HP 212M User's manual

HP 212M User's manual
HP ProCurve
Switch 212M and 224M
Technical information in this document
is subject to change without notice.
©Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company
1998. All rights reserved. Reproduction,
adaptation, or translation without prior
written permission is prohibited except
as allowed under the copyright laws.
HP Networking
Management and
Configuration Guide
Printed in Singapore 6/98
Manual Part Number
5967-2146
*5967-2146*
For world-wide support on all
HP Network Connectivity Products
visit our web site at:
http://www.hp.com/go/network_city
Less Work, More Network
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Sraswb.book : SIER_SW0.FM Page i Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
HP ProCurve
Switch 212M and 224M
Management and Configuration Guide
Sraswb.book : SIER_SW0.FM Page ii Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
© Copyright 1998 Hewlett-Packard Company
All Rights Reserved.
This document contains information which is protected by
copyright. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without
prior permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the
copyright laws.
Publication Number
5967-2146
June 1998
Applicable Products
Disclaimer
The information contained in this document is subject to
change without notice.
HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY MAKES NO WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Hewlett-Packard shall not
be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
Hewlett-Packard assumes no responsibility for the use or
reliability of its software on equipment that is not furnished
by Hewlett-Packard.
HP ProCurve Switch 212M (HP J3298A)
HP ProCurve Switch 224M (HP J3299A)
Warranty
See the Customer Support/Warranty booklet included with
the product.
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your
Hewlett-Packard products and replacement parts can be
obtained from your HP Sales and Service Office or
authorized dealer.
Hewlett-Packard Company
8000 Foothills Boulevard, m/s 5552
Roseville, California 95747-5552
http://www.hp.com/go/network_city
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Contents
1 Selecting a Management Interface
Understanding Management Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Advantages of Using the HP Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Advantages of Using the Switch Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
2 Configuring an IP Address on the Switch
Methods for Configuring an IP Address and Subnet Mask . . . . . . . 2-2
Manually Configuring an IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Where To Go From Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
3 Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Web Browser Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Using a Standalone Web Browser in a PC or UNIX Workstation . . . . 3-3
Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Viewing the “First Time Install” Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Creating User Names and Passwords in the Web Browser Interface 3-8
Online Help for the HP Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
The Overview Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
The Port Utilization and Status Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
The Alert Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
The Tab Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Setting Fault Detection Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
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4 Using the Switch Console
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Starting and Ending a Console Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
How To Start a Console Session: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
How To End a Console Session: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Main Menu Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Screen Structure and Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Using Password Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
To set Manager and Operator passwords: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Rebooting the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Using the Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
5 Using HP TopTools To Monitor and Manage the Switch
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
SNMP Management Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
SNMP Configuration Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Advanced Management: RMON and HP Extended RMON Support 5-4
RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Extended RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
6 Configuring the Switch
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Configuration Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Support/Management URLs Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Support URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Management Server URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
IP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Configuring IP Address from the Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Configuring IP Address from the Switch Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
DHCP/Bootp Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
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SNMP Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Configuring SNMP Communities from the Switch Console . . . . . . . 6-15
Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Console/Serial Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Using the Switch Console To Configure the Console/Serial Link . . . 6-21
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-22
Configuring System Parameters from the Web Browser Interface . 6-22
Configuring System Information from the Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
Port Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24
Configuring Port Parameters from the Web Browser Interface . . . . 6-26
Configuring Port Parameters from the Switch Console . . . . . . . . . . . 6-27
Network Monitoring Port Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-28
Configuring Port Monitoring from the Web Browser Interface . . . . 6-28
Configuring Port Monitoring from the Switch Console . . . . . . . . . . . 6-29
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-30
Enabling STP from the Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-31
Using the Switch Console To Configure STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-32
How STP Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-33
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
6-34
Configuring IGMP from the Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-35
Using the Switch Console To Configure IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-36
How IGMP Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-38
Special Case IGMP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-42
7 Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Switch Console Status and Counters Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
General System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Switch Management Address Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Displaying Port Status from the Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Displaying Port Status from the Switch Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
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Port Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Displaying Port Counters from the Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . 7-8
Displaying Port Counters from the Console Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Address Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Port Address Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Spanning Tree (STP) Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
IP Multicast (IGMP) Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
8 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Web Browser Interface or Switch Console Access Problems . . . . . 8-3
Unusual Network Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Using the Event Log to Identify Problem Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Ping and Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
The Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Using the Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
Restoring the Factory Default Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
A File Transfers
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Downloading an Operating System (OS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Using TFTP To Download the OS File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Using Xmodem to Download the OS File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Using the SNMP-Based HP Download Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Switch-to-Switch Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Transferring Switch Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8
vi
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B MAC Address Management
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Determining the MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Base MAC Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Switch Port MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Index
vii
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1
Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
This chapter describes the following:
■
Management interfaces for the Switch 212M and the Switch 224M
■
Advantages of using each interface
Understanding Management Interfaces
Management interfaces enable you to reconfigure the switch, monitor switch
status and performance, and perform troubleshooting tasks.
The Switch 212M and 224M offer the following interfaces:
■
The HP web browser interface --an interface that is built into the switch
and can be accessed using a standard web browser (such as Netscape
Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer)
■
The switch console--a VT-100/ANSI console interface built into the switch
■
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches--an easy-to-use, browser-based
network management tool that works with HP proactive networking
features that are built into managed HP hubs and switches (included on
a CD with the switch)
Each interface consists of a series of management features, accessed either
through menu-driven screens or a split Window with tab navigation. Each
interface has its advantages—they are described in the next sections.
This manual describes how to use the HP web browser interface (chapter 3)
and the switch console (chapter 4), and how to configure the switch using
either interface (chapter 6).
To use HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches, refer to the HP TopTools User’s
Guide and the TopTools online help, both of which are available on the CDROM shipped with your HP switch.
1-1
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Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Advantages of Using the HP Web
Browser Interface
Figure 1-1. Example of the HP Web Browser Interface Display
1-2
■
Easy access to the switch from anywhere on the network, using the
device’s IP address
■
Familiar browser interface--locations of window objects consistent
with known standard, uses mouse clicking for navigation; no terminal
setup.
■
More visual cues, using colors, status bars, device icons, and other
graphical objects to represent values rather than numeric values
■
Display of acceptable ranges of values available in configuration list
boxes
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Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using the Switch Console
Selecting a Management
Interface
Advantages of Using the Switch Console
Figure 1-2. Example of the Switch Console Display
■
More comprehensive set of features and parameters to work with
than the web browser interface
■
Out-of-band access (through direct cable connection) to switch, so
network bottlenecks, crashes, and network downtime do not slow or
prevent access
■
Telnet access to the full console functionality
■
Ability to configure management access, for example, creating an IP
address, and setting Community Names and Authorized Managers
■
Rebooting the switch through either direct or Telnet access
■
Faster navigation, avoiding delays for slower display of graphical
objects over a browser interface
1-3
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Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
You can operate HP TopTools from a network management station on the
network to monitor traffic, manage your hubs and switches, and proactively
recommend network changes to increase network uptime and optimize
performance. Easy to install and use, HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
(formerly HP AdvanceStack Assistant) is the answer to your management
challenges.
Figure 1-3. Example of HP TopTools Main Screen
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches has three main sections: Network Devices,
Network Traffic, and Network Growth
Network Devices:
1-4
■
Enables fast installation of hubs and switches
■
Quickly finds and notifies you of the location of problems, saving valuable
time
■
Notifies you when HP hubs and switches use “self-healing” features to fix
or limit common network problems
■
Identifies users by port and lets you assign easy-to-remember names to
any network device
■
Enables you to configure and monitor network devices from your PC
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Selecting a Management Interface
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
Network Traffic:
Watches the network for problems
■
Shows traffic and “top talker” nodes on the screen
■
Uses intuitive traffic monitor diagrams to make bottlenecks easy to see
■
Improves network reliability through real-time fault isolation
■
Displays your entire network without having to put RMON probes on
every segment (up to 1500 segments)
Network Growth:
■
Monitors, stores, and analyzes network traffic to determine where
upgrades are needed
■
Uses Network Performance Advisor to give clear, easy-to-follow plans
detailing the most cost-effective way to upgrade your network
1-5
Selecting a Management
Interface
■
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2
Configuring an IP Address on the Switch
This chapter helps you to quickly assign an IP (Internet Protocol) address and
subnet mask to the switch. In the factory default configuration, the switch
does not have an IP address and subnet mask, so it can be managed only by
using a direct connection to the switch console.
■
HP Web Browser Interface built into the switch
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches—SNMP-based network management
software shipped with the switch
■
the switch console through a Telnet connection
■
For more information on this topic, refer to “IP Configuration” on page 6-5.
Note
An IP address and subnet mask for the switch should be assigned by your
network administrator and be compatible with the IP addressing used in your
network. For more information about IP addressing, refer to “IP Configuration” on page 6-5.
If your network is a standalone network, your IP addressing and subnet mask
scheme can be set up in any way that meets your local needs. However, if you
will be connecting your network to other networks that use globally assigned
IP addresses, refer to “Globally Assigned Network Addresses” on page 6-14.
2-1
Configuring an IP Address
on the Switch
Configuring an IP address and subnet mask enables the switch to operate as
a managed device in your network, giving you in-band (networked) access to
these interfaces:
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Configuring an IP Address on the Switch
Methods for Configuring an IP Address and Subnet Mask
Methods for Configuring an IP Address
and Subnet Mask
Configuring an IP Address
on the Switch
Use either of the following two methods to configure the switch with an IP
address and subnet mask compatible with your network:
■
Manually through the switch’s console: This is the easiest method
when you are initially setting up the switch. The switch comes with a
console cable that you can use to connect the switch to a PC running a
VT-100 terminal emulator (such as HyperTerminal in Windows 95 or
Windows NT), or to a VT-100 terminal. Refer to “Manually Configuring an
IP Address”, below.
■
Configure your DHCP/Bootp server to support the switch: By
default, the switch is configured to acquire an IP address configuration
from a DHCP or Bootp server. To use DHCP/Bootp, refer to “DHCP/Bootp
Operation” on page 6-10.
Manually Configuring an IP Address
This section describes how to use the switch console to configure an IP
address.
1.
Use the instructions in chapter 2, “Installing the Switch 212M and 224M”
of your switch installation manual to connect a PC running a terminal
emulator, or a terminal, to the Console port on the switch, and display the
Main Menu.
2.
From the console Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Management Access Configuration (IP, SNMP, Console) ...
1. IP Configuration
You will see the screen similar to the one shown in figure 2-2, but with the
IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway fields blank.
2-2
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Configuring an IP Address on the Switch
Manually Configuring an IP Address
3.
Press [E] to select the Edit action, then use the down arrow key ([v]) to
select the IP Config [DHCP/Bootp] field.
4.
Use the Space bar to display Manual for this field.
5.
Press the down arrow key ([v]) to display the three IP configuration
parameters, as shown in figure 2-2, and select the IP Address field.
6.
Enter the IP address you want to assign to the switch.
7.
Select the Subnet Mask field and enter the subnet mask for your network.
8.
If you want to reach off-subnet destinations, select the Gateway field and
enter the address of the gateway router for your subnet.
9.
Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save), then proceed with any other console tasks.
To test the IP address, you can try a Ping test to the switch’s IP address
from another IP device in your network.
2-3
Configuring an IP Address
on the Switch
Figure 2-1. The Internet (IP) Service Screen
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Configuring an IP Address on the Switch
Manually Configuring an IP Address
Where To Go From Here
Configuring an IP Address
on the Switch
The above procedure configures your switch with an IP address and subnet
mask. With the proper network connections, you can now manage the switch
from a network management station, or from a PC equipped with a web
browser, or through a Telnet session to the switch console.
■
To access the switch using a web browser, refer to chapter 3, “Using the
HP Web Browser Interface”.
■
To continue to use the switch console, refer to chapter 4, “Using the Switch
Console”.
■
To access the switch using a network management tool, refer to chapter
5, “Using HP TopTools to Monitor and Manage the Switch”.
■
Inbound Telnet access to the switch is enabled in the factory default
configuration.
■
2-4
•
To change the Telnet access parameter, refer to “Using the Switch
Console to Configure the Console/Serial Link” on page 6-21.
•
To use Telnet to access the switch console refer to “Starting and
Ending a Console Session” on page 4-2.
For problems or error indications, refer to chapter 8, “Troubleshooting”.
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3
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Overview
The HP web browser interface built into the switch lets you easily access the
switch from a browser-based PC on your network. This lets you do the
following:
■
optimize your network uptime by using the Alert Log and other diagnostic
tools
■
make configuration changes to the switch
■
maintain security by configuring usernames and passwords
Using the HP web browser interface to configure the switch is covered in
chapter 6, “Configuring the Switch”. This chapter covers the following:
system requirements for using the HP web browser interface (page 3-2)
■
starting a web browser interface session (page 3-3)
■
tasks for your first HP web browser interface session (page 3-6)
•
•
•
■
Note
configuring user names and passwords in the web browser interface
(page 3-8)
selecting the fault detection configuration for the Alert Log operation
(page 3-25)
getting access to online help for the web browser interface (page 3-10)
Description of the web browser interface:
•
•
the Overview window and tabs (page 3-12)
the Port Utilization and Status displays (page 3-14)
•
the Alert Log and Alert types (page 3-16)
•
setting the Fault Detection Policy (page 3-25)
If you want security beyond that achieved with user names and passwords,
you can disable access to the web browser interface. This is done by changing
the Web Agent Enabled parameter setting in the Console/Serial Link configuration screen in the switch console. See “Console/Serial Link” on page 6-20.
3-1
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Web Browser Interface Requirements
Web Browser Interface Requirements
You can use equipment meeting the following requirements to access the HP
web browser interface on your intranet.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Table 3-1.
Supported Network Devices and System Requirements
Platform Entity and OS Version
Minimum
Recommended
PC Platform
90 MHz Pentium
120 MHz Pentium
HP-UX Platform (9.x or 10.x)
100 MHz
120 MHz
RAM
16 Mbytes
32 Mbytes
Screen Resolution
800 X 600
1,024 x 768
Color Count
256
65,536
Internet Browser*
PCs:
(English-language browser only)
• Netscape® Communicator
4.x
• Microsoft® Internet
Explorer 4.x
UNIX: Netscape Navigator 3.x
or later
PCs: Netscape
Communicator
4.03 or later
UNIX: Netscape
Navigator 3.x or
later
PC Operating System
Microsoft Windows® 95 and Windows NT
UNIX® Operating System
Standard UNIX® OS
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
(Optional)
HP J2569M or later
*For notes on using Netscape and Microsoft web browsers, go to HP’s Network City web
site, http://www.hp.com/go/network_city.
3-2
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface
Session
You can start a web browser session in the following ways:
■
Using a standalone Web browser on a network connection from a PC or
UNIX workstation:
•
•
■
Note
Directly connected to your network
Connected through remote access to your network
Using a management station running HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
on your network (the same browser interface is presented when you
access a device through HP TopTools)
HP TopTools is designed for installation on a network management workstation. For this reason, the HP TopTools system requirements are different from
the system requirements for accessing the switch’s web browser interface
from a non-management PC or workstation. For HP TopTools requirements,
refer to the information printed on the sleeve in which the HP TopTools CD is
shipped, or to the system requirements information in the user’s guide
included on the HP TopTools CD.
This procedure assumes that you have a supported web browser installed on
your PC or workstation, and that an IP address has been configured on the
switch. (For more on assigning an IP address, refer to chapter 2, “Configuring
an IP Address on the Switch”.)
1.
Make sure the JavaTM applets are enabled for your browser. If they are
not, do one of the following:
•
In Netscape 4.03, click on Edit, Preferences..., Advanced, then select
Enable Java and Enable JavaScript options.
•
In Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.x, click on View, Internet Options,
Security, Custom, [Settings] and scroll to the Java Permissions. Then refer
to the online Help for specific information on enabling the Java
applets.
3-3
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Using a Standalone Web Browser in a PC or UNIX
Workstation
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session
2.
Type the IP address (or DNS name) of the switch in the browser Location
or Address field and press [Enter]. (It is not necessary to include
http://) For example:
10.11.12.195 [Enter]
If you are using a Domain Name Server (DNS), your device may have a
name associated with it (for example, switch20) that you can type in the
Location or Address field instead of the IP address. Using DNS names
typically improves browser performance. As such, we recommend that
you assign a DNS name to each device that you access with the web
browser interface.
The web browser interface automatically starts with the Status Overview
window displayed for the selected device as shown in figure 3-1 on the
next page.
Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
For more on installing and using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches, refer to
the HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches booklet and CD-ROM that came with
your switch.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
This procedure assumes the following:
■
You have installed the web browser recommended for HP TopTools on a
PC or workstation that serves as your network management station.
■
The networked device you want to access has been assigned an IP address
and, preferably, a DNS name and it has been discovered by HP TopTools.
(For more on assigning an IP address, refer to chapter 2, “Configuring an
IP Address on the Switch”.)
To establish a Web browser session with HP TopTools running, do the
following on the network management station:
3-4
1.
Make sure the JavaTM applets are enabled for your browser. If they are
not, refer to the browser online help for specific information on enabling
the Java applets.
2.
Do one of the following tasks:
•
On the HP TopTools Maps view, double-click on the symbol for the
networking device that you want to access.
•
In HP TopTools, in the Topology Information dialog box, in the device
list, double-click on the entry for the device you want to access (IP
address or DNS name).
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session
3.
The web browser interface automatically starts with the Status Overview
window displayed for the selected device, as shown in figure 3-1.
First Time
Install Alert
Alert Log
Figure 3-1. Status Overview Screen
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
3-5
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser
Interface Session
The first time you access the web browser interface, there are three tasks that
you should perform:
■
review the “First Time Install” window
■
set Manager and Operator passwords
set access to the web browser interface online help
■
Viewing the “First Time Install” Window
When you access the switch’s web browser interface for the first time, the
Alert Log contains a “First Time Install” alert, as shown in figure 3-1. This gives
you information about first time installations, and provides an immediate
opportunity to set passwords for security and to specify a Fault Detection
policy, which determines the types of messages that will be displayed in the
Alert Log.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Double click on First Time Install in the Alert log (see above). The web browser
interface then displays the “First Time Install” window, as shown in figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2. First-Time Install Window
3-6
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
This window is the launching point for the basic configuration you need to
perform to set web browser interface passwords to maintain security and
Fault Detection policy, which determines the types of messages that will be
displayed in the Alert Log.
To set Browser Interface passwords, click on the jump string secure access to
the device to display the Device Passwords screen, and then go to the next
page. You can also access the password screen by clicking on the Security tab.
To set Fault Detection policy, click on the jump string select the fault detection
configuration in the second bullet in the window and go to the section, “Setting
Fault Detection Policy” on page 3-25.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
3-7
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Creating User Names and Passwords in the Web
Browser Interface
You may want to create both a user name and password to create access
security for your switch. There are two levels of access to the interface that
can be controlled by setting user names and passwords:
■
operator. An Operator-level user name and password allows read-only
access to most of the web browser interface, but prevents access to the
Security window.
■
manager. A Manager-level user name and password allows full read/
write access to the web browser interface.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Asterisks indicate
a password is
configured
Figure 3-3. The Device Passwords Window
To set the passwords:
1.
2.
3-8
Access the Device Passwords screen by one of the following methods:
•
If the Alert Log includes a “First Time Install” event entry, double
click on this event, then, in the resulting display, click on the
secure access to the device link.
•
Select the Security tab.
