# HP 300s+, 300s+ Scientific Calculator User's manual

HP 300s+ Scientific Calculator User Guide © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. First Edition: September 2012 Part number: 697635-001 Table of contents About this Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Initializing the Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Disposing of the Calculator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Other Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Before Using the Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 About the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Display Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup . . . . . 6 Calculation Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Specifying the Calculation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Configuring the Calculator Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Specifying the Input/Output Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Specifying the Default Angle Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Specifying the Number of Display Digits. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Calculation Result Display Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Specifying the Fraction Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Specifying the Statistical Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Specifying the Decimal Point Display Format. . . . . . . . . .8 Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Settings . . . .8 Inputting Expressions and Values . . . . . . . . . . 9 Inputting a Calculation Expression Using Standard Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Inputting a General Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Omitting the Multiplication Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Final Closed Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Displaying a Long Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Number of Input Characters (Bytes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Correcting an Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 About Insert and Overwrite Input Modes . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Changing the Character or Function You Just Input . . .11 Deleting a Character or Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Correcting a Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Inserting Input into a Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Displaying the Location of an Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Inputting with Math Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Functions and Symbols Supported for Math Format Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Math Format Input Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Incorporating a Value into a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 i Displaying Calculation Results in a Form that Includes Irrational Number Form. . . . . . . 16 Basic Calculations (COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Arithmetic Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Number of Decimal Places and Number of Significant Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Omitting a Final Closed Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Fraction Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Switching Between Improper Fraction and Mixed Fraction Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Switching Between Fraction and Decimal Format . . . . .21 Percent Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Degree, Minute, Second (Sexagesimal) Calculations . .23 Inputting Sexagesimal Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Sexagesimal Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Converting Values Between Sexagesimal and Decimal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Using Multi-statements in Calculations . . . . . 24 Using Calculation History Memory and Replay (COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Recalling Calculation History Memory Contents. . . . . . .24 Replay Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Using Calculator Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Memory Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Answer Memory (Ans) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Independent Memory (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Variables (A, B, C, D, E, F, X, Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Clearing the Contents of All Memories . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Function Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Pi (π) and Natural Logarithm Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions . . .30 Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . .30 Converting an Input Value to the Calculator’s Default Angle Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Exponential Functions and Logarithmic Functions . . . . .31 Power Functions and Power Root Functions . . . . . . . . .33 Rectangular-Polar Coordinate Conversion . . . . . . . . . . .34 Converting to Polar Coordinates (Pol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Converting to Rectangular Coordinates (Rec) . . . . . . . .34 Greatest Common Divisor and Least Common Multiple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 The Integer Function and the Greatest Integer Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Division with Quotient and Remainder . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 ii Fraction Simplification Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Using CALC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Metric Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 RanInt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Other Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Factorial (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Absolute Value Calculation (Abs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Random Number (Ran#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Permutation (nPr) and Combination (nCr) . . . . . . . . . . .41 Rounding Function (Rnd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Transforming Displayed Values . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Using Engineering Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Using S-D Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Formats Supported for S-D Transformation . . . . . . . . . .43 Examples of S-D Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Statistical Calculation (STAT). . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Selecting a Statistical Calculation Type . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Statistical Calculation Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Inputting Sample Data Displaying the STAT Editor Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 STAT Editor Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 FREQ (Frequency) Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Rules for Inputting Sample Data on the STAT Editor Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 STAT Editor Screen Input Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Precautions Concerning Sample Data Storage . . . . . . .46 Editing Sample Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Deleting a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Inserting Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Deleting All STAT Editor Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 STAT Calculation Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Using the STAT Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 STAT Menu Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Single-variable (1-VAR) Statistical Calculation Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Sum Sub-menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Var Sub-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 MinMax Sub-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Single-variable Statistical Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Commands When Linear Regression Calculation (A+Bx) Is Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Sum Sub-menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Var Sub-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 MinMax Sub-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Reg Sub-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation Is Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 iii Reg Sub-menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Comments for Other Typed of Regression . . . . . . . . . . .58 Command Usage Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Calculations of Equations (EQN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Generating a Number Table from a Function (TABLE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Supported Function Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Start, End, and Step Value Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Number Table Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 TABLE Mode Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Using the Verify Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Inputting and Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Proportion Calculations (PROP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Inputting and Editing Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 PROP Solution Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Order of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Stack Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Calculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and Precision . .81 Calculation Range and Precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Function Calculation Input Ranges and Precision . . . . .81 Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 When an Error Message Appears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Math Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Stack ERROR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Syntax ERROR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Insufficient