the journal of digital television
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INTERTEC® /PRIMEDIA
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www.broadcastengine4in4jcom
Publication
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JULY 2
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THE JOURNAL OF DIGITAL TELEVISION
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J R HEVERS PRES
UNIT!:D RADIO NETWORK
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MIAN. FL
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IMI
www.americanradiohistory.com
How Do You Handle
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BROADCAST
GOVERNMENT
NETWORK SUPPORT
/71FPEG
A
8 INDEPENDENTLY EDITABLE DIGITAL AUDIO CHANNELS
A
BETACAM/SP/SX AND DIGITAL BETACAM PLAYBACK
SONY
i
A
NEW LOW CHASSIS PROF
it_:_
PREREAD EDITING AND DYNAMIC MOTION CONTROL
AND PLUG -IN BOARDS
Complete the picture with InPEG imH
MPEG -2 technology is the open. common solution
nonlinear editing. routing, and servers: Avid,
Another big advantage of the MPEG IMX approach
'hat broadcasters are choosing for their DTV opera-
FAST Multimedia AG. Grass Valley Group.
is
tions. It's the one solution that's upward and down-
Leitch. Pinnacle Systems. Pluto Technologies.
ward scaleable. Interoperable and cost -effective.
Ouantel, Snell & Wilcox. Vibrint and others.
that you already have the acquisition tools. You
can choose MPEG IMX models that play back
Betacam SX
,
Betacam
,
Betacam SP', and
Digital Betacam tapes. so your existing acquisition
Now, with the introduction of the MPEG IMX'"
You'll be able to accept I- frame, single GOP
format becomes your MPEG acquisition format.
studio editing VTRs. Sony offers powerful tools for
bitstreams. at 30, 40. and 50 Mbps through the
easy migration into an open MPEG environment
SDTI -CP interface. Output through SDTI -CP to
supported by leading manufacturers. MPEG IMX
VTRs record and play back MPEG -2 4:2:2 POML
at 50
Mbps for very high broadcast picture
Sony's MAV -555 and MAV -2000 servers. And
direction: toward an open. digital networked
broadcast environment.
COMPLETE
do preread. dynamic motion control and inde-
duality. Sony's networking solutions let you
pendent editing of
nterface with a host of MPEG -2 equipment
(or 4 channels of 24 -bit audio), for multichannel
from the most experienced names in digital
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8
PICTURE
channels of 16 -bit audio
1-800-472-SONY ext. IMX
www.sony.com/professional
2000 Sony Electronics Inc. Ali rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or
trademarks of Sony. All specifications are subiect to change without notice
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MPEG IMX gear lets everyone look in the same
in
part without written permission is prohibited. Sony. Betacam. Betacam SP. Betacam SO. Digital Betacam. and MPEG IM% are
www.americanradiohistory.com
July 2000
Volume 42
Number 8
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE
JOURNAL OF OLG /TAL TELEVISION
www.broadcastengineering.com
Features
66 New DTV antenna technology
By Jay S. Martin
Improvements in technology mean more antenna choices for
broadcasters.
72 ATSC IOT performance
By Michel Langlois
A comparative look at 8VSB and COFDM using IOTs.
76 Datacasting: Is it legal?
By Mitchell Lazarus
Broadcasters may have to negotiate a regulatory minefield
when offering datacasting services.
80 Routing systems technologies
By Barry W Albright
Making the right choice in routing systems is essential to a
successful digital transition.
90 News Tech: Election systems
By Matthew Straeb
Compelling, timely coverage is the key to better ratings during
elections.
Beyond the Headlines
NEWS
14
18
Tuning in on DTV and decoding
WCPX -DT to begin multicasting six channels
FCC UPDATE
26
FCC auction threatens stations on channels 59 through 69
EXPERT'S CORNER/VENDOR VIEWS
28
NOAA forecast protocol changes
Digital Handbook
TRANSITION TO DIGITAL
34
Data multiplexing
COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
40
Video servers
ASK DR. DIGITAL
46
Educational materials
Today it's the news at 6:00.
Tomorrow it's prime time.
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Systems Design & Integration
SYSTEMS DESIGN SHOWCASE
48
Oxygen Media
TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
58
Transmitter site safety
PRODUCTION CLIPS
62
Audio for video
--
analog,digital or embedded?
New Products & Reviews
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
94
96
98
100
Vibrint digital news production applications
Pinnacle's PDS 9000: Integrating switcher and DVE technologies
Grass Valley Group's Kalypso video production center
Video Products Group's Virtual Studio Networks
TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSITION
104
Production switchers: Mixing pictures and metaphors
NEW PRODUCTS
108
Lighthouse DigitalSystems' Navigator, plus other new products
BUSINESS WIRE
128
Business highlights from broadcast and production
Departments
10
12
ON THE COVER: Baltimore. MD. is
home to WBAL's. WJZ's and WMAR's
new DTV/NTSC stacked antenna
systems. This historic tower was the
Editorial
Reader Feedback
151
Classifieds
Advertisers' index
152
EOM
147
first three -antenna candelabra in the
world when it was built in 1959. Photo
courtesy of Dielectric Communications.
FREEZE FRAME
A look at the technology that shaped this industry.
WEBSITE DIRECTORY
www.broadcastengineering.com
Feature Articles
Departments
New Products &
Reviews
Classifieds /Jobs
Reader Resources
Editorial calendar
Article archives
Contact the Editors
Questions? Contact:
Jim Saladin
jim [email protected]
913/967 -1905 fax
Marketing/
Advertising
Broadcast Engineering
1/4 -inch VTR
One of the most promising
technologies" of the 1983 NAB
convention was the new 1/4inch VTR format. Two companies displayed working versions
of the format, including field
editors and detachable camera/
recorder units. Hint: one
company called its product the
"Quartercam." Name the two
companies. Correct entries
received by Aug, 31 will be
eligible for a Broadcast Engineering t -shirt Send entries to
brad [email protected]
.
July 2000
TO DELIVER
BROADBAND SOLUTIONS THAT WORK FOR YOU."
j'OUR GOAL
IS
Tom Lookabaugh
Tony Ley
t'resident, DiviCom
CEO, Harmonic
This merger
"People around the world are demanding better and
is
great for our customers, great for
DiviCom and great for Harmonic. Our customers
easier ways to communicate. Access to information
know the DiviCom name
is
as
changing the way we live. Harmonic and
DiviCom are joining forces to enable this new era
being synonymous
with open solutions for digital television.
They'll soon know us
as
in broadband communications.
Harmonic, and because
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solutions and resources to meet their broadband
Whatever the network, Harmonic will work with
operators to build the infrastructure that makes the
needs.
information age possible. And we will deliver the
best technology and customer support the industry
There
is
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single source, customers can leverage the expertise
look forward to service providers embracing our
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both companies bring to the party. Together, well
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a
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www.americanradiohistory.com
Edito
Is your
station going dark?
to increase your co%crage area by three, tour or e% en IUUU times? How much RE would
that rake? Maybe a few gigawatts? What if you could do it for $50,000 or even less?
Interested? I'm about to tell you how.
Streaming media is the current hot button on Wall Street. At last month's Streaming Media
conference in New York, more than 13,000 broadcasting newbies gathered to check out the latest
in streaming technology. Attendance was three times last
gar's number. There were twice as many exhibitors as
the year before. Granted, this show has more smoke and
mirrors than a magician's convention - but this new
industry is still one to be reckoned with.
Let's look at some numbers. The Internet Research Group
says streaming media services will grow by 20 times in the
next three and one -half years. Total revenues by 2004 will
he $2.5 billion - that's a 2.5 with eight zeros behind it. Now
you're getting an idea of how large this behemoth really is.
And the number of users is growing rapidly, too.
According to Digital Technology Consulting, more than
I I.3 million homes will have high -speed Internet connections by next year. That breaks out to almost eight million
with cable modems and four million with DSL. The In -Stat
group says some 49 million homes will have broadband
service by 2004. Are you convinced that there's a new
rudience for your signal yet?
In my little burg, a start -up company called Digital Access just inked a deal with the city fathers
to supply cable, Internet and telephone services via fiber. There are currently more crews installing
fiber in Kansas City than flies at a picnic. The work represents a direct overbuild of two familiar
monopolies, Time Warner and Southwestern Bell. Now we'll have some competition. Just watch
the formerly sole providers react to the new competition with lower prices and improved services.
I liken the placement of a signal on the Internet to what Ted Turner must have thought about when
he considered putting his unknown station, WTBS, on satellite for distribution by cable systems.
He didn't say, "Why would I want anyone outside my terrestrial coverage area to watch my
station ?" Instead, he said, "How can I get my signal to the millions of viewers outside Atlanta ?"
Stations that think their audience stops at the city limits are missing a great opportunity; they just
don't know it. With the Internet, there is no defined service area. Your service area is as big as you
want to make it. With streaming technology, it costs no more to cover the nation than it does your
backyard.
So where does all this new technology, growth, competition and, most importantly, money leave
broadcasters? It depends on your viewpoint. Some broadcasters have chosen to ignore the chaos
outside the door, thinking it, like quad FM, will go away. It won't. Stations that choose to ignore
streaming media and other new data delivery technologies are already going dark. They just don't
Want
know it yet.
Brad Dick, editor
Send comments to:
direct: brad dick @intertec.com
website: www.broadcastengineering.com
1
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Broadcast Engineering
Solving the Digital Puzzle
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Community towers
Dubbing tape to CD
Dear Brad,
Your editorial ("Working together
for community towers," April 2000)
presents compelling reasons to colocate DTV towers. DTV is exciting
and has the headroom for functions
and services way beyond HDTV. But
it's still subject to the same physics of
RF propagation we've all grown to
know and love for 50 years, including those pesky things like antenna
aperture gain and beam width.
The CEA AntennaWeb.org program
simplifies receive antenna selection.
I'm glad you found it useful to ID the
type of antenna your soon- to -ownan -HDTV -set friend needs. If it predicts a rotor is needed, it's for the
good reason you point out
lack of
tower collocation.
I have hundreds of hours of DAT
recordings of our two-hour radio show.
I'd like to transfer them to CD-
ROM for archiving.
Can you suggest a simple method of
doing this on a Mac? I've got the CD
burner and access to all kinds of software, but what is the quickest way?
I'd like to dub the DAT in its two -hour
recorded format and then separate
each hour later onto individual CDs.
Can you suggest a simple solution or
point me in the right direction?
IRA FI.ATOW
HOST /EXECUTIVE PRODUCER - "SCIENCE
FRIDAY"
-
STAMFORD,
Ira:
Unfortunately, to my
The site is a great
(and free) tool not
only for BE readers
but also for the general public. More and
knowledge there is no
quick way to transfer
audio from an audio DAT
to CD -R. (If you had
. radio
files on a data
more receive antennas are coming on
market marked with
the CEA antenna selector logo indicating their corresponding type. I'd be interested in other readers' experiences.
I agree using rotors in the DTV world
is cumbersome, especially with lengthy
signal capture/display latency, but
there are alternatives. The obvious
one is an "area special" antenna designed to receive diverse channels at
orientations. Another emerging
approach is electronically steerable
antennas. CEA's R5 (antennas) committee is exploring this and other apset
DAT, it would be easy.)
You have to record from
DAT to a hard disk in
real time, using a two -
track audio recording
program. Next, save a file for each
hour of your broadcast, and then you
are ready to burn the CD. I highly
recommend using a Mac -compatible
audio card with S /PDIF digital I/O
so you can transfer the audio to the
computer in the digital domain. The
procedure is exactly the sane for
Windows and Linux users.
Best wishes,
STEVE OPPENHEIMER
proaches and may even devise a DTV
receiver/antenna interface to make it
all automatic. Now THAT is exciting.
EDITOR
ELECTRONIC MUSICIAN
RALPH JUSTUS
V.P., TECHNOI.OGY
AND STANDARDS
CONSUMER EI.ECTRONICS ASSOCIATION
12
CT
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
"The first transistor"
contest winners
Last month's contest resulted in a
new record for number of entrants.
While every entry identified the photo
as the first transistor, there was some
debate as to the actual date of the
invention. Reader Bob Connelly at
Wyoming Public TV provided a great
resource for more information on the
invention of the transistor at
www.pbs.org /transistor /album 1/
index.html.
One note, several of the entries
identified the first solid -state device
as a Geranium transistor. Or course,
the correct type name is Germanium.
A partial list of this month's winners
follows. Each correct entry received
a Broadcast Engineering T- shirt. This
month's contest question is on page 8.
Bob Connelly, Wyoming Public TV
Paul Hart, HBO
Tom Lahr, WOSU -TV
John Mazza, San Francisco
Vicki Kipp, Wisconsin Public
Broadcasting
Karl Nitschke, Ponte Vedra
Beach, FL
George Danner, WPEC -TV
Richard Crowley, Hillsboro, OR
Jason Mecklenburg
Gary Sharpe, SCOTTY Tele- Transport Corporation of the Americas
Ron Estes, KTLA -TV
David Budwash, WAGA -TV
Don Norwood, Hickory, NC
Jaime Ananko, Rochester, NY
Frank Anderson, Media City
Teleproduction Center
Allen Harmon, WDSE -TV
John Szkudlarek, Sinclair
Community College
Dale Lamm, Canton, OH
Mike Plott
Larry Price, KMEX -TV
More Forums
More Users
More Questions
More Answers
TM
World Wide User Groups
www.wwug.com
With over 300 forums dedicated to digital
content creation professionals, it all comes
together on DigitalMediaNet.çom
DigitalMediaNet.com helps you stay in touch
with the issues, products and opportunities
that can give that all- important competitive
edge. Professionals from around the world,
representing every discipline in the digital
media market, tune into our media channels
every day. Whether you are looking for the
latest news, reviews, industry trends; a
place to buy or sell your new product or
even a new job, DigitalMediaNet.com
has a solution!
Digital.Media
NET
.
Where the Creative Community Meets
www,digithlmédianet.corn.
News
Tuning in on DTV and decoding
BY LARRY BLOOMFIELD
Tie
transition to digital television
has problems at
virtually every
point along the delivery chain, from
the pickup devices to the display device. There are many questions whether it's wise to move to a completely
different system or keep putting Band Aids on the one we have decided to use
here in the United States, BVSB.
Except for the last couple of years,
little effort has been made to improve
tuner capabilities. Once a tuner receives digital bitstreams and modulates the bed as a matter of cleaning
up those bitstreams, irrespective of
the form of modulation, they can he
decoded and their various aspects put
to their proper use.
The distinction between the different generations of chips that grace the
front -ends of the digital television
tuners is somewhat blurred at this
point. The problems have been many.
Motorola's Frank Flory says, "Debugging an application like this, at
least to the point of discovering where
'breaking', would not take long.
Fixing the problem is another issue."
A joint venture between ATSC, the
Consumer Electronics Association
(CEA) and test station WHD -DT in
Washington, D.C., conducted tests for
it
is
television set manufacturers on _dune I.
According to George Hanover, inde-
There is argument that the
gap between coverage and
"receivability" must
be
narrowed.
pendent consultant for CEA, the manufacturers of both encoders and decoders were invited to attend. Each set
manufacturer wishing to test out the
various parameters of their decoders
FRAME GRAB
A look at the
issues driving today's technology.
When will iTV go mainstream?
Almost one -half say never!
2001
62 (4%)
2002
203 (14 %)
2003
224 (16%)
2004
252 (18 %)
NEVER
670 (47%)
SOURCE: 7.DNei un-line survey as ut6-I8-00
14
Broadcast Engineering
were cloistered in separate rooms or
suites. The encoder people were at
WHD -DT and, when all the receiver
folks finished with one encoder, Hanover would cue the encoder folks to
switch to a different encoder, until
each had their opportunity to be online
and be tested.
Although the media was not invited
and most everyone involved at
ATSC, CEA and WHD -TV declined comment, the off- record
conversation was that these
individuals didn't think the tests
would have been attended if
the results were made public
or shared. C. P. Patel, a noted
authority in the area of television front -ends and a 20 -year
veteran of Sarnoff Labs, said
this information had to be shared,
otherwise the tests would have been
worthless as far as the encoder manufacturers were concerned.
According to one participant, there
is no test equipment available on the
market at this time that can replicate
the real -life conditions of terrestrial
July 2000
digital broadcasting. This unique
opportunity should have proven very
beneficial to all parties concerned.
Another issue is a list of requirements a consortium of broadcasters
has submitted to the ATSC. It would
seem that the well- trusting broadcasters should have had that list in to
the ATSC long before all these standards for the nation's digital television system were to be cast in stone.
Eory in his comments on the broadcasters' requirements stated: "Under
existing law, DTV broadcasters must
transmit 8VSB signals with the defined ATSC framing structure."
Eory further stated if the ATSC is
going to solve multipath problems,
the digital framing structure must be
"To uplink 8 video feeds
Jrom the White House lawn,
we put all our eggs
in one basket."
v'vt
1
Taurus Communications
got the call to provide the DSNG
link for the White House 2000
Easter Egg Roll, it was apparent
that the task would not be easy.
Eight simultaneous video feeds
were needed from a single truck,
and no retakes were possible.
This had to be a one-take, 8 -feed.
perfect satellite broadcast that
could be distributed by Internet
streaming video around the world.
Taurus president, Dudley C.
Freeman, says it best. "1 knew we
had to have equipment that we
could count on. no matter what,
so I turned to Tiernan and their
THE1 HDTV/SDTV Encoder.
There is simply nothing better on
the market today."
THE1 is a high- perfcrmance,
modular MPEG. ATSC and DVB
compliant encoder. Its future proof, modular desigr makes
it easily adaptable to changing
requirements in contr bution and
distribution via satellite and
terrestrial networks.
So, no matter what your area
of digital broadcasting, when you
need the kind of performance and
reliability you can count on every
time, put your eggs in Tiernan's
basket, too.
r-44
TIERNAN
C O M M U N
I
C A
T
I
O
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[email protected]
^'ww.tiernan.com
USA
+1
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I
'
858 587 -0252
858 587-0257
44
EL +44 1420
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Tiernan can take you
wherever you want to go,
however you want to get there.
Circle (107) on Free Into Card
modified to accommodate a few additional data segments per data field, so
better "training signals" can be provided for initializing the parameters of
the adaptive filter used for equalization and ghost suppression. There are
those, however, who take issue with
this philosophy saying that adding
three data segments per field results in
a one percent loss in channel capacity.
However, Eory argues that without
better training signals, the initialization requirements on the adaptive
filter used for equalization and echocancellation are exceptionally difficult, especially for certain complex
echo ensembles.
It would be an understatement to
say that in the past most engineers
underestimated the multipath problems DTV would encounter. The AHG
addressing these broadcaster requirements has determined that the failure
of current 8VSB receivers to operate
in the presence of multipath reception
is intolerable.
There is argument that the gap
between coverage and "receivabil-
ceiver manufacturers. CEA faithfully
promised to deal only with the now
famous Table 3, but nothing in the
FCC rules says a broadcaster must
adhere to them. If a broadcaster chooses a different scan or frame rate it's
not uncommon to find that sets can't
deal with any of these other rates.
Some sets even have difficulty dealing with 720 lines.
Both organizations involved said that
they were fully ATSC compliant prior
to the change from 704 lines to 720
lines. They each supposedly performed
the same change and only that change;
going from 704 lines to 720 lines. The
net result was that one set of bitstreams
caused problems in the receive and the
other didn't. Reports from those involved in this testing found that much
more surprising and scarier than the
fact that any receiver might have problems with 720 lines. It therefore appears not to be a 720 lines issue, but
rather an encoder-compliance issue or
standard issue.
Eory said there are bitstream and
encoder setting issues other than just
those that relate to Table 3
are and non -Table
3 formats. Moa
Motorola's Frank Eory said there
bitstream and encoder setting
issues other than just those that
relate to Table 3.
ity" must
be
narrowed. The AHG
on receiver performance is where
solutions must be found for as much
of the multipath reception problem
as is
possible.
In order to cope effectively with
multipath reception problems, more
information is needed in the transmitted signal to support adaptive filtering in the receiver. No one has offered
concrete evidence to the contrary.
Engineering cannot be predicated simply on hope. All the incremental
progress reports become meaningless, especially if the progress subsides before acceptable "receivability" can finally he achieved. Solid
suggestions on fixing 8VSB right away
are needed if it is to be preserved.
Other issues continue to plague re-
16
Broadcast Engineering
torola's MPEG
decoder firmware team, af-
ter
making
changes, were
"totally taken
by
surprise
when the four local DTV stations
went on the air and they found that
with one of them, video was not
decodable at all," he said.
The fix was relatively straightforward. After close scrutiny of the station's bitstream, it was discovered that
this station was transmitting only P
and B frames and no
I frames. The
software looks for an frame to get
started and never finding one, it never
attempted to decode the video. Now
that it is known that this situation can
exist, chipmakers can deal with it.
The engineers at the Phoenix station
in question said the condition was not
intentional, because they were simply using the encoder the way it was
originally set up for them.
It is apparent that fixes to the stan1
July 2000
dard need to be addressed as these true life scenarios come to light. Firmware
upgrades can easily be developed to
fix such problems, and Eory says that
this would be one very useful application of those "extra hits" that are so far
not being used for anything.
Although no specific tie -in was made
with these problems, Sony, who announced in January that it would roll
out six HDTV sets this fall, has announced it will delay the delivery
"because of software problems and
technical standards concerns." Sony
executives say retailers have been
notified that they will not deliver the
products this year.
Vic Pacor, senior vice president for
television and digital media products
at Sony Electronics, said, "Software
for the main set of chips inside the
televisions is taking longer to finish
than anticipated." Pacor also said that
another factor was a recently announced standards -body review of the
transmission method selected several
years ago for digital
TV signals.
Pacor said he wasn't sure when
Sony would sell the new TV, which
includes two tube -based and four rear projections sets. Pacor did say that
Sony expected little financial impact
from the delay.
There are two main points that need
to be considered. First, these issues
are not based on the battle over
modulation schemes. These are purely digital issues centered on MPEG
encoding and other digital parameters. That's what the June I meeting
in Washington, D.C., was supposed
to he all about. Perhaps we need to
rethink some of the bitstream construction irrespective of the modulation standard, simply as an insurance
policy. It's clear that all the issues of
even the bitstream encoding/decoding process haven't yet been resolved.
Second, a high -ranking executive at
Sony said she had considered having
the company install a giant antenna on
the roof of its skyscraper in New York
to get HDTV broadcasts for its showroom but found that the cost of providing a reliable signal was prohibitive. If
Sony, which employs 100,000 engineers and technicians, could not get a
reliable HDTV of its own, what chance
do the rest of us have?
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WCPX -DT to begin
multicasting six
channels
axson's WCPX -DT will he
multicasting six channels of network feeds for 24 hours a day.
The itinerary will be three channels
of the PAX network, consisting of the
local, central time zone on the primary feed with the East Coast and West
Coast feeds on Channels 2 and 3
respectively. The other three channels will consist of the Worship network, Praise television network and
the Total Living Network (TLN), a
Chicago -based TV network, on Channels 4, 5 and 6.
Paxson says it wants local cable
systems in the Chicago market to
carry its digital local time zone feed
on the same channel to all basic
subscribers that the PAX analog stadon had been delivered to at that the
same time.
In other words, cable operators
would substitute the primary digital
channel for the current analog signal so that the primary digital signal
is available to all cable company's
basic subscribers on the same channel where the analog signal resided.
The other five channels being carried by WCPX -DT's digital signal
would he available on the digital
portion of the cable system serving
homes equipped with set -top boxes
that could decode the additional information. It is Paxson's intention
that these additional channels will
available as free programming
services as well. It would be necessary for the cable company's digital
set -top boxes to be equipped with the
channel mapping protocol (PSIP) to
be able to retrieve the additional
be
program material.
Lowell "Bud" Paxson said, "We're
proud to be at the forefront of digital
tertainment programming, as well as
data transmission and e- commerce
opportunities."
There's little doubt in anyone's mind
that digital carriage is the key to the
success of the implementation and
acceptance of DTV. In this light,
Paxson said, "It is the company's
goal to achieve must carry under the
current 1992 must -carry law using
the processes available to us and, if
needed, to seek compromises to effectuate a digital must -carry plan, which
feel is an absolute requirement for
1
the successful transition on a nationwide basis from analog television to
digital television." Paxson said this
must -carry plan has been presented
to members of the cable industry, the
FCC and NAB.
day goes by that someone
doesn't record a new method or
technical advance that will impact
broadcasting sooner or later. Here's a
brief look at some of the more notable
Hardly
a
announcements.
The Federal Communications Commission has announced it will he
studying 90GHz band. The advantage of the super -high microwave
frequency is its capability of extremely wide bandwidth systems. The
gramming networks available to our
viewers. Digital television opens up
new revenue streams for the company
as we develop additional networks
with our partner, NBC."
pressive is the fact that the antenna
for these devices is actually part of
the substrate on which the final amplifier is also mounted. At these frequencies, even a speck of dust can
take on the characteristics of a capacitor or an inductor, tuning the circuitry substantially.
Spray -on circuits
Researchers at Sandia National
Laboratories have developed a process they call
super -high microwave
"intelligent spray -
on materials" that have the
potential to create self- assem-
The advantage of the
Ming computer displays.
I'he material assembles into
circuitry, within milliseconds, as
the material solidifies. When the
undoped material is sprayed into
preformed vias, waveguides solidify. By doping with molecules
that recognize specific conditions,
sensor arrays are instantly built.
This process is called "surfactant templated silica mesophases." The
materials can self -assemble into photonic pathways. (Photonic is the quantum of electromagnetic energy, generally regarded as a discrete particle
having zero mass, no electric charge
and an indefinitely long lifetime.)
Jeff Brinker, project leader, senior
frequency is its capability
of extremely wide
bandwidth systems.
television station group to digital
broadcasting. As we continue to upgrade each of our stations' transmission facilities for conversion to DTV,
we will he able to provide viewers
with multiple digital channels of en-
18
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
and carries some of its shows such as
the game show "Twenty One," and
weekly extended primetime coverage
of "2000 U.S. Olympic Team Trials"
leading up to this year's Olympic
Games in Sydney in September.
Paxson's president and CEO Jeff Sagansky added, "The conversion of the
company's television stations to DTV
opens the door to new and exciting
opportunities for enhancing the quality and expanding the variety of pro-
Tech bits
downside is its inability to cover an
appreciable range. Distance could
possibly change with the development of technology in that frequency
range. The military has been using
that frequency range for some time
for range finding devices. Technologists at the FCC shared some rather
unique characteristics of the 90Hz
technologies. Probably the most im-
broadcast technology. The launch of
WCPX's digital signal marks the beginning of our conversion of Paxson's
It's no secret that Paxson has a
"strategic relationship" with the National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
scientist at Sandia and a professor at
the University of New Mexico says:
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"By adding ligands that exhibit molecular recognition, we can literally
spray on sensor arrays." (A ligand is
an ion, a molecule or a molecular
group that binds to another chemical
entity to form a larger complex.)
Brinker's team has harnessed the
tendency of detergent -type molecules to exhibit two phases with
opposite reactions to water, one
hydrophobic (water- repellent) and
one hydrophilic (water -soluble).
During evaporation, those molecules form spherical cavities called
pores. For instance, a drop of the
material dries to form a hollow
"dome" and a line of the material
dries to form a hollow "tube" flattened on its bottom side.
So far, Brinker's team has focused
on fluids and gases that lead to existing sensor chips, such as for handheld
chemical analyzers, but this is only a
start. With the addition of ligands
that exhibit molecular recognition,
such as molecules that change color
in response to the environment, spray on sensor arrays can he produced.
Brinker sees a bright future for
his development in microelectronics. His team's immediate plan,
are to concentrate on microelectronic devices that can spray directly onto flexible silicon sheets.
Eventually, the team envisions
spraying whole computer displays
onto a flexible silicon sheet from a
standard ink -jet printer using color
composition software to mix the
materials as appropriate for different parts of the circuitry. "With
ordinary color composition software, we can mix them together in
64,000 different combinations,"
said Brinker.
No matter how alluring "spray -on
computer displays" might sound, it
will likely he many years before even
simple active devices make it out of
the lab. To get the ball rolling, Brink-
Solar disturbances
Layer names like troposphere, ionosphere and the like have played a
significant role in communications
over the years. Ionosphere bounce
has both helped and hindered worldwide communications. Hops across
the Pacific have been performed using tropospheric scattered in the 300 -
to 400MHz range.
These and the other of the earth's
layers are greatly affected by solar
activity. Phenomena such as seeing
KHOU -TV from Houston on the off the -air receiver in Central Control at
KCBS -TV in Hollywood stronger than
its own (Hollywood's) transmitter
approximately 19 air miles away, is
the result of this kind of activity.
Since this kind of activity usually
occurs with the cycles of the sun,
they're not an everyday occurrence.
It is why broadcast engineers need to
be familiar with this phenomena so
that once they are affected by it, or
Hitachi is releasing its
"rewritable" 4.7GB
communication systems such
anomalous propagation problems
with VHF, UHF and HE frequencies.
Navigation systems can be affected
causing delayed signals and tracking
problems with
Loran and GPS re-
this
month.
ceivers. Satellites
can encounter in-
creased
drag,
causing them to
slow and change
orbit, and experience
er said the team's next accomplishment will be to create passive circuits
with characteristics that are difficult
to obtain using conventional means.
Brinker believes that the ink -jet mixing strategy can be used to create
devices with dielectric coefficients
much lower than can be achieved
These intense releases of energy come
in the form of X -rays, electrons, pro-
with conventional lithography.
tons, neutrons and gamma photons.
22
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
as
broadcast television and radio signals, long- distance telephones, cell
phones, and pagers: widespread
DVD -RAM
viewers call to report unusual circumstances, they are aware of a
possible cause.
It wasn't too long ago that one of
these solar incidents wiped out one of
the satellites many stations relied
upon for the regular feeds of syndicated material. The rest of us who were
affected by that wipeout know it sure
can put some mighty big holes in
your program schedule.
The sun, like the Earth, has its seasons, but its "year" equals approximately 11 Earth years. This is referred
to as the solar cycle. According to Larry
Combs, Space Weather Forecaster for
NOAA/Space Environment Center in
Boulder, Colorado, this year, the year
2000, Solar Cycle 23 reaches its peak
period of increased output throughout
the interplanetary medium, the 96 million miles between the sun and Earth.
Broadcast Engineering
They are released from the sun's magnetic field through violent explosions as
solar flares or coronal mass ejections.
More than a billion tons of matter at
speeds of up to several million miles per
hour is hurled through space carried in
the solar wind, impacting any planets
or spacecraft in its path. Severe storms
can occur five times a year during solar
maximum periods and even twice a
year over the whole solar cycle.
The Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere allow adequate protection, but solar storms do not go unnoticed. Energetic protons can reach the
Earth in 30 minutes. These storms
have and can cause havoc on our
charging
from the charged particles harming
components on- board.
Optical recording
Almost everyone is familiar with
the compact disc. Whether your experience with them has been as a
storage device for data, programs
and the like, or for musical enjoyment, the CD has certainly gained its
place in today's society. The average
"data" CD holds somewhere in the
neighborhood of 650MB of material
or about 74 minutes of the audio
material.
Gaining popularity is the distribution of films or other visual material
on what looks like a normal CD but
whose capacity is in the vicinity of
2MB. There are some distribution
agencies that considered utilizing CDs
for distribution of their movies and
syndicated programs. These digital
videodisc or DVD normally holds
about 2GB of compressed video and
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audio information, or one movie.
Hitachi -Maxwell has announced a
4.7GB large capacity DVD-RANI disc.
According to Hitachi, this new DVD RAM media "provides high -quality
two -hour digital recording and large
capacity data recording." In addition
to this, a small size (80mm) DVD RAM disc for video caillera views is
also being released.
Hitachi is releasing its "rewritable"
4.7GB DVD -RAM this month. The
disc holds up to two hours of digital
recording or 4.7GB of computer data.
In addition to this, a 2.8GB DVD RAM disc for video cameras will be
released next month.
This might not seem like such a big
deal in big market television terms,
however in smaller markets where
costs are a constant consideration,
the potential for device like this in
news and or sports is certainly a very
viable consideration.
It'll he interesting to watch this
new DVD -based camcorder technology to see if it catches on any
better than the Avid/Ikegami hard
drive camcorder models that were
introduced a few years back. The
two cases are not exactly comparable because the Cam Cutter was
intended for professional broadcast
ENG use while the Hitachi device
is more aimed at the higher side of
the consumer market. But again
this is also not a very valid argument because we saw many S -VHS
tape machines used both in the field
and on the air at many small market television stations.
If you think that's great, hold on
your hats because a New York -based
company, Constellation 3D, Inc.
(C3D) has announced further product
advances in the development of their
florescent multilayer disc or FNID for
use with current standard red laser
technology. Red lasers are pretty much
the standard and an inexpensive component used in virtually all CD and
DVD players in order to access the
data stored on the disc to be played.
C3D has developed the FMD media capable of much higher data storage capacity, on the same sized discs
and that can be played on CD /DVD
drives which have been subjected to
...*
"minor and inexpensive modification."
Single FMD discs for use with these red
laser -based drives will have capacities
up to 25GB. You could get nearly a
whole series of syndicated half-hour
shows on one disk.
(:3D has designed this new media to
be backward compatible for use on
any disc drive that can play all types
of CD, DVD and EMD media. It also
provides C3D with a clear road map
for production of removable data
storage media with high capacity
applications beyond the reach of DVD
(storing up to 9GB).
"Certain vertical market applications such as Digital Cinema players
and Internet streaming servers will
require higher capacities of over 70GB
almost immediately and C3D will
serve these markets using green and
blue laser technology.
"We have extended our development
efforts toward immediate exploitation
of this 25GB red laser disc opportunity
concurrently with our existing 100 plus gigabyte disc programs," says
Patrick Maloney, senior vice president
of Business Development.
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Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
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FCC
FCC
Update
auction threatens stations on channels 59 to 69
BY HARRY MARTIN
Under a Congressional mandate,
the FCC is going to auction off
frequencies currently occupied by stations on channels 60 to 69. The FCC
scheduled these auctions for May and
June; however, concerns raised by
both incumbent broadcasters and
wireless interests prompted the FCC
to postpone the auctions until September. Broadcasters operating on
these channels have expressed concern that the new services that the
FCC has proposed for this spectrum
will cause severe interference to current operations. They are also concerned that the standard for protecnon of stations occupying the affected frequencies is vague or inapplicable to television stations. The would he wireless applicants have expressed
concern regarding a parallel action
for mobile phone frequencies that
Dateline
The deadline to amend pending
NTSC
applications for channels 59-
69 to specify channels below
Channel 59 is July 17, 2000.
Amendments must be in the form
of rule- making petitions and
propose channels that protect all
pending or operating NTSC and
DTV proposals and stations, as
well as qualified Class A LPTV
facilities.
Stations in the following states
must place their annual EEO Public
File Reports in their public files
and on their websites on or before
1, 2000: California, Illinois,
North Carolina, South Carolina and
Wisconsin.
Aug.
Under the new EEO rules, on or
before Aug.
1, 2000, television
stations in North Carolina and
South Carolina must file with the
"Broadcast Statement of
Compliance" on new FCC Form
FCC a
397.
r
26
Broadcast Engineering
may render the frequencies on channels 59 to 69 less valuable. The FCC
is trying to reach a solution that will
demonstrated using the Longley -Rice
terrain- dependent signal propagation
prediction method.
satisfy
all parties
by
the
Congressionally -imposed Sept. 30,
2000, deadline.
Applicants for new NTSC stations
or NTSC allotments on channels 60
to 69 must still meet the July 17,
2000, deadline for amending their
pending proposals (see Dateline, below). The postponed auction does not
accelerate or extend the end of the
transition period (Dec. 31, 2006) during which both NTSC and DTV channels assigned to 60 -69 may continue
to operate.
LPTV window announced
The FCC will accept applications
for new LPTV and TV translator
stations, and major changes to existing LPTV and TV translator stations,
during an application filing window
to be opened July 31 - Aug. 4, 2000.
A "major change" in an existing
station is a change in output channel
or any change that would increase a
station's protected signal contour.
Participation will be restricted to rural and small television market applicants to minimize disruption to
existing LPTV and TV translator stations caused by the implementation
of DTV. All technically conflicting
applications received during the window will be subject to an auction.
Applications will not be accepted if
they propose transmitter site coordinates less than 75 miles from specified
city coordinates for 211 cities in large
and medium television markets, with
the exception of facilities that request
a waiver of the geographic restriction.
These requests must demonstrate that
the proposed facility is completely
shielded by terrain barriers, and the
community it serves cannot receive
signals from full- service TV stations
licensed in any of the 211 cities. Alternatively, terrain shielding may be
July 2000
Court denies stay
effective
-
EEO
rules
The U.S. Court of Appeals denied a
request for stay of the new EEO rules.
The new rules went into effect on
April 18, 2000. While denying the
stay, the court put the underlying
appeal on an expedited track. A decision will most likely be reached in the
first quarter of 2001.
In the meantime, to comply with the
new rules, all broadcasters with five
or more full -time employees must
immediately establish an EEO program, identify who in management
will he responsible for implementation, and make certain the station's
EEO policies are both well -known
and regularly reviewed for compliance. The rules also require that broadcasters provide the widest dissemination of information on new full -time
positions to reliable recruitment sources. Broadcasters need to randomly
check to ensure that their sources are
providing qualified candidates and to
remove or add sources when appropriate. Minorities and females should
appear in all applicant pools.
Reports under the new rules will
cover station employment units, which
the Commission defines as a station or
group of stations commonly owned in
the same market that share at least one
employee. On the anniversary of their
license renewal filing date, stations
must place an "EEO Public File Report" in their public files and on their
websites. Every second month stations
in designated states must file their
Broadcast Statement of Compliance
(FCC Form 397). (See Dateline.)