Click in the appropriate box in the Device Passwords window and enter
user names and passwords. You will be required to repeat the password
strings in the confirmation boxes.
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Both the user names and passwords can be up to 16 printable ASCII
characters. Spaces can be included in user names, but not in passwords
(to represent spaces in passwords, you can use the underscore (_) character).
3.
Note
Click on [Apply Changes] to activate the user names and passwords.
Strings you assign in the web browser interface will overwrite previous access
strings assigned in either the web browser interface or the switch console.
Using the Passwords
The manager and operator passwords are used to control access to both the
web browser interface and the switch console. Once set, you will be challenged to supply the password every time you try to access either the web
browser interface or switch console. The password you enter determines the
capability you have during that session:
■
using the manager password gives you full read/write capabilities
■
using the operator password gives you read and limited write capabilities.
Using the User Names
The switch console uses only the passwords and does not prompt you for the
User Names.
If You Lose a Password
If you lose the passwords, you can clear them by pressing the Clear button on
the front of the switch. This action deletes all password and user name
protection for both the web browser interface and the switch console.
The Clear button is provided for your convenience, but its presence means
that if you are concerned with the security of the switch configuration and
operation, you should make sure the switch is installed in a secure location,
such as a locked wiring closet.
3-9
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
If you also set user names in the web browser interface screen, you must
supply the correct user name and password combination for web browser
interface access. If a user name has not been set, the User Name field in the
web browser interface access popup must be left blank.
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Online Help for the HP Web Browser Interface
Online help is available for the web browser interface. You can use it by
clicking on the question mark in the upper right corner of any of the web
browser interface screens. Context sensitive help is provided for the screen
you are on.
Providing Online Help. The Help files are automatically available if you
install HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches on your network, of if you have
Internet access to the World Wide Web, and the Internet connection is running.
The Help files are included with HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches, and are
also available from an HP World Wide Web site.
Retrieval of the Help files, as described above, is controlled by automatic
entries in the Management Server URL field on the Configuration / Support URLs
screen, shown in figure 3-4 on page 3-11. The switch is shipped with the URL
set to the HP World Wide Web site. However, if HP TopTools for Hub &
Switches is installed on a management station in your network, and TopTools
discovers your switch, the Management Server URL value is automatically
changed to point to the management station to retrieve the help.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
If Online Help Fails to Operate. Do one of the following:
■
If HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches is installed and running on your
network, in the Management Server URL field, enter the IP address or DNS
name of the network management station.
■
If you have World Wide Web access from your PC or workstation and do
not have HP TopTools installed, enter the following URL in the Server
Management URL field:
http://www.hp.com/rnd/device_help
See figure 3-4 on page 3-11.
3-10
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Enter IP address of HP TopTools network
management station, or URL of location of
help files on HP’s World Wide Web site here.
Figure 3-4. How To Access Web Browser Interface Online Help
If you do not have HP Top Tools for Hubs & Switches installed on a computer
in your network, and you do not have an active connection to the World Wide
Web, then online help for the web browser interface will not be available.
See also “Support URLs Feature” on page 6-3.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
3-11
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
The Web Browser Interface Screen
Layout
This section describes the elements of the web browser interface screen
layout starting with the first screen you see, the Status, Overview window.
The Overview Window
The Overview Window is the home screen for any entry into the web browser
interface.The following figure identifies the parts of the screen. web browser
interface
Status Bar
Active Button
Active Tab
Tab Bar
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Button Bar
Port Utilization
Graphs
Port Status
Indicators
Alert Log
Header Bar
Alert Log
Control Bar
Alert Log
Figure 3-5. The Overview Window
The areas and fields in the web browser interface Overview Window are
described on the next page.
3-12
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Tab Bar. The row of tabs displaying all the Browser Interface Top Level
menus.
■
Active Tab. The current tab selected. The tab is darkened and all the
buttons under the tab are displayed.
■
Status Bar. The region above the Tab Bar that displays status and device
name information.
■
Port Utilization and Status Displays. The region containing graphs
that indicate network traffic on each switch port and symbols indicating
the status of each port.
■
Button Bar. The row(s) of buttons that are contained within the Active
Tab.
■
Active Button. The current button selected. The button is darkened and
the window associated with the button is displayed.
■
Alert Log. A list of all events, or alerts, that can be retrieved from the
switch’s firmware at the current time. Information associated with the
alerts is displayed, including Status, Alert Name, the date and time the
Alert was reported by the switch, and a short description of the alert. You
can double click on any of the entries in the log and get a detailed
description. See “The Alert Log” on page 3-16.
■
Alert Log Header Bar. The row of column heads running across the top
of the Alert Log.
■
Alert Log Control Bar. The region at the bottom of the Alert Log
containing buttons that enable you to refresh the Alert Log to display all
alerts that have been reported since you first displayed the log. Also
available in the bar are a button to acknowledge new alerts and a button
to delete alerts.
3-13
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
The Port Utilization and Status Displays
The Port Utilization and Status displays show an overview of the status of the
switch and the amount of network activity on each port. The following figure
shows a sample reading of the Port Utilization and Port Status.
bandwidth
display
control
port utilization bar graphs
port status indicators
maximum utilization indicator
Legend
Figure 3-6. The Graphs Area
Port Utilization
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
The Port Utilization bar graphs show the network traffic on the port with a
breakdown of the packet types that have been detected (unicast packets, nonunicast packets, and error packets). The Legend identifies traffic types and
their associated colors on the bar graph:
■
■
■
3-14
% Unicast Rx & All Tx: This is all unicast traffic received and all
transmitted traffic of any type. This indicator (a blue color on many
systems) can signify either transmitted or received traffic.
% Non-Unicast Pkts Rx: All multicast and broadcast traffic received by
the port. This indicator (a gold color on many systems) enables you to
know “at-a-glance” the source of any non-unicast traffic that is causing
high utilization of the switch. For example, if one port is receiving heavy
broadcast or multicast traffic, all ports will become highly utilized. By
color-coding the received broadcast and multicast utilization, the bar
graph quickly and easily identifies the offending port. This makes it faster
and easier to discover the exact source of the heavy traffic because you
don’t have to examine port counter data from several ports.
% Error Pkts Rx: All error packets received by the port. (This indicator
is a reddish color on many systems.) Although errors received on a port
are not propagated to the rest of the network, a consistently high number
of errors on a specific port may indicate a problem on the device or
network segment connected to the indicated port.
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
A network utilization of 40% is considered the maximum that a typical
Ethernet-type network can experience before encountering performance
difficulties. If you observe utilization that is consistently higher than 40%
on any port, click on the Port Counters button to get a detailed set of
counters for the port.
■
Maximum Activity Indicator: As the bars in the graph area change
height to reflect the level of network activity on the corresponding port,
they leave an outline to identify the maximum activity level that has been
observed on the port.
To change the amount of bandwidth the Port Utilization bar graph
shows. Click on the bandwidth display control button in the upper left corner
of the graph area. The button shows the current scale setting, such as 40%.
From the drop-down list, select the bandwidth scale you want the graph to
show (3%, 10%, 25%, 40%, 75%, or 100%), as shown in figure 3-7.
To display values for each graph bar. Hold the mouse cursor over any of
the bars in the graph, and a pop-up display is activated showing the port
identification and numerical values for each of the sections of the bar, as
shown in figure 3-8.
Figure 3-8. Display of Numerical Values for the Bar
3-15
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Figure 3-7. Changing the Graph Area Scale
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Port Status
The Port Status indicators are symbols for each port that show the general
status of the port. There are four possible status symbols:
■
Port Connected (green dot)– the port is enabled and is properly
connected to an active network device.
■
Port Not Connected (gray dot) – the port is enabled but is not connected
to an active network device. A cable may not be connected to the port, or
the device at the other end may be powered off or inoperable, or the cable
or connected device could be faulty.
■
Port Disabled (gray dot with slash) – the port has been configured as
“disabled” through the web browser interface, the switch console, or
SNMP network management.
■
Port Fault-Disabled (red dot) – a fault condition has occurred on the
port that has caused it to be auto-disabled. Note that the Port FaultDisabled symbol will be displayed in the legend only if one or more of the
ports is in that status. See chapter 7, “Monitoring and Analyzing Switch
Operation” for more information.
The Alert Log
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
The Alert Log, shown in the lower half of the screen, shows a list of network
occurrences, or alerts, that were detected by the switch. Typical alerts are,
Broadcast Storm, indicating an excessive number of broadcasts received
on a port, and Problem Cable, indicating a faulty cable. A full list of alerts
is shown in Table 3-2 on page 3-18.
3-16
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Figure 3-9. The Alert Log
Each alert has the following fields of information:
Status – The level of severity of the event generated. Severity levels can
be Information, Normal, Warning, and Critical. If the alert is new (has not
yet been acknowledged), the New symbol is also in the Status column.
■
Alert – The specific event identification.
■
Date/Time – The date and time the event was received by the Browser
Interface. This value is shown in the format: DD-MM-YY HH:MM:SS AM/PM,
for example, 12-Sep-97 3:57:20 PM.
■
Description – A short narrative statement that describes the event. For
example, Lost connection to multiple devices on port 1.
Sorting the Alert Log Entries
The alerts are sorted, by default, by the Date/Time field with the most recent
alert listed at the top of the list. The second most recent alert is displayed
below the top alert and so on. If alerts occurred at the same time, the
simultaneous alerts are sorted by order in which they appear in the MIB.
The alert field that is being used to sort the alert log is indicated by which
column heading is in bold. You can sort by any of the other columns by clicking
on the column heading. The Alert and Description columns are sorted alphabetically, while the Status column is sorted by severity type, with more critical
severity indicators appearing above less critical indicators.
3-17
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Alert Types
The following table lists the types of alerts that can be generated.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Table 3-2.
Note
3-18
Alert Strings and Descriptions
Alert String
Alert Description
First Time Install
Important installation information for your switch.
Problem Driver or NIC
Problem software driver or LAN adapter detected on port.
Problem XCVR or NIC
Problem transceiver or LAN adapter card detected on
port.
Problem Cable
Problem cable detected on port.
Cable Length/Repeater Hops
Problem cable detected on port.
Packet loss detected, which could be due to excessive
number of gateways to traverse.
Over Bandwidth
Excessive network traffic on port.
Broadcast Storm
Excessive broadcasts detected on port.
Fault-Disabled Port
The port has been automatically disabled due to a
detected fault condition, for example, an incorrect
transceiver installed in a transceiver slot.
Polarity Reversal
Miswired cable detected on port.
Network Loop
Network loop detected by switch.
Network loop detected on port.
Loss of Link
Lost connection to multiple devices on port.
When troubleshooting the sources of alerts, it may be helpful to also check
the switch’s Port Status and Port Counters windows (page 7-7 and page 7-9
respectively) and the Event Log in the switch console (page 8-6).
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Viewing Detail Views of Alert Log Entries
By double clicking on Alert Entries, the Browser Interface displays a Detail
View or separate window detailing information about the events. The Detail
View contains a description of the problem and a possible solution. It also
provides four management buttons:
■
Acknowledge Event – removes the New symbol from the log entry
■
Delete Event – removes the alert from the Alert Log
■
Retest Button – polls the switch again to determine whether or not the
alert can be regenerated.
■
Cancel Button – closes the detail view with no change to the status of
the alert and returns you to the Overview screen.
A sample Detail View describing a Cable Length/Repeater Hops alert is shown
here.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Figure 3-10. Detail View of Alert Log Entry
3-19
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
The Alert Control Bar
The Alert Control Bar appears at the bottom of the Alert Log and contains
buttons that enable you to manage the Overview Window.
Figure 3-11. The Alert Control Bar
The buttons in the control bar are:
■
Refresh – redraws the Alert Log screen and displays new alerts that have
occurred since you opened or last refreshed this window.
■
Open Event – displays the detailed view of the highlighted alert; the same
as double-clicking on the alert.
■
Acknowledge Selected Events – removes the New symbol from the
entry. This feature is useful if you have more than one system administrator working on a problem. It shows that someone has looked at it.
If an alert has not been acknowledged, the New label continues to appear
in the Status column to the left of the Status Indicator. Once the alert has
been acknowledged from either the Alert Log screen or the Detailed View
screen, the New label is removed.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
3-20
Delete Selected Events – removes an alert from the Alert Log.
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
The Tab Bar
The browser interface tab bar contains six tabs, four of which launch button
bars which launch specific functional windows. One tab, Identity, launches a
dedicated functional window with no buttons. Another tab, Support, launches
a separate web page with support information.
To navigate through the different features of the web browser interface, click
on the appropriate tab in the Tab Bar. The tabs are as follows:
Identity Tab
Figure 3-12. The Identity Tab
This tab displays the Identity Window which is a source of quick information
about the switch.
Editable Information (System Name, Location, and Contact) – is
maintained in the Administration dialog box.
■
Read-Only Information – The System Up Time shows the elapsed time
since the switch was last rebooted. Product is the switch product name.
Version is the software (operating system) version currently running in
the switch. IP Address is the IP address assigned to the switch. Management Server is the currently assigned Management Server URL (page 6-4).
Status Tab
Figure 3-13. The Status Tab and Buttons
This tab displays the Status Button Bar which contains buttons that display
switch settings and statistics that represent recent switch behavior. The
buttons are:
■
Overview – the home position for the web browser interface. Displays
the screen shown in figure 3-5 on page 3-12.
3-21
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
■
Port Counters – displays a summary of the network activity statistics
for all the switch ports, with access to detailed port-level statistics. See
page 7-8 for an image of this window.
■
Port Status – displays a summary table of the operational status of all
the switch ports. See page 7-5 for an image of this window.
Configuration Tab
Figure 3-14. The Configuration Tab and Buttons
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
This tab displays the Configuration Button bar which contains buttons that
launch screens for setting or changing some of the switch configuration. The
buttons are:
3-22
■
Device View. Displays a graphical representation of the front panel of the
device, allowing you enable and disable ports on the device by clicking
on port graphics and an enable or disable port button.
■
Fault Detection. Controls the alert log sensitivity, and port disabling.
■
System Information. Enables you to view and set system information
for a selected device.
■
IP Configuration. Enables you to change existing value for an IP
address, subnet mask, and the gateway address for the switch.
■
Port Configuration. Enables you to enable and disable ports in addition
to viewing the security and source address information.
■
Monitor Port. Enables you to designate a port for monitoring traffic on
one of the other switch ports.
■
Device Features. Enables you to configure some key features for the
entire switch.
■
Support/Mgmt URLs. Specifies the URL of the web site that will be
automatically accessed when you open the Support tab, and the URL for
the source of online Help for the web browser interface (page 6-3). The
Support URL is configured to automatically access HP’s Network City
website on the World Wide Web. However, if you have an internal support
structure, you may wish to change the Support URL to access that
structure.
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Security Tab
Figure 3-15. The Security Tab and Buttons
This tab displays the Security Button Bar which contains the button that
enables you view and set operator names and passwords to restrict access to
your switch. The button displayed is:
■
Device Passwords. Enables you to set operator and manager-level user
names and passwords for the switch.
Diagnostics Tab
Figure 3-16. The Diagnostics Tab and Buttons
This tab displays the Diagnostics Button Bar which contains buttons that
enable you to perform troubleshooting tasks for your switch. The buttons are:
Ping/Link Test. Enables you to send test packets to devices connected
to a port, using both the IP address (Ping) and the MAC address (Link) as
criteria for a valid connection.
■
Device Reset. Resets the switch, which clears most temporary error
conditions, and resets the traffic counters and system up time to zero.
■
Configuration Report. Displays a master list of various settings for the
switch, including information about port status, authorized managers,
community names, backup links, IP addresses, security configuration,
and general system information.
The Support Tab
The URL for this window is set in the Configuration, Support/Mgmt URLs
option. By default, it is set to Hewlett-Packard's Network City web page, but
you can change it to the URL for another location, such as an internal support
resource.
3-23
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
The Status Bar
The Status Bar is displayed in the upper left corner of the web browser
interface screen. Figure 3-15 shows an expanded view of the status bar.
System Name
Status Indicator
Most Critical Alert Description
Product Name
Figure 3-17. The Status Bar
The Status Bar consists of four objects:
■
Status Indicator. Indicates, by icon, the severity of the most critical alert
in the current display of the Alert Log. This indicator can be one of three
shapes and colors as shown in the following table.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Table 3-3.
3-24
Status Indicator Key
Color
Green
Gauge Severity Region
Normal Activity
Yellow
Warning
Red
Critical
Status Indicator Shape
■
System Name. The name you have configured for the switch in the
Identity screen or through the switch console System Information screen.
■
Most Critical Alert Description. A short text description of the earliest,
unacknowledged alert with the current highest severity in the Alert Log.
In instances where multiple critical alerts have the same severity level,
only the earliest unacknowledged alert is displayed in the Status Bar.
■
Product Name. The product name of the switch to which you are
connected in the current web browser interface session.
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Setting Fault Detection Policy
One of the powerful features in the browser interface is the Fault Detection
facility. For your switch, this feature controls the types of alerts reported to
the Alert Log based on their level of severity.
Set this policy in the Fault Detection Window, shown in figure 3-16.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Figure 3-18. The Fault Detection Window
3-25
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Using the HP Web Browser Interface
The Web Browser Interface Screen Layout
Working With Fault Detection
The Fault Detection screen contains a list box for setting fault detection and
response policy. You set the sensitivity level at which a network problem
should generate an alert and send it to the Alert Log.
The sensitivity levels for both list boxes are:
■
Never
■
Low Sensitivity
■
Medium Sensitivity
■
High Sensitivity
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
The Fault Detection settings are:
■
High Sensitivity. This policy directs the switch to send all alerts to the
Alert Log. This setting is most effective on networks that have no or few
problems.
■
Medium Sensitivity. (the default setting) This policy directs the switch
to send alerts related to network problems to the Alert Log. If you want
to be notified of problems which cause a noticeable slowdown on the
network, use this setting.
■
Low Sensitivity. This policy directs the switch to send only the most
severe alerts to the Alert Log and to rarely or never disable a port
generating the alert. This policy is most effective on a network that
normally has a lot of problems and you want to be informed of only the
most severe ones.
■
Never. Use this setting if you do not want network events displayed in the
Alert Log.
The Fault Detection Window also contains three Change Control Buttons.
They are:
3-26
■
Apply Changes. This button stores the settings you have selected for all
future sessions with the Browser Interface until you decide to change
them.
■
Clear Change. This button removes your settings and returns the settings
for both list boxes to the levels they were at in the last saved detection
setting session.
■
Reset to Default Settings. This button reverts the policy setting to
Medium Sensitivity for Log Network Problems.
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4
Using the Switch Console
This chapter describes the following features:
overview of the switch console (page 4-1)
■
■
starting and ending a console session (page 4-2)
■
the Main Menu (page 4-4)
screen structure and navigation (page 4-6)
■
■
using password security (page 4-9)
■
rebooting the switch (page 4-12)
■
using the command prompt (page 4-14)
Overview
About the Switch Console. The switch console enables you to use a PC or
a terminal to do the following:
modify the switch’s configuration (see chapter 6)
■
configure the switch with an IP address that allows you to manage the
switch from an SNMP-based network management station (see chapter
5), through the switch’s web browser interface (see chapter 3), or through
Telnet access to the console (see this chapter)
■
monitor the switch and its port status (see chapter 7)
■
monitor the network activity through the switch (see chapter 7)
■
control console security by configuring passwords (see this chapter)
■
view the event log and run diagnostics to troubleshoot any switch problems (see chapter 8)
■
download new software to the switch (see appendix A)
Switch Console Interaction with the Web Browser Interface. Configuration changes made through the console will overwrite previous changes
made through the web browser interface. Similarly, configuration changes
made through the web browser interface will overwrite any prior changes
made through the console. The console gives you access to all switch configuration parameters; the web browser interface gives you access to a subset of
these. Refer to chapter 3, “Using the HP Web Browser Interface” and chapter
6, “Configuring the Switch”.