MEM Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Before assuming malfunction of the calculator . . . . . . . .85 Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Power Requirements and Battery Replacement. . . . . . .86 Replacing the Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Auto Power Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Regulatory Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 European Union Regulatory Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Japanese Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Korean Notice Class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Perchlorate Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Disposal of Waste Equipment by Users in Private Household in the European Union . . . . . . . . . . .89 Chemical Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 China RoHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 iv About this Manual • • The mark indicates an example that uses Math format, while the mark indicates Linear format. For details about input/output formats, see “Specifying the Input/Output Format.” Keycap markings indicate what a key inputs or what function it performs. Example: , , , , , etc. • Press the or key followed by a second key performs the alternate function of the second key. The alternate function is indicated by the text printed above they key. • The following shows what the different colors of the alternate function key text mean. If key marking text is this color: • • It means this: Blue Press and then the key to access the applicable function. Orange Press and then the key to input the applicable variable, constant, or symbol. The following shows an example of how an alternate function operation is represented in this User Guide. Example: (sin-1) “sin” indicates the function that is accessed by the key operation ( ) before it. Note that this is not part of the actual key operation you perform. The following shows an example of how a key operation to select an on-screen menu item is represented in this User Guide. Example: (Setup) “Setup” indicates the menu item that is selected by the number key operation (). • The cursor key is marked with four arrows indicating direction. In this User Guide, cursor key operation is indicated as , , , and . • The displays and illustrations (such as key markings) shown in this User Guide are for illustrative purposes only, and may differ somewhat from the actual items they represent. The contents of this manual are subject to change without notice. : Specify degree for the angle unit. : Specify radian for the angle unit. • • Initializing the Calculator Perform the following procedure when you want to initialize the calculator and return the calculation mode and setup to their initial default settings. Note that this operation also clears all data currently in calculator memory. (CLR) (All) (Yes) • • For information about calculation modes and setup settings, see “Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup.” For information about memory, see “Using Calculator Memory.” Safety Precautions Before using the calculator, please read the following safety precautions carefully. Keep this manual handy so that you can refer to it when needed. The representations of the display and the keys in this manual are for explanatory purposes only and may not exactly match what you see on the calculator. Caution This symbol indicates that there is a risk of injury or damage if the specified safety precautions are ignored. Battery • • • • Keep battery out of reach of children. If a battery is swallowed, seek urgent medical advice. Do not charge, attempt to disable, short circuit, or apply heat to the battery. When installing a new battery, orient it such that the positive sign is facing upwards. Use only the battery specified in this manual. 2 Disposing of the Calculator • Do not dispose of this calculator in an incinerator. It might explode and cause injury or fire. Other Precautions • • • • • • • • • • • • Before using this calculator for the first time, press the % key. The battery may lose some charge between the time the calculator leaves the factory and the time when it is purchased. Thus the original battery may not last as long as a new battery. When battery power is very low, the calculator’s memory may become corrupted or be lost completely. To avoid loss of important information, keep a copy of it elsewhere. Avoid storing or using the calculator under extreme conditions. Low temperature will slow the calculator's response time, cause the display to appear incomplete, and shorten the life of the battery. In addition, do not directly expose the calculator to the sun or place near a heater. High temperature may cause the casing to fade, distort the casing, or damage the internal circuitry. Avoid storing or using the calculator in damp conditions or when there is high humidity or excessive dust. Doing so will damage the internal circuitry. Do not drop the calculator or allow it to be subjected to extreme force. Do not twist, bend or otherwise distort the calculator. Note: Carrying the calculator in a pocket could cause it to twist or bend. Do not use a pen or other pointed object to press the calculator’s keys. Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the calculator. Opening the calculator casing voids the warranty. If the calculator is very dirty, a neutral household cleanser diluted in water can be used to clean it. Dip a cloth in the solution and wring it out before applying it to the calculator. Do not use benzine, a diluting agent or any other volatile solvent to clean the calculator. Doing so may damage the casing and the keys. Before Using the Calculator Using the Protective Hard Case 1. Before using the calculator, slide the unit out of the protective case as shown in step 1. 3 2. After using the calculator, slide the unit out of the cover as shown in step 2. To use the protective case, slide it over the keyboard side of the unit. Turning Power On and Off • • Press to turn on the calculator Press (OFF) to turn off the calculator. Adjusting Display Contrast (SETUP) ( CONT ) Displays the contrast adjustment screen. Use and to adjust display contrast, and then press . You can also adjust contrast using and while the mode menu (appears when you press ) is displayed. IMPORTANT: If adjusting display contrast does not improve display readability, battery power may be low. Replace the battery. 4 About the Display Your calculator has a 31-dot ✕ 96-dot LCD screen. Example: Input expression Calculation result Display Indicators Sample Display: Indicator: S A M STO RCL STAT D R G FIX SCI Math Disp STAT D Means this: The keypad has been shifted by pressing the key. The keypad will unshift and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. The alpha input mode has been entered by pressing the key. The alpha input mode will be exited and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. There is a value stored in independent memory. The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to assign a value to a variable. This indicator appears after you press (STO) The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to recall the variable’s value. This indicator appears after you press . The calculator is in the STAT Mode. The default angle is degrees. The default angle is radians. The default angle is grads. A fixed number of decimal places is in effect. A fixed number of significant digit is in effect. Math style is selected as the input/output format. Calculation history memory data is available and can be replayed, or there is more data above/below the current screen. The display currently shows an intermediate result of a multi-statement calculation. Important: For very complex calculations or other calculations that take a long time to execute, the display may show only the above indicators (without any value) while performing the calculation internally. 5 Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup Calculation Modes When you want to perform this type of operation: Select this mode: General calculations COMP Statistical and regression calculations STAT Linear equations EQN Generation of a number table based on an expression TABLE True / false VERIF Value of X PROP Specifying the Calculation Mode (1) Press to display the mode menu. (2) Press the number key that corresponds to the mode you want to select. For example, to select STAT mode, press . Configuring the Calculator Setup Pressing (SETUP) displays the setup menu, which you can use to control how the calculations are executed and displayed. The setup menu has two screens, which you can jump between using and . See “Adjusting Display Contrast” for information about how to use “ CONT ” Specifying the Input/Output Format For this input/output format: Perform this key operation: Math (MthlO) Linear (LinelO) 6 • • Math format causes fractions, irrational numbers, and other expressions to display as they are written on paper. Linear format causes fractions and other expressions to display in a single line. Math Format Linear Format Specifying the Default Angle Unit To specify this as the default angle unit: Perform this key operation: Degrees (Deg) Radians (Rad) Grads (Gra) π 90° = --2- radians = 100 grads Specifying the Number of Display Digits To specify this: Perform this key operation: Number of Decimal Places (Fix) - Number of Significant Digits (Sci) - Exponential Display Range (Norm) (Norm1) or (Norm2) Calculation Result Display Examples • • Fix: The number you specify (from 0 to 9) controls the number of decimal places for displayed calculation results. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed. Example: 100 ÷ 7 = 14.286 (Fix3) 14.29 (Fix2) Sci: The value you specify (from 0 to 10) controls the number of significant digits for displayed calculation results. Calculation results are rounded off the specified digit before being displayed. 