Harm C. Martin is an attorney u 'ith Fletcher,
Heald
Hared) PI.C, Arlington. VA.
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[email protected]
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Expert's CornerNendor Views
NOAA's change in direction
BY JIM SALADIN, SENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAH)
recently announced a change in the
delivery protocol, the NOAA Weather Wire Service (NWWS), used to
deliver National Weather Service
forecasts to participating stations.
Service improvement was the impetus behind the change. The new
system is said to provide a "reliable
and timely" warning delivery sys-
tem, allows reception of graphics
and has an improved GUI. A standard PC can be used to select and
monitor weather forecasts. However, a change in NOAA's protocol
equals a unilateral shift for broadcasters - change or lose service.
Does this equal a capital expenditure to replace fully functional equipment? What are the alternatives?
To give us a better idea of what this
means for broadcasters, we asked
Leonard Charles of Television Wisconsin and Dennis Gourley of Texscan MSI to weigh in on this month's
question, "What does the change in
NOAA protocol mean and are there
steps to be taken for the average
station ?"
NOAH
Weather
Leonard Charles, Wire
Service
WISC-TV
(NWWS) con-
bility. If you choose the C- or Ku -band
system, you buy the hardware and
pay an annual fee for the data. There
are lease options offered as well as
24/7 maintenance coverage for an
annual fee and installation for an
additional charge. The Ku system
uct Inventory Listing (PIL) protocol is
being abandoned in favor the new
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) protocol. This change will
better facilitate the worldwide ex-
The
EXPERT, The
version will affect all broadcasters
who have been getting the weather
wire data direct from GTE /Contel. It
will also affect those stations that
have custom NWWS product filtering equipment monitoring the data
obtained via a different vendor. For
the latter, you should be working
closely with your vendor to make
sure your custom equipment will
continue to function as desired. For
the former, Contel is now DynCorp
and with that comes a change in the
NWWS distribution system and the
product coding of the transmitted
data.
offers additional data beyond the
NWWS including the Digital Facsimile System (DIFAX) and GOES
satellite images of the National
Weather Service (NWS). If you choose
the Internet system, you pay the annual data fee plus a very small registration fee. You must supply your
own Internet connection and "inside
the plant" equipment. Go to
www.weatherwire.net for full details
and pricing to start sorting this out.
In the old system the selector box
If your station has been a Contel
customer and you wish to continue
getting that service direct, an equipment change is in your near future.
The familiar small satellite dish, receiver, and selector box that made up
the customer equipment compliment
of the old distribution system needs to
be replaced. Unlike the old system,
no longer does one size does fit all.
You have options available to you
from DynCorp. Ranging from most
expensive to least, you can select a Cband system, a Ku -band system, or
you can subscribe to an Internet distribution system of the NWWS products. The C -band system most closely
equals the old Contel system in capa-
functioned to filter the incoming data
so that you only received products
specific to the region(s) you desired.
Depending on which new system you
choose, your filtering will now happen in either the receiver of the C -band
system, a PC in the Ku -band system, or
you must come up with your own if
you choose the Internet system. The
good news is that with either of the
three options, the filtering process is
now entirely in your control which
will make desired changes much less
painful and more immediate.
If you plan on writing your own
filtering software, you need to be
aware that the product coding of the
data will also change. The old Prod-
28
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
change of meteorological observation and archival data for the weather industry. It will also allow the
National Weather Service to retire a
very old product identity system. In
the interim until May of 2001, both
the PIL and WMO headers will be
transmitted with each product /message. There are also tools available
to convert between the two.
It is important to note that the new
NWWS is open architecture, which
means there could eventually be additional vendors offering systems
which may, in turn, mean lower pricing. Currently the new system is up
and running simultaneous with the
old. The latest deadline (there have
been many) for turning off the old
GTE/Contel system is August 31.
For other methods of getting the
NWWS information to your station
go to www.nws.noaa.gov /oso/osol/
oso15/newnwws.htm. A click on Administrative Messages on that page
will give you access to the latest
progress and time line messages concerning the NWWS distribution and
protocol conversion.
Leonard Charles is the chie( engineer of
Television Wisconsin In.c and is based in
Madison, WI.
It doesn't take rocket scientists to see the
aduantages of the RTS Intercom System.
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But they do.
NASA needs
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VENDORI
Dennis
Gourley,
Texscan MSI
How
NOAA forecast.
NOAA forecasts were changed to
ASCII with the same header and stop
have
changes in
the NOAA de-
livery protocol
codes and still utilized the 60mA wire
service. The suppliers of the character generators were forced to change
affected the broadcast and cable industry through the years and where
does it stand now?
In 1960, NOAA provided a text
code called Baudo code at 150 Baud
delivered via a dedicated 60mA telephone line to a special decoder. The
forecast was a repeating string of all
the forecasts for the entire country,
and each area forecast had its own
header followed by a close code.
Broadcast and cable television system purchased character generators
that were designed to interface with
this code and contracted with a delivery service to automatically receive a
specific NOAA forecast for display to
their viewing audience. The NOAA
forecast service provided by the U.S.
Government is free, however the delivery service and the equipment to
process the NOAA forecast is paid for
by the television system displaying the
their software to accommodate the
new protocol so that their character
generators could continue to display
the forecast information. When older
character generators could not be
retrofitted they had to he replaced.
Contel /GTE worked with NOAA
and provided a satellite delivered
NOAA forecast service. This new delivery service provided for wider bandwidth and faster baud rates, which
increased the amount of information
that could be delivered. This new
service caused character generators to
be replaced or he retrofitted and the
broadcast cable system now had to
buy a separate satellite dish and custom receiver to receive the new NOAA
feed. Hardware costs for this service
were approximately $1500 along with
an annual service contract.
As of August 2000, the NOAA delivery services will change again requiring a new satellite dish and receiver at a cost of approximately
$6000 along with an annual contract
fee. The character generators the stations own are not likely to work with
this new service, and again their
character generators may needed to
he replaced or he retrofitted.
A station desiring to continue to automatically receive and display NOAA
forecasts should check with its character generator manufacturer to see if
their system will interface with the new
NOAA delivery protocol or if it provides an upgrade for its equipment.
Texscan NISI is now providing an
alternative NOAA delivery solution.
Any future changes made by NOAA
will
he processed on Texscan's NOAA
data server so that the data delivery to
their character generators will always
be
compatible.
Dennis Gourley is consultant with Texscan
AISI, Salt Lake City.
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Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
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their
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No -one looks
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Conventional standards
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Motion
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Transition to Digital
Data multiplexing
BY MICHAEL ROBIN
global village where
communications play an important role. To he relevant, communications must be reliable, accurate
.nui nearly instantaneous. Communications are translated into analog or
digital data, which are sent using a
transmission medium. The transmission medium, be it air (or lack of it as
in vacuum), copper (as in bifilar or
coaxial cable) or glass (as in fiber
optics) is a precious commodity. Since
the beginning of the modern age, the
live in
We
a
telecommunication industry has
sought to maximize the data throughput of the transmission medium. The
various methods used fall under the
umbrella of data multiplexing.
Analog multiplexing
Analog multiplexing has been with
1930s when the rapid
.ncrease in telephone traffic required
the development of techniques allow ng for the simultaneous transmission
tf multiple channels on a single teleus since the
communications medium. The method used was frequency division multiplexing (FDM). One of the most
successful applications of FDM will
likely he unusable in the U.S. in 2006.
successful applications of FDM
will likely be unusable in the U.S. in 2006.
One of the most
We are talking, of course, of the
frequency interleaving of the chrominance and luminance information
resulting in the composite NTSC video signal. This process allows the
simultaneous transmission of luminance and chrominance values in a
4.2MHz bandwidth. The system takes
into account the discrete spectrum
clusters of the luminance signal with
a spacing of Fh ( horizontal scanning
frequency) and inserts equally discrete but Fh /2 displaced spectrum
clusters of a suppressed carrier quadra-
FRAME GRAB
A look at
tomorrow's technology.
Internet sapping broadcast news audience
Internet attracts key segmenis.ot national audience.
frequency is a multiple of Fh /2. The
chosen subcarrier frequency is F
455 Fh /2 - 3.58MHz. The result is an
interleaved spectrum with chrominance and luminance clusters spaced
Fh /2 as shown in Figure I. While
frequency division multiplexing is a
relatively easy task, demultiplexing is
relatively difficult to achieve. A perfect
decoder requires complex filtering
and separation of the luminance and
chrominance spectral components.
Unavoidable design compromises
result in chrominance -to- luminance
and luminance -to- chrominance
crosstalk. In addition, less than ideal
transmission -channel characteristics
result in high frequency delays, resulting
in chrominance vs. luminance delays
and nonlinear distortions, resulting in
differential phase and differential
gain, which affect the accuracy of the
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
color rendition.
Watch Local TV
Regularly
Watch Nétwork
F eguiarly
Online News
(At least 3 days
per week)
10o/u
0%
1993
1995 1996 1997 1998
2000
SOURCE: Pew Research( 'enter
11 e e.people-press.org/nxdi:dNlrpl.hlUn
34
ture modulated signal conveying the
color-difference B -Y and R -Y information. The chrominance spectrum
displacement by Fh /2 is achieved by
using a chrominance subcarrier whose
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Digital multiplexing
I )i1 ital multiplexing uses the concept
of time division multiplexing (TDM).
Here several related or unrelated
signals are sampled at a rate high
enough to ensure that no information
is lost. The samples are shortened
(relative to the original sample rate)
as required and are time division
multiplexed for sequential transmission
through a common medium. Digital
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OMNEON
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multiplexers interleave a number of
lower speed signals to form a higher
speed signal.
The advent of digital signal processing in studio environments has
led to time division multiplexing of
various data. The first TDM step in a
studio environment is the sampling
and quantizing of gamma corrected
analog luminance (E'Y) and scaled
Luminance Spectral Components
Sequence of
YO
Y1
-w
V
ns
L
1.1
1.,
,1I 11.
,11
1
Y
1
Y
C
1
111
III
111
1111111
11111
F
Fh/21
Fh
-.
Chrominance
Subcarrier
Residue
Chrominance Sidebands Spectral Components
Figure
1.
Details of NTSC the FDM spectrum around the chrominance subcarrier.
filtered and sampled at 6.75MHz with
a precision of 10 bits per sample. This
results in a bit- parallel digital red
color- difference signal (CR) with a data
rate of 6.75Mwords/s. The words have
a duration of 1 /6.75MHz = 148ns.
There are 429 CR samples per total
scanning line numbered CRO to CR4211.
The CR samples are co- located with
every other Y sample (Yo, Y2, Y4 ....).
Three multipair shielded cables can
carry the three bit-parallel data streams,
but it is cumbersome and costly. The
adopted solution was to time division
multiplex the Y, CR and CR. The 10 -bit
hit- parallel data words are sequentially clocked out starting with CRP.
The sequence is CBO, Yo, CRO, YI, CBI,
Y
of the
line is YBS -. The time division mutiplexing of data results in the outgoing
data rate being the sum of the incoming data rates. This requires only one
multipair cable for signal distribution. The time division multiplexed
bit -parallel data rate is 27Mwords /s
and the duration of each sample is
1 /27MHz = 37ns. The distribution of
4:2:2 multiplexed digital data using
a multipair cable is costly and cumbersome especially when a routing
switcher is used. To facilitate the
signal distribution, the bits can be
read out sequentially and fed to a
single coaxial cable resulting in a
serial digital signal with a data rate
Y2, CRI, etc. The last sample
Words ® 13.5 Mwords/sec
Y3
Y2
74
III
C
455Fh/2
1
,1,
,1, 1,1
color- difference (E'( R and EAR ) signals.
The latter are sometimes referred to as
PR and PR . Figure 2 shows a conceptual
application of the CCIR 601 4:2:2
concept as follows:
The E'Y analog luminance signal
is 5.75MHz low -pass filtered and sampled at 13.5MHz with a precision of
10 bits per sample. This results in a
bit -parallel digital luminance signal
(Y) with a data rate of 13.5Mwords/s.
The words have a duration of 1 /13.5MHz
= 74ns. There are 858 Y samples per
total scanning line numbered Yo to Ys57.
*The PCB analog blue color- difference signal is 2.75MHz low -pass
filtered and sampled at 6.75MHz
with a precision of 10 hits per sample.
This results in a hit- parallel digital
blue color- difference signal (CR) with
a data rate of 6.75Mwords /s. The
words have a duration of 1 /6.75MHz
= 148ns. There are 429 CB samples
per total scanning line numbered CRO
to CR4211. The CR samples are colocated with every other Y sample
(Yo, Y2, Y4 ...).
'The E'CR analog red color- difference signal is 2.75MHz low -pass
1
1
Y
C
C
Y4
Y5
Y6
Sequence of
Time Division Multiplexed
Y /CB/CR Words ® 27 Mwords/sec
Y7
Isolated
Y Samples
p
D
F
COSITED
Sequence of CB Words © 6.75 Mwords /sec
CB0
.4B
CB2
CB1
148
CB3
ns
Sequence of CR Words á 6.75 Mwords /sec
CRO
CRI
148 ns
CR2
CR3
-4,
A
F
Figure
36
2.
Time division multiplexing of digital 4:2:2 data.
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
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News doesn E just break
o
o
it
m
Hit the air instantly while your rivals crash and burn. Thanks to Leitch, now you
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n,......o.>......er..e.w,=...m...
,....I*NP...,,.a. cm..., Yu*
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Circle (119) on Free Info
of 270Mb /s. This simplifies the signal
distribution at the expense of increasing the bandwidth.
There are a total of 1716 samples
per total line (858Y, 429CRand 429CR)
and a total of 1440 samples per active
line (720Y, 360CR and 360CR). The
horizontal blanking duration is equal
to 1716 - 1440 = 276 samples. Horizontal sync is not sampled. Instead,
two four-word Timing Reference Signals (TRS) are sent: one identifying
the end of active video (EAV) and the
other identifying the start of active
video (SAV). This leaves an overhead
of 268 horizontal blanking interval
samples available for transporting
other types of information referred to
as horizontal ancillary data (HANC).
HANC data are formatted in packets
consisting of a header, followed by
the ancillary data and ending with a
checksum (CS). In the absence of a
header it is assumed that no ancillary
data are carried. The header consists
of six words. The first three, 000, 3FF,
3FF, values which cannot he assumed
by other data, signal the presence of
ancillary data. The following three
words of the header are DID (data
identification), DBN (data block number) and DC (data count). The ancillary
data follow the header. A maximum
of 255 words is permitted. Figure 3
shows details of the digital 4:2:2
horizontal blanking interval and the
manner in which two AES/EBU digital
m
8
>
a
o,
Ú
>
u.
u.
268 UNUSED WORDS
AVAILABLE FOR CARRYING
ANCILLARY DATA
x
H
Broadcast Engineering
0
u.
Cml
ANCILLARY DATA
PACKET EI
t-
H
H
ANCILLARY DATA
PACKET E2
ANCILLARY DATA
o
Ú
L¢.1
PACKET EN
ANCILLARY DATA
8
HEADER
Ú
AUDIO GROUP
X
CHECK SUM
N
X
X
X
X
X
X
N
X
X
-&-
A- A-
AUDIOCH1
(LEFT)
23 BITS
AUDIOCH2
(RIGHT)
23 BITS
AES/EBU1
(SAMPLE PAIR II
AUDIOCH3
(LEFT)
23 BITS
+
X
--
X
X
AUDIOCH4
(RIGHT)
23 BITS
AESEBU2
(SAMPLE PAIR
-+
21
Figure 3. Time division multiplexing of two AES /EBU digital audio data streams
mapped as a sequence of three words into the horizontal ancillary data space of a
4:2:2 data stream.
and 11, reduce this value by 10 percent
to 20 percent. Given an AES/EBU
data rate of 3.072Mb /s (before BPM
encoding), eight AES /EBU data
streams require 8 x 3.072Mb/s =
24.576Mb/s, leaving ample HANC
space for other ancillary data:
42.16Mb/s - 24.576Mb/s = 17.584Mb/s.
Ancillary data can also he embedded
a number
of lower
speed signals to form a higher speed signal.
38
SAM
o
Digital multiplexers interleave
audio datastreams can be formatted
to fit in one ancillary data packet.
SMPTE Standard 272M defines
means of multiplexing (embedding)
up to eight AES/EBU datastreams (16
individual audio channels) in the
HANC data space. This is achieved
by grouping the eight AES/EBU data streams into four audio groups. The
HANC capacity of the 4:2:2 digital
format is of the order of 42Mb/s,
which is obtained as follows:
268words/line x 5251ines /frame x
29.97f/s x 10 bits /word = 42.16Mb /s.
Certain exclusions, such as lines 10
r
HORIZONTAL BLANKING INTERVAL
EAV
into the vertical- blanking interval
(VANC). Among the VANC data are
EDH (error detection and handling)
as well as VITC (vertical interval
time code). Audio is usually embedded
only as active lines HANC.
Embedding ancillary data is a convenient signal distribution or transmission
concept. In a studio environment,
some difficulties resulting in audio
clicks are encountered with live
switching of bit- serial signals with
embedded audio. This is unacceptable in the pristine professional audio
world. In addition, some equipment
July 2000
simply does not carry HANC data.
This requires that the audio he deembedded, processed separately and,
subsequently re- embedded. This is
cumbersome and costly, especially if
we take into account the need to
maintain lip -sync, which is lost in
separate audio and video processing.
The majority of the teleproduction
community feels that digital audio
and video should be processed sepa-
rately and distributed in parallel.
Embedding, if required, should be
carried out at the end of the production chain for distribution and /or preset (non -live) switching.
Michael Robin. former engineer with the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation engineering headquarters, is an independent
broadcast consultant in Montreal. Canada.
He is the co- author of Digital Television
Fundamentals, published by McGraw -Hill.
Send questions and comments to:
michael robin @intertec.com
Michael Robin's book may
be ordered directly from the
publisher by calling 800 -2624729. It is also available from
several booksellers.
GRASS VALLEY GROUP
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Circle (120) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
ttpr
As users, we rarely
want to play
a
from beginning to
end. Almost every
time we call for the
output from a video
file server, we are
actually asking for a
piece of material to
be played from start
Being able to specify an SOM to plus
Sample Server Architecture
file
-
High Speed
Dedicated Bus
for Video and Audio
V/A
or
V/A
Decode
Engines
V/A
of message (SOM)
to end of message
minus
four
frames may meet
most broadcasters'
needs. However, if
you are trying to do
cuts between pre produced programs
at a specific field or
frame, you will
quickly discover
(EOM). There usuthat this level of
ally are a few frames
accuracy is inadeof black at the bequate. Why would
ginning and end of
a server manufacExternal
the program or spot,
turer design a sysTiming
and in most appliReference
tem that cannot
cations we do not
specify SONI and
want to see these
EOM locations
frames. Almost all
down
to the frame?
Video servers may have a dedicated bus used to move audio and video streams
server manufactur- to /from the disk storage system.
Many times this is
ers allow the user to
a decision based
select where playout begins and
that all servers allow a user to specify upon performance. Access down to the
ends within a particular clip. Howan SOM down to the field, this may
field may mean an unacceptable deever, there is some variation in just not always be the case. Some servers
crease in system response. However,
how precisely the user can specify allow the user to specify SOM down
most server manufacturers now allow
the playback point.
to half a second or so, and many the user to specify playback down to
While it would he natural to assume times this is more than adequate. the field or frame, so this is less of an
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42
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
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it was in the past.
While plus or minus four frames
might he perfectly acceptable in an
on -air playback situation, you can
imagine that post production requires
that the user be able to specify playback points much more accurately.
In fact, it is very likely that being
able to start playback at a particular
field is not enough. Audio post production may require that the user he
able to specify a playback as precisely as a particular audio sample.
Ina 48kHz system, that means 48,000
sample points per second. When you
consider that the server must uniquely identify each audio sample in
reference to not only the incoming
video, but to an internal clock which
is locked to a video reference, you
can start to see that some creative
engineering is required to make everything work.
issue than
Decompressing MPEG
Now for the real challenge. Few
MPEG systems store material on a
frame basis. In fact, because of temporal compression, many of the frames
"
nee
iS
are missing. You may recall that
most MPEG encoders compress video in two ways - spatially and temporally. MPEG achieves temporal compression by sending a complete frame
once and then only sending informa-
frames until it finds a complete frame
and then recreating the requested
frame on the fly. This is a little
complicated, but not really too hard
to do. But there is still a hit of magic
to he done. How does the server know
The server builds an index table to keep tabs
critical frames.
on the location of
tion about areas of the picture that
where the nearest complete frame is?
The answer is by using an external
index table. When an MPEG stream
is recorded, the server builds an index
table to keep tabs on the location of
critical frames in the stream. Then,
when a user requests a specific field
or frame, the server can quickly build
the frame on the fly using the index
table as a reference.
have changed in subsequent frames.
After a pre- determined amount of
time a complete frame is sent again.
If a user requests a specific frame of
video, that complete frame of video
may or may not exist on the server. If
the encoder created the complete
frame, then the server need only retrieve the frame and display it. But
what if the requested frame was a "P"
frame, containing only predictive data
about how the next frame should he
constructed? In this case, the server
can only display the requested frame
by going back through previous
ze" y our
Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer
ates and is executive director
& Associ-
of the Advanced
Authoring Format Association.
Send questions and comments to:
brad_gilmer @ intertec.com
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Circle (122) on Free Into Card
44
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Dr.
Digital
Educational materials
BY STEVE EPSTEIN. TECHNICAL EDITOR
Iam looking for a
I basic book on audio and video engineering. I have a
small to medium post
house (five suites) and
am about to move and
install a machine room.
freelance engineer for this installation but his
time constraints and my money
constraints require me to handle
many of the small issues myself.
Can you recommend a good reference hook? My main concern is the
hookup of analog and digital decks
through the A /D -D /A converters.
Any suggestions are greatly appreI
have
a
ciated.
equivalent book for building a full
facility. Much of the problem is
that no two facilities are alike,
and therefore there are no easy
answers to the many questions that
face someone trying to build a
facility.
I have built several facilities and
strongly recommend you plan everything carefully with your freelance
engineer or someone else that is technically proficient. Here's why:
I. Mistakes made in the design will
he paid for over many years to come.
2. Time spent in the planning stages
will be saved during the huildout.
3. Skipping the planning will result
in considerable wasted time and energy (and money) during the huildout.
4. It is a lot easier to move a wall 12
leaving
me
to
wire
into
it
the
room. I am
trying to have spaces left open to just
plug a machine in, but can't plan for
everything. need to learn the basics
myself because I cannot justify a full time staff engineer.
1
Dr.
Digital
re-
sponds:
Have your engineer wire a panel in
a convenient spot
(machine room or
edit suite) that is just for connecting
those occasional pieces of equipment brought in by clients. Include
13c
Thanks,
Ken Skaggs
President, Frames Per Second
Dallas, TX
facilities are alike.
Dr
Digital re-
sponds:
13c
Much of the problem is that no two
Let's handle the
simpler issue first.
The A/D conver-
sions for tape machines can be easily handled with
the VTR -100 from Miranda (it was
featured as a Pick Hit winner in
the June issue). It handles all the
necessary conversions in a single
box. Now, for the harder issue: a
good reference book. The Ninth
Edition of the NAB Handbook is
good, as is Michael Robin's book
inches on paper than in the real
world. This WILL happen somewhere
in the project if it is not well planned.
If you can't afford to have the engineer do all the work, at least allow
him to plan the facility. Pay his rates
for a good design and then hire some
lower-cost help to do the buildout to
his specifications. Good luck, let me
know if you need any additional
help.
After sending Ken that response,
received the following:
"Digital Television Fundamentals." The problem with both books
is that they will tell you everything involved and a lot more.
However, they don't concisely tell
you how to assemble a facility.
Steve Lampen's book on Wire
Cable will tell you what you need
to know for wiring, but there is no
46
Broadcast Engineering
I
Thanks for the ream definitely
having my engineer design and install the new
machine room. My issues are more with clisponse!
I
ents bringing in odd
equipment with a project,
July 2000
video out, video in, audio in, audio
out, machine control and genlock
connections as well as necessary
interconnecting cables. That way it
is ready to go when you need it. If
there is a call for more than one,
have him build two or three. Make
it a digital panel and throw in the
Miranda VTR -100 and you are
ready to hook up almost anything
you need. Most clients that carry
machines around know enough to
set them up if you can simply point
them in the right direction. Good
luck.
Having
problem with a supplican't find that
Let me help,
send me a note at drdigital
@compuserve.com.
a
er? Or, maybe you
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Circle (124) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
xf-JG -En
i
BY DAVE HIGGINS
isw
,
ty
aatrw
MA1111,
f
A01
Í
SON
V
/AO11KI1
used Oxygen M5duction Control Room (Producer's desk in the foreground) also serves as an
it Facili
n edit mode, the TD position can operate the entire room. Equipment complement
includes ony
7200 Production Switcher with Shot Box, DME 7000 Core 2 Digital Effects Generator and
FX Dek C
acter Generator. Photos courtesy of The Systems Group. Copyright 2000 Melabee M. Miller.
The heav
On -Line
Broadcast Engineering
Í
The
Systems Group recently completed
construction of the Oxygen Media
television studio facilities located
in the Chelsea
Market building complex in lower Manhattan.
The initial design concept for the facility
envisioned
a
desktop
Dy- oriented,
production environment. However, Oxygen
Media's broadcast strategy expanded the
core facility requirements over the course of
the project cycle. It quickly became apparent
that office space would become
a
focal point
for production backdrops and
a
more
traditional, yet versatile, production control
room would be needed. The facility's design
focuses on production facilities that do not
detract from its open, loft-like office space
while maximizing the capabilities of hardware
and systems. The success of the project
depended upon these objectives being met
while the Oxygen Media creative team, talent
and
production crews rehearsed in
preparation for the Feb. 2, 2000, launch date.
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
49
x
tir
G
a
I
n
-r=1-
Over time, design considerations
were balanced against the need to
maintain a workplace environment
before, during and after live broadcasts from the facility. Conference
rooms, cubicles and much of the
work space environment are used as
backdrops for show segments. Those
segments are then packaged for use in
the daily production of Pure Oxygen,
a live broadcast that featured interviews, performances, pre -taped segments, impromptu chats with Oxygen
staffers and a particularly strong
focus on the Internet. To meet the
demands of a live show, as well as
minimize disruption to the surrounding
office environment, the production
crew and their equipment must move
through the space as quickly and
efficiently as possible.
Oxygen Media Engineering and The
Systems Group developed a production plan for ambient lighting, acoustics, sets, crew movement, communications and the logistics of moving
camera positions throughout an office space environment during a live
broadcast. Broadcast service panels
(BSPs), which are I/O panels with
connectivity to various production
systems, are extensively employed,
integrating surface-mounted, custom fabricated cable demarcation boxes
in 14 different locations across two
floors. All of the I /Os return back to
jackfields in the Central Equipment
Room for maximum flexibility. Camera triax connectivity is achieved
through the use of minitriax connectors and jackfields. The result is any
CCU can be easily and quickly patched
to any camera or BSP in the facility.
Technology and logistical considerations notwithstanding, an effort was
made to blend the production infrastructure into the architectural elements of the Oxygen office space. In
many facilities drop ceilings or raised
computer flooring are common approaches to "hiding" coax, twisted
pairs, CAT 5 and related interconnections from view. At Oxygen, the cable
raceways are an integral part of the
overall office space look and can he
50
Broadcast Engineering
frequently on the daily broadcast of Pure Oxygen and Trackers as
well as above, around and through
the office environment.
Locating core production areas
seen
in close proximity was an important technical design goal for the
project team. The need to mini-
,
is!
t rol
The
'Pro
booth ne.vt4ct on C
onrro/
to
Room nd
the
across fro. 4sn,a/,ud, Cook
ment Room. an»era
onannoo
Co nce
The technical -,
ital facility that
At Oxygen, the cable
raceways are an
integral part of the
overall office space
look.
mize system cable runs, as well as
centralize the activities of the primary production crew became a
driving concern. To achieve the
necessary results, the Central
Equipment Room is located adjacent to the primary studio stage.
Its placement requires 150 foot
cable runs through the floor of
Central Equipment Room, on cable trays through the seventh floor
space and then to the rear of the
Production Control Room monitor
edia tro/
DVS 128 router '9u e/y
64x64, BVP 500 set /Ps
two channels of Ultima
nacle FX Deko and LIE
Leitch reference and timeco
tems and Sony Digibeta as
primary tape format. A Whe
stone SP 8 32x4x2 mixing consol
is employed in the Audio Control
Room. A Mackie SR 40 -8 console
is located in the Trackers studio for
sound reinforcement.
To achieve the post -produced "look"
Oxygen sought in its live programs,
several content acquisition methods
were evaluated. Ultimately, miniDV,
DVCAM and Beta SP were used as
the remote platforms. There are both
Avid and Media 100 nonlinear editing systems in use, as well as Apple's
FinalCut Pro software running on G4
Macs. Oxygen uses Drastic Technologies' VVW 3000 and VVW 3500
digital video servers to translate and
playback all three formats real time.
The Audio Control Room has a Wheatstone SP8 32x4x2 mixing console. ProTools
24 mix plus. Sony dual diversity WRR 840A UHF receivers. Tascam 40 MK II DAT. and
360 Systems 2730 Digicart.
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
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(219) 936-4221
Fax (219) 936 -6796
www.pirod.com
Circle (125) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
oxtir-n
m
a
I
-1=1-
Production facility expansion
During the course of the project the
Production Control Room design goals
grew from relatively modest requirements to accommodating four hours
of daily live production and producing short -form segments off -line
throughout the day. To meet those
demanding production goals, several
factors were considered. First, the
facility supports two separate studios
with a total complement of 13 cameras. In addition, the Production Control
Room must quickly and easily transform into an online edit suite. Finally,
the Production Control Room is limited to a cozy 15 -foot by 25 -foot area.
Space rapidly became a premium in
the room and an aggressive plan was
developed to use every unit of available rack space and console real estate
as ergonomically as possible.
Time Base Consoles designed the rear
producer's desk so it accommodates
four people on the rear desk and provides valuable rack space for jack fields, tape machines and supplemental
audio equipment on its front side. The
TD position has the Sony DVS 7200
production switcher/DME 7000 Core 2
digital video effects in the front desk, a
removable Sony audio mixer 90 degrees to the right, and tape machines
and jackfields 180 degrees behind it.
This allows one person to "run the
room" in an edit. By creating a breakaway connection for the mixer and
placing it on a roll-around cart, the
room quickly converts to its "on -air"
configuration, giving the TI) more space
to operate during live productions.
Trackers studio
In November, the Trackers studio
construction began, resulting in significant system expansion. The studio
could not be located in any contiguous
space in the existing Oxygen floor
plan, so a site was selected in a different section of the Chelsea Market
complex. The design goals were slightly
different for this space, because it
"piggy- hacks" onto the existing Central Equipment Room, Audio Control
Room and Production Control Room
capacity in the core facility. To achieve
the target on -air date, a second project
team was chosen to implement the
Trackers facility. The two teams
worked together, completing the core
studio construction and building the
new studio in time for the Feb. 2, 2000
launch date.
Architecturally, the Trackers studio
more closely resembles a sound stage
environment and requires less consideration for the nearby office space.
A Telecast Fiber fiber optic system
was selected to link the Trackers
studio with the equipment and production rooms. Video signals, intercom, audio and return signal paths
are transported more than 800 feet to
the Central Equipment Room via fiber.
The output SDI signals are then sent
to jackfields and into the Sony router.
The goal was to be able to change
from one studio configuration to the
other within a small operating window every day. Pure Oxygen is broadcast live from noon to 2p.m., and
Trackers is on -air from 4p.m. to 6p.m.
Since both studios are being used for
live productions, transitions need to
occur as seamlessly as possible. As a
result, the technology deployed must
allow fast and accurate changeovers,
without any noticeable signal degradation. The expansion of the minitriax
patchbays and six BSPs in the Trackers studio satisfied the video
changeover goals while remaining
consistent with the existing core studio.
To accommodate the need to place
talent throughout the two studios and
move camera positions constantly and
quickly, both the core studio and the
Trackers studio utilize a wide variety of
wireless communication devices. Frequency coordination for 24 Sony wireless microphones, 28 Clear -Com wireless Pl.s and 12 wireless IFBs in a rela-
tively benign RF environment would be
challenging, but implementing this platform in the heart of lower Manhattan
presented a truly daunting task. The
extensive use of these wireless systems
allows for maximum flexibility within
the studios, while allowing various
groups of technicians, cameramen and
producers to communicate seamlessly.
The eighth floor multifunction office space (also known as "the zipper ") features
an easily reconfigurable cubicle system which provides multiple backdrops for
"Pure Oxygen" show segments.
54
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
Launch day planning
The construction timeline for the
facilities was nearly seven and a half
months. This is an aggressive timetable when one considers that general
r o a d
s.
We understand that the road to digital transition and integration for
one station may be very different from that of another. Having been
down a lot of roads in large markets and small, we bring a wealth of
experience planning and managing the digital transition process,
addressing the specific needs of the stations we work for and the unique
markets they serve.
have the resources: financial, technical and human. We have the
experience. We have the relationships: architects, contractors, manufacturers. And we have the training systems to get your people up to speed in
a hurry.
We
whether you're managing in Mayberry or maneuvering in
Megalopolos, we can make the road to digital transition and integration
straight and smooth. Give us a call before you begin your journey.
So
Technology Evolves.
There:
We Take You
10M,
A
U
i
c
i.
i\
PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
of
NI
r.
u i%
\
i
H
n i.
,
1\1.
5426 Beaumont Center Blvd., Suite 350 Tampa, Florida 33634
Toll Free: (800) 447 -4714
Fax: (813) 886 -9477
www.pcomsys.com
Circle (126) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
oxtirGn
m -E a -A-
producer walking throughout the core
studio, Trackers facility and the Atri-
I
construction was not substantially completed until the end of the fourth month
in the project cycle and rehearsals
began less than a month later. This
meant that most of the on -site technology integration took place while civil
works construction was being coin pleted. In addition, core facilities had
to be completed first so rehearsals
could begin and a production schedule
established. Remaining systems integration was finished during off-hours
and downtime. Close coordination
among the various construction contractors, Oxygen technical and creative staff, and The Systems Group
was key to successfully meeting the
demanding project deadlines.
Oxygen Media went "on -air" the
morning of Feb. 2, 2000. The first
eight hours of programming were devoted to a single camera crew and
um of Chelsea Market providing a live
and unrehearsed "behind the scenes"
look at launch day. At the same time,
a complete dress rehearsal was taking
place for Pure Oxygen and Trackers.
The remote crew bypassed the core
studio facilities by using the BSI's and
minitriax jackfields to patch their camera feed directly to the outbound signal
path. This allowed the first live broadcast out of the facility to occur while
the rest of the production crew was
using the Production Control Room,
Audio Control Rooni and both studios
to simultaneously rehearse in their
respective spaces. The flexibility designed and built into the system allowed all three production elements to
work independently from day one.
Da: id Higgins is director of project !erehipfor The Systems Group located in
Hoboken. \! /.
mnent
Oxygen Media
Project Team:
Geoffrey Darby, president of
production /convergence:
Andrea Cummis, vice
president of engineering and
operations
Tom Burns, vice president of
broadband technologies
Alison Murphy, director of
facilities
The Systems Group
Project Team:
David Higgins, project
manager
Bob Degnan, system
engineer
Dave Stengel, assistant
project manager
Paul Rogalinski, integration
manager
Installation Crew:
Mattias Allevik
Alex Blanding
Darwin Clermont
Larry DeFazio
John Zulick
Equipment List
Sony 64x64 SDI router
Sony DVS 7200 production
switcher with shot box
Sony DME 7000 Core 2
digital video effects
Sony BVP 550 and 570
cameras
QTV teleprompters with AP
News interface
Pinnacle FX Deko character
generator
Pinnacle Lightning still store
Drastic VVW 3000/3500
Digital Disc Recorder
Clearcom Compact -72
Ultimatte 9 Chroma keyers
Wheastone SP 8 32x4x2
Mackie SR 40 -8 mixing
console
The Trackers studio located over 800 feet from the core production facility utilizes
a Telecast Fiber Optic transmission system to provide interconnectivity to the
central equipment room.
56
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
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24-hour
ur accos-worldwlde:
Transmission & Distribution
Transmitter site safety
Ale
BY DONALD L. MARKLEY
It was a dark and
stormy night,
as
the famous story goes. In broadcasting, that often leads to a transmitter going down with the customary
smell of burnt carbon and charred
wiring. The natural reflex, supported
heavily by management and the programming department, is to get the
thing back on the air as soon as
possible. That often leads to the chief
engineer or transmitter supervisor
being called to venture out into the
storm to make repairs. Often, by
himself. Bad idea.
Don't make the mistake of working
on high voltage systems all by yourself. For this purpose, high voltage is
anything above 24 volts. The most
lethal voltage, based on the number
of fatalities, is common 120V AC,
primarily because it is everywhere
and technicians are used to having it
present. As familiarity tends to breed,
at least carelessness, if not contempt,
that voltage being present on terminal strips or internal transmitter coin ponents tends to he largely ignored.
This can, in turn, lead to had consequences. Many transmitters will have
that voltage present in the cabinets
The most lethal voltage, based on the number
of fatalities, is common 120V AC.
even when the main breaker is turned
off. A separate breaker often feeds the
exciter and control circuits.
Avoid working alone
When making that panic trip to
work on equipment, call someone
else, almost anyone else, to be present
at the site. That person should be
shown how to power down everything, even if by pulling the main
FRAME GRAB
A
look at the conumer side of DTV.