4-1
Using the Switch Console
■
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Using the Switch Console
Starting and Ending a Console Session
Starting and Ending a Console Session
You can access the switch console using either:
Note
■
a direct serial cable connection to the switch’s console port, as described
in the installation guide that came with the switch
■
through a Telnet session from a remote terminal device or from the
switch’s web browser interface (the web browser interface provides for
a Telnet connection from some of its screens)
This section assumes that either a terminal device is already configured and
connected to your Switch 212M or 224M (as described in chapter 1, “Installation” of the HP Switch 212M and 224M Installation Guide) or that you have
already configured an IP address on the switch so you can start a Telnet
session with the switch.
How To Start a Console Session:
1.
Start your PC terminal emulator, or terminal, or Telnet to the switch from
a remote terminal device or from the web browser interface.
2.
Do one of the following:
Using the Switch Console
3.
•
If you are using Telnet, go to step 3.
•
If you are using a PC terminal emulator or a terminal, press [Enter]
twice.
The screen briefly displays a message indicating the baud rate at which
the serial interface is operating, followed by the copyright screen. Do one
of the following:
•
If a password has been set, the Password prompt appears. Type the
password and press [Enter] to display the Main Menu (figure 4-1). Figure
4-1 shows the Main Menu for manager-level access. If you enter the
operator password to start the console session, the Main Menu has a
subset of these items.
•
If no password has been set, you will see this prompt:
Press any key to continue.
Press any key to display the Main Menu (figure 4-1).
4-2
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Using the Switch Console
Starting and Ending a Console Session
If there is any system-down information to report, the switch displays it in this
step and in the console Event Log.
For a description of Main Menu features, refer to “Main Menu Features” on
page 4-4.
How To End a Console Session:
The process of ending the console session depends on whether, during the
console session, you have made any changes to the switch configuration that
requires a reboot of the switch to activate. Configuration changes requiring a
reboot of the switch are indicated by an asterisk (*) next to the configured
item in the Configuration menu and also next to the Switch Configuration item
in the Main menu.
1.
2.
If you have not made configuration changes in the current session that
require a switch reboot to activate, return to the Main Menu, and press [0]
to log out. Then exit from the terminal program, turn off the terminal, or
quit from the Telnet session.
If you have made configuration changes that require a switch reboot:
a. Return to the Main Menu.
b. Press [6] to select Reboot Switch and follow the instructions on the
reboot screen.
Rebooting the switch terminates the console session, and, if you are using
Telnet, disconnects the Telnet session.
(See “Rebooting To Activate Configuration Changes” on page 4-13.)
3.
Note
Exit from the terminal program, turn off the terminal, or close the Telnet
application program.
There is also an “inactivity timeout” parameter that can be set on the Console/
Serial Link configuration screen under the Switch Management Access Configuration menu. See page 6-20 for more information on setting this parameter.
4-3
Using the Switch Console
The Switch 212M and 224M serial interface does not support all modem lines,
including automatic disconnect. As a result, if you are concerned about
security for console access, in addition to using passwords, you should always
make sure you select the Logout option from the Main Menu to terminate the
console session. This option also disconnects the serial connection so that the
next person to use the console is required to go through the passwordprotected logon process.
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Using the Switch Console
Main Menu Features
Main Menu Features
Figure 4-1. The Main Menu (manager mode)
The Main Menu gives you access to these console interface features:
• Status and Counters: Provides access to display screens providing
information on switch and port status, network activity, the address
tables, spanning tree operation, and IGMP status. (Refer to chapter 7,
“Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation”.)
Using the Switch Console
•
•
4-4
Switch Management Access Configuration: Provides access to
configuration screens that control interaction between the switch and
network management, including IP address, SNMP community names
and trap receivers, console/serial link parameters, and console passwords.
Switch Configuration: Provides access to configuration screens
that enable you to display the current configuration settings and to
customize the configuration of the switch features. (Refer to chapter
6, “Configuring the Switch”.) This feature is available only in Manager
Mode console sessions. If you access the console at the Operator level
(controlled by passwords), no configuration is available.
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Using the Switch Console
Main Menu Features
•
Event Log: Enables you to read progress and error messages that
are useful for checking and troubleshooting switch operation. A
listing of Event Log messages is included on the CD shipped with your
switch. (Refer to “Using the Event Log to Identify Problem Sources”
in chapter 8, “Troubleshooting”.)
•
Diagnostics: Provides access to screens for doing Link and Ping
connectivity testing, and to a command prompt for executing a set of
system management, monitoring, and troubleshooting commands.
(Refer to chapter 8, “Troubleshooting”.)
•
Reboot Switch: Performs a software reboot, which clears most
temporary error conditions, resets the network activity counters to
zero, and resets the system up time to zero. A reboot is required (in
one case) to activate a configuration change that has been made.
(Refer to “Rebooting To Activate Configuration Changes” on page
4-13.)
Download OS: Enables you to download a new software version to
the switch. (Refer to appendix A, “Transferring an Operating System
or Configuration”.)
•
•
Logout: Terminates the console session and disconnects Telnet
access to the switch. (Refer to “How To End a Console Session” on
page 4-3.)
Using the Switch Console
4-5
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Using the Switch Console
Screen Structure and Navigation
Screen Structure and Navigation
Console screens include these three elements:
■
Parameter fields and/or read-only information such as statistics
■
Navigation and configuration actions, such as Save, Edit, and Cancel
■
Help line to describe navigation options, individual parameters, and readonly data
For example, in the System configuration screen:
system name
screen title –
identifies the location
within the menu
structure
parameter fields
actions line
access to help screen
describing each of
the parameter fields
help line
describing the
selected action
or selected
parameter field
(in this case, the
Cancel action)
navigation instructions
Figure 4-2. Elements of the Screen Structure
Using the Switch Console
“Forms” Design. The configuration screens, in particular, operate similarly
to a number of PC applications that use forms for data entry. When you first
enter these screens, you see the current configuration for the item you have
selected. To change the configuration, the basic operation is to:
1.
Press [E] to select the Edit action.
2.
Navigate through the screen making ALL the necessary configuration
changes. See table 4-1.
3.
Press [Enter] to return to the Actions line. From there you can save the
configuration changes or cancel the changes. Cancel returns the configuration to the values you saw when you first entered the screen.
See the next page for specific instructions on using the console screens.
4-6
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Using the Switch Console
Screen Structure and Navigation
Table 4-1.
How To Navigate in the Console
Actions:
Execute an action
from the “Actions –>”
list at the bottom of
the screen:
Use either of the following methods:
• Use the arrow keys ( [<] ,or [>] ) to highlight the action you want
to execute, then press [Enter].
• Press the key corresponding to the capital letter in the action
name. For example, in a configuration menu, press [E] to select
Edit and begin editing parameter values.
Reconfigure (edit) a
parameter setting or a
field:
1. Select a Configuration menu item, such as System Information.
(See figure 4-2.)
2. Press [E] (for Edit on the Actions line).
3. Use [Tab] or the arrow keys ([<], [>], [^], or [v]) to highlight the
item or field.
4. Do one of the following:
– If the parameter has preconfigured values, use the Space bar
to select a new option (the help line instructs you to “Select”
a value).
– If there are no preconfigured values, type in a value (the help
line instructs you to “Enter” a value).
5. If you want to change another parameter value, return to step 3.
6. If you are finished editing parameters in the displayed screen,
press [Enter] to return to the Actions line, and do one of the
following:
– To save any configuration changes you have made, press [S]
(for the Save action).
– To exit from the screen without saving any changes that you
have made (or if you have made no changes), press [C] (for
the Cancel action).
Note: Most parameter changes are activated when you execute
Save, and it is therefore not necessary to reboot the switch after
making these changes. But if an asterisk appears next to any
menu item you reconfigure, it is necessary to reboot the switch
to implement the change. In this case, rebooting should be done
after you have made all desired changes and then returned to
the Main Menu.
7. When you are finished editing parameters, return to the Main
Menu.
8. If necessary, reboot the switch by selecting Reboot Switch from
the Main Menu. (Refer to the Note, above.)
Exit from a read-only
screen.
Press [B] (for the Back action).
4-7
Using the Switch Console
Task:
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Using the Switch Console
Screen Structure and Navigation
To get full screen Help. In all screens except the Command Prompt screen
there is a Help option in the Actions line. Press [H] to select the Help action,
and a separate help screen is displayed.
default values are
shown in brackets [ ]
highlight on any
item in the Actions
line indicates that
the Actions line is
active.
pressing [H] or highlighting
Help and pressing [Enter]
displays a Help screen for the
parameters shown in the
upper part of the screen
help line
Figure 4-3. Example Showing How To Display Help
To get Help on the actions or data fields in each screen: Use the arrow
keys ( [<], [>], [^], or [v]) to select an action or data field. The help line under
the Actions items describes the currently selected action or data field.
Using the Switch Console
For guidance in how to navigate in a screen: See the instructions provided
at the bottom of the screen, or refer to “Screen Structure and Navigation” on
page 4-6.
4-8
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Using the Switch Console
Using Password Security
Using Password Security
There are two levels of console access: Manager and Operator. For security,
you can set a password on each of these levels. The manager and operator
passwords control access to both the web browser interface and the switch
console.
Level
Actions Permitted
Manager:
Access to all console interface areas.
This is the default level. That is, if a Manager password has not been set prior
to starting the current console session, then anyone having access to the
console can access any area of the console interface.
Operator:
Access to the Status and Counters menu, the Event Log, and the Diagnostics
menu, but no configuration capabilities.
On the Operator level, the Configuration menus, Download OS, and Reboot
Switch options in the Main Menu, and the Command Prompt option in the
Diagnostics menu are not available.
To use password security:
1.
Set a Manager password (and an Operator password, if applicable for your
system) as described on page 4-10.
2.
Exit from the current console session. A Manager password will now be
needed for full access to the console.
If you do steps 1 and 2, above, then the next time a console session is started,
the console interface will prompt for a password. Assuming that both a
Manager password and an Operator password have been set, the level of
access to the console interface will be determined by which password is
entered in response to the prompt.
4-9
Using the Switch Console
If you set a Manager password, you may also want to configure the
Connection Inactivity Time parameter in the Console/Serial Link configuration
screen that is under the Switch Management Access Configuration menu (see
page 6-20). This causes the console session to end after the specified period
of inactivity, thus giving you added security against unauthorized console
access.
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Using the Switch Console
Using Password Security
Note
If there is only a Manager password set (with no Operator password), and the
Manager password is not entered correctly when the console session begins,
the switch operates on the Operator level.
If there are both a Manager password and an Operator password, but neither
is entered correctly, access to the console will be denied.
If a Manager password is not set, anyone having access to the console
interface can operate the console with full manager privileges, regardless of
whether an Operator password is set, but simply pressing [Enter] at the
password prompt.
The rest of this section covers how to:
■
Set Passwords
■
Delete Passwords
■
Recover from a Lost Password
To set Manager and Operator passwords:
1.
From the Main Menu select:
2. Switch Management Access Configuration
Using the Switch Console
3. Console Passwords
Figure 4-4.
4-10
The Password Menu Screen
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Using the Switch Console
Using Password Security
2.
To set a new password:
Select Set Manager Password or Set Operator Password. You will then
be prompted with Enter new password.
b. Type a password of up to 16 ASCII characters with no spaces and
press [Enter]. (The passwords are case-sensitive.)
a.
c.
3.
When prompted with Enter new password again, retype the new password and press [Enter].
When you have finished all password configuration, select 0. Return to Main
Menu to return to the Main menu, or 4. Return to the Previous Menu to return
to the Switch Management Access Configuration menu.
After a password is set, if you subsequently start a new console session, you
will be prompted to enter the password.
To Delete Password Protection (Including Recovery from a Lost
Password): This procedure deletes both passwords (Manager and Operator). If you have physical access to the switch, press the Clear button on the
front of the switch to clear all password protection, then enter new passwords
as described earlier in this chapter. If you do not have physical access to the
switch, you will need the Manager password:
1.
Enter the console at the Manager level.
2.
Go to the Console Passwords screen as described above.
3.
Select Delete Password Protection. You will then see the following prompt:
Continue Deletion of password protection?
4.
Press the Space bar to select Yes, then press [Enter], or just press [Y].
5.
Press [Enter] to clear the Password protection message.
6.
Select Return to Main Menu to return to the Main menu, or Return to the
Previous Menu to return to the Switch Management Access Configuration
menu.
4-11
Using the Switch Console
To Recover from a Lost Manager Password: If you cannot start a console session at the manager level because of a lost Manager password, you
can clear the password by getting physical access to the switch and pressing
the Clear button. This action deletes all passwords and user names (Manager
and Operator) used by both the console and the web browser interface.
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Using the Switch Console
Rebooting the Switch
Rebooting the Switch
Rebooting the switch terminates the current console session and performs a
reset of the operating system. Some of the reasons for performing a reboot
include:
■
Activating certain configuration changes that require a reboot
■
Resetting statistical counters to zero
To Reboot the switch, use the Reboot Switch option in the Main menu. (Note
that the Reboot Switch option is not available if you log on in Operator mode;
that is, you enter an Operator password at the password prompt.)
Reboot Switch option
Using the Switch Console
Figure 4-5. The Reboot Switch Option in the Main Menu
4-12
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Using the Switch Console
Rebooting the Switch
Rebooting To Activate Configuration Changes. Configuration changes
for some parameters become effective as soon as you save them. However,
you must reboot the switch in order to implement any changes to the parameters on the Console/Serial Link screen (under Switch Management Access
Configuration menu).
If configuration changes requiring a reboot have been made, the switch
displays an asterisk next to the menu item in which the change has been made.
For example, if you change and save parameter values for the switch’s
Console/Serial Link configuration, the need for rebooting the switch would be
indicated by an asterisk appearing next to the item Console/Serial Link in the
Switch Management Access Configuration menu, and in the Main menu as
shown in figure 4-6:
Asterisk indicates a
configuration change
that requires a reboot
in order to take effect
Reminder to reboot the
switch to activate
configuration changes
Figure 4-6. Example of a Configuration Change Requiring a Reboot
Using the Switch Console
4-13
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Using the Switch Console
Using the Command Prompt
Using the Command Prompt
In addition to the menu-based part of the console interface, under the Diagnostics Menu, a command-line based interface is available. The commands are
primarily for the expert user and for diagnostics purposes. Selecting Command
Prompt from the Diagnostics Menu presents a command prompt from which
you can enter commands.
Using the Switch Console
The use of the commands is described in chapter 8, “Troubleshooting”, on
page 8-15.
4-14
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5
Using HP TopTools To
Monitor and Manage the
Using HP TopTools To Monitor and Manage
the Switch
Overview
You can manage the Switch 212M and 224M from an SNMP-based network
management station. Included with your switch is a CD-ROM containing a
copy of HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches, an easy to install and use
network management application that runs on your Windows NT- or Windows
95-based PC. It can be used as an application under the HP TopTools network
management environment, or it can be run as a stand-alone application
running directly under Windows.
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches provides complete control of your Switch
212M or 224M through its graphical interface. In addition, it makes use of the
HP Extended RMON and standard RMON agent software that is on the switch
to provide powerful but easy to use traffic monitoring and network activity
analysis tools.
This chapter provides an overview of SNMP management for the Switch 212M
and 224M and provides an overview of the configuration process for supporting SNMP management of the switch. For configuration procedures for specific features, see chapter 6, “Configuring the Switch”.
5-1
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Using HP TopTools To Monitor and Manage the Switch
SNMP Management Features
Using HP TopTools To
Monitor and Manage the
SNMP Management Features
SNMP management features provided by the Switch 212M and 224M include:
■
Security via configuration of SNMP communities
■
Event reporting via SNMP traps and RMON
■
Managing the switch with a network management tool such as HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
■
Monitoring data normally associated with the SNMP v2 agent (“Get”
operations). Supported Standard MIBs include:
•
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
•
•
Ethernet MAU MIB (RFC 1515)
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 1573)
•
RMON MIB (RFC 1757)—etherstats, events, alarms, and history
•
•
SNMP MIB-II (RFC 1213)
Entity MIB (RFC 2037)
HP Proprietary MIBs include:
•
•
Statistics for message and packet buffers, tcp, telnet, and timep
(netswtst.mib)
Port counters, forwarding table, and CPU statistics (stat.mib)
•
tftp download (downld.mib)
•
Integrated Communications Facility Authentication Manager and
SNMP communities (icf.mib)
•
HP ProCurve Switch 212M and 224M configuration (config.mib)
The switch SNMP agent also uses certain variables that are included in a
Hewlett-Packard proprietary MIB file you can add to the SNMP database
in your network management tool. You can copy the MIB file from the HP
TopTools for Hubs & Switches CD, shipped with your switch, or from
following World Wide Web site:
http://www.hp.com/go/network_city
For more information, refer to the Customer Support/Warranty booklet
included with your switch.
5-2
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Using HP TopTools To Monitor and Manage the Switch
SNMP Configuration Process
If you are using IP, you must either configure the switch with the appropriate
IP address or, if you are using DHCP/Bootp to configure the switch, ensure
that the DHCP/Bootp process provides the IP address.
The general steps to configuring for SNMP access to the preceding features
are:
1.
From the Main Menu, select Switch Management Access Configuration.
2.
Configure a network address for the switch, including any necessary
gateways:
a.
Use DHCP/Bootp, which is enabled by default, to acquire an IP
address. Make sure the DHCP/Bootp server is configured to support
this switch. (Refer to “DHCP/Bootp Operation” on page 6-10 for more
information.)
b.
Manually configure an IP address. (Refer to chapter 2, “Configuring
an IP Address on the Switch” for more information.)
3.
Configure the appropriate SNMP communities. (The “public” community
exists by default and is used by HP’s network management applications.)
(For more on configuring SNMP communities, refer to “SNMP Communities” on page 6-15.)
4.
Configure the appropriate trap receivers. (For more on configuring trap
receivers, refer to “Trap Receivers” on page 6-18.)
5-3
Using HP TopTools To
Monitor and Manage the
SNMP Configuration Process
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Using HP TopTools To Monitor and Manage the Switch
Advanced Management: RMON and HP Extended RMON Support
Using HP TopTools To
Monitor and Manage the
Advanced Management: RMON and HP
Extended RMON Support
The switch supports RMON (Remote Monitoring) and HP Extended RMON
on all connected network segments. This allows for troubleshooting and
optimizing of your network.
RMON
The following RMON groups are supported:
■
Ethernet Statistics
■
Alarm
■
History (of the supported Ethernet statistics)
■
Event
You can access the Ethernet statistics, Alarm, and Event groups from the
HP TopTools for Hub & Switches network management software included
with your switch.
Extended RMON
Extended RMON provides network monitoring and troubleshooting information that analyzes traffic from a network-wide perspective. Extended RMON
notifies you about network problems and identifies the end node at fault. That
information can be used to set up RMON to study the problem more closely,
if desired. Because it is based on detailed statistical sampling, Extended
RMON lessens the load on devices and network bandwidth.