7 Example: 1 ÷ 7 = 1.4286 ✕ 10 -1 (Sci5) 1.429 ✕ 10-1 (Sci4) Norm: Selecting one of the two available settings (Norm 1, Norm 2) determines the range in which results will be displayed in non-exponential format. Outside the specified range, results are displayed using exponential format. Norm 1:10-2 > x , x ≥ 1010 Norm 2: 10-9 > x , x ≥ 1010 Example:1 ÷ 200 = 5 ✕ 10-3 (Norm1) 0.005 (Norm2) Specifying the Fraction Format To specify this fraction format: Perform this key operation: Mixed (a b/c) Improper (d/c) Specifying the Statistical Display Format Use the following procedure to turn display of the frequency (FREQ) column of the STAT Mode STAT editor screen on or off. To specify this: Perform this key operation: Show FREQ Column (STAT) (ON) Hide FREQ Column (STAT) (OFF) Specifying the Decimal Point Display Format To specify this decimal point display format: Perform this key operation: Dot(.) (Disp) (Dot) (Disp) (Comma) Comma(,) The setting you configure here is applied for calculation results only. The decimal point for input values is always a dot (.). Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Settings Performing the following procedure initializes the calculation mode and other setup settings as shown below. (CLR) (Setup) (Yes) 8 This setting: Calculation mode Input/Output Format Angle Unit Display Digits Fraction Format Statistical Display Decimal Point Simplify Is Initialized to this Comp Mthlo Deg Norm 1 d/c OFF Dot AUTO To cancel initialization without doing anything. Press (Cancel) instead of . Inputting Expressions and Values Inputting a Calculation Expression Using Standard Format Your calculator lets you input calculation expressions just as they are written. Press the key to execute. The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority sequence for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division functions, and parentheses. Example: 2(5 + 4) - 2x(-3) = Inputting a General Function When you input any of the general functions shown below, the function is automatically input with the open parentheses (() character. Then, input the argument and the closing parentheses ()). sin(, cos(, tan(, sin-1(, cos-1(, tan-1(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh-1 (, cosh-1(, tanh-1(, log(, ln(, e^ (, 10^ (, (, (, Abs(, Pol(, Rec(, Rnd(, GCD(, LCM(, Int(, IntG( Example: sin 30 = Pressing inputs “sin (“. Note that the input procedure is different if you want to use the Math format. For more information, see “Inputting with Math Format.” 9 Omitting the Multiplication Sign You can omit the multiplication sign (✕) in any of the following cases. • • • Before an open parentheses ():2✕(5 + 4), etc. Before a general function: 2✕ sin (30), 2✕ (3), etc. Before a variable name, constant, or random number: 20✕A, 2✕π, etc. Final Closed Parentheses You can omit one or more closed parentheses that come at the end of a calculation immediately before pressing the key. For details, see “Omitting a Final Closed Parentheses.” Displaying a Long Expression The display can show up to 15 characters at a time. Inputting the 16th character causes the expression to shift to the left. The indicator appears to the left of the expression, indicating that it runs off the left side of the screen. Input expression: 1111 + 2222 + 3333 + 444 Displayed Portion: • When the indicator is displayed, you can scroll left and view the hidden characters by pressing the key. This will cause the indicator to appear to the right of the expression. Use the key to scroll back. Number of Input Characters (Bytes) • • You can input up to 99 bytes of data for a single expression. Each key operation uses up one byte. A function that requires two key operations to input (like (sin-1)) also uses only one byte. Note that when you input functions with Math format, each item you input uses up more than one byte. For more information, see “Inputting with Math Format.” Normally the input cursor appears as a straight vertical ( ❙ ) or horizontal ( _ ) flashing line on the display screen. When there are 10 or fewer bytes of input remaining in the current expression, the cursor changes to . If the cursor appears, terminate the expression at a convenient point and calculate the result. 10 Correcting an Expression This section explains how to correct an expression as you are inputting it. The procedure you should use depends on whether you have insert or overwrite selected as the input mode. About Insert and Overwrite Input Modes In insert mode, the displayed characters shift to the left to make room when your input replaces the character at the current cursor position. The initial default input mode is insert. You can change to overwrite mode as needed. • The cursor is a vertical flashing line ( ❙ ) when insert mode is selected. The cursor is a horizontal flashing line ( _ ) when overwrite mode is selected. • The initial default for Linear format input is insert mode. You can switch to overwrite mode by pressing (INS) • In Math format, you can only use insert mode. Pressing (INS) when Math format is selected does not switch to overwrite mode. See “Incorporating a Value into a Function” for more information. • The calculator automatically changes to insert mode whenever you change the input/output format from Linear to Math. Changing the Character or Function You Just Input Example: To correct the expression 369 ✕ 13 so it becomes 369 ✕ 12. 11 Deleting a Character or Function Example: To correct the expression 369 ✕ ✕ 12 so it becomes 369 ✕ 12. Insert Mode: Overwrite Mode: Correcting a Calculation Example: To correct cos(60) so it becomes sin(60). Insert Mode: 12 Overwrite Mode: Inserting Input into a Calculation Always use insert mode for this operation. Use or to move the cursor to the location where you want to insert new input. Displaying the Location of an Error If an error message (like “Math ERROR” or “Syntax ERROR”) appears when you press , press or . This displays the part of the calculation where the error occurred with the cursor at the error location. Example: You input “14 ÷ 0 ✕ 2 =” by mistake instead of “14 ÷ 10 ✕ 2 =”. Use insert mode for the following operation. press or This is causing the error. You can also clear the screen by pressing to clear the calculation. 13 Inputting with Math Format When inputting with Math format, you can input and display fractions and some functions using the same format as they appear in your textbook. IMPORTANT: • Certain types of expressions can cause the height of a calculation formula to be greater than one display line. The maximum allowable height of a calculation formula is two display screens (31 dots ✕ 2). Further input is not allowed if the height of the calculation exceeds the limit. • You can nest functions and parentheses. However, if you nest too many functions and/or parentheses until input is no longer permitted, divide the calculation into multiple parts and calculate each part separately. Functions and Symbols Supported for Math Format Input The Bytes column shows the number of bytes of memory used during input. Function/Symbol Key Operation Improper Fraction 9 Mixed Fraction 13 Power Roof ( ) ( ) ( ) () () Absolute Value 4 Parentheses or 1 Log (a,b)(Logarithm) 10^x(Power of 10) e^x(Power of e) Square Root Cube Roof Square, cube Reciprocal Power Bytes 6 4 4 4 9 4 5 4 9 Math Format Input Examples Perform the following operations with Math format selected. Pay close attention to the location and size of the cursor on display when you input using Math format. 14 Example 1: To input 23 + 1 Example 2: To input 1+ 2 + 3 2 Example 3: To input (1 + --- )2 ✕ 2 = 5 • When you press and obtain a calculation result using Math format, part of the expression you input can be cut off as shown in Example 3. To view the entire input expression again, press , and then press . Incorporating a Value into a Function When using Math format, you can incorporate part of an input expression (a value, an expression within parentheses, etc.) into a function. Example: To incorporate the expression inside of the parentheses of 1 + (2 + 3) + 4 into the function. Move the cursor before (2+3) (INS) 15 This changes the shape of the cursor as shown here. This incorporates the expression in parentheses into the function . • If the cursor is located to the left of a value or fraction (instead of an open parentheses), that value or fraction is incorporated into the function specified here. • If the cursor is located to the left of a function, the entire function is incorporated into the function specified here. • The following examples show the other functions that you can use in the previous procedure, and the required key operations to use them. Original Expression: 1 + l(2 + 3) + 4 You can also incorporate values into the following functions. (), (), , , (), Displaying Calculation Results in a Form that Includes 2 , π, etc. (Irrational Number Form) When you select “Mthlo” as the input/output format, you can specify whether calculation results should display in a form that includes expressions like 2 and π (irrational number form), or in a form using decimal values without using the irrational number form. Pressing after inputting a calculation displays the result using irrational number form. • Pressing after inputting a calculation displays the result using decimal values. In the following examples, (1) shows the result when you press , while (2) shows the result when you press . • 16 Note: When you select “linelO” as the input/output format, calculation results are always displayed using decimal values (no irrational number form) regardless of whether you press or . Note: π form display (includes π within irrational number display) conditions are the same as those for S-D Conversion. For details, see “Using S-D Transformation.” Example 1: 2+ 8 = 3 2 (1) (2) 3 Example 2: sin(60) = ------2 sin 60 1 Example 3: sin-1 (0.5) = --6 π (sin-1) • • For details about calculations using and π see: “Function Calculations.” The following are the calculations for which form (form that includes within irrational number display) results can be displayed. a. Arithmetic calculation of values with square root symbol (), x2, x3, x-1. b. Trigonometric function calculations form results can be produced by trigonometric functions only in the following cases. In all other cases, calculation results displayed in decimal form. 17 Angle Unit Setting Angle Value Input Input Value Range for Form Calculation Result Deg Units of 15° x < 9 ✕ 109 Rad 1 Multiples of ----12 π radians x < 20π Gra 50 Multiples of ------ grads x < 10000 