Handhelds gain computer market share:
Portable computing continues to gain users.
2000
2003
Laptops
17%
Laptops
Handhelds
disconnect to the building. Further,
they should he specifically instructed
to stay the heck (terni used to please
the editors, not to show the real
significance here) away from you
while the work is going on. The
19
7%
Handhelds
10%
natural reflex upon seeing someone
receiving a nasty shock, making
strange noises and moving in unnatural ways, is to grab them to pull
them out of the equipment. Another
had idea, because it can simply lead
to two people demonstrating those
characteristics.
It would he wonderful to have an
assistant on site who is knowledgeable and who can make a real contribution to the repair process. If that is
not practical, a warm body of almost
any type will do as long as they are
sufficiently smart to he able to pull a
breaker and call 911. Administration
of mouth -to -mouth would be a bonus.
Remember that one of the first problems associated with severe electrical
shock is temporary paralysis of the
chest muscles. A little mouth -to -mouth
action can keep all systems working
until the paralysis has passed and
normal breathing returns. A second
problem from severe shock is ventricular fibrillation, where the heart seems
to flutter rather than beat. Closed
chest heart massage might be helpful,
by a trained person, but more helpful
is treatment with the appropriate
the reason for 911. If
equipment
nearby, medical treatment may arrive in a timely fashion to avoid your
-
,(11 u(
58
Broadcast Engineering
t: mi
www.americanradiohistory.com
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transfer to the ECU (eternal care unit).
Even better, take care not to get
shocked in a manner that would lead
to such results. The worst shocks are
through the head or from hand to
cable trays. Once inside, snake elementary school did not teach them
not to crawl onto high voltage connections. Such activities lead to off the -air time and really nasty messes
Snakes have a great tendency toward the
investigation of openings such as cable
entrances into buildings or leading to cable trays.
hand. Electrical current through the
head can normally be avoided by
reasonable care. However, the hand to -hand problem is more difficult to
avoid. The natural instinct is to steady
oneself with one hand on the cabinet
while reaching into the equipment
with the other. That can result in a
nasty shock with the current traveling through the chest, leading to the
above- described heart and breathing
problems. Use the age -old technique
of putting the unnecessary hand behind you or in your pocket. That will
keep it out of trouble and help avoid
the worst of shock related problems.
The other old technicians trick is to
never grasp anything. Develop the
habit of always touching terminals
with the back of a finger before
taking hold. If a voltage does exist,
the natural reflex will be to draw
away rather than gripping tightly.
This technique will help you avoid
being hung -up in a circuit until the
local utility company decides to stop
to clean up. The obvious solution is to
be sure that no such openings exist.
Canned foam products are readily
available at electrical supply houses
that will totally seal conduit ends or
small openings in the building walls
and foundations.
In addition to the problem of animals getting into high voltage systems, a real safety problem exists in
their presence. The sudden appearance of a snake inside a cabinet can
a directional array. Upon
sensing movement above him, he
saw a copperhead snake lying on the
doorframe above the door. His first
reaction was to place the end of the
plastic tube on his shop vacuum over
the snake's head upon which it was
drawn into the tube until reaching the
point where the girth of the snake
exceeded the diameter of the tube.
Now the problem was what to do
with this closed system of snake and
vacuum. The author would have performed a scientific experiment in
which it could be determined if a shop
vacuum motor would run until a
large snake starved to death. The
technician in this instance turned off
the vacuum, pulled the snake from
the tube and hit its head with a
hammer. Bad choice, but he really
wanted his vacuum cleaner back.
house in
It is realized that dealing with
snakes, insects and other animals
really doesn't rank with working on
a high voltage supply in terms of
well- maintained building
will help relieve workers' concerns.
Cleanliness and
a
safety. However, it goes directly to
maintaining a safe workplace with
minimal hazards affecting working
conditions. Cleanliness and a well -
producing electricity.
lead one to forget electrical safety,
especially if one is as upset by such
occurrences as this author. A similar
reaction may occur upon being greeted by bees or other groups of insects.
Now that the famed killer bees are
present in parts of this country, the
problem is further aggravated. The
solution is very simple. Good housekeeping and building maintenance
will eliminate openings where such
beasts might gather. Keep the buildings tight and closed to reduce the
problems of animals.
We are reminded of an instance
when a technician in western Missouri was vacuuming out an ATU dog-
on the bigger issues.
Unauthorized visitors
In another area of concern, nature's
little creatures are all out and about
this time of the year. Besides the
fuzzy, loveable ones, there are the
nasty crawly ones. Snakes have a
great tendency toward the investigation of openings such as cable entrances into buildings or leading to
maintained building will relieve
workers' concerns regarding minor
issues and
allow them to concentrate
Don Markley is presiden! of Markley and
Associates, Peoria, II..
SENO
Send questions and comments to:
don markley @intertec.com
www.broadcastengineering.com
60
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
FRET! The Industry's
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Production Clips
Audio for video
-
analog, digital or embedded?
BY MIKE BETTS
Many
facilities
use a
combination
of analog and digital audio signals
when producing and delivering programs. New equipment may only
accept or provide digital audio, and
I/O signal conversion could be required if the existing analog infrastructure is to be used. Existing analog infrastructures still provide a useful method of connecting digital signals, but the conversion back and
forth to analog introduces the drawbacks of analog into the digital path.
The dynamic range of the digital
path and the ability to interconnect
digital signals without any loss are
features that should be utilized wherever possible. When updating facilities to add digital audio, the use of
embedded audio in the video channel
should also be considered.
Changing paths to digital may not be
economical, so the use of A/D -D/A
conversion products and embedders
and de- embedders warrants careful
consideration. Picking a standard to
conform to is one of the first requirements. With digital audio, the choice
is normally the AES -3 standard. That
standard, however, encompasses
many variations and knowing which
and although different sampling rates
of 32- and 44.1 kHz with data resolution of 16 or 24 bits can coexist, it is
good practice to keep to one interchange format. If planning for 24 bits
in the future, make sure that all
system over the other.
equipment being purchased is 24 -hit
capable. All AES -3 variations can be
embedded into digital video and deciding when to use embedding is
usually a matter of economics and
facility functionality.
Conversion
Converting from analog to digital
has many advantages in data storage, transmission and processing.
Probably the most important factor is
that the signal is not changed as it
passes from one piece of hardware to
another. Therefore, it is important
that the levels are set correctly at the
point of conversion from analog to
digital. These levels will then he
maintained throughout the system
192 Frame AES -3 Block
Corrupted Block
To AES -3 audio stream
192 Frame AES -3 Block
192 Frame AES -3 Block
Corrupted Block
1. Illustration of a hard switch between non -aligned AES -3 audio blocks. The
"from" and "to" blocks are corrupted at the switch point unless data is decoded,
level controlled and the block structure rebuilt.
Figure
variation can be used by each piece of
equipment is important. The default
used by many facilities for AES -3
audio is stereo, 48kHz sampling at
20 hits. This default is accommodated by most production equipment,
until they need to be changed for
production purposes. The dynamic
range of digital audio when using 20
bits of data is 120dB. The maximum
operating level (VIOL) is referred to
as OdB with the standard operating
62
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
finished audio program material.
Once converted to digital, the signal
can be routed or distributed using an
AES -3 router or audio DA using one
There is no real benefit in using one cabling
From AES -3 audio stream
192 Frame AES -3 Block
level (SOL) at -20dB. This reference
level accommodates the range of most
www.americanradiohistory.com
of the standard cabling systems: balanced XLR connectors or unbalanced
7552
BN(:
, There is no real benefit in
using one cabling system over the
other, although using coax with BNCs
is often preferred. BNCs take up less
connector space (important for large
routing switchers) and unbalanced
does not require the expense of transformers for coupling. When transporting data, either system will work
and the choice of cabling becomes
one of cost, space, convenience and
distance to he covered.
AES -3 features
Besides the advantages of using digital signals, the AES -3 standard allows for easy routing and distribution
of stereo (or two mom)) signals. Additional paths can be used to route
multichannel signals for multichannel operations such as a second Ian guage or the use of three AES -3 paths
for transporting uncompressed Dolby Digital 5.1. Audio synchronization (audio to audio and audio to
video) and any requirement to separate or process the audio channels
individually (left, right, invert, mixing, etc.) must also be considered.
Audio -to -audio synchronization is
usually accomplished using a common reference, such as an AES -3
silent signal. This synchronizes the
Z -flag reference at the start of the
192 -frame block structure. Not all
equipment locks to an AES -3 refer-
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Circle (129) on Free Info Card
ence and may only use a
48kHz word
clock. This produces a block sequence
with a random start point from when the
equipment was turned on. Equipment
and the new audio block can be
corrupted, causing a discontinuity
of up to 8mS. (See Figure l.) Ideal ly. downstream equipment should
Switching between video streams with
embedded audio, however, also has problems.
that combines or switches between
synchronous, but not block aligned,
AES -3 streams should be able to handle
this situation. It is also preferable for
an audio mixer, for example, to accept
and process non -synchronous streams
without problems. Output streams
should then be re- encoded as AES -3
compliant streams at the mixer output
synchronous with the AES -3 reference.
Synchronous audio is also impor-
tant when live switching between
different audio signals is needed, especially if this is in combination with
a video vertical interval (VI) switch.
The relationship between the AES -3
frame sequence to video (525/60)
covers five video frames using 8008
audio frames before repeating. This
relationship, however, is not related
to any particular video frame or the
audio 192 -frame blocks. Therefore,
it almost impossible to know where
the sequence is when a switch is
required. Switching between digital
audio streams should include a fade
down and fade up of the audio at the
switch point to prevent illegal audio
level changes from being introduced
into the audio datastream. Switching
between audio datastreams requires
the data to be decoded and the channel and other status hits rebuilt to
maintain the 192 -frame block structure in the output.
Non -synchronous audio often requires a hard switch to be used instead of a mix, and the data blocks at
the switch point will he corrupted.
Preserving the data structure is important to prevent unknown effects
from being introduced by equipment
that does not adequately process a
non -confoming datastream. When a
switch occurs between two nonaligned audio block sequences, both
the out point of the old audio block
64
Broadcast Engineering
mute the audio stream when
a
non-
conforming block structure is received so as not to introduce digital
pops or clicks into the signal path.
The response to a discontinuity,
however, may vary greatly between
products.
Existing
Analog Audio
transmitter all within the SD video
signal. Processing the audio, if required, can be accomplished within
the master control switcher by deembedding and re- embedding the
AES -3 data. This also provides for
split video and audio effects as well
as final level control and the ability
to choose left - or right -only channels
as required.
Switching between video streams
with embedded audio, however, also
has problems. It is impossible to prevent audio block sequence corruption
at the switch point without de- embedding the audio and processing it separately. Providing on -air routing is
not required, implementing embedded audio can save the cost of audio
Existing
Analog
Audio Router
Snu'1,,
Existing Analog
Audio Destinations
Analog
to AES -3
Conversion
V
SDI Video Only
f
AES -3
Synchronous
Audio Router
Audio
Only
Sources
Audio
Embedders
SDI Video
Sources
With Embedded
Audio
AES-3 Digital Audio
Destinations
SDI Video
Router
SDI Video
Only
Digital
Master
Control
Video with
Embedded
Audio to
Transmission
Figure 2. Hybrid facility showing combination of analog. AES -3 and embedded
audio formats.
Embedded audio
There are many cases when using
embedded audio should be considered. These include routing audio
and video over long distances, where
up to 16 channels of audio (eight
AES -3 streams) can be accommodated within the serial digital video
signal, or when many pieces of equipment can accept or produce embedded audio. This can provide a cost
saving in ancillary equipment for
routing and converting audio separately from video. For instance, commercials played from media file servers can often he output with audio
embedded in the video. This can be
routed through a video router to
master control and then on to the
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
routing and cabling especially in
master control. (See Figure 2.) Embedded audio is usually too costly
and would overly complicate operations where separate audio and video
processing functions are used, such as
in a studio or production suite.
With careful planning, a facility
can migrate toward a fully digital
facility without large expense and
additional conversion costs. If HDTV
or media file servers are being added,
these often force the issue by determining where to target the use of
digital.
Mike Betts is the senior partner of Broadcast
Training Partners, Nevada City, CA.
you don't have to face the challenge of DTV alone... We can help.
DTV is an enormous challenge.
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Our
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Our experience spans over 25 years.
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Thomcast transmitter was used for the first over-the -air
comes to your transition to digital
digital HDTV broadcast in 1992.
to face DTV alone.
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We invite you
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Circle (130) on Free Info Card
104 Feeding Hills Road, Southwick, MA 01077
C
O
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(888) 872 -8505
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C
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BY JAY S. MARTIN
Today some 62 percent of American
households have access to at least
one digital television signal. Three years
ago no home in America had access
to this technology. The digital age has
truly revolutionized television broadcasting, bringing about the most sig-
nificant change since the advent of
color television some 45 years ago.
The antennas that transmit this digital
bitstream have experienced
a
similar
magnitude of change.
Until late in 1997, analog was still the primary means of television
transmission. As a result, the transmission system, including the
antenna, could be optimized at those specific frequencies where the
majority of energy was present; picture, color carrier and aural
carrier. These frequencies represent only a small portion of the full
6MHz bandwidth used by the station. Today, digital broadcasting
requires that the full 6MHz bandwidth of the television channel have
a linear response throughout the transmission system with minimal
VSWR and group delay (transmission system includes transmitter, RF
system, transmission line antenna and any associated interconnects).
With digital, more bandwidth means more data transmission capability,
a key issue in today's information age.
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
67
Is there additional
capacity on the
existing structure?
Do you have an
No
adjacent channel
allocation?
No
Vertical real estate
company of master
antenna system
Yesl
Yes'
Side Mount DTV-High Power
Do you plan on
reverting back
to NTSC for DTV
broadcasting?
Can antenna be designed to
transmit both signals with
No
No
minimal increase in load?
Side Mount DTV -Low Power
Yes
Stacked Array -New DTV
under existing NTSC
Dual channel pylon antenna
Yes
Top-Mount NTSC
Side mount full power DTV
antenna
digital compatible
and less than
10 years old?
Stacked Array -Top mount
NTSC and DTV pylon or panel
Is NTSC
No
Broadband panel for both NTSC
and DTV-top or side mount
Top mount NTSCSide mount low power DTV
-
Stacked Array -Mount new
DTV under existing NTSC
Yes
Side mount Low power DTV
Side mount Full power DTV
'Stacked Arrays will require removal of tower sections or increase
The broadcaster must go through
service.
a
in FAA
clearance.
series of steps to determine what options are available for the implementation of DTV
There are a number of hurdles that
must be overcome to ensure successful implementation of DTV. In addition to tower capacity and the cost of
conversion to DTV, the modulation
war, 8VSB vs. COFDM, must he
resolved. Whatever the outcome of
the latter battle, modulation scheme
will not change antenna system design. Antenna systems designed today for digital broadcasting using
8VSB modulation will require no
modification should COFDM or both
modulation standards he adopted.
Also, there are no firm business models in place today that will allow the
est data rate in the most economical
broadcaster to immediately profit
from digital transmission. This issue
may he self-resolving in that new
means for the transmission of data
response) across the full
are always being sought. The medium capable of transmitting the great-
68
Broadcast Engineering
manner will be the dominant medium; this may be the future of terrestrial broadcasting.
When designing an antenna system,
several criteria must be considered.
First, system linearity (otherwise
known as output response or frequency
must he such that this response is
maximized. System non -linearity can
result in gain variations across the
channel in excess of I0dB. This variation in gain will result in an increased hit error rate. Although the
receiver may be able to compensate
for this, it will result in a reduced
The adjacent -channel antenna
has its pros and cons.
6MHz channel
must he optimized. This is the gain
and phase response vs. frequency
across the channel. Whether the antenna is a top mount, a side mount, a
pylon or a panel antenna the linearity
July 2000
carrier-to -noise ratio and a total loss
of coverage in the fringe areas. The
goal should always he to minimize
amplitude and phase distortion in the
transmission system while saving the
equalizer headroom in the receiver to
correct for propagation path defects.
Specific causes for this gain variation
;poor output response) will be examined further.
Directly related to the output response of an antenna is the beam
sway. Beam sway is the term used for
the variation in beam tilt across a
given channel. End -fed antennas have
an inherent tendency to have a beam
sway in excess of 0.5 degrees depending on the antenna gain and "phase
taper" from slot to slot. The resulting
beam tilt is higher than desired at the
lower edge of the band and lower
than desired at the upper edge of the
band. This is due to the fact that
pylon antennas are typically designed
for a slot spacing of approximately
one lambda at the center of the channel. As this spacing varies, a cumulative phase taper will result from slot
to slot, creating a variation in beam
tilt. At Channel 41 for example, the
wavelength is 18.59 inches. If the
radiating elements (slots) in the antenna are spaced at one wavelength
in the center of the channel (360
degrees, or 0 degrees between elements), at the lower end a 1.7- degree
phase taper will result (spacing of the
elements is 358.3 degrees versus 360).
WRC, Washington, DC, chose to stack its NTSC antenna at 587 feet and its digital
antenna at 637 feet. Shown are the antennas being raised into position.
The opposite phase taper will occur
at the upper end of the channel. The
result, about 3.4 degrees total phase
taper between each layer of the antenna. This is a cumulative taper in
that between slots one and two, the
phase taper is 3.4 degrees; between
slots one and three, it is 6.8 degrees
and so on. The higher the antenna
gain (more elements or slots), the
narrower the main beam and the
more significant the resulting beam
sway. Also, the associated group delay variation across the channel can
approach 20nsec. from the end -fed
antenna alone. The only way to totally eliminate beam sway is to center
feed the antenna with equal slot characteristics above and below the feed
point. Each half of the antenna will
have equal and opposite beam sway,
thus having a total cancellation effect. This results in an elevation pattern main beam that is extremely
stable. Beam sway is one of the most
significant contributors to gain variation across a given channel. Also,
by center feeding the antenna, the
group delay can be reduced to less
than 1Orlsec.
Another critical parameter in the
design of a pylon antenna is the
antenna "illumination." Illumination
refers to the phase and amplitude
distribution to each slot of the antenna. The phase distribution is varied
in part by changing the slot spacing
from layer to layer. The amplitude
distribution is varied in part by changing the coupler diameter within the
antenna. To get the optimum frequency response out of a DTV antenna, a tapered illumination should be
used with the power distributed at
higher levels near the center or feed
point of the antenna and reducing as
you approach the end slots. A tapered
illumination will yield a very stable
elevation pattern throughout the null
structure. The tapered illumination
combined with a true center feed will
generate a superior frequency response
across the full channel in both the
main beam and throughout the viewing area.
The DTV allocation table has 357
adjacent channel allocations, 195 N+ I
and 162 N- I. N+ I refers to an allocation where the DTV is the NTSC
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
69
ELEVATION PATTERN
30 SLOT, END -FED ANTENNA
t-
0.5°
1.0
5.0
Lower Gana Edge
0.9
0.8
4.0
0.7
Gain Variation
d 0.6
LL
CC
3.0
0.5
0.4
2.0
0.3
0.2
1.0
Upper Band Edge
0.1
0.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
50
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
0.0
10.0
Degrees Below Horizontal
Figure
1
End -fed elevation pattern showing beam sway and resulting frequency response.
ELEVATION PATTERN
30 SLOT, CENTER -FED ANTENNA
1.0
5.0
0.9
A panel alternative
4.0
0.8
0.7
Ti 0.6
LL
3.0
m
05
Lower Band Edge
cc 0.4
2.0
0.3
0.2
Gain Variation
Upper Band Edge
1.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
10.0
NTSC and IMW DTV (maximized) could operate out of a
common antenna because of
the power handling. Also, if
there is a problem with the
antenna or the associated
transmission line run, both
the NTSC and DTV services
would be off the air. For those
stations with the adjacent
channel allocation and sufficient tower capacity, a unique
solution would be two adjacent channel antennas co -located. One antenna would be
for primary NTSC service and
backup DTV service and the
second antenna would be for
primary DTV service and
backup NTSC service. Should
either antenna or transmission line run fail, the backup
system for both services is in
place. This method of redundancy has been used by KSTR49/DT48 of Irving, TX.
An alternative to the pylon
antenna is the broadband panel. This is the type of antenna
that the majority of the international broadcasters are accustomed to using. International markets have embraced
this technology with success
because of the need for colocation within a major metropolitan area and the lower
transmitter power levels used.
In the domestic market, single
Degrees Below Horizontal
transmitter power levels can
Figure 2. Center -fed elevation pattern with tapered illumination (G type) and resulting exceed 50kW average and
frequency response.
multiple frequency installahannel plus one (ex:
USCI
both
services
on
cases,
can go
the
tions can have combined transmitter
I8DTV). These allocations otter a tower with little or no tower modifi- power levels in excess of 100k \\'
unique opportunity and challenge to cation. Also, when an adjacent chan- average. The same technology that
the broadcaster. It tower loading is an nel antenna is installed, an immediwas acceptable for Europe is not
issue, there is the possibility of transNTSC
ate improvement to
service acceptable for the U.S. Major design
mitting both the MUSC: and DTV should he realized. With the adjacent changes in panel antennas and the
signals from a common antenna. channel antenna, the elevation and associated power division /feed sysHowever, until recently combiner azimuth patterns are nearly identical tem have allowed this technology to
technology was only available for for both channels. This will ensure extend to the domestic market, even
the N -I applications. This is no longthat a uniform signal is received at the power levels above.
As mentioned earlier, the same iser the case.
throughout the viewing area over
As with all possible configurations,
both channels. On the downside, there
sues that are considered for pylon
type antennas must also he considthe adjacent channel antenna has its are power limitations to the adjacent
pros and cons. On the plus side is the channel antenna. With current tech- ered in the design of a panel antenna.
load placed on the tower. In many
nology it is unlikely that a BMW The primary advantage of panel an0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
I
70
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
B.0
9.0
-\
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
tenna designs is the fact that multiple
channels can operate in a common
system allowing for a common master- antenna system shared by multiple broadcasters. Also, with a branch
feed system the beam sway is minimized due to the fact that the path
from the antenna input to the individual panel is nearly identical for all
panels. There is no cumulative phase
taper as with a pylon antenna and the
relative phase to each layer in eleva-
tion remains constant
frequency
changes keeping the beam sway at a
minimum. Custom azimuth and elevation patterns can be generated with
the panel antenna by changing the
number of panels in elevation, orientation of panels, number of panels
around the structure and the phase
and amplitude feed to each panel.
Custom patterns have been generated
in both elevation and azimuth for
both the World Trade Center and the
Empire State Building in New York
as
City.
When designing an antenna system,
the feed to the antenna cannot be
neglected, as this is part of the "system response" equation. As mentioned
earlier, this response must be linear in
that all components in the transmission path must be optimized across
the full channel or channels of operation. To get the desired response, the
feed should be coaxial transmission
line vs. waveguide unless power handling prohibits the use of coaxial line.
To minimize this as an issue, transmission line has been designed to
handle the high power levels of even
the largest master antenna systems.
a proprietary product known
EHT Line. Although waveguide is
a more efficient means of getting a
signal from the transmitter to the
antenna, the group delay added to the
This is
as
system by such a run must be compensated for at the transmitter. Coaxial transmission line does not have
the group delay associated with it (in
addition to having a fraction of the
wind -area of comparable waveguide).
When choosing the method of DTV
implementation, consideration should
be given to the channel of operation
after the transition period; post 2006.
Many VHF broadcasters have been
allocated an UHF digital channel at
1MW effective radiated power or
ERP (1573 of all DTV allocations are
UHF). Based on the current FCC
ruling, VHF broadcasters have the
option of going back to their VHF
channel for digital broadcasting after
2006 (post 2006 all broadcasters will
reside within the core spectrum of
Channels 2 -51 with Channels 52 -69
and less than 10 years old? If the
answer to both of these questions is
yes, than a side -mounted aluminum
DTV antenna for the interim period
may be the best and most economical
option. If plans are to go back to the
NTSC frequency and the antenna is
old or non -digital compliant (end fed, simple illumination), a stacked
Antenna systems
designed today will require
no modification
should COFOM be adopted.
being returned to the FCC for auctioning). For the VHF broadcaster,
the transition to DTV at the high
power levels will be very costly. The
VHF broadcaster has typically been
accustomed to a utility bill of less
than $5000 per month, whereas transmitting at 1MW average ERP in the
UHF band can generate a utility bill
in excess of $25,000 per month. This,
in addition to propagation character-
istics, is encouraging many VHF
broadcasters to consider moving back
to VHF for DTV broadcasting after
2006. Many high -band VHF broadcasters such as KCTS- 9 /DT41 of Seattle have chosen a stacked antenna
system to allow them this flexibility
in the future. Both factors may also
encourage those same broadcasters
to go on the air with DTV service
today at lower power levels. Before
going on the air at low power levels,
broadcasters should confirm with
their consultant that their authorized
contours would remain protected from
other channels by the FCC.
Both pylon and panel antennas offer
many options including top mounting, side mounting, stacking and adjacent channel antennas. Choosing
which way to go is not simple. Normally, the top mount position is taken
up by the primary NTSC service. If
this is the case and plans are to go
back to the NTSC channel for DTV
broadcasting in the future; is the
NTSC antenna digital compatible
antenna may be the best option in
which the DTV and NTSC service
are top mounted. This option offers
the highest centerline of radiation for
both services while allowing both
antennas to radiate in an obstruction
free environment.
If the NTSC antenna is relatively
new, the option exists to stack this
antenna above a DTV pylon or broadband panel antenna. This would require additional aperture, which could
be obtained through the removal of
tower sections or an additional height
clearance from the FCC.
In the first two years of the transi-
tion to digital television approximately 115 stations made the transition. The vast majority of these early
adopters were in the top 30 markets
and in many cases the DTV as well as
a new NTSC antenna were installed
simultaneously in a stacked antenna
system. In the remaining three years,
over 1500 stations need to make this
transition. To date, there are over
1300 stations that have not ordered
equipment for their facilities. Although
the next deadline for the commercial
May
broadcaster is May 1, 2002
1, 2003 for the non -commercial
broadcaster, waiting will not solve
the problem. Plans should be well
under way.
-
Jay S. Martin is director of marketing for
Dielectric Communications.
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
71
ATSC IO
performance
Thomson TH770s in the Comark IOX T
smitter at
isville. The six tubes used can output
W each ft
power of approximately 330kW. Photo c. rtesy Of 7f
Electron iques.
72
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
B, Lou1n
blued
Tubes
BY MICHI3 LAN6LOIS
Par.
Amajor controversy exists among American TV
broadcasters and regulatory bodies.
A few years ago, the FCC chose the ATSC system
based on 8VSB modulation. Some people in the
industry are questioning that choice, claiming that
the European system, DVB-T (COFDM modulation),
offers real advantages, such as easier reception
inside buildings or by mobile devices.
Rather that offering a solution to the controversy,
this article discusses the performance of tubes and
cavities for the two different types of modulation.
Use of the TH 770 lOT for both 8VSB and COFDM
operation is examined. The TH 770 IOT from
Thomson Tubes Electroniques (TTE) is already
used by several manufacturers for their analog and
digital transmitters. In analog transmission, it offers
output power of 63kW for the picture (peak sync) and
6.3kW aural in combined amplification mode.
8VSB
performance
The TH 770 is also used as the final stage in 25kW
8VSB transmitters. In an attempt to improve performance, we acquired a modulator /corrector from
Thomcast. This device supplies an ATSC signal on
any UHF channel, starting from a real baseband bit
stream, or a pseudo random bitstream generator.
The output signal is sampled after the final stage
and compared to the output signal of the modulator.
The transfer curve can be extracted from this measurement, for both phase and amplitude. The corrector
then applies to the modulator signal a pre-distortion
which is reciprocal to the calculated distortion of
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
73
R: Chl Spectrun
R Marker
TRACE
% -T
dent
705 720 000 Hz
-29.314 dBn
TRACE R: Chl Spectrun
R Marker
705 720 000 Hz
..
ABn
Lo9Ma9
- r_
dÉ
7ar
/doy
I
r
-
-12.478 dei
75rPower:
Center. 706 MHz
Figure
2.
11.1
-7L' poucr:
d6n
Span: 8 MHz
Left shoulder of the 8VSB signal at 30kW (avg).
Cerrtcr.
Figure
TRACE
.i
.
-'.476 den
ed8n
706 Mnc
Span:
10
MXz
ir,
n
5.
Span:
quality.
Best results are reached by
limiting
power output.
These results are clearly summarized
in Figure I, which shows both the
power meter and the spectrum analyzer.
In addition, the shoulder levels were
measured with a vector signal analyz-
Broadcast Engineering
integrating the power spectral
density over a 5MHz band in the
middle of the channel, and over 500kHz
along the edges of the channel. We used
a flat top input window to ensure
amplitude accuracy. The shoulders are
shown in Figures 2 and 3.
At an average power of 30kW, the
left shoulder = level in the middle I0dB - left side level; i.e., left shoulder = -I2.478dB - 10(16 + 58.115dB
July 2000
10
MMz
Y'IN.N'1V
Right shoulder of the COFDM signal at 15kW (avg).
the range of correction well below the
peak power level. High power values
are scarce and have only a very
limited effect on inter-modulation.
This means that tubes should not be
ranked in terms of peak power capability, but rather according to average
74
1
-70.855 dB.
OVI
rear. Loyt;
16H
amplifiers' distortion should theoret-
Figure 1. Spectrum analyzer and power
meter showing the results of 8VSB modulation through a TH770fTH18770 system
at 30kW (avg.) output power.
-
,
assess
er, by
.
r
the cascaded amplifiers. l'he convolution of this pre -distortion and the
ically provide a perfect signal to the
antenna. Spectrum analysis is used to
187 500 Hz
-
T-
E
Figure
. _
aM.as^=
1111r6
on.
Figure 4. Left shoulder of the COFDM signal at 15kW (avg).
MHz
IIIMIMIMIMI
11_-_N1_
Power:
21 deM
Center: 706 MHz
E
8
IIIIMMINIIIIIIIIIIMINIIIIIMIIMMENNIIIIIIIIIN
/di
-81ó5 Pmlu
Center:
.-...
_.
.
ABr-
idv:
Span:
701
µ
5`
dB'
706 MHz
Spcctrun
Marker
=MI
Lo9Ma9
S,
-1-475 dBn
Chl
11:
R
Lo9Mog
~--t_-.
Right shoulder of the 8VSB signal at 30kW (avg).
3.
-31.5'
den
asn
-29.314 d8M
-:.L._...L...-`"('"""""-
.-.-_1- _-1-
L09Mag
d6
L.
= 35.6dB. The 10dB factor compensates for the integration width of
SMHz in band, 500kHz out of band.
Also at 30kW average power, the
right shoulder = -12.478dB - 10dB +
57.803dB = 35.3dB.
COFDM
performance
The modulator can also output a
COFDM signal, at 7- or 8MHz bandwidth, with 8000 carriers 64QAM
modulated. We repeated the previous
experiment, under the same operating
conditions, and with the sanie channel
50 (706MHz central frequency in Europe), changing only the modulation
scheme. We attained average power
of 15kW, with slightly better inter modulation (36 2dB on the left shoulder and 36.4dB on the right shoulder;
see Figures 4 and 5). This significant
difference in average power is due to
the difference in peak factor: 7dB for
8VSB versus I Id6 for COMM.
As for the 8VSB tests, we found that
optimum results were obtained by.
not attempting to correct the transfer
curve up to the peak power. Under the
same conditions, with comparable
intermodulation, the TH 770 IOT
offers twice as much average power
with 8VSB as with COFDM (8000/
64QAM). These good results were
achieved using
a
clever setup.
Test setup
In the output circuit, saturation plays
a role in determining performance,
whether in terms of voltage saturation
(i.e. the slower electrons Fly back in
Frequency
700
695
the interaction gap) or current saturation (i.e. the peak current is not limited
by space charge, but by the Richardson- bushman law). Increasing the high
voltage has an effect on both (even on
current saturation which does not occur uniformly over the cathode). All of
our measurements used only 34kV of
beam voltage. The correct load impedance must be chosen to prevent
705
8.00E 00
7.00E+00
I0.5MHz, IdB
5.00E +00
below peak by
4.00E +00
3.00E+00
2.00E +00
1.00E +00
0.00E+00
Figure 6. Standard NTSC forward ga'n (S2
of 8.8MHz 1dB below peak (dotted line).
)
shows
a
Frequency (MHz)
700
5
705
changing the coupling between the
twooutputcavities.
A patented system
on the TH 18770
cavity ensures that
the bandwidth rebandw d h
mains the sanie
no matter what
channel is used.
715
710
720
0.00E 00
00E 01
-1.50E+01
m
$
-2.00E 01
-2.50E.01
3.00E 01
3.50E
Input circuit:
The spectrum of
thecorrected 8VSB
signal is wider than
the non- corrected
6MHz signal. In
other words, the
correction signal
-5.00E +00
-1
has spectral components outside the
interval (fc- 3MHz;
01
-4.00E+01
-4.50E.01
3MHz). These
components must
not be reflected by
the IOT input cirfc +
Figure 7. Reflected (S11) bandwidth used for NTSC.
Frequency (MHz)
685
690
695
700
705
710
715
720
725
000E 00
-2.00E+00
cuit. Figure 7shows
the reflected
bandwidth
4.00E+00
ó
-6.00E+00
y
.8.00E.00
-1.00E+01
20E 01
1
ments, we used a slightly oversized
bipolar solid -state preamplifier from
ltelco, rated at 800W (analog service).
Video response: Flat video response is
needed for satisfactory intermodulation
levels. This also applies to DTV, even
though the term video response does not
seem appropriate for digital modulation.
voltage saturation. The S2I hand width of the final amplifier stage is a
good indicator for the correct setting.
Figure 6 shows the output bandwidth
for an NTSC anaMHz
log TV channel
710
715
720
(8.8MHz 1dB below the peak). It
was increased to
6.00E 00
6
of amplifiers. For all of our experi-
40E 01
Figure 8. Expanded S11 bandwidth used for 8VSB or COFDM
obtained through the use of a double slug tuner.
(S 11)
for
NTSC. It has been
expanded using a
double slug tuner as
shown in Figure 8.
Driver: Correction is not meant
for the final high
power amplifier
stage only, but for
the whole cascade
We found
that optimum
results were obtained
by not attempting
to correct the
transfer curve up to
the peak power.
All resonances under 8MHz in the
circuit formed by the cavity, the tube,
the cables and the supplies have to be
removed. For these applications, the
TH 18770 has clear advantages. First,
a capacitive short circuit for frequencies under 10MHz has been installed
close to the tube, between the cathode
and the grid. Secondly, both cathode
and grid are connected to ground by a
high -value capacitor, which is also
used as a blocking capacitor for the
beam voltage. This type of layout
facilitates a flat video response.
Based on our findings, several conclusions can be drawn: First, COFDM is a
more difficult signal to amplify than
8VSB. At a given average output power,
a COFDM system requires twice as many
tubes. Because IOTs and Diacrodes are
used for high -power applications, our
experiments on the TH 770 IOT could
well apply in general. Second, peak
power is definitely not the sole factor in
component choice. Many other factors
must be considered, such as the tube's
video response, input and output bandwidth and intrinsic linearity. In the final
analysis, only comprehensive measurements such as those described here can
provide an understanding of power
component performance.
is R&D manager, Digital
UHF TV Products, Thomson Tubes
Michel Langlois
Électroniques, Frame.
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
75
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servi%..
t9 nrvva In ü!e ":ama Jlr:%Ilon ria:a
:are io enlue üiay :iay iejal. Piw'!v ,our:,.a:/ oí fi!ou!,:ui.
A
rt
digital television (DTV) channel
lot of raw capacity. The FCC
requires one free video signal of NTSC
quality or better, which amounts to
only about 20 percent of the potential
payload. The rest can be used to
provide any lawful service the licensee chooses, including the transport of
data for pay -- sometimes called data casting when carried over broadcast
facilities. A particularly promising
subcategory of datacasting is teh use
of excess DTV capacity to provide
access to the Internet.
A DTV channel carries 19.4 million
bits of data per second. A single
NTSC -grade video signal occupies
only about 18 percent of that capacity, about 3.5Mb/s, so a DTV channel
can be used to carry about five NTSCquality video subchannels. Alternatively, it can carry one high- definition video
service, which needs a lot more data, or
it can carry the FCC's minimum of one
NTSC -grade video service and use the
almost 16Mb /s left over for other services. That 16Mb/s is enough to down-
76
has a
Broadcast Engineering
i
load an entire edition of a local newspaper in less than two seconds.
The FCC treats anything on a TV
channel other than a free video signal
as "ancillary service." The licensee
may charge for ancillary services.
Special cases:
1. The FCC requires a DTV station
to carry at least one free video signal
at NTSC resolution or better on or
after these dates:
All major-network-affiliated stations
in the top 30 markets now;
All remaining commercial stations
by May 1, 2002; and
All non -commercial stations by
May 1, 2003.
This free video service must air
during the same time periods as the
licensee's analog signal, although the
programming need not be the same
as on the analog channel.
2. After the applicable date listed
above, a DTV station that carries its
one free video signal can use the rest
of its capacity for ancillary services.
Before the applicable date, the sta-
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
tion can carry ancillary services regardless of other programming.
3. If the only signal the station
carries is high- definition video, then
that signal must be free, and there is
no ancillary service.
4. If a station transmits more than
one free video signal, all are subject
to FCC broadcast regulation and none
of them is ancillary.
5. Pay video services are ancillary
and can only be provided in addition
to the required free service.
In practice, any lawful service can
be offered via DTV on an ancillary
basis. Ancillary services may, but
need not, relate to the video program
then being broadcast. The FCC's examples of ancillary services include
sports information, computer software,
telephone directories, stock market
updates, interactive educational and
other services, data transmission of
any kind, and even audio materials.
