# HP 17bII User manual

hp 17bII+ Financial Calculator Owner’s Manual Edition 2 Part Number F2234-90020 Notice For warranty and regulatory information for this calculator, see the owner’s manual. This manual and any examples contained herein are provided “as is” and are subject to change without notice. Hewlett-Packard Company makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this manual, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard Co. shall not be liable for any errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this manual or the examples contained herein. © Copyright 2003 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation of this manual is prohibited without prior written permission of Hewlett-Packard Company, except as allowed under the copyright laws. The programs that control your calculator are copyrighted and all rights are reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation of those programs without prior written permission of Hewlett-Packard Co. is also prohibited. 4995, Murphy Canyon Rd, Suite 301 San Diego,CA 92123 Printing History Edition 1 June 2003 Edition 2 January 2004 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Welcome to the hp 17bII+ The hp 17bII+ is part of Hewlett-Packard’s new generation of calculators: The two-line display has space for messages, prompts, and labels. Menus and messages show you options and guide you through problems. Built-in applications solve these business and financial tasks: Time Value of Money. For loans, savings, leasing, and amortization. Interest Conversions. Between nominal and effective rates. Cash Flows. Discounted cash flows for calculating net present value and internal rate of return. Bonds. Price or yield on any date. Annual or semi-annual coupons; 30/360 or actual/actual calendar. Depreciation. Using methods of straight line, declining balance, sum-of-the-years’ digits, and accelerated cost recovery system. Business Percentages. Percent change, percent total, markup. Currency Exchange. Exchange calculations between two currencies. Statistics. Mean, correlation coefficient, linear estimates, and other statistical calculations. Clock. Time, date, and appointments. Use the Solver for problems that aren’t built in: type an equation and then solve for any unknown value. It’s easier than programming! There are 28K bytes of memory to store data, lists, and equations. You can print information using the hp 82240 Infrared Printer. You can choose either ALG (Algebraic) or RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) entry logic for your calculations. Welcome to the hp17bII+ File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 3 Contents 1 13 16 List of Examples Important Information 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 21 22 22 23 25 27 28 28 29 30 Getting Started Power On and Off; Continuous Memory Adjusting the Display Contrast Setting the Language What You See in the Display The Shift Key (@) Backspacing and Clearing Doing Arithmetic Keying in Negative Numbers (&) Using the Menu Keys The MAIN Menu Choosing Menus and Reading Menu Maps Calculations Using Menus Exiting Menus (e) Clearing Values in Menus Solving Your Own Equations (SOLVE) Typing Words and Characters: the ALPHAbetic Menu Editing ALPHAbetic Text Calculating the Answer (CALC) Controlling the Display Format Decimal Places Internal Precision Temporarily SHOWing ALL Rounding a Number Exchanging Periods and Commas in Numbers 31 32 34 34 34 34 35 35 4 Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 36 36 37 Error Messages Modes Calculator Memory (@M) 2 38 38 38 40 40 40 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 48 Arithmetic The Calculator Line Doing Calculations Using Parentheses in Calculations The Percent Key The Mathematical Functions The Power Function (Exponentiation) The MATH Menu Saving and Reusing Numbers The History Stack of Numbers Reusing the Last Result (@L) Storing and Recalling Numbers Doing Arithmetic Inside Registers and Variables Scientific Notation Range of Numbers 3 49 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 Percentage Calculations in Business Using the BUS Menus Examples Using the BUS Menus Percent Change (%CHG) Percent of Total (%TOTL) Markup as a Percent of Cost (MU%C) Markup as a Percent of Price (MU%P) Sharing Variables Between Menus 4 54 54 55 57 Currency Exchange Calculation The CURRX Menu Selecting a Set of Currencies Entering a Rate Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 5 59 59 60 Converting between Two Currencies Storing and Recalling Sets of Currencies Clearing the Currency Variables 5 61 61 64 66 67 71 74 77 78 82 Time Value of Money The TVM Menu Cash Flow Diagrams and Signs of Numbers Using the TVM Menu Loan Calculations Savings Calculations Leasing Calculations Amortization (AMRT) Displaying an Amortization Schedule Printing an Amortization Table 6 84 85 85 87 Interest Rate Conversions The ICNV Menu Converting Interest Rates Compounding Periods Different from Payment Periods 7 91 91 92 94 95 97 98 Cash Flow Calculations The CFLO Menu Cash Flow Diagrams and Signs of Numbers Creating a Cash-Flow List Entering Cash Flows Viewing and Correcting the List Copying a Number from a List to the Calculator Line Naming and Renaming a Cash-Flow List Starting or GETting Another List Clearing a Cash-Flow List and Its Name Cash-Flow Calculations: IRR, NPV, NUS, NFV Doing Other Calculations with CFLO Data 98 99 99 100 107 6 Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 8 108 108 110 Bonds The BOND Menu Doing Bond Calculations 9 114 114 116 116 118 119 Depreciation The DEPRC Menu Doing Depreciation Calculations DB, SOYD, and SL Methods The ACRS Method Partial-Year Depreciation 10 121 122 123 123 124 126 126 127 127 127 128 130 133 138 139 140 Running Total and Statistics The SUM Menu Creating a SUM List Entering Numbers and Viewing the TOTAL Viewing and Correcting the List Copying a Number from a List to the Calculator Line Naming and Renaming a SUM List Starting or GETting Another List Clearing a SUM List and Its Name Doing Statistical Calculations (CALC) Calculations with One Variable Calculations with Two Variables (FRCST) Curve Fitting and Forecasting Weighted Mean and Grouped Standard Deviation Summation Statistics Doing Other Calculations with SUM Data 141 141 Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic Viewing the Time and Date 11 Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 7 12 142 143 144 144 145 145 147 148 148 149 150 150 151 The Time Menu Setting the Time and Date (SET) Changing the Time and Date Formats (SET) Adjusting the Clock Setting (ADJST) Appointments (APPT) Viewing or Setting an Appointment (APT1-APT10) Acknowledging an Appointment Unacknowledged Appointments Clearing Appointments Date Arithmetic (CALC) Determining the Day of the Week for Any Date Calculating the Number of Days between Dates Calculating Past or Future Dates 153 153 156 157 158 161 161 162 162 162 163 164 164 The Equation Solver Solver Example : Sales Forecasts The SOLVE Menu Entering Equations Calculating Using Solver Menus (CALC) Editing an Equation (EDIT) Naming an Equation Finding an Equation in the Solver List Shared Variables Clearing Variables Deleting Variables and Equations Deleting One Equation or Its Variables (DELET) Deleting All Equations or All Variables in the Solver (@c) Writing Equations What Can Appear in an Equation Solver Functions Conditional Expressions with IF The Summation Function (∑) Accessing CFLO and SUM Lists from the Solver Creating Menus for Multiple Equations (S Function) 164 166 168 174 176 177 178 8 Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 179 180 181 How the Solver Works Halting and Restarting the Numerical Search Entering Guesses 13 184 185 185 185 186 186 188 188 189 Printing The Printer’s Power Source Double-Space Printing Printing the Display(P) Printing Other Information (@p) Printing Variables, Lists, and Appointments (LIST) Printing Descriptive Messages (MSG) Trace Printing (TRACE) How to Interrupt the Printer 14 190 190 190 191 193 195 197 199 200 200 202 206 208 209 213 215 216 217 217 219 Additional Examples Loans Simple Annual Interest Yield of a Discounted (or Premium) Mortgage Annual Percentage Rate for a Loan with Fees Loan with an Odd (Partial) First Period Canadian Mortgages Advance Payments (Leasing) Savings Value of a Fund with Regular Withdrawals Deposits Needed for a Child’s College Account Value of a Tax-Free Account Value of a Taxable Retirement Account Modified Internal Rate of Return Price of an Insurance Policy Bonds Discounted Notes Statistics Moving Average Chi-Squared (χ2) Statistics Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 9 A 222 222 222 224 224 225 227 228 229 230 230 230 232 233 235 237 237 Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service Obtaining Help in Operating the Calculator Answers to Common Questions Power and Batteries Low-Power Indications Installing Batteries Managing Calculator Memory Resetting the Calculator Erasing Continuous Memory Clock Accuracy Environmental Limits Determining If the Calculator Requires Service Confirming Calculator Operation: Self-Test Warranty Service Regulatory information Noise Declaration B 238 238 238 239 239 240 240 242 246 246 247 247 247 248 More About Calculations IRR% Calculations Possible Outcomes of Calculating IRR% Halting and Restarting the IRR% Calculation Storing a Guess for IRR% Solver Calculations Direct Solutions Iterative Solutions Equations Used by Built-in Menus Actuarial Functions Percentage Calculations in Business (BUS) Time Value of Money (TVM) Amortization Interest Rate Conversions 10 Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 248 215 250 251 251 252 252 253 253 253 Cash-Flow Calculations Bond Calculations Depreciation Calculations Sum and Statistics Forecasting Equations Used in (Chapter 14) Canadian Mortgages Odd-Period Calculations Advance Payments Modified Internal Rate of Return C 254 Menu Maps D 261 261 261 262 263 264 264 264 266 RPN: Summary About RPN About RPN on the hp 17bII+ Setting RPN Mode Where the RPN Functions Are Doing Calculations in RPN Arithmetic Topics Affected by RPN Mode Simple Arithmetic Calculations with STO and RCL 266 Chain Calculations－No Parentheses! E 268 268 269 269 RPN: The Stack What the Stack Is Reviewing the Stack (Roll Down) Exchanging the X- and Y-Registers in the Stack 270 Arithmetic－How the Stack Does It 271 272 273 273 How ENTER Works Clearing Numbers The LAST X Register Retrieving Numbers from LAST X Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 11 F 12 273 274 275 Reusing Numbers Chain Calculations Exercises 276 RPN: Selected Examples 283 Error Messages 289 Index Contents File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 List of Examples The following list groups the examples by category. 25 29 40 178 190 50 51 52 52 53 159 Getting Started Using Menus Using the Solver Arithmetic Calculating Simple Interest Unit Conversions Simple Interest at an Annual Rate (RPN example on page 276) General Business Calculations Percent Change Percent of Total Markup as a Percent of Cost Markup as a Percent of Price Using Shared Variables Return on Equity 57 58 59 Currency Exchange Calculations Calculating an Exchange Rate Storing an Exchange Rate Converting between Hong Kong and U.S Dollars 67 68 69 71 Time Value of Money A Car Loan A Home Mortgage A Mortgage with a Balloon Payment A Savings Account List of Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 13 72 74 75 80 82 172 191 193 194 196 197 198 200 200 202 207 208 214 86 89 97 102 104 105 210 14 An Individual Retirement Account Calculating a Lease Payment Present Value of a Lease with Advanced Payments and Option to Buy Displaying an Amortization Schedule for a Home Mortgage Printing an Amortization Schedule Calculations for a Loan with an Odd First Period Discounted Mortgage APR for a Loan with Fees (RPN example on page 276) Loan from the Lender’s Point of View (RPN example on page 277) Loan with an Odd First Period Loan with an Odd First Period Plus Balloon Canadian Mortgage Leasing with Advance Payments A Fund with Regular Withdrawals Savings for College (RPN example on page 278) Tax-Free Account (RPN example on page 280) Taxable Retirement Account (RPN example on page 282) Insurance Policy Interest Rate Conversions Converting from a Nominal to an Effective Interest Rate Balance of a Savings Account Cash Flow Calculations Entering Cash Flows Calculating IRR and NPV of an Investment An Investment with Grouped Cash Flows An Investment with Quarterly Returns Modified IRR List of Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 111 112 113 215 217 Bonds and Notes Price and Yield of a Bond A Bond with a Call Feature A Zero-Coupon Bond Yield to Maturity and Yield to Call Price and Yield of a Discounted Note 117 118 120 Depreciation Declining-Balance Depreciation ACRS Deductions Partial-Year Depreciation 125 128 134 138 218 220 Running Total and Statistical Calculations Updating a Checkbook Mean, Median, and Standard Deviation Curve Fitting Weighted Mean A Moving Average in Manufacturing 2 Expected Throws of a Die ( χ ) 144 148 151 152 Time, Alarms, and Date Arithmetic Setting the Date and Time Clearing and Setting an Appointment Calculating the Number of Days between Two Dates Determining a Future Date 159 166 172 175 181 How to Use the Equation Solver Return on Equity Sales Forecasts Using a Solver Function (USPV) Nested IF Functions Using Guesses to Find a Solution Iteratively 189 Printing Trace-Printing an Arithmetic Calculation List of Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 15 Important Information Take the time to read chapter 1. It gives you an overview of how the calculator works, and introduces terms and concepts that are used throughout the manual. After reading chapter 1, you’ll be ready to start using all of the calculator’s features. You can choose either ALG (Algebraic) or RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) mode for your calculations. Throughout the manual, the “v “in the margin indicates that the examples or keystrokes must be performed differently in RPN. Appendixes D, E, and F explain how to use your calculator in RPN mode. Match the problem you need to solve with the calculator’s capabilities and read the related topic. You can locate information about the calculator’s features using the table of contents, the subject index, the list of examples, and the menu maps in appendix C (the gold-edged pages). Before doing any time-value-of-money or cash-flow problems, refer to pages 64 and 92 to learn how the calculator uses positive and negative numbers in financial calculations. For a deeper treatment of specific types of calculations, refer to chapter 14, “Additional Examples.” If you especially like learning by example, this is a good reference spot for you. 16 Important Information File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 1 Getting Started v Watch for this symbol in the margin. It identifies examples or keystrokes that are shown in ALG mode and must be performed differently in RPN mode. Appendixes D, E, and F explain how to use your calculator in RPN mode. The mode affects only arithmetic calculations—all other operations, including the Solver, work the same in RPN and ALG modes. Power On and Off; Continuous Memory To turn on the calculator, press C (clear) (note ON printed below the key). To turn it off, press @ and then C. This shifted function is called o (note OFF printed above the key). Since the calculator has Continuous Memory, turning it off does not affect the information you’ve stored there. To conserve energy, the calculator turns itself off after 10 minutes of no use. ) at the top of the display, you If you see the low battery symbol ( should replace the batteries as soon as possible. Follow the instructions on page 224. Adjusting the Display Contrast The display’s brightness depends on lighting, your viewing angle, and the display contrast setting. To change the display contrast, hold down the C key and press + or -. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 17 Setting the Language The calculator can display information in six different languages. The language initially used by the calculator was preset at the factory. To change the language: 1. Press the @ >. 2. Press to display the INTL menu, which stands for "international". 3. Press the appropriate menu key to change the language. Table 1-1. Keys for language Key Description German English Spanish French Italian Portuguese What You See in the Display Menu Labels. The bottom line of the display shows the menu labels for each of the six major menus (work areas) in the calculator. More about these later in this chapter. The Calculator Line. The calculator line is where you see numbers (or letters) that you enter, and the results of calculations. Annunciators. The symbols shown here are called annunciators. Each one has a special significance. 18 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Shift (@ ) is active. (page 19) Sending information Alarm going off (or past due). to the printer. (page 147) (page 184) Batteries low. (page 224) Annunciators Calculator line Cursor Menu labels for the MAIN menu. To display the MAIN menu, press @A (that is, first @ , then e). The Shift Key (@) Some keys have a second, shifted function printed in color above the key. The colored shift key accesses these operations. For example, pressing and releasing @ , then pressing C turns the calculator off. This is written @o. ). This symbol stays on Pressing @ turns on the shift annunciator ( until you press the next key. If you ever press @ by mistake, just press @ . again to turn off the Backspacing and Clearing The following keys erase typing mistakes, entire numbers, or even lists or sets of data. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 19 Table 1-2. Keys for Clearing Key Description Backspace; erases the character before the cursor. < C Clear; clears the calculator line. (When the calculator is off, this key turns the calculator on, but without clearing anything.) @c This clears all information in the current work area (menu). For example, it will erase all the numbers in a list if you are currently viewing a list (SUM or CFLO). In other menus (like TVM), @c clears all of the values that have been stored. In SOLVE, it can delete all equations. The cursor ( ) is visible while you are keying in a number or doing a calculation. When the cursor is visible, pressing < deletes the last character you keyed in. When the cursor is not visible, pressing < erases the last number. Keys: Display: Description: Backspacing removes .66 the 4 and 5. @t < Calculates 1/123.66. Clears the calculator 12345 << line. In addition, there are more drastic clearing operations that erase more information at once. Refer to “Resetting the Calculator” on page 228 in appendix A. 20 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Doing Arithmetic v The “ ” in the margin is a reminder that the example keystrokes are for ALG mode. This is a brief introduction to doing arithmetic. More information on arithmetic is in chapter 2. Remember that you can erase errors by pressing < or C. To calculate 21.1 ＋ 23.8: Keys: Display: 21.1 + Description: 23.8 = = completes calculation. Once a calculation has been completed, pressing another digit key starts a new calculation. On the other hand, pressing an operator key continues the calculation: 77.35 90.89 = 65 @v* 12 = / 3.5 = Calculates 77.35 – 90.89 New calculation: 65 x 12. Calculates 96.75 ÷ 3.5. You can also do long calculations without pressing = after each intermediate calculation—just press it at the end. The operators perform from left to right, in the order you enter them. Compare: 65 + 12 3.5 65 + 12 / 3.5 = and 65 + 12 3.5 Operations occur in the order you see them. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 21 +( 12 / 3.5 )= Use parentheses to impose 65 an order of calculation. Keying in Negative Numbers (&) The & key changes the sign of a number. To key in a negative number, type that number, then press &. To change the sign of an already displayed number (it must be the rightmost number), press &. Keys: Display: Description: 75 Changes the sign of 75. Multiplies －75 by 7.1. & v * 7.1 = Using the Menu Keys The calculator usually displays a set of labels across the bottom of the display. The set is called a menu because it presents you with choices. The MAIN menu is the starting point for all other menus. 22 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 (( )) Menu Labels Menu Keys The top row of keys is related to the labels along the bottom of the display. The labels tell you what the keys do. The six keys are called menu keys; the labels are called menu labels. The MAIN Menu The MAIN menu is a set of primary choices leading to other menu options. No matter which menu you currently see, pressing @A redisplays the MAIN menu. The menu structure is hierarchical. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 23 Table 1-3. The MAIN Menu Menu Label Operations Done in This Category TVM: Time value of money: (Finance) Chapter 5 loans, savings, leasing, amortization. ICNV: Interest conversions. Chapter 6 CFLO: Lists of cash flows for internal rate of return and net present value. Chapter 7 BOND: Yields and prices for bonds. Chapter 8 DEPRC: Depreciation using SL, DB, and SOYD methods, or ACRS. Percent of total, percent (Business Percentages) change, markup on cost, markup on price. Lists of numbers, running (Statistics) total, mean, weighted statistics, forecasting, summation statistics, and more. Clock, calendar, (Time Manager) appointments, date arithmetic. Creates customized menus (Equation Solver) from your own equations for calculations you do often. Converting any currency to (Currency Exchange) its equivalent in another currency 24 Covered in: 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Chapter 9 Chapter 3 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 4 Choosing Menus and Reading Menu Maps Below is a menu map illustrating one possible path through three levels of menus: from the MAIN menu to the BUS menu to the MU%C (markup as a percent of cost) menu. There are no menus that branch from the MU%C menu because the MU%C menu is a final destination—you use it to do calculations, rather than to choose another menu. MAIN menu FIN BUS SUM TIME SOLVE MU%C MU%P EXIT M%C EXIT CURRX BUS menu %CHG %TOTL MU%C menu COST PRICE MAIN Press to choose the BUS menu. Then press to choose the MU%C menu. Press e to return to the previous menu. Pressing times returns you to the MAIN menu. Press e enough @A to return to the MAIN menu directly. When a menu has more than six labels, the label appears at the far right. Use it to switch between sets of menu labels on the same “level”. Example: Using Menus. Refer to the menu map for MU%C (above) along with this example. The example calculates the percent markup on cost of a crate of oranges that a grocer buys for $4.10 and sells for $4.60. Step 1. Decide which menu you want to use. The MU%C (markup as a percent of cost) menu is our destination. If it’s not obvious to you which menu you need, look up the topic in the subject 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 25 index and examine the menu maps in appendix C. Displaying the MU%C menu: Step 2. To display the MAIN menu, press @A. This step lets you start from a known location on the menu map. Step 3. Press to display the BUS menu. Step 4. Press to display the MU%C menu. Using the MU%C menu: Step 5. Key in the cost and press to store 4.10 as the COST. Step 6. Key in the price and press to store 4.60 as the PRICE. Step 7. Press to calculate the markup as a percent of cost. The answer: . Step 8. To leave the MU%C menu, press e twice (once to get back to the BUS menu, and again to get to the MAIN menu) or @A (to go directly to the MAIN menu). 26 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Calculations Using Menus Using menus to do calculations is easy. You don’t have to remember in what order to enter numbers and in what order results come back. Instead, the menus guide you, as in the previous example. All the keys you need are together in the top row. The menu keys both store numbers for the calculations and start the calculations. The MU%C menu can calculate M%C, the percent markup on cost, given COST and PRICE. Keys: Display: Keys: Display: 4.60 4.10 Store 4.60 Store 4.10 COST Keys: Display: PRICE M%C Calculate 12.20 Calculator Memory Then the same menu can calculate PRICE given COST and M%C. Keys: Display: 20 Keys: Display: 4.10 Store 20.0 0 Store 4.1 0 COST Keys: Display: PRICE M%C Calculator Memory Calculate 4.92 Notice that the two calculations use the same three variables; each variable can be used both to store and calculate values. These are called built-in variables, because they are permanently built into the calculator. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 27 Many menus in this calculator work like the example above. The rules for using variables are: To store a value, key in the number and press the menu key.∗† Arithmetic calculations, as well as single values, can be stored. To calculate a value, press the menu key without first keying in a number. The calculator displays when a value is being calculated. To verify a stored value, press R (recall) followed by the menu key. For example, R displays the value stored in COST. To transfer a value to another menu, do nothing if it is displayed (that is, it is in the calculator line). A number in the calculator line remains there when you switch menus. To transfer more than one value from a menu, use storage registers. See page 45, “Storing and Recalling Numbers.” Exiting Menus (e) The e key is used to leave the current menu and go back to the previously displayed menu (as shown in the previous example). This is true for menus you might pick by accident, too: e gets you out. Clearing Values in Menus The @c key is a powerful feature to clear all the data in the currently displayed menu, giving you a clean slate for new calculations. If the current menu has variables (that is, if the display shows menu labels for variables, such as COST, PRICE, and M%C in the MU%C menu), pressing @c clears the values of those variables to zero. * If you have just switched menus and want to store the result already in the calculator line, then you should press s before the menu key † To store the same number into two different variables, use s for the second variable, e.g. 25 s 28 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 If the current menu has a list (SUM, CFLO, or Solver), pressing @c clears the values in the list. To see what value is currently stored in a variable, press label. R menu Solving Your Own Equations (SOLVE) This chapter has introduced some of the built-in menus the calculator offers. But if the solution to a problem is not built into hp 17bII+ , you can turn to the most versatile feature of all: the Equation Solver. Here you define your own solution in terms of an equation. The Solver then creates a menu to go with your equation, which you can use over and over again, just like the other menus in the calculator. The Solver is covered in chapter 12, but here is an introductory example. Because equations usually use letters of the alphabet, this section also explains how to type and edit letters and other characters that aren’t on the keyboard. Example:Using the Solver. Suppose you frequently buy carpet and must calculate how much it will cost. The price is quoted to you per square yard. Regardless of how you do the calculation (even if you do it longhand), you are using an equation. Price per square yard Length (feet) Width (feet) P/YD × L × W = COST 9 Converts square feet to square yards To type this equation into the Solver, use the ALPHA menu. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 29 Typing Words and Characters: the ALPHAbetic Menu The ALPHAbetic menu is automatically displayed when you need it to type letters and characters. The ALPHA menu also includes characters not found on the keyboard: Uppercase letters. Space. Punctuation and special characters. Non-English letters. ABCDE FGHI F G H : < > # & I JKLM NOPQ space OTHER $ , ! @ . R S RSTUV T U WXYZ V OTHER Alpha menu Letters, space OTHER characters / * To type a letter you need to press two keys; for example, is produced by the keystrokes . Each letter menu has an key for accessing punctuation and non-English characters. The letter menus with just four letters (for example, FGHI) include a space character ( ). To familiarize yourself with the ALPHA menu, type in the equation for the cost of carpeting. The necessary keystrokes are shown below. (Note the access to the special character, “/”.) Use <, if necessary, to make corrections. If you need to do further editing, refer to the next section, “Editing ALPHAbetic Text.” When you’re satisfied that the equation is correct, press I to enter the equation into memory. 30 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys Characters @A ** /9= I Note that the is just a character, part of the variable’s name. It is not an operator, which ÷ is. Editing ALPHAbetic Text The companion to the ALPHA menu is the ALPHA-Edit menu. To display the ALPHA-Edit menu, press in the SOLVE menu (or press e in the ALPHA menu). DEL ABCDE FGHI JKLM NOPQ RSTUV ALPHA EXIT WXYZ EXIT 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 31 Table 1-4. Alphabetic Editing Operation Label or Key to Press ALPHA-Edit Menu Inserts character before the cursor. Any character. Deletes character at the cursor. Moves the cursor far left, one display-width. Moves the cursor left. Moves the cursor right. Moves the cursor far right, one display-width. Displays the ALPHA menu again. Keyboard Backspaces and erases the character before the cursor. Clears the calculator line. < C Calculating the Answer (CALC) After an equation is input, pressing verifies it and creates a new, customized menu to go with the equation. Menu labels for your variables Each of the variables you typed into the equation now appears as a menu label. You can store and calculate values in this menu the same way you do in other menus. 32 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Calculate the cost of carpet needed to cover a 9’ by 12’ room. The carpet costs $22.50 per square yard. Starting from the MAIN menu (press @A): Keys: Display: Description: Displays the SOLVE menu and the current equation.* Displays the customized menu for carpeting. 22.5 Stores the price per square yard in P/YD. 12 Stores the length in L. 9 Stores the width in W. Calculates the cost to cover a 9’ x 12’ room. Now determine the most expensive carpet you can buy if the maximum amount you can pay is $300. Notice that all you need to do is enter the one value you are changing—there is no need to re-enter the other values. 300 Stores $300 in COST. Calculates the maximum price per square yard you can pay. ee Exits Solver. * If you entered this equation but don’t see it now, press [ or ] until you do. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 33 Controlling the Display Format The DSP menu (press D) gives you options for formatting numbers. You can pick the number of decimal places to be displayed, and whether to use a comma or a period to “punctuate” your numbers. Decimal Places To change the number of displayed decimal places, first press the key. Then either: D Press , type the number of decimal places you want (from 0 to 11), and press I; or Press to see a number as precisely as possible at any time (12 digits maximum). Internal Precision Changing the number of displayed decimal places affects what you see, but does not affect the internal representation of numbers. The number inside the calculator always has 12 digits. You see only these digits in 2... ...but these digits are also present internally. Temporarily SHOWing ALL To temporarily see a number with full precision, press @S.This shows you the ALL format for as long as you hold down S. 34 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Rounding a Number The @r function rounds the number in the calculator line to the number of displayed decimal places. Subsequent calculations use the rounded value. Starting with two displayed decimal places: Keys: Display: Description: 5.787 D 4I D Four decimal places are displayed. All significant digits; trailing zeros dropped. D 2I @S Two decimal places are displayed. Temporarily shows full (hold) @r @S (hold) precision. Rounds the number to two decimal places. Exchanging Periods and Commas in Numbers To exchange the periods and commas used for the decimal point and digit separators in a number: 1. Press D to access the DSP (display) menu. 2. Specify the decimal point by pressing or . sets a period as the decimal point and comma as separator (U.S. mode). (For example, 1,000,000.00.) sets a comma as the decimal point and period as separator (non-U.S. mode). (For example, 1.000.000,00.) Pressing the digit Pressing the digit 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 35 Error Messages Sometimes the calculator cannot do what you “ask”, such as when you press the wrong key or forget a number for a calculation. To help you correct the situation, the calculator beeps and displays a message. Press C or < to clear the error message. Press any other key to clear the message and perform that key’s function. For more explanations, refer to the list of error messages just before the subject index. Modes Beeper. Beeping occurs when a wrong key is pressed, when an error occurs, and during alarms for appointments. You can suppress and reactivate the beeper in the MODES menu as follows: 1. Press @>. 2. Pressing will simultaneously change and display the current setting for the beeper: beeps for errors and appointments. beeps only for appointments. silences the beeper completely. 3. Press e when done. Print. Press @> to specify whether or not the printer ac adapter is in use. Then press e. Double Space. Press @> to turn double-spaced printing on or off. Then press e. @> to select algebraic entry logic. RPN. Press @> to select Reverse Polish Notation entry Algebraic. Press logic. 36 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Language. Press @> to change the language. Calculator Memory (@M) The calculator stores many different types of information in its memory. Each piece of information requires a certain amount of storage space.* You can monitor the amount of available memory by pressing @M. Number of bytes of memory still free Percentage of total memory still free The amount of memory available for storing information and working problems is about 30,740 bytes. (Units of memory space are called bytes.) The calculator gives you complete flexibility in how you use that available memory (such as for lists of numbers or equations). Use as much of the memory as you want for any task you want. If you use nearly all of the calculator’s memory, you’ll encounter the message . To remedy this situation, you must erase some previously stored information. Refer to “Managing Calculator Memory” on page 227 in appendix A. The calculator also allows you to erase at once all the information stored inside it. This procedure is covered in “Erasing Continuous Memory” on page 229. * Storing numbers in menus like TVM (non-Solver menus) does not use any of your memory space. 1: Getting Started File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 37 2 Arithmetic If you prefer RPN to algebraic logic, please read appendix D before you read this chapter. The “ “ in the margin is a reminder that the example keystrokes are for ALG mode. v The Calculator Line v The calculator line is the part of the display where numbers appear and calculations take place. Sometimes this line includes labels for results, such as . Even in this case you can use the number for a calculation. For example, pressing + 2 = would calculate 124.60 plus 2, and the calculator would display the answer, 126.60. There is always a number in the calculator line, even though sometimes the calculator line is hidden by a message (such as ). To see the number in the calculator line, press <, which removes the message. vDoing Calculations Simple calculating was introduced in chapter 1, page 21. Often longer calculations involve more than one operation. These are called chain calculations because several operations are “chained” together. To do a chain calculation, you don’t need to press = after each operation, but only at the very end. For instance, to calculate 750 or 750 38 750 × 12 you can type either: 360 * 12 =/ 360 = * 12 / 360 = 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 In the second case, the result of 750 x 12. / key acts like the = key by displaying the Here’s a longer chain calculation. 456 - 75 68 × 18.5 1.9 This calculation can be written as: 456 − 75 ÷ 18.5 x 68 ÷ 1.9. Watch what happens in the display as you key it in: Keys: Display: 456 - 75 / 18.5 * 68 / 1.9 = vUsing Parentheses in Calculations Use parentheses when you want to postpone calculating an intermediate result until you’ve entered more numbers. For example, suppose you want to calculate: 30 x 9 85 -12 If you were to key in 30 / 85 -, the calculator would calculate the intermediate result, 0.35. However, that’s not what you want. To delay the division until you’ve subtracted 12 from 85, use parentheses: Keys: Display: Description: 30 No calculation is done. Calculates 85 − 12. Calculates 30 / 73. Calculates 0.41x 9. /( 8512 ) *9 = 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 39 Note that you must include a imply multiplication. * for multiplication; parentheses do not v The Percent Key The% key has two functions: Finding a Percentage. In most cases, % divides a number by 100. The one exception is when a plus or minus sign precedes the number. (See “Adding or Subtracting a Percentage,” below.) For instance, 25 % results in . To find 25% of 200, press: 200 * 25 % =. (Result is .) Adding or Subtracting a Percentage. You can do this all in one calculation: For instance, to decrease 200 by 25%, just enter 200 (Result is .) - 25 % =. Example: Calculating Simple Interest. You borrow $1,250 from a relative, and agree to repay the loan in a year with 7% simple interest. How much money will you owe? Keys: 1250 +7% Display: Description: Interest on the loan is $87.50. = You must repay this amount at the end of one year. The Mathematical Functions Some of the math functions appear on the keyboard; others are in the MATH menu. Math functions act on the last number in the display. 