the correct type of equipment for the job.
Wilhelmsen Ships Service, who supply a full range of welding equipment all
over the world, can offer correct and complete protection equipment which will
provide maximum safety for the welder in all situations.
Work site protection
In order to protect the surrunding area from sparks and spatter, ultra violet and
infrared light, welding curtains and/or blankets should be used.
13
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Arc welding face shields and glasses
A welder should bear in mind that proper protection is absolutely necessary to
guard himself against the danger of electric shocks, burns, ultra-violet rays and
bits of welding slag in the eye.
Unitor face shields for welding are made from a lightweight, robust plastic
material which is unaffected by heat, cold or moisture, and both glasses and
shields conform to relevant EN standards.
The Autovision Plus Fresh Air Welding Shield
This Shield is the AutoVision Plus with respiratory unit. It gives the user
clean, filtered air inside the helmet, and prevents inhalation of welding
fumes. The airflow will keep the user fresh and let him concentrate on
the work. The kit is CE approved and conforms to EN 12941:2009.
Fresh air kit for face shield
The fan battery recharges in 2-4 hours and will provide up to 220 liters
per minute for at least 8 hours.
The AutoVision Plus Welding face shield
The basis is a lightweight well designed shield which allows good air
flow for the welder, and a head band that allows unique possibilities
for adjustment:
The AutoVision Welding
face shield
• Distance to face
• Angle in relation to face
• Height on head
• Head diameter
• Stay-up friction
Replaceable inside and outside protective lenses, headband and sweatband for
the headband is available as spares. The shield is equipped with a light powered
quick automatic darkening glass that switches from low shade (4) to selected
shade within to selected dark state within 0,4 milliseconds (0,0004 sec)The low
shade state allows for good vision while chipping slag, grinding and repositioning
for next arc striking.Dark mode is adjusted with a knob at the side of the shield,
from shade 9 to 13 which is from the lowest TIG welding settings (5-10A) to
extreme processes at + 400A arc current. Conforms to EN 175: 1997-08.
The Flip-Vision Welding face shield
This is the AutoVision face shield with headband where the AutoVision cassette
is replaced with a flip-up front frame. A clear safety glass is placed in the fixed
frame under the flip-up frame protecting the eyes when chipping slag. The flip-up
front frame is fitted with a filter shade glass with shade selected according to
14
SAFETY IN WELDING
welding current used. The filter shade glass is
protected against spatter by a clear protection
glass fitted in front of it. Shade 11 glass is
supplied as standard with the shield. The
glasses have dimension 60 x 110 mm.
1.00
Safety helmet with face shield
The Flip-Vision Welding
face shield
The Flip-Vision face shield is also available with
safety helmet instead of headband.
Face Shield with handle
The face shield with
handle is also supplied
with shade 11 dark
glass and clear
protection glass as
standard. It is designed
to also protect the
hand holding it from
radiation.
Safety helmet w/face shield
Face shield w/handle
The shields are CE approved and conforms to DIN/EN 175: 1997
Face shields
Description
Product no.
Autovision Plus FreshAir Weldshield with respiratory unit
AutoVision Plus Welding Face Shield with Adjustable Shade 9 To 13
FlipVision shield with flip-up frame, head band and shade 11 glass
Safety helmet with face shield, flip-up front frame and shade 11 glass
Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass
196 767000
196 767001
196 709485
196 619114
196 619098
Spares for AutoVision Plus
Autovision Plus Outside Cover Lens10 pcs and 2 frames
Autovision Plus Headband complete with nuts and bolts
Autovision Plus FreshAir Headgear without hose and fan
Autovision Plus FreshAir Face seal with attachment screws
Autovision Plus FreshAir Filter
196 766997
196 766998
196 766999
196 767002
196 767003
Spares and accessories for Autovision (old model)
Autovision Outside Cover Lens 10 pcs 112 X 93mm
Autovision Inside Cover Lens 10 pcs 97 X 47mm
Headband Complete For Autovision
Sweat Band For Autovision
196 709469
196 709477
196 709493
196 709501
15
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Glasses for Arc Welding
The glasses have dimension 60 x
110 mm and are manufactured in
accordance with DIN standard and
are CE approved. When ordering face
shields, filter shade glass of correct
shade should be ordered in addition
to the filter shade 11 glasses which is
included.
Items to be mounted into Unitor face
shield in the following manner:
The filter glasses are supplied in
sets consisting of 5 safety glasses, 5
protection glasses and 5 filter shade
glasses.
A. Safety glass (Polycarbonate)
The glass should be placed nearest to the eyes to protect against
slag or other particles while chipping/grinding. When using a shield
with a flip-up front frame, the
safety glass shall be placed in the
fixed frame.
A
B
C
B.Filter shade glass
Filters out harmful infra-red and
ultra-violet rays from the welding
arc, and reduces visible light to a
level which is sufficient to see the
welding process without straining
the welder’s eyes. Filter Shade
Glass should be selected after
consulting the welding process
and amperage (see table). The
glasses are marked Protane Shade
SO 1 DIN 0196 CE
Guide to arc welding glasses
AmperageFilterQuantity
Shade
in
Unit
< 20 A
8–9 5 sets
20–40 A
9–10 5 sets
40–80 A
10
5 sets
80–175 A
11
5 sets
175–300 A
12
5 sets
300–500 A
13
5 sets
Safety Glass
10 pcs
Protection Glass
10 pcs
16
Product number
unit
196-633230
196-633248
196-633255
196-633263
196-633271
196-633289
196-633222
196-633214
C. Protection glass
Is placed in front of the filter shade
glass to protect against spatter.
The protection glass should be
replaced at regular intervals.
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
1.00
17
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Product
Safety Spectacles –
Clear
Product
Safety Spectacles –
Shade 5
Pcs.
Product no.
1
176-632943
Pcs.
Product no.
1
176-632950
Product
Pcs.
Welding/Grinding
1
Goggles w/flip-up-frame
Product
Safety grinding
goggles non mist
18
Product no.
176-175273
Pcs.
Product no.
1
176-653410
Safety spectacles clear for eye
protection
Comfortable protective spectacles
with integrated side guards. The lens
is made of scratch-resistant anti glare
material. The temple arm length and
angle is adjustable. For use during
daily maintenance work in workshop
and on site for protection against
flying objects.
Comply to:
EN 166:2001
Safety spectacles Shade 5 for brazing
and welding
Same modern lightweight design
and features as the Clear version.
Fitted with Shade 5 lens. For use when
doing brazing and light duty gas
welding and cutting work. Not for
use when doing arc welding.
Comply to:
EN 166:2001
Welding and grinding goggles
Lightweight goggles with soft and
comfortable surfaces against the
face. The ventilation slots are
designed to prevent entry of sparks
and spatter, at the same time ensuring
sufficient air circulation to prevent
dampness and fogging of the glasses.
The filter shade glass are mounted
in a flip-up front frame. A protection
glass must be placed in front of the
filter shade glass in order to protect
against spatter. One more protection
glass must be placed in the fixed
frame.
Comply to:
DIN EN 1598:2002–04
Safety grinding goggles
Half mask goggle of clear soft
synthetic none-mist material. For
grinding only.
Comply to:
EN 166:2001
SAFETY IN WELDING
Glasses for gas welding and cutting
The Unitor gas welding glasses
have a diameter of 50 mm and fit
the goggles. They are available in
different grades of shade for various
types of work. All glasses come in
sets of 10 pcs.
Items to be mounted into Unitor face
shield in the following manner:
A
B
1.00
A
A. Protection glass
When using goggles with a flip-up
front frame, the protection glass
should be placed in the fixed
frame.
B.Filter shade glass
In order to filter out the strong
glare of the flame.
Guide to gas welding glasses
ApplicationFilter Pcs/
Shade set
Glass
Silver 3
10
Brazing
Gas Welding
5
10
& Cutting –
General
6
10
Gas Welding & Cutting – 7
10
Thick material
Protection Glass
10
Product number
A. Protection glass
One protection glass must be
placed in front of the filter shade
glass in the flip-up front frame in
order to protect against spatter.
The protection glass should be
replaced at regular intervals.
176-633305
176-633313
176-633321
176-633354
176-633297
19
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
E
C
A
B
D
F
G
Protective clothing
Welder’s protective clothing
Made from specially treated leather,
Pos. Product
these protective clothes are heat and A Welders gloves for electric arc welding wear resistant. They provide protec B TIG and gas welding gloves
tion during welding, especially when
Working gloves the welder has to work close to the
C Leather jacket, Large for welding
workpiece or where movement is
C Leather jacket, Extra large for welding
restricted. It is specially important
D Leather trousers with belt
that the welding jacket is worn when
E Arm protector
welding overhead, to protect the body F Leather apron
and arms against falling sparks and
G Leather spats
slag.
Heat resistant mitten
In addition to protection against
sparks and molten metal, the task
of the protective leather clothing is
also to protect against electric shock.
When dry the leather acts as an electric insulator. Therefore always wear
dry protective clothing when doing
arc welding.
20
Pcs/set
Product no.
6 pairs.
6 pairs. 12 pairs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pair
pcs
pair
pcs
196-632786
196-632794
196-633057
196-510438
196-510446
196-633016
196-184184
196-510420
196-510453
176-233148
SAFETY IN WELDING
Electric arc welding gloves
Gloves must always be worn when
arc welding. Special welding gloves
with long gauntlets are necessary.
These must be of leather.
1.00
Long lined welding gloves are
recommended for welding with
coated electrodes.
TIG and Gas welding gloves
Thick welding gloves will hamper the
control of the torch or rod. Special
softskin gloves are available for this
purpose. They will protect fully from
sparks and the radiation from an arc,
but will give less protection than the
thicker welding gloves when touching
hot metal.
Gloves for Arc and TIG welding
Comply to NEN-EN 12477 type A/B
Protection:
EN 388 3232
EN 407 332222.
Heat resistant mitten
This is a special mitten with a heat
and fire resistant woven kevlar outer
layer, and further insulation against
heat in the inner layers. It is designed
to make it possible to close an acetylene cylinder valve even if the escaping gas is on fire, and should always
be kept by acetylene cylinders as a
safety precaution. It is also suitable
for handling hot work pieces.
Comply to:
EN 388:2003
EN 407:2004
Working gloves
This type of glove is not designed
for hot work; just for handling of
equipment and consumables.
21
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Work site protection
Welding Curtain
The purpose of the Welding Curtain
is to avoid other personnel being
harmed by the welding work taking
place. The curtain blocks out all
hazardous ultraviolet and infrared
light from the welding arc, but still
enables one to see trough the curtain.
It is made of self-extinguishing
material, but is not heat resistant
to direct exposure to hot slag/iron
spatter from the arc. Size: 2 m high
and 1,3 m wide. The top of the curtain
has 7 holes and the curtain comes
complete with 7 heavy-duty hooks.
With the hooks the curtain can be
put in a frame, or hooked up on an
existing pipe or wire. Maximum pipe
diameter the hooks will fit on is 41
mm. In order for the curtain to be
drawn freely the pipe should be less
than 30 mm. It is possible to join two
or more curtains together by the use
of snap on buttons along the side. The
curtain with hooks is supplied in
a plastic bag. The curtains are in
accordance with EN 1598: 2002-04.
Product
Pcs.
Welding curtain w/
1
hooks, orange 1,4 x 2 m
Product no.
196-633065
Welding spatter blanket
Non-asbestos woven glass fabric
with a fire retardent weavelock, for
protecting combustible materials and
delicate machinery from spatter and
spark during welding and cutting.
Available in a roll 1m x 10m. Nom.
Thickness 0,82mm. Max operating
temperature 550 °C. The welding
blanket is supplied in a carton box.
Produced according to
EN-ISO 25980: 2012
Product
Pcs.
Welding spatter blanket 1
22
Product no.
196-646067
SAFETY IN WELDING
Fire extinguisher
1.00
Always keep a fire extinguisher ready
when welding outside workshop. The
PP3P is a lightweight ABC dry powder
fire extinguisher.
Technical Properties
This device was designed using
highly reliable materials and the
latest corrosion-resisting protection
technologies In order to be ideally
suited to the requirements of the
maritime environment.
It complies with European AENOR
- EN 3 standard, and is of the hightest
performance in its category.
Efficiency
Classes A, B or C
The multi-purpose nature of the ABC
powder extinguisher ensures that it
is effective against these three types
of fire. For solid material fires (class
A), it replaces the conventional water
products, which are sometimes not
recommended for use with electrical
currents. For liquid, liquefiable solid
and gas fires, it acts in the same
conditions as the BC powder and is
ideally suited for Industrial hazards.
Weight: 4,7 kg.
Instructions for use
Temperature limits: -20 °C to +60 °C
Product
Pcs.
PP3P 1
Product no.
291-667394
Extinction Mechanism
The multi-purpose ABC powder acts:
-on the flames, by negative catalysis,
-on the embers, by cooling and
forming a layer of heat insulating and
fireproof “varnish”, which coats the
fire, preventing it from re-igniting.
When sprayed, the ABC powder forms
an insulating screen, which protects
the user from heat radiation.
Easy to use
0peration
Once the safety pin has been
removed, the device is pressurised by
pressing on the striking handle. The
flow rate is controlled by the tap on
the final control valve. The fact that it
is so simple to use means that risks of
incorrect use are greatly reduced.
23
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Welding fumes
Welding fumes, or smoke consists
of a mixture of gases and dust particles. The composition of the fumes
depends on:
1.The filler material and method of
welding.
2.The base material.
Different welding methods and different metals, means that the fumes
given off may contain numerous components which can be dangerous if
inhaled. The best protection is the use
of a smoke extraction unit. When correctly positioned, this unit will protect
the welder against fume inhalation
and also prevent the smoke spreading
in the surrounding area and contaminating the area for others.
If it is not possible to use a smoke
extraction unit, the welder can minimize the risk of fume inhalation by
positioning himself so that the smoke
rises some distance from his nose
and mouth or by using a welding face
shield with fresh air supply. For on
board use a self contained unit with
filter is a safe and flexible solution.
Electric arc welding with coated electrodes, may comprise several different
components depending on the type
of electrode. The composition of the
smoke will therefore vary depending
on the type of electrode. Electrodes
are divided into smoke classes 1 to 7,
which indicates the degree of smoke
pollution. See the Coated Electrodes
section on smoke classes.
Risks
The fumes given off when welding
unalloyed or low-alloyed steel which
has not been surface treated, are not
considered to be particularly dangerous as long as inhalation of these
24
fumes is kept at a reasonable level.
When the base metal has been surface-treated, the smoke may contain
substances which could constitute
a health risk.
Welding of galvanized materials
or materials surface treated with
substances containing zinc, gives
off fumes which contain zinc oxide.
Inhalation of these fumes can result
in zinc poisoning with very unpleasant effects. It should be avoided by
the use of a good extraction unit, or
the use of a face shield with fresh air
connection.
Cadmium plating is sometimes used
instead of zinc plating. Welding or
cutting cadmium-plated material can
produce fumes which contain cadmium oxide. Lung damage can result
from the inhalation of this substance.
When welding or cutting old steel
plating, remember that the surface
coating may contain lead or mercury.
Fumes from these substances can
result in serious health damage if
inhaled.
When welding or cutting any type
of material that has been plated or
surface coated, precautions must
be taken against dangerous fumes
before welding commences.
Welding of stainless or acid-resistant steel produces smoke containing
nickel and chrome. Copper alloys (tin
bronze, leaded gun metal, leaded tin
bronze and brass) contains items such
as tin, zinc, lead, etc. Welding temperature tends to vaporise these items.
Inhaling these substances can seriously affect the respiratory system.
When weIding these types of steel or
materials plated or coated with substances containing chrome, ­cadmium,
nickel lead or mercury, it is essential
SAFETY IN WELDING
that a smoke extractor unit is used. If
this is not possible, the welder must
be equipped with, and must use a
face shield with fresh air connection.
1.00
Welding, cutting and brazing with a
gas torch can produce smoke which
may contain several toxic substances.
Of the gases given off, it is primarily
the nitrous gases (NO2 + NO) that are
a health hazard. The amount of nitrous
gases in the smoke depends on several conditions. The use of large size
torches in confined spaces can quickly produce dangerous concentrations.
No warning is given of the presence
of these gases in the form of irritation
of the muceous mem­brane in eyes,
nose or throat. Proper ventilation must
be arranged, and when working in
confined spaces, the welder must not
leave the torch alight when he is not
actually using it.
Carbon monoxide may be given off due
to incomplete combustion of the gases
or if the material being welded or cut
is plastic surfaced, varnished, painted
or oily. High concentrations, which
constitute a health risk, can be formed
in confined spaces, tanks, pipes etc.
Inhalation of large quantities of carbon
monoxide can lead to suffocation.
This section points out some of the
more usual risks connected with welding smoke. There are special books on
the subject, and welding smoke is also
undergoing continuous research. The
result of this research work may bring
new important factors to light and all
those involved in welding should keep
themselves informed of the development in this area, so precautions can
be taken to protect against health risks
which may, as yet, be unknown.
Avoid direct inhalation of welding fumes.
Use fume extraction.
Use Fresh Air supply.
25
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Welding fumes
All Unitor Electrodes are issued a fume Class number according to Danish
standard. These are the recommended precautions .
Fume Class 1:
Ensure sufficient ventilation when welding in confined
spaces. Other protective measures are normally not needed
in larger well ventilated spaces.
Fume Class 2:
Spot extraction is always recommended when welding in
confined spaces. Larger spaces shall be well ventilated.
Fume Class 3:
Spot extraction is recommended when welding indoors.
Special protective measures are normally not needed
outdoors if there is enough wind or draught to keep fumes
and gases from the welders breathing zone.
Fume Class 4–7: Spot extraction shall be used when welding indoors. For
outdoor welding see Fume Class 3.
The standards state the connection between Fume Class and NHL* that is a
theoretical value to describe the amount of fresh air needed to dilute the fumes
to "safe" concentrations. It is important to understand that NHL* is a theoretical
value and should not be used for calculating ventilation capacities:
Fresh air needed to dilute the fumes
Fume Class
NHL* (m3/h)
0
–
<3000
2
1
3000
–
< 7500
3
7500
–
< 15000
4
15000
–
< 35000
5
35000
–
< 60000
6
60000
–
< 100000
7
>100000
* NHL = Nominelt hygenisk luftbehov i m3/t
Nominal hygene air supply in m3/h
26
SAFETY IN WELDING
FumeClean 230 welding fume
extractor
1.00
With this unit a welder is easily protected
against inhaling welding fumes that might have
harmful effects. It is compact and lightweight
and can be used anywhere a welder can work.
Four-stage filtration system
When the welding fumes enter the unit they first
pass a metal pre-separator, then the fumes flow
through a aluminium pre-filter and into the main
filter which has a total area of 12m2. The large
area of the main filter provides a long life and
a constant high efficiency since filter cleaning
does not have to take place very frequently.
The last stage is a High Efficiency Particle
Arrestor HEPA 12 which guarantees a filtration
efficiency of 99.9% under all circumstances.
Active carbon filter
If required an optional activated carbon filter
can be placed on top of the main filter to remove
smell. It is also possible to add hoses on the
exhaust side to completely remove the filtered air
from the area if required.
Two powerful motors
The two motors guarantee an adequate extraction capacity under all conditions. At low welding
fume concentrations, the extraction capacity can
be halved, in which situation both motors operate at half speed, thus providing a lower noise
level and reduced maintenance.
Automatic start
When the welding cable is placed in a slit on top
of the unit the automatic start/stop function can
be used and the unit will automatically switch on
when welding starts and off when welding stops.
27
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Technical Data
Number of motors
Motor power consumption
Power supply 1phase
Noise level
High vacuum suction
Extraction volume speed setting
‘low’
Extraction volume speed setting
‘high’
Filter surface main filter
Filter surface HEPA filter
Filter efficiency incl. HEPA filter
Min. operating temperature
Max. operating temperature
Max. relative humidity
IP class
Net weight
2
2x1kW
230V 50/60Hz
70dB
22 000 Pa
140 m3/h
230m3/h
12 m2
0,4 m2
99,9%
5°C
40°C
80 %
50
16 kg
Ordering information
Description
Product no.
FumeClean 230 complete with 2,5 m 196 735878
hose and nozzle with magnet foot
Optionals
Bulkhead Bracket
Hose Connection Outlet Side
Active Carbon Filter
Spare parts
Disposable Cartridge Filter
High Efficiency Particle Filter H12
Funnel Nozzle With Magnetic Foot
Extract/Exhaust Hose 2,5 M,
Ø 45 mm
Connection Piece For Two Hoses
Ø 45 mm
Carbon Brushes 2 Sets W. Seals
230V
28
196 740399
196 740381
196 740431
196 740415
196 740423
196 740373
196 740449
196 740456
196 740407
Dimmensions
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
1.00
29
SAFETY IN WELDING
Safety check list for welding
and related processes
1.00
Preparation for hot-work onboard
should include, without being limited
to the points below:
Equipment
✓Check that the power source
functions correctly, is correctly
connected to mains, and that you
are familiar with its operation.
Keep your welding equipment well
­maintained.
✓Ensure that gas cylinders are
properly secured, in upright
position, and fitted with correct
and properly functioning
regulators for the gas. Acetylene
and oxygen regulators shall be
fitted with flashback arrestors.
Protect cylinders against heat and
mechanical damage.
✓The valve opening of the acetylene
cylinder shall point away from
other compressed gas cylinders,
and a heat resistant mitten shall be
available.
Never use defective welding cables.
✓Hoses shall be in good condition,
without leaks or damage, and with
correct colour coding for the gas.
(Red for acetylene, blue for oxygen,
black for shielding gases and filt­
ered air). Use correct hose conn­
ectors and hose clamps. Pieces of
pipe and twisted wire must never
be used. Never use oil or grease in
connection with welding gases and
never use copper in connection
with acetylene.
✓Cables shall be of oil resistant
type with undamaged insulation
and properly mounted cable
connectors. Use safety cable
connectors where both halves are
protected to prevent contact with
deck when disconnected.
30
SAFETY IN WELDING
✓Check that torches and electrode
holders are in good working order,
including check of blowpipes
(AC/ OX), nozzles (AC/OX, Flame
Spray, TIG, Plasma), electrodes
(TIG, Plasma), and insulation (TIG,
Plasma, GMAW, MMAW).
1.00
✓Check all gas connectors for leaks,
including torch valves. Even Argon
may be a safety risk if it replaces
air in a confined area due to
excessive leaks. Replace defective
gaskets with original gaskets only.
Keep cables and hoses clear of passage
ways.
✓Keep hoses and cables clear of passage ways and
protected from sparks, hot metal and mechnical
damage e.g. in doorways, hatches, etc.
✓Both welding and return clamp cables should be
stretched to the work place, and the return clamp
should be fastened with good electrical contact
directly on the work piece.
Work place
Tidy up the work place and remove any flammable
materials, liquids and gases from workplace and adjacent spaces including spaces above/below decks,
behind bulkheads and inside pipes or containers. Cover
any openings through which sparks may be led to other
areas onboard which have not been prepared for hot
work.
✓ Shield the work place to protect others from sparks
and radiation from the arc, and post a warning sign
that welding is in progress.
Place return clamp (return clamp) directly
on the work piece, know where the return
current goes.
✓ Ensure that sufficient and correct fire fighting
equipment is available at the workplace, and that
personnel familiar with its use is present. Ensure that
the work place is properly ventilated, if necessary
with special fume extraction equipment. This is
especially important when working on galvanized or
coated surfaces which may produce harmful fumes
when heated.
31
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
Cover openings! Sparks may travel far!
Hot work procedure
✓ Ensure that all relevant check lists, certificates and
permits for hot work have been issued.
✓ If work is being done outside the ship’s workshop, an
assistant protected in the same manner as the welder
should accompany him.
✓ If work has been done inside a confined space the
assistant should be placed outside, within view of the
welder and with possibility to cut off gas and power
supply. (Gas quick couplings and an unlocked safety
cable connector may act as emergency cut-offs).
Operator / assistant protection
✓ When working, wear safety shoes and a proper boiler
suit with long sleeves. Do not wear clothes of highly
combustible materials or wet clothes, and do not carry
combustible material, e.g. matches, lighters, oily rags.
✓ Welding gloves should always be used, and when
necessary also use additional leather clothing for
protection against sparks, heat and electric shock.
✓ Use head and face protection (helmet, shield,
goggles). Ensure that filter glasses are unbroken and
have the correct shade.
32
Ensure proper ventilation.
SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00
For light duty work (200 Amps or lower)
• Working overall w/long sleves (flame
retardent material). Preferably without
too many pockets that easily catch
sparks. For same reason avoid zips.
Avoid synthetic materials, including
nylon, rayon and polyester.
• Safety boots with steel toes.
• Face shield w/handle or face shield w/
head band
• Welders gloves
For work in vertical and overhead position
• Working overall
• Safety boots with steel toes.
• Face shield w/head band
• Welders gloves
• Arm protector
• Leather spats
✓ Where necessary use a fresh air unit or breathing
apparatus to avoid inhaling fumes and dust from the
welding process.
✓ Never use acetylene or oxygen to blow away dust
from yourself or the workplace. Always keep dry and
keep the workplace dry, especially when arc welding.
For heavy duty work (above 200 Amps)
• Working overall
• Safety boots with steel toes
• Face shield w/head band
• Welders gloves
• Leather jacket
• Leather trousers
When work is paused or completed
✓ Always remove coated electrodes from the electrode
holder and switch/close off gas and current at the
source (welding machine, cylinder valve, gas outlet)
also during short breaks for meals etc.
✓ Do not leave the workplace unattended. When hot
work is completed the work place shall be inspected
at regular interval to ensure that no risk of fire
remains. Only when this has been assured should
fire fighting equipment be retumed to its normal
storing place.
Available wall chart:
ID No. 811053 Wall Chart Safety Checklist.
33
ADDITIONAL WELDING LITERATURE AVAILABLE:
1.00
Cylinder safety
ID no 811034
Protect your gas
cylinders and
equipment
ID no 811032
Safety checklist for
welding and related
thermal processes
ID no 811053
Welding
Consumables
Selector
ID no 804006
The solutions guide
Unitor maintenance
and repair welding
ID no 804005
Gas distribution system
ID no 811036
Unitor Welding Handbook
ID no 805001
For latest product updates, approvals, user
instructions and further technical details,
please refer to our online product catalogue at
http://wssproducts.wilhelmsen.com
34
The solutions guide
Unitor cold polymer
repair
ID no 804004
Gas welding and cutting soulution
ID no 811038
SOLUTIONS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
• Quick reference for cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
• Quick reference for joining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
• Quick reference for rebuilding, hardfacing and coating . . . . . . 41
• Quick reference for cold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.01
Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Metal identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Unalloyed/low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
• Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
• Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
• Martensitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
• Duplex Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
• Clad Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
• Stainless Steel corrosion types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
• Storing and handling of Stainless Steel onboard . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
• Grinding/cutting consumables for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
• Aluminium brass (Yorc albro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
• Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
• Nickel bronzes (Cunifer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Evaluation of weelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
• Typical welding faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
• Inspection of welded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
• Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
35
SOLUTIONS
Introduction
2.01
This chapter is intended to be a quick
reference for finding alternative
solutions to specific problems,
indicating the process and filler
material which should be used.
All solutions are linked to one of the
symbols below which relates the
solution to filler material type, process
and gas/power supplies.
SYMBOLFILLER MATERIAL
PROCESS
AC/OX Cutting
AC/OX Heating
Capillary Brazing Rods
AC/OX Brazing
Braze Welding Rods
AC/OX Brazing
Gas welding Rods
AC/OX Welding
TIG
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Solid Wire
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Flux Cored Wire
Flux Cored Arc Welding
Coated Electrodes (Stick Electrodes)
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Coated Gouging Electrodes
Manual Metal Arc Gouging
Copper Coated Carbon Electrodes
Air Carbon Arc Gouging
Plasma Cutting
Cold Repair Compound
Cold Repairs
Power Supplies
All arc processes
Gas Supplies
36
A successful solution is dependent
not only on choosing the right filler
material, but also on the electric
power and gas supply of correct
quality and sufficient quantity but
also that the equipment used is the
right one for the job. The overview
on power/gas supply, equipment and
processes show these relations.
All processes except coated
electrodes and self-shielding flux cored wire.
SOLUTIONS
Quick reference for cutting
PROCESS
AC/OX
MMA
ACA
Plasma
A
A
B
B
C
C
A
A
B
C
A
Copper
with alloys
B
B
C
C
A
A
Aluminium
with alloys
B
C
ALLOY
Mild steel
Low alloy/
cast steels
1
1
High alloy/
stainless
steels
Cast iron
Consumable
parts
Cutting
CH-2
ACA gouging
electrode
electrode
nozzles.
See AC/OX
See coated electrodes and
process.
MMA processes.
A
2.01
2
2
0
0
0
0
Torch
electrode
and nozzle.
See Plasma
process.
Comments
A0: Best solution. Thickness limitation aprox. 30mm for portable
equipment.
A1: Best, most flexible solution, also for thicker materials, thickness
limitation 100 mm or 500 mm with optional nozzles.
A2: Good solution. Thickness limitation aprox. 30mm for portable
equipment.
B: Good solution for groove preparation, especially in cracks in
combination with MMA weldlng.
C: Best method for fast, efficient removal of old welds and weld
residues, and also for large scale groove /crack preparation.
37
SOLUTIONS
Quick reference for joining
2.01
The table on the next pages will
suggest some solutions for joining
metals. Each possibility has its
advantages and limitations, and
further information will be found
in this chapter under the metal in
question, and under each of the filler
materials.
You should also note that with the
TIG (GTAW) arc or the gas flame it is
fully possible to join metals without
additional filler material when the
material thickness is small and the
joint is suited for it, e.g. welding
METAL
Cunifer
Nickel
Alloys
Bronze
yorcalbro
Brass
outside corners in sheet metal
constructions.
How to use the table:
The metals are found both in the top
horizontal row and in the left vertical
column. The possibilities of joining
one metal to another are found on the
horizontal/vertical line connecting the
metal through the diagram, as shown
for stainless steel below. The corner
box (box 7 in the example below)
will always show the alternatives for
joining the metal to itself.
Copper
Cast Iron
Stainless
Steels
“Problem”
Steels
Unalloyed/
Lowalloyed/
Cast Steels
LH (E)
LHV (E)
LHT (E)
LHL (E)
*) **) ***)
Unalloyed/
Lowalloyed/
Cast
Steels
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Nife (E)
Nickel (E)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
3/14 (E)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
*)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
*) **)
“Problem”
Steels
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Tensile (E)
Nickel (E)
*) **)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
*)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
*)
Stainless
Steels
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
3/14 (E)
*)
AG-60
AG-45
AG-60
AG-45
AG-60
AG-45
AG-60
AG-45
Tensile (E)
3/14 (E)
18/8 (E)
*)
18/8Mo (W)
3/14 (E)
18/8 (E)
Duplex (E)
Iduplex (W)
*)
Cast
Iron
Nickel (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E)
Albronze (E) *) **)
*) **)
*) **)
*) **)
*) **)
Copper
Icuni (W)
*)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Brass
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (W) Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E) *) **)
*) **)
yorcalbro
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
*)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Bronze
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Cunifer
Nickel
Alloys
Icuni (W)
*)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Nife (E)
Nickel (E)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **) ****)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Example, joining stainless steel to:
Cunifer/nickel alloys . . . . . . . . . . . box 1
Bronze: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 2
Yorcalbro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 3
Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 4
Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 5
Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 6
Stainless steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 7
“Problem” steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 8
Low alloy steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . box 9
Full scale table overleaf
38
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
“Problem”
Icuni (W)
Steels
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E) *) **)
*) **)
Tensile (E)
Nickel (E)
*) **)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
*)
Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
*)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Yorcalbro
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Bronze
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Aluminium welding: Coated electrode: Alumin
Welding Wire:
Alumag
*) Also capillary brazing with AG-60 and AG-45 (AG-60 only for Yorcalbro).
**) Also brazing with FC-bronze (Bronze) or FC-Wearbro for surfacing.
***) For unalloyed steel MS wire, and coated electrodes GPO, GPR, SPECIAL and GPR are additional alternatives.
****) Cast Iron components that may be heated evenly may be braze welded with FC-Cast iron.
E =Coated electrode
W =Welding wire/rod
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Nife (E)
Nickel (E)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **) ****)
LH (E)
LHV (E)
LHT (E)
LHL (E)
*) **) ***)
Cunifer
Icuni (W)
Nickel
*)
Alloys
Ialbro (W) Icuni (W)
Tinbro (W) Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E) *) **)
*) **)
Brass
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
*)
Ialbro (W) Icuni (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
*) **)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Copper
Icuni (W)
*)
Cast
Nickel (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Tinbro (E)
Iron
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E)
Albronze (E) *) **)
*) **)
*) **)
*) **)
*) **)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
*)
Nife (E)23/14 (E)
Tensile (E)
Nickel (E)
Tensile (E) Impact (E)
Tinbro (E)
Impact (E) *) **)
Albronze (E) *)
*) **)
Stainless
Icuni (W)
AG-60
AG-60
AG-60
AG-60
Tensile (E) 18/8Mo (W)
Steels
Tinbro (E)
AG-45
AG-45
AG-45
AG-4523/14 (E)23/14 (E)
23/14 (E)
18/8 (E)
18/8 (E)
*)
*) Duplex (E)
Iduplex (W)
*)
Ialbro (W)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
*) **)
Cunifer
“Problem” Unalloyed/ Stainless
Nickel
BronzeYorcalbro
Brass
Copper
Cast Iron
Low alloyed/
Steels
Steels
Alloys
Cast Steels
Unalloyed/
Icuni (W)
Low alloyed/
Tinbro (E)
Cast
*) **)
Steels
METAL
Quick reference for joining
SOLUTIONS
2.01
39
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.01
40
SOLUTIONS
Quick reference for rebuilding, hardfacing and coating
The table shows all the possibilities
within the Unitor range of filler
materials for the applications listed.
The various filler materials have
specific advantages or limitations,
and further information will be found
under each of the filler materials.
2.01
Examples of applications
Wearmax (E)
Tensile (E)
Wearmax (E)
Tensile (E)
Wearmax-327 (E)
Chain, rope, wire drum
Spot welds on ladder steps
Cargo grab teeth
FC-Wearbro (B)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
Impact (E)
Spark proof overlay on tools
Building up machine parts
FC-Wearbro (B)
Tensile (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Impact (E)
Rebuilding edges on butterfly
valve
Rebuilding gear teeth
Rebuilding valve closing surfaces
Rebuilding valve seats on
exhaust valves
41
SOLUTIONS
Quick reference for rebuilding, hardfacing and coating
2.01
Property
Rebuilding with
approx. base
Base
material
material
Rebuilding with
improved wear
resistance
properties
Unalloyed/
low alloyed
cast steels
IMS (W)
Wearmax (E)
Wearmax (E)
LHT (E)
Impact (E)
Tensile (E)
LHR (E)
Tensile (E)23/14 (E)
LHL (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Duplex (E)
GPR (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
“Problem”
Tensile (E)
Abratech-330 (E)
Wearmax (E)
Wearmax (E)
Impact (E
FC-Wearbro (B)
Impact (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Cast iron
Nife (E)
Nife (E)
Nickel (E)
Tinbro (E)
Cast iron (B)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Nickel (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
steels
Stainless
18/8 Mo (W)
steels
Duplex (E)
23/14 (E)
18/8 (E)
Copper
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Brass
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Yorcalbro
Ialbro (W)
Tensile (E)
Impact (E)
Wearmax-327 (E)
Icuni (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Icuni (W)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Bronze
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Ialbro (W)
Tinbro (E)
Albronze (E)
FC-Wearbro (B)
Cunifer
Icuni (W)
Nickel (E)
Aluminium
Alumag (W)
Alumin (E)
42
Rebuilding with
improved
corrosion
resistance
W = Welding wire/rod
E = Coated electrode
B = Brazing alloy
SOLUTIONS
Quick reference for Cold repairs
When repairing a base material, always start with considering welding or
brazing techniques. If one or more of the reasons below apply, consider using
polymer.
2.01
1. Where there is a need for emergency repairs.
Cold repair compounds require no rigging-up time, and no need for energy in the
form of oxygen / acetylene or electricity The energy is built into the consumable
(product) and is released when mixing base and activator. The curing time is
down to a few minutes for several of the products.
2. Where hot work like welding is not permitted due to fire / explosion hazard.
Cold repair systems are cold-curing processes. There is no risk of heat ignition
or sparks.
3. Where the base material is not weldable.
Certain casted metal alloys are not weldable due to their chemistry. Sometimes
welding method /equipment / consumable or operator knowledge is not
available. If the base material is so corroded that there is nothing to weld on, a
new part can be “casted” with the repair compound.
4. Where distortion of base material is unacceptable.
Welding causes expansion and contraction, leading up to distortion of the work
piece.
5. Where there is restricted space.
Polymer products can, if necessary, be injected through small diameter holes.
6. Where specific properties are required.
In many cases polymer compounds have better properties than weld overlays.
Specifically, chemical resistance and wear resistant properties are improved.
Large surfaces that are worn are also much faster overlaid with polymer
compounds than with weld bead overlays.
7. Where you need non-metal repairs.
Cold repair systems offer solutions for rubber gasket repairs or moulding, as
well as solutions for repair or joining of plastics and composite materials.
For cold repairs products see, chapter 3 consumables.
43
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.01
44
SOLUTIONS
Filler material consumption
Fillet Weld
The tables give approximate weld
deposit volume for various joint types.
The steel weight of deposit per meter
is also given.
– The approximate deposit weight in
kg for aluminium is found by multi­
plying the deposit volume by 0.0027.
– The approximate deposit weight in
kg of copper alloys is found by multi­
plying the deposit volume by 0.009.
– For coated electrodes the required
number of electrodes (for steel) is
found by dividing the deposit weight
by the value “(number of electrodes
per kg. weld metal” found in the
data table for each electrode in the
filler material section.
Note that spatter, welding positions
and work routines, e.g. throwing away
long electrode stubbs, may influence
on the total consumption.
→
2.02
→
– For steel welding wires and rods
the deposit weight given equals the
weight of filler material required.
a
a meashure Section
size
a
s
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm 3/m
kg/m
2 4 6
2.5 6.5 8.5
3 9 12.5
4 16 21
5 25 31.5
6 36 42
7 49 57
8 64 73.5
9 81 94
10
100
114
11
121
138
12
144
162
13
169
190
14
196224
15225248
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.16
0.25
0.33
0.45
0.58
0.74
0.89
1.08
1.27
1.49
1.76
1.95
mm
mm 2
Outside Corner
Square Butt Joint
t < 4 mm
t > 4 mm
Plate
Section
thickness
size
t
Plate
Root
thickness opening
t
s
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm3/m
kg/m
mm
mm
1 02
1.5
0.5
3
2 1
4
3
1.5
7
4222
52.525
6
3
32
7
3
42
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.17
0.20
0.25
0.33
mm
mm 2
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm 3/m
kg/m
2 2 3.5
0.03
3 4.5 7.5
0.06
4 8 10.5
0.08
5 12.5 16
0.13
6 18 22
0.17
7 24.5 31.5
0.25
8 32 40.5
0.32
9 40.5 51
0.40
10 50 64
0.50
12 72 93
0.73
15
113
141
1.11
18
162204
1.60
20200252
1.98
222422042.39
25
323
405
3.18
45
SOLUTIONS
Single V-joint
2.02
Single V-joint
50° Flat
70° Vertical
Plate
Root
thickness opening
t
s
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm 3/m
kg/m
mm
mm
Plate
Root
thickness opening
t
s
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm 3/m
kg/m
mm
4 1 11.5
0.09
5 1 16.5
0.13
6 1 23
0.17
7 1.5 33.5
0.26
8 1.5 42
0.31
9 1.5 51
0.38
10 2 66.5
0.49
11 2 78.5
0.56
12 2 91
0.65
14 2
120
0.86
15 2
135
0.97
16 2
151
1.04
18 2
189
1.33
20 2227
1.63
25 2
3412.46
4 1 15
0.13
5 1 22.5
0.19
6 1 31
0.29
7 1.5 45
0.38
8 1.5 57
0.47
9 1.5 70
0.59
10 2 90
0.76
11 2
107
0.89
12 2
125
1.05
14 2
165
1.34
15 2
188
1.55
16 2211
1.75
18 22632.17
20 2
3202.62
25 2
488
4.00
Single V-joint
Single V-joint
60° Flat
80° Vertical
Plate
Root
thickness opening
t
s
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm 3/m
kg/m
mm
mm
4 1 13
0.10
5 1 20
0.15
6 1 27
0.20
7 1.5 39
0.30
8 1.5 49
0.37
9 1.5 61
0.44
10 2 78
0.57
11 2 92
0.66
12 2
107
0.77
14 2
141
1.02
15 2
160
1.15
16 2
180
1.23
18 2223
1.60
20 2271
1.94
25 2
4112.94
46
mm Plate
Root
thickness opening
t
s
Deposit
volume
per m.
V
Deposit
weight
per m.
W
cm 3/m
kg/m
mm
mm 4 1 18
0.14
5 1 26
0.22
6 1 36
0.30
7 1.5 52
0.44
8 1.5 66
0.55
9 1.5 82
0.69
10 2
104
0.86
11 2
124
1.02
12 2
145
1.23
14 2
193
1.60
15 2219
1.81
16 22472.02
18 2
3082.51
20 2
376
3.11
25 2
577
4.76
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.02
47
SOLUTIONS
Metal identification
2.03
Test
Appearance of
Appearance of
Appearance of
Comparative
untreated metal surface after filling fracture surface
weight of metal
surface
and relative
toughness
Metal
Grey cast iron
Dark grey or
Light grey, rather Dark grey,
Heavy
rusty.
smooth.
uneven granular
Rough granular
surface.
surface.
Rather brittle.
Very finegrained,
silvery crystalline
surface.
Very brittle.
Unalloyed steel.
Dark grey or rusty,
wrought iron, can be smooth or
low-alloy steel,
rough, depending
carbon steel
on field of application.
Stainless steel
Shiny silver-grey
if polished. Matt grey if unpolished.
Shiny grey, very
smooth surface.
Some alloys are
unfilable.
Medium-grey
Heavy
colour. Very tough
to very brittle,
depending on type.
File test. Spark
test. Magnet test.
Chisel test
Shiny silver-grey.
Smooth surface.
Some are not filable.
Fine-grained grey
surface. From
tough to brittle.
Heavy
Magnet test
Not necessary
Heavy
None
From bronzered to Not necessary
Yellow, smooth
surface.
Heavy
None
Very white and
smooth surface.
Not necessary
Very light
Acid test
White, very
smooth shiny
surface.
Not necessary
Very heavy
None
Various grades of Shiny coppered
red-brown to green surface.
(verdigris).
Brass and bronze
Various grades of
yellow-brown or
green-brown.
Aluminium and
Very light grey
aluminium alloys
Lead and white
metal
48
Chiselling test.
White cast iron
As above
Normally too hard to file. Shiny white
when polished.
Copper
White to grey,
smooth velvety
surface.
Heavy
Other tests for
identification,
see following
pages for
description
None
SOLUTIONS
Filing test
Restance to file
Type of steel
Brinell hardness
No resitance; the file bites into the metal.
Unalloyed and
Low alloyed steel
100
Little resistance; the file bites into
the metal, but the pressure has to be increased.
Medium-carbon200
steel
Medium resistance. The file does High-alloy steel
not bite into the metal and the
pressure has to be increased.
300
High resistance. The metal can be High-carbon steel
filed, but with difficulty.
400
High resistance. The file leaves
Tool steel
marks, but the metal is almost as
hard as the file.
500
2.03
Spark test
This test may be carried out in the ship’s workshop and is very useful for
identifying the type of steel and determining its approximate carbon content.
Hold a sample lightly against the grindstone and note the shape, colour and
length of the sparks. Unalloyed and low alloyed steels are difficult to tell apart,
but when tested together it is comparatively easy to see the difference.
Chisel test
Unalloyed
steel
The sparks separate at the end into several small sparks (leaf shaped). Some sparks are short.
Manganese
steel
The sparks split up, and end
in stars.
High speed
steel
Weak red sparks, with forked
ends.
Unalloyed steel (Cast steel).
Long (continuous) shavings are formed
when chiselled.
Stainless
Bright yellow sparks, with steel
pointed ends.
Cast iron
Weak red sparks, ending in many pronged yellow stars.
Monel
Weak red sparks, quickly extinguished.
Cast iron.
The metal does not give off shavings;
material chiselled away is in the form of
brittle fragments.
49
SOLUTIONS
Magnet test
Aluminium/magnesium test
1.Clean a small area of the metal.
2.Drip onto it one or two drops of 20%
caustic soda (NaOH) solution.
3.Wait 5 minutes and wash with
clean water.
2.03
Black: Al + Cu
Al + Ni
Al + Zn
Grey/brown: Al + Si (over 2%).
White: Pure aluminium.
Unchanged: Magnesium (Mg).
Non-magnetic
This indicates an Austenitic stainless
steel.
Manganese steel, stainless steel:
good weldability, but remember: no
pre-heating.
Magnetic
Indicates a Ferritic normal steel.
If stainless steel: poor weldability.
If unalloyed / low-alloyed steel:
good weldability.
50
Flame test
Another simple test to find out
whether the component is of alumin­
ium, magnesium-alloyed aluminium or
magnesium is as follows:
Place the component on a piece of
paper and file some shavings onto the
paper. Hold the paper over a flame
and let the filings fall into the flame.
If the filings glow the metal is alumin­
ium. If some of the filings spark in
the flame the aluminium is alloyed
with magnesium (seawater resistant
aluminium). If all the filings spark in
the flame, the metal is magnesium
and must not be welded.
Very easily cut,
bright red
colour dulls to
brown oxide.
Usage will
assist final
checks.
Copper
Lead alloys will show boiling lead
under oxy flame. Higher zinc alloys
fume. Colour variation assists with
usage check.
Bronze
Brass
COLOUR
Red to yellow
Won't oxy cut
Aust. stainless
steel
Oxy cuts
Aust. manganese
steel
OxY CUT TEST
Sparks
Austenitic
Manganese and
Stainless Steel
Copper,
brasses,
bronzes, lead,
lead-tin, zinc
alloys
Aluminium
alloys
Magnesium &
alloys
White
Magnesium
burns brightly
Hard
Oxy cuts
High carb.
stee.
Fractured surface
marks paper, chips
smoothly & brittle
Chips tough &
rough
Malleable or
SG iron
Dull grey
Nickel
Soft silvery
Low alloy
high tensile
Ability to harden, common usage, will
confirm spark test selection
Med. carb
steel
SPARK TEST
Work hardened
Aust. stainless or
hard ferrite
stainless
Won't cut
OxY CUT TEST
Work hardened
Aust. Mang. steel
Grey cast iron
Mild steel
Aluminium
drosses
OxY FLAME
Aluminium &
alloys
Magnesium &
alloys
Lead, tin & zinc
alloys
Lead cuts with
penknife, common
usage.
Light
Heavy
RELATIVE WEIGHT
Monel
Cuts easily
HACKSAW-FILE TEST
SPARK TEST
No Spark
Very Slightly Magnetic
Non Magnetic
MAGNETIC TEST
METAL IDENTIfICATION
Cst irons,
Chromium steels,
High alloy tool and
die steels, Nickel
Stainless (Ferritic)
Bright chrome
COLOUR CHECK
Easily separated by
colour, chip, usage
& fracture.
Files hard
White cast iron,
Martensitic
stainless steel,
High alloy tool &
die steels
Files soft
Malleable & SG
irons
Grey cast iron
Ferritic Stainless
Nickel
FILE TEST
Won't oxy cut
Oxy cuts
Low alloy & plain
carbon steels
OxY CUT TEST
Strongly Magnetic
SOLUTIONS
2.03
51
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.03
52
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
Introduction
Steel can be generally classified
as an alloy of Ferrum (Fe), better
known as iron, and carbon (C). Iron
is the main component in most types
of steel. Steel is classified in three
grades:
– Unalloyed steel (containing
up to 1% alloy elements). This
type of steel is also termed mild
steel, carbon steel and carbon
manganese steel.
– Low alloy steel (containing 1–5%
alloy elements).
– High alloy steel (containing more
then 5% alloy elements).
Alloy elements are metals such as
manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), chrome
(Cr), nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo).
Carbon is not an alloy element.
Unalloyed steel
Often referred to as carbon steel, mild
steel or black steel. On board a ship,
unalloyed steel will usually be found
in the superstructure.
Angle iron, flat iron and rod iron are
usually in unalloyed steel. A common
composition of this type of steel is as
follows (%):
Fe
C
Mn
Rest
0.18
0.60
Si
S
P
0.30
0.03
0.03
Use the following Unitor filler
materials for welding unalloyed steel:
GPO, GPR, LH, LHV, MS, IMS, SPECIAL
Low alloy steel
Low alloy steel includes construction
steel, ship quality steel (sometimes
referred to as high tensile steel),
heat resistant steel, low temperature
steel, weather steel, and tool steel.
On board a ship we find this type
of steel in hullplates, frames, deck
plates, deck beams and bulkheads. A
common composition of this type of
steel is (%):
C
Mn
Si
0.18
1.30
0.40
Al
P
S
0.057
0.02
0.03
2.04
Higher strength filler materials must
be used for welding low alloy steel.
Use: SPECIAL, LH, LHV, LHT, LHL, LHR,
ICROMO, TENSILE, GPS.
If there is doubt as to whether steel
to be welded is unalloyed or low alloy,
higher strength filler materials should
always be used. They should always
be used for welding the following
components (including components
in unalloyed steel): –Lifting equipment
subject to heavy loads. Lifting lugs
and other parts subject to sudden
loads.
– Parts which are subject to heavy
vibration (pipes, engine mountings,
etc.)
– Welding deck equipment in position
(winches, cranes, etc.).
– Welding cast steel (important). To
differentiate between cast steel
and cast iron, see the section on
identification of metals.
Heat resistant steel
Heat resistant steel is a low
alloy steel, alloyed with a certain
percentage of molybdenum (Mo) and
sometimes also chromium (Cr). The
addition of these alloying elements
imparts heat resistant characteristics
and the steel retains its strength at
53
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
high temperatures. On board you
will find this steel in boiler tubes,
boiler plates and high pressure pipes.
A common composition is as
follows (%):
2.04
Fe
C
Mn
Si
Main comp.
0.10
0.90
0.30
Mo
Cr
S
P
0.50
1.00
0.03
0.03
heat resistant filler materials in the
Unitor range.
Low temperature steel
Low temperature steel containing
nickel is today used more and more
in processing equipment onboard
ships carrying low temperature cargo.
We also find this type of steel in Ice
– class hull plates.
The LHL electrode are a low
temperature electrode for use on this
type of steel.
For welding of heat resistant steel,
filler material with heat resistant
deposit only may be used. Selection of
the correct electrode for the job will
depend on the percentage of Mo and
Cr in the alloy. LHT and ICROMO are
Weathering steel
Weathering steel can be exposed to
the weather without being painted.
Good corrosion resistance to
seawater and flue gases. This type of
steel contains Copper and Nickel.
Use LHR electrode for welding.
Standard construction steel
A.S.T.M.
S.A.E.
A.I.S.I.
1018
1018
1018
1018
1045
1045
1045
1045
1140/1146
1140/1146
1215
1215
12L 14
12L 14
12L 14
4130
4130
4130
4140/4142
4140/4142
4140/4142
4140/4142
4140/4142
4340
4340
8620
8620
54
EN
Wekstoff
W.-Nr
DIN
BS 970
UNI
JIS
C15D
C18D
1.1141
1.0401
1.0453
CK15
C15
C16.8
C15
C16
1C15
S15
S15CK
S15C
C45
1.0503
1.1191
1.1193
1.1194
1.0726
1.0727
1.0715
1.0736
1.0718
1.0737
C45
CK45
CF45
CQ45
35S20
45S20
9SMn28
9SMn36
9SMnPb28
9SMnPb36
040A15
080M15
080A15
EN3B
060A47
080A46
080M46
EN8D
212M40
En8M
230M07
En1A
230M07Leaded
En1A Leaded
C45
1C45
C46
C43
S45C
S48C
CF9SMn28
CF9SMn36
CF9SMnPb28
CF9SMnPb36
SUM 25
SUM 22
SUM 22L
SUM 23L
SUM 24L
1.7218
25CrMo4
GS-25CrMo4
708A30
CDS 110
42CrMo4
1.7223
1.7225
1.7227
1.3563
41CrMo4
42CrMo4
42CrMoS4
43CrMo4
34CrNiMo6
1.6582
1.6562
1.6543
1.6523
34CrNiMo6
40 NiCrMo8 4
21NiCrMo22
21NiCrMo2
708M40
708A42
709M40
En 19
En 19C
817M40
En24
805A20
805M20
25CrMo4 (KB)
30CrMo4
30CrMo4
41CrMo4
38CrMo4 KB
G40 CrMo4
42CrMo4
SCM 420
SCM 430
SCCrM1
SCM 440
SCM 440H
SNB 7
SCM 4M
SCM 4
SNCM 447
SNB24-1-5
SNCM 220 (H)
35S20
45S20
11SMn37
11SMnPb30
11SMnPb37
20NiCrMo2-2
35NiCrMo6 KB
40NiCrMo7 KB
20NiCrMo2
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
Corresponding steel classifications
Norske
Veritas
Lloyds
Germanischer
Lloyd
Bureau
Veritas
American
Bureau
of Shipping
USSR
Register
Nippon
Kaigi Kyoka
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
D
D
D
D
SS
D
D
2.04
CD/DS
NV A27S
NV D27S
NV A32
AH 32
A 32
AH 32
AH 32
A 32
NV D32
DH 32
D 32
DH 32
DH 32
D 32
EH 32
E 32
EH 32
EH 32
E 32
NV E32
AH 34S
DH 34S
EH 34S
NV A36
AH 35
A 36
AH 36
AH 36
A 36
NV D36
DH 36
D 36
DH 36
DH 36
D 36
NV E36
EH 36
E 36
EH 36
EH 36
E 36
NV A40
NV D40
NV E40
NV A420
NV D420
NV E420
55
56
235
265
315
355
390
420
NV A
NV B
NV D
NV E
NV A27S
NV D27S
NV E27S
NV A32
NV D32
NV E36
NV A36
NV D36
NV E36
NV A40
NV D40
NV E40
NV A420
NV D420
NV E420
Grade
530 to 680
510 to 660
490 to 630
440 to 570
400 to 530
400 to 520
Tensile
strength
Rm
(MPa)
18
20
21
22
22
22
Elognation
A5
minimum
(%)
31
0
-20
-40
39
42
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
34
27
0
-20
-40
0
-20
-40
–
27
27
27
+20
0
-20
-40
Temperature
(°C)
Impact energy
L (J)
t # 50
(mm)
E390CC
E390DD
E390E
Fe 510C
Fe 510D
E355E
–
–
–
Fe 430C
Fe 430D
–
Fe 360B
Fe 360C
Fe 360D
–
ISO
630-80
4950/2/3
1981
S420N/M
S420N/M
S420NL/ML
S355N/M
S355N/M
S355NL/ML
–
–
–
S275H0G3
S275N/M
S275NL/ML
S235JRG2
S235J0
S235J2G3
S275NL/ML
EN 10025-93
EN 10113-93
EN
AH40
DH40
EH40
AH36
DH36
EH36
AH32
DH32
EH32
–
–
–
A
B
D
E
A 131
ASTM
(SM58)
–
–
SM53B
(SM50C)
–
SM50B
(SM50C)
–
–
–
–
SM41B
SM41B
(SM41C)
–
G 3106
JIS
2.04
Yield stress
RcH
minimum
(MPa)
Mechanical properties typical values
SOLUTIONS
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
Description
Joining of smaller
diameter steel pipes
(diameter less than
30 mm) where a
capillary joint may be
used.
Small diameter steel
pipes (diameter up to
160 mm) with a wall
thickness of up to
3 mm forming an
I-butt joint or T-joint
(flange to pipe).
Larger size steel
pipes (over160 mm)
with a wall thickness
more than 3 mm
forming an I-butt
joint, V-butt joint or
a T-joint.
Joining galvanized
steel pipes forming a
V-butt joint, rounded
edges on the joint.
Solution
AG-60-252
Examples
2.04
AG-45-253
MS-200
IMS-210
GPO-302N
SPECIAL-303N
MS-200
FCBRONZE-261
BRONZE-264
Thin plate galvanized
steel constructions
like air ducts and air
channels.
FC-BRONZE-261
BRONZE-264
57
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
2.04
Description
Welding of thin
sheet steel plate
constructions as for
example tanks and
cover plates.
Solution
GPO-302N/
SPECIAL-303N
MS-200
IMS-210
General purpose
repair welding of
unalloyed steel parts.
GPO-302N
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
LHV-316N
58
Fabrication of
smaller steel parts
like shelves, ladders
and gangways in
unalloyed steel.
GPO-302N
Welding of clamps
and brackets,
and tack welding
constructions before
full welding.
GPO-302N
Larger size
fabrication and repair
jobs like welding
of unalloyed steel
bulkheads and deck
in all positions.
GPO-302N
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
Examples
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
Description
For a rapid and large
size weld build up
in the downhand
position on unalloyed
steel/low alloyed
steel constructions.
Welding repairs of
low alloyed ship­
building steel used in
the hull, beams, deck,
bulkheads, stiffeners,
tanks, holds, hatch
covers, frames etc.
Steel that takes
vibration, strain
and sudden loads.
Seawater, steam and
cargo pipes made of
low alloyed steel.
Deck and engine
auxiliaries welded to
deck or floor plates.
Solution
GPR-300H
Examples
2.04
LHH-314H
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
LHV-316N
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
LHV-316N
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
LHV-316N
Welding on cranes
and lifting equipment.
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
LHV-316N
TENSILE-328N
59
SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel
2.04
Description
Boiler plates and
tubes of heat
resistant chromium
molybdeniujm alloyed
steel.
Welding subject to
high loads (Lifting,
lugs, etc.).
Solution
LHT-318N
ICROMO-216
SPECIAL-303N
LH-314N
LHV-316N
TENSILE-328N
Cast steel repairs.
LH-314N
60
Weathering steel
used for sea-water
and flue gases.
LHR-320N
Low temperature
applications. Iceclass hull plates.
LHL-319N
Examples
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.04
61
SOLUTIONS: Problem Steels
2.05
Problem Steels (difficult to weld steels)
Among the low alloy steels, there
is also a large group of special
steels with complicated chemical
composition. These include spring
steel, vanadium steel, high speed
steel, tool steel, etc. All these steel
types are difficult to weld. In many
cases the steel has been hardened
by annealing, and welding can
destroy the hardening.
In principle, all these steels can
be welded with matching ferritic
consumables with the aid of
preheating and postweld heat
treatment to avoid hydrogen cracking
in the heat affected zone (HAZ).
The example on solutions for
“problem” steel that are given here
are all based on using the electrode:
Unitor Tensile-328N
Cracks in bearing housings.
In the case of repair welding, it
is, however, often not possible to
preheat or to perform any postweld
heat treatment.
So, in this case, welding with
austenitic stainless or nickel-based
consumables is considered to be
one of the best methods. The risk of
cracking is reduced by the higher
solubility of hydrogen and the greater
ductility of the weld metal.
There are so many types of low alloy
steel on the market today that even
specialists have difficulty in keeping
track of the entire range. Numerous
types of special alloys not classified
under existing standards, are
marketed by the steel works. Most
types can be welded satisfactorily
with Unitor Tensile having a tensile
strength of 850 N/mm2. This electrode
may be used both for joining and for
building-up work.
For cargo handling equipment and
dredger applications the Unitor Abratech330 and Wearmax-327 should also be
considered.
62
Machine parts, building up and
restoring worn edges.
Grab shovels, cracks.
Joining machine parts in U.S. TI
steel, or heavily stressed machine
parts. Including build-up work.
SOLUTIONS: Problem Steels
2.05
Welding pinion to shaft.
Repair of tool steel and high
speed steel.
Steel that is difficult to weld, and
steel subject to vibration and
loads (engine foundations etc.).
Rebuilding worn pinion teeth.
Shafts, rebuilding damaged and
keyways.
Mechanical structures.
Spring steel, joining.
Sliding surfaces, repair and
maintenance.
Frame fractures.
Cracks in fuel pipes.
Pitting in hydraulic pistons.
NB! Flame spraying with hard­
alloy may also be a solution.
Cast steel, cargo pipes, joining
and repairing. NB! The electrode LH may also be used.
63
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.05
64
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Introduction
Stainless steel belongs to the high
alloy steel group.
Chromium (Cr) is the element that
makes stainless steel stainless or
corrosion resistant. The chromium
combines with oxygen and creates
an invisible though impregnable
chromium oxide on the surface.
It must contain at least 11,5%
chromium, that is the content at
which an effective layer is formed
that seals the surface against any
further atmospheric corrosion.
Many stainless alloys contain larger
amounts of chromium for further
improving corrosion resistance and
to increase resistance to oxidation at
high temperatures.
Nickel (Ni) in excess of about 6%
increases corrosion resistance
slightly and greatly improves
mechanical properties. Small
amounts of Molybdenum (Mo)
increase resistance to pitting type
corrosion and general resistance to
certain corrosive media. Stainless
steel alloy with molybdenum is
therefore referred to as acid
resistant. Molybdenum also improves
high temperature strength.
Carbon increases strength, but in
connection with stainless steel and
in amounts above 0,04% it will cause
chromium carbide formation (chrome
carbide particles) between 430870°C. The chrome carbide cannot
combine with oxygen to create
chrome oxide. This reduces the
corrosion resistance in local areas
leading to intergranular corrosion.
The carbon content in stainless
steel materials and consumables are
therefore kept at
a very low level.
2.06
By chemical composition or heat
treatment, or a combination, the
stainless steel receives one of the
following micro structures when
manufactured: Austenitic, Ferritic,
Martensitic or Ferritic/Austenitic.
The American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI) established a numbering
system to classify the stainless
steel alloys. The AISI classifies
stainless steel by their metallurgical
structures. This system is useful
because the structures (Austenitic,
ferritic or martensitic) indicates the
general range of mechanical and
physical properties and weldability.
The following are some characteristic differences between
stainless steel and normal steel:
1.Poorer heat conductivity (approx. 40% less).
2.Higher coefficient of expansion (approx. 40% higher).
3.Greater sensitivity to cold working.
4.Occurence of structural changes following welding, (carbides
– sigma phase – ferrite).
5.Sensitivity to certain corrosion phenomena, such as strong
pitting, or crack formation along or through the crystals (stress
corrosion).
65
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Austenitic Stainless Steel
The highest tonnage of weldable
stainless steel produced are of the
austenitic grades. These are the
chromium nickel steel of the AISI 200
and 300 series in which chromium
usually exceeds 17% and nickel
2.06
AISI
Composition % *
Type
Carbon Chromium
C
Cr
16,0 – 18,0
17,0 – 19,0
17,0 – 19,0
17,0 – 19,0
17,0 – 19,0
18,0 – 20,0
18,0 – 20,0
17,0 – 19,0
19,0 – 21,0
Nickel
Ni
with a few exceptions exceeds 7%.
Austenitic grades are non-magnetic.
Autenitic stainless steel has the
highest corrosion resistance of all
the stainless steel. Most materials for
chemical carriers are selected from
this group of materials, and AISI 316 L
is the most commonly used.
Other
301
302
302 B
303
303 Se
304
304 L
305
308
0,15
0,15
0.15
0,15
0,15
0,08
0,03
0,12
0,08
6,0 - 8,02,0 – 3,0 Si
8,0 – 10,0
–
8,0 – 10,02,0 – 3,0 Si
8,0 – 10,0
0,20 P 0,15 S (min) 0,60 Mo (opt)
8,0 – 10,0
0,20 P 0,06 S (min) 0,15 Se (min)
8,0 - 12,0
–
8,0 – 12,0
–
10,0 – 13,0
–
10,0 – 12,0
–
309
309 S
0,2022,0 – 24,0
0,0822,0 – 24,0
12,0 – 15,0
12,0 – 15,0
–
–
310
310 S
314
0,2524,0 – 26,0
0,0824,0 – 26,0
0,2523,0 – 26,0
19,0 –22,0
19,0 –22,0
19,0 – 22,0
1,5 Si
1,5 Si
1,5 – 3,0 Si
316
316 L
316 N
0,08
0,03
0,08
10 – 14,0 2,0 – 3,0 Mo
10 – 14,0 2,0 – 3,0 Mo
10,0 – 14,0
1,0Si 2,0Mn 2,0-3,0Mo 0,10-0,16Ni
May be
welded with
(E) Electrode
(W)Wire Welding
(T) Tig
18/8-321N (E)
S-316-M-GF-221
(W)
18/8 Mo-221 (T)
23/14-322N (E)
S-309-M-GF-222
(W)
IMPACT-329S
(E)
18/8-321N (E)
16,0 – 18,0
16,0 – 18,0
16,0 – 18,0
S-316-M-GF-221
(W)
18/8 Mo-221 (T)
317
0,08
18,0 – 20,0
11,0 – 15,0
317 L 0,03
18,0 – 20,0
11,0 – 15,0
321
0,08
17,0 – 19,0
9,0 – 12,0
329
0,1025,0 – 30,0
3,0 – 6,0
330
0,08
17,0 – 20,0
34,0 – 37,0
347
0,08
17,0 – 19,0
9,0 – 13,0
347 M
0,03
19,0
10,0
348
0,08
17,0 – 19,0
9,0 – 13,0
3,0 – 4,0 Mo
3,0 – 4,0 Mo
Ti (5x%C min)
1,0 – 2,0 Mo
0,75-1,5 Si 0,04 P
Cb + Ta (10x %C min)
Cb 13 x Cmax 0,65
Cb+Ta (10x%C min but 0,10
Ta max 0,20 Co)
23/14-322N (E)
S-309-M-GF-222
(W)
* Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise stated
Unless otherwise stated, other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 2,0 % Mn, 1,0 % Si, 0,045 P and
0,03 % S. Balance Fe. 66
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Austenitic stainless steel has the
following characteristics:
• Non-magnetic.
• Cannot be hardened by heat
treatment, but can be hardened by
working.
• Can easily be welded
• Grade: 304 (most used), 310 (for
high temperature), 316 (for better
corrosion resistance), 317 (for best
corrosion resistance).
Avoid welding mild steel to stainless steel.
2.06
• Unified Numbering system UNS:
30400, S 31000, S 31600, S 31700.
Some limitations:
Austenitic stainless steel has some
limitations:
• The maximum temperature under
oxidizing conditions is 925°C.
• They are suitable only for low
concentrations of reducing acid.
Crossed weld joints are undesirable. In
general welds must not be located too
close to one another.
• In crevices and shielded areas,
there might not be enough oxygen
to maintain the passive oxide film
and crevice corrosion might occur
(Duplex are available in these
situations).
• Very high levels of halide ions,
especially the chloride ion can also
break down the passive surface
film.
Flange ring made by hammering back
the pipe end (mechanical working)
must be avoided.
Flange ring welded on gives less
stress set up in the material.
67
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Ferritic Stainless Steel
These are the grades AISI 400 series
that contain from about 14 to 27%
chromium and no nickel. They are
non-hardening by heat treatment.
2.06
AISI
Composition % *
Type
Carbon Chromium
C
Cr
Manganese
Ni
They are magnetic in all conditions.
Principal applications are products
requiring resistance to corrosion and
scaling at evlevated temperatures
rather than high strength.
Other
405
0.08
11.5 – 14.5
1.0
409
0.08
10.5 – 11.75
1.0 Max
429
0.12
14.0 – 16.0
1.0
430
0.12
14.0 – 18.0
1.0
439 F
0.12
14.0 – 18.0
1.25
430Fse 0.12
14.0 – 18.0
1.25
0.1 – 0.3 AI
1.0 Si Max, Ti min. 6 x C, 0.045 S, 0.045 P
1.0 Si
434
436
439
0.12
0.12
0.07
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.75 – 1.25 Mo, 1.0 Si
0.75 – 1.25 Mo, (Cb+Ta) Min 5 x % C, 1,0 Si
0,6 Si – 0,5 Ni, 0,15 AI, Ti 12 x C (1.0 max)
442
444
446
0.20
18.0 – 23.0
0.025
17.5 – 19.5
0.2023.0 – 27.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1,0 Ni, 1,75 – 2,5 Mo, 0,035 N max
(Cb+Ta) min 0,2 + 4 (%C+%N) 0,25 N
0,75 Ni, 0,75 – 15 Mo 0,2 – 10 Ti
16.0 – 18.0
16.0 – 18.0
17.75 – 18.75
–
0.060 P, 0.15 S (min), 0.60 Mo (opt)
0.60 P, 0.060 S, 0.15 Se (min)
May be
welded with:
(E) Electrode
(W) Wire Welding
23/14-322N (E)
S-309-M-GF-222
(W)
26-1
0.0625.0 – 27.00
0.75
0,04 Ni, 0,2 Cu 0,025, 0,75 Si
0,015 Ni, 3,5 – 4,2 Mo 0,15 Cu
29-4
0.0128.0 – 30.0
0.3
0,02 Ni, 0,2 Si, 0,025 P, 0,02 S
2,0 – 2,5Ni, 3,5 – 4.2 Mo, 0,15 Cu
29-4-2 0.0128 – 30.0
0.3
0,02Ni, 0,2 Si, 0,025P, o,025 S
* Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise noted.
Unless otherwise noted, other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 2.0 % Mn, 1.0 % Si, 0,045 % P
and 0,030 % S. Balance is Fe
Ferritic stainless steel has the following characteristics:
• Magnetic.
• Cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
• Poor weldability.
• Grade: 409 (high temperature), 430 (most used).
• Unified numbering system UNS: S 40900, S 43000.
68
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Martensitic Stainless Steel
This steel, also in the AISI 400 series,
is the iron chromium alloys capable
of being heat treated to a wide range
of hardness and strength levels.
Chromium content is lower and
carbon content higher than the ferritic
group. These grades are magnetic
AISI Composition % *
Type
Carbon Chromium
C
Cr
in all conditions. They are not as
corrosion resistant as the austenitic
and ferritic types. Martensitic grades
are used to resist abrasion in stream
and gas turbine components and for
such applications as bearings, ball
bearings, pump shafts etc.
Other
403
410
414
0,15
0,15
0,15
11,5 – 13,0
11,5 – 13,5
11,5 – 13,5
0.5 Si
–
1.25 – 2.5 Ni
416
416Se
420
0,15
0,15
0,15 min.
12,0 – 4,0
12,0 – 14,0
12,0 – 14,0
1.25 Mn, 0.15 S, (min.), 0.060 P, 0.60 Mo (opt)
1.25 Mn, 0.060P, 0.15 Se (min.)
–
422
0,2 – 0,25 11,0 – 13,0
431
0,20
15,0 – 17,0
440A 0,60 – 0,75 16,0 – 18,0
440B 0,75 – 0,95 16,0 – 18,0
440C
0,95 – 1,20 16,0 – 18,0
1.0 Mn, 0.5 – 10.0 Ni, 0.75 Si, 0.75 – 1.25 Mo,
0.75 _ 1.25 W, 0.15 – 0.3 V, 0.025 P, 0.025 S
1.25 – 2.5 Ni
0.75 Mo
0.75 Mo
0.75 Mo
May be
welded with
(E) Electrode
(W) Wire Welding
2.06
23/14-322N (E)
S-309-M-GF-222 (W)
Non-weldable
* Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise noted.
+ Unless otherwise noted, other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of
1.0 % Mn, 1.0% Si, 0.040% P, and 0.030% S. Balance is Fe.
Martensitic stainless steel, has the following characteristics:
• Magnetic.
• Can be hardened by heat treatment.
• Poor welding characteristics.
• Grade: 410 (most used), 440C (for very high hardness).
• Unified numbering system UNS: S 41000, S 42000, S 44004.
69
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
2.06
Duplex Stainless Steel (Austenitic
– Ferritic)
The duplex stainless steel consist
of a microstructure of about 50%
ferrite and 50% austenite. They
were developed to provide a
higher strength, corrosion resistant
alternative to the 300 series austenitic
stainless steel. Compositions are
modified to favour the high ferrite
levels by increasing the chromium to
22-26%, increasing molybdenum to
2-5%, decreasing the nickel to 4-8%
and adding copper up to 2%.
These compositions provide excellent
resistance to pitting, crevice
corrosion and stress corrosion
cracking. Due to the high yield
strength of duplex stainless steel
the plate thickness can be reduced
considerably in comparison to
austenitic stainless steel. Weight
savings can be up to 25%, however,
the main reason for the increased
use of duplex is that the resistance
against pitting corrosion is superb
compared to austenitic stainless
steel. Duplex stainless steel is used
for applications such as tanks, cargo
loading pipes, heating coils, ladder
material.
Duplex stainless steel has good weldability but great care must be taken
to use the correct consumable and to follow the welding procedure.
Composition (%)
Manufacturer Grade
Cr Ni Mo N Cu Other PREN 23% Cr Mo-free Duplex Stainless steel
Duplex stainless steel grades.
Avesta
SAF 230423 4
– 0,1 –
–25
Creusot Ind. UR 35N23 4
– 0,12 –
–25
Sandvik
SAF 230423 4
– 0,1 –
–25
22% Cr Duplex Stainless steel
Avesta220522 5,5 3 0,16 – Mn 1.5
Böhler
A 903
Creusot Ind. UR 45N22 5,3 3 0,17 –
–
35
Fabr. de Fer. 1,4462/PRE35
Krupp
Falc 223
Mannesmann A F22(1,4462)22 5,5 3 0,14 –
–
34/35
Nippon Kokan NK Cr22
Sandvik
SAF 2205
Sumitomo
SM 22Cr
TEW
Remanit 4462
Valourec
VS 22
Product forms
May be
welded with
all product forms
plate, bars, forgings
pipe
DUPLEX-325N
Electrode
product forms
depending on
manufacturer
IDUPLEX-222
TIG-rod
Duplex Stainless steel has the following characteristics:
• High resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
• Increased resistance to chloride ion attack.
• Very weldable.
• Have higher tensile and yield strength than austenitic or ferritic stainless steel.
• Grade: 2205.
• Unified numbering system UNS: S 31803.
70
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Clad steel
Clad steel is also referred to as
compound steel or sandwich steel.
Clad steel is composite materials,
made by mill rolling or exploding a
thin sheet of a metal that has desired
properties over a base ("backing")
plate of carbon or alloy steel. The
cladding metal may be a stainless
steel alloy, nickel or nickel alloy, or
copper or copper alloy. The result
is a composite with the strength of
the backing steel and with corrosion
resistance, abrasion resistance of the
clad face.
1.For welding of the backing steel
use: Basic coated Low Hydrogen
electrodes LH-314N or SPECIAL303N.
2.When the steel backing is one layer
short of the stainless steel cladding,
an over alloyed consumable like
23/14-322 N must be used.
Stainless steel
Backing steel
2.06
Alloy cladding
•Low carbon
nickel
•Nickel
•Monel
•Inconel
•Cupro Nickel
Cladding
Clad steel with a stainless cladding
is found on board some chemical
tankers. It is fully weldable if the
proper procedure is followed.
Backing
steel
Alloy Cladding (AISI)
Welding
(E) Electrode
(W) Wire Welding
405, 410, 430
304
23/14-322N (E)
304 L
347, 321 L
309
316
S-309-M-GF-222 (W)
316 L
317
71
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Stainless steel corrosion types
A very thin layer of chromium oxide
which is formed on the surface of the
metal protects stainless steels against
Corrosion. This passive layer can be
damaged by mechanical or chemical
action.
If the protecting layer is destroyed
in an aggressive environment, the
material will corrode.
2.06
Cr depleted regions. These regions
then have a decreased corrosion
resistance.
The precipitation of chromium
carbides can be prevented either by
a low C content or by a stabilizing
elements like Nb or Ti.
Pitting corrosion
Different types of corrosion can occur
and the choice of stainless steel is
based on the requirements from the
actual environment.
General corrosion
This is a corrosion attack that
proceeds at the same rate over
the entire surface. It occurs almost
exclusively in acidic or strongly
alkaline solutions. The resistance
against general corrosion is mainly
improved by increasing the content of
Cr and Mo in the steel.
Intergranular corrosion
This is a type of localized attack
which is highly destructive, resulting
in holes in the metal.
This kind of attack is most commonly
found in stainless steel in chloride
containing environments.
The resistance against pitting is
improved with increased Cr and Mo
contents. Also N has a favourable
influence.
The Pitting Resistance Equivalent,
PRE, is a way of describing the
relative influence of the mentioned
elements. One way of expressing PRE
is:
PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N.
A localized attack at and adjacent
to the grain boundaries is called
intergranular corrosion. Some
stainless steels can be made sensitive
to intergranular corrosion by elevated
temperatures (500 °C-900 °C) at
which carbide precipitation occurs
at the grain boundaries resulting in
72
The maximum temperature at which
a specimen in a special test solution
shows no signs of pitting corrosion is
called the Critical Pitting Temperature
(CPT).
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Crevice corrosion
solutions with temperatures below
60 °C.
Crevice corrosion is a kind of
corrosion which occurs in narrow
crevices filled with a liquid and where
the oxygen level is very low e.g. on
gasket surfaces, lap joints and under
bolt and rivet heads. A special form
of crevice corrosion is called deposit
corrosion. This is when the corrosion
is found under non-metallic deposits
or coatings on the metal surface.
The resistance of the austenitic
stainless steels is improved by
increased Ni content. The ferritic Cr
steels totally without Ni are under
normal conditions unsensitive for SCC
as well as steels which are ferriticaustenitic.
2.06
Steels with good resistance to pitting
corrosion have also good resistance
to crevice corrosion.
Stress corrosion cracking, SCC
Corrosion attacks on a metal
subjected to a tensile stress and
exposed to a corrosive environment
are called stress corrosion cracking
(SCC).
During stress corrosion cracking the
metal or alloy can remain virtually
unattacked on most of its surface,
while fine cracks progress through it.
For austenitic stainless steels the
risk for SCC is especially big in
solutions containing chlorides or
other halogens. The risk increases
with increasing salt concentration,
tensile stress and also increased
temperature. SCC is seldom found in
73
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Storing and handling of stainless steel onboard
• Stainless steel must be stored
under deck and protected against
moisture, dust, salt or iron particles
that can trigger corrosion.
• Stainless steel should be kept
separated from ordinary steel.
• Store in wood protected frames
away from grit blasting and
grinding.
2.06
• Pipe end should be covered
(plugged) in order to prevent
impurities from entering inside.
Stainless steel wire brush
• Handling equipment, straps, hooks,
forklift forks to be protected with
wood, textiles or plastic in order
to prevent direct contact with iron
surfaces.
• Cover tank bottom so that
equipment, tools, footwear do
not get in direct contact with the
stainless surface.
• Slag, electrode ends and coating to
be removed after welding.
• Using ordinary unalloyed steel
shipping hammers or wire brushes
on stainless steel will deposit iron
and iron oxides triggering rusting.
Use only tools made out of stainless
steel.
Stainless steel martensitic chipping
hammer
Special tools for welding of stainless
steel
• Stainless steel wire brush. 2 rows.
6 pcs.
Product no: 196-632984
• Stainless steel chipping hammer
made out of hardened Martensitic
stainless steel.
Product no: 196-632992
• Pickling Gel to remove oxides and
discoloration after welding. 2 litre.
Product no: 095-661778
74
Pickling gel for stainless steel
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Grinding/cutting consumables for stainless steel
Generally:
When working on stainless steels,
one should avoid polluting the steel
surface with free iron.
Free iron on the the steel surface, will
act as starting points for corrosion.
Stainless steels are normally softer
than regular steels (Typical for AISI
304 & 316 ).
damage the properties of the steel.
Flexible grinding tools enable better
control of heat development (e.g. fibre
discs / mop discs).
Never switch a grinding disc between
stainless steels and normal steels!
This will immediately pollute the
stainless steel with free iron.
Working tools should be adapted to
this (e.g. grinding consumables).
2.06
The corrosion resistance in stainless
steels is created by oxide layers
from one or several of the alloy
components. (e.g. chrome)
This oxide layer can be drastically
reduced around sharp edges,
structural peaks etc.
Structural peaks acting as attack points
for corrosion
To keep the stainless steel corrosion
resistance at its best, the aim must
be to keep a smooth/polished surface
without structural peaks.
Avoid excessive heat to build up
during grinding on steels.This may
change the metal structure and
Smooth surface. Provides better corrosion
resistance
75
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
INOX, disc with soft grit bonding for cutting and grinding on soft metals.
Contains no free iron and the aluminium oxide grit used contains very small
amounts of bonded iron.
Iron free (inox) grinding discs is to have less than 0.10 % content of iron,
chlorine and sulphur compounds.
2.06
INOX depressed wheels SS
Grit:
Aluminium oxide
Grit size:
#24
Bonding:
Resin, soft
Applications:
Grinding and cutting in stainless steels, aluminium, bronze
and copper
Size
4" / 100mm
5" / 125mm
7" / 180mm
9" / 230mm
76
Cutting wheels Packs of 25 pcs 751016
633595
633611
633627
Grinding wheels
Packs of 10 pcs
750992
633603
633619
633635
SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel
Fibre discs (sanding paper)
Should be used in connection with plastic backing pads.
Fibre discs contain Aluminium oxide grit with resin bonding. Applicable on
stainless steels.
Disadvantage: frequent change of fibre discs.
Fibre discs (sanding paper) for SS
Grit:
Aluminium oxide
Bonding:
Resin
Applications:
Grinding on most steels, incl,
hardened and alloy steel.
SizeFibre discs packs of 25 pcs
Grit size
#24
#36
#50
4" / 100mm
692574 633643 633667
5" / 125mm
692582 633651 633675
7" / 180mm
692590 633659 633683
Fibre discs
Plastic
backing plate
755900
755918
755926
2.06
Plastic backing plate
Mop discs
Sanding paper flaps mounted on backing plate.
The abrasive flaps contain alumina zirconia with resin bonding.
Contains no free iron.
Very suitable for stainless steel grinding and polishing.
Provides very smooth surfaces due to the flexibility of the disc.
The fan pattern improves cooling during operation.
Mop disk
Mop discs for SS
Grit:
Bonding:
Applications:
Aluminium zirconia, iron free
Resin
Grinding on almost any metal, incl. stainless steel, hardened
and alloy steel, aluminium, wood, paint, plastics etc.
Size
Grit size
4" / 100mm
5" / 125mm
7" / 180mm
Mop discs packs of 10 pcs
#36
#60
#80
633691 633699 633707
633715 633723 633731
633739 633747 633755
77
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Introduction
To approach welding of cast iron,
the special properties of this
material must be understood, and
the techniques for joining it together
followed.
Welders who attempt to repair cast
iron based upon their experience from
welding steel, and on the assumption
that " iron is iron" often end up with
a poor result without understanding
why.
2.07
Hence, cast iron repairs has been a
feared operation to welders.
However, many grades of cast iron
can indeed be welded successfully.
