Appendix D to CAAP 5.14-2(0) - Civil Aviation Safety Authority

Appendix D to CAAP 5.14-2(0) - Civil Aviation Safety Authority

D1 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Appendix D to CAAP 5.14-2(0) – F

LIGHT

C

OMPONENT

T

RAINING

E

LEMENTS

This appendix provides basic templates for each of the flight component training elements as they would be delivered to a student pilot.

The level of detail supplied for each element is only at outline level and will require amplification. In particular this material is silent on technique and aeroplane type specific information. CASA recommends that CFI’s provide clear and detailed guidance on the techniques required to be used in their flying school during flight training operations.

Each training element is addressed against the following headings:

• Ground School Points

• Preparatory Instruction

• Lesson Elements

• Training Elements

• Tips for Instructors

• Common Student Errors

Each heading has basic sub headings and/or narrative. However, the CFI will need to add comprehensive flying school and type specific information to each of these areas to complete this material.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

INDEX

1 Preparation for flight

3 Taxiing

4 Straight and level flight

7 Climbing and descending turns

8 Effects of controls

9 Stalling

10 Spinning

11 Take-off circuit and landing

13

14

15

Flapless take-off and landing

Short field take-off and landing

Cross wind take-off and landing

20 EFATO

24 Navigation

D3

D7

D10

D14

D20

D28

D32

D37

D45

D51

D52

D57

D60

D62

D65

D68

D72

D76

D79

D83

D85

D88

D89

D90

D97

D2

Draft only: August 2011

D3 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

INTRODUCTION

Preparation for flight is an essential component of training and involves consideration of many relevant elements. The knowledge and application of that knowledge, to ensure careful and thorough preparation, will take a significant amount of training. The instructor will need to take a steady developmental approach which begins with simple concepts and slowly builds on those concepts as the student progresses through training. It is therefore important that the instructor provides significant ongoing direction to, and monitoring of, student development.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

The student must be made aware that the success of the flight is directly related to the amount of preparation and planning. Careful preparation and planning is a key element of flight safety.

Poor preparation and planning invariably results in wasted lessons which will lead to loss of student confidence and result in a negative learning outcome.

REVISION

It should be assumed that the student has had little, if any, formal training at this stage. Revision should therefore be kept to an appropriate level.

AIRMANSHIP

Explain the concept of good Airmanship and that it is fundamentally the result of developing the ability to recognise the potential for threat and error and learning to integrate preventative and corrective processes to mitigate those threats and errors.

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Pilot fitness for flight

• Flight Authorisation

• Pilot documentation and map preparation

• Flight planning

• Tarmac safety

• Aeroplane position

• Daily inspection

• Aeroplane documentation

• Fuel and oil

• Aeroplane cleanliness

• Cockpit organization

• Pilot seating position

On the first lesson the instructor should demonstrate all of the lesson subdivisions of preparation for flight to the student. Subsequent lessons will progressively lead towards directing and finally

monitoring.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D4

Be careful to avoid overloading the student with too much information at once. It is good for the student to be aware of the big picture provided it is initially kept simple. In each of the following lesson subdivisions the detail can be filled in as the student develops basic concepts.

Pilot fitness for flight

The first and probably the most important consideration is the student’s fitness to fly. The instructor should carefully begin to guide the student through all of the elements that contribute to pilot fitness as per the Day VFR syllabus; section 3 – ground training block 2 (human performance and limitations). The instructor should make it clear that progressively through training the student must learn to completely and accurately self assess their individual suitability for flight conduct.

Additionally the student must learn the legal requirements for licensing, minimum experience and recent experience.

Flight authorisation

The instructor should explain the flight authorisation process and that each flight is only authorised based on careful consideration of pilot fitness, legal compliance, and evidence of student competency, aircraft serviceability and assessment of a suitable training environment including weather, daylight, airspace and traffic.

Pilot documentation and map preparation

The instructor should explain the requirement for carriage of pilot documentation including licence, medical and aviation security identity card. Briefly refer the student to the complete AIP package and explain that in the early stages of training, maps and other operational planning documentation will be limited to possibly only a basic training area map such as a VTC and an airfield runway and taxiway diagram. Explain that they will be made familiar with other documentation as it becomes relevant to syllabus progress.

Flight planning

The instructor should explain the basic processes for flight planning including route considerations, weather, fuel requirements, loading and performance. Explain to the student that while operating in the training area on short flights at light operational weights, all of these considerations are basic and will almost always be very similar from lesson to lesson. The student should be made aware that practice in basic flight planning will form the foundations for flight planning the more complex nature of cross country flying. The instructor should therefore encourage the student to make the actual route considerations, weather assessments and calculation of loading and performance for every flight. As training progresses, ask the student to provide a short planning brief for each flight.

Tarmac safety

Explain to the student the importance of being visible on the tarmac. While high visibility vests are required at some airports they should be encouraged to be worn at all times. The instructor should stress the potential danger of a propeller even when not under power and the dangers associated with aircraft components at eye height such as aerials, flaps and other aircraft components. Explain to the student that walking past idle aircraft should be done with caution as they may be about to start.

Aeroplane position

The instructor should point out that before starting the aircraft it should be positioned so that the propeller slipstream will not cause inconvenience or damage to other aircraft, persons or property.

Explain that loose stones or debris may be picked up by the propeller causing costly damage and possible injury. Explain the importance of a pre-start visual inspection and the requirement to call

‘clear propeller’ before actuating the starter.

Draft only: August 2011

D5 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

It is also important that some aircraft types should be faced into wind to reduce fire risk on starting.

The instructor should also explain the importance of inspecting the intended taxi path to ensure that obstructions are noted and can be safely avoided.

Daily inspection

The daily inspection should be conducted in accordance with lesson plan 2.

Aeroplane documentation

Before walking out to the aeroplane the instructor should show the student the documents that indicate the serviceability of the aeroplane. The instructor should explain how the fuel and oil state can be determined, whether any work has recently been carried out on the aeroplane and why the pilot must review and possibly sign certain documents before flying the aeroplane.

Fuel and oil

The instructor should explain to the student the methods of determining fuel and oil states. The use of dip sticks and visual tabs should be shown with comparison to calculations made from fuel burned since last refuel. Explain the requirement to record fuel and oil state.

Aeroplane cleanliness

Point out to the student the need to ensure windscreen cleanliness and demonstrate the correct method of cleaning. Explain the importance of a clean airframe for both aerodynamic efficiency and also post flight inspection for leaks or damage which may indicate potential component failure.

Explain the benefits of removing unnecessary clutter from passenger seat pockets and cargo compartments and the possible safety threats of loose objects in the cabin.

Cockpit organisation

The instructor should show the student the correct places for stowage of aircraft manuals, where to store maps and navigational equipment and the importance of keeping the top of the instrument panel clear of any equipment.

Pilot seating position

The instructor should show the student how to correctly adjust the seat to ensure that all flight and ancillary controls are able to be comfortably reached and operated through their full range of movement. At the same time ensure that the student is able to sit comfortably with the seat height set correctly. Explain to the student the importance of correct eye height with regard to visibility and visual picture consistency each time any manoeuvre is performed. Point out that on each flight the seat will more than likely need to be readjusted due to previous student occupancy.

CONSOLIDATION

The instructor should ensure these entire lesson subdivisions are progressively assessed and developed. Careful observation of the student preparing for flight is essential and the instructor should not hesitate to address any deficiencies that may develop.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

D6

This procedure is quite complex and will require progressive guidance and supervision until reliable proficiency is attained. Checking of the whole procedure should be done thereafter at regular intervals to ensure proficiency is maintained.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Some students may be a little overwhelmed with their first flight. Once they gain some familiarity watch for overconfidence and missing key elements.

Draft only: August 2011

D7 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

2. DAILY AND PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION

INTRODUCTION

It is important in this lesson that the instructor explains the legal requirements of aircraft airworthiness and that the maintenance release only certifies an aircraft as airworthy provided a certified person has conducted a daily inspection and has certified this on the maintenance release.

The instructor should explain the validity of certification by a CPL holder and that only a CPL or higher can certify the daily inspection requirements for a student Pilot. The instructor should also explain the difference between a daily and pre-flight inspection and point out that during training most organisations use the daily inspection checklist for the pre-flight inspection to ensure early consolidation of the procedure.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

The daily and pre-flight inspection is the best opportunity to detect possible aircraft component failure before it occurs.

Many accidents have resulted from component failures, fuel exhaustion, oil depletion and other factors which could have been avoided with a thorough and meticulous inspection before flight.

The instructor should point out that the student is not expected to remember the detail of the daily inspection on the first lesson and that it will take several lessons under instructor direction before the student can confidently conduct the procedure thoroughly and efficiently. The student should be able to identify where the daily inspection checklist for the aircraft is located and the instructor should make it very clear that the inspection must be performed meticulously with reference to the checklist and a critical eye for fault or anything unusual. The student should not hesitate to query any potential component fault.

REVISION

This lesson is not a stand alone single lesson and will be directly supervised by the instructor for many consecutive lessons. The instructor should therefore revise previously discussed elements to ensure the consolidation of knowledge and practical application.

AIRMANSHIP

Revise the concept of good Airmanship and in particular the threat and error associated with aircraft serviceability which may be identified before flight. Introduce the basic concept of situational awareness with regard to tarmac safety and avoidance of threats associated with aerodrome traffic on the apron areas.

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Tarmac safety

• Aeroplane position

• Daily inspection

• Aeroplane documentation

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D8

On the first lesson the instructor should again demonstrate all the lesson subdivisions to the student.

Subsequent lessons will progressively lead towards directing and finally monitoring.

Tarmac safety

Reemphasise the importance of being visible on the tarmac and the potential danger of threats associated with aerodrome traffic on the apron areas.

Aeroplane position

The instructor should point out that before starting the aircraft it should be positioned so that the propeller slipstream will not cause inconvenience or damage to other aircraft, persons or property.

Explain that loose stones or debris may be picked up by the propeller causing costly damage and possible injury. Explain the importance of a pre-start visual inspection and the requirement to call

‘clear propeller’ before actuating the starter.

It is also important that some aircraft types should be faced into wind to reduce fire risk on starting.

The instructor should also explain the importance of inspecting the intended taxi path to ensure that obstructions are noted and can be safely avoided.

Daily inspection

The daily inspection should be conducted in accordance with the aircraft pilot operating handbook or flight manual. The instructor should take time to carefully explain each daily inspection requirement.

Move in a clockwise direction around the aircraft and after demonstration of each component check, ask the student to repeat the inspection process giving his or her own verbal explanation of what they are looking for. As the student progresses and becomes more familiar with the aircraft components, ask more questions on possible component failures. e.g. what could be a possible risk if you found the oil filler neck to be loosely fitted to the engine block?

Or, what threat might exist if a lock wire was broken on an elevator control cable retainer nut.

Continue the inspection referring fully to the manufacturer’s guidelines. On completion it is a good idea to do a final walk around to ensure that all inspection caps, cargo latches and fuel and oil caps are secure, and that all aircraft chocks and securing or control locking devices are removed. Also ensure that any tow bars, windscreen cleaning equipment or any other equipment associated with conducting the inspection is returned to its correct area.

Aeroplane documentation

After completing the daily inspection show the student how you would complete the aircraft maintenance release certification. Give the student a verbal MR brief which confirms aircraft serviceability for the particular flight classification.

CONSOLIDATION

The instructor should ensure these entire lesson subdivisions are progressively assessed and developed. Careful observation of the student conducting the inspection is essential and the instructor should not hesitate to address any deficiencies that may develop.

Draft only: August 2011

D9

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

This procedure is quite complex and will require progressive guidance and supervision until reliable proficiency is attained. Checking of the whole procedure should be done thereafter at regular intervals to ensure proficiency is maintained.

Training organisations should try to maintain good relationships with their contracted engineering provider and look for opportunity to provide maintenance workshop experience for students.

Instructors should encourage students to ask questions – No question is a stupid question if it has the potential to avoid incident.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Students find it easier to remember items that involve the manipulation of a control or removal of a cap or panel because the human brain recalls activities more easily if they are associated with a manipulative input. An example is inspection of oil capacity and removal of the dipstick or checking aileron movement by manipulating the control surface.

They can however tend to miss items that involve only a visual inspection of fixed components which may on the surface appear normal. An example is a detached primer line at the bottom of a cylinder head or broken wire on the alternator.

These subtle oversights can only be checked if the instructor spends the time to consolidate thorough and effective inspection.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

3. TAXIING

INTRODUCTION

D10

Manoeuvring the aircraft on the ground may appear to the novice less dangerous than driving a car in a car park at slow speed. Taxiing however has many potential dangers and accidents occur frequently in the training environment. The instructor should explain at the very beginning that aircraft behave very differently to a motor car because of the small tricycle undercarriage, rudder pedal steering, differential braking, lag in forward speed authority, high displaced centre of gravity

(particularly in high wing aircraft) and the aerodynamic susceptibility to wind. Additionally the instructor should stress the importance of becoming aware of the fact that they are manoeuvring the equivalent of a loaded house removal transport vehicle in width. Additionally in high wing aircraft lateral visibility and distance judgement is restricted. Most taxi accidents occur as a result of poor basic training and loss of aerodrome situational awareness.

Taxiing is not usually taught as a stand alone exercise and is generally taught progressively throughout the first few lessons. On a student’s first few hours the conditions would normally be calm and not subject them to difficult flight control compensation. It is important that the student can experience simple manipulative skill development to allow development of aerodrome situational awareness.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will learn the key foundational skills of manoeuvring the aircraft on the ground. These skills will apply to almost every aircraft in a pilot’s career and it is important that they are taught correctly and consolidated early as they form the basis of safe ground handling.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should monitor the student conducting the daily inspection and ask questions about aircraft components to assist the development of aircraft general knowledge. Before entering the aircraft ask the student to describe the intended taxi route and confirm access is clear.

If this lesson is the student’s first flight, it is recommended that the instructor performs all radio procedures, pre-start, start and pre-taxi procedures.

The student will however begin to gain exposure to taxiing while manoeuvring to run up bays and holding points prior to departure and again on arrival, returning to parking.

REVISION

Revision should be appropriate to the experience and the instructor should insistent on correct technique from the very beginning. While it is expected that the student will take several lessons to gain proficiency, it is also common that something previously learned can be forgotten. The instructor should attempt to eliminate errors in technique as soon as they become apparent.

Draft only: August 2011

D11

AIRMANSHIP

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Stress the need to taxi at an appropriate speed considering the safe and expeditious movement of other traffic. Explain the need to maintain situational awareness with regard to:

• Lookout

• Traffic rules

• Obstacles

• Correct use of power and brakes

• Correct control inputs

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Use of power

• Use of brakes

• Control of direction

• Effect of wind and use of flying controls

• Instrument checks

Demonstrate use of power and brakes

From the parked position demonstrate that the speed of the aeroplane is governed primarily by the use of power. Explain that the amount of power needed depends on the ground surface. Make sure that the student is aware that higher power is often necessary to overcome the inertia of a stationary aeroplane and demonstrate that power must be reduced as soon as the aeroplane is moving at the required speed.

Teach the student to always test the brakes when moving away from the parking position. Do not allow the student to brake harshly unless this is unavoidable and teach never to rely completely on brakes, especially in wet weather. When wishing to stop, close the throttle before applying brakes, avoiding the use of power in opposition to brakes.

Emphasise the points to check with respect to engine temperature and pressure limitations and try to avoid long periods with the engine idling too slowly. Always insist that the student operates the throttle smoothly.

Direct use of power and brakes

Stop the aircraft and apply the park brake. Direct the student to reduce power, release the park brake while holding the brake pedals and then release brakes and apply enough power to move the aircraft forward. Direct the student to reduce power and apply gentle braking to stop the aircraft.

Demonstrate control of direction

Show the student how to control direction primarily with the rudder.

It is preferable that the student has a reasonable straight path initially to develop a feel for the rudder pedals. Show them how to ensure that the path ahead is clear if the design is such that the nose of the aeroplane obscures the view of the taxi path. This is done by turning the aeroplane slightly to the left and looking out of the right hand side and then turning slightly to the right and looking out of the left hand side.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D12

Make sure that the student understands how to use the nose wheel steering (if applicable) and demonstrate the use of brakes in controlling or assisting direction if this is applicable to the type of aeroplane.

Teach the student to anticipate the recovery from a turn and to apply corrective action before the nose of the aeroplane is pointing in the required direction.

Direct control of direction

Direct the student through taxiing straight ahead to maintain taxiway centreline marking and turning the aircraft where applicable. Direct the use of power and brakes for speed control and also anticipation of turn recovery and stopping.

Demonstrate effects of wind and use of flying controls

Demonstrate how the aeroplane tends to turn into wind (weathercock) when taxiing across the wind.

Show that taxiing into the wind is a comparatively simple exercise as the aeroplane tends to keep straight. Show how the aeroplane gains speed as it taxis down wind. Show how to position the flying controls with significant wind coming from various directions relative to the aeroplane’s heading.

Some manufacturers give very specific instructions on the use of ailerons and elevators whilst taxiing. When giving instruction in these types the instructor must be thoroughly familiar with the recommended method and teach the student accordingly.

Instrument checks

As the student becomes more proficient at taxiing explain the importance of checking the engine temperature and pressure indications. Additionally, demonstrate how to check the gyro instruments and magnetic compass while taxiing. Include navaid checks if appropriate.

CONSOLIDATION

Each lesson should be treated as a taxiing lesson from start up to take-off and from landing to shutdown.

The instructor should allow the student to taxi at all times, unless demonstration is necessary to correct poor technique.