40 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 2-1. Shifted Math Functions Key Description @t reciprocal @v square root @w square Keys: Display: Description: 4 Reciprocal of 4. Calculates Calculates 4.47 + 47.20. Calculates 1.12. Completes calculation of @t 20 @v + 47.2 * 1.1 @w = v v v 20 . (4.47 + 47.2) x1.12. vThe Power Function (Exponentiation) The power function, u, raises the preceding number to the power of the following number. Keys: Display: Description: @u 3 = 125 @u 3 @t= 125 Calculates 1253. Calculates the cube root of 125, which is the same as (125)1/3. 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 41 The MATH Menu To display the MATH menu, press @m (the shifted % key). Like the other mathematics functions, these functions operate on only the last number in the display. Table 2-2. The MATH Menu Labels Menu Label Description Common (base 10) logarithm of a positive number. Common (base 10) antilogarithm; calculates 10x. Natural (base e) logarithm of a positive number. Natural antilogarithm; calculates ex. Factorial. Inserts the value for π into the display. Keys: Display: Description: 2.5 Calculates 102.5. @m 4 Calculates the factorial of 4. e Exits MATH menu. You can access the MATH menu when another menu is displayed. For instance, while using SUM you might want to use a MATH function. Just press @m, then perform the calculation. Pressing e returns you to SUM. The MATH result remains in the calculator line. Remember, however, that you must exit MATH before you resume using SUM. 42 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Saving and Reusing Numbers Sometimes you might want to include the result of a previous calculation in a new calculation. There are several ways to reuse numbers. The History Stack of Numbers When you start a new operation, the previous result moves out of the display but is still accessible. Up to four lines of numbers are saved: one in the display and three hidden. These lines make up the history stack. "Invisible" numbers remaining from previous results. The ], [, and @~ keys “roll” the history stack down or up one line, bringing the hidden results back into the display. If you hold down [ or ], the history stack wraps around on itself. However, you cannot roll the history stack when an incomplete calculation is in the display. Also, you cannot gain access to the stack while using lists (SUM, CFLO) in ALG mode, or SOLVE in either ALG or RPN mode. All numbers in the history stack are retained when you switch menus. Pressing display. @x exchanges the contents of the bottom two lines of the 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 43 Pressing @c clears the history stack. Be careful if a menu is active, because then c also erases the data associated with that menu. vKeys: 75.55 Display: - 32.63 = 150 Description: /7= 42.92 moves out of display. Now, suppose you want to multiply 42.92 x 11. Using the history stack saves you time. ] Moves 42.92 back to calculator line. * 11 = vReusing the Last Result (@L) The @L key copies the last result—that is, the number just above the calculator line in the history stack—into a current calculation. This lets you reuse a number without retyping it and also lets you break up a complicated calculation. 39 + 8 123 + 17 Keys: Display: Description: 123 + 17 = @v Calculates 123 + 17. Calculates 39 Copies 11.83 to the calculator line. Completes the calculation. + 8 =/ @L = 44 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 140 . An equivalent keystroke sequence for this problem would be: 39 + 8 / (123 + 17 ) @v = Storing and Recalling Numbers The s key copies a number from the calculator line into a designated storage area, called a storage register. There are ten storage registers in calculator memory, numbered 0 through 9. The R key recalls stored numbers back to the calculator line. lf there is more than one number on the calculator line, s stores only vthe last number in the display. To store or recall a number: 1. Press s or R. (To cancel this step, press <.) 2. Key in the register number. The following example uses two storage registers to do two calculations that use some of the same numbers. 475.6 560.1 + 475.6 39.15 39.15 vKeys: 475.6 s1 Display: Description: Stores 475.6 into register 1. / 39.15 s Stores 39.15 (rightmost 2 number) into register 2. = Completes calculation. Recalls contents of register 1 1. /R 2 = Recalls register 2. Completes calculation. 560.1 +R 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 45 v The s and R keys can also be used with variables. For example, s (in the MU%C menu) stores the rightmost number from the display into the variable M%C. R copies the contents of M%C into the calculator line. If there is an expression in the display (such as ), then the recalled number replaces only the last number. You do not need to clear storage registers before using them. By storing a number into a register, you overwrite whatever existed there before. Doing Arithmetic Inside Registers and Variables You can also do arithmetic inside storage registers. Keys: Display: Description: 45.7 Stores 45.7 in reg. 3. Multiplies contents of 2.5 s3 s* 3 register 3 by 2.5 and stores result (114.25) back in register 3. R3 Displays register 3. Table 2-3. Arithmetic in Registers Keys 46 New Register Contents s+ old register contents + displayed number s- old register contents – displayed number s* old register contents x displayed number s/ old register contents ÷ displayed number [email protected] old register contents ^ displayed number 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 You can also do arithmetic with the values stored in variables. For example, 2 s* (in the MU%C menu) multiplies the current contents of M%C by 2 and stores the product in M%C. Scientific Notation Scientific notation is useful when working with very large or very small numbers. Scientific notation shows a small number (less than 10) times 10 raised to a power. For example, the 1984 Gross National Product of the United States was $3,662,800,000,000. In scientific notation, this is 3.6628 x1012. For very small numbers the decimal point is moved to the right and 10 is raised to a negative power. For example, 0.00000752 can be written as 7.52 x 10−6. When a calculation produces a result with more than 12 digits, the number is automatically displayed in scientific notation, using a capital E in place of “x10^”. Remember that & changes the sign of the entire number, and not of the exponent. Use - to make a negative exponent. Type in the numbers 4.78 x 1013 and −2.36 x 10−15. Keys: Display: Description: 4.78 Pressing @\ 13 @\ starts the exponent. @c Clears number. 2.36 Pressing exponent makes it @\- 15 - before an negative. & Pressing & makes the entire number negative. @c Clears number. 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 47 Range of Numbers The largest positive and negative numbers available on the calculator are ±9.99999999999 x 10 499; the smallest positive and negative numbers available are ±1 x 10 –499. 48 2: Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 3 Percentage Calculations in Business The business percentages (BUS) menu is used to solve four types of problems. Each type of problem has its own menu. FIN BUS %CHG %TOTL SUM MU%C TIME SOLVE CURRX MU%P Table 3-1. The Business Percentages (BUS) Menus Menu Description Percent change () The difference between two numbers (OLD and NEW), expressed as a percentage (%CH) of OLD. Percent of total () The portion that one number (PART) is of another (TOTAL), expressed as a percentage (%T). Markup on cost () The difference between price (PRICE) and cost (COST), expressed as a percentage of the cost (M%C). Markup on price () The difference between price (PRICE) and cost (COST), expressed as a percentage of the price (M%P). 3: Percentage Calculations in Business File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 49 The calculator retains the values of the BUS variables until you clear them by pressing @c. For example, pressing @c while in the %CHG menu clears OLD, NEW, and %CH. To see what value is currently stored in a variable, press label. This shows you the value without recalculating it. R menu Using the BUS Menus Each of the four BUS menus has three variables. You can calculate any one of the three variables if you know the other two. 1. To display the %CHG, %TOTL, MU%C, or MU%P menu from the MAIN menu, press , then the appropriate menu label. Pressing , for example, displays: 2. Store each value you know by keying in the number and pressing the appropriate menu key. 3. Press the menu key for the value you want to calculate. Examples Using the BUS Menus Percent Change (%CHG) Example. Total sales last year were $90,000. This year, sales were $95,000. What is the percent change between last year’s sales and this year’s? Keys: Display: Description: Displays %CHG menu. 50 3: Percentage Calculations in Business File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 90000 Stores 90,000 in OLD. 95000 Stores 95,000 in NEW. Calculates percent change. What would this year’s sales have to be to show a 12% increase from last year? OLD remains 90,000, so you don’t have to key it in again. Just enter %CH and ask for NEW. 12 Stores 12 in %CH. Calculates the value 12% greater than 90,000. Percent of Total (%TOTL) Example. Total assets for your company are $67,584, The firm has inventories of $23,457. What percentage of total assets is inventory? You will be supplying values for TOTAL and PART and calculating %T. This takes care of all three variables, so there is no need to use c to remove old data. Keys: Display: Description: Displays %TOTL menu. 67584 Stores $67,584 in TOTAL. 23457 Stores $23,457 in PART. Calculates percent of total. 3: Percentage Calculations in Business File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 51 Markup as a Percent of Cost (MU%C) Example. The standard markup on costume jewelry at Balkis’s Boutique is 60%. The boutique just received a shipment of chokers costing $19.00 each. What is the retail price per choker? Keys: Display: Description: Displays MU%C menu. 19 Stores cost in COST. 60 Stores 60% in M%C. Calculates price. Markup as a Percent of Price (MU%P) Example. Kilowatt Electronics purchases televisions for $225, with a discount of 4%. The televisions are sold for $300. What is the markup of the net cost as a percent of the selling price? What is the markup as percent of price without the 4% discount? Keys: Display: Description: Displays MU%P menu. Calculates and stores net cost in COST. 300 Stores 300 in PRICE. Calculates markup as a -4% v 225 percent of price. Use $225 for COST and leave PRICE alone. 225 Stores 225 in COST. Calculates markup. 52 3: Percentage Calculations in Business File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Sharing Variables Between Menus If you compare the MU%C menu and the MU%P menus, you’ll see that they have two menu labels in common — and . %CHG MU%C %TOTL PRICE COST MU%P M%C COST PRICE M%P Shared variables The calculator keeps track of the values you key in according to those labels. For example, if you key in COST and PRICE in the MU%C menu, exit to the BUS menu, and then display the MU%P menu, the calculator retains those values. In other words, the variables are shared between the two menus. Example: Using Shared Variables. A food cooperative buys cases of canned soup with an invoice cost of $9.60 per case. If the co-op routinely uses a 15% markup on cost, for what price should it sell a case of soup? Keys: Display: Description: Displays MU%C menu. 9.6 Stores 9.60 in COST. 15 Stores 15% in M%C. Calculates retail price. What is the markup on price? Switch menus but keep the same COST and PRICE. e Exits MU%C menu and displays MU%P menu. Calculates markup as a percent of price. 3: Percentage Calculations in Business File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 53 4 Currency Exchange Calculations The CURRX menu does currency exchange calculations between two currencies using an exchange rate that you calculate or store. The CURRX Menu FIN BUS SUM TIME SOLVE US$ EUR CURRX RATE C.STO C.RCL SELCT To display the currency exchange menu from the MAIN menu, press . Currency #1 is US$ (U.S Dollar) 54 Currency #2 is EUR (EURO Dollar) 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 4-1. The CURRX Menu Menu Key Description curr1 Current currency#1;stores or calculates the number of units of this currency. curr2 Currency currency#2;stores or calculates the number of units of this currency. Stores or calculates the exchange rate between the two current currencies. The rate is expressed as the number of units of currency #2 equivalent to 1 unit of currency #1. Stores the current currency #1, currency #2, and RATE. Recalls a previously stored pair of currencies and RATE. Selects a new set of currencies. Selecting a Set of Currencies To select a pair of currencies: 1. Press to display the menu of currencies. Press more, if necessary, to see additional currencies ( see table 4-2 ). 2. Press a menu key to select currency #1. 3. Press a menu key to select currency #2. RATE is automatically reset to 1.0000. 4. Enter an exchange rate. There are two ways enter the RATE : Calculate the rate from a known equivalency (see the example ”Calculating an Exchange Rate,” page 57.). Calculating an exchange rate is usually the easier way to enter a correct rate, since the order in which you selected the two currencies doesn’t mater. Store the exchange rate by keying in the value and pressing (see “Storing an Exchange Rate” on page 58). 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 55 Table 4-2. Currencies United States of America (Dollars) Austria, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Finland, France, Switzerland (Francs) Israeli (New Shekel) Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Vatican City (EURO) Canada (Dollars) United Kingdom (Pounds) Denmark (Kroner) Norway (Kroner) Sweden (Kronor) Russia (Rouble) South Africa (Band) Saudi Arabia (Riyals) Argentina Vanuatu (Bolivar) Bolivia Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Philippines, Uruguay (Pesos) Australia (Dollars) Singapore (Dollars) Thailand (Baht) China (Yuan Renminbi) South Korea (Won) Malaysia (Ringgits) New Zealand (Dollars) Indonesia (Rupiahs) India (Rupee) Pakistani (Rupees) * Use for currencies not shown in table 56 Peru Hong Kong Taiwan (Dollars) (New Dollars) Japan (Yen) Brazil 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Miscellaneous* Entering a Rate The following two examples illustrate the two ways to enter an exchange rate. Example: Calculating an Exchange Rate. You have just flown from Canada to United States, and you need to exchange your Canadian Dollars for U.S Dollars. The conversion chart looks this : United States Conversion Chart (in US$) Currency Euro (EUR€) Canadian (CAN$) Hong Kong (HK$) Rate 1.0842 .6584 .1282 The chart states these equivalencies: * 1 EUR€ is equivalent to 1.0842 US$ 1 CAN$ is equivalent to 0.6584 US$ 1 HK$ is equivalent to 0.1282 US$ Part 1: Select the currencies, and calculate an exchange rate form them. Keys: Display: Description: Display the CURRX menu Select CAN$ as currency #1 Select US$ as currency #2 1 Store number of CAN$ * The chart is in terms of United States dollars. Many charts have two columns–a “Buy” column and a “Sell” column. The “Buy” column is used for transactions in which the “Bank” buys the listed currency from you in exchange for United States dollars. Thus, if you arrive in United States with CAN$, the exchange rate in the “Buy” column applies for buying US$ with your CAN$. The “Sell” column applies for selling US$ in exchange for CAN$. 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 57 0.6584 Stores equivalent number of US$ Calculates the RATE. Part 2: The following keystrokes show that you can reverse the order in which the two currencies are selected. Keys: Display: Description: Select US$ as currency #1 Select CAN$ as currency #2 1 Store number of CAN$ 0.6584 Stores equivalent number of US$ Calculates the RATE. (1 ÷ 0.6584 ) Example : Storing an Exchange Rate. If you choose to store the exchange rate directly, you must select the currencies in the correct order, since the RATE is defined as the number of units of currency #2 equivalent to one unit of currency#1 Use the United States conversion chart on page 57 to store an exchange rate for converting between Hong Kong Dollars and U.S. Dollars. Keys: Display: Description: Display the CURRX menu Select HK$ as currency Select US$ as currency #2 0.1282 Store the RATE 58 #1 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Converting Between Two Currencies Once the currencies are selected and a RATE has been entered, you can convert any number of units of one currency to the other. Example : Converting between Hong Kong and U.S Dollars. Part 1: Use the exchange rate stored in the previous example to calculate how many U.S dollars you would receive for 3,000 Hong Kong Dollars. Keys: Display: Description: 3000 Store number of HK$ Calculates equivalent US$ Part 2: A wool sweater in a shop window costs 75 US$. What is its cost in HK$ Dollars? Keys: Display: Description: 75 Store number of US$ Calculates equivalent HK$ Storing and Recalling Sets of Currencies Pressing or displays the C.STO/C.RCL menu, which is used to store and recall sets of currencies and the rates. The menu can store up to six sets of currencies. Initially, the menu contains six blank labels. Storing Sets of Currencies. To store the current set of currencies and the rate, press. Then, press any menu key to assign the set to that key. For example, storing the currencies in the previous example stores currency #1 = HK$, currency #2 = US$, and RATE = 0.1282. ( The values US$ = 75 and HK$ = 585.02 are not stored.) 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 59 Recalling Sets of Currencies. To recall a stored set of currencies and their exchange rate, press , followed by the appropriate menu key. The hp 17bII+ automatically returns to the CURRX menu. The equivalency message and menu labels show the recalled currencies and RATE. Clearing the Currency Variables Pressing @c while the CURRX menu is displayed sets the RATE to 1.0000. The values of the two current currencies are cleared to 0. 60 4: Currency Exchange Calculation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 5 Time Value of Money The phrase time value of money describes calculations based on money earning interest over a period of time. The TVM menu performs compound-interest calculations and calculates (and prints) amortization schedules. In compound interest calculations, interest is added to the principal at specified compounding periods, thereby also earning interest. Savings accounts, mortgages, and leases are compound-interest calculations. In simple interest calculations, the interest is a percent of the principal and is repaid in one lump sum. Simple interest calculations can be done using the % key (page 40). For an example that calculates simple interest using an annual interest rate, see page 190. The TVM Menu TVM N I%YR PV P/YR BEG END FIN BUS ICNV CFLO PMT FV SUM TIME SOLVE BOND DEPRC OTHER AMRT 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc CURRX Print data : 2004/3/9 61 The time value of money (TVM) menu does many compound-interest calculations. Specifically, you can use the TVM menu for a series of cash flows (money received or money paid) when: The dollar amount is the same for each payment.* The payments occur at regular intervals. The payment periods coincide with the compounding periods. 12 payments (or periods) per year Payment mode: the end of each period To second level of TVM Figure 5-1. The First Level of TVM The first level of the TVM menu has five menu labels for variables plus . The key accesses a second-level menu used to specify payment conditions (the payment mode) and to call up the AMRT (amortization) menu. Figure 5-2. The Second Level of TVM * For situations where the amount of the payment varies, use the CFLO (cash flows) menu. 62 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 5-1. TVM Menu Labels Menu Label Description First Level Stores (or calculates) the total number of payments or compounding periods.*† (For a 30-year loan with monthly payments, N＝12 x 30＝360.) Shortcut for N: Multiplies the number in the display by P/YR, and stores the result in N. (If P/YR were 12, then 30 @ would set N＝360.) Stores (or calculates) the nominal annual interest rate as a percentage. Stores (or calculates) the present value—an initial cash flow or a discounted value of a series of future cash flows (PMTs + FV). To a lender or borrower, PV is the amount of the loan; to an investor, PV is the initial investment. If PV paid out, it is negative. PV always occurs at the beginning of the first period. Stores (or calculates) the dollar amount of each periodic payment. All payments are equal, and no payments are skipped. (If the payments are unequal, use CFLO, not TVM.) Payments can occur at the beginning or end of each period. If PMT represents money paid out, it is negative. Stores (or calculates) the future value—a final cash flow or a compounded value of a series of previous cash flows (PV + PMTs). FV always occurs at the end of the last period. If FV is paid out, it is negative. @ e Second Level Specifies the number of payments or compounding periods per year.† (it must be an integer, 1 through 999.) * When a non-integer N (an “odd period”) is calculated, the answer must be interpreted carefully. See the savings account example on page 71. Calculations using a stored, non-integer N produce a mathematically correct result, but this result has no simple interpretation. The example on page 172 uses the Solver to do a partial-period (non-integer) calculation in which interest begins to accrue prior to the beginning of the first regular payment period. † The number of payment periods must equal the number of compounding periods. If this is not true, see page 87. For Canadian mortgages, see page 197. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 63 Table 5-1. TVM Menu Labels (Continued) Menu Label Description Second Level (Continued) Sets Begin mode: payments occur at the beginning of each period. Typical for savings plans and leasing. (The Begin and End modes do not matter if PMT＝0.) Sets End mode: payments occur at the end of each period. Typical for loans and investments. Accesses the amortization menu. See page 78. The calculator retains the values of the TVM variables until you clear them by pressing @c. When you see the first-level TVM menu, pressing @c clears N, I%YR, PV, PMT, and FV. When the second-level menu ( ) is displayed, pressing @c resets the payment conditions to . To see what value is currently stored in a variable, press label. This shows you the value without recalculating it. R menu Cash Flow Diagrams and Signs of Numbers It is helpful to illustrate TVM calculations with cash-flow diagrams. Cash-flow diagrams are time lines divided into equal segments called compounding (or payment) periods. Arrows show the occurrence of cash flows (payments in or out). Money received is a positive number (arrow up) and money paid out is a negative number (arrow down). N ote 64 The correct sign (positive or negative) for TVM numbers is essential. The calculations will make sense only if you consistently show payments out as negative and payments in 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 (receipts) as positive. Perform a calculation from the point of view of either the lender (investor) or the borrower, but not both! (Loan) Money received is a positive number Equal periods 1 2 Money paid out is a negative number 3 4 5 PMT Equal payments (FV is Future Value, if any; e.g. a balloon payment) Figure 5-3. A Cash Flow Diagram for a Loan from Borrower’s Point of View (End Mode) 1 2 3 4 5 Loan Figure 5-4. A Cash Flow Diagram for a Loan from Lender’s Point of View (End Mode) 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 65 Payments occur at either the beginning of each period or the end of each period. End mode is shown in the last two figures; Begin mode is shown in the next figure. Capitalized value of lease 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5-5. Lease Payments Made at the Beginning of Each Period (Begin Mode) Using the TVM Menu First draw a cash-flow diagram to match your problem. Then: 1. From the MAIN menu, press . 2. To clear previous TVM values, press @c. (Note:You don’t need to clear data if you enter new values for all five variables, or if you want to retain previous values.) 3. Read the message that describes the number of payments per year and the payment mode (Begin, End). If you need to change either of these settings, press . To change the number of payments per year, key in the new value and press . (If the number of payments is different from the number of compounding periods, see “Compounding Periods Different from Payment Periods,” page 87.) To change the Begin/End mode, press or Press 66 e to return to the primary TVM menu. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 4. Store the values you know. (Enter each number and press its menu key.) 5. To calculate a value, press the appropriate menu key. You must give every variable—except the one you will calculate—a value, even if that value is zero. For example, FV must be set to zero when you are calculating the periodic payment (PMT) required to fully pay back a loan. There are two ways to set values to zero: Before storing any TVM values, press TVM values. @c to clear the previous Store zero; for example, pressing 0 sets FV to zero. Loan Calculations Three examples illustrate common loan calculations. (For amortization of loan payments, see page 77.) Loan calculations typically use End mode for payments. Example:A Car Loan. You are financing the purchase of a new car with a 3-year loan at 10.5% annual interest, compounded monthly. The purchase price of the car is $7,250. Your down payment is $1,500. What are your monthly payments? (Assume payments start one month after purchase—in other words, at the end of the first period.) What interest rate would reduce your monthly payment by $10? 7,250 _ 1,500 0 10.5 3 X 12 12; End mode 1 2 35 36 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 67 Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. @c Clears history stack and TVM variables. If needed: sets 12 @c e 3 * 12 payment periods per year; End mode. Figures and stores number of payments. Stores annual interest rate. Stores amount of the loan. v 10.5 - 1500 v7250 Calculates payment. Negative value means money to be paid out. To calculate the interest rate that reduces the payment by $10, add 10 to reduce the negative PMT value. v+ 10 Stores the reduced payment amount. Calculates the annual interest rate. Example: A Home Mortgage. After careful consideration of your personal finances, you’ve decided that the maximum monthly mortgage payment you can afford is $630. You can make a $12,000 down payment, and annual interest rates are currently 11.5%. If you take out a 30-year mortgage, what is the maximum purchase price you can afford? 68 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: Display TVM menu. @c Clears history stack and TVM variables. @c e If needed: sets 12 payment periods per year; End mode. 30 @ Pressing @ first multiplies 30 by 12, then stores this number of payments in N. 11.5 Stores annual interest rate. 630 Stores a negative monthly payment. Calculates loan amount. Calculates total price of the house (loan plus down payment). & v+ 12000 = Example: A Mortgage with a Balloon Payment. You’ve taken out a 25-year, $75,250 mortgage at 13.8% annual interest. You anticipate that you will own the house for four years and then sell it, repaying the loan in a “balloon payment.” What will be the size of your balloon payment? 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 69 75 ,250 13.8 4 X 12 12; End mode 1 2 47 48 Balloon. The problem is done in two steps: 1. Calculate the monthly payment without the balloon (FV=0). 2. Calculate the balloon payment after 4 years. Keys: Display: Description: Display TVM menu. @c Clears history stack and TVM variables. @c If needed: sets 12 payment periods per year; End e mode. Step 1. Calculate PMT for the mortgage. 25 @ Figures and stores the number of monthly payments in 25 years. 13.8 Stores annual interest rate. 75250 Stores amount of the loan. Calculates monthly payment. 70 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Step 2. Calculate the balloon payment after 4 years. 894.33 & Stores rounded PMT value for exact payment amount (no fractional cents).* [email protected] Figures and stores number of payments in 4 years. Calculates balloon payment after four years. This amount plus last monthly payment repays the loan. Savings Calculations Example: A Savings Account. You deposit $2,000 into a savings account that pays 7.2% annual interest, compounded annually. If you make no other deposits into the account, how long will it take for the account to grow to $3,000? Since this account has no regular payments (PMT=0), the payment mode (End or Begin) is irrelevant. 3,000 0 7.2 1 _ 2,000 *The PMT stored in the previous step is the 12-digit number—894.330557971. The calculation of the balloon payment must use the actual monthly payment amount: the rounded number $894.33, an exact dollars-and-cents amount. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 71 Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. @c Clears history stack and TVM variables. 1 Sets one compounding per./yr. (one interest e pmt./yr.). Payment mode does not matter. 7.2 2000 Stores annual interest rate. & 3000 Stores amount of deposit. Stores future account balance in FV. Calculates number of compounding periods (years) for the account to reach $3,000. There is no conventional way to interpret results based on a non-integer value (5.83) of N. Since the calculated value of N is between 5 and 6, it will take 6 years of annual compounding to achieve a balance of at least $3,000. The actual balance at the end of 6 years can be calculated as follows: 6 Stores a whole number of years in N. Calculates account balance after six years. Example: An Individual Retirement Account (IRA). You opened an IRA on April 15, 2003, with a deposit of $2,000. Thereafter, you deposit $80.00 into the account at the end of each half-month. The account pays 8.3% annual interest, compounded semimonthly. How much money will the account contain on April 15, 2018? 72 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 4/15/2003 8.3 2 X 12; End mode 15 X 12X 2 1 2 359 360 4/15/2018 _ 80 _ 2,000 Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. It is not necessary to clear data because you do not need to set any of the values to zero. 24 e 15 @ Sets 24 payment periods per year. End mode. Figures and stores number of deposits in N. 8.3 & 80 & 2000 Stores annual interest rate. Stores initial deposit. Stores semimonthly payment. Calculates balance in IRA after 15 years. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 73 Leasing Calculations Two common leasing calculations are 1) finding the lease payment necessary to achieve a specified yield, and 2) finding the present value (capitalized value) of a lease. Leasing calculations typically use “advance payments”. For the calculator, this means Begin mode because all payments will be made at the beginning of the period. If there are two payments in advance, then one payment must be combined with the present value. For examples with two or more advance payments, see pages 74 and 199. Example: Calculating a Lease Payment. A new car valued at $13,500 is to be leased for 3 years. The lessee has the option to purchase the car for $7,500 at the end of the leasing period. What monthly payments, with one payment in advance, are necessary to yield the lessor 14% annually? Calculate the payments from the lessor’s point of view. Use Begin payment mode because the first payment is due at the inception of the lease. 7,500 1 _ 2 3 34 14 36 12; Begin mode 35 36 13,500 Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. 12 e Sets 12 payment periods per year, Begin mode. 36 74 Stores number of payments. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 14 Stores annual interest rate. 13500 Stores car’s value in PV. (Money paid out by lessor.) 7500 Stores purchase option & value in FV. (Money received by lessor.) Calculates monthly payment received. Example: Present Value of a Lease with Advance Payments and Option to Buy. Your company is leasing a machine for 4 years. Monthly payments are $2,400 with two payments in advance. You have an option to buy the machine for $15,000 at the end of the leasing period. What is the capitalized value of the lease? The interest rate you pay to borrow funds is 18%, compounded monthly. 47 18 12; Begin mode 2 1 2 _ 3 44 45 46 47 48 2,400 －4,800 _ 15,000 The problem is done in four steps: 1. Calculate the present value of 47 monthly payments in Begin mode. (Begin mode makes the first payment an advance payment.) 2. Add one additional payment to the calculated present value. This adds a second advance payment to the beginning of the leasing period, replacing what would have been the final (48th) payment. 3. Find the present value of the buy option. 4. Add the present values calculated in steps 2 and 3. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 75 Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. @c Clears history stack and TVM variables. 12 e Sets 12 payment periods per year; Begin mode. Step 1: Find the present value of the monthly payments. 47 Stores number of payments. 18 Stores annual interest rate. 2400 & Stores monthly payment. Calculates present (capitalized) value of the 47 monthly payments. Step 2: Add the additional advance payment to PV. Store the answer. v+ 2400 = Calculates present value of all payments. s0 Stores result in register 0. Step 3: Find the present value of the buy option. 48 Stores number of payment periods. Stores amount of the buy option (money paid out). 0 There are no payments. 15000 76 & 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Calculates present value of the buy option. Step 4: Add the results of step 2 and 3. v+R 0 = Calculates present, capitalized value of lease. Amortization (AMRT) The AMRT menu (press ) displays or prints the following values: The loan balance after the payment(s) are made. The amount of the payment(s) applied toward interest. The amount of the payment(s) applied toward principal. TVM N I%YR PV PMT P/YR BEG END #P INT FV OTHER AMRT PRIN BAL NEXT TABLE 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 77 Table 5-2. AMRT Menu Labels Menu Label Description Stores the number of payments to be amortized, and calculates an amortization schedule for that many payments. Successive schedules start where the last schedule left off. #P can be an integer from 1 through 1,200. Displays the amount of the payments applied toward interest. Displays the amount of the payments applied toward principal. Displays the balance of the loan. Displays a menu for printing an amortization table (schedule). Calculates the next amortization schedule, which contains #P payments. The next set of payments starts where the previous set left off. Displaying an Amortization Schedule For amortization calculations, you need to know PV, I%YR, and PMT. If you have just finished doing these calculations with the TVM menu, then skip to step 3. To calculate and display an amortization schedule: * 1. Press to display the TVM menu. * Amortization calculations use values of PV, PMT, and INT rounded to the number of decimal places specified by the current display setting. A setting of 2 means that these calculations will be rounded to two decimal places. 78 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 2. Store the values for I%YR , PV, and PMT. (Press & to make PMT a negative number.) If you need to calculate one of these values, follow the instructions under “Using the TVM Menu,” on page 66. Then go on to step 3. 3. Press to display the rest of the TVM menu. 4. If necessary, change the number of payment periods per year stored in . 5. If necessary, change the payment mode by pressing or . (Most loan calculations use End mode.) 6. Press . (If you want to print the amortization schedule, go to page 82 to continue.) 7. Key in the number of payments to be amortized at one time and press . For example, to see a year of monthly payments at one time, set #P to 12. To amortize the entire life of a loan at one time, set #P equal to the total number of payments (N). If #P = 12, the display would show: Number of payments amortized at one time Current set of payments to be amortized Press to see results 8.To display the results, press, , and (or press to view the results from the stack). ] 9. To continue calculating the schedule for subsequent payments, do a or b. To start the schedule over, do c. a. To calculate the next successive amortization schedule, with the same number of payments, press . 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 79 Next successive set of payments authorized b. To calculate a subsequent schedule with a different number of payments, key in that number and press . c. To start over from payment #1 (using the same loan information), press @c and proceed from step 7. Example: Displaying an Amortization Schedule. To purchase your new home, you have taken out a 30-year, $65,000 mortgage at 12.5% annual interest. Your monthly payment is $693.72. Calculate the amount of the first year’s and second year’s payments that are applied toward principal and interest. Then calculate the loan balance after 42 payments (3½ years). Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. 12.5 Stores annual interest rate. 65000 Stores loan amount. Stores monthly payment. If needed: sets 12 @c payment periods per 693.72 & year; End mode. Displays AMRT menu. 80 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 12 Calculates amortization schedule for first 12 payments, but does not display it. Displays interest paid in first year. Displays principal paid in first year. Displays balance at end of first year. Calculates amortization schedule for next 12 payments. Displays results for second year. To calculate the balance after 42 payments (3½ years), amortize 18 additional payments (42－24＝18): 18 Calculates amortization schedule for next 18 months. Displays results. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 81 Printing an Amortization Table (TABLE) To print an amortization schedule (or “table”) do steps 1 through 5 for displaying an amortization schedule (see page 78). 