Cast iron is essentially an alloy of
ferrum (iron), carbon and silicon. The
carbon content ranges from 2.4%
up to 4.5%, which means that it is
present in excess of the amount that
can be contained in solid solution.
Although up to 6% of carbon can
be dissolved in iron when molten,
actually less than 1.75% can remain in
solution when the metal solidifies. The
excess carbon separates out during
solidification and remains present and
dispersed throughout the cast iron in
the form of free carbon (graphite).
Two of the factors, which influence
the amount of carbon, that separate
out when the cast iron solidifies are
the length of time it takes to solidify
and the amount of silicon that is
present. Silicon tends to drive out any
carbon in solution as graphite if it is
given enough time and temperature.
Thus the percentage of free graphite
is a function of the cooling rate.
This excess carbon is the reason for
many of the desirable properties of
cast iron, such as high fluidity, low
78
shrinkage, high damping capacity on
vibrations and ready machinability.
But the carbon is also source of
problems. Due to its high content
the cast iron is brittle and has very
little elongation when subjected to
strain. Because of this it cracks easily
when subjected to local heating and
cooling, as is the case when welding.
Thus the welding properties of cast
iron differ from those of steel.
While steel melts at approximately
1450°C, the high carbon content of
cast iron lowers the melting point to
1100–1300°C (depending on type),
making it easier to melt and allowing
it to run freely into a mold to assume
the shape intended for the casting.
On boars ships cast iron has found
wide uses as for instant engine
blocks, heads, liners, water jackets,
transmissions, pump and valve
housings, manifolds, pipe fittings,
cargo lines, etc.
There are five common types of cast
iron:
Grey
White
Malleable
Ductile
High alloy
These different cast irons cannot be
identified by chemical analysis alone.
It is the form of the excess carbon that
determines the kind of iron that the melt
becomes. With regard to the fifth type,
high alloy cast iron, this is obtained by
adding quantities of alloying elements
to gray, white or ductile irons. In the
following we shall take a look at the
characteristics of the various types.
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Grey cast iron
Grey cast iron is the least expensive
and most commonly used of all cast
metals. The raw materials – pig
iron, cast iron scrap, steel scrap,
limestone and coke – are all relatively
inexpensive. We estimate that
approximately 90% of all cast iron is in
the form of gray iron.
When using casting molds of sand
the molten metal gets a slow rate of
cooling. This gives most of the carbon
time to collect as graphite flakes
between the iron crystal borders. In
small or thin-walled parts the graphite
is evenly dispersed throughout the
material. In large-dimension castings
the material near the surface will
contain comparatively small graphite
flakes, as this is the part of the
casting, which will cool off first. In the
middle the material will cool slower
and contain fewer, but larger flakes.
(illustration).
Due to the presence of free graphite a
fracture will have a gray appearance,
which gives the alloy its name.
The wide range of strengths in gray
irons, from 137 MPa to more than 390
MPa, plus manufacturing economy,
explains the extensive use of these
irons where high resistance to
dynamic stress is not a governing
factor.
2.07
Graphite flakes
General analysis of gray cast iron:
The presence of the graphite flakes
promotes ready machinability, useful
damping properties and resistance
to wear. However, the flakes also
serve as crack-indicators, and gray
cast iron cannot be bent or forged to
shape, neither in cold nor in red-hot
condition.
Carbon 3.0–3,25%
Silicon2,0–2,4%
Sulphur
0,2% maximum
Phosphorous
0,2% maximum
Manganese
0,6–0,7%
Ferrum
Rest.
Characteristics:
Soft.
Less brittle than white cast iron.
High machinability.
Good weldability (Unitor NICKEL-333N
or NIFE-334N).
79
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
2.07
White cast iron
Malleable cast iron
White cast iron has a similar
chemistry to gray iron, but is different
in that the carbon is present in the
form of iron carbide (Fe3C) instead
of as free carbon (graphite). This
is achieved by keeping the silicon
content low and by rapid cooling,
which does not permit the carbon
to move to the crystal borders, but
become trapped inside the crystals.
This results in a martensitic structure,
which is very brittle and hard. In a
fracture the iron carbide will give the
surface a silvery white appearance,
hence the name white cast iron.
Malleable cast iron starts life as an
ordinary white cast iron, very hard
and brittle. It is then annealed (heat
treated) in a furnace at a temperature
above 870°C, at which point the
silicon can break down the iron
carbides into iron and carbon. During
a period from 1 to 6 days, the carbon
actually moves through the solid iron
to collect in little gobs or nodules of
graphite. Iron with this microstructure
is called malleable and its properties
are opposite to those of white iron,
from which it is derived. Instead of
being hard and brittle, it is easily
machinable, and is malleable. Due to
the cost of manufacturing it, malleable
cast iron is limited in application to
relatively small parts. The strength of
malleable cast iron varies from 340
MPa to 520 MPa.
White cast irons are useful for wear
resistant service but due to their
crack sensitivity they are very difficult
to weld and may be considered
unweldable.
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Hard
Brittle
Abrasion-resistant
Non-weldable
Will absorb mild to medium torsion
forces.
Fair to good weldability.
When strength goes above 410 MPa
welding becomes difficult.
Iron Carbides
Etched white iron
Ferrite
80
Malleable iron with temper carbon
aggregates
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Ductile cast iron
General analysis of nodular irons:
Ductile cast iron (also known as
nodular graphite iron, spheroidal
graphite iron, and SG iron) bridges
the gap between gray iron and steel.
Carbon
3,2–4,1%
Silicon
Manganese
Phosphorous
Sulphur
1,8–2,8%
Up to 0,8%
0,1% max.
0,03% max.
It meets the demands for increased
size of equipment, higher operating
speeds and lower production costs
by having high strength, toughness,
and a resistance to shock loading.
By adding trace amounts of
magnesium or cerium to the molten
metal, the surface tension mechanism
is altered and when the graphite
precipitates it forms nodules or
spheroids, instead of flakes as in gray
iron, or compacted aggregates as in
malleable iron.
This graphitic form dispersed
thorough the casting contributes
remarkable ductility to the casting,
and creates strengths equaling many
good grade steels, yet retains the
advantages of superior castability
and machinability. Ductile iron has
mechanical properties approaching
steel. It's tensile strength ranges from
about 340 MPa to 1030 MPa as cast.
It has yield strength from 275 MPa
to 830 MPa with an elongation in 2
inches from 2% to 25%.
Ferrite
2.07
Graphite Nodules
In addition magnesium not in excess
of 0,08%, or
cerium in quantity of a few thosandths
of 1% is included.
Ductile iron may be welded very
satisfactorily with Unitor NIFE-334N
81
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
2.07
High alloy cast irons
Ni-Resist irons
High alloy cast iron is a general
classification that applies to gray
iron, white irons, and ductile irons.
They are considered high alloy when
the alloy contents exceeds 3%.
The addition of alloys to that extent
radically changes the microstructure
and the properties of the castings
to which they are added. The most
common alloying elements are
nickel, chromium and molybdenum.
In general high alloy cast iron is
weldable.
Meehanite
In this series of cast iron alloys the
corrosion resistance of gray cast
iron is enhanced by the addition of
appreciable amounts of nickel, copper
and silicon.
The name Meehanite refers to a
group of cast ferrous materials
manufactured under rigid
metallurgical control so that
their properties meet established
engineering specifications. There are
many types of Meehanite, ranging
from soft types with exceptional
machinability to stronger types whose
strength properties approximate or
exceed that of many cast steels.
Characteristics:
High density
Very high strength
Fair weldability
82
General analysis of Ni-Resist irons:
Carbon
Silicon
Manganese
Nickel
Chromium
Copper
Molybdenum
1,8–2,6%
5,0–6,0%
0,4–1,0%
13,0–32,0%
1,8–5,5%
10,0% maximum
1,0% maximum
Characteristics:
High resistance to corrosive acids
and atmospheric corrosion.
Excellent weldability.
Strength 137 MPa - 313 Mpa
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
How to identify cast iron
Cast iron will, as the name implies,
always be in the form of casting.
Castings have one thing in common;
they will have no welded joints, and
most often they will have a visible
casting line where the two halves of
the mold they were cast in met.
One can easily identify a copper
alloy or an aluminum alloy casting by
their color. However, to distinguish
between cast steel and cast iron by
appearance alone is not easy. To help
us establish which metal a casting is
made from we have a couple of easy
tests.
The perhaps simplest method to
distinguish cast iron from cast steel
is to use a hammer and chisel on a
place of the casting where a little
chiseling will do no harm. Cast steel
when chiseled will from a continuous
chip, while the cast iron forms no chip
but comes away in small fragments:
A spark test will also give ready
identification between the types of
ferrous metals.
2.07
Shaving
Mild steel
The leaf is smaller and gives rise to a number
of sparks. Some streaks are shorter.
Cast iron
Unalloyed steel (Cast steel).
Faint red streaks terminating in complex bushy
sparks yellow in colour.
Chips
GREY CAST MALLEABLE
IRON
CAST IRON
Volume of Stream
Relative Length
Colour at Wheel
Colour at end
Cast iron.
Small
0.6 m
Red
Straw
Moderate
0.75 m
Straw
Straw
Description of
Many small Longer shaft
spark stream
repeating
than grey
(compare with
sprigs.
iron, small
known samples).
repeating
sprigs.
83
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Preparation of the work
piece
First clean off all oil, grease, rust and
paint from the surface, using a brush
or by chemical means. Then remove
casting skin to a width of 20 mm on
both sides of the edges to be welded.
A grinding machine may be used for
this work. Remove imperfections in
the weld area, such as blowholes,
cracks, fatigue areas and porosities
down to sound metal.
2.07
If the damage is in the form of a crack
in the material, it may be difficult to
determine where the crack actually
ends. The use of a crack detector
set to find the complete extent of the
crack is absolutely recommended
(see "Inspection of welds").
When this has been established, drill
a 3 mm hole at the end of the crack,
and at a distance of 3 mm. This will
prevent the crack from opening
further during the repair.
Cracks should be "V-ed" or "U-ed"
out, using either a grinding machine
or by gouging electrodes. Suitable
groove profiles for various material
thicknesses can be as follows:
Preventing crack propagation
Material thickness up to 20 mm
Material thickness 20–40 mm
Material thickness above 40 mm
Alternative shape, thickness above 40 mm
Groove preparation by grinding
Grind a 90° V-groove as indicated in
the sketches. If the part has broken
into two or more pieces, the sides of
the fracture should be ground to a 45°
bevel.
84
Sharp corners and edges should
be rounded of wherever possible,
particularly on surfaces to be
machined or filed later. This is
necessary to prevent excessive
melting of the base material in these
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
areas during the welding process. If
edge rounding is omitted, hard spots
will be evident in the weld deposit.
In preparing the casting by grinding, a
certain amount of carbon (graphite) is
removed from the metal and smeared
over the surface to be welded by the
grinding wheel. Before any welding
can be done this carbon must be
removed, as it will otherwise become
part of the weld pool and combine
with the iron to form a superhard zone
of iron carbide in the weld.
Iron sparks
Grinding wheel
Graphite flakes
in cast iron
Graphite
smear
2.07
File after grinding
To avoid this, always remove a thin
layer of the surface by a file after
completing grinding. Use a steel brush
to remove loos material.
Move torch rapidly
along each side of
the groove.
Searing
The more carbon you can remover
from the weld area, the less chance
there will be for hard spots in the
weld. To further remove excess
carbon embedded in the surface the
workpiece can be seared, using an
oxy-acetylene torch with an oxidising
(excess oxygen) flame.
Use a lager blowpipe and move the
inner cone of the flame forward over
both sides of the welding groove. You
will know immediately when the free
carbon is removed. As the carbon
burns it looks like a bright red particle
or "star". Use a wire brush over the
surface from time to time.
Searing must not be confused with
preheating, and is only intended to
remove surface carbon. Take care not
This gives a cleaner surface.
to put too much heat into the material
when executing it.
Regardless of what we do to remove
surface graphite, some graphite
will nevertheless be melted up and
become part of the weld. Unitor cast
iron electrodes are so made that
they can take up 1% graphite without
causing the formation of iron carbide.
85
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Groove preparation by electrode
gouging
The most efficient method of removing
unwanted metal and preparing
surfaces for welding is to use gouging
and chamfering electrode Unitor CH-2
382.
2.07
This method of groove preparation
requires no other equipment than
that used for ordinary arc welding
and gives a very attractive U-shaped
groove that is clean, bright and makes
an ideal base for welding. In addition
it gives the advantage that if the
part to be welded is oil-impregnated
(as a number of cast iron parts are
bound to be), the heat generated
by the process will cause the oil to
evaporate from the graphite flakes in
the welding zone.
Another advantage is using CH-2 382
to prepare the metal for welding is the
small amount of heat imparted to the
casting prior to welding. By removing
the chill from the metal welding
will be easier. The filler metal will
have better flow characteristics and
improved welds will be evident.
A crack in cast iron. The carbon flakes in
the metal are saturated with oil.
After gouging with Unitor CH-2 382. The
oily deposits in the welding area have
evaporated.
For correct application of gouging
electrode CH-2 382, see the data
sheet under “Technical Data for
Consumables”.
Repairs of areas requiring drilling
and tapping
Before welding areas which will
subsequently require drilling and
tapping, it is essential that the
following procedure be followed:
Always remove enough metal initially
so that, after filling, the final drilling
and tapping can be performed
entirely in the deposited weld metal
without penetrating the base metal.
The variance in density in the weld
86
deposit and the base metal makes this
necessary. Drill and tap breakage will
result if this procedure is not adhered
to. This method, of necessity, requires
more preparation and welding, but
increase in time and labor will be
compensated for in tool savings.
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Arc welding of cast iron
Below is a short description of the
cast iron electrodes Unitor NICKEL333N and Unitor NIFE-334N to help
you select the correct electrode for
the work. Complete data on these
electrodes are found in the section
“Technical Data for Consumables”.
Remember that cold welding of cast
iron can only be done by electric arc
welding.
contact surface indicates the most
suitable electrode for the binding
layer for this particular base metal.
For information on porosity, it's
causes and correction; see under
heading "Poor Welds".
Unitor NICKEL-333N
For use on old, oil-impregnated cast
iron and on thin material dimensions.
Use this electrode to “butter” the
sides of oily cast iron to seal the
surface. Then finish the filling-up to
join the parts together with Unitor
NIFE-334N, which has greater tensile
strength. Do not deposit more than
maximum two layers for NICKEL-333N.
Unitor NIFE-334N
To be used on cast iron that takes
strain, vibrations and sudden loads.
Also to be used for joining cast
iron to steel, copper alloys and
stainless steel. NIFE-334N is used
for multi-bead welding on heavy
gauge material. It has greater tensile
strength than NICKEL-333N.
Electrode binding test
Grind off a small area of the material
close to the welding zone. Select a
3.2 mm electrode of NICKEL-333N and
NIFE-334N, and deposit a 4-5 cm bead
with each of them without weaving.
Use 100 Amps and the correct
polarity. Use a hammer and chisel to
remove the beads. The bead which
exhibits the least porosity on the
2.07
Hot welding
In hot arc welding the part must first
be evenly heated to approximately
500°C. Especially if the casting to be
welded has any appreciable material
thickness it is important that the
preheating proceeds slowly. Cast
iron has a low coefficient of thermal
conductivity, and demands care
in preheating. Too quick heating
can cause tension cracks. The
temperature must be maintained
throughout the welding operation.
As the means for preheating on board
will normally be limited to the welding
torch, it means that only smaller parts,
and which can be dismantled and
brought into the workshop can be hot
welded on board.
When hot welding cast iron the
temperature of the workpiece must be
87
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
monitored by means of temperature
indicator crayons or by an electronic
thermometer. It is important that
the temperature does not exceed
600°C, as this may result in structural
changes in the base material, which
may drastically reduce its strength.
2.07
Opposed to cold welding, hot
welding can proceed continuously.
The finished welded part must then
be allowed the slowest possible
cooling down to room temperature.
Burying the piece in kieselguhr, sand
or cinders will help to give it a slow
cooling rate. The reason why slow
cooling is important is that if the rate
of cooling is high, the carbon will
have no time to segregate as graphite
in the crystal border areas. We will
instead have the carbon bound to the
iron in the form of iron carbide. This
structural state will be very similar
to that of white cast iron; hard and
brittle.
Smaller parts, free to
expand, may be hot
welded. NB: Allow to
cool off slowly!
Cold welding
Large, complicated parts should be cold
welded.
Amperage setting
When cold welding cast iron a low
ampere setting should be used.
Thereby deep fusion between the
filler material and the base material
is avoided. It should be remembered
that deep fusion will dig up and bring
into the weld pool more graphite than
need be. This graphite will give rise to
iron carbide, with resulting hard zones
when the weld cools off. Deep fusion
will also put lots of unwanted heat
into the base material with increased
risk of cracking.
In order to avoid digging into the base
material, and to reduce the heat input,
one can also point the electrode
10° in the direction of travel. This
will cause the molten pool to blow
forward and act as a cushion.
If the necessary equipment for
preheating or for achieving the
required slow cooling rate is not
available, the alternative is "cold"
arc welding. The method is so called
because of the low heat input to
the base material when correctly
executed.
On board cold arc welding is by far
the most commonly used method, and
large cast iron parts, or parts which
are difficult or time-consuming to
dismantle should be cold welded.
88
Do not overdo low amperage setting.
The molten pool must be clear of slag,
and easy to control. If the deposit has
a high bead contour, the setting is too
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
low. If there is excessive spatter and
undercutting, the amperage is set too
high.
attached to the workpiece itself if
possible.
Desired Bead Contour.
For Unitor NICKEL-333N and Unitor
NIFE-334N amperages should
be set approx. 10% lower than
those used with conventional cast
iron electrodes. Recommended
amperages are as follows:
Unitor NICKEL-333N
- 2.5 mm 55-110 Amp.
- 3.2 mm 80-140 Amp.
Unitor NIFE-334N
- 3.2 mm 75-100 Amp.
- 4.0 mm 85-160 Amp.
The above settings are approximate.
Setting will vary with the size of the
job, type of machine, line load, etc. It
is recommended practice to select a
setting halfway between the figures
and make a trial weld. NICKEL-333N
has high ohmic resistance. If ampere
setting is too high the electrode may
become red hot.
In general, the welding current should
be as low as possible, consistent
with easy control, flat bead contour,
and good wash at the edges of the
deposit. The amperages listed are for
flat or downhand welding positions.
Reduce the amperage range by 5-10%
for overhead welding, and about 5%
for vertical welding.
Choice of polarity
2.07
If the current source for the welding
is a welding rectifier (DC-machine),
the choice of correct polarity
will influence very much on the
result of the work. Some electrode
manufacturers make cast iron
electrodes that can only be used
with negative polarity. Furthermore,
some years ago the general low
quality of cast iron electrodes
made it necessary to use negative
polarity to achieve binding between
base material and weld deposit.
However, the quality of Unitor cast
iron electrode is very high, and
the electrodes can be used with
both polarities without difficulty.
The operator must be aware of the
effects of the different polarities, as
the heat input and the melting of the
base material varies considerably
according to the polarity selected.
Straight polarity (Cathode)
Reverse polarity (Anode)
To ensure good electric conductivity
the return cable clamp should be
89
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
2.07
If the electrode is connected to the
minus pole of the machine (straight
polarity) we get high, concentrated
heat input to the base material. This
will cause excessive melting and
digging into the material. In addition
to contaminants such as phosphorous
and sulphur, cast iron contains
quantities of the gassed nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide. Excessive melting will
bring unwanted quantities of these
impurities into the weld. The more
impurities contained in the base
material the lower the quality of the
weld. The high heat input will also
cause the formation of iron carbides,
with hard zones in the weld and the
heat affected area.
If we connect the electrode to the
plus pole (reverse polarity) we get a
wide, shallow weld zone with minimal
amounts of graphite, phosphorous,
sulphur and gasses. The low heat
input till reduce the formation of iron
carbides.
When welding with DC, reverse
polarity to the electrode should be the
first choice. However, in cases where
the cast iron is heavily contaminated
and has poor weldability, straight
polarity may be tried in the first run in
order to use the higher heat input and
melting to achieve bonding between
the base material and the weld
deposit.
Length of arc
To reduce the voltage across the
arc, and to help minimize heat input
into the base material, the shortest
practicable arc should be maintained.
By experience it may be found that
the first pass should in some cases
be done with a somewhat longer arc
than the following runs. This would be
90
in cases where the composition of the
base material makes good bonding
more difficult, and the firs bead has to
be "painted" on to it.
Correct size electrode
Always use the largest size diameter
electrode that the groove can accept
(but not at the expense of not getting
down into the groove!). Using a
large size diameter means that you
reduce the heat input in relation to
the amount of filler metal deposited. F.
inst. a 4,0 mm electrode deposits four
times as much weld metal at only two
times as much amperage compared
to a 2,5 mm electrode. However, if
the first bead shows porosity, a small
diameter electrode, low amperage
setting and high welding speed should
be used for this run to reduce heat
input.
The welding
Remember that cast iron is very
brittle, with only 1–2 % elongation.
Should the shrink forces exceed
the tensile strength of the cast iron
it will crack. Hence, when welding
it is crucial to the success of the
operation that the heat input to the
base material is kept at a minimum to
avoid cracking.
The way to achieve this is to avoid
putting down long, continuous beads
(as when welding mild steel), and
instead to weld short, straight stringer
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
beads of maximum length 20–30
mm (1") at a time. Weaving should
be avoided or kept to the minimum
required to "wash out" the deposit and
to catch the sides of the groves.
Do not wave in excess of one-half
electrode diameter to each side
of the direction of the weld. When
each bead of 20–30 mm has been
deposited, fill the crater and withdraw
the electrode a little backward on the
bead before breaking the arc.
While the bead is still hot, peen it
with a round-nosed peen hammer.
Since the casting is quite rigid, the
filler metal must be ductile. Peening
the bead immediately after depositing
will stretch it to accommodate some
dimensional change in the weld area,
and will provide some stress relief.
Always peen from the crater back to
the starting point. Use rapid moderate
blows; just hard enough to leave a
slight indent on the weld deposit is
usually sufficient. Too heavy blows
may cause cracks, while to light
peening will have little or no effect in
relieving stresses.
On thin dimensions the peening
should not be vertical on the bead, as
vibrations will reduce the effect:
Wrong
After the initial bead has been
deposited and peened, the next bead
should not be put down until the
bare hand can be laid alongside the
R = 3 mm
Rounded edge
Recommended shape of head.
2.07
Weld contraction may cause cracks.
Peening offsets contraction forces.
Correct
first bead with comfort. If you burn
yourself, it is too hot to go on with the
welding. Take your time, do not spoil
your work by trying to rush it.
91
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Sometimes more than one short
run can be done at a time, but only
when the length to be welded is
considerable, and the beads can be
spaced well away from each other to
prevent heat build-up. This technique
is called skip-welding and speeds up
the work considerably:
Repairing crack with free end
2.07
Start welding at tied end, then
backstep towards free end.
Repairing crack with tied ends
Put the two first beads (2 - 3 cm
each) starting from the hole drilled
at each end of the crack. Then weld
alternatively from each end of the
crack, using the backstep technique.
Repair of separated parts
Starting from one edge, use the
backstep technique across the part to
the opposite edge.
Parts subject to high stresses
To strengthen the transition zone
transverse grooves may be cut in the
sides of the welding groove, using
chamfering electrode Unitor CH-2 382.
First fill up these grooves with the
electrode selected for the first layer,
and then cover the entire surface
of the groove with a deposit of the
same electrode, without peening.
Then proceed to fill up the groove.
Remember the build-up should always
be done with Unitor NIFE-334N
92
Cut transverse grooves in the sides. Fill
them first, then cover the entire surface
before proceeding to build up and join.
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
A way to reduse shrinkage stress
In order to reduce the shrinkage
stresses, do not put down a complete
root bead first, before proceeding to
build up. "Stack" the beads stepwise
as shown in the sketch, advancing
each bead (starting always with the
root bead) 2 - 3 cm forward at a time.
Take care to keep the heat down
(hand warm before proceeding each
new bead!) and hammer each bead
while still hot. A small pneumatic
hammer is suitable for this kind of
hammering.
Hammering
Stacking
Steel insert technique
It is sometimes desirable to insert a
steel patch in the centre section of a
large housing or motor block. A gear
may have shattered and pushed out
an area in the housing. A frozen block
may have suffered the same damage.
Usually the pushed-out section has
been broken in so many pieces that
it is not practical to try to join the
pieces. The least expensive method or
repairs is to fit a steel patch into the
hole. This is done as follows:
cracks. Grind the edges of the casting
at an angel of 45° halfway down its
wall thickness. Remember to file
the ground area to remove surface
graphite. Seal in the contaminants,
using Unitor NICKEL-334N. Using a
piece of cardboard cut a template to
obtain the correct shape for the steel
patch.
Select a piece of low carbon steel,
one half the thickness of the casting's
wall. Using the template as a guide
cut the patch out of the piece of
steel. It should fit the hole with a
clearance of 2 - 3 mm. Grind the edge
of the patch 45°. The patch should
be "doomed" slightly by striking with
a ball-peen hammer until a bulge is
formed.
2.07
Place the patch in the hole and
secure it in position but do not
tackweld it. As this will prevent the
patch from expanding to heat. Now
weld the patch to the casting, using
the backstep technique as indicated
in the sketch. Be careful to let each
bead of 2 - 3 cm cool off before
proceeding with the next bead. Use
Unitor NIFE-334N for the build-up.
Bevel edges to 45°.
Casting
steel-patch
Remove all damage material on the
casting. Avoid leaving sharp corners,
round off wherever possible. Clean
off dirt, paint, oil and grease from
the area where the repairs is to take
place. Use a Crack Detection kit
to make sure there are no hidden
93
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Build up of missing section
Occasionally, it will be necessary to
rebuild parts where sections have
been worn down or broken off. In
explaining the salvage process a
broken-off cog on a wheel is taken as
an example.
2.07
Cut stress-relieving grooves in the
area to be built up, using Unitor CH2 382. If the area is large enough
to accept more than one groove,
there should be a minimum of 6
mm (1/4") between the groves. Do
not use a grinder for cutting stress
relieving grooves. The groves will
not be geometrically correct for
the dispersion of stresses from the
casting surface.
Fill in the grooves. Then "paint" on
weld metal by using a long arc
and fast zigzag movements. Apply
thin deposits (1,5 mm) to seal in all
contaminants. Do not quench.
Built up section, use stringer beads.
When repairing defects in raised
areas, such as bosses, which must be
machined after welding, it is unwise
merely to chip out the defects and
fill the defective areas. It is better
to prepare the area for repair by
machining to a dept slightly below
the desired final surface. Then build
up the surface 2 mm (1/16") above
the required dimension to allow for
machining. All machining will then be
done on the solid weld metal deposit,
which is fully machinable.
Alternatively the parts may be rebuilt
by braze welding, using Unitor
Castiron 237 or Unitor FC-Wearbro
262.
94
Filling holes that penetrate clear
through the casting
Begin to weld at one side and run
straight stringer beads side by side
until the hole is closed. Weld from one
side only. Do not alternate sides or
weld around the edges. Such action
will create stress cracks. Peen each
weld pass lightly to reduce shrinkage
stresses. Remove slag.
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Braze welding of cast iron
General
The name braze welding comes from
the relatively slow-flowing nature of
the filler material, which gives the
joining process much in common with
ordinary gas welding.
A condition for using braze welding
on cast iron is that it must be possible
to preheat an area on each side of the
weld zone to 400–600°C. In practice
this limits braze welding to smaller
parts and thinner dimensions. For
larger components "cold" electric arc
welding is recommended.
In braze welding the cast iron is not
melted, and braze welding is thus
a form of mechanical bonding, as
opposed to gas welding, where the
parent metal is melted and forms a
chemical bonding with the filler metal.
The use of braze welding on cast
iron has the decided advantages
of low heat and ductility, both of
which reduce and/or eliminate the
two serious problems traditionally
associated with welding cast iron.
These are:
I. The tendency for high heat to form
unwanted white cast iron, a form
of martensitic cast iron that is very
brittle and hard due to the presence
of iron carbide. The low heat used
in braze welding greatly reduces
the possibility of this formation.
II. The problem of contraction during
cooling. These are avoided partly
due to the lower heat required,
and partly because the brazing
filler alloy has a great capacity
to yield and accommodate any
cooling stresses. By braze welding
cast iron one is to a certain degree
independent of the quality of the
base material.
In braze welding the cast iron is heated
to bonding temperature. This is the
minimum temperature to which it must
be heated to form a bound (surface
alloy) between the filler metal and the
cast iron. The phenomenon, which then
occurs, is called "tinning" (also called
"wetting out" or "bonding"). Actually, it
refers to the almost microscopically thin
layer in which the alloys of both the cast
iron and the molten filler metal intermix.
While there is several processes for braze
welding, the use of an oxy-acetylene torch
to provide the necessary heat will be the
method employed on board.
2.07
Preparation of the workpiece
Remove oil, paint and rust from the
surface. Grind off casting skin to a width
of 20 mm on each side of the edges to be
welded. If the damage is in the form of a
crack in the material, it is recommended
to use the crack detector set to find
the complete extent of the crack. Drill 3
mm holes at each end of the crack, at a
distance of about 3 mm from the ends to
prevent the crack from opening further
during brazing.
Groove preparation
Prepare a 70°–90° groove. Remember
that braze welding is a surface bonding,
and that the lager the surface of a joint
the better the bonding. If the part has
been broken into two or more pieces,
bevel each side of the fracture to 45°.
Use a file to remove surface graphite
from the groove, and round off edges
and sharp corners.
95
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Searing
Even after filling there will still be
graphite present in the surfaces to
be joined. Graphite is a refractory
material, which can inhibit "tinning".
By playing the inner cone of an
oxidising flame from the welding torch
over the surfaces off the groove,
most, if not all, of this graphite can be
burnt away. This process, which is
called "searing" should be practiced
as a matter of course before
attempting to braze weld cast iron.
2.07
Preheating
After the searing is completed,
preheat the part(s) to 400–600 °C with
a wide spread of heat to each side.
Remember that cast iron is one of
the more brittle and crack-sensitive
base metals. Thus care should be
exercised in the preheating to ensure
that it is even and uniform.
Braze welding
When braze welding cast iron the
flame should be adjusted to have a
slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising
flame).
Joining is done with the filler metal
Unitor Castiron 237. This filler metal
is extremely easy to work with,
has high tensile strength and the
structure and color of cast iron.
Welded connections are compact and
machinable. The filler also fuses to oil
impregnated cast iron.
Typical uses are welding of cracked
parts and building up worn surfaces
such as gear and gear wheel teeth.
Use Castiron 237 in combination with
Castiron Flux 236F. Heat the end of the
rod and dip it in the flux powder. The
flux will stick to the rod
96
Heat the starting point to a dark red
heat. Touch the rod to the surface
and melt off a drop from the rod
into the groove and spread it out by
continually moving the torch, which
should be held flat at an angle of
about 15 - 30° to the workpiece, and
approximately 1 cm above the groove.
When the filler has flowed freely into
the seam, melt off a new drop and
repeat the procedure.
Braze leftward
When the brazing work is completed,
the part should be allowed to cool
slowly in kieselgur or dry sand.
Surplus flux must be removed by hot
water and brushing.
Alternatively, where a hardwearing
surface is required, the joining can
be done with the filler rod Unitor
FC-Wearbro 262, applying the same
technique as described for Castiron
237.
Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 has a low
bonding temperature. However, the
strength and machinability is lower
than for Castiron 237.
Technical details on the rods are
found in the section "Consumables".
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Cold repair of cast iron
General
Where there are limitations to hot
work, cold repair materials are an
alternative. Polymer materials are
essentially epoxy or polyurethane
products with additions of metal or
ceramic filler. They are cold curing
materials consisting of a base and
activator that are mixed together.
During solidification and curing it
does not develop any heat. Polymer
materials form a surface bonding and
it is absolutely essential that the base
materials surface be cleaned in order
to give good addition.
Therefore:
NB. In order for curing to take place
the ambient temperature for polymers
must at least be + 5°C. Polymer
products are organic material that will
start to carbonise at 150°C.This will
make a natural limitation to polymer
when it comes to high temperature
application and in cases where there
are specific demand for fire retardant
properties. One must also check
that the polymer product to be used
is resistant to the cargo the part is
handling.
Recommended products:
Metalgrade Express
Metalgrade Rebuild
Leak Stop Pipe repair I, II or III
2.07
1) Surfaces must be cleaned and
ruffed up in order to give a good
bonding.
2) Measure out base and activator
according to instructions
3) Mix base and activator thoroughly
together. Any unmixed material will
not solidify.
4) At first only apply a small amount
of product and make sure to press
it hard into the prepared surface
securing good bonding. Afterwards
add more product and build up
to required height. If needed, a
reinforcement bandage can be
added to the product in order to
increase strength.
97
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 1.
In some repair situations the cast
iron is so corroded and oxidized that
welding is cannot be done In this kind
of situations cold repairs might be the
solution.
Clean surface to remove grease and
accumulated dirt. Remove as much of
the loose metal and oxides as possible.
Thoroughly abrade the edge and the
surrounding surface of the hole.
2.07
If the hole is large, a metal mesh
formed to the shape of the hole should
be made. Measure up and mix a small
quantity of Metalgrade Express and
apply it along the edge of the hole.
Remember to squeeze the product
hard into the surface to secure good
bonding. The first thin covering acts as
a "wetting layer" to improve adhesion.
Place the pre cut mesh down in the
hole so that it makes contact with the
polymer along the edge. If needed
secure it with additional polymer.
Allow drying for 6 minutes (at 20°C).
With the mesh securely fastened
measure up and mix a sufficient
quantity of Metalgrade Rebuild. Apply
the product on to the mesh spreading
it out evenly. Apply the product to
totally encapsulate the mesh and
blend it in with the Metalgrade
Express already on the cast-iron edge.
If the mesh size is too big, and
the polymer falls trough, apply
reinforcement bandage on the mesh
to prevent it happening.
If necessary, support the mesh by
placing steel wires across the hole.
The wires can be fastened to the edge
by a small tack weld or by drilling a
hole with slightly bigger diameter.
98
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 2.
After welding has successfully
been employed to weld a crack, it
sometimes turns out that there is
liquid penetrating through porosity in
the weld or heat affected zone.
The porosity is often caused by
residue oil in the cast iron structure.
Instead of risking cracking by further
welding, polymer can be used to seal
the surface area. The surface must be
thoroughly degreased and abraded.
2.07
In some cases grind or drill out the
porosity to half it’s depth. Remember
that grinding has a tendency to polish
the surface and require abrading
afterwards.
If you are repairing small areas,
simply measure, mix and apply
the Metalgrade Express. Use the
Metalgrade Rebuild if larger areas
are to be covered. It is very important
to squeeze the product hard into
the surface in order to secure good
bonding and sealing.
99
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 3.
Another area of application where
polymer can be useful is on pipes,
conduit and ducting made of cast iron.
Holes, cracks and splits in piping may
be tackled from the outside of the
pipe without complete disassembly
of the system. Using polymer also
avoids welding cast iron in position,
something that can be difficult.
Thoroughly degrease the area to
be repaired. Remove all paint, rust
and scale. Make sure the surface is
abraded.
2.07
internal surface of the backing plate.
Press the plate firmly over the area.
The plate should now be held in place
until the product has set, this could be
done using wire, plastic strapping or
cable ties.
Once the patch has set the ties can
be removed. Measure out, mix and
apply more products over the patch
to totally encapsulate it. If a highpressure repair, the product must be
applied to the patch and the complete
circumference of the pipe.
The repair may require the use of a
metal backing plate to strengthen the
repair. Select a piece of steel plate
of equal thickness to the damaged
pipe and shape it to the outside
dimensions of the damaged area.
The plate should extend 5 cm beyond
each side of the damaged area.
Thoroughly abrade the inside and
outside of the plate to achieve a
coarse profile.
Measure up, mix and apply
Metalgrade Rebuild or Express to
the prepared pipe surface and to the
100
Wrap reinforcement tape around the
pipe and patch totally encapsulating
it. Make sure the product is
impregnating the tape so that the final
surface consists of product that can
be smoothed out and blending in with
the pipe surface.
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 4.
Polymer cold repair can also be
used with good results on cast iron
that requires large surface area
repairs. Welding will in most cases
crack the cast iron because of high
heat input, wile polymer being a
cold curing process has none of
these problems. Flange repairs are
a typical application area and so
are cast iron pump housings where
cavitational wear gouges out the
metal. When fluid flow environment
is creating wear, the correct product
to use is Ceramigrade Rebuild and/
or Liner (information on this products
to be found in the Unitor Welding
Handbook).
2.07
101
SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
2.07
Description
Large cast iron components
ex­posed to vibration, strain and
sudden loads, and where several
layers of weld metal may be needed,
e.g. cargo pipes, valve bodies,
machine bases, pump housings,
pump impellers, flywheels.
Oil-impregnated cast iron, often
found in motor blocks, gear boxes,
cylinder heads, fuel pump cylinders,
and frames in fuel oil purifiers.
Smaller parts that can be preheated
and allowed to cool slowly after
welding, e.g. pump housings, levers,
pillow blocks, exhaust manifolds,
pulleys, and gear wheels with
broken or worn teeth.
Repair of holes in cast iron
components by inserting a steel
plate, welding cast iron to steel.
Solution
NIFE-334N
NICKEL333N
CAST
IRON-237
NIFE-334N
NIFE-334N
NICKEL333N
Rebuilding cast iron, for example
valve seats in cylinder heads, or
exhaust valve housings.
NIFE-334N
NICKEL333N
102
Examples
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.07
103
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Introduction
The most common type of copper is
electrolytically refined and treated to
obtain different qualities. Pure copper
has limited use on board except as
copper piping. Cast parts are usually
in brass or bronze alloy.
Copper normally contains a small
amount of oxygen. Oxygen combines
with the copper forming copper oxide.
The oxide is distributed in the metal
in very small quantities and does not
affect the mechanical characteristics
of the metal. However, during welding
the oxide can cause porosity in the
weld. Copper which is heated up to
approx. 900°C will become brittle and
weak as the copper oxide diffuses
to the crystal boundaries where it
collects and weakens the strength of
the metal, in hot and cold condition.
In this way, welding will weaken the
metal in a joint. The best method of
joining copper piping is therefore
brazing with FC-BRONZE or with AG
45 or AG 60.
Copper alloys
2.08
Brass
Bronze
Straight
brasses
Special
brasses
Naval
brass
Brass
Brass is usually an alloy of copper
and zinc, but other alloy elements
may also be present. The zinc content
in brass may vary from 5–50% in the
different types.
The type of straight brasses used
for mechanical purposes will usually
contain between 63–75% copper, i.e.:
– Cu 70%, Zn 30% (70:30 brass)
– Cu 60%, Zn 40% (Muntz metal)
Brazing: AG 45 or AG 60 with
AG 60/45 FLUX
104
FC-BRONZE and
BRONZE FLUX
FC-WEARBRO and
WEARBRO FLUX
Admiralty
brass
Aluminium
brass (Yorcalbro)
Different types of special brasses are
also available:
e.g. Admiralty brass (Cu 70%, Zn 29%,
Sn 1%) or Naval brass (Cu 58–64%,
Sn 1%, Zn balance). Both these may
be brazed the same way as straight
brasses. Aluminium brass however
should be treated in a special way.
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro)
Copper sea water piping on board
ships has increasingly been replaced
by Yorcalbro pipes. Yorcalbro
(aluminium brass) is an alloy with the
following chemical composition and
mechanical specification:
Some years ago, numerous welding
tests were carried out on Yorcalbro
pipes using the TIG (GTAW) process.
The results were very satisfactory.
Both small and large size pipes
were welded in these tests, and the
conclusions were as follows:
Alloy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cu 76%, Al 2%,
Zn 21,96%, As 0.04%
Tensile strength: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .
Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .
Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310–370 N/mm2
Hardness: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .
Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .
Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elongation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .
Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .
Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
580–700 N/mm2
360–470 N/mm2
165–194 HB
83–111 HB
63–78 HB
8–15%
55–65%
65–75%
2.08
Specific weight: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.34
Outside coefficient per °C: . . . . . . 000013.
The use of Yorcalbro piping allows
a higher flow rate in the pipe than
possible with copper piping. A flow
rate up to 3.5m/s is permitted in
Yorcalbro pipes compared to 1.52 m/s
in copper pipes.
Aluminium brass pipes are more
durable than copper pipes. Aluminium
brass pipes have a widespread
use in cooling water installations,
sanitary installations, oil coolers, heat
exchangers, heat coils etc.
In view of the widespread use of
aluminium brass piping on ships,
maintenance is inevitable. Common
repairs include welding of leakages
and replacement of pipe lengths
subjected to corrosion. The most
serious problems appear to arise
in connection with the repair of
leakages in large-dimension Yorcalbro
pipes.
– Pipes with diameters less than 4''
where the repair can take the form
of an overlapped joint should be
silver brazed using Unitor AG 60
and Unitor ALBRO flux.
– Pipes with diameters exceeding 4''
should be TIG welded using Unitor
IALBRO-237MF and the special flux,
IFLUX-238PF.
Wire welding: IALBRO-W-237.
– Pipes should be unstressed before
welding takes place, and cold
bended piping should be annealed
at 400–500°C for approximately
20–30 min. Finished welds, and an
area covering approx. 15 cm to
either side of the bead should be
annealed. Annealing temperature
300–400°C for 30–40 min.
105
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Bronze
Bronze is principally an alloy of
copper and tin, which may also
contain small quantities of other
alloys.
contain up to 15% aluminium. Other
alloy elements are Fe, Ni and Mn.
Nickel aluminium bronze contains
Cu 79%, Al 9.5%, Ni 5%, Fe 4.2%, Mn
2.3%. This alloy shall not be preheated
before welding.
Phosphor bronze contains 0.05% to
0.1% phosphorus.
Lead bronze is used in bearings.
Sn 10%, Pb 5–25%, remainder copper.
Gun metal, Cu 88%, Sn 10%, Zn 2%.
2.08
Manganese aluminium bronze is used
for ships’ propellers and consists of
Al 9–10%, Mn 11%, Fe 2–3%, Ni 1–2%
and the remainder copper.
Welding: ALBRONZE-344
Welding: TINBRO-341
Brazing: AG 45, AG 60 and
AG 60/45 FLUX
FC-BRONZE and
BRONZE FLUX
FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX
Brazing:
AG 45, AG 60 and
AG 60/45 FLUX
FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX
FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX
Aluminium bronze (Cu + Al)
This type of bronze has good strength
properties, may be machined, and is
also suitable for casting. The main
advantage of these bronzes is their
excellent resistance to corrosion in
seawater which makes them suitable
for ships’ propellers, etc. These alloys
Bronze
Tin bronze
(Phosphor bronze)
Lead
bronze
106
Gun
metal
Aluminium
bronzes
Nickel
bronzes
Cunifer
NiAl
MnAl
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Nickel bronzes (Cunifer)
“Cunifer 10” (copper nickel) and
“Cunifer 30” (cupro nickel) are
supplementary alloys to Yorcalbro.
These alloys are corrosion resistant
– the higher the nickel content, the
higher the resistance. Strength and
hardness also increase in relation to
nickel content.
port where the seawater is polluted
by sulphides, the pipes may become
coated with sulphide-containing
sludge which can stimulate corrosion
over a prolonged period even when
the vessel moves to cleaner waters.
In such cases the use of “Cunifer
10” or “Cunifer 30” piping is recom­
CUNIFER 10
(Copper nickel)
CUNIFER 30
(Cupro nickel)
(Alloy)
Ni 10%, Fe 2%
Cu 87%, Mn 1%
Ni 30%, Fe 0.7%
Cu 68.5%, Mn 0.8%
Tensile strength N/mm2
– Hard (untreated)
530–580
630–700
– Heat treated
390–500
– Annealed
310–390
360–400
Elongation %
– Hard (untreated) 10– 15 5– 10
– Heat treated 20– 35
– Annealed 40– 55 40– 55
2.08
– Hardness HB
– Hard (untreated)
155–184
165–204
– Heat treated 97–126
– Annealed 78– 97 87–107
Specific weight
8.9
8.9
– Outside coefficient per °CV
0.000016
0.000015
These alloys which have special
properties and are widely used on
vessels in river and canal traffic, on
lakes, or on vessels which regularly
call at ports where the water is
heavily polluted or contains, sand
or sludge. They have excellent
resistance against wear by erosion,
corrosion and abrasion.
When it is envisaged that the piping
in a cooling system will be exposed to
sulphide polluted seawater, material
with good resistance against water of
this type should be chosen. Industrial
discharge may contain sulphides,
and even during a short stay in a
mended. The use of 70/30 piping was
previously limited due to high cost.
However, the recommendation for
the use of these pipes over the entire
dimension range is based on the fact
that 70/30 pipes have a considerably
higher resistance to pitting corrosion
than 90/10 pipes. Thermal power plants
all over the world use 70/30 pipes to
handle polluted cooling water. The
same recommendation applies to
vessels which are regularly subjected
to polluted water in cooling systems.
Brazing: AG60 and AG60/45 FLUX.
TIG welding: ICUNI 30-239.
Wire welding: ICUNI-W-239.
107
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Description
Copper tubes and
fittings of diameters
up to 30 mm with
capillary joint.
Solution
AG-60-252
AG-45-253
2.08
Copper pipe of more
than 30 mm diameter
where I-joint is used
for butt welding or
T-junction for
branching.
Bronze pump
impeller, building up
wear edges that have
worn down.
FCBRONZE-261
BRONZE-264
FCWEARBRO-262
TINBRO-341
Building up blade
of pump impeller
or walls in pump
housing.
Repair of cracks in
large pump housings,
or rebuilding wear.
108
TINBRO-341
TINBRO-341
Examples
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Description
Filling holes in small
valve housings where
wear or corrosion
has caused damage.
Solution
Examples
FC-BRONZE261
BRONZE-264
TINBRO-341
Building up worn
threads or surfaces
in valve and pump
components.
FC-BRONZE261
2.08
BRONZE-264
Rebuilding worn
sliding surfaces on
bronze bearings.
FCWEARBRO-262
Yorcalbro-pipe
diameter less than
100 mm, where a
capillary joint can
be made, for joining
or for patching over
pittings.
AG-60-252
Yolcalbro pipe
diameter over 100
mm, for patching or
for joining.
IALBRO-237MF
IALBRO-W-237
109
SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Description
Repair of large
components in
Yorcalbro, like
heating coil boxes.
Solution
IALBRO-237MF
IALBRO-W-237
2.08
Joining Cunifer
pipes with diameter
under 100 mm, where
capillary joint can be
prepared.
Cunifer pipes over 100
mm, for butt welding,
for flanges and for Tjunctions.
AG-60-252
ICUNI-30-239
ICUNI-W-239
Large components
in Cunifer, like heat
exchangers.
ICUNI-30-239
ICUNI-W-239
Conductors and
cables of copper.
SOLDERING
TIN-241 AG
110
Examples
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.08
111
SOLUTIONS: Aluminium
Metals and welding solutions:
Aluminium
Pure aluminium (Al) is a soft, easily
shaped metal with low strength.
It is characterized by low weight,
excellent corrosion resistance and
good electrical conductivity.
The strength of aluminium can be
considerably improved by the addition
of small quantities of alloy elements.
As an alloy, aluminium retains the
same appearance as pure aluminium
and approximately the same low
weight, but strength can be compared
to mild steel. Only a limited number
of aluminium alloys are considered
suitable for use on board ships.
2.09
AIMg 3 and AIMg 1 are seawater
resistant aluminium alloys. When
alloyed with copper and silicon,
aluminium can be used for the
manufacture of cast components
(silumin).
When aluminium and its alloys come
into contact with air, a refractory skin
of oxide quickly forms on the surface.
The melting point of aluminium oxide
is over 2,000°C, considerably higher
than that of aluminium, which melts
at 660°C. Unless this layer of oxide
is effectively removed during the
welding operation, the difference in
melting temperatures will make it
difficult for the metal of the workpiece
to bind with the filler.
112
Included oxides will also reduce the
strength of the weld.
Thorough cleaning and the use of
flux is therefore essential when gas
welding aluminium.
Welding should be done immediately
after cleaning, before a new oxide
film has time to develop. Other
characteristic properties of aluminium
are a high coefficient of expansion,
good electrical and heat conductivity,
and the absence of colour change
when heated to melting point.
Filler materials for Aluminium in the
Unitor range are:
Coated electrode: ALUMlN-351N
Gas welding rod: ALUMAG-235
Wire welding: ALUMAG-W-235
For gas welding of aluminium it is
required to use a flux that removes
oxides. Use Unitor ALUFLUX-234F.
SOLUTIONS: Aluminium
Description
Welding repairs of
pure aluminium,
seawater resistant
aluminium and cast
aluminium.
Cover plates and
smaller parts.
Solution
ALUMAG-235
and
ALUFLUX-234F
ALUMIN-351
Cracks in larger
parts.
Holes or fractures in
smaller parts.
Plate and tube
constructions
in gang way.
Examples
ALUMAGW-235
2.09
ALUMAG-235
and
ALUFLUX-234F
ALUMIN-351N
ALUMAGW-235
113
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
Typical welding faults
Unmelted
edge
Bead crown too high
Undercut
Crack
Poor fusion
Embedded slag
Pores
Root fault
2.10
Root faults
When laying the first bead along the
root in a butt joint, penetration at the
root may be irregular or insufficient.
When current is excessive,
penetration will be too high.
Insufficient penetration may be due
to the current setting being too low,
or the rate of travel too high. The
electrode may also be too large for
the groove to be welded.
Fusion faults
If the current is too low or rate of
travel too high, fusion faults may
result, i.e. insufficient melting and
fusion between the filler and the base
metal.
Fusion faults may also occur if a small
electrode is used on a large area of
cold base material. A larger electrode
diameter should be used, and the
base material preheated.
114
Bead edge defects
Bead edge irregularities can occur
if current output is too high. Bead
edge faults may also occur at
correct current output if the arc is
too long or if electrode movement is
incorrect. When welding upwards on
a vertical plane and using a weaving
movement, the electrode should be
momentarily held still at each side of
the bead to obtain good penetration
and avoid edge defects. Edge faults
and undercut may act as fracture
indicators in the welded connection.
Pores
Pores in the weld may be due to
moisture content in the electrode
coating, especially when welding with
basic electrodes. Pores in the weld
may also arise if the base material
to be welded is wet or damp. Other
reasons can be because of to long an
arc, allowing air into the weld zone.
A porous weld will have reduced
strength properties.
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
Heat cracks
Heat cracks may appear during or just
after the cooling off period. There are
two main causes:
Impurities in the base material which
have a tendency to segregate and
may form a layer in the middle of the
weld. This layer prevents fusion of
the crystals. Segregated substances
are first and foremost carbon and
sulphur. In cases where heat cracks
are caused by these substances,
switch to basic electrodes. If heat
cracks appear when welding with
basic electrodes, the material is not
weldable.
Tension across the
weld can cause heat
cracks even if the
base material does
not segregate in the
weld. At a narrow,
critical temperature
range, just after
coagulation of the
bead, there is very
little deformation
property in a weld,
Heat cracks
and if shrinking in
the metal is greater than the stretch
in the weld, a heat crack will result.
This type of crack can be avoided by
clamping workpieces in special jigs
which control shrinkage.
A heat crack will occur in the middle
of the bead and will appear as a
straight crack on the surface.
Shrinkage cracks
Shrinkage cracks occur when the
deformation property (toughness)
of the weld is less than the actual
shrinkage movement. Shrinkage
cracks will usually
appear across
the weld direction
and be caused
by considerable
lengthwise
shrinkage. Basic
electrodes are the
best safeguard
against shrinkage
cracks.
Shrinkage cracks
Hydrogen cracks (Cold cracks)
Weld metal cracks are caused by
hydrogen and may occur in any type
of steel which has been hardened
or which may become hardened
during the welding process. Steel
with a high yield point will contain a
certain amount of hardened structure,
normally martensite. The higher
the melting point, the higher is the
risk of hydrogen cracks. The most
common reason for
hydrogen cracks is
that moist or damp
electrodes is used
during welding.
The water in the
coating will change
into hydrogen in the
arc and end up as
hydrogen porosity
dissolved in the
weld metal and the
Hydrogen cracks heat affected zone
(HAZ) immediately
(cold cracks)
adjacent to the
molten zone. When combined with
hard phases in the weld and sufficient
stress it will form cracks.
2.10
115
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
The cracks might occur long time
after welding is completed and are
therefor often referred to as cold
cracks.
Other hydrogen sources are rust,
oil, paint or condensation along
the welding groove. Preheating
the groove to say 50 °C will help
considerably in reducing the amount
of hydrogen.
Conclusion: Dry basic electrodes
when there is risk of cold cracking.
2.10
Note the following:
Hard phases form when the weld
is cooled rapidly from melting
temperature to room rature. Alloying
elements, mostly carbon, are forced
to dissolve in the weld metal and
make it brittle. The following formula
describes this process in the case of
standard carbon-manganese steel.
Ec = %C + %Mn + %(Cr+Mo+V) + %(Ni+Cu)
6
5
15
Steels with Ec = 0.35 and below
are usually weldable without any
problems at normal steel thickness.
For the more highly alloyed steels
and steels with thicker dimensions,
an elevated working temperature
is necessary in order to reduce the
cooling rate.
The elevated temperature also allows
the hydrogen to diffuse.
To determine elevated working
temperatures, please consult BS
5135:1984 or SS 064025. If the Ec
dimension of the plates and heat input
are known, these standards will state
whether heating is necessary and the
level at which it should take place.
116
Tension cannot be avoided when
welding, as steel expands when
heated, although correct planning and
heat treatment can reduce tension
considerably.
Slag embedded in weld
Slag consists of non-metallic particles
originating from the coating of the
electrode. All slag must be properly
removed after finishing each weld
bead. Use a chipping hammer and
wire brush for this purpose. Slag
embedded in the weld will seriously
affect the strength of the weld. Try
to avoid burning cavities, as any slag
deposited in such cavities will be
difficult to remove.
When preparing the welding groove,
make sure there is sufficient gap to
provide good fusion and easy slag
removal. Clean off mill scale and rust
from the surfaces to be welded and
make sure you choose the correct
electrode for the welding position to
be used.
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.10
117
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
Inspection of welded joints
Inspection indicates whether the
prescribed standard of quality has
been met. This function may be the
responsibility of the superintendent
or other representative of the ship
owner:
2.10
Visual inspection from start to finish
Visual inspection is the best buy in
Non Destructive Testing (NDT) but
it must take place constantly, prior
to, during and after welding. In a
sense, everyone involved in the job,
as well as the appointed inspector,
participate in visual inspection.
A conscientious worker does not
knowingly pass on work in which he
recognises discontinuities of his own
making. Nevertheless, it is usually
desirable that someone is assigned
the responsibility for quality checking
each operation. In addition to good
eyesight and proper light, the tools
for visual inspection are simple – a
pocket rule, a weld-size gauge, a
magnifying glass, and sometimes
a straight edge and square for
determining straightness, alignment,
and perpendicularity.
Inspector’s tools: Magnifying glass, Torch,
Ruler and Welders gauge
118
Prior to welding
Visual inspection should begin before
the first arc is struck. The materials
should be examined to see if they
meet specifications for quality,
type, size, cleanliness, and freedom
from discontinuities. Foreign matter
Check Material Certificate
– grease, paint, oil, oxide film, heavy
scale – that should be detrimental
to the weld shall be removed. The
pieces to be joined should be checked
for straightness, flatness, and
dimensions. Warped, bent, improperly
cut or damaged pieces should
be ordered for repair or rejected.
Alignment and fixtures should be
scrutinised. Joint preparation should
be checked. Often little more than
a passing glance is required as a
preliminary inspection, but, despite
its almost casual nature, it can be a
significant factor in weld quality. A
good joint design will provide access
for the welder, adequate root opening
to permit full fused penetration and
correct groove angle to minimise
volume of weld metal. The joint
preparation must be correct before
welding is started, not only to meet
the specifications, but also to give
assurance of weld quality.
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
Remember:
50% of quality is edge preparation
Faults to look for:
Disalignment
If the gap is too narrow, the weld will
bridge the gap, leaving slag at at the root.
Inspection prior to welding also
includes verification of correct
process and procedures are to be
employed – that the electrode type
and size and the equipment settings
for voltage and amperage are as
specified – and that provisions are
made for required preheat or post
heat.
Improperly cut edges
Groove angle and root opening
If the root opening is too wide, it will melt
through
2.10
Check at regular intervals that
the consumables used match
specification
Each welding process has its
advantages and limitations, and each
introduces problems affecting joint
preparation, welding procedures and
operator training.
In most inspection situations
the welding process is decided
beforehand. So are the welding
consumable (filler metals), but it is
important that they have been stored
properly in unopened containers
unharmed by moisture.
To ensure uniform results the welders
procedures must be spelled out in
detail and followed rigorously during
welding. Only qualified people must
be assigned to the job.
119
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
2.10
Excessive penetration
Lack of penetration
The root pass in multi pass grooves are
especially susceptible to cracking
Groove welds are prone to undercut along
the edges, increasing the risk of trapping
slag when the next pass is made
Slag trapping may also be caused by a
convex bead
Check that welding parameters are
according to procedure with regard to
type of current, polarity, amperage, type of
consumable etc.
During welding
Assuming the preliminary
requirements are met, the productive
inspection will take place while the
weld is being done. Examination of
a weld bead and the end crater may
to a competent inspector reveal
quality deficiencies such as cracks,
inadequate penetration, and gas and
slag inclusions.
On simple welds, inspection of a
specimen at the beginning of the
120
operation and periodically as the
work progresses may be adequate.
When more than one layer of filler
metal is deposited, however, it may be
desirable to inspect each layer before
the next.
The root pass in a multipass weld is
the most critical one with regard to
weld soundness.
Check that the welding parameters
match the parameters laid down in
the approved welding procedure.
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
After welding
Visual inspection after welding has
been completed is also useful in
evaluating quality, even if ultrasonic,
radiographic, or other methods
are to be employed. As welding
progresses, surface flaws such as
cracks, porosity, and unfilled craters
can be detected, leading to repairs
or rejection of the work. There is no
point in submitting an obvious bad
weld to sophisticated inspection
methods.
Underwelding is a violation of specification
and can not be tolerated.
Dimensional variations from
tolerances, warping, and faults in
appearance are detected visually at
this stage. The extent and continuity
of the weld, its size, and the length of
segments in intermittent welds can be
readily measured or recorded.
Welds must be cleaned from slag to
make inspection for surface flaws
possible. A 10x magnifying glass is
helpful in detecting fine cracks and
other faults. Shot blasting should not
be used prior to examination, since
the peening action may seal fine
cracks and make them invisible.
The objective of visual inspection at
this stage is not only to detect non
permissible faults, but also to give
clues as to what may be wrong in the
entire repair /fabrication process. If
the inspector has a sound knowledge
of welding, he can read much from
what he sees. Thus, the presence of
excessive porosity and slag inclusions
may be an indication of insufficient
current even if the dial readings
on the machine tell otherwise.
Subsequent tests will also give clues
to faults in equipment or procedures,
but the information acquired through
visual examination allows corrections
to be made before results from more
sophisticated methods become
available.
Overwelding is costly and serves no useful
purpose. It only makes the construction
stiffer and heavier.
2.10
A-measurement
Leg length
Leg length
The designer has specified a weld
size and this should be observed.
For filled joints it is also important
that the leg lengths are equal.
121
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
Summing up inspection of welded joints.
What to look for PRIOR TO WELDING:
•Type/state of base material
•Joint design
•Welding process
•Consumables
•Welding procedure
•Welder’s qualifications
What to do DURING WELDING:
•Compare welding parameters with
procedure
•Inspect each layer before the next
What to look for AFTER WELDING:
•The final weld result
•Size of weld (measuring)
Faults and causes:
2.10
122
Surface porosity
Excessive speed, rusty or dirty plates, wet
electrodes or flux, insufficient flux/gas
coverage.
Cold cracks (Hydrogen cracks)
Wet electrodes or flux.
Insufficient preheating.
Hot cracks
Excessively high current.
Insufficient preheat.
High impurity level in base material
Slag inclusion
Faulty technique.
Wrong electrode size or off-spec welding
parameters.
Underfill
Too high welding speed
Undercut
High current,
Insufficient electrode angle.
Speed of travel too fast.
SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds
Crack Detection
By using dye penetrant we can
detect surface cracks not readily
visible to the eye. The dye penetrant
kits consist of a cleaner to clean
the surface for grease and oil, a dye
penetrant that penetrates down in
cracks and porosity, and a developer.
It is a low cost and easy to use,
inspection method.
There are also other non-destructive
methods. For detection of internal
porosity, cracks and slag inclusions
radiographic and ultrasonic methods
must be used, but they require
specialised personnel and equipment.
Step 1)
Remove surface rust, scale, paint by
mechanical means, spray cleaner to
degrease the inspection area. Leave to dry.
Step 2)
Spray penetrant over the area and allow
to soak for about ten minutes.
Step 3)
Remove all excess penetrant using a dry
cloth and wipe dry.
Step 4)
Spray developer evenly over the inspection area and wait a few minutes until the
area dries white. Any surface defects will
appear in red contrast.
2.10
Dye Penetrant Inspection product
Product description
Magna Flux
Crack detection kit*
Unit Product no.
Set 096-653535
* Kit comes in convenient Shoulder carry
case and consist of: 3 pcs. Cleaner, 2 pcs.
Penetrant, 3 pcs. Developer, 1 pcs. Cloth.
123
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
2.10
124
CONSUMABLES
coated Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Tig Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
3.01
125
COATED ELECTRODES
3.01
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Types of electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Classification and approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Welding positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
GPO-302 N
General Purpose Electrode For Mild Steel . . . . . . 150
GPR-300H
High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel . . . . . . . . 152
SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild
and Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
LH-314 N
Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . 156
LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode
for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
LHV-316 N
Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen
Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
LHT-318 N
Electrode for High Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . 162
LHL-319 N
Electrode for Low Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . 164
LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-to-Weld Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 168
IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . 170
WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays 172
18/8-321 N
Electrode for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
23/14-322 N
Electrode for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
NIFE-334 N
NICKEL-333 N
TINBRO-341
ALBRONZE-344
ALUMIN-351 N
CH-2-382
ACA-384
126
Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Electrode for Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Electrode for Chamfering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging . . . . . . . . . . 194
COATED ELECTRODES
Introduction
The Unitor standard electrode range
contains electrodes for:
•Mild and low alloy steels
•Cast steel
•Heat resistant steel
•Low temperature steel
•Weathering steel
•Stainless and acid-resistant steels
•Tool- and machine-part steels
•Cast iron
•Aluminium and aluminium alloys
•Copper and copper alloys
•Air-carbon-arc gouging
•Gouging with standard equipment
A Product Range Selected for
Maritime Use
High quality coupled with versatility
is a basic factor for the selection of
arc welding electrodes in the Unitor
standard range. It is composed
to cover all normally occurring
applications on board, yet to be as
compact as possible. Each electrode
therefore covers a wide range
of applications. This reduces the
number of electrode types needed on
board.
With the Best Welding Properties
Special care has been taken to select
electrodes with the best all-round
welding properties. Easily welded
electrodes are necessary to achieve
good results without too stringent
demands on the welder’s skill.
Welding on board is often required
in awkward positions. The Unitor
standard range has been composed
with this in mind, whenever possible
the electrode’s welding properties are
equally good also in the vertical and
over-head positions.
LMA Properties
All electrode coatings are
hygroscopic ( they absorb moisture
from the atmosphere ). When
welding, the moisture turns into
hydrogen in the arc that again ends
up as hydrogen porosity in the
weld deposit. Combined with other
undesirable effects this can turn into
hydrogen cracking also known as
cold cracking in the weld. In order
to extend the electrodes usable
lifetime and safeguard against cold
cracking, the Unitor electrodes for
structural work have been given Low
Moisture Absorption properties when
manufactured. This greatly reduces
the electrodes moisture absorption
rate. Electrodes with LMA properties
are marked "LMA electrodes".
Packed for Maritime Conditions
The electrode box is made of high
density polyethylene making it the
right place for storing and protecting
electrodes from moisture pickup,
contamination and physical damage.
3.01
The information label that is placed on
the box gives all relevant information
to how the electrodes are to be used.
Label, cap and box are made out
of the same recycled material and
does not need to be separated when
recycling.
All Unitor electrodes have an imprint
with name, and if applicable, AWS
number.
127
COATED ELECTRODES
Types of electrodes
What happens when the arc is struck?
The electrode is part of an electronic
circuit.
To strike an arc the electrode must
first touch the workpiece. This action
causes a shortcircuit, and when the
electrode is withdrawn slightly, the
arc is formed.
Mains electricity supply
Welding
machine
Electrode holder
Arc
Electrode
Welding cable
Return cable
Return clamp
Workpiece
The Arc
A Weld deposit
B Penetration
C Heat affected zone (HAZ)
Gas shield
Slag
A
Core rod
Coating
B C
Weld pool
128
The actual transfer of metal from
the electrode to the workpiece is
in the form of molten globules of
different sizes depending on the type
of electrode used. Some electrodes
produce globules that are so large
that they actually shortcircuit the arc
for a moment.
In these cases it is of special
importance that the welding power
source has a fast dynamic response
so that extreme currents and spatter
are avoided.
High speed films have been taken of
the process in the arc from a coated
electrode. These films indicate that
the globules actually explode. When
a drop leaves the electrode, the
extremely high temperature behind it
causes an explosion-like expansion
effect and the metal is drawn towards
the molten pool. This so-called pinch
force is stronger than the force of
gravity, and overhead welding is
thereby made possible.
3.01
Metal globule
The arc will immediately melt some
of the coating and core wire of the
electrode tip, and the gas shield
shown in the figure is formed. At
the temperatures found in the arc
(approx. 7000 °C) the gas will be
ionized, providing good electrical
conductivity in the arc.
As soon as the globule leaves the
electrode, it is covered by slag
material from the electrode coating.
This drop is then carried through the
arc to the molten pool. At this point
the slag separates from the metal,
floats up and forms a coating on top
of the weld.
The core rod in the electrode melts
faster than the coating, and the
resulting crater in the end of the
electrode aids directional stability of
the weld.
COATED ELECTRODES
Types of electrodes
Electrodes for manual arc welding
(sometimes referred to as stick
welding) consist of a rod and a
coating material. As a rule, the alloy in
the rod will be similar to the material
to be welded.
The rod forms part of the welding
circuit, and when it is melted together
with the coating material, it provides
the filler which is necessary to obtain
a welded joint.
The object of the electrode coating
is to provide easy striking and a
stable arc. The coating material also
contains elements which affect the
transport of metal across the arc
and provide good mechanical and
chemical properties to the alloy
formed between the base material
and the rod core in the electrode.
When molten, the coating also
provides a gas shield around the
molten pool, which acts as protection
against the atmosphere during
welding. The coating elements form
a slag when cool which further
protects the weld during the cooling
down process. The coating may also
contain substances (i.e. iron powder),
which increase the metal depositing
properties of the electrode during
welding. Electrode size (2.5, 3.2, 4.0
mm etc.) indicates the diameter of the
rod core.
Control of Recovery
By adding metal powder into
the coating we can regulate the
electrodes recovery (Deposition rate).
3.01
The coated electrode
Rod core grip end
Coating
Electrode size
Rod core
129
COATED ELECTRODES
Types of electrodes
The function of the core rod is to
provide electricity to the arc and to
melt and become weld deposit.
The coating consisting of metals,
minerals and organic substances
have several functions:
Ionisation
Air is a non conductor.
By adding ionising
elements that
evaporates during
welding we create a
plasma cloud where
the current can travel.
For AC welding this
function is essential
in order to perform
welding.
3.01
Crater Formation
Elements in coating
that makes the melting
boundary of the
coating to be behind
that of the core rod.
The arc is in this way
concentrated to one
spot directly under the
electrode tip.
Metal Transfer
The transfer of
metal globules from
the electrode tip
to the molten pool
is made possible
by a combination
of elements in the
coating "exploding" the
droplets over and the
current that performs
a "pinch" effect.
130
Alloying Elements
In the arc the
temperature reaches
7000 °C. Many
of the elements
might evaporate
and will have to be
compensated for
by putting alloying
elements into the
coating.
AIR
AIR
Gas Shield
The shielding ingredients in the
coating is to provide a dense smoke
shield preventing Oxygen and
Nitrogen from reaching the pool / arc
area
Slag Formation
Slag forming
elements are part
of the electrode
coating and they
are there in order
to:
1) Protect crater
and globules
against oxygen
during the droplet
transfer,
2) Clean the
weld pool by combining itself with
impurities and bring them to the
surface before solidification,
3) Give the weld a slow cooling rate,
4) Form the weld: Welding is a small
scale casting operation and requires
a mould. The slag is the mould.
COATED ELECTRODES
Types of electrodes
When selecting an electrode, the first
rule is to select one which produces
a weld metal quality equal to or
better than that of the base material
and, when necessary, is approved
for the material in question. Welding
position and type of joint are other
factors, which influence the choice
of electrode, as different electrodes
have different properties in different
welding positions and types of joint.
The most common types of electrodes
are:
1. The Organic type (Cellulose)
2. The Rutile type
3. The Acid type
4. The Basic type (Low Hydrogen)
Organic electrodes contain large
quantities of organic substances such
as cellulose. The metal transfer is
referred to as explosion arc and the
electrodes are well suited for vertical
down welding.
Rutile electrodes contain large
quantities of the mineral rutile (up to
50 %) or components derived from
Titanium Oxide. Rutile electrodes
can also contain cellulose. The rutile
type of electrode has especially good
welding properties both with AC
and DC. The organic-rutile electrode
is usually the cold welding type,
characterized by a spray arc globular
transfer, which is an advantage when
welding in different positions. This
type of electrode is when alloyed
well suited for re- and hard surfacing
because of its shallow penetrations
and high weld buildup. Big opening
between plates can easily be bridged
using this type of electrode. The rate
of welding is not particularly high, but
the deposit is of good quality and slag
is easily removed.
Unalloyed rutile electrodes are not
normally recommended for welding
steel with nominal tensile strength
exceeding 440 Mpa. The impact
values are low because of oxygen
level in the weld metal. Rutile
electrodes are relatively insensitive to
moisture.
Acid electrodes produce an Iron
Oxide / Manganese Oxide / Silica type
of slag, the metallurgical character
which is an acid. The coating contains
oxides of the low pH value hence the
term acid.
Acid electrodes provide good fusion,
a high rate of welding and are equally
suitable for AC and DC. The arc is
stable and slag is easily removable,
even if it is the first bead in a Vgroove weld.
Alloyed acid electrodes are suitable
for welding steel with a nominal
tensile strength of up to 440 Mpa.
3.01
Basic electrodes
Basic electrodes are often referred
to as Low Hydrogen electrodes. After
special heat treatment the coating
has a very low hydrogen content,
hence the name.
Basic electrodes with low moisture
absorption (LMA) have a lower initial
moisture content and the speed of
remoisturing is much lower than of
normal basic electrodes.
Unalloyed basic electrodes give moderate welding speed in the flat position but are faster than other types
when welding vertically upwards.
The reason for this is that basic electrodes can be deposited at a higher
current in the vertical position than
other types of electrode. In addition,
the amount of weld metal deposited
per electrode is greater than that of
131
COATED ELECTRODES
other electrodes, which can be used
in this position. This results in a smaller number of electrode changes. The
normal result is therefore a higher
fusion rate and higher arc-time factor when welding vertically upwards
with basic electrodes compared with
other types. The slag is normally not
quite as easy to remove as the slag
from acid or rutile electrodes, but,
in spite of this, it can be classed as
easily detachable. The slag from
basic electrodes has a lower melting point than that from rutile or acid
electrodes. The risk of slag inclusions
during normal production welding is
therefore unusually small when basic
electrodes are used, even if the slag
is not completely removed between
beads during multi-run welding.
3.01
coating extruded onto the core rod
followed by a thicker basic
layer. In this way the
electrode gets the fine
droplet transfer of rutile
electrodes and the
deposit strength of
the basic electrode.
The weld metal from basic electrodes
has a low hydrogen content and
usually has good toughness even at
low temperatures. Basic electrodes
are less likely to produce either hot
cracks or cold cracks compared
with other types of electrode. The
superiority of basic electrodes from
this point of view appears when
welding manganese-alloyed structural
steels, pressure-vessel steels and
ship’s plate with a nominal tensile
strength of 490-530 MPa. The
higher the hardenability of the
steel to be welded, the greater
the necessity to use basic
electrodes and the greater the
need for low moisture content
in the coating.
Double coated electrodes
These electrodes consist
of a thin layer of rutile
Core rod
Basic coating
Rutile coating
132
COATED ELECTRODES
Unitor LMA electrodes
Electrodes with special coating properties.
LMA stands for Low Moisture
Absorption, i.e. low moisture pick-up.
LMA gives you less problem with
porosity.
An LMA- electrode is drier than
ordinary electrodes from the very
beginning. The pick-up of the
surrounding air humidity during the
day is very low. The electrode can be
exposed longer and will still give you
a porosity free weld metal.
LMA will decrease the risk for
HAZ cracking. (Cold cracks/Hydrogen
cracks)
If you weld high tensile steels or very
thick plates of medium strength, you
will gain extra security with LMA
electrodes. The risk for hydrogen
cracking in the heat-affected zone will
decrease.
All other properties are unchanged.
The LMA- coating does not affect
other properties.
You will still get
•the same good weldability
•the same mechanical properties
•the same low fume formation
Unitor LMA electrodes:
SPECIAL-303 N
LH-314 N
LHH-314 H
LHV-316 N
LHT-318 N
LHL-319 N
LHR-320 N
18/8-321 N
24/14-322 N
DUPLEX-325 N
3.01
Electrodes with LMA properties are
marked
LMA
Electrode
•the same price
133
COATED ELECTRODES
Storing and re-drying
If properly stored, transported and
used electrodes will form weld
deposits with low hydrogen content.
If not, hydrogen porosity can lead to
hydrogen cracking (cold cracking) if
the component welded is under strain,
vibration or load.
General background
When welding carbon-manganese
and low alloyed steels cold cracking
(often referred to as hydrogen cracking) can occur. These cracks generally form in the coarse-grained, heataffected zone (HAZ) of the base plate.
The most important factors which
influence the risk of hydrogen cracking are:
3.01
• Chemical composition of the steel
• Cooling rate
• Hydrogen content of the weld metal
Hydrogen is always present in small
quantities during welding and is a
prerequisite for the occurrence of
cold cracking.
The most common sources of hydrogen are:
• Moisture in the electrode coating
• Moisture in the air
• Condensation, rust, oil, paint or
pri­mer in the welding joint area.
By following the recommended storage, and procedures for handling
and redrying , the moisture level in
electrode coatings can be minimised,
along with the associated risk of cold
cracking.
Hydrogen levels are measured as
ml H2 /100 g weld deposit and typical
levels for different electrode coating
types are as follows:
134
Rutile and Acid
>15 ml/100 g
Basic < 10, < 5 and < 3 ml/100 g
Storage and handling
Welding consumables should be
stored in their original packing. As a
guideline we recommend the following temperatures in the storage room:
Temperatures
°C
(°F)
Max. Relative humidity in %
5–15
(41–59)
60
15–25
(59–77)
50
Above 25
(77)
40
During the winter, it is possible to
maintain low relative humidity by
keeping the temperature in the storeroom at least 10 °C (18 °F) above
the outdoor temperature. During
certain periods in the summer and
in a tropical climate, sufficiently low
relative humidity can be maintained
by air de-humidification.
The purpose is to avoid hydrogen
absorption to the extent possible.
Redrying
Rutile electrodes showing signs of
damage by moisture can be redried at
a temperature of 90–110 °C for
0.5–1 hour.
Basic electrodes are normally redried
at a temperature of around 350 °C for
2 hours, to achieve a hydrogen level
of 5–10 ml/100 g. (BS 5135, Scale C).
Redrying should be restricted to a
maximum of 3 cycles.
To achieve extreme low hydrogen levels, <4.0 ml/100 g, a redrying temperature of 42–400 °C is recommended
for 1–2 hours. Redrying should be
restricted to 1 cycle.
COATED ELECTRODES
Re-dried basic electrodes can be
stored in a heated cabinet at 80 °C
without further moisture pick-up.
Stainless steel electrodes which have
been stored outside of their electrode
box and have become damaged by
moisture pick-up can be redried at
a temperature of 300–350 °C for 1–2
hours. Redrying should be restricted
to a maximum of 3 cycles.
Welding electrodes should be
stored in their original package.
Preferably in a de-humidified area
or in a heating cabinet.
Heating
Cabinet
at 80 °C
3.01
All basic electrodes and
stainless steel electrodes
should be re-dried before
use. Always do when
there is application
requirements.
Minidryer
300–350 °C
Unused electrodes
should be re-dried
before being returned
to the heating cabinet.
Rutile electrodes
normally no need for
re-drying.
Observe recommended
re-drying temperatures
and holding times for
Unitor electrodes stated
on box label
Max exposure
time for electrodes
in the open is 8
hours.
Worksite
135
COATED ELECTRODES
Storing and re-drying
Minidryer-350
The Minidryer-350 is designed to
restore moist electrodes, or to pre-dry
electrodes before welding when this
is required. The dryer may be used
with electrodes of both 350 and 450
mm length. With the cover in an open
position, the electrodes will protrude
approximately 40 mm and are easily
accessible.
The Minidryer-350 is equipped with
2 m primary cable and plug. It has a
thermostat for continuous selection
of the temperature from 100 to 350 °C
(212 °F to 662 °F).
3.01
The dryer is very robust in design
and are all-over insulated with 40
mm mineral wool. It can also stand
permanently in a tilted position. When
the dryer is in a tilted position, the
cover cannot stand open, but always
closes to prevent the intrusion of
unwanted moist air. When the dryer
is tilted, a rim around the opening
prevents rainwater from entering.
The Minidryer-350
Ordering Information:
Minidryer-350.
Product number: 094-637827.
Caution:
Use gloves when handling warm
electrodes from inside the Minidryer350. This product should be used for
drying electrodes only.
Type
Minidryer350
136
Mains
Voltage
V
Heater
Output
W
30,
50/60 Hz
400
Primary Operating
Width x Depth x Height
Current Temperature Inner Dimensions Outer Dimensions
A
°C
mm
mm
1.8
100 to 350
Ø100 x 460
170 x 170 x 570
Electrode
Capacity
kg
Net
Weight
kg
8
7
COATED ELECTRODES
Re-drying of Electrodes
Customers are recommended to redry low hydrogen electrodes before
use whenever there are application
requirements relating to weld metal
hydrogen content and / or radiographic soundness. This information
is given on the box label for the
individual electrodes. Failure to follow
these recommendations may produce
pores and weld failure.
Unitor Minidryer-350
(094-637827)
100–350 °C (212–662 °F) can be used
for this purpose.
Recommended re-drying temperatures,
holding time two hours, for Unitor
electrodes:
GPO-302 N
Normally no need for re-drying
GPR-300 H
Normally no need for re-drying
SPECIAL- 303 N
300 °C (572 °F)
LH- 314 N
350 °C (662 °F)
LHH-314 H
350 °C (662 °F)
LHV-316 N
350°C (662 °F)
LHT-318 N
350 °C (662 °F)
LHL-319 N
350 °C (662 °F)
LHR-320 N
350 °C (662 °F)
TENSILE-328 N250 °C (482 °F)
IMPACT-329 S250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour
WEARMAX-327250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour
18/8-321 N
350 °C (662 °F)
23/14-322 N
350 °C (662 °F)
DUPLEX-325 N
350 °C (662 °F)
NIFE-334 N200 °C (392 °F)
NICKEL-333 N
80 °C (176 °F)
TINBRO-341200 °C (392 °F) 1 hour
ALBRONZE-344250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour
ALUMIN-351 N
Not needed from
sealed packing.
Open packing: redry at
80 °C (176 °F) 1 hour.
CH-2-382
120°C (248 °F) 1 hour
ACA-384
180°C (356 °F) 10 hours*
Re-drying time is measured from
the point at which the re-drying
temperature has been reached. After
re-drying, the electrodes can be
returned to a heating cabinet and kept
at a minimum temperature of 70 °C
(158 °F).
Unitor Heating Cabinet-85
(094-637850)
85 °C (185 °F) can be used for this
purpose.
Mild steel rutile and rutile / organic
electrodes such as GPO-302 N
normally need no re-drying
Re-drying covered electrodes more
than three times is not recommended.
* The copper coating will oxidize
during the process, butt this will not
influence the performance of the
product.
3.01
137
COATED ELECTRODES
Storing and re-drying
The Heating Cabinet-85
This cabinet is specially designed
as a ships’ store for repair and
maintenance electrodes.
A thermostat allows for stepless
setting of the temperature from 30 °C
up to 85 °C (86 °F up to 185 °F).
The cabinet contains five shelves and
every shelf is removable. The shelves
are slanted to prevent the content
from sliding out when the door is
opened in rough seas.
The active parts in this oven are
enclosed in a unit located in the
bottom of the oven. This unit can be
easily removed as one unit.
3.01
The Heating Cabinet – 85 have 100 mm
mineral wool in the bottoom and 50
mm in the top and side walls.
The Heating Cabinet -85
It is delivered with 1,7 m cable and
plug
cabinet. No chemical products are to
be used within the heating cabinet.
Caution:
Use gloves when handling warm
electrodes from inside the heating
Ordering Information:
Heating Cabinet-85
Product number: 094-637850
Spare Parts:
Casette complete
Product number 094-777853
Type
Mains
Voltage
V
Heating
30,
Cabinet- 50/60 Hz
85
138
Heater
Output
W
500
Primary Operating
Width x Depth x Height
Current Temperature Inner Dimensions Outer Dimensions
A
°C
mm
mm
1,3
30-85
460 x 50 x 860 564 x 640 x 1095
Electrode
Capacity
kg
Net
Weight
kg
350
70
COATED ELECTRODES
Storing and re-drying
Arc Welding Cabinet
A complete‘tool-box’ for covered
electrodes, including 27 packages
of electrodes selected to cover all
normal welding applications on mild
steels, ship quality steel, stainless
steels, ‘problem steels’, cast iron,
copper alloys and aluminium.
• Compact design with easy access
to contents, and separate room for
the welding handbook.
• Sturdy, corrosion resistant
construction from electrogalvanized
steel plates, with final coating
by powder spraying and baking,
and with zinc/yellow-chromate
passivated shelves for optimal
corrosion and scratch resistance.
Product Description
Product no.