3 Form Calculation Range • The following shows the internal data format and applicable value ranges for results obtained with . The calculation result is displayed in decimal form when any one of these ranges is exceeded. Example: 35 2 ✕ 3 (=105 2 ) =148.492424 150 2----------------= 8.485281374 25 • • Actual calculation results are displayed using the following form. Because of this, the value that is displayed can be larger than the range shown above. Example: 3 + 11 2------3- + ------2- = 10 ---------------------------------11 10 110 Results that include square root symbols can have up to two terms (an integer term is also counted as a term). If the result has three or more terms, it is displayed in decimal form. Example: • • 2+ 3+ 8 = 3+3 2 2 + 3 + 6 = 5.595754113 The result is displayed in decimal form even when any intermediate has three or more terms. Example: ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) ( 1 – 2 – 3 ) (= -4 - 2 6 ) = -8.898979486 18 Basic Calculations (COMP) This section explains how to perform arithmetic, fraction, percent, and sexagesimal calculations. All calculations in this section are performed in the COMP Mode ( ). Arithmetic Calculations Use the , , , and keys to perform arithmetic calculations. Example: 7 ✕ 8 - 4 ✕ 5 = 36 The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority sequence. For more information, see “Calculation Priority Sequence.” Number of Decimal Places and Number of Significant Digits You can specify a fixed number of decimal places and significant digits for the calculation result. Example: 1 ÷ 6 = Initial Default Setting (Norm1) 3 decimal places (Fix3) 3 significant digits (Sci3) For more information, see “Specifying the Number of Display Digits.” Omitting a Final Closed Parentheses You can omit any closed parentheses ()) immediately preceding the operation of the key at the end of a calculation only when using Linear format. 19 Example: (2 + 3) ✕ (4 - 1) = 15 Fraction Calculations How you should input fractions depends on the input/output format that is currently selected. • • Default settings display fractions as improper fractions. Fraction calculation results are always reduced before being displayed. 2 1 7 Example: --- + --- = --3 2 6 1 2 11 3 --- + 1 --- = 4 ------ (Fraction format a b/c) 4 3 12 • • • • Mixed fraction input is possible only when “a b/c” is specified for the fraction format. In MATH mode, press () to input mixed fractions. If the total number of digits used for a mixed fraction (including integer, numerator, denominator, and separator symbols) is greater than 10, the value is automatically displayed in decimal format. The result of a calculation that involves both fraction and decimal values is displayed in decimal format. 20 Switching Between Improper Fraction and Mixed Fraction Format b d Pressing the a --- ⇔ --- key toggles the display c c fraction between mixed fraction and improper fraction format. Switching Between Fraction and Decimal Format → ← • • • The format of the fraction depends on the currently selected fraction format setting (improper fraction or mixed fraction). You cannot switch from decimal format to mixed fraction format if the total number of digits used in the mixed fraction (including integer, numerator, denominator, and separator symbol) is greater than 10. For details about the key, see “Using S-D Transformation.” Percent Calculations Inputting a value and pressing (%) causes the input value to become a percent. 2 Example: 2% = 0.02 ( ---------- ) 100 (%) 20 150✕ 20%=30 (150 ✕ --------100 ) (%) Calculate what percentage of 880 is 660. (75%) (%) 21 Increase 2500 by 15%. (2875) (%) Discount 3500 by 25%. (2625) (%) Discount the sum of 168, 98, and 734 by 20%. (80%) (%) If 300 grams are added to a test sample originally weighing 500 grams, what is the percentage increase in weight? (160%) (%) What is the percentage change when a value is increased from 40 to 46? How about 48? (15%, 20%) (%) 22 Degree, Minute, Second (Sexagesimal) Calculations You can perform calculations using sexagesimal values, and convert values between sexagesimal and decimal. Inputting Sexagesimal Values The following is the syntax for inputting a sexagesimal value. {Degrees} {Minutes} {Seconds} Example: Input 2° 0’ 30” Note that you must always input something for the degrees and minutes, even if they are zero. Sexagesimal Calculations • Performing the following types of sexagesimal calculations provides a sexagesimal result. - Addition or subtraction of two sexagesimal values. - Multiplication or division of a sexagesimal value and a decimal value. Example: 2° 20’ 30” + 39’ 30” = 3° 00’ 00” Converting Values Between Sexagesimal and Decimal Pressing while a calculation result is displayed toggles the value between sexagesimal and decimal. Convert 2.255 to its sexagesimal equivalent. 23 Using Multi-statements in Calculations You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or more expressions and execute them in sequence from left to right when you press . Example: To create a multi-statement that performs the following calculations: 3 + 3 and 3 ✕ 3. (:) “Disp” indicates this is an intermediate result of a multistatement. Using Calculation History Memory and Replay (COMP) Calculation history memory maintains a record of each calculation expression you input and execute, and its result. You can use calculation history memory in only the COMP Mode ( ). Recalling Calculation History Memory Contents Press to back-step through calculation history memory contents. Calculation history memory shows both calculation expressions and results. Example: 24 • • Note that calculation history memory contents are cleared whenever you turn off the calculator, press the key, change to the calculation mode or the input/output format, or perform any reset operation. Calculation history memory is limited. When the calculation you are performing causes history memory to become full, the oldest calculation is deleted automatically to make room for the new calculation. Replay Function While a calculation result is on display, you can press and then or to edit the expression you used for the previous calculation. If you are using Linear format, you can display the expression by pressing or , without pressing first. Example: 4 ✕ 3 + 2.5 = 14.5 4 ✕ 3 - 7.1 = 4.9 25 Using Calculator Memory Memory Name Description Answer Memory Stores the last calculation result obtained. Independent Memory Calculation results can be added to or subtracted from independent memory. The “M” display indicator indicates data in independent memory. Variables Eight variables named A, B, C, D, E, F, X, and Y can be used for storage of individual values. This section uses the COMP Mode ( ) to demonstrate how you can use memory. Answer Memory (Ans) Answer Memory Overview • • • Answer Memory contents are updated whenever you execute a calculation using any one of the following keys: , , , (M+), , (STO). Answer memory can hold up to 15 digits. Answer contents are not changed if an error occurs during the current calculation. Answer Memory contents are maintained even if you press the key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. Using Answer Memory to Perform a Series of Calculations Example: To divide the result of 3 ✕ 4 by 30. 26 (Continuing) Pressing automatically inputs the “Ans” command. • In this procedure, you need to perform the second calculation immediately after the first one. If you need to recall Answer Memory contents after pressing , press the key. Inputting Answer Memory Contents into an Expression Example: To perform the calculations shown below: 789 - 579 = 210 123 + 456 = 579 Independent Memory (M) You can add calculation results to or subtract results from an independent memory. The “M” appears on the display when independent memory contains a value. Independent Memory Overview The following is a summary of the different operations you can perform using independent memory. To do this: Perform this key operation: Add the displayed value or result of the expression to independent memory Subtract the displayed value or result of the expression from independent memory (M-) Recall current independent memory contents (M) • You can also insert the M variable into a calculation, which tells the calculator to use the current independent memory contents at that location. The following is the key operation for inserting the M variable: (M) 27 • • The “M” indicator appears in the upper left of the display when there is any value other than zero stored in the independent memory. Independent memory contents are maintained even if you press the key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. Calculation Examples Using Independent Memory • If the “M” indicator is on the display, perform the procedure under “Clearing Independent Memory” before performing this example. 99÷3=33 (M-) (Total) 22 (M) Example: 23+9=32 53- 6=47 -)45✕2=90 Clearing Independent Memory Press (STO) . This clears independent memory and causes the “M” indicator to disappear from the display. Variables (A, B, C, D, E, F, X, Y) Variable Overview • • • You can assign a specific value or a calculation result to a variable. Example: To assign the result of 3+5 to variable A. (STO) (A) Use the following procedure when you want to check the contents of variable A. Example: To recall the contents of variable A. (A) The following shows how you can include variables inside of an expression. Example: To multiply the contents of variable A by the contents of variable B. (A) (B) • Variable contents are maintained even if you press the key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. 