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and the instructor should direct the student through the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Instruction in taxiing must be commenced as soon as possible and the student should be allowed to do all the taxiing at an early stage, the instructor taking control only when necessary.

From the beginning, impress upon the student the need to taxi at a reasonable speed considering safe and expeditious movement of traffic and to keep a sharp lookout for other aircraft and obstacles.

In confined areas a pilot may request or be offered taxi guidance. However, the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the aeroplane still rests with the pilot.

Draft only: August 2011

D13

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

The most common fault is that a student will tend to taxi too fast, especially as more confidence is gained. Many students become careless about lookout and clearing the blind spot created by the nose of the aeroplane and positioning the flight controls correctly. These faults must be eliminated at an early stage.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

4. STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT

INTRODUCTION

D14

The straight and level air exercise can be best learned when it is taught in its practical context.

Where possible, thought should be given to planning the exercise as a series of cruise legs around the training area. Selection of turning points that have distinguishing reference features will greatly assist the learning process. Headings and altitudes may be pre-planned to demonstrate the basic concepts of the purpose of the straight and level exercise.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will learn the key foundational skills of attitude flying and correct use of trim. It is important that these two skills are consolidated as they form the basis of all stable flight manoeuvres.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should monitor the student conducting the daily inspection and ask questions about aircraft components to assist the development of aircraft general knowledge.

As this lesson is only the student’s second or third flight, it is recommended that the instructor performs most of the radio procedures particularly in busy training environments.

The student should however be directed through the start procedure, before take-off checks and guided while taxiing to the run up bay and holding point.

TAKE-OFF

The take-off should be demonstrated by the instructor and the student allowed to ‘follow through’ with aileron and elevator inputs. The student’s feet should be clear of the rudder pedals during the take-off roll to avoid inadvertent braking.

DEPARTURE

Once airborne, the instructor may allow the student to ‘follow through’ the climb. The instructor should ensure the aircraft is correctly trimmed and allow the student to practice control authority whilst transiting to the training area.

REVISION

The instructor should revise the effects of the controls specifically with regard to how they are used during the climb. Point out the effects of the elevator to maintain attitude, aileron to keep wings level and rudder to balance and overcome slipstream effect. The cruise climb is best used in this instance as the horizon is more visible than the performance climbs.

It is recommended that the instructor directs the student to lower the nose to straight and level attitude every 500ft pointing out visual references for direction and correct lookout technique.

Draft only: August 2011

D15

AIRMANSHIP

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

This lesson should be subdivided into the following sequences:

• Straight flight

• Level flight

• Stability demonstration

• Slow speed level flight

• High speed level flight

Demonstrate straight flight

The instructor should configure the aircraft to straight and level flight and demonstrate selection of a reference point on the horizon. Emphasis should be made on the use of aileron to keep wings level and rudder to keep the aircraft in balance. Point out the position of the wing tips in relation to the horizon but then explain it is far easier to gain the required sight picture by having part of the aeroplane structure parallel to the natural horizon. Show how to maintain this position with the ailerons. Help the student choose a point on which to keep straight. Demonstrate that if the wings are kept level, small movements of the rudder will keep the aeroplane straight. Point out the balance of the aeroplane. If the aeroplane is fitted with a rudder trim, ensure that the student uses this in the correct sense.

Direct straight flight

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through maintenance of straight flight.

Demonstrate ‘cross control’ flight

At this point in the lesson it is beneficial to demonstrate to the student grossly exaggerated crossed controls (not followed by student practice). Note the reference point, reference altitude and IAS prior to crossing the controls. Explain to the student that the net flight path of the aeroplane is straight but the wings are certainly not level. Also point out the reduced IAS (i.e. inefficient form of flight) and the manoeuvre is uncomfortable. Then reduce the bank angle considerably and explain that whilst this may not feel uncomfortable to a student it is still an inefficient form of flight.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D16

Demonstrate level flight

The instructor should next select a reference altitude and point out the attitude (i.e. sight picture) in relation to the horizon. Show how to maintain this attitude with the elevator control. Ensure that the student is aware of the trimming procedure and that he or she is able to trim the aeroplane to fly

‘hands off’. Show how, once trimmed, minor elevator inputs are needed to maintain altitude. Show how adjustments to power will result in either an increase or decrease in altitude.

Direct level flight

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through maintenance of level flight.

Demonstrate normal cruise

The instructor should now demonstrate the combination of straight flight and level flight to maintain the normal cruise. Demonstrate the use of Power – Attitude – Speed – Trim to adopt the normal cruise and then point out to the student the use of visual references.

Show the student how to correct for minor deviations from heading and altitude emphasising the use of an effective work cycle such as Attitude – Lookout – Attitude – Performance.

Attitude – Point out the correct sight picture including the visual reference feature.

Lookout – Point out that the view ahead is restricted by blind spots and demonstrate how to ensure an effective lookout process.

Attitude – Check the attitude is maintained.

Performance – point out the indications of the various flight instruments. Relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon.

Bring to the student’s attention the engine instruments.

Direct normal cruise

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through maintenance of the normal cruise. The instructor may choose to disturb the aircraft attitude and heading by applying out of trim situations and directing the student through corrective action.

Alternatively tell the student that you want a new height (higher or lower by up to 200ft) and a new direction (up to 20 degrees off the current heading).

Monitor normal cruise

Allow the student to continue to fly to the first reference turning point and input only where necessary.

Demonstrate stability

The instructor should now demonstrate stability as follows:

Longitudinal stability – show how inducing a sudden but small pitch change results in the aircraft self correcting. This is best demonstrated by a small but sharp prod to the control yoke.

Lateral stability – show the effect of lateral stability correcting a sudden but small deviation from wings level.

Draft only: August 2011

D17 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Directional stability – show the effect of directional stability correcting a small but sudden deviation from heading. The instructor should use opposite aileron input when demonstrating this effect with rudder.

Demonstrate slow speed cruise

The instructor should demonstrate the use of PAST to adopt the slow cruise. Ensure that the power selected is still sufficient to maintain height. Point out that the aeroplane will yaw as power is decreased, keep straight with rudder. Show that it will lose height unless the attitude is changed to give a higher nose position. Point out the decreased airspeed and the need to re-trim. Show the student how the controls are less responsive and point out the higher nose attitude and poor forward visual reference. Bring the student’s attention to the flight instruments showing that their indications are once again related directly to the aeroplane’s new attitude, especially the high nose position.

Demonstrate return to normal cruise

Direct slow speed cruise

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through transition from normal cruise to slow cruise, maintenance of slow cruise and return to normal cruise.

Monitor slow speed cruise

Allow the student to conduct transition to and maintenance of slow speed cruise and return to normal cruise and input only where necessary.

Demonstrate fast cruise

The instructor should demonstrate the use of PAST to adopt the fast cruise. Commence this demonstration from straight and level flight at normal cruising power. Point out the airspeed, attitude and height. Now show how to increase power to maximum continuous setting. Point out that the aeroplane increases speed and tends to climb. Show that this tendency to climb must be countered by lowering the nose position in relation to the horizon. Re-trim the aeroplane. Impress upon the student the different sight picture from straight and level at normal cruise power. Ensure that the student corrects for yaw when altering power settings. Point out that the indications of the instruments are now different from the normal cruise straight and level indications. Relate these readings directly to the aeroplane’s different attitude, especially the lower nose position. Show the student how the controls are more responsive and point out the lower nose attitude and improved forward visual reference.

Demonstrate return to normal cruise

Direct fast cruise

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through transition from normal cruise to the fast cruise, maintenance of the fast cruise and return to normal cruise.

Monitor fast cruise

Allow the student to conduct transition to and maintenance of the fast cruise and return to normal cruise and input only where necessary.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

CONSOLIDATION

D18

Allow ample student practice of the above exercise(s) prior to continuing the lesson.

RETURN TO BASE

This is an opportunity to introduce the student to descending. The instructor may wish to provide the student with the opportunity to conduct a series of step cruise descents using the inbound reporting feature as a reference. This will enable practice of PAST for resuming straight and level flight. Radio procedures should be demonstrated by the instructor.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival and landing should be demonstrated by the instructor and the student allowed to ’follow through’. Again the student should have their feet clear of the rudder pedals at this stage of training.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and the instructor should direct the student through the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. Care must be taken to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained. To assist with student pilot focus, consider covering all flight instruments except altimeter, DG/compass and slip ball during the key lesson element exercises.

For successful delivery of this lesson it is essential the student pilot has access to a clear visual horizon with the aeroplane of sufficient height above the ground to minimise distraction. Flying conditions should be reasonably smooth to ensure the student is able to recognise the results of their control inputs.

Changing airspeed at constant altitude and heading is a useful co-ordination exercise that can be reviewed at various stages through the training course.

Some instructors rush this exercise, which can result in students having difficulties for the remainder of their training and beyond. Difficulties experienced by students in the circuit area can often be traced back to insufficient exposure and consolidation to pre-solo sequences such as straight and level.

Draft only: August 2011

D19

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Insufficient lookout

Many students tend to fly in a continual state of out-of balance flight. This is almost invariably due to the wings not being level. The result is that the student uses the rudder thus crossing the controls in attempting to keep straight.

Students often require much prompting before they will satisfactorily eliminate yaw whilst changing power.

Do not allow the student to change attitude by using the trimming controls.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

5. CLIMBING AND DESCENDING

INTRODUCTION

D20

The climbing and descending air exercise is taught in one lesson to best utilise the available training area vertical limits and it is recommended that each climb/descent segment should involve a

1000’ level change. This lesson also involves significant consolidation of the straight and level lesson. Selection of the same turning points as the previous lesson is recommended to assist building the student’s familiarity with the features of the training area.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will learn the key foundational skills of

Power + Attitude = Performance as well as consolidation of attitude flying and correct use of trim.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should monitor the student conducting the daily inspection and ask questions about aircraft components to assist the development of aircraft general knowledge.

The student should again be directed through the start procedure, before take-off checks and guided while taxiing to the run up bay and holding point.

It is recommended that the instructor introduces the student to some of the simpler radio procedures.

TAKE-OFF

The take-off should again be demonstrated by the instructor and the student allowed to ‘follow through’ with aileron and elevator inputs. The student’s feet should be clear of the rudder pedals during the take-off roll to avoid inadvertent breaking.

DEPARTURE

Once airborne, the instructor should demonstrate the climb and allow the student to ‘follow through’. Demonstrate the normal climb using the recommended climb speed and power setting.

Point out the correct attitude and sight picture.

The instructor should ensure the aircraft is correctly trimmed and hand over control to the student directing him/her through the climb work cycle.

REVISION

Approaching the first cruise altitude (generally about 1500’ AGL) the instructor should direct the student through configuration to straight and level. Throughout the lesson straight and level will be revised after each climb and descent segment.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

Draft only: August 2011

D21 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits/use of carburettor heat

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Normal Climb

• Glide Descent

• Effect of flap on glide descent

• Best Rate of Climb

• Best Angle of Climb

• Cruise Descent

• Approach configuration Descent

Demonstrate normal climb

Demonstration of the normal climb is best commenced from about 1500’AGL. Before entry, ensure that the area into which you are about to climb is clear of traffic and cloud and point out the selected reference feature.

Ask the student to recall the correct entry pneumonic (PAST). Apply climb power, preventing yaw with rudder and place the aeroplane into the target climbing attitude. Allow it to settle and check the

speed. Adjust the attitude and trim as necessary. Impress upon the student that after each attitude adjustment the air speed is allowed to settle before any further adjustment.

Check that the wings are level and that the aeroplane is balanced. This is done by reference to the balance indicator. Check the trim and point out that if it is not fitted with a rudder trim it will be necessary to keep pressure on one of the rudder pedals in order to keep straight and to balance the aeroplane. Emphasise the importance of maintaining the reference heading using the visual reference feature.

During the climb, demonstrate the use of an appropriate work cycle such as ALAP

Attitude – Point out the correct sight picture including the visual reference feature.

Lookout – Point out that the view ahead is restricted and show how to periodically alter heading or lower the nose, to ensure the aeroplane is climbing into a clear area.

Note:

This method is least preferred as students often experience difficulty keeping the aeroplane balanced and resuming the desired climb speed.

Attitude – Adjust the attitude and trim as necessary to achieve the correct speed.

Performance – point out the indications of the various flight instruments. Relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D22

Bring to the student’s attention the engine instruments. Demonstrate the use of cowl flaps or other cooling devices if fitted. Advise that if overheating does occur it can normally be stopped by changing the attitude to climb at a slightly higher airspeed. If this remedy is not effective a reduction in power together with a higher airspeed or even a period of straight and level flight may be necessary until the temperatures are back within the limits.

Approaching the target altitude (2500’ AGL) anticipate by about 10% of the rate of climb and apply the pneumonic (ASPT). Lower the nose of aeroplane to straight and level attitude, hold the attitude and allow the speed to accelerate to cruise speed, adjust the attitude as necessary, reduce the

power to cruise power preventing yaw with rudder and trim.

Direct normal climb

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry to and maintenance of the normal climb. The instructor may choose to disturb the aircraft attitude and heading by applying out of trim situations and directing the student through corrective action.

Monitor normal climb

Allow the student to continue to fly to the target altitude (3500’ AGL) and reconfigure to straight and level.

Demonstrate glide descent

At this point in the lesson the aircraft will have climbed to about 3500’ AGL. Demonstration of the glide descent is best commenced from straight and level at altitude. Before entry ensure that the area into which you are about to descend is clear of traffic and cloud and point out the selected reference feature.

Ask the student to recall the correct entry pneumonic (PAST). Reduce power to idle preventing yaw with rudder and select the appropriate glide attitude. Maintain the attitude and allow the speed to reduce to the desired gliding speed. Adjust the attitude again if required and trim. Impress upon the student that after each attitude adjustment the air speed is allowed to settle before any further adjustment.

Check that the wings are level and that the aeroplane is balanced. This is done by reference to the balance indicator. Check the trim and point out that if it is not fitted with a rudder trim it will be necessary to keep pressure on one of the rudder pedals in order to keep straight and to balance the aeroplane. Emphasise the importance of maintaining the reference heading using the visual reference feature.

During the glide, demonstrate the use of an appropriate work cycle such as ALAP

Attitude – Point out the correct sight picture including the visual reference feature.

Lookout – Point out that although the view ahead is good, the view of the flight path is restricted and show how to periodically alter heading (or lower the nose) to ensure the aeroplane is descending into a clear area.

Attitude – Adjust the attitude and trim as necessary to achieve the correct speed.

Draft only: August 2011

D23 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Performance – point out the indications of the various flight instruments. Relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon.

Bring the student’s attention to the engine limitations and controls, carburettor heat, cowl flaps etc.

Show the student how to clear the engine and keep the temperatures within the operating range so that it is ready to respond instantly when required.

Approaching the target altitude (2500’AGL) show how to anticipate the recovery to straight and level and apply the pneumonic (PAST). Progressively increase the power to cruise power preventing yaw with rudder whilst raising the nose of aeroplane to straight and level attitude, hold the attitude and allow the speed to accelerate to cruise speed, adjust the attitude as necessary and trim.

Direct glide descent

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry to and maintenance of the glide descent.

Monitor glide descent climb

Allow the student to continue to fly to the target altitude (1500’AGL) and return to straight and level.

Demonstrate effect of flaps on glide descent

Where possible the instructor should have positioned the aircraft in a suitable low populous area where flight to about 500’ AGL can be achieved. Ideally position the aircraft into wind with the flight path aligned with a clearly defined reference feature. Commence this demonstration from a flapless glide at the normal recommended speed. Point out the attitude and rate of descent in this configuration.

Lower partial flap and settle the aeroplane at the same airspeed. Point out the lower nose position, the slightly higher rate of descent and the changed aim point position in relation to the original reference feature.

Lower the flap in stages, settling the aeroplane at the same airspeed at each stage. Point out that increased flap results in a lower nose position and greater rate of descent and the changed aim point position. Impress these attitudes on the student and point out the instrument indications at all stages, showing particularly the interpretation of the low nose position from the instruments.

Demonstrate climb at maximum rate

Demonstrate this exercise using the same entry techniques as with the normal climb demonstration but with the power setting, normally full power, and airspeed recommended for the maximum rate climb. This demonstration should be carried out at an altitude low enough to make a convincing comparison with the normal climb. Point out to the student the higher nose position, the increased rate of climb and the indications of the flight instruments, these indications being related directly to the high nose position of the aeroplane. Make sure the student is aware of engine limitations. Point out that there may be a time limit for the use of this power setting.

On some light aeroplanes the demonstration of the difference between the maximum rate of climb and the normal recommended climb may not be very convincing.

If using one of these aeroplanes the instructor should use discretion as to whether the demonstration should be given.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D24

Approaching the target altitude (1500’ AGL) anticipate by about 10% of the rate of climb and apply the pneumonic (ASPT). Lower the nose of aeroplane to straight and level attitude, hold the attitude and allow the speed to accelerate to cruise speed, adjust the attitude as necessary, reduce the

power to cruise power preventing yaw with rudder and trim.

Direct climb at maximum rate

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry to and maintenance of the maximum rate climb.

Monitor climb at maximum rate

Allow the student to continue to fly to the target altitude (2500’ AGL) and reconfigure to straight and level.

Demonstrate climb at maximum angle

This climb should be demonstrated at a reasonable altitude and then later on immediately after a short takeoff when the student has progressed to that stage. Demonstrate this exercise using the same entry techniques as with the normal climb demonstration but with the power setting, normally full power, and airspeed recommended for the maximum angle of climb. On many aeroplanes the use of flap, lowered to the optimum setting is also recommended.