Arc Welding
Cabinet
Ship quality steel and cast steel:
SPECIAL-303 N2,5 mm
1 package
SPECIAL-303 N 3,2 mm2 packages
SPECIAL-303 N 4,0 mm
1 package
4,1 kg
8,2 kg
5,2 kg
Ship quality steel, horizontal,
high recovery:
LHH-314 H
5,0 mm
1 package
5,5 kg
Ship quality steel, vertical
down welding:
LHV-316 N
3,2 mm
1 package
4,8 kg
1 package
1 package
1,7 kg
1,7 kg
Electrode cabinet
complete
094-670000
Electrode cabinet
empty
Heat resistant steel:
LHT-318 N2,5 mm
LHT-318 N
3,2 mm
094-669994
Low temperature steel:
LHL-319 N
3,2 mm
1 package
1,8 kg
Weathering resistant steel:
LHR-320 N
3,2 mm
1 package
1,8 kg
Dimensions:
Stainless steel, stainless to
mild steel, compound steel:
18/8-321 N2,5 mm
1 package
1,7 kg
18/8-321 N
3,2 mm
1 package
1,7 kg
23/14-322 N
3,2 mm
1 package2,0 kg
600x600x300 mm
free distance above cabinet 310 mm.
Weight with electrodes
110,5 kg
Contents and Applications Areas
Instruction and information:
Unitor Welding Handbook:
Sheet metal and thin walled pipes:
SPECIAL-303 N2,0 mm
1 package
1,7 kg
General mild steel repairs,
all positions:
GPO-302 N2,5 mm
1 package
5,2 kg
GPO-302 N
3,2 mm2 packages 10,8 kg
GPO-302 N
4,0 mm
1 package
5,2 kg
General mild steel repairing,
horizontal, high recovery:
GPR-300 H
4,0 mm
1 package
GPR-300 H
5,0 mm
1 package
3.01
5,5 kg
5,6 kg
"Problem" steels:
TENSILE-328 N2,5 mm
1 package
Cast iron:
NICKEL-333 N2,5 mm
NICKEL-333 N
3,2 mm
1 package2,0 kg
1 package2,2 kg
Aluminium:
ALUMIN-351 N
1,6 kg
3,2 mm
1 package
1,1 kg
Bronze & brass:
ALBRONZE-344 3,2 mm
1 package
1,3 kg
Hardfacing:
WEARMAX-3272,5 mm
1 package
1,6 kg
Cutting & gouging:
CH-2-382
3,2 mm
1 package
1,4 kg
139
COATED ELECTRODES
Storing and re-drying
Arc Welding Cabinet Compact
A complete‘mini-store’ for covered
electrodes, including 9 packages of
electrodes selected to cover normal
welding applications on mild steels,
ship quality steel, stainless steel,
‘problem steels’, cast iron, copper
alloys and aluminium.
• Compact design with easy access
to contents, and separate room for
the welding handbook.
• Sturdy, corrosion resistant
construction from electrogalvanized
steel plates, with final coating
by powder spraying and baking,
and with zinc/yellow-chromate
passivated shelves for optimal
corrosion and scratch resistance.
3.01
Product no.
Electrode cabinet Compact,
complete
"Problem" steels:
TENSILE-328 N2,5 mm
1 package
094-670001
Electrode cabinet Compact
empty
094-669999
Cast iron:
NICKEL-333 N2,5 mm
NIFE-334 N 3,2 mm 1 package2,0 kg
1 package2,2 kg
Aluminium:
ALUMIN-351 N
3,2 mm
1 package
1,1 kg
Bronze & brass:
ALBRONZE-344 3,2 mm
1 package
1,3 kg
Product Description
Width Depth Height open
Height closed Weight empty Weight complete 350mm
165mm
685 mm
550 mm
8 kg
33 kg
Contents and Applications Areas
Instruction and information:
Unitor Welding Handbook:
General mild steel repairs,
all positions:
GPO-302 N2,5 mm
GPO-302 N
3,2 mm
140
1 package
1 packages
5,2 kg
5,4 kg
Ship quality steel and cast steel:
LH-314N 2,5mm 1 package
4,0 kg
Stainless steel
18/8-321 N2,5 mm
1,7 kg
1 package
1,6 kg
COATED ELECTRODES
Classification and Approvals
The European Community for
Standardization has developed a new
nomenclature in welding, Euronorm
EN. This nomenclature replaces the
current European standards like DIN,
BS and NEN. Several new standards
have come in force already and more
changes can be expected within the
near future. In America one refers to
AWS (American Welding Society) for
classification of electrodes. Because
of this we will mostly refer to EN and
AWS in the Nomenclature for Welding
Consumables.
EN 499
Covered electrodes for manual arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steel
EN 757
Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of high strength steel
EN 1600
Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of stainless and heat resisting steel
DIN 1913
BS 639
NEN 2560
DIN 8529
EN 1599
Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of creep-resisting steel
DIN 8575
BS 2493
NEN 3580
DIN 8556
BS 2926
NEN 3581
3.01
Classification and Approvals
CLASSIFICATIONS
Product Name
AWS
GPO-302 N
GPR-300 H
SPECIAL-303 N
LH-314 N
LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N
LHL-319 N LHR-320 N 18/8-321 N 23/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N TENSILE-328 N
IMPACT-329
WEARMAX-327
NIFE-334N
NICKEL-333N
TINBRO-341
ALBRONZE-344
ALUMIN-351 N
E 6013 E 7024 E 7016 E 7018 E 7028 E 8018-G E 8018-B2 E 8018-C1 E 8018-G E 316L-17 E 309MoL-17 E 2209-17 E 312-17
–
E 307-26
E Ni Fe-C1
E Ni-C1
E Cu Sn C
E Cu A1 A2
–
EN
DNV
GL
APPROVALS
LR
BV
ABS
E 38 0 RC 1122222
E 42 0 RR 7322Y2Y22
E 38 2B 32 H10
3YH10
3YH10
3YH15
3, 3YH10
3H10, 3Y
E 42 4 B 42 H5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
E 42 4 B 73 H5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
E 46 5 B 41 H5
3YH10
4YH10
4Y40H10
3YH10
3Y
E CrMo 1B 42 H5
– H10
–
–
UP
SR
E 46 6 2Ni B 32 H5
5YH5
6Y46H5
5Y42H5
1%Cr 0,5Mo, H5 3Y400H5
E 46 5 Z B 32
3YH10
3YH15
3YH15
3YH10
3YH5
E 19 12 3 L R 1 2
316L
4571
316L
316L
E316L-17
E 23 12 2 L R 3 2
309Mo
4459
SS/CMn
309Mo
SS/CMn
E 22 9 3 N L R 3 2
DUPLEX
4462
–2209
DUPLEX
E 29 9R32
–
–
–
–
–
–
AL SI 12
141
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to Approvals
This page shows the grading which
the electrode has under its relevant
classification society approvals.
The full grading code consists of a
digit and one or more letters. The
digit indicates the tensil and notch
toughness grade (see table). Letters
indicate higher tensile steels.
Approvals may be carried out by the
following classifications societies:
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)
Bureau Veritas (BV)
Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
Germanisher Lloyd (GL)
Lloyds Register of Shipping (LR)
Lettering Code:
Y
= approved for higher tensile steels.
H or H15 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <10 ml H2/100g (glycerine
method) or <15 ml H2/100g (mercury method).
HH or H10 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <5 ml H2/100g (glycerine method)
or <10 ml H2/100g (mercury method).
H5
3.01
= hydrogen level in weld metal of <5 ml H2/100g (mercury method).
Grade
Tensile properties
1
2
3
2Y
3Y
4Y
2Y40
3Y40
3Y42
3Y46
4Y40
4Y42
4Y46
5Y40
5Y42
5Y46
Yield strength
MPa
(min)
305
305
305
375
375
375
400
400
420
460
400
420
460
400
420
460
Tensile
strength
MPa
Impact
properties
Elongation
%
400-56022
400-56022
400-56022
460-66022
460-66022
460-66022
510-69022
510-69022
52020
550
19
510-69022
52020
550
19
510-69022
52020
550
19
min. 47 J
at °C
+20
+/-0
-20
+/-0
-20
-40
+/-0
-20
-20
-20
-40
-40
-40
-60
-60
-60
Note: ABS deviates slightly on yield and tensile strength limits for grades 2Y
and 3Y and also on impact test values in all grades.
142
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to EN 499-1995
Symbol
TensileYield
strength strength
MPa
MPa
440–570
470–600
500–640
530–680
560–720
35
38
42
46
50
Elongation
min. %
35522
38020
42020
46020
500
18
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
E
46
Covered electrode for
manual metal-arc welding.
Symbol
Impact energy
Charpy-V
Temp °C for
47J min.
Z
No requirements
A
+20
0 0
2
–20
3
–30
4
–40
5
–50
6
–60
6
2Ni
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5
Welding position
All positions.
All positions, except vertical down.
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld,
horizontal-vertical fillet weld.
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld.
Vertical down and positions
according to symbol 3.
Metal
recovery %
Type of
current
<105
<105
>105≤125
>105≤125
>125≤160
>125≤160
>160
>160
AC + DC
DC
AC + DC
DC
AC + DC
DC
AC + DC
DC
B
3
Symbol
Coating type
A
Acid
B
Basic
C Cellulosic
R
Rutile
RR Rutile (thick coated)
RC
Rutile-Cellulosic
RA
Rutile-Acid
RB
Rutile-Basic
2
H5
3.01
Hydrogen ml/100 g
Symbol
deposited
weld metal, max.
H5 5
H10
10
H15
15
Chemical composition*
Symbol
Mn
Mo
Ni
No symbol2.0
– –
Mo
1.4
0.3–0.6 –
MnMo >1.4–2.0
0.3–0.6 –
1 Ni
1.4
– 0.6–1.2
2 Ni
1.4
– 1.8–2.6
3 Ni
1.4
–
>2.6–3.8
Mn 1 Ni >1.4–2.0
– 0.6–1.2
1 NiMo
1.4
0.3–0.6 0.6–1.2
Z Any other composition
* If not specified Mo <0.2, Ni <0.3, Cr <0.2, V <0.05,
Nb <0.05, Cu <0.3.
Single values shown in the table mean maximum values.
143
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to EN 757-1997
SymbolYield strength Tensile strength Elongation
min. MPa
MPa
min. %
55
62
69
79
89
550
620
690
790
890
610-780
690-890
760-960
880-1080
980-1180
18
18
17
16
15
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5
Welding positions
All positions
All positions, except vertical down
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld,
horizontal-vertical fillet weld.
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld.
Vertical down and positions
according to symbol 3.
Symbol Metal recovery, % Type of current
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
E 62
7
AC+DC
DC
AC+DC
DC
AC+DC
DC
AC+DC
DC
≤105
≤105
>105 ≤ 125
>105 ≤ 125
>125 ≤ 160
>125 ≤ 160
>160
>160
MnNI
B
3
Indicates mechanical
properties after stress
relief treatment.
4
H5
T
3.01
Covered electrode/
manual metal arc
welding.
Symbol Hydrogen content,
ml/100 g deposited
weld metal, max
Only basic electrode
covering.
H5
H10
Symbol
Chemical composition of all-weld metal, %*
Mn Mo
Mn 1Ni
1 Ni Mo
1.5 Ni Mo
2 Ni Mo
Mn 1 Ni Mo
Mn 2 Ni Cr Mo
Mn 2 Ni Mo
Mn 2 Ni Cr Mo
Z
1.4-2.0
-
-
0.3-0.6
1.4-2.0
0.6-1.2
-
1.4
0.6-1.2
-
0.3-0.6
1.4
1.2-1.8
-
0.3-0.6
1.4
1.8-2.6
-
0.3-0.6
1.4-2.0
0.6-1.2
-
0.3-0.6
1.4-2.0
1.8-2.6
-
0.3-0.6
1.4-2.0
1.8-2.6
0.3-0.6
0.3-0.6
1.4-2.0
1.8-2.6
0.6-1.0
0.3-0.6
Any other agreed composition
Symbol
Impact Energy
Charpy-V
Temp °C for 47J min.
Z
A
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
144
No requirements
+20
0
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
Mn
Ni
Cr
Mo
* If not specified C 0.03-0.10, Ni<0.3, Cr<0.2, Mo<0.2, V<0.05,
Nb<0.05, Cu<0.3, P<0.025, S<0.020.
Single values shown in the table are maximum values.
5
10
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to EN 1600-1977
Covered electrode/
manual metal arc
welding.
E
Type of electrode covering:
R= rutile covering
B= basic covering
23 12 2L
R
3
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5
2
Symbol Metal recovery, % Type of current
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
AC+DC
DC
AC+DC
DC
AC+DC
DC
AC+DC
DC
≤105
≤105
>105 ≤ 125
>105 ≤ 125
>125 ≤ 160
>125 ≤ 160
>160
>160
Welding positions
All positions
All positions, except vertical down
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld,
horizontal-vertical fillet weld.
Flat butt weld, flat fillet weld.
Vertical down and positions
according to symbol 3.
Alloy
Symbol
C
Si
Mn
P
Chemical composition of all-weld metal, %*
S
Cr
Ni
Mo
Martensitic/ferritic
13
13 4
17
0.12
0.06
0.12
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.025
0.025
0.025
11.0-14.0
11.0-14.5
16.0-18.0
-
3.0-5.0
-
-
0.4-1.0
-
Austenitic
19 9
19 9L
19 9 Nb
19 12 2
19 12 3 L
19 12 3 Nb
19 13 4 N L
0.08
0.04
0.08
0.08
0.04
0.08
0.04
1.22.0
1.22.0
1.22.0
1.22.0
1.22.0
1.22.0
1.2
1.0-5.0
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
18.0-21.0
18.0-21.0
18.0-21.0
17.0-20.0
17.0-20.0
17.0-20.0
17.0-20.0
9.0-11.0
-
9.0-11.0
-
9.0-11.0
-
10.0-13.02.0-3.0
10.0-13.02.5-3.0
10.0-13.02.5-3.0
12.0-15.0
3.0-4.5
Nb
Nb
N 0.20
Austenitic-ferritic. High corrosion resistance
22 9 3 N L
0.04
1.22.5
25 7 2 N L
0.04
1.22.0
25 9 3 Cu N L
0.04
1.22.5
25 9 4 N L
0.04
1.22.5
0.030
0.035
0.030
0.030
0.02521.0-24.0
0.02524.0-28.0
0.02524.0-27.0
0.02524.0-27.0
7.5-10.52.5-4.0
6.0-8.0
1.0-3.0
7.5-10.52.5-4.0
8.0-10.52.5-4.5
N 0.08-0.20
N 0.20
N 0.10-0.25, Cu 1.5-3.5
N 0.20-0.30, Cu 1.5, W 1.0
Fully austenitic. High corrosion resistance
18 15 3 L
0.04
1.2
1.0-4.0
18 16 5 N L
0.04
1.2
1.0-4.0
20 25 5 Cu N L
0.04
1.2
1.0-4.0
20 16 3 Mn N L
0.04
1.2
5.0-8.0
25 22 2 N L
0.04
1.2
1.0-5.0
27 31 4 Cu L
0.04
1.22.5
0.030
0.035
0.030
0.035
0.030
0.030
0.025
16.5-19.5 14.0-17.02.5-3.5
0.025
17.0-20.0 15.5-19.0
3.0-5.0
0.025
19.0-22.024.0-27.0
4.0-7.0
0.025
18.0-21.0 15.0-18.02.5-3.5
0.02524.0-27.020.0-23.02.0-3.0
0.02526.0-29.0 30.0-33.0
3.0-4.5
N 0.20
Cu 1.0-2.0, N 0.25
N 0.20
N 0.20
Cu 0.6-1.5
Special types
18 8 Mn
18 9 Mn Mo
20 10 3
23 12 L
23 12 Nb
23 12 2 L
29 9
Other elements
-
0.20
0.04-0.14
0.10
0.04
0.10
0.04
0.15
1.2
4.5-7.5
1.2
3.0-5.0
1.22.5
1.22.5
1.22.5
1.22.5
1.22.5
0.035
0.035
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.035
0.025
17.0-20.0
0.025
18.0-21.5
0.025
18.0-21.0
0.02522.0-25.0
0.02522.0-25.0
0.02522.0-25.0
0.02527.0-31.0
7.0-10.0
-
9.0-11.0
0.5-1.5
9.0-12.0
1.5-3.5
11.0-14.0
-
11.0-14.0
-
11.0-14.02.0-3.0
8.0-12.0
-
Nb
-
Heat resisting types
16 8 2
0.08
19 9 H
0.04-0.08
25 4
0.15
22 12
0.15
25 20
0.06-0.20
25 20 H
0.35-0.45
18 36
0.25
1.02.5
1.22.0
1.22.5
1.22.5
1.2
1.0-5.0
1.22.5
1.22.5
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.025
14.5-16.5
0.025
18.0-21.0
0.02524.0-27.0
0.02520.0-23.0
0.02523.0-27.0
0.02523.0-27.0
0.025
14.0-18.0
7.5-9.5
9.0-11.0
4.0-6.0
10.0-13.0
18.0-22.0
18.0-22.0
33.0-37.0
-
1.5-2.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.01
* Single values shown in the table are maximum values.
145
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to AWS A5.1-1991
Covered electrode
for manual metalarc welding
Designates an electrode
(E7018M) for military require­
ments. Greater tough­ness,
low moisture level and
pick-up, and mandatory
hydrogen limits for weld
metal.
Designates that the electrode meets
the requirements of the hydogen test
(optional for basic electrodes, asreceived or redried, with an average
value not exceeding “z” ml. of H2/100 g
deposited metal, where “z” is 4.8 or 16).
Designates that the electrode meets the
requirements of the moisture pick-up
test (optional for all basic
electrodes except E 7018 M, for which
the test is mandatory.
E
E
70
70
18
16
M
–1
HZ
R
Designates
welding position,
coating type and
current type.
Designated min. tensile
strength in ksi.
(1 ksi = 1000 psi ~ 6.9 MPa).
Designates that the
electrode (E 7016, E 7018,
E 7024) meets the require­
ments for improved tough­
ness and ducility (E 7024).
3.01
AWS
Classifi-
cation
TensileYield strength min.
Impact
Elongation
Welding Type of coating
Strength min.
Energy
Position
min %
Charp-V J/°C
ksi
MPa
ksi
MPa
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
70
70
70
70
70
70
a)
70
70
70
70
E 6010
E 6011
E 6012
E 6013
E 6019
E 6020
E 6022
E 6027
E 7014
E 7015
E 7016
E 7016-1
E 7018
E 7018-1
E 7018M
E 7024
E 7027
E 7028
E 7048
414
414
414
414
414
414
414
414
482
482
482
482
482
482
482
482
482
482
482
48
3312227 / –29
10
48
3312227 / –29
11
48
331
17
Not spec.
12
48
331
17
Not spec.
13
48
3312227 / –18
19
48
33122
Not spec.20
Not spec. Not spec. Not spec. Not spec.22
48
3312227 / –2927
58
399
17
Not spec.
14
58
3992227 / –29
15
58
3992227 / –29
16
58
3992227 / –46
16
58
3992227 / –29
18
58
3992227 / –46
18
b)
b)24
67 / –29
18
58
399
17
Not spec.24
58
3992227 / –2927
58
3992227 / –2928
58
3992227 / –29
48
a) Nominal value 70 ksi (482 MPa).
b) Limits are 53–72 ksi (365–496 MPa). For ∅ 2.4 mm the limit is max. 77 ksi (ksi (531 MPa).
c) H–V fillets: – pol.
In addition there are requirements on:
• Chemical composition of the weld metal
• Radiographic test.
146
Code
1
2
4
Cellulosic
Cellulosic
Rutile
Rutile
Rutile/Acid
Acid
Acid
Acid, high reco.
Rutile, iron pow.
Basic
Basic
Basic
Basic, iron pow.
Basic, iron pow.
Basic, iron pow.
Rutile, high reco.
Acid, high reco.
Basic, high reco.
Basic, iron pow.
Type of Current
AC
DC
–
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
–
x
x
x
x
–
x
x
x
x
+ pol
+ pol
– pol
+ / – pol
+ / – pol
c) + / – pol
– pol
c) + / – pol
+ / – pol
+ pol
+ pol
+ pol
+ pol
+ pol
+ pol
+ / – pol
c) + / – pol
+ pol
+ pol
Welding position
All positions except vertical-down
Flat and H-V fillets.
All positions but in the vertical,
V-down only.
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to AWS A5.5-1996
Covered
electrode
for manual
metal-arc
welding
Designates
welding
position,
coating type
and current
type.
E 80
18
C1
AWS
Welding
Type of coating
Classification Position
E xx 10
1
E xx 11
1
E xx 12
1
E xx 13
1
E xx 15
1
E xx 16
1
E xx 18
1
E xx 202
E xx 272
AWS
classification
E 70 xx-x
E 80 xx-x
E 80 xx-C3
E 90 xx-x
E 90 xx-M
E 100 xx-x
E 100 xx-M
E 110 xx-x
E 110 xx-M
E 120 xx-x
E 120 xx-M
E 120 xx-M1
Suffix
–A1
–B1
–B2
–B2L*
–B3
–B3L*
–B4L*
–B5
–C1
–C1L*
–C2
–C2L*
–C3
–NM
–D1
–D2
–D3
–G/–M/–W
* C max. 0.05%.
Tensile strengthYield strength
min./MPa
min./MPa
480
550
550
620
620
690
690
760
760
830
830
830
Alloying system
390
460
470–550
530
540–620
600
610–690
670
680–760
740
745–830
745–830
Nominal values Wt%
C/Mo
~0.1/0.5
Cr/Mo
~0.5/0.5
Cr/Mo
~1.3/0.5
Cr/Mo
~1.3/0.5
Cr/Mo
~2.3/1.0
Cr/Mo
~2.3/1.0
Cr/Mo
~2.0/0.5
Cr/Mo/V
~0.5/1.0/0.05
Ni
~2.5
Ni
~2.5
Ni
~3.5
Ni
~3.5
Ni/Cr/Mo/V
~1.0/0.1/0.3/0.05
Ni/Mo
~1.0/0.5
Mn/Mo
~1.5/0.3
Mn/Mo
~1.8/0.3
Mn/Mo
~1.5/0.5
All other alloy steel electrodes
–
x
x
x
–
x
x
x
x
+ pol
+ pol
– pol
+/– pol
+ pol
+ pol
+ pol
c) +/– pol
c) +/– pol
Designated chemical
composition of weld
metal.
Designated min. tensile
strength in ksi.
(1 ksi = 1000 psi ~ 6.9 MPa).
Cellulosic
Cellulosic
Rutile
Rutile
Basic
Basic
Basic, iron powder
Acid
Acid, high recovery
Type of current
ACDC
Code
1
2
Welding position
All positions except vertical-down
Flat and H-V fillets
AWS
classification
3.01
Impact energy
min. J
E 8018-NM27
E 8016-C327
E 8018-C327
E 8016-D327
E 8018-D327
E 9015-D127
E 9018-D127
E 10015-D227
E 10016-D227
E 10018-D227
E 9018-M27
E 10018-M27
E 11018-M27
E 12018-M27
E 12018-M1
68
E 7018-W27
E 8018-W27
E 8016-C127
E 8018-C127
E 7015-C1L27
E 7016-C1L27
E 7018-C1L27
E 8016-C227
E 8018-C227
E 7015-C2L27
E 7016-C2L27
E 7018-C2L27
All other
Not required
°C
–40
–40
–40
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–51
–18
–18
–18
–59
–59
–73
–73
–73
–73
–73
–101
–101
–101
147
COATED ELECTRODES
Guide to AWS A5.4-1992
Covered electrode
for manual metalarc welding.
Suffix
–15
–16
–17
E 312 –17
–25
–26
Indicates
compositional
type.
AWS
classification
3.01
E 209 -xx
E 219-xx
E 240-xx
E 307-xxx
E 308-xx
E 308 H-xx
E 308 L-xx
E 308 Mo-xx
E 308 MoL-xx
E 309-xx
E 309 L-xx
E 309 Cb-xx
E 309 Mo-xx
E 309 MoL-xx
E 310-xx
E 310 H-xx
E 310 Cb-xx
E 310 Mo-xx
E 312-xx
E 316-xx
E 316 H-xx
E 316 L-xx
E 317-xx
E 317 L-xx
E 318-xx
E 320-xx
E 320 LR-xx
E 330-xx
E 330 H-xx
E 347-xx
E 349-xx
E 383-xx
E 385-xx
E 410-xx
E 410 NiMo-xx
E 430-xx
E 502-xx
E 505-xx
E 630-xx
E 16-8-2-xx
E 7 Cr-xx
E 2209-xx
E 2553-xx
148
Coating type and usability characteristics
For use with DC+ only. Usually basic coating. All positions.
For use with DC+ and AC. Rutile coating. All positions.
As for –16, but higher silica content in coating gives following:
– More of a spray arc and finer rippled bead surface in H-V fillets.
– Slower freezing slag permits improved handling with a drag
technique.
– Mitre to slight concave H-V fillets.
– When making vertical-up fillets the slower freezing slag requires
slight weave to produce flat profile.
Same coating and types as for –15 but with a mild steel core wire.
Flat and horizontal positions only.
Same coating and type as for –16 but with a mild steel core wire.
Flat and horizontal positions only.
Chemical composition of undiluted weld metal
C
Cr
Ni
Mo
0.0620.5–24.0 9.5–12.0 1.5–3.0
0.06
19.0–21.5 5.5–7.0
0.75
0.06
17.0–19.0 4.0–6.0
0.75
0.04–0.14 18.0–21.5 9.0–10.7 0.5–1.5
0.08
18.0–21.0 9.0–11.0
0.75
0.04–0.08 18.0–21.0 9.0–11.0
0.75
0.04
18.0–21.0 9.0–11.0
0.75
0.08
18.0–21.0 9.0–12.02.0–3.0
0.04
18.0–21.0 9.0–12.02.0–3.0
0.1522.0–25.0 12.0–14.0
0.75
0.0422.0–25.0 12.0–14.0
0.75
0.1222.0–25.0 12.0–14.0
0.75
0.1222.0–25.0 12.0–14.02.0–3.0
0.0422.0–25.0 12.0–14.02.0–3.0
0.08–0.2025.0–28.020.0–22.5
0.75
0.35–0.4525.0–28.020.0–22.5
0.75
0.1225.0–28.020.0–22.0
0.75
0.1225.0–28.020.0–22.02.0–3.0
0.1528.0–32.0 8.0–10.5
0.75
0.08
17.0–20.0 11.0–14.02.0–3.0
0.04–0.08 17.0–20.0 11.0–14.02.0–3.0
0.04
17.0–20.0 11.0–14.02.0–3.0
0.08
18.0–21.0 12.0–14.0 3.0–4.0
0.04
18.0–21.0 12.0–14.0 3.0–4.0
0.08
17.0–20.0 11.0–14.02.0–3.0
0.07
19.0–21.0 32.0–36.02.0–3.0
0.03
19.0–21.0 32.0–36.02.0–3.0
0.18–0.25 14.0–17.0 33.0–37.0
0.75
0.35–0.45 14.0–17.0 33.0–37.0
0.75
0.08
18.0–21.0 9.0–11.0
0.75
0.13
18.0–21.0 8.0–10.0 0.35–0.65
0.0326.5–29.0 30.0–33.0 3.2–4.2
0.03
19.5–21.524.0–26.0 4.2–5.2
0.12
11.0–13.5
0.7
0.75
0.06
11.0–12.5 4.0–5.0 0.40–0.70
0.10
15.0–18.0
0.6
0.75
0.10
4.0–6.0
0.4
0.45–0.65
0.10
8.0–10.5
0.4
0.85–1.20
0.05
16.0–16.75 4.5–5.0
0.75
0.10
14.5–16.5 7.5–9.5
1.0–2.0
0.10
6.0–8.0
0.4
0.45–0.65
0.0421.5–23.5 8.5–10.52.5–3.5
0.0625.0–27.0 6.5–8.52.9–3.9
Nb + Ta
Mn
Si
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.70–1.00
–
–
–
–
0.70–1.00
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
≥6xC≤1.0
≥8xC≤1.0
≥8xC≤0.40
–
–
≥8xC≤1.0
0.75–1.20
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0.15–0.30
–
–
–
–
4.0–7.0
8.0–10.0
10.5–13.5
3.30–4.75
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
1.0–2.5
1.0–2.5
1.0–2.5
1.0–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
1.5–2.5
1.0–2.5
1.0–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
0.5–2.5
1.0–2.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.25–0.75
0.5–2.5
1.0
0.5–2.0
0.5–1.5
0.90
1.0
1.0
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.60
0.30
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.75
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.75
0.60
0.90
0.90
1.0
P
S
N
Cu
0.04 0.03 0.10–0.30
0.75
0.04 0.03 0.10–0.30
0.75
0.04 0.03 0.10–0.30
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.03 0.03
–
0.75
0.03 0.03
–
0.75
0.03 0.03
–
0.75
0.03 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
3.0–4.0
0.02 0.015
–
3.0–4.0
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.02 0.02
–
0.6–1.5
0.03 0.02
–
1.2–2.0
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
3.25–4.00
0.03 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03
–
0.75
0.04 0.03 0.08–0.20
0.75
0.04 0.03 0.10–0.25 1.5–2.5
COATED ELECTRODES
Welding positions
AWS according to ASME section IX
EN according to ISO 6947, NEN-EN 287
Welding positions
according to
EN 26947
AWS:1G
EN: PA
AWS:1F
EN: PA
AWS:1G
EN: PA
AWS:2F
EN: PB
AWS:2G
EN: PC
AWS:2F
EN: PB
AWS:2G
EN: PC
AWS:2F
EN: PB
AWS:3G
EN: PG (down)
PF (up)
AWS:3F
AWS:5G
AWS:5F
EN: PG (down)
EN: PG (down)
EN: PG (down)
PF (up)
PF (up)
PF (up)
AWS:4G
EN: PE
AWS:4F
EN: PD
AWS:6G
EN: H-L045
AWS:4F
EN: PD
PA
PB
PC
PB
PF
PG
PE
PD
3.01
149
GPO-302 N
General Purpose Electrode for Mild Steel
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor GPO-302 N/ 6013
SFA/AWS A 5.1
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 6013
E 38 O RC 11
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
22222
Type of current
AC
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
PC
PF
PG
PE, PD
C
Mn
Si
0.05 - 0.12
0.15 - 0.65
0.10 - 0.50
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
PB
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St44-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4), E28-2 (–3) E30-2 (–3)
BS 4360
Gr. 40A-C, 43A-C
Ship plates Grade A, B, C, D
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4
vessel steel
NF A 36-205
A37 (CP), A42 (CP), A48 (CP)
NF A36-207
A510AP, A530AP, A550AP
BS 1501
151/154/161-Gr. 360/400, 164-Gr.360
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St35.8, St45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
StE255 to StE315
NF A36-203
E275D
510
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4.0
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
40029
Current
range, A
At 0°C = 70
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
60–100
80–150
100–200
50
57
65
0.8
1.3
1.6
86
1
532
392
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
5.2
5.4
5.2
095-699165
095-699173
095-699181
3
3
3
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4.0
Length
mm.
350295
350
190
350
120
Re-drying temperature: Normally no need.
150
GPO-302 N
Unitor GPO-302 N is a general purpose electrode with a medium thick
organic rutile coating which produces
a fast-freezing slag.
It is a versatile electrode for all mild
steel constructions on board, except
the higher grade steels that require
basic coated electrodes (hull plates,
beams, etc.)
GPO-302 N strikes and restrikes easily
and is the electrode least affected by
rust and paint residues on the workpiece.
GPO-302 N bridges wide gap.
The excellent restriking properties
makes the electrode well suited for
tack welding.
GPO-302 N may be used in all positions including vertical down, if necessary without changing the welding
current setting.
This, and the electrode’s ability to
easily bridge large gaps makes it an
excellent general purpose repair electrode on board.
Application areas range from tack
welding of plate and tube constructions to complete welding jobs of
medium strength.
3.01
Suitable for welding in the vertical-down
position.
With its good welding characteristics
GPO-302 N 2,5 mm is, together with
SPECIAL-303 N 2.0 mm, a good solution for thin sheetplate welding.
Suitable for tack welding and welding on
clamp fitments.
151
GPR-300 H
High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor GPR-300 H / 7024
SFA/AWS A 5.1
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 7024
E 42 0 RR 73
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
22Y2Y22
Type of current
AC
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
C
Mn
Si
max. 0.12
0.45 - 0.95
0.25 - 0.65
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
PB
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4)
BS 4360
Grade 43D, 50D
Ship plates
Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38, GS45, GS52
BS3100
A1, A2, A3, AM1, AM2, AW1
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, ST52.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
vessel steel
NF A36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
NF A36-207
A510 AP, A530 AP, A550 AP
BS 1501
151/154/161-Gr. 360/400/430, 164-Gr. 360/400
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St.35.8, St.45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
St.E255 to St.E420
NF A 36-203
E275 D, E344D, E390D, E430D, E455D
555
Diameter
mm.
Elongation
%
48026
Current
range, A
Impact value
ISO-V (J)
Recovery
%
At -20°C = 50
180
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
3.2
130–170
4.0
180–230
5.0250–340
6.0
300–430
692.521.02
69
3.8
13.52
68
5.8
9.1
3
72
7.5
6.6
4
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
3.2
4.0
5.0
6.0
Length
mm.
450
85
450
51
450
35
45023
Re-drying temperature: Normally no need.
152
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
5.8
5.5
5.6
5.3
095-699231
095-699249
095-699256
095-699260
3
3
3
3
GPR-300 H
Unitor GPR-300 H is a high recovery
electrode of rutile type for welding
in the flat and horizontal-vertical
position. It is specially suitable for
horizontal-vertical and horizontal fillet
welding.
GPR-300 H has a recovery value of
approx. 180%, the coating containing
approx. 60% iron powder.
During welding, the electrode should
be pulled along the groove allowing
the coating to be in contact with the
base material. Preferably use DCpolarity.
The electrode can be used at a welding speed of up to 50 cm/min. when
A-measurement (throath thickness) is
3.5 to 6 mm. When horizontal/vertical
fillet welding on heavier material, a
large electrode diameter e.g. 5 mm.
in relation to A-measurement can be
used.
The electrode is suitable for welding
materials which have zinc and iron
oxide rust protective primer coatings.
However, observe all necessary safety precautions concerning the fumes
from the primer. Consult the chapter
on welding fumes.
3.01
The A measurement should be 7/10 of
material thickness.
GPR-300 H is a typical electrode
where large sections of steel are to
be replaced but it is also useful for
general repair work. The high welding
speed, good welding properties, and
high deposition rate reduce the risk of
heat deformation and stress.
Welding with this electrode ensures
low spatter. The bead has a smooth
surface and the slag is self-releasing.
This electrode is recommended for
welding flanges to tubes in the horizontal position.
153
SPECIAL-303 N
LMA
Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor SPECIAL-303 N / 7016
SFA/AWS A 5.1
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 7016
E 38 2B 32 H10
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
3YH10
3YH10
3YH15
3, 3YH10
3H10, 3Y
Type of current
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
PC
PF
PE, PD
C
Mn
Si
max. 0.10
0.70 - 1.20
0.30 - 0.70
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
PB
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4)
BS 4360
Grade 43D, 50D
Ship plates
Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38, GS45, GS52
BS3100
A1, A2, A3, AM1, AM2, AW1
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, ST52.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
vessel steel
NF A36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
NF A36-207
A510 AP, A530 AP, A550 AP
BS 1501
151/154/161-Gr. 360/400/430, 164-Gr. 360/400
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St.35.8, St.45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
St.E255 to St.E420
NF A 36-203
E275 D, E344D, E390D, E430D, E455D
530
Diameter
mm.
2.0
2.5
3.2
4.0
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
42028 At –20°C = 120
Current
range, A
40-80
50–90
90–150
120–190
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
75
54
57
79
0.6
1432
0.9
772
1.4
462
1.924
3
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.0
2.5
3.2
4.0
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
350
115
350200
350
120
450
75
Re-drying temperature: 300 °C (572 °F) for two hours.
154
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
1.7
4.1
4.1
5.2
095-699199
095-699207
095-699215
095-699223
6
3
3
3
SPECIAL-303 N
Unitor SPECIAL-303 N is a double
coated basic electrode with special
coating components combining the
excellent running characteristics of
a rutile electrode with the very good
mechanical properties of a basic
electrode.
Unitor SPECIAL-303 N welds on AC as
on DC+ with minimal spatter level.
Very good positional welding properties, vertical welding should be
conducted in the upward direction.
Ideal electrode for high quality jobs
performed by non-welders.
Core rod
Basic coating
Rutile coating
The 2 mm size is ideal for use on
sheet metal plates and thin walled
pipes.
Root edge
Controlled burn through
Molten pool
Sheet metal plates
Excellent in difficult position welding
3.01
Roots runs on plate and pipes.
Welding mild and ship quality steel
155
LH-314 N
LMA
Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor LH-314 N / 7018
SFA/AWS A 5.1
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 7018
E 42 4 B 42 H5
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
Type of current
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4)
BS 4360
Grade 43D, 50D
Ship plates
Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38, GS45, GS52
BS3100
A1, A2, A3, AM1, AM2, AW1
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, ST52.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
vessel steel
NF A36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
NF A36-207
A510 AP, A530 AP, A550 AP
BS 1501
151/154/161-Gr. 360/400/430, 164-Gr. 360/400
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St.35.8, St.45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
St.E255 to St.E420
NF A 36-203
E275 D, E344D, E390D, E430D, E455D
C
Mn
Si
0.02 - 0.10
0.75 - 1.25
0.30 - 0.70
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
540
44529 At –20°C = 140
At –40°C = 70
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4
Current
range, A
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
75–105
95–155
125–210
58
1.0
62.52
80
1.5
31.3
3
852.120.5
3
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
350
450
450
161
95
78
4.0
5.0
5.6
095-699264
095-699272
095-699280
3
3
3
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
156
LH-314 N
Unitor LH-314 N is a heavily coated
electrode of basic type for welding
unalloyed, low alloyed and yield point
controlled steel in all positions. Yield
point controlled steel refers in this
case to ships’ steel normally used for
deckplates, hull plates and frames.
If you are uncertain as to wether the
steel is unalloyed or low alloyed, you
cannot go wrong when using a basic
electrode. The electrode will operate
with DC positive or negative polarity.
Vertical welding should be carried out
upwards. For vertical-down welding
electrode LHV-316 N is recommended.
All basic electrodes should be used
with a short arc. LH-314 N has a
recovery value of approx. 120%, the
coating containing approx. 20% iron
powder.
Hydrogen content is low, less than
5 ml/100g weldmetal, thus reducing
the risk of cold cracks. Slag is easily
removed. Basic electrodes produce
a higher quality deposit than rutile
and acid types. The electrode must
be protected against humidity and
welding with damp electrodes should
not be attempted. See the section on
after-drying of basic electrodes.
Unitor LH-314 N produces a weld of
good mechanical properties and is
therefore well suited for heavily loaded components such as lifting lugs,
motor base plates and similar heavily
stressed parts. Well suited for X-ray
examination.
A short arc.
Joining deck and hull plates.
3.01
Motor base plates.
Lifting lugs.
Unitor LH-314 N is commonly used for
welding ordinary cast steel in high
pressure valves and other machine
parts. It should not be used for cast iron.
To determine whether you have cast
iron or cast steel, use a hammer and
chisel on the material and consult the
chisel test under the section on metal
identification.
Welding cast steel.
157
LHH-314 H
LMA
High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor LHH-314 H/ 7028
SFA/AWS A 5.1
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 7028
E 42 4 B 73 H5
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
3YH5
Type of current
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
PB
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4)
BS 4360
Grade 43D, 50D
Ship plates
Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38, GS45, GS52
BS3100
A1, A2, A3, AM1, AM2, AW1
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, ST52.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
vessel steel
NF A36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
NF A36-207
A510 AP, A530 AP, A550 AP
BS 1501
151/154/161-Gr. 360/400/430, 164-Gr. 360/400
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St.35.8, St.45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
St.E255 to St.E420
NF A 36-203
E275 D, E344D, E390D, E430D, E455D
C
Mn
Si
0.07 - 0.10
0.85 - 1.25
0.25 - 0.65
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Elongation
%
540
43026
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
4.0
170–240
5.0225–355
Impact value
ISO-V (J)
Recovery
%
At -20°C = 110
At -40 °C = 65
165
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
70
72
3.7
5.7
14.4
9.6
4
4
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
4.0
5.0
450
450
54
36
5.5
5.5
095-699298
095-699306
3
3
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
158
LHH-314 H
Unitor LHH-314 H is a high recovery
electrode of zirconium-basic type for
welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical position. It is specially suitable
for horizontal-vertical and horizontal
fillet welding.
LHH-314 H has a recovery value of
approx. 165%, the coating containing
approx. 65% iron powder.
During welding, the electrode should
be pulled along the groove allowing
the coating to be in contact with the
base material.
The electrode can be used at a welding speed of up to 50 cm/min. when
A-measurement (throath thickness) is
3.5 to 6 mm. When vertical fillet welding on heavier material, a large electrode diameter e.g. 5.0 mm. in relation
to A-measurement can be used.
The electrode is suitable for welding
materials which have zinc and iron
oxide rust protective primer coatings.
However, observe all necessary safety precautions concerning the fumes
from the primer. Consult the chapter
on welding fumes.
3.01
The A measurement should be 7/10 of
material thickness.
LHH-314 H is a typical electrode
where large sections of steel are to
be replaced but it is also useful for
general repair work. The high welding
speed, good welding properties, and
high deposition rate reduce the risk of
heat deformation and stress.
This electrode is recommended for
welding flanges to tubes in the horizontal position.
159
LHV-316 N
LMA
Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for
Ship Quality Steel
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor LHV-316 N / 8018-G
SFA/AWS A 5.5
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 8018-G
E 46 4 B 41 H5
Elect
rode
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
3YH10
4YH10
4Y40H10
3YH10
3Y
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
PB
PC
PG
PE, PD
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4)
BS 4360
Grade 43D, 50D
Ship plates
Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38, GS45, GS52
BS3100
A1, A2, A3, AM1, AM2, AW1
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, ST52.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
vessel steel
NF A36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
NF A36-207
A510 AP, A530 AP, A550 AP
BS 1501
151/154/161-Gr. 360/400/430, 164-Gr. 360/400
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St.35.8, St.45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
St.E255 to St.E420
NF A 36-203
E275 D, E355D, E390D, E430D, E455D
C
Mn
Si
0.06 - 0.09
1.00 - 1.40
0.3 - 0.7
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
570
47027 At –20°C = 130
At –40°C = 100
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
3.2
4.0
110–150
180–220
53
1.6
43.72
502.827.02
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
3.2
4.0
350
350
137
99
4.8
5.0
095-699314
095-699322
3
3
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
160
LHV-316 N
Unitor LHV-316 N is a heavily coated
basic electrode for welding unalloyed,
low alloy and some types of yield
point controlled steel. It can be used
in all positions. Its range of application covers hull plates, deckplates,
and stressed or loaded parts such as
frames, lifting lugs and electric motor
baseplates.
LHV-316 N is specially developed for
welding in the vertical-down position.
When welding in this position the
electrode should travel in a straight
line and be kept in light contact with
both sides of the groove. The electrode should be held at an angle of
40–85°C to the direction of welding.
The electrode can also be used for
welding in the flat position and for
overhead welding.
A short arc
Unitor LHV-316 N produces a deposit
with very good mechanical strength
and high crack resistance. The slag
from this electrode is very easily
removed, even from narrow grooves.
LHV-316 N will weld any normal joint,
e.g. V-grooves and fillets. It is often
used for welding a root bead where
LH-314 N is used for the subsequent
build-up. This is an economical electrode, maximum welding current can
be used also in vertical welding. This
makes it possible to weld up to three
times faster than normal.
3.01
Joining deck and hull plates
There is little heat transfer to the base
material when welding with LHV-316N
and deformation and stress is therefore kept to a minimum.
The electrode must be protected
against humidity and no attempt
should be made to weld with damp
electrodes. See the section on afterdrying of basic electrodes.
When a large weld cross-section is
required, weld a bead on either side of the
root bead as shown
161
LHT-318 N
LMA
Electrode for High Temperature Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor LHT-318 N / 8018-B2
SFA/AWS A 5.5
EN 1599
E 8018-B2
E CrMo 1B 42 H5
DNV
GL
LR
BV
ABS
H 10
–
–
UP
SR
Type of current
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Elevated temperature steel
Case hardening steel
Q & T steel
PC
PF
PE, PD
DIN 17155
13CrMo44
DIN 1720025CrMo4
NF A36-206
15CD2.05, 15C, D4.05
DIN 17210
16MnCr5
NF A35-551
18CD4, 16MC5, 20MC5
NF A35-55225CD4, 30CD4
Creep data:
Test temperature °C
550
600
MPa
460
440
430
140
Yield strength RP0.2%
Creep strength Rm /1000
MPa
300
110
Creep strength Rm /10.000
MPa
350240 80
250
170
Creep resistance RP/1.0%/10.000 MPa
(80)
(50)
(35)
C
0.05 - 0.10
Typical mech. properties *
of weld metal
PB
400
500
Mn
Si
P
S
Cr
Mo
0.30 - 0.80
0.20 - 0.50
max. 0.015
max. 0.020
1.25 - 1.45
0.50 - 0.65
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
450
620
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
53020 At -20°C = 38
* Stress relived temp.: 700 °C, 1 hour
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Current
range, A
70–105
95–150
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
60
65
0.8
1.1
73
49
3
3
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
350
350
75
48
1.7
1.7
095-699330
095-699348
6
6
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
162
LHT-318 N
Unitor LHT-318 N is a heavily coated
basic electrode for welding low alloy
steel and cast steel with up to approx.
1% Chromium and 0.5% Molybdenum,
used for working temperatures up to
550°C. Such type of steel is normally
found in boilers, plates or pipes.
The basic coating is of extra moisture
resistant type, but as for all basic
electrodes, they should be protected
against humidity. See section on
afterdrying of basic electrodes.
For best results on Chromium alloyed
materials thicker than 8–10 mm,
pre-heating of the welding area to
200–250°C is recommended.
Electrode for heat resistant steels, e.g.
boiler plate and boiler tubes
The electrodes may be used in all
positions, with DC positive or negative
polarity.
Vertical welding should be carried out
upwards.
Boiler tubes welded to boiler
tube plate
3.01
As for all basic electrodes the arc
should be kept short.
For root pass in open joints DC negative polarity is preferable. For filling
the joint use DC+ polarity.
Note that for root passes, TIG welding
with Icromo-216 may be an advantage.
V-groove with 60° angle is recommended for butt welding of ship plates
up to 12 mm thickness. Root opening
should be 1–2 mm, and nose thickness
should be 0.5–1 mm.
In cases where stress relieving is
demanded, the temperature should be
between 620°C and 720°C. As a general rule the temperature should be
maintained for 1 hour per inch plate
thickness (30 minutes for 1/2" plate) to
ensure full effect.
V-groove for plates up to 12 mm
thickness:
60°
0.5–1 mm
t < 12 mm
1–2 mm
For t >12 mm welding from both
sides is recommended
163
LHL-319 N
LMA
Electrode for Low Temperature Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor LHL-319 N / 8018-C1
SFA/AWS A 5.5
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 8018-C1
E 46 6 2 Ni B 32 H5
DNV
GL
LR
5YH5
6Y46H5
5Y42H5
Type of current
PA
3.01
ABS
3Y400H5
AC
DC+
Welding positions
Materials
to be welded
BV
1%Cr 0,5Mo, H5
Pipe material
Boiler & pressure vessel
steel (for low temp. applic.)
Fine grained steel
Low temperature steel
High strength steel
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
API 5 LXX52, X56, X60
NF A36-205
A37FP, A42FP, A48FP, A52FP
NF A36-207
A510FP, A530FP, A550FP
BS 1501224-Gr. 490 to LT 60, 282
DIN 17102
StE315 to StE460
NF A36-203
E355D, E390D, E430D, E445D
DIN 17280
11MnNi53, 13MnNi63, 14NiMn6, 10Ni14
NF A36-208
1.5Ni 285/355 (15N6), 2.5Ni 285/355 (10N9)
NF A36-204
E420T, E460T
Can also be used for welding CorTen steel and Mayari R steels.
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
C
Mn
Si
P
0.02 - 0.10
0.65 - 1.15
0.15 - 0.55
max. 0.020
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
S
Ni
max. 0.0202.15 - 2.65
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
610
52026 At –60°C = 105
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Current
range, A
70–110
105–150
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
55
63
0.9
1.4
702
42
3
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
350
350
78
48
1.8
1.8
095-683631
095-683649
6
6
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
164
LHL-319 N
LHL-319 N is an all position basic
electrode with 2.6% Nickel giving
115–120% recovery. The electrode
is specially suited for low temperature applications. Low temperature
steel containing Nickel is used more
and more in processing equipment
onboard ships carrying low temperature cargo. We also find this type of
steel in Ice-Class hull plates.
Excellent impact toughness at –60°C.
Guide the electrode at a slight angle,
with short arc. High notch values are
obtained with max. weaving 2.5 times
core wire diameter. High strength fine
grained structural steel with thickness
above 15 mm should be preheated to
approx. 100°C (210°F). Interpass
temperature max. 150°C (300°F).
Store dry.
3.01
165
LHR-320 N
LMA
Electrode for Weathering Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor LHR-320 N / 8018-G
SFA/AWS A 5.5
EN-ISO 2560-A
E 8018-G
E 46 5 Z B 32
DNV
GL
LR
3YH10
3YH15
3YH15
Type of current
PA
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
ABS
3YH5
AC
DC+
Welding positions
Materials
to be welded
BV
3YH10
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
Pipe material
Boiler & pressure vessel
steel (for low temp. applic.)
Fine grained steel
Low temperature steel
High strength steel
API 5 LXX52, X56, X60
NF A36-205
A37FP, A42FP, A48FP, A52FP
NF A36-207
A510FP, A530FP, A550FP
BS 1501224-Gr. 490 to LT 60, 282
DIN 17102
StE315 to StE460
NF A36-203
E355D, E390D, E430D, E445D
DIN 17280
11MnNi53, 13MnNi63, 14NiMn6, 10Ni14
NF A36-208
1.5Ni 285/355 (15N6), 2.5Ni 285/355 (10N9)
NF A36-204
E420T, E460T
Weathering steel
Commercial names
Patinax, Cor-ten A, Mayari R steels
C
Mn
Si
P, S
Ni
Cu
0.02 - 0.10
0.75 - 1.25
0.15 - 0.55
max. 0.020
0.50 - 0.90
0.30 - 0.50
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
590
50027 At –20°C = 160
At –50°C = 70
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Current
range, A
80–115
100–150
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
59
70
0.9
1.3
662
402
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
350
350
88
48
1.7
1.8
095-683656
095-699389
6
6
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
166
LHR-320 N
LHR-320 N is a NiCu-alloyed
electrode,which deposits a weld
metal with good corrosion resistance
to sea-water and flue gases, for welding of weathering steel (Patinax steel,
Cor-Ten A steel, Mayari R steel) and
for ship hull construction steel.
The weld metal has excellent
mechanical properties. It is particularly suitable for welding the shell plating of ice breakers and other ships,
which work under conditions where
the protective paint coating wears off.
Weathering steels are low-alloy steels
that can be exposed to the weather
without being painted. The steel protects itself by means of a dense oxide
coating (patina) which forms naturally
on the steel when it is exposed to the
weather.
This tight oxide coating reduces
continuing corrosion. The corrosion
resistance of weathering steels is four
to six times that of normal structural
carbon steels, and two to three times
that of many of the low-alloy structural steels.
3.01
Flue gases corrosion
The weathering steels are covered by
the ASTM specification A242. These
steels have a minimum yield strength
of 350 Mpa (50,000 psi) with an ultimate tensile strength of 490 Mpa
(70,000 psi).
To maintain the weather resistance
characteristic of the steel, it is important to use an electrode with same
chemical composition.
Sea water corrosion
167
TENSILE-328 N
Electrode for Difficult-to-Weld Steel
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor TENSILE-328 N / 312-17
SFA/AWS A 5.4
EN-ISO 3581-A
EN 14 700
E 312-17
E 29 9 R 12
E Fe 11
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
C
Mn
0.08 - 0.15
0.50 - 1.00
PF
Si
PE, PD
Cr
790
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Ni
0.50 - 0.9028.0 - 30.0
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
PC
Various steel grades such as:
– Armour plate
– Hardenable steel including steels difficult to weld
– Non-magnetic austenitic manganese steel
– Work hardening austenitic manganese steel
– Dissimilar steel grades (CMn-steel to stainless steel)
PB
9.0 - 10.5
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
61022 At +20°C = 30
Current
range, A
50–85
80–125
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
48
65
0.9
1.3
78
42
6
7
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
096-699470
096-699488
6
6
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Length
mm.
300
350
Electrodes
per box
79
1.6
502.0
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
168
TENSILE-328 N
Unitor TENSILE-328 N is a rutileacid high alloy electrode specially
designed for use on steel types which
are difficult to weld, e.g. spring steel,
carbon steel, chrome-nickel, vanadium steel, highspeed steel, tool steel
and manganese steel. These types
of steel are commonly used in main
engine rocker arms and push rods,
pump shafts, gear wheels, etc.
This electrode can be used for joining
as well as building up. It can also be
used to form a primary buffer layer
when building up a specially hard
surface.
Before starting to weld, the welding
area must be grinded and cleaned
down to bare metal. Machined or
threaded surfaces adjacent to the
welding area must be protected from
spatter and oxidation.
Power supply may be AC or DC positive polarity. Use a short arc and hold
the electrode almost at right angles to
the workpiece.
3.01
Preheating is not usually necessary.
When welding machine parts it is
advisable to keep heat transference
as low as possible. This can be done
by interrupting the welding operation
to allow the workpiece to cool down
before continuing.
Unitor TENSILE-328 N has excellent
weldability and produces a deposit
free from pores. The deposit may be
filed, and may be polished to a high
gloss finish. The slag is self-releasing.
Hardness as welded 200–300 HB, can
workharden to approximately 450 HB.
169
IMPACT-329 S
Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor IMPACT-329 S
DIN 8555
E 20-UM-250-CRTZ
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Main applications:
PF
PE, PD
– High “general” wear resistance
– High corrosion resistance
– High impact and pressure resistance
– High resistance against abrasion by metal to metal friction or caviation
Application examples:
– Rocker arms
– Valve parts
– Pump parts
– Flapper gates
– Extrusion screws
– Stream through valves
Welding data
PC
General applications:
Wear resistant non-magnetic surface layers on most weldable steel surfaces, including cast steel, alloy steels and stainless steels, where following properties are required even at high
working temperatures, up to 900°C:
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
PB
Rebuilding worn exhaust valves in combustion engines.
Co
Cr
W
C
NiFe
Mn
Si
Rest20
15
0.1
102.0
1.0
0.8
Tensile strength
MPa
Elongation
%
Hardness as
welded HB
Hardness after work
hardening HB
85025–30250
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
3.2
70–120
440
Arc time /
Deposition rate Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal
Danish Std.
66
1.36
40
7
* SDS available on request.
Packaging data
DDiameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
3.2
350
39
1.4
096-606460
6
Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.
170
IMPACT-329 S
1. Machine preparation
Align the spindle in a lathe and turn a suitably wide and
deep groove in the hardened face to remove all stellite down
to clean, pure base material
Make room for at least two layers of weld metal.
2. Weld preparation
Suggested jig for holding
Welding should as far as possible be carried
spindles.
out in the horizontal position. A suitable jig should
be prepared, holding the spindle in a tilted position allowing it to be rotated.
3. Preheating
Preheat the valve head evenly to 50–200 °C and
maintain during welding. Preheating temperature depending on type of alloy in valve.
4. Welding
Electrodes should be dried at 250 °C for 1 hour
prior to use. The Unitor miniheater electrode
quiver may be used for this. Keep the arc short
and hold the electrode as near as possible to
90°C to the work piece.
Put the first bead towards the
outer side of the groove
Second layer
or top layer
First layer or
buffer layer
Note: Each layer
can consist
of several beads
Welding with IMPACT-329 S does not require any other electrode. In order to
minimise heat effects, the welding should be done in stages. Place the first
bead towards the outer side of the groove,
and do about one third of the circumference.
Then start at the oppsosite side and do the
second bead so it finishes where the first one
started. Finally do the third, starting where
the first one finished. For large diameter spindles the bead should be done in four parts.
Large diameters
Small diameters
3.01
Welding bead sequence
Grind the starting and stopping point of each
bead. Also grind the bead itself to remove
possible slag and spatter, in order to obtain a smooth transition between beads.
Control the temperature adjacent to the welding zones and do not start the next
bead until the base metal has regained the correct temperature.
5. Cooling
When the top layer is completed, the spindle
should be immersed in insulating material or dry
sand in order to ensure slow cooling.
6. Final machining
After cooling, machine to correct tolerances, use
toolbit quality H1 or K10 with negative 4° cutting
angle, low turning speed and fine feeding.
Ensure slow cooling.
171
WEARMAX-327
Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor WEARMAX-327
AWS A5.4
~ E 307-26
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
Repair of:
PB
PC
PF
(2.5mm only)
PE, PD
Worn winch wheels and anchor windlass wheels on anchoring systems. Cargo handling equipment and dredger equipment, T1-steel, N-A-Xtra steel, OXAR steel, Fine grain steel, Cr Mo steel, Manganese steel, Shear blades.
Trawler equipment subject to metal to earth wear and metal to metal wear. Suitable for both joining and making wear resistant overlays.
3.01
All weld metal composition
Fe
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
Welding data
Rest
Cr
Ni
Mo
Mn
Si
16–20
7–10
1.3–2.3
5–7
1 (Max)
Hardness after work hardening HB
Recovery
%
415
150
TensileYield
Elengation
Hardness as
strength strength %
welded
HB
MPa
MPa
650-700
480-530
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
2.5
3.2
4
75–140
90–170
120–240
30–40
190
Arc time /
Deposition rate Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal
Danish Std.
80
103
105
0.9
48
1.2
31
1.821
6
6
7
* SDS available on request.
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
350
350
350
49
68
42
1.6
3.5
3.4
095-606454
095-606455
095-606456
6
3
3
Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.
172
WEARMAX-327
Unitor WEARMAX-327 is an electrode
which produces a stainless deposit
with excellent resistance against
wear. The initial weld deposit is comparatively soft with high elongation.
When subjected to grinding, machining or wear, the surface will harden
to more than 400 HB providing a
smooth hard and crack resistant layer
with low coefficient of friction. This
produces a surface, which despite
being tough, does not cause wear
on matching parts, like chain wires
etc. The electrode is also designed
to achieve high tensile strength and
yield properties, making it an excellent electrode for joining dissimilar
metals.
Areas of application:
Anchor winch wheels and guides,
windlasses drums and rollers, cranes
and track wheels, sprocket wheels.
Also used for joining Cr Mo steel,
T1-steel, Manganese steel, N-A-Xtra
steel, OXAR steel, HARDOX 400, fine
grain steel and shear blades.
Winch wheel
Chain
3.01
Special publication
ID.No. 11051
WEARMAX 327
Available
173
18/8-321 N
LMA
Electrode for Stainless Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Type of current
Imprint
Unitor 18/8-321 N / 316L-17
SFA/AWS A5.4
EN-ISO 3581-A
E 316L-17
E 19 12 3 LR 12 DNV
GL
316L
4571
316L
BV
ABS
316L
E 316L 17
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
LR
PB
Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/17445
W.Nr.
1554
PC
PF
AFNOR NF A35-
573/574/576/582
PE, PD
ASTM/ACI
SIS
A240, A312, A351
Extra low
316S11X2CrNiMo17132
1.4404 Z2CND17.12
(TP) 316L2353
carbon
CF-3M
C<0.03%
316S13X2CrNiMo18143
1.4435
X2CrNiMoN17122
1.4406 Z2CND17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN
X2CrNiMoN17133
1.4429 Z2CND17.13 á l’N
Medium
316S31X5CrNiMo17122
1.4401 Z6CND17.11
316 (TP) 316
(2347)
carbon
316S33X5CrNiMo17133
1.4436 Z6CND17.122343
C>0.03%
316S33 G-X6CrNiMo1812
1.4437 Z6CND17.12
C (P) F-8M
316S33 G-X10CrNiMo189
1.4410
316S33 G-X6CrNiMo1810
1.4408 Z6CND17.12
C (P) F-8M
Ti-Nb
320S31 G-X6CrNiMoTi17122 1.4571 Z6CNDT17.12
316Ti
(2344)
stabilized
347S31
Z6CNNb17.12
(TP) 3472338
347S31X6CrNiNb1810
1.4550 Z6CNNb17.12
(TP) 3472338
347S31 G-X5CrNiNb189
1.4552 Z6CNNb18.10
CF-8C, CPF-8C
3.01
All weld metal composition
C
max. 0.030
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
Mn
Si
Cr
Ni
0.5 - 1.2
max. 0.9
17.0 - 19.0
S31603
J92800
S31653
S31600/
S30409
J92900
J92900
S32100/
S31635
S34700/S34709
S34700/S34709
J92710
MoFN
11.0 - 13.02.5 - 3.0
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
UNS
3–10
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
570
460
40 At +20°C = 60
At –20°C = 55
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
1.6
2.5
3.2
Current
range, A
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
30–4526
45–90
35
60–135
46
0.6230
1.1
97
1.4
56
3
4
4
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
1.6
2.5
3.2
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
300213
300
89
350
54
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
174
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
1.7
1.7
1.7
095-699397
095-699405
095-699413
6
6
6
18/8-321 N
Unitor 18/8-321 N is a rutile basic type
electrode for welding stainless and
acid resistant steel containing 16–18%
chromium, 10–14% nickel and 2–3%
molybdenum.
It is suitable for all welding positions.
When welding tanks containing corrosive elements, it must be remembered that the final bead must be laid
on the side exposed to corrosion, to
prevent intercrystalline corrosion. The
electrode will operate on AC or DC
polarity. It is always preferable to use
DC positive when welding stainless or
acid-resistant steel.
Use a brush with stainless steel wire
bristles when cleaning up the weld.
If an ordinary wire brush is used, iron
oxides will be deposited in scratches
left by the brush, as this can lead
to corrosion. The dark oxide deposit
formed on either side of the bead
should also be removed. Best result
is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel
to remove discolouration and oxides
after welding. For welding stainless/
acid-resitant steel to low alloy steel,
use Unitor electrode 23/14-322 N.
Welding:
1.Use a short arc. A long arc will
increase arc tension, resulting
in lower current output and poor
fusion.
2.The electrode should be held
almost at right angles to the work
piece.
3. When terminating the weld, the elec­
trode should be move in a circle over
the molten pool and finally moved
quickly backwards in the groove
for a distance of approx.10 mm. The
formation of a pore containing high
melt point slag in the middle of the
crater is thereby avoided.
2nd run
1st run
Welding piping
and flanges.
3.01
4. The electrode must be protected
against humidity and welding with
damp electrodes should not be
attempted.
A stainless steel electrode should
have the same alloy composition
as the base material, but there are
certain exceptions. An electrode
of high alloy content may be used
for welding material which has a
slightly lower alloy content than the
electrode.
175
23/14-322 N
LMA
Electrode for Stainless Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor 23/14-322 N / 309MoL-17
SFA/AWS A5.4
EN-ISO 3581-A
E 309MoL-17
E 23 12 2 LR 32
DNV
GL
LR
309Mo
4459
SS/CMn
Type of current
PA
3.01
ABS
309Mo
SS/CMn
AC
DC+
Welding positions
Materials
to be welded
BV
Steel grades BS 970
PB
DIN 17440
W.Nr.
PC
PF
AFNOR PE, PD
ASTM/ACI
SIS
First layer in 316S11X2CrNiMo17132
1.4404 Z2CND17.12
(TP) 316L2353
CrNiMo-
CF-3M
claddings
316S13X2CrNiMo18143
1.4435
X2CrNiMoN17122
1.4406 Z2CND17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN
X2CrNiMoN17133
1.4429 Z2CND17.13 á l’N
316S31X5CrNiMo17122
1.4401 Z6CND17.11
316 (TP) 316 (H) (2347)
316S33X5CrNiMo17133
1.4436 Z6CND17.122343
320S31X6CrNiMo17122
1.4571 Z6CNDT17.12
316Ti
(2344)
X10CrNiMoTi1812
1.4573 Z6CNDT 17.12
316Ti
X6CrNiMoNb17122 1.4580 Z6CND17.12
C (P) F-8M
X10CrNiMoNb1812 1.4583 Z6CNDNb17.13
316Cb
UNS
S31603
J92800
S31653
S31600/
S30409
S31635/S32100
S31635
S31640
S31640
– Welding dissimilar metals: mild steel or low alloyed steel to stainless CrNiMo-steel up to max. thickness of 12 mm.
– Build up stainless overlays on mild or low alloyed steel.
All weld metal composition
C
Mn
max. 0.030
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
Cr
Ni
0.50 - 0.9022.0 - 24.0
610
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4.0
510
Current
range, A
50–90
90–120
85–180
MoFN
12.0 - 14.02.5 - 3.0
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
Si
0.50 - 1.20
12–22
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
32 At +20°C = 50
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
36
1.2
81
53
1.7
43
562.528
4
5
6
* SDS available on request. ** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
4.0
Length
mm.
300
350
350
Electrodes
per box
84
1.7
502.0
352.0
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
176
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
095-699421
095-699439
095-699447
6
6
6
23/14-322 N
Unitor 23/14-322 N is a rutile-basic
high alloyed electrode for welding
stainless and acid-resistant steel.
It is specially designed for welding
stainless compound steel, and as will
be seen from the sketch, the unalloyed steel side is welded first using
an unalloyed steel electrode, followed
by 23/14-322 N on the stainless side.
A certain amount of mixing with the
unalloyed steel is unavoidable and the
electrode is therefore over-alloyed
to ensure that the weld will remain
stainless.
5 4 1
3
2
Unalloyed steel
Stainless steel
Procedure to be followed when
welding compound steel.
For this reason, 23/14-322 N can also
be used for welding unalloyed steel
to stainless steel. This combination
should preferably be avoided, but
providing an over-alloyed electrode is
used the weld will remain stainless.
23/14-322 N provides a weld with
good mechanical properties and high
crack-resistance. It is suitable for all
welding positions and can be used
with AC or DC positive polarity.
The electrode may also be used for
building up a stainless steel surface
on ordinary steel.
1. Mild steel electrode
(LH-314 N)
2. Mild steel electrode
3. Mild steel electrode
4. 23/14-322 N
5. 23/14-322 N
Mild steel
3.01
Stainless
steel pipe
Welding mild steel to stainless steel.
The same rules as for 18/8-321 N
apply with regard to cleaning up the
weld.
Best result is obtained using Unitor
Pickling Gel to remove discolouration
and oxides after welding.
Stainless steel overlay on ordinary steel.
177
DUPLEX-325 N
LMA
Electrode for Duplex Steel
Elect
rode
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor DUPLEX-325 N / 2209-17
SFA/AWS A5.4
EN-ISO 3581-A
E 2209-17
E 22 9 3 N L R 32
DNV
GL
DUPLEX
4462
Type of current
PA
3.01
BV
–2209
ABS
DUPLEX
AC
DC+
Welding positions
Materials
to be welded
LR
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
Duplex – stainless steel
EN 10088-11-2X2CrNiMoN 22 53
X3CrNiMoN 27 52
X2CrNiN 23 4
W. Nr.
1.4462
1.4417
1.4460
1.4362
AFNOR
Z2 CN 22,5 á l’N
ASTM/ACI2205
SIS
S 2377
UNS
S 31803
S 31500
S 31200
S 32304
Can also be used for welding dissimilar materials: Unalloyed and low alloyed steels to Duplex stainless steel.
Stainless steel to Duplex steels.
All weld metal composition
C
Mn
max. 0.030
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
0.50 - 1.20
Si
Cr
Ni
0.50 - 0.9021.5 - 23.0
MoFN
8.5 - 10.52.7 - 3.325 - 40
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
820
66025 At +20°C = 50
Welding data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Current
range, A
50–90
80–120
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
38
55
1.0
1.4
91
47
4
5
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
095-699454
095-699462
6
6
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Length
mm.
300
350
91
1.7
552.0
Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.
178
DUPLEX-325 N
Unitor DUPLEX-325 N is a rutile basic
type electrode for welding of Duplex
stainless steel used in tanks, cargo
loading pipes, heating coils and ladders.
Duplex stainless steel consists of two
phases; austenite and ferrite, both
about 50%. The combination of these
two in one structure, results in a very
high yield and tensile strength as well
as an excellent protection against
chloride-induced stress, corrosion
and pitting.
DUPLEX-325 N can also be used for
joining Duplex steel to mild steel,
Duplex to stainless and stainless to
mild steel.
It has high resistance to general corrosion and pitting corrosion. Applic­
able up to service temperatures of
250°C. Use a short arc. A long arc
will increase arc tension, resulting in
lower current output and poor fusion.
Name
Material
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mild steel.
Mild steel.
Mild steel.
Mild to Duplex.
Stainless steel.
Duplex stainless steel.
Duplex stainless steel.
Hull.
Hull (Section weld).
Stiffeners to hull.
Stiffeners to
bulkhead panel.
5. Tanktop.
6a.Bulkhead panel.
(Section weld).
b.Bulkhead to corrugated bulkhead
panel.
7. Bulkhead panel to
tanktop + corrugated
bulkhead panel to
tanktop.
8. Tanktop.
Best result is obtained using Unitor
Pickling Gel to remove discolouration
and oxides after welding.
3.01
Duplex stainless steel.
Duplex stainless steel.
Duplex stainless to mild
steel.
179
PICKLING GEL
Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel
Identification:
Packaging type
White HD-polyethylene plastic
container (approval according
to UN- recommendation)
Classifications
Shelf life
Storage
Product consistency and colour
White gel
ASTM A-380 A1
BS CP-312
13 months when stored in unopened original containers at 20°C.
Container should be stored indoors at 20°C.
They should be kept in an upright position with the lids tightly closed.
The storage area should be clearly defined and beyond the access of unauthorised persons.
Pickling chemicals are sensitive to high temperatures.
Caution: Storage temperatures higher than 45°C must be avoided since they accelerate the ageing
process and destroy the product. Pickling chemicals give best result when they are fresh.
Application
data
3.01
Stir the gel to a smooth consistency.
Spread a thick layer on to the work surface using the brush supplied.
Allow the gel to remain for 50-90 minutes.
Rinse off the reminding gel using fresh water.
The waste water, after rinsing, contains acids and heavy metals, and must hence be treated
according to local wastewater requirements before discharge.
This can be done with neutralising agent or slaked lime.
The waste water treatment should adjust the pH value of the clear water, pH 6,5-10, and precipitate
heavy metals into a sludge which should be sent for waste disposal.
Recommended temperature limits for application: 10°C - 40°C.
NB. Do not pickle in direct sunlight.
Chemical
composition
Vol. %
Hydrofluoric acid
(HF)
Nitric Acid
HNO3
Binder
0,5–5
8–20
Rest
pH: 0Flamable: No
Do not contain chloride containing agents such as hydrochloric acid (HCL)
Packaging
data
Protective
clothing
Container Net Weight Content
per container
2 litre2,5 kg
Containers
per carton
095-661778
including 4 brushes
Users should wear rubber boots, protective gloves, rubber apron and face visor.
SDS available on request.
180
Product No.
per container
PICKLING GEL
During welding of stainless steel the
weld and the adjacent area to the
weld will become exposed to the air
at elevated temperature. The result
will be oxidation ranging from light
tinting to a blue and black scale. A
corresponding chromium depletion
in the metal below the oxide also
occurs. If this is not removed, corrosion will be the result. Unitor Pickling
Gel is used to remove this oxides and
the underlying chromium depleted
layer. It also removes surface micro
slag particles and other contaminates
which may cause local corrosion.
Pickling restores completely the
materials corrosion resistance.
8. Pickling residuals and rinse water
should be neutralised to pH-7 i.e. with
Neutralising Agent, and then rinsed with
water. For the deposit of heavy metals,
local water pollution control regulations
should be consulted
9. The bottles must be stored in an upright
position with the lid tightly closed.
Storing temperature 20°C. Storage
temperature higher than 45°C must be
avoided since this accelerate the ageing process.
Weld
Discoloration/oxidation of
surface
Chromium
depletion
Application
Pickling products are hazardous substances that must be handled with care. The
pickling area should be ventilated. Users
should wear protective gloves and face
visor. Ref.: Material Safety Data Sheet.
1. Pretreat oxides; slag and weld defects
mechanically, preferably when the
welds are still warm and the weld
oxides less hard.
2. Give the area to be pickled time to cool
down to below 40°C after welding.
3. Organic contaminants such as grease,
oil and paint have to be removed.
4. Stir the gel to a smooth consistency
and spread a thick layer on to the work
piece using the brush supplied.
5. The work piece should be cold when
the gel is applied, although the air temperature must not be below + 5°C (41°F).
Do not pickle in direct sunlight.
6. The gel should be allowed to remain
for at least 50 minutes. For Mo-alloyed
steels this time should be extended. If
necessary the gel may be allowed to
remain on the work piece over night as
there is no risk for corrosion.
7. After appropriate time, rinse off the
reminding gel using fresh water. If necessary brush the weld with a stainless
steel wire brush.
3.01
Stir the gel
before use
Apply with
the brush
Leave the paste
to work
Remove with water
181
NIFE-334 N
Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor NIFE-334 N / NiFe-C1
SFA/AWS A5.15
E NiFe-CL-A
EN-ISO 1071
E NiFe-CL-A1
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
For welding and repair
DIN 1691
G G 10
G G 15
G G 20
G G 25
G G 30
G G 35
PB
PC
DIN 1692
GTS-35-10
GTS-45-06
GTS-55-4
GTW-35-04
GTW-40-05
GTW-45-07
GTW-S 38-12
PF
PG
PE, PD
DIN 1693
G GG-40
G GG-50
G GG-60
3.01
All weld metal composition
NiFe
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
47.0 - 56.0
42.0 - 48.0
1.4 - 2.0
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
C
375
300
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
3.2
4.0
75–100
85–160
Elongation
%
12
Hardness
HB
180
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
90
70
0.9
1.8
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
452
30
3
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
3.2
4.0
350
350
682.2
512.4
Re-drying temperature: 200 °C (392 °F) for two hours.
182
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
096-699512
096-699520
6
6
NIFE-334 N
The Unitor NIFE-334 N electrode has
been specially developed for cold
welding of different types of cast iron
especially nodular cast iron, malleable cast iron and grey cast iron.
The cold welding process is normally
used on large, complicated cast iron
parts where the use of heat would
involve considerable risk of transverse fractures. In the cold welding
process, the heat transfer to the base
material is kept to a minimum by
welding only very short beads (2–3
cm) at a time, the bead being peened
and allowed to cool before welding
the next bead. Smaller parts may be
hot welded i.e. preheated to approx.
500°C and continuously welded. The
weld metal is easily machineable.
Large complicated parts should be
cold welded.
Prepare the damage area in the following manner:
– Use crack detector to find the end of the crack fracture.
– Drill a hole at the end of the crack,
using a 3 mm drill, to prevent further fracturing during welding.
Smaller parts, free to
expand, may be hot welded.
NB: Allow to cool off slowly.
3.01
The same welding procedure applies
as for Nickel-333 N.
When welding oily cast iron, Unitor
electrode CH-2-382 should be used to
prepare the grooves. This is a special
electrode for gouging without the
use of oxygen. As well as forming a
suitable welding groove, this process
also burns out the oil contained in
the carbon flakes, which are present
in all types of cast iron. If the oil is
not burnt off, it will have a tendency
to surface during welding and form
pores in the deposit.
A crack in cast iron. The carbon flakes in
the metal are saturated with oil.
After gouging with Unitor CH-2. The oily
deposits in the welding area have
evaporated.
183
NICKEL-333 N
Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor NICKEL-333 N / Ni-C1
SFA/AWS A5.15
E Ni-CL
EN-ISO 1071
E Ni-CL3
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
For welding and repair
DIN 1691
G G 10
G G 15
G G 20
G G 25
G G 30
G G 35
PB
PC
DIN 1692
GTS-35-10
GTS-45-06
GTS-55-4
GTW-35-04
GTW-40-05
GTW-45-07
GTW-S 38-12
PF
PG
PE, PD
DIN 1693
G GG-40
G GG-50
G GG-60
3.01
All weld metal composition
NiFe
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
92.0 - 95.0
3.0 - 5.0
0.8 - 1.6
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
C
300
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
100
Current
range, A
55–110
80–140
Elongation
%
12
Hardness
HB
150
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
50
65
0.8
1.2
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
902
452
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
2.5
3.2
Length
mm.
300
350
1212.0
682.2
Re-drying temperature: 80 °C (176 °F) for two hours.
184
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
096-699496
096-699504
6
6
NICKEL-333 N
Unitor NICKEL-333 N is a special
electrode for cold welding of oily cast
iron.
2–3 cm
Prepare the damaged area in the following manner:
Use a crack detector to determine the
actual length of the crack or fracture.
Drill a hole at the end of the crack,
using a 3 mm drill, to prevent further
fracturing during welding.
AC or DC negative or positive polarity
may be used. Use a fairly short arc.
Hold the electrode almost at a right
angle to the work and weld in short
beads of 2–3 cm at a time. When a
bead is completed, it must be peened
to counteract shrinkage. Start from
the crater and work backwards to the
starting point.
Weld in short beads.
Drill a 3 mm hole at the end of the crack.
Allow the weld to cool before continuing. A general rule is that the welding
area should be hand warm before
welding the next bead of 2–3 cm (cold
welding).
3.01
When repairing a crack which has not
split the workpiece into two separate
parts, always weld from the outer
ends of the crack and inwards.
The thickness of the material is the
deciding factor in choosing between
NICKEL-333 N or NIFE-334 N. NICKEL333 N is for use on thinner materials,
or as a first bead on oily cast iron, to
be followed by beads welded with
NIFE-334 N. NIFE-334 N is used for
multibead welding on heavy gauge
materials.
After welding, the bead’s tendency to
shrink can cause cracking. Peening the
bead counteracts the shrinkage forces.
Start welding at the end of the crack and
work inwards.
185
TINBRO-341
Electrode for Copper Alloys
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor TINBRO-341
AWS A5.6
DIN 8555
E 30-UM-150-C
~ E Cu SnC
N.A.
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
Copper and copper alloys i.e.:
Brass
Bronze
Tin-Bronze
Leaded Gun-metal
Steel
Castiron
Seawater resistant deposit
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
Cu
Sn
Rest
7.5–9.5
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
Mn
1
Elongation
%
Hardness
HB
Recovery
%
15–25
100–150
103
350–400220-260
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
Arc time /
Deposition rate Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal
Danish Std.
3.2
70–90
63
1.33
43
6
* SDS available on request.
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
3.2
350
42
1.4
096-606458
6
Re-drying temperature: 200 °C (392 °F) for one hour.
186
TINBRO-341
Unitor TINBRO-341 is a tin-bronze elec­­ Cunifer
trode for DC welding, positive polarity. Small parts should be brazed with AGAreas of application include joining of 60 and AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. Larger
dimensions should be TIG welded
brass and tin-bronze as well as joinwith Icuni 30 329.
ing these to steel and cast iron.
Clean the welding area thoroughly to
remove any oily deposits, oxidation,
etc. Machine or grind off fatigued
material. When making joints, a 3 mm
gap should be used. When material
thickness is more that 4 mm, make an
80° welding groove with V or X profile.
It is recommended that larger copper
alloy parts should be pre-heated to
300–500°C. This will facilitate welding,
and welding current can be reduced.
Use a short arc and hold the electrode almost at right angles to the
work. On parts requiring thin surfacing, weave the electrode from side to
side, covering an area of up to three
times the electrode diameter.
3.01
Parts not be overheated, or where
mini­mum fusion with the base material is required, welding should be
carried out at 80–110 Amps.
The electrodes must be stored in a
dry place and must be handled carefully to avoid damage of the coating.
TINBRO-341 is not recommended for
welding Yorcalbro (aluminium-brass)
or Cunifer (copper-nickel, cupro-nickel). For welding these materials, the
following processes should be used:
Yorcalbro
For dimensions up to approx. 4", braze
with AG-60 and Albro Flux 263 PF. For
larger dimensions, use TIG welding
with Ialbro 237 MF.
187
ALBRONZE-344
Electrode for Copper Alloys
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor ALBRONZE-344
AWS A5.6
DIN 8555
~ E Cu Al A2
E 31-UM-150-C
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
Copper and copper alloys i.e.:
Bronze
Aluminium bronze
Steel
Cast iron
Seawater resistant deposit
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
Cu
Al
MnFe
Rest
7
1.22.8
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
550
Elongation
%
Hardness
HB
Recovery
%
10
140–170
103
350
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
3.2
80–160
Arc time /
Deposition rate Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal
Danish Std.
81
0.92
48
6
* SDS available on request.
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
3.2
350
46
1.3
096-606457
6
Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.
188
ALBRONZE-344
Unitor ALBRONZE-344 is a bronze
electrode made specially for joining
and cladding of bronze alloys as well
as for joining these metals to steel
and cast iron. It is also used for welding gliding surface overlays on steel.
Unitor ALBRONZE-344 is not recommended for welding Yorcalbro and
Cunifer pipes.
The welded deposit has high strength
properties and good resistance
against cavitational wear and corrosion in seawater. The deposit has low
coefficient of friction and excellent
weldability.
Applications include ships’ propellers, pumps, pump parts, bearing
shells, condensers, valves and turbine
blades.
Clean the welding area thoroughly and
remove all oxidation. Machine or grind
off fatigued metal. Make a suitable
welding groove using a 60–90° angle.
The groove can be formed by grinding.
Pre-heating is normally not required
but it may be necessary to pre-heat
large workpieces up to 150°C. The
temperature must not exceed 200°C
during welding. When surfacing steel
parts, AC or DC positive polarity may
be used. The pre-heating requirement
will depend on the size and type of
the base material.
3.01
Use a short arc. Hold the electrode
almost at right angles to the workpiece and use a weaving movement.
The length of each stroke should not
exceed three times the electrode dia­
meter. Remove the slag from the bead
with chipping hammer and wire brush
before starting on the next bead. Cast
cupro-aluminium parts and similar
materials must be annealed after
welding by heating the welding area
to 650°C. The workpiece must then be
allowed to cool down slowly to below
500°C to ensure that the metal does
not lose any of its properties.
189
ALUMIN-351 N
Electrode for Aluminium
Identification:
Classifications
Approvals
Imprint
Unitor ALUMIN-351 N
EN-ISO 18273
EL-AlSi12
N.A.
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be welded
3.01
All weld metal composition
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
Welding data
PB
PC
PF
For welding forged and cast aluminium alloy containing more than 7% Si as main alloying element.
G-Al Si 5Mg
(3.2341)
G-Al Si 10Mg
(3.2381)
G-Al Si 10Mg (Cu) (3.2381)
G-Al Si 12
(3.2581)
G-Al Si 12
(Cu) (3.2583)
G-Al Si 11
G-Al Si 9Mg
G-Al Si 9
Cu 3
G-Al Si 7Mg
G-Al Si 6
Cu 4
Also applicable as surfacing electrode.
Al
SiFe
86.0 - 89.0
11.0 - 13.5
max. 0.8
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
160
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
3.2
70–110
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
13
Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal** Danish Std.
32
0.7
164
3
* SDS available on request.