5-4
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6
Configuring the Switch
Overview
■
Chapter 3, “Using the HP Web Browser Interface”
■
Chapter 4, “Using the Switch Console”
Why Reconfigure? In its factory default configuration, the switch operates
as a multiport learning bridge. However, to enable specific management
features and to “fine-tune” your switch for the specific performance and
security needs in your network, you may want to reconfigure individual switch
parameters.
How To Find Configuration Information. Each section in this chapter is
organized as follows:
■
Introductory feature information: Provides an overview of the feature.
■
“How-To” configuration steps: Describes the step-by-step process
used to actually configure the feature. It also includes examples of the
web browser interface and console interface screens.
■
Detailed feature information: Provides a more in-depth description of
the feature, along with notes on interoperation with other features, where
appropriate.
To find a specific feature, see the table on the next page.
6-1
Configuring the Switch
This chapter describes the switch configuration features available in both the
switch console and the web browser interface. If you need information on
how to operate either the web browser interface or the switch console, refer
to:
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Configuring the Switch
Overview
Configuration Features
The following table lists the configuration features available for the switch.
Configuring the Switch
Table 6-1.
Note:
6-2
Configurable Feature Comparison
Feature
Switch
Console
Web
Browser
Interface
Page
Time Protocol
Yes
—
page 6-8
IP Configuration
Yes
Yes
page 6-5
SNMP Communities
Yes
—
page 6-15
Trap Receivers and
Authentication Traps
Yes
—
page 6-18
Console/Serial Link:
• Inbound Telnet
• Web Agent Enabled
• Terminal Settings
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
—
Operator and Manager Usernames
Operator and Manager Passwords
—
Yes
Yes
Yes
page 3-8
page 4-10,
page 3-8
System Information
Address Age Interval
System Time
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
—
page 6-22
Port Settings
Yes
Yes
page 6-24
Network Monitoring Port
Yes
Yes
page 6-28
Spanning Tree Enable/Disable
Spanning Tree Parameters
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
page 6-30
IGMP Enable/Disable
Yes
Yes
Yes
—
page 6-34
Support/Management URLs
—
Yes
page 6-3
page 6-20
In the factory default configuration, the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP—which
automatically blocks redundant links) is disabled. Generally, you should
enable STP to prevent broadcast storms if there are redundant links in your
network. For more information, refer to “Spanning Tree Protocol” on page
page 6-30.
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Configuring the Switch
Support/Management URLs Feature
Support/Management URLs Feature
The Support/Mgmt URLs window enables you to change the World Wide Web
Universal Resource Locator (URL) for two functions:
■
Support URL – a support information site for your switch
■
Management Server URL – the site for online help for the web browser
interface, and, if set up, the URL of a network management station running
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches.
3. Enter URLs for:
- the support information source that is accessed when
you click on the web browser interface Support tab –
the default is HP’s network products World Wide Web
home page
- the URL of the network management server or other
source of the online help files for this web browser
interface – the default is a location on HP’s World Wide
Web site
Figure 6-1.
2. Click Here
Configuring the Switch
1. Click Here
4. Click on Apply Changes
The Support/Mgmt URLs Window
Support URL
This is the site that will be accessed when you click on the [Support] tab on the
web browser interface. The default URL is:
http://www.hp.com/go/network_city
which is the Web site for Hewlett-Packard’s networking products. Click on the
Support button on that page, and you can get to support information regarding
your switch including white papers, code updates, and more.
6-3
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Configuring the Switch
Support/Management URLs Feature
You could instead enter the URL for a local site that you use for entering
reports about network performance, or whatever other function you would
like to be able to access easily by pressing the [Support] tab.
Management Server URL
This is the site for two purposes:
■
the location of online help for the web browser interface
■
the URL of a network management station running HP TopTools for Hubs
& Switches
Configuring the Switch
The default URL is:
http://www.hp.com/rnd/device_help
which is the location on HP’s World Wide Web site of the help files for the web
browser interface. To use this site, you must have a modem link or other access
to the World Wide Web operating when you run the web browser interface.
Then, when you click on the [?] button on any of the web browser interface
screens, the context sensitive help for that screen will be retrieved from the
site.
Alternatively, you can enter the IP address or DNS name of a network management station on your network that is running HP TopTools for Hubs &
Switches. That product also includes the help files for the web browser
interface.
Additionally, HP Top Tools for Hubs & Switches has the capability of performing network-wide policy management and configuration of your switch. This
field identifies the management station that is performing that function. If HP
TopTools for Hubs & Switches is running on your network and has discovered
your switch as it builds the network topology image, TopTools will automatically overwrite the Management Server URL field with the address or name
of the management station on which it is running.
6-4
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
IP Configuration
The switch console screen enables you to configure the initial values for:
■
IP address, subnet mask, and (optionally) the gateway address for the
switch so that it can be managed in an IP network from the web browser
interface, SNMP-based network management station, or by the switch
console through a Telnet session.
■
The time server information (used if you want the switch to get its time
information from another device operating as a Timep server)
The web browser interface screen enables you to modify the initial IP
configuration if needed.
Note
If you change the IP address through the web browser interface, the browser
will lose connection to the switch. You can reconnect by entering the new IP
address as the URL.
By default, the switch is configured to receive IP addressing from a DHCP/
Bootp server that you have configured correctly with information for your
switch. Refer to “DHCP/Bootp Operation” on page 6-10 for information on
setting up automatic configuration from a server.
Through the web browser interface or switch console, you can manually enter
a different address, or you can disable the IP operation.
Notes:
■
The IP addressing used in the switch should be compatible with your
network. The IP address must be unique; the subnet mask must be the
same for all devices on the same IP network.
■
If you plan to connect to other networks that use globally administered
IP addressing, refer to “Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses” on page
6-14.
For information on how IP addressing affects switch performance, refer to
“How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation” on page 6-9.
6-5
Configuring the Switch
The initial IP configuration process is described in chapter 2, “Configuring an
IP Address on the Switch”.
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
Configuring IP Address from the Web Browser Interface
1. Click here.
2. Click here.
Configuring the Switch
3.To enable manual entry
of the IP address, set this
to “Manual”.
4. Enter an IP address, subnet
mask, and, if needed, the IP
address of the default gateway.
5.Click on this to activate
the changes you made in
steps 3 and 4.
Figure 6-2. Configuring IP Addressing on the Web Browser Interface
6-6
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
Description
IP Configuration
The method the switch uses to acquire its IP service configuration.
• DHCP/Bootp: The switch attempts to get its IP configuration or its
complete configuration from a DHCP or Bootp server.
• Manual: Enables you to manually enter the IP configuration into the
next three fields.
• Disabled: Network management access to the switch over IP is
disabled.
IP Address
IP address for the switch IP interface. If DHCP/Bootp is selected for IP
Configuration, this is a read-only field displaying the value received
from a DHCP or Bootp server.
Subnet Mask
The same subnet mask that is used by all devices in the IP subnet being
configured. If DHCP/Bootp is selected for IP Configuration, this is a
read-only field displaying the value received from a DHCP or Bootp
server.
Default Gateway
The IP address of the next-hop gateway node for reaching off-subnet
destinations. Used as the default gateway if the requested destination
address is not on the local subnet. If DHCP/Bootp is selected for IP
Configuration, this is a read-only field displaying the value received
from a DHCP or Bootp server.
6-7
Configuring the Switch
Parameter
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
Configuring IP Address from the Switch Console
You can use the console to manually configure an IP address, subnet mask,
and a gateway IP address (if needed). Or, you can use DHCP/Bootp to
configure IP from a DHCP or Bootp server. (To use the DHCP/Bootp option,
you must also configure the DHCP or Bootp server accordingly.)
Do one of the following:
■
Configuring the Switch
■
To use the console, set the IP Config parameter to Manual and then
manually enter the IP address and subnet mask you want for the switch.
If you plan to use DHCP or Bootp, use the console to ensure that the IP
Config parameter is set to DHCP/Bootp, then refer to “DHCP/Bootp
Operation” on page 6-10.
To Access IP Addressing:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Management Access Configuration (IP, SNMP, Console)...
1. IP Configuration
The default setting for
Time Protocol Config is
DHCP. Setting it to
Manual, then pressing [v]
or [Tab] causes the Timep
Server Address
parameter to appear.
The default setting for IP
Config is DHCP/Bootp.
Using the Space bar to set
it to Manual, then pressing
[v] or [Tab] causes the IP
Address, Subnet Mask,
and Gateway parameters
to appear.
For descriptions of these
parameters, refer to the
online Help for this screen.
Figure 6-3. Example of the IP Service Configuration Screen
6-8
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
2.
Press [E] (for Edit).
3.
Select the IP Config field and use the Space bar to select Manual.
4.
Select the IP Address field and enter the IP address you want to assign to
the switch.
5.
Select the Subnet Mask field and enter the subnet mask for the IP address.
6.
If you want to reach off-subnet destinations, select the Gateway field and
enter the IP address of the gateway router.
7.
Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save) and return to the Switch Management
Access Configuration menu.
Without an IP address and subnet mask compatible with your network, your
control of the switch is limited to what you can do through a direct console
connection, and some of the switch features will not be available. To be able
to use the full performance capabilities HP proactive networking offers
through the switch, you should configure the switch with an IP address and
subnet mask compatible with your network. The following table compares the
features available on the switch without and with an IP address.
Features Available Without an IP
Address
Additional HP Proactive Networking Features
Available with an IP Address and Subnet Mask
• Direct-connect console access
• Spanning Tree Protocol
• Console-based status and
counters information for
monitoring switch operation
and diagnosing problems.
• Serial (Xmodem) downloads of
operating system (OS) updates
and configuration files
• Browser interface access, with configuration,
security, and diagnostic tools, plus the Alert Log for
discovering problems detected
in the switch along with suggested solutions
• SNMP network management access such as
HP TopTools network configuration, monitoring,
problem-finding and reporting, analysis, and
recommendations for changes to increase control
and uptime
• Telnet console access
• DHCP time server configuration
• IGMP
• TFTP download of configurations and OS updates
(including switch-to-switch transfers)
• Ping Test
6-9
Configuring the Switch
How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
DHCP/Bootp Operation
Overview
The DHCP/Bootp switch configuration option is used to download configuration data from a DHCP or Bootp server to the switch. With DHCP you can have
the switch automatically retrieve the IP address with no configuration
required on either the switch or the DHCP server. A Bootp server requires
some configuration, but you can additionally identify a file to be downloaded
to the switch containing a full switch configuration.
Configuring the Switch
Note
The Switch 212M and Switch 224M are compatible with both DHCP and Bootp
servers.
Once the switch acquires an IP configuration from either a DHCP or Bootp
server, it displays the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway information in
the IP Configuration screen.
The DHCP/Bootp Process
Whenever the IP Config parameter in the switch is configured to DHCP/Bootp
(the default), or when the switch is rebooted with this configuration:
1.
DHCP/Bootp requests are automatically broadcast on all local networks.
(The switch sends one type of request that either a DHCP or Bootp server
can process.)
2.
When a DHCP or Bootp server receives the request, it replies with an
automatically generated IP address and subnet mask for the switch. The
switch also receives an IP Gateway address if the server has been configured to provide one. In the Bootp case, the server must first be configured
with an entry that has the MAC address of the switch.
The switch properly handles replies from either type of server. If multiple
replies are returned, the switch tries to use the first DHCP reply.
If the switch does not receive a reply to its DHCP/Bootp requests, it continues
to periodically send request packets, but with decreasing frequency. Thus, if
a DHCP or Bootp server is not available or accessible to the switch when
DHCP/Bootp is first configured, the switch may not immediately receive the
desired configuration. After verifying that the server has become accessible
to the switch, reboot the switch to re-start the process.
6-10
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
DHCP Operation
A significant difference between a DHCP configuration and a Bootp configuration is that an IP address assignment from a DHCP server is automatic,
requiring no configuration of the DHCP server. Using that automatic feature,
though, the address is temporarily leased. Periodically the switch is required
to renew its lease of the IP configuration.
As a result, the IP addressing provided by the server may be different each
time the switch reboots or renews its configuration from the server. This may
cause a problem for you if you access the switch through the web browser
interface, since the IP address is used as the browser URL.
■
Using the switch’s MAC address as an identifier, configure the server with
a “Reservation” so that it will always assign the same IP address to the
switch. (For MAC address information, refer to appendix B, “MAC
Address Management”.)
■
Configure the server to issue an “infinite” lease.
For more information on either of these procedures, refer to the documentation provided with the DHCP server.
Bootp Operation
When a Bootp server receives a request it searches its Bootp database for a
record entry that matches the MAC address in the Bootp request from the
switch. If a match is found, the configuration data in the associated database
record is returned to the switch. For most Unix systems, the Bootp database
is contained in the /etc/bootptab file. In contrast to DHCP operation, Bootp
configurations are always the same for each receiving device. That is, the
Bootp server replies to a request with a configuration previously stored in the
server and designated for the requesting device.
Bootp Database Record Entries. A minimal entry in the Bootp table file
/etc/bootptab to provide an IP address and subnet mask to the switch would
be similar to this entry:
j3299switch:\
ht=ether:\
ha=0060b0123456:\
ip=11.22.33.44:\
sm=255.255.248.0:\
vm=rfc1048
6-11
Configuring the Switch
However, you can fix the address assignment for the switch by doing either
of the following:
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
An entry in the Bootp table file /etc/bootptab to tell the switch where to obtain
a configuration file download would be similar to this entry:
Configuring the Switch
j3299switch:\
ht=ether:\
ha=080009123456:\
ip=11.22.33.44:\
sm=255.255.248.0:\
gw=11.22.33.1:\
lg=55.66.77.88:\
ts=11.22.33.55:\
T144=”switch.cfg”:\
vm=rfc1048
where:
j3299switch is a user-defined symbolic name to help you find the correct section of the
bootptab file. If you have multiple switches that will be using Bootp to get their
IP configuration, you should use a unique symbolic name for each switch.
Note
6-12
ht
is the “hardware type”. For the Switch 212M and Switch 224M, set this to ether
(for Ethernet). This tag must precede the ha tag.
ha
is the “hardware address”. Use the switch's 12-digit base MAC address.
ip
is the IP address to be assigned to the switch.
sm
is the subnet mask of the subnet in which the switch is installed.
gw
is the IP address of the default gateway for the switch.
lg
is the TFTP server address (source of switch configuration file).
ts
is the IP address of the time server.
T144
is the vendor-specific “tag” identifying the configuration file to download.
vm
is a required entry that specifies the Bootp report format. For the Switch 212M
and Switch 224M, set this parameter to rfc1048.
The above Bootp table entry is a sample that will work for the Switch 212M
and 224M when the appropriate addresses and file names are used. There are
other features and parameters that can be implemented with Bootp. See the
documentation for your Bootp server for more information.
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
Configuring DHCP/Bootp
In its default configuration, the switch is configured for DHCP/Bootp operation. However, if an IP address has previously been configured or if the IP
Config parameter has been set to Disabled, then you will need to use this
procedure to reconfigure the parameter to enable DHCP/Bootp operation.
This procedure assumes that, for Bootp operation:
■
a Bootp database record has already been entered into an appropriate
Bootp server
■
the necessary network connections are in place
■
the Bootp server is accessible from the switch
Configuring the Switch
and, for DHCP operation:
■
the necessary network connections are in place
■
a DHCP server is accessible from the switch
To configure the switch for DHCP/Bootp:
1.
From the switch console Main Menu, select
2. Switch Management Access Configuration (IP, SNMP, Console) ...
1. IP Configuration
2.
Press [E] (for Edit mode), then use [v] to move the cursor to the
IP Config parameter field.
3.
Use the Space bar to select the DHCP/Bootp option for the IP Config
parameter. (This causes the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway
parameters to not be accessible.)
4.
Press [Enter] to exit from edit mode, then press [S] to save the configuration
change.
When you press [S] to save the configuration change or reboot the switch with
DHCP/Bootp enabled in a network providing DHCP/Bootp service, it will do
the following:
■
Receive an IP address and subnet mask and, if configured in the server, a
gateway IP address and the address of a Timep server.
■
For Bootp operation, if the reply provides information for downloading a
configuration file, the switch then uses TFTP to download the file from
the designated source, then reboots itself. This assumes that the switch
has connectivity to the TFTP file server specified in the Bootp database
configuration record and that the Bootp database record is correctly
configured.
6-13
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Configuring the Switch
IP Configuration
Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses
Configuring the Switch
If you intend to connect your network to other networks that use globally
administered IP addresses, Hewlett-Packard strongly recommends that you
use IP addresses that have a network address assigned to you. There is a
formal process for assigning unique IP addresses to networks worldwide.
Contact one of the following companies:
Country
Phone Number/E-Mail/URL Company Name/Address
United States/
Countries not in
Europe or Asia/
Pacific
1-703-742-4777
[email protected]
http://rs.internic.net
Network Solutions, Inc.
Attn: InterNIC Registration Service
505 Huntmar Park Drive
Herndon, VA 22070
Europe
+31 20 592 5065
[email protected]
http://www.ripe.net
RIPE NCC Kruislaan
409NL-1098 SJ
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Asia/Pacific
[email protected]
http://www.apnic.net
Attention: IN-ADDR.ARPA Registration
Asia Pacific Network Information Center
c/o Internet Initiative Japan, Inc.
Sanbancho Annex Bldg. 1-4 Sanban-cho
Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102, Japan
For more information, refer to Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles,
Protocols and Architecture by Douglas E. Comer (Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
publisher).
6-14
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Configuring the Switch
SNMP Communities
SNMP Communities
From the switch console only, you can add, edit, or delete SNMP communities. Use this feature to restrict access to the switch by SNMP management
stations. You can configure up to five SNMP communities, each with either an
operator-level or a manager-level view, and either restricted or unrestricted
write access.
For more on this topic, refer to chapter 5, “Using HP TopTools To Monitor and
Manage Your Network”, and to the console online help.
Configuring SNMP Communities from the Switch
Console
Before you begin, ensure that the switch has been configured for IP.
Caution:
Deleting or changing the community named “public” disables many network
management functions (such as auto-discovery, traffic monitoring, and threshold setting). Changing or deleting the “public” name also generates a console
Event Log message. If security for network management is a concern, it is
recommended that you change the write access for the “public” community
to “Restricted”.
6-15
Configuring the Switch
In the default configuration, no manager addresses are configured, and all
management stations using the correct community name may access the
switch with the corresponding View and Access levels specified for those
communities. For any community name, if you want to restrict access to one
or more specific nodes, you can enter up to ten IP addresses of such nodes
into the Manager Address field. Entering one or more IP addresses in the
Manager Address field restricts access to only those addresses.
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Configuring the Switch
SNMP Communities
To View, Edit, or Add SNMP Communities:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Management Access Configuration (IP, SNMP, Console)...
Configuring the Switch
2. SNMP Community Names/Authorized Managers
Add and Edit options are used to modify
the SNMP options. See figure 6-5.
Note: This screen gives an overview of the SNMP communities that
are currently configured. All fields in this screen are read-only.
Figure 6-4. The SNMP Communities Screen (Default Values)
6-16
2.
From the Configuration screen, select SNMP Communities to display a
screen similar to the one above.
3.
Press [A] (for Add) to display the following screen:
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Configuring the Switch
SNMP Communities
If you are adding a
community, the
Community Name field is
blank.