Point out to the student the high nose position in relation to the horizon. Relate the indications of the flight instruments directly to this steep attitude. Point out the engine limitations to the student and make him or her aware that this type of climb is rarely a prolonged one since it is used only long enough to clear any obstructions, a normal climb then being resumed.

Approaching the target altitude (3500’ AGL) anticipate by about 10% of the rate of climb and lower the nose of aeroplane to straight and level attitude, hold the attitude and allow the speed to accelerate to cruise speed, adjust the attitude as necessary, reduce the power to cruise power preventing yaw with rudder and trim.

Direct climb at maximum angle

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry to and maintenance of the maximum angle of climb.

Monitor climb at maximum angle

Allow the student to continue to fly to the target altitude (4500’ AGL) and reconfigure to straight and level.

Demonstrate cruise descent

At this point in the lesson the aircraft will have climbed to about 4500’ AGL. Demonstration of the cruise descent is best commenced from straight and level at altitude. Before entry ensure that the area into which you are about to descend is clear of traffic and cloud and point out the selected reference feature.

Ask the student to recall the correct entry pneumonic (PAST). Reduce power to the desired setting preventing yaw with rudder and select the appropriate attitude to maintain the initial cruise speed and trim.

Draft only: August 2011

D25 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Point out the attitude of the aeroplane and rate of descent. Increase power to a suitable figure keeping the airspeed constant. Point out the higher nose attitude and the decreased rate of descent. If particularly noticeable show too that engine temperatures do not fall to below the normal operating range. Demonstrate to the student how the rate of descent can be varied by use of power whilst keeping the airspeed constant.

Make sure that the student is convinced by demonstration that in these circumstances the elevators are used to control the airspeed, and power the rate of descent. Ensure that the student is aware that changes in the rate of descent, i.e. variations in power, necessitate changes of attitude to keep the airspeed constant.

Check that the wings are level and that the aeroplane is balanced. This is done by reference to the balance indicator. Check the trim and point out that if it is not fitted with a rudder trim it will be necessary to keep pressure on one of the rudder pedals in order to keep straight and to balance the aeroplane. Emphasise the importance of maintaining the reference heading using the visual reference feature.

During the descent demonstrate the use of an appropriate work cycle such as ALAP

Approaching the target altitude (3500’AGL) show how to anticipate the recovery to straight and level and apply the pneumonic (PAST). Progressively increase the power to cruise power preventing yaw with rudder whilst raising the nose of aeroplane to straight and level attitude, hold the attitude and check the speed remains at cruise speed, adjust the attitude as necessary and trim.

Direct cruise descent

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry to and maintenance of the cruise descent.

Monitor cruise descent

Allow the student to continue to fly to the target altitude (2500’AGL) and return to straight and level.

Demonstrate approach configuration descent

Before entry ensure that the area into which you are about to descend is clear of traffic and cloud and point out the selected reference feature.

Reduce power to the desired approach setting preventing yaw with rudder and maintain the straight and level attitude until the speed is within the flap extension range. Lower the desired approach flap and lower the nose to the approach configuration and trim.

Point out the attitude of the aeroplane and rate of descent. Increase power to a suitable figure keeping the airspeed constant. Point out the higher nose attitude and the decreased rate of descent. If particularly noticeable show too that engine temperatures do not fall to below the normal operating range. Demonstrate to the student how the rate of descent can be varied by use of power whilst keeping the airspeed constant.

Make sure that the student is convinced by demonstration that in these circumstances the elevators are used to control the airspeed, and power the rate of descent. Ensure that the student is aware that changes in the rate of descent, i.e. variations in power, necessitate changes of attitude to keep the airspeed constant.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D26

During the descent demonstrate the use of an appropriate work cycle such as ALAP

Approaching the target altitude (1500’AGL) show how to anticipate the recovery to straight and level and apply the pneumonic (PAST). Progressively increase the power to cruise power preventing yaw with rudder whilst raising the nose of aeroplane to straight and level attitude, raising the flaps adjust the attitude and check the speed increases, adjust the attitude as necessary and trim.

Direct approach configuration descent

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry to and maintenance of the approach configuration descent.

Where possible the instructor should have positioned the aircraft in a suitable low populous area where flight to about 500’ AGL can be achieved. Ideally position the aircraft into wind with the flight path aligned with a clearly defined reference feature.

Monitor approach configuration descent

Allow the student to continue to fly to the target altitude (500’AGL) and return to straight and level.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice of the above exercise(s) prior to continuing the lesson.

RETURN TO BASE

This is an opportunity for the student to conduct a series of step cruise descents using the inbound reporting feature as a reference. The instructor should demonstrate radio procedures and point out identifiable features to familiarise the student with the local area.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival and landing should be demonstrated by the instructor and the student allowed to ‘follow through’. Again the student should have their feet clear of the rudder pedals at this stage of training.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and the instructor should direct the student through the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. Care must be taken to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained.

For successful delivery of this lesson it is essential the student pilot has access to a clear visual horizon and sufficiently high cloud base to enable a 4500’ vertical airspace window. Flying conditions should be reasonably smooth to ensure the student is able to recognise the results of their control inputs.

Draft only: August 2011

D27

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Students will often fail to correct for yaw when changing power, therefore teach to anticipate this problem.

In concentrating on flying the aeroplane, students tend to forget to clear the blind spot created by the high nose position during the climb.

Students also tend to forget engine limitations. Accordingly, it is often taught to check the temperatures and pressures immediately before or after clearing the nose every 500ft in the climb.

If a student tends ‘to chase airspeed’ in the climb (or cannot climb at the nominated IAS) it may well be that the student is not trimming the aeroplane correctly or changing the attitude with trim.

In attempting to set up a glide, a student often tends to go on for too long at the same airspeed. If this happens, tell the student to make a conscious effort to keep the nose in the level attitude until almost at the required speed.

Often the student does not let the aeroplane settle down in the various configurations. This results in chasing the airspeed. The cure for this is to impress the various attitudes on the student’s mind and to make the student wait until the aeroplane is settled before altering these attitudes.

Student’s also frequently forget to clear the blind spot in the descent and do not apply cruise power every 1000ft to manage engine temperatures.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

6. MEDIUM

INTRODUCTION

D28

The medium turn’s air exercise is the first formal lesson on turning. The previous lessons on straight and level and climbing and descending all involved stable, un-accelerated, straight flight on constant heading. Turning is considered a transient manoeuvre under which the aircraft is considered to be accelerating. The aircraft will have a different sight picture in that the visual cues ahead will be constantly moving away from the direction of turn. For this reason it is important that the weather conditions provide for a clear horizon and smooth air. This lesson also provides opportunity to consolidate the previous sequences.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will learn the key foundational skills of turning. In the following lessons the skills learned will be applied to climbing and descending turns which together are key manoeuvres that need to be mastered before commencing circuit training.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should continue to monitor the student conducting the daily inspection and ask questions about the aircraft components to assist the development of aircraft general knowledge.

The student should again be directed through the start procedure, before take-off checks and guided while taxiing to the run up bay and holding point.

The instructor may introduce the student to additional radio procedures as student confidence increases.

TAKE-OFF

The instructor may consider the student ready to attempt his or her first take-off. It is important that clear direction is given particularly with regard to rudder and brakes. The instructor would usually need to assist with directional control by following through on the rudder pedals with subtle adjustment. It would be expected that the student would be able to apply the skills from the previous climbing lesson to perform the Take-off.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and provide opportunity to practice the various climb settings. Continue to build the student’s awareness of local features and assist the development of situation awareness.

REVISION

Throughout the lesson straight and level and climbing and descending will be revised whilst positioning for medium turns practice.

Prior to commencing the exercise it is essential to demonstrate adverse aileron yaw. If the demonstration has previously been given a refresher demonstration may be required.

Draft only: August 2011

D29 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Following a good lookout rapidly apply aileron (no rudder input) and have the student note that initially the nose travels in the opposite direction to the roll.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

Subdivision of components is not necessary for this lesson.

Demonstrate medium turn to left

Demonstration of medium turns should be at a reasonable height above the ground (ideally above

2500’AGL).

Initially have the student make all turns through 360 degrees, rolling out on (i.e. pointing at) a geographic feature. Rolling out on a specific heading should be delayed until the student is sufficiently skilled at rolling out on a geographic feature.

Before entry, point out the selected reference feature and ensure that the area into which you are about to turn is clear of traffic and cloud.

Explain that during a visual turn, about 85% of the time should be spent on lookout, 10% of the time checking attitude plus lookout and 5% of the time checking instrument indications.

Entry

Bank – apply aileron in the direction of turn.

Balance – apply rudder in the direction of turn.

Back pressure – apply back pressure to set the desired attitude.

Attitude – Point out the correct sight picture with reference to bank angle and Attitude.

Lookout – Point out that the view ahead is moving away from the turn direction and emphasise the importance of looking well into the turn direction.

Attitude – Check that the attitude remains constant and ask the student to point to where the horizon cuts the instrument panel.

Performance – point out the instrument indications on the AH, Altimeter and balance ball and relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon. Note errors and demonstrate how corrective adjustment is made with reference to attitude.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D30

Exit – Point out how to anticipate the approaching reference feature.

Bank – roll off bank to level the wings.

Balance – apply rudder to balance.

Back pressure – relax back pressure to set straight and level attitude.

Direct medium turn to left

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a left hand medium turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

Monitor medium turn to left

Allow the student to continue to practice the manoeuvre until no instructional input is required.

Demonstrate medium turn to right

If the aeroplane has side by side seating it will be necessary to demonstrate turning to the right due to the different sight pictures.

Direct medium turn to right

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a right hand medium turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

Monitor medium turn to right

Allow the student to continue to practice the manoeuvre until no instructional input is required.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice of the above exercises prior to continuing the lesson. The instructor should teach the student how to select reference features for specific compass headings and how to turn onto those headings. Aligning with a road and flying a rectangular circuit pattern is an effective way of achieving competency in this exercise.

RETURN TO BASE

This is an opportunity for the student to practice previous exercises and returning to the circuit. The instructor may wish to allow the student to perform some radio procedures. The instructor should continue to develop the student’s awareness of local area features and where applicable start to assist traffic awareness and orientation.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival can be conducted by the student with instructor assistance and the landing should be demonstrated by the instructor and the student allowed to ‘follow through’. Again the student should have their feet clear of the rudder pedals at this stage of training.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and the instructor should monitor the student through the shut down procedure.

Draft only: August 2011

D31

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. Care must be taken to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained.

Throughout the turn balance, unlike pitch and bank angle cannot be accurately determined by visual cues.

The rate of roll determines the amount of rudder required during the entry and exit i.e. quicker roll = more rudder input.

Anticipate the roll out by about half the bank angle.

For small heading changes use a bank angle of about half the angular change.

Ensure practice turns of all types are conducted in each direction as a right handed student will often favour turning left and vice versa.

For students that are having difficulty with turning it can help to have them roll from a turn in one direction (as soon as the desired bank angle is obtained) to a turn in the other direction.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

The necessity for a good lookout before entering and during all types of turns will have to be continually stressed. Students frequently sacrifice lookout in a bid for greater accuracy.

Students may get confused between visual picture for LH and RH turns.

Not anticipating nominated heading reference during turn exit.

Faulty turns often result from inaccurate flying and trimming just before entering the turns.

Students may tend to use excessive rudder during turns.

Gaining height is sometimes due to applying backpressure too early of failing to relax backpressure on recovery. Similarly, losing height may be due to excessive bank angles or failing to apply sufficient back pressure on entering the turn.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

7. CLIMBING AND DESCENDING TURNS

INTRODUCTION

D32

The climbing turns and descending turns air exercise is taught in one lesson to best utilise the available training area vertical limits. It is recommended that each climb and descent segment should involve a 1500’ level change. The exercise is more effectively taught to enable practice in both directions when flown in a double square or double rectangular pattern as shown below:

1. Demonstrate climbing turn to right

2. Direct climbing turn

3. Monitor climbing turn

4. Demonstrate climbing turn to left

5. Direct climbing turn

6. Monitor climbing turn

7. Positioning medium turn revision

8. Positioning medium turn revision

Continue sequence for descending turns.

A clear horizon and cloud base above 4500’ AGL is desirable. The lesson also involves significant consolidation of previous exercises.

6

5

7

4

8

3

1

2

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will develop the key foundational skills of climbing and descending turns which are key manoeuvres that need to be mastered before commencing circuit training. Later in training these skills will be developed further when steep descending turns are covered.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should monitor the student conducting the daily inspection and ask questions about aircraft components to assist the development of aircraft general knowledge. The student should be expected to be able to determine that sufficient fuel and oil is carried.

The student should now be able to perform the start procedure, conduct before take-off checks and taxi to the run up bay and holding point. The instructor should monitor the student through these procedures and provide input where necessary.

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D33 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

The instructor should now encourage the student to make simple decisions and conduct unassisted radio calls. It is essential that the instructor continues to assist the student in the development of situational awareness.

TAKE-OFF

The instructor should continue to direct the student during the entire take-off roll. Again, it is important that clear direction is given with regard to rudder and brakes. The instructor should no longer need to physically assist with directional control.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and continue to build the student’s awareness of local features and assist the development of situational awareness.

REVISION

Approaching about 1500’ AGL the instructor should provide the student with practice of medium turns, straight and level and climbing and descending while positioning for the climbing and descending turns exercise.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits/use of carburettor heat

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

Subdivision of components is not necessary for this lesson as the foundational skills of climbing, descending and turning have already been developed.

Demonstrate climbing turn to right

Demonstration from the normal climb is best commenced from about 1500’AGL. Before entry ensure that the area into which you are about to climb is clear of traffic and cloud and point out the selected reference feature.

Entry – Roll into a turn as it is done from level flight but use only a rate one turn.

Bank – Point out that to keep bank constant you must hold off with ailerons.

Balance – point out need to apply more rudder in the right hand turn.

Backpressure – adjust elevator pressure to set an attitude to maintain IAS.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D34

Attitude – Point out the correct picture with reference to bank angle and nose attitude.

Lookout – Emphasise the importance of looking well into the turn direction and the area above.

Point out the increased blind area if in a high wing aircraft.

Attitude – Check that the attitude remains constant and ask the student to point to where the horizon cuts the instrument panel.

Performance – Point out the instrument indications on the AI, ASI and balance ball and relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon. Note errors and demonstrate how corrective adjustment is made with reference to attitude. Point out that the instruments, especially the attitude indicator, show both bank and climb. Remember it may be more difficult to accurately determine the required attitude picture in a climbing turn compared to a level turn. Demonstrate that increasing the bank angle reduces the rate of climb.

Exit – Point out how to anticipate the approaching reference feature.

Bank – roll off bank to level the wings.

Balance – apply rudder to balance.

Back pressure – adjust elevator pressure to resume normal climb attitude.

Direct climbing turn to right

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of the climbing turn. Provide input as required.

Monitor climbing turn to right

Monitor the student practice the manoeuvre and input where required.

Demonstrate climbing turn to left

Demonstrate the left hand climbing turn using the same technique as the right hand turn. Point out the different attitude and the need for less left rudder pressure.

Direct climbing turn to left

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a left hand climbing turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

Monitor climbing turn to left

Monitor the student practice the manoeuvre and input where required.

Instruct the student to position the aircraft as in point 7 and 8 in the introduction.

At this point in the lesson the aircraft will have climbed to about 4500’ AGL.

Instruct the student to configure to a cruise descent.

Demonstrate cruise descending turn to right

Demonstration of the descending turn is best commenced from the cruise descent.

Before entry ensure that the area into which you are about to descend is clear of traffic and cloud and point out the selected reference feature.

Draft only: August 2011

D35 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Entry – Roll into the turn as it is done from level flight.

Bank – Roll on bank to 30 degrees keep constant with ailerons.

Balance – point out the reduced rudder in the right hand turn.

Backpressure – adjust elevator pressure to set an attitude to maintain IAS.

Attitude – Point out the correct picture with reference to bank angle and nose attitude.

Lookout – Emphasise the importance of looking well into the turn direction and the area below.

Point out the increased blind area if in a low wing aircraft.

Attitude – Check that the attitude remains constant and ask the student to point to where the horizon cuts the instrument panel.

Performance – Point out the instrument indications on the AI, ASI and balance ball and relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon. Note errors and demonstrate how corrective adjustment is made with reference to attitude. Point out that the instruments, especially the attitude indicator, show both bank and descent attitude.

Demonstrate that increasing the bank angle increases the rate of descent.

Exit – Point out how to anticipate the approaching reference feature.

Bank – roll off bank to level the wings.

Balance – apply rudder to balance.

Back pressure – adjust elevator pressure to resume cruise descent attitude.

Direct cruise descending turn to right

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of the descending turn.

Monitor cruise descending turn to right.

Allow the student to practice a descending turn to the right. Provide input where necessary.

Repeat Demonstrate Direct Monitor for cruise descending turns to the left.

By now the student should not require demonstration for both directions of turn. At the discretion of the instructor the student should be competent enough to perform the exercise unassisted.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice of the above exercises prior to continuing the lesson. Include climbing turns at Max rate as these will be performed in the circuit, turning from upwind leg to the crosswind leg.

Teach the student descending turns in the approach configuration towards the end of practice as these will also be performed in the circuit.

It is recommended that the double rectangular pattern above be flown as if it were a circuit.

Position the aircraft from slow cruise over a road into wind and practice climbing upwind, climbing turn onto crosswind, medium turn onto downwind and base, followed by a descending approach configuration turn onto final. Continue this in both directions until the student is competent.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

RETURN TO BASE

D36

This is an opportunity for the student to conduct a complete arrival into the circuit area. The instructor may choose to perform the radio procedures to allow the student more focus on orientation as he or she approaches the circuit. The instructor may only need to assist with direction to local features.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The instructor should direct the student through the circuit and approach. Landing checks can be performed by the student if learned; otherwise the instructor should conduct the checks “Out Loud”.