** 90% of max. amperage
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
3.2
350
71
1.0
096-699538*
6
* This box is placed inside a vacuum metal pouch.
Re-drying temperature: In vacuum packing and therefore no need for re-drying.
Opened packages: 80 °C for 1 hour.
190
ALUMIN-351 N
Unitor ALUMIN-351 N is used for joining and building up aluminium parts
with a thickness of more than 2 mm
sheets, sections, tubes, pistons, castings (covers), gangways, etc. When
welding materials more than 3 mm
thick, a 60° V-groove and an air gap of
1–3 mm should be used.
Grooves and the surrounding area
must be thoroughly cleaned. Thin
parts should be backed up before
welding.
NB. When welding with Aluminium
electrodes: Arrange suitable ventilation
or use Fresh Air kit mounted in face
shield.
Cover plate ears welded back on
Use DC, positive polarity setting.
Large parts or castings should be
pre-heated to approx. 300°C. Hold the
electrode almost vertically the workpiece, the tip at a slight angle to the
weld direction. It is preferable to weld
in the flat position. Use as short arc as
possible and weld rapidly. If welding
is interrupted, remove the slag and
overlap the end of the bead by about 1
cm when re-striking.
3.01
All slag must be cleaned off the finished weld with brush and water.
Aluminium electrodes absorb moisture
very easily and must be stored in a dry,
preferably moisture-controlled, place.
When first received the electrode box
is placed inside a vacuum metal pouch.
Hold the electrode almost at right angles
to the workpiece, or at a slight angle to the
weld direction
Note: Use the shortest possible arc.
Aluminium or magnesium?
It may be difficult to determine whether a part is aluminium or magnesium.
Magnesium parts must not be welded
(magnesium bomb!). Use the following
test to determine whether a part is
aluminium or magnesium:
File a few shavings onto a small piece
of paper. Hold the paper over a flame.
If the fillings spark or seem to explode
in the flame, the material is magnesium. If there are only a few sparks
here and there, and most of the fillings
just glow, the material is alumi­nium
alloyed with magnesium, and may be
welded.
Joining a cast aluminium cover. Such parts
should be pre-heated to approx. 300°C if
possible
191
CH-2-382
Electrode for Chamfering
Identification:
Imprint
Unitor CH-2-382
Classifications
N.A.
Approvals
N.A.
Type of current
AC
DC+/-
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be chamfered
N.A.
Typical mech. properties
of weld metal
N.A.
Welding data
PC
PG
PE, PD
Steel/Cast steel
Stainless steel/Cast stainless steel
Cast iron
Copper/Copper alloys
Aluminium/Aluminium alloys
All weld metal composition
3.01
PB
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, A
3.2
160–280
Arc time /
Deposition rate Electrodes perFume class*
electrode, sec.
Kg/h
kg weld metal
Danish Std.
57
–
–
7
* SDS available on request.
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
3.2
350
36
1.4
096-606459
6
Re-drying temperature: 120 °C (248 °F) for one hour.
192
CH-2-382
Gouging Technique
1.Hold the electrode vertically and
press lightly against the workpiece.
The arc will strike after a few
seconds.
2.Hold the electrode at an angle of
15–20° to the workpiece.
1
3.Direction of travel.
4.Warning!
Do not cut down into the workpiece. Should this happen inadvertently, move the electrode back and
lower to correct angle.
5.Work downwards when cutting into
a vertical surface, otherwise as
shown in figures 1–3.
6.If a deeper groove is required, proceed as in this sketch.
2
3
3.01
4
5
6
193
ACA-384
Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging
Identification:
Classifications
N.A.
Approvals
N.A.
Copper coating over black carbon
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Materials
to be gouged
All weld metal composition
Metal removal capasity
3.01
Welding data
PB
PC
PG
PE, PD
Gouging and cutting of all electrically conductive materials.
Can be used to groove, gouge, cut, bevel or pierce any material.
N.A.
Diameter mm.
6.3
8.0
15 x 5
Diameter
mm.
Current
range, Amps.
Approx. kg/electrode
0.27
0.37
0.61
Air pressure (bar)Fume class*
(Consumption 400–900 l/min)
Danish Std.
6.3200–350
8.0200–450
15 x 5
400–600
At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi)
At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi)
At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi)
7
7
7
* SDS available on request.
Packaging data
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
6.3
8.0
15 x 5
305
305
305
Electrodes
per box
Net weight,
kg per box
50
0.8
50
1.3
502.1
Re-drying temperature: 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 hours.
Note:The copper coating will oxidize during the process, but this
will not influence the performance of the product.
194
Product No.
per box
Boxes
per carton
096-758474
096-758466
096-758458
5
5
5
ACA-384
Unitor ACA-384 is a DC electrode for
gouging by the air-arc method. In this
process, the arc is used to melt the
metal, and the molten metal is then
blown away by a jet of compressed
air. This method has several advantages – it can be used for cutting
stainless steel and other materials
which are difficult to cut with an oxyacetylene torch. Most of those who
have had some welding or cutting
experience should be able to master
the gouging technique by practising
2 or 3 times a day for about a week.
A typical application of the air-arc
method is the removal of sections
which have been welded to the deck
for securing deck cargo (flushing).
Hold the electrode holder so that
the electrode slopes back from the
direction of travel. The air blast is
directed along the rear of the electrode towards the arc. The depth and
contour of the groove is controlled
by the electrode angle and speed of
travel. It is possible to cut grooves
with a depth of up to 25 mm. A combination of wide electrode angle and
slow speed of travel will produce a
narrow, deep groove. The width of
the groove will usually be about 3 mm
wider than the electrode diameter.
An electrode angle of approx. 35° will
provide a normal groove depth and
highest speed of travel. An electrode
angle of 45­–70° is used to obtain the
deepest groove. Adjust the speed
of travel to obtain an even, hissing
sound and clean, smooth groove surface. The amount of metal which can
be removed increases with increasing
current. However, every electrode has
an ideal current level which is slightly
below its maximum. If the ideal level
is exceeded, the welder will notice a
considerable increase in electrode
consumption.
When air-arc gouging with 8 mm
electrodes and using 100 m cable, the
cable size should be minimum
95 mm2.
WARNING!
Wet or damp air-carbon-arc electrodes will give off splinters and are
dangerous in use. Damp electrodes
must be dried out in a drying oven
at 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 hours before
use. The fumes from air-carbon-arc
electrodes are dangerous and must
not be inhaled. Arrange for suitable ventilation or use an air mask.
Use approved ear protectors when
working with air-arc electrodes and
protect your body and head against
molten metal spray.
3.01
The electrode held at
a narrow angle to the
groove (approx. 35°)
The position of the
electrode when gouging
in the overhead position
195
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.01
196
TIG WELDING RODS AND FLUXES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
IALBRO-237 MF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
I-FLUX-238 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
3.02
197
tig welding rods AND FLUXES
Introduction
Regulator w/flow meter
In Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG),
an arc is struck between a Tungsten
electrode and the workpiece. An
inert gas flow (Argon) protects
Gas hose
the electrode and pool from the
surrounding air. The electrodes
Power source
Argon
do not melt. The filler metal is
cylinder
inserted into the molten pool
in the form of a separate
Return
rod. The process has
cable
a similar welding
technique as gas
welding but use
Welding
electricity as
cable
energy source.
TIG Welding
torch
Rods for TIG welding
3.02
Unitor rods for TIG Welding are
supplied in sealed plastic containers.
All rods are supplied in 500 mm
lengths for convenient use. The label
on each container fully identifies the
contents, and also gives rod data and
basic information on application areas
and use.
Gas
shielding
Rod
Work piece
198
tig welding rods AND FLUXES
Classification
Guide to AWS A5.28-1979
Mechanical properties of weld metal
AWS TensileYield Elongation
Classifications strength strength
min. %
min. MPa
min. MPa
(0.2% proof)
ER 80 S-B2
ER 80 S-B2L
ER 90 S-B3
ER 90 S-B3L
ER 80 S-Ni1
ER 80 S-Ni2
ER 80 S-Ni3
ER 80 S-D2
ER 100 S-1
ER 100 S-2
ER 110 S-1
ER 120 S-1
ER XX S-G
550
550
620
620
550
550
550
550
690
690
760
830
Not required
Impact Energy
Charpy-V
J/°C
Condition
470
19
Not required
470
19
Not required
540
17
Not required
540
17
Not required
4702427/-46
4702427/-62
4702427/-73
470
1727/-29
610-700
16
68/-51
610-700
16
68/-51
660-740
15
68/-51
730-840
14
68/-51
Not required
Not required
Not required
*1)
*1)
*2)
*2)
As-welded
*1)
*1)
As-welded
As-welded
As-welded
As-welded
As-welded
As-welded
3.02
*1) PWHT 620 +/-15°C Heat in furnace to given temperature, hold for 1 hour, cool in furnace to 316°C
and then in still air.
*2) PWHT 690 +/-15°C Heat in furnace to given temperature, hold for 1 hour, cool in furnace to 316°C
and then in still air.
Suffix
Alloying system
Nominal value, wt%
Cr/ Mo
Cr/ Mo
Cr/ Mo
Cr/ Mo
Ni
Ni
Ni
Mn/ Mo
~1.3/ 0.5
~1.3/ 0.5
~2.5/ 1.1
~2.5/ 1.1
~1.0
~2.4
~3.4
~1.8/ 0.5
-B2
-B2L*
-B3
-B3L*
-Ni1
-Ni2
-Ni3
-D2
* C max. 0.05%
199
IMS 210
Description:
TIG welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloy creep
resistant 0.5% Mo steels and fine grained steels suitable
for working temperatures from –45°C up to 550°C. Also
recommended for welding of high tensile steels.
Identification:
Copper coated. Imprint 1.5424 / WMoSi
Classification
AWS A5.28
EN 12070
DIN 8575
Werkstoff No.
ER 80 SG
W MoSi
SG Mo
1.5424
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
Flux
Materials
to be welded
3.02
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Packaging data
No flux required.
Boiler & pressure vessel steel DIN 17155
NF A36-205
NF A36-206
BS 1501-261
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
Pipe material for elevated
temperatures
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
NF A36-203
17Mn4, 19Mn5, 15Mo3
A42 (CP, AP, FP), A48 (CP, AP, FP), A52 (CP, AP)
15D3, 18MD4.05
0.5% Mo-types, plate, casting and forgings
15Mo3, 15Mo5
St45.8, 15Mo3
StE285 to StE400
E275D, E355D, E390D, E430D
C
Mn
Si
MoFe
0.1
1
0.6
0.5
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
Elongation Impact value
MPa
MPa
%
ISO-V (J)
≥570
≥480
≥23 At +20°C = ≥180
At –45°C = ≥47
Diameter
mm.
2.0
200
ARGON
6–9 l/min
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
500
150
1.5
097-604850
IMS 210
Unitor IMS-210 is a copper coated
TIG welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed creep-resistant
Momolybdenium (up to 0.5%) steel
and fine grained steel suitable for
working temperatures from –45°C up
to 550°C. It is also recommended for
welding of high tensile steel.
In general, TIG welding of steel is suitable for thin sheets and pipes of small
diameters where the wall thickness of
pipes does not exceed 6 mm.
IMS-210 can also be used to advantage when making root runs on large
thicknesses where the subsequent
filler and capping runs are done by
arc welding with coated electrodes.
Thoroughly clean the welding area
before commencing welding.
Gas welding rods for mild steel welding (including MS-200) have a low
silicium content.
TIG welding rods on the other hand,
have a high silicium content to keep
the molten pool fluid. A TIG welding
rod used for Gas welding will become
too fluid and give a porous weld
3.02
It is therefore important not to use
gas welding rods for TIG and vice
versa.
201
ICROMO 216
Description:
TIG welding rod for welding of low alloy creep and hydrogen resistant
Cr-Mo steels. Suitable for working temperatures up to 550°C. Also
recommended for welding of high tensile steels.
Identification:
Copper coated.
Classification
AWS SFA 5.28
ER 80 SG *
EN 12070
BS 2901
DIN 8575
Werkstoff No.
WCr Mo1 Si
A 32
SG Cr Mo 1
1.7339
* Nearest ER 80-B2
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
Flux
Materials
to be welded
3.02
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Packaging data
No flux required.
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17155
13CrMo4 4
DIN 1720025CrMo4
NF A36-206
15CD 2.05
15CD 4.05
Case hardening steel
DIN 17210
16MnCr5
NF A35-551 18CD4, 16MC5, 20MC5
Quenched & Tempered steel
NF A35-55225CD4, 30CD4
C
Si
Mn
Cr
MoFe
0.1
0.6
1
1.2
0.5
Rest
Elongation
%
Impact value
ISO-V(J)
Temperature
Tensile
Yield strength MPa
strength MPa
AW
≥560
≥460
≥22
+20°C ≥100
SR 680/2h
>520
>440
≥22
+20°C ≥130
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
500
56
1
097-305532
2.5
202
ARGON
6–9 l/min
ICROMO 216
Unitor ICROMO-216 is a ChromeMolybdenum alloyed rod for TIG welding of heat resistant steel, like boiler
tubes. It is suitable for working temperatures up to 550°C. On heavy wall
thicknesses it can be used for making
the root run while filler and capping
runs can be done by arc welding with
coated electrodes.
Direct current is used, negative to
electrode, with pointed wolfram electrode.
The workpiece is welded with the
Leftward welding technique.
3.02
203
18/8 Mo 221
Description:
TIG welding rod with extra low carbon for welding stainless CrNiMo-steels.
Identification:
Stainless surface appearance. Imprint: ER 316LSi / RW 1.4430
Classification
AWS A5.9
EN 12072
DIN 8556
ER 316 LSi
W 19 12 3 LSi
Mo 1912
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
Flux
Materials
to be welded
3.02
Mechanical properties
as welded
1.4430
ARGON
6–9 l/min
No flux required.
Steel grades BS 970
DIN 17440/1744.5
W.Nr.
AFNOR NF A35- ASTM/ACI
SIS
347S31X6CrNiNb 18 10
1.4450 Z6CNNb17.12
C
Mn
Si
Cr
<0.02
1.7
0.8
18.8
(T) 3472338
Ni
Diameter
mm.
204
34700/S34709
MoFe
12.52.8
TensileYield strength MPa
strength MPa
2.0
S31653
S31600/
S30409
J92900
1.4410
1.4408 Z6CND 17.12
C(P)F-8M
J92900
1.4571 Z6CNDT 17.12
316Ti
(2344) S32100/S31635
J92800
S31603
J92800
316S33 G-X10CrNiMo18 9
316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 10
320S31X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2
Elongation
%
≥550
≥320
≥35
Packaging data
UNS
1554
573/574/576/582
A240/A312/A351
CF-3M
Ext. low carb. 316S11X2CrNiMo 17 13 2
1.4404 Z2CND 17.12
(TP) 316L2353
C<0.03%
CF-3M
316S13X2CrNiMo 18 14 3
1.4435
X2CrNiMoN 17 2 2 1.4406 Z2CND 17.12ál’N (TP) 316LN
Med carbon 316S31X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.4401 Z6CND 17.11
316 (TP) 316
(2347)
C>0.03%
316S33X5CrNiMo17 13 3
1.4436 Z6CND 17.122343
316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 12 1.4437 Z6CND 17.12
C(P)F-8M
Ti.Nb-
stabilized
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Werkstoff No.
Rest
Impact value
ISO-V(J)
At + 20°C = ≥80
At –120°C = ≥35
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
500
42
0.5
097-602979
18/8 Mo 221
Unitor 18/8 Mo 221 is a rod for
welding stainless and acid resistant
steel. Application areas are similar to
those for the coated electrode
18/8 321 N, but with the advantages
TIG can offer. When welding thin
sheets and pipes (less than 2 mm) it is
always an advantage to use TIG. This
filler rod may also be used as a root
bead when welding thicker sheets
with prepared V-grooves. The groove
can subsequently be filled, using
coated electrodes. Burn-through is
difficult to avoid when using coated
electrodes on thin sheets.
As 18/8 Mo may be used on both
stainless and acid resistant sheet and
pipes, it is a very useful filler rod on
board chemical tankers.
For TIG welding DC negative polarity
welding current is used, combined
with a pointed tungsten electrode
alloyed with rare earth metals.
The Leftward welding technique is
used.
Note: The hot surface of the back of
the weld will be attacked by air
unless it is shielded. In piping
this can be done by introducing
argon gas and blocking the pipe
ends. When welding sheets, a
suitable grooved back-up sheet
underneath the weld will prevent oxidization.
TIG welding thin sheets and pipes­­ . . .
3.02
­­. . . or used as root bead in V-grooves.
Remember there is considerably
more shrinkage in stainless steel
than in mild steel and the the
tacks should therefore be placed
as closely as possible.
Argon hose
Small hole
to let the
gas escape
Backing gas used to prevent oxidization
inside pipes.
205
IDUPLEX-222
TIG welding rod for welding of Duplex stainless steel
Identification:
Stainless surface appearance. Imprint: RW 2293 NL/ ER 2209.
Classification
AWS A5.9
EN 12072
DIN 8556
Werkstoff No.
ER 2209
W 22 9 3 L
SG X2CrNiMo N 2293
1.4462
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
Flux
Materials
to be welded
3.02
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
No flux required.
EN 10088
Duplex stainless steel
X2 CrNiMoN 22-5-3
X3 CrNiMoN 27-5-2
X2 CrNiN 23-4
1.4462
1.4417
1.4460
1.4362
Dissimilar joints as welding unalloyed and low-alloyed steel to
duplex stainless steel. Welding 316 LN stainless steel to duplex
stainless steel
C
Mn
Si
0,025
1,6
0,523,0
Cr
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
> 680
Diameter
mm.
2,0
206
W. No.
Packaging data
ARGON
6–9 l/min
>480
Ni
Mo
9,0
3,0
NFe
0,14
Rest
Elongation
%
Impact value
ISO-V (J)
>22
At +20°C=>50
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
500
42
0,5
097-725309
IDUPLEX-222
Unitor Iduplex-222 is a TIG rod for
welding duplex stainless steel grades
like WNr.1.4462, UNS 31803. The
deposit offers elevated mechanical
strength and toughness resistance to
stress corrosion cracking. Application
areas are similar to those for coated
electrode Duplex-325 N, but with
the advantages TIG can offer. When
welding thin sheets and pipes (less
than 2 mm) it is always an advantage
to use TIG. This filler rod may also be
used as a root bead when welding
thicker sheets with prepared U or
V-grooves. The groove can
subsequently be filled, using coated
electrodes. Burn-through is difficult to
avoid when using coated electrodes
on thin sheets. The rod can also be
used for welding duplex to mild steel
and duplex to stainless steel (AISI
304, AISI 316 LN). For TIG welding
connect the torch to DC negative
polarity. A pointed Tungsten electrode
alloyed with rare earth metals
(Turquoise colour code) must be used.
Shielding gas must be Argon. Interpas
temperature should not exceed 250°C
during welding. After welding, remove
discoloration by using Unitor Pickling
Paste.
Note: The back of the weld will
oxidize (oxygen will attack the hot
surface) unless it is shielded. In piping
this can be done by blocking the pipe
ends and introducing Argon gas.
Remember there is considerably more
shrinkage in duplex stainless steel
than in mild steel and the tacks should
therefore be placed as closely as
possible
Included
angle
Root Gap
When welding V and U butt welds the
included angle and root gap is slightly
­bigger than for AISI 316 stainless steel.
Rapid cooling of weld
deposit should be
avoided as the material
structure may suffer
3.02
Remember to only
use stainless steel
wire brushes and
chipping hammers
when working with
stainless steel
207
ICUNI 30 239
Description:
TIG welding rod for welding of copper-nickel alloys (cunifer, cupronickel
pipes) containing up to 31% Ni.
Identification:
Copper-nickel colour surface appearance.
Classification
AWS A5.7
BS 2901
ER Cu Ni
C 18
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
Flux
Materials
to be welded
3.02
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
ARGON
7–9 l/min
Copper-nickel wrought alloys
Grade Cu Ni 20 Fe (DIN 17664)
Grade Cu Ni 30 Mn 1 Fe (DIN 17664)
Grade Cu Ni 30 Fe 2 Mn 2 (DIN 17664)
Werkstoff No. 2.0872
Werkstoff No. 2.0875
Werkstoff No. 2.0883
Copper-nickel cast alloys
Grade G-Cu Ni 10
Grade G-Cu Ni 30
Werkstoff No. 2.0815
Werkstoff No. 2.0835
Ni
MnFe
Ti
Cu
31.0
1.0
0.4
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
≥420
Diameter
mm.
2.5
208
Werkstoff No.
No flux required.
Packaging data
DIN 1733
WSG-Cu Ni 30 Fe2.0837
≥200
Length
mm.
500
Rods
per package
0.5
Elongation
%
Hardness
HB
≥30
±115
Net weight
per package kg
922.0
Product No.
per package
097-335547
ICUNI 30 239
Unitor ICUNI 30 329 is a TIG welding rod for welding of copper nickel
alloys, like, for example, Cunifer pipes.
For TIG welding DC negative polarity
is used in combination with a thorium
alloyed electrode. No flux is used
in this process. Pure argon must be
used as shielding gas.
Typical applications
Thoroughly clean the welding and
adjacent area with a stainless steel
brush or emery paper before commencing welding. If practically possible use backing gas inside pipe to
further improve the result.
Typical applications are welding
flanges on pipes, pipe joints, patching
leaking pipes, etc. Joint surfaces and
adjacent areas must be thoroughly
cleaned with a stainless steel brush
or emery paper before welding
begins. If practically possible, use
backing gas.
Small diameter Cunifer pipes can
be joined by means of overlap joints
(capil­lary action) using Unitor AG-60
silver solder combined with AG-60/45
Flux 252 PF. Larger pipe diameters are
usually TIG welded with Unitor
ICUNI 30.
3.02
Permanently installed pipe.
Horizontal axis.
Whenever possible, welding should
take place in the workshop so that, as
far as possible, beads can be laid in
the horizontal position.
Permanently installed pipe.
Vertical axis.
209
IALBRO 237 MF
Description:
Flux-coated TIG welding rod for welding
of aluminium-brass pipes also known as
Yorcalbro pipes.
Identification:
Serrations w/greyish flux.
Classification
AWS A5.7
ER Cu A1-A2
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
Flux
Materials
to be welded
DIN 1733
SG-CuAI8Ni2
ARGON
7–9 l/min
I-FLUX 238 PF, 250 gram container, order No. 097-603092.
Wrought copper aluminium alloys:
– Grade Cu AL 5A (DIN 17665)
– Grade Cu AL 8 (DIN 17665)
– Werkstoff No. 2.0918
– Werkstoff No. 2.0920
Cast copper aluminium alloys:
– Grade G-Cu AL 8 Mn (DIN 1714)
– Werkstoff No. 2.0962
Trade name types:
– Yorcalbro (Cu 76%, Al 2%, Zn21, 96%, As 0.04%)
3.02
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
AL
Mn
Ni
Cu
8.5
1.0
0.5
Mechanical properties
as welded
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Packaging data
Elongation
%
Hardness
HB
500–600250–30025
Diameter
mm.
2.4
210
Rest
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
500
81
1.4
097-519736
115
IALBRO 237 MF
Unitor IALBRO 237 MF is a flux-coated
filler rod for TIG welding of aluminumbrass pipes also known as Yorcalbro
pipe. This alloy is widely used in seawater resistant piping. In TIG welding
of joints it is strongly recommended
that I-Flux 238 PF is applied to both
sides of the joint and on the inside.
This improves welding penetration
considerably. Flux deposits must be
washed off with water.
Yorcalbro pipes with diameter less
than 4" can be joined by means of
overlap joint (capillary action) and
silver brazed using Unitor AG-60 combined with Albro Flux 263 PF. Larger
pipes should be TIG welded using
Unitor IALBRO 237 MF.
– Completed welds, as well as the
area covering approx. 15 cm on
either side of the bead should be
annealed. Annealing temperature
300–400°C for 30–40 min.
– Use a contact thermometer when
annealing Yorcalbro pipes.
Whenever possible, welding should
take place in the workshop, in the
horizontal position.
In cases where this is not possible,
position welding may be used with
Leftward welding technique.
Typical applications
Welding procedure:
Also use I-flux
238 PF inside
pipe joints
– Piping must be unstressed before
welding.
– Cold bent piping should be annealed
at 400–500°C for approx. 20–30 min.
3.02
– As a general rule, pipes with a
thickness up to and including 1.5
mm may be butt welded with a 1.5
mm aperture, no V-groove being
necessary. For thicknesses exceeding 1.5mm, a 70° V-groove with 1.5
mm root gap is recommended.
– Thoroughly clean the welding area
with a steel brush or emery paper.
Permanently
installed pipe.
Horizontal axis.
– Strike the arc on a separate piece
of metal placed close to the weld
zone.
– Weld in long continuous beads as
quickly as possible. When the arc
is extinguished the groove must be
cleaned before the bead is continued.
– Base material temperature during
welding should never exceed 150°C
Permanently
installed pipe.
Vertical axis.
211
I-FLUX 238PF
Description:
Flux for TIG welding rod IALBRO-237 MF for use on Yorkalbro.
Identification:
White/Grey flux in paste form inside container.
Application
Apply with brush. Use as additional flux on both sides of the joint, especially on the inside of pipes.
Working area should be adequately ventilated.
The flux is corrosive. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.
HARMFUL
3.02
Packaging data
R22
R36/37/38
R48/20/22
R52/53
S2
S22
S26
S36/39
S46
S56
Harmful if swallowed
Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
Keep out of the reach of children
Do not breathe dust
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection
If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point
Gross weight in grams
250
Product No.
097-603092
*SDS available on request.
212
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.02
213
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.02
214
WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Storage and handling for Flux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
MS-W-201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Coreshield 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Icuni-W-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Ialbro-W-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
3.03
215
WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING
Introduction
Regulator w/flow meter
In Wire welding an arc is struck
between a continuosly fed wire and
the workpiece. An inert gas, active
Gas hose
gas or a mixture of the two protects
the pool from the surrounding air.
Wire feeder
The wire used can be solid or flux
Power source
cored. In some cases the flux
Spool
cored wire is self shielded
Return
and does not require
cable
any additional
Wire welding
shielding gas.
torch
3.03
216
Wires for wire
welding (GMAW
and FCAW):
Description
Unitor standard range of
welding wires for Gas Metal Arc
Welding (GMAW) and Flux Cored
Arc Welding (FCAW) is supplied on
200mm Diameter spools, 51 mm width,
shaft Diameter 50 mm. The spools
are packed in individually sealed
plastic bags and cardboard cartons
and labelled with information fully
identifying the wire with technical
data and classifications. The labels
also provide basic information on use.
Cylinder
Argon
CO2
Argon + CO2
Gas
shielding
Wire
Work piece
WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING
Classification
Guide to AWS A5.18-1993
AWS
Classifications ER 70 S-2
ER 70 S-3
ER 70 S-4
ER 70 S-5
ER 70 S-6
ER 70 S-7
ER 70 S-G
Chemical composition of wire or rod
C
Mn Si
P
S
Cu
<0.07
0.06-0.15
0.07-0.15
0.07-0.19
0.07-0.15
0.07-0.15
-
0.90-1.40
0.90-1.40
1.00-1.50
0.90-1.40
1.40-1.85
1.50-2.00
-
0.40-0.70
0.45-0.70
0.65-0.85
0.30-0.60
0.80-1.15
0.50-0.80
-
<0.025
<0.025
<0.025
<0.025
<0.025
<0.025
<0.025
<0.035
<0.035
<0.035
<0.035
<0.035
<0.035
<0.035
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
<0.50
Mechanical properties of weld metal
AWS TensileYield Elongation
Classifications strength strength
min. %
min. MPa min. MPa
(0.2% proof)
ER 70 S-2
ER 70 S-3
ER 70 S-4
ER 70 S-5
ER 70 S-6
ER 70 S-7
ER 70 S-G
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
Impact Energy
Charpy-V
J/°C
4202227/-29
4202227/-18
42022
Not required
42022
Not required
4202227/-29
4202227/-29
42022
Not required
Shielding
gas
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
or Ar/Co2
or Ar/Co2
or Ar/Co2
or Ar/Co2
or Ar/Co2
or Ar/Co2
or Ar/Co2
3.03
217
WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING
Classification
Guide to AWS A5.20-1995
Designates
an electrode
E
Indicates primary welding positions.
0= flat and horizontal
1= all positions
7
1
Indicates a
cored wire
T
Indicates min. tensile strength in 10 ksi units.
(10 ksi= 10 000 psi = 69 MPa.)
3.03
-1
M
Indicates usability and
Performance capabilities.
AWS Classifications Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa min. MPa
E 6xT-1
E 6xT-4
E 6xT-5
E 6xT-6
E 6xT-7
E 6xT-8
E 6xT-11
E 6xT-G
E 6xT-GS
428
3452227/-18
428
34522
No requirements
428
3452227/-29
428
3452227/-29
428
34522
No requirements
428
3452227-29
428
34522
No requirements
428
34522
No requirements
No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements
E 7xT-1
E 7xT-2
E 7xT-3
E 7xT-4
E 7xT-5
E 7xT-6
E 7xT-7
E 7xT-8
E 7xT-10
E 7xT-11
E 7xT-G
E 7xT-GS
497
497
497
497
497
497
497
497
497
497
497
497
Elongation
min. %
Impact Energy
Charpy-V J/ºC
4142227/-18
No requirements No requirements No requirements
No requirements No requirements No requirements
41422
No requirements
4142227/-29
4142227/-29
41422
No requirements
4142227/-29
No requirements No requirements No requirements
41422
No requirements
41422
No requirements
No requirements No requirements No requirements
Suffix
218
Shielding gas= Ar/CO2
Shielding gas
Multiple-pass
Single-passFlux type
-1
x
x
x
-2
x
x
-3
x
-4
x
x
-5
x
x
x
-6
x
x
-7
x
x
-8
x
x
-10
x
-11
x
x
-G
x
x
-GS
x
x
Rutile
Rutile
Rutile
Basic-Rutile
Basic
Rutile
Basic-Rutile
Basic-Rutile
Rutile
Rutile
-
-
Current type
DC+pol
DC+pol
DC+pol
DC+pol
DC+/-pol
DC+pol
DC-pol
DC-pol
DC-pol
DC-pol
-
WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING
Storage and handling recommendation for Flux-cored
Wires used in Gas-shielded Flux-cored Arc Welding and
Self Shielded Flux-cored Arc Welding
Scope
Tubular cored wires on coil or spool
for Flux-cored Arc Welding and Selfshielded Flux-cored Arc Welding.
Applicable for all types: Packaged in
plastic bag and outer carton.
Storage
Tubular cored wire, even when
packed in the original undamaged
cartons, requires controlled storing
conditions to prevent excessive moisture contamination. Recommended
storing conditions include:
– temperature 15–250 °C, relative
humidity max. 60%.
– temperature 25–350 °C, relative
humidity max. 40%.
Cored wire, properly stored to prevent moisture contamination, can be
stored for up to three years.
Handling
Self shield range, unbaked version:
Coils and spool taken out of protective
packaging may be exposed to normal
on-board workshop conditions for
maximum 2 weeks.
Gas shield range
Coils taken out of protective packaging may be exposed to normal on
board workshop conditions for maximum of 48 hours.
In all cases the products shall be
protected against contamination of
moisture, dirt and dust. During work
stops exceeding more than 8 hours,
the wire coils shall be stored under
the conditions mentioned above in a
plastic bag.
Only products on steel coil can be
stored in a holding oven at 40–1OO °C
for a maximum of 30 days.
Deteriorated products
Cored wire products that are rusty,
have suffered from serious water- or
moisture contamination, or have been
exposed to atmospheric moisture
contamination over long periods of
time cannot be restored to their original condition and shall be discarded.
3.03
219
GPS W 200
Description:
Solid wire for GMA welding of structural steels.
Wire identification:
Solid copper coated steel wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A 5. 18
EN 440 DIN 8559
Werkstoff No.
ER 70 S-6
G422CG3Si1
SG 2
1.5125
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Welding data
Packaging data
PC
PF
PG
PE, PD
ARGON +20% CO2 or
pure CO2
10–15 l/min.
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A43-2, E24-2 (–4 to E36 –2 (–4)
BS 4360
50D, 43D
Ship plates Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, St52.0/4
Boiler & pressure
DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
vessel steel
NF A 36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
BS 3059
Part 1 HPS 33
Elevated temperature steel
NF A36-207
A510AP, A530AP, A550AP
DIN 17175
St35.8, St45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
StE255 to StE420
NF A36-203
E275D, E355D, E390D, E430D, E445D
C
Mn
Si
S
0.08
1.4
0.85
≤0.03
PFe
≤0.025
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
Elongation Impact value
MPa
MPa
%
ISO-V (J)
At +20°C = >120
≥510
≥430
≥22
At –20°C = ≥70
Wire speed Volt Stick out
7.5 m/min22 V
10–20 mm
220
PB
Diameter
mm
Spool size
mm
0.8200 x 55
Deposition
rate kg/h
0.67–2.68
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.05
Net weight
per spool kg
Product No.
per spool
5
090-590117
1
GPS W 200
GPS-W-200 is a copper coated
welding wire for welding of unalloyed
and low alloyed structural steel. It can
be used for welding sheets in thin as
well as larger thicknesses. Stable arc
and little spatter.
Clean all rust, scale and old paint from
the area.
Use 80/20% Ar/CO2 or pure CO2
shielding gas.
3.03
221
MS-W-201 SELFSHIELD
Description:
General Purpose Self-Shielded Electrode wire for the welding
of mild steel and ships steel. All position welding, including vertical down.
Wire identification:
Tubular Flux Cored Wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A 5.20
EN
E 71 T-GS
Type of current
–
DC-
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Welding data
Packaging data
PC
PF
PG
PE, PD
No shielding gas
required.
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St44-3
NF A35-501
A33, A34-2, E24-2 (–4), E28-2 (–3) E30-2 (–3)
BS 4360
Gr. 40A-C, 43A-C
Ship plates Grade A, B, C, D
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4
C
Mn
Si
P
0.23
0.7
0.4
0.007
Tensile strength
MPa
615
S
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
12 m/min.
.20 V
9,5 mm
222
PB
Diameter
mm
Spool size
mm
0.8200 x 55
AlFe
0.012
Deposition
rate kg/h
0.4–0.7
Rest
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.3
Net weight
per spool kg
Product No.
per spool
4.5
090-160100
7
MS-W-201 SELFSHIELD
Unitor MS-W-201 Selfshield is a selfshielded electrode wire designed
for the welding of mild steel where
superior weld metal mechanical
properties are required.
It has all-position welding capabilities,
including the 3G vertical up and
vertical down positions.
Unitor MS-W-201 Selfshield has
good arc action and low spatter
for excellent operator appeal. Slag
removal is very good with minimal
slag sticking.
Lifting lugs
It will make root beads in groove
welds without backing bars.
Typical applications
General plate welding, including hull
plate and stiffener welding on ships.
Motor base plates
3.03
Joining deck and hull plates
Mild steel welding in thin sheet metal
223
CORESHIELD 8 SELFSHIELD
Description:
General Purpose Self-Shielded Electrode wire for the welding of
mild steel and ships steel.
Wire identification:
Tubular Flux Cored Wire on a coil.
Classification
Approvals
AWS A5.20
EN ISO
BS 7084
NFA 81-350
E 71 T-8
T42 2Y N2
T 532 NWH
T SS 51.2.2. BH
DNV / GL
LR
BV
ABS
III YMS (H10)
3S 3YS (H10)
SA 3 YM(HH)
3SA 3YSA (H10)
Type of current
DC-
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Packaging data
224
PC
PF
PE, PD
No shielding gas
required.
General structural steel
DIN 17100
St33, St37-2 to St52-3
NF A35-501
A33, A43-2, E24-2 (-4) to E36-2 (-4)
BS 4360
Grade 43D, 50D
Ship plates Grade A, B, C, D, E, AH, DH, EH
Cast steel
DIN 1681
GS38, GS45, GS52
BS100
A1, A2, A3, AM1, AM2, AW1
Pipe material
DIN 17172
StE210.7, StE240.7, StE290.7, StE320.7, StE360.7
API 5 LXX42, X46, X52, X60
DIN 1626-1630
St37.0/4, St44.0/4, St52.0/4
Boiler & pressure vessel steel DIN 17155
HI, HII, 17Mn4, 19Mn5
NF A 36-205
A37 (CP, AP), A42 (CP, AP), A48 (CP, AP), A52 (CP, AP)
NF A36-207
A510AP, A530AP, A550AP
BS 1501
151/154/161/164-Gr. 360 to 223/224/225-Gr. 490
Elevated temperature steel
DIN 17175
St35.8, St45.8
Fine grained steel
DIN 17102
StE255 to StE420
NF A36-203
E275D, E355D, E390D, E430D, E445D
Low temperature steel
SEW 680-70
TTSt35, TTSt41, TTSt45
C
Mn
Si
Cr
Ni
Cu
Mo
Al
0.18
0.55
0.14
0.1
0.25
0.1
0.03
0.75
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
PB
490–600
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
40022 At –40°C = 43
Wire speed
Volt Stick out
Deposition
rate kg/h
3.8–7.6 m/min.
18–24 V
15 mm
1.9–3.7
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.33
Diameter
mm
Spool size
mm
Net weight
per spool kg
Product No.
per spool
1.6
300 x 55
11.3
094 – 750187
7
CORESHIELD 8 SELFSHIELD
Unitor Coreshield 8 is designed for the
Self Shielded Wire welding of 5 mm
and thicker steel. It has excellent low
temperature impact toughness.
Recommended for single and multipass welds. Ideal for fillet welding.
Deposit rate up to 3 kg/h, out of
position. Size diam. 1.6 is recomm­
ended for welds where it is necessary
to produce wider passes (weave
technique) and for welding plate with
contaminations such as oil, rust, paint
or primer.
Coreshield 8 generates a fast freezing
slag which supports high deposit
rates. This feature results in fast joint
speeds for economical welding in the
flat position. The superior arc action
and handling of Coreshield 8 make it a
high operation appeal electrode.
The Coreshield 8 also has excellent
slag removal. On many applications
the slag is self peeling.
Typical applications:
General plate welding, including hull
plate and stiffener welding on ships,
rebuilding pitting corrosion in cargo
and ballast tanks.
3.03
225
S 316 M-GF 221
Description:
Flux cored wire for welding of stainless steel: 19% Cr/12% Ni/3% Mo types.
Wire identification:
Tubular stainless steel wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A5.22
EN 12073
Werkstoff No.
E 316 LT 1–4/–1
T 19123 LPM (C) 1
1.4430
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Welding data
Packaging data
Steel grades BS 970
DIN 17440/1745
PC
PF
PG
For posistion welding preferred
Ar + CO2 Mix.
ARGON +20% CO2 or
pure CO2
22–25 l/min.
W.Nr.
AFNOR NF A35- ASTM/ACI
SIS
UNS
1554
573/574/576/582
A240, A312, A351
Ext. low carb. 316S11X2CrNiMo 17 13 2
1.4404 Z2CND 17.12
(TP) 316L2353
C<0.03%
CF-3M
316S13X2CrNiMo 18 14 3
1.4435
X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.4406 Z2CND 17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN
X2CrNiMoN 17 13 3 1.4429 Z2CND 17.13 á l’N
Med. carbon 316S31X5CrNiMo 17 12 2
1.4401 Z6CND 17.11
316 (TP) 316
(2347)
C>0.03%
316S33X5CrNiMo17 13 3
1.4436 Z6CND 17.122343
316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 12 1.4437 Z6CND 17.12
C(P)F-8M
S31600/
S30409
J92900
Ti-Nb
stabilized
34700/S34709
S31603
J92800
S31653
316S33 G-X10CrNiMo18 9
316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 10
320S31X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2
1.4410
1.4408 Z6CND 17.12
C(P)F-8M
J92900
1.4571 Z6CNDT 17.12
316Ti
(2344) S32100/S31635
347S31X6CrNiNb 18 10
1.4450 Z6CNNb17.12
C
Si
Mn
Cr
≤0.03
0.6
1.5
19.0
(TP) 3472338
Ni
MoFe
12.02.8
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
Elongation Impact value
MPa
MPa
%
ISO-V (J)
≥510
≥350
≥30 At +20°C = ≥47
-120°C = ≥32
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
11 m/min22 V
15–25 mm
226
PB
Diameter
mm
Coil size
mm
Deposition
rate kg/h
1.2–3.2
Net weight
per spool kg
0.9200 x 552.5
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.10
Product No.
per spool
090-597518
7
S 316 M-GF 221
Unitor S 316 M-GF is a rutile flux cored
wire designed for welding 19% Cr, 12%
Ni, 3% Mo types of stainless steel. It
is also suitable for related stabilised
steel grades if service temperature is
below 400 °C. The wire operates with a
very stable, spatter free arc producing
a bright, smooth weld bead surface.
The slag is self-releasing.
As shielding gas use preferably 80% Ar
20% CO2.
Pure CO2 can also be used. For position
welding Ar/CO2 is preferred.
When welding very thin sheet and
pipes (less than 2 mm), TIG welding
should be considered.
If there is an overlap joint (capillary
joint) silver brazing should also be
considered.
3.03
227
S 309 M-GF 222
Description:
Flux cored wire for welding of stainless steel and welding
mild steel to stainless steel. Also welding of clad steel.
Wire identification:
Tubular stainless steel wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A5.22
EN ISO 1763-A
EN ISO 1763-B
E 309 No T0-4 (1)
T 23 12 2 L P M (C) 1
TS 309LMo – FB0
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
PB
ARGON +20% CO2 or
pure CO2
22–25 l/min.
Steel grades BS 970
DIN 17440
PC
PG
PF
For posistion welding preferred
Ar + CO2 Mix.
W.Nr.
AFNOR ASTM/ACI
SIS
First layer in 316S11X2CrNiMo 17 13 2
1.4404 Z2CND 17.12
(TP) 316L2353
CrNiMo-
CF-3M
claddings
316S13X2CrNiMo 18 14 3
1.4435
X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.4406 Z2CND 17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN
X2CrNiMoN 17 13 3 1.4429 Z2CND 17.13 á l’N
316S31X5CrNiMo 17 12 2
1.4401 Z6CND 17.11
316 (TP) 316 (H) (2347)
316S33X5CrNiMo 17 13 3
1.4436 Z6CND 17.122343
320S31 G-X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 1.4571 Z6CNDT 17.12
316Ti
(2344)
UNS
S31603
J92800
S31653
S31600/
S30409
S31635/
X10CrNiMoTi18 12
1.4573 Z6CNDT 17.12
316Ti
S31635
X6CrNiMoNb 17 12 2 1.4580 Z6CNDNb 17.13
316Cb
S31640
X10CrNiMoNb 18 12 1.4583 Z6CNDNb 17.13
316Cb
S31640
– Welding dissimilar metals: mild steel or low alloyed steel to stainless CrNiMo-steel up to max. thickness of 12 mm.
– Build up stainless overlays on mild or low alloyed steel.
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Welding data
Packaging data
C
Mn
Si
≤0.03
1.4
0.623
Ni
MoFe
12.52.7
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
Elongation Impact value
MPa
MPa
%
ISO-V (J)
≥550
≥450
≥25 At +20°C = >47
–60°C = ≥32
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
13 m/min24 V
15–25 mm
228
Cr
Diameter
mm
Spool size
mm
0.9200 x 55
Deposition
rate kg/h
1.2–3.2
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.10
Net weight
per spool kg
Product No.
per spool
5
090-309000
7
S 309 M-GF 222
Unitor S 309 M-GF is a rutile flux cored
wire designed for welding of clad steel
(compound steel), stainless steel, mild
steel and corrosion resistant overlays
on mild steel.
It can also be used for welding
of stainless steel with chemical
composition of up to 23% Cr, 13% Ni,
and 2.3% Mo.
No granulation of crystals up to 350
°C, no oxidation below 800 °C working
temperature.
Use 80%/20% Ar/CO2 preferably as
shielding gas. Pure CO2 can also be
used. For position welding use Ar/CO2.
3.03
Mild steel stiffener to stainless steel
229
ICUNI W 239
Description:
Solid wire for GMA welding of copper-nickel alloys containing 10–30% Ni.
Wire identification:
Solid copper-nickel wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A5.7
ER Cu Ni
Type of current
DIN 1733
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Packaging data
PC
Copper-nickel
wrought alloys
DIN 17664
CuNi10Fe1Mn2.0872
CuN20Fe2.0878
CuNi30Mn1Fe 2.08822.0882
CuNi30FeMn22.0883
Copper-nickel
cast alloys
DIN 17658
G-CuNi 102.0815
G-CuNi 302.0835
W.No.
PF
PE, PD
Mn
NiFe
0.80
30
>200
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
7.5 m/min22 V
8–10 mm
Diameter
mm
C 70600
C 71500
C 71600
0.6
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
≥360
UNS
W.No.
230
PB
ARGON
15–20 l/min.
Welding data
Werkstoff No.
SG-Cu Ni 30Fe2,0837
Spool size
mm
0.8200 x 55
Ti
Cu
<0.5
Rest
Elongation
%
Hardness
HB
≥30
120
Deposition
rate kg/h
1.2–2.80
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.05
1
Net weight
per spool kg
Product No.
per spool
5
090-592015
ICUNI W 239
Unitor ICUNI-W is a wire for welding
copper-nickel alloys (cunifer) in
wrought or cast form, containing up
to 30% Nickel, and for joining these to
steel, stainless steel, cast iron, bronze
or brass. It may also be used to
provide corrosion resistant overlays
on cast iron and mild steel. Use pure
Argon as shielding gas.
Thoroughly clean the welding and
adjacent area with a stainless
steel brush or emery paper before
commencing welding. If practically
possible, use backing gas inside pipe
to further improve the result.
Cunifer pipes with a small diameter
and thin walls should be welded using
TIG welding.
If there is an overlap joint (capillary
joint) silver brazing should be
considered.
3.03
231
IALBRO W 237
Description:
Solid wire for GMA welding of copper-aluminium alloys e.g.Yorcalbro.
High resistance to corrosion and wear.
Wire identification:
Solid copper-aluminium wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A5.7
ER Cu Al-A1
Type of current
DIN 1733
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
Werkstoff No.
MSG-Cu Al 82.0921
PB
PC
PF
PE, PD
ARGON
15–20 l/min.
Copper-nickel
wrought alloys
DIN 17665
W.No.
CuA15As2.0918
CuA182.0920
Copper-aluminium
cast alloys
DIN 1714
G-CuA18Mn2.0962
W.No.
Trade name types:
– Yorcalbro (Cu 76%, A12%, Zn 21.96%, As 0.04%)
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Mn
AI
Cu
≤1.0
8
Rest
Welding data
Packaging data
≥430
≥180
Elongation
%
Hardness
HB
Melting range
°C
≥40
± 120
1030–1040
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
7.5 m/min22 V
8–10 mm
232
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Diameter
mm
Spool size
mm
0.8200 x 55
Deposition
rate kg/h
1.43–2.63
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.05
1
Net weight
per spool kg
Product No.
per spool
5
090-777972
IALBRO W 237
Unitor IALBRO-W is suited for
welding most bronze/brass alloys,
including aluminum bronzes like
Yorcalbro, in wrought as well as cast
forms. It is also suited for rebuilding
or joining materials to steel or cast
iron, and for wear or corrosion
resistant overlays on steel and cast
iron. Use pure Argon as shielding gas.
Thoroughly clean the welding area
with a stainless steel brush or emery
paper before commencing welding.
Yorcalbro pipes with a small diameter
and thin walls should be welded using
TIG welding. If there is an overlap
joint (capillary joint) silver brazing
should be considered.
3.03
233
ALUMAG W 235
Description:
Solid wire for GMA welding of aluminium alloys with maximum 5% Mg.
Wire identification:
Solid aluminium wire on a spool.
Classification
AWS A5.10
DIN 1732
Werkstoff Nr.
ER 5356
MSG-AlMg5
3.3556
Type of current
DC+
Welding positions
PA
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
PB
PC
PF
ARGON
15–20 l/min.
Aluminium wrought alloys:
DIN 1725/Part 1:
AlMg5, AlMg4.5, AlMg3
AlMg2Mn0.8, AlMg2.7Mn, AlMg4Mn
Aluminium cast alloys:
DIN 1725/Part 2:
3.03
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Mn
Ti
Mg
Cr
Al
0.4
<0.15
5.0
≤0.15
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Welding data
Packaging data
≥240
Diameter
mm
Elongation
%
≥110
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
12 m/min23 V
8–10 mm
234
G-AlMg3, G-AlMg3Si, G-AlMg3 8 (Cu)
G-AlMg5, G-AlMg5Si
(generally all cast alloys containing magnesium as main alloying element)
Spool size
mm
≥17
Deposition
rate kg/h
0.69–1.57
Net weight
per spool kg
1200 x 552
Kg wire/kgFume class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
1.05
Product No.
per spool
090-590083
1
ALUMAG W 235
Unitor Alumag-W is a magnesium
alloyed wire for welding all common
wrought and cast aluminium alloys,
e.g. AlMg, AlMgMn, AlMgSi and
AlMg(Cu) alloys. It is specially suited
for welds which must be resistant to
seawater and high tension, and also
where high ductility is required. Use
pure Argon as shielding gas.
As the aluminium wire is quite soft,
torch cables of more than 3 m length
should be avoided. Longer cables
may cause uneven or interrupted wire
feed.
Clean the joints and adjacent surfaces
thoroughly. Use a stainless steel
brush, not an ordinary steel brush
which will rub iron oxides into the
aluminium and contaminate the weld
pool. Cast aluminium should be preheated to approximately 300 °C before
welding is commenced. Make sure
that cast components that have to be
pre-heated are well supported, so that
they do not sag when temperature
rises. Cast alloys that have been preheated must be allowed to cool slowly
after being welded.
3.03
235
ABRATECH-W-230
ABRATECH-W-230
ABRATECH-W-230
Classifications
Classifications
Classifications
Approvals
Description:
Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing
Description:
Self –Shielded
Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing
Description:
Wire
identification:
Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing
Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool
Wire identification:
Wire
identification:
Tubular
Flux Cored Wire on spool
DIN 8555
Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool
MF 10-60
DIN 8555
DIN10-60
8555
MF
MFN.A.
10-60
Approvals
Type Approvals
of current
Type of
current
Welding
positions
Type of current
Welding positions
Welding positions
Shielding gas
Shielding gas
Shielding gas
Materials
to be welded
Materials
to be
welded
Materials
to be welded
3.03
Chemical
composition
as welded
(W %)
Chemical
composition
Chemical
as welded
(W %)
composition
Mechanical
as welded
(W %)
properties
as
welded
Mechanical
properties
as
Mechanical
welded
properties
as
welded
Welding data
Welding data
Welding data
Packaging data
Packaging data
Packaging data
236
AC
DC+/AC
AC
DC+/DC+/-
N.A.
N.A.
PA
PB
PC
PA
PB
PC
PC
No shielding PA
gas
PB
required
No shielding gas
required
No
shielding gas
Hard surfacing of:
required Low/medium carbon steels,
Hard surfacing of:
Hard surfacing of:
C
4,5
C
C
4,5
Austenitic manganese steel with 12- 14 %
Mn
Low/medium carbon steels,
Austenitic manganese
steel with 12- 14 %
Low/medium
carbon steels,
Mn
Austenitic
manganese steel with 12- 14 %
Mn
Mn
Si
Cr
1
26
Si
Cr
Si
Cr
1
26
Hardness
4,5
0,5
1
26
HRC
Hardness
60
HRC
Hardness
HRC
60
Wire speed/Voltage
Stick out
Deposition
Kg wire/kg
60 rate
SC 12 RC
Deposition
mm
Kg/h
weldmetal
Wire speed
Volt
Stick out
rate
Wire speed/Voltage
Stick out
Deposition rate
Kg kg/h
wire/kg
/
32
V
10
5,7
6.3
8,5m/min
SC 12speed/Voltage
RC
mm out
Kg/h
weldmetal
Wire
Stick
Deposition
rate
Kg
wire/kg
SC 8.5
m/min
32
V
10
mm
5.7
12 RC
mm
Kg/h
weldmetal
8,5m/min / 32 V
10
5,7
6.3
Diameter
Net weight6.3
8,5m/min
/ 32 V
10 Spool size 5,7
mm
mm
per spool kg
Diameter
Spool
size
Net weight
1,6
300
X 100
15
mm
mm size
per spool
Diameter
Spool
Net
weightkg
mm
mm
per spool kg
1,6
300 X 100
15
1,6
300 X 100
15
B
0,5
Mn
Mn
0,5
0,4
B
B
0,4
0,4
Fume class *
Kg wire/kgFume
SS-062802 class*
weldmetal
SS-062802
Fume class
*
7SS-062802
Fume
class *
6.3 SS-062802
7
Product7No.
per spool
Product No.
090-230230
per spoolNo.
Product
per spool
090-230230
090-230230
7
ABRATECH-W-230
ABRATECH-W-230
General information
Unitor Abratech-W-230 is a hard surfacing self shielded
flux cored wire with excellent resistance to abrasive
wear under moderate impact and pressure. The wire
deposit chromium carbides in an austenitic matrix.
Edge preparation: Left over of previous welds should
be removed using gouging electrode CH-2-382.
Pre-heating: Depends on steels carbon equivalent (Ce)
and the shape and size of part to be welded. We recommend as follows:
Ce <0,2
No need for pre-heating
Ce 0,2-0,4
Pre-heat to 100 - 200˚C
Ce 04-0,8
Pre-heat to 200 - 300˚C
Feeder screws
Austenitic Manganese steel must not be pre-heated.
The interpass temperature of the object not to exceed
250˚C
Connect the torch to + polarity. There is no need for
shielding gas because the wire is a shelf shielded flux
cored wire producing its own gas protection. Weld
using a small weaving motion from side to side. The
required hardness is obtained in one layer. There is no
slag to be removed after welding.
Dredger Buckets
3.03
The deposit will crack because of its hardness at regular intervals without this cracks progressing into the
base material
Areas of application:
Wear plates
Protection of surfaces subject to extreme wear and
abrasion caused by solids or slurry. Specifically meant
for dredgers and cement carriers facing heavy abrasion combined with medium and light impact.
237
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.03
238
GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
MS-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Alumag-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Aluflux-234 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
3.04
239
GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES
Top valve
Introduction
Regulator
Gas welding utilizes the high flame
temperature in the oxy-acetylene
flame (3100 °C) to melt the base
material.
Flashback
arrestors
Cylinder
Welding
Filler rod attachment
Hoses
Shank
Non return valves/
Flashback arrestors
Filler rod
A consumable in the form of a filler
rod is added to the pool. The weld
is an alloy consisting of the parent
material and the filler rod.
Weld
We distinguish between two different
welding techniques: Leftward welding
and Rightward welding.
3.04
For material thickness up to 3.2 mm
(1/8 in) use Leftward welding.
Leftward welding.
For material thickness above 3.2 mm
(1/8 in) use Rightward welding.
Rightward welding.
Rods for gas welding
Unitor rods for Gas welding are
supplied in sealed plastic containers.
All rods are supplied in 500 mm length
for convenient use. The label on each
container fully identifies the contents,
and also gives rod data and basic
information on application areas and
use.
240
Welding
attachment
GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES
The neutral flame
Two distinct zones may be seen in
the neutral flame. The inner cone of
the flame has a bright blue light and
extends only a short distance from
the tip. Around this inner cone is
the flame envelope which is darker
and less intensely blue. This flame
is neutral, and is used for heating,
cutting and for most steel welding
work.
The carburizing flame
The carburizing flame has excess of
acetylene, and is recognised by a
secondary flame zone between the
inner cone and the flame envelope.
This zone is less bright and more
white in colour than the inner cone,
but is considerably brighter than the
flame envelope.
When igniting an Ac/Ox torch one
normally opens fully for Acetylene
and only slightly for Oxygen, obtaining
a strongly carburizing flame. By
adding Oxygen (and if necessary
reducing the Acetylene flow) the
secondary zone will be reduced, and
a neutral flame is obtained just as the
secondary zone disappears.
Reducing the Oxygen flow slightly
again will give a carburizing flame
with a small secondary flame zone,
approximately twice as long as the
inner cone. This soft flame (also
called a reducing flame) is used for
welding of aluminum and aluminum
alloys, and for soft soldering.
The oxidising flame
By increasing the Oxygen flow
slightly beyond the point where the
secondary zone disappears one will
obtain an oxidising flame (with excess
oxygen). The flame will be shorter and
sharper than the neutral flame, with
a shorter, more pointed inner cone.
This flame is slightly hotter than the
neutral flame, and is used for welding
cast iron, brass, bronze and zinc
alloys, and for brazing.
Hottest spot in
flame 3100°C
x
Neutral flame.
3.04
Carburizing flame.
Oxidizing flame.
241
MS 200
Description
Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed
structural steel with a carbon content of less than 0.2%.
Identification
Copper coated steel rod.
Classification
AWS / A 5.2
EN 12536
BS 1453
DIN 8554
R 60
OII
A 2
61121
Flame setting
Neutral
Flux
Materials
to be welded
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
No flux required.
R St 37.2, U St 37.2, St 37.3
St 44.2, St 44.3
St 37.0, U St 37.0, St 44.0
P235GH-P265 GH, HI, HII
C
Si
Mn
S
0.1
0.15
1.0
Mechanical properties
as welded
3.04
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Packaging data
242
≤0.030
Elongation Impact value
%
ISO-V (J)
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
2.0
500280
3.5
092-539551
500
3.5
092-539569
3.0
Rest
≥30020 +20°C = ≥50
≥390–440
Diameter
mm.
PFe
≤0.030
125
MS 200
Unitor MS 200 is a Gas welding rod
for welding of unalloyed and low
alloyed structural steel. It can be used
for welding thin as well as heavier
sheets.
Select the diameter of the wire
according to the thickness of the
workpiece. Clean all rust, scale and
old paint from the area.
In general, gas welding of unalloyed
steel is suitable for thin sheets and
pipes of small diameters, where the
wall thickness does not exceed 6 mm.
For larger dimensions it may be
advantageous to use electric arc
welding with coated electrodes.
The MS rod is specially suited for
gas welding, having a viscosity that
makes in-position gas welding easy.
Select the blowpipe according to
the thickness of the workpiece. The
flame should be neutral. Workpieces
less than 4 mm thick should be
welded with the Leftward technique,
thicker workpieces should be welded
Rightwards. Do not overheat the
workpiece. Maximum temperature of
the workpiece should be 350°C.
45°
45°
Leftward welding
45°
45°
Rightward welding
Gas welding rods including our
MS 200 for mild steel have a low
silicium contents in order to perform
satisfactorily when gas welded. TIG
welding rods have a high silicium
content making the molten pool fluid.
It is therefore important that Gas
welding rods are not used for TIG
welding and vice versa.
3.04
20°
For TIG welding use IMS-210.
45°
Vertical Rightward welding
243
ALUMAG 235
Description
Gas welding rod for wrought and cast aluminium alloys containing up to 5% Mg.
Generally it can be used for all cast alloys containing magnesium as the main
alloying element.
Identification
Imprint 5356 ALMG 5
Classification
AWS A5.10
DIN 1732
Werkstoff No.
ER 5356
WSG-Al Mg5
3.3556
Flame setting
Flux
Materials
to be welded
Slight
acetylene
surplus
Aluflux 234 F, 250 gram container. Order no. 092-603043.
Aluminium wrought alloys:
DIN 1725/Part 1: AlMg5, AlMg4.5, AlMg3.
AlMg2Mn0.8, AlMg2.7Mn, AlMg4Mn
Aluminium cast alloys:
DIN 1725/Part 2: G-AlMg3, G-AlMg3Si, G-AlMg3(Cu)
G-AlMg5, G-AlMg5Si, G-AlMg9
(generally all cast alloys containing magnesium as main alloying element).
3.04
Chemical composition
as welded (W%)
Mechanical properties
as welded
Mn
Ti
Mg
Cr
Al
0.4
<0.15
5.0
≤0.15
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
Packaging data
≥240
≥110
Elongation
%
Melting range
°C
≥17
562–633
Diameter
mm.
Length
mm.
Rods
per package
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
3
500
47
0.5
092-514265
Alumag-235 may be used for TIG-welding if High Frequency stabilized AC current is available.
Shielding gas: Argon, 6–9 l/min.
244
ALUMAG 235
Unitor ALUMAG 235 is used for
welding pure aluminium, seawaterresistant aluminum and cast
aluminium.
Clean the joints and adjacent surfaces
thoroughly. Use a stainless steel
brush, not an ordinary steel brush
which will rub iron oxides into the
aluminum and contaminate the weld
pool. Cast aluminum should be preheated to approximately 300°C. Make
sure that pre heated cast components
are well supported, so that they do
not sag when the temperature rises.
Cast alloys that have been pre-heated
must be allowed to cool slowly after
being welded.
Gas welding
In gas welding a flame with a slight
excess of acetylene is used, together
with ALUFLUX 234 F, a flux which
re­duces oxides and counteracts
oxidation in the welding zone. This flux
which is in powder form can be mixed
with clean water into a paste that is
painted onto the welding area and the
welding rod. If the work pieces are
thick, it is also recommended to use
flux at the back of the joint. The flux
is highly corrosive on aluminum and
should be removed immediately after
welding, by scrubbing with hot water.
TIG (GTAW) welding
For TIG welding of aluminium it is
necessary to use a special alternating
current (AC) power source with
high frequency or impulse generator
to stabilise the arc. AC is required
to break the oxide layer on the
aluminium surface.
Repair of aluminium cover plate.
Carburising flame.
Slight surplus of acetylene.
3.04
Remember that fluxes can be
contaminated. Therefore, always replace
the lid after use.
245
ALUFLUX 234 F
Description
Flux for gas welding rod Alumag-235 on aluminium.
Identification
White flux in powder form inside container.
Application
HARMFUL
Packaging data
Mix to a paste with distilled water and apply with brush on rod and joint edges.
The flux is corrosive. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.
R22
R48/20/22
R52/53
S9
S13
S22
S29
S60
Harmful if swallowed
Harmful : danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure
through inhalation and if swallowed
Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects
in the aquatic environment
Keep container in a well-ventilated place
Keep away from food, drink and animal feedingstuffs
Do not breathe dust
Do not empty into drains
This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous
waste
Gross weight in grams
250
* SDS available on request..
3.04
246
Product No.
092-603043
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.04
247
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.04
248
BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Cast Iron 237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
AG-45-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
AG-60-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Tin-241 AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Albro Flux-263 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Cast Iron Flux 236 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
3.05
249
BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES
Introduction
When brazing, the parent metal is
heated to bonding temperature. This
is the minimum temperature to which
the parent metal must be heated to
form an alloy of the filler metal and
the parent material.
When adding the brazing rod and flux
we obtain a surface alloying.
Brazing is a mechanical bonding.
Brazing rod
with flux
Blowpipe
Brazing
alloy
Base material
When brazing, the parent material is
not melted, but brought to the bonding
temperature.
Welding is a chemical bonding which
involves structural changes in the
base material.
Each brazing alloy has its own
bonding temperature which is
independent of the parent material.
Because brazing is a surface alloy the
surface must be cleaned.
In most cases an oxide-film covers
the surface of the parent metal and
the rod before and during brazing.
A clean surface with sufficient flux allows
the brazing alloy to flow out and bind to
the surface
This film acts as isolation that
prevents bonding.
3.05
The function of the flux is to dissolve
oxides, detach them from the the
parent metal and the rod, and keep
them in suspension.
The composition of the flux must be
matched to type of brazing rod.
The flux should liquify approx. 100°C
before bonding temperature.
250
Without the flux to suspend water vapour,
grease and oxides, a film will prevent the
brazing alloy from bonding
BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES
If the bonding temperature is below
400°C the method is termed Soldering.
If the bonding temperature is above
400°C the method is called Brazing.
Brazing can further be divided into
Capillary brazing/Silver brazing and
Braze welding.
In Capillary Brazing the alloys are thin
flowing in consistency (Silver brazing)
and they are ideal for use in capillary
joints.
In Braze welding the alloys are mostly
thick floating in consistency and the
joint preparation like in welding.
Brazing Methods
Soldering
Capillary Brazing
Paralell surfaces with minimal
space between.
400°C
Brazing
Brazing “Welding”
Space between surfaces similar to
that used in gas welding.
3.05
Typical Capillary/Silver brazing joints. Note that they all utilise capillary action.
251
BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES
Unitor soldering and brazing
alloys have been selected with
versatility and ease of use in mind.
In the industry there is a wide
range of brazing alloys available
for special applications, but a
number of these are developed for
special applications, and may be
dangerous if used incorrectly. Many
brazing alloys contain Cadmium or
Phosphorous. These elements offer
certain advantages with regard to
price, because the silver content
can be reduced without reduction of
the capillary effect. Both elements,
however, are dangerous or prohibited
in applications frequently needed
on board. Phosphorous is prohibited
(by Norwegian regulations) on brass
pipes and red bronze. Cadmium is
extremely poisonous and must not
be used on any piping or equipment
carrying drinking water or food.
3.05
252
Unitor brazing alloys are all Cadmium
free, and only the cast-iron brazing
rod contains phosphorous. Unitor
brazing rods may therefore safely be
used as true general purpose filler
material onboard. Each alloy has been
selected to cover a wide range of
applications. This reduces the number
of alloys needed to be kept in stock
and gives the operator an easier
choice.
Where practical flux-coated rods
have been selected to ensure the
best soldering/brazing properties. In
addition a range of fluxes is supplied.
They are designed specially for
use with the Unitor alloys, either as
addition to the flux coating on the rod,
or with the un-fluxed rods.
The soldering tin contains flux in
ducts inside the solder. Apart from
the soldering tin, which is supplied
on a spool, all alloys are supplied in
500 mm lengths, which is a suitable
length if unnecessary bending of the
rod shall be avoided. Even though
special care has been taken to ensure
flexibility in the coating, excessive
bending should be avoided to ensure
that the coating remains undamaged.
It is good economy to braze the
remaining part of a rod to the next
instead of discarding the stump
Both rods and fluxes are supplied
in sealed plastic containers for
protection against humidity. The label
on each container fully identifies
the contents, and also gives basic
information on application areas.
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.05
253
BRONZE 264
Description
An easy-flowing, universal brazing bronze (brass) rod for the
brazing of steel, cast iron, copper and copper alloys, nickel and
nickel alloys. It gives a very smooth and attractive surface. The
addition of Si, Mn and Sn guarantees a strong and high-quality
deposit.
Identification
Bare bronze coloured rod.
Classification
AWS A5.8
EN 1044
BS 1453/1845
RB CuZn A
CU 304
C2/CZ 6AC
DIN 8513
Werkstoff. No.
L-Cu Zn 39 Sn2.0531
Type of joint
Classification
Flame setting
Flame setting
Flux
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
3.05
Mechanical properties
Packaging data
254
Neutral or
slight oxygen
surplus.
Working temperature °C
900
Melting range °C
870–900
Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-603076.
Cu
Mn
Si
Sn
Al
Ni
Zn
60
0.6
0.4
0.35
≤0.005
≤0.01
Rest
Tensile strengthYield strength
MPa
MPa
≥490
Diameter
mm.
3
–
Elongation
%
≥35
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
500
54
Hardness
HB
Melting range
°C
100
870–900
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
1.7
093-174326
BRONZE 264
Unitor Bronze 264 is used to braze
welding steel, cast iron, malleable
cast iron, copper and brass with high
copper content (red bronze) and also
for welding brass and bronze. Use
silver solder AG 60-252 for Yorcalbro
and Cunifer.
Cast iron joint surfaces must be
clean and bright (i.e. cleaned off with
grinder). Graphite should be removed
with a sharp tool or by means of
chemicals. Clean off burr, round off
sharp edges.
The use of bronze rod for joint brazing
has become widespread as brazing
is easier than ordinary welding and
requires less heat. Brazing provides a
tough, strong joint.
Bronze brazing requires thorough
cleaning of the joint surfaces, good
mating of the parts and correct
working temperature.
Remove inside burr.
Choice of blowpipe will depend on the
thickness and size of the workpiece.
Do not use too large a blowpipe,
or you may overheat the joint. The
flame should be adjusted with a slight
excess of oxygen (oxidising).
Apply Unitor Bronze Flux 261 PF paste
to the rod and joint edges. Check the
temperature by melting off a drop
from the rod on the joint surface and
move the torch in a circle around the
drop until it melts and flows outwards.
Repeat this process to form a
continuous bead. Braze with Leftward
technique.
3.05
Bronze Flux 261 PF.
Flux is corrosive, so any
surplus after brazing
should be cleaned off with
hot water.
Melt of a drop.
Move the torch in a circle until the drop
melts and flows outwards.
255
FC BRONZE 261
Description
A flux-coated brazing rod for joining and surfacing copper, brass, bronze,
aluminium bronze, cast iron and steel. May be used for brazing galvanized
steel without destroying the galvanized surface.
Identification
Flux coated rod. Yellow flux.
Classification
NF A 81-362
59 C 1
ISO 3677
B Cu 59 ZnAgSi 870-890
Type of joint
Flame setting
Working range
Flux
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
3.05
Mechanical properties
Packaging data
256
Neutral or
slight oxygen
surplus.
Working temperature °C
890
Solidus-Liquidus °C
870–890
Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-603076.
Cu
Mn
Sn
Ag
Zn
60
0.3
0.1
1
Rest
Tensile strength
MPa
Elongation
%
450–550
30
Diameter
mm.
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
Hardness
HB
125
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
2
500
69
1
093-233551
500
32
1
093-233569
3
FC BRONZE 261
Description and uses
Unitor FC-Bronze 261 is a flux-coated
special brazing bronze with a low
melting point for joining and surfacing
copper, brass, bronze, aluminiumbronze, cast iron, steel and galvanized
steel.
Brass may be brazed without melting
the base metal, due to the low melting
point of the filler.
Galvanized piping can be brazed
without destroying the galvanized
surface to any significant degree.
A typical application.
FC-Bronze 261 is not recommended
for use on Yorcalbro and Cunifer
pipes, use silver solder AG-60 252
instead.
Workpieces up to 5 mm thick may be
brazed without grooving. Round off
the edges and clean thoroughly. Paint
Unitor Bronze flux 261 PF on the joint
surfaces.
Joint preparation for brazing
galvanized pipes.
For brazing brass and galvanized
steel, use an oxidising flame (with
surplus of oxygen), otherwise a
neutral flame.
Bulky, solid parts must be thoroughly
pre-heated with a good spread. Heat
the starting point to dark red glow.
Place the filler rod in the groove and
melt off a drop. Lift away the rod and
spread out the filler before applying
the rod again.
Unitor FC-Bronze 261 is specially
suitable for position welding. Hold
the torch at an angle of 35–40°C and
the flame tip about 10 mm from the
metal. Braze with Leftward technique.
Wash off surplus flux with water after
brazing.
3.05
10 mm
Leftward brazing.
257
FC WEARBRO 262
Description
A flux-coated wear-resistant bronze rod used for applying a
hard-wearing surface to bronze, brass, copper, steel, cast iron
and malleable cast iron. Also used for braze welding cast iron.
Identification
Flux coated rod. Blue flux.
Classification
ISO 3677
B-Cu 48ZnNi Si 890-920
Type of joint
Flame setting
Working range
Flux
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
3.05
Mechanical properties
Packaging data
258
Neutral or
slight oxygen
surplus.
Working temperature °C
910
Solidus-Liquidus °C
890–920
Wearbro flux-262 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-603068.
Cu
Ni
49
10
Tensile strength
MPa
Elongation
%
400–600
15–20
Diameter
mm.
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
3
500
5
500
Zn
Rest
Hardness
HB
175
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
33
1
093-233577
13
1.1
093-233585
FC WEARBRO 262
Description and uses
Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 is a fluxcoated wear-resistant bronze for
surfacing bronze, brass, copper,
steel, cast iron and malleable iron.
The metal is tough, wear-resistant,
non-porous and easily machineable. It
has a low coefficient of friction and is
seawater resistant.
Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 is specially
suitable for building up damaged
machine parts which have been
subjected to impact, wear or bending
strain, e.g. gear wheels, cams of all
types, valve seats, bearing surfaces
and shaft journals. Due to its low
bonding temperature, high strength
and toughness, it is also suitable for
braze welding cast iron.
The surface must be cleaned down to
bare metal and rough edges rounded
off. Apply Wearbro Flux 262 PF to the
area to be surfaced. In the case of
cast iron, the surfaces must be filed
down with a coarse file to remove
surface graphite.
Adjust the flame with a slight surplus
of oxygen (oxidising) and heat the
area where work is to commence
to a dark red heat. Apply the end of
the rod to the surface and melt off a
drop. Spread the filler out with the
flame before melting off the next
drop, then continue the process.
Braze with Leftward technique. Avoid
over­heating. Powder residue must be
removed after brazing. The finished
surface is easily machined.
Building up worn teeth on a gear wheel.
Building up worn shaft journals.
3.05
259
CAST IRON 237
Description
Rod for joining and surfacing cast iron and gas welding
cast iron to steel. Oil impregnated cast iron may also
be gas welded with Cast Iron 237.
Identification
Metal rod.
Classification
DIN 8573: Grd Fe CL-1. AWS / ASME / SFA 5.15: R – C1.
Type of joint
Flame setting
Working range
Flux
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
Mechanical properties
Working temperature °C
1170
Solidus-Liquidus °C
1150–1190
Cast Iron Flux 236F (250g container) product no 764487.
C
Si
Mn
PFe
3.3
3.0
0.5
0.6
Tensile strength
MPa
Rest
Hardness
HB
254–294200
3.05
Packaging data
260
Slight oxygen
surplus.
Diameter
mm.
5
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
500
15
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
1.1
093-764485
CAST IRON 237
Description and uses
Unitor Cast iron is a filler metal for
welding cast iron, malleable iron and
cast iron/steel joints.
The filler metal is extremely easy to
work with, has high tensile strength
and the structure and colour of
cast iron. Welded connections
are compact and machinable. The
filler also fuses to oil contaminated
cast iron. Typical uses are welding
of cracked parts and building up
worn surfaces such as gears and
sprockets. The choice of method
– gas welding or arc welding – for
repairs to cast iron depends on the size,
shape and thickness of the workpiece.
As a general rule, gas welding is
used for small machine parts and arc
welding (cold welding) on larger, more
complicated parts.
Adjust the flame to give a slight surplus
of oxygen (oxidising). The area to be
brazed must be properly cleaned and
any casting skin removed. Round off
any sharp edges or corners. Cracks
must be surface ground or prepared
with a 90° V-groove along the crack. It
is usual to drill a hole at the end of the
crack. Preheat the parts with a good
spread of heat on either side, to 400–
600°C. Heat the end of the rod and
dip it in th flux powder. The flux will
stick to the hot rod. Heat the starting
point to a dark red heat. Melt off a
drop from the flux-coated rod into the
groove and spread out by continually
moving the torch, which should be
kept at an angle of 15–30° to the
workpiece. When the filler has flowed
freely into the seam, melt off a new
globule and repeat the procedure.
Stir the weld pool with the filler rod.
Weld with Leftward technique.
After gas welding, allow the part to
cool slowly in diatomite or dry sand.
Surplus flux must be removed.
Brazing a cast iron manifold
Building up worn parts such as
gear wheels
90°
Preparation of joint
3.05
Gas weld Leftward. Note that the weld
pool must not be stirred with the filler rod
261
AG 45 253
Description
Bare cadmium free silver rod for joining of all types of steel,
stainless steel, copper, copper alloys, nickel and nickel alloys,
cast iron and hard metals. This brazing rod gives a very good
joint and can be used for brazing nipples, sleeves and unions to
copper pipes.
Identification
Bare silver coloured rod.
Classification
ISO 3677
B AG 44 CuZn 675-735
DIN 8513
L-AG 44
Type of joint
Flame setting
Neutral.
Working range
Flux
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
3.05
Mechanical properties
Working temperature °C
730
Cu
Ag
30
44
Tensile strength
MPa
Elongation
%
Zn
Rest
Hardness
HB
400–48020
Diameter
mm.
2.0
262
680–740
AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-778461.
Packaging data
Solidus-Liquidus °C
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
50028
130
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
0.4
093-519744
AG 45 253
Description and uses
Unitor AG-45 is a very fluid silver
brazing alloy with high capillary
action, for joining all types of steel,
stainless steel, copper alloys, nickel
alloys, cast steel, malleable iron, SG
iron and hard metal.
The alloy is cadmium-free and
may therefore be used for brazing
equipment carrying drinking water or
food. AG-45 utilises capillary action
and good mating of joint faces is
essential to obtain the required.
Hard metal bit, silver brazed
to a lathe tool
Maximum capillary gap is 0.1 mm.
When silver brazing brass fittings to
copper pipe, the filler metal must have
45% silver content in order to obtain a
proper joint.
AG-45 is Phosphorous free.
(Norwegian regulations prohibit the
use of filler metal with phosphorous
content for brazing brass pipes or red
bronze (sleeve bends)).
The joint faces must be cleaned
properly. Apply flux AG-60/45 Flux-252
PF, which is in paste form, to the filler
rod and the surfaces. It is essential to
coat the surfaces with paste in order
to «moisten» the metal and ensure
correct capillary action. Use a neutral
flame. The area to be brazed should
be heated evenly to 600–650°C, and
the flame must be kept in continuous
motion until the flux has melted. Too
much heat may give unsatisfactory
results. Melt off and spread a drop
of the rod while moving the flame
continuously. Flux residue after
brazing must be removed with hot
water and a steel wire brush.
For brazing of salt water-resistant
Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes, Unitor
AG 60 252 is recommended.
3.05
Brazing brass bends to copper pipes.
Maximum capillary gap between joint
surfaces 0.1 mm. Coat joint surfaces
with flux
263
AG 60 252
Description
A flux coated cadmium free, seawater resistant, high strenth silver
rod for joining all types of steel, stainless steel, copper, copper
alloys, nickel, nickel alloys, cast iron, Yorcalbro pipes (aluminiumbrass), cunifer pipes type 90/10 and 70/30.
Identification
Flux coated rod. Pink flux.
Classification
ISO 3677
B AG 55 ZnCuSn 620–660
DIN 8513
L-AG 55 Sn
Type of joint
Flame setting
Neutral.
Working range
Flux
Working temperature °C
650
Solidus-Liquidus °C
630–660
AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-778461.
On Yorc Albro:
ALBRO FLUX 263 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-604371.
3.05
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
Cu
Ag
21
Mechanical properties
Packaging data
Elongation
%
Diameter
mm.
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
50024
Zn
Rest
Hardness
HB
43025
2.0
264
552.5
Tensile strength
MPa
Sn
130
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
0.5
093-233601
AG 60 252
Description and uses
Unitor AG-60 is an easy flowing
flux-coated brazing alloy containing
approx. 55% silver. It is specially
suitable for joints requiring high
corrosion resistance and strength.
For capillary brazing of saltwater
pipes, a filler containing at least
50% silver is required for providing
the joint with the same degree of
corrosion resistance as the metal in
the pipe.
AG-60 is Cadmium-free and may
therefore be used for brazing
workpieces which will be in contact
with foodstuff, drinking water, etc.
AG-60 is a capillary filler. In order
to obtain a good capillary joint.
Proper mating of the joint surfaces
is essential. Ideally, the capillary gap
between joint surfaces should not
exceed 0.1mm.
of the pipe. Large patches should be
TIG welded.
Coat the joint surfaces with flux. Use
a neutral or reducing flame, with
slight surplus of acetylene. Preheat
thoroughly with a good spread. The
correct temperature is reached when
the flux melts. Melt off a drop of AG60 and spread evenly with the flame.
Flux residue should be cleaned off
with hot water and a steel wire brush.
Typical uses and types
of joint on Yorcalbro and
Cunifer pipes
In addition to the flux coating on the
rod, the joint surfaces must also be
coated with flux, e.g. when brazing
pipe nipples, unions, patching pipes,
etc.
On aluminum bronze and Yorcalbro,
use ALBRO Flux 263 PF. On other
metals use AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF.
Brazing a patch on a pitted pipe.
Cut out the patch and make sure it
mates well with the pipe surface.
Clean the contact surfaces
thoroughly, preferably with emery
paper. Clean off any burrs. The patch
should not be larger than necessary,
otherwise it may be difficult to obtain
sufficient heat beneath the patch.
The larger the patch, the more heat
must be applied to the outside of it in
order to build up the correct brazing
temperature at the centre of the
patch. This can result in overheating
3.05
Use additional flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF
For Yorkalbro use Albro flux 263 PF
265
TIN 241 AG
Description
Flux cored lead free silver alloyed soft solder wire on
spool for tinning and joining of electric conductors,
electrical connections, electrical instruments, radios,
batteries, refrigeration plants, etc.
Identification
Flux cored tin wire on spool.
Classification
DIN EN 61190
Sn96 Ag04 Cu0,7
Type of joint
Flame setting
Working range
Preferably use soldering
iron. If welding torch:
Soft reducing flame.
Working temperature °C
Melting range °C
230217
Flux
Chemical composition
approx. (%)
3.05
Mechanical properties
Packaging data
266
Additional flux not necessary.
Sn
Ag
Cu
95.5
3.8
0.7
Tensile strength
MPa
90 (Ms 58)
Diameter
mm.
1.5
LengthQuantity
mm.
per package
–
–
Net weight
per package kg
Product No.
per package
0.5
093-777973
TIN 241 AG
Description and uses
Unitor SOLDERING TIN 241 AG is a
soft soldering wire on a spool, the
wire has ducts filled with high quality
flux. The use of flux-filled ducts
ensures that the flux melts before the
solder. It is not normally necessary
to apply any additional flux except in
the case of materials having an oxide
surface coating of high melting point
(use liquid flux or hydrochloric acid).
The surfaces must be clean and free
from oily deposits, oxides, etc. Heat
may be applied with a welding torch
or a soldering iron. A soldering iron is
recommended, but if a welding torch
is used, adjust to a reducing flame
and avoid direct contact between
flame and solder. Apply the heat
indirectly so that it travels through
the metal to the soldering point.
A soldering iron is preferred.
Heat indirectly when using
a welding torch.
3.05
267
BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES
Fluxes for Brazing
A flux must possess the following
properties:
• It must dissolve oxides
• It must prevent the formation of
new oxide skin
• It must reduce the surface tension
of the filler metal
• It must act as a heat indicator
• It must remain active for a time
at melting temperature, without
burning.
Unitor fluxes are normally in paste
form, but may also be supplied as
powders. Flux powder may be mixed
with distilled water or methylated
spirits if a paste is required. Always
replace the cap on the flux tin
after use to prevent drying out and
contamination.
When handling flux, avoid direct
contact with the skin, especially if you
have scratches or open cuts. Always
wash your hands afterwards. Good
ventilation is necessary wherever
welding or brazing takes place.
3.05
The different types of fluxes are
formulated to melt at a temperature
just below the bonding temperature
of the filler metal. In this way the
flux medium acts as a temperature
indicator and shows when the correct
bonding temperature has been
reached.
Surplus flux remaining on the
workpiece after brazing should be
removed by rinsing in clean water and
brushing.