Mobile wireless services such as paging
also qualify as ancillary.
Ancillary service is not subject to
broadcast regulation. But if an ancillary service is analogous to some
other FCC- regulated service, then it
is subject to the same regulations as
that other service. For example, a
DTV licensee that offers paging as an
ancillary service would be subject to
the FCC paging rules.
Delivering ancillary services via DTV
requires appropriate equipment at both
ends of the communication. The broadcaster needs equipment to acquire the
ancillary data and merge it into the
MPEG bitstream for transmission.
Each end user needs circuitry to receive, select and demodulate the channel, plus the means to separate out and
use the ancillary data. Analysts expect
future DTV receivers and set -top converters to have data ports that will
simplify these functions.
Common carrier issues
Providers of data transport are gen-
erally considered to he providing
telecommunications services. Some
telecommunications providers are
deemed to be "common carriers," a
status that imposes special legal responsibilities. A common carrier must
provide service to all that request it
(up to the limit of capacity), may not
discriminate unreasonably among
customers, and is subject to complaint proceedings at the FCC. A non common carrier, in contrast, is free to
negotiate any terms with any customers it pleases. Most DTV stations will
probably prefer to avoid common
carrier status.
A DTV station that carries data on
an ancillary basis risks being treated
as a common carrier if it meets all of
these conditions:
It offers service for a fee;
It transmits information of the
user's choosing;
It transmits and receives the user's
information without change;
It transmits between or among
points specified by the user; and,
It offers service directly to the
pu bl ic.
A licensee engaged in datacasting is
likely to meet the first four tests
above. In that case, its common carrier status will turn on the fifth test,
whether it provides service to the
public. The licensee can minimize
the likelihood of being considered a
common carrier if it sells services to
other companies, rather than directly
to consumers; if it markets its services
in trade publications, rather than
consumer media; and if it sells service under contracts that run at least
a year, rather than monthly.
Fees
A PTV licensee that provides ancillary datacasting services is potentially
subject to several fees levied by the FCC.
DTV ancillary
fee:
DTV ancillary
services may compete with more traditional radio -based services, some
of which must buy spectrum at auction. Congress feared that DTV's free
spectrum would give it an unfair
competitive advantage, and so authorized the FCC to impose a special
DTV ancillary fee to help level the
playing field. The FCC set that fee at
5 percent of DTV revenues received
from transmitting other entities' data.
Licensees are required to file a return
and make payment each Dec. I for the
year ending on the previous Sept. 30.
Universal Service Fund and TRS
fees: A DTV licensee that derives
revenue from data transport may he
subject to two additional fees, each
calculated as a percentage of telecommunications revenues. One is the
Universal Service Fund fee, which
16Mb /s is enough
to download an entire
local newspaper
in less than two
seconds.
subsidizes service in high cost areas
and to low income consumers, schools,
libraries, and certain health care providers. Presently at about five percent, it fluctuates quarterly. The other is the Telecommunications Relay
Service fee, which supports special
telephone services for hearing - and
speech- impaired users. Adjusted annually, it has always been a small
fraction of one percent. Both fees are
subject to exemptions and have com-
plex rules for calculating the base
amounts on which the percentages
are levied. How these rules will apply
in the DTV context is not yet fully clear.
In addition,
ultimately pay
a
a
DTV licensee will
"regulatory fee" to
the FCC. Today the regulatory fee
imposed on its associated NTSC
facility covers the station, but the
FCC will doubtless impose a separate
fee on DTV stations once licensees
have relinquished their analog frequencies. So far there is no indication
the fee will depend on whether the
station offers ancillary services.
Internet access
One potential business for DTV
ancillary services is the provision of
Internet access: hooking up homes
and businesses to the Internet.
Today most residential and small business users reach the Internet by
dialing over an ordinary telephone line
to an Internet service provider (ISP),
which connects the user to the Internet
backbone. Besides providing the all important connection, most ISPs also
supply end -user software, display a
"portal screen" that links to popular
sites, provide storage for the user's
webpages, and offer technical support
as needed. Most ISPs also store, or
"cache," popular sites for faster access
by customers. Some offer additional
Internet -related services such as wehpage
design and e- commerce support.
An ordinary telephone line provides
only relatively slow Internet service.
Given a choice, users generally prefer
broadband high -speed) access. A broadband connection fills up the screen
more quickly, downloads large files
faster, and can play video and high quality audio in real time. Two main
forms of broadband access are presently available. The first, digital subscriber line (DSL), is a high -speed service
that runs over ordinary telephone lines.
It is available only to certain subscribers, most of them in densely populated
areas. The second option is cable modems. They are also limited to certain
areas, and leave many businesses unserved. In addition, many cable companies require the customer to subscribe to
a cable- affiliated ISP that may not
provide the full range of Internet services. Other emerging broadband options
July 2000
(
Broadcast Engineering
77
include microwave radio and unlicensed
"spread spectrum" radio, but these are
not yet widely available. Internet delivery by satellite also may become feasible in the near future.
DTV is an alternative means of
delivering broadband Internet service. Unlike DSI. and cable, which
require specific physical connections,
DTV Internet is available to customers anywhere in the DTV station's
coverage area.
A DTV station's ancillary capacity is
the equivalent of almost 300 conventional telephone lines (at 56kb /s), or
about 10 DSL lines. However, all users
must share this capacity. If 300 custom-
Ancillary service is not
subject to broadcast
regulation.
ers attempt to download at the same
instant, each will receive data only at
phone -line speeds. In practice, though,
this limitation is less severe than it may
seem. Only users who are transferring
data at a given moment impinge on the
capacity available to others. Customers who are reading the screen, printing
data, or typing commands have no
effect on others' download speeds. Nevertheless, the average speed available
to each customer will tend to drop as
more customers sign on.
Uplink required: Internet service is
two-way. A downlink connection delivers Internet material to the user, while a
return uplink channel communicates
the user's keypresses, mouse clicks and
outgoing messages hack to the ISP.
DTV can provide only a downlink,
although at high speed. Fortunately,
most users need only a low -speed uplink channel. An ordinary telephone
connection usually suffices for the uplink unless the customer is one of those
few who must transfer large amounts of
data. Another uplink option is the wireless 218-219MHz service formerly
called the Interactive Video and Data
Service (IVDS), and originally intended
as a return link from viewers to television stations. Other radio options may
be available in particular areas.
78
Broadcast Engineering
Internet roles for a DNV licensee
A DTV licensee interested in providing Internet access can take either
of two roles.
Carrier only: The licensee can act
solely as a carrier to deliver data
from an ISP to end users. The DTV
licensee would typically contract with
the ISP, which in turn markets the
service to end users as part of an ISP provided package. The DTV licensee
collects a fee for carriage from the
The service can he priced in the
aggregate, monthly per user, by the
amount of data carried, or by any
other agreed -on formula.
Carrier and ISP: Alternatively, a
DTV licensee can itself function as an
ISP. In addition to delivering data to
the end user, it would receive the end
user's uplink signals, interconnect the
end user with the Internet backbone,
and perform the various ISP support
functions. Residential end users typically pay their 1SPs a monthly fee in
the $25 to $50 range for broadband
service. In addition, some ISPs collect
ISP.
from unaffiliated commercial
websites in exchange for prominent
listings on the ISP's portal page.
fees
Common carrier issues: We noted
the disadvantages of common carrier
treatment above. A DTV licensee can
probably avoid being classed as a
common carrier if it acts only as a
carrier, and not also as an ISP. The
licensee can then market its service to
ISPs, instead of directly to the public,
and sell service for a minimum period
of one year. A licensee that also wishes
to function as an ISP runs a greater risk
of common carrier treatment, as it
would probably wish to market directly to the public and offer service by the
month. The licensee may nonetheless
be able to avoid common carrier status by setting up its ISP as a separate
corporation and selling the communications service to the ISP on a longterm basis, rather than providing
monthly access service directly to the
public. Caution: The legality of this
approach has not yet been tested.
adding customer address information and encryption, and merging the
data into the MPEG- format bitstream
for DTV transmission. A DTV licensee that also acts as an ISP will need
the servers, storage and transmission
facilities, and other equipment needed to maintain a connection with
Internet backbone facilities.
Each customer will need equipment
(a "DTV modem ") capable of splitting off Internet data from the DTV
signal, identifying data addressed to
that customer, decrypting it, and converting it to a form compatible with
the desktop computer. The plug -in
computer cards with DTV tuners available now may not be able to identify
and decrypt ancillary data correctly.
As noted above, data ports on future
DTV receivers and set -top converters
should eventually simplify connection for the end user.
Privacy is a special concern in
shared systems, like cable and DTV,
in which each user's equipment monitors all the bitstreams directed to
all users. Such systems require close
attention to addressing, so that each
user's equipment recognizes only
the communications directed to it.
Equally important, all transmission on the system must he carefully encrypted to protect each individual user from both inadvertent
and intentional interception.
Going forward
The excess capacity available on a
DTV channel makes it possible for the
licensee to offer a range of telecommunications services on an ancillary basis. One especially promising option
is Internet access. The timing is right:
The demand for broadband Internet
access is outrunning available delivery systems, such as DSI. and cable,
just when DTV stations are going on
the air. Providing a link to the Internet
opens an opportunity for DTV licensees to broaden their service beyond the
traditional viewing audience to people who have forsaken TV screens for
computers.
Equipment for Internet access
Each DTV station offering Internet
access will need equipment capable
of receiving customer -bound data
from the ISP over standard data lines,
July 2000
Mitchell Lazarus is an attorney uith Fletcher,
Heald
Hildreth, PLC. He can be reached
it
at 703 -812 -0440, mlazarusktahun.mit.edu.
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Routing
SwiLcher
Technologies
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Noosing the right routing
switcher Fabric and control
system is one of the most important
decisions a director of engineering
or chief engineer must make when
constructing or upgrading a television Facility. This article explores the
various technologies and topologies
available today, and in the near
Future, to help guide decision -makers
toward the right choices.
C
By prioritizing the station's needs, evaluating its current routing system and
deteriming future growth, broadcasters
can choose a reouting systems that
best fits their facility's needs. Shown
here is a Philips Venus SDV 512x512
router controlled by Jupiter software at
USA Networks broadcast center in Los
Angeles. Photo courtesy of Philips.
80
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
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There are two basic topologies in
common use today:
A central equipment pool. Expensive pool resources are allocated as
needed to the various functional areas in the facility, i.e., on -air broadcast, production, news, etc.
Distributed resources or islands
dedicated to the specific functions.
Real facilities usually have a combination of the two topologies. Most
systems have evolved through a mix of
factors: market forces, facility history,
individual personalities and corporate
culture. The choice of a new routing
switcher fabric and control system will
also be governed by these factors.
Fabrics and control systems
Routing switchers were basically considered patch panel replacements. The
control systems were very basic, consisting of simple control panels. Typically, the most sophisticated feature
was the video/audio split.
Today's control systems, driven by
user creativity, have evolved into
highly flexible and therefore complex systems.
With the advent of digital video and
the development of common ASICs, the
hardware fabric performance is fairly
uniform among reputable vendors. The
control system is now the dominant
factor that should drive the choice in
choosing a new facility infrastructure.
The most basic topology for routing
switchers is the X/Y matrix, with X
inputs by Y outputs. It is easy to
understand and control. It is ideally
suited for the central equipment pool
topology. Its main disadvantage is
that the price tag grows with the
number of inputs times outputs.
The enormous cost of large X/Y matrices led to the development of control
system algorithms that allow for the
reduction of the number of cross-points
for larger fabrics. The algorithms were
originally developed by the telephone
industry and subsequently modified for
broadcast use. There are three common
techniques, each with its unique set of
advantages and disadvantages. They
are multistage cross-point arrays, pathfinding or distributed fabric arrays, and
time division multiplexing (TDM) virtual arrays.
Multistage systems: The most corn-
82
Broadcast Engineering
mon implementation is a three -stage
topology. This topology consists of
small X/M input matrix blocks, moderately sized M/N middle or intermediate matrix blocks and small N/Y
output matrix blocks.
Multistage topology can yield significant cost reduction for large fabrics.
There are several three-stage routing
switchers operating today at facilities
such as ZDF in Germany, BT in London
and USA Networks in Los Angeles.
One of the main concerns with threestage architecture has to do with blocking, or not being able to complete a
required connection through the fabric. For the telephone company, this
was not a big issue - they simply give
you a busy signal or an all circuits in
use recording. For broadcasters, this is
unacceptable, so sizing and control
algorithms were developed to reduce
the possibility of a block to extremely
low probability. This need not be a
major concern when considering a
multistage fabric topology from an
experienced multistage vendor.
One drawback of multistage topology is a slight degradation of performance. Each connection goes through
the underlying X/Y blocks three or
more times. This was a major concern for traditional analog audio and
video fabrics, but is less of a concern
for today's digital fabrics.
Path -finding fabrics: These are a physical distribution of small X/Y matrices, interconnected by trunk or tie
lines. This topology can realize enormous cost savings in a facility where
the island topology is domiN/n Input
nant.
While
yielding
the
Matrices
switch fabric. This is particularly
important in today's transitional market, from analog to digital audio and
video, or uncompressed vs. cornpressed digital audio and video. A
small number of format converters
can be integrated into the fabric and
transparently routed through, based
on source and destination format requirements. Modern control systems
should have this capability.
Just as in the multistage, be sure to
consider purchasing this type of system from an experienced vendor.
Another topic that is closely related
to the idea of pathfinding and tie -line
management is the growing requirement to provide a seamless control
system for routing switchers located
in separate facilities. In choosing a
control system, it is important to look
for the ability to use standard local
and wide area networking (LAN/
WAN) architectures, including the
Internet, to provide extended control
functionality over long distances or
local control over a LAN.
Time division multiplex (TDM) fabrics: While not yet economically feasible for full- bandwidth digital video
transport, TDM fabrics are an attractive option for AES digital audio routing fabrics and possibly compressed
video. The cost of designing and building this type of fabric continues to drop
rapidly due to advances in ASIC technology and high -speed serial transports on copper and fiber. TDM can be
used to implement a large virtual X/Y
fabric in a central frame or a distributMiddle
Matrices
L
M/m Output
Matrices
In.ut1
Out
greatest savings
in hardware, it
is the most complex topology to
control and re-
quires careful
planning before
deployment.
One unique
benefit of pathfinding is the
ability to com-
plete
format
conversions
within
July 2000
the
Three -Stage Matrix Topology
Figure 1. A three -stage matrix uses an intermediate set of
crosspoints to provide connections from N inputs to M outputs
using fewer crosspoints than an X/Y matrix.
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they require to manage their
signal distribution needs in a
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signals.
The Eclipse SD serial digital video
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compact and cost -effective SDI
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The Eclipse SD /HD uses
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The Eclipse AES router provides
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With a powerful range of left /right
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this is the perfect mate to maximize performance
of Eclipse video routers.
Wrap Pro -Bet's highly- acclaimed control system
around the exact Eclipse configuration to meet your
specs and attach yourself to a worldwide leader.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
ed fabric using add -drop
mux/demux
Analog
Inputs
boxes interconnected by high -speed
serial copper or fiber trunks.
There are always tradeoffs that need
to he made, and this option is no
exception. The virtual fabric created
in a TDM router is based on uniform
time slots. Each input or output corresponds to a specific time slot assignment for its sample transport. This
normally implies a synchronous system architecture (there are exceptions)
SD -SDI
Inputs
It is important to look for
the ability to use
standard LAN /WAN
architectures, including
the Internet.
which offer a good compromise of
synchronous vs. asynchronous features and control system flexibility.
Packet, cell and /or network -based
fabrics: While packet -based switching
has been around quite a while, it has
only recently started to enter the broadcast infrastructure. Universal standardization of protocols, the Internet, inexpensive computers, and the availability of inexpensive networking components implementing the physical and
84
Broadcast Engineering
SD -SDI
Outputs
a
,
L
SD -SDI
HD -SDI
to
Analog
Analog
to
4-
Up Converter
SD -SDI
i
r
Distribution
Switcher
extending beyond the fabric and
throughout the facility. If the system is
not frequency locked, then the fabric
must perform sample rate conversions,
which inherently modify or distort the
signal. In fact, the worst case distortion
occurs for nearly identical input to
output sample rates. Proper digital
audio facility design is akin to system
timing for NTSC or PAL analog video.
Keep in mind that you will have to do
some sample rate conversion due to
the multiplicity of rates you will encounter, i.e., 32, 44.1, 48, 96, 192kHz,
vari -speed or when encountering 29.97
vs. 30Hz frame rates.
Switching Dolby E will require a
synchronous facility so that switching
occurs within the time fences defined
by Dolby E, based on video frames.
Make sure you understand your
requirements and the vendor offerings before making a purchase decision for virtual or TDM routing fabrics. There are products available
Analog
to
SD -SDI
Analog
Distribution
Switcher
Down Converter
MPEG
MPEG
Encoder
Encoder
MPEG
MPEG
Decoder
Decoder
Figure 2. Path finding topologies can include format conversion within the fab
but require sophisticated control systems.
protocol layers have motivated this.
Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE -1394, USB
physical layers and IP and ATM protocol layers fit loosely into this arena.
The development of MPEG -2, -4
and -7 video compression and AC -3,
MP3, and Dolby E for audio compression have added a whole new
range of possibilities for distribution
of video, audio and now metadata
within facilities, using the packet based fabric or network topologies.
These technologies can be very useful
for the distribution of non- real -time video as files or lower bit -rate, real -time
transport for lower-quality requirements, i.e., desktop monitoring, Internet video streaming, or other imaginative applications like remote site
monitoring. Keep in mind that high quality, real -time signal transport will
still require full -bandwidth signal paths.
Web -based control and monitoring
of switching fabrics and distribution
equipment is also starting to show up
on the market. This is an easily
leveraged technology available from
the PC /workstation market, so look
for it to become commonplace.
A designer of facility infrastructures
needs to consider these technologies
as
viable players in the design. Beware
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
of becoming overwhelmed with the
possibilities. Make sure you understand
the tradeoffs in quality and content delivery latency before jumping in.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
fabric: Depending on the path parameters, ATM fabrics, while being
cell- based, do have some nice characteristics that can he defined by the
service requester. An ATM cell is
analogous to an IP packet with a
fixed 53 -byte length, five bytes for the
header and 48 bytes for the payload.
ATM can guarantee quality of service (QOS) beyond the facility walls,
and even internationally. ATM is
independent of the physical layer. It is
a method of transport within the
synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)
and SONET. This author considers
ATM a step above IP transport and
believes you will see IP transported by
ATM not ATM transported over IP.
Therefore, when considering your networked infrastructure, look at ATM as
a possibility. Look to ATM for interfacility and inter-city transport of lightly
compressed video and audio in the
future, using the public networks.
Optical fabrics and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM): There
have been several demonstrations of
fl
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optical switch fabrics in the past two
decades. One would think that by
now optical interconnect and optical
switching would have replaced broadcast facility infrastructure. Why hasn't
this happened? There is one fundamental reason: pure economics. While
the technology exists, it is still far too
expensive compared to traditional
methods. Electrical /copper interfaces, even at I.48SGh /s, are much cheaper than their optical counterparts. As
the telecommunications industry
progresses toward low -cost electrical /optical conversion, transport and
switching, the television industry will
leverage the technology. Don't hold
your breath, full- bandwidth vide()
transport is probably a decade away.
Great debates and hazard
warnings
Beware that the major routing
and control system vendors are
fierce competitors. Sonic of them
are actively engaged in the propagation of RID (fear, uncertainty,
and doubt) regarding their competitors' products. This makes your
job more difficult as you have to
sort through the FUD. The section
explains what you may encounter.
Non -reclocked vs. reclocked serial
digital video: In the early days of serial
digital video distribution, a great debate raged over non- reclocked vs. re-
clocked outputs. Today there are hundreds of thousands of installed non reclocked signal paths, which operate
without any problems. Non- reclocked
paths work for three reasons:
Good intrinsic signal fidelity in the
fabric.
The path normally exists from a
processing device that generates a
pristine serial output, to a processing
device that subsequently de- serializes the signal, generally with a receiver that has good input jitter tolerance
vs. frequency.
A properly designed serial digital
receiver /de- formatter has a much
wider input jitter tolerance (IJT) transfer characteristic than an intermediate reclocker. The reason reclocking
seems to he a good thing is that it does
reduce jitter. This is normally accomplished by restricting the reclockers'
PIA. bandwidth. For a receiver/defor-
86
Broadcast Engineering
matter, however, one wants to maximize PEI. bandwidth so as to maximize the receivers' jitter tracking
range with respect to frequency. The
PI.1. bandwidth of the reclocker placed
in a router output is at best a compromise between conflicting requirements. It is entirely conceivable that
a poor -quality input source could
become erred in the router reclocker,
but he accepted by the subsequent
product, you are going to pay for
something totally unnecessary. The
SDTV non -reclocked multipass performance of today's HDTV fabrics
approaches that of the present generation of SDTV reclocked products.
At this infancy stage of HDTV SDI
deployment, HDTV reclocking
should be a user -selectable option.
This is because some serializers and
receiver /deformatters for HDTV are
poorly implemented. The reclocker
may actually help you in this case.
Virtually all of the major vendors
offer reclocking at HDTV rates.
Synchronous AES vs. asynchronous
AES: The issue of synchronous vs.
asynchronous AES fabrics is more a
facility theology issue than a competitive vendor issue. There is a consistent lack of understanding of how to
successfully implement digital audio. Digital audio routing is akin to
analog video routing and system timing. If you don't synchronize your
digital audio facility properly, you
get pops, ticks and clicks at switch
points, or all the time if you try to
pass an asynchronous signal through
a purely synchronous fabric. If you're
a pragmatist, then you'll he happy
with full -time sample rate conversion. But if you're a purist or perfectionist, then you need to think about
The PLL bandwidth
of the reclocker placed in
a router output is at best
a compromise between
conflicting requirements.
device's receiver /de- formatter without error due to its wider P1.1. bandwidth, i.e. better IJT, had the reclocker not been present.
A properly designed reclocking device must, by definition, have two
PLI:s and an elastic buffer between the
wide -bandwidth PEI. receiver side and
the narrow -bandwidth PLI. transmission side. There are no single chip
ASIC reclocker ICs currently available
that provide this functionality, either
for SDTV or HDTV. Therefore, you
may actually be
better off without
reclocking
in
your routing fabric for point -topoint and point -
o "Il
111111
II
to- niultipoint
um
UI
I
lilt''
i
lt
paths.
See
SMPTE Engineering GuideSMPTE
line
EG33, for a bet-
11111
uu
II
1111
li
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ter understanding
of this subject.
The
require-
ments for HDTV
fabric design obviate the need for
reclocking when
SDTV
is passed
through
the
HDTV fabric. If
you insist on
SDTV reclocking
in an HDTV
July 2000
Large routing systems can take considerable rack space. Be
sure to plan for sufficient rack space and cooling for the system
chosen.
www.americanradiohistory.com
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FOR PROFESSIONALS WHO KNOW
THE DIFFERENCE
380 Oser Avenue, Hauppauge, New York, 11788 Tel: (631) 231 -6900 Fax: (631) 231 -5295
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Regional Offices: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Los Angeles
the old NTSC or PAL video timing
requirements and do the same for
your digital audio.
Deterministic vs. non -deterministic
control: Deterministic control systems are those that have a guaranteed
latency or delay between the time
that a command is initiated and the
time that the command is physically
executed. For manual push button
control, deterministic response is not
important because the response of the
control system is usually faster than
human response time. It is most important when controlling multiple
devices that need to be in synchronism, as is the case with legacy linear
editing systems and perhaps frame accurate automation systems.
Most of the modern control systems
are based on Ethernet backbones,
which are inherently non- deterministic. If the amount of traffic is kept low
on the backbone, then there is a
reasonable chance that commands
will arrive within acceptable time
fences. This is why the control system
vendors want the control backbone
isolated from your corporate LAN,
using bridges and routers.
Once you claim Ethernet then you're
also saying non -deterministic. The
vendors can use time stamping and
command queuing (event stacks) to
minimize the effects of non- determinism, but there is always a probability
that a command may not be delivered when expected.
Real -time vs. non -real-time 8
full bandwidth vs. compressed
The explosive growth of the Internet
and inexpensive, powerful, PC workstations in the past decade is radically changing the way we do things.
Editing and graphics creation using
workstations and LAN technology is
common. This makes it difficult to
determine how much full -bandwidth
fabric vs. how much compressed,
and /or non- real -time fabric is needed
in a facility. The full -bandwidth fabric is usually quite expensive, while
LANs, SANs, and VLANs are quite
inexpensive, even for the Gigabit
versions. Today, on one extreme there
are those that predict the complete
disappearance of the traditional full bandwidth fabrics in the next five
88
Broadcast Engineering
years vs. those who insist that LANs,
etc. just won't fulfill their distribution
needs. It is already apparent that the
industry is in transition toward the
use of non -real -time and compressed
material transfer, but at the same
time, size and sales of full -bandwidth
fabrics is actually increasing. It appears that full -bandwidth fabrics are
here to stay for the foreseeable future.
Making the right choice
Examine your present and future
requirements, based on:
Existing infrastructure - what are
its limitations and strengths? Build on
what works, change what doesn't.
Can the new control system work with
existing fabrics you may want to keep?
Future expansion needs - how
long do you plan to keep the new or
upgraded infrastructure? Ten years is
not unreasonable for the switching
fabric and control system. Plan for
expansion capability both in the actual fabric and the control system.
Emerging technologies - how can
they be applied to reduce cost or
enhance capability? What are the
market forces driving their emergence? Are they realistic or faddish?
What can you afford?
Prioritize your requirements. You
will most likely need to compromise
some of them based on the available
product offerings. It is unlikely that
one vendor will meet every one of
your requirements.
Research the available product offerings and the companies behind
them that fit your requirements.
How well does the product fit the
requirements? Utilize the free expertise of the vendor as a solution provider in clarifying the product vs.
requirements match. They may have
acceptable workarounds that you can
live with, or better yet, a better way
than yours to accomplish what you
want to do. Let them know what your
vision is. Usually, they have seen a
much broader range of applications
and solutions than you have. Observe how well the company works
with you in this process.
Is it likely the vendor will still he
around to support your future expansion needs? How well do they support
July 2000
their legacy and current products?
Look at their track record. Actively
investigate several user references.
Does the product comply with industry standards and regulatory requirements, such as SMPTE, UL,
FCC, and CE? Ask for proof of compliance /performance information if
you have any doubts. This is important, because the end user, not the
vendor, is responsible for compliance
to some of the regulatory standards.
Consider cost of ownership: product
reliability, facility real estate, power
consumption, warranty and /or maintenance contract options. How much
will it cost to expand the system in the
future? Be aware of the size breakpoints where input distribution and/
or output combiners become necessary. These will greatly affect the cost
of your system. Brand X may have
the lowest price for today's need, but
there may he a real shock later when
you want to expand your system,
because of the added distribution amplifier and /or combiner costs.
Document your requirements so that
your selected vendors can hid on
them. Pick your top two or three
vendors and seek competitive quotes
from each one.
You may need to recycle through the
process for the best fit of your objectives/requirements vs. your budget.
Make your purchase decision with
confidence, knowing you've done
your homework.
Making the right choices in your
facility infrastructure is vital to your
business and personal success. The
worst mistake you can make is rushing
into a purchase decision without understanding what you really want to
accomplish. Understanding and applying the available technology choices can seem overwhelming, but is
manageable and rewarding if the time
is wisely invested. Use whatever resources are available to you, especially free resources from vendors you are
considering purchases from. Once you
have done your homework, you should
be able to make your purchase decisions with confidence.
Barry Albright is a member of the technical
staff for Philips Broadcast. Media Networking and Control group. Salt Lake City. Utah.
Squeeze -back transitions
of live- video, stills or
animations for dynamic
junctions
8.00
After Hours
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nimated or still logos
p
pared on standard PC
O:2Jr
Now showing: Space Station Zero
and imported using
tel Media Conversion
Digital or analogue style clocks designed by your graphics
department and created using Oxtel Clock Builder software,
synchronised (or offset) to station timecode
oftware and Ethernet
Powerful master control
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channel- zapping world, you need to brand your station; to stand out from the crowd and
keep viewers coming back. Oxtel plc provides a suite of products to suit your application, whether
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In a
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Imagestore - Oxtel's unique RU Imagestore product houses
all the power you need for digital master control - no matter
how demanding. Imagestore provides switching, mixing and two
layers of keying from external sources or internally stored
I
logos, animations and station -clocks. With the enhanced
memory option, Imagestore even functions as a powerful slide file store and Imagestore's Squeezy DVE option allows squeeze back reveals of video or pre-prepared graphics. logos or stills.
And we haven't forgotten audio. Imagestore's Easysound option
provides full -group embedded -audio mixing. AES mixing and
provision for two voice -over inputs. Voice -overs can even be
stored within the unit on hard drive for fully automated
channels with the Easyplay option. Imagestore is fully automation
friendly and is supported by all major automation vendors.
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Presmaster - Presmaster is Oxtel's new presentation, master
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control surface with highly ergonomic, intuitive operation.
But here's the difference, one Presmaster panel can control
up to 200 Imagestores! So you can provide the look and
flexibility that only human intervention can give you. but share
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In a channel zapping world,
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New
Election
Live election -night
programming
presents a number of unique
challenges and opportunities for
broadcasters. No other programming,
except perhaps for the Olympics, is
quite as data -intensive. Elections
require broadcasters to effectively
communicate a torrent of numbers
from local, state, and national voting
districts
including not only the
results as they come in, but projected
exit -poll results from their own or
outside polling organizations. Neither is the challenge diminished for a
local station versus a national network, because the viewers of local
stations will typically expect to see
projections and returns reported on a
county -by- county and city -by -city basis, in addition to statewide races and
the results on a national level.
-
Election
90
night
programming
Broadcast Engineering
represents an opportunity to increase
viewership, particularly if the returns
are reported in a compelling manner.
But like the Olympics, it is an opportunity that comes along only once
every couple of years on average
such that networks and stations need
to weigh carefully the benefits of an
investment in special sets and graphics that will be used for one night and
then retired. With the costs of conventional sets constantly on the rise, it is
-
not surprising that
a
growing number
of broadcasters in the U.S. and abroad
are turning to virtual sets as a way to
create visually striking election night
coverage within the confines of a
reasonable budget. Part of the attraction is the ability to situate newscasters in a novel, imaginative virtual
environment. Even more important,
virtual sets are being used to help
July 2000
The 2000 elections are yet another opportunity for local stations and national
networks to garner increased viewership.
The clear and constant presentation of
poll numbers, candidate information and
results can put you ahead in the ratings
race. Images coutesy Orad.
communicate election statistics more
effectively, turning the numbers into
an integral, eye -catching part of the
setting.
Real -time updates and total
automation
Although virtual sets can and are
used for nearly any type of TV programming, what makes them especially attractive for election coverage is that the raw data of election
results can be directly imported and
automatically converted to 3D objects that materialize into the same
virtual space occupied by the program hosts. To make this happen
within the context of a live broadcast
requires a solution in which returns
from Voter News Services and other
online data sources can be fed into the
system and then dropped automati-
Producing
NP )4t/ s
is made in an instant.
the story should be just as fast.
Chances are, you've heard that digital technology can help produce news faster and easier. With an
SGI Media Server, the evolution to digital can happen just as fast. Our new video server distributes
media as data for browsing and sharing content over standard data networks, allowing you to
leverage your existing infrastructure for repurposing content. Plus, our multi- format, resolution independent solution delivers simultaneous input, serving, and play -out of video, eliminating the
well as 24x7 service and support -help make
need for independent devices. These advantages
To
learn
more
about SGI Media Commerce solutions, go to
your transition to digital quick and easy.
www.sgi.com /go /broadband/ or call 1- 800 -800 -7441.
-as
©1000 Silicon Graphics Inc All rights reserved
Sri
Graphics is
a
registered ,rad..e,.nI
nna .L.1. u
are trademarks. al Silicon Graphics Inc
Circle (139) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
>ri .c ana
SW
r.
ecna
I
unIn r.r(i.
cally into templates that have been
created in advance for immediate
broadcast to air as finished graphics.
Automating the import of election
data and transforming that data into
graphical video elements is a capability offered by a number of graphics
and character generator suppliers.
Such automation requires template
pages to be created in advance with
pre- defined field styles and positions
for subsequent completion by a remote control protocol. That is, the
graphics product must be programmed
to recognize and read the particular
election data. For the most part, election data is supplied as simple ASCII
files which the graphics products have
been programmed to read and build
into animated 3D images. Today's
products are extremely sophisticated, and with advance planning and
setup, in addition to the bar graphs
and/or charts that are rendered, the
products can automatically import
head shots of the candidates, state
maps, and other relevant graphics
from a video library. This kind of
complex setup obviously calls for
sophisticated templates, thought out
well in advance, and able to handle
multiple changes according to the
data feed.
Combining the automated 3D election results with virtual set technology can be accomplished in a couple of
different ways. The most straightforward solution is to integrate the onair graphics capability with the virtual set itself, a capability provided by
the leading virtual set suppliers. Using these systems, the 3D graphics for
election returns are created as part of
the set design and expressed as icons,
bar charts, pie charts or other representations that are updated automatically when called to air.
Alternatively, a stand -alone on -air
graphics system can be used downstream to create graphics and receive
updated information from the wire
services, which are then switched to a
virtual set system. Because virtual set
gear is widely available for hire, the
first alternative will appeal to stations that may not have invested in
AM VIDEO
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Combining traditional and
virtual sets
Another alternative for election night
coverage is to combine conventional
set and virtual set technology in the
same scene, which provides a number
of the benefits of a virtual environment at less than the cost of a specially
designed conventional set for election
coverage or even an entry-level virtual
set system. In this type of application,
one or more "virtual walls" are introduced into a conventional set and are
used to display election statistics, candidate images, and remote and satellite video feeds. There are election
systems available that use lightweight
panels mounted in any conventional set
in virtually any indoor or outdoor environment. Because camera information,
and information about the panel's position and orientation, is extracted
from the video feed itself using pattern
recognition, handheld cameras can be
used freely and even the panel itself
can be mobile or handheld. Knowing
the panel's exact position and orientation, the system maps any desired
secondary video signal (DI or analog)
on to the particular panel in real time,
transforming it into a virtual video
screen. Graphic stills or animated election data charts, converted to a video
signal, may be used as the video screen
source. As a result, virtual elements can
be placed in the same scene as a reporter
reporting live from campaign headquarters
or on -site at a local precinct, for example.
Of course, virtual walls and animated
graphics based on fast-changing data
have numerous applications beyond
election night broadcasts. These include
btsyt{ipp
AL4,4,
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Circle (138) on Free Into Card
92
the computer hardware necessary to run
an advanced 3D on -air graphics program
or those which prefer having
integrated graphics, virtual sets, and
chromakeying all within a single
system. Downstream solutions, which
can work well for stations with a
seasoned on -air graphics department,
can be combined with complete virtual set systems or with add -on products
that enable a virtual set capability.
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
800 -251 -4224
Tel 530 -274 -2048
Fax 530 -274 -9442
sporting events, home shopping channels, and real -time displays of financial information, and others.
Matthew Straeh
New York City.
is
president of Orad, Inc..
DPS-475 /DAS
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°alme and yw.rolkc aeons s
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New Products &
Applied Technology
Vibrint digital news production applications
BY ROLAND BOUCHER
broadcast industry has finally
reached the point where technology
purchasers are no longer at the mercy
of manufacturers who sell expensive
and networks, we are today entering
the third wave of broadcast technology.
Using off -the-shelf PCs, networks and
and unnecessarily complicated pro-
We are today entering the third wave of
The
prietary solutions. More powerful
computer solutions built on open, off -
of
-4X transfers when
connected to tape decks, servers or
routers with this feature.
he capable
1
broadcast technology.
the -shelf and standards -based technologies are now available.
Broadcast technology evolution
Broadcast news has found it difficult to balance cost- effective, mass market computer solutions with the
requirement for dealing with massive
amounts of video data. The industry
experienced the first of three waves of
technological change in the mid 1970s, when the advent of portable
video cassette recorders, edit controllers and digital TBCs brought about
the change from film production to
tape. As digital video compression
technologies improved in the mid- to
late- 1990s, some manufacturers
introduced systems that relied on
multiple proprietary elements. This
was necessary because the standard
technologies of the day were not
powerful or fast enough to handle the
demands of broadcast news production. Many of the proprietary solutions were designed around large and
expensive central server systems. At the
same time, much work was done to
determine acceptable levels of compression and to establish standards for
compression. Today, MPEG and DV/
DVCPRO compression formats are
routinely used for news acquisition and
contribution. The formats used are
similar enough that they may all be
processed through the same networks
and CODECs, greatly improving the
economics of system design.
As a result of advances in standard
off-tape data rates, drive capacities
94
Broadcast Engineering
storage it is now possible to construct
a third -wave digital news production
system that rivals the performance of
the central server systems of the second wave, but at a price point that
reflects the use of mass -market computer tools and technologies.
A standards -based solution
The Vibrint product line of the Grass
Valley Group offers an example of
such a third -wave solution. The system
is composed of individual PC workstations with Windows NT applications
designed for feed capture, editing and
playback. Each workstation is a standard off-the -shelf Intel Pentium PC
running the NT operating and file
system. The system supports standard
storage solutions and standard TCP/IP
file transfer and gigabit Ethernet networking protocols. Each workstation
is equipped with standard SDI and
analog inputs and outputs.