The landing should be demonstrated with clear patter by the instructor in preparation for the next lesson.

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should direct the student where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. Care must be taken to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained.

For successful delivery of this lesson it is essential the student pilot has access to a clear visual horizon and sufficiently high cloud base to enable a 4500’ vertical airspace window. Flying conditions should be reasonably smooth to ensure the student is able to recognise the results of their control inputs.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Students will often fail to correct for yaw when changing power, therefore teach to anticipate this problem.

In concentrating on flying the aeroplane, students tend to forget to clear the blind spot created by the high nose position during the climb.

Students also tend to forget engine limitations. Accordingly, it is often taught to check the temperatures and pressures immediately before or after clearing the nose every 500ft in the climb.

If a student tends ‘to chase airspeed’ in the climb (or cannot climb at the nominated IAS) it may well be that the student is not trimming the aeroplane correctly or changing the attitude with trim.

Inadequate lookout during climbing turns.

Draft only: August 2011

D37

8. EFFECTS

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

During this flight the instructor should spare no effort to get the student off to a good start and ensure that the student is comfortable. Students must have the same seating position for subsequent flights so that the sight picture is not altered. Make sure that the controls are held correctly and that full travel of the controls is possible. Make sure that the student knows what you mean when you refer to the horizon and aeroplane attitude. Other words such as ‘elevator’, ‘rudder’, ‘flap’ and ‘trim’ may cause confusion for some students as they have a different understanding of the words from nonaeronautical use.

Demonstrate each segment and then allow, whenever appropriate, the student to repeat the particular segment. This should apply to all your instructions. When handing over to students ensure that they are aware of the correct way of handing over and taking over control. Use the words ‘handing over’ or ‘taking over’ as applicable. Do not hesitate to hand over one control only e.g. ‘Handing over elevator control only’ or ‘Handing over aileron control only.’

Often it is helpful to have the student ‘follow through’ (hands and feet lightly on the controls but not making any input) in order that the student gets a feel for what is occurring. This technique may be appropriate for take-off and landing until formal instruction has been given in the sequence.

When appropriate allow the student to fly the aircraft even if a particular sequence has not been formally taught e.g. climbing out to the training area or descending back to the circuit.

Always demonstrate thorough lookout technique for other traffic, making it obvious to the student that you are doing so. Clearly but simply explain any basic decisions you make so that the student learns what to do and why.

Students tend to model their instructors so it is important to always display your professional best.

For this lesson to be effective there needs to be an easily definable horizon and little, if any, turbulence.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will begin to learn the key foundational skills of use of the flight controls and ancillary controls. It is important that these skills are sufficiently developed as they form the basis of all flight manoeuvres.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should carefully demonstrate how to prepare for flight and conduct the daily inspection, with simple explanations of the aircraft components. Explain that during ground studies of basic aeronautical knowledge they will develop a greater depth of knowledge of those components.

As this lesson is probably the student’s first flight the instructor should perform all radio procedures clearly and slowly enough for the student to be able to understand.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D38

The instructor should demonstrate the start procedure, before take-off checks and taxi to the run up bay and holding point. The student should be allowed to follow through with feet on the rudder pedals but well clear of the brakes.

TAKE-OFF

The take-off should be demonstrated by the instructor with simple patter restricted to words like:

keep the aircraft straight on the runway centre line with the rudder pedals………… as we

accelerate to flying speed we gently raise the nose of the aircraft to the take-off attitude…………..

hold the attitude until the aircraft becomes airborne.

Be careful not to be too wordy with patter and use emphasis on key words so the student will relate the words to what is observed during the demonstration.

DEPARTURE

Once airborne the instructor may allow the student to ‘follow through’ during the climb. The instructor should ensure the aircraft is correctly trimmed and allow the student to experience control authority whilst transiting to the training area.

REVISION

As this is the first flight there is no previous exercise to revise.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Smooth control inputs

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

This lesson should be subdivided into the following sequences:

• Primary effects of the flying controls

• Secondary effects of the flying controls

• Effect of airspeed

• Effect of slipstream

• Use of trim

• Engine controls

• Effect of flaps

Draft only: August 2011

D39 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Demonstrate the effect of elevator

The instructor should ensure the aircraft is located in the training area where distraction from traffic or adjacent airspace is minimal. Ensure the aircraft is trimmed to normal cruise and at a suitable altitude (about 2500’ AGL).

The instructor should point out the sight picture and explain that this will be the start and finish attitude for each demonstration and practice.

Show the effect of fore and aft movement of the control column. This is best done by raising the nose and explaining (for a given head position) you see more sky and less ground. Hold the new attitude for several seconds and return the nose attitude to the original position. The exercise is repeated in the nose low case i.e. the student can see more ground and less sky.

Direct the effect of elevator

Direct the student through the same exercise with control of the elevator only.

Monitor the effect of elevator

Allow the student to practice control of the aeroplane in the pitching plane for sufficient time to learn the feel of the control so that he or she can confidently place the nose of the aeroplane in a nominated attitude and change from one attitude to another.

Demonstrate the effect of aileron

In straight and level flight draw the student’s attention to the position of the wing tips in relation to the horizon. Point out the parallel relationship between the horizon and the top of the instrument panel.

Lower a wing slightly and explain the new sight picture prior to levelling the wing. Then lower the other wing and point out that the sight picture is different.

In aircraft with side by side seating point out that the offset seating will give a different sight picture.

Ensure that the student’s feet are not on the rudder pedals during the demonstrations and practice as the instructor prevents the secondary effect of yaw.

Direct the effect of aileron

Direct the student through application of left and right aileron inputs. Ensure that the student’s feet are not on the rudder pedals during the demonstrations and practice as the instructor prevents the secondary effect of yaw.

Monitor the effect of aileron

Allow the student to practice control of the aeroplane in the rolling plane until he or she can confidently roll left and right and return the aircraft back to maintain wings level. Ensure that the student’s feet are not on the rudder pedals during the demonstrations and practice as the instructor prevents the secondary effect of yaw.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D40

Demonstrate the effect of rudder

Ensure the student’s hand is not on the control column during the demonstrations and practices of effect of rudder as the instructor prevents the secondary effect of roll. Point out the position of the nose or reference point of the aeroplane in relation to a point on the horizon. Apply rudder in one direction and point out that the nose of the aeroplane yaws away from the reference point. Then release the rudder pressure, pointing out that the aeroplane will stop yawing. Demonstrate that the same effect applies in the opposite direction when using the opposite rudder.

Direct the effect of rudder

Direct the student through application of left and right rudder as above. Ensure the student’s hand is not on the control column during practice.

Monitor the effect of rudder

Allow the student to practice the application of left and right rudder as above. Ensure the student’s hand is not on the control column during practice.

CONSOLIDATION OF PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS

With the aircraft trimmed to straight and level flight the student should be given the opportunity to practice using all three controls. For this exercise it may be useful for the instructor to introduce the student to the Natural – Neutral – Relative – Response (NNRR) principle below:

• The movement of the control and the effect on the aircraft is Natural in sense. Right aileron – right roll, left aileron – left roll, right rudder – right yaw, left rudder – left yaw, elevator up (stick back) – nose up and elevator down (stick forward) – nose down.

• The response of the primary control input will continue until the control is returned to the

Neutral position. Demonstrate how moving the control column about 10° to the right will cause the aircraft to continue to roll unless the control is put back to neutral. Unlike the steering wheel of a car.

• The movement of the aircraft is Relative to its axis of movement. Show the student that with the aircraft banked to the left the right rudder will yaw the nose up and left rudder will yaw the nose down because the normal axis is no longer vertical. The instructor should hold the bank and hand over rudder only for this demonstration.

• The amount and rate of Response is relative to the amount and rate of control input.

Show the student how a slow large input to aileron results in a slow but large effect and alternatively how a small quick input results in a small but quick response. Show this with rudder and elevator as well.

The instructor could give direction such as:

• Slowly raise the nose so that the horizon is sitting on the top of the instrument panel and hold the attitude for about 10 seconds and return the nose to cruise attitude.

• Rapidly roll the aircraft to about 20 degrees bank and hold for 5 seconds then slowly return to wings level.

• Slowly lower the nose until the horizon sits on the lower third of the windscreen and hold the attitude (instructor to reduce power as required)……. then return the attitude to cruise.

• Slowly roll the wings from side to side in large movements.

• Rapidly roll the wings from side to side in small movements.

Draft only: August 2011

D41 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Direct the effect of airspeed

Place the aeroplane in a slight descent at an IAS just below the top of the green arc on the ASI and ensure the aeroplane is correctly trimmed. Hand the aeroplane over to the student and allow him or her to gently experiment by moving all flight controls individually then collectively.

Repeat the exercise at an IAS about 15 knots above the stall speed.

Following the high and low speed exercise quiz the student on the feel of the controls in both speed ranges.

Direct the effect of slipstream

Set the aeroplane up in a normal climb with high power. Hand the aeroplane over to the student in a trimmed condition and ask him or her to feel the effect of each control individually.

Resume control and without unsettling the student with the relatively large pitch change commence a glide at the same speed that was used for the climb. Hand the aeroplane over to the student in a trimmed condition and ask him or her to feel the effect of each control individually.

Following the climb and descent exercise quiz the student on the feel of the controls in both parts of the exercise.

Demonstrate the secondary effect of elevator

Demonstrate by raising and lowering the nose to a greater divergence from level flight than in the initial demonstration that airspeed is rapidly reduced or increased.

There is no need for the student to practice this.

Demonstrate the secondary effect of ailerons

Advise the student that your feet are on the floor and not on the rudder pedals. Apply aileron, point out that the aeroplane commences to roll, and then because of the resulting slip, the nose yaws towards the lower wing tip. Continue the application of aileron until a definite yaw and lowering of the nose position is noticed by the student. Do not continue the demonstration to the extent that a steep spiral dive might cause some discomfort or anxiety to the student.

Direct the secondary effect of aileron

After recovery to level flight, allow the student to experiment with the manoeuvre (initiation and recovery) in both directions. The instructor should advise the student when to commence the recovery.

Demonstrate the secondary effect of rudder

Advise the student that your hand is deliberately not on the control column. Apply rudder, point out that the aeroplane commences to yaw and because of the yaw, commences to roll in the same direction. The nose will continue yawing towards the lower wing tip below the horizon and because of this the aeroplane will continue to roll. Do not continue the demonstration to the extent that the resultant steep spiral dive might cause some discomfort or anxiety to the student.

Direct the secondary effect of rudder

After recovery to level flight allow the student to experiment with the manoeuvre (initiation and recovery) in both directions. The instructor should advise the student when to commence the recovery.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D42

Direct the use of Trim

Place the aeroplane in straight and level flight, correctly trimmed. Point out the attitude of the aeroplane and tell the student to keep the aeroplane in exactly that attitude even though he or she is about to feel very heavy loads on the controls. When the student has settled down and is holding the attitude reasonably well, move the elevator trim and point out the increasing load on the control column. Have the student move the trim to relieve this load. Repeat the exercise moving the trim in the other direction.

Repeat the demonstration for the rudder and aileron trims if applicable. Allow the student to experiment with the trims until the student is reasonably confident in their use.

Ensure that the student appreciates the sense of trim control movements and that the aeroplane will remain in the selected attitude when accurately trimmed. Ensure too, that the student understands that changes of trim may occur with changes of power, airspeed, flight configuration and loading.

Note: Many students are beginning to tire by this stage of the exercise and it may be prudent to terminate the flight at this point and continue the exercise later.

Direct the use of throttle

Point out the red line on the tachometer and reaffirm that this limit must never be exceeded and if it is exceeded it must be reported.

Give the student control of the ‘throttle’ only and have the student set various RPM.

Demonstrate that the RPM of a fixed pitch propeller varies with IAS. Set a mid range RPM and vary the airspeed to show RPM changes.

Demonstrate the use of mixture control

Indicate that in the early part of the training the mixture will usually be set at full rich. However, a demonstration of leaning the mixture is usually worthwhile.

Direct the use of carburettor heat control

Explain the use of the control, when it should be used and allow the student to practice.

Demonstrate the use of engine cooling devices

If fitted, explain and demonstrate use.

Direct the use of fuel system

If applicable direct the use of the auxiliary fuel pump, changing fuel tanks and instrument indications.

Demonstrate the use of flaps

Point out to the student the maximum speed for lowering flaps. Fly just below this speed and lower the flaps partially. Point out the effect on trim, nose position and speed.

Repeat the demonstration using full flaps. Raise the flaps in stages, re-trimming as necessary.

Draft only: August 2011

D43 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Next fly at a low airspeed with flaps fully lowered. Raise all the flaps as rapidly as possible, pointing out the resulting sink and change of trim. Stress that this is the reason why with most aeroplanes the flaps must be raised in stages.

CONSOLIDATION OF ANCILLARY CONTROLS

Direct the student through various ancillary control exercises.

RETURN TO BASE

The instructor should position the aircraft towards the inbound reporting feature - configured to straight and level. Allow the student to fly the aircraft and advise that the next lesson will be straight and level. Provide input where necessary to assist the student to maintain altitude, balance and heading. Radio procedures should be demonstrated by the instructor.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival and landing should be demonstrated by the instructor with brief concise explanation of the circuit join procedures. Do not place pressure on the student to fly at this stage but rather assist the development of geographic situational awareness.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The instructor may choose to allow the student to taxi to the parking area and the instructor should direct the student through the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. Care must be taken to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained.

For successful delivery of this lesson it is essential the student pilot has access to a clear visual horizon with the aeroplane of sufficient height above the ground to minimise distraction. Flying conditions should be reasonably smooth to ensure the student is able to recognise the results of their control inputs.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

The most common faults are that the student:

• is too tense and does not hold the controls correctly. Several attempts are often necessary to convince the student that a light touch is essential; and

• fails to lookout prior to manoeuvring – constant reminders may be necessary and the instructor must be exemplary in this matter.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D44

A common instructional fault is that this sequence is too often rushed through with insufficient time allowed for the student to appreciate the feel of the aeroplane. At the completion of this exercise a student should be able to place the aeroplane in any desired attitude in the pitching plane, while maintaining a constant heading with wings level. If the student cannot do so then more time should be taken before proceeding to the next sequence.

Some instructors rush this exercise which can result in students having difficulties for the remainder of their training and beyond.

Draft only: August 2011

D45

9. STALLING

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

This is the initial lesson on stalling and is usually about the fifth or sixth training flight for the student. This exercise is fundamental for the student pilot to consolidate their ability to correlate the relationship between elevator position and angle of attack. A clear horizon and cloud base above

4500’ AGL is desirable.

This lesson must be satisfactorily completed prior to first solo. Most students will find it difficult to complete all subdivisions’ in one lesson. The lesson subdivisions below provide for two lessons.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will learn the key foundational skills of aeroplane control at high angles of attack approaching and in the stalled condition of flight. The student will also learn how to safely enter, maintain and exit from the stalled flight condition.

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

This lesson should be subdivided into the following subdivisions:

First Lesson:

• High angle of attack flight and recovery

• Aeroplane behaviour at and beyond the stalling angle

• Technique for recovery from the stall with minimum height loss

Second Lesson:

• Effect of power on stall characteristics

• Effect of flap on stall characteristics

• Recovery from the incipient stall

• Effect of dynamic loading

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should monitor the student conducting the daily inspection and assess the students understanding of the various aircraft components. The student should be able to perform the start procedure, conduct before take-off checks and taxi to the run up bay and holding point. The instructor should monitor the student through these procedures and provide input where necessary.

The instructor should encourage the student to make simple decisions and conduct unassisted radio calls. It is essential that the instructor continues to assist the student in the development of situational awareness.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

TAKE-OFF AND DEPARTURE

D46

The instructor should direct the student through the take-off and departure to the training area.

Airborne checks can be performed by the student if learned; otherwise the instructor should conduct the checks “Out Loud”.

REVISION

The instructor should revise slow flight and conduct specific lookout exercises en route to the training area.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• Pre-manoeuvre checks

Demonstrate, direct and monitor high angle of attack flight and recovery

Once established in the training area at about 4500’ AGL, the instructor should establish the aeroplane in a trimmed glide at 1.3Vs. Once established in the glide, demonstrate increasing the angle of attack using elevator to just below stalling angle. Maintain this flight condition and demonstrate to the student how the aeroplane is still controllable and in particular angle of attack is fully controllable using the elevator. About every 500ft of altitude loss conduct a 90 degree medium turn. This is to demonstrate controllability in the turn at high angles of attack and will assist with lookout and position maintenance in the training area.

Show the student that only small elevator movements are required to manage the angle of attack and that large forward movements of the elevator control will result in significant nose down pitch change.

During this exercise:

• Encourage the student to articulate their perception of angle of attack.

• Encourage situational awareness by getting the student to call for a turn every 500ft, check for and call traffic prior to every turn and to identify aeroplane geographic position and heading after every turn.

Climb back to 4500ft and direct and monitor the student through a repeat of the above exercise. It is important student pilots become familiar and comfortable with handling the aeroplane in this configuration prior to first solo.

Draft only: August 2011

D47 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Demonstrate aircraft behaviour at and beyond the stalling angle and recovery

At the completion of student practice of “high angle of attack flight and recovery”, climb back to

4500ft. The instructor should re-establish the aeroplane in a glide at 1.3Vs and then increase the angle of attack to the stalling angle. The instructor should maintain the stalling angle and direct the student’s attention to the key aeroplane behaviours and indications. Recovery to the un-stalled flight condition should be emphasised as only requiring a small reduction in angle of attack through small elevator movements. Various flap settings should be used during this exercise. The exercise should be continued through several 90 degree medium turns and terminated at 3000ft AGL. Various flap setting should be used during this exercise. Rudder may need to be used to control wing drop during this exercise.