Fluxes for welding are dealt with in
the chapter on welding rods.
268
BRONZE FLUX 261 PF
Description
Flux for brazing rod Bronze-264 and FC-Bronze-261.
Identification
Yellow flux in paste form inside container.
Application
Toxicity
Harmful
Packaging data
Apply with brush.
With Bronze-264:
On rod and joint edges.
With FC Bronze-261: As additional flux on joint edges. The flux is corrosive.
Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.
R60
R61
S53
S1/2
S29/56
S45
May impair fertility
May cause harm to the unborn child
Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use
Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or
special waste collection point
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the
label where possible)
Gross weight in grams
250
Product No.
093-603076
3.05
269
WEARBRO FLUX 262 PF
Description
Flux for brazing rod FC-Wearbro 262.
Identification
Blue flux in paste form inside container.
Application
Toxicity
Harmful
Packaging data
Apply with brush.
Use as additional flux for surface that are to be overlayed.
The flux is corrosive.
Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.
R60
R61
S53
S1/2
S29/56
S45
May impair fertility
May cause harm to the unborn child
Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use
Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or
special waste collection point
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the
label where possible)
Gross weight in grams
250
3.05
270
Product No.
093-603068
AG 60/45 FLUX 252 PF
Description
Flux for silver brazing rods AG-60-252 and AG-45-253.
Identification
Pink flux in paste form inside container.
Application
Toxicity
Packaging data
Apply with brush.
With AG 45-253: On rod and joint edges.
With AG60-252: As additional flux for joint edges.
Flux is corrosive. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.
R60
R61
R25
R34
S1/2
S26
S36/37/39
S45
S56
May impair fertility
May cause harm to the unborn child
Also toxic if swallowed
Causes burns
Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical
advice
Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and ece/face protection
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the
label where possible)
Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point
Gross weight in grams
250
Product No.
093-778461
3.05
271
ALBRO FLUX 263 PF
Description
Flux for silver brazing rod AG-60-252 on Yorcalbro.
Identification
White flux in paste form inside container.
Application
Apply with brush as additional flux for joint edges.
Flux is corrosive. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.
Contents
Potassium bifluoride, zinc chloride, other components and water.
Toxicity
Packaging data
HARMFUL, DANGEROUS TO ENVIRONMENT
R36/37/38 Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
R48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and
if swallowed
R51/53
Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic
environment
S2
Keep out of the reach of children
S23
Do not breathe vapour
S26
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical
advice
S29/56
Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special
waste collection point
S36
Wear suitable protective clothing
S46
If swallowed, seek medical advice immediatly and show this container or label
Gross weight in grams
250
3.05
272
Product No.
093-604371
CAST IRON FLUX 236 F
Identification
Flux in powder form inside container.
Application
Toxicity
Packaging data
Heat the end of the rod and dip it in the flux powder. The flux will stick to the hot rod.
R60
R61
R25
R34
S1/2
S36/37/39
l
S45
S56
May impair fertility
May cause harm to the unborn child
Toxic of swallowed
Causes burns
Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately,
(show the label where possible)
Dispose of thie material and its container at hazaridus or special waste
collection point
Gross weight in grams
250
Product No.
092-764487
3.05
273
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.05
274
cold repair compounds
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Typical application areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
How do Cold Repairs work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
How to prepare the surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
How to apply the product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Cold Repair Kit-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Leak Stop – Pipe repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Metalgrade Ready-Stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Metalgrade Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Metalgrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Metalgrade Hi-Temp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Aquagrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Ceramigrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Ceramigrade Liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Ceramigrade Abrashield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Rubbergrade 6 Remould . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
3.06
275
cold repair COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Unitor Metalgrade and Ceramigrade
products are a range of cold curing
metal repair and rebuilding materials
based on the latest polymer resin
technology which is the result of
many years of development.
excellent chemical resistance and
are suitable for permanent immersion
in many environments including
seawater, hydrocarbons, oils and
a very wide range of chemical
solutions.
Unitor Rubbergrade products are
cold-vulcanising elastomeric repair
materials for use on rubber as well as
metal components.
The basic range of products is
selected in order to provide a
versatile program for on-board
applications. The application
areas complement and extend the
various welding and related thermal
processes already in use, providing
an even more complete repair system
than previously.
The products are compatible with
all ferrous and non-ferrous metals
as well as most plastics, and have
in many cases proved themselves
as permanent repairs. They have
Typical application areas:
3.06
Where there is a need for emergency
repairs.
Cold repair compounds require
no rigging-up time, and no need
for energy in the form of oxygen /
acetylene or electricity The energy is
built into the consumable (product)
and is released when mixing the base
and activator. The curing time is down
to a few minutes for several of the
products.
Where hot work like welding is not
permitted due to fire / explosion
hazard.
Cold repair systems are cold-curing
processes. There is no risk of heat
ignition or sparks.
Where the base material is not
weldable.
Certain casted metal alloys are not
weldable due to their chemistry.
Sometimes welding method /
equipment / consumable or operator
276
Activator + base
cold repair COMPOUNDS
knowledge is not available. If the base
material is so corroded that there is
nothing to weld on, a new part can be
“casted” with the repair compound.
Where distortion of base material is
unacceptable.
Welding causes expansion and
contraction; resulting in distortion of
the work piece.
Where there is restricted space.
Polymer products can, if necessary,
be injected through small diameter
holes.
Where specific properties are
required.
In many cases polymer compounds
have better properties than weld
overlays. Specifically, chemical
resistance and wear resistant properties are improved. Large surfaces
that are worn are also much faster
overlaid with polymer compounds
than with weld bead overlays.
Where you need non-metal repairs.
Cold repair systems offer solutions for
rubber gasket repairs or moulding, as
well as solutions for repair or joining
of plastics and composite materials.
3.06
277
cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS
How do Cold Repairs work?
Cold repair compounds are basically
chemical reactions between resin
(Base) and hardener (Activator)
producing an extensive interlocking
polymer network.
The adhesion to the base material
(substrate) is partly mechanical
(approx. 75%) and partly chemical
hydrogen bonding (approx. 25%). It
is a cold curing repair method that
needs no specialised application
equipment or outside energy.
Since it is mostly a mechanical
bonding, it does not influence the
base material by diluting it . The type
of base material is thus of no concern.
All these repair materials are
essentially polymers, i.e. extremely
long, chain-like molecules resulting
from the chemical reaction between
a large number of much smaller
molecules.
Provided that these small molecules
contain at least two reactive
“groups” of “sites” per molecule, the
chemical reaction can proceed in a
progressive, chain building fashion
to yield long molecules made up for
regular, repeating units.
3.06
278
In the uncombined state ,the reactive
components are generally liquids
on account of their relatively small
size or low “molecular weight”. As
the chemical reaction or “cure”
progresses, the size of the polymer
chain increases until ultimately the
material becomes a solid.
cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS
How to prepare the surface
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Remove all loose rust and
surface coatings.
Roughen surface with a coarse file,
rasp, abrasive paper or saw blade.
Create if possible a cross scoring
pattern. A die grinder, needle scaler
or angle grinder may also be used.
If grinding, make sure the surface is
roughened, not polished. Carry out a
final degreasing with a cleaner before
applying product. Rubber surfaces
must be roughened using the special
abrading tool.
CRITICAL applications (eg. pump
repairs) should be abrasive blasted
to a minimum standard SA 2 1/2.
Profile 75-125 microns. The blasting
medium should be angular grit. Parts
which have been salt or chemically
impregnated should be heated to
80°C by hot air overnight to sweat
out the contamination. Remove
contamination using a cleaner then
re-blast the surface. Parts which
should not adhere to the products
must be coated with a release agent.
Roughening increases the
surface area and gives a
better ”key”
Abrading tool for rubber.
Use release agent on the
threads of a bolt.
Most castings have an open
structure that contaminants
can penetrate into.
3.06
279
cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS
How to apply the product
Application should be carried out as soon as possible after surface
preparation is completed, otherwise oxidation can take place. Do not apply
product when relative humidity exceeds 85% nor when surface is less than 3
°C above the dew point.
NB: The work site temperature must be above 5°C (40°F) in order for the
polymer chemical reaction to take place.
Always measure out Base/Activator
quantities accurately in line with the
instructions on the data sheet. If a
critical application, use mixing ratio
by weight. Mix Base and Activator
until streak free. Paste materials
should be mixed on a clean flat
surface. Spreading the mixed product
out thinly on a board will assist in
dissipating the heat and slow down
the curing reaction. This will also
remove any entrapped air present in
the mix. Fluid grade materials can be
mixed together in the base container.
When applying the product on the
surface to be repaired, do not heap
the product on. This will lead to bad
bonding and entrapment of impurities.
A good bonding is secured by
pressing a thin layer of product onto
the surface, working it down in cracks
and openings, squeezing out any
impurities like oil and water.
3.06
After securing the surface, add more
product, building up to the required
height. In order to add further strength
to the repair, add the Reinforcement
Bandage. Wrap the bandage to
required thickness and cover it with
product.
Incomplete
Do not heap the product
when mixing
Spread out evenly
Do not heap product when applying
Press on a thin layer
280
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
281
POLYMER COLD REPAIR KIT-A
Unitor Cold Repair System for High Performance
Repairs
Cold repair System KIT-A
Product no.
106-659300
Total weight of kit 12,5 kg
The Unitor Cold Repair system
covers emergency repairs as well
as permanent repairs on pipes, all
types of mechanical equipment
and machine components onboard,
including non-weldable materials.
Unitor Metalgrade, Aquagrade and
Ceramigrade products are a range
of cold-curing metal repair and rebuilding materials based on the latest
polymer resin technology which is the
result of many years of development.
Unitor Rubbergrade products are
cold-vulcanising elastomeric repair
materials for use on rubber as well as
metal components.
3.06
The products are compatible with
all ferrous and non-ferrous metals
as well as most plastics, and have
proved themselves as permanent
repairs. They have excellent chemical
resistance and are suitable for
permanent immersion in many
environments including sea water,
hydrocarbons, oils and a very wide
range of chemical solutions.
The basic range of products is
selected in order to provide a
versatile program for onboard
applications. The application
areas complement and extend the
various welding and related thermal
processes already in use, providing
an even more complete repair system
than previously available.
282
The complete basic package
is available in a handy kit. Each
product has its specified place in the
kit, and the individual products may
be refilled as needed.
The kits consists of:
1 set Leak-Stop II
1 set Metalgrade Ready-stick
1 set Metalgrade Express
1 set Metalgrade Rebuild
1 set Metalgrade Hi-Temp
1 set Aquagrade Rebuild
1 set Ceramigrade Rebuild
1 set Ceramigrade Liner
1 set Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild
1 set Rubbergrade 6 Remould
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
283
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
Repair Set
Each set comes complete with all necessary
application equipment technical data sheets
and Health & Safety Data sheets.
Name Description 3.06
284
Set weight kg
Product no.
0,16 kg
100-630384
0,23 kg
100-606006
0,33 kg
100-630392
Leak Stop
Pipe repair Sets
Leak Stop I
Set Leak Stop II
Set Leak Stop III
Set A special bandage impregnated with a resin
system which is activated by immersion in water.
Ideal for repairs to leaking pipes, simply immerse in
water then wrap around the leak. The Metalgrade
Ready Stick be used to plug the actual hole before
putting on the tape.
For pipes ø< 1" (25 mm)
1 tape 2" x 4' (50 mm x 1200 mm) For pipes ø 1-2" (25 mm - 50 mm)
1 tape 2" x 12' (50 mm x 3600 mm) For pipes ø > 2" (50 mm)
1 tape 4" x 12' (100 mm x 3600 mm) Metalgrade Ready Stick
Set Base and activator in two separate sticks. Cut off the
needed length and knead the two parts together till
streak free. Use for sealing of leaks in pipes, tanks,
ducts etc. Can be used together with Leak Stop to plug
the hole before wrapping the tape.
Set of 3 pairs of sticks giving: 0,72 kg Repair Compound
0,86 kg
101-659227
Metalgrade
Express
Set A two component extremely fast cold-curing metal
repair compound supplied in Base and Activator
containers. Used wherever there is an emergency and
urgent need to get equipment back into action.
Base & Activator giving: 0,25 l Rapid Repair Compound. 0,58 kg
101-659235
Metalgrade
Rebuild
Set A two component normal cold-curing engineering
repair compound. A good machineable product with
high mechanical properties and good heat resistance.
Base & Activator giving:
0,50 l Engineering Repair Compound. 1,10 kg 101-659243
Metalgrade
Hi Temp
Set A ceramic and stainless-filled one part water based
paste. It is temperature resistant up to 1093 °C
(2000 °F). It is used to seal joints, defects, cracks and
voids in cast iron, steel and stainless steel
Tin giving: 0,13 l Repair Compound. 0,42 kg
101-663427
Aquagrade
Rebuild
Set
A two component engineering repair compound.
The product can be mixed applied and will cure under
water. Preferably mix above water.
Base & Activator giving:
0,5 l Engineering Repair Compound.
0,95 kg
104-659250
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
Name Description Set weight kg
Product no.
Ceramigrade
Rebuild
Set A two component ceramic cold-curing compound with
excellent resistance to cavitation and erosion found in
fluid flow environments. Used for rebuilding heavy
wear on pumps, impellers, valves etc.
Base & Activator giving:
0,5 l Engineering Repair Compound. 1,00kg 102-659268
Ceramigrade
Liner
Set A two component ceramic cold curing fluid that is
used as a liner in order to prevent cavitation and
erosion found in fluid flow environments.
Base & Activator giving: 0,5 l Engineering Repair Fluid. 0,92 kg 102-659276
Ceramigrade Abrashield
Set A two component ceramic cold curing compound
with excellent resistance against heavy abrasion.
Specifically ment for Dredgers and Cement carriers.
5,4 kg
102-725291
Rubbergrade 6
Rebuild
Set A two component cold-curing vulcanising repair
compound. Provides a strong long term repair on
rubber items or on metallic surfaces. For repairs of
hoses, gaskets, electric cables etc.
Set of 3 x 0,143 l Engineering Repair Compound
0,59 kg
103-659284
Rubbergrade 6
Remould
Set A two component cold-curing vulcanising repair fluid
that can be moulded or painted on to rubber or
metallic surfaces.
Set 3 x 0,143 l Engineering Repair Fluid. 0,59 kg 103-659292
3.06
285
LEAK STOP
Product specification sheet – Leak Stop
Product
Description
Product name/
Product No./Kit weight
Kit consists of:
Application
Leak Stop I
100-630384 / 158 g.e
1 pc. 2"x4' (50 mm x 1,2 m)
black repair tape in a pouch
For use on pipe diameter 0–1"
(0 mm–25 mm)
Leak Stop II
100-606006 / 232 g.e
1 pc. 2"x12' (50 mm x 3,6 m)
black repair tape in a pouch
For use on pipe diameter 1"–2"
(25 mm–50 mm)
Leak Stop III
100-630392 / 325 g.e
1 pc. 4"x12' (100 mm x 3,6 m)
black repair tape in a pouch
For use on pipe diameter 2"–4"
(50 mm–100 mm)
Identification
Application data
With all kits comes 1 x pair of Gloves, 1 pc. Working data sheet, 1 pc. Safety Data Sheet
Grey knitted fibreglass tape
Mixing ratio
Pot life (mins) (working life)
Ready for use as supplied only requires wetting2–3 minutes
with water before use
Curing times in minutes at ambient temperature
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application 5 °C to 30 °C/40 °F–100 °F
Curing time
Technical data
Initial setting
5
Full mechanical strength
30
18 Gauge knitted fibreglass
3.06
Phys / Mec
properties
Service temperatures
Chemical resistance
Health and Safety
286
20 °C (68 °F)
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C (68 °F)
Bond Strength
ASTM D2095-72
16 kg/cm2
230 psi
Tensile Strength
ASTM D638-111275 kg/cm2
3920 psi
Flexural Strength
ASTM D790-1-B
159 kg/cm22260 psi
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2240
82 type (d)
Dry heat
Minimum temp.
+ 260 °C/500 °F
- 29 °C/- 20 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.
As long as good practise is observed Leak Stop can be safely used. Wearing of rubber gloves is
advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with
each packaged product.
LEAK STOP
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
Leak Stop Repair Tape is a specially
treated and knitted fibreglass
impregnated with a polyurethane
resin which is activated by immersion
in water. Areas of application: Repairs
to leaking pipes.
1. Surface preparation
Remove all pressure from the pipe,
including gravity fed drip. For active
leaks when pressure cannot be
removed: Holes should be stopped
using a pipe repair clamp. Remove oil,
grease, loose rust scale, sealant tape
and paint from repair area. Rough
score a four inch (10 cm) path 360°
around the pipe centring leak site.
Leak Stop works best on a rough
surface. If the pipe surface is pitted
by rust, remove the loose scale. If the
surface is smooth, as with copper or
stainless, you must roughen the area
with a coarse file, rasp or saw blade.
For plastic pipe, the external mould
release must be removed.
Rough score surface
Water activate Leak Stop
Abrade surfaces with a coarse grit
sandpaper. A saw blade must also
be used to create a cross hatch
pattern. This is particularly useful on
polypropylene and PVDF piping.
2. Mixing
During mixing and application gloves
should be worn at all times to protect
the hands.
Open pouch at the notch, remove
Leak Stop Repair Tape, submerge the
roll in water and squeeze two or three
times, for about five seconds.
3.06
Position over leak site
NOTE: Water activates the
resins, so apply entire roll as
any amount remaining cannot
be saved. WORKING TIME is
three to five minutes. So
BE PREPARED TO WORK SWIFTLY.
287
LEAK STOP
3. Application
Remove roll from water and wrap
quickly and tightly as follows: Centre
tape over leak site, wrap from bottom
of roll, pulling firmly throughout
application. After 5–7 plies, you will
observe resin foam coming through
the tape which is desirable and aided
by pulling tightly. Continue until entire
roll is applied, building to a minimum
thickness of 1/2 inch (12 mm) and use
a second roll if necessary.
Wrap while pulling firmly
Firmly press and smooth end of
roll into wrap in the direction of
application. Wet gloves in water,
smooth and firmly press the wet resin
back into the wrap.
KEEP HANDS MOVING QUICKLY AND
WET GLOVES FREQUENTLY TO AVOID
STICKING
Continue rapid hand movement
pressing and polishing resin in
motions around and parallel to the
pipe. Continue process until resins are
no longer tacky.
The repair should now have a smooth
hard surface and an enamel-like
appearance with no fibreglass
substance showing throught the
resins.
3.06
NOTE: If thicker application is needed
spend a little less time finishing the
first roll and immediately begin the
application of the next. Finish the final
roll as if a single roll application.
4. Cleaning
After application dispose of gloves.
5. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices are
observed Leak Stop can be safely
used.
288
Wet gloves, smooth out
A fully detailed Material Safety Data
Sheet is included with the set.
The information provided in this
instruction for use sheet is intended
as a general guide only. Users
should determine the suitability of
the product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
LEAK STOP
The Leak Stop products are available in three sizes.
The product is recommended for pressures up to 400 psi (28 bar).
Leak Stop I
100-630384
1 pc. 2" x 4' (50 mm x 1,2 m) black repair tape in a pouch.
For use on pipe diameter 0–1" (0–25 mm).
If used outside this diameter area:
Nominal
Pipe Size
Leak Stop II
100-606006
Leak Stop III
100-630392
Number of
Leak Stop I rolls
50 psi/3,5 bar
150 psi/10,5 bar
400 psi/28 bar
1/2" (13 mm)
1
1
1
3/4" (19 mm)
1
1
1
1" (25 mm)
1
12
1 1/4" (21 mm)
12
3
1 1/2" (38 mm)22
3
1 pc. 2" x 12' (50 mm x 3,6 m) black repair tape in a pouch.
For use on pipe diameter 1"–2" (25–50 mm).
1 pc. 4" x 12' (100 mm x 3,6 m) black repair tape in a pouch.
For use on pipe diameter 2"–4" (50–100 mm).
If used outside this diameter area:
Nominal
Pipe Size
Number of
Leak Stop I rolls
50 psi/3,5 bar
150 psi/10,5 bar
400 psi/28 bar
1" (25 mm)
1
1
1
1 1/2" (38 mm)
1
1
1
2" (50 mm)
1
1
1
2 1/2" (63 mm)
1
12*
3" (75 mm)
12*2*
3 1/2" (88 mm)
12*2*
4" (10 mm)
12*2*
5" (125 mm)2*2*
3*
6" (150 mm)2*2*
4*
8" (200 mm)2*
3*
5*
10" (250 mm)
3*
4*
6*
12" (300 mm)
4*
5*
8*
14" (350 mm)
4*
6*
8*
16" (400 mm)
5*
7*
9*
18" (450 mm)
5*
8*
9*
3.06
* Leak Stop III should be used in multiple roll applications
289
METALGRADE READY-STICK
Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Ready-Stick
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
Metalgrade Ready-Stick
Engineering Repair Compound
Supplied complete with all
necessary equipment all in one
carton box set
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Product No 101-659227
Metalgrade Ready-Stick
0,75 Kg Engineering Repair
Compound
Gross Weight: 0,86 kg
3 x 120 g Putty Base
3 x 120 g Putty Activator
1 Pair of Gloves
1 Spatula
1 Technical Data Sheet
Activator Component
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Putty
Beige / Brown
Putty
Black
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
1
1
1
1
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
15°C20 °C25 °C
302520
15
15
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
12
10
5
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
80
60
45
35
30282620
Machining
180
120
90
70
60
60
55
45
Full Mechanical Strength
8 days 7 days 6 days 4 days 3 days2 days2 days 1 day
Full Chemical Resistance
9 days 8 days 7 days 5 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 3 days
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
15 mm thickness
100
500
Excellent
1,95
1,96
1,96
Compressive Strength
ASTM D412
70 MPa
Tensile Shear Adhesion
ASTM D412
8 MPa
10200 psi
Abrasion Resistance
ASTM D4060
-
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
> 5000 hours
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2246
80
Impact Resistance
ASTM D256
> 5 kJ/m2
1200 psi
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 90 °C / 195 °F
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
Health and Safety
290
As long as good practise is observed MetalGrade Ready-Stick can be safely used. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
METALGRADE READY-STICK
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
MetalGrade Ready-Stick is a two
component, solvent free, fast curing,
synthetic metal repair compound.
Areas of application Sealing of leaks
in pipes, tanks, radiators, ducts etc.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
Cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation, especially in fluid flow
repairs.
A) Remove all contamination (oil,
grease and dirt) with a cleaner.
2. Mixing
Only sufficient product which can be
applied within the usable life should
be mixed. This should be broken off or
cut from both sticks in the ratio of 1 :
1. Cut off equal size pieces from both
the Base and Activator sticks.
Mix Base and Activator in the ratio
of 1 : 1. Re-close the plastic wrapper
sleeve immediately after use. The
two components should then be
thoroughly mixed by hand kneading
until completely streak free and in a
uniform black colour.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting. Alternatively
a die grinder, needle scalar or angle
grinder may be used. If grinding make
sure the surface is roughened, not
polished. Where grinding or needle
gunning is used, the surface should
be cross scored to improve adhesion.
D) To ensure that all contamination is
removed carry out a final degreasing
with a cleaner. Cloths should
be frequently changed to avoid
spreading contamination. On deeply
pitted surfaces of porous castings,
the cleaner should be worked into
the surface by brush and washed off
using excess cleaner.
E) Parts (for example, threads or
bearing surfaces) which must
remain in position during application
but which should not adhere to
MetalGrade Ready-Stick must be
coated with a release agent.
Cut off equal length of Base & Activator
sticks
3.06
Thoroughly mix by hand kneading until
streak free
291
METALGRADE READY-STICK
3. Application
Prepared Surfaces should be dry. The
mixed material should be pressed
firmly onto the prepared area, working
the material into any cracks or
surface defects.
When MetalGrade Ready-Stick is
used to repair leaking pipes, the
flow through the pipe should be
discontinued until the repair is made
and the MetalGrade Ready-Stick is
set. Any leaking fluid must be wiped
from the prepared surface before
undertaking the repair.
Pipe Joints
4. Machining
Once the MetalGrade Ready-Stick
has cured for the minimum time
indicated in the Curing Properties
Section of the product specification
sheet, sanding, grinding and
machining etc. can be carried out
using standard engineering practices.
Hole in small diameter pipe
5. Cleaning
3.06
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices
are observed MetalGrade ReadyStick can be safely used. A fully
detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is
included with the set.The information
provided in this Instruction for use
sheet is intended as a general guide
only. Users should determined the
suitability of the product for their
own particular purposes by their own
tests.
292
Valve taps
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
293
METALGRADE EXPRESS
Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Express
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Metalgrade Express
Product No 101-659235
Engineering Repair Compound
Metalgrade Express
0,25 ltr Engineering Compound
Gross Weight: 0,86 kg
Supplied complete with all
necessary equipment all in one
Activator Component
435 g Base + Activator
1 Mixing Container
1 Pair of Gloves
1 Spatula
1 Applicator
1 Roll reinforcement bandage
1 Technical Data Sheet
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Paste
Beige
Paste
Metallic Grey
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
1
1
0,9
1
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
8
5
15°C20 °C25 °C
4
3 1/2
30 °C
32
35 °C
40 °C
1,5
1
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
9
8
7
Machining
90
45
352520
15
15
10
Full Mechanical Strength
300
150
120
70
60
40
6
90
5
30 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
Full Chemical Resistance
Technical
Data
5 °C
80
322
7 days 5 days 4 days 3 days2 days2 days 1 day
1 day
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
15 mm thickness
100
585
Excellent
1,6
1,8
1,7
Compressive Strength
ASTM D695
Tensile Shear Adhesion
ASTM D1002
47 MPa
7000 psi
18,5 MPa2700 psi
Flexural Strength
ASTM D790
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
48 MPa
6600 psi
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2246
78
Hardness (Rockwell R)
ASTM D785
100
5000 hours
Dielectric Strength
ASTM D149
30 volts/mil
Surface Resistivity
ASTM D257
1 x 109 Ohm/cm
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
+ 70 °C / 158 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
Health and Safety
294
As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade Express can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
METALGRADE EXPRESS
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
MetalGrade Express is a two
component, solvent free, fast curing,
synthetic metal repair compound.
Areas of application Sealing of leaks
in pipes, tanks, radiators, ducts etc.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation, especially in fluid flow
repairs.
A) Remove all contamination (oil,
grease and dirt) with a cleaner.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
2. Mixing
Only sufficient product which can be
applied within the usable life should
be mixed.
Mix Base and Activator from the
respective jars onto a clean mixing
surface in the ratio indicated. Lids
should be replaced immediately after
use. The two components should then
be thoroughly mixed until completely
streak free, using the spatula
provided.
3. Application
Prepared Surfaces should be dry.
Using the Spatula provided the mixed
material should be pressed firmly
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting. Alternatively
a die grinder, needle scalar or angle
grinder may be used. If grinding make
sure the surface is roughened, not
polished. Where grinding or needle
gunning is used, the surface should
be cross scored to improve adhesion.
D) To ensure that all contamination is
removed carry out a final degreasing
with a cleaner. Cloths should
be frequently changed to avoid
spreading contamination. On deeply
pitted surfaces of porous castings,
a cleaner should be worked into the
surface by brush and washed off
using excess cleaner.
E) Parts (for example, threads or
bearing surfaces) which must
remain in position during application
but which should not adhere to
MetalGrade Express must be coated
with a release agent.
3.06
Scored hydraulic or pneumatic rams
Worn bearing housing
295
METALGRADE EXPRESS
onto the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
defect.
If Reinforcement Bandage is
used to strengthen the repair, the
bandage should be impregnated with
MetalGrade Express, or the bandage
should be laid over the surface of the
MetalGrade Express and pressed into
the surface. Additional MetalGrade
Express should then be applied over
the surface.
6. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices are
observed MetalGrade Express can be
safely used. A fully detailed Material
Safety Data Sheet is included with the
set.The information provided in this
Instruction for use sheet is intended
as a general guide only. Users
should determined the suitability of
the product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
Once the MetalGrade Express has
reached initial set the material can be
separated from surfaces treated with
release agent.
When MetalGrade Express is being
used to repair leaking pipes, the
flow through the pipe should be
discontinued until the repair is made
and the MetalGrade Express is set.
Any leaking fluid must be wiped
from the prepared surface before
undertaking the repair.
4. Machining
3.06
Repairing stripped threads
Once the MetalGrade Express has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section
of the product specification sheet,
sanding, grinding and machining etc.
can be carried out using standard
engineering practices.
5. Cleaning
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a Cleaner. Failure to follow this
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
296
Small pump housing repair
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
297
METALGRADE REBUILD
Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Rebuild
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Metalgrade Rebuild
Product No 101-659243
Engineering Repair Compound
Metalgrade Rebuild
0,5 ltr Engineering Repair
Compound
Gross Weight: 1,08 kg
Supplied complete with all
necessary equipment all in one
Activator Component
933 g Base + Activator
1 Mixing Container
1 Pair of Gloves
1 Spatula
1 Applicator
1 Roll reinforcement bandage
1 Technical Data Sheet
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Paste
Beige
Paste
Metallic Grey
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
12
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
12,520
18
15°C20 °C25 °C
15
13
12
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
10
9
6
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Technical
Data
3.06
Phys/Mec
Properties
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
50
45
40
35
302520
Machining
100
70
60
55
50
45
15
3525
Full Mechanical Strength
8 days 6 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 3 days
Full Chemical Resistance
14 days 10 days 9 days 7 days 5 days 4 days 3 days2 days
48h24h
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
15 mm thickness
100
540
Excellent
1,7
1,9
1,85
Compressive Strength
ASTM D695
55 MPa
Tensile Shear Adhesion
ASTM D1002
19 MPa2800 psi
8000 psi
38 MPa
Flexural Strength
ASTM D790
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2246
80
Hardness (Rockwell R)
ASTM D785
100
BS 4247 Part 1
Excellent
Nuclear Decontamination
5600 psi
5000 hours
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 90 °C / 195 °F
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Chemical resistance
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Health and Safety
As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade Rebuild can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
298
METALGRADE REBUILD
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
MetalGrade Rebuild is a dual
component, solvent free, synthetic
metal repair compound. Areas of
application : Worn or damaged
shafts, oversized bearing housing,
cracked casings, distorted flange
faces, cracked engine blocks, sloppy
keyways, scored hydraulic rams etc.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation, especially in fluid flow
repairs.
but which should not adhere to
MetalGrade Rebuild must be coated
with a release agent.
2. Mixing
Mix Base and Activator from the
respective jars into the mixing
container provided in the ratio
indicated. Lids should be replaced
immediately after use. The two
components should then be
thoroughly mixed until completely
streak free, using the spatula
provided.
A) Remove all contamination (oil,
grease and dirt) with a cleaner.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting. Alternatively
a die grinder, needle scalar or angle
grinder may be used. If grinding make
sure the surface is roughened, not
polished. Where grinding or needle
gunning is used, the surface should
be cross scored to improve adhesion.
3.06
Hole in metal casing
D) To ensure that all contamination is
removed carry out a final degreasing
with a cleaner. Cloths should
be frequently changed to avoid
spreading contamination. On deeply
pitted surfaces of porous castings,
a cleaner should be worked into the
surface by brush and washed off
using excess cleaner.
E) Parts (for example, threads or
bearing surfaces) which must
remain in position during application
Worn spline
299
METALGRADE REBUILD
3. Application
Prepared surfaces should be dry.
Using the Spatula provided, the mixed
material should be pressed firmly
onto the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
defect.
If Reinforcement Bandage is
used to strengthen the repair, the
bandage should be impregnated with
MetalGrade Rebuild, or the bandage
should be laid over the surface of the
MetalGrade Rebuild and pressed into
the surface. Additional MetalGrade
Rebuild should then be applied over
the surface.
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices are
observed MetalGrade Rebuild can be
safely used. A fully detailed Material
Safety Data Sheet is included with the
set. The information provided in this
Instruction for use sheet is intended
as a general guide only. Users
should determined the suitability of
the product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
Once the MetalGrade Rebuild has
reached initial set the material can be
separated from surfaces treated with
release agent.
When MetalGrade Rebuild is being
used to repair leaking pipes, the
flow through the pipe should be
discontinued until the repair is made
and the MetalGrade Rebuild is set.
Any leaking fluid must be wiped
from the prepared surface before
undertaking the repair.
4. Machining
3.06
Once the MetalGrade Rebuild has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section
of the product specification sheet,
sanding, grinding and machining etc.
can be carried out using standard
engineering practices.
Flange rebuilt
5. Cleaning
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
300
Worn impeller shaft
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
301
METALGRADE HI-TEMP
Product specification sheet – Hi-Temp
Product
Description
Identification
Application data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
Metal Grade HI-TEMP Product No 101-663427
0,13 l repair compound.
Kit weight 420 g.e
APPLICATION
Tin with repair compound,
5 pair of gloves, one
working data sheet
For use on high
temperature
applications
With all kits comes 5 x pair of Gloves, 1 pc. Working data sheet, 1 pc. Safety Data Sheet
Tin with metallic grey paste
KIT CONSISTS OF
Mixing ratio
Pot life (mins) (working life)
Ready for use as supplied only stir
15*
* Paste will begin to dry and "skin" immediately when the tin is opened,
although sub-surface phase will not dry fully for 16–24 hours
Best applied when the ambient temperature is: 7 °C to 35 °C/45 °F–95 °F
Curing time
Option 1)
Air dry for 16–24 hours then gradually raise temperature to operating conditions.
Water blisters may appear if transition through 100 °C (210 °F) is too rapid.
Option 2)
Air dry for 5–7 hours then cure at 100 °C (210 °F) for 2–4 hours prior to operation.
Technical data
Phys / Mec
properties
Specific Gravity 1,56 g/cm3
Coefficient of
thermal expansion
ASTM E-831-93, °C-1
6 hours at room temp.
24 hours at room temp.
8x10-6
0,6 MPa 90 psi
1,9 MPa280 psi
Shear Strength 6 hours at room temp. +
ASTM D 1002 1 hour at 200 °C / 400 °F2,7 MPa
3.06
390 psi
24 hours at room temp. +
Service temperatures
Chemical resistance
Health and Safety
302
Temp. Continuously
Temp. Intermittently
Minimum Temp.
+ 538 °C/1000 °F
+ 1093 °C/2000 °F
- 40 °C/- 40 °F
This product is resistant to a wide range of acids,
bases and solvents. However, immersion service is not
recommended due to it's slightly porous structure.
As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade HiTemp can be safely used. Wearing of rubber gloves is
advisable during use. Prior to using this product please
consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each
packaged product.
METALGRADE HI-TEMP
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
Metal Grade Hi-Temp repair
compound is a ceramic and stainlessfilled one-part water based paste. It is
formulated using the most advanced
inorganic resin technology and is
temperature resistant up to 1093 °C
(2000 °F). Hi-Temp is used to seal
joints, defects, cracks and voids in
cast iron, steel and stainless steel.
NB. Hi-Temp should not be used on
aluminium or aluminium alloys.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease should be removed using
a cleaner. Abrasive blasting is the
preferred surface preparation.
A) Remove all contamination (oil, grease
and dirt) with a cleaner.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting. Alternatively,
a die grinder, needle scalar or angle
grinder may be used. If grinding, make
sure the surface is roughened, not
polished. Where grinding or needle
gunning is used, the surface should
be cross-scored to improve adhesion.
D) To ensure that all contamination is
removed, carry out a final degreasing
vith a cleaner. Cloths should be
frequently changed to avoid spreading
of contamination. On deeply pitted
surfaces of porous castings, the
cleaner should be worked into the
surface with a brush and washed off
using excess cleaner. If embedded
oils are present in porous castings,
they should be burned out at high
temperature.
E) Parts (for example, threads or
bearing surfaces) which must remain
in position during application but
which should not adhere to Hi-Temp
must be coated with a release agent.
2. Mixing
Hi-Temp is a ready to use, single
part paste. Prior to applying the
product, make sure content is mixed
thoroughly by stiring. Use a small
spatula and apply required amount of
product onto a clean working surface.
3. Application
Prepared surfaces should be dry. Use
a spatula or putty knife and press
the material onto the prepared area,
working the material into any cracks
and surface defects. Hi-Temp can be
used for applications up to 9 mm (3/8")
thick. Let the product air dry for five to
seven hours at room temperature. 3.06
Repairs pin holes, cracks and warped surfaces on high temperature, low pressure
systems including incinerators, manifolds,
stacks, heat exchangers and turbines.
303
METALGRADE HI-TEMP
When used on heavy sections and
where build-up will exceed 9 mm (3/8")
use the following technique:
Fill section up to 9 mm (3/8") in one
step. Let the product fully cure (16–24
hours) before adding another 9 mm
(3/8") in a second step. Let the product
cure again. Continue this procedure
until the groove is filled. The reason
for 9 mm (3/8") maximum thickness
per layer for the Hi-Temp product is
that it is a single component system
in an aqueous solution. The water
must have the possibility to dry out.
The water in sections above 9 mm
(3/8") would not dry out, and upon
exposure to high temperatures
would effervesce and bubble. It is
also recommended that the paste be
heat cured at 90 °C (200 °F) between
applications.
For repairing holes, repairs should
be made using a metal screen. First
apply Hi-Temp, then form and place
the screen inside the hole and then
apply second coating of Hi-Temp to
cover the screen.
4. Machining
3.06
When the material is fully cured for a
minimun of 24 hours at 20 °C (68 °F),
sanding, grinding and machining etc.
can be carried out using standard
engineering practices. Hi-Temp
exhibit high thermal conductivity
as well as excellent resistance to
abrasives, fuels, oils and solvents.
5. Cleaning
In uncured state Hi-Temp is cleaned
up with soap and water.
304
First step
Work procedure for heavy build up
Second step
Cure for 16–24 hours before applying
­second layer
6. Health and safety
Hi-Temp can be safely used as
long as normal good practices are
observed.
A fully detailed Material Safety
Data Sheet is included with the kit.
The information provided in this
Instructions for Use sheet is intended
as a general guide only. Users
should determine the suitability of
the product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
305
AquaGRADE REBUILD
Product specification sheet – Aquagrade Rebuild
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Aquagrade Rebuild
Product No 104-659250
Engineering Repair Compound
Aquagrade Rebuild
0,5 ltr Engineering Repair
Compound
Supplied complete with all
Gross Weight: 0,95 kg
necessary equipment all in one
Activator Component
805 g Base + Activator
1 Mixing Container
1 Pair of Gloves
1 Spatula
1 Applicator
1 Technical Data Sheet
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Paste
Beige
Paste
White
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
1
1
1
1
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
45
40
15°C20 °C25 °C
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
3525252020
15
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
360240
120
80
90
80
70
60
Machining
480
300240
180
180
150
120
360
Full Mechanical Strength
14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days
Full Chemical Resistance
16 days 12 days 10 days 8 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 6 days
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
15 mm thickness
100
625
Good
1,55
1,7
1,6
Compressive Strength
ASTM D412
34 MPa
Tensile Shear Adhesion
ASTM D412
18 MPa2600 psi
5100 psi
Abrasion Resistance
ASTM D4060
-
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
> 5000 hours
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2246
85
Impact Resistance
ASTM D256
4 kJ/m2
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
+ 70 °C / 158 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
Health and Safety
306
As long as good practice is observed AquaGrade Rebuild can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
AQUAGRADE REBUILD
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
AquaGrade Rebuild is a two
component, solvent free, wet surface
and underwater repair compound.
Areas of application : bonding,
fastening and filling in underwater
applications e.g pipes, pumps, valves,
tanks etc.
indicated. Lids should be replaced
immediately after use. The two
components should be thoroughly
mixed until completely streak free and
a uniform colour is achieved, using
the spatula provided.
AquaGrade Rebuild is designed to
be mixed, applied and set on wet
surfaces or underwater in both fresh
and salt water.
3. Application
1. Surface preparation
Using the spatula provided the mixed
material should be spread evenly
onto the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation, especially in fluid flow
repairs.
A) Remove all contamination (oil,
grease and dirt) with a cleaner.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting to SA2.
Alternatively a die grinder, needle
scaler or angle grinder may be used.
If grinding make sure the surface
is roughened, not polished. Where
grinding or needle gunning is used,
the surface should be cross scored to
improve adhesion.
Leaking pipes underwater
3.06
2. Mixing
Transfer the contents of Base
and Activator containers from the
respective jars into the mixing
container provided. Mix in the raio
Pipes leaking water
307
AquaGRADE REBUILD
defect. Apply on wet surfaces or
underwater in the same manner as
above water.
4. Machining
Once the AquaGrade Rebuild has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section of the
product specification sheet, sanding
and grinding can be carried out using
standard engineering practices.
5. Cleaning
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
3.06
308
As long as normal good practices are
observed AquaGrade Rebuild can be
safely used. A fully detailed Material
Safety Data Sheet is included with
the set. The information provided in
this Instruction sheet is intended as
a general guide only. Users should
determined the suitability of the
product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
Leaking tanks
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
309
CERAMIGRADE REBUILD
Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Rebuild
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Ceramigrade Rebuild
Product No 102-659268
Engineering Repair Compound
Ceramigrade Rebuild
0,5 ltr Engineering Repair
Compound
Supplied complete with all
Gross Weight: 1,04 kg
necessary equipment all in one
Activator Component
895 g Base + Activator
1 Mixing Container
1 Pair of Gloves
1 Plastic Spatula
1 Plastic Applicator
1 Technical Data Sheet
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Paste
Off White
Paste
Light Blue
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
12,5
12,5
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
18
15
15°C20 °C25 °C
12
10
10
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
8
6
5
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
Initial Setting / Light Loading
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
5 °C
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
90
80
60
40
3020
15
10
Machining240
180
120
90
90
60
50
60
Full Mechanical Strength
7 days 6 days 6 days 5 days 5 days 3 days2 days2 days
Full Chemical Resistance
8 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 3 days
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
10 mm thickness
100
555
Good
1,8
1,8
1,8
Compressive Strength
ASTM D412
84 MPa
12400 psi
Tensile Shear Adhesion
ASTM D41224 MPa
3500 psi
Abrasion Resistance
ASTM D4060
0,08 cc / 100 cycles
> 5000 hours
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2246
80
Impact Resistance
ASTM D256
3 kJ/m2
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
+ 70 °C / 158 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Chemical resistance
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Health and Safety
As long as good practice is observed CeramiGrade Rebuild can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
310
CERAMIGRADE REBUILD
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
CeramiGrade Rebuild is a two
component, solvent free, fast curing,
synthetic repair compound. Areas
of application: Re-building pumps,
impellers, propellers, turbine blades,
valves etc.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation, especially in fluid flow
repairs.
If Reinforcement Bandage is
used to strengthen the repair, the
bandage should be impregnated with
CeramiGrade Rebuild, or the bandage
should be laid over the surface
of the CeramiGrade Rebuild and
pressed into the surface. Additional
CeramiGrade Rebuild should then be
applied over the surface.
process until all salt contamination is
eliminated.
E) To ensure that all contamination is
removed carry out a final degreasing
with a cleaner. Cloths should
be frequently changed to avoid
spreading contamination. On deeply
pitted surfaces of porous castings,
a cleaner should be worked into the
surface by brush and washed off
using excess cleaner.
F) Parts (for example, threads or
bearing surfaces) which must
remain in position during application
but which should not adhere to
CeramiGrade Rebuild must be coated
with a release agent.
A) Remove all contamination (oil,
grease and dirt) with a cleaner.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting to SA2.
Alternatively a die grinder, needle
scaler or angle grinder may be used.
If grinding make sure the surface
is roughened, not polished. Where
grinding or needle gunning is used,
the surface should be cross scored to
improve adhesion.
D) Equipment which has been saltimpregnated should be heated to
sweat out the salt contamination, then
the surface re-blasted. Repeat this
3.06
Cavitation in housing
Rebuilding end covers
311
CERAMIGRADE REBUILD
2. Mixing
5. Cleaning
Transfer the contents of Base
and Activator containers from the
respective jars into the mixing
container provided. Mix in the raio
indicated. Lids should be replaced
immediately after use. The two
components should be thoroughly
mixed until completely streak free and
a uniform colour is achieved, using
the spatula provided.
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
3. Application
Prepared Surfaces should be dry.
Using the spatula provided the mixed
material should be spread evenly
onto the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
defect. Once the CeramiGrade
Rebuild has reached initial set the
material can be separated from
surfaces treated with release agent.
3.06
When CeramiGrade Rebuild is being
used to repair leaking pipes, the
flow through the pipe should be
discontinued until the repair is made
and the CeramiGrade Rebuild is
set. Any leaking fluid must be wiped
from the prepared surface before
undertaking the repair. When a
second coat is required, this should
be done as soon as the first coat has
set. (within 4 hours)
6. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices
are observed CeramiGrade Rebuild
can be safely used. A fully detailed
Material Safety Data Sheet is
included with the set. The information
provided in this Instruction sheet
is intended as a general guide
only. Users should determined the
suitability of the product for their
own particular purposes by their
own tests.
Corroded tube plates
4. Machining
Once the CeramiGrade Rebuild has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section
of the product specification sheet,
sanding, grinding and machining etc.
can be carried out using standard
engineering practices.
Eroded impellers
312
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
313
CERAMIGRADE LINER
Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Liner
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Ceramigrade Liner
Product No 102-659276
775 g Base + Activator
Engineering Repair Fluid
Ceramigrade Liner
1 Mixing Container
0,5 ltr Engineering Repair
1 Pair of Gloves
Compound
1 Plastic Spatula
Supplied complete with all
Gross Weight: 0,92 kg
1 Technical Data Sheet
necessary equipment all in one2 Safety Data Sheets
Activator Component
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Liquid
Clear/Amber
Liquid
Blue
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
1
4
1
5
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
15°C20 °C25 °C
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
45
35
302520
15
13
10
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
150
130
120
300270240240210
190
180
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
300240210
Machining
360
Full Mechanical Strength
180
180
10 days 9 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 5 days 3 days2 days
Full Chemical Resistance20 days 15 days 15 days 14 days 14 days 10 days 7 days 3 days
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Activator Base Mixed
%
100
1,0
1,67
1,55
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
cc/1000gm2 mm thickness
645
n/a
Compressive Strength
ASTM D412
70 MPa
Tensile Shear Adhesion
ASTM D412
16 MPa2300 psi
10200 psi
Abrasion Resistance
ASTM D4060
0,09 cc / 100 cycles
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
5000 hours
Hardness (Shore D)
ASTM D2246
80
Impact Resistance
ASTM D256
5 kJ/m2
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 70 °C / 158 °F
+ 60 °C / 140 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
Health and Safety
314
As long as good practice is observed CeramiGrade Liner can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
CERAMIGRADE LINER
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
CeramiGrade Liner is a two
component, solvent free, fast curing,
synthetic repair fluid. Areas of
application : Re-building pumps,
impellers, propellers, turbine blades,
valves etc.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation, especially in fluid flow
repairs.
surface by brush and washed off
using excess cleaner.
F) Parts (for example, threads or
bearing surfaces) which must
remain in position during application
but which should not adhere to
CeramiGrade Liner must be coated
with a release agent.
2. Mixing
Transfer the contents of Base
and Activator containers from the
respective jars into the mixing
A) Remove all contamination (oil,
grease and dirt) with a Cleaner.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings.
C) Roughen the surface, preferably
with abrasive blasting to SA2.
Alternatively a die grinder, needle
scaler or angle grinder may be used.
If grinding make sure the surface
is roughened, not polished. Where
grinding or needle gunning is used,
the surface should be cross scored to
improve adhesion.
3.06
D) Equipment which has been saltimpregnated should be heated to
sweat out the salt contamination, then
the surface re-blasted. Repeat this
process until all salt contamination is
eliminated.
E) To ensure that all contamination is
removed carry out a final degreasing
with a cleaner. Cloths should
be frequently changed to avoid
spreading contamination. On deeply
pitted surfaces of porous castings,
a cleaner should be worked into the
Impeller resurfacing
315
CERAMIGRADE LINER
container provided. Mix in the ratio
indicated. Lids should be replaced
immediately after use. The two
components should be thoroughly
mixed until completely streak free and
a uniform colour is achieved, using
the spatula provided. The mixture is
initially fluid, but becomes thicker as
it sets.
3. Application
Prepared Surfaces should be dry.
Using the brush provided the mixed
material should be painted evenly
onto the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
defect. Once the CeramiGrade Liner
has reached initial set the material
can be separated from surfaces
treated with release agent.
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices are
observed CeramiGrade Liner can be
safely used. A fully detailed Material
Safety Data Sheet is included with
the set. The information provided in
this Instruction sheet is intended as
a general guide only. Users should
determined the suitability of the
product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
When CeramiGrade Liner is used to
repair leaking pipes, the flow through
the pipe should be discontinued
until the repair is made and the
CeramiGrade Liner is set. Any leaking
fluid must be wiped from the prepared
surface before undertaking the repair.
When a second coat is required, this
should be done as soon as the first
coat has set ( within 4 hours ).
3.06
4. Machining
Once the CeramiGrade Liner has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section
of the product specification sheet,
sanding, grinding and machining etc.
can be carried out using standard
engineering practices.
5. Cleaning
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
316
General wear on butterfly valve surface
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
317
CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD
Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Abrashield
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Ceramigrade Abrashield
Product No 102-725291
Engineering Repair Compound
Ceramigrade Abrashield
5,4 kg Engineering Repair
Compound
Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 5,84 kg
necessary equipment all in one
5400 g Base + Activator
(3600 g Base in a 2 liter tin)
(1800 g Activator in a 1 liter tin)
1 Spatula
1 Applicator
1 Technical Data Sheet
Activator Component
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Paste
Red
Paste
White
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
38
100
33
100
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
50
45
15°C20 °C25 °C
3525
15
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
11
8
5
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C to 40 °C
Curing Time
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Health and Safety
318
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
15 °C20 °C25 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
120
100
60
40
302520
10
Machining
380
350
320
300240220200
180
Full Mechanical Strength
72 hours
Full Chemical Resistance
7 days
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed Activator
Density g/cm Volume Solids %
Base
cc/1000gm
10 mm thickness
31,5 526
Good
3
1,86
1,91
1,9
30
Compressive Strength
DIN 53454
80–85 MPa
00000 psi
Tensile Shear Adhesion
DIN 53455
> 20 MPa
0000 psi
Abrasion Resistance
SABS 1449–1996
90–95 mm3
Corrosion Resistance
ASTM B117
> 5000 hours
Hardness (Shore D)
DIN 53505
78–81
Impact Resistance
DIN 534532,5 kJ/m2
Flexural Strength
DIN 53452
70–75 MPa
Lap Shear Strength
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
ISO 4587
5,5 MPa
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 85–90 °C / 000 °F
+ 80–85 °C / 000 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Below - 20 °C impact resistance will be considerably reduced. The product will become brittle.
Excellent against water, oil, grease, detergents, diluted acids and alkaline. Resistant to solvents, aliphatic
alcohols and aromatics. Against esters, ketones and chlorinated hydrocarbons, tests are recommended.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
As long as good practice is observed Ceramigrade Abrashield can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
Ceramigrade Abrashield is a two
component, solvent free, fast curing,
synthetic repair compound. It consists
of large ceramic particles in an
epoxy matrix. Areas of application:
Protection of surfaces subject to
extreme wear and abrasion caused
by solids or slurry. Specifically meant
for Dredgers and Cement carriers
facing heavy abrasion combined with
medium and light impact.
1.Surface preparation
A) Heavy contamination due to oil
or grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Where possible, abrasive
blasting is the preferred surface
preparation.
B) Remove all loose rust and surface
coatings
C) Roughen the surface preferably
with abrasive blasting to SA2.
Alternatively a die grinder, needle
scaler or angle grinder may be used.
If grinding make sure the surface
is roughened, not polished. Where
grinding or needle gunning is used,
the surface should be cross-scored to
improve adhesion.
D) Surfaces subject to abrasive
wear is often gouged out and highly
polished and must be cross-scored to
secure bonding.
E) Where deep abrasive wear and/or
a high build up is required, bonding
can be secured and improved by
welding small angle irons to the
surface to be coated. “Anchoring “
the product in this way will give a
better key.
2. Mixing
Transfer the content of Base and
Activator containers from the
respective jars onto a clean mixing
plate. Mix in the ratio indicated.
Preferably the mixing ratio should be
by weight. Lids should be replaced
immediately after use. The two
components should be thoroughly
mixed until completely streak free and
a uniform colour is achieved, using
the spatula provided.
3. Application
Prepared surfaces should be dry.
Using the spatula provided the mixed
material should be spread evenly
onto the prepared area, working the
material into groves and surface
defects. First pressing and squeezing
a thin layer of product hard onto
the surface secure a good bonding.
Afterwards add more product,
building up to the required height.
Guide to coverage rate: 1,8 Kg per 1m2
on 1 mm thick application.
4. Machining
3.06
Ones the Ceramigrade Abrashield has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section
of the product specification sheet,
sanding, grinding and machining etc.
can be carried out using standard
engineering practices.
5. Cleaning
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
319
CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
As long as normal good practices are
observed Ceramigrade Abrashield
can be safely used. A fully detailed
Material Safety Data Sheet is
included with the set. The information
provided in this Instruction sheet is
intended as a general guide only.
Users should determine the suitability
of the product for their own particular
purposes by their own tests.
Wear plates and
conveyer line pan
Bearing plates for clinker
chutes
Grading and vibrating screens. Edges are welded with Abratech-330.
Large surfaces filled in with Ceramigrade Abrashield
3.06
Improve addition by “Anchoring” the product by welding
small angle irons to the surface to be coated.
320
Ceramigrade Abrashield can also be used in combination with the hard surfacing electrode Abratech-330 to
fill in between runs. The welding runs give the polymer
side support and stability.
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
321
RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD
Product specification sheet – Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild
Product No 103-659284
3 x 150 g packs Base + Activator
Engineering Repair Compound
Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild
1 Spatula
0,43 ltr Engineering Repair
1 Applicator
Compound
1 Pair of gloves
Supplied complete with all
Gross Weight: 590 g
1 Technical Data Sheet
necessary equipment all in one2 Safety Data Sheets
Activator Component
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Liquid
Brown
Paste
Black
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
-
-
-
-
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
15
10
15°C20 °C25 °C
10
8
8
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
7
6
5
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
60
50
Machining
480240
15 °C20 °C25 °C
35252520
15
15
180
150
120
180
150
150
Full Mechanical Strength
14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days
Full Chemical Resistance
18 days 15 days 14 days 12 days 12 days 8 days 7 days 7 days
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
12 1/2 mm thickness
100
962
Excellent
1,2
0,98
1,04
Tensile Strength
ASTM D412
4 MPa
600 psi
Tear Strength
ASTM D624
4,5 MPa
650 psi
Elongation
ASTM D790260 %
Hardness (Shore A)
ASTM D2240
65
Dielectric Strength
ASTM D149
-
Surface Resistivity
ASTM D257
-
Volume Resistivity
ASTM D257
-
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
+ 70 °C / 158 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
Health and Safety
322
As long as good practice is observed Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
RubberGrade 6 Rebuild is a two
component, solvent free, synthetic
rubber repair compound. Areas of
application: hoses, gaskets, rubber
rollers, ducting, impellers, valves etc.
1. Surface preparation
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Any areas of frayed or
fragmented rubber should be cut
away to provide a sound repair area.
Rubber surfaces are best roughened
using a stiff-bristled or stiff-wire
brush. All surfaces MUST be dry.
Ensure there is no unmixed material
caught in the corners of the pack. If
there is, ease them out of the corners
using the white plastic clip.
Cut any corner and squeeze out the
RubberGrade 6 Rebuild onto the repair
surface/s.
3. Application
Using the spatula provided the mixed
material should be spread evenly
onto the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
Edges of repair areas should be
rebuilt. All loose dust particles must
be removed and the surface wiped
with a cleaner.
On certain repairs such as gaskets
and castings where one surface is
not required to bond to RubberGrade
6 Rebuild, these surfaces should be
treated with a release agent.
2. Mixing
Electrical insulation repairs
3.06
Remove the twin pack from the
aluminium outer foil by cutting along
the lines indicated. Take care not
to puncture the pack. Remove the
divider strip ( black rubber ) and
take off the plastic divider clip. The
contents are now ready to be mixed.
Mix the two components by kneading
and squashing them together for 4 -5
minutes. The pack will warm up as it
is being mixed.
Hose repairs
323
RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD
defects. Take care not to trap air
bubbles in deep cavities.
4. Machining
Once the RubberGrade 6 Rebuild has
cured for the minimum time indicated
in the Curing Properties Section of the
product specification sheet, sanding
and grinding can be carried out using
standard engineering practices.
5. Cleaning
Gaskets and seals repairs
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
3.06
324
As long as normal good practices
are observed RubberGrade 6 Rebuild
can be safely used. A fully detailed
Material Safety Data Sheet is
included with the set. The information
provided in this Instruction sheet
is intended as a general guide
only. Users should determined the
suitability of the product for their
own particular purposes by their own
tests.
Electrical insulation repairs
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
325
RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD
Product specification sheet – Rubbergrade 6 Remould
Product
Description
Identification
Application
Data
PRODUCT NAME
PRODUCT NO
KIT CONSISTS OF
Rubbergrade 6 Remould
Product No 103-659292
3 x 150 g packs Base + Activator
Engineering Repair Fluid
Rubbergrade 6 Remould
1 Spatula
0,43 ltr Engineering Repair
1 Applicator
Compound
1 Pair of gloves
Supplied complete with all
Gross Weight: 590 g
1 Technical Data Sheet
necessary equipment all in one2 Safety Data Sheets
Activator Component
Base Component
Appearance
Colour
Appearance
Colour
Liquid
Brown
Liquid
Black
Mixing Ratio
Volume
Mixing Ratio
Weight
Activator Base Activator Base
-
-
-
-
Pot Life (mins)
(Working Life)
5 °C
10 °C
15
10
15°C20 °C25 °C
10
8
8
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
7
6
5
30 °C
35 °C
40 °C
Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C
Curing Time
Technical
Data
Phys/Mec
Properties
3.06
Curing Times in minutes at
ambient temperature
5 °C
10 °C
Initial Setting / Light Loading
60
50
Machining
480240
15 °C20 °C25 °C
35252520
15
15
180
150
120
180
150
150
Full Mechanical Strength
14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days
Full Chemical Resistance
18 days 15 days 14 days 12 days 12 days 8 days 7 days 7 days
Density g/cm3
Volume Solids
Volume Capacity
Slump Resistance
Activator Base Mixed
%
cc/1000gm
12 1/2 mm thickness
100
962
-
1,2
0,98
1,04
Tensile Strength
ASTM D412
7 MPa
1015 psi
Tear Strength
ASTM D624
4,5 MPa
650 psi
Elongation
ASTM D790250 %
Hardness (Shore A)
ASTM D2240
65
Dielectric Strength
ASTM D149
-
Surface Resistivity
ASTM D257
-
Volume Resistivity
ASTM D257
-
Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C
Service
Temperatures
Chemical resistance
Dry heat
Wet heat
Minimum temp
+ 80 °C / 176 °F
+ 70 °C / 158 °F
- 20 °C / - 4 °F
Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed
description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.
Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002
Health and Safety
326
As long as good practice is observed Rubbergrade 6 Remould can be safely used. Wearing of rubber
gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet
provided with each packaged product.
RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD
Instructions for use
Before proceeding, please read the following information application carefully
to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.
RubberGrade 6 ReMould is a two
component, solvent free, synthetic
rubber repair compound. Areas of
application : hoses, gaskets, rubber
rollers, ducting, impellers, valves etc.
1. Surface preparation
Ensure there is no unmixed material
caught in the corners of the pack. If
there is, ease them out of the corners
using the white plastic clip.
Cut any corner and pour out the
RubberGrade 6 ReMould onto the
repair surface/s.
Heavy contamination due to oil or
grease must be removed using a
cleaner. Any areas of frayed or
fragmented rubber should be cut
away to provide a sound repair area.
Rubber surfaces are best roughened
using a stiff-bristled or stiff-wire
brush. All surfaces MUST be dry.
Edges of repair areas should be
rebuilt. All loose dust particles must
be removed and the surface wiped
with a cleaner.
On certain repairs such as gaskets
and castings where one surface is
not required to bond to RubberGrade
6 ReMould, these surfaces should be
treated with release agent.
2. Mixing
Castings of shock absorbers
3.06
Remove the twin pack from the
aluminium outer foil by cutting along
the lines indicated. Take care not
to puncture the pack. Remove the
divider strip ( black rubber ) and
take off the plastic divider clip. The
contents are now ready to be mixed.
Mix the two components by kneading
and squashing them together for 4 -5
minutes. The pack will warm up as it
is being mixed.
Making a new O-ring
327
RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD
3. Application
Using the spatula provided the mixed
material should be spread evenly
over the prepared area, working the
material into any cracks and surface
defects. Take care not to trap air
bubbles in deep cavities.
4. Machining
Once the RubberGrade 6 ReMould
has cured for the minimum time
indicated in the Curing Properties
Section of the product specification
sheet, sanding and grinding can
be carried out using standard
engineering practices.
Hatch cover seals
5. Cleaning
All equipment should be cleaned
IMMEDIATELY after each use with
a cleaner. Failure to follow this
procedure will result in application
equipment becoming unusable.
6. Health and safety
3.06
328
As long as normal good practices are
observed RubberGrade 6 ReMould
can be safely used. A fully detailed
Material Safety Data Sheet is
included with the set. The information
provided in this Instruction sheet
is intended as a general guide
only. Users should determined the
suitability of the product for their
own particular purposes by their own
tests.
Flanges and mating repairs
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
329
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
3.06
330
ARC PROCESSES & EQUIPMENT
electric Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
TIG welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Wire welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Plasma cutting & gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Current distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
4.01
331
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.01
332
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Power source characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Selecting power source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
UWI-150TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
UWI-203TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
UWR-320TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
UWI-500TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Primary extension cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Secondary cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Electrode holders, cable connectors & return clamp assembly . . . . . 361
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Electrodes for electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Air Carbon arc gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
4.01
333
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Introduction
The principle of Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) commonly called “stick
electrode” welding is, as for all arc welding processes, based on the electric
circuit. The electric arc formed between electrode and workpiece has two
objectives, to melt the edges of the joint forming a melt pool on the workpiece,
and to melt the tip of the coated electrode. The electrode is consumed and acts
as a filler material mixing with the melted base material to fill up the joint.
Initially manual metal arc welding was done with bare metal electrodes without
any coating, a process that was first introduced in 1888 in Russia.
The first coated electrode was patented by the Swedish engineer Oskar
Kjellsberg in 1905, but it took some years of refining coatings and testing the
reliability of welded joints before the process was accepted in the fabrication
of steel constructions. In 1938, however, the world’s first wholly welded
oceangoing ship was launched in Malmø, thereby introducing MMA welding as
a production process for the maritime market.
The popularity of the Manual Metal Arc Welding process is to a large degree
based on its versatility in addition to its modest requirements for equipment.
Even quite unsophisticated welding machines like a step-down transformer
may be used as power supply, at least for the less demanding electrodes,
and the only welding equipment required in addition to the power supply is a
suitable electrode holder.
By selecting the correct electrode, most metallic material may be arc welded
in any position and in any thickness down to approximately 2 mm.
Different electrode holders are required depending on the type of welding
work. In this chapter the following will be described:
• Normal welding/gouging with coated electrodes
• Air-Carbon-Arc gouging with copper coated carbon electrodes
Each of these areas require their special electrode holder.
4.01
Arc processes require a complete electric circuit. Always remember proper connection
of the return clamp.
334
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
To establish an arc for welding and cutting, an electric circuit is required,
consisting of the power source, welding cable, electrode holder or torch
depending on the process, electrode, arc, workpiece, return clamp and return
cable. The welding current flows through the entire system and back to the
power source. Note that the workpiece must be a part of the electric circuit in
all arc welding processes. Properly connected return cable is therefore always
required to ensure good welding conditions and avoid accidents by unintended
welding arcs being established e.g. at a poor return cable connection.
The arc, being the heat source for the welding or cutting process, will have a
temperature between approximately 6000°C in the arc from a coated electrode
and up to 28000°C (8 times the surface temperature of the sun) in the plasma
arc used for cutting.
Practical setup
Welding machine
Return cable
Welding cable
Electrode
holder
Electrode
Return clamp
Workpiece
Arc
4.01
Welding current
The arc properties are dependent on the current supplied to it. Basically there
are two different types of electric current; alternating current (AC) and direct
current (DC). DC is a stream of negatively charged electrons flowing through
the cable, moving from the negative pole (-) to the positive pole (+). AC is
achieved when the power supply switches positive and negative polarity at
a frequency which normally is 50 or 60 times per second (50 or 60 Hz). The
electrons will then no longer flow in a steady stream but flow back and forth in
the cable, and 100 or 120 times a second the current will actually be zero, as
shown in the diagram.
335
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
AC as welding current
Mains power will normally be AC, and
the simplest form of welding power
sources are transformers that reduce
the mains voltage and provide means
for adjusting the amperage (welding
current), still delivering AC to the
welding arc. As the AC actually is
zero each time it changes direction
only electrodes specially developed
for AC will be usable with welding
transformers.
The pulsating effect of AC has proven
to be especially dangerous to an
operator in case of electric shock.
Where burns are the main danger
from an electric shock from DC, the
AC pulses may in addition cause
cramps and heart failure as the
pulses affect the nervous system.
Authorities in several countries have
therefore issued special regulations
and demands for open circuit voltage
reducing equipment for welding
power sources with AC output.
4.01
The only welding application that
requires AC as welding current is TIG
welding of aluminium, as the back
and forth flowing electrons serve the
purpose of tearing up the unmelted
oxide layer that forms on top of an
aluminium melt pool. However, in
onboard repair and maintenance
welding the Wire Welding Process
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
process is an alternative for
aluminium welding which offers
several advantages, and is done with
DC.
DC as welding current
DC is by far the best suited and most
commonly used current for welding
processes. It is normally obtained
through a welding power source
336
(inverter or rectifier) that rectifies
the AC from the mains supply to a
DC of correct amperage and voltage
for welding. To avoid the dangers the
current pulses represent in cases of
electric shock, several countries have
issued regulations on how smooth
the DC current shall be in order to be
accepted as DC without requirements
for open circuit voltage reducing
devices. These requirements should
be observed when installing welding
equipment on board.
DC current, constant towards the positive
(+) pole.
AC current cycling from one direction
through zero to the opposite direction, 50
or 60 complete cycles per second.
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Basic principles
Manual Metal Arc welding
There are three different types of
current used for Welding: DC-, DC+
and AC.
Transformers: Alternating Current
Inverters & Rectifiers: Direct Current
+ or –
Transformer power sources produce
alternating current (AC). This type of
current changes direction 50 or 60
times per second (50-60 Hz). There
are restrictions on alternating current
used on board ships because this
type of current goes deep into the
body and can harm vital organs if the
body becomes part of the electric
circuit. Rectifier and inverters
produces direct current (DC) which
is regarded as a safe type of current
to use on board. This type of current
runs in one direction (from – to +) so
we can manipulate by connecting the
electrode to either - or + polarity. If
we want deep penetration we can
connect the electrode to – polarity
and thereby bombard the base
material with electrons that make 70%
of the heat accumulating in the base
material. Connecting the electrode
to + polarity gives the opposite
reaction with a high burn-off rate on
the electrode, high weld build up and
shallow penetration. Most root runs
are done with DC- polarity to get the
necessary penetration, while filler
passes and capping runs are done
with DC+ polarity.
The principal task of all power
sources is to take alternating current
from the mains and bring the high
voltage down to a suitable working
voltage. Rectifiers and inverters
also convert the AC current into DC
current.
Coating
Core rod
Shielding smoke
Base metal
Molten weld
Metal transfer
Travel
–
+
30 %
electrons
+
4.01
70 %
DC-
–
70 %
50 %
electrons
electrons
30 %
DC+
Direct current moving from – to +
+–
50 %
AC
Alternating current
337
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Power source characteristics
A welding power source shall not only
supply current of a set amperage and
voltage, it shall also automatically
adjust these values as conditions in
the welding arc changes. A quick
response to changes in the arc
characterizes a well designed welding
power source and is a prerequisite for
good welding properties.
When welding with electrodes with
large droplet transfer, small short
circuits will constantly occur in the arc.
As the short circuit starts, a current
peak will occur before the machine
adjusts to the short circuit condition.
When the short circuit is broken a
voltage peak will occur. Excessive
height or duration of these peaks will
give an unstable arc and spatter from
the weld pool, and may increase the
possibility of welding faults.
These dynamic properties of the
welding power source are expressed
in the dynamic characteristic of the
machine.
4.01
The relation between amperage
and voltage supplied from a welding
power source is called the static
characteristic of the machine.
The two basic types of static
characteristics are constant current
(CC) and constant voltage (CV).
with very little current variation is
best. For Air Carbon Arc gouging
a flatter characteristic, with more
current variation and high short
circuit current, is preferred. Welding
with coated electrodes needs
characteristics between these two.
Some welding power sources will
have adjustable characteristics to
enable the welder to choose exactly
the characteristic suited for the job at
hand, as shown in the figure below.
Constant voltage characteristic (CV)
This characteristic is used only for the
Wire Welding process when a wire
feeder with constant feed speed is
used.
The power source will attempt to keep
a constant arc voltage by increasing
/ decreasing the amperage as the arc
length shortens / increases, and the
characteristic curve will therefore be
practically flat.
This characteristic is required for gas
metal arc welding in the short arc
range, and will also offer advantages
in the spray arc range.
Constant current characteristic (CC)
Machines with constant current
characteristic are designed to keep
the welding current approximately
constant, with variations within
a narrow range when the arc
length, and thereby the arc voltage,
increases or decreases. The optimal
current variation range is different for
different processes.
For TIG welding a steep characteristic
338
Dynamic characteristics of a short circuit
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Constant Current characteristic (ACA)
U
A flatter constant current
characteristic is optimal for
Manual Metal Arc Welding
(stick), providing a higher
current (within limits) when
the arc length shortens.
U = 20 + 0,04 * I
(IEC 974)
I
Constant Voltage characteristic (CV)
U
I
For Wire Welding the ideal
characteristic is constant
voltage. It will reduce the
current if arc gets too long,
thereby reducing the meltoff and allowing the welding
wire to be fed closer to the
melt pool again. If the arc
gets too short the current
will increase, the melt-off
will increase, and normal
arc length will automatically
be established again.
4.01
U = 14 + 0,05 * I
(IEC 974)
339
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Selecting power source
The four most important considerations when
choosing a welding machine for use on board
are:
1. Construction and operation must meet all
requirements with regard to operator safety,
including special requirements to current type
(AC/DC) and open circuit voltage that exists
for welding machines used on board.
UWI-150TP
2. Machines must be suitable for the special
environment on board a ship and must
be able to handle the special and varying
voltages provided by the vessels’ power
supply.
3. As welding is only one of many skills which
must be mastered by a ship’s mechanic,
operation should be simple and should
provide ease of welding so that continual
practice should not be necessary to achieve
good results.
UWI-203TP
4. A welding machine must be able to supply
sufficient power, and be able to handle all the
necessary welding jobs that are needed on
board.
4.01
By choosing a welding inverter (DC arc
welding) from the Unitor range, the first
three points on our check list will normally
be fulfilled, and the remaining question is the
size and capacity of the machine. The choice
will depend on how well prepared you wish
to be to cope with unexpected repair on
board, the efficiency and quality required
in general repair work and also the welding
processes to be handled by the power
source.
UWI-320TP
UWI-500TP
340
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Selection guide, power sources:
Unitor welding machine range
Light welding repairs and tack welding with
coated Electrodes, max. 3.25 mm
UWI UWI UWR UWI UWW
150TP 203TP 320TP 500TP 161TP
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Repair welding, pipe welding and light plating
work Using coated electrodes, max 4.0 mm
All types of repair welding, including
comprehensive Plating work using all
dimensions of coated electrodes
x
x
Preparing grooves with gouging electrodes
x
x
Air-Carbon-Arc gouging, cutting, hole piercing,
weld-removal or surface “flushing” of
steel plates
x
TIG welding, all types of work including large
dimensioned pipes
x
x
x
TIG welding, lighter work with 1.6 – 2.4 mm
Tungsten electrodes
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Wire welding.
x
x
Weight kg.
18
47 12,6
x
x
4,4
12,2
Parralell connection.
Properties:
Choice of welding characteristic to suit all
types of work (Electrode, TIG, Wire welding)
x*
x*
x*
x
x
Stepless full-range welding current adjustment
during welding
x
x
x
x
x
Remote control of welding current by cable
during welding
x
x
x
Possible to parallel connect two machines
x
4.01
Connection to mains:
1 phase 230 Volt 50/60 Hz
x
3 phase 380-440 Volt 50/60 Hz
x
x
x
x
*) Not wire welding.
For information on the capacity of the individual models when welding with long welding
cables, consult the section dealing with welding cables.
341
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-150TP Stick / TIG
Dual Process Welding Inverter
Compact and only 4,4kg weight for ease
of use onboard, the UWI-150 TP offers
excellent performance-to-weight ratio
with full capacity for welding all normal
coated electrodes up to 3,2mm, including
Aluminum electrodes.
Lift-Arc TIG start provides contamination
free deposit. Amperage remote control on
torch ensures full control during welding
and downslope when finishing.
Easy to use TIG pulse option provides
excellent sheet metal welding properties
which cannot be obtained with standard
TIG characteristic.
Plugs in anywhere, 1phase 230V and only
16A slow fuses.
– Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless
of fluctuation in input power of +/- 10%
– Automatic hot start provides easy arc start and prevents sticking.
– Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the
duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked.
– TP function (Total Protection) prevents damage to the machine if primary supply
voltage is too high.
– Safe in use. VRD function reduces touchable open circuit voltage to only 9V when
the welding arc is broken. Full arc striking voltage is re-established immediately when
the electrode touches the work-piece.
– Casing of high-grade aluminium and panels of high grade industrial plastic reduces
weight and risk of corrosion.
– Delivered complete in carrying case with electrode holder and return clamp
Technical Data
4.01
342
Description
Unit Property
Welding current range MMA
A
5-150
Welding current range TIG
A
5-150
Max touchable OCV voltage
V
9
Duty cycle at max current %
30
Maximum input power
kVA
6,2
Power factor
0,72
Main phases
phase
1
Power supply voltage
V230
Power supply cycles
Hz
50/60
Recommended fuses (Slow)
A
16
Certifying authority/institution
S, CE
IP protection 23 S
Weight
kg
4,4
Length
mm
310
Width
mm 120
Height mm 215
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Ordering Information:
The order numbers include:
– UWI-150 TP welding machine
– 1 pc carrying strap
– 3m primary cable, mounted on the welding machine with Schuko plug 3 x 2,5 mm2
– 3m welding cable with dix 25 quick connector and electrode holder
– 3m return cable with dix 25 quick connector and return clamp
– All delivered in a strong protective suitcase
– Instruction manual
Description
UWI-150TP with basic accessories
Unit
pcs
Product no.
191-150150
UWI-150TP
Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding
UWI-150TP as a manual electrode welding unit
3m Welding cable with quick connectors and
electrode holder
and
3m return cable with quick connector and
return clamp are included
Optional Equipment
Description
Unit
Face shield with handle
and filter shade 11 glass
Flip-Vision shield with flip-up frame,
head band and filter shade 11 glass
Filter glass set shade 9 for up to 40 A, 5 set
Filter glass set shade 10 for up to 80 A, 5 set
Filter glass set shade 11 for up to 175 A, 5 set
Long lined welding gloves, 6 pairs
Wire brush, steel, 2 rows, 6 pcs
Wire brush, stainless steel, 2 rows, 6 pcs
Chipping hammer steel, 2 pcs
Chipping hammer stainless steel
Welding gauge type J
Miscellaneous:
Spare part kit* for UWI-150 TP
Product no.
196 619098
196 709485
196 633248
196 633255
196 633263
196 632786
196 632976
196 632984
196 633008
196 632992
196 516161
4.01
191-150161
* Spare part kit includes power board, necessary additional components and complete
­instructions for replacement.
343
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Application set-up for TIG welding
TIG welding Accessories for UWI-150TP
Description
Units
Specially thin and soft TIG gloves, 6 pairs
TIG-torch T-150 with gas valve
and DIX 25 for UWI-150
Accessories kit for TIG-torch
Remote control
Argon regulator with flow
adjustment 0-32 l/min
Manometer gauge guard Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle
Flowcontrol needle valve for gas
flow adjustment
Product no.
197 632794
197 150000
197 607810
191 150151
197 510010
197 619379
197 597328
197 597310
Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10)
and 50 l cylinders (E-50)
4.01
344
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.01
345
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-203 TP Stick / TIG
Dual Process Welding Inverter
• Connects to any primary voltage between 380 and 440V without
need for any action from the operator.
• Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source
constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below
lowest to above highest rated input voltage.
• Safe in use. Open Circuit Voltage below the 70V limit set by the
Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen.
• Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy
and prevents electrode sticking.
• Adjustable Arc Force for stick electrode welding allows the arc
characteristics to be -changed for specific applications and
electrodes:
Low Arc Force setting for smooth running electrodes like LH and SPECIAL.
Increased setting provides optimal characteristics for stiffer, more penetrating electrodes like E6010 types,
chamfering electrodes like CH2 and electrodes for ACA gouging.
• Lift-Start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting.
• Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 5 –200A.
• Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage also contributes to
low-weight which together with compact outer dimensions provides good portability.
• Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from
dirt, dust, debris, greatly improving reliability.
• Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is
exceeded or airflow is blocked.
• Total Protection (TP) function close the machine down in case one phase in the power supply falls out.
• Supplied with instruction manual, primary cable, carrying strap, electrode holder and return clamp
Technical Data
4.01
Description
Unit Property
Welding current range, DC A
5-200
Open circuit voltage from serial no 129431 V 13
Duty cycle at max. current %
40
Maximum input power
kVA
6,7
Power factor
0,95
Mains phases
3
Mains phase, frequency 50/60 Hz
Mains voltage V
380-440
Recommended fuses (slow) A
10
Protection class
IP 23S
Approval marks
CE
Height
mm
325
Length
mm
460
Width
mm230
Weight
kg
12,2
Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT:
CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN
Ordering Information:
325
230
460
Description
Product no.
The order numbers include:
UWI-203
TP
with
basic
accessories
191-203203
– UWI-203 welding machine
– 1 pce carrying strap
– 3,5 m primary cable, mounted on the welding machine 4 x 1,5 mm2
– 3 m welding cable with quick connector and electrode holder
– 3 m return cable with quick connector and return clamp
– Instruction manual
346
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-203 TP
Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding
UWI-203 TP as a manual electrode welding unit
3m Welding cable with quick connectors and
electrode holder and 3m return cable with quick
connector and return clamp are included with
the UWI-203 TP.
Optional Equipment UWI-203 TP
Description
Unit
Face shield with handle and filter shade
11 glass
Flip-Vision shield with flip-up frame,
head band and filter shade 11 glass
Filter glass set shade 9 for up to 40 A, 5 set
Filter glass set shade 10 for up to 80 A, 5 set
Filter glass set shade 11 for up to 175 A, 5 set
Long lined welding gloves, 6 pairs
Wire brush, steel, 2 rows, 6 pcs
Wire brush, stainless steel, 2 rows, 6 pcs
Chipping hammer steel, 2 pcs
Chipping hammer stainless steel
Welding gauge type J
Miscellaneous:
Skid Trolley for protection Spare part kit* for UWI-203 TP
Product no.
196 619098
196 709485
196 633248
196 633255
196 633263
196 632786
196 632976
196 632984
196 633008
196 632992
196 516161
191 764550
191-203205
Application set-up for TIG welding
TIG welding Accessories for UWI-203 TP
Description
Units
Specially thin and soft TIG gloves,
6 pairs
TIG-torch T-200 with gas valve
and DIX 70 connector
Accessories kit for TIG-torch
Argon regulator with flow adjustment
0-32 l/min
Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle
Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow
adjustment
Trolly for machine and E10/M10 shielding gas cylinders Product no.
197 632794
197 200000
197 607810
4.01
197 510010
197 597328
197 597310
196 778149
Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10)
and 50 l cylinders (E-50)
* Spare part kit includes power board, necessary additional components and complete
­instructions for replacement.
347
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-320 TP Stick / TIG
Dual Process Welding Inverter
• Connects to any primary voltage between 380 and 440V without
need for any action from the operator.
• Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source
constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below
lowest to above highest rated input voltage.
• Safe in use. Open Circuit Voltage only 8V, well below the 70V
limit set by the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant
Seamen.
• Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy
and prevents electrode sticking.
• Adjustable Arc Force for stick electrode welding allows the arc
characteristics to be -changed for specific applications and electrodes:
Low Arc Force setting for smooth running electrodes like LH and SPECIAL.
Increased setting provides optimal characteristics for stiffer, more penetrating electrodes like E6010 types,
chamfering electrodes like CH2 and electrodes for ACA gouging.
• Lift-Start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting.
• Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 5 –320A.
• Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage also contributes to
low-weight which together with compact outer dimensions provides good portability.
• Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from
dirt, dust, debris, greatly improving reliability.
• Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is
exceeded or airflow is blocked.
• Total Protection (TP) function close the machine down in case one phase in the power supply falls out.
• Supplied with instruction manual, primary cable, carrying strap, electrode holder and return clamp
Technical Data
4.01
Description
Unit Property
Welding current range, DC A
5-320
Open circuit voltage, max V
9
Duty cycle at max. current %
30
Maximum input power
kVA
14,9
Power factor
0,77
Mains phases
3
Mains phase, frequency 50/60 Hz
Mains voltage V
380-440
Recommended fuses (slow) A
10
325
Protection class
IP 23S
Approval marks
CE
Height
mm
325
Length
mm
460
Width
mm230
230
Weight
kg
18
Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT:
CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN
Ordering Information:
Description
The order numbers include:
UWI-320 TP
UWI-320 TP welding machine
1 pce carrying strap
3,5 m primary cable, mounted on the welding machine 4 x 2,5 mm2
Instruction manual
348
Unit
pcs
460
Product no.
191-320320
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-320 TP
Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding
Basic accessories kit for UWI-320 TP
Description
Basic accessories kit for UWI-320 TP
Consisting of:
Return clamp assembly. 400 A Dix 70, 3
m cable 50 mm2
Electrode holder assembly. 400 A Dix
70, 3 m cable 50 mm2
Remote amp. control 8 m
Welding gloves
Face shield with flip-up front frame,
head band and filter shade 11 glass
Chipping hammer steel
Wire brush steel, two rows
Unitor Welding Handbook
Miscellaneous:
Skid Trolley for protection
Spare part kit* for UWI-320 TP
Unit
set
Product no.
191-670406
pcs
195-594317
pcs
pcs
par
196-594325
191-670414
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
196-709485
pcs
pcs
191-764550
191-320323
ID no. 811002
Application set-up for TIG welding
TIG welding Accessories for UWI-320 TP
Description
Units
Specially thin and soft TIG gloves,
6 pairs
TIG-torch T-200 with gas valve
and DIX 70 connector
Accessories kit for TIG-torch
Argon regulator with flow adjustment
0-32 l/min
Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle
Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow
adjustment
Trolly for machine and E10/M10 shielding gas cylinders Product no.