The workstations currently support
MPEG -2 elementary stream video
compression. MPEG -2 files may he
transferred via network to the Grass
Valley Group Profile or another video server. The application has the
ability to search for clips and sequences and pull them from MPEG
Profiles on the network. By the end of
the year, a new off -the-shelf CODEC
board will offer simultaneous
support for both MPEG -2 and
DV/DVCPRO. There will also be an
optional SDTI/SDTI -CP I/O that will
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Vibrint applications include an
interactive feed capture system, a nonlinear hard news editing application
and a low -cost, manual news playback system. As an alternative to
the Vibrint applications, broadcasters can choose to interface with the
Profile XP Media Platform for news
ingest and playback, as well as
other video servers.
With support for both MPEG and
DV/DVCPRO, the workstations allow
for integration with a wide range of
broadcast systems and equipment. To
that end, Grass Valley Group and
Vibrint have played an active role in
proposing standards for file transfers
and metadata. As these and others are
adopted and broadcast products evolve
into more of a third -wave, standard
computer model, broadcasters will see
the cost curve decline dramatically
and performance increase.
Benefits of standard technologies
.\ standards- based solution offers
significant benefits to broadcasters
beginning the move to computer-based
news production, including:
Greater flexibility: A system based
on a standard platform offers the
flexibility of choosing from a variety
of applications that run on that platform and running multiple applications on a single system.
Simplified maintenance and easier
upgrading: As technology advances
and new products become available,
they can he integrated more easily. Off the -shelf systems parts and components
are available from many sources ill
addition to the company that originall
supplied them, making it easier and
less expensive to repair and upgrade.
Distinct cost advantages: As Consumer and industrial use of P(:s grows,
the price point of standard technology
drops tremendously, as well as the Costs
of corresponding peripherals.
Easier integration of new capabilities: I raditionally, the broadcast news
environment functioned as a loose collection of isolated work groups with
discrete, vet parallel, tasks such as
story writing and video editing. The
third -wave workstations bridge the gap
by providing links between video production and text -based systems such
as Asstar and I:I'NS on a single P(:.
Later this vear, we will also see low -
resolution, software -only applications
offering journalist desktop browsing
and editing functions. The new applications will run on the existing Windows NT desktop integrated with the
newsroom Computing system. Because
they will not require spe-
cialized video hoards,
many broadcasters will
he able to rollout the new
capabilities without in
costing in new hardware.
An alternative to
central server solutions
udo you will find
second -wave digital news
production solutions in
operation. They will typ-
ically have proprietary
Advances in standard technologies make it possible to
computer elements. Nlost
create a broadcast news production system, such as
of these systems also use Vibrint NewsEdit, entirely with off- the -shelf products.
proprietary file and operAs yin! move your news production
ating systems, as well as proprietary
networks, and are not truly open and system to current computer -based
interchangeable. Nlany rely on now technologies, make sure you invest in a
system) that truly capitalizes or and
obsolete processing chips with no ability
delivers all of the benefits of open and
to upgrade, custom designed network
protocols and a custom tile system. If standards -based technologies.
For more in /i,r,natiun on 'i'ibrint's
the system is truly open, you should
digital news production applications.
be able to manage your media files
on your l'(:, with the ability to copy circle (-I5i) on the Free Info Card.
and send them over a network just as
Roland Boucher is director of nnarkeLnt for
you would with a Word document.
Grass Valley (:runt, .\'erra Products.
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multiple references. In fact, no more hassle, period: The tube's easy
plug -in installation means you don't have to remove the cavity. Making
your life simpler from ordering to operation. The bottom line is our tubes
save energy. Yours. For more information, e-mail us at infoatctus.com
6' THOMSON COMPONENTS
AND TUBES Corp.
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Broadcast Engineering
95
Applied Technology
Pinnacle's PDS 9000: Integrating switcher and DVE technologies
BY PAUL TURNER
Production switchers as we know
them have been around since the
early 1960s. Using state -of- the -art
analog circuitry, they evolved over
approximately 20 years into highly
complex video compositing engines.
As their level of complexity grew, so
did the difficulty of maintaining them.
In the mid -1980s, digital production
switchers started to make their entrance.
By and large, these were merely digital
copies of their analog counterparts. With
the high cost of digital circuitry at that
time and the enormous power consumption of TTL chips, only the
wealthiest customers could afford to
purchase and run these digital switch ers. While the price has definitely
dropped, production switchers today
have added few new features to those
of their analog ancestors.
DVEs are a more recent development. They grew from the technology
of early frame synchronizers and were
digital devices from the start. Based on
the idea of storing an entire field or frame
of video and then manipulating the
physical location of each pixel in the
stored image, they opened up a world
of possibilities for effects in television.
Being so different in the basic nature
of their functions
the production
switcher to mix together elements to
provide an entire look and the DVE to
provide enhanced special effects
the
-
-
two devices have evolved separately.
Once production switchers became
digital in nature, however, this seemed
to be an artificial boundary. It has
long been the dream of manufacturers
to produce a device that integrates
the operator needs them, because they
are tied up in other areas of the switcher.
Integration of M/E and DVE processing
The PUS 9000 is the first switcher to
truly integrate DVE functionality into
The M/E processing is the DVE processing.
the functionality of switcher and DVE
into one processing engine. The PDS
9000 is the first production switcher
to truly achieve this goal.
Methods of integration
Nlany manufacturers integrate DVEs
into their production switchers by
connecting stand -alone DVE systems
into the video path of the switcher
through the use of aux buses, effects
send systems, etc. The only real integration offered here is that the external DVE
can be controlled from the switcher's
control panel. The two devices remain
physically separate entities, and much
of the potential power of the combined
system is lost. Moreover, this "box
within a box" architecture usually
dictates that the number of DVE channels within the switcher be limited, so
some form of delegation is required in
the switcher setup. This means that DVE
channels may not he available when
its video path. The NI/E processing is
the DVE processing. This is due to the
system's incredible "building block"
ASIC. Pinnacle's proprietary video processing technology allows M/E functions and DVE functions to be combined in a single chip, the K2. K2
includes mixers, color correctors, key ers, filters, address generators and interpolators in a single building block. This
building block is fundamental to the
compact size and low power consumption of the system. (The video processor
chassis draws approximately 400W
with all options installed.) Every M/E
in the system is equipped with three full function DVEs one on each keyer and
one for the main transition engine. The
user never has to delegate a DVE to a
keyer the keyer already has one.
System architecture
he general architecture of the PDS
I
9000
is
quite traditional in overview
(see Figure 1). Serial digital signals are
System Outputs
4-1
I
4
System Inputs
O
Boards
44
40
M E
woo essor
M E
r
%PT Mami.
M E
processor
IM
E2,
4=4
4-4
1-4
M E
pmcessor
IPGM PST OBE!
Figure 1. In the PDS 9000, serial digital signals are processed in the eight I/O boards
and routed through the crosspoint matrix to three identical M/E processors.
96
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
received, deserialized and equalized
by the system's eight 110 boards, each
providing processing for five inputs
and three outputs. The input signals
are then fed to a crosspoint matrix,
which routes them to the M/E processors. There are three identical M/E
processors in the system one for each
M/E and one for PGM/PST/DSK. All
processing associated with an individual M/E resides on the M/E card itself.
This leads to simplified maintenance
requirements - in the event of a failure in
an M/E system, the entire M/E is simply
DVEs operate on both fill and key
signals, in 4:4:4:4 nude for the highest
signal fidelity.
The two background signals, slung
lyith the two key elements, are combined in the final mix /DVF. stage.
This DVF. is used purely for transition
effects, allowing the user to perform
DVF. transitions in exactly the sanie
way as they perform wipes. Finally,
the output signals are passed back to
the crosspoint.
Inputs from XPT
Keyl
114
Key
Color correction
Keyer DVE
Key2
Color correction
KeyerDVE
Key2
Output to XPT
Background A
Color correction
Transition Mixer
DVE
114
Background B
Color correction
This architecture truly combines
DVE processing with traditional NI /F.
processing. The DVEs do not use the
Figure 2. PDS 9000 M/E architecture. Key and background signals in the M/E pass
through color correction circuits and are combined in the final mix/DVE stage.
/Os of the system - they are simply
part of the NI /F. itself.
Through the use of advanced signal
processing technology, the PDS 9000
dispenses with the idea of picture transformation being separate from mixing,
keying and wiping. By placing this
technology deep in the video path of the
mix/effects, the PDS 9000 allows the
I
replaced lvith a new board. Boards
may even be swapped within the system tu assist in mure complicated troubleshooting tasks. Finally, the video outputs
of the NUE boards are sent back through
the crosspoint matrix to the I/O cards.
Figure 2 is a simplified block diagram
of the PDS 9000's NI /E architecture.
M/E architecture
of the four buses in the NI /F.
pass through a color corrector circuit.
This is used for both input pros amp
Each
functions and, in the case of the keyer
paths, for YIJV and optional RGB
color correction functions. The A and
background signals (PGNI and PST
in the PGM1 /PST /DSK system) then
pass on to the final mix /DVE stage.
The key signals are passed to the
kever /DVE portion of the MIE. If the
DVE is not required, it is simply bypassed and adds no delay. It the DVE is
required on an individual key bus, it is
enabled before the key is passed on to
the final mix/DVE stage. Note that the
B
user creative freedom.
For more information on Pinnacle's
PUS 9000, circle (4 S21 on Free I n/i; Cards.
l'anl Turner is brua,lc,nst business manager
for Pinnacle .Srstens ur .1lr,nntain View. (:A,
0
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Broadcast Engineering
97
Applied Technolog
Grass Valley Group's Kalypso video production center
BY MARK NARVESON
Today's live and post- production
environments are increasing in complexity, placing heavier demands on
production equipment. Customers who
want to maximize production value and
need for extensive post production.
Finally, technical directors increasingly
need to have control over all the elements of
revenue streams are using existing installed
Customers face four major challenges as they
equipment with varying degrees of success.
Customers face tour major challenges as
they plan the production flow for new
programming.
First, today's sophisticated look requires more graphics, animations and
effects to be on -air simultaneously. These
range from traditional graphics to newer looks that include identification logos,
ticker tapes and sidebar animations. Second, some productions require more
mix/effects (NYE) banks to pre -configure
composited shots for the director to
view and make course corrections before
airing. In general, more M/E banks
means more directorial choice and
smoother production flow. Third, customers want customized feeds for
multiple usages or end users, each with
customized graphics and without the
live production, including VTRs and DDRs,
video buses for such applications as
video in wipe border, masking from a
video source and secondary background
transitions. Also available are up to six
plan the production flow for new programming.
without taking attention away from the
main switcher control and monitor wall.
It was with these challenges in mind
that the new Kalypso Video Production
Center from the Grass Valley Group
was developed.
channels of internal DVE; a 100- frame,
eight- output frame store with integral
hard drive storage; and animation
capability. These features allow customers to reduce or eliminare their
dependency on external DVE channels,
still stores and logo animators.
Increasingly complex production value
la today's production environnent,
there is a strong need for more video
inputs, more keyers, more storage for
still frames or animations and more
flexibility in the output system. The
Kalypso Video Production Center offers
up to 80 CCIR -60I compatible inputs
to accommodate large numbers of
camera, VTR and other
sources without the
need to switch external
router destinations
during
a live program.
Up to 46 programmable
outputs can he configured to provide any
desired set of M/E or
auxiliary bus outputs.
A large number of
auxiliary buses can be
used for such applications as monitor wall
control directly from
the main switcher panel,
in some cases reducing
the number of facility
Need for more M/Es
Many applications require more
M/Es than current production switchers
can offer. For example, in sports programming one M/E may be devoted
to an ISO feed for recording the clean
program with the game clock useful
in replay applications. Directors may
also want to see four to six camera
and/or VTR sources with the correct
graphics simultaneously to have more
options to take to air, rather than the
one to three M/Es usually available. This
is useful in news where a director may
want to see both anchor shots, the weather chroma key, the live remote, the
sports desk and the satellite feed
all
ready to go to air with appropriate
-
graphics. Kalypso's new Double Take Split M/E technology allows
any or all mix /effects banks to be
divided into two separate M /Es with
independent transition mixers, EMEN1 Effects Memory systems and
preview outputs. The power of eight M/Es
is now available from a four-M/E system.
router destinations
into the control room.
Each MIE features four
The Grass Valley Group Kalypso Video Production Center
offers new DoubleTake Split M/E technology, allowing
any or all mix/effects banks to be divided into two
separate M /Es to allow more directorial choice.
98
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
keyers for more graphics layering capability,
as
well
as
two utility
Multiple distribution streams
Clean teed systems are used to differentiate between two or more clients,
distribution streams or purposes. For
example, a taped version of an event
A Full House of Transmitters
We wish to thank everyone who visited our booth
at NAB 2000 and experienced the zany exploits of
r
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i-i
Helga and Dr. Biterror and "DTV Science." At this
very successful show, we showcased ADC's comprehensive line of transport and transmission solutions
for the broadcast industry, including our "full
house" of analog and DTV transmitter products.
With nearly twenty years' experience in the design and manufacture of
television transmitters, we continually strive to build a product line that is
responsive to the needs of broadcasters. The Innovator"M Series of high power solid state transmitters is available in power levels up to 120kW or
60kW digital using the latest LDMOS transistors. If your application requires
an IOT, our Visionary"M Series of High Power UHF transmitters at 420kW
analog or 180kW digital power levels is the card to play. ADC's hand includes
the 800 Series of low and medium power transmitters, available with either
solid -state or Diacrode amplifiers at power levels to 10kW analog or 5kW
digital. With so many choices, you can bet that we have a product to meet your
application.
Whether your needs include DTV transmitters, digital routers, signal management equipment or patching products, ADC provides the solutions to build
your digital infrastructure. For additional information about our full line of
broadcast products, please visit our web site at www.adc.com /broadcast or
call (800) 215 -2614.
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EQUIPMENT
SOFTWARE
SERVICES
'
Technology issues
Implementing these technologies
is complex and must take into consideration key elements of a transmission network that was designed
for voice traffic. There are also
constraints within the video signals
being transported which must be
addressed. Addressing the following issues makes local area and
wide area networks feasible:
Jitter. Jitter is cumulative in nature and therefore aggregates in larger networks. Increasing signal jitter
leads to reduced noise margin, which
in turn produces higher error rates
and less reliable communications.
Jitter tolerance, jitter attenuation and
intrinsic jitter characteristics are important considerations when selecting terminal equipment.
SONET/SDH pointer adjustment.
SONET /SDH networks use a synchronizing mechanism called pointer
adjustment that can result in the insertion or removal of several bytes of
information to compensate for clock
drift between terminal equipment.
This can lead to video transport problems such as loss of video synchronization and image tearing unless appropriate steps are taken in the design
of the transport terminal equipment.
Pathological signals. The SDI
signal was not originally specified
for fiber optic transmission, leading
to conditions that can generate a long
string of ones or zeroes. These signals can lead to loss of signal lock
at the transmitter or receiver. Additional signal processing overcomes
this problem, but any method used
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102
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Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
sr J7WE. JJ:i
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must be reversible, so that the end
user signal is identical to the transmitted signal.
Optical budget. SONET /SDH
networks have tightly specified optical
characteristics. Local systems using
fiber directly at 270Mb /s must also
he carefully designed. The distance a
signal can be carried on any fiber
network depends principally on the
optical power launched at the transmitter, the attenuation and dispersion
characteristics of the fiber, and the
sensitivity of the optical receiver.
Many companies offer fiber transport products designed only for short haul or intrastudio applications. These
products are generally not designed
to meet stringent performance and
reliability requirements for deployment in carrier networks.
Network management. The efficient operation of large networks
requires comprehensive network management facilities. The SONET /SDH
network itself offers a network management system, so the use of this
network as a back -bone holds additional attraction. However, the terminal equipment management system needs to be integrated so that
monitoring, fault isolation and re-
configuration of the network can be
quickly and reliably performed.
ATM or IP Networks. ATM and IP
transport technologies offer some attraction to carriers since they can
potentially transport mixed traffic
services on a common network. However, there are some specific problems
such as the potential for differential
delays for real -time video signals.
Virtual Studio Networks has the
potential to change the way movies
and television are produced by per-
mitting collaboration communities
to he spread across the globe. Production effectiveness can dramatically
increase. The same benefits that uncompressed digital video transport
networks bring to the production community can also be extended to the
broadcast community.
For more information on Video Products Group's Virtual Studio Network,
circle (454) on the Free Info Card.
Steven Sturouon is vice president of Video
Products Group Inc.
Applied Technology
Video Product Group's Virtual Studio Networks
BY STEVEN L. STOROZUM
In the world of television technology,
change tends to be revolutionary;
witness the advent of digital television
and new media. However, human
nature prefers an evolutionary approach to change, and the human side
of the television industry is clamoring
for stability in the sea of changing
technology. One of the most human
processes in television is the editing
process. Technology has been rapidly advancing in this area, but editing
is still done by collaboration between
the editor and other artists involved
in the production.
One challenge in editing is gathering and considering the appropriate
input given time and budget constraints. The approval process can be
repetitious and long. A new editing
tool, the Virtual Studio Network, has
the potential to make the process
smoother and more effective.
Services exist which provide the
feeds needed to connect studios to
post facilities and enable real -time,
contribution -quality video /audio
editing with the required data signals.
Embedding audio and data maintains absolute synchronization on all
switched in and out at will or on
schedule, gathering all long -haul interfaces in the central office.
Uncompressed long -haul interfaces
are possible through the use of synchronous optical network (SONET)/
synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)
Application examples
Applying a nctorked system to
the editing process allows the client
to interact with the editor while
both are removed from the actual
content. Until now, problems with
video quality, timecode and audio
synchronization have prevented the
application of the system.
Quality levels in editing need to
Video Product Group's VPG-8000.
signals. Since the video signal is
uncompressed, video processing is in
real time with no delay between the
server or tape deck and the edit console or the client. This enables the use
of a shared storage device across a
Editing is still done by collaboration between
the editor and the other artists involved
in the production.
he very high, as approvals are done
on final output from the edit suite.
Consequently, long- distance trans-
port of contribution /masteringquality video signals is required,
wide region and makes editing more
efficient since sound, picture, special
effects and other editing processes
information.
can share the cost of storage.
Permitting any user to connect to
any other user on the network allows
true collaboration on demand. Long distance system connections can be
100
July 2000
along with the accurate, synchronized transfer of control and sound
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
and dense wavelength division multi-
plexing (DWDM) technologies.
SONET /SDH transport systems are
currently provided throughout the
world, delivering bandwidth in multiples of 155Mb /s between central
offices and from a central office to
customer premises. DWDM permits
40 or more independent signals to
share a single fiber, with each signal having a bandwidth as great as
10Gó /s. DWDM greatly increases
backbone bandwidth for voice, data
and video applications.
When uncompressed video transport
is combined with embedding technology, long- distance collaborative editing
implemented. As
the cost of high -bandwidth SONET/
SDH circuits is driven down by the
advent of DWDM technology, this system becomes increasingly affordable.
is feasible and easily
may have different graphics than the
live broadcast version or a live production may be simultaneously broadcast with graphics in two different
languages. Clean feed systems typically offer customization over one to
four keys, but this is often not enough.
The fallback position is to utilize a
second production facility with a second
crew - doubling the control room
expense. Kalypso's FlexiKey Programmable Clean Feed technology gives
producers the ability. to fully customize
two program streams for two different
clients. Automatic key substitution
offers the ability to automatically bring
up a Spanish graphic on the secondary
output when the corresponding English
graphic is taken to air on the primary
output. One technical director can
easily produce both programs on one
production switcher.
More control from one location
Icchnic.tl directors are often called
upon to control more on -air devices
such as VTRs and DDRs, requiring
more powerful device control lea-
tures at their fingertips. This may be as
simple as a customized button panel
that plays VTRs to air at the appropriate time. \lore sophisticated configu-
from the Grass Valley Group. More
advanced operations can be added to
the mix as the technical director becomes
more familiar with the capabilities of
technical director can easily produce both
programs on one production switcher.
One
rations may employ an auxiliary control panel that can set cue points, jog
forward or backward and manage DDR
clip stacks. The Kalypso system's main
control panel features a device control
window next to the program/preset
bank, allowing access to Profile video
clips as well as VTRs. Clip stacks can be
managed to auto cue the next clip
once the current clip is taken off air. In
addition, the user can choose to automatically play a clip when the corresponding device is taken to air.
The Kalypso also keeps the same
look and feel as traditional Grass
Valley Group production switchers,
minimizing the training period for those
familiar with other digital switchers
the system. This, coupled with integral
control of external devices such as the
Krystal and GVeous digital effects engines and SMS -7000 router destinations result in the most powerful production system on the market today.
The Kalypso Video Production Center is offered in a four-M/E version, as
well as a new two-NUE version ideal
for small- to mid -size live, post and
remote truck production that was introduced at NAB2000.
For more information nn Grass Valley
Group's Kal pso. circle (-151) on the Free
lm/i) Card.
product marketing
manager u% rideo production systems for
Grass Palley Group.
,\mark ::.\arresou is the
When you need support, you need it fast. At Thomson Components
and Tubes we make sure you get it. In addition to our sales force, we
also deploy a technical team that provides full support with timely
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In
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::
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Broadcast Engineering
99
World Wide Audio, without leaving your studio.
Rocket Network takes audio production beyond the boundaries of studio walls, making connections
that let you work with anyone, anywhere, anytime. It's like a global multi- track.
On-line
t
Flexibility.
Rocket Network uses the Internet to allow professionals
to work together on audio productions without having
to be in the same physical space. Instead of shipping
tapes from place to place or renting high- capacity
phone lines, you log into your Internet Recording
Studio, where Rocket Network handles the details
of passing your parts to others and vice versa.
That leaves you free to concentrate on capturing
the perfect take, using your own local system to record
and edit. Whenever you're ready for others to hear
your audio or MIDI parts, you simply post your
work to the Internet Recording Studio, automatically
updating everyone else's session.
Full Audio
Professional Tools.
Through partnerships with leading audio developers,
Rocket Network is bringing RocketPower" to the
professional tools you already use, starting with
Steinberg Cubase VST and Emagic Logic Audio.
A multi -level permission system lets you control
access to your Internet Recording Studio. And
our RocketControl" client offers built -in chat
capabilities, so everyone in the session can
chime in with feedback as the project takes shape.
The Rocket Network Web site offers additional
resources and services for audio collaboration.
Fidelity.
With Rocket Network, there's no compromise in
audio quality -the system handles files in a vast
range of formats and compression levels, all the
way up to uncompressed 24 bit /96kHz. And you
:ion't need access to a super -fast connection; DSL
ar Ti is great, but you can also work productively
aver a humble 28.8 dial -up. The system supports
nultiple user -defined presets for posting and
-eceiving, and handles all conversions, letting
.:.veryone participate in their own preferred format.
that means you can conduct a session in a speedy,
ow bit -rate "draft" mode, then move on while the
nal parts are posted in the background at full -fidelity.
EMIT'
A Powerful
.
+
s
..
Connection.
Rocket Network adds a new level of freedom to
creative collaboration, allowing you to choose your
team -singers, musicians, voice -talent, composers,
engineers, producers -based on who's right for
the project, wherever they happen to be. With full
fidelity, plus anytime, anywhere productivity,
Rocket Network is a powerful new connection
to the world of audio production.
Escape the boundaries of your studio walls.
Register at
www.rocketnetwork.com
adree code: RN21
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emaglc
=4.Eapnanix
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rights reserved © Rocket Network, Inc. 2000. All other product and company
nies are T. or ® of their respective holders.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
K
Technology In Transition
Production switchers: Mixing pictures and metaphors
BY JOHN LUFF
Herbert Zettl would be extremely
jealous of the options available
to the program production professional of today. Zettl wrote the definitive textbook used for generations
studying television production.
Among his most creative ideas was a
method to do a "wipe," using a single
camera and a mirror carefully placed
to show a second set when it was
with multiple effects banks, chroma
keyers, memory recall systems, innovative layering techniques and more
in a. decade long push to wring the
most out of analog switcher technology. In the 1970s, digital processing
became possible and for a time the
focus of producers looked towards
emerging digital effects, innovated
by the SqueeZoom from Vital. Switching has never been the same since.
That advent of digital processing
pushed in front of the camera. Imagine the care needed to be sure you
weren't showing the public the production crew instead of the second
set. Remember, this would have been
live and in black and white. Zettl had
plenty of other creative ideas that
survived as common operational practices for decades.
Zettl would be truly amazed at
many of the common video mixing
tools available to every segment of
the market. The recent maturation of
computer-generated special effects
would have been unthinkable, and
even digital effects would have been
hard to imagine. Live television remains a challenging arenà for professionals, and in some ways even more
creative, though perhaps less exacting than moving mirrors required.
The complicated nature of on -air
production switching used for news,
special events and sports broadcasts
has continually pushed manufacturers to new heights. When the first
GVG 1400 solid -state production
switchers became available (one is
on display in the lobby of the GVG
headquarters for those of you who
have never seen one), the effect on
live production was immediate and
predictable. If effects, limited to simple wipes and keys, as well as additive and non -additive mixes, could be
done in such a stable platform then
how much more could he pushed into
the technology. GVG, Vital, CDL,
Ampex and other manufacturers of
that era moved the bar ever higher
live market. Analog production switch ers were endowed with literally hundreds of intricately interrelated adjustments that had to be considered in the
correct order to achieve adequate performance. As digital technology became available, reliable manufacturers were able to recast the assembly
process. Instead of burn -in and labor intensive tests and final adjustments at
the factory, it became possible to burn
in the digital processors without assembling into a complete system, and
final test has become essentially a
programming and performance verification process. The result has been to
104
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
allow vastly more complex capabilities for the same money, or alternatively prices that were unthinkable even a
few years ago for capabilities that are
quite remarkable.
In the last year even the complicated 3D computations and filtering that
are required for digital effects manipulations have moved into the switcher itself, allowing seamless control
over layering and transformations of
three dimensional space. Transitions
Digital techniques have become so powerful
and cost effective that analog designs no
longer have a place in the live market.
pioneered by Vital allowed Zettl's
creative visualizations to be accomplished in the quiet of the control
room without complicated staging.
Over the next generation, digital effects matured and digital processing
moved into the mainframe of the
production switcher.
Today, it is indeed hard to buy an
analog production switcher because
digital techniques have become so
powerful and cost effective that analog
designs no longer have a place in the
between layers or scenes now can
include special transformations as a
normal course of production, without
large price or flexibility trade -offs.
At the same time the increase in
capability of new production switch ers has spawned a rapid increase in
the complexity of on -air product.
Animated graphics are now the norm
in sports production, and news programs have evolved into a production signature look that would he
difficult to reproduce with technology available just 10 years ago. We
have in fact entered the third genera-
tion of digital production switcher
hardware from some manufacturers.
Ruch of the new capability in digital production switchers is driven by
the integration of digital signal processing technology and custom -designed arrays, which allow the complexity to be reduced to a set of
programmable "picture modifiers."
For instance, the introduction in the
1980s of infinite re -entry to analog
production switchers became possible
only with considerable complexity.
The same capability in digital switchers
1B:21:35
LA TV
transmitter engineer Matt Stevenson used to work late, very late.
His station then fitted EEV IOTs supplied by Marconi Applied Technologies.
Now Matt gets to sleep and his family has a life.
EEV IOTs have already achieved millions
i
of trouble
free operational hours.
Marconi's new high power plug-in IOTs mean that Matt will need to
spend less time on site.
"4.
Analog and Digital
Unrivalled Support
Marconi Applied Technologies
Long Life
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US: Tel 1 800 342 5338 Fax (914) 592 5148 Email info @eevinc.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
your finest hour:"
matter of software as
system architecture. Some manufacturers have licensed sophisticated
chroma key capability as software
for incorporation into switcher designs.
Some manufacturers have implemented their designs using
general- purpose computer platforms and
off- the -shelf operating
systems like Winis as much a
with dozens of pins. Today, you can
install
a
single Category
5
cable to
control one manufacturer's control
panel. It is possible to buy a second
control panel on one manufacturer's
design and then assign part of the
have shown this concept with identical
operator interfaces for either electron-
particularly appealing
when a control room might be installed for SDTV today and converted
in the future for HDTV use. It is even
possi ble to switch between formats without disrupting the
operator's interface,
ics frame. This is
which is intriguing
when considering
system evolution
implications.
It is valuable to
note that one European manufacturer
dows NT. Others
have chosen to use
real -time operating
systems like VXWorks.
Neither choice should
he viewed as inherently flawed, for it is
the integrated whole
that must he reviewed. At the risk
of overstating the
obvious, there is no
such thing as bug
free software. Every
manufacturer has
suffered some birthing pains with new
hardware and software in production
switchers. The most
has implemented I/O
capability that will
accept not only all
variations of HDTV
carried in SMPTE
292M (1080i/30,
1080p/24 and 720p/
60), but also 480p/
60 and allegedly
480i/30. I say allegedly because I have vet
to see it working,
but the design seems
of this encapable
Increasingly sophisticated production capabilities for news and sports.
important question
once accomplished with great difficulty on analog production switchers.
hancement. If other
can
be
done
new
models.
here
is
easily
with
digital
switching
Shown
a Ross
to ask the switcher
manufacturers imSynergy switcher at WKOW in Madison, WI. Photo courtesy of Ross Video.
salesman is whether
plement similar debugs cause either the loss of output
switcher to each control panel. This signs, clients will certainly win.
video or potentially force a "reboot"
has appeal where simple productions
One recent design implements two
that will take considerable time and may originate from a second studio, operating modes that allow either
certainly affect the output picture. At at the same time as a more complex conventional re -entry style compositing
or extended layering. This concept is
not new, having first been used in the
The
nature of on
1980s in designs from GVG and Abekas
-air production
complicated
switching used for news, special events and
sports broadcasts has continually pushed
manufacturers to new heights.
least one manufacturer has thought
ahead and provided a cuts -only bus
that can operate independently in the
event the main switcher requires a
production in the main control room.
One electronics frame with two users
"three finger salute." While clearly
this is an admission of fallibility, it is
a refreshing admission.
Remember the old analog switcher
you installed in 1985? The control
panel used multiple connectors each
very appealing. To be fair, Abekas
first implemented this idea in the 1980s.
Recently, the landscape of production
switchers expanded with a crop of four
mix effects designs, as well as families
of switchers that include standard definition (525 and 625) designs, as well as
HDTV variations. Two manufacturers
106
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
is
(both products are no longer available).
These designs were intended for post
production, and are still used today.
It's pretty incredible when you consider the cost of current designs is
lower (in almost all cases) than similarly
sized and equipped analog designs.
Modern designs are providing new
capabilities, higher reliability, freedom
from drift, and the highest possible
picture quality, yet prices in deflated
dollars are down considerably. Seems
like digital switching has moved into
the mainstream to stay.
John Lull is president o/ Synergistic Technologies Inc. in Canonsburg. PA.
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Circle (146) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
'
Call or see www.bswusa.com
for det.
New Products
COMPUTER -BASED SWITCHER
Lighthouse Digital Systems Navigator:
VISUAL EFFECTS SOFTWARE
PC
control program
Discreet Logic combustion *: features include keying, motion
giving users control of switching capabilities; functions of the
system include multivendor switcher control, multiswitcher path-
tracking and color correction tools, as well as a fast caching architecture; allows users access to a unified paint, animation and 3D
finding, programmable remote control panels; also, a Java -based
virtual panel running on multiple platforms that can simulate the
appearance of hardware panels or be configured by users to fit
compositing environment; it also supports Adobe Photoshop and
After Effects plug- ins;800- 869 -3504; 514 -272 -0525; fax: 800305- 6442; www.discreet.com
their needs; 800-323 -8289; 530-272 -8240; fax: 530- 272 -8248;
www.lighthousedigitol.com
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MULTINEDIADISPLAY
Princeton Graphics AR3.6T: new display
in the ARCADIA T-
series is a 4:3 direct -view 36-inch CRT; also supports NTSC video,
480p (DTV) and 1080i and 720p HDTV formats, as well as VGA,
SVGA and XGA PC and Macintosh graphics; other built -in features
include an NTSC tuner, a line doubler and a 12W x
2
amplifier; 800-
747 -6249; 714- 751 -8405; fax: 714 -751 -5736;
www.princetongraphics.com
Circle (357) on Free Into Card
SIDE ADDRESS CONDENSER MIC
AKG C20008: features
a
preset cardioid polar pattern, high
sensitivity and low self- noise, as well as
a
switchable 10dB pad;
STUDIO EDITING VTR
also, microphone comes with accessories such as an SA41 stand
Panasonic AJ -D960: allows 25Mb /s and 50Mb /s recording
adapter and an optional H100 spider shock mount system; C2000B's
and playback in 525- and 625 -line standards; records up to 92
frequency response goes down to 10Hz; 615 -360 -0499; fax:
minutes in DVCPR050 or 184 minutes in DVCPRO modes and
plays back consumer DVCAM and DV cassettes; other features
included advanced digital slow motion and audio scrub
615 -360 -0275; www.akg -acoustics.com
capabilities for frame-accurate machine -to- machine or edit controller -based editing; DVCPR050 mode features provide
4:2:2 signal processing;800- 528 -8601; 323- 436 -3500; fax: 323-
Circle (354) on Free Into Card
I NTE R N ETV I DEO PLATFORM
Virage Video Application Server 2.0: provides
a complete
solution for creating and maintaining video -rich websites using a
simple Web interface; serves as a platform for video web applications
436- 3660; www.panasonic.com /broadcast
Circle (364) on Free Info Card
including advertising, personalization and syndication, and rights
HDTVDOWNCONVERTERS
site content; 650 -573 -3210; fax: 650 -573 -3211; www.virage.com
Circle (358) on Free Info Card
management; allows for seamless integration of video and other
CValley SPH- 100 /SPH -150: new downconverter models from
CValley allow users to utilize an NTSC monitor to check frame sizes
of images shot with an HD camcorder; 16:9 HDTV signals can be
monitored on a 4:3 NTSC monitor and 16:9 signals can be monitored
in full 4:3 size; 4:3 marker switch adds a white marker to 16:9
signals for 4:3 monitor check; 949-727 -9161; fax: 949-727 -9188;
www.cvalley.com
Circle (351) on Free Info Card
DATABASE/SERVER SOLUTION
Mixed Signals Technologies Spike ITV: allows advertisers to
access and control viewer response data from their interactive
advertiser and programming; offers scalable and flexible architecture; is capable of interfacing with order fulfillment systems for
MPEG VIDEO SERVER
e- commerce; supports viewer registration and financial transaction
Leitch VR440: features four bidirectional
management using an integrated distributed database infrastruc-
4RU frame; can be configured to more than 40 channels with
ture; 310 -838-4353; fax: 310 -838 -4354; www.mixedsignals.com
simultaneous access to the video storage area network with
capacity from 250GB to more than 3TB; offers redundant power
supplies, main feeds and hot -swappable drives with RAIDSoft
Circle (352) on Free Into Card
I/O channels in a
switchover;800- 231 -9673; 757 -548 -2300; fax: 757 -548 -4088;
www.leitch.com
Circle (363) on Free Info Card
108
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Turning the high -end
wireless market
upside
down
LECi
c'4
1-
The UCR210D wireless
microphone receiver is a
compact assembly built around a
solid aluminum, monoblock chassis.
The chassis provides exceptional RF
isolation between critical sections of the
circuitry and the ruggedness to deal with the
real world, wherever you have to work.
The receiver is powered by an aluminum battery
cartridge (4 -AA batteries) that slides onto the side of
the housing, or from external 12 to 16 Volt DC.
Call (800) 821-1121
In the USA, Canada and Puerto Rico
OLECTROSONICS®
The Win l,
Talk with a human, not a machine.
581 Laser Road. Rio Rancho. NM 87/24 USA
A tracking front -end and
256 selectable UHF frequencies, a
dual -band compandor and microprocessor
controlled SmartSquelchTM and SmartDiversityTM
optimize the signal to noise ratio under any conditions.
The receiver adapts to changing signal conditions based
upon an intelligent analysis of the incoming RF level and rate
of change of RF level, plus audio level and audio content.
Simply amazing. Simply LECTROTM
,\ Company
visit: www.lectrosonics.com
-
ph 1505) 892 -450/ ,fax 505) 892 -6243
1
Circle (147) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
e-mail: sale\(,,
lec
trosonics.com
GRAPHICS SOFTWARE PLUG-IN
Inscriber Titlemotion DV 4.2: allows
users to treat video titles
and motion effects in Adobe Premiere on Windows 98 and NT plat-
forms; new features include over 200 pre-designed templates, more
VVEICOMEM
than 50 animation templates, blur filter and over 200 new text
styles; with full key channel support, titles can be laid over
digitized video with full transparency;800- 363 -3400; 519 -570-
CONVERSION
ANALOG WAY introduces the Leading
Studio Scan XTD 820. a High Resolution
WORKSTATION /PC /MAC to VIDEO SCAN CONVERTER
for
a
broadcast quality conversion
9111; fax: 519 -570 -9140; www.inscribercom
Circle (359) on Free Info Card
STREAMING MEDIA PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Media 100 iFinish 3.0: Windows 2000 will serve
as the streaming
media production solution's primary development platform
Features
:
Professional
GENLOCK
COMPUTER INPUT
up to 1 600 x 1280
(Auto Scan up to 110 KHz)
VIDEO
OUTPUTS
:
COMPONENT
(DVCAM'", DVCPROTM recording),
RGB /S. NTSC. PAL. S. VIDEO
I
ZOOM
up to 200
%
0110411a$
(continuous)
Front Panel LCD Window
with Direct Touch Control
for fast and easy adjustment
Anti.Flickering levels
user memory Presets
Internal Power Supply
Optional Digital Video Output (SDI)
million Colors Processing
6
offering; the move offers users the benefits available in the more
stable operating environment, including dual -head support;
with the system, users can utilize input from almost any video
16
device or graphics application to create high quality video and
16
audio content for streaming over the Internet;800 -773 -1770;
508 -460 -1600; fax: 508-624 -9384; www.media100.com
T
fa. e
Circle (360) on Free Info Card
--4
Other Products available : Seamless Switches", Sealers,
Line Doublers, Down Converters. Interfaces, Cables, DA's.