6. Press . Ignore the message . 7. Press . 8. Key in the payment number of the first payment in the schedule and press . (For instance, for the very first payment, FIRST= 1.) 9. Key in the payment number of the last payment in the schedule and press . 10.Key in the increment—the number of payments shown at one time—and press . (For instance, for one year of monthly payments at a time, INCR=12.) 11.Press . Values are retained until you exit the TABLE menu, so you can print successive amortization schedules by re-entering only those TABLE values that change. Example: Printing an Amortization Schedule. For the loan described in the previous example (page 80), print an amortization table with entries for the fifth and sixth years. You can continue from the AMRT menu in the previous example (step 7, above) or repeat steps 1 through 6. Starting from the AMRT menu: Keys: Display: Description: Displays menu for printing amortization table. v4 * 12 + 1 82 The 49th is the first payment in year 5. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 v6 * 12 12 The 72nd is the last payment in year 6. Each table entry represents 12 payments (1 year). Calculates and prints amortization schedule shown below. 5: Time Value of Money File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 83 6 Interest Rate Conversions The interest conversion (ICNV) menu converts between nominal and effective interest rates. To compare investments with different compounding periods, their nominal interest rates are converted to effective interest rates. This allows you, for example, to compare a savings account that pays interest quarterly with a bond that pays interest semiannually. The nominal rate is the stated annual interest rate compounded periodically, such as 18% per year compounded monthly. The effective rate is the rate that, compounded only once (that is, annually), would produce the same final value as the nominal rate. A nominal annual rate of 18% compounded monthly equals an effective annual rate of 19.56%. When the compounding period for a given nominal rate is one year, then that nominal annual rate is the same as its effective annual rate. 84 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The ICNV Menu TVM FIN BUS ICNV CFLO TIME SOLVE CURRX BOND DEPRC CONT PER NOM% EFF% SUM P NOM% EFF% The ICNV menu converts between nominal and effective interest rates, using either: Periodic compounding; for example, quarterly, monthly, or daily compounding. Continuous compounding. Converting Interest Rates To convert between a nominal annual interest rate and an effective annual interest rate that is compounded periodically: 1. Press to display the interest conversions menu. 2. Press for periodic. 3. Key in the number of compounding periods per year and press . 4. To convert to the effective rate, first key in the nominal rate and press , then press . 5. To convert to the nominal rate, first key in the effective rate and press , then press . 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 85 To convert between a nominal annual interest rate and an effective annual interest rate that is compounded continuously : 1. Press to get the interest conversions menu. 2. Press for “continuous”. 3. To convert to the effective rate, key in the nominal rate and press , then press . 4. To convert to the nominal rate, key in the effective rate and press , then press . Values of EFF% and NOM% are shared between the PER and CONT menus. For example, an effective interest rate in CONT remains stored in EFF% when you exit the CONT menu and enter the PER menu. Pressing @c in either menu clears NOM% and EFF% in both. ICNV CONT PER NOM% EFF% P NOM% EFF% Shared variables between PER and CONT Example: Converting from a Nominal to an Effective Interest Rate. You are considering opening a savings account in one of three banks. Which bank has the most favorable interest rate? Bank #1 6.7% annual interest, compounded quarterly. Bank #2 6.65% annual interest, compounded monthly. Bank #3 6.65% annual interest, compounded continuously. Keys: Display: Description: Displays ICNV menu. Displays PER menu. 86 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 4 Stores number of compounding periods per year for bank #1. 6.7 Stores nominal annual interest rate for bank #1. Calculates effective interest rate for bank #1. 12 Stores number of compounding periods per year for bank #2. 6.65 Stores nominal annual interest rate for bank #2. Calculates effective interest rate for bank #2. e Displays CONT menu. Previous values of NOM% and EFF% are retained. Calculates effective rate for bank #3. The calculations show that bank #3 is offering the most favorable interest rate. Compounding Periods Different from Payment Periods The TVM menu assumes that the compounding periods and the payment periods are the same. However, regularly occurring savings- account deposits and withdrawals do not necessarily occur at the same time as the bank’s compounding periods. If they are not the same, you can adjust the interest rate using the ICNV menu, and then use the adjusted 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 87 interest rate in the TVM menu. (You can also use TVM if PMT = 0, regardless of the compounding periods.) 1. Call up the periodic interest-rate conversion menu ( ). 2. Calculate the effective annual interest rate from the nominal annual interest rate given by the bank. a. Store annual interest rate in . b. Store number of compounding periods per year in . c. Press . 3. Calculate the nominal annual interest rate that corresponds to your payment periods. a. Store the number of regular payments or withdrawals you will be making per year in . b. Press . 4. Return to the TVM menu (ee ). 5. Store the just-calculated nominal interest rate in I%YR (press ). s 6. Store the number of payments or withdrawals per year in and set the appropriate payment mode. 7. Continue with the TVM calculation. (Remember that money paid out is negative; money received is positive.) a. N is the total number of periodic deposits or withdrawals. b. PV is the initial deposit. c. PMT is the amount of the regular, periodic deposit or withdrawal. d. FV is the future value. When the interest rate is the unknown variable, first calculate I%YR in the TVM menu. This is the nominal annual rate that corresponds to your payment periods. Next, use the ICNV menu to convert this to the 88 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 effective interest rate based on your payment periods. Last, convert the effective rate to the nominal rate based on the bank’s compounding periods. Example: Balance of a Savings Account. Starting today, you make monthly deposits of $25 into an account paying 5% interest compounded daily (365-day basis). At the end of 7 years, how much will you receive from the account? Keys: Display: Description: 365 Periodic interest-rate conversion menu. Stores bank’s compounding periods. 5 Stores bank’s nominal interest rate. Calculates effective interest rate for daily compounding. 12 Stores number of deposits per year. Calculates equivalent nominal interest rate for monthly compounding. ee < Switches to TVM menu; NOM% value is still in calculator line. s Stores adjusted nominal interest rate in I%YR. Sets 12 payments per 12 e year; Begin mode. 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 89 @ 25& Stores 84 deposit periods, $25 per deposit, and no 0 money before the first 7 regular deposit. Value of account in 7 years. If the interest rate were the unknown, you would first do the TVM calculation to get I%YR (5.01). Then, in the ICNV PER menu, store 5.01 as NOM% and 12 as P for monthly compounding. Calculate EFF% (5.13). Then change P to 365 for daily compounding and calculate NOM% (5.00). This is the bank’s rate. 90 6: Interest Rate Conversions File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 7 Cash Flow Calculations The cash flow (CFLO) menu stores and analyzes cash flows (money received or paid out) of unequal (ungrouped) amounts that occur at regular intervals.* Once you’ve entered the cash flows into a list, you can calculate: The total amount of the cash flows. The internal rate of return (IRR%). The net present value (NPV), net uniform series (NUS), and net future value (NFV) for a specified periodic interest rate (I%). You can store many separate lists of cash flows. The maximum number depends on the amount of available calculator memory. The CFLO menu FIN TVM ICNV CFLO CALC TOTAL IRR% I% BUS TIME SOLVE CURRX BOND DEPRC INSR NPV SUM DELET NUS NAME GET NFV The CFLO menu creates cash-flow lists and performs calculations with a list of cash flows. * You can also use CFLO with cash flows of equal amounts, but these are usually handled more easily by the TVM menu. 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 91 Table 7-1. CFLO Menu Labels Menu Label Description Accesses the CALC menu to calculate TOTAL, IRR%, NPV, NUS, NFV. Allows you to insert cash flows into a list. Turns the prompting for #TIMES on and off. Deletes cash flows from a list. Allows you to name a list. Allows you to switch from one list to another or create a new list. To see the calculator line when this menu is in the display, press I once. (This does not affect number entry.) To see this menu when the calculator line is in the display, press e. Cash Flow Diagrams and Signs of Numbers The sign conventions used for cash flow calculations are the same as those used in time-value-of-money calculations. A typical series of cash flows is one of two types: Ungrouped cash flows. These occur in series of cash flows without “groups” of equal, consecutive flows.* Because each flow is different from the one before it, the number of times each flow occurs is one. * Any cash flow series can be treated as an ungrouped one if you enter each flow individually. 92 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Money received is a positive number $300 $200 $250 $200 $125 $100 Time periods $0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 $ _ 50 8 Money paid out is a negative number Figure 7-1. Cash Flows (Ungrouped) The horizontal timeline is divided into equal compounding periods. The vertical lines represent the cash flows. For money received, the line points up (positive); for money paid out, the line points down (negative). In this case, the investor has invested $700. This investment has generated a series of cash flows, starting at the end of the first period. Notice that there is no cash flow (a cash flow of zero) for period five, and that the investor pays a small amount in period six. Grouped cash flows. These occur in a series containing “groups” of equal, consecutive flows. Consecutive, equal cash flows are called grouped cash flows. The series shown here is grouped into two sets of consecutive, equal cash flows: 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 93 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 $_100 $_100 $_100 $_100 $_100 $_200 $_200 $_200 Figure 7-2. Grouped Cash Flows After an initial payment of $100, the investor pays $100 at the end of periods 1 through 5, and $200 at the end of periods 6 through 8. The investment returns $1,950 at the end of period 9. For every cash flow you enter, the calculator prompts you to indicate how many times (#TIMES) it occurs. Creating a Cash-Flow List To use CFLO, be sure your cash flows are occurring at regular intervals and at the end of each period.* If a period is skipped, enter zero for its cash flow. If there are any grouped (consecutive and equal) cash flows, the #TIMES prompting makes entering the data easier. * If the cash flows occur at the beginning of each period, then combine the first flow with the initial flow (which can increase or decrease the flow), and move each cash flow up one period. (Remember: a payment made at the beginning of period 2 is equivalent to the same payment made at the end of period 1, and so on. Refer to pages 64-92.) 94 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Entering Cash Flows To enter cash flows into a CFLO list: 1. Press . You will see either if the current list is empty, or or more if the list is not empty. This is the bottom of the current list. 2. If the list is not empty, you can do either a or b: @c (see also page 99.) a. Clear the list by pressing b. Get a new list by pressing (The old list must be named first. Press or see page 97.) 3. If the cash flows are ungrouped (that is, they are all different), then press to turn . For grouped cash flows, leave this prompting on. (For more information, see “Prompting for #TIMES,” next page.) 4. Key in the value of the initial cash flow, FLOW(0) (remember that money paid out is negative—use & to change the sign), and press I.* 5. After briefly showing FLOW(0), the display shows . (To view FLOW(0) longer, hold down I before releasing it.) Key in the value for FLOW(1) and press I. The prompt for the next item appears. 6. For grouped cash flows: The display now shows . If it does not, press e to turn the #TIMES prompting on. (See “Prompting for #TIMES,” below.) #TIMES is the number of consecutive occurrences of FLOW(1). #TIMES has * You can do calculations with a number before entering it. This does not interfere with the list. When you press I, the evaluated expression or number is entered into the list. 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 95 been automatically set to 1, and is displayed on the calculator line. Do either a or b: a. To retain the value 1 and go on to the next flow, press (or ]). b. To change #TIMES, key in the number and press I I.* Given #TIMES Calculator line 7. Continue entering each cash flow and, for grouped flows, the number of times it occurs. The calculator recognizes the end of the list when a flow is left blank (no value is entered). 8. Press e to end the list and restore the CFLO menu. You can now proceed to correct the list, name the list, get another list, or do calculations with the values. Use these same instructions to enter additional lists. Prompting for #TIMES (#T?). When the calculator displays , it is prompting you for the number of times the current flow occurs. If all your cash flows are different (#TIMES always 1), then you don’t need the prompt. You can turn the prompting for #TIMES on and off by pressing in the CFLO menu. This produces a brief message: either , or . While prompting is off, all cash flows you enter will have #TIMES = 1. When you are viewing a cash-flow list with the #TIMES prompting off, the calculator displays only those #TIMES values that are not 1. * The maximum #TIMES for each cash flow is 999. 96 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The #TIMES prompting is usually on, because it is automatically turned on whenever you clear or get a cash-flow list. Example: Entering Cash Flows. Enter the following ungrouped cash flows in a list and find the percentage internal rate of return (IRR). 0: 1: $－500 125 2: 3: $ 275 200 Keys: Display: Description: @c Asks for confirmation. Clears data from list and prompts for initial flow. Sets prompting off be 500 cause it is not needed. &I Enters initial flow; then immediately prompts for next flow. 125 275 200 I I I e Enters FLOW(1); prompts for next flow. Enters FLOW(2); prompts for next flow. Enters FLOW(3); prompts for next flow. Ends list and displays CALC menu. Calculates IRR. Viewing and Correcting the List To display a particular list, use (see page 99). 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 97 The [ and ] keys move up and down one number at a time. @[ and @] display the beginning and end of the list. Changing or Clearing a Number. To change a number after it’s been entered: display the number, key in the new value, and press I. Use this same method to clear a number to zero. (Do not press <, which clear the calculator line, not the cash-flow entry.) C or Inserting Cash Flows into a List. Insertion occurs before (above) the current flow. Pressing inserts a zero cash flow and renumbers the rest of the list. You can then enter a new cash flow and its #TIMES. For example, if FLOW(6) is in the display, pressing puts a new, zero flow between the previously numbered FLOW(5) and FLOW(6). Deleting Cash Flows from a List. Pressing deletes both the current flow and its #TIMES. Copying a Number from a List to the Calculator Line To copy a number from the list into the calculator line, use display the number, then press R I. ] or [ to Naming and Renaming a Cash-Flow List A new list has no name. You may name it before or after filling the list, but you must name it in order to store another list. To name a list: 1. Press from the CFLO menu. 2. Use the ALPHA menu to type a name. (The ALPHA and ALPHA-Edit menus are covered on pages 30 - 32.) To clear a name, press C. 3. Press 98 I. 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The name can be up to 22 characters long and include any character except:＋ － x ÷ ( ) < > : = space * But only the first three to five characters (depending on letter widths) of the name are used for a menu label. Avoid names with the same first characters, since their menu labels will look alike. Viewing the Name of the Current List. Press , then e. Starting or GETting Another List When you press , the cash-flow list that appears is the same as the last one used. To start a new list or switch to a different one, the current list must be named or cleared. If it is named, then: 1. Press .The GET menu contains a menu label for each named list plus . 2. Press the key for the desired list. ( brings up a new, empty list.) Clearing a Cash-Flow List and Its Name To clear a list’s numbers and name: 1. Display the list you want to clear, then press removes the numbers. @c . This 2. If the list is named, you’ll see Press to remove the name. Press to retain the name with an empty list. * CFLO does accept these exceptional characters in list names, but the Solver functions SIZEC, FLOW, and #T do not. 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 99 To remove just one value at a time from a list, use . Cash-Flow Calculations: IRR, NPV, NUS, NFV Once you have entered a list of cash flows, you can calculate the following values in the CALC menu. Sum (TOTAL). Internal rate of return (IRR%). This is a periodic rate of return. To calculate an annual nominal rate when the period is not a year, multiply the IRR% by the number of periods per year. If you want the IRR% as an effective annual rate, then use the FIN ICNV menu to convert from the nominal annual rate to the effective annual rate. Net present value (NPV), net uniform series (NUS), and net future value (NFV) for a specified, periodic interest rate, I%. 100 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 7-2. The CALC Menu for CFLO Lists Menu Label * Description Calculates the sum of the cash flows. Calculates the internal rate of return—the interest (discount) rate at which the net present value of the cash flows equals zero. Stores the periodic interest rate, expressed as a percentage (sometimes called cost of capital, discount rate, or required rate of return). Given I%, calculates the net present value—the present value of a series of cash flows. Given I%, calculates the net uniform series—the dollar amount of constant, equal cash flows having a present value equivalent to the net present value. Given I%, calculates the net future value of a series of cash flows by finding the future value of the net present value. * The calculations for internal rate of return are complex and may take a relatively long time. To interrupt the calculation, press any key. In certain cases, the calculator displays a message indicating that the calculation cannot continue without further information from you, or that there is no solution. Refer to appendix B for additional information about calculating IRR%. About the Internal Rate of Return (IRR%). A “conventional investment” is considered attractive if IRR% exceeds the cost of capital. A conventional investment meets two criteria—(1) the sequence of cash flows changes sign only once, and (2) the sum (TOTAL) of the cash flows is positive. Remember that the calculator determines a periodic IRR%. If the cash flows occur monthly, then IRR% is a monthly value, too. Multiply it by 12 for an annual value. 7: Cash Flow Calculations 101 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example: Calculating IRR and NPV of an Investment. An investor makes an initial investment of $80,000, and expects returns over the next five years as illustrated below. 115,000 5,500 5,000 1 4,500 2 4,000 3 4 5 $ _ 80,000 (Initial flow) Calculate the total of the cash flows and the internal rate of return of the investment. In addition, calculate the net present value and net future value, assuming an annual interest rate of 10.5%. Start the problem with an empty cash-flow list. Since the cash flows are ungrouped, each one occurs just once. Turn off the #TIMES prompt to make cash-flow entry faster. Keys: Display: Description: Displays current cash-flow list and CFLO menu keys. @c Clears current list or gets a new one. The empty list or prompts for its initial cash flow. Briefly shows the status of , then returns to the list. With prompting off, all cash flows are assumed to occur just once. 102 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 80000 & I Prompts for next cash flow. Calculator line shows last number entered. 5000 I Stores $5,000 for FLOW(1), prompts for next flow. I 5500 I 4000 I 4500 115000 Stores FLOW(2). Stores FLOW(3). Stores FLOW(4). Stores final cash flow and shows end of list. I e flows. Calculates sum of the cash Calculates internal rate of return. 10.5 Stores periodic interest rate. Calculates NPV. Calculates NFV. Now calculate the net present value at an interest rate of 10.5% if cash flow #4 is reduced to $1,000. e Displays the bottom of the list. [[ 1000 I Moves to cash flow #4. Changes cash flow #4 to $1,000. e Calculates new NPV. 7: Cash Flow Calculations 103 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example: An Investment with Grouped Cash Flows. You are considering an investment that requires a cash outlay of $9,000, with the promise of monthly cash flows as shown. Calculate IRR%. Also find NPV and NFV at an annual interest rate of 9%. 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 500 500 500 0 $ _ 9,000 Since some of these cash flows are grouped (consecutive and equal), the #TIMES prompting must be on so you can specify a number other than 1. Group Number Amount Number of Times Initial 1 2 3 4 －9,000 500 1,000 0 1,500 － 3 4 1 3 Keys: Display: Description: Current cash-flow list and CFLO menu. @c Clears current list. #TIMES prompting is turned on. 9000 & I Stores the initial cash flow. 104 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 500 I Stores FLOW(1) and prompts for #TIMES(1). 3 I FLOW(1) occurs 3 times; prompts for next cash flow. 1000 I4 I 0I I Stores FLOW(2) four times. Stores FLOW(3) one time (the 1 is automatically entered). I3 I e 1500 Stores FLOW(4) three times. Displays the CALC menu. Calculates monthly IRR%. Stores the periodic, monthly interest rate. Calculates NPV. Calculates NFV. / 12 v 9 Example: An Investment with Quarterly Cash Returns. You have been offered an opportunity to invest $20,000. The investment returns quarterly payments over four years as follows: Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 payments payments payments payments of of of of $500 $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 7: Cash Flow Calculations 105 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 500 500 500 500 Calculate the annual rate of return for this investment. (The prompting for #TIMES should be on.) Keys: Display: Description: Current cash-flow list. @c Clears the current list or gets a new one. This sets or the #TIMES prompting on. 20000 Stores the initial cash flow. Stores FLOW(1), then & I 500 I prompts for number of times this flow occurs. 4 I FLOW(1) occurs four times. 1000 I4 I 2000 I 4 I 3000 I 4 Stores FLOW(2), FLOW(3) and FLOW(4), and the number of times each flow occurs. 106 7: Cash Flow Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 I e Calculates quarterly rate of return. Calculates nominal annual v* 4 = rate of return from quarterly rate. Doing Other Calculations with CFLO Data If you would like to do other calculations with cash flows besides those in the CALC menu, you can do so by writing your own Solver equations. There are Solver functions that can access data stored in CFLO lists, and there is a summation function that can combine all or part of the values stored in specific lists. Refer to “Accessing CFLO and SUM Lists from the Solver” in chapter 12. 7: Cash Flow Calculations 107 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 8 Bonds The BOND menu calculates the yield to maturity or price of a bond. It also calculates yield to call on a coupon date and accrued interest. You can specify the: Calendar basis: 30/360 or actual/actual (days per month/days per year). Municipal, state, and corporate bonds issued in the United States are typically 30/360. U.S. Treasury bonds are actual/actual. Coupon payments: semi-annual or annual. Most U.S. bonds are semi-annual. The BOND Menu FIN BUS TVM ICNV CFLO TYPE SETT MAT YLD% PRICE ACCRU SUM TIME SOLVE CURRX BOND DEPRC CPN% CALL MORE MORE Pressing shows you the BOND menu and the type of bond currently specified: or ; or . 108 8: Bonds File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 8-1. BOND Menu Labels Menu Label Description Displays a menu of bond types: 30/360 or actual/actual, semi-annual or annual. Stores the settlement (purchase) date according to the current date format (MM.DDYYYY or DD.MMYYYY; see page 143). Stores the maturity date or call date according to the current date format. The call date must coincide with a coupon date. Stores the annual coupon rate as a percentage. Stores the call price per $100 face value. For a yield to maturity, make sure CALL equals 100. (A bond at maturity has a “call” value that is 100% of its face value.) Stores or calculates the yield (as an annual percentage) to maturity or yield to call date. Stores or calculates the price per $100 face value. Calculates the interest accrued from the last coupon-payment date until the settlement date, per $100 face value. The calculator retains the values of the BOND variables until you clear them by pressing @c while the BOND menu is displayed. Clearing sets CALL to 100 and all other variables to zero. To see the value currently stored in a variable, press R menu label. 8: Bonds 109 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Doing Bond Calculations Remember that values in the BOND menu are expressed per $100 face value or as a percentage. A CALL value of 102 means that the bond will be worth $102 for every $100 of face value when called. Some corporate bonds in the United States use the convention that the price of the bond is set to 100 if the coupon rate equals the yield, whether or not the settlement date is a coupon date. The BOND menu does not use this convention. To calculate the price or yield of a bond: 1. Display the BOND menu: press . 2. Press @c. This sets CALL=100. 3. Define the type of bond. If the message in the display does not match the type you want, press . Calendar basis Interest period Pressing sets the calendar basis to a 30-day month and a 360-day year. Pressing sets the calendar basis to the actual calendar month and to the actual calendar year. Pressing sets semi-annual coupon payments. Pressing sets annual coupon payments. Press e to restore the BOND menu. 4. Key in the settlement date (MM.DDYYYY or DD.MMYYYY depending on the date format; see chapter 11) and press . 5. Key in the maturity date or call date and press . 6. Key in the coupon rate as an annual percent and press . 7. Key in the call value, if any, and press . For a bond held to 110 8: Bonds File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 maturity, the CALL value must equal 100. (See step 3.) 8. To calculate a result, first press to access the remaining menu labels. Do either a or b: a. Key in the yield and press . Press to calculate the price. b. Key in the price and press . Press to calculate the yield. To calculate the accrued interest, press . The total amount owed vthe seller is PRICE + ACCRU, that is: + =. Calculating Fractional Values. When given a fractional value that must be entered in decimal form, do the arithmetic and then store the result directly into a variable. Do not clear the arithmetic and then retype the result before storing it—this is an unnecessary step that can cause incorrect answers due to rounding. See how the following example stores 83/8 in YLD%. Example: Price and Yield of a Bond. What price should you pay on August 10, 2003 for a 6¾% U.S. Treasury bond that matures on May 1, 2018 if you wish a yield of 83/8%? The calendar basis is actual/actual and the coupon payments are semi-annual. (The example assumes MM.DDYYYY date format.) Keys: Display: Description: Since there is no call on this bond, set CALL = 100 @c by clearing variables. e Sets bond type, if necessary. 8.102003 Stores settlement (purchase) date. 5.012018 Stores maturity date. 8: Bonds 111 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 6.75 Stores annual coupon rate. /8+8 v3 Stores desired yield (displayed rounded to two decimal places).* Result: price is $86.38 per $100 face value. v+ v= Adds accrued interest owed the seller. Net price. Suppose that the market quote for the bond is 88¼. What yield does it represent? 88.25 Stores quoted price. Result: yield to maturity. Example: A Bond with a Call Feature. What is the price of a 6% corporate bond maturing on March 3, 2022 and purchased on May 2, 2003 to yield 5.7%? It is callable on March 3, 2006 (a coupon date), at a value of 102.75. What is the yield to the call date? Use a 30/360 calendar with semi-annual coupon payments. Keys: Display: Description: Displays BOND menu, clears variables. @c e Sets bond type, if necessary. * To see the full precision of the number, press @S. 112 8: Bonds File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 5.022003 Stores purchase date (MM.DDYYYY format). 3.032022 Stores maturity date. 6 Stores annual coupon 5.7 rate. Stores yield. 3.032006 102.75 Calculates price. Changes maturity date to call date and stores a call value. Calculates yield to call. Example: A Zero-Coupon Bond. Calculate the price of a zero-coupon, semi-annual bond using a 30/360 calendar basis. The bond was purchased on May 19, 2003 and will mature on June 30, 2017, and has a yield to maturity of 10%. Keys: Display: Description: Clears BOND variables, setting CALL @c to 100. e Sets type if necessary (check the display). 5.192003 Purchase date (MM.DDYYYY format). 6.302017 Maturity date. 0 Coupon rate is zero. 10 Yield to maturity. Calculates price. 8: Bonds 113 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 9 Depreciation The DEPRC (depreciation) menu calculates depreciation values and remaining depreciable values one year at a time. The methods available are: Declining balance. Sum-of-the-years’ digits. Straight line. Accelerated Cost Recovery System. The DEPRC Menu TVM FIN BUS ICNV CFLO SUM TIME SOLVE BOND DEPRC BASIS SALV LIFE ACRS% ACRS MORE YR# FACT% DB SOYD SL MORE Pressing displays the DEPRC menu. 114 9: Depreciation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 CURRX Table 9-1. DEPRC Menu Labels Menu Label Description Stores the depreciable cost basis of the asset at acquisition. Stores the salvage value of the asset at the end of its useful life. If there is no salvage value, set SALV=0. Stores the expected useful life (in whole years) of the asset. Stores the appropriate Accelerated Cost Recovery System percentage from the published ACRS tables. Calculates the ACRS deduction based on BASIS and ACRS%. (The values in SALV, LIFE, FACT%, and YR# do not matter.) Stores the number of the year for which you want the depreciation (1, 2, etc.). Stores the declining-balance factor as a percentage of the straight-line rate. This is for the DB method only. For example, for a rate 1¼ times (125%) the straight-line rate, enter 125. Calculates the declining-balance depreciation for the year. Calculates the sum-of-the-years‘-digits depreciation for the year. Calculates the straight-line depreciation for the year. ] Displays the remaining depreciable value, RDV, after you have pressed , , or . The calculator retains the values of the DEPRC variables until you clear them by pressing @c while the DEPRC menu is displayed. 9: Depreciation 115 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 To see the value currently stored in a variable, press R menu label. Doing Depreciation Calculations DB, SOYD, and SL Methods To calculate the depreciation for an asset:* 1. Display the DEPRC menu: press . 2. Define the characteristics of the asset: a. Key in the cost basis and press b. Key in the salvage value and press . If there is no salvage value, enter zero. c. Key in the useful life and press . 3. Press for the rest of the DEPRC menu. 4. Key in the number for the year of depreciation you want to calculate (1, 2, 3, etc.) and press . 5. If you are using the declining-balance method, enter the DB factor (a percentage) and press . 6. Press , , or to calculate the appropriate depreciation. 7. To see the remaining depreciable value (basis-salvage valueaccumulated depreciation), press ]. 8. To calculate the depreciation for another year, just change YR# and press , , or again. * The calculated values of RDV, DB, SOYD, and SL are rounded internally to the number of decimal places specified by the current display setting. A setting of 2 means that these values will be rounded internally to two decimal places. 116 9: Depreciation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example: Declining-Balance Depreciation. A metalworking machine, purchased for $10,000, is to be depreciated over 5 years. Its salvage value is estimated at $500. Find the depreciation and remaining depreciable value for each of the first 3 years of the machine’s life using the double-declining-balance method (200% of the straight-line rate). For comparison, find the straight-line depreciation, as well. Keys: Display: Description: Displays DEPRC menu. 10000 Cost basis. 500 Salvage value. 5 Useful life. 1 First year of depreciation. 200 DB percentage factor. Depreciation in first year. (Salvage value ignored at this point.) ] Remaining depreciable value after first year (BASIS - SALV - 4,000). 2 Depreciation in second year. ] Remaining depreciable value after second year. 3 Depreciation in third year. ] Remaining depreciable value after third year. Straight-line depreciation for each year. 9: Depreciation 117 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 ] Remaining depreciable value after third year using SL. The ACRS Method To calculate the amount of tax deduction under the U.S. Accelerated Cost Recovery System: 1. Display the DEPRC menu: press . 2. Enter the cost basis of the asset and press 3. The Internal Revenue Service publishes tables that list the percentage of an asset’s basis that can be deducted each year of its prescribed life. Look up that value, enter it, and press . 4. Press to calculate the value of the deduction. Example: ACRS Deductions. Use the ACRS method to find the income-tax deduction for a $25,000 asset over 3 years of a 5-year life. Use this hypothetical ACRS table: Year Percentage Deductible 1 2 3 4 5 15 25 20 20 20 Keys: Display: Description: DEPRC menu. 25000 Enters basis. 15 Tabular value, year 1. Deduction in first year. 118 9: Depreciation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 25 Tabular value, year 2. Deduction in second year. 20 Tabular value, year 3. Deduction in third year. Partial-Year Depreciation When the acquisition date of an asset does not coincide with the start of the tax or fiscal year, then the amounts of depreciation in the first and last years are computed as fractions of a full year’s depreciation. Except in SL, the intermediate years are computed as sums of fractions. This does not apply to the ACRS method. Suppose you acquired an asset in October and wanted to depreciate it for 3 years. (Your fiscal year begins January 1st.) The depreciation schedule would affect parts of 4 years, as shown in the illustration. The 3 months from October to December equal ¼ year. Number of months 3 9 Calendar years 1 Depreciation years 2 1 3 4 2 3 3-year life For SL depreciation, partial-year calculations are easy: calculate the SL value, then use ¼ of that value for the first year, the full amount the second and third years, and ¾ of that amount the fourth year. For DB and SOYD depreciation, each year’s depreciation value is different, as shown in the table: 9: Depreciation 119 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Calendar Year Depreciation Value 1 (Oct.-Dec.) ¼ x year 1 2 (¾ x year 1) + (¼ x year 2) 3 (¾ x year 2) + (¼ x year 3) 4 (Jan.-Sept.) ¾ x year 3 Example: Partial-Year Depreciation. A movie camera bought for $12,000 has a useful life of 10 years with a salvage value of $500. Using the sum-of-the-years’-digits method, find the amount of depreciation for the fourth year. Assume the first depreciation year was 11 months long. Keys: Display: Description: Displays DEPRC menu. 12000 Stores known values. 500 10 3 Calculates depreciation for year 3. v/ 12= s 1 Stores 1 month’s depreciation from year 3. 4 Calculates depreciation for year 4. v* 11/ 12 = v+R Figures 11 months’ depreciation from year 4. 1= Figures total depreciation for year 4. 120 9: Depreciation File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 10 Running Total and Statistics The SUM menu stores and statistically analyzes sets of numbers. As you enter the numbers, the calculator displays their running total. Once you’ve entered the numbers into a list, you can: Calculate the mean, median, standard deviation, and range. Display the largest and smallest number in the list. Sort the list from smallest number to largest number. With two lists of numbers, you can: Do curve-fitting and forecasting calculations using two SUM lists and one of four models—linear, exponential, logarithmic, and power. (Curve fitting for the linear model is called linear regression.) Calculate the weighted mean and grouped standard deviation. Find the summation statistics (∑x, ∑x2, ∑y, ∑y2, ∑xy). You can store many separate lists of numbers in SUM. The maximum number depends on the amount of available calculator memory. 