Type the value for
this field
If you are editing an
existing community, the
values for the currently
selected Community
appear in the fields.
Use the Space bar
to select values for
other fields
Configuring the Switch
Figure 6-5. The SNMP Add or Edit Screen
Note:
In the default configuration, no manager addresses are configured. In this
case, all management stations using the correct community name may access
the switch with the View and Access levels configured for that community. If
you want to limit access to the switch, you can enter up to ten IP addresses
of authorized management stations into the Manager Address field. Entering
the IP addresses in the Manager Address field limits access to only those
addresses.
4.
Enter the appropriate value in each of the above fields (use the [Tab] key
to move from one field to the next).
5.
Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save) and return to the Switch Management
Access Configuration menu.
6-17
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Configuring the Switch
Trap Receivers
Trap Receivers
From the switch console only you can configure up to ten IP management
stations (trap receivers) to receive SNMP trap packets sent from the switch.
Trap packets describe specific event types. (These events are the same as the
log messages displayed in the event log.) The Address and Community define
which management stations receive the traps.
Configuring the Switch
If the Send Authentication Traps field is set to Yes, an authentication trap is sent
to the addresses on the screen if any management station attempts an unauthorized access of the switch. Check the event log to help determine why the
authentication trap was sent. (Refer to “Using the Event Log To Identify
Problem Sources” on page 8-6.)
To configuring Trap Receivers from the switch console, follow these steps:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Management Access Configuration (IP, SNMP, Console)...
3. Trap Receivers
Figure 6-6. The Trap Receivers Configuration Screen (Default Values)
6-18
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Configuring the Switch
Trap Receivers
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the Send Authentication Traps field.
3.
Press the Space bar to enable (Yes) or disable (No) sending authentication
traps, then press [>] or [Tab] to move the cursor to the Address field.
4.
Type in the IP address of a network management station to which you
want the switch to send SNMP trap packets, then press [>] or [Tab] to move
the cursor to the Community field.
5.
Type in the name of the SNMP community to which the network management station belongs, then press [>] or [Tab] to move the cursor to the Events
field.
6.
Press the Space bar to select the level of internal switch events that cause
trap packets to be sent:
Description
None (default)
Send no log messages.
All
Send all log messages.
Not INFO
Send the log messages that are not information-only.
Critical
Send critical-level log messages.
Debug
Reserved for HP-internal use.
Configuring the Switch
7.
Event Level
Press [Enter], then press [S] (for Save) and return to the Switch Management
Access Configuration menu.
6-19
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Configuring the Switch
Console/Serial Link
Console/Serial Link
From the switch console only you can configure the following console
terminal emulation and communication characteristics:
■
Enable or disable inbound Telnet access (default: enabled)
■
Enable or disable web browser interface access (default: enabled)
■
Specify:
• Terminal type (default: VT100)
Configuring the Switch
•
•
■
Console screen refresh interval for statistics screens (the frequency
with which statistics are updated on the screen—default: 3 seconds)
The types of events displayed in the console event log (default: all)
Adjust the console configuration to customize the connection with the PC
or terminal you are using for console access.
• Baud Rate (default: Speed Sense)
•
Connection Inactivity Time (default: 0—off)
In most cases, the default configuration works well. If you need to change any
of the above parameters, use the switch console.
Note:
6-20
If you change the Baud Rate or Flow Control settings for the switch, you
should make the corresponding changes in your console access device. Otherwise, you may lose connectivity between the switch and your terminal
emulator due to differences between the terminal and switch settings for these
two parameters.
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Configuring the Switch
Console/Serial Link
Using the Switch Console To Configure the Console/
Serial Link
This screen enables you to:
■
■
Enable or disable inbound Telnet, and web browser interface access
(identified as Web Agent Enabled)
Modify console and serial link parameters
To Access Console/Serial Link Features
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
Configuring the Switch
2. Switch Management Access Configuration (IP, SNMP, Console)...
4. Console/Serial Link Configuration
Figure 6-7. The Console/Serial Link Configuration Screen (Default Values)
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the Inbound Telnet Enabled field.
3.
Refer to the online help provided with this screen for further information
on configuration options for these features.
4.
When you have finished making changes to the above parameters, press
[Enter], then press [S] (for Save) and return to the Switch Management
Access Configuration menu.
6-21
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Configuring the Switch
System Information
System Information
From the web browser interface and switch console you can configure
basic switch management information, including system data, address table
aging, and time zone parameters.
Configuring System Parameters from the Web Browser
Interface
Configuring the Switch
In the web browser interface, you can enter the system information shown
below. For access to the Address Age Interval, the Time parameters and the
system information parameters, use the switch console.
1. Click here.
2. Click here.
3. Enter the system
information you want.
4. Click on Apply Changes.
Figure 6-8. Configuring System Information from the Web Browser Interface
6-22
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Configuring the Switch
System Information
Configuring System Information from the Console
To Access System Information:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
3. Switch Configuration...
1. System Information
Configuring the Switch
System Name
Figure 6-9. The System Configuration Screen (Default Values)
Note:
To help simplify administration, it is recommended that you configure
System Name to a character string that is meaningful within your network.
To set the time and date, set the Time Protocol parameters under “IP (Internet)
Service” (page page 6-5) for your time server, or use the time and date
commands described in chapter 7, “Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation”.
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the System Name field.
3.
Refer to the online help provided with this screen for further information
on configuration options for these features.
4.
When you have finished making changes to the above parameters, press
[Enter], then press [S] (for Save) and return to the Switch Configuration
menu.
6-23
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Configuring the Switch
Port Settings
Port Settings
From the web browser interface and switch console you can configure
the operating state for each switch port.
The following table shows the settings available for each port type. The same
parameter settings are available in both the web browser interface and the
switch console.
Configuring the Switch
Table 6-2.
Port Settings Parameters
Parameter
Description
Enabled
Yes (default): The port is ready to be connected in a network.
No: The port will not operate, even if properly connected in a network. Use
this setting if the port needs to be shut down for diagnostic purposes or while
you are making topology changes, for example.
Mode or
Config Mode
For 10T ports:
10HDx (default): 10 Mbps, Half Duplex
10FDx: 10 Mbps, Full Duplex
For 10/100TX ports:
Auto (default): Auto-negotiates with the port at the other end of the link for
speed (10 Mbps or 100 Mbps) and data transfer operation (half-duplex or fullduplex). Note: Ensure that the device attached to the port is configured for
the same setting that you select here. Also, if “Auto” is used the device to
which the port is connected must operate in compliance with the IEEE 802.3u
“Auto Negotiation” standard for 100Base-T networks. See the Auto
Negotiation Note on the next page.
10HDx: 10 Mbps, Half Duplex
100HDx: 100 Mbps, Half Duplex
10FDx: 10 Mbps, Full Duplex
100FDx: 100 Mbps, Full Duplex
Flow Control
6-24
Disabled (default): No flow control is applied to inbound traffic.
Enabled: The flow control method implemented depends on whether the ports
is configured to operate in full-duplex or half-duplex mode:
• If Full Duplex - IEEE 802.3x Flow Control is applied.
• If Half Duplex - Back pressure is applied.
See the Flow Control Note on the next page for an explanation of these
methods.
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Configuring the Switch
Port Settings
Auto-Negotiation Note: This feature complies with the IEEE 802.3u Auto
Negotiation standard, and is the default setting for the 10/100TX ports on the
switch. Using Auto, the port automatically selects the network speed (10 or
100 Mbps) and the data transfer operation (full- or half-duplex) for the
connection to another device, provided that the other device also complies
with the IEEE 802.3u Auto Negotiation protocol and is set to Auto. If the other
device does not comply with the 802.3u standard, or is not set to Auto, then
the port configuration on the switch must be manually set to match the port
configuration on the other device.
Flow Control Note:
IEEE 802.3 Flow Control is applied to ports that are configured to
operate in full-duplex mode only. When the switch detects congestion on
a port, it transmits a special “pause” (XOFF) packet out the port. The
receiving device must support 802.3x flow control in order to interpret
this packet. The receiving device will halt transmission of any packets
until the switch sends a “resume” (XON) packet.
■
Back pressure is applied to ports that are configured to operate in halfduplex mode. When the switch detects congestion on the port, it issues a
JAM signal, simulating a collision that prevents other attached stations
from transmitting. It is recommended that if you use this flow control
method, it should be configured only on those ports that are connected
to a single end node, not on ports that are connected to a switch, hub,
bridge, or router.
6-25
Configuring the Switch
■
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Configuring the Switch
Port Settings
Configuring Port Parameters from the Web Browser
Interface
Configuring the Switch
2. Click Here
1. Click Here
3. Click on a port to select it for
configuration. To select multiple
ports, use standard Windows methods
using Ctrl and Shift keys.
4. Click on “Modify Selected Ports”.
Clicking on [Modify Selected Ports] opens up the following screen.
5. Select configuration changes.
6. Click on “Apply Settings” to
activate changes.
Figure 6-10. Example of Port Configuration and Modify Selected Ports Windows
on the Web Browser Interface
6-26
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Configuring the Switch
Port Settings
Configuring Port Parameters from the Switch Console
To Access Port Configuration:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
3. Switch Configuration...
2. Port Settings
Read-Only Fields
Configuring the Switch
Figure 6-11. Example of the Port Settings Screen
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the Enabled field for the first port.
3.
See table 6-2 on page 6-24 for the available values for each parameter and
definitions of each value. Or, refer to the online help provided with this
screen.
4.
When you have finished making changes to the above parameters, press
[Enter], then press [S] (for Save) and return to the Switch Configuration
menu.
6-27
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Configuring the Switch
Network Monitoring Port Features
Network Monitoring Port Features
From the web browser interface and switch console you can designate a
port for monitoring traffic on one of the other switch ports. The monitoring is
accomplished by copying all traffic from the specified monitored port to the
designated monitoring port.
Configuring the Switch
Note:
It is possible in networks with high traffic levels to copy more traffic to a
monitor port than the link can support. In this situation, some packets may
not be copied to the monitor port.
Configuring Port Monitoring from the Web Browser
Interface
1. Click Here
2. Click Here
3. Select Monitor On
4. Select the port to use for the
Monitoring Port and the Port
to Monitor. Then click on
Apply Changes.
Figure 6-12. Setting Up Port Monitoring from the Web Browser Interface
6-28
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Configuring the Switch
Network Monitoring Port Features
Configuring Port Monitoring from the Switch Console
To Access Port Monitoring:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
3. Switch Configuration...
3. Network Monitoring Port
Configuring the Switch
Enable monitoring
by setting this
parameter to “Yes”.
Figure 6-13. Network Monitoring Port Configuration Screen
2.
In the Actions menu, press [E] (for Edit).
3.
If monitoring is currently disabled (the default) then enable it by pressing
the Space bar (or [Y]) to select Yes).
4.
Press [v] to display a screen similar to figure 6-13 and move the cursor to
the Monitoring Port and Monitored Port parameters and type in the port
number or press the [Space] bar to scroll through the available ports and
display the port you want to use for each of these functions.
5.
When you are finished, press [Enter], then press [S] (for Save) and return to
the Switch Configuration menu.
6-29
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Configuring the Switch
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
The switch uses the IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), when enabled,
to ensure that only one path at a time is active between any two nodes on the
network. In networks where there is more than one physical path between
any two nodes, STP ensures a single active path between them by blocking all
redundant paths.
Configuring the Switch
Enabling STP is necessary in such networks because having more than one
path between a pair of nodes causes loops in the network, which can result
in a switch detecting the same node on more than one port. This results in
duplication of messages, leading to a “broadcast storm” that can bring down
the network.
Enabling STP also allows you to intentionally create redundant links in your
network for critical communication paths. While allowing only one active path
through a network at any time, STP retains any redundant physical path to
serve as a backup (blocked) path in case the existing active path fails.
From the web browser interface you can activate the IEEE 802.1d Spanning
Tree Protocol (STP); from the switch console you can activate STP and adjust
spanning tree parameters. In the factory default configuration, STP is off. If
there are any redundant paths (loops) between nodes in your network, you
should set the Spanning Tree Enabled parameter to Yes.
Caution
6-30
Because the switch automatically gives faster links a higher priority, STP
selects the higher speed links as the active links unless there is an equipment
problem. Thus, the default STP parameter settings are usually adequate for
spanning tree operation. Because incorrect STP settings can adversely affect
network performance, you should avoid making changes without having a
strong understanding of how STP operates. For more on STP, read the IEEE
802.1d standard.
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Configuring the Switch
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Enabling STP from the Web Browser Interface
This procedure enables or disables STP on the switch.
1. Click Here
2. Click Here
Configuring the Switch
3. To enable or disable STP, click on the drop-down
menu, and click on your selection (On or Off).
4. Click on Apply Changes
to activate your choice.
Figure 6-14. Device Features Screen for Enabling Spanning Tree
Parameter
Description
Spanning Tree
(Default: Off)
Enables or disables Spanning Tree Protocol across all ports on the
switch. Other STP parameters are available through the console
interface. Enabling or disabling STP through the web browser interface
does not affect the settings of these other parameters. For more
information on STP operation, refer to “How STP Operates” on page page
6-33.
6-31
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Configuring the Switch
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Using the Switch Console To Configure STP
In most cases, the default STP parameter settings are adequate. In cases where
they are not, use this procedure to make configuration changes.
Configuring the Switch
Caution
If you enable STP, it is recommended that you leave the remainder of the STP
parameter settings at their default values until you have had an opportunity
to evaluate STP performance in your network. Because incorrect STP settings
can adversely affect network performance, you should avoid making changes
without having a strong understanding of how STP operates. To learn the
details of STP operation, refer to the IEEE 802.1d standard. For an overview,
see “How STP Operates” on page 6-33.
To Access STP:
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
3. Switch Configuration . . .
4. Spanning Tree Operation
2.
Press [E] (for Edit) to highlight the Spanning Tree Enabled parameter.
3.
Press the Space bar to select Yes.
Read-Only Fields
Figure 6-15. Example of the STP Configuration Screen
6-32
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Configuring the Switch
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
4.
If the remaining STP parameter settings are correct for your network, go
to step 7.
5.
Use [Tab] or the arrow keys to select the next parameter you want to change,
then type in the new value. (If you need information on STP parameters,
press [Enter] to select the Actions line, then press [H] to get help.)
6.
Repeat step 5 for each additional parameter you want to change.
7.
When you are finished editing parameters, press [Enter], then press [S] (for
Save) and return to the Switch Configuration menu.
How STP Operates
In the event of a topology change such as a switch, bridge, or data link failure
in the network, STP develops a new spanning tree that may result in changing
some ports from the blocking state to the forwarding state.
If an active path fails, STP automatically activates (unblocks) an available
backup to serve as the new active path for as long as the original active path
is down. As shown in the following illustration, the active path between nodes
A and B uses links 1 and 3 which have a lower total path cost than the path
using links 4, 2, and 3. If link 1 happens to go down, path 4→2→3 becomes the
active path.
• Active path from node A to node B: 1→3
• Backup (redundant) path from node A to node B: 4→2→3
switch A
1
path cost:
100
2
3
path cost: 100
path cost: 100
switch B
4
switch C
switch D
path cost: 200
node
A
node
B
Figure 6-16. Example of Active and Backup Paths Between Two Nodes
6-33
Configuring the Switch
When STP is enabled, the switch automatically senses port identity and type,
and automatically defines port cost and priority for each type. The switch
console allows you to adjust the Cost and Priority for each port, as well as the
global STP parameter values for the switch.
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—
Multimedia Traffic Control
Configuring the Switch
In a network where IP multicast traffic is transmitted for various multimedia
applications, you can use the switch to reduce unnecessary bandwidth usage
on a per-port basis by configuring IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). In the factory default state IGMP is disabled—the switch forwards all
IGMP traffic to all ports, which can cause unnecessary bandwidth usage on
ports not belonging to multicast groups. Enabling IGMP allows the ports to
detect IGMP queries and report packets and manage IP multicast traffic
through the switch.
IGMP is useful in multimedia applications such as LAN TV, desktop conferencing, and collaborative computing, where there is multipoint communication; that is, communication from one to many hosts, or communication
originating from many hosts and destined for many other hosts. In such
multipoint applications, IGMP will be configured on the hosts, and multicast
traffic will be generated by one or more servers, inside or outside of the local
network. Switches in the network that support IGMP can then be configured
to direct the multicast traffic to only the ports where needed. In addition to
the Switch 212M and Switch 224M, other HP switches that support IGMP
include:
• HP Switch 1600M
• HP Switch 2400M
• HP Switch 4000M
• HP Switch 8000M
• HP Switch 2000 (B-version)
• HP Switch 800T
Enabling IGMP allows the ports to detect IGMP queries and report packets
and manage IP multicast traffic through the switch. If no other querier is
detected, the switch will also function as the querier. (If you need to disable
the querier feature, you can do so through the IGMP configuration MIB. Refer
to “Changing the Querier Configuration Setting” on page page 6-42.)
Note
In order for IGMP service to take effect, an IP address must be configured on
the switch. Refer to “IP Configuration” on page page 6-5.
For more information on IGMP operation, refer to “How IGMP Operates” on
page 6-38.
6-34
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
Configuring IGMP from the Web Browser Interface
1. Click Here
2. Click Here
Configuring the Switch
3. To enable or disable IGMP, click on the drop-down
menu, and click on your selection (On or Off).
4. Click on Apply Changes
to activate your choice.
Figure 6-17. Configuring IGMP from the Web Browser Interface
Parameter
Description
Multicast Filtering Determines whether the switch uses IGMP on a per-port basis to manage
IP Multicast traffic.
(IGMP)
Default: Off
When Off, all ports on the switch simply forward IP multicast traffic.
When On, the feature enables each port on the switch to detect IGMP
queries and report packets, and to manage IP multicast traffic.
When you use the web browser Interface to enable Multicast Filtering,
the default operation is for each port in the switch to automatically
forward or drop IGMP traffic, depending on whether there are any IGMP
hosts or multicast routers on the port.
6-35
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Configuring the Switch
Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
Parameter
Description
Further Options
Available in the
Switch Console
By using the switch console, you can make these further changes to
IGMP operation:
• On a per-port basis, block or forward all IP multicast traffic.
• For all ports on the switch, forward IP multicast traffic at high priority.
(The default is for the switch to process IGMP traffic, along with other
traffic, in the order received.)
• Change the querier configuration setting. (By default, the switch will
act as a querier if a multicast router is not present to perform this
function.)
For more information, refer to “Using the Switch Console to Configure
IGMP” (page 6-36) and “How IGMP Operates” (page 6-38.).
Using the Switch Console To Configure IGMP
In the factory default configuration, IGMP is disabled. When you use either
the console or the web browser interface to enable IGMP on the switch, the
switch forwards IGMP traffic only to ports belonging to multicast groups.
Using the console enables these additional options:
■
Forward with High Priority. By default, this parameter is disabled,
which causes the switch to process IP multicast traffic, along with other
traffic, in the order received. If priority forwarding is supported by the
network technology you are using, enabling this parameter causes the
switch to give a higher priority to IP multicast traffic than to other traffic.
■
Auto/Blocked/Forward: You can use the console to configure individual
ports to any of the following states:
• Auto (the default): Causes the switch to interpret IGMP packets and
to filter IP multicast traffic based on the IGMP packet information for
ports belonging to a multicast group. This means that IGMP traffic
will be forwarded on a specific port only if an IGMP host or multicast
router is connected to the port.