During this exercise:

• Encourage the student to articulate their perception of angle of attack.

• Encourage situational awareness by getting the student to call for a turn every 500ft, check for and call traffic prior to every turn and to identify aeroplane geographic position and heading after every turn.

Direct and monitor student practice - aeroplane behaviour at stalling angle and recovery

At the completion of instructor demonstration of “aeroplane behaviour at beyond stalling angle and recovery”, climb back to 4500ft. Direct and monitor the student through establishing the aeroplane in a glide at 1.3Vs and then increasing the angle of attack to the stalling angle. Direct and monitor students maintain the stalling angle and recovery to the 1.3Vs glide. The exercise should be continued through several 90 degree medium turns and terminated at 3000ft AGL. Flap up, approach and landing flap settings should be used during this exercise. Rudder may need to be used to control wing drop during this exercise.

During this exercise:

• Encourage the student to articulate their perception of angle of attack.

• Encourage situational awareness by getting the student to call for a turn every 500ft, check for and call traffic prior to every turn and to identify aeroplane geographic position and heading after every turn.

The student should be able to correctly apply the pre-manoeuvre checks at the end of this exercise component.

Demonstrate, direct and monitor minimum height loss stall recovery

At the completion of student practice of “aeroplane behaviour at stalling angle and recovery”, climb back to 3500ft. Demonstrate a minimum height loss stall recovery from straight and level flight.

Point out the symptoms as before and at the point of stall note speed and height. Recover by easing the control column forward and increasing speed to 1.3Vs, apply power and resume level flight.

Note the height lost.

Next, stall the aeroplane as before but at the point of stall simultaneously move the control column just sufficiently forward to un-stall the wings and apply full power. Carefully minimise height loss and return to stable level flight at 1.3Vs. Point out that with power applied, a smaller forward movement of the control column is necessary to regain control and that height loss is minimised.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D48

Direct and monitor student practice of minimum height loss stall recovery.

The key learning points for this exercise are:

• Recognise impending stall.

• Immediate application of recovery actions; simultaneously reduce angle of attack and apply full power.

During this exercise:

• Encourage the student to articulate their perception of angle of attack.

• Encourage situational awareness by getting the student to call for a 90 degree turn after every stall, check for and call traffic prior to every turn and to identify aeroplane geographic position and heading after every turn.

Demonstrate, direct and monitor effect of power on stall characteristics

Choose a power setting applicable to the type, usually approach power, and demonstrate the effect of this power on the stall. Point out the reduced deceleration rate and the possibility of a shorter duration of stall warning.

Point out the IAS indications, nose attitude and elevator effectiveness differences compared to the power off configuration, and that the stall may be more abrupt with a greater tendency to drop a wing.

Use the standard recovery, pointing out that there is normally a quick recovery with a small height loss.

Demonstrate, direct and monitor effect of flap on stall characteristics

Demonstrate, direct and monitor stalls with various flap settings. Point out the increased deceleration rate and the possibility of a shorter duration of stall warning.

Point out the IAS indications, nose attitude and elevator effectiveness differences compared to the flap up configuration, and that the stall may be more abrupt with a greater tendency to drop a wing.

Use a standard recovery with power, raising the flaps in stages.

Demonstrate effect of dynamic loading on the stall

Demonstrate the stall with the aeroplane in the take-off configuration. Commence a climbing turn at approximately take-off speed, then raise the nose and increase the rate of turn until the stall occurs.

Point out that the stalling speed is higher in the turn than in a straight climb using the same configuration. Use a standard recovery.

Demonstrate, direct and monitor stalling in the gliding turn in the clean and approach configurations.

Point out that regardless of configuration, at the point of stall, the elevator control will be in about the same position.

Where the aeroplane type is such that the stall cannot be induced with a gentle increase in elevator deflection, increase the elevator deflection rate to such an extent that the symptoms of the approaching stall are generated. Point out that the control column is in the stalling position whilst the stalling speed is higher than in a straight glide. Use standard recovery technique.

Draft only: August 2011

D49 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Enter a steep level turn with reduced power, do not increase power but allow the aeroplane to stall.

Point out that the indicated stalling speed is much higher than in normal level flight and the control column is well aft at about the stalling position. Use standard recovery technique

Demonstrate, direct and monitor effect of slip and skid on stall characteristics

Demonstrate, direct and monitor stalls during medium turns with between ¼ and ½ ball of slip and skid. Ensure student is anticipating expected aeroplane behaviour. Use a standard recovery with power.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice to ensure they become comfortable and proficient in high angle of attack and low speed aeroplane handling.

RETURN TO BASE

Direct the student through a complete arrival into the circuit area. The instructor may choose to perform the radio procedures to allow the student more focus on orientation as he or she approaches the circuit. The instructor may need to assist with direction to local features.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

Direct the student through the circuit, approach and if appropriate the landing. Landing checks can be performed by the student if learned; otherwise the instructor should conduct the checks “Out

Loud”.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

Monitor the student performing the after landing checks, taxi to the parking area and perform shut down procedures.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often have some anxiety about the stalling lesson. It is wise to reassure students that stalling is not an unpleasant exercise. It is good practice that the first stall is demonstrated at the end of the lesson preceding that on which stalling is to be dealt with in detail. Whilst no real instruction should be given during this demonstration, it is advisable to indicate the point of stall and the commencement of recovery.

Students will often lose situational awareness during this exercise. Instructors must watch for this.

For successful delivery of this lesson it is essential the student pilot has access to a clear visual horizon and sufficiently high cloud base to enable a 4500’ vertical airspace window. Flying conditions should be reasonably smooth to ensure the student is able to recognise the results of their control inputs.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

D50

When a wing drops at the stall the student instinctively tries to correct this with aileron. The use of ailerons at the point of stall must be carefully explained to the student. Even if the use of ailerons at the stall is permitted in the type of aeroplane in use the student must understand that in some types of aeroplanes the use of ailerons will aggravate the situation.

During a standard recovery a student is often hesitant or too slow in applying power. It must be stressed that the amount of height lost and the rapidity with which control is regained both depend on the prompt use of high power.

Students sometimes tend to be too harsh in moving the control column back when recovering from the dive, resulting in a high speed stall. There is also a tendency to push the control column too far forward during recovery resulting in a greater loss of height.

Other students may be reluctant to move the control column sufficiently forward in the recovery, possibly because they are uncomfortable with a nose low sight picture.

Draft only: August 2011

D51 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

10. SPINNING

Spinning is not normally covered in the ab-initio training courses offered by civilian flying schools in Australia.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

11. TAKE-OFF, CIRCUIT AND LANDING

INTRODUCTION

D52

By the time the student commences the circuits lesson they would more than likely have performed several Take-off’s and had some experience at entering the circuit and flying an approach to land.

The 3 subdivisions of the lesson should therefore be considered as separate in terms of achieving competency. The student will usually be able to perform the take-off and circuit competently very early in training and will take considerably more time to be competent on the approach and landing.

Instructors should make it very clear that many students have difficulty in mastering the approach and landing. This is a matter of judgment and there is no simple way of teaching judgment to those to whom it does not come easily. Proficiency is attained mainly through practice and although the instructors advice and guidance is of great help in the early stages, any attempt to analyse the students difficulties too specifically should be delayed until he or she has had a sufficient amount of practice. Until this practice is gained the errors are likely to be of a random nature while the student is becoming accustomed to the appearance and feeling of a good landing. After the student has grasped the basic requirements, any errors will normally form a consistent pattern which can be recognised, analysed and corrected.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will develop the key foundational skills of take-off circuit and landing. Competency in normal take-off and landing will provide the foundations for short field, flapless and crosswind take-off and landings. It is important that the student understands that the purpose of the circuit pattern is also to facilitate departures and arrivals.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should continue to monitor the student conducting all aspects of the ground phase including preparation for flight and the daily inspection.

The student should now be able to perform the start procedure, conduct before take-off checks and taxi to the run up bay and holding point. The instructor should monitor the student through these procedures and provide input where necessary.

The instructor should continue to encourage the student to make simple decisions and conduct unassisted radio calls. It is essential that the instructor continues to assist the student in the development of situational awareness. During run up’s the instructor should point out the circuit legs, identify traffic and briefly explain the activities that will be performed during the circuit.

AIRMANSHIP

Before starting the aircraft review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

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D53 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Demonstrate normal take-off, circuit, approach and landing

• Take-off

• Circuit

• Approach and landing

Demonstrate normal take-off, circuit and landing

The instructor should demonstrate the first complete take-off, circuit, approach and landing.

This should be done with minimal verbalisation referencing only key points.

Demonstrate normal take-off

Line up without delay, ensuring that the nose wheel is straight. Point out the student control seat reference point on which to keep the nose straight then smoothly apply take-off power, releasing brake, accelerating and keeping the aircraft straight with rudder.

During the ground roll emphasise the need to ensure that the airspeed is showing an increase, the

RPM is as expected and the engine oil pressure (and fuel pressure if applicable) is normal.

In nose wheel aeroplanes point out the need to apply elevator back pressure until either the weight is off the nose wheel or the nose wheel is just clear of the ground. At the correct speed, gently raise the nose to the take of attitude by a progressive backward movement of the control column. Maintain the attitude and when flying speed has been obtained point out that the aeroplane will become airborne.

After becoming airborne gradually assume the climbing attitude and at a safe height complete any after take-off checks and trim to the desired climb IAS. Point out the need to track straight and the use of a reference point.

If flaps are used for take-off, point out the need to retract at a safe height and the dangers of raising them too early.

Demonstrate normal circuit

Demonstrate the need to check for other circuit traffic before the crosswind turn and point out a suitable reference point on which to turn the aircraft to track 90º allowing for drift.

Show the student how to judge the correct distance for commencing the down wind turn and demonstrate the downwind leg and completion of the landing checklist. Point out how to judge the correct distance from the runway, how to ensure the aircraft is tracking parallel and the importance of maintaining visual contact and separation from preceding traffic.

Explain how to determine when to turn base and demonstrate the base leg turn. Point out the correct method of allowing for wind to ensure the aircraft is tracking at 90º to the runway.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D54

Demonstrate the approach and normal landing

Explain to the student how to determine when to commence the approach, demonstrate how to configure on base with power and flap and explain the use of elevator and power to maintain profile and speed during the approach.

Show how to anticipate the final turn emphasising the importance of ‘look out’ along the extended runway centre line for traffic. Show the student how to establish the aircraft on final by 500’AGL and explain the term stable approach with reference to Aim Point, Aspect (profile) and Airspeed.

Demonstrate the approach with clear explanations of how elevator and power are required to maintain path and speed. Emphasise the use of aileron and rudder for centreline tracking and runway alignment.

Point out to the student the visual cues for transitioning from the approach to the flare and final touchdown.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of this exercise is ongoing particularly in the first five or so lessons. Instructors should be sure to recognise when the learning plateau is reached to avoid any negative learning outcomes. It is better to end a circuit’s lesson on a good performance or at least a clear instructor demonstration so the student has a recent correct impression of how to perform the exercise.

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should direct the student where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Remember that students will rarely make a good landing unless they make a good approach. Good approaches rarely follow bad circuits. It therefore follows that the instructor should not allow the student to attempt landings until he or she can fly a reasonably accurate circuit and approach. To do so will, in most cases, only discourage the student when the almost inevitable bad landing follows. It is important to remember that the aim in teaching consistent square circuits is to develop judgment as rapidly as possible by repetition.

It is important that the instructor quite frequently demonstrates the type of approach and landing being taught. Many instructors are reluctant to do this as they feel that they are depriving the student of one more approach and landing. This is not true and only by seeing and retaining a mental picture of this exercise can the student learn to land the aeroplane.

The completion of the touchdown should be judged by the change in attitude of the aeroplane rather than by movements of the control column. The attitude should be changed by reference to the landing horizon (edge of airfield) and the front of the aeroplane. The idea may be helped if the instructor places the aeroplane in the approximate position on the airfield where it will be touching down, then shows the student the sight picture that will be seen during the landing. In the case of most nose wheel type aeroplanes the attitude in which it rests on the ground has to be modified slightly and this can be done by visualizing the attitude resulting from the main wheels being on the ground and the nose wheel a few inches above the ground.

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D55 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

During the float or hold off period the instructor should watch the students eyes to see where he or she is really looking. Students normally tend to look too close. Advise them to look ahead and slightly to the left at a point about 50 to 100 meters away. The student’s gaze should not be rigid, this point being the centre of what he or she can see. If the student looks too far ahead objects will hardly appear to move, if too close they will appear to move too fast and become blurred. Both these conditions make judgment very difficult.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Over controlling and lack of co-ordination are usually caused by muscular tenseness (demonstrated by too firm a grip on the control column) brought about by the high degree of concentration required in the initial attempts. The instructor must encourage the student to relax as much as possible which is achieved by the instructor also being relaxed.

Difficulties in this sequence (and the following sequence) may be the result of rushing the earlier sequences and introducing circuit training too early.

Insufficient round out due to the approach being too steep or the student may be getting tense when sensing ground rush.

The student fails to complete the hold off. Make sure that the student is looking well forward of the aeroplane and realises that a backward progressive movement of the control column is necessary right up to the point of touchdown. The completion of the touchdown should be judged by the change in attitude of the aeroplane rather than by movements of the control column.

The student is consistently holding off too high. This can often be overcome by demonstration i.e. flying low over the runway at hold off height to allow the student to refresh the visual picture.

The student experiences general difficulty with all stages of landing up to the point of touchdown.

This may be due to faulty approaches at incorrect speeds and poor use of power. An inadequate view due to the seat position being too low can also cause this.

In giving too much attention to the actual landing after an engine assisted approach the student often fails to close the throttle in the final stages. This delays the touchdown.

Having touched down successfully a student often has difficulty in controlling direction during the landing run. This may be due to relaxing concentration after touchdown or conversely being too tense and over controlling. Another cause may be that the student has been given too many touch and go landings and lacks practice in controlling the landing run.

The student lines up the cowling so it is parallel to the edge of the runway, causing touch down with self induced drift. The instructor should refresh the student perception of student control seat reference point.

The student inadvertently applies left aileron when moving the control column aft (poor ergonomics).

Allowing the aeroplane to touch down too fast and flat, this is often caused by ‘relaxing’ during the hold off.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D56

Many students do not understand the relationship between power/attitude and IAS on base and final.

This often results in making large power changes late rather than timely minor power adjustments.

Draft only: August 2011

D57

12. GO

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

In the early stages of circuit training the student must clearly understand that a poor approach or a miss landing is difficult to recover to a good landing. The go around should be taught in initial circuit training in order to avoid perseverance with a poor approach and provide the student with the best possible opportunity to perform a successful landing from a well judged and stable approach.

This lesson is not a stand alone lesson and is relevant to every flight. It is expected that the procedure would be introduced very early in circuit training and consolidated throughout the remaining lessons on various landing techniques.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will develop the key foundational skills of the Go around procedure, which later in training will apply to instrument rating training when conducting the missed approach procedure.

GROUND PHASE

The go around procedure is a component of the previous lesson and as such has no specific ground training component.

AIRMANSHIP

The following airmanship points should be re emphasised for this procedure:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Smooth retraction of flaps in small increments

• Effective work cycle - Pitch up, Power up, Nose up, Gear up, Flap up (in stages)

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

Not applicable.

Demonstrate Go Around Procedure

The instructor should first demonstrate a go around procedure from short final. During the circuit re emphasise that the procedure may be required due to an unstable approach or as a traffic separation procedure initiated either by ATC or the student. The instructor should clearly demonstrate and articulate the procedure as follows:

• Apply take-off power and set the attitude to fly the aeroplane level until the recommended climbing speed with flaps down is obtained.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D58

• Trim to maintain this speed and then raise the flaps in stages to their optimum setting.

• At a safe height and speed raise the flaps fully and resume a normal climb, manoeuvring the aircraft as necessary to maintain traffic separation.

Direct Go Around Procedure

The instructor should next direct and monitor the go around procedure from short final.

Demonstrate Direct and Monitor Miss landing procedure

Demonstrate that after a bad landing or if the aeroplane is held off much too high the procedure is to go around again. In this case care must be taken not to fly back onto the ground in a nose down attitude.

Unless the Pilot Operating Handbook or Flight Manual sates otherwise a positive rate of climb or at least level flight must be established before flaps are raised to their optimum setting.

As the student progresses he or she must be briefed on and have demonstrated the method of converting a poor but not dangerous approach into a good landing. This involves the use of power to prevent any high rates of descent and, in the case of single engine propeller aeroplanes, to increase the effectiveness of the elevator and rudder. However, caution must be exercised when using this technique on relatively short runways as the landing roll can be significantly increased.

The student must be warned that the only way to recover from an extreme attitude or abnormally low airspeed is to apply the full go around procedure.

This procedure must be demonstrated both in the air before touchdown and after a bad touchdown resulting in a bounce.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of this exercise is ongoing particularly during initial take-off, circuits and landings lessons.

When the student is consistently landing the aircraft successfully, ensure that the go around procedure is still practiced by occasional impromptu go round instruction.