10: Running Total and Statistics 121 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The SUM Menu FIN CALC TOTAL INSR MEAN MAX SUM DELET NAME MEDN STDEV SORT TIME SOLVE GET CURRX TOTAL RANGE MORE FRCST MORE … MIN BUS The SUM menu creates lists of numbers and performs calculations with a SUM list. Table 10-1. SUM Menu Labels Menu Label Description Accesses the CALC menu to calculate the total, mean, median, standard deviation, range, minimum, maximum, sorting, and linear regression (including weighted mean and summation statistics). Allows you to insert numbers into the list. Displays the total of all the items in the list. Deletes numbers from the list. Allows you to name the list. Allows you to switch from one named list to another or to create a new list. 122 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 To see the calculator line when this menu is in the display, press I once. (This does not affect number entry.) To see this menu when the calculator line is in the display, press e. Creating a SUM List To keep a running total of a list of numbers or do statistical calculations with sets of data, first create a SUM list of the values. Entering Numbers and Viewing the TOTAL To enter numbers into a SUM list: 1. Press . You’ll see if the current list is empty, or 2 or more if the list is not empty. This is the bottom of the current list. 2. If the list is empty, start filling it (step 3). If the current list is not empty, you can do either a or b: @c (see also page a. Clear the list by pressing 127.) b. Get a new list by pressing (The old list must be named first. Press or see page 126.) 3. Key in the value of the first item, ITEM(1) (press & for a negative number), and press I.* (To view ITEM(1) longer, hold down I before releasing it.) * Remember that you can do calculations with a number before entering it. This does not interfere with the list. Whenever you press I, the number (or evaluated expression) in the calculator line is entered into the list. If you need to use the MATH menu, just press @m, do the calculation, then press e) to return to where you were in SUM. 10: Running Total and Statistics 123 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 After briefly showing ITEM(1), the display shows =number TOTAL is the updated, running TOTAL of all the numbers in the list (only one number, so far). 4. To enter ITEM(2), key in the value and press ITEM(3) and the new, updated total appear. I. The prompt for 5. Continue entering values for ITEM(3), ITEM(4), etc. The calculator recognizes the end of the list when an item is left blank (no value is entered). 6. Press e to end the list and restore the SUM menu. You can now proceed to correct the list, name the list, get another list, or do statistical calculations. Use these same instructions to enter additional lists. Viewing and Correcting the List To display a particular list, use (see page 127). [ and ] keys move up and down the list one number at a time. @[ and @] display the beginning and end of the list. The Changing or Clearing a Number. To change a number after it’s been entered: display the number, key in the new value, and press I. Use the same method to clear a number to zero. (Do not press <, which clears the calculator line.) C or Inserting Numbers into a List. Insertion occurs before (or above) the current entry. Pressing inserts a zero item and renumbers the rest of the list. You can then enter a new value. For example, if ITEM(6) is in the display, pressing puts a new, zero item between the previously numbered ITEM(5) and ITEM(6). 124 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Deleting Numbers from a List. Pressing deletes the current item. Example: Updating a Checkbook. On May 31, your checking account balance was $267.82. The transactions for the first 10 days in June are: Date Transaction 6/1 6/1 6/1 6/2 Balance Deposit Check Check Amount Date Transaction Amount 267.82 837.42 －368.23 －45.36 6/3 6/7 6/10 －128.90 － 65.35 55.67 Check Check Deposit Update the checkbook by calculating the running balance. Keys: Display: * Description: @c 267.82 I 837.42 I Displays empty SUM list. Enters beginning balance and shows running total. Enters deposit on 6/1. & Enters remaining I 45.36 & I 128.90 & I 65.35 & transactions. 368.23 * If you want to preserve the current list, skip the next step (pressing @c). Instead, name the list and then press . 10: Running Total and Statistics 125 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 I 55.67 I e Ends list and displays SUM menu again. Copying a Number from a List to the Calculator Line To copy a number from the list into the calculator line, use display the number, then press R I. ] or [ to Naming and Renaming a SUM List A new list has no name. You may name it before or after filling the list, but you must name it in order to store another list. To name a list: 1. Press from the SUM menu. 2. Use the ALPHA menu to type in a name. (The ALPHA and ALPHA-Edit menus are covered on pages 30 - 32.) To clear a name, press C. 3. Press I. The name can be up to 22 characters long and include any character except: ＋ － x ÷ ( ) < > : = space * But only the first three to five characters (depending on letter widths) of the name are used for a menu label. Avoid names with the same first characters, since their menu labels will look alike. Viewing the Name of the Current List. Press , then e. * SUM does accept these exceptional characters in list names, but the Solver functions SIZES and ITEM do not. 126 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Starting or GETting Another List When you press , the SUM list that appears is the last one used. To start a new list or switch to a different one, the current list must be named or cleared. If it is named, then: 1. Press . The GET menu contains a menu label for each named list plus . 2. Press the key for the desired list. ( brings up a new, empty list.) Clearing a SUM List and Its Name To clear a list’s numbers and name: 1. Display the list you want to clear, then press removes the numbers. @c . This 2. If the list is named, you’ll see Press to remove the name. Press to retain the name with an empty list. To remove just one value at a time from a list, use . Doing Statistical Calculations (CALC) Once you have entered a list of numbers, you can calculate the following values. For one variable: the total, mean, median, standard deviation, range, minimum, and maximum. You can also sort the numbers in order of increasing value. For two variables: x-estimates and y-estimates (this is also called forecasting), the correlation coefficient for different types of curves (this is curve-fitting), the slope and y-intercept of the line, and summation statistics. You can also find the weighted mean and the grouped standard deviation. 10: Running Total and Statistics 127 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Calculations with One Variable The CALC menu calculates the following statistical values using one SUM list. Table 10-2. The CALC Menu for SUM Lists Menu Key Description Calculates the sum of the numbers in the list. Calculates the arithmetic mean (average). Calculates the median. Calculates the standard deviation.* Calculates the difference between the largest and smallest number. Finds the smallest (minimum) number in the list. Finds the largest (maximum) number in the list. Sorts the list in ascending order. Displays a series of menus for calculations with two variables for curve fitting, estimation, weighted mean and grouped standard deviation, and summation statistics. * The calculator finds the sample standard deviation. The formula assumes that the list of numbers is a sampling of a larger, complete set of data. If the list is, in fact, the entire set of data, the true population standard deviation can be computed by calculating the mean of the original list, placing that value into the list, and then calculating the standard deviation. Example: Mean, Median, and Standard Deviation. Suppose your shop had the following phone bills during the past six months: 128 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Month Phone Expense 1. May $340 4. August $780 2. June $175 5.September $245 3. July $450 6. October $625 Phone Expense Month Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation of the monthly phone bills. Then display the smallest value in the list. Keys: Display: Description: Displays current SUM list and SUM menu keys. @c Clears current list or gets a new one. or 340 Stores May’s phone bill; shows total. Stores June; updates total. 175 I I 450 I 780 I 245 I 625 I Stores phone bills for July-October and keeps a running total. e Displays CALC menu. Calculates mean. Calculates median. Calculates standard 10: Running Total and Statistics 129 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 deviation. Displays rest of CALC menu. Finds smallest number. Calculations with Two Variables (FRCST) The FRCST menu does the following two-variable calculations using two SUM lists: Fits x- and y-data to a linear, logarithmic, exponential, or power curve. Forecasts estimated values based on that curve. Finds the weighted mean and grouped standard deviation. Shows you the summation statistics (Σx, Σx2, Σy, Σy2, Σxy, etc.). 130 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 CALC TOTAL MEAN MEDN STDEV MIN MAX SORT RANGE MORE MORE FRCST (select x and y) LIN x-list y-list CORR MODL W.MN G.SD LOG EXP X M B MORE SIZE MORE XY MORE PWR Y X2 Y2 After pressing , you must specify two previously created lists—one for the x-variable and one for the y-variable. The two lists must have the same number of items. 10: Running Total and Statistics 131 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 10-3. FRCST Menu Labels Menu Label Description list name for x-variable list name for y-variable These specify the two lists of data to be compared. Also used for estimations:store x and estimate y, or vice-versa. is the menu label for an unnamed current list. * Calculates the correlation coefficient, a number between －1 and ＋1 that measures how closely the x,y data points match the calculated curve. * Calculates M. For the linear model, this is the slope. * Calculates B. For the linear model, this is the y-intercept. Displays a choice of the four curve-fitting models: , , , and . Calculates the weighted mean of the x-values using the weights in the y-list. Calculates the standard deviation of a set of x-values grouped by frequencies specified in the y-list. The number of items in either list. Sum of items in x-list. Sum of items in y-list. Sum of squares of items in x-list. Sum of squares of items in y-list. Sum of products of items in x- and y-lists. * For the non-linear models, the calculation uses the transformed data values. 132 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Curve Fitting and Forecasting Curve fitting is a statistical method for finding a relationship between two variables, x and y. Based on this relationship, you can estimate new values of y based on a given x-value, and vice-versa. Each SUM list holds the numbers (data values) for one variable. You can select one of four curve-fitting models:* Exponential Curve Fit Linear Curve Fit y y Mx x x Logarithmic Curve Fit Power Curve Fit y y M x x * The exponential, logarithmic, and power models are calculated using transformations that allow the data to be fitted by standard linear regression. The equations for these transformations appear in appendix B. The logarithmic model requires positive x-values; the exponential model requires positive y-values; and the power curve requires positive x- and y-values. 10: Running Total and Statistics 133 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 To do curve fitting and forecasting : 1. Enter the data into two SUM lists: one for the x-values and one for the y-values. Make sure each list has the same number of items so that the items are in matched pairs. 2. From the SUM menu, press to display a menu of SUM-list names. The current list is labeled unless named otherwise. 3. Press a menu key to select a list of x-values (independent variable). 4. Select a list of y-values (dependent variable). 5. Now you see the FRCST menu. Whichever curve-fitting model was used last is named in the display. If you want to select a different model, press , and then the menu key for the model. 6. To calculate the curve-fitting results, press, , and . 7. To forecast (estimate) a value: a. Key in the known value and press the menu key for that variable. b. Press the menu key for the variable whose value you want to forecast. Example: Curve Fitting. BJ’s Dahlia Garden advertises on a local radio station. For the past six weeks, the manager has kept records of the number of minutes of advertising that were purchased, and the sales for that week. 134 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Number of Minutes of Radio Advertising (x-values, MINUTES) Dollar Sales (y-values, SALES) Week 1 2 $1,400 Week 2 1 $ 920 Week 3 3 $1,100 Week 4 5 $2,265 Week 5 5 $2,890 Week 6 4 $2,200 BJ’s wants to determine whether there is a linear relationship between the amount of radio advertising and the weekly sales. If a strong relationship exists, BJ’s wants to use the relationship to forecast sales. A graph of the data looks like this: y (forecasted) 3,000 2,000 SALES in Dollars M 8 5. 42 ＝ 8 1,000 B 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x of Advertising 10: Running Total and Statistics 135 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: Displays current SUM list and SUM menu keys. @c 2 Stores minutes of advertising (x-values) into a SUM list. I 1I 3I 5I 5I 4I Clears current list. e MINUTES Names this list. (See page I 30 to use the ALPHA menu.) Now enter and name the second list. Gets a new, empty list. 1400 Stores weekly sales (y-values) into a second SUM list. I 920 I 1100 I 2265 I 2890 I 2200 I e SALES I Names y-list. Identifies the lists for curve-fitting. 136 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Selects MINUTES as x-list, * SALES as y-list, indicates current curve-fitting model, and displays FRCST menu. Correlation coefficient for linear model. The correlation coefficient calculated above is acceptable to BJ’s. Using the linear model, estimate what the level of sales would be if the business purchased 7 minutes of advertising time per week. 7 Stores 7 in variable MINUTES. Forecasts the sales resulting from 7 minutes of radio advertising. How many minutes of advertising should BJ’s buy if it wants to attain sales of $3,000? 3000 The business should buy about 6 minutes of advertising for sales of $3,000.† * If the model named here is not the one you want to use, press and select the one you want. † This result is not the same as it would be if SALES were the independent (x) variable, and MINUTES were the dependent (y) variable. 10: Running Total and Statistics 137 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Weighted Mean and Grouped Standard Deviation Data in one list (x) can be weighted or grouped (by frequency) by data in another list (y). To find the mean of weighted data and the standard deviation of grouped data: 1. Enter the data values—the x-variable—into a SUM list. 2. Enter the corresponding weights or frequencies—the y-variables— into another list. (To calculate G.SD, the y-values should be integers.) 3. From the SUM menu, press to display a menu of SUM-list names. The current list is unless named otherwise. 4. Press the menu key for the list of x-values. 5. Now select the list with the weights (or frequencies) (y). 6. To calculate the weighted mean, press . 7. To calculate the grouped standard deviation, press . Example: Weighted Mean. A survey of 266 one-bedroom rental apartments reveals that 54 of them rent for $200 per month, 32 for $205, 88 for $210, and 92 for $216. What is the average monthly rent and its standard deviation? Create two SUM lists. The first, called RENT, should contain the numbers 200, 205, 210, and 216, in that order. The second can be unnamed and should contain the numbers 54, 32, 88, and 92, in that order. Keys: Display: @c Clears current list or gets a new one. or 200 I 205 I 210 I Description: Stores rents into a list. 138 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 216 I e RENT I Names this list RENT. (See page 30 to use the ALPHA menu.) Gets a new, empty list. 54 Stores frequencies into second list. I 32 I 88 I 92 I e SUM lists. Displays names of all Specifies RENT as the x-list. Specifies the current, unnamed list as the y-list and then displays the FRCST menu. (Ignore model type.) Average monthly rent. Standard deviation of the rents. Summation Statistics The summation values are of interest if you want to perform other statistical calculations besides those provided by the calculator. To find Σx, Σx2, Σy, Σy2, Σ(xy), and n, the number of elements in either list: 1. Display the FRCST menu and select the x- and y-lists as explained in steps 1-4 of the instructions on page 134. To find the summation 10: Running Total and Statistics 139 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 statistics for just one list of data, specify the same list for both x and y. 2. To see n, press . 3. Press again to display the summation menu, and press the menu label for the value you want. Doing Other Calculations with SUM Data If you would like to do other statistical calculations with SUM data besides those in the CALC menu, you can do so by writing your own Solver equation. There are Solver functions that can access data stored in SUM lists, and there is a summation function that can combine all or part of the values stored in specific lists. Refer to “Accessing CFLO and SUM Lists from the Solver” in chapter 12. 140 10: Running Total and Statistics File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 11 Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic The calculator contains a clock and calendar in the TIME menu. You can select a 12-hour or 24-hour clock, and a month-day-year or daymonth-year calendar. You can: Record appointments that set alarms with optional messages. Determine the day of the week for a particular date. Calculate the number of days between two dates using the 360-day, the 365-day, or the actual calendar. Viewing the Time and Date To view the time and date, press in the MAIN menu. If you overwrite the time and date, you can restore them to the display by pressing C. 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic 141 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The TIME Menu FIN SUM BUS CALC APT1 TIME APPT APT2 SOLVE ADJST CURRX SET APT10 Table 11-1. The TIME Menu Labels Menu Label Description Displays the CALC menu, for calculating the day of the week and other date arithmetic. Displays the APPT menu for setting and viewing appointments. Displays the ADJST menu for adjusting the clock setting. Displays the SET menu for setting the time and date, and for selecting the time and date formats. 142 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Setting the Time and Date (SET) Table 11-2. The SET Menu Labels Menu Label Description Sets the date to the displayed number (MM.DDYYYY or DD.MMYYYY). Sets the time to the displayed number (HH.MMSS). Switches between AM and PM (12-hour clock). Switches between month/day/year and day.month.year formats. Switches between 12-hour and 24-hour clock formats. Displays the formats for entering the clock’s date and time. To set the time: 1. Press to display the SET menu. 2. Key in the correct time in the current format ( or indicates the 12-hour clock). For example, for 9:08:30 p.m. enter 9.0830 in a 12-hour clock or 21.0830 in a 24-hour clock. 3. Press to set the new time. 4. For 12-hour format: press to switch between AM and PM. To set the date: 1. Key in the correct date in the current format. For example, for April 3, 2003 enter 4.032003 in month/day/year format or 3.042003 in day.month.year format. 2. Press . 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic 143 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example: Setting the Date and Time. Set the date and time to April 5, 2003, 4:07 p.m. Keys: Display: Description: Displays SET menu. 4.052003 Sets date. time 4.07 Sets time. Press if necessary. xx Changing the Time and Date Formats (SET) Use the SET menu to change the time and date formats. To switch between the 12- and 24-hour clocks, press . To switch between the month/day/year and day.month.year calendars, press . Adjusting the Clock Setting (ADJST) The ADJST menu adjusts the time setting forward or backward in increments of hours, minutes, or seconds. 1. Press . 2. Press the appropriate menu key(s) until the correct time is displayed. For example, if the current time setting is 11:20:xx AM (ignoring seconds), pressing twice changes the time to 1:20 PM. Then, pressing three times changes the time to 1:17 PM. 144 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Appointments (APPT) You can record up to ten appointments, each with an alarm. An appointment can contain a message. You can also create repeating appointments—appointments that recur at regular intervals. APPT APT1 APT2 MORE APT9 APT10 for each appointment DATE TIME A/PM MSG RPT HELP Viewing or Setting an Appointment (APT1-APT10) Table 11-3. Menu Labels for Setting Appointments Menu Label Description Sets the appointment date. Sets the appointment time, and automatically enters the current date (if the existing appointment date was in the past). Sets AM or PM for 12-hour clock. Displays the ALPHA menu and any existing message. Displays the existing repeat interval and the menu for changing the repeat interval. Displays the format for entering the date and time. Before setting an appointment, you must set the current date and time. (refer to “Setting the Time and Date (SET)” on page 143.) 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic 145 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 To set an appointment or view its current setting: 1. Press , then . The display tells you which appointments (numbered 1-10) are set and which are past due (expired with unacknowledged alarms). Pressing displays the status and menu labels for appointments 6 through 10. 2. Press a menu key— through . The display shows the current appointment, if any, and the menu labels for setting appointments. 3. Optional: press @c to remove any old information. Appointment number Menu for setting appointments Message Repeat interval 4. Setting the appointment time: Use 12-hour or 24-hour time, as appropriate. Key in the time as a number in the form HH.MM. For example, 2:25 p.m. would be 2.25 (12-hour format) or 14.25 (24-hour format). Press . The date is automatically set to the current date if the existing date is in the past or was cleared. For 12-hour format: press to switch between AM and PM. 5. Setting the appointment date: Key in the date in the current date format. For example, enter October 4, 2003 as 10.042003 (month/day/year format) or 4.102003 (day.month.year format). Press . If the appointment is within a year from today, you can omit the year. 146 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 6. The appointment message (optional): To set, change, or just view a message, press . Type the message (refer to page 30 for using the ALPHA menu). Messages are limited to a maximum of 22 characters. Press I when done. (Press e to negate any changes and retain the original message.) 7. The repeat interval (optional): To set, view, or change a repeat interval, press . Key in an integer and press the appropriate key. For example, 2 causes the appointment to go off at the same time every other day; 90 sets the repeat interval to 1½ hours. sets the appointment to non- repeating. You can specify repeat intervals up to 104 weeks in length (728 days, 17,472 hours, etc.) 8. When done, press e to return to the APPT menu. The appointment you just set will be recorded, such as You can check an appointment by pressing its menu key (such as ). C restores an appointment’s time and date to the display if it has been overwritten by other operations. Acknowledging an Appointment To acknowledge the appointment and clear the message, press any key (except @) during the beeping. Appointments not acknowledged within 20 seconds become past due. When an appointment “comes due,” the alarm starts beeping and the alarm annunciator ( ) is displayed, even if the calculator was off.*† The message (or, if none, the time and date) is displayed. * If the calculator is in the middle of a complex calculation when an appointment comes due, the alarm annunciator comes on and the calculator beeps once. When the calculation is done, the alarm goes off. † The beeping can be suppressed or restricted to appointments. See “Beeper On and Off,” page 36. 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic 147 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Unacknowledged Appointments An appointment not acknowledged during its alarm becomes past due. The alarm annunciator remains on. To acknowledge a past-due appointment: 1. Press . 2. Press the menu key for the past-due appointment. 3. Press e to return to the APPT menu. The acknowledged appointment is no longer listed as past due. A repeating appointment is deactivated while it is past due and will not go off subsequently until the past-due appointment has been acknowledged. Clearing Appointments To cancel an appointment or to get rid of a repeating appointment, you need to clear the appointment. Clearing changes the date and time to 00/00/00, 12:00 AM, and removes the message and the repeat interval. To clear an appointment, press the menu label for that appointment and press @c To clear all ten appointments, display the APPT menu (the menu with , etc.) and press @c . Example: Clearing and Setting an Appointment. Today is Sunday, April 20, 2003. You want to set appointment #4 to go off every Tuesday at 2:15 p.m. to remind you of a staff meeting. Assume 12-hour time format and month/day/year date format. Keys: Display: Description: Displays setting for 148 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 appointment #4. @c Clears appt. #4. 2.15 Stores appt. time and supplies current date. Sets appt. time to PM. 4.22 Stores appt. date. STAFF I Enters message: “staff”. Displays RPT menu. 1 Sets repeat interval. e Returns to APPT menu Appt. 4 is “set.” Date Arithmetic (CALC) The CALC menu performs date arithmetic: Determines the day of the week for any date. Determines the number of days between dates using one of three calendars—actual, 365-day, or 360-day. Adds or subtracts days from a date to determine a new date. The calendar for date arithmetic runs from October 15, 1582 to December 31, 9999. To display the CALC menu, press , then . 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic 149 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 11-4. CALC Menu Labels for Date Arithmetic Menu Label Description Stores or calculates a date. Also displays the day of the week. If you omit the year, the calculator uses the current year. Stores or calculates the number of actual days between DATE1 and DATE2 , recognizing leap years. Calculates the number of days between DATE1 and DATE2 using the 360-day calendar (30-day months). Calculates the number of days between DATE1 and DATE2, using the 365-day calendar, ignoring leap years. A shortcut: recalls the current date, which can then be stored in DATE1 or DATE2. The calculator retains the values for the TIME CALC variables DATE1, DATE2, DAYS until you clear them by pressing @c while the CALC menu is displayed. To see what value is currently stored in a variable, press label. R menu Determining the Day of the Week for Any Date To find the day of the week for any date, key in the date and press or . Calculating the Number of Days between Dates To calculate the number of days between two dates: 1. Key in the first date (for today’s date, use ) and press . 150 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 2. Key in the second date and press . 3. Press , , or to calculate the number of days using that calendar. Example: Calculating the Number of Days between Two Dates. Find the number of days between April 20, 2003 and August 2, 2040, using both the actual calendar and the 365-day calendar. Assume the date format is month/day/year. Keys: Display: Description: Displays CALC menu. 4.202003 Stores Apr. 20, 2003 as first date and displays its day of the week. 8.022040 Stores Aug. 2, 2040 as second date. Calculates actual number of intervening days. Calculates number of intervening days by a 365-day calendar. Calculating Past or Future Dates To calculate a date a specified number of days from another date: 1. Key in the known date (for today’s date, use ) and press . 2. Key in the number of days. This number should be negative if the unknown date precedes the known date. Press . 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic 151 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 3. Press . This calculation always uses the actual calendar. Example: Determining a Future Date. On February 9, 2003, you purchase a 120-day option on a piece of land. Determine the expiration date. Assume the date format is month/day/year. Keys: Display: Description: Displays CALC menu. 2.092003 Stores Feb. 9, 2003. 120 Stores number of days into the future. Calculates expiration date (DATE2). 152 11: Time, Appointments, and Date Arithmetic File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 12 The Equation Solver The Equation Solver (the SOLVE menu) stores equations that you enter and creates menus for them. You can then use those menus to do calculations. Enter Solver equations in algebraic form regardless of the calculation mode (ALG or RPN). The Solver can store many equations—the number and length of equations is limited only by the amount of memory available. The equations are stored in a list. FIN BUS SUM TIME CALC SOLVE EDIT CURRX DELETE NEW Solver Example: Sales Forecasts Suppose part of your job includes making sales forecasts, and that these forecasts are revised based on new information. For instance, A change in the price of the product will affect sales by a forecasted percentage, A%. A change in sales-force training will affect sales by a forecasted percentage, B%. A competitor’s new product will affect sales by a forecasted percentage, C%. 12: The Equation Solver 153 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Regardless of how you do this calculation (even if you do it longhand), you are using an equation: Next Forecast = Old Forecast + Change in Old Forecast = Old Forecast + (Projected Percentage Changes xOld Forecast) or: NEXT = OLD + ((A% + B% + C%) ÷ 100 x OLD) Using the SOLVE and ALPHAbetic menus, you can type in this equation as and then automatically create this menu—which contains all the variables’ labels—by pressing I :* Each menu label represents a variable. You can use them to store and calculate values the same way you use other menus and their built-in variables. Entering a Solver Equation. To type this equation, you must use the ALPHA menu. If you are not familiar with the ALPHAbetic menu, refer to “ Typing Words and Characters ” on page 30. Keys: Display: Description: Displays SOLVE menu, then ALPHA menu. The equation is too long NEXT = OLD * Because the Solver uses arithmetic priority ( , before , ), a second set of parentheses (before A% and after the second OLD) is not necessary. See “Order of Calculations,” page 165. 154 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 +( A %+ B %+ C % )/ 100 * OLD for the display. I Enters equation into list. Controls view of full equation. e Displays SOLVE menu. Calculating with the Solver. Suppose last month’s forecast for a product was 2,000 units. In the meantime, three market changes have occurred that affect this forecast. A) The price of the product has dropped, causing an expected 20% increase in sales. B) A major sales-force training program started, causing an expected 5% increase in sales. C) A competitor is introducing a new product, causing an expected 15% drop in sales. Calculate the new forecast for next month. Menu Label: Display: Description: Verifies that equation is valid; creates Solver menu with menu labels for this equation. 2000 Stores old forecast. 20 Stores effect of price drop on sales. 5 Stores effect of sales-force training on sales. 12: The Equation Solver 155 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 15 & Stores effect of competitor’s new product on sales. Calculates new forecast for next month. Suppose your boss wants next month’s forecast to be 2,300 units. You can’t affect A% or C%, but you can affect B% through the sales training program. Determine what B% must be for NEXT to equal 2,300 units. All you need to do is re-enter the one value you are changing: Keys: Display: 2300 Description: The training program would need to result in a 10% increase in sales to effect a new forecast of 2,300. The SOLVE Menu If the Solver list is empty, you will see an instruction for entering an equation when you press : If the Solver list is not empty, you will see the current equation—the last one entered or selected. Pressing [, ], @[, and @] moves you through the list. 156 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 12-1. The SOLVE Menu Labels Menu Label Description Verifies the current equation and creates menu labels for it. This is necessary before doing any calculations. Accesses the ALPHA-Edit menu (page 31) so you can alter the current equation. The arrow keys move long equations across the display. Deletes the current equation or just its variables (that is, the space allotted in memory for the variables). Allows you to enter a new equation. While you’re working with a specific equation in the Solver, the equation’s own menu appears in the display. To retrieve the primary SOLVE menu, press e. Entering Equations To make an entry into the Solver list: 1. Press . (To insert the new entry at the bottom of the list, press @].) 2. Use the ALPHA menu to type in characters (see page 30), and use the regular keyboard to type in digits and arithmetic operators (+, =, yx, etc.). If you make a mistake, use < to backspace or C to start over. Or press e to bring up the ALPHA-Edit menu. 3. Press I to store the equation. 4. Press to verify that the equation is valid, and to create its menu labels. You now can proceed with your calculations. When you press the calculator displays: 12: The Equation Solver 157 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 while the Solver checks that the equation is mathematically valid. (However, the Solver has no way of checking whether the equation is the right one for your problem.) If the equation cannot be solved, the calculator briefly displays: and the cursor will blink at the first character that the Solver could not interpret. (It is possible that your mistake is somewhere else, but this is a good place to start looking, since this is where the Solver got stuck.) The ALPHA-Edit menu appears so you can make changes. Check to be sure you’ve made no typing mistakes, and that you’ve followed the rules for writing equations given on page 166 under “What Can Appear in an Equation.” An entry that is not an equation will be stored when you press I , but it cannot be verified when you press . Calculating Using Solver Menus (CALC) If pressing creates a Solver menu for your equation, then the equation is good (that is, mathematically valid). If the equation contains more than six variables, the Solver uses the label to switch between sets of menu labels. Calculator line Solver menu To test whether your equation is in fact correct, test it out by entering some values for which you already know the result, and see if the Solver’s result is correct. To do a calculation using a Solver menu: 158 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 1. Store values in all but one of the variables (for example, 2000 , etc.). Remember that you can verify stored values by pressing R menu label. 2. To start the calculation, press the menu key for the variable you want to calculate. In most cases, this is all you need to know about how the Solver works. However, certain types of equations are more difficult to solve. If, during the calculation, the display temporarily shows two lines of changing numbers, such as then the Solver is searching for a result for the variable A. Read the section, “How the Solver Works,” starting on page 179. Example: Return on Equity. The Return on Equity of a business can be defined as: ROE＝ Operating income − Interest − Taxes Common equity Find the ROE of a small firm with $2,000 in assets. The assets earned 10% while its debt cost it 8%. The assets were financed using $500 of common equity and $1,500 of debt. The firm paid no taxes. Operating income＝assets × percentage earnings on assets ＝ Interest＝debt × percentage interest paid on debt ＝ Common equity＝amount of common equity used for financing ＝ The Solver equation would be: 12: The Equation Solver 159 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: @A Restores MAIN menu. Displays ALPHA menu. = ( ASSET * % ERN - DEBT * % INT - TAX ) / EQTY ROE Entering the equation. I Stores the equation. Verifies the equation and displays the menu labels for ROE, ASSET, %ERN, DEBT, %INT, and (press ) TAX and EQTY. 2000 10 Stores the values for the assets, the percentage 1500 earnings on assets, the amount of debt, the percentage interest paid on the debt, the taxes paid, and the common 8 0 500 equity. The return on equity is 16%. 