•
•
Blocked: Causes the switch to drop all IGMP transmissions received
from a specific port and to block all outgoing IP Multicast packets for
that port. This has the effect of preventing IGMP traffic from moving
through specific ports.
Forward: Causes the switch to forward all IGMP and IP multicast
transmissions through the port.
For more information, refer to “How IGMP Operates” on page 6-38.
6-36
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
To Access IGMP Service:
Use this procedure to configure or edit the IGMP settings for the switch.
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
3. Switch Configuration
5. Advanced Features
1. IP Multicast (IGMP) Service
Configuring the Switch
Figure 6-18. Example of the IGMP Service Screen
2.
Press [E] (for Edit) to highlight the IGMP Enabled parameter
3.
Press the Space bar to select Yes (to enable IGMP).
4.
Use [v] to highlight the Forward with High Priority parameter.
5.
If you want IGMP traffic to be forwarded with a higher priority than other
traffic on the switch, use the Space bar to select Yes. Otherwise, leave this
parameter set to No.
6.
Use [v] to highlight the IP Mcast parameter setting for a port you want to
reconfigure. (The options are: Auto, Blocked, and Forward. Refer to the
online Help for further information on these choices.)
7.
Repeat step 6 for each port you want to configure.
6-37
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
8.
When you are finished configuring the IP Mcast parameter for the displayed ports, press [Enter] and [S] (for Save) to activate the changes you’ve
made to the IGMP configuration and return to the Advanced Features
menu.
(It is not necessary to reboot the switch. The new IGMP configuration is
implemented when you select “Save” in step 8.)
How IGMP Operates
Configuring the Switch
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is an internal protocol of
the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. IP manages multicast traffic by using
switches, multicast routers, and hosts that support IGMP. (In Hewlett-Packard’s implementation of IGMP, a multicast router is not necessary as long as
a switch is configured to support IGMP with the querier feature enabled.) A
set of hosts, routers, and/or switches that send or receive multicast data
streams to or from the same source(s) are termed a multicast group, and have
the same multicast group address. The multicast group running version 2 of
IGMP uses three fundamental types of messages to communicate:
■
Query: A message sent from the querier (multicast router or switch)
asking for a response from each host belonging to the multicast group. If
a multicast router supporting IGMP is not present, then the switch must
assume this function in order to elicit group membership information
from the hosts on the network. (If you need to disable the querier feature,
you can do so through console, using the IGMP configuration MIB. Refer
to “Changing the Querier Configuration Setting” on page 6-42.)
■
Report: A message sent by a host to the querier to indicate that the host
wants to be or is a member of a given group indicated in the report
message.
■
Leave Group: A message sent by a host to the querier to indicate that the
host has ceased to be a member of a specific multicast group.
Thus, IGMP identifies members of a multicast group (within a subnet) and
allows IGMP-configured hosts (and routers) to join or leave multicast groups.
IGMP Data. To display data showing active group addresses, reports, queries, querier access port, and active group address data (port, type, and
access), see “IP Multicast (IGMP) Status” on page 7-16.
6-38
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
Role of the Switch
When IGMP is enabled on the switch, it examines the IGMP packets it receives:
■
To learn which of its ports are linked to IGMP hosts and multicast routers/
queriers belonging to any multicast group
■
To become a querier if a multicast router/querier is not discovered on the
network
Once the switch learns the port location of the hosts belonging to any particular multicast group, it can direct group traffic to only those ports, resulting
in bandwidth savings on ports where group members do not reside. The
following example illustrates this operation.
■
PCs 1 and 4, Switch #2, and all of the routers are members of an IP
multicast group. (The routers operate as queriers.)
■
Switch #1 ignores IGMP traffic and does not distinguish between IP
multicast group members and non-members. Thus, it is sending large
amounts of unwanted multicast traffic out the ports to PCs 2 and 3.
■
Switch #2 is recognizing IGMP traffic and learns that PC #4 is in the IP
multicast group receiving multicast data from the video server (PC X).
Switch #2 then sends the multicast data only to the port for PC #4, thus
avoiding unwanted multicast traffic on the ports for PCs #5 and #6.
6-39
Configuring the Switch
Figure 6-19 on page page 6-40 shows a network running IGMP.
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
Multicast
Data Stream
Router
Router
PC X
Video
Server
Router
Configuring the Switch
IGMP is NOT
Running Here
Router
Switch # 1
IGMP IS
Running Here
Switch # 2
PC #1
Video
Client
PC #3
PC #2
PC # 4
Video
Client
PC #6
PC # 5
Figure 6-19. The Advantage of Using IGMP
The next figure (6-20) shows a network running IP multicasting using IGMP
without a multicast router. In this case, the IGMP-configured switch runs as a
querier.
PCs 2, 5, and 6 are members of the same IP multicast group.
IGMP is configured on switches 3 and 4. Either of these switches can operate
as querier because a multicast router is not present on the network. (If an
IGMP switch does not detect a querier, it automatically assumes this role,
assuming the querier feature is enabled—the default—within IGMP.)
6-40
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
Switch # 1
IGMP is NOT
Running Here
IGMP IS
Running Here
Switch # 3
Multicast
Data Stream
Switch #2
Configuring the Switch
Switch #4
PC #2
PC #1
PC # 5
PC #6
Figure 6-20. Isolating IP Multicast Traffic in a Network
■
In the above figure, the multicast group traffic does not go to switch 1 and
beyond because either the port on switch 3 that connects to switch 1 has
been configured as blocked or there are no hosts off of switch 1 or switch
2 that belong to the multicast group.
■
For PC #1 to become a member of the same multicast group without
flooding IP multicast traffic on all ports of switches 1 and 2, IGMP must
be configured on both switches 1 and 2.
6-41
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
Number of IP Multicast Addresses Allowed
The total number of IGMP filters (addresses) allowed in the switch is 255.
Changing the Querier Configuration Setting
The Querier feature, by default, is enabled and in most cases should be left in
this setting. If you need to change the querier setting, you can do so using the
IGMP Configuration MIB.
Note
The following commands are all case sensitive.
Configuring the Switch
To disable the querier setting, select Command Prompt from the Diagnostics
Menu and enter this command:
setmib hpSwitchIgmpQuerierState.1 -i 2
To enable the querier setting, enter this command:
setmib hpSwitchIgmpQuerierState.1 -i 1
To view the current querier setting, select the Advanced Command prompt
from the Main Menu and enter this command:
getmib hpSwitchIgmpQuerierState.1
Note
Whenever IGMP is enabled, the switch generates an Event Log message
indicating whether querier functionality is enabled.
Special Case IGMP Configuration
Normally, all members of a multicast group, both senders and receivers, join
the multicast group through IGMP “join” requests. Certain applications,
though, for example Microsoft® NetShow®, do not require the server to join
the multicast group before they start sending the multicast data stream.
Because these applications operate in this way, the Switch 212M and 224M
will not be able to recognize the server as part of the multicast group, and will
disable the multicast communication between the server and the client members of the multicast group.
If you are using one of these applications, you must first configure the switch
port to which the server is connected to Forward mode.
6-42
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Configuring the Switch
IP Multicast (IGMP) Service Features—Multimedia Traffic Control
1.
From the console Main Menu, select:
3. Switch Configuration
5. Advanced Features
1. IP Multicast (IGMP) Service
IGMP Service configuration screen similar to figure 6-18 on page 6-37 is
displayed.
In the IGMP Service screen, press [E] (for Edit)
3.
Use the arrow keys to highlight the IP Mcast parameter setting for the port
to which the server is connected.
4.
Press [F] or press the Space bar until Forward appears for the parameter
value.
5.
Press [Enter] and [S] (for Save) to activate the changes you’ve made to the
IGMP configuration and return to the Advanced Features menu.
The multicast communication between the server and the clients will now
operate correctly.
Note
If the server is not directly connected to the switch, and the server’s multicast
traffic is arriving at the switch through the querier port, the above procedure
is not necessary. The querier device will automatically be a member of the
multicast group and the multicast application traffic will be distributed properly.
If your switch, and not some other device, is acting as the querier, the above
procedure will have to be completed.
6-43
Configuring the Switch
2.
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7
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Overview
You can use the switch console (and, in some cases, the web browser interface) to access read-only status and counter information to help you monitor,
analyze, and troubleshoot switch operation.
This chapter describes the status and counters screens available through the
switch console and/or the web browser interface.
Note
The Event Log, a diagnostic tool that is often used for troubleshooting switch
operation, is described in chapter 8, Troubleshooting. See “Using the Event
Log To Identify Problem Sources” on page 8-6.
Table 7-1.
Interface
Purpose
General System Information Console
Lists switch-level operating information (page 7-3).
Management Address
Information
Console
Lists the MAC address, IP address, and IPX network number for the switch
(page 7-4).
Port Status Overview
Browser
Shows port utilization and the Alert Log (page 3-16).
Port Status
Browser
Console
Displays the operational status of each port (page 7-5).
Port Counters
Browser
Console
Summarizes port activity (page 7-7).
Address Table
Console
(Address Forwarding Table)
Lists the MAC addresses of nodes the switch has detected on the network,
with the corresponding switch port (page 7-11).
Port Address Table
Console
Lists the MAC addresses that the switch has learned from the selected port
(page 7-12).
Spanning Tree Information
Console
Lists Spanning Tree data for the switch and for individual ports (page 7-14).
IP Multicast (IGMP) Status
Console
Lists IGMP groups, reports, queries, and port on which the querier is located
(page 7-16).
7-1
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Status or Counters Type
Available Status and Counters Information
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Switch Console Status and Counters Menu
Switch Console Status and Counters
Menu
To display the switch console Status and Counters menu, from the console
Main Menu select:
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
1. Status and Counters
Figure 7-1. The Status and Counters Menu
Each of the above menu items accesses the read-only screens described on
the following pages. Refer to the online help for a description of the entries
displayed in these screens.
7-2
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
General System Information
General System Information
To access this screen from the console Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
1. General System Information
This screen dynamically indicates how individual switch resources are being
used. See the online Help for details.
7-3
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 7-2. Example of General Switch Information
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Switch Management Address Information
Switch Management Address
Information
To access this screen from the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
2. Switch Management Address Information
Figure 7-3. Example of Management Address Information
This screen displays addresses that are important for management of the
switch. See the online Help for details.
7-4
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Status
Port Status
The web browser interface and the switch console show the same port status
data.
Displaying Port Status from the Web Browser Interface
1. Click here
2. Click here
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 7-4. Example of Port Status on the Web Browser Interface
7-5
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Status
Displaying Port Status from the Switch Console
To access this screen from the Main Menu, click on:
1. Status and Counters
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
3. Port Status
Figure 7-5. Example of Port Status on the Console Interface
7-6
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Counters
Port Counters
The web browser interface and the switch console show the same port counter
data.
These screens enable you to determine the traffic patterns for each port. Port
Counter features include:
Note
■
Dynamic display of counters summarizing the traffic on each port since
the last reboot or reset
■
Option to reset the counters to zero (for the current console session). This
is useful for troubleshooting. Refer to the Note, below.
■
An option to display the link status, and further port activity details for a
specific port (console: Show details or browser: Details for Select Port).
The Reset action resets the counter display to zero for the current session, but
does not affect the cumulative values in the actual hardware counters. (In
compliance with the SNMP standard, the values in the hardware counters are
not reset to zero unless you reboot the switch.) Exiting from the console
session and starting a new session restores the counter displays to the
accumulated values in the hardware counters.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
7-7
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Counters
Displaying Port Counters from the Web Browser
Interface
1. Click here
2. Click here
3. To view details about the traffic on a particular port, highlight
that port number, then click on Details for Select Port.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Clicking on the [Details for Select Port] button displays the next screen.
4. Click here to return to
the Port Counters screen.
Figure 7-6. Example of Port Counters and Details on the Web Browser Interface
7-8
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Counters
Displaying Port Counters from the Console Interface
To access this screen from the Main Menu, click on:
1. Status and Counters
4. Port Counters
To view details about the traffic on a particular port, highlight that port number
(figure 7-7), then select Show Details. For example, selecting port 1 displays a
screen similar to figure 7-8, on the next page.
7-9
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 7-7. Example of Port Counters on the Console Interface
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Counters
Figure 7-8. Example of the Display for Show details on a Selected Port
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
This screen also includes the Reset action. Refer to the note on page 7-7.
7-10
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Address Table
Address Table
To access the Address Table screen from the Main Menu, click on:
1. Status and Counters
5. Address Table
This screen lets you determine which switch port is being used to communicate with a specific device on the network. The listing includes:
■
The MAC addresses that the switch has learned from network devices
attached to the switch
■
The port on which each MAC address was learned
Use the Search action at the bottom of the screen to locate a specific device
(MAC address).
7-11
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 7-9. Example of the Address Table
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Address Table
Port Address Table
This screen lets you determine which devices are attached to the selected
switch port by listing all of the MAC addresses detected on that port.
To access the port address table:
1.
From the Main Menu click on:
1. Status and Counters
6. Port Address Table
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
1. Select this parameter.
2. Type in the number of the port for which
you want to display the address table.
Figure 7-10. Example of How To Access the Port Address Table
2.
When the prompt appears, press the Space bar or type the port number
to display the port you want to examine, then press [Enter]. (See figure 7-10,
above.)
You will then see a list of the MAC addresses that have been detected on
the selected port, as shown in figure 7-11 on the next page. Each port is
identified by the sequential port numbers on the front of the switch.
7-12
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Address Table
In this example, several MAC addresses
accessed through port 5 appear in the
initial listing. To view any additional
addresses that may be in the listing, use
the Next page action.
Figure 7-11. Example of a Port Address Table for a Specific Port
Use the Search action at the bottom of the screen to determine whether a
specific device (MAC address) is connected to the selected port.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
7-13
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Spanning Tree (STP) Information
Spanning Tree (STP) Information
To access the Spanning Tree Information screen from the Main Menu, click on:
1. Status and Counters
7. Spanning Tree Information
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
STP must be enabled on the switch to display the following data:
Figure 7-12. Example of Spanning Tree Information
Use this screen to determine current switch-level STP parameter settings and
statistics.
7-14
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Spanning Tree (STP) Information
You can use the Show ports action at the bottom of the screen to display portlevel information and parameter settings for each port in the switch (including
port type, cost, priority, operating state, and designated bridge) as shown in
figure 7-13.
Figure 7-13. Example of STP Port Information
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
7-15
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
IP Multicast (IGMP) Status
IP Multicast (IGMP) Status
To access this screen from the Main Menu, click on:
1. Status and Counters
8. Advanced Features Status
1. IP Multicast (IGMP) Status
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
This screen identifies the active IP multicast groups the switch has detected,
along with the number of report packets and query packets seen for each
group. It also indicates which port is used for connecting to the querier.
Figure 7-14. Example of IGMP Status Screen
7-16
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Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
IP Multicast (IGMP) Status
You can also display the port status of the individual multicast groups. (That
is, you can display the ports, port types, and whether the IGMP devices
connected to the switch via the port are hosts, routers, or both.) To do so,
select the group from the above screen and press [S] for Show ports. For
example, suppose you wanted to view the status of the IP multicast group
224.0.1.24 shown in the above screen. You would highlight the row beginning
with that group number, then press [S]. You would then see a screen similar
to the following:
7-17
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 7-15. Example of an IGMP Status Screen for a Selected Multicast Group
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Sraswb.book : SIER_SW8.FM Page 1 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
8
Troubleshooting
This chapter addresses performance-related network problems that can be
caused by topology, switch configuration, and the effects of other devices or
their configurations on switch operation. (For switch-specific information on
hardware problems indicated by LED behavior, cabling requirements, and
other potential hardware-related problems, refer to the installation guide you
received with the switch.)
This chapter includes:
■
■
■
Troubleshooting Approaches (page 8-2)
Browser or Switch Console Problems (page 8-3)
Unusual Network Activity (page 8-4)
• General Problems (page 8-4)
•
■
■
IGMP-Related Problems (page 8-5)
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources (page 8-6)
Diagnostic and management tools, including:
•
•
Link test (page 8-9)
Ping test (page 8-9)
•
Browse configuration (page 8-13)
•
•
Command prompt (page 8-15)
Restoring the factory default configuration (page 8-16)
For information on support and warranty provisions, see the Support and
Warranty booklet shipped with the switch.
Troubleshooting
8-1
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Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Approaches
Troubleshooting Approaches
There are six primary ways to diagnose switch problems:
■
Check the switch LEDs for indications of proper behavior:
• Each switch port has a Link LED that should light whenever an active
network device is connected to a the port.
•
Problems with the switch hardware and software are indicated by
flashing the Fault and other switch LEDs.
See the Installation Guide shipped with the switch for information on
using the switch LEDs for troubleshooting.
■
Check the network topology/installation. See the Installation Guide
shipped with the switch for topology information.
■
Check cables for damage, correct type, and proper connections. See the
Installation Guide shipped with the switch for cable types and connector
pin-outs.
■
Use HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches (if installed on your network) to
help isolate problems and recommend solutions. HP TopTools is shipped
at no extra cost with the switch.
■
Use the Port Utilization Graph and Alert Log in the web browser interface
included in the switch to help isolate problems. See chapter 3, “Using the
HP Web Browser Interface” for operating information. These tools are
available through the web browser interface:
• Port Utilization Graph
Troubleshooting
■
8-2
•
•
Alert Log
Port Status screen
•
Port Counters screen
•
Diagnostic tools (Link test, Ping test, configuration file browser)
For help in isolating problems, use the easy-to-access switch console built
into the switch or telnet to the switch console. See chapter 4, “Using the
Switch Console” for operating information. These tools are available
through the switch console:
•
Status and Counters screens
•
•
Event Log
Diagnostics tools (Link test, Ping test, configuration file browser, and
advanced-user commands)
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Troubleshooting
Web Browser Interface or Switch Console Access Problems
Web Browser Interface or Switch
Console Access Problems
Cannot access the web browser interface:
■
Access may be disabled by the Web Agent Enabled parameter in the switch
console. On the switch console, go to the Switch Management Access
Configuration menu and check the configuration on the Console/Serial
Link Configuration screen.
■
The switch may not have the correct IP address, subnet mask, or gateway
address. To find out the switch’s IP address, connect a console to the
switch’s Console port and from the Status and Counters Menu, select
2. Switch Management Address Information.
■
If you are using DHCP to acquire the IP address for the switch, the IP
address “lease time” may have expired so that the IP address has changed.
For more information on how to “reserve” an IP address, refer to the
documentation for the DHCP server application that you are using.
■
Java applets may not be running on the web browser you are using. They
are required for the switch web browser interface to operate correctly.
See the online help on your web browser for instructions on how to run
the Java applets.
Cannot Telnet into the switch console from a station on the network:
Telnet access may be disabled by the Inbound Telnet Enabled parameter in
the switch console “Using the Switch Console to Configure the Console/
Serial Link” on page 6-21.
■
The switch may not have the correct IP address, subnet mask, or gateway
address. To find out the switch’s IP address, connect a console to the
switch’s Console port and from the Status and Counters Menu, select
2. Switch Management Address Information.
■
If you are using DHCP to acquire the IP address for the switch, there may
not be a “Reservation” set up for the IP address, or the address “lease time”
may have expired, so that the IP address has changed. For more information on how to “reserve” an IP address or set up an infinite lease time,
refer to the documentation for the DHCP server application that you are
using.