ANALOG WAY, 75 Maiden Lane,
New York, NY 10038
Tel: (212) 269 -1902 - Fax: (212) 269-1943
www.analogway.com
w
ANAL( )l
\\ Al
Superscope /Marantz PMD330, 331 and 340: these CD
players are able to play CD -RW discs recorded on CD -RW
Circle (183) on Free into Card
SDI DOWNSTREAM
I
COMMERCIAL -GRADE CD PLAYERS
LINEAR KEVERS
compatible recorders; models offer a high -performance CD
mechanism and state -of- the-art signal processing technology, a
multifunction programmable cue button that enables precise
control of playback and a 10 -digit keypad to access up to 99
tracks; also offers A -B point audio loop playback, audible frameby -frame search control, single -tack play, index searching and
preset functions; each model includes RCA analog outputs,
digital (SPDIF format) coaxial output and RC5 remote input/
output; 630 -820 -4800; fax: 630 -820 -8103; www.marantz.com /
product/professional
21
Masterkey 6
The perfect, cost effective solution for
flawless linear keys.
Circle (362) on Free Info Card
GROUND LOOP RIPPLE ELIMINATOR
Matthey Electronics MRE filter range: available
as single
or triple channel boxes, the filter reduces 50- or 60Hz hum by up
Masterkey 7
Loaded with features: linear keys plus
A B mix, wipes, split screen, fade to black,
chroma key, safe area graticules,
key masking, failsafe bypass, memory,
preview output.
Front control panel of both models may
be remoted.
broadcast video systems corp.
40 West Wilmot St., Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1H8
Ph(905)764 -1584 Fa x(905)764 -7438 E -mail: bvs @bvs.on.ca
Website: www.bvs.on.ca
to 60dB; eliminates potential hum interference in the video
channel of cameras, video effects generators and monitors;
+44 -1782 524 919; fax: +44 1782 524 977;
Circle (355) on Free Info Card
PUBLICATION
SYPHA NIE Buyers Guide: new publication offering over 300
entries dedicated to nonlinear video editing systems; also covers
disk recorders/servers aimed at editing applications; potential
purchasers can use the guide to establish what is on the market
and determine the most useful product for their needs; full
listings include target markets, specifications and operational
features; +44 1817 611042; fax: +44(0)181 244 -8758;
Circle (149) on Free Info Card
1 1
0
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (356) on Free Info Card
33
maxeu
pVP.3,IM
Get blown away by the power of Maxell's
professional digital media. Maxell's cutting edge portfolio
includes products such as DVCPRO and Betacam SP and
Digital Betacam,
D -2, D -3, D -5
a
full line of digital recording products such as
and DLT. Maxell offers top reliability and performance and the brand
name to drive sales and stimulate category growth. When you combine Maxell's history of delivering
peak performance, outstanding reliability and category innovation with our technological
leadership, it's no wonder we've been the industry's choice for over 30 years.
TAKE YOUR PROFESSIONAL MEDIA TO THE POWER OF MAXELL
y
tACAM
Nsr
-
maxell
PROFESSIONAL
Clrcle (14S) 0n FIM Info Cad
HD D/A CONVERTER
Miranda Technology SDM0871p: miniature
HD
digital to
analog converter facilitates the monitoring of HD serial digital
(HD SDI SMPTE 292M) video signals; RGBHV/YUV output with
user-selectable sync type to enable use in a wide variety of HD
component analog and multisync computer display monitors;
514- 333 -1772; fax: 514 -333 -9828; www.miranda.com
Circle (366) on Free Info Card
TV FACILITY AUTOMATION
Columbine JDS Broadcast Master V.7: new design and
architecture allows for improved scalability, business integration, SQL database structure for open access to third part tools
and simultaneous access to shared data within a workgroup;
offers Break Explorer and Planning Plus facilities; an integrated
suite of software modules for acquisitions, schedule planning,
512X512 HD ROUTERS
Leitch Integrator: is available
program and transmission scheduling, process control program
management and sales and library management; 303 -237 -4000;
fax: 303 -237 -0085; www.cjds.com
in HD, coaxial or fiber SDI
Circle (367) on Free Info Card
analog video, AES audio, mono or stereo analog, offering field accurate switching in 4 -, 6- or 8RU frames; it also features dual
outputs, references and individually configurable serial ports, as
well as hot -swappable power supplies and control Iogic;800231 -9673; 757 -548 -2300; fax: 757 -548 -4088; www.leitch.com
Circle (365) on Free Info Card
ROUTER PROTOCOL CONVERTER
DNF Controls RPC: converter allows routers from different
manufacturers to work together under a main router control;
slave routers can be mapped to any desired level on the main
router; supports routers from Grass Valley Group, PESA, Sierra
Video Systems and Telect as masters and /or slaves; 818 -252-
0198; fax: 818 -252 -0199; www.dnfcontrols.com
Circle (368) on Free Info Card
i;1.1
P
1] fi
r=j
r_J
! Jr_;- JIJ
'il" r JÍi
Analog
is Alive & Well
at Ross
r:
RVS 630
2.5 ME
30 Inputs
Downstream MultiKeyer
RVS 424
2 ME
24 Inputs
Downstream MultiKeyer
RVS 416
2 ME
16 Inputs
RVS 316
1.5 ME
16 Inputs
Next Transition
"GVG" Style
Operation
3 Year Warranty
rovo ...e.nrrx ar err *lb a,.,n
RVS 216A
1
ME
16 Inputs
RVS 210A
1
ME
10 Inputs
__..........
9:.:
.
.rbl.
.
ni: a:'..
...
.
-
r
.
9119
i
Switchers, Keyers,
& Terminal Gear
Tel: (613) 652 -4886
Fax: (613) 652 -4425
Email: solutions @rossvideo.com
www.rossvideo.com
Circle (162) on Free Info Card
1
12
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
Ask about our complete line of
RossGear Terminal Equipment.
i
LC
Fiber Optic Connector Products
Methode Fiber Optic products
manufactures a complete line of LC
connectivity products for voice, video
and data applications. The LC
brochure details product specification
and performance standards of this
small form factor solution.
Singlemode and multi -mode
connectors, adapters, simplex and
duplex patchcords, and cabling
hardware are now available.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago. Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Circle (154) on Free Info Card
Ouick -Curem Connectors
SC Fibre Channel Loopback
Angle Polish Connectors
MPTM
Broadband Applications require the
back -reflection reducing
capabilities of Methode APC Angle
Polish Connectors. Available in FC.
SC, and LC configurations.
The Methode MP Ribbon Connector
System offers a 12 fiber capacity in
a miniaturized footprint patterned
after SC styles. The MP is ideal for
high -density LAN and data center
Connectors
Methode offers several loopback
products to test a variety of optical
network and basic transceiver
operations. Fibre Channel System
(FCS) compatible loopback
connectors are available with
several attenuation levels.
applications.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago. Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago. Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
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Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
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Stratos fiber optic
connectors work where
others fail.
The Methode ST® and SC Quick
CureTM system combines patented
polymer ferrule technology with a
rapid cure adhesive. The pedestal tip
reduces fiber breakage, and the 20
second curing interval decrease field
termination procedure time.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax' (708)867-9621
Circle (155) on Free Info Card
Quantum
OXTM
Backplane System
Expanded Beam technology lets }'our broadcast go through no matter what.
Whether you're trying to contmm11halr through dirt. mud.
The QUANTUM OXTM fiber optic
backplane connectivity system offers
high- density connectivity in
backplane applications such as
telecom and datacom networking.
QX trunk cables and assemblies are
available in multimode and single
mode versions and are compatible
with other backplane systems.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Circle (156) on Free Info Card
water. pease
- or even explosions - Methode
optic connectors
s
new Straws fiber
can do the pill. That's because they
use
Expanded hewn (Eel technology for unsurpassed performance
in harsh environments.
Machined from advanced materials. Metbdes Stratus Ee
connectors are env to clean and
easy to mate. They have
the
but with the ability In handle
nice. clean computer room
a
company and dmelopers of the advanced MP
(METHODE
xlrthrMo Elamrunic..Inc
u
,
a
,
i
by
Methode Fiber
and Quick -Cure'
connectors.
I- MW- 323 -685n today
CAI
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unprotected emolument no
Optics offices and personnel located all over the world It's lust
what you'd expect from Methode Electronics. a 0400 million
optical characteristics of the high -performance fiber optic
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MI Stratos Eli connectors art. supported
sour order
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or to place
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ELECTRONICS, INC.
hu aQu. II MPnr,
tLt.rwíM
Hx
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woo
mithm& .com
lapminm mrrh
cant
9219 -3
ST® is a trademark of Lucent Technologies
Circle (157) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
BROADCASTCOMBINERAMASK FILTER
Andrew Trinity:
security /surveillance video, highway video/data collection, tunnel
-
filter for television broadcast applications;
providing thermal stability
cool operations up to 75kW;
features aluminum construction and thermal compensation
RF
monitoring and airport security systems; offers adjustment -free
RS -250C medium -haul video -quality performance; may be used as
a stand -alone module with EMI /RFI shielding or adapted for use
with a EIA 19 -inch rack chassis;800- 732 -5252; 540 -382 -0462; fax:
540- 381 -0392; www.forceinc.com
technology which reduces frequency drift;800- DIAL -4 -RF; 708349 -3300; fax: 708 -349-5444; www.andrew.com
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MEDIUM -HAUL VIDEO PLUS 2 -WAY DATA UNK
PUBLICATION
Force Inc CCTV Linx
Hannay Reels Audio /video cable reels catalog: new four -color
RS -250C: allows for the transfer of
baseband video and bi- directional
RS -232
data signals over
catalog provide information and updated specifications on Hannay
a
single fiber optic cable, with complete EMI immunity; the system
Reels audio /video cable reels, including its newest line designed
can be used with no need for user adjustment in applications including
for simplified set -up and tear-down; reels engineered for recording
s Solutions
That Make Sense
KRAMER
facilities, live events and mobile
broadcasting are featured;800-G0REELS; 518 -797 -3791; fax: 800 REELING; www.hannay.com
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AUDIOCONSOLE
ACCESSORIES
Otani ADVANTA accessories:
Whether you are installing a Presentation System, Edit Suite,
Control Room, Video Conferencing System or any application that
needs multiple source audio or video display, Kramer's extensive line of
cost- effective matrix switchers gives you the uncompromising quality and
versatility to solve any installation problem. Call us for
a
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choose the model that best suits your application, or for some free advice.
I
NEW
vs
848
&N,19
808x1
8x8. Matrix
gwrtchers
/
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Video Bandwidth
200+ MHz
Video S/N 74 dB
Audio S/N 84 dB
Audio Bandwidth 100+ kHz
r-
new line of accessories for the
ADVANTA digital production system
include seven options; the line
features a 19 -inch Rack Options
section for an additional 19 -inch
work surface; other accessories
include a TDIF /ADAT I/O unit providing
32 inputs and outputs in ADAT optical
or TDIF formats and an ADVANTA
fader panel with eight assignable
Master Faders for use as dedicated
group masters; redundant power
supplies for phantom power, the
server and the DSP engine are also
available as options;800- 877 -0577;
818 -598 -1200; fax: 818 -594 -7208;
www.otari.com
we it
Circle (371) on Free Info Card
TRANSMISSION UNES
Andrew Rigid Transmission Line:
-
Balanced or
unbalanced audio models
Kramer K- switch
software included
o
Control manually,
RS -232 or RS -485
now available with a new 7 3/16 -inch
75 ohm line and patented technology
for extending the life of
a
transmission
line system; Andrew's rigid transmission
line is made from high connectivity
copper tubing; features
Kramer Family of Matrix Switchers
Video
Audio
Serial Digital (SDI)
Video and Audio
S -video
Clinton, New Jersey 08809
275 -6311 info @kramerus.com
20 East Main Street
(888)
KAAMEA
In Canada, Call (800) 263 -0733
www.kramerelectronics.com
Over 250 Switchers, DA's, Processors, VGA /XGA Interfaces,
Encoders and Decoders You Can Count On!
Circle (184) on Free Info Card
114
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
patented
bellows section in each inner conductor
allowing for differential expansion
a
between the inner and outer conductors; the section eliminates mechanical wear and keeps metal shavings
out of the line, extending transmission
line life;800-DIAL-4-RF; 708-349 -3300;
fax: 708 -349 -5444; www.andrew.com
Circle (372) on Free Info Card
At 2000 feet up, 2
best won't do.
..1!
i
*'
t
I
century of RF expertise, Dielectric can design
the finest engineered D V Antenna System available.
And with over 1/2
al
°
f,.
.j
t
.
t
Si.
'IL'
Raymond, Maine
i
i
-
.
-I
r
;,+
;k1 U.i
s one company with two facilities
1
r
-
Raymond, Maine and Palmyra, Missouri
Dielectric offers you the world's most experienced
team to get you on the air with DTV. Work with the
RF leader in the broadcast business because it is
our primary business. We offer you proven designs
for the most fully engineered DTV systems in the
world today.
..
d
ï
Palmyra, Missouri
'
7.L'
.S
,1
aA
I
a
s
i~
''
700 years of combined broadcast engineering expertise
212 DTV antenna systems on air or in manufacture
80 DTV stacked antenna systems
2 DTV high power triple stacks
With more DTV experience than all other manufacturers
combined, Dielectric assures you that your project will
be done right and on time. Put our expertise to work for
you and call us today.
COMMUNICATIONS
Engineering Excellence Since 1942
Circle (158) on Free Into Card
800.341.9678
207.655.4555
www.dielectric.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
email: dcsales @dielectric.com
i
IGITRLD
TELE VISION
December 6 - 8
Hyatt Regency
Grand Hall
Atlanta, Georgia
OOO
CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION
A MUST
ATTEND EVENT FOR ALL
DECISION- MAKERS INVOLVED IN
&
TELEVISION
PRODUCTION
CALL
225.751.5626
OR RETURN COUPON
Fill out the form below to make sure you receive all the program and registration information as it becomes available.
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
MIORLDDBROADCAST
ENGINEERING
millimeter
I'm interested in attending DTV2000
I'm interested in Sponsoring/Exhibiting at DTV200t
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Title
Company_
Address
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Country
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*Phone
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_
Fax
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*International guests, please include city and country codes
**Provide only if you wish to receive news and updates via e -mail
FAX
225.751 6344
MAIL:
CALL:
VISIT:
DTV2000 Customer Service
225.751.5626
www.dtvconference.com
16016 Perkins Rd.
Baton Rouge. LA 70810
USA
VIDEO CARDS
Digital Voodoo
259M
SDI
D1
Desktop 64 series:
SAflIX®
sedes of uncompressed 10 -bit SMPTE
QuickTime video cards including
D1
Desktop 64,
D1
Desktop 64 Lite
optimized for editing with
Apple's Final Cut Pro and other such applications, with audio features rather
and
D1
Desktop 64AV; the
D1
Desktop 64AV
is
new concept
than the key output featured in the other models in the series; D1 Desktop 64
and D1 Desktop 64 Lite models feature new dual channel video output allowing
options including "video and audio," "video and alpha key" and full dual link
"Capacitive- Discharge"
800Hz PULSE GENERATION
4:4:4:4; +61 3- 9699 -4633; fax: +61 3- 9699 -3226; www.digitalvoodoo.net
BULK ERASERS
Circle (378) on Free Info Card
FAST
COMPACT
EFFICIENT
RELIABLY ERASE
METAL TAPES
PORTABLE MULTIDISC RECORDER
HHB Communications Portadisc: optimizes the advantages of the mini disc format, including exceptional sound quality, random access and straightfor-
ward editing using easy -to- handle, low -cost media; records on standard mini discs and uses the latest ATRAC recoding algorithm to ensure optimum sound
quality; balanced mic input circuits enhance the unit's sonic performance; circuits
feature switchable phantom power and limiting, which can be stereo linked;
All Models operate on 117V at 3 Amp.
24 hour continuous duty, no heat build -up.
records 80min stereo; 160min mono.; 310 -319-1111; fax: 310 -319 -1311;
www.hhb.co.uk
Circle (385) on Free Info Card
sAnin
¡1
INTERNET -ENABLED REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEM
Euphonix Listen -In: allows System 5 users to provide a live, secure Internet
2500
access for those involved in the recording/mixing process who are physically
removed from the control room; users can log on through any audio capable PC or
Mac and hear a near-CD quality mix; 818- 766 -1666; fax: 818 - 766 -3401;
www.euphonix.com
Circle (381) on Free Info Card
ForBETACAM -SPSX
Digital BETACAM. MII.
Rohde & Schwarz NH7000/NV7000: compact, medium -power transmitters
with LDMOS transistors and integrated analog or OFDM /8VSB coders for
a
VHS, Beta etc.
1/2 "w METAL -OXIDE
newly developed
special hardware concept; +49 -89- 41292931; fax: +49 -89-
analog and digital transmission; feature liquid cooling,
exciter and
i
3800
ANALOG/DIGITALTRANSMIITER
a
2500
For DVCPRO
and
Ultra High
LM
COERSIVITY
MEDIA
5500
41291211; www.rsd.de
For D2(D1), D3, 05
Large and MS
3/4 "w 1/2"w
all cassette
METAL -OXIDE
TABLE TOP MODEL
Circle (386) on Free Info Card
DIGITAL WIRELESS SYSTEMS
TOA Electronics DK -7 series: provide users with studio quality sound and a
dynamic range of more than 110dB, with no pumping or breathing effects;
systems are availabel in handheld, lapel or instrument forms for applications
ranging from live performance to studio recording, electronic news gathering
and pro audio; offers 24 -bit analog -to- digital conversion for precise reproduction of the source signal, and seven selectable frequencies for simultaneous use
of up to seven systems;800- 733 -7088; 650 -588 -2538; fax: 650 -588 -3349;
www.toaelectronics.com
i^
6000
For 132(01). D3, DCT
Large and M S
3/4 "w 1/2"w
Circle (387) on Free Info Card
all cassette
14" rell
Up to
all Reel Type
VIDEO DISTRIBUTION AMPUFIERS
METALOXIDE
1>
Crystal Vision VDA series: new series of analog video distribution
MASTER ERASER
amplifiers allows for 18 different combinations of boards and frame rear
modules; the VDA21
OR,
REQUEST FULL -LINE CATALOG
VDA110R, VDA210M and VDA110M provide users with
of different numbers of inputs, outputs, loop -throughs and manual or
remote control to meet installation requirements; all feature GPI and LED
U.S.A. DISSTRIBUTOR
RTI- RESEAARCH TECHNOLOGY INT'L.
4700 CHA SE AVENUE
LINCOLNWOOD. IL 60646 U.S.A.
a choice
indication of errors including input failure and power loss, adjustable gain and
high quality equalization; +44 1223 506 515; fax: +44 1223 506 514;
www.crystalvis.com
PHONE: 847 -677 -3000
FAX
:847- 677 -1311
Circle (388) on Free Info Card
SAnIX CORPORATION
TOKYO, JAPAN
FAX:81 -3- 3702 -9654
Circle (159) on Free Info Card
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
121
BETACAM SP V I DEOCASSETTE
Quantegy
Interested in
Digital Audio Workstations?
I
tE DAW
:
I\ ou need to knoss
BUYERS GUID
is
ss
hats on
The DAW Buyers Guide
the market.
your ansscer!
buyer, guide to digitar audio
workstations and r.rouq. .wonder.
I loss
A
man
BSP: offer high quality picture and audio reproduc-
tion for professional ENG /EFP and studio applications; feature
a
dimensionally stabilized polyester backing for the prevention of
skew errors; also feature quality assurance test plans including
full -width laser scanning, real -time video dropout testing and
laser scanning inspection of the coated web and individual
strands to maintain surface uniformity;800- 752 -0732; 334 -745-
7643; fax: 334-742 -6091; www.quantegy.com
trade shoscs.
Circle (390) on Free Info Card
magazines. telephone calls and
Internet searches would it take to lind
everything that's out there? Then
boss
long
oukl ii take to compi le all
ss
that inlbmiation into an easily
comparable timnat' And then
about all that missing
Don't scorn
-
ss
ss
hat
into'
e's e done the
hard ssork for you!
TheDAW Buyers Guide from independent consultants SYPHA includes
details oÌoser 300 digital audio ss orkstations and tapeless recordcn and
corers not orals existing systems. but those yet to he launched.
its inaluahle and its only S34.95 - shipping
and handling. For more details contact SYPI IA 'Id -44 20 8'6I 10422:
l-a -44 20 8244 8758: email svpha a compusenexonl.
It's comprehensis e.
The DAW Buyers Guide
is as ailable through
\,1B Publication.
scssss.nab.or_ nabstorc.ordirect from SY PHA and other booksellers
ss
orldscide.
LIPS
MGE UPS Systems Galaxy 3000: three -phase, online 10- to
30kVA UPS is compatible with all major industrial and network
communications protocols, offers a full graphical user interface
display, and reports all input/output voltage combinations;
offers a unique ECO mode operating at 97 percent efficiency;
advanced inverter technology restricts total harmonic distortion
-
to less than three percent; also features a contained, scalable
extra options cabinets are not necessary;800-5230142; 714-557 -1636; fax: 714-557 -9788; www.mgeups.com
design
Circle (392) on Free Info Card
PANJIILTAND LENS CONTROL SYSTEM
Its here...
Electronic Systems Integration Model 280: features video
Industrial Machinery
preview and sync distribution; handles switching needs including
AUCTIONS
on the Internet!
teleconferencing, distance learning and theater instrumentation
Industry will never
be the same.
AUCTIONS
for small broadcast facilities; allows control of up to four remote
camera sites by a single electronic solution through two auxiliary
switches on the front panel; four RS -422 connectors interface with
each of the remote sites; pan /tilt and lens control system also
features a 9-Pin D connecter for RS -232 serial interface, a 6 -Pin
Mini -DIN connector for remote CCU interface and a wall -mounted
power supply; 407 -956 -0095; fax: 407- 956 -0610; www.esi- inc.com
Circle (393) on Free Info Card
\lachinery and Propert
-Plus Machinery for Sale
Businesses for Sale
Commercial Real Estate
RFPs and RFQs
Employment
Funding and Capital
E-mail Notification Services
.`,elir%
ISOLATOR
Jensen Transformers ISO -MAX CO -2RR: newest in
Jensen's ISO -MAX line of isolators, eliminates hum in audio
systems; neutralizes ground loop problems occuring within
audio signals with a turnkey interconnect solution; the CO -2RR
provides users with 15dB of headroom at 20Hz; 818 -374 -5858;
fax: 818 -763 -4574; www.jensen -transformers.com
Circle (397) on Free Info Card
industry
www.i-comindustry.com
Circle (160) on Free Info Card
122
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
FACILITY MANAGEMENTSYSTEM
Xytech Systems Web Browser Module: latest addition to
the Enterprise facility management system allows film
companies, broadcast studios and production houses to access
Unlock The Power Of Time Division Multiplexing
V
-
True power is the ability to control
and that's what the
new ENVOY7256 router with Time Division Multiplexing
(TDM) technology gives you; unequaled power to control
your digital audio signals. With single channel switching
with gain control, channel summing and phase inversion
of up to 512 channels (256 AES) in a single 14 RU frame,
the possibilities are endless.
The TDM matrix allows individual mono channels to be swapped from any input
pair to any output pair regardless of size. Linear expansion to multiple frames
now becomes effortless. With just one additional 14 RU 512' frame you've
doubled your routing size to 1024'. With just four 14 RU 512' frames you're now
at 2048'. There are no additional audio DAs or secondary switching systems to
worry about and expansion interconnections use standard coaxial cables. In a
digital environment where being out of control can spell disaster, the
ENVOY7256 router gives you the power that puts you solidly in control. And it's
only available from the people that have DTV down to a science. ADC.
information call (800) 726 -4266 in North America or (530) 265 -1000
worldwide, or visit our website at www.adc.com /broadcast.
For more
Circle (161) on Free Info Card
The Broadband Company
facility information over the Internet; users of the system can
access information such as studio and production schedules,
and location information from anywhere in the world, as well as
tracking their own information online; 818 -767 -7400; fax: 818767-7430; www.xytechsystems.com
interfaces in a 1 /2RU box, converting send and receive audio
signals from balanced analog to
a
48kHz, 24 -bit signal, and
a
bi-
directional data; all these are then transported over a single
coaxial cable;800- 392 -3497; 612-884 -4051; fax: 612 -884 -0043;
www.telex.com
Circle (398) on Free Info Card
Circle (395) on Free Info Card
DIGITALBETACAM VIDEOCASSETTES
Quantegy DBC: high impact cassette mechanism for
ENG /EFP
or post production applications; features a coactive site binder
system to improve cross- linking and reduce debris; incorporates
polyurethane molecular binder and matrix lubricant system for
smooth tape surface; small and large cassette sizes offer play
a
times of six minutes to 124 minutes; 800 -752 -0732; 334 -745 -7643;
fax: 334 -742 -6091; www.quantegy.com
Circle (389) on Free Info Card
DIGFTALTELEPHONE INTERFACE
Telex Communications RTS TIF -2000: designed for
with all
use
digital matrix intercom systems; features an auto/
manual answer mode and direct call -in to party lines and IFB
circuits, as well as direct audio input mixes with matrix audio;
RTS
ASSETMANAGEMENTSYSTEM
calls can be placed on hold and accessed individually or all at
Vecta AMS:
once through talk and listen keys on the
archiving to standard SCSI devices, C2 -level security and
multiple- criteria database searches; the system also offers
seamless integration with Vecta DTV Stillstore; users can also
view stored images from remote clients through an Internet
status
is
RTS
keypanels; TIF
displayed on the TIF -2000 front pane1;800- 392 -3497;
612- 884 -4051; fax: 612-884 -0043; www.telex.com
Circle (396) on Free Info Card
is an NT -based
system providing backup and
browser, and utilize centralized reference storage and archival
COAXIAL KEYPANEL INTERFACE
Telex Communications RTS CSI -200: allows users to
of still and graphic images; 800 -706 -0077; 310 -581 -8800; fax:
310 -581 -8808; www.avicatech.com
Circle (401) on Free Info Card
RTS Matrix keypanels with intercoms via a single
coaxial cable; interfaces provide two complete, independent
connect
`Comprehensive,' `In- depth,' `vital'
When our readers tell us about Broadcast Engineering, they say its the best
place to get current and reliable information about the television, cable and
production industries. Just ask Dr. Corey Carbonara:
"One of the biggest challenges of
my job is keeping up with the
developments in DTV.
"I believe it is vital to keep
abreast of these new developments
Corey Carbonara
conducts research and
Dr.
performs consulting for
HDTV/DTV conversion at
Baylor University,
Waco, TX.
and technical breakthroughs.
Broadcast Engineering always has
comprehensive coverage and indepth analysis of issues that are
technical in nature.
"Broadcast Engineering provides
a high- definition of clarity on
Inv
issues...
Dr. Corey P. Carbonara
Associate Vice President for Technology
Management: Executive Director,
Institute for Technology Innovation
Management, Baylor University
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE JOURNAL OF DIGITAL TELEVISION
:\n I\11:H11('"/PRßII(I)I:\ Puhlic:nion
124
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
Demo
A
an affordable
Video Demodulator
msi 320
Tek /Rohdes
Here's what you'll
Differential Phase
1.2°
2°
find when you
Differential Gain
1%
2%
compare the
ICPM Accuracy
±2° from 75° to 105°
not specified
msi 320
Aural Signal
Demodulation
Visual carrier
not required
Requires a sync
modulated visual
with the
Tektronix /Rohde
Zero Carrier
Reference Line
User selectable
between 11 and 36
Must be
factory set
Don't wait. Just tell us you want to try the
But don't just take our word for it. Put the
msi 320
a
legendary 14507, you'll
find the performance of the
msi 32o
msi 320
with absolutely no obligation. We'll send you a demo
side by side with the demodulator
you're using now. If its
demodulator:
nearly
request form. Fill it out and return it, and we'll send you
a demo unit
that you can test and evaluate. It's that
identical. If it is anything else, you'll find there's
easy. If you have any questions, we'll even help you
no comparison.
set up a valid comparison test.
Make the comparison. Call us today.
You'll be glad you did.
Tektronix is a registered trademark of Tektronix, Inc. Rohde is trademark
of Rohde & Schwarz Gmbh & Co, KG, Germany
2. 1450 is a mark of Tektronix. Inc.
1.
Circle (163) on Free Info Card
çmodulation
sciences
I inc.
Modulation Sciences Inc.
12A Worlds Fair Drive Somerset, NJ 08873
Toll Free: (800) 826 -2603 Fax: (732) 302 -0206
E -mail:
sales @modsci.com
www.modsci.com
HD UNCOMPRESSED VDR
Digital Video Systems Inc ProntoVision 2000:
DTV TRANSMITTER TEST SYSTEM
Harris CD Eye: now shipping from Harris,
DVS
successor of the ProntoVision allows real -time I/O and storage
an integrated digital transmitter test system;
of uncompressed HDTV content; new generation fits into
a
-
a
4HU
software -based system that provides
case; contains built -in videq disks holding up to one hour of video
measurements for spectrum, out -of- channels
and audio; supports common HDTV rasters
mask, eye diagram, constellation, signal -to-noise ration
1035i/1080i, 720p,
1080p/24, 1080p/30 and 1080sF/24; features a real -time color space
and error vector magnitude, pilot level, nonlinear analysis and
converter allowing for YUV /4:2:2 and RGB/4:4:4, with in and outputs
real -time adaptive correction metrics;800-622 -0022; 513 -459-
in YUV and RGB; can be operated as a stand -alone device or in
3400; fax: 513 -459 -3890; www.harris.com
connection with a host computer running Windows NT 4.0,
Windows 2000, Linux or Solaris platforms; 818 -241 -8680; fax:
818 -241 -8684; www.digitalvideosystems.com
Circle (361) on Free Info Card
MULT1MEDIASERVERS
Alex Temex Multimedia Libra servers:
Circle (394) on Free Info Card
225- 4500KVA UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
MGE UPS Systems EPS6000: offers large- scale, continuous
operation power backup for broadcast facilities; protects
Internet and broadcast facilities from power outages and
provides power conditioning to smooth out periodic power line
or weather-related disturbances; handles the "crowbar effect"
caused by broadcast transmitters by means of high surge
circuitry and a 100 percent rated static transfer switch; features
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors with MGE's Digital Power
Quality micro circuitry;800- 523 -0142; 714-557 -1636; fax: 714557- 9788; www.mgeups.com
Circle (391) on Free Info Card
now shipping with the Linux operating
system; scalable, modular servers offer easy
access to multimedia via LAN networks;
parallel architecture eliminates duplication of stored data; +3
1 47 16 95 77; fax: +33 4 50 64 09 02; www.alex.com
Circle (399) on Free Info Card
FIREWIRE STORAGE
MicroNet Technology SANcube: now
shipping, the serverless storage network
offers fast connectivity and fast, reliable
storage for project collaboration on Power
Mac G4, Power Mac G3, PowerBook and iMac DV systems;
transfer rate is 30Mb /s; 949 -453 -0673; fax: 949 -453 -6071;
Circle (400) on Free Info Card
THE EQUIPMENT
LIQUIDATION CHANNEL
The Leading Marketplace for
Professional Technology Tools
100% Satisfaction Guaranteed
Secure Transactions
Automatic Payment Escrow
Over 20 years of Pro Experience
Consignment or Buyout
dig
ibidçór
an IndustryClick solution
www.digibid.com
e-mail your list to liquidationgdigibid.com
or call 1.800.423.5499
Broadcast
Circle (164) on Free Into Card
126
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
Film
/
Pro Audio
I
Video
/
Lighting
No smoke. No mirroring.
You already have enough to think about when choosing
a
video server system. So here's some straight talk. The
SeaChange Broadcast MediaCluster'" is the most reliable
in the industry.
Without costly mirroring. That's the bet-
for streamlining your single or multichannel operation.
We
won't dazzle you with the configuration diagrams
here. Visit www.seachangeinternational.com. And see
why we're playing on 27,000 channels worldwide.
ter thinking engineered into SeaChange's entire family of
MediaCluster servers, delivering MPEG -2, 4:2:2 video at
bit rates up to 3oMb /sec. With rock -solid solutions starting well under $1ooK, you can buy into open standards
and networked solutions that offer real opportunities
Ems
SEACHANGE
INTERNATIONAL
www.seachangeinternational.com
Circle (165) on Free Info Card
SeaChange International, Inc. 124 Acton Street, Maynard, MA 01754 phone: 978 -897 -010o fax: 978- 897 -0132
All rights reserved. MediaCluster is patented, and a trademark of SeaChange International, Inc.
czo0o SeaChange International,
Inc.
Business Wire
Business highlights from broadcast and production
BY LAURA COLLINS, EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
Professional Communications Systems
was chosen by WTVC -TV to provide
systems design and integration for its
new broadcast facility in Chattanooga,
TN. PCS installed equipment including
Panasonic DVCPRO 25/50 VTRs and
routers, and switchers from the Grass
Valley Group in the new digital facility.
PCS is also providing systems design
and integration services for NBC affiliate
KCEN -TV in its transition to digital.
Total Video at Houston Studios recently
purchased a DVCPRO camcorder and
HI) studio VTR from Panasonic for
use in the production of feature films,
trailer footage, video for plasma
screen display and HD projection.
ALLIANCE ATLANTIS chose
Columbine JDS provided integrated
management solutions for its four channel lineup. CJDS' DMAS and
Paradigm will be incorporated into a
management and automation system
for traffic, programming, material man-
Screen Shot
Axiom -MT records
New Orleans jazz
Sheffield Audio Video Productions
recently used Solid State Logic's 96-
agement and multichannel automation.
input Axiom -MT digital multitrack
THOMCAST Communications and
The MT was utilized in Sheffield's
console at the New Orleans Jazz Festival.
Evertz recently signed a reseller agreement. Under the agreement, THOMCAST will distribute and market
Evertz products including keyers, logo
inserters, timecode generators and
universal data readers/decoders to
the domestic broadcast market.
remote truck to capture Sting's
performance in 5.1 surround sound.
The console was able to flawlessly
combine Sting's audio with the HD
video of his performance by interfacing effectively and cleanly with the
equipment in the video remote truck.
In addition, the Axiom -MT's automa-
Panasonic's DVCPRO PV Series was
WVNY-TV in Burlington,
VT. The station is using the digital
component camcorders, VTRs and studio
players in the acquisition and production of two daily 30- minute newscasts.
Fox Sports Net will also be using
DVCPRO 50 equipment from Panasonic. The equipment will be used to
acquire, edit and playback sports
programming in Fox Sports Net's
Avstar and Sony announced a joint
solution for newscasters. The project
introduces Active-X protocol into the
Avstar Newsroom Computer System
in order to allow it to coexist with Sony
systems. The integration specifically
allows for control of Sony's ClipEdit
tion enabled a quick changeover
between performances, since producers
were able to do a sound check in
advance and recall the settings from
that for each performance.
and NewsBase news server and enables
newscasters to access news feeds and draft
interactivity for WB
accompanying text simultaneously.
Virage Interactive to allow viewers to
interact with the WB's one-hour comedy
regional networks.
Artesia Technologies announced
that Centerseat has chosen its Teams
3.0 digital asset management solution
in its new entertainment and information website, www.centerseat.com.
Centerseat will use the system to
series Popular. Virage's application
purchased by
Panasonic, Tiernan Communications
and Synergistic Technologies have
founded Digital Broadcast Resources.
The alliance will provide broadcasters
with end -to -end digital television solutions encompassing SD and multiformat HD production equipment and
systems, critical encoding, and system
integration capabilities.
Joint projects taken on by the three
companies include an HDTV broadcast of "Monday Night Football"
and the ABC HDTV Release Center.
support secure syndication and content
distribution to its broadcast partners,
as well as to create a comprehensive
digital media library of images, video
and audio.
Artesia's Teams solution will also be
used by 21e, a Web entertainment
broadcasting network, to manage its
streaming media content for scheduled
and on- demand display.
NBC will use Scientific -Atlanta's
PowerVu Plus digital video compression system to deliver four channels
of backup broadcasts to its network
affiliates in the United States.
NBC News recently purchased E5425
SNG encoders from TANDBERG
Television to cover major news events
128
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
worldwide.
Virage offers
The WB television network chose
services will be utilized to put the first
18 episodes from the first season of
Popular on the Web.
Viewers can then view specific scenes
by searching the material by character,
date and episode at www.TheWB.com.
They can participate in the Popular
Purge by expressing their opinion on
which character should be eliminated
in the show's season finale, with the
most humorous comments integrated
into the broadcast of the show.
AMS Neve console
supports Grammys
Mobile recording specialist Effanel
Music used a 128 -input Capricorn
digital mixing console from AMS Neve
to record and mix this year's Grammy
Why I'm Here.
"1'm Nat Ostroff, Chairman of the Board at
the new Acrodyne. I'm here because of you. As Vice President of
New Technology with one of the largest commercial broadcasters
in the United States, Sinclair Broadcast Group, we speak the same
language. I know what you need.
I saw a good company with good people...
Acrodyne had a lot of energy. And a unique opportunity was there
to redirect (even recreate!) the company. Rather than making
transmitters that large manufacturers want you to buy - designs
overloaded with unnecessary complications - I saw a chance to
meet the true requirements
of broadcasters, like
myself, by
tailoring Acrodyne's products, services and support philosophies
to broadcasters' needs. Something the managements
of large
domestic and international corporations are unable or unwilling
to do.