160 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Editing an Equation (EDIT) If you have an , the cursor stops over the first character that the Solver could not logically interpret. You can alter the current equation using the ALPHA-Edit menu: 1. Press to access the ALPHA-Edit menu. (See “Editing ALPHAbetic Text,” page 31.) You can use < (backspace) and C (clear), as well. 2. To insert letters, press and the appropriate letters. Press to bring back the editing menu. 3. Press e I to replace the previous version with the edited version. Editing an equation clears its variables. To abort an editing operation without saving any of the changes, press e. Naming an Equation Naming equations helps you identify them later. The name precedes the equation, separated by a colon. If you don’t name an equation initially, you can name it later using . Type the name just as you type the rest of the equation. The calculator knows that whatever comes before the colon is not part of the equation. The name is for your visual aid only; the calculator cannot recognize it. Names can be any length and contain any character except ＋ － x ÷ ( ) ＜ ＞ ^ ： ＝ space 12: The Equation Solver 161 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Finding an Equation in the Solver List To display an entry in the Solver list, display the SOLVE menu and move through the list using the [ and ] keys. @[ moves to and @] moves to . Shared Variables If two or more equations contain the same variable, that variable is shared among those equations. For example, suppose your Solver list of equations includes these two equations labeled RUG, which figures the cost of a carpet, and TOTAL, which figures the total cost of buying a carpet and installing it: COST is a shared variable. You can calculate a value for COST using the RUG equation, then switch to the TOTAL equation and calculate CHARGE after entering HOURS. Since the value for COST is shared, you do not need to store it again. No sharing occurs between variables outside the Solver and those within the Solver. For example, this COST variable in the Solver is not shared with the COST variable in the MU%C and MU%P menus in BUS. To transfer values between built-in variables and Solver variables, store them into storage registers. Recall them after switching menus. Remember that the value in the calculator line stays there when you switch menus. Clearing Variables You can clear the variables in a Solver equation just as you clear variables in other menus: press @c while the menu with those variables is displayed. 162 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Make sure that the menu for the variables is in the display. (The equation itself should not be in the display. If it is, press .) Pressing @c now sets NEXT; OLD, A%, B%, and C% to zero. Variables are also cleared when their equation is edited. If the SOLVE menu is displayed (rather than the SOLVE CALC menu), then pressing @c will prompt Note . Press , otherwise you will lose the variables in all the equations. (See “Deleting All Equations or Variables in the Solver,” page 164.) Deleting Variables and Equations Each equation in the Solver list uses calculator memory to store 1) itself, and 2) its variables.* Deleting a variable is quite different from clearing it: Clearing a variable sets it to zero; the variable retains its storage location in memory. This does not save memory space. Deleting a variable erases its value and its storage location. This is a way to save memory space. If a variable is shared, its value is lost to all equations that share it. The memory space for a deleted variable is re-created the next time you use that equation. * An equation that has not been verified ( pressed) does not have any variables allocated to it. Therefore, it has no variables to be cleared or deleted. 12: The Equation Solver 163 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Deleting One Equation or Its Variables (DELET) To delete an equation or its variables: 1. Display the equation. 2. Press in the SOLVE menu. 3. To delete the equation, respond to both questions: (If the entry has no variables allocated, then only the second question appears.) 4. To delete just the variables, respond to . This preserves the equation. Deleting All Equations or All Variables in the Solver (@c) To delete all the equations in the Solver, or just all the variables in all the equations: 1. Display the SOLVE menu. It doesn’t matter which equation is displayed. 2. Press @c. To delete all equations, respond to both questions: 3. To delete just the variables, respond to . This preserves all equations. Writing Equations An equation in a book looks different from an equation in the Solver. A numerator and denominator might be separated by a bar, such as 164 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 a +b +c d − e ×f Since a Solver equation appears all on one line, you must group the numerator and denominator separately by using parentheses, such as Order of Calculations. Operations occur from left to right but do: Exponentiation first. For example, is interpreted as A × B3 = C. B is raised to the 3rd power and then multiplied by A. To raise A × B to the 3rd power, write the equation as . Multiplication and division before addition and subtraction. For example, is interpreted as A + ( B/C ) = 12. To divide the sum of A + B by C, enter the equation as . Parentheses. Parentheses override the above rules of priority. When in doubt, use parentheses. It never hurts to use parentheses─even multiple parentheses. (Do not use brackets or braces.) For example, earlier (page 154) we used the equation ( A% + B % + C % ) × Old Forecast Next Forecast＝Old Forecast + , 100 which was entered into the calculator as . A B × C A + would be entered as B × C could be entered as D × E 12: The Equation Solver 165 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 A + B × C (D + 5) × E could be entered as What Can Appear in an Equation Long Equations. There is no limit on the length of an equation (or the number of variables it has) if there is enough memory to store it. An equation longer than one display line (22 characters) moves to the left and adds an ellipsis (...). To view a long equation, move the cursor using the arrow keys on the ALPHA-Edit menu. For example: looks like when it is stored. Press to view successive portions of the equation: Spaces. You can use as many spaces as you like between variables, operators, and numbers. Names of Variables. A variable’s name can be up to 10 characters long, but cannot contain the characters ＋ － x ÷ ^ ( ) ＜ ＞ ＝ ： space The first three to five characters (depending on their widths) become the variable’s menu label. Therefore, make sure no two variables in the same equation have the same first three to five characters. Do not use AND, NOT, OR, XOR, or PI as variable names because they will be interpreted as functions. Numbers (Constants). Do not put commas or other characters in numbers. For instance, type for ten thousand (not ). 166 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Parentheses. Do not use brackets or braces. Parentheses determine order, but do not imply multiplication. For example, the equation Psn ＝ Ps (1－F) would be typed into the Solver as . The × sign must be inserted between and the parenthesis. Functions and Conditional Expressions. An equation can contain any of the functions and conditional expressions given in the table on pages 168-171. Some of these functions also have typing aids. Math Operators (“Typing Aids”). All of the math operators are located either on the keyboard (/, @t, etc.) or in the MATH menu ( , , etc.). Any of these operators except % can be included in an equation. (In the Solver, is just a character.) You can call up the MATH menu from the Solver. Many of these operators look different in an equation: pressing @v produces , for example. You then supply a number or variable followed by a closing parenthesis. The list of Solver functions on pages 168-171 shows the spelling of each function. Note that you supply the number after supplying the function. You can also type these functions letter by letter using the ALPHA menu. However, it is faster to select math operators directly on the keyboard or in the MATH menu. This is called a typing aid. For instance, these two methods of placing 25! (factorial) into an equation are equivalent. Starting after : 1. Using the ALPHA Menu Keys: Display: Description: 12: The Equation Solver 167 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 ( 25 )= This calculates 25! (factorial). 2. Using a Typing Aid Keys: Display: Description: @m MATH menu labels appear. The ALPHA menu automatically returns after one MATH selection. 25 )= This also calculates 25!, and with fewer keystrokes. Solver Functions Here is a complete list of functions that you can include in Solver equations. The items inside parentheses must be replaced by specific numbers, variables, or algebraic expressions. In addition, you can use the arithmetic operators (＋, －, x, ÷ , yx), but not %. (In the Solver, is just a character, not an operator.) 168 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 12-2. Solver Functions for Equations Function ABS(x) ALOG(x) CDATE CTIME DATE(d1:n) DDAYS(d1:d2:cal) EXP(x) EXPM1(x) FACT(x) FLOW(CFLO-listname:flow#) FP(x) G(x) Description Absolute value of x. Common (base 10) antilogarithm; 10x. Current date. Current time. The date n days after (when n is positive) or before (when n is negative) date d1. The format for d1 is set in the TIME/SET menu. Number of days between dates d1 and d2. Formats for d1 and d2 are set in the TIME menu; cal designates the calendar: cal ＝ 1 for the actual calendar, which recognizes leap years. cal ＝ 2 for the 365-day calendar, which ignores leap years. cal ＝ 3 for the 360-day calendar, which uses 12, 30-day months. Natural antilogarithm; ex. ex－1. x!; factorial of a positive integer. Value of the specified cash flow. Fractional part of x. Returns (Get) the value of the variable. The variable will not appear in the SOLVE menu if it is only used in L and G functions. See L function on page 170. 12: The Equation Solver 169 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 12-2. Solver Functions for Equations (Continued) Function HMS(time) HRS(time) IDIV(x:y) IF(cond:expr1:expr2) INT(x) INV(x) IP(x) ITEM(SUM-listname:item#) L(x:expr) LN(x) LNP1(x) LOG(x) MAX(x:y) MIN(x:y) MOD(x:y) PI RND(x:y) S(variable name) SGN(x) Description Converts time in decimal hours to HH.MMSS format. Converts time in HH.MMSS format to decimal hours. Integer part of the quotient of x/y. Conditional expression: if cond is true, use expr1; if cond is false, use expr2. See page 174. Greatest integer less than or equal to x. Inverse of x; 1/x. Integer part of x. Value of the specified SUM-list item. Store the value of expr in the variable x. The variable will not appear in the SOLVE menu if it is only used in L and G functions. This is useful if you have a complex expression that uses the same sub expression multiples times for example: (1+i)^N x PV+((1–(1+i)^N)/(1–(1+i))) x PMT+FV It can be written: . Natural (base e) log of x. In (1 + x) Common (base 10) log of x. Compares x and y, and returns the larger of the two. Compares x and y, and returns the smaller of the two. Remainder of the division x/y. MOD(x,y) = x－y x INT(x/y) π ; 3.14159265359 (12 digits). Rounds x to y decimal places if 0 ≤ y ≤ 11, or rounds x to y significant digits if －12 ≤ y ≤－1. y must be an integer. Used in an IF function to test if solving for the variable named. Used to combine related equations into one Solver menu. See page 178. Sign of x (＋1 if x>0, 0 if x＝0,－1 if x<0. 170 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Table 12-2. Solver Functions for Equations (Continued) Function Σ(cfr:c1:c2:s:expr) SIZEC(CFLO-listname) SIZES(SUM-listname) SPFV(i%:n) SPPV(i%:n) SQ(x) SQRT(x) #T(CFLO-listname:flow#) TRN(x:y) USFV(i%:n) USPV(i%:n) Description Summation of the algebraic expression expr for values of the counter ctr, stepping from c1 to c2 at increments of s. See page 176. The number of the last flow in specified CFLO list. The number of items in specified SUM list. Future value of a single $1.00 payment; equivalent to (1 + i% ÷ 100)n. n is the number of compounding periods. i% is the interest rate per compounding period, expressed as a percentage. Present value of a single $1.00 payment; equivalent to 1 ÷ SPFV(i%:n). n is the number of compounding periods. i% is the interest rate per compounding period, expressed as a percentage. Square of x ; x2. Square root of x ; X . The number of times that specified cash flow occurs. Truncates x to y decimal places if 0 ≤ y ≤11, or truncates x to y significant digits if －12 ≤ y ≤－1. y must be an integer. Future value of a uniform series of $1.00 payments; equivalent to (SPFV(i%:n)－1) ÷ (i% ÷100). n is number of payments. i% is periodic interest rate, expressed as a percentage. Present value of a uniform series of $1.00 payments; equivalent to USFV(i%:n) ÷ SPFV(i%:n). n is number of payments. i% is periodic interest rate, expressed as a percentage. 12: The Equation Solver 171 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example Using a Solver Function (USPV): Calculations for a Loan with an Odd First Period. Suppose an auto purchase is financed with a $6,000 loan at 13.5% annual interest. There are 36 monthly payments starting in one month and five days. What is the payment amount? Use the following formula when the time until the first payment is more than one month but less than two months. Interest for this odd (non-integer) period is calculated by multiplying the monthly interest by the number of days and dividing by 30. The formula for this loan is: −N ANNI 1 − 1 + ANNI DAYS 1200 PV 1 + × + PMT ANNI 1200 30 1200 = 0 where: ANNI＝ the annual percentage interest rate. N＝ the number of payment periods. DAYS＝ the number of leftover, odd days (an integer from 0 through 30). PV＝ the amount of the loan. PMT＝ the monthly payment. The formula can be rearranged and simplified using USPV, the Solver function for returning the present value of a uniform series of payments: The keystrokes are: PV *( 1 + ANNI / 1200 * DAYS / 30 ) + PMT * USPV ( ANNI / 12:N )= 0 172 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: @] Displays SOLVE menu and bottom of Solver list. Displays ALPHA menu. (type in Remember that the colon is equation as located after. shown above) (Press ) I Enters equation, verifies it, and creates menu. 6000 Stores loan amount in PV. 13.5 Stores annual percent interest in ANNI. 5 Stores number of odd days in DAYS. 36 Stores number of payments in N. Calculates monthly PMT of $203.99. 12: The Equation Solver 173 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Conditional Expressions with IF Equations can include conditional expressions using the function IF. The syntax of the IF function is: IFconditional expression algebraic expression algebraic expression then or else For example, the solver accepts the equation: According to this equation, if SALES is greater than 3000, then the BONUS equals .02 × SALES; otherwise (“or else”), BONUS equals .01 × SALES. Logical Operators. Four logical operators can be used in conditional expressions: AND, OR, XOR, and NOT. Relational Operators. Six relational operators are available for conditional expressions. Operator Keys ＞ (ALPHA menu) ＜ (ALPHA menu) ＝ = ≥ = ≤ = ≠ 174 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Examples of Conditional Equations. = Means: If A is greater than 7 and is less than or equal to 15, then B＝ 2 x A ÷ 6＋C. Otherwise, B＝3 x A＋10＋C. Means: If FIRST is not equal to 0, then VALUE＝FIRST＋1 ÷ FIRST. If FIRST＝0, then VALUE＝FIRST. Means: If A or B, but not both, equals 0, then T＝W x (A + B). Otherwise, T = W x A x B. In other words, When A＝0 and B≠0, T＝W x B. When A≠0 and B＝0, T＝W x A When A＝0 and B＝0, T＝0. When A≠0 and B≠0, T＝W x A x B. Example: Nested IF Functions. An IF function can be used as the argument of another IF function. This is called nesting. Suppose a corporation uses a rating system to determine salary. Employees are rated on a scale from 1 through 3, and are given the following annual percent raise based on their rating: Rating Percent Salary Increase 1 3% 2 6% 3 10% The Solver equation to calculate an employee’s new salary is based on his or her rating and old salary. What would be the new annual salary for an employee with a rating of 2 who currently earns $27,500 annually? 12: The Equation Solver 175 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Press , then enter the equation: To do the calculation: Keys: Display: Description: I Stores, verifies, and creates menu labels for the equation. 27500 Stores old salary. 2 Stores rating. Calculates new salary. The Summation Function (∑) The Σ function does summation calculations in an equation: counter variable starting value ending value step size algebraic expression The counter variable takes on a series of values, beginning with the starting value, and incrementing according to the step size, until it passes the ending value. For each value of the counter, the algebraic expression is evaluated, and the value is added to the previous value. The Σ function returns the final summation. For example, when the equation: is solved for SERIES, the counter I runs from 1 through 6 in steps of one─ that is, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. For each value I, the expression is 176 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 calculated and added to the sum. Thus the stored value of X is used to calculate X + 2X2 + 3X3 + 4X4 + 5X5 + 6X6. The following equation uses a variable as the ending value, 0 as the beginning value, and a step size of 2. If 8 is stored in LAST, I takes on values of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Then the stored value of X will calculate 2X2 + 4X4 + 6X6 + 8X8. Accessing CFLO and SUM Lists from the Solver You can use a Solver equation to perform calculations other than those in the CFLO and SUM menus using data stored in CFLO and SUM lists. The following Solver functions gain access to these lists. CFLO-listname returns the number of the last flow in the specified CFLO list. For example, if the last flow in the list INV were , then would equal 6.00. CFLO-listname flow number returns the value of the specified flow. CFLO-listname flow number returns the number of times the specified flow occurs. SUM-listname returns the number of items in the specified SUM list. SUM-listname item number returns the value of the specified item. Summation of List Data. The Σ function can be used to sum calculations done with numbers in lists. For example, the following equation calculates Σxi2yi2 for values stored in two SUM lists named XVAR and YVAR, which must have the same number of items: 12: The Equation Solver 177 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 “Chi-Squared Statistics” in chapter 14 illustrates another use of the Σ function with SUM lists. Creating Menus for Multiple Equations (S Function) The S (solving for) function is used in conjunction with the IF function to group related equations together and to specify the criteria for choosing one of them to solve. S(variable name) The advantage over two separate equations is that the single equation gives you a single menu with all possible variables. That way, if you are working with two different but related problems, you can keep the same Solver menu labels in the display all the time─you don’t have to switch equations. For example, consider these two equations for conversions: and The following, rearranged single equation can do either conversion: This means: if you are solving for either KG or LB, then use KG × 2.21－LB＝0. Otherwise (that is, if you are solving for M or FT), use M × 3.28－FT = 0. The two conversion equations are rewritten so that all the variables appear on one side of each equation, and the other side is set equal to zero. The S function appears as part of the conditional expression of the IF function. You can leave out the “＝0” and it will be understood that the whole equation is set equal to zero. Example: Unit Conversions. Use the above equation to convert between kilograms and pounds and between meters and feet. Press then enter the equation: 178 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Press I to store it, then to verify it and create its menu: 1. Convert 225 pounds to kilograms. Result is . Press 225 2. How many feet equal 100 meters? Press 100 Result is Note that you do not have to clear variables between steps 1 and 2. The S function considers only those values in the part of the equation that it is solving. How the Solver Works The Solver has two ways of finding an answer. First, it tries to find a direct solution by rearranging the equation and then solving for the variable. If the Solver finds a direct solution, the calculator displays the result. If the Solver is unable to find a direct solution, it tries to find the answer indirectly by iteration. It estimates a set of answers, sees how close they are to a solution, and then makes another set of estimates. The calculator displays the Solver’s current estimates as the Solver searches for an answer. You should keep in mind that there might be more than one solution to an equation, and that it might be necessary for you to enter guesses to influence which solution the Solver finds. If the displayed estimates don’t appear to be proceeding towards a number you judge to be a reasonable answer, you can stop this iterative process, enter your own guesses, and restart the search. (See “Halting and Restarting the Iterative Search” and “Entering Guesses,” below.) 12: The Equation Solver 179 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The process of finding a solution iteratively is very complex. There are four possible outcomes. Refer to “Solver Calculations” in appendix B for additional descriptions of these outcomes. Case 1: The calculator displays a result. It is very likely that this is a solution to the equation. To check how good this result is, you can repeat the calculation by pressing the menu key for the variable you solved for. If the two sides of the equation have not been calculated to be exactly equal, the calculator displays a message with the values for the left and right sides of the equation. Read “Solver Calculations” in appendix B for an explanation of the meaning of this display. Case 2: The calculator displays a message with the calculated, unequal values of the left and right sides of the equation. The Solver has found a possible solution, but you must interpret its validity. To see the questionable solution, press < or C. Refer to “Solver Calculations” in appendix B for more information. Case 3: The calculator displays . The Solver cannot begin the search with the current guesses. Press < or C to view the starting guesses. To supply new guesses, see “Entering Guesses,” below. Case 4: The calculator displays . Check to see if your equation and stored values are correct. If the equation is correct, you might be able to find a solution by entering very good guesses. Halting and Restarting the Iterative Search When the Solver is iteratively searching for a solution (in other words, when the Solver is displaying sets of estimates), you can halt the calculation by pressing any key except @. The calculator displays the message . To see the best estimate the Solver has found so far, press C or <. You can restart the search from where it left off by pressing the menu key for the variable you are solving for. Or, you can restart the search using your own guesses (see “Entering Guesses,” below). 180 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Entering Guesses Entering your own guesses serves two purposes. First, it can save time by telling the Solver where to start searching. Second, if more than one solution exists, entering guesses may lead the Solver to a solution in a specified range. The closer your guesses are to the desired solution, the better chance the Solver has of finding it. You can enter guesses at these times: Before beginning the calculation, after you’ve stored a value for every variable except the unknown variable. If you enter one guess, the Solver generates a second guess. After you’ve halted the iterative search. After the Solver has returned an answer, and you wish to begin searching for another answer. You can enter one or two guesses. If you enter one guess, the Solver makes a second guess. If you enter two guesses, the Solver uses those two guesses to start searching for a solution. The Solver works most efficiently when the answer is between your two guesses. For example, if you know the answer is between 5 and 12, you should enter 5 and 12 as the starting guesses. To enter one guess, key in the value and press the menu key twice. For example, 4.5 enters 4.5 as a guess for a Solver variable named A and starts the calculation. To enter two guesses, key in the first guess and press the menu key. Then key in the second guess and press the menu key twice. For example, 0 100 causes the Solver to search for A using 0 and 100. Example: Using Guesses to Find a Solution Iteratively. One equation for calculating the profit from a manufacturing operation is: 12: The Equation Solver 181 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Profit ＝ (Price × Quantity) － (Variable costs × Quantity) － Fixed Costs The C-Sharp Piano Corporation sells pianos for $6,000. Variable costs are $4,100; fixed costs per year are $112,000. How many pianos must C-Sharp sell this year in order to earn a profit of $130,000? (In past years, C-Sharp has had to sell between 100 and 200 pianos to make an acceptable profit. You can use this information as initial guesses.) Press , then enter the equation: Keys: Display: Description: I Stores, verifies, and creates labels for the equation. 6000 Stores price. 4100 Stores variable cost, 112000 fixed cost, and profit. 130000 The following steps enter guesses for QTY. If the Solver must search iteratively to solve for QTY, it will begin by using the estimates 100 and 200. Keys: Display: Description: 100 The first guess for QTY. 200 The second guess for QTY. 182 12: The Equation Solver File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Solves for QTY iteratively. 12: The Equation Solver 183 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 13 Printing The calculator can print information using the hp 82240 Infrared Printer, which accepts the infrared signal from the printer port. This chapter describes information you can print. Operation of the printer is covered in the printer owner’s manual.* Port The print annunciator ( )appears in the display whenever the calculator sends information through its printer port. Because communication goes only one way—from calculator to printer—the calculator cannot determine whether the printer is receiving information. If a printing operation involves many lines of information, the calculator slows its transmission rate to allow the printer time to print. To preserve battery power, the calculator will not transmit data to the ) is on. If a low-power printer when the low-power annunciator ( condition occurs after you’ve started a printing operation, printing stops and the calculator displays the message . * Since the hp-17bII+ cannot send control characters to the printer, portions of the printer’s manual pertaining to control codes and graphics characters do not apply. 184 13: Printing File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The Printer’s Power Source The speed of the printer depends on whether it is using its optional ac adapter. To optimize printing performance, set the printing speed mode in the calculator appropriately. To view or change the printing speed mode: 1. Press @>. 2. Press to change and display the new mode. If necessary, press again to set the desired mode: 3. Press e. For long printing operations, printing will be faster using the printer’s ac adapter and the calculator’s appropriate printing speed mode. When the printer is powered by batteries alone, be sure to change the mode to so that the calculator will not transmit data too rapidly. Double-Space Printing Press press @> to turn double-space printing on or off. Then e. Printing the Display(P) To print whatever is in the calculator line, press P. This prints numbers, expressions, single Solver equations, and messages. Menus cannot be printed. 13: Printing 185 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Printing Other Information (@p) PRINTER LIST STK REGS TIME MSG TRACE The PRINTER menu provides the ability to print most of the information you’ve stored, including the contents of variables, lists, appointments, the history stack, registers, and the current date and time. You can also transmit descriptive notes to label the output. (To print amortization schedules, see “Printing an Amortization Table,” page 82.) From within any menu you can press @p to bring up the PRINTER menu. This table summarizes those printing activities. Table 13-1. The PRINTER Menu Labels Menu Label Description Prints data stored or calculated in the current menu. See “Printing Variables and Lists,” below. Prints the contents of the history stack. Switches between Trace On and Trace Off modes. See “Trace Printing,” page 188. Prints the contents of registers 0 through 9. Prints the current date and time. Displays the ALPHA menu for typing a message up to 22 characters long. See page 188. Upon completion, all of these functions except return the previous menu to the display. Printing Variables, Lists, and Appointments (LIST) You can list specific sets of information stored in menus by pressing @p while the relevant menu labels are displayed. 186 13: Printing File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Printing the Values Stored in Variables. You can print a listing giving the values of all variables whose menu labels are displayed. For example, if the calculator is in the FIN TVM menu, it displays the labels . Pressing @p now produces a print-out like this: Printing Number Lists. To print out the contents of a particular SUM or CFLO list, that list must be the current list. Pressing @p while a SUM list named SALES is the current list produces labeled output like this: Printing Solver Equations. To print one or all Solver equations, display the main SOLVE menu (press ). To print just the current equation, press P. To print out the entire list of equations, press @p . 13: Printing 187 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Printing Appointments. To print all stored appointments, display the menu (press then press @p . This produces a listing like this for each appointment: Menus Not Associated with Stored Data. Remember that many menu labels do not represent data, but rather activities, such as , , and . They contain no information for printing. The calculator beeps if there is nothing to print when you press @p . Printing Descriptive Messages (MSG) You can include descriptive messages with your printed output by using . For example, suppose you wanted to print a number that represents the balance for September. You could start the output with the label “SEPTEMBER BALANCE”. 1. Press @p, then . This brings up the ALPHA menu. 2. Type (and edit) the label or message. 3. Press I to print out the label or message. Now print out the number itself (if it’s in the calculator line, press P). Trace Printing (TRACE) Trace printing produces a record of all the keys you’ve pressed and of calculated results. When tracing is off, use P and @p to print what you want. When tracing is on, the calculator uses more power and operates more slowly. To switch trace printing on and off: 1. Press @p. 188 13: Printing File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 2. Press to change the setting. A message informs you that tracing is on or off. If necessary, press again to display the desired message. 3. Press e. Example: Trace-Printing an Arithmetic Calculation. Produce a record of the keystrokes you use to do the following calculation and store the result in the TVM variable PMT. 1 /12× 4,800 + 125 Press @p to set . If you see , press again. Keys: Print-out: e 12 @t v* v4800 + v125 = @p e How to Interrupt the Printer Pressing a calculator key during a printing operation will interrupt transmission, but not immediately stop the printing. To stop the printer immediately, turn it off. 13: Printing 189 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 14 Additional Examples Loans Simple Annual Interest See appendix F for RPN keystrokes for this example. Example: Simple Interest at an Annual Rate. Your good friend needs a loan to start her latest enterprise and has requested that you lend her $450 for 60 days. You lend her the money at 7% simple annual interest, to be calculated on a 365-day basis. How much interest will she owe you in 60 days, and what is the total amount owed? The interest is: (7% of $450) × v Keys: 450 *7% * 60 / 365 + 450 = 60 days 365 days Display: Description: Annual interest. Actual interest for 60 days. Add principal to get total debt A Solver Equation for Simple Annual Interest: DEBT = the total owed at the end of the loan period. LOAN = the original amount (principal) lent. I% = the annual interest rate as a percent. DAYS = the number of days in the loan. 190 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 29. If you know the dates for the course of the loan, rather than the number of days, use this for an actual-calendar basis: or use this for a 360-day basis: DATE1 = the date the loan commences. DATE2 = the date the loan ends. Yield of a Discounted (or Premium) Mortgage The annual yield of a mortgage bought at a discount or premium can be calculated given the original mortgage amount (PV), interest rate (I%YR), periodic payment (PMT), balloon payment amount (if any) (FV), and the price paid for the mortgage (new PV). Remember the cash-flow sign convention: money paid out is negative, money received is positive. Example: Discounted Mortgage. An investor wishes to purchase a $100,000 mortgage taken out at 9% for 20 years. Since the mortgage was issued, 42 monthly payments have been made. The loan is to be paid in full (a balloon payment) at the end of its fifth year. What is the yield if the purchase price of the mortgage is $79,000? 1. Since the payment amount (PMT) is not given, calculate it first. To do this, first assume 20 years’ amortization on the original mortgage with no balloon payment (so N = 20 × 12, FV = 0, PV =－100,000, and I%YR = 9). 2. Since the balloon amount is not given, calculate it (FV) next. Use PMT from step 1, but change N to 5 years (N = 5 × 12). 14: Additional Examples 191 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 3. Finally enter current values for N (less number of payment periods already passed, or 5 × 12－42) and PV (proposed purchase price, $79,000); then calculate I%YR for the annual yield. Step 1: Calculate PMT. Make sure FV = 0. Keys: Display: Description: Selects menu; sets 12 payments per year and @c e 20 @ End mode. Figures and stores total number of payments for a full 20-year loan with monthly payments. 9 Stores interest rate and 100000 amount of original loan. (Money paid out is & negative.) 0 Sets FV to zero. Calculates monthly payment received. Step 2: Enter the new value for N given a balloon in 5 years, then find FV, the amount of the balloon. Keys: 5 @ Display: Description: Stores number of payments for 5 years. Calculates balloon due in 5 years. 192 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Step 3: Enter actual, current values for N and PV; then find new I%YR for discounted mortgage with balloon. Keys: Display: Description: R - 42 Stores number of payments remaining in v 79000 5-year loan. & Stores proposed, discounted purchase price (new present value). Calculates percent annual yield. Annual Percentage Rate for a Loan with Fees See appendix F for RPN keystrokes for the next two examples. The annual percentage rate, APR, incorporates fees usually charged when a mortgage is issued, which effectively raises the interest rate. The actual amount received (the PV) by the borrower is reduced, while the periodic payments remain the same. The APR can be calculated given the term of the mortgage (N periods), the annual interest rate (I%YR), the mortgage amount (new PV), and the basis of the fee charged (how the fee is calculated). Remember the cash-flow sign convention: money paid out is negative, money received is positive. Example: APR for a Loan with Fees. A borrower is charged two points for the issuance of a mortgage. (One point is equal to 1% of the mortgage amount.) If the mortgage amount is $60,000 for 30 years and the interest rate is 11½% annually with monthly payments, what APR is the borrower paying? 14: Additional Examples 193 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 1. Since the payment amount is not given, calculate it (PMT) first. Use the given mortgage amount (PV = $60,000) and interest rate (I%YR = 111/2%). 2. To find the APR (the new I%YR), use the PMT calculated in step 1 and adjust the mortgage amount to reflect the points paid (PV = $60,000 － 2%). All other values remain the same (term is 30 years; no future value). Keys: Display: Description: If necessary, sets 12 payments per year and End mode. @c e 30 @ Figures and stores number of payments. 11.5 Stores interest rate and 60000 amount of loan. 0 No balloon payment, so future value is zero. Borrower’s monthly payment. R -2% v Stores actual amount of money received by borrower into PV. Calculates APR. Example: Loan from the Lender’s Point of View. A $1,000,000, 10-year, 12% (annual interest) interest-only loan has an origination fee of 3 points. What is the yield to the lender? Assume that monthly payments of interest are made. (Before figuring the yield, you must 194 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 calculate the monthly PMT = (loan x 12%) ÷ 12 mos.) When calculating the I%YR, the FV (a balloon payment) is the entire loan amount, or $1,000,000, while the PV is the loan amount minus the points. Keys: Display: Description: If necessary, sets 12 payments per year and @c e 10 @ End mode. Stores total number of payments. * v1000000 12 v %/ 12 Calculates annual interest on $1,000,000 ... ...and calculates, then stores monthly payment. 1000000 Stores entire loan amount as balloon payment. Calculates, then stores amount borrowed (total — v- 3 %= & points). Calculates APR—the yield to lender. Loan with an Odd (Partial) First Period The TVM menu deals with financial transactions in which each payment period is the same length. However, situations exist in which the first payment period is not the same length as the remaining periods. This first period is sometimes called an odd or partial first period. The following Solver equation calculates N, I%, PV, PMT, or FV for transactions involving an odd first period, using simple interest for the odd period. The formula is valid for 0 to 59 days from inception to 14: Additional Examples 195 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 first payment, and a 30-day month is assumed.* A Solver Equation for Odd-Period Calculations: (For the character, press .) PV = the loan amount. I% = the periodic interest rate. DAYS = the actual number of days until the first payment is made. PMT = the periodic payment. N = the total number of payment periods. FV = the balloon payment. A balloon payment occurs at the end of the last (Nth) period and is in addition to any periodic payment. The following examples assume that you have entered the equation named ODD, above, into the Solver. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 29. Example: Loan with an Odd First Period. A 36-month loan for $4,500 has an annual interest rate of 15%. If the first payment is made in 46 days, what is the monthly payment amount? Select equation ODD in the Solver. Keys: Display: Description: Creates menu. 36 36 payment periods. 