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

The student should be allowed to taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should direct the student where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

The following points must be emphasised:

• The application of full throttle or normal take-off power, as applicable

• The speed for the climb out whilst still in the landing configuration

• The method of raising flap

• That large changes of trim may be experienced during this procedure

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D59 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Instructors should be sure to recognise when the learning plateau is reached to avoid any negative learning outcomes. It is better to end a circuit’s lesson on a good performance or at least a clear instructor demonstration so the student has a recent correct impression of how to perform the exercise.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

• The student fails to prioritise aviate and communicate

• The decision to go around is too late or indecisive

• The student retracts the flaps too early or too quickly failing to arrest nose attitude errors and trim change

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

13. FLAPLESS APPROACH AND LANDING

INTRODUCTION

D60

The flapless approach and landing should be introduced once the student can competently and consistently perform normal landings.

It is also recommended that the student has received instruction in flapless landings before their first solo, in the unlikely event that they suffer flap system failure on their first solo. This type of landing may also be used in gusty or strong cross wind conditions.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will continue to develop the key foundational skills of take-off circuit and landing. The nature of the flapless approach is also a good exercise in approach judgement and control input anticipation on the flight controls and engine controls.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should continue to monitor the student conducting all aspects of the ground phase including preparation for flight and the daily inspection.

AIRMANSHIP

Before starting the aircraft review the relevant airmanship points.

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Revise and monitor normal take-off, circuit, approach and landing.

• Demonstrate, Direct and Monitor Flapless Approach and Landing.

Demonstrate Flapless Approach and Landing

During the circuit, explain to the student the differences in the visual sight picture and the control input requirements of the flapless landing because of the reduced drag.

Explain to the student how to determine when to commence the approach given the need to configure early on base and explain the more subtle use of elevator and power to maintain profile and speed during the approach.

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D61 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Demonstrate the approach with clear explanations of how minimal elevator input and small power adjustments are required to maintain path and speed. Point out the perceived flatter approach illusion and stress that the profile itself should actually remain unchanged.

Emphasise normal use of aileron and rudder for centreline tracking and runway alignment.

Point out to the student the new visual cues for transitioning from the approach to the flare and final touchdown.

Point out the reduced attitude change from approach to touch down and caution the student with regard to prolonged hold off and possible tail strike.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of this exercise is usually achieved in the first lesson, however the student should be given regular practice in subsequent lessons to ensure the skill is maintained. The student should be made aware that recency in all skill exercises is essential to maintain competency.

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

The student should conduct after landing checks and procedures, taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should monitor the student and provide input where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

This exercise is best taught in slightly stronger wind conditions.

As with normal landings the completion of the touchdown should be judged by the change in attitude of the aeroplane rather than by movements of the control column. Point out to the student that the amount of attitude change from approach to touch down is much less and the elevator inputs much more subtle.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

The student is holding off too long causing significant float. This can often be overcome by reminding the student to use their side vision to gain a better perspective of their height above the runway and to slow rate of ‘stick back’ movement.

The student has difficulty maintaining approach speed. This is often due to excessive power changes or excessive attitude changes.

The descent path may be flatter, making judgment more difficult and an engine assisted approach should be made. An additional advantage in using power is that the lowest safe speed during the flapless approach is obtained with power on. Ensure that the student is aware of this recommended speed. Due to the absence of drag there may be a longer float period

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

14. SHORT TAKE-OFF AND LANDING

INTRODUCTION

D62

Commonly referred to as ‘Short Field Take-off and landing’; the expression is a misnomer, as performance charts will indicate if the runway length is suitable for the intended operation.

However, if a runway length is only just suitable for the intended operation, then a short take-off or landing technique is applicable.

Explain that the short take-off and landing technique is not only useful when operating from a field of marginal length, but it is also recommended when using soft or rough surfaces.

The student must be capable of determining take-off and landing distances from the manufacturer’s performance charts for the aircraft type.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will continue to develop the key foundational skills of take-off circuit and landing.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should continue to monitor the student conducting all aspects of the ground phase including preparation for flight and the daily inspection.

AIRMANSHIP

Before starting the aircraft review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Revise normal take-off, circuit, approach and landing.

• Demonstrate, Direct and Monitor Short Take-off and landing.

Demonstrate Short Take-off

Explain that when completing the vital actions before take-off, the flaps should be lowered to the optimum lift setting.

Line up on the selected take-off path pointing out how to make use of all the available runway length.

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D63 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Apply the brakes and open the throttle to the maximum power setting at which the brakes will hold, then release the brakes and continue to open the throttle to full power if not already applied.

Gain the desired flying attitude as soon as the elevators are effective then ease back on the control column so that the aeroplane becomes airborne as early as possible.

Point out the short take-off run to the student.

When airborne, establish a climb using take-off power and the speed which gives the maximum angle of climb.

When the obstacles (actual or simulated) are cleared, resume a normal climb, raising flaps when it is safe to do so.

Demonstrate that should engine failure occur during the maximum angle of climb, a very positive forward movement of the control column is essential if control of the aeroplane is to be maintained.

Demonstrate normal circuit

Demonstrate the circuit, explaining that it is a normal pattern. It is a good opportunity to reemphasise the correct pattern and the importance of preparing for a well judged approach.

Demonstrate the short approach and landing

Re-emphasise when to commence the approach and how to configure on base with power and flap.

Point out that the aircraft is still established on a normal final by 500’AGL.

Remind the student that full flap should normally be used for this type of approach and demonstrate after lowering full flap how to progressively decrease the airspeed.

Explain the need for greater attention to power and elevator adjustments to maintain the approach profile at the correct airspeed all the way to the touch down aim point. Emphasise the need to be aware of short final approach obstacles.

Point out the aeroplane’s higher nose attitude and explain that there is very little round out.

Demonstrate that when the aeroplane is just approaching the touch down point at the correct hold off height, the rate of descent is checked with the elevator and assisted by an increase in power, if necessary. Then close the throttle and land. Point out the absence of significant float and that the already short landing run may be further shortened by the judicious use of brakes.

Make a full stop landing and ‘Hand Over’ to the student for taxi and return for further training and practice.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of this exercise is usually achieved in the first lesson, however the student should be given regular practice in subsequent lessons to ensure the skill is maintained. The student should be made aware that recency in all skill exercises is essential to maintain competency.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

D64

The student should conduct after landing checks and procedures, taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should monitor the student and provide input where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

When practicing this exercise on a surface where loose stones and gravel are present, point out that the take-off run is only slightly increased if power is applied whilst rolling forward slowly rather than while stationary against the brakes, when serious damage may result from stones being thrown up into the propeller.

Remind the student that the recommended speed may be lower than for the normal engine assisted approach, and aim to attain this speed as the aeroplane crosses the airfield boundary at the minimum height consistent with obstacle clearance.

In the early stages of training the approach speed should be stable from early final as some students cannot cope with reducing speed approaches i.e. changing approach profiles.

It is important that the instructor demonstrates this type of approach and landing frequently enough for the student to gain an appreciation of the standard that can be achieved. It is also important that during training all types of take-off, approach and landings are practiced.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Insufficient rudder to counter the increased slipstream effect experienced at the lower IAS during the take-off.

Over controlling elevator back pressure during rotation to take-off attitude resulting in an early lift off. This can also result in a tail strike or the aircraft skipping before clean lift off.

Low approach or undershoot due to insufficient power to compensate drag. This is usually evidenced by high ROD and the student increasing back stick.

The student commences the hold-off too high resulting in a high rate of sink and heavy landing.

Redemonstration should occur in this instance to refresh the visual picture of the round out perspective.

Applying early, or excessive, braking without ensuring that the nose wheel or tail wheel can be settled and held firmly on the runway.

Draft only: August 2011

D65

15. CROSSWIND

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Crosswind take-off and landing is usually considered to be one the most challenging skill exercises in the day VFR syllabus.

The technique is often poorly taught and the instructor should ensure that the student has reached competency in normal take-off and landing technique as well as received clear instruction on the principles of crosswind take-off and landing.

It is important that the instructor introduces this lesson when conditions offer a stable crosswind of about one half to two thirds the demonstrated crosswind component for the aircraft type.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will continue to develop the key foundational skills of take-off circuit and landing.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should continue to monitor the student conducting all aspects of the ground phase including preparation for flight and the daily inspection.

AIRMANSHIP

Before starting the aircraft review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

There are no subdivisions for this lesson.

Demonstrate Crosswind Take-off

Explain that the take-off technique to be used in a cross wind is very similar to that used for a normal take-off.

After the aircraft is lined up, point out the wind sock.

On most aeroplanes it is recommended to have ‘the ailerons into wind’ during the take-off run. With this technique the pilot must be prepared for the ailerons to suddenly take effect.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D66

During the take-off roll, point out the need to make more positive use of the rudder to prevent the aeroplane yawing into wind and the reduction in aileron input as speed increases. Explain that the aeroplane is held firmly on the ground by a slight forward movement of the control column until flying speed has been attained.

As the aircraft approaches the take-off speed, demonstrate how it is then flown off cleanly and positively by a backward movement of the control column and simultaneous centralising of the ailerons and rudder.

Once well clear of the ground, adjust the heading to counteract drift so that the track is a continuation of the take-off path.

Demonstrate that should engine failure occur after takeoff, the actions are the same as for normal

EFATO except that it may be advantageous to turn into wind if height permits.

Demonstrate crosswind circuit

Demonstrate the circuit, explaining that it is a normal pattern. Point out the drift angles particularly on the downwind leg. Demonstrate how the down wind leg is flown allowing for drift in order to track parallel to the landing path.

Explain that the base leg may have a headwind or tailwind component that must be considered with regard to the commencement of the approach.

Demonstrate crosswind landing

When turning final, show how to allow for the different turn radius due to the cross wind. Explain that turning either early or late will compensate for the tailwind or headwind as the case may be.

During the final approach, head the aeroplane sufficiently into wind so that the path of flight is along the extended runway centreline.

Continue the approach with the wings level and applying the appropriate drift angle until the aircraft is about to commence the round out.

As the aircraft is transitioned into the round out, and just before touchdown, apply rudder smoothly to yaw the aeroplane so that it is heading along the landing path. Simultaneously use the ailerons to keep the aeroplane tracking along the runway centre line. This will usually result in the into wind wing being slightly low.

Another technique is to fly ‘wing down into wind’ on final, effectively controlling tracking with bank angle and rudder to create an into wind side-slip.

In both cases the resulting side slip will counteract the drift and result in an into wind wheel touchdown followed quickly by the other wheel.

A combination of both of the above techniques may be used.

After landing, the nose wheel should be placed firmly on the ground in order to improve directional control through the nose wheel steering. Additionally emphasise the need to keep the aileron into wind through the landing roll.

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D67 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

In all aeroplanes, make careful use of the rudder, aileron and brakes to prevent the aeroplane from swinging into wind i.e. weather-cocking.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of this exercise is not usually achieved in one lesson. The student may be competent in a cross wind from one direction only and it should be noted in the student records so that the instructor can be assured that sufficient practice in both directions has been achieved.

TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

The student should conduct after landing checks and procedures, taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should monitor the student and provide input where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students may find it difficult to grasp the crossed control technique. It can help if the student practices the simultaneous inputs of straightening with rudder and placing the aileron into wind for tracking two or more times on final. After each simultaneous input, hold the input for a few seconds to track along the runway centreline. Then resume balance level flight. Repeat this procedure again at 300’AGL. The student will find the input more natural as the round out is commenced.

The student should be briefed to expect that as the speed of the aeroplane decreases during the landing run, the tendency for it to weathercock into wind will increase.

Students will find this exercise less difficult with reduced flap settings.

It is important that the instructor demonstrates this type of approach and landing frequently enough for the student to gain an appreciation of the standard that can be achieved. It is also important that during training all types of take-off, approach and landings are practiced.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

• Insufficient rudder, particularly when the cross wind component augments the slipstream effect.

• The student tries to counter the take-off yaw with aileron.

• Failure to allow for left drift on the down-wind leg of a left circuit. This causes a short base leg with a tailwind component resulting in a gross overshoot.

• The student fails to establish a stable drift angle and/or runway centre-line track.

• After landing the student relaxes aileron and rudder.

Note:

The techniques suggested in this lesson plan apply to most nose wheel aircraft.

Instructors should apply specific aircraft handling techniques when operating tail wheel aircraft.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

16. STEEP

INTRODUCTION

D68

The steep turns air exercise is an extension of medium turns and as a transient manoeuvre, where the aircraft is under significant acceleration forces, it is best the exercise is taught to the minimum angle of bank of 45º. Steep turns also have a different sight picture and the visual cues ahead will be rapidly moving away from the direction of turn.

As competency improves, students may be taught up to 60º AoB.

It is important that the weather conditions for this exercise provide for a clear horizon and smooth air.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

Steep turns are not a foundational skill but rather the students first experience in ‘high G’ accelerated manoeuvres. Therefore they could be deemed as providing key foundational control coordination skill that will greatly assist the student when they learn other ‘high G’ manoeuvres such as steep descending turns, limit turns and aerobatic manoeuvres.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should now be periodically assessing and evaluating the students conduct of all aspects of preparation for flight including the daily inspection. Questions should be thought provoking and the responses should demonstrate that the student is developing operational decision making skills and demonstrating sound practical understanding of the aircraft systems.

The student should be able to manage all aspects of the ground component and the instructor should provide feedback where improvement can be made.

TAKE-OFF

The Instructor should take the opportunity to make a student assessment of previously taught takeoff sequences.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and provide opportunity to practice the various climb settings. Continue to build the student’s awareness of local features and assist the development of situation awareness.

REVISION

Before commencing the steep turns lesson, it is a good idea to revise medium turns to ensure there a sound foundation on which to build steep turns.

While the student is practicing medium turns the instructor may ask the student to occasionally adjust to a 5º over bank situation and return to normal. This can be a useful way of developing the coordination for the exercise.

Draft only: August 2011

D69

AIRMANSHIP

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

Subdivision of components is not necessary for this lesson.

Demonstrate steep turn to the left

Demonstration of steep turns should be at a reasonable height above the ground (ideally above

2500’AGL).

Conduct all turns through 360 degrees, rolling out on (i.e. pointing at) a geographic feature.

Before entry, point out the selected reference feature and ensure that the area into which you are about to turn is clear of traffic and cloud.

Reaffirm that during a visual turn; about 85% of the time should be spent on lookout, 10% of the time checking attitude plus lookout and 5% of the time checking instrument indications.

Entry – Bank – apply aileron in the direction of turn.

Balance – apply rudder in the direction of turn.

Back pressure – apply back pressure to set the desired attitude.

Note: As the AoB passes 30º, depending on aeroplane type, the power may need to be increased above cruise power to prevent excessive speed loss.

Attitude – Point out the correct sight picture with reference to bank angle and attitude.

Lookout – Point out that the view ahead is moving rapidly away from the turn direction and emphasise the importance of looking well into the turn direction.

Attitude – Check that the attitude remains constant.

Note: Ask the student to point to where the horizon cuts the instrument panel. Also ask the student to lift their feet off the floor to feel the sensation of increased apparent weight.

Performance – point out the instrument indications on the AI, Altimeter and balance ball and relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon.

Note errors and demonstrate how corrective adjustment is made with reference to attitude.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D70

Exit – Point out how to anticipate the approaching reference feature.

Bank – roll off bank to level the wings.

Balance – apply rudder to balance.

Back pressure – relax back pressure to set straight and level attitude.

Note: As the bank is rolled off, the power should be returned to cruise power. Demonstrate another turn to the left and ask the student to take over after you have established the correct attitude. The student should hold the attitude for a few seconds to feel the control input requirement and to consolidate his attitude picture. Then take over and demonstrate the exit.

Direct steep turn to the left

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a left hand steep turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

Monitor steep turn to the left

Allow the student to continue to practice the manoeuvre until no instructional input is required.

Demonstrate steep turn to the right

If the aeroplane has side by side seating it will be necessary to emphasise the altered sight picture in the alternate direction turns.

Direct steep turn to the right

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a right hand steep turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

Monitor steep turn to the right

Allow the student to continue to practice the manoeuvre until no instructional input is required.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice of the above exercises prior to continuing the lesson. Ensure that the turns are practiced equally in both directions.

RETURN TO BASE

This is an opportunity for the student to practice previous exercises and returning to the circuit. The instructor should allow the student to perform all radio procedures. The instructor should continue to develop the students awareness of local area features and continue to assist traffic awareness and orientation.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival should be conducted by the student with no instructor assistance and the nominated landing technique should be assessed by the instructor. In this section the trainee will be assessed on flapless approach and landing.

Draft only: August 2011

D71

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. The instructor should make careful observation to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained.

Ensure the student can perform accurate medium turns before practice in steep turns.

If the student has difficulty with steep turns ask them to perform a medium turn and from the established medium turn roll to 45º bank, hold the angle, balance and adjust attitude slightly.

Ensure practice turns of all types are conducted in each direction as a right handed student will often favour turning left and vice versa.

Instructors should identify where the attitude is not understood and redemonstrate the manoeuvre.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

The necessity for a good lookout before entering and during all types of turns will have to be continually stressed. Students frequently sacrifice lookout in a bid for greater accuracy.

Students may get confused between visual picture for LH and RH turns.

Not anticipating nominated heading reference during turn exit.

Faulty turns often result from inaccurate flying and trimming just before entering the turns.

Students may tend to use too little rudder during turns.

Gaining height is sometimes due to applying backpressure too early or failing to relax backpressure on recovery. Similarly, losing height may be due to excessive bank angles or failing to apply sufficient back pressure on entering the turn.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

17. STEEP

INTRODUCTION

D72

The steep descending turns air exercise is a similar exercise to steep turns except that the manoeuvre is entered from the glide and involves a high rate of descent. Additionally the manoeuvre has a significantly lower margin above the stall speed and therefore should be conducted at a speed of some 10 knots above the glide speed. It therefore requires more attention to attitude control and is an excellent skill exercise.