■
There may be another telnet session accessing the switch. You can terminate the other session by directly connecting a console to the switch and
executing the “kill” command from the Command Prompt under the
Diagnostics menu.
8-3
Troubleshooting
■
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Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
Unusual Network Activity
Network activity that exceeds accepted norms often indicates a hardware
problem with one or more of the network components, possibly including the
switch. Unusual network activity is usually indicated by the LEDs on the front
of the switch or as indicated by measurements from the switch console or
from a network management tool such as the HP TopTools for Hubs &
Switches. Refer to the installation guide you received with the switch for
information on using LEDs to identify unusual network activity.
General Problems
The network runs slow; processes fail; users cannot access servers or
other devices. Broadcast storms may be occurring in the network. These
may be due to loops in the network topology (redundant links between nodes).
•
Inspect your network topology to make sure there are no loops in the
network.
•
If your network requires redundant links to guarantee maintenance
of network connectivity, turn on Spanning Tree Protocol to maintain
a single active path and provide for redundant links.
Duplicate IP Addresses. This is indicated by this Event Log message:
ip: Invalid ARP source: IP address on IP address
where: both instances of IP address are the same address, indicating the
IP address that has been duplicated somewhere on the network.
Troubleshooting
Duplicate IP Addresses in a DHCP Network. If you use a DHCP server
to automatically assign IP addresses in your network and you find a device
with a valid IP address that does not appear to communicate properly with
the server or other devices, a duplicate IP address may have been issued by
the server. This can occur if a client has not released a DHCP-assigned IP
address after the intended expiration time and the server “leases” the address
to another device. This can also happen, for example, if the server is first
configured to issue IP addresses with an unlimited duration, then is subsequently configured to issue IP addresses that will expire after a limited
duration. One solution is to configure “reservations” in the DHCP server for
specific IP addresses to be assigned to devices having specific MAC addresses.
For more information, refer to the documentation for the DHCP server.
8-4
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Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
The Switch Has Been Configured for DHCP/Bootp Operation, But Has
Not Received a DHCP or Bootp Reply. When the switch is first configured for DHCP/Bootp operation, or if it is rebooted with this configuration, it
immediately begins sending request packets on the network. If the switch does
not receive a reply to its DHCP/Bootp requests, it continues to periodically
send request packets, but with decreasing frequency. Thus, if a DHCP or Bootp
server is not available or accessible to the switch when DHCP/Bootp is first
configured, the switch may not immediately receive the desired configuration.
After verifying that the server has become accessible to the switch, reboot the
switch to re-start the process.
IGMP-Related Problems
IP Multicast (IGMP) Traffic Does Not Reach IGMP Hosts or a Multicast
Router Connected to a Port. IGMP must be enabled on the switch and the
affected port must be configured for “Auto” or “Forward” operation.
IP Multicast Traffic Floods Out All Ports; IGMP Does Not Appear To
Filter Traffic. The IGMP feature does not operate if the switch does not have
an IP address configured manually or obtained through DHCP/Bootp. To verify
whether an IP address is configured for the switch, access the switch console
and from the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
2. Switch Management Address Information
Troubleshooting
Figure 8-1. Checking for an IP Address on the Switch
8-5
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Troubleshooting
Using the Event Log to Identify Problem Sources
Using the Event Log to Identify Problem
Sources
The Event Log records operating events as single-line entries listed in chronological order, and serves as a tool for isolating problems. Each Event Log entry
is composed of five fields:
Severity
I
Date
08/05/98
Time
System Module
10:52:32
ports:
Event Message
port 1 enabled
Severity is one of the following codes:
I
(information) indicates routine events.
W
(warning) indicates that a service has behaved unexpectedly.
C
(critical) indicates that a severe switch error has occurred.
D
(debug) reserved for HP internal diagnostic information.
Date is the date in mm/dd/yy format that the entry was placed in the log.
Time is the time in hh:mm:ss format that the entry was placed in the log.
System Module is the internal module (such as “ports” for port manager) that
generated the log entry. Table 8-1 lists the system modules that could be
displayed in the Event Log.
Troubleshooting
Event Message is a brief description of the operating event.
8-6
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Troubleshooting
Using the Event Log to Identify Problem Sources
Table 8-2.
Event Log System Modules
System
Module
Description
System
Module
Description
addrMgr
Address table
mgr
Console management
bootp
Bootp addressing
ports
Change in port status
chassis
switch hardware
snmp
SNMP communications
console
switch console
stp
Spanning Tree
dhcp
DHCP addressing
sys, system
Switch management
download
file transfer
telnet
Telnet activity
fault
Web browser interface Alert Log
tcp
Transmission control
igmp
IP Multicast
tftp
File transfer for new OS or configuration
ip
IP-related
timep
Time protocol
ipx
Novell Netware
Xmodem
Xmodem file transfer
Entering and Navigating in the Event Log Display. From the Main
Menu, select 4. Event Log.
Range of Events in the Log
Range of Log Events Displayed
Log Status Line
Troubleshooting
Figure 8-1. Example of an Event Log Display
8-7
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Troubleshooting
Using the Event Log to Identify Problem Sources
To display various portions of the Event Log, either preceding or following the
currently visible portion, use either the actions listed at the bottom of the
display (Next page, Prev page, or End), or the keys described in the following
table:
Table 8-2.
Event Log Control Keys
Key
Action
[N]
Advance the display by one page (next page).
[P]
Roll back the display by one page (previous page).
[v]
Advance display by one event (down one line).
[^]
Roll back display by one event (up one line).
[E]
Advance to the end of the log.
[H]
Display Help for the event log.
The event log holds up to 1000 lines in chronological order, from the oldest to
the newest. Each line consists of one complete event message. Once the log
has received 1000 entries, it discards the current oldest line each time a new
line is received. The event log window contains 14 log entry lines, and you can
move it to any location in the log by using the Next page, Prev page, and End
actions on the screen.
The log status line at the bottom of the display identifies where in the sequence
of event messages the display is currently positioned.
The event log will be erased if any of the following occurs:
■
The switch is reset using the Reset button.
■
Power to the switch is interrupted.
■
A new operating system is downloaded to the switch.
Troubleshooting
The event log is not erased by using the Reboot Switch command in the Main
Menu.
8-8
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Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
Diagnostics
The switch’s diagnostic tools include the following:
Feature
Switch Console
Web Browser
Interface
Page
Link Test
Yes
Yes
8-9
Ping Test
Yes
Yes
8-10
Browse
Config File
Yes
Yes
8-13
Command
Prompt
Yes
No
8-15
Ping and Link Tests
The Ping test and the Link test are point-to-point tests between your switch
and another IEEE 802.3-compliant device on your network. These tests can
tell you whether the switch is communicating properly with another device.
Note
To respond to a Ping test or a Link test, the device you are trying to reach must
be IEEE 802.3-compliant.
Ping Test. This is a test of the path between the switch and another device
on the same or another IP network that can respond to IP packets. (“Ping” is
an acronym for “Packet INternet Groper”.) If the network device responds
correctly, the test passes.
8-9
Troubleshooting
Link Test. This is a test of the connection between the switch and a designated network device on the same LAN. During the link test, IEEE 802.2 Test
packets are sent to the designated network device. The remote device must
return IEEE 802.2 Test Response packets to the switch. If the network device
returns the packets, the test passes.
Sraswb.book : SIER_SW8.FM Page 10 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
Executing Ping or Link Tests from the Web Browser Interface
2. Click here.
3. Select Ping Test (the
default) or Link Test
6. Click on Start to begin
the test.
1. Click here.
4. For a Ping test, enter the IP address
of the target device. For a Link test,
enter the MAC address of the target
device.
5. Select the number of tries
(packets) and the timeout for
each try from the drop-down
menus.
Figure 8-3. Ping and Link Test Screen on the Web Browser Interface
Successes indicates the number of Ping or Link packets that successfully
completed the most recent test.
Failures indicates the number of Ping or Link packets that were unsuccessful
in the last test. Failures indicate connectivity or network performance problems (such as overloaded links or devices).
Troubleshooting
Destination IP/MAC Address is the network address of the target, or destination,
device to which you want to test a connection with the switch. An IP address
is in the X.X.X.X format where X is a decimal number between 0 and 255. A
MAC address is made up of 12 hexadecimal digits, for example, 08000c-070a00.
Number of Packets to Send is the number of times you want the switch to
attempt to test a connection.
Timeout in Seconds is the number of seconds to allow per attempt to test a
connection before determining that the current attempt has failed.
To halt a Link or Ping test before it concludes, click on the Stop button.
To reset the screen to its default settings, click on the Defaults button.
8-10
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Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
Executing Ping or Link Tests from the Switch Console
1.
From the console Main Menu, select:
5. Diagnostics . . .
1. Link Test
or
2. Ping Test
Figure 8-4. Examples of Link Test and Ping Test Screens
2.
Do one of the following:
a.
For a Link test, enter the MAC address of the target device. (This is a
12-digit hexadecimal number. For an example, see the screen on page
7-11.)
b.
For a Ping test, enter the IP address of the target device.
3.
Select the Repetitions parameter and type in the number of times you want
the test to be made.
4.
Select Time-out and select the number of seconds to allow for each test.
5.
Press [Enter] to go to the Actions line, then press [x] (for eXecute) to start
the test.
Troubleshooting
To cancel a Ping or Link test that is in progress, press [Ctrl] [C].
8-11
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Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
The console displays the result of each test. For example, if a Link test
succeeds, you will see
Linktest Command Successful.
If the Link test fails, you will see
Linktest Command Timed out.
If a Ping test succeeds, you will see a message indicating the target IP address
is “alive”, along with a test counter and elapsed time for each test. For example:
12.10.8.207 is alive, iteration 1, time = 1 ms
If a Ping test fails, you will see a message such as the following:
Troubleshooting
Ping Failed or Target did not Respond
8-12
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Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
The Configuration File
The complete switch configuration is contained in a file that you can browse
from either the web browser interface or the switch console. It may be useful
in some troubleshooting scenarios to view the switch configuration.
Browsing the Configuration File from the Web Browser
Interface
To use the web browser interface to display the configuration file that is
currently saved:
1. Click here.
2. Click here.
Troubleshooting
Figure 8-5. Example of the Web Browser Interface Configuration Report
8-13
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Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
Browsing the Configuration File from the Switch Console
To use the switch condole to display the configuration file that is currently
saved:
1.
From the console Main Menu, select:
5. Diagnostics
3. Browse Configuration File
When -- More -- appears, press
[Enter] to see the next line; press the
Space bar to see the next page
Figure 8-6. Example of the Browse Configuration Display
2.
When -- MORE -- appears in the display, press [Enter] to see the next line of
the configuration, or press the Space bar to display the next page of the
configuration.
Troubleshooting
To halt a configuration listing, press [Q] (for Quit) and then press any key to
return to the Diagnostics menu.
8-14
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Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
Using the Command Prompt
In addition to the menu-based part of the switch console, under the Diagnostics Menu, a command-line based interface is available. The commands are
primarily for the expert user and for diagnostics purposes. Selecting Command
Prompt from the Diagnostics Menu presents a command prompt from which
you can enter the following commands:
List of Commands Available at the Command Prompt
Help
Delete
Log
SetMIB
Exit
History
Page
Version
Browse
Kill
Ping
WalkMIB
Config
Get
Print
Xget
Date
Put
Redo
Xput
Time
LinkTest
GetMIB
romversion
To get a definition of these commands and their syntax, enter Help at the
command prompt. When you see -- MORE -- at the bottom of the screen:
■
To advance the display one line at a time, use [Enter].
■
To advance the display one screen at a time, use the Space bar.
If you want to stop the help listing, press [Q].
How To Use the Command Prompt:
To access the command prompt, select 5. Diagnostics ... in the Main Menu,
then select 4. Command Prompt from the Diagnostics Menu.
2.
The command prompt appears near the bottom of the screen. The text in
the prompt matches the System Name parameter. For example, in the
factory default configuration (no system name configured), the command
prompt is DEFAULT_CONFIG:
3.
Type in the command you want to execute and press [Enter]. For example,
to set the time to 9:55 a.m. you would execute the following command:
DEFAULT_CONFIG: time 9:55 [Enter]
How To Exit from the command prompt:
Type exit and press [Enter] to return to the Diagnostics Menu.
8-15
Troubleshooting
1.
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Troubleshooting
Restoring the Factory Default Configuration
Restoring the Factory Default
Configuration
As part of your troubleshooting process, it may become necessary to return
the switch configuration to the factory default settings. This process momentarily interrupts the switch operation, clears any passwords, clears the console
event log, resets the network counters to zero, performs a complete self test,
and reboots the switch into its factory default configuration including deleting
an IP address.
To execute the factory default reset, perform these steps:
1.
Using pointed objects, simultaneously press both the Reset and Clear
buttons on the front of the switch.
2.
Continue to press the Clear button while releasing the Reset button.
3.
When the Self Test LED begins to flash, release the Clear button.
Troubleshooting
The switch will then complete its self test and begin operating with the
configuration restored to the factory default settings.
8-16
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A
File Transfers
File Transfers
Overview
You can download new switch software (operating system—OS) and upload
or download switch configuration files. These features are useful for acquiring
periodic switch software upgrades and for storing or retrieving a switch
configuration.
This appendix includes the following information:
■
Downloading an operating system (page A-1)
■
Transferring switch configurations (page A-8)
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
HP periodically provides switch operating system (OS) updates through the
Network City website (http://www.hp.com/go/network_city) and the HP FTP
Library Service. For more information, see the support and warranty booklet
shipped with the switch. After you acquire the new OS file, you can use one
of the following methods for downloading the operating system (OS) code to
the switch:
Note
■
TFTP transfer method (page A-2)
■
Xmodem transfer method (page A-4)
■
HP’s SNMP Download Manager included in HP TopTools for Hubs &
Switches (page A-5)
■
A switch-to-switch file transfer (page A-5)
Downloading a new OS does not change the current switch configuration. The
switch configuration is contained in a separate file that can also be transferred,
for example, for archive purposes or to be used in another switch of the same
model. See “Transferring Switch Configurations” on page A-8.
A-1
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File Transfers
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Using TFTP To Download the OS File
File Transfers
This procedure assumes that:
An OS file for the switch has been stored on a TFTP server accessible to
■
the switch. (The OS file is typically available from HP’s electronic services—see the Customer Support/Warranty booklet shipped with the
switch.)
■
The switch is properly connected to your network and has already been
configured with a compatible IP address and subnet mask.
■
The TFTP server is accessible to the switch.
Before you use the procedure, do the following:
■
Obtain the IP address of the TFTP server in which the OS file has been
stored.
■
Note
Determine the name of the OS file stored in the TFTP server for the switch
(for example, A_01_01.swi).
If your TFTP server is a Unix workstation, ensure that the case (upper or
lower) that you specify for the filename in the switch console Download OS
screen is the same case as the characters in the OS filenames on the server.
1.
In the console Main Menu, select Download OS to display this screen:
Figure 8-1. Example of the Download OS Screen (Default Values)
2.
A-2
Press [E] (for Edit).
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File Transfers
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Ensure that the Method field is set to TFTP (the default).
4.
In the TFTP Server field, type in the IP address of the TFTP server in which
the OS file has been stored.
5.
In the Remote File Name field, then type the name of the OS file. If you
are using a UNIX system, remember that the filename is case-sensitive.
6.
Press [Enter], then [X] (for eXecute) to begin the OS download. The following
screen then appears:
Example of a TFTP
Server Address
Example of a Remote
File Name on a TFTP
Server
Figure 8-2. Example of the Download OS Screen During a Download
7.
A “progress” bar indicates the progress of the download. When the entire
operating system has been received, all activity on the switch halts and
the following messages appear:
Transfer completed
Validating and writing system software to FLASH...
After the system flash memory has been updated with the new operating
system, the switch reboots itself and begins running with the new operating system.
8.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
a. From the Main Menu, select
1. Status and Counters
1. General System Information
b. Check the Firmware revision line.
A-3
File Transfers
3.
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File Transfers
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Using Xmodem to Download the OS File
File Transfers
This procedure assumes that:
The switch is connected via the Console port to a PC operating as a
■
terminal. (Refer to the Installation Guide you received with the switch for
information on connecting a PC as a terminal and running the switch
console interface.)
■
The switch operating system (OS) is stored on a disk drive in the PC.
■
The terminal emulator you are using includes the Xmodem binary transfer
feature. (For example, in the Windows 3.1 terminal emulator, you would
use the Send Binary File option in the Transfers dropdown menu.)
To Perform the OS Download:
1.
From the console Main Menu, select
7. Download OS
The screen shown in figure 8-1 is shown.
2.
Press [E] (for Edit).
3.
Use the Space bar to select XMODEM in the Method field.
4.
Press [Enter], then [X] (for eXecute) to begin the OS download. The following
message then appears:
Press enter and then initiate Xmodem transfer
from the attached computer.....
5.
Execute the terminal emulator command(s) to begin an Xmodem binary
transfer of the switch OS file that is on the PC disk drive.
The download can take several minutes, depending on the baud rate used
for the transfer.
6.
7.
When the download finishes, the switch automatically resets itself and
begins running the new OS version.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
a.
From the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
1. General System Information
b. Check the Firmware revision line.
A-4
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File Transfers
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Using the SNMP-Based HP Download Manager
Switch-to-Switch Download
If you have two or more Switch 212Ms and/or Switch 224Ms networked
together, you can download the OS software from one switch to another by
using the Download OS feature in the switch console interface. (The Switch
212M and the Switch 224M use the same OS.)
To complete the file transfer:
1.
From the switch console Main Menu in the switch to receive the download, select 7. Download OS.
2.
Select Method: TFTP.
3.
In the TFTP Server field, enter the IP address of the remote Switch 212M
or 224M containing the OS you want to download.
4.
Enter “os” in the Remote File Name field.
5.
Press [Enter], then [X] (for eXecute) to begin the OS download.
6.
A “progress” bar indicates the progress of the download. When the entire
operating system has been received, all activity on the switch halts and
the following messages appear:
Validating and writing system software to FLASH...
Transfer completed
After the system flash memory has been updated with the new operating
system, the switch reboots itself and begins running with the new operating system.
7.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
a.
From the Main Menu, select
1. Status and Counters
1. General System Information
b. Check the Firmware revision line.
A-5
File Transfers
Included with your switch is the HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches CD ROM.
The HP Download Manager is included with HP TopTools and enables you to
initiate a firmware (OS) download over the network to the switch. This
capability assumes that the switch is properly connected to the network and
has been discovered by HP TopTools. For further information, refer to the
documentation and online Help provided with HP TopTools.
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File Transfers
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads
File Transfers
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads
If a TFTP download fails, the Download OS screen indicates the failure.
Message Indicating cause of
TFTP Download Failure
Figure 8-3. Example of Message for TFTP Download Failure
To find more information on the cause of a download failure, examine the
messages in the switch’s Event Log. (See “Event Log” on page 8-6.)
Some of the causes of download failures include:
A-6
■
Incorrect or unreachable address specified for the TFTP Server parameter.
This may include network problems.
■
Incorrect name specified for the Remote File Name parameter, or the
specified file cannot be found on the TFTP server. This can also occur if
the TFTP server is a Unix machine and the case (upper or lower) for the
filename on the server does not match the case for the filename entered
for the Remote File Name parameter in the Download OS screen.
■
One or more of the switch’s IP configuration parameters are incorrect.