4500 Stores loan amount. Stores periodic, monthly v15 / 12 * You do not need to specify Begin or End mode. If the number of days until the first payment is less than 30, Begin mode is assumed. If the number of days until the first payment is between 30 and 59, inclusive, End mode is assumed. 196 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 interest rate. 46 Stores days until first payment. 0 No balloon payment. Calculates payment. Example: Loan with an Odd First Period Plus Balloon. A $10,000 loan has 24 monthly payments of $400, plus a balloon payment of $3,000 at the end of the 24th month. If the payments begin in 8 days, what annual interest rate is being charged? Select equation ODD. Keys: Display: Description: Creates menu. 10000 Stores known values. 24 & 3000 & 400 8 Calculates periodic (monthly) interest rate. v * 12 = Annual interest rate. Canadian Mortgages In Canadian mortgages, the compounding and payment periods are not the same. Interest is compounded semi-annually while payments are made monthly. To use the TVM menu in the hp 17bII+, you need to calculate a Canadian mortgage factor to store as I%YR. 1. Set End mode and store 12 . 14: Additional Examples 197 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 2. Store 0 , 6 , and 200 . 3. Add 200 to the annual interest rate, make the number negative, and store it in . 4. Press to calculate the Canadian mortgage factor. 5. Continue the problem by supplying the other mortgage values and solving for the unknown item. Do not change I%YR from step 4. Example: Canadian Mortgage. What is the monthly payment required to fully amortize a 30-year, $30,000 Canadian mortgage if the interest rate is 12%? Keys: Display: Description: @c Displays TVM menu; sets 12 payments per year e 0 6 200 12 =& v+ with End mode. Calculates I%YR for Canadian mortgage factor. 30 @ Stores other values. 30000 0 Monthly payment. A Solver Equation for Canadian Mortgages: 198 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 (For the operator press @u.) PV = loan amount, or present value. PMT = monthly payment amount. I%YR = annual (Canadian) interest rate as a percent. N = total number of payment periods for the life of the loan. FV = remaining balance, or future value. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 29. Advance Payments (Leasing) Occasionally payments are made in advance, such as in leasing. Leasing agreements sometimes call for the extra payments to be made when the transaction is closed. A residual value (salvage value) can also exist at the end of the normal term. The following equation calculates the monthly payment and the annual yield when one or more payments are made in advance. It can be modified to accommodate periods other than monthly by changing the number 12 to the appropriate number of payment periods per year. Remember the cash-flow sign convention: money paid out is negative, money received is positive. A Solver Equation for Advance Payments: (For the character press .) PMT = the monthly payment amount. PV = the value of the equipment. FV = the residual value. 14: Additional Examples 199 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 I%YR = the annual interest rate as a percent. N = the total number of payments. #ADV = the number of advance payments. The following example assumes that you have entered the equation ADV, above, into the Solver. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 29. Example: Leasing with Advance Payments. Equipment worth $750 is leased to you for 12 months. The equipment is assumed to have no salvage value at the end of the lease. You agree to make three payments at the time of closing. What is the monthly payment if the annual interest rate is 10%? Select the ADV equation in the Solver. Keys: Display: Description: 750 12 0 Creates menu. Stores known values. 3 10 Calculates payment. Savings Value of a Fund with Regular Withdrawals Example: A Fund with Regular Withdrawals. What are the balances after 1, 10, and 20 years of a fund that starts at $750,000, has $20,000 withdrawn at the beginning of each quarter, and earns 10% annual interest compounded monthly? 200 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 1. Because the compounding periods and the withdrawal periods are not coincident, you must first convert the nominal interest rate to one in terms of the withdrawal periods. You can do this using the ICNV menu, as explained on page 87, “Compounding Periods Different from Payment Periods.” 2. The rest of the calculation is a straightforward TVM problem. Remember that money deposited is paid out and therefore negative; money withdrawn is received and therefore positive. Step 1: Find the adjusted nominal interest rate. Keys: Display: Description: Displays periodic interest-rate conversion menu. Stores number of 12 compounding periods. 10 Stores nominal interest rate. Calculates effective interest rate. 4 Stores number of withdrawal periods. Calculates adjusted nominal interest rate. Step 2: Calculate the future values. Keys: Display: Description: ee Switches to TVM menu. 14: Additional Examples 201 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 < Clears message to show NOM% value still in calculator line. s Stores adjusted nominal interest rate in I%YR. 4 e Sets 4 payments (withdrawals) per year and Begin mode. Stores present (initial) value of fund. 20000 Stores withdrawal 750000 & amount. 4 Stores number of withdrawals in 1 year. Value of fund at end of year 1. 40 Stores number of withdrawals over 10 years. Calculates value of fund at end of year 10. 20 @ Stores number of withdrawals after 20 years. Calculates value of fund at end of year 20. Deposits Needed for a Child’s College Account See appendix F for RPN keystrokes for this example. 202 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Suppose you want to start saving now to accommodate a future series of cash outflows. An example of this is saving money for college. To determine how much you need to save each period, you must know when you’ll need the money, how much you’ll need, and at what interest rate you can invest your deposits. Use a CFLO list to calculate the net uniform series (NUS) of the future withdrawals: 1. Store zero for all cash flows except the withdrawals. For those cash flows, store the amounts you will need to withdraw (since this is cash received, these cash flows will be positive). 2. Store the periodic interest rate in I% and calculate NUS. The NUS equals the amount of the monthly deposit you will need to make. You can also calculate the equivalent present value of all the monthly deposits combined by calculating the net present value, NPV. Example: Savings for College. Your daughter will be going to college in 12 years and you are starting a fund for her education. She will need $15,000 at the beginning of each year for four years. The fund earns 9% annually, compounded monthly, and you plan to make monthly deposits, starting at the end of the current month. How much should you deposit each month to meet her educational expenses? The cash-flow diagram looks like this: 14: Additional Examples 203 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 $0 144 $0 $0 156 $15,000 1 2 $0 $15,000 0 $0 $15,000 $15,000 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 168 180 Figure 14-1. Flow of Withdrawals 9.00 0 1 2 3 178 179 180 Figure 14-2. Flow of Deposits Keys: Display: Description: Displays current cash-flow list and CFLO menu keys. @c or Clears current list or gets a new one. 204 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Step 1: Set up a CFLO list. 0 I Sets initial cash flow, FLOW(0), to zero. 0 I Stores zero in FLOW(1) and prompts for the number of times it occurs. 12 12 * vI -1 Stores 143 (for 11 years, 11 months) in #TIMES(1) for FLOW(1). 15000 I Stores amount of first withdrawal, at end of 12th year. I 0I Stores cash flows of zero... 11 I 15000 I I 0I 11 I 15000 I I 0I 11 I 15000 I I e ...for the next 11 months. Stores second withdrawal, for sophomore year. Stores cash flows of zero for the next 11 months. Stores third withdrawal, for junior year. Stores cash flows of zero for the next 11 months. Stores fourth withdrawal, for senior year. Done entering cash flows; gets CALC menu. 14: Additional Examples 205 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Step 2: Calculate NUS for the monthly deposit. Keys: / 12 v9 Display: Description: Figures the periodic (monthly) interest rate and stores it in I%. Amount of monthly deposit needed to meet planned withdrawals. Calculates the net present value of the monthly deposits, which is the same as the NPV of the four future withdrawals. Value of a Tax-Free Account See appendix F for RPN keystrokes for this example. You can use the TVM menu to calculate the future value of a tax-free or tax-deferred account, such as an IRA or Keogh account. Remember that for calculations with cash flows, money paid out is negative and money received is positive. (Current tax law and your current income will determine whether just interest or also principal are tax-free, and for how long. You can solve for either case.) N = the number of payments until retirement. I%YR = the annual dividend rate. PV = the present value of the retirement account. PMT = the amount of your deposit. (It must be constant for the duration of the account.) FV = the future value of the retirement account. The purchasing power of that future value depends on the inflation rate and the duration of the account. 206 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example: Tax-Free Account. Consider opening an IRA account with a dividend rate of 8.175%. 1) If you invest $2,000 at the beginning of each year for 35 years, how much will you have at retirement? 2) How much will you have paid into the IRA? 3) How much interest will you have earned? 4) If your post-retirement tax rate is 15%, what is the after-tax future value of the account? Assume only the interest will be taxed. (Assume the principal was taxed before deposit.) 5) What is the purchasing power of that amount, in today’s dollars, assuming an 8% annual inflation rate? Keys: Display: Description: 1 e Sets 1 payment per year and Begin mode. 35 Stores number of payment periods until retirement (1 × 35). 8.175 Stores dividend rate. 0 Present value of account (before first payment). 2000 Annual payment (deposit). Calculates amount in & account at retirement. R *R = v v R v+ = v Calculates total amount paid into IRA by retirement. Calculates interest you will earn. 14: Additional Examples 207 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 v* 15 % = +R v& v = Taxes at 15% of interest. Subtracts taxes from total FV to calculate after-tax FV. Stores after-tax future value in FV. 8 Calculates present-value 0 purchasing power of the above after-tax FV at 8% inflation rate. Value of a Taxable Retirement Account See appendix F for RPN keystrokes for this example. This problem uses the TVM menu to calculate the future value of a taxable retirement account that receives regular, annual payments beginning today (Begin mode). The annual tax on the interest is paid out of the account. (Assume the deposits have been taxed already.) N = the number of years until retirement. I%YR = the annual interest rate diminished by the tax rate: interest rate × (1－tax rate). PV = the current amount in the retirement account. PMT = the amount of the annual payment. FV = the future value of the retirement account. Example: Taxable Retirement Account. If you invest $3,000 each year for 35 years, with dividends taxed as ordinary income, how much will you have in the account at retirement? Assume an annual dividend rate of 8.175% and a tax rate of 28%, and that payments begin today. What will be the purchasing power of that amount in today’s dollars, assuming 8% annual inflation? 208 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. Sets 1 payment per year 1 e and Begin mode. 35 Stores years until retirement. - 28 % v8.175 v 0 3000 Calculates and stores interest rate diminished by tax rate. Stores no present value. & Stores annual payment. Calculates future value. 8 Calculates present-value 0 purchasing power of the above FV at 8% inflation. Modified Internal Rate of Return When there is more than one sign change (positive to negative or negative to positive) in a series of cash flows, there is a potential for more than one IRR%. For example, the cash-flow sequence in the following example has three sign changes and hence up to three potential internal rates of return. (This particular example has three positive real answers: 1.86, 14.35, and 29.02% monthly.) The Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) procedure is an alternative that can be used when your cash-flow situation has multiple sign changes. The procedure eliminates the sign change problem by utilizing reinvestment and borrowing rates that you specify. Negative cash flows are discounted at a safe rate that reflects the return on an investment in 14: Additional Examples 209 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 a liquid account. The figure generally used is a short-term security (T-bill) or bank passbook rate. Positive cash flows are reinvested at a reinvestment rate that reflects the return on an investment of comparable risk. An average return rate on recent market investments might be used. 1. In the CFLO menu, calculate the present value of the negative cash flows (NPV) at the safe rate and store the result in register 0. Enter zero for any cash flow that is positive. 2. Calculate the future value of the positive cash flows (NFV) at the reinvestment rate and store the result in register 1. Enter zero for any cash flow that is negative. 3. In the TVM menu, store the total number of periods in N, the NPV result in PV, and the NFV result in FV. 4. Press to calculate the periodic interest rate. This is the modified internal rate of return, MIRR. Example: Modified IRR. An investor has an investment opportunity with the following cash flows: Group No. of Months (FLOW no.) (#TIMES) Cash Flow, $ 0 1 －180,000 1 5 100,000 2 5 －100,000 3 9 0 4 1 200,000 Calculate the MIRR using a safe rate of 8% and a reinvestment (risk) rate of 13%. Keys: Display: Description: Displays current cash-flow list. @c Clears current list or gets a 210 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 or 180000 & Stores initial cash flow, I 0I FLOW(0). Stores FLOW(1) as zero new one. since the flow amount is positive. 5I Stores 5 for #TIMES(1). 100000 & Stores FLOW(2). I 5I Stores FLOW(2) 5 times. You can skip FLOW(3) and FLOW(4) because they are equal to zero for this part. e / 12 v8 Stores monthly safe interest rate. Calculates NPV of negative cash flows. s0 e @c 0I Stores NPV in register 0. Returns to CFLO menu. Clears list. Stores zero as FLOW(0). (Skip negative flows; store positive flows.) 100000 I 5I Stores FLOW(1) 5 times. 0I Stores zero for FLOW(2), 14: Additional Examples 211 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 5I 5 times. 0I 9I Stores zero for FLOW(3), 9 times. 200000 I I e Stores FLOW(4), 1 time. / 12 v13 Stores monthly reinvestment rate. Calculates NFV of positive cash flows. s1 @A @c e Stores NFV in register 1. Switches to TVM menu; sets 12 periods per year with End mode, if necessary. 20 Stores total number of investment periods. R0 Recalls present value of negative cash flows and stores in PV. R1 Recalls future value of positive cash flows and stores in FV. 0 Stores zero in PMT (no payments). Calculates annual MIRR. 212 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Price of an Insurance Policy The price of an insurance policy, other than term life insurance, is rarely apparent at first glance. The price should include not only the premium payments, but also the interest that could have been earned on the cash value or savings portion of the policy. The following equation calculates the price per $1,000 of protection for one policy year and the interest rate earned on the savings portion of the policy. To calculate the price, assume some value for interest—for example, the interest rate you could earn on a one-year savings certificate after tax. Similarly, to calculate interest, assume a price per $1,000 per year for alternative insurance; for example, a low-cost term policy of the one-year renewable type. Even complex policies like minimum-deposit plans can be analyzed with this procedure. Use policy surrender values for cash values and the actual (after-tax) amounts for payments (premiums) and dividends. A Solver Equation for Insurance Price: INS = the price per $1,000 of protection in one policy year. PREM = the annual premium amount. LVAL = the value of the policy at the end of last year. I% = the rate of return, as a percent, on a savings account. VAL = the value of the policy at the end of the current year. DIV = the dollar value of the dividend for one year. FACE = the face value of the policy for one year. The following example assumes that you have entered the above equation into the Solver. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 30. 14: Additional Examples 213 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Example: Insurance Policy. You are evaluating your $50,000 insurance policy. The premium of $1,010 is due at the beginning of the year, and a dividend of $165 is received at the end of the policy year. The cash value of the policy is $3,302 at the beginning of the year; it will grow to $4,104 by the end of the year. You can earn 6% on a savings account. What is the annual price per $1,000 protection? Select the correct equation in the Solver. Keys: Display: Description: Creates menu. 1010 Stores annual premium. 3302 Stores value of policy at end of last year. 6 Stores interest rate you could get elsewhere. 4104 Stores value of policy at end of this year. 165 50000 Stores annual dividend. Stores face value of policy. Your protection cost $6.57 per $1,000 face (protection) value. Insurance protection could be purchased for $3 per $1,000 face value. Calculate the rate of return on your savings. Keys: Display: Description: 3 Stores price of alternate insurance. Calculates rate of return. 214 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Reference: Joseph M. Belth, Life Insurance—A Consumer’s Handbook, Indiana University Press, 1973, p. 234. Bonds Example: Yield to Maturity and Yield to Call. On March 16, 2003 you consider the purchase of a $1,000 bond that was issued on January 1, 2001. It has a 10.5% semiannual coupon using a 30/360 calendar, and matures on January 1, 2031. The bond is callable on January 1, 2006 at 110 (that is, $1,100). The bond is now selling at 115.174 (that is, $1,151.74). Determine both the yield to maturity and the yield to call for this bond. First, calculate the yield to maturity: Keys: Display: Description: Displays BOND menu. e Sets semiannual bond on 30/360 calendar. @c Clears variables; sets CALL to 100. 3.162003 Stores today as purchase date. 1.012031 Stores maturity date. 10.5 Stores coupon rate. Stores price. Displays 115.174 only two decimal places, but stores all three. Calculates yield to maturity. 14: Additional Examples 215 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Second, calculate the yield to call: Keys: Display: Description: Returns to first BOND menu. 1.012006 to the call date. 110 Stores call value. Calculates a yield to Changes maturity date call. Discounted Notes A note is a written agreement to pay to the buyer of the note a sum of money plus interest. Notes do not have periodic coupons, since all interest is paid at maturity. A discounted note is a note that is purchased below its face value. The following equations find the price or yield of a discounted note. The calendar basis is actual/360. Solver Equations for Discounted Notes: To find the price given the discount rate: To find the yield given the price (or to find the price given the yield): PRICE = the purchase price per $100 face value. YIELD = the yield as an annual percentage. RV = the redemption value per $100. DISC = the discount rate as a percent. SETT = the settlement date (in current date format). MAT = the maturity date (in current date format). 216 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The following example assumes that you have entered the NOTE equations into the Solver. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 30. Example:Price and Yield of a Discounted Note. What are the price and yield of the following U.S. Treasury Bill: settlement date October 14, 2003; maturity date March 17, 2004; discount rate 8.7%? (Assume month/day/year format.) Select the NOTE:PRICE equation in the Solver. Keys: Display: Description: Creates menu. 10.142003 Stores known values. 3.172004 8.7 100 Calculates price. e] Displays NOTE:YIELD equation, then its menu. Calculates yield. Statistics Moving Average Moving averages are often useful in predicting trends in data taken over a period of time. In moving-average calculations, a specified number of points is averaged. Each time a new point is acquired, the oldest point is discarded. Thus, the same number of points is used in each calculation. 14: Additional Examples 217 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 A Solver Equation for Moving Averages: name N = the number of values averaged in each calculation. LAST = the item number of the most recent value to be averaged. name = the name of the SUM list whose data will be averaged. When you create and name the SUM list, make sure its name matches the name in the Solver equation. The following example assumes that you have entered the equation MAVG into the Solver, using VOL for the SUM list’s name. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 30. Example: A Moving Average in Manufacturing. Calculate a threemonth moving average for the number of units manufactured during the first half of the year. Manufacturing volumes are: January 4400 February March 5360 2900 April 3670 May 4040 June 3200 Keys: Display: Description: Displays SUM menu and current list. @c Clears current list or or gets a new one. 4400 Enters data. I 5360 I 2900 I 3670 I 218 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 4040 I 3200 I e VOL I e (use ] and [ Names the list VOL. Displays the MAVG equation. Make sure if necessary) name is VOL. Displays menu. 3 Stores number of points. 3 4 5 6 Calculates average for months 1, 2, and 3. Calculates average for months 2, 3, and 4. Calculates average for months 3, 4, and 5. Calculates average for months 4, 5, and 6. Chi-Squared ( χ2 ) Statistics The χ2 statistic is a measure of the goodness of fit between data and an assumed distribution.* It is used to test whether a set of observed frequencies differs from a set of expected frequencies sufficiently to reject the hypothesis under which the expected frequencies were obtained. * The statistic can be assumed to be χ2 distributed with n–1 degrees of freedom if n or some of the Ei values are large. 14: Additional Examples 219 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 In other words, it tests whether discrepancies between the observed frequencies (Oi) and the expected frequencies (Ei) are significant, or whether they might reasonably result from chance. The equation is: n (Oi − E i )2 i =1 Ei χ2 = ∑ If there is a close agreement between the observed and expected frequencies, χ2 will be small. If the agreement is poor, χ2 will be large. Solver Equations for χ2 Calculations: If the expected value is a constant: name1 name1 If the expected values vary: name1 name1 name2 name2 (To enter the Σ character, press .) CHI2 = the final χ2 value for your data. name1 = the name of the SUM list that contains the observed values. name2 = the name of the SUM list that contains the expected values. EXP = the expected value when it is a constant. When you create and name the SUM list(s), make sure the name(s) match name1 (and name2, if applicable) in the Solver equation. To solve the equation, press message ). once or twice (until you see the The following example assumes that you have entered the CHI equation into the Solver, using OBS for name1. For instructions on entering Solver equations, see “Solving Your Own Equations,” on page 30. Example: Expected Throws of a Die. To determine whether a suspect die is biased, you toss it 120 times and observe the following results. (The expected frequency is the same for each number, 120 ÷ 6, or 20.) 220 14: Additional Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Number Frequency Observed 1 25 2 17 3 15 4 23 5 24 6 16 Keystroke: Display: Description: Displays SUM menu and current list. @c Clears current list or gets a or 25 I 17 I 15 I 23 I 24 I 16 I new one. Enters observed values. e OBS I e (use [ and ] Names the list OBS. Displays the CHI equation. Make sure if necessary ) name1 is OBS. Displays menu. 20 Stores expected value. Calculates χ2. The number of degrees of freedom is (n–1)＝5. Consult statistical tables to find χ2 to a significance level of 0.05 with 5 degrees of freedom. The table shows that χ 02.05 ,5 ＝11.07. Since the computed value (5.00) is less than 11.07, you can conclude that, to a 0.05 significance level (95% probability), the die is fair. 14: Additional Examples 221 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 A Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service Obtaining Help in Operating the Calculator Hewlett-Packard is committed to supporting users of HP calculators. You can obtain answers to your questions about using the calculator from our Calculator Support department. We suggest reading “Answers to Common questions,” below, before contacting us. Past experience has shown that many of our customers have similar questions. Answers to Common Questions Q: I’m not sure if the calculator is malfunctioning or if I’m doing something incorrectly. How can I determine if the calculator is operating properly? A: Refer to page 232, which describes the diagnostic self-test. Q: My arithmetic keys don’t work like I expect. I press 12 + 3 = and get 3.00. A: You may be in the wrong mode. Press @> to set Algebraic mode. Q: My numbers contain commas as decimal points. How do I restore the periods? A: Press D . 222 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Q: How do I change the number of decimal places the calculator displays? A: The procedure is described in “Decimal Places” on page 34. Q: How do I clear all or portions of memory? A: C clears the calculator line. @c clears the data lists or variables accessible from the current menu. Erasing the entire contents of memory is covered in “Erasing Continuous Memory” on page 229. Q: Why am I getting the wrong answer using the TVM menu? A: Be sure to enter a value for all five TVM variables, even if a value is zero (as FV is for a loan without a balloon). Clearing the variables before starting (@c ) accomplishes the same thing. Check the appropriate payment mode (mortgages and loans are typically End mode calculations), and specify the number of payments per year ( ). Also check that all figures for money paid out are negative (the cash-flow sign convention). Q: Can I access the TVM menu functions from the Solver? A: No, but you can do the same functions by copying the appropriate financial formulas into the Solver. The formulas are given starting on page 168. Q: Can I access the data stored in my CFLO and SUM lists from the Solver? A: Yes. See “Accessing CFLO and SUM Lists from the Solver,” page 177. Q: How do I indicate multiplication in an equation typed into the Solver? A: Use the multiplication key (*). You cannot use the letter in the ALPHA menu. Q: What does an “E” in a number (for example, 2.51E－13) mean? A: Exponent of ten (for example, 2.51 x 10-13). Refer to “Scientific Notation” on page 47. Q: The calculator has displayed the message . What should I do? A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 223 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 A: Refer to “Managing Calculator Memory” on page 227 for instructions on how to reclaim memory for your use. annunciator is Q: The calculator is operating slowly, and the blinking. Why? A: The calculator is trace printing. Press @p e to turn off tracing. Q: How can I change the sign of a number in a list without keying in the number again? A: Press R I & I . Q: The beeper is not working. A: Check the beeper mode by pressing page 36. @> . See also Q: The messages and the menu labels in the display are not in English. How do I restore the English? A: Models of the hp 17bII+ sold in many countries outside of the United States include a menu to select the language for messages and labels. To select the English language, press @> . Power and Batteries The calculator is power by two 3-volt lithium coin batteries. When changing batteries, use only fresh button-cell batteries. Both batteries must be changed at the same time. Do not use rechargeable batteries. Low-Power Indications When the low-battery annunciator ( ) comes on, the calculator can continue normal operation for several hours. If the calculator is turned off. Continuous Memory will be preserved for approximately two weeks. To conserve battery power, printing does not function when the battery annunciator is on. Printing might halt during a printing operation 224 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 due to a borderline low-battery condition. The calculator can detect that there is insufficient power for printing before the battery annunciator comes on. If you continue to use the calculator after the battery annunciator comes on, power can eventually drop to a level at which the calculator stops powering the display and keyboard. The calculator will require fresh batteries before it can be turned back on. When you turn the calculator on after fresh batteries have been installed, the calculator returns to the previous display if your stored data is intact. If data has been lost, the calculator displays . Please see page 18 for information about the language setting. After selecting a language, the display will show . Pressing any key will clear this message from the display. In either case, the clock’s time might be incorrect. Installing Batteries Once the batteries are removed, you must replace the batteries within 30 seconds to prevent loss of Continuous Memory. To install batteries: 1. Have two fresh CR2032 batteries at hand. Hold batteries by the edges. Do not touch the contacts. Wipe each battery with a clean, lint-free cloth to remove dirt and oil. 2. Make sure the calculator is off. Do not press C again until the entire procedure for changing batteries is completed. Changing batteries with the calculator on can erase the contents of Continuous Memory. If you have set any appointments, make sure they will not come due while the batteries are out. 3. Turn the calculator over and prize off the battery cover. A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 225 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 4. Never remove two old batteries at the same time, in case memory lost. Remove one of the two batteries once. Insert a new battery, making sure that the positive sign (+) is facing outward. Do not mutilate, puncture, or dispose of batteries in fire. The batteries can burst or explode, releasing hazardous chemicals. Warning 5. Remove and insert the other battery as step 4. Make sure that the positive sign (+) on each battery is facing outward. 6. Replace the battery compartment cover. 7. Press on. Now turn the calculator back on. If it does not function, you might have taken too long to change the batteries or inadvertently turned the calculator on while the batteries were out. Remove the batteries again and lightly press a coin against both battery contacts in the calculator for a few seconds. Put the batteries back in and turn the calculator on. You should see . 226 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Managing Calculator Memory The calculator has approximately 30,740 units (or “bytes”) of user memory available. (This is separate from the system memory that stores all the unerasable information with which the calculator is manufactured.) The calculator displays if you attempt an operation that uses more memory than is currently available. If you see this message: 1. Complete any calculations in the calculator line (press = or C). This frees the memory that was being used to store each of the numbers and operators. 2. To further increase the amount of available memory: Rename the named SUM and CFLO lists with shorter names (see page 98), and clear any lists you no longer need (see page 99). Shorten or delete any messages with appointments (see page 146). Delete any Solver variables or equations you no longer need (see page 164). A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 227 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Resetting the Calculator If the calculator doesn’t respond to keystrokes or is behaving unusually, attempt to reset it. Resetting the calculator halts the current calculation, clears the calculator line, and displays the MAIN menu. Stored data remains intact. To reset the calculator, hold down C while pressing the third menu key from the left. Repeat if necessary. The calculator displays to confirm that reset has occurred. The calculator can reset itself if it is dropped or if power is interrupted. If the calculator still does not respond to keystrokes, use a thin, pointed object to press the reset hole near of the battery compartment. Reset hole Resetting the calculator halts the current calculation, clears the calculator line, and displays the MAIN menu. Stored data remains intact except setting those conditions: double-space printing off, printer tracing off, printer without the ac adapter, and beeper on. 228 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Erasing Continuous Memory Erasing Continuous Memory is a way of freeing a large amount of memory so that you can use it for other things. In addition, the calculator is set to certain “default” settings. Clears the calculator line and history stack. Deletes all Solver equations and their variables, and clears all other variables in menus. Clears all CFLO and SUM lists and their names. Clears all appointments. Returns U.S Dollars and EURO Dollars currencies and the rate equals 1.0000. Sets those conditions: For English language: Month/day/year date format, 12-hour double-space printing off, printer tracing adapter, and beeper on. For the other languages: Day/month/year date format, 24-hour double-space printing off, printer tracing adapter, and beeper on. clock, 2 decimal places, off, printer without the ac clock, 2 decimal places, off, printer without the ac Maintains the selected mode －ALG or RPN －Period (.) or comma (,) decimal point. Erasing Continuous Memory does not affect the current time and date, date and the selected language. To erase Continuous Memory, press and hold down C, the leftmost menu key, and the rightmost menu key. (Press three keys simultaneously). When the three keys are released, the calculator displays . Continuous Memory can inadvertently be erased if the calculator is dropped or if power is interrupted. A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 229 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Clock Accuracy The clock is regulated by a quartz crystal accurate to within 1.5 minutes per month under normal conditions. The accuracy of the clock crystal is affected by temperature, physical shock, humidity, and aging. Optimum accuracy is maintained at 25°C (77°F). Environmental Limits In order to maintain product reliability, observe the following limits: Operating temperature: 0° to 45°C (32° to 113°F). Storage temperature: －20° to 65°C (－4° to 149°F). Operating and storage humidity: 90% relative humidity at 40°C (104°F) maximum. Determining If the Calculator Requires Service Use these guidelines to determine if the calculator requires service. If it does, read “Service” on page 235. If the calculator won’t turn on: 1. Attempt to reset the calculator (see page 228). 2. If the calculator fails to respond after step 1, replace the batteries (see page 225). If you have just replaced the batteries, see page 227. If these steps do not help, the calculator requires service. If the calculator doesn’t respond to keystrokes: 1. Attempt to reset the calculator (see page 228). 2. If the calculator still fails to respond, attempt to erase Continuous Memory (see page 229). This will erase all the information you’ve stored. If these steps do not help, the calculator requires service. 230 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 If the calculator responds to keystrokes but you suspect that it is malfunctioning: 1. Do the self-test (described below). If the calculator fails the self test, it requires service. 2. If the calculator passes the self-test, it is quite likely you’ve made a mistake in operating the calculator. Try rereading portions of the manual, and check “Answers to Common Questions” on page 222. 3. Contact the Calculator Support department. A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 231 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Confirming Calculator Operation: Self-Test If the display can be turned on, but it appears that the calculator is not operating properly, you can do a diagnostic self-test. The self-test runs continuously, repeating until you halt it. To run the self-test: 1. Turn the calculator on. 2. If you have the optional infrared printer, turn it on. Certain diagnostic information is printed during the test. 3. If possible, return to the MAIN menu (press @A). 4. To start the self-test, hold down C while you press the fifth menu key from the left. Once the self-test has begun, do not press any keys until you are ready to halt the test. 5. During the test, the calculator beeps periodically and displays various patterns and characters. Watch for one of two messages that are displayed before the test automatically repeats: If the calculator passes the self-test, the calculator displays If the calculator displays followed by a five-digit number, the calculator requires service. 6. To halt the self-test, hold down C while you press the third menu key from the left. The calculator displays . If you press any other key instead, the test halts and the calculator displays a message. This results from an incorrect key being pressed, and does not mean that the calculator requires service. 