The exercise should be taught at 45º AoB initially and should be commenced at sufficient altitude to allow recovery above 2500’ AGL.

It is important that the weather conditions for this exercise provide for a clear horizon and smooth air.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

Steep descending turns provide further consolidation of the coordination skills formed in the steep turns exercise.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should continue assessing and evaluating the student’s conduct of all aspects of preparation for flight including the daily inspection. Periodically check weight and balance and performance calculations for integrity. Students can often develop incorrect techniques and if left unchecked may be difficult to correct later in training.

The student should be able to manage all aspects of the ground component and the instructor should provide feedback where improvement can be made.

TAKE-OFF

The instructor should take the opportunity to make a student assessment of previously taught takeoff sequences.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and provide opportunity to practice the various climb settings. Continue to build the student’s awareness of local features and assist the development of situation awareness.

REVISION

Before commencing the steep descending turns lesson, it is a good idea to revise steep turns and glide descent.

Draft only: August 2011

D73

AIRMANSHIP

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

Subdivision of components is not necessary for this lesson.

Demonstrate steep descending turn to the left

Turns should be conducted with sufficient altitude (ideally above 4500’AGL) to allow demonstration, immediately followed by student practice, through each turn direction. The amount of available descent airspace should be sufficient to enable establishment of stable AOB and descent rate. Emphasis should be on reference altitudes rather than reference headings.

Before entry, explain the importance of ensuring the aircraft is correctly trimmed to the glide. Point out the selected reference feature and ensure that the area into which you are about to turn is clear of traffic and cloud.

Reaffirm that during a visual turn; about 95% of the time should be spent on lookout and attitude and 5% of the time checking instrument indications.

Entry from the glide –

Bank – apply aileron in the direction of turn.

Balance – apply rudder in the direction of turn.

Back pressure – apply back pressure to set the desired attitude to maintain required airspeed.

Attitude – Point out the correct sight picture with reference to bank angle and attitude.

Lookout – Point out that the view ahead is moving rapidly away from the turn direction and emphasise the importance of looking well into the turn direction, particularly below.

Attitude – Check that the attitude remains constant.

Note: Ask the student to point to where the horizon cuts the instrument panel.

Performance – point out the instrument indications on the AI, Altimeter and balance ball and relate these indications directly to the attitude of the aeroplane in relation to the natural horizon.

Note errors and demonstrate how corrective adjustment is made with reference to attitude.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D74

Exit – Point out how to anticipate the approaching reference feature and/or altitude.

Bank – roll off bank to level the wings.

Balance – apply rudder to balance.

Back pressure – relax back pressure to adopt glide attitude.

Direct and monitor steep descending turn to the left

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a left hand steep turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

Climb back to commencement altitude.

Demonstrate steep descending turn to the right

If the aeroplane has side by side seating it will be necessary to emphasise the altered sight picture in the alternate direction turns.

Direct and monitor steep descending turn to the right

The instructor should hand over control to the student and direct them through entry, maintenance and exit of a right hand steep turn. Direct the student through corrective action where required.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice of the above exercises prior to continuing the lesson. Ensure that the turns are practiced equally in both directions.

RETURN TO BASE

This is an opportunity for the student to practice previous exercises and returning to the circuit. The instructor should allow the student to perform all radio procedures. The instructor should continue to develop the student’s awareness of local area features and continue to assist traffic awareness and orientation.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival should be conducted by the student with no instructor assistance and the nominated landing technique should be assessed by the instructor. In this section the trainee will be assessed on flapless approach and landing.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will often tend to pay too much attention to the flight instruments in this exercise. The instructor should make careful observation to ensure that a proper scan between the instruments and external references is established and that a good lookout is maintained.

Ensure the student can perform accurate steep turns before practice in steep descending turns.

Ensure practice turns of all types are conducted in each direction as a right handed student will often favour turning left and vice versa.

Draft only: August 2011

D75 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Instructors should identify where the attitude is not understood and redemonstrate the manoeuvre.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

The necessity for a good lookout before entering and during all types of turns will have to be continually stressed. Students frequently sacrifice lookout in a bid for greater accuracy.

Students may get confused between visual picture for LH and RH turns.

Faulty turns often result from inaccurate flying and trimming just before entering the turns.

Losing speed is sometimes due to applying backpressure too early or failing to relax backpressure on recovery. Similarly, gaining speed may be due to excessive bank angles or failing to apply sufficient back pressure on entering the turn.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

18. INSTRUMENT

INTRODUCTION

D76

The instrument flying air exercise is an extension of all visual flight manoeuvres.

The Day VFR syllabus has provision for a minimum of 2 hours IF of which 1 hour must be in flight.

A synthetic trainer is a useful tool to use for the first IF lesson as it allows focus on the basic techniques without distractions.

For the mandatory 1 hour instrument flight time, the instructor should establish a traffic awareness and avoidance procedure. It is the instructors responsibility entirely for lookout during the IF teaching phase of flight.

Whatever method of limiting external visual reference is used it must not restrict the instructors lookout and traffic avoidance capability.

The basic aeroplane handling techniques are the same as for visual flight and the emphasis should be on attitude control and scan technique.

This exercise must be flown in VMC and IFR rated instructors must not be tempted to conduct this exercise under the IFR.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

Instrument flying is a simple extension of visual flying. Students must be fully competent with visual attitude flying in all basic sequences before attempting this training element. The skills learnt in this exercise will provide basic competency in flying an aeroplane solely by reference to the flight instruments, and introduce a basic escape procedure in the event of inadvertent IMC encounter. Well developed basic IF skills are one of the foundational skills required for a NVR or Instrument Rating.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should now be periodically assessing and evaluating the student’s conduct of all aspects of preparation for flight including the daily inspection. Questions should be thought provoking and the responses should demonstrate that the student is developing operational decision making skills and demonstrating sound practical understanding of the aircraft systems.

The student should be able to manage all aspects of the ground component and the instructor should provide feedback where improvement can be made.

TAKE-OFF

The instructor should take the opportunity to make a student assessment of previously taught takeoff sequences.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and provide opportunity to practice the various climb settings. Continue to build the students awareness of local features and assist the development of situation awareness.

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D77

REVISION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

As IF is an extension of visual attitude flying, revision should not be required.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

Visual vs instrument indications

Do not use the instrument flying hood for this component.

Demonstrate to the student the pitch attitude indications displayed by the attitude indicator vs aeroplane nose attitude picture. This should be done for all normal flight manoeuvres including slow

(1.3vs) flight. Emphasise that all other indications are the same as for visual flight.

Basic scan technique

Demonstrate basic scan techniques; Selective, Radial, vertical – as appropriate.

Hand over to student and direct as required through all basic flying manoeuvres:

• Straight and level

• Climbing and descending

• Turning

• Climbing and descending turns

• Steep Turns

• UA recovery

• Low speed handling (1.3vs)

Emergency IMC recovery procedure

Once the student is competent in all basic flying manoeuvres, they should be introduced to the

Emergency IMC Recovery Procedure (EIRP). Initially get the student to perform this manoeuvre visually, then under the hood:

• From straight and level visual flight, place student “under the hood”.

• Establish stabilised level flight then timely entry into max rate climbing turn away from terrain (real or simulated) onto escape heading.

• Once established on escape heading, continue climb in IMC to simulated cloud top altitude.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D78

Once the student is competent in that manoeuvre, instructors should, where appropriate, introduce this exercise on a surprise basis during the remainder of the students training.

CONSOLIDATION

Allow ample student practice of the above exercises prior to continuing the lesson. Ensure that the turns are practiced equally in both directions.

RETURN TO BASE

At this stage in their training, the student should be able to return to base and land the aeroplane with minimal direction from the instructor. The instructor should continue to develop the students awareness of local area features and continue to assist traffic awareness and orientation where required.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival should be conducted by the student with no instructor assistance and the nominated landing technique should be assessed by the instructor.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Whatever method of limiting external visual reference is used, it must not restrict the instructors lookout and traffic avoidance capability.

The basic aeroplane handling techniques are the same as for visual flight and the emphasis should be on attitude control and scan technique.

Depending on the method of limiting external visual reference, the instructor may not be able to see the students eyes and therefore may have difficulty determining where the student is directing their attention.

Once the student is able to demonstrate basic IF competency, the instructor should introduce techniques for managing peripheral workload (engine management, map reference, radio etc.)

Be aware of an increased potential for airsickness and be prepared to discontinue the lesson early.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

• Chasing performance instruments

• Trusting physiological illusions rather than instrument indications

• Incorrect scan technique for the manoeuvre (instrument/task fixation)

• Over controlling

• Basic handling technique breakdown

Draft only: August 2011

D79

19. FORCED

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

A forced landing due to mechanical malfunction occurs only very rarely with modern aeroplanes. A forced landing due to poor airmanship such as fuel exhaustion should in theory never occur, however in practice it occasionally does. The nature of the failure may result in complete or partial failure.

When partial power is available there may be time to act deliberately and think through the problem, perhaps even seeking assistance on the radio. If no power is available a quick decision and sound judgment are the essentials especially after take-off or during low level operations.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

The skills learned in this exercise will form the basis for in-flight emergency procedure management.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should continue assessing and evaluating the students conduct of all aspects of preparation for flight including the daily inspection. The student should be able to manage all aspects of the ground component and the instructor should provide feedback where improvement can be made. After run ups the instructor should remind the trainee of the anticipated weather conditions in the training area.

TAKE-OFF

The instructor should take the opportunity to make a student assessment of the take-off.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and provide opportunity to practice the various climb settings. Continue to build the students awareness of local features and assist the development of situation awareness.

REVISION

Revision of previous sequences should not be necessary. The student will already have completed solo circuit consolidation and should be competent in the normal flight sequences.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine (particularly temperature) and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

D80

Air exercise 1:

• Landing area selection

• Making the plan

• Demonstration of forced landing pattern

Air exercise 2:

• Introduction of checks and passenger management

• Partial power loss

A

IR EXERCISE

1

Landing area selection

For the first forced landing lesson it is a good idea to spend some time discussing the indications of wind direction and landing area options. The instructor should fly the aircraft throughout this demonstration.

The instructor should point out a number of wind direction indicators and ensure that they are ones which can be easily seen from the student control seat. Ask the student to contribute in this exercise and have them describe what they see.

Once the wind direction is determined the instructor should show the student how to quickly ascertain the most favourable landing area and then how to orientate the aircraft so the area is in the front left quadrant.

Use distinguishable features to describe the field location and be sure the student has the same field in sight. Ask the student to verify all the factors in the mnemonic for field selection.

Making the plan

For the first demonstration the instructor should make a plan and commence the demonstration with ample height (3500’AGL) and time to allow a paced demonstration.

The instructor should position the aircraft so that the student is able to see and discuss the selection of key points.

Demonstrate of forced landing pattern

The instructor should commence this demonstration from a position that will allow the student a clear view of the field and the key turning points.

Ideally, commence from about 3500’AGL from a position that will allow adherence to the plan and ensure that the conduct of the immediate actions, field selection and plan can be made in a timely manner.

Draft only: August 2011

D81 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

During this demonstration explain to the student that flying the aircraft according to the plan is the priority and that the checks should be done as additional activity.

During the demonstration the instructor should clearly identify each component of the procedure and review flight progress against the plan.

Student practice

The instructor should reposition the aeroplane for student practice of the above lesson subdivisions.

A

IR EXERCISE

2

Introduction of checks and passenger management

On the next lesson the instructor will demonstrate, followed by student practice, the complete procedure including all checks.

Partial power loss

During air exercise 2 and subsequent lessons on forced landings the instructor should introduce partial power loss scenarios requiring identification of system malfunction and decision to continue flight or convert to power-off forced landing.

CONSOLIDATION

Give the student plenty of practice, varying the height, distance from various fields and scenarios when simulating failure of the engine.

RETURN TO BASE

Return to base should be conducted by the student with limited assistance. The instructor should allow the student to perform all radio procedures, continue to develop the students awareness of local area features and continue to assist traffic awareness and orientation.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival should be conducted by the student with limited instructor assistance and the landing technique should be assessed by the instructor.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students should not be progressed to conducting the checks and passenger management too early as this will create difficulty flying the aircraft to the plan.

In subsequent lessons, if the student is having difficulty flying the plan, instructors should task the student to fly the plan only and not complete the checks.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D82

For successful delivery of this lesson the visibility should ideally provide for an identifiable horizon and light to moderate winds. The cloud base should permit uninterrupted adherence to the plan.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

• Students often confuse the wind direction and plan to land with a tail wind

• Students may place more emphasis on the checks and loose the mental picture of the plan

• Loss of visual contact with the landing area selected

• Failure to trim to the correct speed for best glide and failure to balance the aircraft

• Students may have difficulty assessing their height above the ground

Draft only: August 2011

D83

20. EFATO

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Every take-off must be considered to have the potential for the aircraft to suffer loss of power, either partially or completely. While statistically this is an unlikely event, the application of well rehearsed emergency drills will ensure that the safest outcome is assured following an engine failure.

In many circumstances it may not be possible to practice the physical inputs required and as such it is essential that the procedure is briefed prior to every take-off.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

A real engine failure after take-off in a single engine training aircraft will obviously mean termination of the flight, ideally with a safe landing in a clear area.

The skills developed in this exercise will form the foundation for effectively managing an engine failure after take-off in any aircraft type including multi-engine piston and jet aircraft, where continuation of flight is assured.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should continue to monitor the student conducting all aspects of the ground phase including preparation for flight and the daily inspection.

The safety brief should be given prior to every departure. Initially, the instructor should give sufficient demonstration to be then followed by student practice.

Explain to the student that the brief should serve as a rehearsal as if the emergency is expected to happen.

As a minimum the brief should address the following elements:

• Local runway and weather conditions

• Take-off path obstacles

• Available emergency landing areas

• Expected aeroplane performance

• Actions in the event of engine failure on the ground

• Actions in the event of engine failure after take-off with runway still available

• Actions in the event of engine failure engine after take-off with no runway available

AIRMANSHIP

• Lookout/reference features

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

• Energy management

• Operators documented emergency procedures

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

D84

The following subdivisions may not always be possible to demonstrate or practice. However, each subdivision must be briefed. Demonstration and student practice will depend on circumstances such as runway length, traffic and airfield specific procedures:

• Demonstrate engine failure on the ground

• Demonstrate engine failure after take-off with runway still available

• Demonstrate engine failure after take-off with no runway available

Demonstrate engine failure

Depending upon the environment and aeroplane performance, normally accepted safety margins may be infringed. Instructors must follow flying school specific procedures for this exercise.

CONSOLIDATION

This procedure must be briefed prior to every departure. Demonstration and practice should occur where permitted by company operating procedures. The exercise should be covered throughout all training.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Instructors should take every opportunity to question and challenge the students briefing to ensure they are applying thought processes appropriate to the actual conditions on the day.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

• Tendency to rote brief

• Failure to adequately asses the environment

• Failure to immediately lower nose and carry out vital actions

Draft only: August 2011

D85

21. PRECAUTIONARY

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

For a variety of reasons other than engine failure a pilot may be faced with the decision to land away from a prepared surface. These reasons are nearly always due to faulty navigation, poor planning

(running out of fuel or daylight) or encountering bad weather which is also often due to poor planning.

From the outset the student must understand, that should any doubt exist as to the advisability of continuing the flight, the decision to land must be made whilst there is still time to do so with the aeroplane under full control and before conditions deteriorate to a dangerous level.

For the first exercise it is advised to brief the student that conditions of poor visibility, low cloud base and limited fuel are not relevant as the procedure may be applied to any one or all scenarios in later lessons.

For the initial introduction to this exercise it is preferable that the weather conditions provide for an identifiable horizon, light to moderate wind and ideally no turbulence.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

The student will develop the skills required to safely and competently configure and manoeuvre the aeroplane for flight in reduced visibility in a confined area.

These skills can be further applied later in training to low level navigation in poor visibility. The student will also gain essential foundational skill for conducting circling approaches later when training for a command instrument rating.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should continue assessing and evaluating the students conduct of all aspects of preparation for flight including the daily inspection. Periodically check weight and balance and performance calculations for integrity. Students can often develop incorrect techniques and if left unchecked may be difficult to correct later in training.

The student should be able to manage all aspects of the ground component and the instructor should provide feedback where improvement can be made.

TAKE-OFF

The instructor should take the opportunity to make a student assessment of previously taught takeoff sequences.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should monitor the student during the departure and provide opportunity to practice the various climb settings. Continue to build the students awareness of local features and assist the development of situation awareness.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

REVISION

D86

Not applicable to this lesson.

AIRMANSHIP

During transit to the training area briefly review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

• Landing area selection

• Precautionary search procedure

Landing area selection

As in the first forced landing lesson it is a good idea to spend some time discussing the indications of wind direction and landing area options. The instructor should fly the aircraft whistle selecting the landing area and demonstrate how to set power and flap for the precautionary search configuration.

Ask the student to contribute in this exercise and have them describe what they have used to determine the wind direction. The instructor should ask the student to identify favourable landing areas and discuss the factors which will determine suitability of the area with regard to avoidance of damage and possible further departure if applicable. Ask the student to verify all the factors in the mnemonic for field selection.

Demonstrate precautionary search procedure

The instructor should demonstrate the precautionary search procedure from low level at 500’ AGL configured for the precautionary cruise.

During the first pattern explain how alignment of the directional gyro cardinal points may assist orientation and explain how to select the turning points. Emphasise the possible need to increase power during turns and that the company operations manual may impose a limit on bank angle.