28 Example: 9×6+3 ---------------------- = 1.425 5×8 (STO) (B) (STO) (C) (B) (C) Clearing the Contents of a Specific Variable Press (STO) and then press the key for the name of the variable whose contents you want to clear. For example, to clear the contents of variable A, press (STO) (A). Clearing the Contents of All Memories Use the following procedure to clear the contents of Answer Memory, independent memory, and all of the variables. Press (CLR) (Memory) (Yes). To cancel the clear operation without doing anything, press (Cancel) instead of . Function Calculations This section explains how to use the calculator’s built- in functions. Note: The functions available to you depends on the calculation mode you are in. The explanations in this section are mainly about the functions that are available in calculation modes. All of the examples in this section show operation in the COMP Mode ( ). Certain function calculations may take some time to display calculation results. Before performing an operation, be sure to wait until execution of the current operation is complete. You can interrupt an ongoing operation by pressing . Pi (π) and Natural Logarithm Base You can input pi (π) or natural logarithm base e into a calculation. 29 The following shows the required key operations and the values this calculator uses for pi (π) and e: π = 3.14159265358980 ( (π)) e = 2.71828181845904 ( ( e)) Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions The angle unit required by trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions is one specified as the calculator’s default angle unit. Before performing a calculation, be sure to specify the default angle unit you want to use. See “Specifying the Default Angle Unit” for more information. Example: sin 30 = 0.5, sin-1 0.5 = 30 (sin-1) Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions Pressing the key displays a menu of functions. Press the number key that corresponds to the function you want to input. Example: sinh 1 = 1.175201194, cosh-1 1 = 0 (sinh) (cosh-1) Converting an Input Value to the Calculator’s Default Angle Unit After inputting a value, press (DRG ►) to display the angle unit specification menu shown below. Press the number key that corresponds to the angle unit of the input value. The calculator will automatically convert it to the calculator’s default angle unit. 30 Example 1: To convert the following values into degrees: π --- radians=90°, 50 grads = 45° 2 The following procedure assumes that the calculator’s default angle unit is degrees. (π ) DRG ► (r) (DRG ►) (g) Example 2: cos(π radians) = -1, cos (100 grads) = 0 (π) (DRG ►) (r) (DRG ►) (g) Example 3: cos-1 (-1) = 180 cos-1 (-1) = π (cos-1) (cos-1) Exponential Functions and Logarithmic Functions • For the logarithm function ”log(“, you can specify base m using the syntax “log (m,n)”. If you input only a single value, a base of 10 is used for the calculation. 31 “In(“ is a natural logarithm function with base e . You can also use the key when inputting an expression with the form of “logmn” while using Math format. Example: log2 16 = 4 • • (,) Note that when you must input the base (base m) when using the key for input. log16=1.204119983 Note: A base of 10 (common logarithm) is used if no base is specified. ln90(=loge90) = 4.49980967 Ine= 1 (e) e10=22026.4659 () 32 Power Functions and Power Root Functions x2, x3, x-1, x▀, (, (, ▀( Example 1: 1.2 ✕ 103 = 1200 () (1+1)2+2 =16 Example 2: 23 = 8 ( 2 + 1)( 2 – 1) = 1 5 32 = 2 ( ) Example 3: (-2)2/3 = 1.587401052 3 5 +3 – 27 = -1.290024053 () ( ) 1 - = 12 -----------Example 4: 1 --- – 1 --3 4 33 Rectangular-Polar Coordinate Conversion Rectangular Polar Coordinates Coordinates (Rec) (Pol) Coordinate conversion can be performed in the COMP and STAT calculation modes. Converting to Polar Coordinates (Pol) Pol(X,Y) X: Specifies the rectangular coordinate X value Y: Specifies the rectangular coordinate Y value • Calculation result θ is displayed using the range of -180° • Calculation result θ is displayed using the calculator’s default angle unit. Calculation result r is assigned to variable X, while y is assigned to Y. < θ ≤ 180° • Converting to Rectangular Coordinates (Rec) Rec(r, θ ) r : Specifies r value of polar coordinate θ : Specifies θ value of polar coordinate • Input value θ is treated as an angle value, in accordance with the calculator’s default angle unit setting. • Calculation result x is assigned to variable X, while θ is assigned to Y. If you perform coordinate conversion inside of an expression instead of a stand-alone operation, the calculation is performed using the only first value (either the r-value or the X-value) produced by the conversion. • Example: Pol ( 2, 2 ) + 5 = 2 + 5 = 7 (X,Y) = ( 2 + 2 ) → r, θ 34 (Pol) (,) (Pol) (,) (r, θ ) = (2,30) → (X,Y) (Rec) (,) Greatest Common Divisor and Least Common Multiple • • • • • These functions exist in all modes. Greatest Common Divisor (GCD): To calculate the greatest common divisor of two positive integers. Least Common Multiple (LCM): To calculate the least common multiple among two positive integers. The argument value can be either a number and/or expression. Input range: LCM: 0 ≦ a , b < 1 ✕ 1010 GCD: -1 ✕ 1010 < a; b < 1 ✕ 1010 Error message: Math ERROR: When users input decimal or negative integers, an error message will be displayed. Example: Find the Least Common Multiple of 5 and 10. • (LCM) (,) Example: Find the Greatest Common Divisor of 35 and 60. (GCD) (,) Example: When an argument includes zero. 35 (LCM) (,) Example: When an argument includes expression. (LCM) (,) (GCD) (,) The Integer Function and the Greatest Integer Function • • Int: The integer function extracts the integer part of the value by removing the digits to the right of the decimal point. IntG: The greatest integer function rounds down the value to the nearest integer. (Int) (Int) (IntG) (IntG) Division with Quotient and Remainder • • • You can use the function to get the quotient and the remainder in a division calculation. At calculation, only the quotient is stored in the memory. The completion of operation 5 [÷R] 3 [STO] [X] assigns the quotient value of 1 to X. 36 • If ÷R is part of a series of multiple statements, only the quotient will be transferred to the next operation. Example: (2) (10+2) • • The operation buttons are disabled during display of the result of an operation with calculation and display of remainder. If one of the following conditions is present when performing an operation with calculation will be treated as a normal division without calculation or display of remainder. A. When the dividend is greater than 1 ✕ 1010. B. When the quotient is not a positive value or the remainder is not an entire positive or a positive fraction. Example: is calculated as: -5 ÷ 2. Example: Fraction Simplification Function • This function simplifies a fraction using the smallest divisor. If necessary, you can also specify the divisor. • This setting is valid in COMP mode only. • This function is disabled if SIMP is set as AUTO in the setup menu. • Message: A. "Fraction irreduc" display indicates that further simplification is impossible. B. "Non simplifiable" appears when the value you specify is invalid as a divisor for simplification. 234 Example: Simplify ---------- by 3. 678 234 Example: Simplify ---------- (without specifying the divisor). 678 37 Using CALC • You can store a single mathematical expression, with up to 99 steps. Note that the command can only be used in the COMP Mode. • The command lets you temporarily store a mathematical expression that you need to perform several times. Once you store an expression, you can recall it, input variables, and calculate quickly. • The following shows the kind of expressions that you can save with the function. A. Expressions: 2X + 3Y, 2AX + 3BY + C B. Multiple instructions: X + Y: X(X + Y) C. Equations with unique variable on left and one expression contains variables on right: A = B+C, Y = X2 + X + 3 (note: we must use specific [=] key to input equality symbol of the equation). • The variable input screen shows the current value from the assigned variables. • Wherever you start a new calculation, ensure that the stored expression is cleared by changing the mode or by pressing the key. Example: To store 3A + B and then substitute the variables with the following values (A:B) = (5:10). Calculate the value of the expression. (A) (B) Metric Conversion • The calculator's built-in metric conversion commands make it easy to convert values from one unit to another. You can use the metric conversion commands in any calculation mode except for BASE-N and TABLE. 38 • To input a metric conversion command into a calculation, press (CONV) and then input the two-digit number that corresponds to the command you want. Example: To convert 5 cm into inches: (CONV) The following table shows the two-digit numbers for each of the metric conversion commands. 01: incm 05: ydm 09: n milem 02: cmin 06: myd 10: mn mile 03: ftm 07: milekm 04: mft 08: kmmile 11: acrem2 12: m2acre 13: gal(US)ℓ 14: ℓgal(US) 15: gal(UK)ℓ 16: ℓgal(UK) 17: pckm 21: ozg 25: atmPa 29: hpkW 18: kmpc 22: goz 26: Paatm 30: kWhp 19: km/hm/s 23: lbkg 27: mmHgPa 20: m/skm/h 24: kglb 28: PammHg 33: kgf_mJ 34: Jkgf_m 37: °F°C 38: °C°F 35: lbf/in2kPa 39: Jcal 31: kgf/cm2Pa 32: Pakgf/cm2 36: kPalbf/in2 40: calJ Conversion formula data is based on the ''NIST Special Publication 811(1995)." Note: The Jcal command performs conversion for values at a temperature of 15°C. RanInt Function RanInt#(a,b) generates a random integer within the range of a to b. Example: To generate a random integer from 1 to 6. (RanInt#() (,) Other Functions This section explains how to use the functions shown below. !, Abs (, Ran #, nPr , nC r , Rnd( 39 Factorial (!) This function obtains the factorials of a value that is zero or a positive integer. Example: (5 + 3)! = 40320 (x!) Absolute Value Calculation (Abs) When you are performing a real number calculation, this function simply obtains the absolute value. Example: Abs(2 - 7) = 5 Random Number (Ran#) This function generates a 3 digit pseudo random number that is less than 1. (Ran#) Generate three 3-digit random numbers. The random 3 digit decimal values are converted to 3 digit integer values by multiplying by 1000. Note that values shown here are examples only. Values actually generated by your calculator will be different. 