7. If the calculator failed the self-test, repeat steps 4 through 6 to verify the results. If you do not have a printer, write down the messages that are displayed in step 5. 232 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Warranty hp 17bII+ Financial Calculator; Warranty period: 12 months 1. HP warrants to you, the end-user customer, that HP hardware, accessories and supplies will be free from defects in materials and workmanship after the date of purchase, for the period specified above. If HP receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, HP will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. Replacement products may be either new or like-new. 2. HP warrants to you that HP software will not fail to execute its programming instructions after the date of purchase, for the period specified above, due to defects in material and workmanship when properly installed and used. If HP receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, HP will replace software media which does not execute its programming instructions due to such defects. 3. HP does not warrant that the operation of HP products will be uninterrupted or error free. If HP is unable, within a reasonable time, to repair or replace any product to a condition as warranted, you will be entitled to a refund of the purchase price upon prompt return of the product. 4. HP products may contain remanufactured parts equivalent to new in performance or may have been subject to incidental use. 5. Warranty does not apply to defects resulting from (a) improper or inadequate maintenance or calibration, (b) software, interfacing, parts or supplies not supplied by HP, (c) unauthorized modification or misuse, (d) operation outside of the published environmental specifications for the product, or (e) improper site preparation or maintenance. 6. HP MAKES NO OTHER EXPRESS WARRANTY OR CONDITION WHETHER WRITTEN OR ORAL. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR CONDITION OF MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THE EXPRESS WARRANTY SET FORTH ABOVE. Some countries, states or provinces do not allow limitations on the duration of an implied warranty, so the above limitation or A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 233 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 exclusion might not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you might also have other rights that vary from country to country, state to state, or province to province. 7. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE REMEDIES IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT ARE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. EXCEPT AS INDICATED ABOVE, IN NO EVENT WILL HP OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF DATA OR FOR DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING LOST PROFIT OR DATA), OR OTHER DAMAGE, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE. Some countries, States or provinces do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you. 8. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services . Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. FOR CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND: THE WARRANTY TERMS CONTAINED IN THIS STATEMENT, EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT LAWFULLY PERMITTED, DO NOT EXCLUDE, RESTRICT OR MODIFY AND ARE IN ADDITION TO THE MANDATORY STATUTORY RIGHTS APPLICABLE TO THE SALE OF THIS PRODUCT TO YOU. 234 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Service Europe Asia Pacific L.America Country : Austria Belgium Denmark Eastern Europe countries Finland France Germany Greece Holland Italy Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK Czech Republic South Africa Luxembourg Other European countries Country : Australia Singapore Country : Argentina Brazil Telephone numbers +43-1-3602771203 +32-2-7126219 +45-8-2332844 +420-5-41422523 +35-89640009 +33-1-49939006 +49-69-95307103 +420-5-41422523 +31-2-06545301 +39-02-75419782 +47-63849309 +351-22 9570200 +34-915-642095 +46-851992065 +41-1-4395358 (German) +41-22-8278780 (French) +39-02-75419782 (Italian) +420-5-41422523 +44-207-4580161 +420-5-41422523 +27-11-2376200 +32-2-7126219 +420-5-41422523 Telephone numbers +61-3-9841-5211 +61-3-9841-5211 Telephone numbers 0-810-555-5520 Sao Paulo 3747-7799; ROTC 0-800-157751 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 235 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Mexico Venezuela Chile Columbia Peru Central America & Caribbean Guatemala Puerto Rico Costa Rica N.America Mx City 5258-9922; ROTC 01-800-472-6684 0800-4746-8368 800-360999 9-800-114726 0-800-10111 1-800-711-2884 1-800-999-5105 1-877-232-0589 0-800-011-0524 Country : Telephone numbers U.S. 1800-HP INVENT Canada (905)206-4663 or 800-HP INVENT ROTC = Rest of the country Please logon to http://www.hp.com for the latest service and support information. 236 A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Regulatory information This section contains information that shows how the hp 17bII+ Financial calculator complies with regulations in certain regions. Any modifications to the calculator not expressly approved by Hewlett-Packard could void the authority to operate the 17bII+ in these regions. USA This calculator generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and may interfere with radio and television reception. The calculator complies with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. In the unlikely event that there is interference to radio or television reception(which can be determined by turning the calculator off and on), the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. Relocate the calculator, with respect to the receiver. Canada This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003. Cet appareil numerique de la classe B est conforme a la norme NMB-003 du Canada. Japan この装置は、情報処理装置等電波障害自主規制協議会(VCCI)の基準 に基づく第二情報技術装置です。この装置は、家庭環境で使用することを 目的としていますが、この装置がラジオやテレビジョン受信機に近接して使 用されると、受信障害を引き起こすことがあります。 取扱説明書に従って正しい取り扱いをしてください。 Noise Declaration In the operator position under normal operation (per ISO 7779): LpA < 70dB. A: Assistance, Batteries, Memory, and Service 237 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 B More About Calculations IRR% Calculations The calculator determines IRR% for a set of cash flows using mathematical formulas that “search” for the answer. The process finds a solution by estimating an answer and then using that estimate to do another calculation—in mathematical terms, this is called an iterative process. In most cases, the calculator finds the desired answer, since there is usually only one solution to the calculation. However, calculating IRR% for certain sets of cash flows is more complex. There may be more than one mathematical solution to the problem, or there may be no solution. In these cases, the calculator displays a message to help you interpret what has happened. Possible Outcomes of Calculating IRR% These are the possible outcomes of an IRR% calculation for which you have not stored a guess. Case 1: The calculator displays a positive answer. This is the only positive answer. However, one or more negative answers may exist. Case 2: The calculator finds a negative answer but a single positive solution also exists. It displays: To see the negative answer, press <. To search for that positive answer, you must input a guess. (Refer to “Storing a Guess for IRR%”; below). There might also be additional negative answers. Case 3: The calculator displays a negative answer and no message. 238 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 This is the only answer. Case 4: The calculator displays the message: The calculation is very complex. It might involve more than one positive or negative answer, or there may be no solution. To continue the calculation, you must store a guess. Case 5: The calculator displays: There is no answer. This situation might be the result of an error, such as a mistake in keying in the cash flows. A common mistake is to put the wrong sign for a cash flow. A valid cash flow series must have at least one positive and one negative cash flow. Halting and Restarting the IRR% Calculation The search for IRR% may take a relatively long time. You can halt the calculation at any time by pressing any key. The calculator then displays the current estimate for IRR%. You can resume the calculation by: Pressing s while the current estimate is displayed in the calculator line. This continues the calculation from where it left off. Storing a guess for IRR%, discussed below. Storing a Guess for IRR% To enter a guess, key in an estimate of IRR% and then press s . You can enter a guess for IRR% at these times: Before beginning the calculation. This can reduce the time required to calculate an answer. After you’ve halted the calculation. After the calculator has halted the calculation due to any of the above cases. For cases 3 and 5, however, no (other) solutions will be found. When calculating IRR% using a guess, the calculator displays the current estimate of IRR% and the calculated value of NPV for each iteration. The calculation halts when the calculator finds an answer. However, there B: More About Calculations 239 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 may be additional positive or negative answers, or no true solution at all. You can continue searching for other solutions by halting the calculation and entering a different guess. One way to obtain a good guess for IRR% is to calculate NPV for various interest rates (I%). Since IRR% is the interest rate at which NPV equals zero, the best estimate of IRR% is the interest rate that yields the value for NPV closest to zero. To find a good estimate for IRR%, key in a guess for IRR% and press Then, press to calculate NPV for that value. Repeat the calculation of NPV for several values of I%, and look for trends in the results. Choose as your guess for IRR% a value of I% that produces an NPV close to zero. Solver Calculations As noted in chapter12, the Solver uses two methods to find solutions, depending on the complexity of the equation: direct and iterative (an indirect). To use all the calculating power included in the Solver, it would help to understand, in a general way, how it works. Direct Solutions When you start a calculation (by pressing a menu key), the Solver first tries to find a direct solution by “isolating” the variable you are solving for (the unknown). Isolating a variable involves rearranging the equation so that the unknown variable is by itself on the left-hand side of the equation. For example, suppose you enter the equation: PROFIT = PRICE－COST If you’ve stored values for PROFIT and PRICE, pressing causes the Solver to internally rearrange the equation algebraically to solve for COST (COST is the unknown): COST = PRICE － PROFIT Answers calculated this way are called direct solutions. 240 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 For certain equations, the unknown can be isolated, but an answer cannot be calculated with the values stored. Then the calculator displays: For example, if you enter an equation: AREA＝LxW and then enter values for AREA and W, the Solver rearranges the equation to: L＝AREA÷W in order to calculate L. However, if you enter the value zero for W, the Solver cannot find an answer because division by zero is not allowed. The Solver can isolate the unknown variable if the equation meets these conditions: The unknown variable occurs only once in the equation.* The only functions in which the unknown variable appears are ALOG, DATE, DDAYS (actual calendar only), EXP, EXPM1, IF (in then and else clauses only), INV, LN, LNP1, LOG, S, SQ, and SQRT. The only operators involving the unknown variable are＋,－,x, ÷ , and ^ (power). If you are solving for a variable raised to a positive, even power (for example, A ^ 2＝4), there may be more than one solution. However, if the Solver can isolate the variable, it will find one of the solutions using the positive root. For example, the Solver rearranges A ^ 2 ＝4 to A＝ 4 and calculates the answer＋2.† The unknown variable does not appear as an exponent. * Exceptions: (1) Occurrences of the unknown variable as the argument of the S function are ignored. (2) The unknown variable can appear twice within an IF function: once in the then clause and once in the else clause. † The Solver’s ability to find a solution iteratively can often be enhanced by rewriting the equation so that the unknown variable does not appear as a divisor. For example, the Solver may more easily solve for A if the equation 1 ÷(A ^ 2–A)＝B is rewritten as (A ^ 2–A) ×B＝1. B: More About Calculations 241 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Iterative Solutions If the Solver is not able to isolate the unknown variable, it cannot provide a direct solution. In these cases, the Solver searches iteratively for a solution.* In its iterative search for a solution, the Solver looks for a value that sets the left side of the equation equal to the right side. To do this, the Solver starts with two initial estimates of the answer, which we’ll call estimate #1 and estimate #2. Using estimate #1, the Solver calculates values for the left and right side of the equation (LEFT and RIGHT) and calculates LEFT minus RIGHT (LEFT － RIGHT). Then, the Solver does the same calculations for estimate #2. If neither estimate produces a value of zero for LEFT－RIGHT, the Solver analyzes the results and produces two new estimates that it judges to be closer to the answer. By repeating this process many times, the Solver narrows in on the answer. During this search, the calculator displays the two current estimates and the sign of (LEFT－RIGHT) for each estimate, as shown. Sign of LEFT－RIGHT for each estimate Since calculators cannot do calculations with infinite precision (the hp 17bII+ uses 12 digits in its calculations), sometimes the Solver will be unable to find an estimate where LEFT－RIGHT is exactly zero. However, the Solver can distinguish between situations where the current estimate could be a solution, and situations where no solution is found. * Exceptions: (1) Occurrences of the unknown variable as the argument of the S function are ignored. (2) The unknown variable can appear twice within an IF function: once in the then clause and once in the else clause. 242 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The iterative search for a solution sometimes takes several minutes. (You can halt the search at any time by pressing any key except @ ) There are four possible outcomes: Case 1: The calculator displays an answer. This is very likely the true solution for the unknown variable. There are two situations in which the Solver returns a case 1 answer: Case la: LEFT－RIGHT is exactly zero. Case lb: LEFT－RIGHT is not zero for either estimate. However, the Solver has found two estimates that cannot get any closer together. (Numbers that are as close together as possible are called neighbors.) Furthermore, LEFT－RIGHT is a positive value for one estimate and a negative value for the other estimate. Case 1a: Case 1b: is exactly 0. is not exactly 0. and are relatively close together. The two estimates are "neighbors". If you want to know whether LEFT－RIGHT is exactly zero, press the menu key for the unknown variable. If LEFT－RIGHT is not equal to zero, the calculator displays the values of LEFT and RIGHT. The equation could have more than one iterative solution. If the answer does not seem reasonable, enter one or two guesses and B: More About Calculations 243 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 restart the search. Case 2: The calculator displays the values of LEFT and RIGHT, which are unequal. To see the calculator’s result, press < or C. If LEFT and RIGHT are relatively close to one another in value, the result is probably a true solution. Otherwise, the result is probably not a true solution. If the result seems unreasonable, it could be because the equation has more than one solution. You might want to enter one or two guesses and restart the search. If you want to obtain additional information about the answer, press and hold down the menu key for the unknown variable until the numbers in the display stop changing. At this point, the Solver is displaying the final estimates and the signs of LEFT－RIGHT for each estimate. This information can be helpful: Case 2a: If the signs of LEFT－RIGHT are opposite, and the two estimates are as close together as two 12-digit numbers can get (neighbors), the Solver found two estimates that “bracket” an ideal solution (a solution where LEFT－RIGHT equals zero). If LEFT and RIGHT are relatively close together, the answer is probably a solution. Case 2b: If the signs of LEFT－RIGHT are opposite, and the two estimates are not neighbors, be very cautious about accepting the answer as a solution. If LEFT and RIGHT are relatively close together, the answer is probably a solution. Case 2c: If LEFT－RIGHT for the two estimates have the same sign, the Solver has halted because it could find no estimates that further reduced the magnitude of LEFT－RIGHT. Be very cautious about accepting the answer. If the values of LEFT and RIGHT are not relatively close to one another, you should reject the answer. 244 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Case 2a: Case 2b: have opposite signs. The two estimates are "neighbors". have opposite signs. The two estimates are far apart. Case 2c: have the same sign.. Case 3: The calculator displays: The Solver is unable to begin its iterative search for a solution using the current initial estimates (guesses). You might find a solution by B: More About Calculations 245 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 entering different estimates. The closer you can estimate the answer, the more likely that the Solver will find a solution. Case 4: The calculator displays: The Solver is unable to find a solution. Check your equation to make sure you have made no errors in entering it. Also check the value of each known variable. If your equation and variables are correct, you might be able to find a solution by entering very good guesses. Equations Used by Built-in Menus Actuarial Functions n＝number of compounding periods. i%＝periodic interest rate, expressed as a percentage. Single Payment Present Value Function (Present value of a single $1.00 payment made after n periods.) －n SPPV (i % : n) ＝ 1 ＋ i% 100 Single Payment Future Value Function (Future value after n periods of a single $1.00 payment.) SPFV (i % : n) ＝ 1 ＋ i% n 100 Uniform Series Present Value Function (Present value of a $1.00 payment that occurs n times.) －n i% 1 － 1 ＋ 100 USPV (i % : n) ＝ i% 100 Uniform Series Future Value Function (Future value of a $1.00 payment that occurs n times.) 246 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 n i% 1 ＋ － 1 100 i% 100 USFV (i % : n) ＝ Percentage Calculations in Business (BUS) NEW － OLD %CHANGE ＝ × 100 OLD PART %TOTAL ＝ × 100 TOTAL PRICE － COST MARKUP %C ＝ × 100 COST － PRICE COST MARKUP %P ＝ × 100 PRICE Time Value of Money (TVM) S = payment mode factor (0 for End mode; 1 for Begin mode). i% ＝ I%YR P/YR i% × S 0 ＝ PV + 1 + × PMT × USPV (i % : n) ＋ FV × SPPV(i% : n) 100 Amortization ∑INT＝accumulated interest ∑PRIN＝accumulated principal i＝periodic interest rate BAL is initially PV rounded to the current display setting. PMT is initially PMT rounded to the current display setting. i ＝ I %YR P / YR × 100 For each payment amortized: B: More About Calculations 247 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 INT’ ＝ BAL x i (INT’ is rounded to the current display setting; INT’ ＝ 0 for period 0 in Begin mode) INT ＝ INT’ (with sign of PMT ) PRIN ＝ PMT + INT’ PRIN ＝ PMT + INT’ BALnew ＝ BALold + PRIN ∑INTnew ＝ ∑INT old + INT ∑PRINnew ＝ ∑PRIN old + PRIN Interest Rate Conversions Periodic compounding NOM% EFF % ＝ 1 + − 1 × 100 100 × P P Continuous compounding EFF % ＝ e NOM % 100 − 1 × 100 Cash-Flow Calculations j ＝ the group number of the cash flow. CFj ＝ amount of the cash flow for group j. nj ＝ #TIMES the cash flow occurs for group j. k ＝ the group number of the last group of cash flows. Nj ＝ ∑ nl = total number of cash flows prior to group j 1≤ l ＜j k NPV ＝ CF0 + ∑ (CFj x USPV (i % : nj ) x SPPV (i % : Nj )) j =1 When NPV = 0, the solution for i% is IRR%. 248 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 k NFV ＝ NPV × SPFV (i % : N ) where N ＝ ∑ nj j =1 NUS ＝ NPV USPV (i % : N ) k TOTAL ＝ ∑ (nj × CFj ) j =0 Bond Calculations Reference: Lynch, John J., Jr. and Jan H. Mayle, Standard Securities Calculation Methods, Securities Industry Association, New York, 1986. A＝accrued days, the number of days from beginning of coupon period to settlement date. E＝number of days in coupon period bracketing settlement date. By convention, E is 180 (or 360) if calendar basis is 30/360. DSC＝number of days from settlement date to next coupon date. (DSC＝ E－A). M＝coupon periods per year ( 1 ＝ annual, 2 ＝ semiannual), N＝number of coupon periods between settlement and redemption dates. If N has a fractional part (settlement not on coupon date), then round it to the next higher whole number. Y＝annual yield as a decimal fraction, YLD% / 100. For one or fewer coupon period to redemption: CPN % CALL + A CPN % M － PRICE ＝ × M 1 + DSC × Y E M E For more than one coupon period to redemption: B: More About Calculations 249 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 CALL PRICE ＝ DSC N −1+ E Y 1 + M CPN % N M ＋ ∑ K − 1+ K =1 Y + 1 M DSC E CPN % A − E × M The “end-of-month” convention is used to determine coupon dates in the following exceptional situations. (This affects calculations for YLD%, PRICE, and ACCRU.) If the maturity date falls on the last day of the month, then the coupon payments will also fall on the last day of the month. For example, a semiannual bond that matures on September 30 will have coupon payment dates on March 31 and September 30. If the maturity date of a semiannual bond falls on August 29 or 30, then the February coupon payment dates will fall on the last day of February (28, or 29 in leap years). Depreciation Calculations For the given year, YR#: SL ＝ ACRS % × BASIS 100 BASIS − SALV ACRS ＝ LIFE BASIS − SALV SOYD ＝ × (LIFE − YR # + 1) (LIFE + 1) LIFE × 2 DB ＝ BASIS × FACT % /100 (FACT % /100) × 1 − LIFE LIFE 250 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 (YR # − 1) For the last year of depreciation, DB equals the remaining depreciable value for the prior year. Sum and Statistics n＝number of items in the list. x’＝an element of the sorted list. TOTAL = Σxi MEDIAN = x j′ MEDIAN = for odd n, where (x j′ + x j ′) + 1 2 STDEV = W .MN = Σxi n n + 1 j = 2 MEAN = x = Σ (y i - x i ) Σyi for even n, where j = n 2 Σ(xi − x )2 n − 1 G.SD = Σyi xi 2 − (Σyi ) x 2 (Σyi ) − 1 RANGE ＝ MAX － MIN Forecasting Model LIN EXP LOG PWR y y y y = = = = B + Mx BeMx B + M ln x BxM Transformation Xi Yi y = B + Mx In y = ln B + Mx y = B + M ln x ln y = ln B + M ln x xi xi ln xi ln xi yi ln yi yi ln yi B: More About Calculations 251 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Let: X = ΣX i Y = n SX 2 = Σ ( X i − X )2 ΣYi n SX 2 = Σ (Yi − Y )2 SXY = Σ ( X i − X ) (Yi − Y ) SXY M = SX 2 Then: B = b for LIN and LOG models, and B = eb for EXP and PWR models, where b = Y − M X CORR = SXY SX 2 × SY 2 Equations Used in Chapter 14 Canadian Mortgages 1 − (1 + r )−N −N − FV (1 + r ) r PV = − PMT r = 1 + where: N CI%YR PV PMT FV = = = = = CI %YR 200 1 6 − 1 total number of monthly payments annual interest rate (as a percent) loan amount monthly payment balloon payment 252 B: More About Calculations File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Odd-Period Calculations PV 1 + i × DAYS = 30 1 − (1 + i )−N −N − (1 + i × S ) × PMT × − FV (1 + i ) i Where: PV = loan amount i = periodic interest rate as a decimal DAYS = actual number of days until the first payment PMT = periodic payment amount N = total number of payments FV = balloon payment amount S = 1 if DAYS < 30 S = 0 if DAYS ≥ 30 Advance Payments PMT = where: PMT PV FV i N #ADV = = = = = = − PV − FV (1 + i )− N 1 − (1 + i )− (N − # ADV ) + # ADV i payment amount loan amount balloon payment amount periodic interest rate (as a decimal) total number of payments number of payments made in advance Modified Internal Rate of Return NFV 1 n P MIRR = 100 − 1 − NPVN where: n = total number of compounding periods NFVP = net future value of positive cash flows NPVN = net present value of negative cash flows B: More About Calculations 253 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 C Menu Maps The following maps show how to display each of the menus. There is a map for each menu label in the MAIN menu and for each menu found on the keyboard. The menu labels for variables are enclosed in boxes to illustrate how they are used: Variable used to store and calculate values. Variable used to calculate or display values; cannot be used to store values. Variable used to store values; cannot be used to calculate values. BUS %CHG OLD NEW %TOTL %CH TOTAL MU%C COST PART %T MU%P PRICE M%C COST Figure C-1. BUS Menu 254 C: Menu Maps File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 PRICE M%P CURRX CURR1 CURR2 RATE C.STO C.RCL SELCT Currencies Figure C-2. CURRX Menu C: Menu Maps 255 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 FIN TVM ICNV NOM% EFF% CALC P CFLO NOM% INSR DELET EFF% NAME ＊NEW TOTAL N I%YR PV IRR% PMT P/YR FV BEG #P NPV I% NUS GET Names of Lists NFV OTHER END INT AMRT PRIN BAL NEXT TABLE FIRST LAST INCR GO Figure C-3. FIN Menu 256 C: Menu Maps File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 FIN BOND DEPRC BASIS SALV YR# TYPE SETT DB A/A SEMI SOYD MAT YLD% 360 LIFE ACRS MORE SL MORE MORE PRICE ANN Figure C-3 (continued). FIN Menu C: Menu Maps 257 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 SUM INSR CALC DELET NAME GET TOTAL ALPHA-Edit menu* ALPHA menu* TOTAL RANG MORE MEAN MEDN MIN MAX Names of lists SORT FRCST MORE (Select x and y) x-list y-list CORR MODL W.MN LIN LOG EXP M G.SD B MORE SIZE MORE PWR MORE Figure C-4. SUM Menu * For the complete menu, see pages 30-31. 258 C: Menu Maps File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 ** TIME SET APPT CALC APT1 APT2 ...MORE ... TIME A/PM MSG RPT HELP MIN A/PM M/D 12/24 HELP DATE1 DAYS 360D 365D Figure C-5. TIME Menu* * For the complete menu, see pages 30-31. C: Menu Maps 259 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 SOLVE * EDIT NEW ALPHA-Edit menu* ALPHA menu* CALC Figure C-6. SOLVE Menu DISP FIX . , EXP N! PI RPN INTL ALL MATH LOG LN MODES BEEP PRNT DBL ALG PRINTER LIST STK REGS TIME MSG TRACE Figure C-7. DSP, MATH, MODES, and PRINTER Menus * For the complete menu, see pages 30-31. 260 C: Menu Maps File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 D RPN: Summary About RPN The RPN appendixes (D, E, and F) are especially for those of you who want to use or learn RPN—Hewlett-Packard’s original Reverse Polish Notation for operating calculators. This calculator can use either RPN or algebraic logic for calculations—you choose which. HP’s RPN operating logic is based on an unambiguous, parentheses-free mathematical logic known as “Polish Notation,” developed by the Polish logician Jan Łukasiewicz (1878 － 1956). While conventional algebraic notation places the operators between the relevant numbers or variables, Łukasiewicz’s notation places them before the numbers or variables. For optimal efficiency of the stack, we have modified that notation to specify the operators after the numbers. Hence the term Reverse Polish Notation, or RPN. Except for the RPN appendixes, the examples and keystrokes in this manual are written entirely using Algebraic (ALG) mode. About RPN on the hp 17bII+ This appendix replaces much of chapter 2, “Arithmetic.” It assumes that you already understand calculator operation as covered in chapter 1, “Getting Started.” Only those features unique to RPN mode are summarized here: RPN mode. RPN functions. RPN arithmetic, including percentages and s and R arithmetic. D: RPN: Summary 261 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 All other operations－including the Solver－work the same in RPN and ALG modes. (The Solver uses algebraic logic only.) For more information about how RPN works, see appendix E, “RPN: The Stack.” For RPN keystrokes of selected examples from chapter 14, see appendix F, “RPN: Selected Examples.” Continue reading in chapter 2 to learn about the other functionality of your calculator. Watch for this symbol in the margin earlier in the manual. It identifies keystrokes that are shown in ALG mode and must be performed differently in RPN mode. Appendixes D, E, and F explain how to use your calculator in RPN mode. The mode affects only arithmetic calculations－all other operations, including the Solver, work the same in RPN and ALG modes. v Setting RPN Mode The calculator operates in either RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) or ALG (Algebraic) mode. This mode determines the operating logic used for arithmetic calculations. To select RPN mode: Press @> . The calculator responds by displaying . This mode remains until you change it. The display shows the X register from the stack. To select ALG mode: Press . @> . The calculator displays 262 D: RPN: Summary File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Where the RPN Functions Are Function Name Definition Key to Use ENTER Enters and separates one number from the next. = LASTX Recalls last number in X-register. @L R↓ Rolls down stack contents. ~ (same as () R↑ Rolls up stack contents. [ (except in lists) X<>Y X-register exchanges with Y-register. x (same as )) CHS Changes sign. & D: RPN: Summary 263 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Using INPUT for ENTER and ▼ for R↓. Except in CFLO and SUM lists, the I key also performs the E function and the ] key also performs the ~ function. In lists: I stores numbers. Use stack during arithmetic calculations. In lists: [ and contents. = to enter numbers into the ] move through lists. Use ~ to roll through stack Doing Calculations in RPN Arithmetic Topics Affected by RPN Mode This discussion of arithmetic using RPN replaces those parts of chapter 2 that are affected by RPN mode. These operations are affected by RPN mode: Two-number arithmetic (+, *, -, /, u). The percent function (%). The LAST X function (@L). See appendix E. RPN mode does not affect the MATH menu, recalling and storing numbers, arithmetic done inside registers, scientific notation, numeric precision, or the range of numbers available on the calculator, all of which are covered in chapter 2. Simple Arithmetic Here are some examples of simple arithmetic. Notice that E separates numbers that you key in. The operator (+, -, etc.) completes the calculation. One-number functions (such as v) work the same in ALG and RPN modes. 264 D: RPN: Summary File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 To select RPN mode, press @>. To Calculate: Press: Display: 12 + 3 12 E 3 + 12 E 3 - 12 E 3 * 12 E 3 / 12 @w 12 @v 12 @t 12 – 3 12 x 3 12 ÷ 3 2 12 12 1/12 You do not need to use E before an operator, only between keyed-in numbers. Key in both numbers (separated by E) before pressing the operator key. The Power Function (Exponentiation). The power function uses the @u keys. To Calculate: Press: 123 12 E 3 @u 12 E 3 @t @u 1/3 12 (cube root) Display: The Percent Function. The % key calculates percentages without using the * key. Combined with + or -, it adds or subtracts percentages. To Calculate: Press: Display: 27% of 200 200 less 27% 200 E 27 % 200 E 27 %- 12% greater than 25 25 E 12 %+ Compare these keystrokes in RPN and ALG modes: D: RPN: Summary 265 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 27% of 200 200 less 27% RPN Mode ALG Mode 200 E 27 % 200 E 27 %- 200 * 27 %= 200 - 27 %= Calculations with STO and RCL The store (s) and recall (R) operations work identically in ALG and RPN modes (see “Storing and Recalling Numbers” and “Doing Arithmetic Inside Registers and Variables” in chapter 2). The keystrokes are the same for simple storing and recalling and for doing arithmetic inside registers and variables. When doing arithmetic in the display with values from storage registers and variables, remember to use RPN. Compare these keystrokes in RPN and ALG modes: RPN Mode ALG Mode 2 &E 3 *s 5 2 &* 3 =s 5 Find PV－2 R 2- R -2= Find PV less 2% R 2 %- R -2%= Find PMT x N R R R *R = Store－2 x 3 in register 5 * Chain Calculations－No Parentheses! The speed and simplicity of calculating using RPN are apparent during chain calculations－longer calculations with more than one operation. The RPN memory stack (refer to appendix E) stores intermediate results until you need them, then inserts them into the calculation. 266 D: RPN: Summary File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The cube root example and the percentage addition example (previous topics) are two simple examples of chain calculations. For another example, calculate 7 x (12 + 3) Start the calculation inside the parentheses by finding 12 + 3. Notice that you don’t need to press E to save this intermediate result (15) before proceeding. Since it is a calculated result, it is saved automatically－without using parentheses. Keys: Display: Description: 12 E 3 + 7* Intermediate result. Pressing the function key produces the answer. Now study these examples. Note the automatic storage and retrieval of intermediate results. To Calculate: Press: Display: (750 x 12) ÷ 360 750 E 12 * 360 / 360 E 750 E 12 */ 360 ÷ (750 x 12) or x (68 ÷ 1.9) 750 E 12 * 360 x/ 456 E 75 - 18.5 / 68 E 1.9 /* (3＋4) x (5＋6) 3E4+5E6+* {(456－75) ÷ 18.5} D: RPN: Summary 267 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 E RPN: The Stack This appendix explains how calculations take place in the automatic memory stack and how this method minimizes keystrokes in complicated calculations. What the Stack Is Automatic storage of intermediate results is the reason that RPN mode easily processes complicated calculations－without using parentheses. The key to automatic storage is the automatic RPN memory stack. The memory stack consists of up to four storage locations, called registers, which are “stacked” on top of each other. It is a work area for calculations. These registers － labeled X, Y, Z, and T － store and manipulate four current numbers. The “oldest” number is the one in the T-(top) register. T 0.00 Z 0.00 Y 0.00 X 0.00 “Oldest” number Displayed (most “recent” number) The most “recent” number is in the X-register: This is the number you see in the display. 268 E: RPN: The Stack File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Reviewing the Stack (Roll Down) The ~ (roll down) function (on the ( key) lets you review the entire contents of the stack by “rolling” the contents downward, one register at a time. While in RPN mode you don’t need to press the shift key for ~. The ] key has the same effect as ~. except in a CFLO or SUM list, when ] affects the list and not the stack. Likewise, the [ key rolls the contents of the stack upward, except in lists. Rolling a Full Stack. Suppose the stack is filled with 1, 2, 3, 4 (press 1 E 2 E 3 E 4). Pressing ~ four times rolls the numbers all the way around and back to where they started: T 1 4 3 2 1 Z 2 1 4 3 2 Y 3 2 1 4 3 X 4 ~ 3 ~ 2 ~ 1 ~ 4 When you press ~, the value in the X-register rotates around into the T-register. Notice that the contents of the registers are rolled, while the registers themselves maintain their positions. The calculator displays only the X-register. Variable Stack Size. Clearing the stack by pressing @c reduces the stack to one register (X) with a zero in it. As you enter numbers, the stack builds up again. The ~ and [ functions roll through as many registers as currently exist (one, two, three, or four). Exchanging the X- and Y-Registers in the Stack Another function that manipulates the stack contents is x(x exchange y), located on the ) key. It swaps the contents of the X- and Y-registers without affecting the rest of the stack. Pressing x again restores the original order of the contents. While in RPN mode you don’t need to press the shift key for x. E: RPN: The Stack 269 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The x function is used primarily to swap the order of numbers in a calculation. For example, an easy way to calculate 9 ÷ (13x8) is to press 13 E 8 * 9 x/. Arithmetic－How the Stack Does It The contents of the stack move up and down automatically as new numbers enter the X-register (lifting the stack), and as operators combine two numbers to produce one new number in the X-register (dropping the stack). See how a full stack drops, lifts, and drops its contents while calculating 3＋4－9： a (lost) T a a a a Z b a b a 3 b 7 b Y X 3 E 4 4 7 + Drop 9 9 Lift - －2 Drop (a and b represent values already on the stack.) Notice that when the stack drops, it replicates the contents of the T-register and overwrites the X-register. When the stack lifts, it pushes the top contents out of the T-register, and that number is lost. This shows that the stack’s memory is limited to four numbers for calculations. Because of the automatic movement of the stack, you do not need to clear the display before doing a new calculation. Most functions (except E and C) prepare the stack to lift its contents when the next number enters the X-register. 270 E: RPN: The Stack File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 How ENTER Works You know that E separates two numbers keyed in one after the other. In terms of the stack, how does it do this? Suppose the stack is filled with a, b, c, and d. Now enter and add two new numbers: 5＋6： a (lost) b (lost) T a b c c c Z b c d d c Y c d 5 5 d X d 5 5 E Lift 5 Lift 6 6 + No lift 11 Drop E replicates the contents of the X-register into the Y-register. The next number you key in (or recall) writes over (instead of lifting) the copy of the first number left in the X-register. The effect is simply to separate two sequentially entered numbers. Using a Number Twice in a Row. You can use the replicating feature of E to other advantages. To add a number to itself, key in the number and press E+. Filling the Stack with a Constant. The replicating effect of E, together with the replicating effect (from T into Z) of stack drop, allows you to fill the stack with a numeric constant for calculations. Example: Constant, Cumulative Growth. The annual sales of a small hardware company are projected to double each year for the next 3 years. If the current sales are $84,000, what are the annual sales for each of the next 3 years? 1. 2. Fill the stack with the growth rate (2 EEE). Key in the current sales in thousands (84). E: RPN: The Stack 271 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 3. Calculate future sales by pressing * for each of the next 3 years. 