Explain the use of ground speed and timing to estimate the landing distance available. Stress to the student that it is essential to fly the entire pattern at 500’ AGL and that descent for each low level inspection can only be commenced once established on final. Equally stress that climb to 500’AGL must be achieved before turning onto the cross wind leg.

Explain during each low level inspection what the student should be assessing with regard to obstacles and surface assessment. Emphasise that high level passes will determine hazards such as power lines and trees; and that the low level passes will determine surface hazards such as rocks, holes and surface condition.

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D87 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Explain the need to adjust the base turning point to allow for a short field approach and landing.

Direct and monitor precautionary search procedure

Direct the student through the entire procedure as described above.

CONSOLIDATION

In a standard lesson, time will probably only permit two to three attempts of student practice of the procedure. It is important that the procedure is repeated on subsequent lessons and especially during cross country navigational training.

RETURN TO BASE

This is an opportunity for the student to practice previous exercises and returning to the circuit. The instructor should allow the student to perform all radio procedures. The instructor should continue to develop the student’s awareness of local area features and continue to assist traffic awareness and orientation.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

The arrival should be conducted by the student with no instructor assistance and the nominated landing technique should be assessed by the instructor.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Students will generally find this exercise relatively easy having previously conducted forced landings. Stress to the student that this must not lead to complacency.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Students may try to respond to apparent slip/skid illusions at low level resulting in out of balance flight.

Students often bend the rules and descend prior to establishing the final approach.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane) D88

Fire drill is not a formal air exercise in its own right. It is an exercise that should be introduced to student pilots prior to first solo. Instructors should refer to the company operations manual for guidance on teaching this element.

Draft only: August 2011

D89 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Systems malfunction is not a formal air exercise in its own right. The various possible system malfunctions should be introduced at appropriate time during the students training. Instructors should refer to the company operations manual for guidance on teaching this element.

Draft only: August 2011

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

24. NAVIGATION

INTRODUCTION

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Pilot navigation is the navigational activity carried out by the pilot when flying an aeroplane. The scope of this activity is limited by the confined space of the cockpit and the fact that the pilots attention is divided. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that thorough preparation and planning is conducted to keep the procedure involved as simple as possible.

When introducing this sequence to the student, the flying instructor must emphasise that the mental processes required are simple and that the methods are based on common sense. As the ability to navigate is an integral part of the art of flying an aeroplane, it should never be regarded as being in any sense an addition to a pilots normal activity.

During earlier training the student should have gained a good appreciation of the use and vagaries of the magnetic compass as well as the directional gyro. In addition, whilst flying in the local area the student should have been given some elementary instruction and practice in map reading, particular emphasis having been placed on proper orientation of the map and the relating of features on the map to features on the ground. Elementary exercises in the estimation of distances, bearings and headings to reach a chosen point are also very valuable.

The number of navigational exercises which will be flown during the students training will depend on the requirements of the syllabus and upon the students ability.

The information which follows represents the essential instruction which should be given, and must be incorporated in the most appropriate way in the students training.

For this exercise it is assumed that the student has commenced initial studies in the CASA day VFR syllabus. In particular, the student should be significantly advanced in the studies of PPL NAV,

FPP and MET.

CASA recommends that the first navigation lesson involves significant demonstration and that the entire first leg including start, take-off and departure be demonstrated by the instructor.

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D91 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

The model below is a guide to how the first exercise should be taught.

Flight Planned

Instructor Flies

Student Navigates

Diversion

Instructor demonstration of complete leg

Departure

Aerodrome

Instructor directs

Student flies and navigates

Instructor directs

Student flies and navigates

Instructor demonstrates diversion.

As can be seen from the model above, the process of demonstration of what will be taught in the next lesson has been applied by the introduction of diversion procedure. It should be noted however that the individual capabilities of each student will determine when to introduce additional procedures.

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

The basics skills of navigation and flight management learned during this and following lessons will form the foundations for subsequent licences and ratings. The concepts used for flight management in both VFR and IFR are very similar. Proper initial training will ensure sound standards throughout a pilots career.

GROUND COMPONENT

The instructor should continue assessing and evaluating the students conduct of all aspects of preparation for flight including flight planning, correct weight and balance calculations and aircraft performance.

It is recommended that in the first navigation lesson the instructor demonstrates the complete daily inspection and preparation of the cabin and navigational equipment.

The instructor should also demonstrate the entire start, taxi, run-ups and departure brief including emergency drills and actions. The instructor should emphasise that this brief is a rehearsal, not just for emergencies, but so that a mental picture has been formed for:

• method for establishment of track within 5 miles

• initial tracking features and any altitude limitations

• radio frequencies and communication requirements

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

TAKE-OFF

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The instructor should demonstrate the take-off applicable to the conditions of the day. This should not involve any verbal instruction, but be purely an opportunity for the student to observe a good demonstration of smooth aeroplane control and accuracy.

DEPARTURE

The instructor should demonstrate the departure, pointing out key aspects of the departure brief:

• Method for establishment of track within 5 miles

• Initial tracking features and any altitude limitations

• Radio frequencies and communication requirements

Particular emphasis should be made on circuit departure procedures, lookout and traffic awareness.

Explain that the departure time must be noted and entered on the plan if workload permits. Stress that in a busy circuit the student may need to give complete attention to flying and traffic awareness.

In this situation, a deduced method to back log the departure time may be used.

REVISION

Navigation lessons involve revision of nearly all sequences. The instructor should note any tendency for the student to develop bad habits and correct them immediately. Examples of this might be:

• Failure to lookout, particularly the “clear left/right” check during small heading alterations and during climb

• Failure to correctly trim elevator and rudder

• Not selecting a visual reference point for holding heading

• Failure to conduct DG/Compass check

AIRMANSHIP

Airmanship should be an integrated process by this stage and all the components (and in particular lookout) listed below should be evident throughout all stages of the navigation exercise:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

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LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

N

AVIGATION EXERCISE

1

• Demonstrate navigation technique

• Direct navigation technique (instructor flies the aircraft)

• Direct navigation technique (student flies the aircraft)

• Demonstrate diversion (optional on 1 st

Nav)

• Monitor navigation technique (student flies the aircraft)

Subsequent Navigation Exercises

• Low level Navigation (work in progress)

• Diversion

• Lost procedure (work in progress)

• Use of radio navigation aids and GPS (work in progress)

Demonstrate navigation technique

The instructor should continue to demonstrate the initial climb out and explain the importance of establishing track within 5nm of departure and that the departure time must be logged with an estimate for the next turning point. Where possible demonstrate the watch – map – ground technique to fix an initial tracking feature.

When at cruising altitude, demonstrate how to set the desired power, lean the mixture and emphasise the importance of maintaining an efficient work cycle that is based on the prioritisation of Aviate,

Navigate Communicate. The mnemonic CLEAR is suggested if there is no other procedure specified:

Course, compass, check directional gyro and check for gross error after a heading change. Demonstrate the correct technique for navigation using Watch-Map-Ground

Log Flight plan details – including departure, fixes, Top of Decent (TOPD), Estimated

Time of Arrival (ETA) and Fuel (management, amount remaining, check against planned consumption, consider the need to change tanks)

Engine - check correct power setting and temperatures and pressures and confirm expected performance. Check mixture is leaned correctly

Altimetry - check for correct altimeter sub scale setting and appropriate cruise level

Radio - ensure correct frequency and volume setting, report as applicable

Explain that it is advisable to conduct the relevant components of the ‘CLEAR’ check at the following times:

• After logging a position fix

• Changing heading at a way point, or for a track correction

• At top of climb and top of descent

• At least every 10 – 15 minutes or when there is nothing else to do

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Demonstrate to the student how to hold the map correctly by orientating the map to north and show how to read from map to ground based on time/distance flown from last fix or logged departure time.

Point out the technique of using large distant features and then smaller close in features for pin point fixing. Stress the anticipation of pinpoints by Dead Reckoning (DR) calculations and point out how distance estimation is affected by altitude. During the en route phase of the flight, explain to the student that it is important to obtain and log positive fixes, when plentiful and at no greater intervals than about every ten minutes.

Stress the importance of holding flight planned heading and that it is essential for calculation of accurate heading alteration for track error correction. Unless the error is very great do not try to correct track error until the first check feature. As the flight progresses show how to apply the 1:60 rule.

Demonstrate how to obtain a ground speed check, showing how to revise ETAs for check features, top of descent and the destination. Stress the importance of logging this information.

Explain to the student that if the next way point is an arrival at an aerodrome it is wise to conduct the arrival brief early, preferably before TOPD.

Direct navigation technique (instructor flies the aircraft)

The instructor should now fly the aircraft and direct the student through the procedure above.

Explain to the student that the instructor’s responsibility is only to hold heading, altitude and set engine controls. The navigational activity should be entirely conducted by the student with instructor direction. Airmanship points should be evident, and in particular the student must continue to include lookout in the basic work cycle.

Direct navigation technique (student flies the aircraft)

The student should now practice the above procedure whilst flying the aircraft. The instructor should direct the student with regard to cockpit management and cycle of navigational activity.

Stress the importance of flying the aeroplane heading and altitude accurately. Point out how large distant features can be used to assist visual reference for holding heading.

Help the student develop the mental process so that navigational activity remains simple and is integrated into flying the aeroplane.

Demonstrate diversion (optional on 1st Nav)

The diversion should be demonstrated for the first time by the instructor. This should be a simple single leg diversion return to base. The use of the mnemonic ‘CLEAR’ is a good way to work through the diversion process.

The instructor should allow enough time to be able to go through each step without too much time pressure and therefore make the decision about 5 minutes prior to diverting from flight planned track.

Common sense/course/comp/DG – demonstrate to the student how to make the decision when and where to divert. Show how to check charts for airspace, terminal area forecast, ARFOR and

NOTAMS.

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D95 APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Logs – demonstrate how to estimate track, heading and distance and show how to make a simple flight plan entry and log for ETA. Point out SARTIME considerations. Explain how to determine fuel status from fuel log.

Engine – another standard engine check is appropriate to assess proper function and performance.

Altitude – explain how to consider any altitude requirements or limitations. Consider terrain if diverting due to poor weather.

Radio – demonstrate how to make a revised flight details call and revised SARTIME.

Monitor navigation technique (student flies the aircraft)

After the instructor has completed the diversion demonstration and the aircraft is established on the new track, hand over to the student and allow further practice of basic en-route navigation technique.

The instructor should continue to monitor the student, providing assistance where necessary. Ensure that the student maintains the cycle of navigational activity. It is a good practice to encourage the student use the ‘CLEAR’ cycle as a prompt. The use of a card with the ‘CLEAR’ considerations is useful early in training. Explain to the student that it is necessary to consider the relevance of each component of ‘CLEAR’ as it applies immediately and how it will apply in a few minutes. This will assist the student to develop the ‘think ahead’ approach to navigational flight management.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of navigation technique will gradually occur over a number of cross country exercises. Basic navigation must be allowed to consolidate on each lesson and it is important that the instructor ensures that at least the first leg of each cross country exercise is conducted without introducing any abnormal activity.

The instructor must be careful to only introduce abnormal activity once the student has gained proficiency and confidence in basic navigation procedures.

ARRIVAL AND LANDING

Continue to monitor and prompt where necessary as the student approaches TOPD. Again stress the importance of the application of a ‘CLEAR’ check with emphasis on the following:

Course – explain how to select appropriate lead in features on the map and ensure that the DG is correctly aligned to the compass.

Log – consider the revised estimate and the time/distance to run. Consider fuel log/tank change.

Engine – monitor settings, enriching mixture as necessary.

Altitude – consider the airfield elevation and over-fly altitude

Radio – ensure that radio frequencies are set for ATIS, CTAF and/or ATC as required and give appropriate inbound radio calls.

When approaching the ETA for the destination, explain how to select appropriate lead in features on the map, how to correctly identify the aerodrome location and the technique for sighting the aerodrome or features associated with the aerodrome.

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Explain that there may be a need to make a large change of heading if the aerodrome is identified late.

TAXI AND SHUTDOWN

The student will complete all radio calls, taxi to the parking area and perform the shut down procedure.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

Instructors must ensure that adequate time is allotted to post-flight discussion. Investigating mistakes and difficulties is one of the best ways of improving pilot navigation.

Instructors should encourage students to provide for adequate preparation well before the flight.

Emphasise the benefits of a mental practice procedural rehearsal the day before whilst conducting the route study.

As part of the preparation, instructors should ensure both themselves and the student have adequately considered hydration, nutrition and toilet requirements.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Students may tend to have their head in the cockpit for too long. Causes of this may be:

• poor map preparation and cock pit organisation

• falling behind Watch-Map-Ground process

• lack of confidence in DR

• poor selection of reference points

• failure to maintain adequate lookout

Many students have a tendency not to trust their heading which may result in attempting to track crawl.

Insufficient time dedicated to flight planning and route study before flight.

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25. NIGHT

INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

Night circuits are generally taught post Private Pilots Licence (PPL) or CPL training. Before students undertake night circuit operations they must be able to demonstrate day circuits and IF to

PPL standard. They must have received sufficient instrument flight training to enable them to carry out the following manoeuvres to PPL standard solely by reference to instruments:

• climb and climbing turns

• straight and level flight and level turns

• descent and descending turns

• unusual attitude recovery full panel

FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

During this exercise the student will develop the key foundational skills of take-off circuit and landing at night.

GROUND PHASE

The instructor should monitor the trainee conducting all aspects of the ground phase including preparation for flight and the daily inspection. Precautions necessary to adapt the eyes to night vision should be explained and the student warned against looking at any bright light which will lengthen the time required for night adaptation. It is extremely important that a student be given a thorough pre-flight briefing. A thorough knowledge of the location and method of operation of all cockpit controls and switches is essential. Ensure that the student knows how to control the brilliance of internal cockpit lighting and impress the importance of keeping this as low as possible. Mention should be made of the generator/alternator charging rate and the minimum RPM necessary for this charge rate. Any local rules with regard to engine starting and taxiing in the tarmac area should be explained.

Taxiing at night requires considerable extra care compared with taxiing by day, for the following reasons:

• Distance at night is deceptive when judged by stationary lights, which may be nearer than they appear

• Speed is deceptive; consequently there will be a tendency to taxi too fast

• A careful lookout must be maintained for lights of other aeroplanes and obstructions

AIRMANSHIP

Before starting the aircraft review the relevant airmanship points:

• Lookout/reference features

• Traffic/clock code

• Handover/Takeover drill

• Engine and airframe limits

• Smooth control inputs

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

• Effective work cycle

• TEM

• Night vision

• Emergency lighting

• Anticipated circuit traffic

LESSON SUBDIVISIONS

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Demonstrate, Direct and Monitor night take-off, approach and landing.

Demonstrate Night Take-Off, Circuit and Landing

Demonstrate the night takeoff with particular reference to false climb illusion and instrument scanning. Point out to the student that the take-off is similar to that by day. Directional control is maintained initially by reference to the runway lights. As soon as the aeroplane is airborne, transfer to instruments with particular emphasis on maintaining the attitude (especially ensuring a positive climb rate is maintained) and keeping straight. In this way the aeroplane is climbed away immediately it becomes airborne, precluding any risk of striking the ground shortly after take-off.

The slight risk due to climbing at a lower airspeed than normal is accepted to gain this positive climb away from the ground. The attitude seen directly after take-off should be maintained solely by reference to instruments until the altimeter indicates a safe height and the VSI indicates a positive rate of climb. On aeroplanes equipped with retracting undercarriage and flaps, no attempt should be made to retract either until a safe height has been reached.

The circuit pattern to be followed at night is normally the same as that flown by day and is flown mainly by reference to instruments, using the airfield lighting as a means of monitoring the aeroplanes position. Students should be warned of the tendency to over bank at night. The student must be briefed on radio procedures where they differ from procedures normally used by day.

The approach is judged by reference to the runway lights as seen after turning on to final approach.

Some airfields may have such aids as VASIS installed, but it should be emphasized that they should only be used as an aid to the pilots judgment. On no account should an approach at night be carried out referring only to such aids. The importance of turning from the base leg on to final approach at the correct height and distance from the flare path must be emphasized. The turn on to final approach should be completed by not lower than 500ft above the ground.

The landing at night is made by reference to the flare path. Owing to the deceptive appearance of the ground, no attempt should be made to refer to it as is done by day. The effect of night conditions on inexperienced pilots frequently induces a tendency to round out and hold off too high. When landing lights are used students must be warned not to look directly down the beam but slightly ahead and to one side of it.

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidation of this exercise is usually achieved in the first lesson, however point out to the student that regular practice is required to ensure the skill is maintained.

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TAXI AND SHUT DOWN

APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

The student should conduct after landing checks and procedures, taxi to the parking area and conduct the shut down procedure. The instructor should monitor the student and provide input where required.

TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS

ENGINE FAILURE AFTER TAKE-OFF

In the event of engine failure at night the normal engine failure after take-off procedures should be adopted and the landing light(s) should be used as an aid to avoid obstacles.

COMMON STUDENT ERRORS

Common student errors at night include:

• Taxiing too fast. This is sometimes occasioned by the belief that high idling RPM must be maintained even whilst taxiing at night.

• Failure to maintain an accurate heading after take-off, caused by over-concentration on other instruments.

• Failure to track parallel to the flare path on the down wind leg due to either inability to assess any drift or to hold a constant heading.

• Failure to establish a steady rate of descent on the base leg resulting in too high a turn on to the final approach.

• Looking for the ground during both the round out and the hold off period.

• After landing trying to turn off the runway at too high a speed.

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APPENDIX D to CAAP 5.14-2(0): Flight Instructor Training (Aeroplane)

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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