I brought the team of EMMY award- winning
So
people that originally invented the IOT transmitter technology
Line of high
together again and created the
Quantum
power IOT solutions. Knowing what I know as a broadcaster, the
Quantum's simple, elegant and reliable solutions will make your
life easier and will set new standards. I believe it's remarkable.
Acrodyne also signed an exclusive agreement
with Rohde and Schwarz, the world's leading manufacturer of
solid-state transmitters, both air and liquid-cooled. This is the first
opportunity for my fellow broadcasters to have access to the
world's leading solid-state technology. Again, it's remarkable.
While we will continue to provide the
equipment and support that you already count on from us, the
new Acrodyne is committed to bringing you state-of-the-art high
power television transmission equipment. At the new Acrodyne,
we are anticipating your needs for the future by working along
side
of you.
will be moving into our new multi-million
dollar manufacturing facility this fall. A facility designed from the
We
ground up to produce the latest transmission equipment for
broadcasters.
I am
not stopping there. Acrodyne makes it and
stands behind it with 24 -hour, 7 days-a-week service, technical
support, including house calls, and direct access to myself and
other members of senior management. This is what I expect from
my vendors and you shouldn't settle for anything less.
As Chairman of the Board at Acrodyne, I'll talk
with you about any new ideas or concerns. You can contact me at
[email protected] I know what you need, we talk the
Nat Ostroff
EMMY award winner and
Chairman of the Board of Acrodyne
ACRODYNE Industries. Inc.
516 Township Line Road I Blue Bell. PA 19422
800.523.2596
215.542.7000 I Fax: 215.540.5837
E-mail: [email protected]
www.acrodyne.com
I'll make sure
that Acrodyne exceeds your
expectations. That's why I'm here."
same language, and
1
1
Circle (166) on Free Into Card
What's new at Acrodyne?
Remarkably, lust about everything.
ACRODYNE
FOX News has also selected TAXI) BERG to provide F5500 I)SN( enciders and Alteia professional receivers
for
use in
I
IIl FOX News affiliates
across the United Staffes. The equipment
will
this summer to cover all
of the major political conventions.
he used
Awards telecast. Effanel Music has
center's Hayden Planetarium on the
used the console to record 62 live
Digital Dome, the world's largest
performances in four Grammy
high -resolution flight simulator.
Awards shows, as well as a Dave
Matthews Band DVD and the "Divas
produce "Science Bulletins" covering
'99" DVD.
natural events and Hubble telescope
The company recently added
Pilot software
is
also used to
images for widescreen, HD display in
a
second Capricorn console for in-
the Hall of Planet Earth and the Hall
studio use, allowing Effanel to mix
of BioDiversity.
two projects simultaneously. Live
events initially recorded in stereo on
Effanel's remote Capricorn can also
be remixed in surround on the in-
Ikegami cameras capture
Mardi Gras festivities
WWL -TV, a Belo station in New
studio console.
Orleans, used Ikegami HDK -790D
cameras equipped with new 2/3 -inch
Tandberg E5500 DSNG Encoder
\I)BF:R(:s evolution 'O011 digital
broadcast equipment incorporating
I.A
Peak software provides
museum graphics
Peak Broadcast System's Everest
the F5611 encoder was recently installed
3D rendering and Pilot template -
for the first time in the t uited States,
by FOX Broadcasting Company. he
equipment is part of a digital satellite
system worth inure than S I.5 million
that FOX has selected to provide
network programming to its affiliates
arcnin l the country. The system uses
four 36N11 Ir L -band satellite transponders to handle the distribution of 16
NlPFG -2 4:2:2 video channels.
based graphics software
I
is
2.2- million -pixel FIT CCDs to capture
the parades on Carnival Day during
Mardi Gras. Eight hours of the
festivities were shot in HD from in
front of Gallier Hall.
being
used to project HD graphical
Some of the footage was
History's new Rose Center for Earth
downconverted for use in the
station's four -hour Carnival coverage. The station used HDTV D5
recorders to record footage for a
and Space. The software is also
one -hour show broadcast on Belo
utilized on a seven -pipe, seven processor Silicon Graphics Onyx
stations nationwide.
elements onto walls, video cube
displays and plasma screens in the
American Museum of Natural
System to composite graphics in the
AUDIO CROSSPOINTS ARE Now OBSOLETE
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TODD A/0
Craig Nichols
Hollywood, CA
front of an 848
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chronous. asynchronous and remote frame /MADI inputs in a single system...and
route them to any output. Up to 60 °ó space savings over competitive models.
Sample rate converters on all AES inputs.
Mix stereo to mono and vice versa.
MADI (56 channel) or 64 channel satellite I /O.
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Video Products
Definition Routers with
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256 x 512 I/O Serial Digital Routers.
Copper or fiber on any I/O module.
64 x 128 I/O High
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Hardware Control Panels. Internet control, Java /Network Control Panels. NT
Server. second party control and
Touch Screens.
Lighthouse Digital Systems
888 494 7300
FAX 530 272 8248
Circle (167) on Free Info Card
130
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Founders Bob
&
Rick Grant
Please contact us
http: / /www.lighthousedigital.com
In broadcasting,
the equation
is
simple:
re time equals more money.
If you're a broadcaster, the
Time Machine will allow you to
make the most of the most valuable
asset you have: time.
What if you could create additional
time to put on the market every
hour of every broadcast day? What
if you could do it without affecting
program content? What if you could
do it without modifying audio or
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The Time machine means one thing
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revenue.With our exclusive process,
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It's time to make more time that
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Prime Image.
The Digital Video People
662 Giguere
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Tel (408)867-6519 Fax (408) 926 -7294 Service (408)926 -5177
Primeimagein @earthlink.net
www.primeimageinc.com
Circle (168) on Free Info Card
products and Mindport's end -to -end
system solutions.
Sennheiser recently opened its first
U.S. facility in Albuquerque, NM.
The 45,000- square -foot facility cur-
rently employs 40 people, but as
new products are added that number
is expected to grow to over 150
employees.
Kappell and Kostow MTV
Skywalker Sound, an audio post production facility located at Sky walker Ranch in northern California,
recently ordered two large- format
System 5 high performance digital
film consoles from Euphonix.
Chicago Recording Company also
ordered four of Euphonix's System 5
digital consoles. The System 5 consoles will he replace existing mixing
consoles in four of CRC's Audio -forPicture Post Suites.
Mindport and BARCO recently announced a partnership involving technology integration and cooperative
marketing activities. The agreement
allows interoperability between BAR CO's cable TV head -end and network
Kapell and Kostow Architects, P.C.
worked with Nickelodeon to design its
33,000- square -foot digital animation
studio. Seventy digital animators work
in the facility, which houses the production process for two animated
children's television shows, "Little Bill"
and "Blue's Clues." The facility produces
the shows from concept initiation to final
production of broadcast -quality tapes.
Elements of the project included
production offices, an art department
and 53 animation workstations. KKA
had to take special lighting, power
and communications needs into consideration, as well as creating a detailed system for wire access.
Video Design Software has created
of applications that works with
Chyron's Duet character and graphics
generators to create a Media Object
Server. The \IOS is then used as an
interface between the Media Object
a set
Server and an ENPS system using the
MOS protocol. As media objects are
created, information about them is
transmitted to the ENPS, and ENPS
users are able to use the objects in
scripts and rundowns.
Leitch's DFS -3005 multiformat synchronizers were chosen to synchronize feeds for Societe Radio- Canada
Montreal's facilities.
Henninger Video recently expanded
its DVD production capabilities with
technology from Sonic Solutions.
Henninger will use Sonic's DVD
Creator for high -end commercial production and feature film DVD encoding
and authoring in its Elite Post facility
in Nashville, TN.
Lifetime Television's new weekly
game show "Who Knows You Best ?"
utilizes Mixed Signals Technologies'
Windows to the Web
PPTNNACR
Front Page News
rIST,
(ItITN
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STUDIO
400
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www.rocketnetwork.com
Rocket Network, Inc.
is the first and only company to provide
Internet Recording Studios where audio professionals can meet
online to collaborate and produce original audio from anywhere in
the world. The Company'srevolutionary network provides a cost effective and convenient complement to traditional studios by
reducing production expenses and increasing creative options for
professional-quality audio in TV, film, radio, music and Websites.
132
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
hv,.
bes
4.Imo
rr...._
www.pinnaclesys.com
Pinnacle Systems: Pinnacle Systems' broadcast products give
professionals the cutting edge tools needed to create dazzling
productions faster and more affordably than ever before. These
innovative digital video manipulation tools perform a variety of onair, production, and post -production functions such as the
addition of special effects, image management, capture, storage.
and play -out, as well as graphics and title creation.
When Chicago's Tallest Building Needed 15 Channels*
;hey Came To the Leaders in Broadband Technology!
hosen, by TrizecHahn Property Group, for
ver 30 years of global manufacturing
xperience, RFS is the leader in broadband
?chnology.
(:
c
E
1:
f:lur broadband RF systems offer the most
flexible and customized arrangements for
the DTV Market and beyond.
designs and manufactures broadband
anel arrays, slot antennas, and combiners
ar adjacent and non adjacent channels
designed to suit your needs.
(.omplimented by a full range of rigid and
i lexible line along with complete accesories which have been reliably manufaclured and supplied to the broadcast mar et for decades. RFS is your Total Systems
Elution provider - come take a fresh look,
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FS
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e sail:
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cle (169) on Free Into Card
-
Interactive TV technology. The technology allows at-home viewers with
set -top boxes running ATVEF -compliant
platforms to become real -time contestants on the show.
Mixed Signals Technologies will
also provide interactivity for Penn
State Public Broadcasting station
WPSX -TV. Mixed Signals' ITV DataFlo
System will allow broadcasters to
incorporate interactive web links into
their programming.
KLCS -TV, a full -power PBS instructional station owned and operated by
the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Media 100 recently formed StreamRiver Networks, a streaming media
services division with regional centers serving Internet broadcasters, web
designers and digital media content
creators worldwide. In order to form
the new division, Media 100 acquired 21st Century Media, a San
Francisco -based provider of encoding, hosting, webcasting, interactive
production and streaming media consultancy and J2 Digital Media, an
encoding, hosting and streaming services provider based in New York.
Miranda Technologies and Nortel
Networks signed an agreement allowing Miranda to license Nortel
Networks' broadband video technology. The agreement covers the DV -45
series of NTSC DV codecs and DV-
MPEG SD7000 MPEG -2 codecs.
Cosmos Broadcasting Group will
be installing Crispin's System 2000
-
station automation package at three
of its stations
WFIE -TV in Evansville,
IN; KPLC -TV in Lake Charles, LA;
and WIS -TV in Columbia, SC. Three
more of Cosmos' stations will have
the automation systems by the end of
the year. The systems will be used to
automate master control functions
Virage and PBS announced that
PBS will be using Virage's Interactive
Hitachi
Z -3000W
camera
System integrator TV Magic chose
five Hitachi cameras for installation
in a $14 million news facility for San
Diego FOX affiliate XETV Channel 6.
Hitachi also provided three Z -3000W
digital 4:3/16:9 switchable cameras to
application services to offer video
content from the NewsHour with Jim
Lehrer on PBS.org. The information
will be continuously updated and
searchable. PBS will also use the
applications to distribute excerpts of
the content to local PBS stations for
use on their websites.
Tigar Hare
Studios used
3Dlabs' Oxygen
GVX1
graphics accelerator on Mis-
sion Impossible: 2. The
workstation
was used on the
movie's title
sequence, allowing for real time approval
on the project.
Serial Digital Video & Audio Converter with
Alarm. Status & Audio Level Monitoring
has been used
by the studio
other
801 to PALJNrSC Conversion
Audio De- embedder
for
AES /EBU to Analog Audio
GPI Alarms
projects
Audio Level
&
Phase Keying
Closed Caption Decoding
Logging of Errors
On-Screen Alarms
Up to IS Modele. In )RU
O,Mr
www..v..tr..con,
7760AV1111
T1 905335.3700
Broadcast Engineering
as
well, including
work for Out-
back
Steak-
house and eMachines.
name
Pax: 905.335-357:1
Circle (177) on Free Info Card
134
The Oxygen
GVXI system
July 2000
including record and playback of syndicated and network programming.
Tonal Vision Studios, a sound -forpicture facility based in Baltimore,
MD, recently purchased an
MFX3plus digital audio workstation
from Fairlight.
Inscriber Technology moved into a
new headquarters, giving Inscriber's
research and development, marketing,
and production groups twice the space
available to them before. The new
building is located at 26 Peppler
Street, Waterloo, ON N2J 3C4 Canada.
Denon Electronics recently moved
from its previous headquarters in
Parsippany, NJ, into a new 45,000 square -foot facility in Pine Brook,
NJ. The new facility is located at 19
Chapin Road, P.O. Box 867, Pine
Brook, NJ 07058 -9777. The company
telephone and fax numbers, e-mail
addresses, and website remain the same.
Angenicux has sold its 15 x 8.3 high
resolution lenses to two Tribune BroadWPIX in New York
casting stations
City and WPHL in Philadelphia. Each
facility will use three of the lenses for
its ENG crews. In addition, Florida's
News Channel selected the high resolution lenses with Assisted Internal
Focus technology for use with the
station's Sony BVP -550 cameras.
WFMY, a CBS affiliate in Greensboro,
NC, has also purchased Angenieux's
15 x 8.3 HR lenses, as well as 12 x 5.3
HR Wide Super Zoom lenses.
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Divicom and Geocast have an-
nounced
partnership allowing
a
broadcasters to merge Web content
and local video content into their
digital video streams for broadcast to
PC users. As part of the alliance,
Divicom will integrate the Geocast
solution with DataTrack TM. The
Geocast service will enable users to
instantly access local information and
entertainment, while the DataTrack
technology creates a transport stream
between the head -end facility and
consumers' set -top boxes.
Columbine JDS and Triveni Digital
have jointly developed an interface
between Triveni Digital's PSIP Builder Pro AE -10 and CJDS traffic and
automation systems. The interface
will allow DTV stations to use infor-
mation from their CJDS systems to
drive the PSIP, eliminating the need
for PSIP data to he entered manually.
CJDS MCAS automation systems
were also chosen for installation in
five stations owned by the Sinclair
Broadcast Group. Approximately 20
percent of Sinclair's stations currently have CJDS DAL systems installed.
WEWS -TV in Cleveland, OH, has
also purchased an MCAS -IV automation system from the CJDS DAL division of Columbine JDS.
Crown Ntedia's Denver-based Hallmark Entertainment Network recently
purchased a $700,000 Image -store master control and channel branding system from Oxtel. The network will use
the system for branding on its 15 new
DTV entertainment channels, as part
of a global playout system scheduled
to he on -air this year. Hallmark Entertainment Network will transmit
multilingual programming via fibre
and satellite to the United Kingdom
and Europe, as well as to Latin America and the Asia Pacific.
NBC affiliate WNDU -TV recently
a RapidAccess MPEG -2
video server solution from Vela to be
used primarily for playback of spots
and syndicated programs.
purchased
Design and Mix
a
Audio -Technica has been selected
by NBC and the Sydney Olympic
Broadcast Organization to provide
microphones for coverage of the 2000
Olympic Games. Audio -Technica will
provide NBC with over 200 microphones, and SOBO with over 1000.
CBS- owned -and -operated stations
will he the first to make use of Utah
Scientific's new HD -2020 master control
mixer. The system will interface with
CBS's proprietary automation system.
A.N.N. Systems has provided its
OpenMedia and StarDrive newsroom
and asset management systems to
FOX affiliate KKFX -TV for use in its
new evening newscast.
A.N.N.'s OpenMedia and StarDrive
systems will also he part of an integrated solution for the acquisition,
management and broadcast/Webcast
automation of digital media called
"News -In -A- Box." A.N.N. formed a
partnership with Leitch in order to
provide the complete newsroom solution, which combines Leitch's digital
Cable Channel with
Revolutionary Multimedia insertion Technology!
CURRENT
TEMPERATU
Berlin
multiple scalable vDMday, tor
MPEG -2 an
log video
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Concurrent display of analog video input and
MPEG -2 video in scalable, movable windows
Cairo
36°
Dallas
32°
Geneva
24°
Johannesburg
25°
London
29°
Los Angeles
31°
Back -to -back MPEG audio /video playback
Munich
28°
with genlock for seamless ad insertion
New York City
27°
Nice
26°
Paris
24°
Scalable, 24 -bit graphics overlays with 256
levels of transparency
-
Hardware- assisted scrolling and crawling of
multiple graphics windows
graphic overlay with transpáred
NTSC/PAL composite video support,
to Rome and Venice. Call Travel Network now for current holiday packa
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Single -slot PCI card
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horizontally crawling text or graphics
Supports multiple boards in
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Windows
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support
- The Professional Broadcast, Multi- Source Video and Graphics Mixer
[email protected]
Circle (178) on Free Info Card
136
optional S -video
support
Broadcast Engineering
July 2000
Enseo
www.enseo.com
MRXTM'
by Sigma. 32 x 32 =
1
variety of control panels including
alphanumeric are available. For computer
control via RS232 /RS -422, check out our
new SigMatriXT" software.
RU,
A
the formula for compact routing.
Sigma Electronics has done it again.
Introducing the new MRX Series'. of compact
routing switchers. Only one rack unit high perfect when space is at a premium. And,
with specifications that meet the most
critical applications.
MRX` ", the new formula for midsize compact
routing switchers. As an added benefit, all
components are covered by Sigma's 5 -Year
Parts & Labor Warranty.
Add levels and functions as required. Need a
channel of audio? ...add a RU, 32 x 32 frame.
The MRX'" can switch eight control levels.
1
Contact us now for product information
or to locate your nearest Sigma dealer.
SIGMA ELECTRONICS INC.
www.sigmaelectronics.com
184 Enterprise Road
PO Box 448
East Petersburg PA 17520 -0448
(717)569 -2681 TELEPHONE
(717)569 -4056 FAX
1
Distribution
Switching
Timing
Encoding
Decoding
D gical
Tremcnding
Circle (171) on Free Info
www.americanradiohistory.com
video servers and NLE technology
with A.N.N.'s newsroom products.
Sunset Digital Studios, a post- production facility specializing in feature film
mastering, made -for-television movies,
music videos and commercials, installed the ARTEMIS digital audio
workstation from SADIE in its digital
mastering suite. The ARTEMIS is
currently being used for DVD
soundtrack mastering, Dolby E mastering, and digital restoration and
mastering of motion picture/television
soundtracks.
AMS Neve's Libra Live Series II
digital broadcast console was chosen
by Time Telepictures, a division of
Warner Bros., for installation in its
digital production facility. One will
be installed in the existing Studio A,
while the other is scheduled for installation in the new Studio B.
MTV Networks also purchased a
Libra Live Series II for installation in
their Studio B control room. The console will be used for MTV program
Total Request Live and live MTV
studio performances. It was also be
utilized for MTV's New Year's Eve
special.
moted to vice president and general
manager of Systems and Broadcast
Products.
PEOPLE
and CEO of Communications
Bart Petrini was named president
&
Power
Industries.
Solid State Logic
Hitachi recently appointed two top
executives to its Industrial Video DiWilliam Liento as vice
vision
president and Phil Gantt as director
appointed Claire
Hall as national
sales manager of
broadcast products for the United
-
of marketing.
Claire Hall
States.
Bernard LechJeff Gibson was promoted to vice
president of sales for Extron Electronics.
Vela announced
two executive pro-
motions. Bill Robertson was pro-
moted to vice
president of technology, marketing and planning
for Vela, and Carl
Jeff Gibson
ner was recently
honored as the
first recipient of
the ATSC Outstanding Contributor Award. ATSC
Chairman Robert
Graves announced
that the Bernard
Bernard Lechner
Outstanding Contributor
Award will be given annually.
J. Lechner
Gardner was pro-
Axon.
Pushing the
bound ies
of
fj
'
opte
transmission
J
FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR UP TO 50 KILOMETERS
Whatever your fibre -optic transmission
requirements, Axon has innovation solutions.
For up to 50 kilometres, we have
modular
laser-based transmitter and receiver cards for
single -mode or multi-mode fibres.
The transmitter and receiver cards feature
an innovative contact block with precision
optical connectors at the rear where they
belong - out of potential danger. Forget
about accidental breakage from fibres
emerging from the front of routers or transmission
systems. These converters can be used In the FR-
2009
o
F
For
frames.
shorter distances (up to
s
2
there are stand -alone LED -based transmitter and
receiver units for multi -mode fibres (100 to
400 Mbit bandwidth). These are ideal for inter -
studio connections or wherever galvanic separation is
required. To push your fibre -optic performance
boundaries further, contact Axon.
Circle (172) on Free Info Card
138
Broadcast Engineering
kilometres),
July 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Di
itai
De
+r
THE MARK OF DIGITAL ACHIEVEMENT
AXON DIGITAL DESIGN BV
.31 10113 511 6666.
THE NETHERLANDS. PHONE:
UNITED KINGDOM. PHONE: +44
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O S. A. PHONE: 11121265 6865.
http /iwww.axon.nl Email axoneaxon
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Studio Server
Welcome to the realm of productivity
NEXTORE is more than just a multichannel DDR with user adjustable compression up to Lossless quality.
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In post -production and broadcast facilities, it is the ideal
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:`114'
SONY
DSR -200A
rl
Srynal
a
lurrossrogl ana
L...-
the
-CCDs 1270 000 pixels each) earn a lainµ light collecting area glue the camera high senshmly and vomie
dynamic range Double -densely pixel distribution and a
gapless dichroic prism further ensure razor-sharp
images and extremely faithful color reproduction.
taoglaphers strangers aria
nr 32ko, digital audio
only the beginning Om
ris include 16943 capability Steady Shot Imre code operation (hate. date
mutton., ata an rprE -1304 muds, e Irir duecl digital output
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table servo 108 optical power Boom lens
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steps Gain buns 3dB to
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large
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Zebra Pattern
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Records Drnp Non mop
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goda, SteadyShot uses non,Onla1
!mal allow it lo work accurately while
ring boni a car and shooting rn low
-
Automatic
a manual
Selectable 2- channel 48 kHz..16 -bit or 4- channel 32
kFZl2 -bit PCM audio recording.
Built-in stereo nut and external rmc input as well
180.000 pixel. 2.5 -Inch color LCD monitor Also has a
0 5 -inch Color viewfinder
Dlgdal Image Stabilizer for clear. shake and totter tree shots
120 optical zoom as well as 300 and 120X digital zoom
functions Move Iron) wide -angle to full zoom In 1 3
seconds allowing gulch framing while al REC pause
Otters six digital effects Wipe. Mu Strobe. Gain -Up.
88W and still made
nits
lru
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IL;I ni
.rom
aryl ammo equipment
DSR -300A
Digital (DVCAM) Camcorder
3 -CCD
w leababes and tunclnau.:u Me 1150.130 the
lurdable Oslo 300A at dually extends °per.d1mhh cmlvendence. wroth a
inge of new leamres and Peopheral products Remarkably cunlpact and
amlwemhl. the Improved DSR -3006 provides high rmhudy wimoul
unpromising mclure quality and can he held culllturlably on your
holder through the longest shoots and gives vrdeograpnnrs Me Aunty
u aclplrre Then loola0e quickly and easily
3 -CCD
awaiting many at tor..
Drgnel Signal Processor the very same one used by the
030 cameras) for a hgh sgnablo-norse ratio of 62 dB
serest and standard cassettes (PDV
series) can be used wan the 059.3006 Wrtlr POI.184ME
(standard) a maximum recof ing tone of 184 minutes can he
acnerved They can also play back tapes recorded in the
OSI
DSR -300A
s
-
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HAD COOS to deliver 800
N hallo and high sensrlrvrly
,u
of houaunte.
at 2000111.
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aver HAD CCDs also gives you a row smear level of .110 dB
1E.0 3001 allowing more freedom to shoot highlighted sublecls
ti
It-in 26 -pin VCR Interlace they can leed composite or
'Irllpul signals to an external recardef for parallel of
chitlings VCR recording anodes including Parallel
nut only and External only are selected via tome bigger
rr lcll posrlrnned on the operational panel
;AM the 559006 a pdaure prewously recorded on tape can
ìuperirnpused on the wewlinder .r r. --rd rlrtie,e Mix
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Both mini cassettes IPDVM
consumer DV
For operational convenience while shooting, the Time Code rs
sullenmpOsed on One viewfinder screen or MONITOR OUT
screen wen during playback
DXFOOC1 vren:Irndel leatullog variable peaking 3 level tally light
and a white LED tight ward 2 levels of rntens.1y to illuminate the
lens setting
1E1E1394 Lim tout only)
Color Temperature Slrrlt allowing me operator to manna), ardr
the White balance either towards blue or fed to compensate
canfliclive ¡color temp min and because of Me wide fanrlI
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DVCAM Player /Recorders
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Imo TC Copa mode tul inhumation of
or The anginal lape can be coped to another
.1hrrg working copies of the Anginal
They are capable of searching tor Index Pails
corded on the tape as 111- point maths every
H
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baranded owour ThesLINK interlace allow n
the haute
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repeat turolon for repeated
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player in AlB roll or cut editing system
simple recording tuilction which ran be controlled
DSR -30
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There is also a live-
mode white
balance Set.
Fluroescent. Auto. Indoor and D ddoor
Large -diameter focus ring enables a high level of
focusing precision A Multi- FJrlction Push Dial
allows easy setting of the 16 -slip Iris. 5-step gain
control I 12dB maxlrmnnI ano 14 -step shutter ¡up
to 1,8000 second) Mie Input level can also be set in
steps I- 201.10/01.31.6 dB)
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edit controller
Built -In ND (neutral density, filter
Square lens hood reduces external light flare ellects
GY-DV500
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important in bIB Roll configurations In
allows adlusunent of H -sync and SC phase
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SR
Interlace
'tu DSR20 DSR40
have a Control 5 meal
i' Ile optional DSRM -20 Remore
Control
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VCR bananares
either manually m va
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The OSRIO us not equipped with a synemmnvallon capabOrta
the Wing accuracy Is Perlorined by pretroll and play
DVCAM Digital VCR
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2
channel l or at
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Burl, m editing
nl.n and audio irisen
all inner purm'm Photo Dala recorded by the
)5R-200A camcorder the DSR0 dfasti aW cuts the time usually
emoted ta edihrg The DSR30 can record up to 135 todei p01115
Ir Irse Cassette Menlo, thanks to its 161( lulls capabady
Indio lock ensotes audio is hilly symluon4ed wan the video tot
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Budl tin control Tray has a tog shuttle dial VCR and edit
buttons The togisnunle dial allows melare search at eI b to 15X
normal mewl and controls not only the 0SR 30 but also a player
hooked up through its LANG interlace
DV in /Out IIEEE 13941 for ddgrtal dubbing Of vufeo humo old data
ID vntb no loss ni 0uabty
Analog Jomo and video mnpuboutputs make it fully Compatible
with ilonmgrlal equipment Playback compalhody wth consumer
OV tapes alloys you In work with loolage recorded on consumelgrade equipment lapes recorded to the DSR 30 ate also
compatible with Sony s Ugh inn DVCAM OCR s
141 IeT1[dr
world's first DV Catgut del derarplerl TIT, ale VOUITI..Il ta'
professional ENG work. the GV OV500 combines the Convenurnce and
cost-effectiveness of Mini DV with the performance and teatures you
need Incorporate three 1!2 -Inch 380.000 pixel IT CCDs for
superior picture performance lequwalent to 750 lines of
resolution) superb sensntively of Ft I at 2000 lux and mmnmum
illumination o10 75 lux ILOLOx model Rugged construction with
a aged decease magnesium housing. Extremely portable. compact
and light weight item than 11 lbs fully loaded) Addhonal
features like the menu dial and Super Scene Finder assure ease -ot-use and shooting
flexibility while the IEEE1394 and RS-232 interface allow integration Into various non -linear and post-productron
systems A professional camcorder In every sense. the compact. lightweight CV-00500 redel nes acquisition for
corporate. educational cable and broadcast production. as well as wedding vldeography and multimedia applocations
Adjustable gamma for adlushng the feel- of the picture
Prolusion! Specifications
according to taste Adlustable detail frequency for setting
Apples JVC s DSP with advanced 14 -bd video processing
noise.
picture Sharpness tor a bolder tr finer look
to bring out more natural details eliminate spot
Viewfinder status display uses I haraclers and menus lo
accurately reproduce dark areas and restore color
deputy selected information. Inc uding audio indicator. tape
Information In dark areas
and battery remaining time. VCR operation and warning
CCDs are equipped with advanced circuitry to virtually
indrtalors Camera settings and setup parameters can also
eliminate vertical smear when shooting bright lights In a
be checked at a glance A built- n menu dial lets you
dark room Ensures efficient Irght conversion with a
quickly navigate through the anevhnder menu
sensitivity of Fi i at 2000 lux
Highlight Noma Processing maintains color saturation in
CCD Detect Correction function evaluates white defects
highlights The result is natural color reproduction. even in
in
lens
and
then
stores
then
addresses
with the
closed
memory When the camera Is turned on the data Is sent to
bright highlight portions of Iho picture
Smooth Transition mode ensures a smooth transition with
the DSP for storage and real-lime correction
no lump in color or light level Liking place when manually
Black Stretch Compress function ensures accurate
changing gain or while balance settings
reproduction of black areas on the screen Advanced color
Professional Audio
matrix circuits give even difficult images a very natural
To complement Its superior v deo perlolmance. the Cl'
appearance
DV500 offers outstanding dig Lit PCM sound You can
Multrslreana parallel digital pipeline processing at 40 MHz
choose between two 16 -bit 48 -KHz channels or two 12 -bit
creates all ultra -smooth gamma curve. calculated using a
32 -kHz channels with a dynamic range of 85 dB
true log scale algorithm The result rs a dynamic range of
tine
in
Ill addition to camera mounted m,c has two )(LAto
reproduce
details
and
colors
6000i
accurately
balanced audio inputs with 48v phantom power and
shadows or highlights
manual audio control Phantom power can be switched
Professional Performance
oft when not In use
Multi-zone Ills weighting system gives priority to objects
Side -mounled speaker lets you monitor audio in playback
at the central and lower portions at Inc picture for accurate
and recording modes without I eadphones. The speaker
auto exposure under any condition even II a bright sublect
also delayers audible warning;
nloveS into the Picture
The
e
iecmdmg
cumpression ratio pi u,mes suecaculal putute mwldty ata nglmgeneratiun
It has a Contr. L Interface far editing wlln other Coot,ol L based
_ISN :t3e5
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AM r. nucurger fir another OSR 30 Il also
m
n making it ideal Ior kiosks and other
, tarmante
conditions
the same as used in CDs for a breathtaking dynamic range of
96 dB Most important though since video and audio signals are
recorded digitally you can copy or edit multiple generations with no
loss in quality Analog tape artifacts like color bleeding dropouts and generation loss
are all a thing of the past
Focusing. exposure and while balance are all automatic or
Eight-speed 100 optical zoom lens goes 1,0015 9 to 59mm
can be manually controlled
in 4 1. 20 secs Also provides a digital 200 zoom
Zebra pattern Indicator lust like p rolessmnal cameras I
Records 12-b4 32kHz audio with two pads 01 stereo tracks
Preset store and recall your cwn custom settings for
Automatic and manual audio level record controls
color intensity. white balance. sharpness. brightness
Built-in time base corrector TBC delivers Illlelree
and gam shift (OdB -3dBl
playback and dead -perfect stills
Precision 180.000 pixel color viewfinder incorporates a
Digital effects Inc ade audio and video lade to black).
separate information sub panel which displays time code
overlap and slow shutter Time -lapse recording
battery lime lape remaining and other camcorder
Sony s Super SteadyShot reduces high Irequency camera
functions without cluttering up the viewfinder
shake without compromising image quality
Control L terminal for communication between camera and
Records 'extended data codes Automatically stores
JVC
stans buey can also search la, pnolo data recorded on a DVCAM
n . 11511-2 006 3 00,PD WO or where the recording
.
bal
a
deflerenl
Digital Camcorder
date'ome shutter speed. ins and other data for easy recall
n. 'Inds drop -frame time code tor accurate editing
r-rd still Image pictures with audio for up to seven secs
^niq
,dry
PI
AE
1/2 -inch 3 -CCD Professional DV Camcorder
Reference Input
cord
!limp ni
The DCR- V01000 records 500 hoes ut nnnzunlal resolution.
and has a higher SIN ratio than cameras costing len times
more Also records audio digitally using PCM technology
ira toe òOGAM Imn.11
lNK - "eyna
ve
laudes for
shooting in
variety of
SONY
DCR- VX1000
audio level record controls
n,,r
M
XLH inpul connectors alt
If
Broadcast & Television Systems
3
2004'
S lion 1001 Tor video lournalrsts
u1 ton houses 500 fines et hour
I out record time and mammon innrm. ..,r
er
Panasonic
AG -EZ30 3 -CCD Camcorder with IEEE1394 Interface
Digital (DVCAM) Camcorder
3 -CCD
-
-""-1
I4;i?t1,,I.11IIliI'Tm?'r
Circle (175) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
11
B1
THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE FOR PHOTO,
FOR ORDERS CALL:
MOST ORDERS SHIPPED
WITHIN 24 HOURS
800 -947-9928 800 -947-9003
PHOTO - VIDEO - PRO AUDIO
212-444-5028
LI
OVERNIGHT SERVICE AVAILABLE
212-444-5001
www.bhphotovideo.com
SONY
Battery
HyTRON 50
FAX (24 Houes):
OR
PROFESSIONAL VIDEO TAPES
UVW-1200/UVW-1400A
NM,
n' ..11N. .SOU .in in .rid pa, .ad 50 Wattlmuu -'
wrgv enough to operate a Ivpe.dl ENG Camcorder tor two
rs Me HyTRON 50 is the most advanced Irgmweghl bather.
U me Industry
Made possible by recent advancements in a Cell technology
anginal, designed for the mobile computing industry it
ncoporales nickel metal hydride cells Ilitt provide the tun
energy density of any rechargeable cylirrdmcai cell s.uLd. i. lertornianceU further assured through the integraonn,'
Roble. Ran," morActive digital tecnnulogv
au nv hoard tuel computer which moor, n
timid as well as crIlical operating
'ond,ccus tai, d.rt,l,<COniniulucatell In the
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available by
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camcorders
lira.,,/ damaging
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S
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Specifications
Betacam SP Player
Player/Recorder
Prolessional Grade
UVW 1106 and UVW' 1400A are non- edrlmQ VCRs which
deliver Betacam SP quality and offer lealures for a oide ranee of
playback and recording appbcaenons RGO and RS-232 Interface
make them espenally Ideal or large screen. high quality video
presenulioa. Scientific research orb digital video environments.
',hilly suited for work connputer environments because
RGB signals Can he convened into umtponent signals and
nice versa with nmmnunt picture degradation
25 -pin serial interlace allays external computer conbol of all
VCR functions based on time code information Baud rate
can be selected bon between 1200 to 38 400 bps
Burlt,n Time Base Stabilizer HBS1 locks sync and subcarner
to an external relerernce signal as well as providing stable
pictures High quality digital dropout cmnpensalor tunher
ensures consistent picture pertormance
The
'
Both read LTC Time Curler and UB IUsel (Iasi The UVW
1400A also generales LTC ami UB I free- RunlRec -Rum
Equipped with two longitudinal audio channels
Auto repeat of entire or a specific portion of the tape
Built, n character generator can display VTR status. time
code sel4dragnostrc messages sel-up menu etc
Control 01 log. shuttle playback record pause FF and REW
with the optional SVRM't00h Remote Control unit
Composite and SVideo as well as component via BNCs
which are swrtchalde to RGB output The UVW'1400A has
two svulchable sync connectors and a Sync on Green
Bolt-in diagnostic function and how meter
Initial setup menu for presellmg operational parameters
Settings are retained even aller power is turned oll
,
WH W0115..eixi
UVW-1600/UVW-1800
Watts
Betacam SP Editing Player
QUAD 2702/2401
-
'Oulnonal BVR ÓO
Frame accurate editing is assured thank,
servo control and built-in time code open
mode of the MAN -1800 'video audio C' -1
.o
vr,ipulel and
lax
bicha..
Whenever versaouty and no n one choice Legendary rehab,' 1,
50 Wall
Hydride Batteries
High capacity WISH cells Standard thermal and
short Circuit protection. extra Thermal tuse Ion solely
special plastic design tot added strenght
Environmentally sate High efficiency low
temperature module Capacity 5OWh 113 2V 3 8Ah1
Camera run time t t 5nun *126 Wann)
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129.95
NP -H50DX
149.95
JL -2 PLUS
2- Position Multi-Format
Charger/Power Supply
Universal charger 'Power Supply.
2- channel sequential quick charger and
power supply for Lithium -Ion.
Ne PP ta n' N ad e,el NiM1IH battery par k,
30S
9.*
IIN
done using the optional BVR'SO TBC Remote Control
The PVW'2600 PVW -2650 and PVW @800 (generates as
well) read VITC: LTC lime cede as well as User Bits. Ent Inn
tome code. Regen Preset or RecRUn, Free -Run selections
Builtn, character generator displays tome code Or CTL dala
Set -up menu for presetting many functional parameters
awn Iononudinat audio channels with Dolby C type NR
id
UHM
i. aonless
S131 80
126 BU
-
20M2U/20M4U
levels el drag Built In bubble leveling
ratinnleas nrtival inn:nnlal brake',
282
.
Ile correct
is tal ,i nulla',e0u> molti naililel
honal lealures like space diversity receplmn
liable and sophisticated cncuit technology
:. 'tinse vide dynamic range and extremely stable
'goal 1,111°nr5smn and reception meal for broadcasting
etanons folli mnlinoteni facilities and FNG work
H,ml
floor Spreader
11uu1
rig
1
I
nold IDA
751
unI
AV.DVM80
nI'
Same as Me DV4 PLUS
Five step of 1, n.l nur,
five step nr..,.