2 2 2 2 2 E 2 2 E E 2 84 84 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 * 168 * 336 * 672 Sales for the next 3 years are projected to be $168,000; $336,000; and $672,000. Clearing Numbers Clearing One Number. Clearing the X-register puts a zero in it. The next number you key in (or recall) writes over this zero. There are two ways to clear the number in the X-register: Press <. Press C. For example, if you wanted to enter 1 and 3 but mistakenly entered 1 and 2, these keystrokes would correct it: 1 1 1 E 1 1 2 2 1 < 0 1 3 3 Clearing the Entire Stack. Pressing @c clears the X-register to zero and eliminates the Y-, Z-, and T-registers (reducing the size of the stack to one register). The stack expands again when you enter more numbers. 272 E: RPN: The Stack File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 T a Z b Y c X d @c 0.00 Because of the automatic movement of the stack, it is not necessary to clear the stack before starting a calculation. Note that if an application menu is currently displayed, pressing @c also clears the application’s variables. The LAST X Register Retrieving Numbers from LAST X The LAST X register is a companion to the stack: It stores the number that had been in the X-register just before the last numeric operation (such as a * operation). Pressing @L returns this value to the X-register. This ability to recall the “last x” value has two main uses: Correcting errors: retrieving a number that was in the X-register just before an incorrect calculation. Reusing a number in a calculation. Reusing Numbers You can use @L to reuse a number (such as a constant) in a calculation. Remember to enter the constant second, just before executing the arithmetic operation, so that the constant is the last number in the X-register, and therefore can be saved and retrieved with @L. Example: Calculate 96.74 + 52.39 52.39 E: RPN: The Stack 273 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: 96.74 E 52.39 + Intermediate result. @L Retrieves the number before the + operation, saved in LAST X. / Final result. Chain Calculations The automatic lifting and dropping of the stack’s contents let you retain intermediate results without storing or reentering them, and without using parentheses. This is an advantage the RPN stack has over algebraic calculator logic. Other features of RPN include the following: You never work with more than two numbers at a time. E separates two numbers keyed in sequentially. Pressing an operator key executes that operation immediately. Intermediate results appear as they are calculated, so you can check each step as you go. Intermediate results are automatically stored. They reappear automatically as they are needed for the calculation－the last result stored is the first to come back out. You can calculate in the same order as you would with pencil and paper－that is, from the innermost parentheses outward: 4 ÷ [14＋(7x3)－2]＝0.12 can be solved as 7 E 3 * 14 + 2 - 4 x/ 274 E: RPN: The Stack File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Exercises Here are some extra problems that you can do to practice using RPN. Calculate: (14 + 12) x (18 – 12) ÷ (9 – 7)＝78.00 A Solution: 14 E 12 + 18 E 12 -* 9 E 7 Calculate: 232 – (13 x 9) + 1/7＝412.14 A Solution: 23 @w 13 E 9 *- 7 Calculate: A Solution: -/ @t + (5.4 × 0.8) ÷ (12.5- 0.73 ) = 0.60 5.4 E .8 * .7 E 3 @u 12.5 x-/@v or 5.4 E .8 * 12.5 E .7 E 3 @u-/@v Calculate: 8.33 × (4 - 5.2) ÷ [ (8.33 - 7.46) × 0.32] = 4.57 4.3 × (3.15- 2.75) - (1.71× 2.01) A Solution: 4 E 5.2 - 8.33 *@L 7.46 - .32 */ 3.15 E 2.75 - 4.3 * 1.71 E 2.01 *-/@v E: RPN: The Stack 275 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 F RPN: Selected Examples The following examples selected from chapter 14 (“Additional Examples”) have been converted to RPN keystrokes. These examples illustrate how to convert algebraic to RPN keystrokes in less common situations: with %, with R, and in a CFLO list. Example: Simple Interest at an Annual Rate. Your good friend needs a loan to start her latest enterprise and has requested that you lend her $450 for 60 days. You lend her the money at 7% simple annual interest, to be calculated on a 365-day basis. How much interest will she owe you in 60 days, and what is the total amount owed? Keys: Display: Description: 450 E 7 % 60 * 365 / Annual interest. Actual interest for 60 days. 450 + Adds principal to get total debt. Example: APR for a Loan with Fees. A borrower is charged two points for the issuance of a mortgage. (One point is equal to 1% of the mortgage amount.) If the mortgage amount is $60,000 for 30 years and the interest rate is 11½% annually with monthly payments, what APR is the borrower paying? 1. Since the payment amount is not given, calculate it (PMT) first. Use the given mortgage amount (PV = $60,000) and interest rate (I%YR = 11½%). 2. To find the APR (the new I%YR), use the PMT calculated in step 1 and 276 F: RPN: Selected Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 adjust the mortgage amount to reflect the points paid (PV = $60,000 －2%). All other values remain the same (term is 30 years; no future value). Keys: Display: Description: If necessary, sets 12 payments per year and @c e End mode. 30 @ Figures and stores number of payments. 11.5 Stores interest rate and 60000 amount of loan. 0 No balloon payment, so future value is zero. Borrower’s monthly payment. R 2 %- Stores actual amount of money received by borrower into PV. Calculates APR. Example: Loan from the Lender’s Point of View. A $1,000,000 10-year, 12% (annual interest) interest-only loan has an origination fee of 3 points. What is the yield to the lender? Assume that monthly payments of interest are made. (Before figuring the yield, you must calculate the monthly PMT = (loan x 12%) ÷ 12 mos.) When calculating the I%YR, the FV (a balloon payment) is the entire loan amount, or $1,000,000, while the PV is the loan amount minus the points. F: RPN: Selected Examples 277 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: If necessary, sets 12 payments per year and @c e End mode. 10 @ Stores total number of payments. 1000000 E 12 % Calculates annual interest on $1,000,000. 12 / Calculates, then stores, monthly payment. 1000000 Stores entire loan amount as balloon payment. 3%-& Calculates, then stores, amount borrowed (total points). Calculates APR—the yield to lender. Example: Savings for College. Your daughter will be going to college in 12 years and you are starting a fund for her education. She will need $15,000 at the beginning of each year for four years. The fund earns 9% annually, compounded monthly. You plan to make monthly deposits, starting at the end of the current month. How much should you deposit each month to meet her educational expenses? See figures 14-1 and 14-2 (chapter 14) for the cash-flow diagrams. Remember to press the = key for E while working in a list. (Pressing I will add data to the list, not perform an ENTER.) 278 F: RPN: Selected Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Keys: Display: Description: Displays current cash-flow list and CFLO menu keys. @c Clears current list or gets a new one. or Step 1: Set up a CFLO list. Keys: Display: Description: 0I Sets initial cash flow, FLOW(0), to zero. 0I Stores zero in FLOW(1) and prompts for the number of times it occurs. 12 E 12 * 1 - I For E, press =, not I. Stores 143 (for 11 years, 11 months) in #TIMES(1) for FLOW(1). 15000 I Stores amount of first withdrawal, at end of 12th year. I 0I 11 I 15000 II Stores cash flows of zero ... ... for the next 11 months. Stores second withdrawal, for sophomore year. F: RPN: Selected Examples 279 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 0 I 11 I Stores cash flows of zero for the next 11 months. 15000 II Stores third withdrawal, 0 I 11 I for junior year. Stores cash flows of zero for the next 11 months. 15000 II Stores fourth withdrawal, for senior year. e Done entering cash flows; gets CALC menu. Step 2: Calculate NUS for the monthly deposit. Then calculate net present value. Keys: Display: Description: 9 E 12 / Figures the periodic (monthly) interest rate and stores it in I%. Amount of monthly deposit needed to meet planned withdrawals. Calculates the net present value of the monthly deposits, which is the same as the NPV of the four future withdrawals. Example: Tax-Free Account. Consider opening an IRA account with a dividend rate of 8.175%. 1) If you invest $2,000 at the beginning of each year for 35 years, how much will you have at retirement? 2) How much will you have paid into the IRA? 3) How much interest will you have earned? 4) If your post-retirement tax rate is 15%, what is the 280 F: RPN: Selected Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 after-tax future value of the account? Assume only the interest will be taxed (the principal was taxed before deposit). 5) What is the purchasing power of that amount, in today’s dollars, assuming an 8% annual inflation rate? Keys: Display: Description: 1 e Sets 1 payment per year and Begin mode. 35 Stores number of payment periods until retirement (1 x 35). 8.175 Stores dividend rate. 0 Present value of account (before first payment). 2000 & Annual payment (deposit). Calculates amount in account at retirement. RR * Calculates total amount paid into IRA by retirement. R+ Calculates interest you will earn. 15 % Taxes at 15% of interest. &R + Subtracts taxes from total FV to calculate after-tax FV. Stores after-tax future value in FV. F: RPN: Selected Examples 281 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 80 Calculates present-value purchasing power of the above after-tax FV at 8% inflation rate. Example: Taxable Retirement Account. If you invest $3,000 each year for 35 years, with dividends taxed as ordinary income, how much will you have in the account at retirement? Assume an annual dividend rate of 8.175% and a tax rate of 28%, and that payments begin today. What will be the purchasing power of that amount in today’s dollars, assuming 8% annual inflation? Keys: Display: Description: Displays TVM menu. 1 e Sets 1 payment per year and Begin mode. 35 Stores years until retirement. 8.175 E 28 % - Calculates interest rate Stores interest rate. 0 Stores no present value. 3000 & Stores annual payment. Calculates future value. diminished by tax rate. 80 Calculates present-value purchasing power of the above FV at 8% inflation. 282 F: RPN: Selected Examples File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Error Messages The calculator beeps and displays an error message under certain circumstances－for example, when you attempt an operation that is not allowed. The calculator distinguishes between math errors that occur on the calculator line and other types of messages by preceding math-error messages with the word . Press C or < to erase the message and restore the previous display. The Solver cannot begin a numerical search using the initial estimates. See pages 180 and 239. To conserve battery power, the calculator will not transmit data to the printer until fresh batteries have been installed. Attempted to get another list without first clearing or naming the current list. Press @c to clear it or to name it. Attempted a calculation using an empty CFLO or SUM list. Error Messages 283 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Attempted to take the base 10 or natural log of a negative number or zero. This can happen during curve-fitting calculations if you attempt to calculate: A logarithmic forecasting model with a negative or zero x-value. An exponential model with a negative or zero y-value. A power model with a negative or zero x- or y-value. Attempted to raise a negative number to a non-integer power. An internal result in a calculation was too large for the calculator to handle. Attempted to take the square root of a negative number or calculate G.SD given any negative frequencies. An internal result in a calculation was too small for the calculator to handle. Attempted to raise zero to a negative power. Attempted to divide zero by zero. Attempted to raise zero to the zero power. Attempted to divide by zero. 284 Error Messages File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The numbers stored into built-in variables caused a division by zero in the calculation. You must change one or more stored values. (Refer to the equations in appendix B to see which variables appear in the divisor.) Attempted to calculate standard deviation with only one value in the list. Attempted to do curve fitting using an x-variable list in which all the values are equal. Attempted to do curve fitting using the logarithmic or power models with a list for which the transformed values of x (ln x) are equal. The calculator has insufficient memory available to do the operation you’ve specified. Refer to “Managing Calculator Memory” on page 227 for additional information. One of the following values for interest is less than or equal to－100: TVM menu: I%YR ÷ P/YR. PER menu: NOM% ÷ P (calculating EFF%); EFF% (calculating NOM%). CONT menu: EFF%. CFLO menu: I% (calculating NPV, NUS, or NFV) or estimate of IRR%. Calculation of I%YR, IRR%, amortization results, a Solver variable, or a SUM-list sort was interrupted. Error Messages 285 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The number entered cannot be interpreted as a proper date. Check its format (page 143). Attempted to set a date outside the range 1/1/2000 through 12/31/2099, or attempted date arithmetic outside the range 10/15/1582 through 12/31/9999. The Solver cannot interpret the equation due to a syntax error. Refer to “What Can Appear in an Equation,” page 166. A variable’s name is invalid. Refer to “Names of Variables,” page 166. Attempted to store into a built-in variable a number that is outside the range of values permitted for that variable. The number entered cannot be interpreted as a proper time. The appointment’s repeat interval is out of range. Attempted to enter a non-integer, negative number when specifying the number of displayed decimal places (in DSP). Attempted to calculate I%YR with N ≦ 0.99999 or N ≧ 1010. Calculation of IRR% produced a negative answer, but the calculator has determined that there is also a unique positive answer. (Refer to page 238.) The calculator has been reset (page 224, 228). 286 Error Messages File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 The calculator is unable to calculate I%YR. Check the values stored in PV, PMT, and FV. Make sure the signs of the numbers are correct. If the values of PV, PMT, and FV are correct, the calculation is too complex for the TVM menu. You may be able to perform the calculation using the CFLO menu to calculate IRR%. The calculation of IRR% is complex, and requires you to store a guess. (Refer to page 238.) Continuous Memory has been erased (page 224, 229). The list name you’ve attempted to enter is already in use; type in a new name and press I. No solution is possible using the values stored in the current built-in menu or list. This most commonly results from an incorrect sign for a cash flow or other monetary value. (Review page 64.) Attempted to calculate the factorial of a negative or non-integer value. A warning－not an error－that the magnitude of a result is too large for the calculator to handle, so it returns ±9.99999999999E499 rounded to the current display format. See page 47 for limits. Error Messages 287 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 No solution was found for a Solver equation using the current values stored in its variables. Refer to page 246 in appendix B. A warning－not an error－that the magnitude of a result is too small for the calculator to handle, so it returns the value zero. See page 47 for limits. Attempted a two-list SUM calculation using lists of unequal lengths. 288 Error Messages File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Index Special Characters -, 47 low-battery annunciator, 17, 184, 224 shift annunciator, 19 , 143 , 42 , 150 , 150 ( menu formula, 247 using, 50 %, 40 %TOTL menu formula, 247 using, 51 ) alarm annunciator, 147 &, 22 or , 174 , , , , 32 Σ, 139, 171, 176–77, 220 @, 19 , 35 , 35 , 78 , 92, 95, 96–97 , 127 , 49, 50 , 49, 51 , 51 , 132, 139 , 132, 139 , 132, 139 , 132, 139 , 132, 139 , 144 , 144 ] or [, 43, 269 editing a list, 98 in a list, 96, 162 with history stack, 43 <, 20, 32, 272 =, 174 t, 41 v, 16, 17, 262 print annunciator, 184 #TIMES, 96–97 A , , 56 , 115 , 115 Index 289 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 , 36, 262 , 109 key, 34 through , 145 , appointment-setting menu, 145 ABS (absolute value) function, 169 Accrued interest, on bond, 109, 111 Accuracy of the clock, 230 Acknowledging appointments, 147 Actual calendar actuarial equations, 246 for arithmetic, 149 for bonds, 110 Addition, 21 ADJST menu, 144 Advance payments, 74–77, 199–200, 253. See also Leasing Algebraic mode, 36, 262 rules in equations, 164–66 ALOG, 169 Alphabetic keys, 30–32 ALPHAbetic menu, 30 AM/PM format, 143 Amortization calculations, 77–81 equations, 247 schedule, 78 schedule, printing, 82–83 AMRT menu, 78 AND operator, 166, 174 Annual percentage interest rate in TVM, 63 with fees, 193 with fees, RPN, 276 Annunciators, 18 definition, 18 printer, 184 Antilogarithms, 42, 169 Appointment menus, 142, 145 messages, 147 repeat interval, 147, 148 -setting menu, 146 Appointments acknowledging, 147 clearing, 148 messages, 145 past due, 146 printing, 188 setting, 146–47 unacknowledged, 146, 148 APPT menu, 145 APR for, with fees, RPN, 276 calculations, 67–71 interest-only, 194 interest-only, RPN, 276 odd-period, 195, 196–97 Arithmetic, 21–22, 38 in registers and variables, 46 in RPN, 264–67, 270 in RPN stack, 270 RPN examples, 275 290 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 price, 111 type, 109, 110 yield, 111 Arithmetic priority, 154 Arrow keys for changing current equation, 156 for editing, 32 for finding an equation, 162 for rolling the history stack, 43 for viewing long equations, 166 B , 56 , 132 , 78 , 64 , 115 , 56 BOND menu, 108–9 Bonds, 215–16 Bottom of the current list, in CFLO, 95 of the Solver list, 162 Braces in equations, 167 Brackets in equations, 167 Brightness of the display, 17 Built-in variables. See Variables, built-in BUS menu, 49, 254 Business variables, clearing, 50 Buy option, for a lease, 75–77 B-value, in curve fitting, 132 Backspace key, 20 Balance of loan, 80–81 Balloon payment, 69–71 Batteries, changing, 225–26 Battery life, 224 annunciator, 224 Beeper, 147 Beeper on and off, 36 Begin payment mode, 64, 66 Beginning of list in CFLO list, 98 in SUM list, 124 Bond calculations, 110–13 equations, 249 fractional values for, 111 C %CHG menu, 50 in in in in CFLO menu, 92 SOLVE menu, 157 SUM menu, 122 TIME menu, 142 , 109 , 109 , 132 , 55 , 55 , 56 Index 291 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 , 56 key, 53 , , 56 @c, 20, 28–29 C, 17, 20, 32 v, 16, 17, 262 CALC menu in CFLO menu, 101 in SOLVE menu, 158–59 in SUM menu, 128 in TIME menu, 150 Calculations, RPN order of, 274 parenthesis in, 266, 274 Calculator not functioning, 230–31 resetting, 225, 228 Support, 222 Calculator line arithmetic in, 38–48 definition, 18 displaying alphabetic information, 31–32 editing, 20 Calendar. See also Date 360-day, 150 365-day, 150 actual, 150 range of, 149 Calendar basis, 108–9 Call, 110, 112 Canadian mortgage, 197–99, 252 Capitalized value, lease, 74–75 Cash flow calculations, 91–107 equations, 248 list. See CFLO list Cash flow diagrams in cash flow calculations, 92–94 in TVM calculations, 64–66 Cash flows equal. See Cash flows, grouped grouped, 94, 104 initial, 94, 95 maximum number of, 91 sum of, 101 ungrouped, 93 zero, 94, 95 CDATE, 169 CFLO list CALC menu, 101 clearing, 99 copying from, 98 correcting, 97 creating, 94 definition, 91 deleting numbers, 98 editing, 92, 97 entering numbers in, 95–97 GETting a new list, 99 inserting numbers, 98 name, clearing, 99 naming, 98–99 printing, 187 signs of numbers, 92 292 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 starting a new list, 99 viewing name of current list, 99 viewing numbers, 97 Chain calculations, 21, 38–39, 38 in RPN, 266, 274 Changing batteries, 225–26 the sign of a number, 22 Characters for CFLO list, 98–99 for equation names, 161 for SUM list, 126 in equations, 166–67 inserting and deleting, 31–32 Chi-squared, 219–20 Clearing, 20 %CHG variables, 50 %T variables, 50 AMRT variables, 80 appointments, 146, 148 BOND variables, 109 BUS variables, 50 calculator memory, 28–29 CFLO lists, 95, 99 ICNV variables, 86 menu variables, 28 menus, 28 MU%C variables, 50 MU%P variables, 50 numbers in RPN, 272 Solver variables, 163 SUM lists, 123 the history stack, 44 the RPN stack, 269, 272 TIME CALC variables, 150 TVM variables, 64 variables, 28–29 Clock. See Time Commas, in numbers, 35 Compound interest calculations, 61 Compounding annual, 71 monthly, 67, 68, 74, 75 periods, 61, 62, 63, 64 periods, vs. payment periods, 87–90, 200 rates, 84 semimonthly, 72 Conditional expressions, 174–76 Constant numbers, RPN, 271, 272 Constants in equations, 166 CONT menu, 86 Continuous compounding, calculating interest for, 85 Continuous Memory, 37 erasing, 225, 229 using, 17 Contrast of display, changing, 17 Conventional investments, definition, 101 Converting interest rates, 85–87 Correlation coefficient, 132 Index 293 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Cost markup on, 49, 52 of capital, 101 Counter variable,in summation function, 176 Coupon basis, 108–9 payments, 108 Creating a CFLO list, 94–96, 99 a new equation, in the Solver, 157–58 a SUM list, 123–24, 127 CTIME, 169 Cube root, 41 in RPN, 265 Currency clearing variables, 60 converting, 59 entering a rate, 57 exchange, 57, 58 selecting, 55 storing and recalling, 59 currency#1, 55 currency#2, 55 Current equation, 156 deleting, 162–64 printing, 187 CURRX menu, 55, 255 Cursor, 19 movement keys, 32 Curve fitting, 121, 132–34 calculations, 134–37 equations, 251 Customer Support, 222 D in CFLO menu, 92 in Solver menu, 157, 164 in SUM menu, 122, 127 , 115 , 32 , 150 , 150 , 150 in appointment-setting menu, 145 in SET menu, 143 , 56 , 185 , 18 D, 34–35 Date in the past or future, 151 setting, 143–44 viewing, 141, 169 Date arithmetic, 149–52 Date format, 143, 144 for appointments, 144 DATE, Solver, 169 Day of the week, determining, 149 Day.month.year format, 143, 144 294 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 clearing, 20 contrast, 17 format, 34 in RPN, 268–73 messages, 36 organization, 19, 43 printing the contents of, 185 turning on and off, 17 DDAYS, 169 Decimal places, 34, 47 Decimal point, 35 Declining balance depreciation. See Depreciation Deleting all information, 225, 228–29 characters, 32 equations, 162–64 from a CFLO list, 98, 100 from a SUM list, 125, 127 variables in the Solver, 162–64 Dependent variable, 134 DEPRC menu, 114 Depreciation ACRS method, 114, 118–19 calculations, 114–17 declining balance method, 114, 116–17 equations, 250 partial year, 118–19 straight line, 114, 116 sum of the years’ digits, 114, 116 Diagnostic self-test, 232 Diagrams, cash flow, 64–66, 92–94 Displayed messages, 283 Displaying the contents of registers, 43–46 values assigned to variables, 28 Division, 38–40 Doublespace printing, 36, 185 DSP menu, 34–35, 260 E \ key, 47 , 64 , 42 , 157, 161 , 56 , 18 , 18 key, 88 Digit separator, 35 e, 25, 28, 92, 96, 123, 147, 161 Direct solutions in Solver, 179, 240–41 E, 263, 264–65, 271, 274 Discount rate, 101 E, in numbers, 47 Display Editing Index 295 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 alphabetic information, 31–32 equations, 161 keys, 31–32 erasing, 163 for built-in menus, 246–53 invalid, 158 length of, 153 long, viewing, 166 naming, 161 verifying, 157–58 writing, 164 Effective interest rate, 84–87, 100 End payment mode, 64, 65 Ending value, in summation function, 176 English language, setting, 224 Erasing. See also Clearing; Deleting Erasing calculator memory, 225, 229 Entering equations, 157–58 guesses in the Solver, 181–83 Error messages, 36, 283 Entering numbers in a SUM list, 123–24 in RPN, 264, 271 into CFLO lists, 95–97 Examples, 190 in RPN, 276–82 Environmental limits, 230 EXP, 169 Equals sign, used to complete calculations, 21, 38 EXPM, 169 Equation list. See Solver list Estimates, entering in the Solver, 181–83 Exchanging registers, RPN, 269 Exponential model, 130, 132, 133 Equation Solver, 153–83, 240–46 clearing, 163 introduction, 29 Exponential numbers, 47 Equations algebraic rules, 164 characters in, 166–67 clearing, 163 deleting, 162–64 displaying, 162 editing, 161 entering, 157 F Exponentiation, 41–42, 265 in equations, 165 , 115 , 128 , 18 key, 63 key, 34 296 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Face value, bond, 110 FACT, 169 Factorial, 42, 169 FIN menu, 256–57 FLOW, Solver, 169 Forecasting calculations, 130–37 equations, 251 values, 121, 132–34 Guesses entering in the Solver, 181–83 IRR%, entering, 238–40 Solver, 245 H in the appointment-setting menu, 145 in the SET menu, 143 Foreign language, 224 Formatting number, 34 FP, 169 , 56 Fractional part, 169 Halting a numerical search, 180 FRCST menu, 130, 132 Hierarchy of menus, 24 Functions in equations, 167, 168–71 Hierarchy of operations, in equations, 165 Future date, calculating, 151 History stack, 43. See also Stack, RPN printing, 186 Future value of a series of payments equation, 246 Solver function, 171 HMS, 170 HP Solve. See Solver G HRS, 170 , 82 , 132 , in CFLO, 99 , in SUM, 127 Humidity requirements, 230 G, 169 General business calculations, 49–53 equations, 247 Grouped standard deviation, 138–39 I , 78 in CFLO list, 92, 98 in SUM list, 122, 124 , 101 , 101 Index 297 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 , 18 key, 63 , , 56 I, 98 for storing equations, 30 in CFLO menu, 92 in RPN, 264 in the Solver list, 157–58 in SUM list, 123 I%, 101 ICNV equations, 248 menu, 84–85 variables, clearing, 86 IDIV, 170 IF, 170, 174–76 nested, 175 simple, 61 Interest rate conversions, 84–90, 201, 248 effective and nominal, 84 Intermediate results, RPN, 268, 274 Internal rate of return. See also IRR% calculations, 91, 97, 100–101 Interrupting an IRR% calculation, 239 Interrupting the Solver, 180 INV, 170 Invalid equation, 158 Inverse, 265 Inserting characters, 32 Investments calculating IRR% and NPV of, 101–3 with grouped cash flows, 104–5 Installing batteries, 225–26 IP, 170 Insufficient memory, 37, 227 IRA, 72–73, 206 Insurance policy, price, 213–15 IRR%, 100, 101, 209 Independent variable, 134 Individual Retirement Account, 72–73 INT, 170 INT, rounded in amortization calculations, 78 Interest compound, 61, 84 equation, 248 on loan, amount of PMT applied toward, 80–81 IRR% calculations, 238–40 halting, 239 IRR% estimate making, 239–40 seeing current, 239 IRR% solutions, types of, 238–39 ITEM, 170 298 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Iteration in Solver, 179–83, 240, 242–46 L , 115 , 132 , 186 , 42 , 42 LN, 170 LNP1, 170 Loan amortizing, 77–83 APR for, with fees, 193 LOG, 170 Logarithmic model, 130, 132, 133 Logarithms, 42, 170 L, 44 in RPN, 273 Logical operators, 174 L, 170 Low power, 224 and printing, 184 annunciator, 184 Language, setting, 224 Large number available, 47 in a list, 128 Large numbers, keying in and displaying, 47 Last result, copying, 44 LAST X register, RPN, 273 Leasing, 74–77, 199–200 LEFT-RIGHT, interpreting, 242–46 Letter keys, 30 Linear estimation, 121, 132–34 Low memory, 227 M , 132 , 109 , 49, 53 , 52, 128 , 128 , 128 , 128 , 132 Linear regression, 121 in appointment setting menu, 145 in printer men, 186 , 143 List. See CFLO list; SUM list; Solver list , 56 key, 25 List, RPN, 264 rolling the stack, 269 @A, 22–26 Linear model, 130, 133 @M, 37 Index 299 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 MAIN menu, 19 MOD, 170 Manual, organization of, 16 Mode of payments (Begin and End), 64 Markup on cost, 49, 52 on price, 49, 52 Math in equations, 165, 167 MATH menu, 42, 260 MAX, 170 Mean, 251 calculating, 128–30 weighted, 138–39 Median, 251 calculating, 128–30 Memory. See also Continuous Memory freeing, 227 insufficient, 227 losing, 229 using and reusing, 37 Menu labels, 19 maps, 25, 254–60 Menus calculations with, 27–28 changing, 25, 28 exiting, 28 names of, 161 printing values stored in, 186–88 sharing variables, 53 Messages for appointments, 147 Messages, error, 283 MIN, Solver, 170 Models, curve-fitting, 132, 133 Modes , 36, 261–62, 265 , 36, 261, 262 @>, 185 beeper, 36 double-space printing, 36, 185 menu map, 260 printer ac adapter, 36 Modified IRR, 209–12, 253 Month/day/year format, 143–44 Mortgage, 68, 69. See also Loan calculations, 67–71, 77–80 discounted or premium, 191 Moving average, 217–19 MU%C, 50 equation, 247 MU%P, 50 equation, 247 Multiple equations, linking, 178 Multiplication in arithmetic, 21, 38–40 in equations, 165 N , 56 , 78 300 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 , 63 in CFLO list, 98–99 in SUM list, 126 , 101 , 101 , 101 , 157 , 56 , 56 , 56 , 42 , 85–86 @ , 63 N, non-integer, 63, 72 Names of equations, 161 of lists, clearing, 99 of variables, 166 Negative numbers in arithmetic calculations, 22 in cash-flow calculations, 92–94 in TVM calculations, 64 Neighbors in Solver, 243 Nested IF function, in the Solver, 175 Net future value, 91, 101 Net present value, 91, 101 Net uniform series, 91, 101 NFV calculating, 91, 101 equation, 249 Noise Declaration, 237 Nominal interest rate, 84–87, 100 Non-integer period, 172 NOT, 174 Notes, discounted, 216–17 NPV calculating, 100–101 equation, 100, 248 Number lists. See CFLO list; SUM list; Solver list of days between dates, 149–51 of decimal points, 47 of payments, in TVM, 62 range, 48 Numbers. See also Value entering, RPN, 264, 271 with exponents, 47 Numerical solutions, 179–81 NUS, 100, 249 O , 50 @o, 17 O, 17 Odd-period calculations, 172–73, 195, 253 Operators, in equations, 164–67 in RPN, 266, 268, 274 Index 301 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Option to buy, for a lease, 74–75 OR, 174 Order of calculation, in the Solver, 165 OTHER menu, 146–47 Overdue appointments. See Past- due appointment Overview, 3 P , 56, 63 , 78 , 63 , 62 , 78, 82, 85 , 52, 109 , 51 , 121, 132 , 56 , 42 , 18 @p, 186 P, 186 Parentheses in arithmetic calculations, 39–40 in equations, 165, 167 in RPN, 266, 268, 274 Partial period. See also Odd period payments, 62 Past dates, calculating, 151 Past due appointments acknowledging, 148 definition, 146 Payment mode, 62 changing, 62 definition, 65–66 resetting, 62 Payment periods, 62 compounding, 61–64 in cash flow calculations, 93 vs. compounding periods, 87–90, 200 Payments amortization, 77–81 lease, 74–77 number per year, in TVM, 63 TVM, 62 Percent, 40 change, 49–51 key for simple interest, 40, 61 of cost, 49, 52 of total, 49, 51 Percentage calculations, 49–53 in RPN, 265 Periodic compounding, calculating interest rates for, 85–86 Periodic interest rate, 101 Periodic rate of return, 100 Periods, 35. See also Payment periods in numbers in numbers, 35 302 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 PI, 42, 170 Printer port, 184 PMT. See also Payments in TVM, 63 rounded amortization calculations, 78 Printing amortization table, 82–83 appointments, 188 display, 185 double space, 36, 185 equations, 187 history stack, 186 interrupting, 189 messages, 188 number lists, 187 slow, 184 Solver list, 187 speed, 185 statistical values, 186 time and date, 186 variables, 187 with tracings, 188 Positive numbers in cash flow calculations, 92–94 in TVM, 64 Power. See also Low power; Batteries function, 41, 265 raising a number to, 41 Power curve, 130, 132, 133 Power on and of, 17 Precision of numbers, internal, 34 Present value definition, 63 of a lease, 74–77 of a series of payments, 171, 246 of a single payment, 171, 246 Previous menu, displaying, 28 PRICE, as a shared variable, 53 Price, markup on, 49, 52 Principal of loan, amount of PMT applied toward, 80–81 Printer power for, 185 using, 184 Prompting for #TIMES, 96 Purchase date, bond, 109 Purchase price, in mortgage calculation, 68–69 PV, rounded in amortization calculations, 78 Q Questions, common, 222–24 R , 128 , 145 , 55 , 56 PRINTER menu, 186, 260 Index 303 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 , 56 , 36 , 186 , 56 @r, 35 ~, 43, 263 Replacing batteries, 225–26 Required rate of return, 101 Resetting the calculator, 228 Reusing a number, RPN, 271, 273 calculator memory, 37, 229 Reverse Polish Notation, 261 R, 45–46, 98 in RPN calculations, 266 with variables, 28 Rounding a PMT, 71 R↑, 263 Rounding numbers, 35 Radix (decimal point), 34 RPN. See appendixes D, E, and F, or individual entries Range calculating, 128 of numbers, 48 RND, 170 Running total, 123–24 Rate of return, periodic, 100 S Recalling numbers, 45–46 from variables, 28 in RPN, 264, 266 with @L, 44 , 115 , 109 , 115 , 115 , 128 , 128 , 142 , 55 , 56 , 56 , 56 , 186 , 132 Reciprocal key, 41 Register storage, 45–46 Registers arithmetic in, 46 in RPN, 268–73 printing the contents of, 186 Relational operators, 174 Remaining depreciable value, 115, 116 Renaming lists. See CFLO list; SUM list; the Solver list Repeating appointments past-due, 148 setting, 147 @S, 34 s, 45–46 calculations with, RPN, 266 304 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 S (function), 170 with annual rate, RPN, 276 Sample standard deviation, 128 Slope, in curve-fitting, 132, 134 Saving numbers, 43 Small numbers, keying in and displaying, 47 Savings account, 71–72 college, 202–6 college, RPN, 278 regular, 200–202 retirement, 208 retirement, RPN, 282 tax free, 206–9 tax free, RPN, 280 Savings calculations, 71–73 Scientific notation, 47 Self-test, 232 Service, 235–36 SET menu, 143 Setting a language, 18, 37 Setting an appointments, 146–47 Smallest number available, 47 in a list, 128 SOLVE menu, 260 Solver, 153–83. See also Equations Solver calculations, 155, 158–59 creating custom menus, 153–54 how it works, 179–83 multiple solutions in, 179 technical discussion of, 240–46 using, 153–68 Settings, default start-up, 229 Solver estimates, seeing curren, 240–46 Settlement date, 109 Solver functions, 168–71 SGN, 170 Solver list clearing, 162–64 current equation, 156 definition, 153 deleting equations, 157, 162–64 deleting variables from, 162–64 editing an equation, 157 empty, 156 entering equations, 157–58 printing, 187 Shared variables in BUS, 53 in equations, 162 in ICNV, 86 Shift, 19 Sign of numbers in cash-flow calculations, 92 in TVM calculations, 64 Simple interest, 40 with annual rate, 190 Index 305 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 Solver menu, 156–57 for multiple equations, 178 calculating, 128–30 grouped, 138–39 Solver solutions, types of, 243–46 Starting value, in summation function, 176 Solver variables. See Variables, Solver Statistical calculations, 127–40 Sorting numbers, 128 Statistical variables, 128, 130–34 Spaces in equations, 166 Specifying the number of decimal places, 34 SPFV, 171, 246 SPPV, 171, 246 SQ, 171 SQRT, 171 Square root calculating, 41, 265 Solver, 171 Square, Solver, 171 Squaring a number, 41, 265 Stack. See History stack Stack, RPN, 268–73 automatic movement of, 270, 274 clearing, 269, 273 dropping, 270 lifting, 270 losing contents off the top, 270 replicating contents in, 269, 270 rolling contents, 270, 271 size, 269 Standard deviation, 128–30 Statistical equations, 250–52 Statistics, x and y, 130–34 Step size, in summation function, 176 Storage registers, 45–46 arithmetic in, RPN, 46 printing the contents of, 186 Storing numbers, 44, 45–46 in built-in variables, 28 in RPN, 264, 266 Subtraction, 21, 38–40 SUM equations, 251 SUM items, maximum number of, 121 SUM list CALC menu, 128 clearing, 127 clearing numbers, 124 copying a number from, 126 correcting, 124 creating, 123–24 definition, 121–22 deleting numbers, 125 editing, 122, 124–25 entering numbers in, 123–24 FRCST menu, 132 GETting a new list, 127 306 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 inserting numbers, 124 largest number in, 128 name, deleting, 127 naming, 126 printing, 187 smallest number in, 128 sorting, 121, 128 starting a new list, 127 viewing numbers, 124 viewing the name of the current list, 126 , 150 , 186 , sum of cash flows, 101 Text, printing (MSG), 186 SUM menu, 122–23, 258 Time accuracy, 230 and date, printing, 186 changing, 143–44 format, 144, 145–46 of day, viewing, 141 setting, 143–44 Sum of cash flows, 101 TIME menus, 141–42 Summation, 132, 139, 171, 176–77 function, in the Solver, 176–78, 220 of lists, 177 values, 132, 139 Time value of money calculations, 61–83 equations, 247 Switching menus, 25–26 Top of the equation list, in the Solver, 162 Total, percent of, 51 Trace-printing, 188 TRN, 171 T Troubleshooting, 222–24 #T, 171 #TIMES, prompting, 96–97 %TOTL, 49, 51 in appointment-setting menu, 145 in PRINTER menu, 186 in SET menu, 143 , 78 , 51 of a SUM list, 122, 128 , 109 True population standard deviation, 128 Truncating function, in Solver, 171 Turning calculator on and off, 17 TVM calculations, 61–83 equation, 247 instructions, 66–67 menu, 61–64, 66 variables, clearing, 64 Index 307 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 statistical, 128 Typing aids, 167 Typing alphabetic characters, 30 U Variables, Solver, 154 clearing, 163 deleting, 163 names of, 166 shared, 162 , 56 , 56 Variables,shared, 53 Unacknowledged appointments, 148 Viewing lists. See CFLO list; SUM list; Solver list Unit conversions, in the Solver, 178 W Unknown variables in Solver, 240, 241 Up-arrow key, 43 USFV, 171, 246 USPV, 171, 246 V Values clearing, 28–29. See also @c recalling, 28, 45–46 storing, 28, 45–46 transferring between menus, 28 Variable, dependent, 134 independent, 134 Variables statistical, 130–34 Variables, built-in, 27 printing, 187 Verifying equations, 157–58 , 132 , 56 Warranty, 233–34 Weighted mean, 132, 138–39 X v, 41 x, 43 in RPN, 269 XOR, 174 x-values, in forecasting, 133–34 Y , 109 , 115 , 56 u, 41, 265 Yield 308 Index File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 of lease, 74–75 to call, bonds, 108 to maturity, bond, 108 y-intercept, in curve-fitting, 132, 134 y-values, in forecasting, 133–34 Z Zero-coupon bond, 113 Index 309 File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9 This regulation applies only to The Netherlands Batteries are delivered with this product, when empty do not throw them away but collect as small chemical waste. Bij dit produkt zijn batterijen geleverd. Wanneer deze leeg zijn, moet u ze niet weggooien maar inleveren als KCA. File name : English-M02-1-040308(Print).doc Print data : 2004/3/9

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