197 632794
197 200000
197 607810
4.01
197 510010
197 597328
197 597310
196 778149
Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10)
and 50 l cylinders (E-50)
* Spare part kit includes power board, necessary additional components and complete
­instructions for replacement.
349
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-500TP
Multi process welding inverter
510
290
• The UWI-500TP is designed for welding with
all types and sizes of welding wires, coated
electrodes, carbon electrodes and TIG rods, with
current range: 5 – 500A.
• Automatic adjustment to any primary voltage
between 380 and 440V.
• Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the
power source constant regardless of fluctuation
in input power from 10% below lowest to above
highest rated input voltage.
• Total Protection function with indicator light
prevents machine damage if one phase in the
primary power supply falls out or if over-voltage is supplied to the machine.
• Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the
duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked.
• Safe in use. The Voltage Reduction Device function reduces touchable open circuit
voltage to only 9V, providing optimal safety for the operator.
• The remote amperage control can be used for all processes, and also for two machines
in parallel for up to 1000 Amp. for Air Carbon Arc gouging.
• Separate characteristics are available for welding with standard electrodes, for
cellulosic electrodes, for TIG, for Air Carbon Arc gouging and for Wire welding with or
without shielding gas. This ensures optimal properties for all processes
• Adjustable Hot Start for MMA welding provides optimal arc striking for all electrode
types and prevents electrode sticking.
• Adjustable Arc Force for MMA welding allows the arc characteristics to be
changed for specific applications and electrodes.
•2-step TIG-torch control with Lift-Arc provides an easy and soft TIG arc start,
and remote control from 5 amp to maximum ensures total arc control both during
welding and for the down-slope finish of the weld.
Adjustable gas post-flow prevents faults in the end phase of the weld.
670
Technical Data
4.01
350
Ordering Information:
Description
Unit Property
The order numbers include:
Welding current range, DC A
5-500
UWI-500TP
Open circuit voltage, max V
9
5 m primary cable 4 x 6 mm2.
Duty cycle at max. current %
50
Instruction manual.
Maximum input power
kVA26,5
Power factor
0,85
Description Unit Product no.
Mains phases
3
UWI-500TP pcs 191-500500
Mains phase, frequency 50/60 Hz
Mains voltage V
380-440
Recommended fuses (slow) A
32
Protection class
IP 23S
Approval marks
CE
Height
mm
510
Length
mm
670
Width
mm290
Weight
kg
47
Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT:
CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-500TP
Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding
UWI-500TP as a manual stick electrode welding unit with a remote control unit and
welding cables.
Stick Electrode accessories
Description
Basic accessories kit for UWI-500TP
Consisting of:
Return clamp assembly. 400 A Dix 70, 3 m cable 50 mm2
Electrode holder assembly. 400 A Dix 70, 3 m cable 50 mm2
Remote amp. control 8 m
Welding gloves
Face shield with flip-up front frame, head band and filter shade 11 glass
Chipping hammer steel
Wire brush steel, two rows
Unitor Welding Handbook
Unit
set
Product no.
191-670406
pcs
pcs
pcs
par
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
195-594317
196-594325
191-670414
Miscellaneous
Remote control cable extension, 25 m
Undercarrige for UWI-500 TP
pcs
Spare part kit* for UWI-500TP
pcs
196-709485
4.01
191-670422
196-500103
191-500505
* Spare part kit includes power board, necessary additional components and complete ­instructions for replacement.
351
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-500TP
Application set-up for TIG welding
UWI-500TP as TIG welding unit with a remote control unit, TIG torch set and return cable.
4.01
TIG welding accessories (Based on having Stick electrode accessories)
Description
TIG torch T-200 complete with DIX 70
Remote amp. control 8 m must be used for TIG welding
Accessories kit for TIG torch
Argon / C02 regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min.
Flow control meter for use on torch nozzle
Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment
Gas hose 1/4” black for shielding gases, mtr.
Hose joint for 1/4” hose, pcs.
Clip 8-14 mm for hose, 10 pcs.
Specially thin and soft TIG gloves,
Trolly for one 40-50l gas cylinder
Unit
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
mtr
pcs
pck
6 pairs
pcs
Argon for TIG shielding gas is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50).
352
Product no.
197-200000
191-670414
197-607810
197-510010
197-597328
197-597310
176-576157
176-175596
401-729442
197-632794
176-778147
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWI-500TP
Application set-up for Wire welding
UWI-500TP with UWF-102 wire feeder, wire welding torch and return cable.
Wire welding accessories (Based on having Stick electrode accessories)
Description
Unit
Wire feeder UWF-102 ex. Torch
pcs
Wire torch T-400MP w/3 m cable for gas shielded wire welding
pcs
Wire torch T-350 w/3 m cable for gasless wire welding
pcs
Argon/CO2 regulator w / flow adjustment 0-32 l/min.
pcs
CO2 regulator with flow adjustment
pcs
Flow control meter for use on torch nozzle
pcs
Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment
pcs
Gas hose 1/4” black for shielding gases
mtr
Hose joint for 1/4” hose
pcs
Clip 8-14 mm for hose, 10 pcs
pck
Specially thin and soft gloves
6 pairs
Trolly for one 40-50l gas cylinder
pcs
Product no.
193-500102
193-607451
193-607451
197-510010
197-510012
197-597328
197-597310
176-576157
176-175596
401-729442
197-632794
197-778147
4.01
Argon or Argon CO2 for Wire Welding shielding gas available in 10 l cylinders (E-10/M-10)
and 50 l cylinders (E-50(M-50)
353
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Application set-up for Air Carbon Arc Gouging or Stick
Electrode welding using 2 x UWI-320TP or 2 x UWI-500TP
in parallel
Electrode/return clamp assembly
2 x UWI-320TP, max output 640 Amps
2 x UWI-500TP, max output 1000 Amps
1
1
6
6
1
2
Pos. Description
Product no.
Unit
1
Cable connector Dix-70
male/female complete
195-632894
pcs
2
Triple connection Dix-70
male/male/female, 2 pcs
195-632901
pcs
3
Conversion assembly
safety Dix-70 male, 2 pcs
195-634121
pcs
4
Return clamp assembly
400 A with Dix-70 connector
w/3 m cable 50 mm2 195-594317
pcs
5
Electrode holder assembly
400 A with Dix-70 connector
w/3 m flexible cable 50 mm2
196-594325
pcs
6
Welding cable 70 mm ,
in necessary length
195-175851
m
7
Torch f/air carbon arc
gouging with safety
connector and air
connector 600 Amps
196-528703
pcs
2
5
4.01
Air supply
7
3
4
1
354
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Remote control assembly
Important:
If parallel connection of two 320TP
or two UWI-500TP machines, both
machines must be switched on.
If only one machine is switched on
the current in the parallel cable may
damage the other machine.
1
Pos. Description
1
Remote control parallel
connection cable
Product no.
2
191-670414
Remote amp. control 8 m
191-676973
2
NB In this location the remote control extension cables can be mounted
4.01
Remote control cable extension 25 m Product No. 191-670422
Length depends on distance from welding machine to work site and desired
work radius. The extension cable can be connected into longer lengths if
necessary.
355
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.01
356
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Primary extension cables
The Unitor power sources are delivered with a 2 or 3 meter primary cable. If
a longer primary cable is needed this is our recommendation for length and
dimension. Note that dimensioning of the cable does not only depend on cable
length but also the voltage on the mains.
Size
3 x 2,5 mm2 + G
3 x 4,0 mm2 + G
3 x 10 mm2 + G
Product no. per m.
195-526335
195-526343
195-526350
UWI-150TP
Conductor size230 V
380 V
440 V
2.5 mm # 45 m
–
–
# 60 m
–
–
380 V
440 V
2
4.0 mm2
2+G
UWI-203TP
Conductor size 230 V
1.5 mm –
# 30 m # 200 m
2.5 mm –
# 50 m
# 300 m
–
# 80 m
# 500 m
380 V
440 V
2
2
4.0 mm2
3+G
UWI-320TP
Conductor size 230 V
2.5 mm # 60 m
# 150 m # 200 m
# 100 m
# 250 m
# 350 m
2
4.0 mm2
3+G
4.01
UWI-500TP
Conductor size230 V
380 V
440 V
4.0 mm –
# 50 m
# 50 m
6.0 mm2
–
# 100 m
# 100 m
10.0 mm2
–
# 150 m
# 150 m
2
3+G
357
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Secondary cables
(welding and return cables)
The cross-section dimension of a welding cable must be compatible with both
the welding current which will be used and the total length of welding and
return cable which will be used in the welding circuit.
The first requirement is the maximum load the cable can carry without
overheating. The following maximum load ratings apply to neoprene insulated
welding cable at 25°C ambient temperature.
Cable Cross-
Section
Maximum welding current
at varying duty cycles
100%
60%
30%
35 mm2225A290A
410A
0,42
50 mm 285A
365A
520A
0,56
70 mm2
335A
460A
650A
0,78
95 mm 430A
560A
790A
1,03
2
2
Weight
kg per m.
As guideline, it should be noted that normal hand welding using coated stick
electrodes and TIG welding is carried out at a duty cycle (effective welding
time) of 30-40%, while wire welding and air carbon arc gouging may have a
duty cycle of up to 60%.
The maximum current values are based on the capacity of the cables alone.
However, the voltage drop in the cables will often be the decisive factor when
choosing the right cable size. The theoretical voltage drop in 100 meters copper
cable of four different cross sections is shown for increasing currents in the
following diagram:
4.01
358
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
It will be seen that the voltage drop in
100 meters 70 mm2 cable is 6 V at 250
A DC. When using longer lengths of
cable, the voltage drop will increase
proportionately, i.e. on a 200 meter
length of 70 mm2 cable, the voltage
drop will be 12 V at the same amper­
age. It should be noted that for AC
current, the voltage drop can be more
than double the value for DC current
due to inductive resistance, especially
when the welding cables lie across
a steel deck. When the voltage drop
is excessive, welding characteristics
suffer accordingly. How large a voltage
drop that can be tolerated will depend
on the type of welding machine and
type of electrode.
The following table shows the
theoretical cable lengths relevant to
the different cable cross-sections
and the different types of welding
machines based on the following
calculation:
Maximum allowed voltage drop for a
welding machine is
– the maximum output voltage at the
corresponding current
– minus the conventional load voltage
(IEC 60974-1).
The maximum length of welding
cable (total length from return cable
and electrode holder cable) for
this voltage drop is calculated as
followed:
Length < voltage drop/current ·
conductivity of copper (58) · cable
cross section
Current
Cable
cross-
Section
UWI-500 TP
150 A 35 mm 50 mm2
70 mm2
460 m298 m
176 m 64 m
657 m
425 m251 m 91 m
920 m
595 m
352 m
128 m
200 A
50 mm2
70 mm2
95 mm2
391 m255 m 97 m
548 m
357 m
136 m
740 m
300 A
50 mm2
174 m 77 m
70 mm2243 m
108 m
2
95 mm 330 m
400 A
70 mm2
95 mm2
2
Welding machine type
UWI-320 TP
UWI-203 TP
UWI-150
x)
x)
4.01
x) Bring machine to work site and use short electrode/ground cables only
Note:
By connecting two cables in parallel, the voltage drop can be halved and the
distance from machine to welding area thereby doubled.
359
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Unitor Welding Cable
Welding cables used on board,
on deck or in an engine room, are
exposed to both rough weather, oil
and mechanical wear. The welding_
cable supplied by Unitor has wear,
flame and oil-resistant insulation
on a polychloroprene rubber basis.
It is recognized by its marking at
regular intervals with the text “Unitor
oil resistant welding cable”, size of
cable, and the standard for welding
cable H01N2-D.
It may also be ordered in other
lengths, without connectors mounted.
Cable drum
The cable drum with crank and
floor stand is used for storage of up
to 100 m cable. The crank may be
disengaged to avoid accidents when
unwinding cable.
H01N2-D means that the cable
is produced to an international
harmonized standard.
The conductor is built up from 0.2 mm
diameter tinned copper strands to
ensure flexibility.
The cable is available in cross section
areas 35 mm2, 50 mm2 and 70 mm2,
and may be supplied in standard
lengths of 10 m, 20 m or 50 m, fitted
with Unitor Safety cable connectors.
Note that welding cables should
always be stretched out when used,
and excessive lengths should not be
used. A coiled up cable, whether on
a drum or in a coil on deck will act
as an electromagnet when welding
current is flowing. This will cause
increased resistance in the welding
circuit which may have negative
influence on the welding result. The
electromagnetic field created may
also influence vulnerable equipment
in the vicinity of the coil.
Cable size comparison
AWG
3
2
1
1/0
mm2
26.7
33.6
42.4
53.5
AWG
2/0
3/0
4/0
mm2
67.4
85.0
107.2
4.01
Ordering information
Cross section area
mm2
Product no.
Max Amp
at 60 % D/C
Weight
kg/m
Pr. meter
10m incl.20 m incl. 50 m incl.
connectors connectors connectors
35290
0,42
195-175836 195-175794 195-175786 195-175778
50
365
0,56
195-175844 195-175828 195-175810 195-175802
70
460
0,78
195-175851
95
560
1,03
195-655266
195-320010 195-183665
Cable drum for up to 100 m cable, order no.
360
195-175729
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holders, Cable connectors
and return clamp assemblies
Cable connectors and return clamps
are important – but often neglected
– parts of the welding current circuit.
The voltage drop in a poor or a
wrongly positioned return clamp
can be considerable, equal to many
meters of additional cable, and the
welding arc will suffer accordingly
(see section on voltage drop in
welding cable).
The Electrode holders
Unitor’s fully insulated electrode
holders are of the lever screw type
and feature an especially robust
and safe clamping arrangement for
the electrodes. The holders are of
strong and simple construction. There
are three types of electrode holder
available, the 200A, 400A and 600 A.
The return connection
The return connector must be
sufficiently dimensioned to provide
good contact for the welding current
load to be used. The positioning of the
return clamp determines how large a
part of the vessel or of the work piece
is to be utilized as part of the welding
current circuit. The return clamp
should always be placed as close as
possible to the welding area, or on
the work piece itself if this is not an
integral part of the hull. The thickness
of material between welding point
and return clamp must be sufficient
to carry the current load that is to be
used. Think carefully before fixing the
return clamp so that sensitive machine
parts such as ball bearings etc. are
not used as a bridge for welding
current.
The Cable connectors
Cable connectors must be insulated
in such a way that the danger of
handling or short-circuiting through
the deck is reduced to a minimum.
This applies both to connected and
unconnected parts. There should
be no possibility of short-circuiting
in connected plugs and sockets
attached to cables, even if they
should come into occasional contact
with salt water. There must be good
contact and little resistance at the
contact areas and at the welding
cable connections to the connectors.
Unitor Safety cable connectors meet
these requirements, more than 1400
mm2 contact area ensuring good
contact between plug and socket,
and when carefully assembled, the
connectors are as good as watertight
against spray and when decks are
sporadically washed. The connectors
may be used on cable dimensions
from 35 mm2 up to 95 mm2 and are
designed to accept up to 750 A
welding current.
Dix quick-action connectors are used
for front panel connections on the
welding machines. These provide
easy polarity changes, but are not
fully insulated and are therefore not
recommended as cable connectors
for cable extensions along open deck.
Adapters for connection to Unitor
Safety connectors are available.
4.01
361
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holder assemblies
Electrode holder assembly
200 A with Dix 25 connector
w/3 m cable 25 mm2
Product no. 196-627877
For use on UWI-150 and
UWW 161TP
Electrode holder assembly
200 A with Dix 70 connector
w/3 m cable 35 mm2
Product no. 196-627885
For use on UWI-200, -201, -202,
-203 TP
Electrode holder assembly
400 A with Dix 70 connector
w/3 m cable 50 mm2
Product no. 196-594325
For use on UWR-303, UWI-320 TP and
UWI-500 TP
4.01
Electrode holder assembly
400 A with Safety connector
w/3 m Super flexible cable 50 mm2
Product no. 196-522680
All electrode holder assemblies
are produced in accordance with
Standard 2006/95/EEG concerning
low voltage, and conform to CEI/IEC
60974-7: 2005-07
362
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Return Clamp Assemblies
Return clamp assembly
200 A with Dix 25 connector
w/3 m cable 25 mm2
Product no. 195-633164
For use on UWI-150 and UWW-161TP
Return clamp assembly
200 A with Dix 70 connector
w/3 m cable 35 mm2
Product no. 195-633172
For use on UWI-200, -201, -202, -203TP
Return clamp assembly
400 A with Dix 70 connector
w/3 m cable 50 mm2
Product no. 195-594317
For use on UWR-303, UWI-320TP and
UWI-500 TP
4.01
Return clamp assembly
400 A with Safety connector
w/3 m cable 50 mm2
Product no. 195-633180
For use with extension cables where
Safety connectors are used
363
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holders
Electrode holder Twisty 200 Amps.
For electrode dia. 1.6–3.2 mm.
Product no. 196-552497
Electrode holder Twisty 400 Amps.
For electrode dia. 1.6–5.0 mm
Product no. 196-513051
Electrode holder 600 Amps.
For electrode dia. 1.6–8.0 mm.
Product no. 196-511006
4.01
Electrode holders are produced in
accordance with Standard 2006/95/
EEG concerning low voltage, and
conform to EN 60974-11
364
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Return clamps
Return clamp 400 Amps.
Jaw opening 70 mm.
Product no. 195-653899
Return clamp 800 Amps.
Jaw opening 60 mm.
Product no. 195-175745
Return clamp 400 A. Grind off rust and
paint before connecting return clamp in
order to ensure optimal contact with the
workpiece
4.01
Place return clamp in direct contact with work piece. Use of the ships hull as return conductor is against regulations. Make sure to grind the connection surface free from paint
and rust before connecting the return clamp.
365
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Cable Connectors
Cable connector Dix 25 male/female
complete
230 A / 60 % Duty Cycle.
Cable size 10–25 mm2
Product no. 195-632885
Cable connector Dix 70 male/female
complete
460 A / 60 % Duty Cycle.
Cable size 35–70 mm2
Product no. 195-632893
Cable connector Dix 120 male/female
complete
650 A / 60 % Duty Cycle.
Cable size 90–120 mm2
Product no. 195-736744
Cable connector Safety male/female
complete
460 A / 60 % Duty Cycle.
Cable size 35–70 mm2
Product no. 195-513044
4.01
366
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Conversion assembly
Safety Dix 70 male, 2 pcs
70 mm2 cable 0,3 m long.
Product no. 195-634121
Triple connection Dix 70 male/male/female, 2 pcs
Product no. 195-632901
For parallel connecting 2xUWI-400 welding
machines
For stick welding or air carbon arc gouging
Adapter plug Dix 70/25, female70 – male 25, 2 pcs
Product no. 195-633073
This is how the Adapter Plug works:
SOLUTION:
PROBLEM:
DIX 25 female
DIX 70 male
Adapter plug DIX 70/25
4.01
Female 70
Male 25
367
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Accessories
Chipping hammer
The chipping hammer is used for the
removal of slag after arc welding. The
hammer is of robust construction and
well balanced.
Available in mild steel and stainless
steel.
Wire brush
A wire brush is used for cleaning the
welding surfaces, removal of slag, rust
etc. The brush is available with steel
or stainless steel bristles.
When working on stainless steel, a
brush with stainless steel bristles and
a chipping hammer made of stainless
steel must always be used.
Welding gauge
Correct groove preparation and
sufficient weld deposit is required
for a successful welded joint. The
welding gauge type “J” provides the
possibility to measure 60°, 70°, 80°
and 90° groove angles, for measuring
throat thickness (a-measure) up to 20
mm and reinforcement up to 10 mm.
4.01
Description:
Unit
Wire brush, steel, 2 rows, 6 pcs
Wire brush, stainless steel, 2 rows, 6 pcs
Chipping hammer, steel, 2 pcs
Chipping hammer, stainless steel,
pcs
Welding gauge type J,
pcs
368
Product no.
196-632976
196-632984
196-633008
196-632992
196-516161
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Welding Techniques
Having examined the necessary
equipment and studied the safety
precautions which must be carefully
followed, we shall now look at the
actual welding operation.
In order to obtain a good weld we
must ensure that the following points
are correct:
Surface welded at correct current value.
Current output too high, even, but coarsely
- The current
- The length of the arc
- The angle of the electrode
- Electrode travel
beaded surface.
Current
Settings
Current output is the most important
factor in arc welding, and this is
where most mistakes are made. It
is a good rule to use slightly more
current than required rather than risk
using too little. If the current output
is insufficient, fusing with the base
material will be unsatisfactory. Slag
may become embedded in the weld,
and other faults are likely to occur.
When current, electrode travel and
angle are correct, the molten pool
of the weld will proceed smoothly
and slag will form behind the pool.
Approximate current values are given
in the descriptions of the different
types of electrodes, and are also
shown on the electrode package
labels.
The table gives the ampere limits for the most
important electrode diameters, as well as rules of
thumb for calculating them. The values given are
only valid for unalloyed and low-alloy electrodes and
for the stated electrode lengths. For root-welding,
vertical-up and overhead welding the welder should
use the lower limit. For fillet-welding in horizontal and
flat positions and also for vertical-down welding, the
amperage is set near to the upper limit.
Welding surface appearance at
different current values:
Current value too low, uneven surface.
Diameter2.02.5
Length250/300
Amperage
40-80
3.25
4.0
350 350/450 350/450
5.0
6.0
450
450
50-100 90-150 120-200 180-270220-360
Length of arc
When arc welding with electrodes, it is important that
the arc be kept as short as possible in order to avoid
the formation of pores and to prevent slag becoming
embedded in the weld. A short arc prevents the
formation of molten slag ahead of the molten pool.
This is of particular importance when welding with
basic electrodes. The guiding rule is that the arc gap
should be equal to the diameter of the wire core of the
electrode.
4.01
369
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode angle
The electrode must be held at the
correct angle during the welding
operation. The illustration shows the
angles to be used when welding in the
horizontal welding position.
Electrode travel
Move the electrode at an even rate of
travel in the welding direction, with or
without weaving. Correct rate of travel
is important to achieve a good weld.
The illustration shows the faults that
can occur if the electrode is moved too
quickly or too slowly in a fillet weld.
80°
Arc gap
equal to
electrode
diameter
90°
RATE OF TRAVEL
TOO SLOW
RATE OF TRAVEL
TOO HIGH
Edge faults
Incorrect profile
Convex
Overlap
Poor fusion
Slag
4.01
When building up a flat surface, the
electrode should be held at an angle
of 60° and weaved gently from side to
side as the weld advances so that the
height of the deposited filler is about
1/3 of the width of each bead. When
starting the next parallel buildup run,
the tip of the electrode should overlap
the previous bead by about 1/3 of the
bead width. In this way an even
surface can be built up without high
spots or craters.
Correct
370
Incorrect
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Edge preparation
4.01
371
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
The complete Unitor range of maintenance electrodes for
shipboard use
Product name
4.01
Diameter
Product no.
095-699165
GPO-302 N2,5
3,2
095-699173
4,0
095-699181
Unalloyed steel
General applications
Easy to weld, all positions
including vertical down
GPR-300 H
Unalloyed steel
Large welds in
flat position
3,2
4,0
5,0
6,0
095-699231
095-699249
095-699256
095-699260
SPECIAL-303 N2,0
095-699199
2,5
095-699207
3,2
095-699215
4,0
095-699223
Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.
Thin plate material
General applications
Double coated electrode, easy to
weld.
LH-314 N2,5
3,2
4,0
095-699264
095-699272
095-699280
Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.
General applications
LHH-314 H
095-699298
095-699306
Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.
Large welds in flat position
4,0
5,0
LHV-316 N
3,2
095-699314
4,0
095-699322
Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.
Specially suitable for vertical down
welding
LHT-318 N2,5
095-699330
3,2
095-699348
High temp. steel
Boiler plates and pipes up to
550 dgr.C. Up to 1% Cr, 0,5% Mo
LHL-319 N2,5
3,2
Low temp. steel
Ice Class hull plates. Up to 2,7% Ni
095-683631
095-683649
LHR-320 N2,5
095-683656
3,2
095-699389
Weather resistant steel
Corrosion resistant to sea-water
and flue gases
18/8-321 N
1,6
2,5
3,2
Stainless steel
AISI 304/316 L. Tanks,
piping, pumps and valves
095-699397
095-699405
095-699413
23/14-322 N2,5
095-699421
3,2
095-699439
4,0
095-699447
372
Application onboard
Stainless steel
AISI 309. Joining stainless to steel.
Compound steel. Stainless steel
overlays.
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Product name
Diameter
DUPLEX -325 N2,5
3,2
Product no.
Application onboard
095-699454
095-699462
Duplex steel. Joining of duplex
to stainless and steel.
TENSILE-328 N2,5
096-699470
3,2
096-699488
Difficult to weld steel
Spring steel, vanadium steel, tool
steel, high carbon steel.
NIFE-334 N
3,2
096-699512
4,0
096-699520
Cast Iron
High strength. Many layers.
Joining cast iron to steel.
NICKEL-333 N2,5
3,2
Oily cast iron. Tolerant to high
Carbon content.
096-699496
096-699504
TINBRO-341
3,2
096-606458
Copper alloys Bronze and brass.
Joining copper alloys to steel.
ALBRONZE-344
3,2
096-606457
Bronze and brass. Joining copper
alloys to steel.
ALUMIN-351 N
3,2
096-699538
Aluminium Rolled, drawn and
castings
WEARMAX -3272,5
3,2
4,0
095-606454
095-606455
095-606456
Hard surfacing
Wear resistant overlays
Winchwheel pockets, cable drums.
IMPACT-329 S
3,2
096-606460
Hard surfacing
High temp.wear resistant overlays.
Exhaust valves.
CH-2-382
3,2
096-606459
Chamfering/Gauging Using standard
equipment.
ACA-384
6,3
096-758474
8,0
096-758466
15x5
096-758458
Chamfering/Gauging
Air carbon arc gouging.
Gouing and weld removal using
compressed air.
4.01
Tech sheets for all products under section Consumables.
373
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.01
374
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Air-Carbon-Arc Gouging
The air-carbon-arc process utilizes
the arc effect to melt the metal, which
is subsequently blown away by a
jet of compressed air. The method
is therefore also useful for cutting
stainless steel and other materials,
which are difficult to cut by the oxyacetylene method. The air carbon
arc process leaves a clean surface,
free from slag, and further surface
preparation is usually not necessary.
General uses include:
– Forming welding grooves.
– Cutting and perforating.
– Removal of defective welds.
– Removing defects on cast iron and
removing excess metal.
– Removing welding beads and burrs
from plating.
The equipment consists of a welding
power source suitable for air carbon
arc gouging, a special electrode holder
with air ducts, copper coated carbon
graphite electrodes, a compressed air
source (5-7 bar), cable and air hose.
The power source
In the Unitor range, model UWI500TP is a suitable power source
for air-arc cutting having the special
characteristic required for this
process.
Two welding machines may also be
connected together in parallel by
connecting the negative terminal
from both machines to ground at
the worksite. The cables from the
positive terminals are then lead to
the worksite and connected at the
electrode holder. For smaller jobs
using small size carbon electrodes,
model UWR-320TP may be used as
power source.
It is also possible to connect together
2 x UWI-320 TP and get 640 Amp for
bigger size carbon electrodes.
4.01
375
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
The electrode holder
A special jaw-type electrode holder is
used for air carbon arc gouging. The
jaws are fitted with nozzles, which
direct jets of compressed air parallel
with the electrode to the molten
pool. The holder is also equipped
with a cut-off valve for compressed
air. Compressed air supply 400–900
l/min at a pressure of approx. 5–7 bar.
The holder will accept round and flat
electrodes. It is supplied complete
with integrated compressed air
hose/welding cable, cable connectors
and a quick connector 30UPH for
compressed air.
General rules for air-carbon-arc
gouging
– Check that all screw connections
are properly tightened to minimize
any loss of effect.
– Clean the electrode jaws
occasionally with a steel brush to
ensure good contact. Blow out the
air line before connecting to the
holder to remove any condensation.
– Check the current and remember
that the high arc voltage will
usually require a higher than usual
setting on the amperage scale. If
amperage is too low, gouging will
be unsatisfactory.
– Check that the air supply is
switched on and the air-valve on
the holder is in the open position
before striking the arc.
– Keep the arc short, but avoid
touching the workpiece with
the electrode once gouging has
commenced.
– When gouging in the overhead
position, make sure that molten
metal does not fall directly on to the
electrode holder.
– When the equipment is in regular
use, dismantle and clean the valve
at least once a month and make
sure that the air passage is not
obstructed. Lubricate the 0-rings
with special valve grease.
– Set the air pressure at 5 to 7 bar.
– Check connections for correct
polarity.
4.01
– Fit the electrode in the holder so
that it protrudes approx. 150 mm
from the holder.
– When the electrode is moved from
right to left, the air outlets in the
electrode jaws must be positioned
on the right side of the electrode
so that the main stream of the
compressed air jet is lead beneath
the electrode.
376
Electrode holder for air carbon arc
gouging
ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging with safety cable
connector and air connector
Air hose
Length: 30 cm
Dia: 3/8”
Connector : 30UPH
Monocable with swivel
connection. Length 2,5 m.
Gouging torch
4.01
Welding cable with Cable connector.
Length: 30 cm. 70mm2
Product no
Description
196 528703
Max. Electrode size
Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging 600A with
safety cable connector and air connector
10 mm
196 740969
Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging 1600A with
DIX-120 cable connector and air connector
19 mm
195 634121
Conversium assembly
Safety Dix-70 male, 2 pcs
377
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.01
378
TIG WELDING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Tungsten electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
TIG torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Regulator & accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Preparing the torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Welding parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Rods and Flux for TIG welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
4.01
379
TIG WELDING
Introduction
The TIG welding process is in many
cases the only practical solution
to several necessary repair jobs
on board. The most frequently
used applications are welding of
aluminium-brass (Yorcalbro), Cunifer,
and stainless, heat resistant or acid
resistant steels, but the process
may be used with good results on all
weldable materials. Among the unique
advantages of using the argon gas
protected TIG arc as heat source for
welding are
• An easy-to-learn method which
may be used in all positions.
• A stable, intense and well directed
heat supply which ensures deep
penetration and small heat affected
zones.
• Clean, smooth welds of high quality,
with little need for finishing (no
slag).
The TIG Equipment
Unitor TIG equipment is easy and
uncomplicated to use. It may be used
with UWI-inverters with lift-start.
Apart from the welding machine,
a complete TIG-equipment consists of
a supply of argon gas with flow-meter,
TIG torch and an accessories kit.
4.02
380
UWI-161TP with trolly and a 10l
Argon cylinder is an excellent mobile
solution for TIG welding needs on board.
It will in addition do stick electrode
­welding of up to 3,2mm electrodes and
wire welding with or without shielding gas
and up to 1mm wire.
TIG WELDING
Basic principle
Onboard applications normally require
welding current up to max 150 ampere
direct current (DC).
The Unitor Welding Rectifiers and
inverters are well suited for TIG
welding. Remote control for welding
current should be used, as it is a
definite advantage to adjust current
during welding.
Tungsten electrode
Gas shield
Filler rod
Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding (also
called Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
GTAW) is a process that is primarily
used for high quality metals such as
stainless steel, Cunifer and York Albro.
It is also used on thin walled plates
and pipes up to 3 mm.
Heat is produced by an electric arc
that is struck between a Tungsten
electrode and the work piece. The
electrode tip is grinded to a point to
constrict the arc to a single spot on
the metal surface. The arc and the
electrode are shielded by an inert gas
(usually Argon) that also surrounds
the weld pool and prevents oxidation.
A welding rod is added to the pool to
produce a weld build-up. The welding
rod is normally made of a metal
similar to the metal being welded.
The Tungsten electrode will not melt
despite very high temperatures, but it
will be gradually be consumed during
ignition and to some extent during
actual work. This is referred to as
the burn-off rate. In time, it will be
necessary to regrind the electrode to
a point.
The TIG welding, basic principle.
All Unitor welding machines are supplied
with characteristics especially suited for
TlG.
4.02
Equipment set-up:
– Gas cylinder with supply to torch.
– Torch connected to negative polarity of
DC power source.
– Return clamp and return cable from
workpiece to positive polarity
381
TIG WELDING
Shielding gas
Shielding gas is necessary for the
TIG process. The gas which must
be chemically inactive (inert), has
several functions in the TIG process:
– To provide the atmosphere needed
for ionization, ensuring a stable arc
and suitable heat transfer.
– To protect the hot tungsten
electrode against the oxidizing
effect of the air.
– To protect the molten pool
against contamination and
oxidation from the air.
R510 regulator with flow meter in order to
adjust gas flow in l/min.
– To protect the hot end of the filler
metal rod from oxidation.
– To protect melt pool and electrode
during cooling after the arc is
broken.
Argon has proven to be the most
suitable gas for this purpose. It is a
colourless and odourless inert gas,
heavier than air, non-toxic and nonflammable. It is obtained from air
which contains approximately 1%
argon.
For the TIG process, a purity of 99,95%
is commonly used.
It is necessary to adjust the gas flow
and a regulator with flow-meter is
therefore needed.
4.02
Onboard a ship it is necessary to have
a flow-meter that functions correctly
also when positioned out of vertical.
The Unitor R510 gas flow regulator for
argon is specially designed for this
purpose and has a capacity of
0–32 l/min. Note that when welding
stainless steel it may also be
necessary to use backing gas to
protect the backside of the weld from
the oxidizing effect of the air.
382
Argon is supplied in 10 or 50 litres
200 bar gas cylinders.
A separate gas supply (cylinder,
regulator and hoses) should be used
for this purpose.
TIG WELDING
Shielding gas
ARGON Ar
For use on:
Argon is a colourless, odourless gas,
slightly heavier than air. It is nontoxic and non-combustible. Argon is
an inert gas used as a shielding gas
for TIG and MIG welding, primarily
to protect the molten pool against
contaminants in the atmosphere.
Steel
Stainless steel
Aluminium
Yorcalbro
Cunifer
Cylinder data
Cylinder type:
E-10
E-50
715-905565
715-905174
Product No:
Application
Welding
Welding
Colour
Grey
Grey
Water capacity I
10
50
Gas capacity kg
3.6
18
Gas capacity nM32.2
11
Filling pressure bar200200
Empty weight kg appr.
18
81
Gross weight kg appr.22
99
Overall length mm appr.
1000
1690
Outside diameter mm
140230
Valve outlet connection
W24,32mm x1/14”
W24,32mm x1/14”
Valve type
Forged brass with bursting disc, inlet filter and
positive pressure cartridge
1 nM3 = 1.637 kg.
1kg =0.611 nM3
1 bar = 14.5 psi
1 M3=35.3ft3
1kg = 2.2 lbs
4.02
383
TIG WELDING
Tungsten electrodes
Thoriated TIG welding electrodes with
2 % thorium oxide (colour code red)
are currently the most widely used
electrodes worldwide. Thorium is
however a radioactive element and
as such represents a potential danger
to health and environment. Thorium
is a so-called “a-emitter,” but when
enclosed in a tungsten matrix, the
“a” radiation emitted externally is
negligible. The danger to the welder
arises when thorium oxide gets into
the respiratory canals.
The new electrodes offer:
This problem can occur during
welding (vapours) as well as when
grinding the electrode tip (grinding
dust). In the near future, more
stringent legal regulations regarding
production, use and disposal of
thoriated electrodes are expected.
It is expected that TlG-welding
electrodes containing thorium will
disappear from the market in the
foreseeable future, especially as
an environmentally friendly and
technically better solution is already
available.
Standardised in national and
international norms (ISO 6848, EN
26848, AWS A5.12, JlS Z3233)
Unitor tungsten electrodes is alloyed
with Lanthanum (colour code gold)
and is sold in sturdy boxes of 10 pcs.
4.02
Description
Tungsten electrodes 1.6 mm.
Tungsten electrodes 2.4 mm.
384
Unit
10 pcs
10 pcs
Product no.
197-674710
197-674736
• Environmentally friendly-no
radioactive constituents
• Can be transported, stored
and disposed of without legal
restrictions
• Suitable for welding all materials
• Better ignition performance than
thorium alloyed type electrodes
• Low burn off rate, longer service
life
TIG WELDING
Overview of Tungsten electrodes
CODE
OXIDE ADDITIVES
Wt.%
COLOUR CODE
REMARKS
WL10
WL15
WL20
0.90-1.20 La203
1.5 La203 1.80-2.20 La203
Black
Gold
Blue
Lanthanum
AC and DC
WC20
1.80-2.20 Ce02
Grey
Cerium DC low current
Green
Pure Tungsten AC only
WP
White
Zirconium AC only
WT10
0.90-1.20 Th02
WT20
1.80-2.20 Th02
WT302.80-3.20 Th02
WT40
3.80-4.20 Th02
Yellow
Red
Purple
Orange
Thorium
DC only
WS
Turquoise
AC and DC low current
WZ8
0.70-0.90 Zr02
Rare earths
Correct Grinding of Tungsten electrodes for DC welding
The angle of grinding depends on the welding current. If the electrode has
too long a point compared to the welding current, the point will melt and
contaminate the weld with tungsten deposit. Too short a point, give an unstable
arc and insufficient heat consentration.
Grinding must be done length
wise, straight towards the
point. Wrong grinding will
result in an unstable arc
and that bits of tungsten will
brake off and fall into the
weld deposit during welding.
Wrong grinding
x
xx x
4.02
15–20°
Correct grinding
orrect Out of Too short Too long
C
point centre a point a point
385
TIG WELDING
TIG TORCH
General description
The Unitor TIG torches are lightweight
torches well adapted to general
applications onboard. To ensure full
electrical insulation, the head of the
torch is produced with a resilient,
high-temperature non-conductive
silicone coating.
ceramic cups, which are recognized
by a light brown color. Note that TIG
gas nozzles are brittle and may break
if dropped or treated carelessly.
A remote amperage control can be
fixed on the TIG torch by velcro straps
in order to adjust amperage during
welding.
The replaceable heat-shield (3) in
front of the torch head is made from
teflon and has the combined function
of forming a gas tight seal for the
alumina nozzle (6) and of deflecting
heat from the torch head.
The torches are rated at 150A and
200A at 60% duty cycle. Cable and
gas hose are protected by a heat and
spatter resistant sheeting to ensure
long working life. The handle ensures
a secure grip and reduces heat
transfer to the welder’s hand. A screw
type gas valve opens fully at only 3/4
turn, switches the gas on and off.
Being gas cooled, the torches have
low weight and are easy to operate
for repair and maintenance work
in all positions. Used with the short
back cap (1), the total length of the
head, including nozzle, is less than 10
cm, ensuring accessibility in narrow
spaces.
4.02
386
The torches are supplied with 4
m cable/hose package. Separate
welding cable and gas hose (8)
ensure that extensions may be easily
connected. The gas connection
fits directly onto the Unitor argon
regulator or to the standard right
hand threaded screw couplings for
gas hoses. As standard, Unitor is
supplying nozzles of aluminium oxide
(AL203), recognizable by the pink
colour. These nozzles will stand for
higher temperatures than the ordinary
Accessories
The torches are supplied complete
for use, but the accessories kit
is recommended as it contains
necessary spares.
TIG WELDING
Parts list and order numbers
2
1
4
3
5
6
8
7
Pos. no. Product no Unit
–
197-150000 pcs
–
197-160010 pcs
–
197-200000 pcs
–
197-607810 pcs
Spares
1
197-551192 pcs
2
197-551200 pcs
197-551143 pcs
3
4
197-551168 pcs
4
197-551150 pcs
5
197-551184 pcs
5
197-551176 pcs
6
197-551135 pcs
6
197-551127 pcs
7
197-674710 pck
7
197-674736 pck
Description
TIG-torch T-150 complete with DIX 25 incI.
electrode and nozzle, for UWI-150TP.
TIG-torch T-161 with 4 m cable, euro-connector and torch mounted
trigger for UWW-161TP
TIG-torch T-200 complete with DIX 70, incI.
electrode and nozzle, for UWI-200, -201, -202, -203TP, -320TP, -400 and 500TP
Accessories kit for Unitor TIG-torches, including short back cap.
spare heatshield, collets, collet bodies, nozzles and electrodes.
Short back-cap
Long back-cap
Heat shield
Collet 1.6mm
Collet 2.4mm
Collet body 1.6 mm
CoIlet body 2.4 mm
Alumina nozzle 6
Alumina nozzle 7
Tungsten electrode (10 pcs) 1.6 mm alloyed for DC welding
Tungsten electrode (10 pcs) 2.4 mm alloyed for DC welding
4.02
Accessories kit consists of:
Short back cap 1 pcs
Heat-shield 1 pcs
ColIet 1.6mm 3 pcs
CoIlet 2.4mm 3 pcs
Collet body 1.6 mm 1 pcs
Collet body 2.4mm 1 pcs
Alumina nozzle 6 2 pcs
Alumina nozzle 7 2 pcs
Tungsten electrodes 1.6 mm alloyed for DC TIG welding 3 pcs
Tungsten electrodes 2.4 mm alloyed for DC TIG welding 3 pcs
Accessories kit for
TIG-torches.
387
TIG WELDING
Remote control set-up
UWI-320TP and UWI-500TP
TIG torch T-200 complete with DIX 70
4.02
197-200000
Remot amp control 8 m
191-670414
Temote amp control cable extension 25 m
191-670422
UWI-150TP
TIG torch T-150 complete with DIX 25
197-150000
Remote amp control 3 m
191-150151
The remote controls may also be used for stick electrode welding
388
TIG WELDING
Regulator & Accessories
The R510 regulator with flow meter
supply a steadly stream of shielding
gas to the torch. The flow rate in l/min
is adjusted on the regulator
Actual gas flow at the TIG or wire
torch may deviate from what is set
on the gas outlet station or on the
cylinder regulator, especially if long
gas hoses are used. The Flowcontrol
meter measures actual flow at the
torch nozzle and is a useful tool for
the operator. Combined with the
Flowcontrol needle valve used at
the gas inlet of the machine or the
wire feeder full flow adjustment is
available at the work place regardless
of distance to the gas cylinder/gas
outlet.
Also recommended are soft-skin
TIG welding gloves. They give good
protection of the hands while they
ensure easy control of the torch and
eventual welding rod. In addition
standard protective equipment for arc
welding should be used.
Product description
Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min
Gas hose 1/4" black, for shielding gases
Hose joint for 1/4" hose, 3/8" RH threads
Clip 8-14 mm for hose, 10 pcs
Quick coupling Argon, regulator to 6,3mm hose
Quick coupling Argon, hose to hose, 6,3mm
Unit
pcs
mtr
pcs
pck
pcs
pcs
Product no
197-510010
176-576157
176-175596
401-729442
197-320202
197-320201
Spare parts for regulator:
Flow meter gauge for Argon 0-32 L/min
Contents gauge for regulator
Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle
Flowcontrol needle valve for use with machine/
TIG Gloves for TIG and Gas welding
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
6 pairs
171-550210
171-550178
197-597328
197-597310
197-632795
4.02
389
4.02
390
197-200000
197-670414
197-200000
UWI-320 TP
UWI-500 TP
191-670414
N.A.
197-200000
UWI-203 TP
191-719575
N.A.
197-150000
UWW-161 TP 197-160010
UWI-150 TP
Flow contr.
needle
valve pcs.
Pr. Pcs.
Flow contr.
meter at
Nozzle pcs.
Pr. Pcs.
197-607810 197-510010 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 196-632794 197-597310 197-597328
Welding TIG Torch
Remote Acces. KIT Ar. Regl.
Gas hose Hose Joint Hose Clip, TIG Machine
Pr. Pcs.
Control
Pr. Pcs.
Pr. Pcs.
Pr. m
Pr. Pcs.
pck of 10
gloves
Pr. Pcs.
6 pairs
TIG Equipment & Accessories for Unitor Welding Machine Range
TIG WELDING
TIG WELDING
Preparing the torch
Always disconnect the torch from
the power supply before changing
nozzles or adjusting the electrode.
This is easily done, by disconnecting
the Dix Connector at the end of the
torch cable.
Ensure that correct and unharmed
nozzle, heat shield, collet body, collet
and electrode are used.
If the welding current is to be 100A
or lower, the small nozzle 6 (ø 9mm)
should be used, together with the 1.6
mm (1/16”) electrode, collet and collet
body.
For welding above 100A it is
recommended to use the large
nozzle 7 (ø 11mm) and 2,4 mm (3/32”)
electrode, collet and collet body.
Check if the work at hand makes it
necessary to use the short back cap.
Ensure that collet body, nozzle, and
back cap are properly tightened, and
that the electrode is properly pointed.
The electrode shall protrude 3-6mm
outside the gas nozzle.
6
3–
mm
Check electrode protrusion
Connection to Gas Supply
Connect the gas hose to the
argon regulator, and make sure all
connections are properly tightened.
Open gas cylinder valve fully, open
torch valve 3/4 turn and adjust the
regulator to a flow of 9-10 I/mm.
Let the gas flow a few minutes
so that the whole gas system is
thoroughly purged, with inert gas.
This will prevent contamination of the
welds. Then set correct flow for the
job at hand and close the torch valve.
For flow setting see table on welding
parameters.
If additional gas supply for backing
gas is needed, this should be taken
from a separate gas supply. By taking
backing gas from the same regulator
that supplies the torch, it will be
impossible to adjust to correct gas
flow for the torch.
Connection to Welding Machine
Two-thirds of the total heat
developed in the TIG arc is developed
on the positive side of the arc, which
is bombarded by the electron flow.
The TIG torch must therefore always
be connected to the negative pole
of the welding machine (straight
polarity). If connected wrong, the
tungsten electrode tip will melt, and
the nozzle and torch head may be
damaged.
The return clamp should preferably
be fastened directly to the work
piece, and the return cable shall be
connected to the welding rectifier’s
plus pole.
4.02
If available, connect the remote
control to the welding machine and
have the current regulator available
at the work site. For current setting
see table on welding parameters.
391
TIG WELDING
Welding Parameters
It is necessary to decide approximate range of welding current needed for the
job at hand to select correct electrode, nozzle and gas flow setting.
The material thicknesses given in the table below for the different current
ranges are indicative. Actual current needed to form a proper molten pool will
also partly depend on the size of the workpiece, the type of joint, and the
amount of preheating used.
4.02
392
Material thickness
Steels and Stainless steels
<1.5mm
1.5 - 2.5mm2.5 - 4mm
>4mm
Material thickness
Copper alloys
<1.0mm
1.0-1.5mm
1.5-2.5mm
>2.5mm
Welding current,
DC, electrode-20-70A
50-120A
100-180A
150-250A
Gas flow,
pure argon
6 l/min
7 l/min
8 l/min
9 l/min
Electrode
point angle
35°
45°
60°
60°
Collet size,
diameter of electrode
1.6mm-1/16”
1.6mm-1/16”2.4mm-3/32”2.4mm-3/32”
Collet body, size
diameter of opening
1.6mm-1/16”
1.6mm-1/16”2.4mm-3/32”2.4mm-3/32”
Nozzle number and
diameter of opening
no.6 (9mm)
no.6 (9mm)
Tungsten
electrode size
1.6mm-1/16”
1.6mm-1/16”2.4mm-3/32”2.4mm-3/32”
no.7 (11mm)
no.7 (11mm)
TIG WELDING
Welding Techniques
Before welding starts, check that the
torch is connected to the negative
(-) polarity of a DC constant current
power source, and that sufficient gas is
available from the gas supply. Open the
argon cylinder valve and the torch valve.
If necessary, purge the gas system
before setting correct gas flow on the
regulator.
Striking the Arc
Check that the electrode is properly
pointed and protrudes 3-6mm
from the nozzle. Do not touch the
electrode unless the DIX connector is
disconnected. If current remote control
is available, adjust to low or minimum
current.
Ensure that the gas valve is fully open,
(3/4 turn from closed). Place the gas
nozzle in a tilted angle on the ignition
location so that there is a gap of 2-3
mm between the tungsten electrode
tip and the workpiece. Gradually tilt up
the welding torch until the tungsten
electrode tip touches the workpiece.
This will trigger the lift arc function.
Raise the torch and lift it into the normal
position- the arc ignites and increase in
intensity to the set amperage.
Note: To be absolutely certain that
contamination is avoided the arc may
be started on a copper plate placed on
the workpiece, and then moved to the
beginning of the bead.
Connect the equipment and purge the gas
system. Check electrode and electrode
stick-out.
The lift arc function
2–3 mm
Place nozzle on location.
Gradualy tilt up.
4.02
Adjust welding current to correct setting
and hold the arc steady until a molten
pool is formed.
Raise the torch
393
TIG WELDING
Welding
TIG welding can be carried out in all
welding positions and the procedure
is largely similar to the gas welding
forehand welding technique. Vertical
welding is normally done upwards.
Keep an arc length of approximately
3–6mm. Note that a longer arc will
increase the heat input and a shorter
arc will reduce it, contrary to what
happens in gas welding. If welding
current remote control is used, the
heat input may be adjusted through
the whole process by adjusting the
current. Hold the torch at an angle of
approximately 75° to the workpiece. The
arc may be used just to melt the edges
of the joint together, or additional filler
material may be used.
30°
Welding with the forehand technique.
Use of Filler Material
Introduce the rod to the molten pool,
but in such a way that it does not touch
the electrode or enter the arc between
electrode tip and workpiece. Filler
material may be added continuously or
in a slightly dipping motion. The hot end
of the rod shall be kept close to the melt
pool and protected by the argon gas to
avoid oxidation, which will contaminate
the weld. Hold the rod at an angle of
approximately 30° to the workpiece.
Vertical welding upwards with the
forehand technique.
Finishing the Bead
4.02
Remove the welding rod from the pool.
Adjust welding current to minimum and
rapidly lift the torch so the arc is broken.
Lower the torch again to approximately
5mm distance from electrode tip to
bead, and keep it in place for 15 to 20
seconds with the gas flowing to protect
the molten pool and the electrode during
the cooling-off period.
Finishing the bead.
394
TIG WELDING
Contaminated Tungsten Electrode
The tungsten electrode may be
contaminated through contact with the
molten pool or the filler metal rod.
It will also be contaminated (by
oxidation) if the shielding gas supply is
not opened before the arc is struck, or if
the gas is shut off before the electrode
has cooled down to below red glowing
temperature.
– That air does not enter into the gas
hose.
– That wind or draft does not blow
away the shielding gas.
– That the argon supply is not
contaminated (try changing to fresh
cylinder).
If there is little contamination the
electrode may be cleaned by striking
an arc against a copper plate and
letting it burn for a few seconds.
Remember gas supply.
If the electrode is heavily
contaminated the welding current
supply must be disconnected,
the electrode removed and the
contaminated part broken off. The
electrode must be reground to the
correct point and replaced in the
torch.
Contaminated Weld Pool
Clean the electrode by striking an arc
against a copper plate.
This can be caused by insufficient
or excessive supply of argon to
the torch, by polluted argon, by
insufficient cleaning of the weld area
or of the filler rod, or by the electrode
being polluted.
Check the following:
– That the gas hose has been
properly purged.
– That the gas flow has been
correctly set.
– That the electrode is held at the
correct angle.
– That the gas nozzle is not defective
or polluted.
– That the correct size gas nozzle is
being used.
– That welding groove and filler rod
are clean.
4.02
Strong draft may blow away the
argon shield, resulting in contaminated
weld deposit.
395
TIG WELDING
Edge preparation
Stainless steel
Material
thickness
mm
Horizontal
Vertical
Overhead
125–6023–5522–54
Tungsten
electrode
mm ø
1.6
60
55
54
1.6
40
37
36
1.6
55
51
50
1.6
2
80–110
75–100
70–100
1.6
110
100
100
1.6
80
75
70
1.6
105
98
952.4
120–200
110–185
130
120
1152.4
110
100
100
125
115
1102.4
120–200
110–185
185
170
1652.4
180
165
1602.4
396
Welding current A
4.02
Type of
joint
3
4
110–1802.4
1.6
110–1802.4
TIG WELDING
Edge preparation
Copper alloys (Cunifer, Yorcalbro)
Material
thickness
mm
Type of
joint
1
Welding
current,
Horizontal
Tungsten
electrode
mm ø
90–100
1.6
100–115 1.6
100–115
1.6
2
115–130
1.6
3
170–2002.4
190–220 2.4
190–220 2.4
NB: When welding
Stainless steel and
Cunifer, backing gas
must be used inside
piping.
In order to avoid surface oxidation, pipes of stainless steel must be purged with
inert gas sufficiently to remove all oxygen inside the pipe in the weld area. The
usual way to achieve this is to seal off a small length of the pipe on each side of
the weld groove. This restricted volume is then purged with a suitable inert gas,
sufficiently to remove all oxygen.
The ideal concentration of oxygen is below 25 ppm, as this is insufficient to
oxidize stainless steel.
Backing gas tool for
larger pipe dia.
Gas in
Backing gas tool for
small dia. pipe
Gas in
Gas out
4.02
Out trough
free opening
The most common gas to use is Argon or Formier gas (90% N2 and 10% H2)
397
TIG WELDING
Rods and Flux for TIG welding
Welding rods
Product
4.02
Product no.
Description
IMS-210
097-604850
2.0 mm
ICROMO-216
097-305532
2.5 mm
Unitor IMS is a welding rod for unalloyed and low alloyed steels.
Rods with diameter 2.0mm are most used for TIG welding.
lcromo is a chromium-molybdenum alloyed welding rod for heat
resistant steels types 10 Cr Mo-910 and 13 Mo-44 found in boiler
tubes and other heat resistant components. Gas or tensile
strength 560 Mpa.
18/8 Mo-221
097-602979
2.0 mm
18/8 Mo is a wire for welding stainless and acid resistant steel.
The silisium content of the wire ensures smooth transfer and
good profile of the bead. Application areas are similar to the
coated electrode 18/8-321 N in 1.7 mm, but with the advantages
TIG can offer. When welding very thin sheets and pipes
(less than 2mm) it is always an advantage to use the TIG process.
This is also an advantage for the root bead when welding thicker
sheets with prepared V-grooves.
IDUPLEX-222
097-725309
2.0 mm
Iduplex-222 is at TIG rod for welding Duplex stainless steel,
Duplex to Mild steel and Duplex to Stainless steel. The deposit
offers elevated mechanical strength and toughness reistance
to stress corrosion cracking. It is an advantage to use TIG
welding in thin sheets and pipe walls. Can also be used for
welding the root run in thick wall piping where the rest of the
groove is filled up using the duplex electrode Duplex-325 N.
ICUNI-30-239
097-335547
2.5 mm
A welding rod for TIG welding of copper nickel alloys, for
example Cunifer pipes. No flux is used in this process. Typical
applications are welding flanges on pipes, pipe joints, patching
leaking pipes etc. Joint surfaces and adjacent areas must be
thoroughly cleaned before welding. Small diameter Cunifer pipes
can be joined by means of overlap joints (capillary action) using
AG-60 silver solder combined with AG-60 Flux.
IALBRO-237 MF 097-519736
2.4 mm
IALBRO is a flux-coated filler rod for TIG welding of aluminiumbrass pipes (Yorcalbro). This type of alloy is widely used in
seawater resistant piping. In TIG welding of joints it is strongly
recommended that I-Flux 238 be applied to both sides of the joint
on the inside. Yorcalbro pipes with a diameter less than 4” which
can be joined by means of an overlap joint (capillary action) may
be silver brazed using AG-60 combined with Albro Flux.
Flux
IFLUX-238 PF
097-603092
Unitor flux is supplied in paste form for use with the TIG rod
Ialbro-237 MF for welding of Yorcalbro. The flux is
complementary to the flux found in the serrations of the lalbro
TIG rod. While the flux on the rod is sufficient for the actual
welding zone, it is strongly recommended to use additional IFLUX
on both sides of the joint, especially on the inside of e.g. pipes.
This will improve bonding and penetration. Flux residues must be
washed off with water after welding. IFLUX is supplied in 250
gram tins.
Tech sheets for all above products under section Consumables.
398
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.02
399
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.02
400
WIRE WELDING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
UWW-161 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
UWF-102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Regulator & accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Application areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Preparation for welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Wires for wire welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
4.03
401
WIRE WELDING
Introduction
The advantages of wire welding are:
In Wire Welding a wire from a reel is
fed through a welding torch passing
a contact tip supplying the welding
current. The wire melts and is
transferred to the pool through the
arc that is shielded by a gas. The
shielding gas is necessary to prevent
oxygen from the air oxidising the pool.
•Increased deposition rate (Weight of
weld deposited per hour).
•Increased operating factor (The time
that the welder actually is welding).
The gas has the same function as the
coating on an electrode producing a
smoke shield.
Cylinder with shielding gas
Wire spool
Wire feeder
Welding Torch
Power source
4.03
402
WIRE WELDING
Basic principle
The process can roughly be divided
into two distinctive methods
depending on the wire being fed.
GMAW – Gas metal arc welding and
FCAW – Flux cored arc welding.
GMAW – Gas metal arc welding
uses a solid wire. Depending on
shielding gas the process can
further be divided into:
Solid wire
MIG welding (Metal Inert Gas)
and MAG welding (Metal Active Gas).
In MAG welding we use a reactive
gas like Carbon Dioxide (CO2) to shield
the pool. Carbon Dioxide is suitable
for arc shielding when welding low
carbon and low-alloy steel.
In MIG welding we use inert gases
like Argon. Pure inert gas shielding
is essential for welding alloys of
aluminium, magnesium, copper,
titanium, stainless steel, nickel alloys
and highly alloyed steel.
Gas mixtures of inert gases and
reactive gases (Argon + CO2) are
regarded as MIG welding.
Metal transfer with the GMAW
process is by one of two methods:
Spray Arc or Short Circuiting Arc
Flux
Tubular wire
Flux tubular wire.
Wire drive rolls
Continuous
wire
Copper Contact
tip
Nitrogen & Oxygen
In Atmosphere
Shield Gas
Concentric Gas
Nozzle
Protective Gas Umbrella
4.03
403
WIRE WELDING
Spray-Arc
The spray-Arc is recognized by a
relatively intense arc between the
welding wire and the work piece.
The metal transfer is in the form of
a continuous spray of molten metal
droplets from the wire tip through the
arc to the surface of the melted pool.
The arc is almost spatter free and
provides deep penetration in the base
material. The deposit rate is high,
and this arc type is recommended for
material thickness above 3 mm.
To obtain a spray-arc it is necessary
to have welding current above a
certain minimum value, the transition
current. This current level depends
on the shielding gas, (consisting
of minimum 80% Argon or Helium),
the alloy and the size of the welding
wire. As a guideline a 0.8 mm solid
steel wire will provide a spray arc
if the welding current is above
approximately 150 Ampere. At
currents below this level the steady
spray will consist of gradually larger
droplets until a spray no longer can
be maintained, and the short-arc is
established.
Short Arc
is also called short circuit transfer.
No metal is transferred through the
arc with this technique, but is instead
Spray-arc welding
transferred through rapid short
circuits between wire and work piece.
The wire touches the work piece
and the welding current increases
immediately, melting of a drop of filler
material. As this drop is melted off the
arc is re-established, heating wire
tip and base material until the wire
feed speed again pushes the wire into
contact with the work piece.
This sequence repeats itself
continuously approximately 100 times
per second, providing a concentrated
arc with low heat input to the work
piece and rapidly solidifying deposit.
The short-arc method is therefore
excellently suited for sheet metal
welding, and also for bridging large
gaps in poorly aligned joints. The
rapidly solidifying deposit also makes
short-arc welding easy in any welding
position.
4.03
Short circuiting (short arc welding)
404
WIRE WELDING
In flux cored arc welding the heat
is obtained from an arc between a
continuous flux cored wire and the
work. The flux provides gas shielding
for the arc and a slag covering of the
weld deposit.
means of making electrical
contact with the core wire and
coiling it without cracking the brittle
coating. The need for a continuous
arc welding electrode led to the
development of the self shielding
flux cored wire where the material
needed for shielding is contained
inside the core of a hollow wire.
The self-shielded flux-cored arc
welding process is a development
from the shielded metal arc welding.
The versatility and maneuverability
of stick electrodes in manual welding
stimulated efforts to mechanize the
process allowing a continuous wire
electrode to be used. A continuous
electrode would eliminate the welding
time lost in changing electrodes and
would eliminate the material lost in
electrode stubs. The main problem
with a continuous coated
electrode is to find suitable
The "inside-out" construction of the
flux cored wire solved both problems.
Continuous electrical contact can be
made with the wires at any distance
from the arc and they can be coiled
and packaged on any of the standard
spools used for filler wire. The
outcome of these efforts was the
development of the semiautomatic
and full-automatic processes for
welding with continuous flux-cored
tubular "wires". Such wires contain in
their cores the ingredients for fluxing
and deoxidizing molten metal and
Flux Cored Arc Welding
(FCAW) Self-Shielded.
The arc:
4.03
405
WIRE WELDING
for generating shielding gases and
vapors and slag coverings.
In essence, semiautomatic welding
with flux-cored wires is equivalent to
manual shielded metal-arc welding
with an electrode several feet long
instead of one of a few inches. By
the press of the trigger completing the
welding circuit, the operator activates
the mechanism that feeds the wire
to the arc. He uses a welding gun
instead of an electrode holder, but it
is correspondingly light in weight and
easy to maneuver. The only difference
being the weld metal of the electrode
surrounding the shielding and
fluxing chemicals, rather than being
surrounded by them.
In the flux-core arc welding process,
partial shielding is provided by
vaporization of ingredients of the flux,
which form a protective gas covering
of the weld pool. When molten weld
metal is transferred across the arc,
it may not be completely covered by
molten flux since the metal surrounds
the flux, as both are heated. This
means that some oxidation and
nitrogen pickup may occur before the
metal enters the weld pool. However,
as opposed to the gas-shielded flux
cored process, the self-shielded
4.03
406
Knurled wire feeder
rolls to be used
flux-cored process does not depend
on gas shielding, it can operate
satisfactorily outdoors where strong
air currents are encountered.
The self-shielded flux cored process is
characterized by long wire extension
beyond the contact tip (stickout).
Extensions from 6 mm to 30 mm are
used depending upon the application.
Welding equipment for Gas Metal
Arc Welding (GMAW) can in most
cases also be used for Self Shielded
Flux Cored Arc Welding with small
modifications (wire feeder rolls should
be knurled, insulation nozzle instead
of gas nozzle etc.). Also note that selfshielded flux cored arc welding takes
place with welding torch connected to
minus (-) polarity.
Wires for self-shielded flux cored
arc welding are available in standard
sizes from 1 mm to 4 mm in mild steel
and in some low alloy steel.
WIRE WELDING
Flux Cored Arc Welding
(FCAW) Gasshielded.
The gas-shielded flux-cored process
may be looked upon as a hybrid
between self-shielded flux-cored arc
welding and gas metal-arc welding.
Tubular electrode wire is used as
in the self-shielded process, but
the ingredients in its core are for
fluxing, deoxidizing, scavenging, and
sometimes alloying additions, rather
than for the generation of protective
vapours. In this respect, the process
has similarities to the self-shielded
flux-cored wire process, and the
tubular wires are classified by the
AWS along with wires used in the
self-shielded process. On the other
hand, the process is similar to gas
metal-arc welding in as much as a
gas is separately applied to act as an
arc shield.
The guns and welding heads for
semiautomatic and full-automatic
welding with the gas-shielded
processes are out of necessity more
complex than those used in selfshielded flux-cored welding. Space
passages must be included for the
flow of gases. If the gun is watercooled, additional space is required.
The wire feeder and power source is
similar to the equipment used with the
self-shielded flux-cored wire process,
and gas metal arc welding with only
small modifications (wire feed rolls
should be knurled). Note that the
welding gun should be connected to
the positive terminal (+).
Although CO2 is generally used as
the shielding gas, mixtures of 20%
CO2 -80% Argon and 95% Argon - 5%
Oxygen, may also be used.
The gas-shielded flux-cored process
is used for welding mild steel, lowalloy steels and stainless steel. It
gives high deposition rates, high
deposition efficiencies, and high
operating factors. Radiographic
quality welds are easily produced,
and the weld metal with mild and
low-alloy steels has good ductility and
toughness. The process is adaptable
to a wide variety of joints and gives
the capability for all-position welding.
The arc:
Contact Tip
Solidified Slag
Nozzle
Flux Core Wire
4.03
Arc
Solidified Weld Metal
Base Material
Gas shielding
from cylinder
407
WIRE WELDING
Maintaining the arc.
The basic principle of all arc welding
is that an electric arc melts the
surface of the work piece (joint), and
whatever filler material introduced
into the melt pool. In processes where
the arc is established between a filler
material which is continuously fed
into the arc, and the work piece, the
arc length and thereby the arc voltage
must be kept at a constant value to
obtain a uniform weld. This can be
obtained in two ways:
1. By adjusting the filler material feed
speed to exactly the same speed as
it melts.
2. By adjusting the amperage to
exactly the value needed to melt
the quantity of filler material. When
welding with coated electrodes
(SMAW) the welder's task is to feed
the electrode according to alternative
1, while the power source provides
constant current.
used, it will supply relatively constant
current regardless of arc length.
Alternative 2 above is therefore not
applicable. A wire feeder, which
automatically adjusts the filler material
feed speed (alternative 1 above) is
therefore required.
The combination of such a wire feeder
and a constant current power source
is a fully acceptable solution when
welding in the spray-arc area, and
especially when flux cored wires are
used. It is not, however, possible to
use such a combination if welding in
the short-arc area is required, as the
mechanical adjustment of feed speed
will be to slow to maintain a proper
short-arc.
Constant voltage power source.
To maintain a proper short-arc
requires the combination of a constant
voltage power source and a constant
speed wire feeder. The constant
In GMAW welding both parameters
voltage characteristic of the power
are guided by the equipment, thereby
source will automatically maintain the
demanding less from the welder's skill
arc length by adjusting the amperage
but more from the equipment.
according to need, once the arc
voltage and thereby the arc length has
been selected. The constant voltage
Constant current power source
characteristic is also suitable for
If a traditional power source with
spray-arc welding, but cannot be used
constant current characteristic is
for any other arc welding processes.
4.03
408
WIRE WELDING
Shielding gas
ARGON Ar
Cylinder data
Argon is a colourless,
odourless gas, slightly
heavier than air. It is nontoxic and non-combustible.
Argon is an inert gas used
as a shielding gas for TIG
and MIG welding, primarily
to protect the molten pool
against contaminants in the
atmosphere.
Cylinder type:
For use on:
Aluminium
Yorcalbro
Cunifer
1 nM3 = 1.637 kg.
1kg =0.611 nM3
Cylinder data
Argon - C02 mixtures are
used as shielding gas in
MlG/ MAG welding
processes. The 80 % Argon
and 20 % C02 mixture is
suitable for welding all
un- and low alloyed carbon
steels and stainless steels.
The mixture gives a very
stable molten pool together
with optimum energytransmission. Each cylinder
is labelled with the correct
contents identification label.
Cylinder type:
Stainless steel
Steel
E-50
Product No:
715-905565
715-905174
Application
Welding
Welding
Colour
Grey
Grey
Water capacity I
10
50
Gas capacity kg
3.6
18
3
Gas capacity nM 2.2
11
Filling pressure bar200200
Empty weight kg appr.
18
81
Gross weight kg appr.22
99
Overall length mm appr.
1000
1690
Outside diameter mm
140230
Valve outlet connection
W24,32mm x1/14”
W24,32mm x1/14”
Valve type
Forged brass with bursting disc, inlet filter and positive pressure
cartridge
ARGON - CO2 MIXTURES
For use on:
E-10
1 bar = 14.5 psi
1 M3=35.3ft3
1kg = 2.2 lbs
M-10
M-50
Product No:
715-905573
715-905581
Application
Welding
Welding
Colour
Grey/Yellow
Grey/Yellow
Water capacity I
10
50
Gas capacity kg
3.4
17.1
Gas capacity nM32.2
10.9
Filling pressure bar200200
Empty weight kg appr.
18
81
Gross weight kg appr.21
98
Overall length mm appr.
1000
1690
Outside diameter mm
140230
Valve outlet connection
W24,32mm x1/14”
W24,32mm x1/14”
Valve type
Forged brass with bursting disc, gas mix tube and positive pressure
Cartridge.
1 nM3 = 1.571 kg.
1kg =0.598 nM3
1 bar = 14.5 psi
1 M3=35.3ft3
4.03
1kg = 2.2 lbs
409
WIRE WELDING
Equipment
The basic elements in a complete
equipment package for the Wire
Welding process are:
1. Power source with amperage or
voltage control.
2. Welding current switch
(contactor).
3. Power supply to wire feeder and
gas valve.
4. Gas cylinder
5. Gas regulator with flow
adjustment.
6. Gas valve (solenoid).
7. Wire spool.
8. Wire feed motor with drive rolls.
9. Wire feed control.
10. Torch cable package containing
welding current cable, gas hose,
control circuit cables and wire
feed tube (liner).
11. Torch with contact tip for
supplying current to the nozzle,
and control switch.
In a welding sequence these
elements function as follows when
the welder points the torch towards
the starting point of the weld and
pushes the torch control switch:
4.03
• Gas valve opens to supply gas.
• Contactor closes to supply welding
current from the power source to
the torch contact tip and wire.
• Wire feed motor starts, feeding
wire through the torch.
• The arc starts as the wire touches
the workpiece, and welding
proceeds.
When welding is to be stopped the
welder releases the torch control
switch and the following sequence of
events take place:
• Wire feed motor stops.
• After a brief moment the contactor
opens, preventing further current
supply, and the arc is extinguished.
410
• The gas valve closes, preventing
further gas supply.
The sequence of events and the time
delay between them is essential for
a successful termination of the weld,
first to avoid that the wire sticks in
the weld deposit, secondly to ensure
gas shield of deposit and wire tip until
sufficient cooling has been obtained.
Depending on the area of use the
elements of the Wire Welding
equipment are arranged in different
ways, more or less suited to onboard
use.
Most commonly used are constant
voltage power sources where all
elements 1-9 are assembled in one
unit, often even with the gas cylinder
mounted on the assembly. As the
practical length of the torch cable
package with wire feed liner is limited
to 3–4 m (especially when welding
aluminium) these units are limited to
applications close to the machine.
Another system is built around very
small wire spools, incorporating
elements 7–11 in the torch, and the
other elements either in a control
box or in the power source. This is
a flexible system regarding distance
from the power source, but limits the
selection of wires to mainly aluminium
alloys, due to the small wire spools.
Wire feeder principle
The most flexible system is to include
elements 2 - 9 except gas cylinder
regulator in a compact portable wire
feeder unit, which has the ability to
utilize power sources with constant
voltage characteristic. Unitor Wire
Feeder is based on this principle and
requires only welding current
as power supply.
WIRE WELDING
With a capacity of 500A at 100% duty
cycle and selection possibility (DC+
or-to wire) this system covers the
complete range of continuous wire
welding applications for onboard
repair and maintenance, including
short-arc welding if constant voltage
power is available.
UWW-161TP wire welder principle
Short-arc welding does not normally
require amperages above 100-150A,
which is obtainable in portable units.
The Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161TP
includes polarity selection possibility.
The unit is therefore also able to
use self-shielding flux cored wires,
and covers all thin plate and light
construction welding applications.
Separate wire feeder principle, supply current from DC-power source.
4.03
Wire feeder intergrated together with powe source.
411
WIRE WELDING
Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161 TP
Multi Process Welding Inverter for Stick, TIG and wire welding
• Fully portable, only 12kg net
weight. 1 phase 230V 16A for use
anywhere on board.
• Safe in use. Voltage reduction
function reduces touchable Open
Circuit Voltage to10V.
• Individual, step-less adjustment
of both wire speed and welding
voltage through whole adjustment
range provide optimal settings for
any wire
Technical Data
Primary voltage
1 phase 230V 50-60Hz
Recommended fuse size
16A slow fuses
Duty cycle
35 % (at max amperage)
Maximum input power
5,4 kVA
Power factor
0,79
Maximum touchable open circuit voltage
10V
Voltage adjustment range for wire welding
10-26V
Wire speed adjustment range for wire welding2-13m/min
Welding current range for MMA
(Stick) electrode welding
5-140A
Postflow gas adjustment range
0-3sec
Length x Width x Height
460x230x325mm
Weight (ex. Accessories)
12,2kg
4.03
325
230
460
412
• Select between softer or crisper
arc on the front panel to optimize
the wire welding arc.
•2-step or 4-step trigger function for
wire welding operator comfort
•2-step TIG-torch control with Liftarc start and adjustable gas postflow.
• Polarity selection allows for wire
welding with all wires including
self-shielding wires without
shielding gas.
• Automatic hot start and arc force
control provides easy start and a
stable arc in MMA modus
• Protection against both overload
and high input voltage, with
indicator light on the front panel,
prevent machine damage from
wrong primary voltage and
overheating.
• CE-marked. Conforms with IEC/EN
60974-1, 5 and 10.
WIRE WELDING
Ordering Information
UWW-161 TP is supplied with:
•2.5 m primary cable with Schuko plug, fitted on the
welding machine 3 x 2,5 mm2
• Gas hose socket with nut and hose clamp for
connection to gas inlet
• Wire welding torch with 3 m cable and connector
complete for 0.8 mm wire
• Electrode holder for MMA (stick) electrode
welding with 3 m cable and Dix 25 connector
• 3 m return cable with Dix 25 connector and return
clamp
• Adjustable carrying strap
• Instruction manual
Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161 TP,
Skid Trolley for protection,
Trolly for machine, accessories and 1-2 10l shielding gas cylinders,
Spare part kit* for UWW-161 TP
193 161161
191 764550
196 778149
191-150161
* Spare part kit includes power board, necessary additional components and complete ­instructions for replacement.
Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding
Select MMA (stick) welding:
In this mode a constant current characteristic for
MMA welding is set and the terminals are live (10V).
An automatic hot-start enables easy arc start. And
an automatic arc-force maintains a smooth and
stable arc by momentarily increasing the current
if bigger droplets in the arc tends to produce short
circuits.
An automatic anti-stick function will cut the power
if the electrode should get stuck in the melt-pool so
that it can be removed without damage.
Select polarity
Disconnect the TIG/MIG polarity selection cable from
the +/- cable connection sockets.
-
+
4.03
Connect the electrode holder to the correct polarity
for the electrode to be used
Connect the return cable to the other socket
Connect the return clamp directly to the work piece
413
WIRE WELDING
Application set-up for TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding
Select TIG welding
In this mode a constant current characteristic for TIG welding is set
Select polarity
Connect the TIG/MIG voltage selection cable to the negative (-) cable
connection socket and the electrode holder to the Euro-contact.
Connect the return cable to the + socket and return clamp directly to
the work piece
Connect gas
Set amperage
TIG welding
Touch the electrode to the work piece and press the torch button.
Shielding gas and very small “signal” current will start flowing.
Lift the torch slowly, the signal current will initialize an arc and an upslope function that increases the current to set value.
-
4.03
414
+
Release the button (step 2) in order to start the slope-down function that
gradually reduces the welding current to zero.
The supply of gas will continue for the selected post-gas time.
Gas Supply Accessories Product numbers
Gas regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min, for Argon and Argon/CO2 Flow control meter for use at torch nozzle Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment at the gas inlet
to the machine
Gas hose ¼” black, for shielding gas Hose clamps, one ear for ¼” hose, non-protruding stainless, bag of 10 pcs Pliers for ear clamps Argon 10 litres Argon CO2 mix 197 619247
197 597328
TIG Accessories Product numbers
197 597310
176 576157
401 729442
401 768507
715 905565
715 905573
TIG-Torch T-161 with 4 m cable, euro-connector and torch-mounted trigger 197 160010
TIG accessories kit 197 607810
The kit contains:
– short back cap
– spare heat-shield
– 6 collets
– 2 collet bodies
– 4 nozzles
– 3 electrodes 1.6mm
– 3 electrodes 1.6mm
WIRE WELDING
Application set-up for Wire (MIG/MAG) welding
Select Wire welding:
In this mode a constant voltage characteristic for
wire welding is set.
Select polarity
Connect the TIG/MIG voltage selection cable to
the correct polarity for the selected wire, check
information on the label.
Select Wire speed and Voltage
Wire speed is set with the m/min knob on the front
panel.
Welding current is set with the VA knob on the front
panel, white scale.
2 step wire welding (upper mode)
Bring the torch close to the work-piece. Press (step
1) and hold the torch button. The wire advances until
it contacts with the work-piece and the arc is lit.
Release the button (step 2) to stop welding. The gas
flow continues for the selected post-gas time
4 step wire welding (second mode)
Bring the torch close to the work-piece. Press (step
1) and release (step 2) the torch button. The wire
advances until it contacts with the work-piece and
the arc is lit.
Press (step 3) and release (step 4) the button to stop
welding. The gas flow continues for the selected
post-gas time
4.03
-
+
415
WIRE WELDING
Drive rolls
The drive rolls in the wire feed system must be selected according
to wire size and type, see table.
Each drive roll has two grooves in different siz es.
UWW-161 is delivered with the V-groove 160003.
Smooth
V-groove
Knurled
V-groove
Smooth
V-groove
Wire Loading
Release the spring loaded pressure arm (1)
and swing the roll arm (2) up from the wire
feed drive roll (3).
Ensure that the groove size in the feeding
position on the drive roll matches the wire
type and size.
Place the wire spool in place on the wire
spool spindle (4). Make sure that the stud
(5) engages in the corresponding hole in
the wire spool
Check the Friction Brake Adjustment, a
bolt inside the spindle (6).
When properly adjusted, the brake should
provide only enough drag to prevent
overrun of the spool and excess slack in
the wire. Too much drag may result in wire
feeding problems.
Replace the cap (7).
Carefully detach the end of the wire from
the spool, cut the bent portion of wire off
and straighten the first 10cm.
Thread the wire through the ingoing guide
tube (8), over the drive roll (3), and into the
outgoing guide tube.
Close the idle roll arm (2) and latch the
spring loaded pressure arm (1) in place.
The roll pressure on the wire is adjusted
with the screw on the pressure arm nut
above the spring. It should be sufficient to
ensure smooth feeding of the wire.
Rotate the spool counterclockwise if
required to take up extra slack in the wire.
1
2
6
5
4
4.03
8
S
3
416
7
WIRE WELDING
WIRE TORCH:
MIG/MAG Torch M-161 with 3 m cable and euro connector
Product no. 161163
Drive roll / Liner / Contact tip combinations
Cored wire steel
Solid wire steel
Cored wire stainless
Solid wire stainless
Solid wire non-iron
Aluminium wire
160003
Drive Roll V-groove
0.6–0.8
O
X
O
X
X
O
160004
Drive roll U-groove
0.8–1-0
–
–
–
–
–
X
160005
Drive roll V-groove knurled
1.0–1.2
X
O
X
O
–
–
Max. 2
X
X
X
X
X
X
Product number
Wire size mm
mm
Application area
Product description
WIRE FEED DRIVE ROLLS
OUTGOING WIRE GUIDE TUBE
161164
Outgoing wire guide tube
WIRE FED LINERS
590075
Non iron liner *
0.6–1.2
X
X
X
X
X
X
613756
Steel liner **
0.6–1.2
X
X
–
–
–
–
CONTACT TIPS
711986
10 tips 0.6 mm
0.6
X
X
X
X
X
**
711994
10 tips 0.8 mm
0.8
X
X
X
X
X
**
712000
10 tips 1.0 mm
0.9–1.0
X
X
X
X
X
**
712018
10 tips 1.0–1.2 mm
1.2
X
X
X
X
X
X
0.6–1.2
All wires requiring gas shielding
GAS NOZZLES
160001
GAS NOZZLE
X = Well suited
4.03
O = May be used, but not the best solution
Contact Tip
– = Not recommended, do not use
* = Non iron liner can be used for all welding wires, but wears down quicker than steel liners
** = Steel liner is a more wear resistant alternative
for black steel welding but should be avoided for
stainless and non iron wires to avoid
contamination of the weld
Nozzle
Torch Neck
417
WIRE WELDING
Unitor Wire Feeder UWF-102
A wire feeder specially developed
for the multi-process welding power
source UMI-500TP.
By connecting UWF-102 to UWI-500TP
it is, in addition to wire welding, also
possible to do stick electrode welding
and Air Carbon Arc gouging from the
wire feeder without reconnecting
back to UWI-500TP.
For wire range 0,6 to 2 mm. Adjustable
wire spool friction brake and roll
pressure setting for the feed system
provides smooth feeding of both self
shielded wires, gas shielded flux cored
wires, and gas shielded solid wires.
Standard spools with 300 mm diameter
are fitted vertically inside the wire
feeder, fully protected. Cable/hose
extensions may be used between
power source and wire feeder.
Included with wire feeder is 4 m
connection cables to welding machine
and a drive roll kit for 0.8–1.0 mm solid
wire.
Technical Data
Type of input Power
48 Volt AC Single Phase 1.5 Amperes 50/60 HZ
Welding Power Source Type Constant Voltage CV/DC
Wire Feed Speed Range
1.5–18 m/min
Wire Diameter Range
0.6 to 2 mm
Welding Circuit Rating
400 amperes 100% Duty Cycle
IP Rating23
Overall Dimensions
Height
440 mm
Length
690 mm
With
385 mm
Weight
17.4 kg
4.03
418
UWF-102 Wire Feeder for UWI-500TP with 4 m connection cables and hose,
torches not included, order number 191-500102
WIRE WELDING
Connecting UWF-102 to UWI-500TP and shielding gas
The wire feeder is delivered with the required hoses
and cables for connection to shielding gas and
UWI-500TP
4m hose for shielding gas is connected here:
The other end has nut with 3/8" RH threads for
connection to a shielding gas regulator on a gas
cylinder.
4m remote control cable for connection to the back
side of UWI-500TP is connected here:
The 4m connection cable for welding current is
connected here:
NOTE:
Correct polarity for the welding process must be
selected when connecting the welding cables to
correct polarity for welding and return at the power
source.
If cable extensions are used the return cable should
also be extended to the work place for polarity
selection there.
The welding cable shuld always be connected to the +
or – terminals on front panel of UWI-500TP to ensure
that correct polarity for the wire is used is used.
Positive + polarity is normally used for gas-shielded
wires
Negative – polarity is normally used for self-shielded
wires.
The 4m control cable from UWF-102 is connected at the back of the UWI-500TP here:
4.03
419
WIRE WELDING
Drive rolls
V-groove:
The groove walls are smooth and these drive rolls are used for all solid vires
except aluminium.
U-grove:
These drive rolls prevents deformation and are specially designed for
Aluminium which is soft and will be deformed when sufficient pressure for
steady feeding is applied with a V-groove drive roll. This may result in poor
welding results.
Knurled V-groove:
These drive rolls are specially developed for flux-cored wires and provides
excellent grip on the hard surface of these wires without requiring a pressure
that will deform these tubular wires.