■
For a Unix TFTP server, the file permissions for the OS file do not allow
the file to be copied.
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File Transfers
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads
■
If an error occurs in which normal switch operation cannot be restored, the
switch automatically reboots itself. In this case, an appropriate message is
displayed in the copyright screen that appears after the switch reboots. You
can display the same information by selecting the Command Prompt option from
the Diagnostics Menu and executing the History command.
A-7
File Transfers
Note
Another console session (through either a direct connection to a terminal
device or through Telnet) was already running when you started the
session in which the download was attempted.
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File Transfers
Transferring Switch Configurations
File Transfers
Transferring Switch Configurations
You can use the following commands to transfer Switch 212M and Switch
224M configurations between the switch and a PC or Unix workstation.
Note
Command
Function
Get
Download a switch configuration file from a networked PC or Unix workstation
using TFTP.
Put
Upload a switch configuration to a file in a networked PC or Unix workstation
using TFTP.
XGet
Uses an Xmodem-compatible terminal emulation program to download a
switch configuration file from a PC or Unix workstation connected to the
switch’s console port.
XPut
Uses an Xmodem-compatible terminal emulation program to upload a switch
configuration to a file in a PC or Unix workstation connected to the switch’s
console port.
Get or Xget overwrites the switch’s current configuration with the downloaded configuration. The switch then automatically reboots itself.
Using Get and Put To Transfer a Configuration Between the
Switch and a Networked PC or Unix Workstation
To use Get or Put, you need the following:
Note
■
The IP address of the remote PC or Unix workstation that is acting as a
TFTP server
■
The name assigned to the configuration file you will use on the remote PC
or Unix workstation
For the “Put” operation, most Unix TFTP servers require that a file of the same
name already exists on the server, in the TFTP directory, and that the file has
“write” permissions.
1.
From the Main Menu select
5. Diagnostics...
4. Command Prompt
A-8
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File Transfers
Transferring Switch Configurations
2.
At the command prompt, execute the following commands:
To download a configuration from a file on a PC or Unix workstation:
get IP_address CONFIG remote_file
where: IP address is the address of the PC or Unix
workstation in which the configuration is to be stored.
remote_file is the name of the configuration file in the PC or
Unix workstation
A-9
File Transfers
To upload a configuration to a file on a PC or Unix workstation:
put IP_address CONFIG remote_file
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File Transfers
Transferring Switch Configurations
Using XGet and XPut To Transfer a Configuration Between
the Switch and a PC or Unix Workstation
File Transfers
The PC or workstation must be operating as a VT100 or ANSI terminal and
connected directly to the switch’s console port. Also, the PC or workstation
must be running an Xmodem-compatible terminal emulation program. If a
manager password has been set, you must log on to the switch using that
password in order to execute the Xget or Xput commands.
Note
XGet overwrites the switch’s current configuration with the downloaded
configuration. The switch then automatically reboots itself.
To use XGet or XPut, you need the name assigned to the configuration file on
the PC or workstation.
1.
On the PC or workstation, start the Xmodem-compatible terminal emulation program, then follow the instructions provided with the program to
prepare for a file transfer.
2.
From the switch’s Main Menu select:
5. Diagnostics...
4. Command Prompt
3.
At the command prompt, execute one of the following commands:
To upload a configuration to a file on a PC or Unix workstation:
xput config remote_file [pc/unix]
To download a configuration from a file on a PC or Unix workstation:
xget config remote_file [pc/unix]
where: remote_file is the name of the file in which the configuration
is to be stored (put), or is stored (get)
[pc/unix] is one of the following optional values:
• unix (the default) specifies the Unix file format.
• pc specifies the PC file format.
If the PC or workstation does not respond to an XPut or XGet
command, the command times out and control returns to the
Command Prompt line.
A-10
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B
MAC Address Management
Overview
From the factory, the switch is assigned a block of MAC addresses:
for network management functions, a base MAC address is assigned to
the switch
■
for internal switch operations, one MAC address is assigned to each
switch port
Determining the MAC Addresses
You can use the switch console to determine the base MAC address and the
port MAC addresses for the switch. The methods are described in the rest of
this appendix.
B-1
MAC Address Management
■
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MAC Address Management
Determining the MAC Addresses
Base MAC Address
The switch’s base MAC address is displayed on a sticker on the back of the
switch. You can also use the switch console to display the switch’s base MAC
address.
From the console Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
2. Switch Management Address Information
MAC Address Management
A screen similar to figure B-1 is displayed.
switch base MAC address
Figure 8-1. Example of the Management Address Information Screen
B-2
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MAC Address Management
Determining the MAC Addresses
Switch Port MAC Addresses
The MAC address assigned to each switch port is used internally by such
features as Flow Control, and the Spanning Tree Protocol. Determining the
MAC address assignments for individual ports can be useful when diagnosing
switch operation. To display these addresses, use the walkmib command at
the switch console command prompt.
From the console Main Menu, select:
5. Diagnostics
4. Command Prompt
walkmib ifPhysAddress
Figure B-2 is an example of the display you will see.
Figure 8-2. Example of Port MAC Address Assignments
B-3
MAC Address Management
Type the following command to display the MAC address all the switch ports:
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Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 1 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Index
A
B
bandwidth, savings … 6-39
bar graph area
error packet indicator … 3-14
maximum activity indicator … 3-15
non-unicast packet indicator … 3-14
unicast packet indicator … 3-14
base MAC address for the switch … B-2
baud rate … 4-2
blocked port, IGMP … 6-36
blocking state, spanning tree … 6-33
Bootp … 6-8, 6-10
configuring … 6-13
no reply … 8-4
table file … 6-12
Unix systems … 6-11
C
Clear button
restoring factory default configuration … 8-16
to delete password protection … 4-11
command prompt … 4-5, 4-14, 8-15
exit … 8-15
communities, SNMP … 6-16
configuration … 4-4
Bootp … 6-11
browsing the configuration file … 8-13
using the switch console … 8-14
using the web browser interface … 8-13
console … 6-20
copying … A-8
download … A-1
factory default … 6-2, 6-30, 8-15
features … 6-2
IGMP
from the console … 6-37
from the web browser interface … 6-35
IP … 6-5
manager password … 4-11
network monitoring … 6-28
operator password … 4-11
ports … 6-24
restoring factory defaults … 8-16
serial link … 6-20
SNMP … 6-15
spanning tree … 6-30
switch management access … 4-4
system … 6-22
transferring … A-8
trap receivers … 6-18
Index – 1
Index
access
manager … 6-15
operator … 6-15
Actions line
location on screen … 4-6
actions, console … 4-7
active button … 3-13
active path … 6-30
active tab … 3-13
address aging … 6-22
address table
port … 7-11
address, manager … 6-15, 6-17
Alert Log … 3-13, 3-16
alert types … 3-18
Control Bar … 3-13
control bar … 3-20
header bar … 3-13
sorting the entries … 3-17
viewing details of entries … 3-19
ANSI terminal … A-10
asterisk … 4-7
authentication trap … 6-18
auto port setting, IGMP … 6-36
Bootp/DHCP differences … 6-11
Bootptab file … 6-11
broadcast storm … 6-30
browsing the configuration file … 8-13
using the switch console … 8-14
using the web browser interface … 8-13
button bar … 3-13
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 2 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
console
browsing the configuration file … 8-14
configuration … 6-20
ending a session … 4-3
help … 4-8
interaction with the web browser
interface … 4-1
Main menu … 4-4
navigation … 4-7
operation … 4-7
overview … 4-1
Ping and link testing … 8-11
resetting the switch … 4-12
starting a session … 4-2
status and counters access … 4-4
switch management access configuration … 4-4
console configuration screen … 6-20
console session … 4-2
Control Bar
Alert Log … 3-13
copyright screen … 4-2
CPU utilization … 7-3
Index
D
date format … 8-6
date parameter … 6-23
DEFAULT_CONFIG
about this prompt … 8-15
Device Passwords Window … 3-7
DHCP … 6-10
address problems … 8-4
no reply … 8-4
DHCP/Bootp
differences … 6-11
IP addressing process … 6-10
diagnostics … 8-9
diagnostics tab … 3-23
Domain Name Server (DNS) … 3-4
download
configuration … A-8
SNMP-based … A-5
switch-to-switch … A-5
troubleshooting … A-6
Xmodem … A-4
download configuration
Xget command … A-8
2 – Index
download OS … 4-5, A-5
erases the event log … 8-8
TFTP method … A-2
E
ending a console session … 4-3
Event Log … 4-3, 4-5, 6-18, 8-6, 8-8
navigation … 8-7
severity code … 8-6
exiting from command prompt … 8-15
Extended RMON
description of … 5-4
F
factory default configuration … 6-2
restoring … 8-16
failure, OS download … A-6
fault detection … 3-7
Fault Detection Policy
setting … 3-25
filter, IGMP
maximum allowed … 6-42
firmware version … 7-3
format
date … 8-6
time … 8-6
forwarding port, IGMP … 6-36
forwarding state, spanning tree … 6-33
G
gateway address, IP … 6-5
Gateway field, IP address … 6-9
gateway router, for IP address … 6-9
Get command … A-8
getmib command … 6-42
graphs area, web browser interface … 3-13
H
Header Bar
Alert Log … 3-13
help
switch console … 4-8
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 3 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Help line
about … 4-6
location on screens … 4-6
History command … A-7
HP proprietary MIB … 5-2
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches … 5-1
managing the switch with … 5-2
I
J
Java, requirement for web browser interface … 3-4
leave group, See IGMP … 6-38
link status, port … 7-7
link test … 8-9
executing from the switch console … 8-11
executing from the web browser
interface … 8-10
LOGOUT command … 4-5
lost password … 3-9
M
MAC address … 6-11, 7-3
base MAC address for the switch … B-2
determining … B-1
learned … 7-11
on port … 7-12
switch ports … B-3
Main menu, console
features … 4-4
management
access configuration from console … 4-4
management server URL … 6-4
manager access … 6-15
manager address … 6-15, 6-17
manager password … 3-8, 4-11
actions permitted … 4-9
setting … 4-11
Manual, IP address configuration … 6-9
MIB
changing IGMP querier settings … 6-42
list of supported ones … 5-2
monitoring traffic … 6-28
multicast group
See IGMP … 6-38
multimedia
See IGMP … 6-34
N
navigation
console … 4-7
Event Log … 8-8
network monitoring port
configuration screen … 6-28
effect of traffic overload … 6-28
network slow, troubleshooting … 8-4
Index – 3
Index
IEEE 802.1d … 6-30, 6-32
IGMP … 6-34
configuring … 6-36, 6-38
console configuration … 6-37
example … 6-39–6-40
forward with high priority … 6-36
high priority forwarding … 6-36–6-37
host not receiving … 8-5
leave group … 6-38
maximum address count … 6-42
multicast group … 6-38, 6-41
multimedia … 6-34
not working … 8-5
operation … 6-38
port states … 6-36
querier setting, changing … 6-42
query … 6-38
report … 6-38
statistics … 7-16
status … 6-38
traffic priority … 6-36
web browser interface configuration … 6-35
Inbound Telnet Enabled parameter … 8-3
IP address
configuration … 6-5
duplicate address … 8-4
duplicate address, DHCP network … 8-4
gateway address … 6-5
globally assigned addressing … 6-14
subnet mask … 6-5, 6-9
using for web browser interface … 3-4
IPX network number … 7-4
L
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 4 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Index
O
online help location, specifying for web browser
interface … 6-4
operator access … 6-15
operator mode
console … 4-10
web browser interface … 3-8
operator password … 4-11
actions permitted … 4-9
configuring … 4-11
for web browser interface access … 3-8
setting … 4-11
OS
version … A-3–A-5
OS download
erases the event log … 8-8
failure message … A-6
switch-to-switch … A-5
TFTP method … A-2
troubleshooting … A-6
Xmodem method … A-4
overview of the switch console … 4-1
Overview window, web browser interface
active button … 3-13
active tab … 3-13
Alert Log … 3-13
Alert Log control bar … 3-13
Alert Log header bar … 3-13
button bar … 3-13
description … 3-12
graphs area … 3-13
status bar … 3-13
tab bar … 3-13
operator … 3-8
actions permitted … 4-9
setting … 4-10
using to access browser and console … 3-9
path cost … 6-33
Ping test … 8-9
executing from the switch console … 8-11
executing from the web browser
interface … 8-10
port
auto, IGMP … 6-36
blocked, IGMP … 6-36
forwarding, IGMP … 6-36
state, IGMP control … 6-36
port address table … 7-11
port cost
See spanning tree … 6-33
port counters … 7-7
reset … 7-7
port utilization … 3-14
port utilization and status displays
web browser interface … 3-14
port, traffic patterns … 7-7
priority
IGMP … 6-36
spanning tree … 6-33
proprietary MIB
list of … 5-2
public SNMP community
effect of changing or deleting … 6-15
where used … 5-3
Put command … A-8
Q
P
password … 3-7, 4-2
case-sensitive … 4-11
creating … 3-8
delete … 4-11
deleting with the Clear button … 4-11
if you lose the password … 3-9
incorrect … 4-10
length … 4-11
lost … 4-11
manager … 3-8
actions permitted … 4-9
4 – Index
querier … 6-42
query
See IGMP … 6-38
R
reboot … 4-5, 4-7
rebooting the switch … 4-12
reconfigure … 4-7
redundant path, spanning tree … 6-30
report
See IGMP … 6-38
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 5 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Reset button … 8-8
restoring factory default configuration … 8-16
reset port counters … 7-7
resetting the switch
erases the Event Log … 8-8
factory default reset … 8-16
from the console … 4-12
restricted access, SNMP … 6-15
restricted write access … 6-15
RFC 1213 … 5-2
RFC 1493 … 5-2
RFC 1515 … 5-2
RFC 1573 … 5-2
RFC 1757 … 5-2
RFC 2037 … 5-2
RFC. See Also MIB. … 5-2
RMON … 5-2
description … 5-4
support … 5-4
router
gateway for IP address … 6-9
use in IGMP … 6-38
S
Index – 5
Index
Self Test LED
behavior during factory default reset … 8-16
Serial Link Configuration screen … 6-20
serial number … 7-3
server
DHCP/Bootp … 6-8
TFTP … A-8
setmib command, for IGMP configuration … 6-42
setting a password … 4-10
setting Fault Detection Policy … 3-25
severity code, Event Log … 8-6
slow network, troubleshooting … 8-4
SNMP … 6-18
communities … 6-15–6-16
Communities screen … 6-15
community
restricted access … 6-15
how to configure … 5-3
IP address … 5-3
manager address … 6-15, 6-17
public community … 6-15
traps … 5-2
v2 agent … 5-2
SNMP-based download … A-5
software version … 7-3
software, OS … 4-5
sorting Alert Log entries … 3-17
spanning tree … 6-30
configuration screen … 6-30
default … 6-30
forwarding state … 6-33
global information … 7-14
link priority … 6-30
not in menu … 6-33
port cost … 6-33
priority … 6-33
starting a console session … 4-2
statistics … 4-4
clear counters … 4-12
status and counters
access from the console … 4-4
access from the web browser interface … 7-5,
7-8
status and counters menu … 7-2
status bar … 3-13
STP
root data … 7-14
See spanning tree … 6-33
statistics … 7-14
subnet … 6-38
subnet mask … 6-8–6-9
See also IP. … 6-8
support information location, specifying … 6-3
support URL … 6-3
changing default … 6-3
default … 6-3
Support URL Window … 6-3
support/mgmt URLs … 3-22
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 6 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Index
switch console
browsing the configuration file … 8-14
ending a session … 4-3
help … 4-8
interaction with the web browser
interface … 4-1
Main menu … 4-4
navigation … 4-7
overview … 4-1
Ping and link testing … 8-11
resetting the switch … 4-12
starting a session … 4-2
status and counters access … 4-4
switch management access configuration … 4-4
switch management
access configuration … 4-4
switch support information, location
specification … 6-3
switch-to-switch download … A-5
system configuration screen … 6-22
system name
configuring
console … 6-23
web browser interface … 6-22
location on screen
console … 4-6
web browser interface … 3-24
when none is specified … 8-15
T
tab bar
web browser interface … 3-13
telnet
starting a console session … 4-2
switch access problems … 8-3
terminal, VT100 or ANSI … A-10
TFTP
download … A-2
server … A-8
TFTP OS download … A-2
time command
how to enter … 8-15
time format … 8-6
time parameter … 6-22
Time Protocol Enabled … 6-23
Time Protocol parameter … 6-8
time server … 6-5
6 – Index
timep … 6-5
Timep Poll Interval … 6-8
Timep Server … 6-8
traffic, monitoring … 6-28
traffic, port … 7-7
trap receiver
where to configure … 5-3
traps … 6-18
authentication trap … 6-18
limit … 6-18
SNMP … 6-18
Trap Receivers configuration screen … 6-18
troubleshooting
approaches … 8-2
browsing the configuration file … 8-13
diagnostics … 8-9
OS download … A-6
Ping and link tests
from the switch console … 8-11
from the web browser interface … 8-10
restoring factory default configuration … 8-16
slow network … 8-4
unusual network activity … 8-4
types of Alert Log entries … 3-18
U
unauthorized access … 6-18
Unix, Bootp … 6-11
unrestricted write access … 6-15
unusual network activity … 8-4
up time … 7-3
upload configuration
Put command … A-8
Xput command … A-8
URL
management server … 6-4
support information
default address … 6-3
location … 6-3
support/Mgmt … 3-22
web browser interface
changing default … 6-3
online help location … 6-4
user names
creating … 3-8
using for browser and console access … 3-9
using the passwords … 3-9
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 7 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
utilization, port … 3-14
X
V
Xget command … A-8
Xmodem OS download … A-4
XPut command … A-8
version, OS … A-3–A-5
VT100 terminal, for the console … A-10
W
Index
web browser interface
access parameters … 3-7
active button … 3-13
active tab … 3-13
advantages … 1-2
Alert Log … 3-13, 3-16
Alert Log control bar … 3-13
Alert Log header bar … 3-13
browsing the configuration file … 8-13
button bar … 3-13
configuration tab … 3-22
configuring IGMP … 6-35
diagnostics tab … 3-23
error packets display … 3-14
graph area … 3-13
graphs area … 3-13
how to access … 3-3
identity tab … 3-21
Java requirement … 3-4
maximum activity indicator … 3-15
non-unicast activity display … 3-14
online help location … 6-4
Overview window … 3-12
Ping and link testing … 8-10
port utilization and status displays … 3-14
screen layout … 3-12
security tab … 3-23
status bar … 3-13
status tab … 3-21
support information location … 6-3
support tab … 3-23
tab bar … 3-13
unicast activity display … 3-14
using IP address to access … 3-4
web site
accessing HP for MIB file … 5-2
write access … 6-15
Index – 7
Sraswb.book : SRASWIX.FM Page 8 Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
Sraswb.book : SRASWTOC.FM Page viii Tuesday, June 30, 1998 12:20 PM
HP ProCurve
Switch 212M and 224M
Technical information in this document
is subject to change without notice.
©Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company
1998. All rights reserved. Reproduction,
adaptation, or translation without prior
written permission is prohibited except
as allowed under the copyright laws.
HP Networking
Management and
Configuration Guide
Printed in Singapore 6/98
Manual Part Number
5967-2146
*5967-2146*
For world-wide support on all
HP Network Connectivity Products
visit our web site at:
http://www.hp.com/go/network_city
Less Work, More Network
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