40 Permutation (nPr) and Combination (nCr) These functions make it possible to perform permutation and combination calculations. n and r must be integers in the range of 0 ≤ r ≤ n < 1 ✕ 1010. How many four-person permutations and combinations are possible for a group of 10 people? ( n P r) (nCr) Rounding Function (Rnd) This function rounds the value or the result of the expression in the function’s argument to the number of significant digits specified by the number of display digits setting. Display Digits Setting: Norm1 or Norm2 The mantissa is rounded to 10 digits. Display Digits Setting: Fix or Sci The value is rounded to the specified number of digits. Example: 200 ÷ 7 ✕ 14 = 400 (Specifies three decimal places.) (Fix) (Calculations are performed internally using 15 digits) 41 The following performs the same calculation with rounding. (Round the value to the specified number of digits.) (Rnd) (Check rounded result.) Transforming Displayed Values You can use procedures in this section to transform a displayed value to engineering notation, or to transform between standard form and decimal form. Using Engineering Notation A simple key operation transforms a displayed value to engineering notation. Transform the value 1,234 to engineering notation, shifting the decimal point to the right. Transform the value 123 into engineering notation, shifting the decimal point to the left. 42 (←) (←) Using S-D Transformation You can use S-D transformation to transform a value between its decimal (D) form and its standard (S) form (fraction, π). Formats Supported for S-D Transformation S-D transformation can be used to transform a displayed decimal calculation result to one of the forms described below. Performing S-D transformation again converts back to the original decimal value. Note: When you transform from decimal form to standard form, the calculator automatically decides the standard form to use. You cannot specify the standard form. Fraction: The current fraction format setting determines whether the result is an improper fraction or mixed fraction. π: The following are the π forms that are supported. This is true only in the case of Math format. n π (n is an integer). b a --- π or a --- π (depending on fraction format setting). c b Transformation to a fractional π form is limited to inverse trigonometric function result and values that are normally expressed in radians. After obtaining a calculation result in form, you can convert it to decimal form by pressing the key. When the original calculation result is in decimal form, it cannot be converted into form. Examples of S-D Transformation Note that S-D transformation can take some time to perform. Example: Fraction → Decimal Each press of the key toggles between the two forms. 43 π Fraction → Decimal (π) → Decimal Statistical Calculation (STAT). All the calculations in this section are performed in the STAT Mode ( ). Selecting a Statistical Calculation Type In the STAT Mode, display the statistical calculation type selection screen. Statistical Calculation Types Key Menu Item Statistical Calculation 1-VAR Single-variable A+BX Linear regression _+CX 2 Quadratic regression In X Logarithmic regression e^ X e exponential regression A • B^X ab exponential regression A • X^B Power regression 1/X Inverse regression 44 Inputting Sample Data Displaying the STAT Editor Screen The STAT editor screen appears after you enter the STAT Mode from another mode. Use the STAT menu to select a statistical calculation type. To display the STAT editor from another STAT Mode screen, press (STAT) (Data). STAT Editor Screen There are two STAT editor screen formats, depending on the type of statistical calculation you selected. Single-variable Statistics Paired-variable Statistics The first line of the STAT editor screen shows the value for the first sample or the values for their first pair of samples. FREQ (Frequency) Column If you turn on the Statistical Display item on the calculator’s setup screen, a column labeled “FREQ” will also be included on the STAT editor screen. You can use FREQ column to specify the frequency (the number of times the same sample appears in the group of data) of each sample value. Rules for Inputting Sample Data on the STAT Editor Screen • Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located. Use the cursor keys to move the cursor between cells. The cursor in the following image is located below the letter x. • The values and expressions you can input on the STAT editor screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode with Linear format. Pressing while inputting data clears your current input. After inputting a value, press . This registers the value and displays up to six digits in the currently selected cell. • • 45 Example: To input the value 123.45 in cell X1 (Move the cursor to cell X1) The value you input appears in the formula area (123.45). Registering a value causes the cursor to move down one cell. STAT Editor Screen Input Precautions The number of lines in STAT editor screen (the number of sample data values you can input) depends on the type of statistical data you selected and on the Statistical Display setting of the calculator’s setup screen. Statistical Display OFF On (No FREQ column) (FREQ column) Statistic Type Single-variable 80 lines 40 lines Paired-variable 40 lines 26 lines The following types of input are not allowed on the STAT editor screen: • • (M-) operations Assignment to variables (STO) Precautions Concerning Sample Data Storage Sample data you input is deleted automatically whenever you change to another mode from the STAT Mode or change the Statistical Display setting (which causes the FREQ column to be shown or hidden) on the calculator’s setup screen. Editing Sample Data Replacing the Data in a Cell (1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the cell you want to edit. (2) Input the new data value or expression, and then press . Important: Note that you must totally replace the existing data of the cell with new input. You cannot edit parts of the existing data. 46 Deleting a Line • • (1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line you want to delete. (2) Press . Inserting Line • (1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line that will be under the line you will insert. • (2) Press (STAT) (Edit). • (3) Press (Ins). Important: Note that the insert operation will not work if the maximum number of lines allowed for the STAT editor screen are already used. Deleting All STAT Editor Contents (1) Press (STAT) (Edit). (2) Press (Del-A). This clears all of the sample data on the STAT editor screen. Note: You can perform the procedures under “Inserting a Line” and “Deleting All STAT Editor Contents” only when the STAT editor screen is on the display. STAT Calculation Screen The STAT calculation screen is for performing statistical calculations with the data you input with the STAT editor screen. Pressing the key while the STAT editor screen is displayed switches to the STAT calculation screen. The STAT calculation screen also uses Linear format, regardless of the current input/output format setting on the calculator’s setup screen. Using the STAT Menu While the STAT editor or STAT calculation screen is on display, press (STAT) to display the STAT menu. The content to the STAT menu depends on whether the currently selected statistical operation type uses a single variable or paired variables. Single-variable Statistics Paired-variable Statistics 47 STAT Menu Items Common Items Select this menu item: When you want to do this: Type Display the statistical calculation type selection screen Data Display the STAT editor screen Sum Display the Sum sub-menu of commands for calculating sums. Var Display the Var sub-menu of commands for calculating the mean, standard deviation, etc. Reg Display the Reg sub-menu of commands for regression calculations. For details see “Commands when Linear Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is Selected” and “Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation (_+CX2) Is Selected”. MinMax Display the MinMax sub-menu of commands for obtaining maximum and minimum values. Single-variable (1-VAR) Statistical Calculation Commands The following are the commands that appear when you select (Sum), (Var), or (MinMax) on the STAT menu while a single-variable statistical calculation type is selected. x x = -------n 2 (x – x) xσ n = -----------------------n 2 (x – x) xσ n – 1 = -----------------------n–1 Sum Sub-menu ( (STAT) (Sum)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: x 2 x Sum of squares of the sample data Sum of the sample data 48 Var Sub-menu ( (STAT) (Var)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: n Number of samples x Mean of the sample data xσ n Population standard deviation xσ n – 1 Sample standard deviation MinMax Sub-menu ( (STAT) (MinMax)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: minX Minimum value maxX Maximum value Single-variable Statistical Calculation Select single-variable (1-VAR) and input the following: { } Data: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 (FREQ:ON) (STAT) (ON) (STAT) (1-VAR) Edit the data to the following, using insert and delete: {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10} (FREQ:ON) (STAT) (Data) 49 (STAT)(Edit)(Ins) Edit the FREQ data to the following: {1,2,1,2,2,2,3,4,2,1} (FREQ:ON) (STAT) (Data) Examples: Calculate the sum of squares of the sample data and sum of the sample data. (STAT) (Sum) 2 ( x ) (STAT) (Sum) ( x ) Calculate the number of samples, mean, and population standard deviation. (STAT) (Var) 50 1 (n) (STAT) (Var) ( x ) (STAT) (Var) ( xσ n) Calculate minimum value and maximum value. (STAT) (Quart1) (Minx) (STAT) (MinMax) (MaxX) Commands When Linear Regression Calculation (A+Bx) Is Selected With linear regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation. y = A + BX The following are the commands that appear on the submenus that appear when you select (Sum), (Var), (MinMax), or (Reg) on the STAT menu while linear regression is selected as the statistical calculation type. x y x = -------y = -------n n 2 2 (x – x) xσ n = -----------------------n yσ n = 2 (y – y) -----------------------n 2 (x – x) xσ n – 1 = -----------------------n–1 yσ n – 1 = y – B • x A = -------------------------------n 51 (y – y) -----------------------n–1 B= n • xy – x • y ------------------------------------------------2 2 n x – ( x) n • xy – x • y r = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 2 2 2 n x – ( x ) n • y + ( – y ) – Axˆ = y----------yˆ = A + Bx B Sum Sub-menu ( (STAT) (Sum)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: x 2 Sum of the X-data x y Sum of squares of the