V-groove
Knurled groove
U-groove
4.03
420
Size
Order no
Size
Order no
0.8–1.0 mm
1.2–1.6 mm
Size
Order no
778192
0.8–1.0 mm
778194
1.2–1.6 mm
778195
0.8–1.0 mm
778197
778196
1.2–1.6 mm
778198
WIRE WELDING
Accessories for Unitor Wire Feeder UWF-102
Torches with tools
Torch for gas shielded wire welding
Torch for gasless wire welding
Multi purpose pliers for wire welding
Anti spatter spray for use at torch nozzle
191 607451
191 750179
192 591990
191 597328
Shielding gasses
Argon regulator with flow adjustment
Gauge guard for regulator
Needle valve for flow control at the torch
Flow control meter for use at the torch nozzle
when using the needle valve
Argon E-10 10l 200 bar filling
Argon E-50 50l 200 bar filling
Argon-CO2 80/20 M-10 10l 200 bar filling
Argon-CO2 80/20 M-50l 200 bar filling
Trolley for one 50-50l gas cylinder
197 510010
171 619379
197 597310
197 597328
715 905565
715 905174
715 905573
715 905581
176 778147
Cable and gas hose extensions
Control cable 25 m
Welding cable 50mm 2 per m
Welding cable 70mm 2 per m
Welding cable 95mm 2 per m
Cable connector, male/female
Gas hose black 1/4" per m
Hose clips one ear, bag of 10
Hose joint 1/4" RH, screw type
Pincher tool for ear clamps
191 500104
195 175844
195 175851
195 655266
195 632893
176 576157
401 729442
176 175596
401 768507
4.03
421
WIRE WELDING
T-350 torch for gasless welding with self-shielded wire, complete with 1.6mm
contact tip and 1.4–1.6mm steel liner. Order number 193-750179
1
2
3
4
5
The torch has a bent swan-nexk to ensure optimal feed stability and electrical
contact to the wire.
With no shielding gas for cooling the heat radiation from the arc an melt pool is
intense, and the torch has a heat shield to ensure protection of the operator's
hand.
Pos. Order number Unit Product description.
4.03
422
1
n.a.
n.a.
2 193-594614 pcs
2 193-607457 pcs
2 193-777846 pcs
3 193-750185 pcs
4 193-750181 set
4 193-750182 set
5 193-750184 pcs
End of swan neck on torch
Torch liner, Steel for 0.6–1.0 mm wire (blue) 3.0 m long
Torch liner, Steel for 1.0–1.4 mm wire (red) 3.0 m long
Torch liner, Steel for 1.4–1.6 mm wire (yellow)
3.0 m long
Tip adaptor for torch
Contact tips 1.0 mm 10 pcs
Contact tips 1.6 mm 10 pcs
Ceramic nozzle for torch
WIRE WELDING
T-400 torch for gas shielded wire welding, complete with contact tip 1.0–1.2
mm and Teflon liner. Order nmber 193-607451
1
7
6
5
7
3
4
2
Torch T-400 MP
The torch has adjustable neck and is delivered complete with tools for neck adjustment
and contact tip change. It is delivered with 3 m cable, complete with liner and contact
tips for 0.8–1.2 mm wire. The teflon liner allows for all wire types including aluminium.
Pos. Order number Unit Product description.
1
2
3
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
7
7
7
193-607451
193-551192
193-594622
193-594630
193-607455
193-607456
193-613766
193-613763
193-613764
193-594606
193-594614
193-607457
193-777846
pcs
pcs
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
Wire torch T-400 complete
Gas nozzle for torch
Contact tips 0.6_0.8 mm 10 pcs
Contact tips 1.0–1-2 mm 10 pcs
Contact tips 1.2–1.4 mm 10 pcs
Contact tips 1.6–2.0 mm 10 pcs
Nozzle insulator 5 pcs
Gas diffusor 5 pcs
Neck insulation 5 pcs
Torch liner, Teflon for 0.6–1.2 mm wire 4.5 m long
Torch liner, Steel for 0.6–1.0 mm wire (blue) 3.0 m long
Torch liner, Steel for 1.0–1.4 mm wire (red) 3.0 m long
Torch liner, Steel for 1.4–1.6 mm wire (yellow) 3.0 m long
4.03
423
WIRE WELDING
Regulator & Accessories
The R 300 + regulator with flow meter
supply a steadly stream of shielding
gas to the torch. The flow rate in l/min
is adjusted on the regulator
Actual gas flow at the TIG or wire
torch may deviate from what is set
on the gas outlet station or on the
cylinder regulator, especially if long
gas hoses are used. The Flowcontrol
meter measures actual flow at the
torch nozzle and is a useful tool for
the operator. Combined with the
Flowcontrol needle valve used at the
gas inlet of the machine or the wire
feeder full flow adjustment is available
at the work place regardless of
distance to the gas cylinder/gas outlet.
Also recommended are soft-skin
TIG welding gloves. They give good
protection of the hands while they
ensure easy control of the torch and
eventual welding rod. In addition
standard protective equipment for arc
welding should be used.
4.03
424
Product description
Unit
Product no
Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min
CO2 regulator with flow adjustment Gas hose 1/4" black, for shielding gases
Hose joint for 1/4" hose, 3/8" RH threads
Clip 8-14 mm for hose, 10 pcs
Quick coupling Argon, regulator to 6,3mm hose
Quick coupling Argon, hose to hose, 6,3mm
pcs
pcs mtr
pcs
pck
pcs
pcs
197-510010
197-510012
176-576157
176-175596
401-729442
197-320202
197-320201
Spare parts for regulator:
Flow meter gauge for Argon 0-32 L/min
Contents gauge for regulator
Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle
Flowcontrol needle valve TIG Gloves for TIG and Gas welding
pcs
pcs
pcs
pcs
6 pairs
171-550210
171-550178
197-597328
197-597310
197-632795
WIRE WELDING
Accessories
The multipurpose pliers provides
means for spatter removal from
the nozzle inside, tip and outside. It
has jaws for contact tip and nozzle
removal and installation, and for
cutting and pulling wire.
The Anti spatter spray prevents the
spatter from the welding arc from
sticking to the metal surface being
welded. By spraying on a thin layer
on each side of where the welding
is to take place, a barrier is formed
preventing the molten globules
from burning on to the surface.
The spatter can easily be wiped off
with a brush after welding. Time
consuming chipping and grinding is
prevented. The spray is packed in an
outer carton containing 6 X 400 ml
canisters.
Product description
Unit
Product no.
Multipurpose pliers for torch
Anti Spatter Spray, 6 pcs of 400 ml in a box
pcs
set
193-591990
193-633149
4.03
425
WIRE WELDING
Application areas
GMAW and FCAW processes cover
a wide range of applications known
from MMAW (coated electrodes) and
partly also the TIG process. Among
the most distinct advantages of the
processes are:
• Welding technique is easy to learn.
• High quality welds.
• High deposition rate.
• No slag, or for FCAW very little slag.
• Unique advantages for sheet metal
and aluminium welding.
The last may be the most important
advantage for repair and maintenance
applications, as especially aluminium
welding with gas or coated electrode
is difficult and requires considerable
experience and skill from the welder.
The only other alternative, TIG, need
special equipment and is only usable
on materials of limited thickness.
Disadvantages of the process have
been among others heavy equipment
and the need for using several
different premixed shielding gases
for different metals and alloys. These
are to a large degree being eliminated
by design of equipment as described
under the UWW-161TP and UWF-102
principle, and by carefully selecting
wires with or without flux core
according to application area.
Non-ferrous metals
4.03
426
Aluminium and copper alloys are
excellently weldable both in spray- and
short-arc mode using argon as shielding gas, and solid wire filler material
of Alumag, lcuni and lalbro type.
Overlap between short- and spray-arc
mode will normally be in the material
thickness range 3–6 mm, even though
thicker materials may be welded with
UWF-102 and short arc. Welding is
easily done in all positions.
Unalloyed/Iow alloyed and stainless
steels
Numerous gas mixtures based on
Argon, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide,
Helium, Hydrogen, and even traces of
other gases, have been introduced to
the market for ferrous materials, all
claiming their superiority for certain
alloy types, welding positions, arc
types etc. In onboard repair and
maintenance a stock of several gas
mixtures will be expensive and highly
impractical, and with proper selection
of filler material, not necessary.
Based on one shielding gas, a mixture
of 75-80% Argon and 20-25% Carbon
Dioxide, the following applications are
covered:
• MS type solid wire, short-arc,
all positions, all steels weldable
with GPO/GPR/SPECIAL /LH/LHV
electrodes.
• 18/8 type flux cored wire, all
positions all stainless steels
weldable with 18/8 electrodes or
18/8 Mo rods.
• 23/14 type flux cored wire, all
positions all stainless steels
weldable with 23/14 electrodes.
Flux cored wires with self-shielding
properties requiring no shielding gas
at all are being developed to cover
an expanding range of applications,
and will further add to the usefulness
of the GMAW/FCAW processes in
onboard repair and maintenance.
WIRE WELDING
Preparation for Welding
As for other arc welding processes
the GMAW and FCAW processes
require that the welder and welder’s
assistant use correct protective
equipment and face shields with
correct shade filter glass. The
guidelines given in the chapter on
safety should always be followed.
Preparing the equipment
Before welding starts make sure that
correct shielding gas in sufficient
quantity is available, if shielding gas is
to be used. Check that the equipment
is set for correct polarity according
to the wire, normally positive pole (+)
to torch if solid wires are used, and
negative pole (-) to torch for some flux
cored wires.
Spatter must be removed to avoid disturbance in shielding gas flow.
Ensure that the return clamp is
properly fastened to the workpiece,
with good electrical contact. Poor
return connection will influence on
the equipment’s ability to provide the
correct arc.
Mounting the wire spool
• Check, and if necessary clean the
wire feed rolls and the wire liner
in the torch cable. Ensure that the
rolls and liner are of correct size
and quality for the wire to be used.
Teflon liners are often an advantage
for aluminium and stainless steel
wires.
• Check that the torch contact tip and
nozzle are free from spatter, and that
the contact tip is of correct size for
the wire to be used. Worn contact
tips or liners should be replaced.
When aluminium wire is used the
contact tip should have a slightly
larger inner diameter than with
other alloys, to allow for the heat
expansion in aluminium.
Use correct size contact tip.
4.03
A worn contact tip will give insufficient
electrical contact.
427
WIRE WELDING
• Insert the wire spool in the wire
feeder and straigthen approximately
10-15cm of the wire end. To avoid
damaging the liner or getting the wire
stuck when feeding it through the liner,
it maybe an advantage to round off the
wire end with a file. Then insert the
wire in the torch cable liner, fasten the
feeder rolls and feed the wire through
until it protrudes from the torch.
Checking the wire feed function
4.03
• Check and if necessary adjust the
wire spool resistance. Even at the
highest wire feed speed the spooi
shall stop immediately when the
torch micro-switch is released,
without uncoiling excessive wire
between spool and feed rolls.
• The feed roll pressure should be
adjusted to a pressure where they
slide on the wire if the wire is
stopped at the torch. This is checked
by stopping the wire at the torch
nozzle while keeping the feed button
depressed. Do not touch the wire
when testing this unless the equip­
ment has a cold feed switch. The roll
pressure may be tested by cutting
the wire level with the torch nozzle
and using an electrically insulating
material to hold the wire back.
• To provide best conditions for arc
start the wire should be cut off at
a sharp angle 10-15 mm away from
the nozzle tip before welding starts.
The sharp point will provide a better
starting point for the arc than a
flat wire tip surface, especially for
larger wire diameters.
Round off wire tip before inserting
wire in liner.
A sharply pointed wire will improve
arc start.
Shielding the workplace
Strong draft may disturb the shielding
gas flow and cause welding faults.
When necessary, the weld bead
should therefore be shielded. Welding
fume extractors must be positioned
with care to ensure they do not affect
the shielding gas.
428
Strong draft may disturb the gas shield.
WIRE WELDING
Welding technique
Set the correct parameters given for
the base material, wire and shielding
gas that are to be used. These
parameters include
(1) Gas flow rate
(2) Wire feed speed
(3) Amperage or voltage setting
When setting the gas flow rate, allow
the gas to flow for a while to ensure
that the gas supply system is fully
purged. If in doubt of the actual wire
feed speed at a certain setting on
the machine, this may be checked
by pressing the torch micro-switch
and initiate wire feed for exactly 6
seconds. Measure the wire length
that has been fed, multiply by 10 and
you will have feed rate per minute.
When doing this remember to keep
the wire away from contact with deck
or workpiece. While feeding in this
way the wire will be electrically live
and an arc will occur if contact is
made.
cold arc and insufficient gas shield
and must be avoided.
Too short stickout may overheat the
contact tip and will also allow more
spatter to reach the nozzle. This may
again cause turbulence in the gas
flow, and insufficient shielding. When
Flux Cored Arc Welding Self Shielded
is to be used, a to short a stick out will
give porosity.
Within limits, and depending on the
characteristic of the power source,
the welder may use the stick out to
adjust the welding parameters while
welding. Increasing stick out will
• decrease penetration
• increase deposition rate
• increase bead size
• decrease bead width.
Travel speed and direction
While welding the welder controls
five variables; wire stickout (4), travel
speed and direction (5), torch angles
(6) and weaving (7).
Wire stickout
The stick-out is the distance from
the end of the contact tip to the
baseplate, including the arc length.
This distance decides how long the
current carrying part of the welding
wire is to be. The electric resistance
and voltage drop in the wire increases
with increasing stickout. This voltage
drop is part of what the equipment
measures as arc voltage, and the
welding current will decrease with
increasing stickout and vice versa.
4.03
Too long stickout may result in too
429
WIRE WELDING
The speed with which the torch is
passed along the bead will influence
on bead size and width, and will also
decide the heat input per distance
to the base material. Welding may
be done with the forehand (push) or
backhand (pull) technique, depending
on welding position and alloy.
Generally the difference with the two
methods are as follows:
Backhand technique
Backhand technique:
When Flux Cored Arc Welding Self
Shielded wire are used.
Forehand technique:
When “Gas Metal Arc Welding”
and “Flux Cored Arc Welding Gas
Shielded” wires are used.
To avoid oxides in the deposit the
forehand technique is always used
for all welding of aluminium and
aluminium alloys.
Forehand technique
For steel and stainless steels both
techniques are used, often with
preference for forehand welding with
solid wire and backhand for fluxcored wire.
Torch angles
Torch angles may be defined as
longitudinal angle - the angle
between torch and workpiece along
the weld, and transverse angle - the
angle between torch and workpiece
sideways from the weld.
4.03
The longitudinal angle will affect
the penetration and bead form. Too
small angle should be avoided as
the shielding gas flow may drag air
in between torch and workpiece,
contaminating the weld.
For horizontal welding an angle
between 70°-80° is frequently used.
Transverse angle will normally be
430
Torch angles
WIRE WELDING
90° on a flat workpiece, and 45° for
fillet welds. When multiple passes
are used, the transverse angle is
increased or decreased to place the
deposit correctly in the joint.
Weaving
To obtain a wider deposit than
obtainable with a straight welding
pattern, the torch may be moved
along the groove in a side to side
movement (weaving). When this
technique is used the side to side
movement must be stopped shortly at
each side to ensure sufficient deposit
at the sides of the weld. Weaving in
a continuous movement may easily
result in insufficient deposit and
undercut, which will weaken the joint
considerably.
This may be done by increasing travel
speed and/or stickout the last 3-5 cm
of the weld, and releasing the torch
switch immediately when the stop
point is reached. Keep the torch in
position over the weld until gas flow
stops, in order to protect the deposit
until the metal has solidified.
Arc starting and stopping
When starting the arc on a cold
workpiece, penetration may be
insufficient to provide sufficient
binding for a short moment before
the weld pool is properly established.
To avoid a weakness in the joint
the arc may either be started on
a plate attached to the workpiece
at the beginning of the joint, or the
welder may increase the heat input.
This may be done by starting the
arc approximately 2-3 cm after the
beginning of the weld, moving the arc
quickly back to the actual starting
point and continue welding over the
slightly preheated area. Reduced
electrode stickout for the first 1-2 cm
will further improve heat input.
When finishing the weld the heat
input should be reduced to reduce
penetration depth and weld pool size.
4.03
Torch angles in vertical welding,
backhand technique
431
WIRE WELDING
Edge preparation
Steel, Position welding, 80% Ar, 20% CO2 Shielding gas
Material Type of Welding
thickness
joint
position
mm
Number
of
layers
0.9
55
16290
1
1.2
Horizontal
1.6&
6-10
0,8
Vertical
down.
1.6
65
17
340
1
80
17
420
1
85
17-18
440
1
2.0
95
18
500
1
2.0
105
18
550
1
Steel,
Position welding, 80% Ar, 20% Co2 Shielding gas
Material Type of
thickness
joint
mm
2
Joint
Welding
Gas
opening position consumption
mm
l/min.
Wire
Welding parameters Number
diameter Amp Volt Wire speed
of
mm cm/min
layers
1
H & VD
10-12
0.8
95
1-2
H & VD
10-12
0.8
19
430
1
110 19,5
510
1
1
3
3
H & VD
10-12
0.8
12522
480
4
H & VD
10-12
0.8
13022
500
42
H & VD
10-12
0.8
12020
4602
6
50°
VD
12-15
0.8
12020
4602
H
12-15
1.2
15021
3302
1
H
15-20
1.2
330
32
1100
1
6
50°
1.5
1
10
1
VU
15-20
1.2
14521
320
3
10
VU
15-20
1.2
15021
330
1
H
15-20
1.2
300
900
1
H: Horizontal, VD: Vertical down, VU: Vertical up
432
Wire
Welding parameters
diameter Amp Volt Wire speed
mm cm/min
4.03
Gas
consumption
l/min.
30
WIRE WELDING
Edge preparation
Stainless steel, Position welding, 80% Ar, 20% CO2 Shielding gas
Material Type of
Gas
Wire
Welding parameters
thickness
joint
consumption diameter Amp Volt wire speed
mm
l/min.
mm
cm/min.
Welding
speed
cm/min
Number
of
layers
1.6
85
15
460
45
1
1.6
85
15
460
50
1
90
15
480
35
1
2
90
15
480
30
1
2.4
105
17
580
38
1
125
17
720
40
1
2
8-12
0,9
3.2
Stainless steel, Horizontal welding, 80% Ar, 20% CO2 Shielding gas
Material
Type of
thickness
joint
mm
Gas
consumption
l/min.
Wire
Welding parameters
diameter
Amp wire speed
mm
cm/min.
Number
of
layers
18
1.6200-250280-380
1
18
1.6250-300
380-4902
60°
9.5 (3/8”)20
1,5
1.6275-325
460-5702
3 (1/8”)
60°
6.5 (1/4”)
1,5
60°
12.7 (1/2”)202.4
1,5
300-350
90°
19 (3/4”)202.4
1,5
350-375215-235
5-6
90°
25.4 (1”)202.4
1,5
350-375215-235
7-8
190-215
3-4
4.03
433
WIRE WELDING
Edge preparation
Aluminium, Horizontal welding, Argon Shielding gas
Material
Type of
thickness
joint
mm
Gas
consumption
l/min.
Wire
Welding parameters
diameter Amp Volt
Wire speed
mm cm/min
Welding
speed
cm/min
1
15
1.0
40
15
600
50
1.3
10
1.0
50
15
700
38
1.6
10
1.0
60
15
810
38
2.4
10
1.0
90
15
1050
38
Aluminium, Horizontal welding, Argon Shielding gas
Material Type of Backing
thickness
joint
plate
mm
Gas
consumption
l/min.
Wire
diameter
mm Welding parameters
Amp
Volt
Welding
speed
cm/min
Number
of
layers
18
1.2
18024
38
1
1.225026
40
1
18
1.222024
602
50°
9.5 (3/8”)
With20
1.628027
602
75°
9.5 (3/8”)
With out20
1.626026
452
9.5 (3/8”)
With out25
1.627026
552
60°
6.5 (1/4”)
With
6.5 (1/4”)
With20
6.5 (1/4”)
4.03
434
With out
60°
12.7 (1/2”)
With25
1.6
31027
452
75°
12.7 (1/2”)
With out25
1.6
30027
45
3
WIRE WELDING
Edge preparation
Aluminium, Position welding, Argon Shielding gas
Material
thickness
mm
Type of Welding
joint
position
*
Gas
consumption
l/min.
60°
6.5 (1/4”)
V20
60°
6.5 (1/4”)
OH20
60°
9.5 (3/8”)
V20
60°
9.5 (3/8”)
OH23
60°
12.7 (1/2”)
Wire
diameter
mm Welding
parameters
Amp
Volt
1.2 or 1.6
18023
Welding
speed
cm/min
Number
of
layers
502
1.2 or 1.620023-24
552
1.2 or 1.621023
45
3
1.622023-24
50
3
V23
1.621522-23
30
3
60°
12.7 (1/2”)
OH25
1.622523-24
40
4
75°
19 (3/4”)
V25
1.622523-2425
4
75°
19 (3/4”)
OH25
1.624024
6
35
V: Vertical, OH: Over head
*4 mm (1/16”)
4 mm (1/16”)
Copper alloys, Horizontal, Argon Shielding gas
Material
Type of
thickness
joint
mm
Gas
consumption
l/min.
Wire
Welding parameters
diameter
Wire speed
Amp
Volt
mm
cm/min
3 (1/8”)
15-20
1.6
31027
500
6.5 (1/4”)
15-202.4
46026
345
90°
9.5 (3/8”)
5 mm
15-202.4
50027
380
90°
12.7 (1/2”)
5 mm
15-202.4
54027
420
4.03
NB: When welding Cunifer backing gas must be used
435
WIRE WELDING
Wires for Wire Welding
Unitor
Size
Order
Shielding Current Wire
Voltage
Wire
mm
no.
gas
type speed
GPS-W-200
0.8 090-590117
Ar/CO2
DC+
7.5
22
1.0 090-160100
None
DC12
20
MS-W-201
Coreshield 8
1.6 090-750187
None
DC 7
23
0.9 090-597518
Ar/CO2
DC+
11
22
S 316 M-GF-221
0.9 090-309000
Ar/CO2
DC+
13
24
S 309 M-GF-222
0.8 090-777972
Ar
DC+
7.5
22
Ialbro-W-237
0.8 090-592015
Ar
DC+
7.5
22
Icuni-W-239
1.0 090-590083
Ar
DC+
12
23
Alumag-W-235
None
DC+
8
30
Abratech-W-230 1.6 090-230230
Note: Approx. values only
Final adjustment to be set by welder depending on welding
position and wall thickness I plate thickness of base material
Argon, ArgonlCO2 Mix: 20 I/mm.
Tech sheets for all above products under section Consumables.
4.03
436
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.03
437
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.03
438
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Plasma cutting equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
UPC-1041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Cutting technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Maintenance and trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
4.04
439
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.04
440
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Introduction
In flame cutting, the cutting torch with
its high flame temperature of 3100
°C (5612°F) is used to heat the steel
to its kindling temperature (ignition
temperature) and then by introducing
a stream of pure oxygen, to create a
rapid oxidation of the steel (the steel
catches fire and burns to become a
slag). The stream of oxygen, at high
pressure, also assists in removing
the material from the cut. Steel melts
at 1535°C (2795°F) but can be ignited
at 884°C (1623°F). This process is
referred to as a chemical process
Cutting direction
Heating to
­kindling tempe­
rature. Jet of
pure oxygen
leads to rapid
oxidation and
removal of slag.
Cutting nozzle
Pre-heating flame
Stream of pure O2
Base material
So why cannot aluminum, copper,
stainless steel and those other metals
be cut by this process?
In order for a metal to be flame cut
the following conditions must apply:
1) The melting point of the metal must
be above kindling point (ignition
point).
2) The oxides (rust) of the metal
should melt at a lower temperature
than the metal itself.
3) The heat produced by the
combustion of the metal with
oxygen must be sufficient to
maintain the flame cutting
operation.
4) The thermal conductivity must be
low enough so that the material
can be brought to its kindling
temperature.
5) The oxides formed in cutting should
be fluid when molten so as not
to interrupt the cutting operation.
Some metals have refractory oxides
(sluggish heavy kind of oxides with
high melting point).
Iron and low carbon steels fit all the
above requirements and are readily
flame cut.
Cast iron is not readily flame cut
because the kindling temperature is above
the melting point. It melts before it can
be ignited. It also has a refractory silicate
oxide, which produces a slag coating.
4.04
Aluminum and its alloys are not possible
to flame cut because its oxides have
a higher melting point than the metal
itself. Pure aluminum melts at 658°C
(1216°F) but the aluminum oxides melts
at 1926°C (3500°F)
441
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Non-ferrous metals such as aluminum
and copper also have refractory
oxides coverings, which prohibit
normal flame cutting. In addition they
also have high thermal conductivity.
Stainless steel cannot be flame
cut with standard flame cutting
equipment and technique because of
the refractory chromium oxide formed
on the surface.
So how can we overcome these
nature’s physical laws for a process
to work on a given metal? Simply
by changing process from chemical
(Flame cutting) to an electric (Plasma
cutting).
In Plasma cutting only one condition
must apply in order to perform cutting:
1) The metal must be electrically
conductive.
What is Plasma?
One common description of plasma
is that it is the fourth state of matter.
We normally think of the three states
4.04
Plasma, the fourth state of matter
442
of matter as solid, liquid, and gas. For
most commonly known element, water
these three states are ice, water and
steam. The significant difference
between these states relate to the
energy level. If we add energy in the
form of heat to ice, the ice melts and
the result is water, a liquid. If we add
more energy to water, it vaporizes
to the gas we normally call steam.
By adding even more energy to the
steam the gas become ionized. This
ionization process causes the gas to
become electrically conductive. This
electrically conductive ionized gas is
called plasma.
(At a temperature of between 2000°C
(3600°F) and 10000°C (18000°F) a
process of ionization and dissociation
of the gas molecules take place. The
molecules are split in molecular and
atomic ions and free electrons. When
this happens, the gas, which has
now become plasma, is electrtrically
conductive because free electrons
are available to carry current).
The process utilizes the electrically
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Basic principles
conductive gas to transfer energy
from an electrical power source
trough a plasma-cutting torch to the
material being cut.
Inside the plasma torch the arc
is struck between the cathode
(electrode - polarity) and an anode
(tip + polarity) As compressed air
is introduced in the arc, plasma is
produced and forced out trough the
tip with high kinetic velocity, forming
what is referred to as the pilot arc.
Upon impact with the positive pole of
the work piece the arc is transferred
from electrode / tip to electrode work
piece following the plasma gas. Due
to the design of the torch tip this arc
Pilot arc
and the high velocity of flow of free
electrons and ionized particles called
the plasma jet is constricted to a very
small cross section with high-energy
concentration. In the impact zone
the high inherent energy of the jet,
consisting of heat, ionization energy
and dissociation energy is released,
creating temperatures up to 28000°C
(50000°F). The high velocity air plasma
jet will efficiently melt and blow away
practically any electrically conductive
material, and provide a narrow
smooth cut.
The basic plasma cutting equipment
consists of a constant current DC
Transferred arc
4.04
443
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Plasma cutting equipment
power supply, an arc starting circuit
(High frequency or air type) and a
torch.
UPC-1041 uses NO HIGH FREQUENCY
to initiate the plasma arc. This is of
great importance for shipboard use.
The output current (Amperage) of
the power supply determines the
speed and cut thickness capacity of
the system. Most of these hand held
systems are rated at under 100 Amps,
for cutting materials under 16 mm
(5/8”) thick. The main function of the
power supply is to provide the correct
energy to maintain the plasma arc
after ionization.
The torch serves as the holder for
the consumable tip and electrode,
and provides cooling to these parts.
The tip and electrode constrict and
maintain the plasma jet.
The arc starting circuit uses
compressed air to force back the
electrode from the tip, creating an
electric arc. This in turn, positively
charges the air stream, creating a
plasma arc. This method is referred to
as “blowback“ technology. The Unitor
The process generally uses a single
gas (usually air or nitrogen) Air is the
most widely used plasma gas, due to
the fact that compressed air is readily
available at most location and that it
is cheap compared to single gases.
Consumable parts life is acceptable
(usually between 100 to 200 starts).
The consumable part life depends
largely on air quality that must be oil
and water free.
Primary side input:
Compressed air 6-7 bar
440 V 3 phase min. 20A
slow fuse
Power source output:
Max. current 100 A
Working pressure:
5.0 bar
4.04
Return cable
Return clamp
Plasma cutting system
444
Cutting torch
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
UPC-1041 Plasma Cutter
UPC-1041 is a high capacity air
plasma cutter. Air is utilised both for
plasma gas and for cooling the torch.
The plasma process is highly efficient
for precision cutting and gouging
of most electrically conductive
materials, and the process is
especially suitable for copper alloys,
aluminium and stainless steel, which
cannot be cut with the Acetylene/
Oxygen cutting process.
The UPC-1041 uses NO HIGH
FREQUENCY to ignite the plasma
arc. This is of great importance for
shipboard use. (Do not interfere
with radio communication and other
electronicaly controlled equipment.)
Cutting capacity is ut to 40 mm steel,
and typical cutting speed is 500 mm/
min on 12 mm steel plate.
The output is steplessly adjustable for
precision cutting at slower speeds.
A special nozzle for gouging is
available.
Compact and Portable, the unit is
built on the inverter principle which
in addition to excellent cutting
properties provides low weight and
compact dimensions. The plasma
cutter may easily be passed through
manholes and brought to any
workplace on board.
To protect the operator a micro switch
built into the torch will cut the current
to the torch if the nozzle is loosened.
The unit will also automatically shut
down if the air supply is insufficient,
or if the duty cycle is exceeded,
causing the unit to heat up. Power
will automatically be restored when
the air supply is corrected or the unit
has cooled. The air regulator includes
both filter and water separator to
protect the torch, and automatic air
post flow provides rapid cooling of the
nozzle after cutting.
4.04
445
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Unitor Plasma Cutter UPC-1041 Technical Data
Description Unit Output data
Current adjustment range Maximum current Duty cycle at max. current Value
A 20-100
A 100
% 35
Input data
Supply voltage V 440
Frequency Hz 50-60
Phases 3
Fuses, min. slow blow A 20
Air / Nitrogen supply
Supply pressure range to machine Setting on machine at free flow Air consumption 195
410
575
• Torch, complete with 6 m cable and connector
• Insulated return clamp with cable
• Built-in air regulator with filter and water separator
• Accessories kit
446
6-7
5,0
190
11,4
Micellaneous
Protection class IP 23
Approval marks CE
Weight kg 15
Width mm 195
Height mm 410
Length mm 575
UPC-1041 is supplied complete with
4.04
bar bar L/min m3/h
Description Unit Product no.
UPC-1041 plasma cutter complete
with basic accessories & torch pcs 192-404100
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Torch consumables and spares
13
Pos.no Description
–
–
–
2 3
4
5
6
7
8
8
8
9
10
11
–
12
13
UPC-1041 Plasma cutter complete with 6m cable
Torch PTA 121 with 6 m cable and drag shield for UPC-1041
(optional)
Torch PTA 121 with 15 m cable and drag shield for UPC-1041
(optional)
Hose assembly for PTA 121 torch 6 m, excl. torch head
and handle
Hose assembly for PTA 121 torch 6 m, excl. torch head
and handle
Trigger button for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121
Handle for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121
Torch head fir UPC-1041 w. PTA 121
Electrode for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 5 pcs
Tool for electrode change
Swirl ring for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs
Nozzle 1.0 mm 20–40 Amps for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 5 pcs
Nozzle 1.25 mm 50–100 Amps for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 5 pcs
Nozzle gouging 2.5 mm for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 5 pcs
Shield cup for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs
Spatter shield for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs
Drag shield for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs
Consumables kit complete (included with machine)
The kit includes: 3 electrodes (pos 5), 1 tool for electrodes
(pos 5), 3 nozzles 1.2 (pos 8), 1 spatter shield (pos 11), 1 drag
shield (pos 12), 1 gauging nozzle 2.5 (pos 9)
Wheeled cutting guide with circle cutting attachment
(optional accessory)
Skid Trolley for protection
Product no.
192-404100
192-404114
192-404115
On request
On request
On request
On request
On request
192-404005
–
192-404006
192-404007
192-404008
192-404009
192-404010
192-404111
192-404112
192-404013
4.04
192-404016
191-764550
447
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Cutting technique
Place the torch in position for cutting or gouging.
For most cutting operations the contact cutting
shield should be used. It is placed directly on the
work piece at the edge where cutting should start
Lift the trigger protection and press the triggerswitch on the torch handle.
Air will flow for one second before the pilot arc
strikes.
The pilot arc will burn for about 3 seconds.
If contact with the work piece is not obtained
within this time, the pilot arc goes out.
Reposition the torch to ensure that the pilot arc will
reach the work-piece and make a new try.
When the cutting arc is established, pull the torch
slowly across the surface that is to be cut. At
correct speed the sparks goes straight through
the metal with only a slight bending towards the
beginning of the cut
Pause briefly at the end of cut before releasing the
trigger.
4.04
The plasma arc goes out immediately. Air will
continue to flow for about 30 seconds. When
removing the finger from the trigger, the trigger
protection will close over the button.
448
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
For piercing holes
Rest the contact drag shield on the
work piece at 45° angle
Press the trigger-switch on the torch handle.
Air will flow for one second before the pilot arc
strikes.
After cutting arc starts, slowly and in one smooth
movement, straighten torch back up until 90° angle to
plate.
Start moving torch across plate when observing that
the arc penetrates.
Circle cutting guide
The wheeled wagon in the circle cutting set should
be used when cutting on uneven surfaces where it is
difficult to use the drag shield.
1. Pull off the drag shield
2. Insert the torch to a position where the distance
from nozzle tip to work piece is 3-4mm
3. Tighten the allen screw on the inner ring.
4. Tighten the allen screw on the outer ring with the
wheels axis at 90° to the torch handle
For cutting circles the allen screw in point 4 must be
loosened to allow the torch to rotate in the wagon.
The circle cutting bar is screwed into the wheel
centre, and the centre tap is fastened at the correct
radius.
4.04
449
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
Maintenance and trouble shooting
Disconnect power before maintenance
Check torch
EVERY THREE TO SIX MONTHS
Check tip
Disconnect the machine from compressed
air and electricity.
Check electrode
Check drag shield
Remove the cover.
DAILY
Clean the machine with dry, clean and
oil free compressed air. Inspect cable
connections and gas system.
Inspect and, if necessary, change the
torch consumable parts.
In especially dirty environments this
procedure should be carried out more often.
Note:
Electrode and nozzle must be changed
at regular intervals, as a general
guideline after 2 hours continues use,
or after 200 starts.
Check gas/Air Pressure
Always replace the electrode if the
center has a pit more than 2 mm
(1/16” deep). Replace the nozzle if
the opening is deformed or clearly
oversized.
Failure to replace worn nozzle or
electrode in time will dramatically
reduce the cutting capacity and
eventually ruin the torch.
UPC-1041 require
6–7 bar supply
pressure
Air Supply Precaution
Air supply precaution: Use only oil-free dry
compressed air. Normally the control air on
board will have the best quality.
Inspect and, if necessary, empty the
moisture trap on the filter regulator on
the rear side of the machine. The trap is
emptied by pressing the bottom sealing
while compressed air is connected. If
cleaning the trap is necessary, completely
unscrew the glass cup after disconnecting
compressed air.
4.04
Carefully inspect the hose assembly
and torch body with regard to any leak
or damage.
Never use a damaged torch.
450
Use only oil-free
dry compressed air!
PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING
In order to ensure oil and water free air for plasma cutting, Unitor recommend
the following set up:
Quick coupling
Socket 400SH
405 191700
Air line unit
w/Filter/Regulator/Lubricator
401 624585
Rubber air hose
1/2", Coil of 40 mtr.
401 671768
Air with oil mist
Oil free air can be
taken from the
centre block
Quick coupling
Socket 20SM
(1/4" threads)
405 191726
Mount 2/teflon
tape
Quick coupling
Plug 20 PH
405 191825
Black Hose 1/4"
176 576157
Hose Clips
176 72 9442
4.04
451
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.04
452
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Arc Welding Current Distribution System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
4.05
453
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Arc Welding Current Distribution System
Unitor welding current distribution
system may be tailor made to suit
the specific needs of ship or offshore
installations. The basic rule in this
system is that the main welding power
source(s) are located permanently in
the workshop. The welding machine
will be connected to the inlet station
in the distribution system by flying
leads, when welding outside the work
shop. Permanently installed welding
and remote control cables lead to the
welding outlets, which are mounted
on strategic places for immediate use
by the welders on board, providing
the following advantages:
4.05
• Accidental falling/tripping due to
loose cables along decks, in ladders
etc. are avoided.
• Accidental short circuiting
somewhere along the often
excessive lengths of live welding
cables lying about is prevented.
• The need for replacement of
damaged lengths of welding cable is
eliminated.
• Manhandling of long welding cables,
often more time consuming and
strenuous than the actual welding
job, is avoided.
• Fire and gas proof doors can be kept
shut.
• Outlets in possible gas danger areas
may be disconnected when not in
use.
• Permanently installed and correctly
dimensioned cables ensure more
efficient use of power from welding
machine.
• Correct welding parameters are
easily obtainable as all the remote
control possibilities of the welding
machine is available at the outlet.
The inlet/outlets are made in stainless
steel quality. The hinged door is
closed with a key. The remote control
454
socket is a 10 pole amphenol type,
female for both inlet and outlet
stations. The socket is equipped with
a screw cover. The remote control
connection is done with a special
connection cable and/or adaptor, see
ordering information. A red diode 130
V AC is placed between the welding
terminals to warn when outlet is
live. The housing is mounted to the
bulkhead by use of brackets that are
included with the inlets / outlets.
Installation, with size and positions
of cable glands will vary for different
installations, therefore glands are not
included, and holes for cable glands
have not been drilled / locked out in
the housing. This must be done by
the installer. Connection of welding
cables in the inlet/outlet is done
with cable shoes. Cable size must
be chosen according to welding
machine. There is a 10 position
connection rail for connection of
remote control cable. Minimum 1,0
mm2 cable for remote control is
recommended.
The system comes in two sizes, for
400A and 800A. The 400A boxes uses
standard Dix 70 contacts for welding
CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
current, male on inlet station and
female on the outlet, and standard
Dix 70 cable connectors are used for
connection.
The 800A boxes uses special heavy
duty Dix 120 contacts for welding
current, male on inlet station and
female on the outlet. For these
contacts the special Dix 120 cable
connectors must be used. These
connectors allows for up to 120mm2
welding cable
Welding current
inlet
Welding current
outlet
Description
Unit
Product no.
Inlet station Stainless steel 400 A 240x240x150 mm with Dix 70 male
Outlet station stainless steel 400 A 240x240x150 mm with Dix 70 female
Inlet station Stainless steel 800 A 300x300x200 mm with Dix 120 male
Outlet station stainless steel 800 A 300x300x200 mm with Dix 120 female
Remote control connection cable cable for UWI-320/400/500/UWR-852
Remote control connection cable cable for UWR-303 Remote control adapter for UWI-320/400/500/UWR-852
Remote control adapter for UWR-303 Cable connector Dix 70 male/female
Cable connector Dix 120 male/female
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
Pcs.
195-624320
195-624338
195-736728
195-736736
195-608760
195-603993
195-604157
195-604306
195-632893
195-736744
Remote control adapter
Remote control connection cable
4.05
455
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
4.05
456
PROCESS & EQUIPMENT
Gas Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Ac/Ox cutting, welding, brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Gas supplies and gas distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
5.01
457
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
5.01
458
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
The Combination Torch UCT-500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
UCT-500 Components and spares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
The Unitor Workshop Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Welding and grinding goggles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Portable gas equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Gas hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Hose connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Gas regulators for cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Flashback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Flashback arrestors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
The acetylene/oxygen flame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Operating instructions for UCT-500 cutting torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Cutting procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Common cutting faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Operating instructions for UCT-500 brazing, welding & heating torch 490
Maintenance of blowpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Heating techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
Flame straightening techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Butt joints for gas welding of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
Consumables and parameters for gas welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Soldering and brazing techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Consumables and parameters for brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
5.01
459
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Introduction
The Acetylene/Oxygen flame is an
efficient heat source which has been
used for welding and related thermal
processes since the early 1900’s.
Acetylene is the fuel gas burning with
the highest temperature, maximum
approximately 3160 °C when mixed
with oxygen (ratio 1 part acetylene to
1.5 parts oxygen).
Even the neutral flame used for
welding (mix ration 1:1.1) has a
The energy (kJ/cm2• S) from the core flame
of acetylene compared to propane at
various mixing rates with oxygen.
5.01
460
temperature of 3100 °C, compared to
e.g. propane 2800 °C.
This temperature difference, which
in itself is not impressive, is one
reason for the high efficiency of the
acetylene flame. At temperatures
around 3000 °C a relatively high
degree of dissociation of hydrogen
molecules takes place in the flame
core. The molecules are split in
free atoms, thereby storing energy.
This stored energy is transfered
through the flame and released
immediately when the free atoms
hit the workpiece and recombine to
molecules. The total energy release
from the acetylene/oxygen flame
is therefore comparable to the
energy from a theoretical flame with
temperature 4500 °C.
Hydrogen molecules dissociate on the
surface of the core flame and recombine
on the surface of the workpiece.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Another advantage of the acetylene/
oxygen flame is the high combustion
velocity of the mixture. This ensures
a concentrated flame which quickly
heats up a limited spot to high
temperature. The concentrated
heat reduces total heat input in a
workpiece, and thereby the possibility
for heat distortion.
Temperature variation through a neutral
acetylene/oxygen flame.
Main application areas for the
acetylene/oxygen flame in onboard
repair and maintenance are cutting,
brazing and heating. It is also used
for sheet metal welding and welding
of small diameter pipes.
In the following the equipment
and techniques used for these
applications will be described.
Safety:
Acetylene specific gravity is 0,9 so it
is lighter than air.
Propane specific gravity is 1,5 so it is
heavyer than air.
This is an important safety factor to
consider when working onboard a
ship.
Combustion velocity of acetylene compared to propane.
5.01
461
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
The Combination Torch UCT-500
The Unitor Combination Torch UCT500 covers all normally occurring,
heating, brazing, welding and
cutting applications for which the
acetylene/oxygen flame may be used
on board. The torch is simple to use,
light in weight compared to capacity,
well balanced and easy to handle.
It is a high-pressure torch of the
equalized pressure type. One of the
advantages of a high-pressure torch
is an especially stable flame and high
resistance to persistent flashback.
It includes a range of seven
welding attachments, covering most
brazing/welding applications. The
larger attachments also function as
monoflame heating attachments.
The connection between torch
handle and heating/welding/cutting
attachments is based on 0-ring seals
which ensures a gas-tight connection
even if the connection nut should
loosen. Attachments are easily
changed without the use of tools, and
may be turned in any desired angle to
the handle/gas valves.
In addition to spanner, cleaning
needles and a spare parts kit with
all the most commonly needed
spares, the UCT-500 case contains
an instruction book giving complete
information on the use and
maintenance of the equipment.
The gas valves are symmetrically
placed at the back of the handle
and suit both left-and right-handed
persons.
Acetylene and Oxygen inlets are
fitted with non-return valves as
standard . The non-return valve is a
spring-loaded valve which permits
the gas to pass in one direction only;
towards the blowpipe. It is fitted to
the blowpipe handle to prevent any
return flow which could allow gases
to mix in the hoses, with the danger of
hose explosions. Non-return valves,
however, do not replace flashback
arrestors in the gas supply system.
UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty
PVC case
5.01
462
The UCT-500 Master kit has been
assembled to cover all ordinary
welding, brazing and cutting work that
may occur on board.
Cutting nozzles covering cutting of
steel up to 100 mm are included, also
a roller guide for cutting edges from
90° to 45° angle of plate surface.
The circular motion bar with centering
pivot allows for cutting circular holes
up to 960 mm diameter.
UCT-500 compact kit in heavy duty
PVC case
The compact kit contains the UCT-500
shank, the three most commonly used
welding attachments (80 ltr, 230 ltr and
650 ltr) and the cutting attachment
with nozzles for cutting up to 25 mm
steel. Cleaning needles, spanner
and full instructions for use and
maintenance are also included.
Conform to: EN /ISO 5172
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case,
Product number: 170-500000
UCT-500 Compact kit in heavy duty PVC case,
5.01
Product number: 170-500001
463
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
UCT-500 components and spares
UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case, containing complete instructions
and one each of all items marked 1) below.
UCT-500 Compact kit in PVC case containing complete instructions and one
each of all items marked 2) below.
Shank
Product No.
1)2) Shank complete w/ sockets and
non-return valves 170-174656
Welding attachments
Size*
Material thickness mm
1) 0-A 40
<0,5
1)2) 0-A 80
0.5-1.0
1)2) 0-A 2302-3
1) 0-A 400
3-5
1)2) 0-A 650
5-7
1) 0-A 1000
7-10
1) 0-A 1250
9-14
Product No.
170-174565
170-174573
170-174581
170-174599
170-174607
170-174615
170-174623
Flexible welding attachment
The attachment can be bent to any desired shape.
Size*
0-A160
Material thickness mm
Product No.
1-2
170-183780
Singleflame heating attachments
Size*
Product No.
0-A 5000
170-183756
Multiflame heating attachments
Size*
Product No.
0-A5000
170-603399
* The size indicates consumption of oxygen in nl/ h. Acetylene
consumption is approx. 10% lower. Material thickness refers
to mild steel.
5.01
464
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Cutting attachments
1)2)
Product no.:
Cutting attachments 75° Head Angle Cutting attachments 90° Head Angle Cutting attachments 0° Head Angle 170-174664
170-234807
170-234815
Cutting nozzles- general use
Nozzle
type
1)2)
1)2)
1)
1)
Material
thickness
Gas consumption
mm
OX nl/h Ac nl/h
302 No. 2
3-10
1300
302 No. 3
10-252150
302 No. 425-50
5650
302 No. 5
50-100
7800
460
520
690
810
Product no.
170-174698
170-174706
170-174714
170-174722
Cutting nozzles for difficult access, 165 mm length
Nozzle
length mm
140
Material
Gas consumption
thickness mm OX nl/h Ac nl/h
40-75
7000
800
Product no.
170-183855
Gouging nozzle with stellite tip
Furrow dimensions
Width mm
Depth mm
8-11
6-11
Gas consumption
OX nl/h
Ac nl/h
11500
1750
Product no.
170-174730
Cutting guides
Product no.
1)
1)
170-174672
Roller guide 0°–45° nozzle angle
Circular motion bar complete, 84–960 mm
holde diam. for use with roller guide
170-174680
Tools
Product no.
1)2)
1)2)
170-174649
176-175356
Spanner for UCT-500
Cleaning needles for UCT-500 nozzles
Spares for UCT-500
Product no.
Socket/ Non-return valve for shank AC, 6 mm
Socket/ Non-return valve for shank OX, 6 mm
1) 2) Socket/ Non-return valve for shank AC, 9 mm
1) 2) Socket/ Non-return valve for shank OX, 9 mm
Flashback arrestor set FR-20AC+OX, for UCT-500 shank*
Lubricant for O-rings
170-597336
170-597344
170-651265
170-651257
170-619270
170-234997
1) SPARE PART KIT COMPLETE
Containing 1 of each item below:
Oxygen valve assembly (blue)
Acetylene valve assembly (red)
0-ring set for welding/cutting attachments
Coupling nut welding/cutting attachments
Coupling screw for cutting nozzles
Clamp sleeve for roller guide
Sleeve for circular motion in roller guide
170-500100
170-174789
170-613762
170-535005
170-174771
170-174813
n.a
n.a
5.01
* Comply to EN 730-1
465
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
The Unitor workshop cabinet for Gas Cutting, Welding,
Heating and Brazing.
Gas welding cabinet complete
Gas welding cabinet empty
Product no.
094 589861
094 589846
A complete workshop for all the
gas welding, brazing and cutting
operations normally occuring onboard.
•New compact design with improved
access to contents, and ample
room for additional spares and
accessones.
•Sturdy, corrosion resistant
construction from electro-galvanized
steel plates, with final coating by
powder spraying and baking.
•Shelves are zinc/ yellow-chromate
passivated for optimal corrosion and
scratch resistance, with hardplast
protection surface for nozzles and
blowpipes.
•The door construction provides
a stable work surface for torch
assembly when open, and allows for
mounting the cabinet in corners or
narrow openings.
Contents:
Torch components:
UCT-500 shank with non-return valves,
hose sockets and hose clamps.
Welding attachments: 40, 80, 230,
400, 650, 1000 and 1250 nl/h. Cutting
attachments 900 with spare nozzle
screw and nozzles for 3–10 mm,
10–25 mm, 25–50 mm and 50–100 mm
steel thickness.
Roller guide for 0°-45° cutting angles,
with spare clamp sleeve and circular
motion bar compl. w. centre and
sleeve for 84-960 mm Diameters.
5.01
466
Dimensions: 600 x 600 x 300mm
Free distance above cabinet 310 mm.
Weight complete 56 kg.
Torch maintenance equipment
Spanner l5-, 17-, 18-, 19-, 23-and 24
mm for UCT-500. Cleaning needle set
for UCT-500 welding attachments
cutting nozzles.
Spare valve and complete 0-ring set
for UCT-500. Spare coupling nut for
welding attachments.
Welder’s accessories:
Gas goggles with lift front.
Softskin welding gloves for gas and
TIG welding.
Gas ignitor Triplex.
Double row steel wire brush.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Silver brazing:
AG-60 2.0mm 0.5 kg.
AG-45 2.0mm 0.4 kg.
One box each AG-60/45 flux for
general use and Albroflux
for use with AG-60 on Yorcalbro.
Bronze brazing:
FC Bronze 2.0mm 1.0 kg. 3.0mm 1.0 kg.
Bronze 3.0mm 4.0 kg.
FC-Wearbro 3.0mm 1.0 kg. 5.0mm
1.0 kg.
One box each of Bronzeflux and
Wearbroflux.
Cast iron joining and rebuilding:
Cast Iron, rod for braze welding 5mm
1,1kg.
One box of Cast Iron flux.
Aluminium joining:
Alumag 3.0 mm 0.5 kg and one box
Aluflux.
Tin soldering:
Tin-241 AG soft solder on spool.
1.6 mm/0.5 kg.
Mild steel/heat resistant steels:
MS 2.0 mm 3.5 kg, MS 3.0 mm 3.5 kg
and lcromo 2.5 mm 2kg.
Instructions and information:
UNITOR Welding handbook, UCT-500
instruction manual.
5.01
467
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Welding and Grinding Goggles
Lightweight goggles with soft and
comfortable surfaces against the face.
The ventilation slots are designed to
prevent entry of sparks and spatter, at
the same time ensuring sufficient air
circulation to prevent dampness and
fogging of the glasses.
The filter shade glass are mounted
in a flip-up front frame. A protection
glass must be placed in front of the
filter shade glass in order to protect
against spatter. One more protection
glass must be placed in the fixed
frame.
Product no.
Welding and grinding goggles
w/flip-up front frame
176-175273
Comply to:
DIN EN 1598:2002–04
Glasses for Gas Welding and Cutting
The Unitor gas welding glasses have a diameter
of 50mm and fit the goggles. They are available in
different grades of shade for various types of work.
All glasses comes in sets of 10 pcs.
Filter Shade Glass
Application
Filter Shade
Pcs/set
Product no.
Silver brazing
4
10
176-633305
General gas welding
and cutting
5
6
10
10
176-633313
176-633321
Gas welding and
cutting thick material
7
10
176-633354
Protection glass
10
176-633297
pcs
pcs
pcs
176-632943
176-632950
176-653410
Safety Spectacles
5.01
Safety spectacles clear
Safety spectacles shade 5
Safety grinding goggles non mist
Safety spectacles and grinding goggles comply to:
EN 166:2001
468
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Accessories
Heat Resistant Mitten
Special mitten with woven kevlar outer
layer and ample insulation against heat in
the inner layers.lt should always be kept by
acetylene cylinders and outlets to make it
possible to close the valve in case of fire.
Also suitable for handling hot workpieces.
May be used on either right or left hand.
Product no.
Heat resistant mitten
Comply to:
EN 388:2003
EN 407:2004
176-233148
Gas Welding Glows
Special soft-skin gloves which protect without
hindering feeling or move ability for handling
torch valves or rod while welding. Used for
Gas and TIG welding.
Product no.
Gas welding gloves 6 pairs/pack
Comply to:
NEN-EN 12477 type A/B
Protection:
EN 388 3232
EN 407 332222
176-632794
Triplex Gas Igniter
Easyto use, with large sparks. Three flints
mounted on head.
Product no.
Triplex gas ignitor 2 pcs/pack
Spare flint set 10 pcs/pack
176-633198
176-633206
Miscellaneous
Welders chalk is used to mark out positions
when gas and plasma cutting on metals.
The chalk is flat and can easily be kept in
pocekts and tool boxes.
Temperature sticks are a wax that melts at
a preset temperature. Simply select a stick
with the desired temperature and make a
mark on the surface to be heated. When
the stick mark goes from solid to liquid the
temperature have been reached
Product no.
Welders chalk, flat
5x13x127 144 pcs/pack
Galvanizing spray
196-632968
5.01
196-633156
469
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Portable Gas Equipment
On board large ships, or where
mobility is necessary for other
reasons, the gas cabinet and gas
supply from the gas central can be
supplemented by mobile welding and
cutting equipment.
Mobile equipment considerably
simplifies repair- and maintenance
jobs by allowing cylinders and
welding equipment to be brought to
the worksite as a unit. The necessary
equipment required for a complete
mobile workshop is built up from
Unitor standard gas accessories,
one of the two UCT-500 kits available,
and a suitable transport device for
cylinders.
Standard Accessories Kit for
Acetylene and Oxygen Cylinders
The Unitor range offers a complete
accessories kit comprising all
necessary equipment for use with
Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders.
The kit includes:
•Acetylene and Oxygen cylinder
regulators.
•Flashback arrestors.
•10 m twin hose 1/4” with clips.
•Gas ignitor
•Welding goggles.
•Gas welding gloves.
5.01
470
•Heat resistant mitten.
•Unitor Welding handbook.
Product no.
Gas accessories kit
176-526509
Portable Welding Table
This sturdy work table is made
of steel and fully galvanized for
corrosion protection. It includes a
holding clamp for small workpieces.
To ensure a stable work surface all
four legs are adjustable in length. The
legs have pointed ends to ensure high
friction and a good hull contact when
used for arc welding.
The table is excellent for use as
a welding table in workshops on
board, and in cases when it is
needed outside the workshop it is
easily transported as the legs may
be detached and fastened under the
table surface.
Dims. (WxDxH)
Dims.folded
Weight
600 x 400 x 630mm
600 x 400 x 80mm
14 kg
Product no.
Welding table
176-176024
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Gas Welding Transportable Equipment
A-40/O-40 Cylinder Trolleys
Trolley for Two 40 L or 50 L Cylinders for Mobile Gas
Welding.
This trolley is specially designed for on board use. The
sturdy but lightweight construction of steel pipes is fully
galvanized for corrosion protection. The trolley takes both
40 L and 50 L size cylinders, which are firmly secured in the
trolley by means of two clamps with wing screws. As the
weight of two full gas cylinders is approximately 150 kilos,
the trolley has been fitted with extra large rubber wheels for
easy mobility. For transport by crane the trolley is fitted with
a lifting bow. As safety in transportation and lifting of gas
cylinders is a paramount demand, the trolleys are tested and
certified according to the International Labour Office for the
test and examination of lifting gear used in the loading and
unloading of ships. The trolleys are test loaded to 400 kg,
and certified for Safe Working Load (S.W.L.) 200 kg.
Being intended to function as a complete mobile gas
welding workshop, the trolley is fitted with a large, lockable
accessories box. This box is dimensioned to take the
complete UCT-500 welding and cutting set in steel case, plus
a standard accessories kit for gas welding.
Weight of the trolley itself is 28 kg. For a complete mobile
gas welding workshop the following items should be ordered
(in addition to gas cylinders and consumables):
Description
Product no.
Trolley for A-40/0-40 cylinders
Standard gas welding accessories
UCT-500 Master kit in PVC case
176-778145
176-526509
170-500000
For One Cylinder
Unitor has also developed a trolley for transport of a single
40 I or 50 I cylinder.
The cylinder is firmly locked in place on the trolley, which is
also certified for lifting by crane.
For full information on trolley, see under “Gas distribution”.
Test load:
200 kg
Safe working load: 10 kg
Description
Product no.
Trolley for one cylinder
176-778147
5.01
471
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Gas Welding Transportable Equipment
A-5/0-5 Cylinder - Trolley and BackFrame
The Unitor A-5/0-5 trolley is the basis for
a small but efficient portable welding
and cutting workshop. It is specially
designed by Unitor for on board use, and
has a low center of gravity which will
keep it standing upright even at 30° out
of vertical with all equipment mounted.
The strong lightweight steel construction
is hot zinc coated for high corrosion
resistance. It is fitted with solid rubber
wheels for easy transport. Handles at
top and bottom ensure easy carrying and
lifting. Two double brackets for Unitor
rod containers give the possibility to
include a selection of four different rod
types when transporting.
The UCT-500 compact kit may be placed
in a holder on top of the trolley and the
accessories box at the back will take all
other necessary equipment for work.
A double bracket with wing nut ensures
safe and vibration-free fastening of 5
litre Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders.
For a complete, portable welding
workshop the following items should
be ordered (in addition to 5 litre
gas cylinders and the consumables
required):
Description
Product no.
Unitor A-5/0-5 trolley
176-778143
Standard gas welding
accessories
176-526509
UCT-500 compact kit in PVC case 170-500001
Also available for transport of 5 litre
cylinders are the back-frame and the
portable rack.
5.01
Description
Product no.
Back-frame for 5 litre cylinders 176-176040
Portable rack for 5 litre cylinders 176-176032
472
The trolley is tested and certified
according to the international
labour office for testing and
examination of lifting gear used in
loading and unloading of ships.
Test load:
100 kg
Safe working load: 50 kg
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Gas Hoses
UNITOR’s hoses for Acetylene and
Oxygen are specially made for use with
welding and cutting equipment. The
hoses comply with the International
norm ISO 3821 specifications for
welding hose:
for welding gases. Blow new hoses
clean internally before connecting to
blowpipes. Nitrogen or another inert
gas should be preferred to blow through
Acetylene and Oxygen hoses. Never use
compressed air, which may contain oil.
Requirements:
Keep hoses away from strong heat and
extreme cold, oil and grease, chemicals,
and from slag and sparks from electric
welding, gas welding or Oxygen cutting.
Avoid undue stretching and kinking
of hoses. Hanging hoses must be
supported at suitable intervals.
Maximum working pressure20 bar
Test pressure
40 bar
Minimum bursting pressure 60 bar
Oxygen hoses are colour-coded blue.
Acetylene hoses are colour-coded red.
Unitor’s product range comprises the
following hose dimensions:
NB: Gas hoses are measured on their
internal diameter.
Description
Twin gas hoses, blue/red
Twin gas hoses, blue/red
Gas hose, red
Gas hose, blue
Gas hose, red
Gas hose, blue
Gas hose, black
6mm (1/4)
AC + OX/m 9,0 mm (3/8”)
AC + OX/m 6,3 mm (1/4”)
Acetylene/m 6,3 mm (1/4”)
Oxygen/m 9,0 mm (3/8”)
Acetylene/m 9,0 mm (3/8”)
Oxygen/m 6,3 mm (1/4”)
Argon/m
When gas hoses are not in use they
must be coiled and hung up so as to
avoid, as far as possible, the entry of
damp or dirt.
Product no.
Faulty hoses
176-526434
Inspect hoses at regular intervals.
Hoses of doubtful quality or condition
should be scrapped.
176-624312
176-175554
176-175562
176-175539
176-175547
176-576157
6 mm (1/4”), hose is adequate for the
gas consumption for all blowpipes
and cutting nozzles in the welding and
cutting set UCT-500.
Normal hose lengths are 5 or 10 meters.
If long hoses or equipment requiring
greater gas flows than 8.000 nI/h
(normal liters per hour) are used, 9 mm
(3/8”) hoses are recommended. For
medium and large gas consumption
the supply pressure must be increased
when longer hoses and/or smaller hose
diameters are used.
Do not use hoses that have been
damaged by flashback or hose fires.
Check that the rubber is supple and
without cracks (do this by bending the
hose).
Check the hoses for leakage by dipping
them in water while they are under
normal pressure. Hoses must never
be repaired by patching. Repair a leak
immediately by cutting off the damaged
part.
The drum for gas hoses takes up to
approximately 100 m. of twin hose and
is fitted with brackets for bulkhead
mounting.
Description
Drum for gas hose
Product no.
195-175729
5.01
Do not use gas hoses for other
purposes, e.g. for compressed air or
propane, and do not use air hoses
473
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Self-retracting Hose Reel for Acetylene and Oxygen
For safety, tidiness and reduced wear
and tear
180
157
150
125
Ø13
(x4)
650
The handling of hoses cluttering the
workshop floor is awkward and a
waste of time. Self-Retracting hose
reels let you pull out the required
length of hose and store the rest out
of harms way. This saves time, makes
the job easier and contributes to
increased efficiency.
A workshop floor free from hoses
reduces tripping accidents, improves
access for carts and trolleys and
allows for easier cleaning.
Ø620
The Unitor Self-Retaining hose reel
are of robust construction, it is easy
to installed, and have a well proven
design that vouches for safe and
maintenance free usage
220
Single-layer retraction of the hose
Open design for safety and easy
service
All steel construction
Technical data
Medium
5.01
474
Oxygen/
Acetylene
Max working
pressure
Mpa (psi)
Hose dimensions
Hose size
mm
Length
m
2.0 (290) 2X6,320
Net weight
Including hose Product no.
Kg
30
176-725260
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
5.01
475
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Hose connectors
Hose connectors have loose hose
nipples for 9 mm (3/8”) and 6 mm
(1/4”) welding hose. The connecting
nuts on the Oxygen couplings are
right-hand threaded. The Acetylene
couplings are left-hand threaded and
the connecting nut has an indentation
in the corners of the hexagon for easy
identification. This is international
practice, and gives the operator extra
protection by reducing the possibility
of interchanging hoses.
Right-hand threads
Left-hand threads
Connecting nut, right-hand threads
Connecting nut, left-hand threads
Hose nipple, 9,0 mm (3/8”)
Hose nipple, 6,3 mm (1/4”)
hoses – never use metal
tubing.
Hose connectors are used where long
lengths of hose are needed. Screw
the couplings together into a gastight
joint (check with soapy water). It is
not necessary to use force. Gentle
tightening spares the sealing surfaces
and should give a perfectly gastight
connection.
There are also snap-couplings for
quick connection of hoses and
regulators, or outlet stations, or to
join lengths of hose. Such snapcouplings must be specially made
for use with Oxygen and Acetylene,
and so designed that the interchange
of Acetylene and Oxygen hose is
impossible.
Always use the correct hose
couplings to connect the welding
Ear clamps offer a better and safer solution comparred to screw type mounting
hoses. In some countries the use of screw type (worm type/jubilee clips) is not
allowed. Ear clamps are than the alternative product.
Screw-couplings for Gas Hoses
The screw-couplings are supplied in
sets. Each set consists of two hose
sockets with nuts for connection to
gas regulator and torch. Included
is also a connection stub for using
the set as a hose joint. Nuts and
connection stub for Acetylene are
lefthand threaded and marked with a
groove.
Material is high-grade brass.
5.01
476
Description
Hose joint for 6,3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene hose
Hose joint for 6,3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen hose
Hose jointfor 9,0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene hose
Hose joint for 9,0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen hose
Ear clamp for 6.3 mm (1/4") hose, set of 20 pcs
Ear clamp for 9 mm (3/8") hose, set of 20 pcs
Pincher tool for ear clamps
Hose clamp for 1/4” hose, set of 10 pcs
Hose clamp for 3/8” hose, set of 10 pcs
Product no.
176-175588
176-175596
176-175604
176-175612
401-768416
401-768432
401-768507
401-729442
401-729443
Use good hose clips, not metal wire, to fix hose to
nipples.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Unitor Quick Connect Couplings.
The quick couplings are designed for use on the cylinder regulators/
flashback arrestor and on the outlet stations, ensuring quick and
gas-tight connection of the hoses without the use of tools.
Accidental connection of wrong gas is prevented by the different
design of the male/female connection for Acetylene and Oxygen. In
addition the connecting sleeves are colour-coded red and blue.
By disconnecting the side towards the regulator automatically shuts
off the gas flow.
Conform to: ISO 7289 and EN 561 except the construction clause.
Certified to EN/ISO 9001: 2008
Description
Product no.
Quick coupling SG-1666 for 6,3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene hose
Quick coupling S6-1676 for 6,3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen hose
Quick coupling SG-16B8 for 9,0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene hose Quick coupling S6-1878 for 9,0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen hose
176-320218
176-320192
176-320200
176-320184
Lubricants for gas fittings
IMPORTANT:
Oil, grease or other organic lubricants
must NEVER be used for the lubrication
of fittings that come into contact with
oxygen. Explosion hazard!
If needed, use only special lubricants
for use in pure Oxygen.
If these lubricants thicken after long
storage they must be thinned only
with the thinners specified on the
label. Never use White Spirit, oil or
the like to thin lubricating paste.
5.01
477
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Gas Regulators for Cylinders
The purpose of a pressure regulator
is to reduce gas pressure, e.g. the
pressure in a gas cylinder, to a
suitable working pressure and to keep
this as constant as possible.
Unitor gas regulators are designed
for reliability and safety of use, and
for sufficient capacity for all normally
occuring purposes, providing a
constant flow of gas.
The large adjustment knobs are colour
coded red for Acetylene, blue for
Oxygen and black for Argon, for easy
identification of gas type.
All regulators are delivered with spare
washers, hose connection for 6 mm
(1/4”) and 9 mm (3/8”) gas hoses and
full instructions for use.
The connection to cylinder valves fit
standard Unitor gas cylinder valves.
A sturdy one-piece manometer guard
is available, and fits all the regulators.
All the cylinder regulators have safety
valves that protect the gas hoses from
excessive pressure.
Conform to: EN/ISO 2503
Cylinder Regulator for
Acetylene
Oxygen
Max. inlet pressure
Outlet pressure
Safety valve opens at
Max. capacity
Max. capacity
bar
bar
bar
m3/h
l/h
Cylinder connection
Colour coding
Product number, regulator R-510
5.01
478
Argon/CO2
w/flow meter
15200200
0-2,5
0-16
0-35I/min.
3–4
12–14
6,0-7,8
5
402
5000
40 0002000
3/4”BSP
Red 171-510001
W21.8x1/14”24.32x 1/14”
Blue
Black
171-510000
Gauge guard for cylinder regulators
171-619379
Spare contents gauge w. gasket
Spare working gauge w. gasket
Cylinder connection washer (10pcs)
171-550178
171-550194
171-550160
171-550186
171-550202
171-550152
197-510010
171-550178
171-550210
171-550160
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Connection
Operation
1.Never use a regulator for gases
or pressures for which it was not
designed. Before connecting up,
make sure that the outlet union
on the cylinder valve and the
connector of the regulator fit each
other. Never force a connection
that does not fit.
2.Before connecting the regulator to
the gas cylinder, blow the cylinder
valve clean by opening it for a
moment. Do not stand in front of the
outlet or hold your hand in front of
it whilst blowing it clean. Valves of
cylinders containing flammable gases
must never be blown clean if there is
any risk of ignition of the gas.
3.Check the inlet union gasket and
replace it if it is damaged. Make
sure to use original gaskets and not
home made ones, which may be a
source of danger.
4.Screw the regulator to the cylinder
valve. Use a thick spanner to avoid
damaging the connection nut.
5.Between an Acetylene or Oxygen
regulator and the hoses in use a
flashback arrestor should always
be installed.
1.Make sure that the regulator is
closed by turning the regulating
screw so far out that it runs freely
on its threads.
2.Open the cylinder valve slowly until
the contents pressure gauge shows
the cylinder pressure (the working
pressure gauge should not move).
Then open the cylinder valve fully.
3.Set the desired working pressure
by turning the regulating screw
inwards until the correct working
pressure can be read on the
working pressure gauge. For
correct pressure see the operating
instructions for the torch you are
using.
4.During interruptions, or when
finishing work, close the cylinder
valve. Relieve the pressures on the
regulator until both gauges show
zero.
5.Shut the regulator by turning the
regulating screw outwards until it
runs freely on its threads.
NOTE:
Regulators and other equipment for Oxygen must never be lubricated with
ordinary oil or grease, as this brings the risk of explosion. Use only the lubricants
prescribed by the manufacturer. If a pressure gauge does not register zero when
the pressure is released, or it has other defects, it must be replaced.
Check all connections for leakage by covering with soapy water or the like.
As a rule, such leaks can be stopped by carefully tightening the screwed
connection at the point in question. If not, the seal or the complete part must
be replaced.
Apart from replacing damaged or faulty gauges, repairs should never be
attempted on gas regulators. Faulty, old or corroded regulators should be
replaced. Internal seals and membranes will deteriorate with time, and as a
rule gas regulators should be replaced with maximum 5 years intervals. This
also applies to flashback arrestors.
5.01
479
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Flashback
Flashback is a phenomenon that
may occur when, for some reason
or other, the speed of combustion at
one or more places in the flame hole
becomes greater than the speed of
gas flow, allowing the flame to burn
back into the blowpipe. The degree of
safety against flashback in a blowpipe
depends on its design.
Various types of flashback:
1) A Backfire implies that the flame burns back into
the torch with a sharp bang. Either the flame is
extinguished, or it is reignited at the nozzle opening. A
backfire is fairly harmless in itself, but it can be a sign
of some fault in the equipment or gas supply.
2) In a Sustained Backfire the flame bums back into
the torch with continued burning in the mixer, often
at the mixing point itself. A sustained backfire is
characterised by an initial bang (backfire) followed by
a whistling or screeching sound from the continued
combustion. If the sustained backfire is not quickly
interrupted, melting will occur in the torch, and
escaping combustion products can cause injuries.
3) Flashback implies that the flame
burns back through the torch and into
the gas supply system, i.e. the hoses
and in the worst cases even the
regulators. If a flashback reaches an
Acetylene cylinder, which lacks the
necessary safety equipment a serious
accident can occur. Flashback is
mostly caused by reverse flow, e.g.
flow of oxygen into the Acetylene
hose, so that an explosive mixture is
present in the hose. This mixture can
then be ignited by a backfire, which
occurs when the torch is lit. The hose
will then explode.
Handling of blowpipes in the event of
flashback:
In the event of sustained backfire the
oxygen valve of the blowpipe must be
shut first, then the Acetylene valve.
Shut them as quickly as possible.
Sustained backfire is the result
of incorrect handling and/or poor
maintenance of the blow pipe. Before
re-lighting after a sustained backfire
the blowpipe must be cooled. Under
no circumstances should welding or
cutting be continued before both the
equipment and the handling routines
have been checked thoroughly.
A full fashback occurs only from very
faulty handling, bad maintenance
of the blowpipe or by wrongly set
working pressure.
A backfire (popping) can easily occur
if the flamehole is dirty or damaged
– see separate chapter on
maintenance of blowpipes.
5.01
Flashback can result in the hose exploding, and/or catching fire. In extreme cases, the regulator may catch fire.
480
To protect against a full flashback and
the dangers this entails, the welding
equipment should be fitted with
flashback arrestors and non-return
valves.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Flashback Arrestors
Flashback Arrestors Type W-66S and
S-55
Maritime authorities, such as the
Norwegian Maritime Directorate,
require the installation of flashback
arrestors for acetylene and oxygen,
as incorrect maintenance or use of
gas welding equipment may cause
flashbacks of various types.Normally
these will stop in a well designed
torch, and are only noticed as a
popping sound in the torch. However,
faulty handling, maintenance or
gas pressure setting may lead to a
penetrating flashback. This means
that the gas flame passes back
through the hose(s). In some cases
it may also pass the regulator and
ultimately reach the cylinder. The
flashback arrestors supplied by Unitor
are designed for use both with gas
cylinders and gas outlet stations and
incorporate several safety functions:
• Indicator lever showing that the
pressure activated cut-off has been
activated. The lever is also used for
resetting the flashback arrestor.
(W-66 only)
• Indicator ring showing that the
pressure activated cutt-off has been
activated. The ring is also used for
resetting the flashback arrestor
(S55 only)
Conform to: EN 730/ISO 5175
BAM Certification No: ZBF/009/12
Full instructions for use are supplied
with the units.
Description
Capacity (m3/hour)
Capasity
At inlet
(l/hour) pressure (bar) Product no.
W-66S f/Acetylene 19  19 000
W-66S f/Oxygen
110
110 000
S55 f/Acetylene
8,5   8 500
S55 f/Oxygen
50  50 000
1,5
10
1,5
10
171 183970
171 302976
171 708537
171 708545
• Non-return valve preventing reverse
flow of gases, thereby preventing a
gas mixture from reaching pipelines
or cylinders.
• Flame filter to quench the flame front
of a flashback or a burnback.
• Temperature activated cut-off to
prevent further gas supply in case
of fire (activated if the temperature
rises to approx. 100°C).
• Pressure activated cut-off to prevent
further gas supply after a flashback
(activated by the pressure shock in
front of the flashback).
• Pressure relief valve to vent off
excessive pressure in case of
flashback or wrongly set working
pressure (on W-66S only).
5.01
Type W-66S
Type S55
481
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
The Acetylene/Oxygen Flame
A correct Acetylene/oxygen flame
from a cutting nozzle or blowpipe is
dependent on correct gas pressure
being supplied to the torch. Inaccurate
regulators or long gas hoses may
result in pressure deviations that gives
wrong pressure to the torch. In such
cases the actual pressure at the torch
connection should be checked. Too
low gas pressures may give a gas
flow which is slower than the flame
velocity of the gas mixture. This can
cause the flame to burn backwards
into the nozzle opening and accelerate
through the gas channels, resulting in
flashback.
Too high gas pressures may cause the
flame to leave the nozzle tip, starting
at the distance from the tip where the
gas flow has slowed down to match
the flame velocity.
If the gas pressure is too high it may
be difficult or impossible to ignite a
flame.
The correct Acetylene/Oxygen flame
shall be a quiet stable flame, burning
close to the nozzle tip, but well away
from the point where flashbacks may
occur.
NOTE!
The Acetylene/Oxygen flame uses the
oxygen supplied from the nozzle for
the primary reaction taking place in
the inner cone
(C2H2+O2 → 2C0+H2+Heat).
In the flame envelope a secondary
reaction takes place
(2C0+H2+O2 → +2C02+H2 0+Heat).
This reaction needs as much Oxygen
as the primary reaction, but the
required Oxygen is taken from the
surrounding air. Therefore always
ensure proper ventilation when
working with the Acetylene/Oxygen
flame.
The neutral flame
5.01
482
Two distinct zones may be seen in the neutral flame. The inner cone of the
flame has a bright blue light and extends only a short distance from the tip.
Around this inner cone is the flame envelope which is darker and less intensely
blue. This flame is metallurgically neutral, and is used for heating, cutting and
for most steel welding work.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
The carburizing flame
The carburizing flame has an excess
of Acetylene, and is recognized by a
secondary flame zone between the
inner cone and the flame envelope.
This zone is less bright and more
white in colour than the inner cone,
but is considerably brighter than the
flame envelope.
When igniting an Ac/Ox torch one
normally opens fully for Acetylene
and only slightly for Oxygen, obtaining
a strongly carburizing flame. By
adding Oxygen (and if necessary
reducing the Acetylene flow) the
secondary zone will be reduced, and
a neutral flame is obtained just as the
secondary zone dissappears.
Reducing the Oxygen flow slightly
again will give a carburizing flame
with a small secondary flame zone,
approximately twice as long as the
inner cone. This soft flame (also
called a reducing flame) is used for
welding of Aluminium and Aluminium
alloys, and for soft soldering.
The oxidizing flame
By increasing the Oxygen flow
slightly beyond the point where the
secondary zone disappears one will
obtain an oxidizing flame (with excess
Oxygen). The flame will be shorter
and sharper than the
neutral flame, with a shorter, more
pointed inner cone. This flame is
slightly hotter than the neutral flame,
and is used for welding cast iron,
brass, bronze and zinc alloys, and for
brazing.
5.01
483
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Operating instructions for Cutting Torch
a.All valves are shut at the
commencement of work: Cylinder
valves (1 and 2) are shut, the
regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4)
are screwed so far out that they run
freely on their threads, and all torch
valves(5, 6, 7 and 8) are closed.
i. Press down the cutting Oxygen
lever (8) and readjust to normal
flame by means of the valve for
preheating Oxygen (7). The torch is
now ready for cutting. NB. When
cutting, the torch Oxygen needle
valve must be kept fully open.
b.Select the cutting nozzle (9) to
suit the type and thickness of the
workpiece. The required nozzle
and working pressure for mild steel
when using 6 mm (1/4”) hoses 10 m
long are given in the cutting table.
Other materials and hoses may
require other nozzles and working
pressures than those given in the
table.
j. In the event of sustained backfire,
which is recognized by a whistling
or hissing sound, first close the
valve for preheating Oxygen (7) as
quickly as possible, releasing the
cutting Oxygen valve lever (8) at
the same time. Then shut the torch
Acetylene needle valve (6).
c.Slowly open the cylinder valves for
Oxygen (1) and Acetylene (2).
d.Fully open the torch Oxygen
needle valve (5) and the valve for
preheating Oxygen (7). Then press
the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8),
and adjust the working pressure
by means of the Oxygen regulator
adjusting screw (3).
e.Release the cutting Oxygen valve
lever (8) and shut the valve for
preheating Oxygen (7).
f. Fully open the torch Acetylene
needle valve (6), and adjust the
working pressure by means of the
Acetylene regulator setting screw
(4).
g.Slightly open the preheating Oxygen
valve (7) to provide a little extra
Oxygen to prevent troublesome
sooting when the torch is lit.
5.01
484
h.Light the torch and adjust to
neutral flame, using the valve for
preheating Oxygen (7).
k.The torch is normally extinguished
by first closing the torch Acetylene
needle valve (6) and then the valve
for preheating Oxygen (7). Finally,
relieve the pressure in the hoses
and close all valves.
Important
I. After finishing work, release the
pressure in the hoses by closing
the cylinder valves (1 and 2) and
empty one hose at a time, keeping
the torch needle valve for the other
gas shut. Finally, make sure that all
torch valves are shut, and unscrew
the regulator adjusting screws (3
and 4) so far that they run freely on
their threads.
2.Check the sealing rings at regular
intervals for damage, deformation
or wear. Replace them if they are
defective. To facilitate changes
of torch or cutter tips, the sealing
rings and sealing surfaces in the
torch connection head should
be lightly smeared with a special
lubricant.
Oil or grease must never be used.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Cutting table – UCT-500
Material thickness, mm
3-10
Distance to core tip2
Acetylene pressure bar
Oxygen pressure bar
Product No.
10-2525-50
3
50-100
5
5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3-0.8
1.0-2.5
1.5-4.0
1.5-4.0
3.0-6.0
170-174698
170-174706
170-174714
170-174722
Cutting nozzle, type no.
A 311-2
A 311-3
A 311-4
A 311-5
Gas consumption l/h Ox
1600
3600
6800
7800-14100
Gas consumption l/h Ac
300
400
500
700
950-430
580-350
500-300
380-180
Cutting speed mm/min
Table for groove-cutter (Unitor Product No. 174730)
Dimensions of groove
in mm
Width
8-11
Depth
6-11
Working pressure
Oxygen Acetylene
5.7
0.5
Gas consumption ltr./hr.
Oxygen
11500
Acetylene
1750
5.01
485
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Cutting Procedure
Oxygen cutting is a process in which
mild steel burns (oxidizes) in oxygen.
It is not a melting process. The workpiece is heated up to approximately
900 °C, – after which oxygen is
applied, which burns (cuts) mild steel.
When cutting, it is important to move
the cutting torch nozzle evenly. This is
most easily done, by starting the cut as
far away from you as practicable. Then
bring the cutting torch towards you.
Starting the cut from an edge
1.Direct the preheating flame against
the starting point at the edge of the
plate. Keep the flame cores 2–3 mm
above the steel plate and preheat
until the steel is brightly red hot.
2.Move the torch tip slightly off the
edge of the plate to ensure that the
cutting Oxygen jet passes the edge
of the plate.
Open slowly but fully for the cutting
Oxygen by depressing the cutting
Oxygen lever. Keep the nozzle at the
distance from the plate indicated in
the cutting table (2­–5 mm) and move
the nozzle onto the plate.
3.Guide the torch steadily along the
line to be cut. Use a cutting speed
within the limits given in the cutting
table and ensure that the slag blows
through completely resulting in a
steady stream of sparks downwards
from the bottom of the cut.
Methods for improving cuts
5.01
486
A piece of angle iron can be
clamped to the plate being cut.
The angle iron can be used to
guide the torch for both square
and bevel cuts.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Starting a cut by piercing
1.Direct the preheating flame against
the starting point. Keep the flame
cores 4 - 5 mm above the steel
plate and preheat until the steel is
red to white hot.
2.Lift the nozzle to approximately
12–20 mm above the surface. Open
slowly for the cutting oxygen.
Make sure that spatter of molten
metal does not reach the nozzle
tip, if necessary by inclining the
torch slightly so that the sparks fly
sideways.
3.With the cutting oxygen lever fully
depressed lower the nozzle as the
cutting jet pierces the plate. Keep
the nozzle at correct distance from
the plate (see cutting table) and
proceed in the direction to be cut.
Cutting guide
In order to ensure smooth cutting in steel plate the guide for UCT-500 should be
used. In this guide the torch may be used in any angle between 90° and 45° to
the surface. By using the sleeve for free
movement of the nozzle in the guide and
attaching the circular motion bar with
center tip complete circles with radius
42 to 480 mm may be cut.
Guide for UCT-500
cutting torch
5.01
Circular motion bar
487
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Common cutting faults
A.A correct cut shall give square
corners and a smooth cut surface
without pronounced cut gouges.
B.Too low cutting speed or too low
cutting oxygen pressure will give
a rounded top edge and uneven
surface with gouges in the lower
part of the cut.
C.Too high cutting speed will give an
uneven top edge, pronounced drag
lines in the surface and a rounded
lower edge.
D.Too long distance between nozzle
and plate will give a melted and
rounded top edge and cutback in
upper part of the surface. Lower
part will be smooth and bottom
edge sharp.
E.Too short distance between nozzle
and plate will give melted, rounded
top edge, surface and the bottom
edge will be acceptable, or in some
cases with pronounced drag lines.
F. Too high oxygen cutting pressure or
contaminated cutting oxygen hole in
the nozzle will give slightly rounded
upper edge and pronounced
cutback in upper part of the
surface.
5.01
488
G.Too strong preheating flame will
give a melted and rounded upper
edge and pronounced cutback
down through the surface,
contaminated with slag and melted
steel.