OV4XD System 06
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man
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consists
Gream, load
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Hold Head (DV6
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OVB System (0910)
Ru 1
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consists of:
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PR Series
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2.59
Prolessional
PM Series Premier Grade
219
VHS
3
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1-3086
3.59
3.99
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'
4.19
r'
1.99
O,mabc Broadcast Simard On Bog
8.69
KCS -20 OHS -
.1
ORS
.
-
SIU
-
10
,nu.
Broadcast Master (In Bor)
8.19
11.99
3/4
mmn
U-mabc
9.59
10.09
12.99
SP
Broadcast
On Bold
aster )Bog
ea
IS 99
Mini OV lape
12.99
11.99
7.99
Earl Size DV Tape with Memory Chip
'
UV '.'ní.11!.1
DV12
-
Same as DVB
PLUS
Greal Load Capacity
Fits 100mn1 tnpnds
24 99
POV Series Prolessional OVCAM Tape
15 25
PDVM -12Mí (Mini
33.49
4495
31
95
10.59
10.59
15.69
11.09
11.59
16.89
Metal Betacam SP Bmadca
11.99
Dl'k'
0.99
8.69
13.39
LP U -matic
'-
-
99
On Box)
12V8A
Master Quality S'VHS Ile Bns)
1.69
MUS'
MO
MUS
HGrade Broadcast VHS
..
12.99
DVS System
Same as ON PLUS
5.99
1.49
20.95
ea
,.
'1111
:I
BCT
Vibrationiess vertical horizontal brakes
Burli in bubble lot horizontal leveling
Stogie stage 75nun long tripod DA 75
Lightweight floor spreader SP 75
OW System p410)
41:
Fluid Head IDV -41 Long Tripod IDA 751
floor spreader (SP 751
DV4XD System
i
29.95
Mini 0V Tape
7.99
12.99
HSP
enlists
This system (0210) consists of:
990ML4'
649
L-Pt 2MIMediumi
Slydnlg balance plate
Touch and GO quick release w,lh automatic
camera lock and safety lever/Mot, protection
One step of dynamic counterbalance
Friclronless leak moot Bold damping with
one levels of drag
5.99
6.99
13.99
Panasonic
:' apabltrty
DV4 System
',,
Betacam SP
19.99
13.49
TASP
nrghl...i.il. .ri,.,.ri;
leak proof fluid damping with
2.99
3.99
Broadcast Quality VHS Max)
1120 50
3.89
3.99
BO Professional S.VHS On Mal
6.79
'. 90
7.45
'. HO
,
SECAM
step of dynamic counterbalance
2.09
2.69
,
2.19
T.30 BO
fmr
2.1et as requite light fast and
it
''rrr ìi,101, ng from the DV': ,I
li to the DV 12 S4JOler has a Solution tailored to lust about
'..Inirr.0 package available Iola.
clop.
All feature Sachtler s patented counterbalance system and touch and Go wedge Wales And all except the DV2 Ieature slldrnll
camera platform to ease in the balancing of your camera
i,
1.99
BO
UHF WIRELESS MICROPHONE
It'."1"11
1.69
HGXT60 Pin
11001160 Pi
I
The smallest head of the Sachtier s Ime
Sar:ltter Touch and Go quick release
r:nh aulon,ahc camera lock and safety
.er drop protection
7.99
BO
PT PLUS VHS
s best production monitors even the PVM -M Series provide s turi
n 01
optional functions They are Identical except that the "M4" models vier,''
".
HR l nmlron CRT
display technology and have SMPTE C phosphours instead of P22
HR Tnniti on CRT enables the PVM -14M4Ú and 20M4U to
Each has Iwo composite. S'Video and wuiponent input ill
display an incredible 800 lines of honzontal
V'B' Y. analog RGBi ton more accurate color
¢solution The PVM't4M2U and
reproduction the component level can be adlusted
20M2Ú offer 600 lines of
according to the input system Optional 8KM -101C
resolution M4 models also use
(vrdem and 8KM -t02 )audio) for SMPTE 259M serial
SMPTE C phosphours for the most
modal Input On- screen menus Beam Current
critical evaluation of any color
Feadback Court. 4 37169 switchabie aspect ratio
street).
External sync input and output can be set for
Dark tint tot a higher contrast ratio
automatic switching to the selected input
t black to white) and crisper
Swdchable color temp 6500K (broadcastl. 9300K
sharper looking edges
(pleasing picture) User preset 13200K to t0000K)
Toe mulls -system monitors they
Kline gun underscan and H V delay capability
handle tour color system signals
°pule! remote control and tally vu 20 -pin connector
4 43 PAL
DV2 System
609
HGX- PLUS VHS (Box)
Sony
,i.:,til.,,,i
6.99
639
HM BU
'
&
10.99
22.50
39.99
-
Metal Particle (MRMI
MO
13 -inch and 19 -inch Production Monitors
8
8.79
19.99
30.99
S,úadcast Oualrly Hie Metal Panicle
SONY 800 SERIES @sachtler Tripods & Fluid Heads
DV Systems - Digital Support for Every Budget
''
SYSTEMS
749
'20 XP!
"colt-
Recognizable monochrome pictures at up to 240 nun, !
speed in forward and reverse Color at speeds up tit'
Two byes oI component connection. three BNC
Bra tin 12 -pin dub connector icomposde and S'Vide,
PVW -2650 Only Dynamic Tracking (DTI playback Iron;
hms normal speed
PVW -2800 OnlyBuilt -m comprehensive editing tacnities
c Motion Control with memory provides slow motion
PVM- 14M2U/14M4U
12.99
39.95
maxell
me insert
I
Buatrn TBC's and dig ital dropout compensation assure
+sistent picture performance Remote TBC adjustment can
13.59
DP121 INC PRO
4.120 Plu,
d;
N1,1011,1, production The PVW Series includes the PVW-2600 Payer PVW -2650 Player
with Dynamic Tracking and the POW-2800 Editing Recorder They Mature built
In TBCs LTC WTC time code operation and RS-422 serial Interlace They also
oiler composite. S'video and component video inputs and outputs Most
nnportanl they are built for heavy every day duly
NTSC. NTSC
-
055
94L
rip
,..
10 -19
'
1.30 Plus
.
.
NN
power indicator.
NP -H50
P6I20iit.11
BETACAM SP PRO SERIES
itti 50'walls of
power these batteries
provide long run times.
using them as you
would a traditional NPtype battery Equipped with IDX's
proprietary SF technology they can even be charged In
existing Negative Delta V style Chargers like the Sony
BC1 -WD or any IDX nicad battery charger
Both batteries are identical except Mal the NP -H5001
a
P6u0
PVW-2600/PVW-2650/PVW-2800
Use power and
iidule .nid is the
ri.
Packed
adds
types or component Output via three BNC connectors
1.69
Metal Evaporated
-'AF
7.69
4.99
'P.11
6.29
8.29
i"41
M321 SP Metal Oetacam (Sul
11.99
12.49
"
14.99
24.95
P'
m' ''rnsleatert
11
749
M221 H18 Double Coaled
12M (Men
-
allows remote TBC adjustment
4.49
-VHS Double Coaled
6.69
and UVW-1800 are tite other halt of the UVW series They offer the superiority of Bea cani SP with sophisticated
-dnmq features They feature an RS -422 9 pin interface built-in TBCs and Time Code operation Inputs outputs include
-'pmlent composite and SVmeo All the (matures of the UV1200/1400A PLUS
-S -422 interlace for editing system expansion
S
Metal Particles
63M
Betacam SP Editing Recorder
2.79
-
Broadcast Grade VHS Bo,
3.99
H411S
ST.30
VHS
2.39
3.29
'ne UVW -I 600
Four -Position Power /Chargers
'USUC
2.39
12.49
13.49
12.99
21.99
28.99
17.99
13.99
9.99
26.99
15.25
15.99
37.99
24.95
39.95
VIDEO and PRO AUDIO
TO INQUIRE ABOUT YOUR ORDER:
00 221
-5743
OR FAX 24 HOURS:
00
947 -2215
(Bet.
33rd & 34th
St.)
New York, N.Y. 10001
239 -754
212
Avid
420 Ninth Ave.
239 -7765
212
SONY
EditStation
/
ES -3
Xpress DV On IntelliStation
Xpress DV un IntelliStation rs a trunk... digital valeo solution designed
five processional Content creators In corporations.
lucatron and government institutions the power to
unmunicate with video The solution consists of
I:M's ,Hoard- winning IntelliStahmr M Pro
.orkstatlon. and Avid's Xpress DV digital video
silent creation software Simply plug your DV
unera into the IntelliStation workstation launch
press DV and begin assembling a video Using the
gh- powered and reliable able InlelliStahon M Pro
ad intuitive Xpress DV software you'll be creating
radessronal- looknrg video and
'mubnedra content for a wide variety of
.s es including sales and marketing videos training
Ceos and web -based teaching solutions-in no time
aid
le Hardware
rE redesigned IBM IntelliSlatnon
features a
gar -speed Intel 840 chip set 600 MHz Pentium Ill
ocessor 133 MHz Front Side Bus a Canopus OV
(pion and a Matron display card.
'esigned with the Intel 840 chipset the IntelliStation M
as well as
c supports high -speed ATA -66 disk drives
to 1GB of ECC memory The solution rs preinstalled
.itl the Matron millennium G400 4X AGP graphics
nod icapable of IGB p s Iranslersi with 16MB of on)(Ind memory. and the Canopus DV Raptor Adapter
EE1394 interlace tor DV I 0 It also includes two
ll a2 SCSI hard drives a 9 t GB drive tor the
aerating system and programs and an 18 2GB drive
rr capturing data
'he Software
e d Xpress DV software combines powerful video and
ado editing tools. digital mastering and extreme ease
I
ase Xpress DV captures and edits DV video adds
reds mixes audio and outputs the finnshed results
ver IEEEt394 FueWne for impressive video Or
anscodes the content to all manor new media formals
IPEG-1 for CD -RI MPEG -21for DVD -ROM(
uickTrme m AVI for computer based presentations or
it slreamung on the web As a member of the Avid
press Family The Xpress DV offers the Avid graphical
sur interface (Gull based on the 3 version offering
owertnil audio and video tools including
4 tracks of nested video with single track transitions
E tracks of audio with real -time mixing
Eatctr digitizing. and RS-422 deck control
rtegrated EDL support :nth built in logging
22 levels of undo. redo. making changes painless'
light timeline with precise Irmecode editing
M Pro
)
1
I
PHOTO - VIDEO - PRO AUDIO
...:
Real lime 3-band EO and robber l,ann u -on S.I .intim ils
32 and 48 kHz sampling rate yogi down sample to 22
and 11 kHz for multimedia
Over 50 transitions. Including dissolves (notion 8
color effects superimposition horizontal and vertical
..Jupes cluoma and bona keys picture In picture flips
flops resizes spins peels pushes squeezes and
many more
Integrated antialmsed tilling tool
Export to MPEGI. 2 Microsoft Windows Media
IASFI AVI OmckTnne. or RealMedra
The Service
IBM is maintaining a server where sou can obtain disk
space for approximately five hours of compressed
streamed video where your client can download your
video from a customized web page. at no charge to you
for the fast three months ratter three months d is fee
based)
IBM IntelliStation M Pro 16868 -91U(
600 MHz Pentium Ill processor
256MB Full Speed ECC memory
Matron Mlllenmm G400 4X AGP with 16MB of RAM
Ultra? SCSI 9 GB 17200 rpmldnve t operating system
18 2G drive for video and audio storage
CD -ROM (20x -to- 48x1
Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5
Complete system integration and testing
All for the Unbelievable price of
'6795.00
Add an IBM 21 monitor.
and Roland MA8 speaker set
For only an additional 1000 00
'6895.00
.
n an extremely flexible powerful and high picture quality non -hr ear video editing
system Its sell- explanalora yet sophisticated editing Interface is easy to use even for neve>Imers to the non -linear
editing realm Its open architecture also supports popular thud -part': software for graphics paint text and effects
The Sony ES -3 ErhtStatinn also offers the unique Sony "ChpLink- interface allornng you lc transfer only the clips
you cn, Jul for editing. Since The Sony DSR-300 500 cameras mark the nvout pours of each shot and a still frame of
every in-point called the aide+ picture. is recorded Millie cassette memory of the DVCAM tape
The Sony ES -3 EdrlSlatmn
The video and audio files stored on the disk
drive of the ES -3 system can easily converted
to AVI or OmckTiine file format Allowing you
to create multimedia materials for CD -ROMs.
or to he streamed to the web
Slow and last motion are available The
playback speed for each clip can be set to be
played back at the desired speed.
Edits on the ES-3 TrmeLun-t are converted to
the Sony EDL format and displayed in a EDL
w:rindow. Additionally the EDL can be printed
out or saved lo disk
Dual monitor display is available for mutare
Editor
Audio Editor
With the Audio Editor. eight channels of assigned
audio can be monitored In re II-hume. Each input
channel can be assigned to any track in the
timeline Each channel has It; own peak meter.
level fader level trim phase control three band
efficient operation.
The ES-3 can he switched to operate in either
4.3 or 16 9 wide screen aspect ratio.
You start with the Editor loi uploading to create
both video and audio clips. The Editor consists of
the live picture window. In Out point and duration
lit
windows. video audio
314 selection buttons for
uploading a record clip button and VCR control
functions. Using the Editor you can upload video
including live upload) with or without VCR control.
ClipBin
This is where you store program material designated as clips. You can group clips and customize the
CllpBin according to your needs Two main display
modes picture mode and text mode. In picture
mode you can select six different Sub modes.
E0. panning and tillers (low' cut high cul echo.
etc.) Volume and pan are prgcessed in real -time
and can also be modified In real -time using the
ESBK -7011 Control Panel.Audio level and panning
for each clip can be controlled rhieally on the
timeline with the rubber band editing function
Each track has it's own rubber hand control which
can he activated rndependenly.
Control Panel
In addition to controlling non- linear functions via
mouse and keyboard. also Ir dudes the ESBK -701 t
Control Panel for conventucral operation Combine
familiar lineal techniques Su ti as log /shuttle
control effects transitions a id audio fading with
convenience of non -linear ec ding.
Timeline
The timeline is where you build your protect Each
track may hold video. graphics odes on audio. To
hulld your prOlect. clips (from the ClipBin 1. effects
and transitions are dragged and dropped onto the
timeline in sequential order. There are various
timeline views available. You can select any items
AvidMediaDrive
rS Plus
Le
MemiOni.e IS Pairs
s the latest ei the lane
OuietDuve
nit
...Nang edge storage products Iron) Avid. Designed
nectusuvely for AV professionals the MedraDnve rS
'lus is available In 9 and 18GB capacities and
utilizes the highest performance 10.000 rpm drives
m the market today Available in a stackable model
r th a rack-mount option. the MediaDrive rS Pius
ncorponales OuletDriee a revolutionary sound
Imnpenmg technology developed by Avid The
dediaDrive rS Plus 10K drives provide Avid
:ustomers with a very affordable versatile hughncdonnance storage solution
Jsing 10 000 rpm drives. MedraDnve rS Plus
afters 40s. higher performance than 7200 rpm
foes The increase in data transfer rates results
n fewer drives necessary to achieve higher
'esolutions Real-time AVR 75 can be achieved on
single rS Plus drive Striping only two rS Plus
drives across one dual channel controller can
arovrde dual stream AVR 77 quality throughout the
entire drive
Built -in thermal circuitry controls the speed of the
fan ton ellrcnent cooling and an external indicator
helps to protect your drive and critical data by
m
-
signaling high temperature conditions
r -9 "MediaDrive" External
LVD
GB Drive _.
9699.95
rs -18 "MednaDrrve" External LVD
18GB Dove
$1199.95
"MedraDnve'' rs Rack Kit
12
technology reduces
drive noise by up to
15 dB Tins allows linen
audio editing and lower
operator fatigue
An innovative vertical rntenlocknrg slacking feature
provides the option to physically latch striped sets
together permanently or temporaul,
With Its own power and SCSI connectors
Iconformmg to last and wide SCSI standards) the
rS Plus dove is ready to travel down the hall or
around the world. Your can hook up the rS Pairs
drive in any studio No docking system is required
Optional rack mount kit adds great flexibility by
allowing Iwo MediaDrive IS amts to be mounted in
a 2U rack formal Check release allows drives to be
removed easily for transporting or replaung with
new protect drives
CoIiguratloo
MediaDrive IS enclosure. 3 5 self- contained
power. cooling and connections) stackable unit
SCSI -2 68 -pin connection
Rack mountable with MediaDrive rS rack mount
option kit
stir'' in
USA
_
is-18 " MediaDrive'' External LVD
18GB Shuttle
$1149.95
MediaDrrvé External LVD
$1699.95
Is-18 -MetllaDrlvé Slurltle 1111der
Stationl ...
51149.95
us-36
36GB Shuttle
'
.
599.95
Doves)
1
analog or digital equipment. It offers analog
composite component and 3-Video input and
output. For digital video. an LINK input output Is
standard. and OSDIISDTI I c in be activated via
optional software and dongl t. For audio. tour input
channels of XLR- balanced a lalog audio two out)
and AES.EBU digital audio EO MR- balanced) are
provided. Two RS -422 ports are provided for deck
control. Finally. the ES -3 is ISO equipped with a
oenlock input and blackburst output for ielerence
Trim Editor is available for precise trimming on
the timeline. It Is opened as an independent
window with the video of the out point of the
"trom" clip and the in point of the "to- clip
displayed Both single and dual trimming can be
A
performed Clips can also be played and trimmed
directly in the Clop Monitor which Is selected from
Pt( edit mens
s
n
Apple Computer
Final Cut Pro
Professional Editing. Composiling and Effects Software for Macintosh
breakthrough in non -linear video. Final Cul Pro combines professional editing.
conrposrhng and special effects in one powerful application - turning a Power Mac info
a powerful workstation
A
I
rs -36 "MediaDrive" External LVD
36GB Drive
$1799.95
Except AK A HI $6.95 up to
The breakout box provides easy interfacing to
Trim Editor
pmlessronals mo love ;el rt s aiso easy enough Iw frown.. soda Weal( ers y.no ace lust
discovering DV and FueWne Final Cut Pro supports DV and all Ourckbnre formats.
mcluduig M PEG and weh-read: streaming video Provides ping-and-play capabilities wain
most modal video can etas Just connect your Computer lu a DV earncouler capture video
and edil rl with sophisticated 10015 Create nnutrple layers of video usm4 teat graphics u
additional ales elements Fach laver can be still. or animated along a user-defined pall.
anus tools such as Be,. cloves with acceleration cmdrol then you can output your
results for TV mrbnt.nie Orrklrnv
Weh
.
'..
Minimum
Breakout box
displayed such as Index Pictures of the head or tail
of a clip marker name duration reel number
mark in
and many others
lb. Add 75
for each additional lb. For ins, add 50
er
Ckels (l
.
100.
Prim valid
0ìa Fps I
sub wet to su
Card
.
i'llm.d ( :III
PP.
s
tier prices. Not
s
onslble for
rar
Neal errors.
W 2000
96K Photo -Video
BAH PAGE 4
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neeer(obsolele
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;I6Digital Test Signal Generator
10 bit Digital
Gen Lock
Processing
4 Configurable Sync Outputs
HOTRONIC, INC.
tft
1875 S. 11inchester 1tlsd..
Campbell. CA 95008
Tell-1081378-3883
Fax (418 378-3888
web site: www.hotronics.com e -mail: sales5thutrnnies.com
)
12 Test Patterns
RS232 Interface
Available in NTSC or
Attractive Pricing
.... and more
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MATCH
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Twinmatch is the "one -way
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DUAL STEREO LEVEL 6 IMPEDANCE INTERFACE
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TEL (626) 355-3656 FAX (626) 355-0077
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I-E
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The Internet for Broadcasters
This book covers the effects of the Internet on broadcasting. The content includes technology and management articles, case studies, and a directory of Internet resources, which lists
Web sites and e -mail addresses for equipment suppliers, services, information sources and
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Broadcast Engineering
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www.radialeng.com
Call Brian Huber today!
1 -800 -896 -9939
Fax 913 -967 -1735
Help Wanted
- PBS is looking for a technician to perform quality
and continuity control through the operations of the control room switcher and
TELEVISION TECHNICIAN
related equipment. BS or electronics
school preferred. Requirements include
3+ years experience in operating broadcast equipment: familiarity with public
television highly desirable. For more information, see wwwobs.org.positions. PBS
offers a fast-paced work environment, a
competitive salary, and an excellent benefits package. Please send resume with
salary requirement to: PBS, 1320
Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 223141698 or email to [email protected]
148
Broadcast Engineering
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER Major station
in #2 market seeking maintenance engineers with experience with in 2 or more of
the following area's: ENG /SNG repair,
Panasonic DVC Pro, Tektronix 4k switcher,
7k router or Profile, Quantel, Avid, studio
camera, DVE, SS, CG and robotics. Automation and file server experience a plus.
Applicant should have a minimum of 5
years maintenance experience, be able to
work all shift, and lift 50 lbs. SBE certification preferred. Send resumes to: Personal/
Confidential, Classified Ad Coordinator,
Broadcast Engineering Dept. 798, 9800
Metcalf Ave, Overland Park, KS 66212 -2216.
Maximize your company's exposure in the marketplace by taking
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Call Jenny Eisele for a quote:
Phone:
913 -967 -1966
Fax:
913 -967 -1901
Help Wanted
Iíl
"r
W've started a revolution in space. Five
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Earth, enabling EchoStar to offer 500 digital
video, data and audio channels to our customers. A sixth will join the in mid -2000, and we'll
continue to build on our history as a DBS pioneer by
expanding our services throughout the 21st century.
For an exciting career with the company that's shaping
the future of television, look to us.
We're sending out signals that you'll love working here at
EchoStar Communications Corporation.We're currently recruiting highly motivated individuals who possess a high- energy level,
show pride in their work and display a winning attitude to join our team
at the following locations:
Atlanta,
GA
Communication Systems Engineer
System Engineer
Digital Design Engineer
Software /Hardware Engineers
Cheyenne, WY
Sr. Systems Engineer (Internet Technologies)
Program Managers
CAD Specialist
Project Managers
Gilbert, AZ
Field Engineers
Earth Station Technicians
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Sr. Software /Systems Engineers
Data Network Architect
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Video Compression Specialists
Telephony Analyst
EchoStar offers a salary fully commensurate with experience and an excellent benefits package. If you're qualified and
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to: EchoStar Communications Corporation, Attn: Human Resources,530 EchoStar Drive, Cheyenne, WY 82007; Phone:
(307) 633 -5224; Fax: (307) 633 -5633; For Atlanta, mail resumes to Human Resources, 1190 W. Druid Hills Rd, Atlanta, GA
30329 or Fax: 404 -978 -8076.E -mail: Hr.etc @echostar.com.
d-.sh.I
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DESIGN ENGINEERS WANTED : TGS is a
rising presence in the DTV /HDTV systems
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basic electronics. CAD experience is a
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a staff that is talented, motivated, flexible, and team-oriented. Contact or resume to: Willy Halla, VP engineering, TGS,
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378 -7850, (888) 296 -5869
drug -tree work environment and is committed to the success al
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BROADCAST ENGINEER SUPERVISOR Excellent opportunity for an experienced
Broadcast Engineer at the ABC O&O in
New York. Responsibilities include scheduling, purchasing, and supervising maintenance engineers. Also, installation /maintenance of studio, transmitter, and remote
site broadcast equipment. Must have extensive experience supporting a large
news organization and ENG staff. Should
be familiar with a live television production environment. Must possess knowledge
of analog/digital systems and a minimum
of eight years broadcast television experience. Please send resume and cover
letter to: Kurt Hanson, Chief Engineer,
WABC-TV, 7 Lincoln Square, New York,
NY 10023. No telephone calls or faxes
please. We are equal opportunity em-
ployer.
STUDIO MAINTENANCE ENGINEER Must
be able to perform the following duties:
install and maintain studio transmission
equipment including video switchers, audio consoles, DVE, CG, SS, cameras, and
robotics. Familiarity with automation systems and master control environment.
Should possess a general computer/networking background. Must be able to work
on a rotating shift schedule. Candidate
should have an engineering degree or
equivalent technical training. SBE/FCC certification a plus. If you want to be a part of
the exciting transition to HDTV in the most
exciting city in the world, please send
your resume and cover letter to: Kurt
Hanson, Chief Engineer, WABC -TV, 7 Lincoln Square, New York, NY 10023. No telephone calls or faxes please. We are equal
opportunity employer.
Broadcast Engineering
149
Help Wanted
ENGINEERS
Turner Broadcasting System has career
opportunities for experienced television engineers. These career positions demand an
extensive background in equipment maintenance, digital video and audio, and
knowledge of computer systems and networks. Please mail or fax your resume and
cover letter to:
Jim Brown
Assistant Vice President of
Engineering Services
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
One CNN Center
Place your
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TB5 is an equal opportunity employer.
MAIL
&
FAX:
KEYSTONE INT'L., INC.
Dime Bank 49 S. Main St., Pittston. PA 18640 USA
,
Phone (570) 655.7143
Fax (570) 654.5765
website: keystoneint.com
We respond to all
Employee & Employer Inquiries
ALAN CORNISH MARK KELLY
AUDIO OPERATOR Major station in #2
market seeking audio engineers for live
news operation. Be able to handle fast
paced daily news broadcasts. Previous
live news mixing a must. Euphonix audio
console experience preferred. Applicant
should have a minimum of 5 years experience, be able to work all shifts, and able to
lift 50 lbs. Send resumes to: Personal /Confidential, Classified Ad Coordinator, Broadcast Engineering Dept. 799, 9800 Metcalf
Ave, Overland Park, KS 66212 -2216.
MASTER CONTROL SUPERVISOR wanted
for HD /Digital facility. Responsibilities include development of digital /HDTV pro-
THE WORLD'S
NEWS
SENIOR TECHNICAL
SPECIALIST
Responsible for deploying customer
service systems in Latin America.
Provide support for region countries
after deployment.
Conduct quality
assurance checks.
Develop staffing requirements and
personnel
proformas.
Bachelor's
Degree in Business Administration
or International Business and three
years related experience in managerial position with customer service
experience
in
Latin
America;
Fluency in Spanish and Portuguese
languages required.
In return for your professional abilities, we
offer an attractive compensation and benefits package.
For immediate consideration,
please send or fax a cover letter along with
your resume and salary history to Galaxy
Latin America, REO# A20003.
P.O. Box 24800, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33307,
Fax: (954) 958-3341.
E-mail: hr @directvgla.com
No phone calls please.
Equal Opportunity Employer.
150
LEADER
MIS DIRECTOR
Direct and manage operations of
satellite broadcasting company's full
range of telecommunications, including computer hardware, software, network, databases, and desktop tools.
Oversee all engineering and technical
related
to
MIS
functions.
staff
Interface with all levels of organization, customer and vendors throughout Latin America. Bachelor's degree
in Systems Engineering, MIS or
Computer Science and five (5) years
fluency
in
related
experience;
Spanish and Portuguese languages
required.
In return for your professional abilities, we
offer an attractive compensation and benefits package. For immediate consideration,
please send or fax a cover letter along with
your resume and salary history to Galaxy
Latin America, REO# A20005.
P.O. Box 24800, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33307,
Fax: (954) 958 -3341.
E-mail: hr @directvgla.com
No phone calls please.
Equal Opportunity Employer.
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
duction facility, preparing schedules,
training, quality control and daily operations. Qualified candidates must have a
solid technical background, minimum of
five (5) years master control switching
experience, excellent supervisory skills,
and experience with automation.
Bachelor's degree in related field preferred. Send your resume to Personal/
Confidential, Classified Ad Coordinator,
Broadcast Engineering Dept. 800, 9800
Metcalf Ave, Overland Park, KS 662122216.
TELEVISION ENGINEER - Position to open
at the Department of Veterans Affairs,
Employee Education System, located in St.
Louis, Missouri. (wwwusajobs.opm.gov)
Karin Martinez ph: 314.894-6648 x6220. fax
314-894-5765 email me.
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
Brian Huber
-800- 896 -9939
Classified Advertising Manager
1
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
Reader
Service Advertiser
Number
Hotline
Page
Number
Accom Inc
Aerodyne Comm.
ADC Broadcast
ADC Broadcast
ADC Broadcast
B
Belden
Benchmark Media
B&H Photo -Video
Maxell Corp.
111
Methode Electronics
Miranda Technologies Inc.
113
Modulation Sciences
125
16
NOVA Systems
102
143 .., 801)-358-NTSC
Broadcast Supply Wur dwide
107
110
83
85
140
115
147
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331. 644-7141
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172
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+314241450()
187...818 -551 -5858
108..800- BELDEN4
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174175
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212- 239755(1)
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133 ... 516 -845 -2000
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180... 800-982 -1708
158. 207-655 -4555
1 85 ... 301- 571 -0790
109
147 .,. 800-821-1121
Leitch Incorporated
37
Leitch Incorporated
154
130
105
119 ... 800-231-%73
103 ... 800-231-9673
167 ... 888.494-7300
Pesa
Ross
43,61
93
116
136
134
714-424-6100
140 ... 606- 371 -5533
104 ... 606- 282-1800
122
126
Inscriber Technology
41
122,124
KTech Telecommunications
Snell &
3
COM Industry
Industry Click
I
177... 905-335 -3700
127... 714-491 -15(X)
9
146
146
114
31
'"
Video
Video
Sanix Corp
Seachange
Sigma Electronics
181 ... 626-355 -3656
182 ... 408- 378 -3883
160 ... 703-707-9094
164 ... 816-3(0-0323
121 .., 800-363 -34(X)
804288 -8606
184 ... 888-275-6311
116...818-361 -2248
148 ... 800-533-2836
151+.. 80(}323-6858
106 ... 514-331-1772
1
1
3
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8 . _ 408 -5 5 8 -2
1
1
3
137
80(1-528-8601
79
131 ... 800-328-1008
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12 5 ... 219-936-4221
131
168... 408-867-6519
126... 800-447-1714
129. 714-754-6175
55
63
Broadcast
800-288-8606
178..-888 -478-2687
110 ... 916-859 -2500
120--.800-998 -3588
105 ,,. 408- 944 -6700
Henn' Engineering
Hotronic Inc
51
Rocket Network
Ross
Harris Corp/Broadcast Div.
Switching
Professional Comm Sys
QSC Audio Products
RES
145 ... 914-592-6050
7
Prime Image Inc
714 -424 -6100
Harmonic
89
Pirod, Inc
714 -424 -6100
Grass Valley Group
35
Panasonic Broadcast
13
57
23
39
11
Omneon
Oxtel
'0 -21
Extron Electronics
Folsom Research
Intertec Publishing
Kramer Electronics
Lectrosonics
183
147
Evertz Micnssstems
800 -523 -25%
800- 726 -4266
724- 941 -1500
8M- 726 -4266
800415-5103
138. -.530- 274-2048
The Broadcast Store
Enseo
128
92
110
24
138
148
140
D PS
DTV 2000
I35,116 ..
59
Lighthouse Digital Sys.
Marconi Applied Tech.
142 -145
Chvron
Ciprico
Comm /Scope
Dielectric
Digibid.com
Digital Media Net
Digital Media Net
Digital Media Net
87
LeBlanc Broadcast
161 ..
17
Broadcast Video Systems
Leader Instruments
650- 328 -3818
123
2 5
& B Systems
Holline
Number
101
129
Analog Way
Andrew CorpAxon Digital Design
Number
Advertiser
109 ..
166 ...
112 ..
142 ..
19
AIA Video
EDITORIAL
Reader
Service
Page
133
169
103
144...415-538-0123
112
113,162 ..
613452-1886
44.135
122,170 ... 613452.1886
121
127
159 ... 708-677-30(X(
165 ... 978-897-0100
137
171 ... 717-569-2681
SGI
91
Wilcox
32-14
Sony
139
117 ... -408-2641011)
4 -5
800-372-SONY
Spectrasite
47
Standard Comm.
45
TC Electronic
42
Telecast Fiber Systems
30
Telex Communications
29
Thomcast
65
Thomson Tubes
95,97,99
Videotek, Inc.
153
124 .. 770-390-8959
123 ... 314532-5300
150 ... 805-373-1828
115 ... 508-754-4858
114 ... 877-863-4169
130 ... 888-872-8505
141 ... 201-812-9000
107 ... 619-587-0252
102 ... 800-8045719
Wheatstone Corporation
Windows to the Web
360 Systems
2
101..252-638-7000
132
Tiernan Communications
15
81
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Brad Dick, Editor
Steve Epstein, Technical Editor
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TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
Brad Gilmer, Computers c: Networking
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BUSINESS
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July
2000
Broadcast Engineering
151
The sand box is full of naughty kids
BY PAUL MCGOLDRICK
It used to
be that broadcast engineers
measured things using a meter, a
scope or a spectrum analyzer and
then agreed upon the readings. If we
hadn't, there would never have been
any completed acceptance tests for
new equipment, and the FCC would
never have been able to establish
routines for proof of performance.
When a new specification was required, one was invented or designed,
approved in committee, and applied
evenly in the broadcast workplace.
If there were differences of opinion
in committee then it was not unusual
for a practical demonstration to be
set up at the next meeting so that a
point, or practicability, could be proven to the other members. Of course,
there were always things that came
back to bite us at a later date
like
measurements of subcarrier phase
referred to lines where there was no
subcarrier
but at least the decisions were made and we moved on.
However, we now seem to have
entered a world where engineering
has become opinionated, perhaps colored, by financial or political interests.
The principal arenas of dispute recently are low -power FM, 700MHz
interference and, of course, 8VSB vs.
COFDM. The first seems to he a basic
argument about interference issues
between the FCC on one hand and
NAB/NPR (strange bedfellows) on the
-
-
political agenda being enforced with
involved. This is an accusation that
engineering complicity. We may feel one
involves engineers as willing partners -
thing or the other, but only an independent audit can verify the numbers.
The NAB/NPR partnership's audacity
in making a Congressional end run
around the FCC's licensing powers
probably had a direct bearing on the
decision by Chairman Kennard to
delay the May auction of the spec-
in- crime.
PBS
Advice is coming from all over the place
with countries like Brazil doing its
engineering has become opinionated, perhaps
colored, by financial or political interests.
trum from Channel 60 to 69 to mobile
wireless companies. The official reasons given are that there are interference issues in the spectrum, adjacent
channel interference primarily, and the
"additional time will allow auction
really about squashing competition
then we have a misuse of engineering
information. But if the FCC side has
fudged the numbers then we have a
152
July 2000
Broadcast Engineering
TV (MSTV) conduct tests, and
appears to be a part of that picture.
Service
We seem to have entered a world where
bidders to develop better business plans."
The cynical might say that because
the channels are still legitimately in
use by analog TV broadcasters, why
should these wireless companies pony
up the cash until they can use the
spectrum. Or, even more cynically, one
might wonder if the expected $2.6
billion of revenues already included in
the appropriations bill for the government's financial year is actually the
issue. Delaying the auctions until September with a financial year completed
at the end of September is an interesting
embarrassment to Congress.
The largest of the "battle of the
engineers" is 8VSB and COFDM. Do
we have genuine technical issues that
show one is better than the other across
the board, do we have implementation
delay tactics, or do we have political
pressure? There have been direct accusations of the manipulation of data
to suit the agenda of the companies
other. Both sides have produced figures
that should be easily confirmed with
independent testing, but there is absolutely no give from either side. Certainly from a casual look at the issues
one would have to say that the NAB/
NPR faction appears to he unaware
of FM's capture effect. If the issues are
Sinclair advocates COFDM. CBS advocates 8VSB. NBC abandoned its own
plans for tests and is helping Maximum
own testing. Anatel -Brazil's equivalent of the FCC- is favoring 4k
COFDM, but the difficulties that it
found with 8VSB "might be difficult
to quantify in tables."
With the ATSC also involved in the
MSTV testing, the FCC is rather out
on a limb again with its very clear
agenda to press ahead with DTV
implementation. Despite the delay in
the 700MHz auctions, the FCC knows
that extensive delays in selling UHF
spectrum will not be tolerated by
Congress for very long. One way or
another, those stations that are roadblocks in that to -he -sold space will go
off the air. Torn between a national
budget that politically has to be positive and a few small TV stations,
there will be no choice.
In the face of these political realities, perhaps it's time for the engineers to come out of the sand box, and
go back to a place where technical
accuracy, rather than playground
games, rule the day.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Stay 'Ihned...
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Leitch responds with MPEG -2 transport solutions with
control, pre- processors, encoders and decoders, including
multiplexing and de- multiplexing. Leitch has also expanded the VR MPEG -2 video server line to 4 channels and
added 50 gig drives to lower overall storage costs.
think silicon
@
Leitch
Leitch is applying video to silicon by taking its current
technology assets and selected new video applications into
silicon chips using Leitch chip design expertise. By making
this silicon available to everyone, Leitch will expand the
range and reach of high -quality video.
think news
@
Leitch
Leitch dominates the digital newsroom with its
NEWSFlash'" non -linear editor built into the VR video
servers allowing each editor simultaneous access to all
media. By combining edit stations with acquisition and
playback channels, we build an integrated all- digital
system to meet your time critical needs with streamlined
newsroom workflow.
think servers
@
Leitch
The Leitch VR video servers offer exceptional reliability
and scalability using our VR technology. MPEG versions
feature four bi- directional I/O channels in a 4RU frame
and can be configurable to more than 40 channels -all
with simultaneous access to the video storage area
network with a capacity from 250 gigabytes to more
than three terabytes.
think video
@
LEITCH
www.leitch.com
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