X-data 2 Sum of the squares of the Y-data y Sum of the Y-data xy Sum of products of the X-data and Y-data x 3 Sum of cubes of the X-data 2 Sum of (X-data squares X Y-data) 4 Sum of biquadrate of the X-data x y x Var Sub-menu ( (STAT) (Var)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: n Number of samples x Mean of the X-data xσ n Population standard deviation of the X-data xσ n – 1 Sample standard deviation of the X-data y Mean of the Y-data yσ n Population standard deviation of the Y-data yσ n – 1 Sample standard deviation of the Y-data 52 MinMax Sub-menu ( (STAT) (MinMax)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: MinX Minimum value of the X-data MaxX Maximum value of the X-data MinY Minimum value of the Y-data MaxY Maximum value of the Y-data Reg Sub-menu ( (STAT) (Reg)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: A Regression coefficient constant term A B Regression coefficient B r Correlation coefficient r xˆ Estimated value of x yˆ Estimated value of y Linear Regression Calculation: Examples use all the data input in this table: x 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.9 y 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 x 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 (STAT) (OFF) (STAT) (A+BX) 53 y 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 (STAT) (Sum) ( xy ) (STAT) (Var) ( xσ n ) (STAT) (MinMax) (Max Y) (STAT) (Reg) (A) 54 (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (r) * (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ ) ** (STAT) (Reg) ( yˆ ) → xˆ = ?) ** Estimated Value (x = 2 → yˆ = ?) * Estimated Value (y = 3 Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation (_+CX) Is Selected With quadratic regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation. y = A + BX + CX2 For example: 2 y x x A = -------- – B -------- – C ----------- n n n 2 2 2 2 Sxy • Sx x – Sx y • Sxx B = ---------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 Sxx • Sx x – ( Sxx ) 2 2 Sx y • Sxx – Sxy • Sxx C = ----------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 Sxx • Sx x – ( Sxx ) 2 2 ( x) x – --------------n x • y Sxy = xy – ----------------------n Sxx = 2 Sxx = x 3 2 x • x – ------------------------n 55 2 2 x Sx x = 4 2 2 ( x ) – -----------------n 2 2 Sx y = x 2 x • y y – ------------------------n 2 – B + B – 4C ( A – y ) xˆ 1 = ------------------------------------------------------2C 2 B – B – 4C ( A – y -) xˆ 2 = –------------------------------------------------------2C yˆ = A + Bx + Cx2 Reg Sub-menu ( (STAT) (Reg)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: A Regression coefficient constant term A B Linear coefficient B of the regression coefficients C Quadratic coefficient C of the regression coefficients xˆ 1 Estimated value of x1 xˆ 2 Estimated value of x2 yˆ Estimated value of y Sum sub-menu (sums), Var sum-menu (number of samples, mean, standard deviation), and MinMax sub-menu (maximum value, minimum value) operations are the same those for linear regression calculations. Quadratic Regression Calculation For example: All the data used as the following table: x 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.9 y 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 x 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 56 y 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 (STAT) (Type) (_+CX2) (STAT) (Reg) (A) (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (C) y = 3 → xˆ 1 = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ 1 ) y = 3 → xˆ 2 = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ 2 ) x=2→ y =? (STAT) (Reg) ( yˆ ) 57 Comments for Other Typed of Regression For details about the calculation formula of the command included in each regression type, refer to the indicated calculation formulas. For example: Logarithm Regression (In X) y = A + BInX y – B • ln xA = ------------------------------------n B= n • ( ln x )y – ln x • y -----------------------------------------------------------------2 2 n • ( ln x ) – ( ln x ) n • ( ln x )y – ln x • y r = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2 2 2 2 n • ( ln x ) – ( ln x ) n • y – ( y ) y–A ------------ B xˆ = e ˆy = A + Blnx e Exponential Regression (e^ X) y = AeBx ln y – B • x A = exp -------------------------------------n n • x ln y – x • ln y B = -----------------------------------------------------------2 2 n • x – ( x) n • x ln y – x • ln y r = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2 2 2 2 n • x – ( x ) n • ( ln y ) – ( ln y ) ln y – ln A xˆ = ----------------------B Bx yˆ = Ae ⋅ ab Exponential Regression (A B^X) y= ABX 58 ln y – B • x A = exp -------------------------------------n n • x ln y – x • ln y B = -----------------------------------------------------------2 2 n • x – ( x) n • x ln y – x • ln y r = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2 2 2 2 n • x – ( x ) n • ( ln y ) – ( ln y ) ln y – ln A xˆ = ----------------------B yˆ = ABx Power Regression (A ⋅ X^B) B y = AX A= ln y – B • ln x exp -------------------------------------------n B= n • x ln y – ln x • ln y ------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 n • ( ln x ) – ( ln x ) n • ln x ln y – ln x • ln y r = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 2 2 2 n • ( ln x ) – ( ln x ) n • ( ln y ) – ( ln y ) xˆ = e ln y – ln A ----------------------B yˆ = AxB Inverse Regression (1/X) y = A+B --X 1 y – B • x A = ----------------------------------n Sxy B = --------Sxx Sxy r = --------------------------Sxx • Syy 1 2 –1 2 ( x ) Sxx = ( x ) – -----------------n 59 2 2 Syy = y Sxy = (x ( y) – ---------------n 1 –1 x • y )y – ------------------------n B xˆ = -----------y–A yˆ = A + B --x Comparison Regression Curves The following example uses the data input in as following table: x 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.9 y 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 x 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 y 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 Compare the correlation coefficient for logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, Power, and inverse regression. (STAT) (Type) (InX) (STAT) (Reg) (r) (STAT) (Type) (e^X) (STAT) (Reg) (r) (STAT) (Type) (A⋅B^X) (STAT) (Reg) (r) (STAT) (Type) (A⋅B^X) (STAT) (Reg) (r) 60 (STAT) (Type) (1/X) (STAT) (Reg) (r) Other types of Regression Calculation: y = A + Blnx x 29 50 74 103 118 y 1.6 23.5 38.0 46.4 48.9 (STAT) (OFF) (STAT) (lnx) (STAT) (Reg) (A) (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (r) X = 80 → yˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( yˆ ) Y = 73 → xˆ =? (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ ) 61 y = AeBx x 6.9 12.9 19.8 26.7 35.1 y 21.4 15.7 12.1 8.5 5.2 (STAT) (OFF) (STAT) (e^X) (STAT) (Reg) (A) (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (r) x = 16 → yˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) yˆ ) y = 20 → xˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ ) y = ABx 62 x -1 y 0.24 3 4 5 10 16.2 513 (STAT) (OFF) (STAT) (A•B^X) (STAT) (Reg) (A) (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (r) x = 15 → yˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( yˆ ) ˆ y = 1.02 → x = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ ) y = AxB x 28 y 2410 30 3033 33 35 38 3895 4491 5717 (STAT) (OFF) (STAT) (A•X^B) 63 (STAT) (Reg) (A) (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (r) x = 40 → yˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( yˆ ) y = 1000 → xˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( xˆ ) B y = A + --x x 1.1 y 18.3 2.1 9.7 2.9 4.0 4.9 6.8 4.9 4.1 (STAT) (OFF) (STAT) (1/X) 64 (STAT) (Reg) (A) (STAT) (Reg) (B) (STAT) (Reg) (r) x = 3.5 → yˆ = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( yˆ ) y = 15 → x = ? (STAT) (Reg) ( x ) Command Usage Tips The commands include in the Reg sub-menu can take a long time to execute in logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, or power regression calculation when there are a large number of data samples. Calculations of Equations (EQN) Use the key to enter the EQN mode when you want to solve an equation. In EQN mode, you can solve simultaneous linear equations with up to three unknowns. 65 KEY IN Two unknowns Three unknowns DISPLAY DISPLAY or Simultaneous Linear Equations 1. Simultaneous Linear Equations with Two Unknowns: a1x + b1y = c1 a2x + b2y = c2 2. Simultaneous Linear Equations with Three Unknowns: a1x + b1y + c1z = d1 a2x + b2y + c2z = d2 a3x + b3y + c3z = d3 • Use the coefficient editor screen to input the coefficients of an equation. The coefficient editor screen shows input cells for each of the coefficients required by the currently selected equation type. • When simultaneous linear equations with three unknowns are selected as the equation type, the d column will not be visible on the display when the coefficient editor screen is first displayed. The d column will become visible when you move the cursor to it, which causes the screen to shift. Example: To solve the following equations x + 2y = 5 and 3x 2y = 3 (x = 2, y = 1.5) (EQN) 66 Example: To solve the following simultaneous equations: 2x + 3y - z = 15 3x - 2y + 2z = 4 5x + 3y - 4z = 9 (x = 2, y = 5, z = 4) (EQN) 67 Inputting and editing coefficients 1. Rules for inputting and editing coefficients: - Data is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located. When you register input into a cell, the cursor moves to the next cell on the right. - The values and expressions you can input on the coefficient editor screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode with Linear format. - Press while inputting data clears your current input. - After inputting data, press . This registers the value and displays up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell. - To change the contents of a cell, use the cursor keys to move the cursor to the cell and then input the new data. 2. You can clear all coefficients to zero by pressing the key while inputting values on the coefficient editor screen. 