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
5.01
489
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Operating Instructions For UCT-500 Brazing, Welding and
Heating Torch
a All valves are shut at the
commencement of work: Cylinder
valves (1 and 2) are shut, the
regulator adjusting screws (3 and
4) are screwed so far out that they
run freely on their threads and both
torch needle valves (5 and 6) are
closed.
b.Select your blowpipe (10) to suit the
type and thickness of workpiece.
The required blowpipe and working
pressure for mild steel when using
6 mm (1/4”) hoses 10 m in length
are given in the welding table.
The working pressures relate to
medium-strength flame.
c.Slowly open the cylinder valves for
Oxygen (1) and Acetylene (2).
d.Fully open the torch Oxygen needle
valve (5) and adjust the working
pressure by means of the Oxygen
regulator adjusting screw (3).
e.Shut the torch Oxygen valve (5).
f. Fully open the torch Acetylene
needle valve (6), and adjust the
working pressure by means of
the Acetylene regulator adjusting
screw (4).
g.Slightly open the torch Oxygen
needle valve (5) to provide a
little extra Oxygen to prevent
troublesome sooting when the
torch lightening lit.
5.01
490
h.Hold the torch so that the nozzle
points away from flammable
objects. Light the torch, and adjust
to desired flame characteristic by
means of the torch Oxygen needle
valve (5). The torch is now ready for
use.
i. In the event of sustained backfire,
which is recognized by a whistling
or hissing sound, first close the
torch Oxygen needle valve (5)
as quickly as possible, then the
Acetylene needle valve (6).
j. The torch is normally extinguished
by first closing the torch Acetylene
needle valve (6) and then the torch
Oxygen needle valve (5). Finally,
relieve the pressure in the hoses
and close all valves.
Important
1.After finishing work, release the
pressure in the hoses by closing
the cylinder valves (1 and 2) and
empty one hose at a time, keeping
the torch needle valve for the other
gas shut. Finally, make sure that all
torch valves are shut, and unscrew
the regulator adjusting screws (3
and 4) so far that they run freely on
their threads.
2.Check the sealing rings at regular
intervals for damage, deformation
or wear. Replace them if they are
defective. To facilitate changes
of torch or cutter tips, the sealing
rings and sealing surfaces in the
torch connection head should
be lightly smeared with a special
lubricant.
Oil or grease must never be used.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Select the correct blowpipe to suit the
thickness and size of material to be
welded. Adjust the working pressure
for one gas at a time. To adjust the
working pressure, open the torch
needle valve so that the gas can flow
freely during adjustment.
Table for welding, brazing, heating
Working pressure and gas consumption for Unitor UCT-500
<0.5
0.52
3
5
Material thickness, mm
1
3
5
7
Product No.
Major welding and
brazing jobs
(heating torch)
174565 174573 174581 174599 174607 174615 174623 174631
Size of welding attachment
40
80230
400
650
1000
1250
1800
Acetylene pressure bar
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Oxygen pressure
bar
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Gas consumption
litre per hour
Ox
Ac
40
39
80230
73209
400
364
650
591
1000
909
1250
1136
1800
1636
5.01
491
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Maintenance of Blowpipes
Clean the flame and cutting oxygen
holes with Unitor cleaning drills.
These should run freely in the holes.
Do not twist them, just stick them
straight in and pull them out.
Never use steel wire, reamers or
spiral drills for cleaning. These can
ruin the smooth surfaces of the hole.
It is very important that the small
holes in the sealing end of the cutting
nozzles should not be enlarged in any
way.
Torches and cutting nozzles may be
carefully cleaned externally by means
of a soft brass brush. Do not use a
steel brush.
Grinding blowpipes and cutting
nozzles
If the end of a welding or cutting
nozzle has been damaged, it can be
repaired, by grinding the surface
against fine emery paper placed on
a flat surface. The correct flame and
an even flow of cutting oxygen can be
obtained only by keeping the edges
of the holes sharp and at right angles
to the axis of the passages. A nozzle
hole with an uneven edge or widened
orifice will also increase the risk of
backfire.
5.01
492
Welding blowpipes are so made that
the length of the nozzle holes can be
shortened by grinding off up to 3 times
the hole diameter without the flame
becoming smaller than that of a new
burner. Thus a cylindrical part will
always be left having a length at least
equal to the diameter of the hole. It
ought not to be shorter than this, to
avoid backfire (popping). On cutting
nozzles up to approximately 4mm of
material may be removed.
Grinding down the nozzle end of
a blowpipe
WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
5.01
493
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Heating Techniques
The Acetylene/Oxygen flame
is frequently used for heating
workpieces onboard, whether it is for
preheating/postheating in combination
with welding processes or for
heating steel for bending or forming.
A normal welding flame or a normal
flame from special multiflame heating
attachments may be used. No special
techniques are required except the
need to be careful not to overheat and
weaken parts. There is, however, one
area of heating that needs special
know-how, the straightening of steel
constructions.
Beside purely mechanical methods,
straightening is largely performed
with a welding flame. This is a
convenient method, normally
demanding no other equipment than
ordinary gas welding equipment.
However, you need a good knowledge
of how the work reacts to heating and
cooling, and how the shrinkage forces
should be exploited in straightening.
The steadily growing use of welding
calls for an economical method
of dealing with the deformations,
which often arise in welded steel
constructions.
Also, heat should not be applied to a
spot that has been heated previously,
as this can cause deterioration.
In flame straightening, the
temperature should not exceed 550–
600 °C. The work should be allowed to
cool slowly, especially in the case of
high tensile steel.
When heat is applied as shown in the sketch, the heated part has a tendency to
expand. As longitudinal expansion is prevented by the surrounding cold metal, a
convexity is created in the heated part.
On cooling, the heated metal contracts, with the result that the end of the
section moves upwards.
5.01
494
Section bars are normally straightenened with the help of heating wedges, as
shown above. On the next page we will give some guidelines on how to apply
these heating wedges.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Flame straightening techniques
Angle bars, straightening in flange
direction
Only heat the horizontal flange and
start at the arrow head 1.
Angle bars, straightening in web
direction
Heat both flanges, first no. 1 starting
at the arrow head, and then no. 2.
T-bars, straightening in flange
direction.
Only heat the horizontal flange and
start at arrow head 1.
5.01
495
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
T-bars, straightening in web direction
Heat both flanges, first no. 1 starting
at the arrow head, and then no. 2.
T-bars, straightening the web
sideways
Heat both flanges, first no.1 starting
at the arrow head, and then no. 2.
U-girders, straightening in flanges
direction
Heat both flanges at the same time,
starting from the arrow heads 1.
U-girders, straightening the web
sideways
5.01
496
First heat the web no. 1, starting at
the arrow head, and then flange no. 2.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Welding Techniques
After lighting the torch, adjust the
flame until it has the characteristics
required for the operation to be
undertaken.
A normal flame is used for welding all
types of steel, and copper.
A flame with a slight surplus of
Acetylene is used for welding
Aluminium.
A flame with an excess of Oxygen
is used for welding cast iron, brass,
bronze and zinc alloys, and for
brazing.
It is important to adjust welding
flame correctly for the material to be
welded. Flame types are given under
the descriptions of the various filler
materials.
Leftward welding
In gas welding, the joined edges of
the workpiece melt and fuse, with or
without filler material.
Welding can be either leftward og
rightward technique. The direction
of weld is selected according to the
thickness of the material. Rightward
welding requires more expertise,
and welders with limited experience
are therefore recommended to use
leftward welding, which is the simpler
method. In either case, make sure
that the weld penetrates completely
and evenly on the reverse side of the
material with no imperfections.
NB. Correct alignment of the
workpieces is essential to a good
joint.
Rightward welding
5.01
497
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Leftward welding
When the filler rod is held in front of
the torch in the welding direction,
this is called leftward welding. The
welding flame points away from the
finished weld. Leftward welding is
used for sheet thicknesses up to 3–4
mm and for thinwalled pipes. When
welding cast iron and non-ferrous
metals, such as aluminium and
brass, always weld leftward. Brazing
should also be performed using this
technique.
Vertical leftward welding
Sheet steel up to 2.5 mm thick can be
welded by vertical leftward welding.
Horizontal leftward welding
Adjust the equipment for the correct
flame. Move the torch with a slight
rotational movement to melt both
edges of the workpiece. Do not
hold the torch too far away from
the workpiece. (The core of the
flame should be 2-3 mm from the
workpiece). When the material begins
to melt, feed the filler rod into the
weld pool with small movements,
and welding is in process. Make sure
to find the right speed. The metal
on each side of the seam must melt
before the filler rod is fed into the
weld pool.
Weld in the same manner as for
horizontal welding.
Vertical leftward welding, filler rod
angles:
5.01
498
Material thickness 1.0–1.5 mm 30°
Material thickness 1.5–3.0 mm 30°–60°
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Rightward welding
Rightward welding
In rightward welding, the filler rod
follows the torch in the direction
of the weld. Rightward welding is
recommended for the joining of sheet
metal and plate of more than 3–4 mm
in thickness and for pipe welding.
With rightward welding, the risk of
tensions in the workpiece is less than
in the case of leftward welding.
Rightward welding is used for
material thicknesses from 4 mm and
up. The filler rod follows the torch in
the welding direction.
Horizontal rightward welding
Start on the left-hand side of the
workpiece and weld from left to right.
Move the torch in the direction of
weld and feed the filler rod with small
rotating movements. The blowpipe
must not be moved sideways. It is
easier to handle the rod if it is bent
as shown in the drawing. See also
horizontal leftward welding.
Vertical rightward welding and
rightward overhead welding.
Vertical rightward welding
This is used for material thicknesses
from 4 mm and up.
5.01
The principle is the same as for
horizontal rightward welding.
499
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Butt Joints for Gas Welding of Steel
(T = thickness of workpiece)
2–3 mm
1.5–2 mm
Up to 1.5 mm
1–2 mm
Flange butt joint
Open square butt joint
60°
Over 3 mm
Up to 2 mm
0–1 mm
Close square butt joint
5.01
500
1–2 mm
Single V-butt joint w/feather edge
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Consumables and parameters for Gas Welding
MS-200
Description
Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed structural steel with a carbon content
of less than 0.2 %
Packaging data: Diameter
Mm
Length
mm
Rods
Net weight
Product no.
per package per package kg per package
2.0
500280
3.5
092-539551
500
3.5
092-539569
3.0
125
Flux: No flux required
Neutral
ALUMAG-235
Description
Gas welding rod for wrought and cast aluminium alloys containing up to 5 %
Mg. Generally it can be used for all cast alloys containing magnesium as the
main alloying element.
Packaging data: Diameter
Mm
Length
mm
3
500
Rods
Net weight
Product no.
per package per package kg per package
47
0.5
092-514265
Flux: Aluflux 234 F, 250 gram container.
Product no. 092-603043
Slight
acetylene
surplus
Detailed information on these consumables to be found under the section
Consumables.
5.01
501
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Soldering and Brazing Techniques
Soldering and brazing are thermal
fusion processes for joining metals.
The processes are related to welding,
but whereas both filler material
and workpiece surfaces are melted
in welding, only the filler material
is melted in soldering and brazing
processes.
The filler material will always have a
lower melting temperature than the
material to be joined.
When heated, it will reach melting
temperature range, liquefy and
with the help of the flux spread
out and bind to the surfaces of the
workpieces. This bond is a result of
the filler material’s ability to “wet” the
workpiece. In this process there is a
very faint alloying zone between the
melted filler material and the base
material. When the filler solidifies it
will stick firmly to the base material.
Fluxes
5.01
502
of the liquified alloy so that it can
spread uniformly, ensuring good
wetting of the base material.
The dissolving ability of the fluxes is
limited and they cannot be heated
for any period of time. The soldering/
brazing time should, therefore not
exceed 3 - 5 minutes. Overheating
may also destroy the properties of
the flux.
Surplus flux remaining on the
workpiece after brazing should be
removed by rinsing in clean water and
brushing.
Keep in mind that most fluxes have a
toxic content. This applies not only to
Unitor’s fluxes, but to all types. Make
sure that there is proper ventilation
whenever you braze or solder and
avoid contact with eyes, mucous
membranes, skin and open wounds.
Advantages of brazing and soldering
1. A quick and cheap method of
joining materials which does not
involve expensive equipment.
In brazing and soldering processes
it is most often required to use a flux
suited for the filler material and base
material. Fluxes serve three basic
functions that are required to obtain a
successful result.
2.Most metals and combinations of
metals can be joined by brazing and
soldering.
1.Flux eliminates the oxide layer on
the surface of the base material
during the heating process, and
protects against further oxidation.
3.If the correct filler metal and flux is
chosen, brazing produces a bond of
hight tensile strength with good corrosion resistance.
2.The flux is adapted to the filler
material in such a way that it melts
slightly before correct working
temperature is reached, thereby
indicating when filler material
should be applied.
4.Due to the relatively low
temperatures applied, there is
little deformation and change of
structure in the workpiece.
3.When the filler material is applied
the flux reduces the surface tension
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
A good brazed or soldered joint
depends on:
1.Correct mating of the surfaces to
be joined. Whether the joint is to be
made by capillary brazing, soldering
or braze welding depends on the
type of joint and strength required.
Reducing flame.
Slight surplus of Acetylene.
2.It is essential that the surfaces to be
joined are clean. Keep in mind that
brazing and soldering are surface
bonds.
3.Correct preheating. The workpiece
must be preheated to a temperature
equal to the melting point of the
filler metal.
4.Correct flux, and no overheating.
Soft soldering
The principal difference between
soldering and brazing is the working
temperature of the filler material used.
In soldering the working temperature
of the filler alloy is always below
400 °C. The filler alloy is normally
basen on tin (Sn).
Soft soldering is commonly used in
electrical connections, and in joints
where a leak-tight connection is
required.
Compared with brazing soldering gives
a weaker joint. The solders alloyed
with silver will normally have the best
mechanical strength.
AC/OX soldering is done with a soft,
slightly carburizing (reducing) flame.
The parts must be heated evenly so
that the entire soldering area reaches
soldering temperature at the same
time. Be careful not to overheat. This
may destroy the bonding properties of
the solder.
Heat indirectly when using a welding
torch for soldering.
Brazing
The term brazing is used when the
melting point of the filler material is
above 400 °C and below the melting
point of the material in the workpiece.
With correct joint preparation and
brazing technique it is possible to
obtain joints with high mechanical
strength, and tensile strength of up
to 490 Mpa is fully possible with a
high quality general purpose brazing
alloy like e.g. AG-60. The general
term brazing covers two different
application methods; capillary brazing
and what is often called braze
welding.
5.01
503
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Edge preparation
Capillary brazing
Capillary brazing requires a filler
material, which melts to a thin
flowing liquid with excellent wetting
properties, and a joint with parallel
surfaces. The opening between the
surfaces should preferably be 0,05
- 0,1 mm to obtain sufficient strength
and capillary effect. This effect is
based on the surface tension of the
liquid filler metal, which will pull the
filler in between the surfaces.
Joint types
Where possible the surfaces should
overlap 3–5 times the wall thickness
of the thinner part.
Heating should be done with a neutral
or slightly reducing flame, which
will give assistance to the flux in
removing oxides from the surface.
Heat the entire area of the joint
uniformly. Starting with the thicker
part to ensure that both surfaces
reach correct temperature quickly
and simultaneously, within max. 2-3
minutes to avoid damaging the flux.
Do not heat directly on the filler
material. When the joint has reached
correct temperature the end of the
brazing rod should be touched to the
joint, and the heat from the workpiece
will melt off filler material.
Maximum capillary gap between joint
Surface 0.1 mm.
Coat joint surface with flux
Allow sufficient time for the capillary
action to take full effect. With proper
joints this will happen very quickly.
Keep the workpiece in position until
it has cooled off and the filler has
solidified. The workpiece can then be
released, and if the material allows,
cooled off in water.
5.01
504
Flux residues should be removed to
avoid corrosion.
Heat evenly
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Edge preparation
Braze welding
Contrary to the term braze welding is
not a welding process, as the base
material is not melted. The brazing
technique is, however, similar to gas
welding with the leftward method, and
the joint types will be similar to gas
welding except that the joint edges
must be rounded off.
Braze welding may be used to join a
wide range of metals, and is also used
for rebuilding wear surfaces. As with
capillary brazing the surfaces must
be cleaned and correct flux should be
applied where required.
The joint should be preheated
sufficiently before filler material is
applied and melted off with the flame.
When the applied drop of filler flows
outwards, wetting the workpiece
surface correct temperature has
been reached, and brazing may
proceed using the forehand technique
described under gas welding.
Use the leftward technique for braze
welding.
I-joint Below 3 mm.
Brazing applications
on pipes.
V-joint 3-12 mm.
X-joint Above 12 mm.
5.01
505
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Consumables and parameters for Brazing
TIN 241 AG
Description:
Flux cored soft solder wire on spool for tinning and joining of electric
conductors, electrical connections, electrical instruments, radios, batteries,
refrigeration plants, etc.
Packaging
data
Diameter
mm
Length
mm
1.5
-
Quantity Net weight
Product no
per package per package kg per package
-
0.5
093-777973
Preferably use soldering
iron. If welding torch:
Soft reducing flame.
AG-45-253
Description:
Bare cadmium free silver rod for joining of all types of steel, stainless steel,
copper, copper alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, cast iron and hard match. This
brazing rod gives a very good joint and can be used for brazing nipples, sleeves
and unions to copper pipes.
Packaging
data
Diameter
mm
2.0
Length
mm
Quantity Net weight
Product no
per package per package kg per package
50028
0.4
093-519744
Flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250g container) product no. 093-778461
Neutral.
AG-60-252
Description:
A flux coated cadmium free, seawater resistant, high strength silver rod for
joining all types of steel, stainless steel, copper, copper alloys, nickel, nickel
alloys, cast iron, Yorcalbro pipes (aluminiumbrass), cunifer pipes type 90/10 and
70/30.
Packaging
data
Diameter
mm
2.0
5.01
Flux
Length
mm
Quantity Net weight
Product no
per package per package kg per package
50024
AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250g container)
Product no. 093-778461
On Yorcalbro:
ALBRO FLUX 263 PF (250 g container)
Product no. 093-604371
0.5
093-233601
Neutral.
Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section
Consumables.
506
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Consumables and parameters for Brazing
BRONZE-264
Description
An easy-flowing, universal brazing bronze (brass) rod for the brazing of steel,
cast iron, copper and copper alloys, nickel and nickel alloys. It gives a very
smooth and attractive surface. The addition of Si, Mn and Sn guarantees a
strong and high-quality deposit.
Packaging
data:
Diameter
Mm
Length
mm
Rods Net weight
Product no.
per package per package kg per package
3
500
54
1.7
093-174326
5
500
36
3
093-514240
Flux: Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-603076.
Neutral or
slight oxygen
surplus.
FC-BRONZE-261
Description
A flux-coated brazing rod for joining and surfacing copper, brass, bronze,
aluminium bronze, cast iron and steel. May be used for brazing galvanized steel
without destroying the galvanized surface.
Packaging
data:
Diameter
Mm
Length
mm
Rods Net weight
Product no.
per package per package kg per package
2
500
69
1
093-233551
500
32
1
093-233569
3
Flux: Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. 093-603076.
Neutral or
slight oxygen
surplus.
5.01
Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section
Consumables.
507
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
FC-WEARBRO-262
Description
A flux-coated wear-resistant bronze rod used for applying a hard-wearing
surface to bronze, brass, copper, steel, cast iron and malleable cast iron. Also
used for braze welding cast iron.
Packaging
data
Diameter
Mm
Length
mm
Rods Net weight
Product no.
per package per package kg per package
3
500
33
1
093-233577
5
500
13
1.1
093-233585
Flux: Wearbroflux 262 PF (250g container) product no. 603068
Neutral or
slight oxygen
surplus.
CAST IRON-237
Description
Gas welding rod for joining and surfacing cast iron and brazing cast iron to
steel. Oil impregnated cast iron may also be brazed with FC-Castiron 268.
Packaging
data
Diameter
Mm
Length
mm
4
500
Rods Net weight
Product no.
per package per package kg per package
12
0.7
096-682310
Flux: Cast Iron Flux 236F (250g container) product no 764487
Detailed information on these consumables
can be found under the section
Consumables.
5.01
508
Slight oxygen
surplus.
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Rules & Safety precautions for handling and use of Gas cylinders 520
Gas Distribution System for Acetylene and Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
5.02
509
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Introduction
Where and how to obtain supplies of the gases needed or
board ship can be a great problem. There are cylinders of many
different types on the market, and an even greater variety of
types of valve and threaded connectors. An extra difficulty is that
most countries have their own rules for the filling and inspection
of cylinders, and this often means that only cylinders of the
country’s own types can be serviced in a reasonable time.
A sure way to avoid difficulties is to join Wilhelmsen Ships
Service's world-wide Unitor gas supply system. Through this
system, ready-filled gas cylinders are available in more than
1600 ports throughout the world. In these ports we have obtained
official permission to refill our own cylinders. In some places,
even with this permission, the filling routines can take great deal
of time. But this is no problem for our customers, as we make
sure of always having enough full cylinders in stock, ready to
meet each customer’s immediate needs.
5.02
510
Our standardized gas cylinders are owned, inspected and
maintained by Wilhelmsen Ships Service. The cylinders are
delivered to our customers under deposit conditions and can be
returned to Wilhelmsen Ships Service or other authorized agent
when they are empty.
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Argon
Product name
Formula
Argon
Hazard class
Ar
Nonflammable gas
Appearance and colour
IMDG code
Colourless, odourless2.2
Specific gravity (Air=1)
Substance Identification
1.38 (heavier than air)
UN-1006
Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey
Cylinder
Outlet
Size
Connection
NominalFilled Pressure Nominal
Approx.
Approx.
Contents
(bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt.
(cu. Metres)
(max)
(kg)
(mm)
(kg)
(See note 1.)
(See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.)
E-10
W24.32mm x 1/14”2.2200
3.6
140 x 1000
18
E-50
W24.32mm x 1/14”
18230 x 1690
81
11200
Note:
1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal
contents and weight of gas indicated.
2.The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve.
3.The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The
approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight
of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders
manufactured to older standards.
Argon
Argon is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. It is non-toxic and noncombustible. Together with Helium, Neon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon, it constitutes a special
group of gases known as the “rare”, “inert” or “noble” gases. The terms inert and noble
mean that the gases have an extremely weak tendency to react with other compounds or
elements. Argon forms no known chemical compounds.
Argon is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.934% at sea level. Air is the only
known source for the production of pure argon.
Argon is non-toxic, but it is included among the simple asphyxiant gases. Argon is used as
a protective shielding gas in TIG and MIG welding. In this process argon serves as an inert
covering round the point of the electrode/ wire and the molten pool in order to protect the
welding zone from the harmful effect of the air.
5.02
511
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ARGON- CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURE
Product name
Formula
Unimix
Hazard class
Ar - CO2 (80%/20%)
Nonflammable gas
Appearance and colour
IMDG code
Colourless, odourless gas2.2
Specific gravity (Air=1)
Substance Identification
1.40 (heavier than air)
UN-1956
Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey/Yellow
Cylinder
Outlet
Size
Connection
NominalFilled Pressure Nominal
Approx.
Approx.
Contents
(bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt.
(cu. Metres)
(max)
(kg)
(mm)
(kg)
(See note 1.)
(See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.)
M-10
W24.32mm x 1/14”2.2200
3.4
140 x 1000
18
M-50
W24.32mm x 1/14”
17.1230 x 1690
81
10.9200
Note:
1.Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal
contents and weight of gas indicated.
2.The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve.
3.The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The
approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight
of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders
manufactured to older standards.
ARGON-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES
ARGON-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURE (UNIMIX) is a mixture of 80% argon and 20% Carbon
Dioxide, which is used as a shielding gas in the MIG/MAG welding process. The mixture is
suitable for welding all un- and low alloyed carbon steels. The mixture gives a very stable
molten pool together with optimum energy-transmission.
The mixture is relative inert in its chemical properties and is non toxic.
Because the gas mixture is heavier than air, it will collect in confined and low areas. The
result will be that the Oxygen level is reduced which can be a potential hazard. More on the
effect of exposure to Oxygen deficient atmospheres can found on the next pages describing
Oxygen. In general it can be said that when working with compressed gases, you should
work in a well ventilated area.
5.02
512
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
CARbon dioxide
Product name
Formula
Carbon dioxide
Appearance and colour
Hazard class
CO2
Nonflammable gas
IMDG code
Colourless, odourless2.2
Specific gravity (Air=1)
Substance Identification
1.53 (heavier than air)
UN-1013
Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey
Cylinder
Outlet
Nominal
Size
Connection
Contents
(cu. Metres)
Nominal
Approx.
Approx.
Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt.
(kg)
(mm)
(kg)
(See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.)
C-9
CgA320
4.95
9203 x 560
19
C-27
CgA320
14.8527230 x 1210
55
Note:
1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the
nominal contents and weight of gas indicated.
2.The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve.
3.The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder and valve.
The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal
weight of contained gas to this figure.
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. It is non-toxic and
non-combustible.
It is considered a inert gases. The terms inert mean that the gases have an extremely weak
tendency to react with other compounds or elements.
Carbon dioxide is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.04% at sea level. It is
produced by burning fossil fuels or chemical reactions.
Carbon dioxide is non-toxic at low concentration but it is included among the simple
asphyxiate gases. Concentrations above 5% are considered as dead threatening.
Carbon dioxide is used as a protective shielding gas in MAG welding. In this process carbon
dioxide serves as an active gas covering round the point of the electrode/ wire and the
molten pool in order to protect the welding zone from the harmful effect of the air.
It is additionally greatly used in the food and beverage industry either as a protective gas to
conserve food products or carbonation of soft drinks and beers. A new application is water
treatment to balance the acidity of potable water.
5.02
513
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Oxygen
Product name
Formula
Oxygen
Hazard class
O2
Nonflammable gas
Appearance and colour
IMDG code
Colourless, odourless, tasteless gas2.2 + 5.1
Specific gravity (Air=1)
Substance Identification
1.11 (Slightly heavier than air)
UN-1072
Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Blue
Cylinder
Outlet
Size
Connection
0-5
W21.80mm x 1/14”
0-40
W21.80mm x 1/14”
NominalFilled Pressure Nominal
Approx.
Approx.
Contents
(bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt.
(cu. Metres)
(max)
(kg)
(mm)
(kg)
(See note 1.)
(See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.)
1200
6.4
150
140 x 620
12
7.8230 x 1360
1.3
52
Note:
1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal
contents and weight of gas indicated.
2.The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve.
3.The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The
approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight
of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders
manufactured to older standards.
Oxygen
Oxygen (02) is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. Oxygen normally amounts
to 21% by volume of the earth’s atmosphere at sea level. Oxygen is produced industrially by
rectification (distillation) of liquid air, from which the Oxygen boils off at minus 183 °C, and can thus
be separated from the other air gases, for compression in steel cylinders.
Oxygen itself will not burn, but the gas sustains combustion in the normal sense of the word. In
pure oxygen combustion proceeds much more rapidly than in air, and the higher the pressure,
the more violent the combustion. Even materials that are normally not combustible, or are difficult
to ignite, can catch fire spontaneously or be set alight in pure Oxygen. We make use of this
phenomenon for the Oxygen-cutting of steel.
5.02
514
Oxygen can lead to the explosive ignition of ordinary oil, grease or other organic substances. For
this reason a welder must never wear working clothes or use equipment that is contaminated with
oil or grease. Be particularly careful to prevent equipment or fittings for Oxygen to come in contact
with oil or grease. Only special lubricants may be used for Oxygen equipment.
AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Rules relating to Oxygen
– Oxygen that leaks out into the
air increases the danger of
combustible materials igniting, i.e.
body hair, clothes etc. catching fire.
This can occur even with a small
increas in the Oxygen content of the
air, and can cause serious burns
and other injuries.
– Never use Oxygen instead of air to
start a diesel engine.
Never use Oxygen to blow dust
from working clothes. lf clothing has
been accidentally exposed to an
increase in Oxygen content it may
take a long time to get rid of the
excess Oxygen, often several hours.
– Never use Oxygen to freshen the air
when you are working in a confined
space.
– Fittings for Oxygen must be kept
free of dust and metal particles
because of the danger of
spontaneous combustion.
Oxygen-deficient atmospheres
The normal Oxygen content of air
is approximately 21%. Depletion
of Oxygen content in air, either by
combustion or displacement with
inert gas, is a potentional hazard to
personnel. A general indication of
what can potentially occur relative to
the percentage of Oxygen available is
given in the table below.
Oxygen Content (% by Volume)
Effects and Symptoms
(At Atmospheric Pressure)
15-19%
Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair
coordination and may induce early symptoms in persons
with coronary, pulmonary, or circulatory problems.
12-14%
Respiration increases in exertion, pulse up, impaired
coordination, perception, and judgment.
10-12%
Respiration further increases in rate and depth, poor
judgment, lips blue.
8-10%
Mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, ashen face,
blueness of lips, nausea, and vomiting.
6-8%
8 minutes; 100% fatal, 6 minutes; 50% fatal, 4-5 minutes;
recovery with treatment.
4-6%
Coma in 40 seconds, convulsions, respiration ceases,
death.
Note: Exposure to atmospheres containing 12% or less Oxygen will bring
about unconsciousness without warning and so quickly that the individual
cannot help or protect himself.
An asphyxia victim should be taken into the open air quickly and given Oxygen
or artificial respiration. Medical attention should be obtained immediately.
Inhalation of an Oxygen-rich atmosphere also requires medical attention.
5.02
515
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ACETYLENE
Product name
Formula
Hazard class
Acetylene
C2H2
Appearance and odour
Flammable gas
IMDG code
Pure acetylene is a colourless gas with an ethereal odour
Commercial (carbide)acetylene has a distinctive 2.1
garlic-like odour
Specific gravity (Air=1)
Substance Identification
0.906 (Lighter than air)
UN-1001
FLammable limits % by volume
Extinguishing media
CO2. Dry chemical
LEL 2.2 UEL 80-85
Unusual fire and explosion hazard
Gaseous Acetylene is spontaneously combustible in air at pressure above 2,0 BAR. It
requires a very low ignition energy so that fires which have been extinguished without
stopping the flow of gas can easily reignite with possible explosive force. Acetylene has a
density very similar to that of air so when leaking it does not readily dissipate.
Pure Acetylene can ignite by decomposition above 2.0 BAR, therefore, the UEL is 100% if the
ignition source is of sufficient intensity.
Cylinder characteristics
Acetylene (Dissolved in a solvent supported in a porous medium) Colour: Maroon.
Cylinder
Outlet
Size
Connection
Nominal
Contents
(cu. Metres)
(See note 1.)
Nominal
Approx.
Approx.
Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt.
(kg)
(mm)
(kg)
(See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.)
A-5
G 3/4” BSP
0.7
0.8
140 x 620
14
A-40
G 3/4” BSP
5.6
6.2230 x 1360
67
Note:
1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about
the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated.
2.The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve.
5.02
516
3.The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring.
The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal
weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found
among cylinders manufactured to older standards.
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Acetylene
Acetylene is a colourless, flammable,
and in the pure state odourless
gas. It is can be manufactured by
reacting Calcium Carbide with water
in Acetylene generators. Ordinary
commercial grades of Acetylene
contain traces of impurities such as
Phosphine, Arsine, Hydrogen Sulfide
and Ammonia, and have a garlic-like
odour. The gas is slightly lighter than
air.
Acetylene alone burns in air with
a very hot, bright and sooty flame.
Mixed with air or Oxygen in the
right proportion, Acetylene gives a
concentrated, sootfree flame. When
mixed with Oxygen the combustion is
more intense than in air, and because
of the Acetylene’s high carbon content
(92.3% by weight) its maximum flame
temperature is about 3100°C. Because
of its high temperature, thermal value
and speed of combustion (11.6 m/s),
this is the most suitable gas flame
both for welding and for cutting.
Explosion and decomposition hazards
Acetylene, is a highly flammable
and explosive gas, and a mixture
of Acetylene and air or Oxygen is
explosive within wide limits. The
explosive limits in air range from 2%
to 82%, while if mixed with Oxygen
the explosive range is from 2.5% to
93%. For this reason care must be
taken to prevent an unnecessary or
uncontrolled escape of Acetylene, and
good ventilation must be assured in
places where Acetylene is stored or
used.
Should escaping Acetylene from an
open top valve or from the regulator,
catch fire, put out the flame by closing
the top valve. For this eventuality a
fire-resistant mitten should always be
kept handy. Should the flame make
closing of the top valve difficult or
impossible, it must first be put out by
a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or dry powder
extinguisher.
Another property, which should be
known and understood by personnel
engaged in transporting or using
Acetylene is that the gas can
decompose into its constituents,
Carbon and Hydrogen, if it is exposed
to temperatures above 350°C (662°F)
or if gaseous Acetylene at a pressure
of more than 2 bar (200 kPa; 29 psig)
is subjected to shock during storage
or transportation. Decomposition
proceeds rapidly and liberates a
great deal of energy. Because of this
property, Acetylene cannot be stored
under pressure in the same way, for
example, that Oxygen is stored.
To avoid the decomposition
characteristics of compressed,
gaseous Acetylene the cylinders for
storing the gas are filled with a porous
mass, having minute cellular spaces.
This eliminates the risk that any
pocket of appreciable size remains, in
which Acetylene in gaseous form may
collect. The porous mass is saturated
with Acetone, in which the Acetylene
actually dissolves. The combination
of these features - porous mass and
solvent allows the Acetylene to be
contained in cylinders at moderate
pressure with greatly reduced danger
of explosive decomposition occuring
during normal handling and use.
However, there still exists the chance
that decomposition may be started
by careless handling of the cylinder,
such as hitting or dropping it, heating
it, or by using incomplete or badly
maintained welding equipment,
thereby permitting a complete flash-
5.02
517
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
back of the welding flame into the
cylinder. The signs of decomposition
are:
– The temperature of the cylinder
shell rises, starting at the area
within which the decomposition
commenced.
– The cylinder pressure increases
(only evident when the cylinder is in
use and a regulator with gauges is
fitted on the top valve).
– If, after a complete flash-back, the
gas released from the top valve
contains soot, and has an unusual
smell.
On suspicion that decomposition may
have started in the cylinder, shut the
top valve immediately, and remove
regulator or other fittings attached to
it. The cylinder must be checked for
increase in temperature by repeatedly
feeling the cylinder shell all over by
hand.
If temperature of the shell rises, but
has not exceeded hand-heat (about
50°C) the cylinder must be taken to
the railing immediately and thrown
over board. The cylinder must be
cooled by copius amounts of water
while it is being moved. If the ship is
in port, hang the cylinder by a rope
into the sea and call the fire brigade.
It is possible to stop a decomposition
by keeping the top valve closed
and cooling the cylinder with large
quantities of cold water, but if this is
to succeed it must be commenced
at the latest five minutes after the
decomposition has started, and must
continue until the cylinder remains
cold. However, out of consideration
for the crew and the ship, do not try
to save the cylinder but throw it over
board as quickly as possible.
5.02
518
If decomposition has reached a
point where the cylinder can no
longer be touched by the bare hand
(more than about 50 °C), the danger
of an explosion is imminent and the
cylinder must not be moved. Start
cooling the cylinder immediately with
large amounts of cold water from a
protected position. All personnel not
taking part in this operation must be
evacuated from the area. When the
cylinder has been cooled until the
water no longer steams from the shell,
it can be moved to the railing and
thrown over board. Remember that
cooling must be continued without
interruption throughout the removal
operation.
WARNING: The top valve of a
cylinder containing decomposing
Acetylene must be kept shut at all
times!
Fatal mistakes have been made in
cases of this kind; even experienced
welders have opened the cylinder
valve fully, in the mistaken belief
that this would release the pressure
in the cylinder. In fact, the opposite
happens. The Acetylene that
evaporates out of the Acetone passes
the decomposition zone on its way to
the top valve, decomposition becomes
explosive and the pressure in the
cylinder increases much faster than
it can be released, with the result
that the cylinder may explode within
seconds.
Inhalation hazards
Acetylene is a non-toxic but mildly
anesthetic gas. Formerly pure
Acetylene was combined with
Oxygen and used as an anesthetic
in hospitals. There is a risk of
asphyxia when the Acetylene level
in respiratory air reduces the Oxygen
content to three-fourths or less of
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
normal concentration. Hence it is
important that Acetylene is handled
only in well ventilated areas.
Important safety reminders
Under certain conditions Acetylene
forms readily explosive compounds
with copper, silver and mercury.
For this reason contact between
Acetylene and these metals,
their salts, compounds and highconcentration alloys must be avoided.
It is generally accepted that brass
containing less than 65% copper in the
alloys, and certain nickel alloys, are
suitable for use in Acetylene service
under normal conditions. Never use
makeshift hose connectors made
out of pieces of copper pipe - use a
proper hose connector.
Acetylene cylinders must be stored
and used in an upright position. If the
cylinders are used when lying on their
sides or sloping, some of the Acetone
will run out and into the reduction
valve and hose.
Drawing gas from Acetylene
cylinders
The Acetylene cylinders are filled with
a porous mass, which is saturated
with Acetone. An Acetylene cylinder
with a volume of 40 litres normally
contains 16 litres of Acetone. The
Acetylene gas dissolves in (is
absorbed by) the Acetone. At a
Acetylene
Cylinders A-40
pressure of 15 bar and a temperature
of 15°C the cylinder will contain
6.000 n/l of dissolved Acetylene. To
fill the cylinder with this quantity of
Acetylene normally takes 8 hours.
When you open the top valve to use
the Acetylene, the pressure in the
cylinder falls and the gas is released
from the Acetone. If this process
proceeds too quickly, ((boiling))
occurs in the cylinder, rather similar
to the effect of opening a bottle of
sodawater, and some of the Acetone
will emerge with the gas. This is
harmful both to the cylinder and to
the weld. Admittedly, Acetone burns,
but with very different characteristics
from Acetylene. The rule is therefore
that the cylinder should not be
emptied more rapidly than by about
one-eighth of the contents per hour.
This corresponds to about 750 n/l
per hour. However, for a short while
(maximum 30 minutes) extraction from
a full cylinder at about 15°C may be
increased to about 2.500 n/l per hour.
After that, the cylinder must be set
aside for a period of rest.
If gas consumption is greater than
a single Acetylene cylinder can
deliver, a sufficiently dimensioned gas
central installation is normally used.
The following gives the extraction
rates for various combinations of
interconnected A-40 Acetylene
cylinders:
Maximum extraction, nl/hr
Continuous
Intermittent*
1
7002500
2
1400
5000
32100
7500
42800
10000
5
3500
12500
5.02
*FuIl cylinders at approx. 15 °C.
519
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Rules and safety precautions for handling and
use of Gas Cylinders
– Always make sure that the cylinder
cap that protects the top valve is
in place and screwed down before
moving the cylinder. Cylinders, when
not in active use, should have the
cylinder cap in place and properly
secured to prevent them from falling.
– Never use slings, chains or magnets
to lift gas cylinders. Use racks,
baskets or cylinder trolleys specially
designed for hoisting gas cylinders,
and equipped with proper lifting lugs.
– Cargo nets are not recommended
for lifting gas cylinders. If a cargo net
has to be used, it must be covered
internally with a good tarpaulin to
prevent the cylinders from sliding out
through the mesh.
– If a crane or winch is used to lift
gas cylinders, and the crane driver is
not in a position from which he can
see the entire hoisting operation, a
signalman must be stationed where
he can see both the load and the
crane driver.
– Gas cylinders must never be hoisted
or dragged by the cylinder cap or top
valve.
– Do not subject the cylinders to
unnecessary impacts or jolts during
transport. Do not allow the cylinders
to fall, or knock against one another.
– During transport, gas cylinders must
always be handled as if they were
full. Never be indifferent or careless
because they are “empties”. Mistakes
can be made, and full cylinders may
be mixed with empty ones. Therefore,
during transport treat all cylinders as
if they were full.
5.02
520
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
– If the cylinder valve cannot be
opened by hand alone, put the
cylinder aside and inform the supplier.
Never use wrenches or other tools
to open cylinder valves. On valves
intended for valve keys, use only valve
keys supplied by or approved by the
gas manufacturer. Valves with handwheels must be operated by hand
only, without tools. Never hammer the
hand-wheel in order to get the valve
open or shut.
Improvising or substituting equipment
can lead to serious accidents.
– It is important to make sure that
the cylinder valve outlet union and
the connector of the equipment to
be used are a proper fit. Never force
a connection that does not fit. Make
sure that seals are in good condition
and of the correct type.
– Check for gas leaks using soapy
water.
– Use only regulators, flashback
arrestors, hoses, etc., designed
for use with the gas in question.
– Never use gas cylinders as rollers
or props for other cargo, or for any
purpose whatever other than to
contain a specific gas.
– Take care to avoid using or storing
gas cylinders in places where they
could become part of an electrical
circuit. Never touch a cylinder with a
live electrode.
– Never use an open flame!
– Never use flames to raise the
pressure of a cylinder. Cylinders
should not be subjected to
temperatures above 45°C
– As far as possible, avoid exposure
of gas cylinders to moisture or salt
water. Never expose cylinders to
corrosive chemicals or gases.
– The information that is cast or
stamped on the cylinders must not be
altered or removed.
– Never try to repair or alter any
feature of a gas cylinder or valve.
WARNING
It is extremely dangerous, and
therefore forbidden, to attempt to
transfer oxygen or acetylene from one
cylinder to another on one’s own.
Filling of gas cylinders shall be carried
out only by qualified personnel at the
filling factories.
Failure to observe this rule has
unfortunately led to the loss of several
lives.
5.02
521
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Gas Distribution System for acetylene and oxygen
Unitor’s gas distribution system for the
storage and distribution of Acetylene
and Oxygen was introduced in order
to increase safety on board ship.
The system was developed in close
collaboration with the Norwegian
maritime authorities, and is now
included in the rules and regulations
that apply to the handling and use of
welding gases on board Norwegian
ships. The authorities of several other
countries have shown interest in the
system, and have introduced it for
use on board the ships of their own
nations. The installation of Unitor’s
central system on board ship reduces
the risk of accidents to a far greater
extent than before, because the gas
cylinders remain stored in the cylinder
store with the welding gases being fed
to the point of use through permanently
installed pipelines and fittings.
Naturally, this does not entirely
eliminate the need to take cylinders
out of the store from time to time in
order to carry out certain welding or
5.02
522
cutting operations in various parts of
the ship, but the practice of keeping
gas cylinders in the engine room
and transporting them from place to
place, with the risk this entailed, has
now practically ceased. Instead, one
or two outlets for welding gases are
provided in the workshop and engine
room. The location of the cylinder
central with direct access to the open
deck (as provided in the Regulations)
makes it easy to get rid of the
cylinders in the event of an outbreak
of fire, and everybody on board knows
exactly where the cylinders are
located.
Efficiency and economy are improved
by the fact that a sufficient supply of
gas is assured, even for jobs needing
large amounts of gas, e.g. for heating
purposes. Acetylene can be drawn
from two or more cylinders at the
same time, which means less gas
used per unit of time per cylinder, thus
ensuring more efficient emptying of
the cylinders.
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Extracts from regulations relating to
central system
A central system for Acetylene and
Oxygen consists of a cylinder store
with fittings, piping systems and one
or more outlet stations. The various
components of the central system
are subject to rules laid down by the
Norwegian Maritime Directorate or
similar organisations, and fittings are
required to be of approved types. We
quote from the Regulations:
– The gas cylinder store shall be a
separate room on or above the upper
continuous deck. The room shall have
bulkheads, deck and deckhead of
steel and have a gastight separation
from adjacent rooms.
– On drilling platforms and special
purpose ships the gas cylinder store
may be located on an open deck.
– The gas cylinder store shall be
insulated, ventilated and so arranged
that the temperature does not
normally exceed 40°C.
– The ventilation system shall not be
connected to any other ventilation
system on board.
– The room shall not be used for any
other purpose than the storage of gas
cylinders.
– Electrical installations in a gas
cylinder system shall be of explosionproof types.
– Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders
shall not be kept in the engine room.
– Pipes (on the low-pressure side)
shall be seamless, of material ST35 or
equivalent, and of wall thickness not
less than 2.0 mm. On drilling platforms
and special-purpose ships the wall
thickness of pipelines on open deck
shall be not less than 2.5 mm.
– Pipelines shall be laid with the
fewest possible joints. Joints shall
be made by butt welds, of good
workmanship.
– Connections such as unions,
sleeves, flanges etc. are not accepted
as alternatives to welding.
– Normally, only two outlet stations
are allowed for each pipe system
from the cylinder store or cabinet. On
drilling platforms and special-purpose
ships a greater number of outlet
stations may be permitted. Approval
of the number of outlet stations must
be obtained in each individual case.
– When the central plant is not in
use the gas cylinder valves and other
valves shall be shut.
The above points are only extracts
from some of the rules relating to
central plants in ships. The complete
rules are to be found in “Regulations
relating to welding equipment etc.
for the welding gases Acetylene and
Oxygen on board ships, mobile drilling
platforms and special-purpose vessels
in offshore operations”, issued by
the Norwegian Maritime Directorate.
A copy of these Regulations can be
obtained from Unitor.
Approval and certification of central
plants
Before a central plant is allowed to be
brought into use it must be inspected,
degreased, blown through and
pressure-tested in compliance with
the rules of the Norwegian Maritime
Directorate or similar organisations.
When the plant is found to be in order
an installation certificate is issued,
valid for 5 years.
The original of the installation
certificate is to be posted in the
5.02
523
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
central gas storage. If any important
component of the system is damaged,
changed or replaced, the system
shall be inspected again and a new
installation certificate issued.
The layout of the central system
The layout of the central system and
various components are shown in
the drawing on the next page. The
central store where the cylinders are
kept must be situated on or above
the upper continuous deck, and it
must have access to the open deck.
The door to the central store must be
marked with a notice warning of gas
under pressure.
Fastening arrangements (1) for the
number of Acetylene and Oxygen
cylinders to be kept on board are
to be welded to the bulkhead. The
design of the fastening clamps makes
it very easy to release the cylinders in
case of a fire. From the cylinders the
gas is carried through high-pressure
hoses (2) to T-valves (3).
The connection nuts for the highpressure hoses are right-hand
threaded for Oxygen and left-hand
threaded for Acetylene, to eliminate
the possibility of the hoses being
wrongly connected. Non-return valves
are fitted to prevent gas from flowing
back through the T-valve to the gas
cylinders.
By using several T-valves connected
by expansion pipes (4) it is possible to
connect in series any desired number
of cylinders. The last T-valve in the
series is closed with a blind plug and
connecting nut (5). From the T-valves
the gas is led to a shut-off valve (6)
where the central regulator R520(7) is
located. The regulator has an adjusting
5.02
524
screw with a locknut for pressure
regulation. When the correct pressure
has been set on the regulator (8 bar
for oxygen and 0.8 bar for acetylene),
the setting is locked by tightening the
locknut. This makes it unnecessary to
reset the pressures every time the plant
is used, the gas flow being controlled
simply by opening and closing the shutoff valve (6).
The desired working pressure is
set by means of a regulating valve
at the outlet station, as required for
the individual welding and cuffing
operations. The safety valve of
the central regulator (8) must be
connected to a pipe to carry any
escaping gas out to the open deck.
The end of this pipe must be located
not less than 3 metres above deck,
and the outlet must be marked with
a regulation sign as follows: “Gas
danger. Fire, open lights and smoking
prohibited.”
From the low-pressure side of the
regulator the gas is fed through a lowpressure steel expansion pipe (9) and
connected to the permanent piping
system. The pipelines are colourcoded. Blue pipes are for Oxygen and
red for Acetylene.
Where a pipe passes through
bulkheads or decks it must be led
through bushings (10), and the pipes
are to be fastened to bulkheads with
pipe clamps (11) at intervals of about
2.5 metres. The outlet stations are
to be installed at suitable locations
which are well ventilated and where
the outlet station is protected from
mechanical damage. The standard
cabinet (12) which is delivered with
the outlet station is a steel plate
design for mechanical protection
indoors.
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Outlet stations on open decks must
always be enclosed in protective
cabinets. A special corrosion free
glass fibre cabinet is available for this
purpose. Each outlet station is fitted
with shut-off valves (13) which should
be closed during short interruptions
in work.
NOTE: There is a filter in the threaded
inlet union for the shut-off valve of
the gas pipeline, to prevent particles
passing into the outlet fittings. In time
this filter can become clogged; it
should be unscrewed for inspection
from time to time.
Also fitted at the outlet station are
regulators to set the desired working
pressure (14) and flashback arrestors
(15) for Acetylene and Oxygen.
e d f
h
g i
c
k
b
j
a
l
m
n
o
p
5.02
525
GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Pos. No Prod. no
1
176297
1
320358
1
176313
2
305292
2
520403
3
303198
3
520379
3
511089
3
520387
4
302505
4
517086
5
302547
5
302539
5
51708
6
302992
6
520395
7
510020
7
510021
7
585372
7
682427
9
621565
9
621573
10
624684
11
320226
12
550335
12
536805
13
550319
14
510030
14
510031
15
708537
15
708545
16235010
5.02
526
Description
Rack for 2 cylinders.
Rack for 1 cylinder.
Clamp assembly.
High pressure hose Ox 1 mtr.
High pressure hose Ac 1 mtr.
T-valve N2/Ox W/non.
T-valve AC W/non return.
Non return valve Ox.
Non return valve Ac.
Expansion pipe Ox.
Expansion pipe Ac.
Blind plug.
Conection nut Ox 1/4 in.
Connection nut Ac 1/4 in.
Closing valve Ox W bracket.
Closing valve Ac.
Regulator 520 Ac pressure 0–2.5 bar.
Regulator 520 Ox pressure 0–16 bar.
Flashback arrestor Ac 85–10.
Flashback arrestor Ox 85–10.
Expansion pipe Ac LP.
Expansion pipe Oc LP.
Bushing for steel pipes.
Clamp No. 20 F/steel pipe.
Cabinet F/outlet station, steel.
Cabinet F/outlet station, glass fibre.
Twin valve unit F/outlet.
Regulator 530 Ac pressure 0–2.5 bar.
Regulator 530 Ox pressure 0–16 bar.
Flasback arrestor S55 Ac.
Flashback arrestor S55 Ox.
Stetch relief bracket.
Signs for entrance doors
Instructions signs for gas central
526533
526541
183202
526566
516625
526558
176404 «Acetyleng instruction» (350x300)
176412 «Oxygen instruction» (350x300)
183236 «Piperline pressure» (190x145)
«Acetylene» (100x500)
«Oxygen» (100x500)
«Gas under pressure» (250x450)
«Gas danger» small (150x300)
«Gas danger» large (300x600)
«No admittance» (200x500)
Signs for outlet station
183244 «Close valves (90x75)
511253 «Working pressures» (70x200)
NOTE: The «Gas danger» small sign shall be placed at the outlet point of the ventilation
pipes from the central regulators.
(Size in mm HxW)
miscellaneous information
International system of units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
General conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Roman numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Metric and decimal equivalents of fractions of an inch . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Wire cross section AWG/mm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Common gauge series for sheet thickness and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Physical properties of some elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Hardness comparison table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Corrosion of galvanic couples in sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Temperature scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Pressure variations related to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Abbreviations and welding terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
6.00
527
miscellaneous information
International System of Units (SI)
The International System of Units (SI for short) is built upon seven base
units and two supplementary units. Derived units are related to base and
supplementary units by formulas in the right hand column. Symbols for units
with specific names are given in parentheses.
6.00
528
Quantity
UnitFormula
Length
mass
time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity
plane angle
solid angle
acceleration
activity (of a radioactive source) angular acceleration angular velocity
area density electric capacitance electric conductance electric field strength electric inductance electric potential difference electric resistance electromotive force energy entropy force frequency illuminance luminance luminous flux magnetic field strength magnetic flux magnetic flux density mangetomotive force power pressure quantity of electricity quantity of heat
Base Units
metre (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
ampere (A)
kelvin (K)
mole (mol)
candela (cd)
Supplementary Units
radian (rad)
steradian (sr)
Derived Units
metre per second squared
disintegration per second
radian per second squared
radian per second
square metre
kilogram per cubic metre
farad (F)
stemens (S)
volt per metre
henry (H)
volt (V)
ohm (Ω)
volt (V)
joule (J)
joule per Kelvin
newton (N)
hertz (Hz)
lux (lx)
candela per square metre
lumen (lm)
ampere per metre
weber (Wb)
tesla (T)
ampere (A)
watt (W)
pascal (Pa)
coulomb (C)
joule (J)
m/s2
(disintegration)/s
rad/s2
rad/s
m2
kg/m3
A•s/V
A/V
V/m
V•s/A
W/A
V/A
W/A
N•m
j/K
kg•m/s2
(cycle)/s
lm/m2
cd/m2
cd•sr
A/m
V•s
Wb/m2
J/s
N/m2
A•s
N•m
miscellaneous information
Quantity
UnitFormula
radiant intensity specific heat stress thermal conductivity
velocity viscosity, dynamic
viscosity, kinematic voltage volume wavenumber work
watt per steradian
joule per kilogram-kelvin
pascal (Pa)
watt per metre-kelvin
metre per second pascal-second
square metre per second
volt (V)
cubic metre
reciprocal metre
joule (J)
Multiplication Factors
1 000 000 000 000 = 1012
1 000 000 000 = 109
1 000 000 = 106
1 000 = 103
100 = 102
10 = 101
0,1 = 10-1
0,01 = 10-2
0,001 = 10-3
0,000 001 = 10-6
0,000 000 001 = 10-9
0,000 000 000 001 = 10-12
0,000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15
0,000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18
W/sr
J/kg•K
N/m2
W/m•K
m/s
Pa•s
m2/s
W/A
m3
(wave)/m
N•m
Prefix
SI Symbol
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto*
deka*
deci*
centi*
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
µ
n
p
f
a
* To be avoided where possible.
THE PHONETIC ALPHABET
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Alpha
Bravo
Charlie
Delta
Echo
Foxtrot
Golf
Hotel
India
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
Juliet
Kilo
Lima
Mike
November
Oscar
Papa
Quebec
Romeo
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Sierra
Tango
Uniform
Victor
Whiskey
X-ray
Yankee
Zulu
THE GREEK ALPHABET
6.00
529
miscellaneous information
General conversion factors
6.00
530
Unit Conversion to
Multiply by
Reciprocal
Linear Measure
mil (0,001 inch) inch foot
yard
mile
nautical mile
millimetre 0,0254 39,37
millimetre 25,4 0,03937
metre 0,3048 3,281
metre 0,9144 1,0936
kilometre 1,6093 0,6214
kilometre 1,8532 0,5396
Square Measure
square inch square inch square foot square yard acre
acre square mile square mile
square millimeter 645,2 0,00155
square centimeter 6,452 0,155
square metre 0,0929 10,764
square metre 0,8361 1,196
square metre 4047, 0,0002471
square foot
43560, 0,00002296
acre 640, 0,001562
square kilometer 2,590 0,3863
Volume
cubic inch
cubic foot cubic foot cubic foot cubic yard ounce (U.S., liq.) quart (U.S., liq.) gallon (U.S.) gallon (U.S.) barrel (U.S.Petroleum)
barrel (U.S.Petroleum)
cubic centimeter 16,387 0,06102
cubic metre 0,02832 35,31
gallon (U.S.) 7,48 0,1337
litre 28,32 0,03531
cubic metre 0,7646 1,3079
cubic centimeter 29,57 0,03382
litre 0,9464 1,0566
gallon (Imperial) 0,8327 1,2009
litre 3,785 0,2642
gallon (U.S.) 42, 0,0238
litre 158,98 0,00629
Mass
grain
ounce (oz)
pound (lbs)
short ton
long ton
milligram 64,8 0,01 543
gram 28,35 0,03527
kilogram 0,4536 2,205
metric ton 0,9072 1,1023
metric ton 1,0161 0,9842
Pressure or Stress
pound force per inch2 (psi)
kip per inch2 (ksi) pound force per inch2 (psi)
kip per inch2 atmosphere atmosphere
pascal 6895, 0,0001450
megapascal 6,895 0,145
bar 0,06895 14,50
kilogram per millimetre2 0,7031 1,4223
mm Hg 760, 0,001316
pound force per inch2 14,696 0,06805
miscellaneous information
Unit Conversion to
Multiply by
Reciprocal
Pressure or Stress (Cont.)
atmosphere
atmosphere torr (mm Hg) inch of water
foot of water dyne per centimetre2
bar 1,013 0,9872
megapascal 0,1013 9,872
pascal 133,32 0, 007501
pascal 248,8 0,004019
pound force per inch2 0,4335 2,307
pascal 0,1000 10,00
Work, Heat and Energy
British thermal unit (Btu)
foot pound-force calorie
Btu kilocalorie Btu Btu per hour watthour horse power
joule
1055, 0,0009479
joule 1,356 0, 7375
joule 4,187 0,2389
foot pound-force 778, 0,001285
Btu 3,968 0,252
kilogram metre 107,56 0,009297
watt 0,2929 3,414
joule
3600, 0,0002778
kilowatt 0,7457 1,341
Miscellaneous
pound per gallon (U.S.) pound mole (gas) gram mole (gas) board foot milliampere per foot2 gallons (U.S.) per minute pound-force kilopond (Kp)
gram per litre 119,8 0,00835
cubic foot (STP) 359, 0,00279
litre (STP) 22,4 0,0446
cubic metre 0,00236 423,7
milliampere per metre2 10,76 0,0929
metre3 per day 5,451 0,1835
newton 4,448 0,2248
newton (N) 9,81 0,102
Roman Numerals
Basic numerals:
I
1
VX
5
10
L
50
C
100
D
500
M
1000
Combination rules:
– A smaller numeral in front of a larger is subtracted from the larger
– A smaller numeral after a larger is added to the larger
– Equal numerals after each other are added together
– II and III are never placed in front of a larger numeral, e.g. 7 is always VII, never IIIX
A horizontal line above a numeral multiplies this numeral with 1000. A horizontal line
above together with a vertical line on each side of the numeral multiplies the numeral
with 100.000.
6.00
531
miscellaneous information
Metric and Decimal Equivalents of Fractions of an Inch
Inches
mm
1/64
1/32
3/64
1/16
5/64
3/32
7/64
0.015
0.3968
0.031
0.7937
0.047
1.1906
0.063
1.5876
0.078
1.9843
0.0942.3812
0.1092.7780
1/8
9/64
5/32
11/64
3/16
13/64
7/32
15/64
1/4
17/64
9/32
19/64
5/16
21/64
11/32
13/64
3/8
25/64
13/32
27/64
7/16
29/64
15/32
31/64
1/2
inches
33/64
17/32
35/64
9/16
37/64
19/32
39/64
0.516
0.531
0.547
0.563
0.578
0.594
0.609
13.0966
13.4934
13.8903
14.2872
14.6841
15.0809
15.4778
0.125
0.141
0.156
0.172
0.188
0.203
0.219
0.234
3.1749
5/8
3.5718
41/64
3.968621/32
4.3655
43/64
4.7624
11/16
5.1592
45/64
5.556123/32
5.9530
47/64
0.625
0.641
0.656
0.672
0.688
0.703
0.719
0.734
15.8747
16.2715
16.6684
17.0653
17.4621
17.8590
18.2559
18.6527
0.250
0.266
0.281
0.297
0.313
0.328
0.344
0.359
6.3498
3/4
6.7467
49/64
7.143625/32
7.5404
51/64
7.9373
13/16
8.3342
53/64
8.731027/32
9.1279
55/64
0.750
19.0496
0.766
19.4465
0.781
19.8433
0.79720.2402
0.81320.6371
0.82821.0339
0.84421.4308
0.85921.8277
0.375
0.391
0.406
0.422
0.438
0.453
0.469
0.484
0.500
9.5248
7/8
9.9216
57/64
10.318529/32
10.7154
59/64
11.1122
15/16
11.5091
61/64
11.9060
31/32
12.3029
63/64
12.6997
1/1
0.87522.2245
0.89122.6214
0.90623.0183
0.92223.4151
0.93823.8120
0.95324.2089
0.96924.6057
0.98425.0026
1.00025.3995
Wire cross sections
AWG
mm2
AWG
mm2
AWG
mm2
20 0,519
10 5,26 1 42,41
18 0,823 8 8,367
1/0 53,49
16
1,31 6 13,302/0 67,43
142,08 421,15
3/0 85,01
12
3,31 2 33,62
4/0 107,2
6.00
532
mm
miscellaneous information
Common Gauge series used for Sheet thickness and Wire
Name
Abbreviation
American Wire Gauge
Birmingham Wire Gauge
Brown and Sharp
(identical to AWG)
Galvanized Iron
Name
Abbreviation
AWG
BWG
Standard Wire Gauge (British)
Manufacturer’s Standard (U.S.)
SWG
MSG
B&S
GSG
U.S. Standard Plate
Zinc (American Zinc Gauge)
AZG
USC
Thickness in mm
Gauge
No.
AI(U.S.)
Copper
Brass
B&S
AWG
Galv. Stainless Steel
Iron
Al(U.K.)
Steel
Sheet
Strip
GSG
SWG
MSG
USG
BWG
Zinc
AZG
7/0
6/0
5/0
4/0
3/0
2/0
1/0
12,7
11,8
11,0
10,2
9,4
8,8
8,2
1
2
3
4
5
7,62
7,01
6,40
6,07
5,89
5,69
5,38
5,31
7,14
6,75
6,35
5,95
5,56
0,15
0,20
0,25
4,88
4,47
4,06
3,66
3,25
7,34
6,55
5,82
5,18
4,62
6
4,11
7
3,66
8
3,25
4,27
92,90
3,89
102,59
3,50
4,93
4,55
4,17
3,78
3,40
5,16
4,76
4,57
4,37
4,19
3,97
3,76
3,57
3,40
0,30
0,36
0,41
0,46
0,51
112,31
3,182,95
3,05
3,18
3,05
122,062,792,642,672,782,77
13
1,832,412,342,292,382,41
14
1,632,032,03
1,90
1,982,11
15
1,45
1,80
1,83
1,70
1,79
1,83
0,61
0,71
0,81
0,91
1,02
16
17
18
19
20
1,30
1,14
1,02
0,91
0,81
1,63
1,47
1,32
1,17
1,02
1,63
1,42
1,22
1,02
0,91
1,52
1,37
1,22
1,07
0,91
1,59
1,42
1,27
1,11
0,95
1,65
1,47
1,24
1,07
0,89
1,14
1,27
1,40
1,52
1,78
21
22
23
24
25
0,71
0,64
0,58
0,51
0,46
0,94
0,86
0,79
0,71
0,64
0,81
0,71
0,61
0,56
0,51
0,84
0,76
0,69
0,61
0,53
0,87
0,79
0,71
0,64
0,56
0,812,03
0,712,29
0,642,54
0,56
3,18
0,51
6,35
6.00
533
miscellaneous information
Physical properties of some elements
Symbol Density
g/cm3 20°C
Melting
Point °C
Al 2,70 660
Sb 6,68 630
A 1,784* –189,2
As 5,73 814
Ba
3,5 725
Manganese
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Niobium
Mn 7,2
1260
Hg 13,55 –38,9
Mo
10,22620
Ni 8,90
1455
Nb 8,552500
Beryllium
Bismuth
Boron
Bromine
Cadmium
Be 1,85
1280
Bi 9,80 271
B2,32300
Br 3,12 –7,2
Cd 8,65 321
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Platinum
Potassium
N 1,25* –209,9
0 1,429* –218,4
P 1,82 44,1
Pt 21,37
1773
K 0,87 62,3
Calcium
Carbon
Chlorine
Chromium
Colbalt
Ca 1,55 842
C 2,25
3550
Cl 1,56**
–103
Cr
7,2
1890
Co
8,9
1495
Rhodium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Rh
12,5
1966
Se 4,8 220
Si 2,42
1420
Ag 10,50 960,5
Na 0,97 97,5
Sulphur
Tantalum
Tin
S 2,07 119
Ta
16,62996
Sn 7,31 231,9
Titanium
Tungsten
Ti 4,5
W
19,3
Vanadium
Zinc
Zirconium
V 5,96
1710
Zn 7,14 419,5
Zr 6,4
1857
* kg/Nm3
** Liquid, at boiling point -37°C
534
Density
Melting
g/cm3 20°C Point °C
Aluminum
Antimony
Argon
Arsenic
Barium
Copper
Cu 8,92
1083
Fluorine
F 1,69*
–223
Gold
Au
19,32
1063
Hafnium
Hf
3300
Helium
He 0,177* –272,2
Hydrogen
H 0,090* –259,2
Iodine
l 4,93 113,5
Iron
Fe 7,87
1535
Lead
Pb
11,35 327,4
Lithium
Li 0,53 186
Magnesium Mg 1,74 651
6.00
Symbol
1800
3370
miscellaneous information
Hardness comparison table
Brinell HB
Vickers
HV
(>5 kpl)
Rockwell
(*HRB)
HRC
Tensile
Brinell strength
HB
N/mm2
80 80
36,4*275
300
85 85
42,2*295
310
90 90
474*
315
320
95 95
52,0*
325
330
100
100
56,4*
345
340
105
105
60,0*
365
350
110
110
63,4*
380
359
115
115
66,4*
390
368
120
120
69,4*
410
376
125
125
72,0*
420
385
130
130
74,4*
440
392
135
135
76,4*
460
400
140
140
78,4*
470
408
145
145
80,4*
490
415
150
150
82,2*
500
423
155
155
83,8*
520
430
160
160
85,4*
540
436
165
165
86,8*
550
443
170
170
88,2*
570
451
175
175
89,6*
590
459
180
180
90,8*
610
467
185
185
91,8*
620
481
190
190
93,0*
640
495
195
195
94,0*
660
508
200200
95,0*
670
521
205205
95,8*
685
535
210210
96,6*
715
548
215215
97,6*
705
561
220220
98,2*
735
574
225225
99,0*
755
588
230230
19,2
765
602
23523520,2
785
615
240240
21,2
805
627
245245
22,1
825
639
25025023,0
835
650
25525523,8
855
661
26026024,6
875
672
26526525,4
885
682
27027026,2
900
692
27527526,9
920
701
28028027,6
940
711
28528528,3
950
29029029,0
970
29529529,6
990
Vickers Rockwell Tensile
HV
strength
(>5 kpl)
HRC
N/mm2
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
520
540
560
580
600
620
640
660
680
700
720
740
760
780
800
820
840
860
880
900
920
940
30,3
1010
31,5
1040
32,7
1070
33,8
1100
34,9
1140
36,0
1170
37,0
1205
38,0
1235
38,9
1265
39,8
1295
40,2
1325
41,5
1355
42,4
1385
43,2
1400
44,0
1430
44,8
1460
45,5
1490
46,3
1520
47,0
1540
47,7
1570
48,3
1600
49,6
1660
50,9
1765
52,1
1825
53,3
1715
54,4
1875
55,4
1930
56,4
1980
57,42030
58,42080
59,32130
60,22170
61,12215
61,92255
62,7
63,5
64,3
65,0
65,7
66,3
66,9
67,5
68,0
6.00
535
miscellaneous information
Corrosion of Galvanic couples in Sea water at 4–27 °c
Unfavorable – Normal Deterioration of either material may be
increased moderately or severely.
X
Uncertain – Direction and/or magnitude of effect on normal
behavior may vary, depending on circumstances.
0
Compatible – Deterioration of either material is normally
within tolerable limits.
S – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is small compared with
the area of the metal with which it is coupled.
E – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is approximately equal to
that of the metal with which it is coupled.
L – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is large compared with
that of the metal with which it is coupled.
No marking
Note: These numbers correspond with the numbers and alloy designations
listed in the left column.
6.00
536
miscellaneous information
6.00
537
miscellaneous information
Temperature Scales
t (°C) = temperature, degrees Celsius
T (K) = temperature, degrees Kelvin
tre = temperature, degrees
(°Re) Rèaumur
tf (F°) = temperature, degrees
Fahrenheit
0 °C
=273,15 K= 0 °Re
= 32 °F = 491,67 °R
100 °C = 373,15 K = 80 °Re
=212 °F = 671,67 °R
t
= 5/9 (tf –32)
t
= 5/4 tre
t
= T–273,15
t
= 5/9TR –273,15
6.00
538
tf tf tf = 9/5t+32
= TR –459,67
= 9/4(tre +32)
T
T
T
= t +273,15
= 5/9 tf + 255,37
= 5/9 TR
TR TR
TR = tf + 459,67
= 9/5t+491,67
= 9/5 T
miscellaneous information
bar
Pressure variations related to Temperature
max.200 bar at 15°C
max. 15 (Ac) 150 (Ox) bar at 15°C
6.00
539
miscellaneous information
Abbreviations and Welding Terminologi
ABS
Abbreviation for American Bureau of Shipping
(classification institute).
ACETONEColourless, volatile, water-soluble, flammable liquid.
ACETYLENEColourless gas with high carbon content, lighter than
air, C2H2.
ACAlternating current
AlR CARBONRemoval of material from electrically conductive metals
ARC GOUGINGby means of an electric arc between carbon electrode
and workpiece combined with an air pressure jet
adjacent to the electrode.
AlSlAbbreviation for American Iron and Steel Institute.
ALLOYED STEELSteel which, in addition to carbon, contains certain
alloy elements to provide special characteristics.
ALUMINIUM Aluminium alloys with high copper content. See section
BRONZEon Metals and Alloys.
«A»-MEASUREMENT Measurement denoting depth of fillet welds.
AMMETERInstrument for measuring electrical current measured
in amperes.
AMPERAGEStrength of an electrical current measured in amperes.
ANNEALRemoval of internal stresses in metal by heating and
slow cooling.
ANSIAbbreviation for American National Standard Institute.
ARC BLOWDeflection of intended arc pattern by magnetic fields.
ARGONInert gas – used as shielding gas in wire welding and
TIG welding.
ASMAbbreviation for American Society for Metals.
ASMEAbbreviation for American Society of Mechanical
Engineering. Issues regulations relating to planning and
construction of welded installations.
ASPHYXIATIONLoss of consciousness due to lack of oxygen.
ASTMAbbreviation for American Society for Testing and
Materials.
AUSTENITENonmagnetic stainless steel that cannot be hardened
by heat treatment. This type of steel is characterized
by its unique grain structure. Contains at least 11 %
chromium with varying amounts of nickel.
6.00
540
miscellaneous information
AWSAbbreviation for American Welding Society.
BACKUP BAR Tool or fixture attached to the root of weld joint. Tool
may or may not control the shape of the penetrating
metal.
BACKUP GASShielding gas which protects the root of the weld from
the atmosphere.
BASE MATERIAL The material in components to be joined by welding.
The composition and dimension of the base materials
are the deciding factors for the welding process and
filler material to be used.
BASIC COATING
Electrode coating consisting of calcite, fluorspar,
ferromanganese and ferrosilicium.
BERYLLIUMHard, light metallic element used in copper for better
fatigue endurance.
BEVEL Angular type of edge preparation.
BOILER STEELBetter known as heat resistant construction
steel. Weldable and corrosion resistant steel with
satisfactory resistance under high thermic conditions,
approx. 500–700°C. This type of steel may be unalloyed,
low alloyed or stainless.
BORE Inside diameter of hole, tube or hollow object.
BRAZING The method where surface bonding between the base
material and filler metal is achieved.
BRIGHT METAL Material preparation where the surface has been
ground or machined to a bright surface to remove scale
or oxides.
BRINELL HARDNESS Abbreviated HB, denoting load in kp from a hard steel
ball divided by the spherical area of indentation in mm2.
Expressed in kp mm2.
BSAbbreviation for British Standard.
BURNTHROUGH
Weld which has melted through, resulting in a ho!e and
excessive penetration.
BVAbbreviation for Bureau Veritas (French classification
institute).
CADMIUM White ductile metallic element used for plating material
to prevent corrosion.
CAPILLARY BRAZINGMethod of brazing using the capillary forces to draw
the filler metal into narrow gaps. Max. gap for capillary
brazing is 0.1 mm.
6.00
541
miscellaneous information
CARBIDESCompound of carbon with one or more metal elements.
CAST IRON
ELECTRODES
Welding electrode specially suitable for welding and
repair of cast iron. The electrode has a core of nickel or
nickel alloy and a slag forming and arc stabilizing
coating.
CEEquipment with CE-markings fulfils the the basic
requirements of the Low Voltage and Electromagnetic
Compatibility Guideline.
CLADDINGLayer of material applied to a surface for the purpose of
improved corrosion resistance.
COLD LAPSArea of weld that has not fused with the base metal.
CONCAVE WELD
CROWNWeld crown that is curved inward.
CONSTRUCTIONGeneral expression denoting weldable steel in strength
STEELclassification 37–60 kp/mm2.
CONTAMINATIONIndicates a dirty part, impure shielding gas or impure
filler metal.
CONTOURShape of the weld bead or pass.
CONVEX WELD
CROWNWeld crown that is curved outward.
COPPERMetal element with melting point at 1083 °C. Cu.
CORROSIONEating away of material by a corrosive medium.
CRATERDepression at the end of a weld that has insufficient
cross section.
CRATER CRACKSCracking that occurs in the crater.
CSAEquipment with CSA-Test mark fulfils the requirements
made in the relevant standards for Canada and the
USA.
CUNIFER Alloy of copper and nickel. Seawater resistant. See
section on Metals and Alloys.
DC
Direct current.
DEEP WELDING
Electrodes with acid or rutile organic coatings which
ELECTRODESincrease the arc effect and generation of heat in the
melting-in process.
DEMURRAGE
Monetary charge applied to the user of gas cylinders
beyond agreed rental period.
DEOXIDIZED FILLER Filler materials which contains deoxidizers such as
MATERIALSaluminium, zirconium and titanium for welding steels.
6.00
542
miscellaneous information
DESTRUCTIVE
TESTING
DT – series of tests by destruction to determine the
quality of a weld.
DEWARS
Specially constructed tank similar to a vacuum bottle
for the storage of Iiquified gases.
DINAbbreviating for Deutsche lnstitut für Normung.
DIRECT CURRENT Flow of current (electrons) in only one direction, either
to theworkpiece or to the electrode.
DIRECT CURRENT
ELECTRODE
NEGATIVE (DCEN) Direct current flowing from electrode to the work.
DIRECT CURRENT
ELECTRODE
POSITIVE (DCEP) Direct current from work to the electrode.
DIRECT CURRENT
REVERSE POLARITY
(DCRP)
See Direct Current Electrode Positive.
DIRECT CURRENT
STRAIGHT POLARITY
(DCRP)
See Direct Current Electrode Negative.
DNV
Abbreviation for Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian
classification institute).
DUCTILITY
Property of material causing it to deform permanently,
or to exhibit plasticity without breaking while under
tension.
DUTY CYCLEArc/time factor – the relationship between the time the
arc is in operation and the total working time measured
over a period of 10 minutes. Expressed in % of the time
the welding machine can work at a certain amperage
in this period. I.e. a 30% intermittence the arc can be
in operation 3 min. of the period. During the remaining
time the machine will be at rest while electrodes are
changed, slag removed etc.
ELECTRIC STEEL
Steel produced in an electro-furnace.
ELONGATIONPermanent elastic extension which metal undergoes
during tensile testing. Amount of extension is usually
indicated by percentages of original gauge length.
Measurements is usually based on 5 x D or 10 x D,
where «D» is the diameter of the test rod.
ENThe European Community for standardization has
developed a nomenclature in welding, Euronorm E.N.
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FCAWFlux Cored Arc Welding
FERROUS METALS
Group of metals containing substantial amounts of iron.
FERRUMLatin name for chemically pure iron (Fe).
FILLET WELDWeld of approximately triangular cross section joining
two surfaces approximately at right angles and a lap
joint, «T» joint or corner joint.
FILLET WELD LEG
Leg Iength of largest isosceles right triangle which can
be inscribed within fillet weld cross section.
FLOW METERMechanical device used for measuring shielding gas
rate of flow. Usually measurements are liter per. min.
– «l/min.» or in cubic feet per hour – «CFH».
FLUXMaterial in the form of powder or paste, used in gas
welding and brazing to prevent or facilitate removal
of oxide and other contaminating substances from the
surface of the base material. Fluxes may be corrosive.
GAS SHIELDEDWelding processes where the arc and molten pool are
ARC WELDINGsurrounded by a protective – shielding – gas. The gas
may be of inert type or Carbon Dioxide or a mixture of
these gases together with Hydrogen or Oxygen.
GMAWGas Metal Arc Welding.
GRAPHITECarbon flakes in cast iron. (Not chemically fused with
the iron).
GREY CAST IRONCast iron in which most of the carbon is in the form of
graphite flakes.
GROOVE ANGLE The angle of a V-groove expressed in degrees. Normal
groove angle for electric arc welding is 50–60°,
depending on welding position and metal thickness.
GTAWGas Tungsten Arc Welding. The shielding gas will here
always be of INERT type. Same welding method as TIG
welding.
HARD BRAZINGA common name of brazing methods where capillary
forces are used. See Capillary brazing.
HARD SURFACING Hard material applied to surface of softer material for
protection from abrasion and wear.
HIGH ALLOY STEEL Steel containing more than 5% of one or more alloy
elements.
IMPACT RESISTANCE The energy, expressed in kp.m or Joule, absorbed
by a test rod of predetermined shape at a certain
temperature.
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INERT GASGas that does not normally combine chemically with
the base metal or filler material. Also referred to as
nobel gas.
INTERMITTANCESee duty cycle.
INTERPASSIn multiple pass weld, minimum and maximum
TEMPERATUREtemperature specified for the deposited metal before
next weld pass is started.
INVERTERWelding power source were the normal frequency is
set to a very high value thereby reducing the need for a
heavy iron core in order to reduce the voltage.
ISOAbbreviation for International Standardization
Organisation.
KILLED STEELSteel which contains fairly large quantities of
ferrosilicium or aluminium. This type of steel is suitable
for welded connections.
LOW ALLOY STEEL
Steel containing 1–5% alloy elements.
LRLloyds Register of Shipping (British classification
institute).
MAGNETIC ARC
BLOW See Arc Blow.
MAG-WELDINGMetal Active Gas-welding. (see also GMAW).
MANGANESEAn important alloy in steel, melting point 1245 °C. Chemical symbol Mn.
MARTENSITEStructure obtained when steel is heated and cooled to
achieve its maximum hardness.
MIG-WELDINGMetal Inert Gas-welding. See also Gas Shielded Arc
Welding and GMAW.
MILD STEELUnalloyed steel, maximum carbon content 0.25%.
MPaMega Pascal
NDT-TESTSAbbreviation for Non-Destructive Testing, i.e. testing
and investigation materials or components without
destroying these. Involves use of radiography,
supersonic testing, magnetic powder, penetrating fluids
etc.
NON-RETURN VALVEAn appliance fitted on the outlet of the regulator of a
gas cylinder which prevent any flame from a backfire in
the welding torch from returning to the gas cylinder.
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NSAbbreviation for the Norwegian Standards Association.
NSFIAbbreviation for the Norwegian Research Institute for
Ships.
OUT-OF POSITIONWelding that is performed in a non-standard way such
WELDING
as vertical or overhead.
OXIDE FILMFilm formed on base material as a result of exposure to
oxidizing agents, atmosphere, chemicals or heat.
OXYGENColourless gas without odour or taste. Chemical symbol
02. Oxygen is not flammable itself, but feeds flames and
is used together with Acetylene for welding and cutting.
ORGANICElectrodes having consumable organic components in
ELECTRODES
the coating i.e. cellulose. Small slag deposits.
POLARITYDirection of current. Current moving from the electrode
to the workpiece is DCEN or DCSP. Current flow from
the workpiece to the electrode is DCEP or DCRP.
POLYMERChemical reaction between resin (Base) and a hardener
(Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer
network.
POROSITYPores within a weld caused by gas entrapment during
solidification of weld metal.
POSTHEATHeat which is applied at the end of the weld cycle to
slow down cooling rate to prevent cracking and to
relieve stress.
PPM-VALUEParts per million.
PRIMARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the mains supply
to the primary side of a welding machine.
PROPANEColourless, flammable gas, heavier than air, chemical
formula 3
RECTIFIERA welding power-source which gives DC welding
current. Part of a power-source which converts AC to
DC.
REGULATORAn appliance for the reduction of gas pressure from
a gas cylinder to a suitable pressure for welding or
cutting. Equipped with pressure gauges indicating
cylinder pressure and working pressure.
REMOTE CONTROL
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Control of welding current from the welding area.
Adjustment is by means of additional cable or through
the welding cable.
miscellaneous information
ROOT PASSThe first welding pass in a groove.
RUTILE ELECTRODES Coated electrodes containing ilmenite, TiO2, in the
coating.
SECONDARY CABLE
The cable which carries current from the secondary
side of a welding machine to the workpiece and
electrode holder.
SPower source for use in spaces with increased
electrical danger (e.g. boilers) must be identified by the
«S» (for «Safety») mark.
SPATTERSmall pieces of metal which have been ejected from
molten pool and attached to base material outside the
weld.
SPOT WELDControlled weld cycle to procedure sheet metal weld
with spesific characteristics. Belongs to the group
«Resistance Welding».
STAINLESS STEEL
Common term for two main groups: chrome alloy
(ferritic) and chrome-nickel alloy (austenitic) steel.
Austenitic steel is non-magnetic.
STRINGER BEAD
Weld bead made without oscillation, side-to-side
motion.
SURFACINGApplying material to the surface of another material for
protection from chemipals, heat, wear, rust etc.
TACK WELDWeld made to hold parts of weldment in alignment until
final weld is made.
TENSILE STRENGTH
Indicates the breaking strength of a material,
expressed in N/mm2.
TENSILE TESTA destructive test where a weld is pulled apart.
This test determines how much tension a weld can
withstand before the weld gives.
THERMIC SPRAYING A method of bulling up a workpiece by spraying
on finely powdered metal alloys. Can also be used
for spraying zinc and plastic powders for surface
protection.
TIG WELDING
Tungsten inert gas welding.
THERMOCROMETemperature indicating crayons. Used to control
CRAYONS
temperature levels.
TUNGSTENAn electrode of pure tungsten or tungsten alloyed with
ELECTRODE
rare earths, lanthanum, cerium, torium or zirconium.
High melting point – 3410 °C. Used for TIG welding.
Tungsten is also known as Wolfram.
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UNALLOYED STEEL
Steel containing up to 1 % alloy elements.
WASH BEADWeld beads made with an oscillation – side-to-side
technique to widen the weld bead.
WELDING DIRECTION An expression used in welding and brazing indicating
the direction of the welding process in relation to the
welder.
WELDING
TRANSFORMER
Welding power-source giving AC welding current.
WHISKERSPieces of weld wire which have penetrated through
the weld joint and melted. The wire extends beyond the
penetration on the root side of the weld.
WIG
Wolfram Inert Gas. Same welding method as TIG
welding.
WROUGHT MATERIAL Material made by processes other than casting.
YIELD POINTThe stress level at which a steel material starts to
become plastic and shows signs of cross-contraction
and permanent deformity. Expressed in N/mm2.
YORCALBROSeawater resistant alloy of aluminium and brass.
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