3. The following operations are not supported by the Coefficient Editor: and multi-statements also cannot be input with the Coefficient Editor. Example: Solve the following linear equations: x - y + z = 2; x + y - z = 0; -x + y + z = 4 (EQN) 68 Solution Display After inputting and registering values on the coefficient editor screen, press to display the solution(s) for the equation. • • • Each press of display the next solution, if there is one. Pressing while the final solution is displayed returns to the coefficient editor screen. In the case of simultaneous linear equations, you can use and to switch the display between the solutions for X and Y (and Z). To return to the coefficient editor method: (1) Press while a solution is displayed. • • (2) Press while the final solution is displayed. The display format of solutions is in accordance with the input/output format settings of the calculator's setup screen. You cannot transform values to engineering notation while an equation solution is displayed. Special Solution Display “Infinite of sol" appears on the solution screen when the solution of an equation is all numbers. “No solution" appears on the solution screen when no solution exists for an equation. Press and then select an equation type form the menu that appears. Changing the equation type causes the values of all coefficients to change to zero. 69 Example: (EQN) Generating a Number Table from a Function (TABLE) All calculations in this section are performed in the TABLE Mode ( ). Configuring a Number Table Generation Function The procedure below configures the number table generation function with the following settings. 1 Function: f(x) =x2+ --2 Start Value: 1; End Value: 5; Step Value:1 (1) Press (TABLE). 70 (2) Input the function. (3) After making sure the function is the way you want, press . This displays the start value input screen. Indicates the initial default start value of If the initial value is not 1, press to specify the initial start value for this example. (4) After specifying the start value, press . This displays the end value input screen. Indicates the initial default start value of Specify the end value. (5) After specifying the end value, press . This displays the step value input screen. Indicates the initial default start value Specify the step value. For details about specifying the start, end, and step values, see “Start, End, and Step Value Rules.” (6) After specifying the step value, press . Pressing the key returns to the function editor screen. Supported Function Types • • Except for the X variable, other variables (A, B, C, D, Y) and independent memory (M) are all treated as values (the current variable assigned to the variable or stored in independent memory). Only variable X can be used as the variable of a function. 71 • • The coordinate conversion (Pol, Rec) functions cannot be used for a number table generation function. Note that the number table generation operation causes the contents of variable X to be changed. Start, End, and Step Value Rules • • Linear format is always used for value input. You can specify either values or calculation expressions (which must produce a numeric result) for Start, End, and Step. • Specifying an end value that is less than the Start value causes an error, so the number table is not generated. • The specified Start, End, and Step values should produce a maximum of 30 x-values for the number table being generated. Executing a number generation table using a Start, End, and Step value combination that produces more than 30 x-value causes an error. Note: Certain functions and Start, End, Step value combinations can cause number generation to take a long time. Number Table Screen The number table screen shows x-values calculated using the specified Start, End, as well as the values obtained when each x-value is substituted in the function f(x). • Note that you can use the number table screen for viewing values only. Table contents cannot be edited. • Pressing the key returns to the function editor screen. TABLE Mode Precautions Note that changing the input/output format settings (Math format or Linear format) on the calculator’s setup screen while in the TABLE Mode clears the number table generation function. Using the Verify Command Use the key to enter the VERIF Mode when you want to compare and check two values. Key in Display 72 Inputting and Editing • You can enter the following expressions for check mode VERIFY. A. Equalities or inequalities involving a relational operator. 4= 16 ; 4 ≠ 3; π > 3; 1 + 2 ≤ 5; (3 ✕ 6) < (2 + 6) ✕ 2; etc. B. Equalities or inequalities involving multiple relational operator • • • • • • 1 ≤ 1 < 1 + 1; 3 < π < 4; 22 = 2 + 2 = 4; 2 + 2 = 4 < 6; 2 + 3 = 5 ≠ 2 + 5 = 8; etc. The values and expressions you can input on the display are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode. The expression entry is up to 99 bytes, including the left, the right side and the relational operators. Pressing the keys displays a menu of functions. Press the number key that corresponds to the function you want to input. Key in Display 1: = 2: ≠ 3: > 4: < (Verify) 5: ≥ 6: ≤ In the expression with no relational operator, press , the system will automatically join “= 0” as the end of the expression. The following operations are not supported: and multi-statements also cannot be input with the VERIFY mode. The following expression type cause a Syntax ERROR: A. An expression with no end to the left or right (Example: = 5 7) B. An expression in which a relational operator is fraction (1 = 1) or function (Example: ------------------ , cos (8 • 9)) 2 C. An expression in which relational operators are surrounded by parentheses. (Example: 8 < (9 < 10)) D. An expression in which there are multiple relational operators which are not oriented in the same direction (Example: 5 ≤ 6 ≥ 4) E. An expression that contains two of the following relational operators in any combination (Example: 4 < 6 • 8) F. An expression contains relational operators consecutive (Example: 5 ≥ > 4) 73 Example: To verify if 7 ÷ 9 < 14 ÷ 9 (TRUE) (VERIFY) (VERIFY) (<) Example: (VERIFY) (VERIFY)(<) Example: Syntax ERROR - An expression with no end to the left or right. (VERIFY) (>) Example: Syntax ERROR - An expression in which a relationship operator is a fraction or function. 74 (VERIFY) (<) Example: Syntax ERROR - An expression in which relational operators are surrounded by parentheses. (VERIFY) (VERIFY) (<) Example: Syntax ERROR. (VERIFY) (•) (VERIFY) (≤) (VERIFY) 75 Proportion Calculations (PROP) Use the key to enter the PROP mode when you want to solve a ratio expression. In PROP mode, you can solve the value of X in the ratio expression. Key in a/b = x/d a/b = c/x Display Display or Inputting and Editing Coefficients • • • • The PROP mode lets you determine the value of X in the ratio expression a/b = X/d (or a/b = c/X) when the values of a, b, c and d are known. Use the coefficient editor screen to input the coefficients of a ratio expression. The coefficient editor screen shows input cells for each of the coefficients required by the currently selected ratio expression type. Rules for inputting and editing coefficients - Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located. When you register input into a cell, the cursor moves to the next cell to the right. - The values and expressions you can input on the coefficient editor screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP mode with linear format. - Press while inputting data clears your current input. - After inputting data, press . This registers the value and displays up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell. - To change the contents of a cell, use the cursor keys to move the cursor to the cell and then input the new data. You can clear all coefficients to zero by pressing the key while inputting values on the coefficient editor screen. 76 • The following operations are not supported by the coefficient editor: and multi statements also cannot be input with the coefficient editor. Example: 1:2 = X:5 ( PROP) Example: 1:2 = 10:X ( PROP) Example: 3:8 = X:12 ( PROP) 1-1 Example: -3 :8 = X:12 77 (PROP) PROP Solution Display • • After inputting and registering values on the coefficient editor screen, press to display the solution for the ratio expression. To return to the coefficient editor method: A. Pressing while a solution is displayed. B. Pressing while the final solution is displayed. The display format of solutions is in accordance with the input/output format settings of the calculator's setup screen. • You cannot transform values to engineering notation while a ratio expression solution is displayed. • Press (PROP) and then select a ratio expression type form the menu that appears. Changing the ratio expression type causes the values of all coefficients to change to zero. • A Math ERROR will occur if you perform a calculation with 0 as a coefficient. Example: • 78 Example: 79 Technical Information Order of Operations The calculator performs calculations from left to right and in the following order of sequence: 1. Expression within the parentheses. 2. Functions with parentheses: Pol(, Rec(, GCD(, LCM(, sin(, cos(, tan(, sin-1(, cos-1(, tan-1(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh-1(, cosh-1(, tanh-1(, log(, ln(, Rnd(, Int(, IntG( 3. Functions preceded by values, powers, power roots, for example: x2, x3, x-1, x!, ° ’ ”, °, r, g, xy, x• , %, •, 3•, 10x, ex, Abs • 4. Fractions: a b/c 5. Prefix symbol: (-) (negative sign) 6. Statistical estimated value calculation: x^, y^, 1x^, 2x^. Metric conversion commands (cmin, etc.), 7. Multiplication where sign is omitted. 8. nPr , nCr 9. ✕, ÷, ÷R 10. +, - Stack Limitations This calculator uses memory areas called stacks to temporarily store lower calculation priority sequence values, commands, and functions. The numeric stack has 10 levels and the command stack has 24 levels, as shown in the illustration below. 80 Numeric Stack Command Stack (1) 2 (1) ✕ (2) 3 (2) ( (3) 4 (3) ( (4) 5 (4) + (5) 4 (5) ✕ ⋮ (6) ( (7) + ⋮ A Stack ERROR occurs when the calculation you are performing causes the capacity of either stack to be exceeded. Calculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and Precision The calculation range, number of digits used for internal calculation, and calculation precision depends on the type of calculation you are performing. Calculation Range and Precision Calculation Range ±1✕10-99 to ±9.9999999✕10-99 or 0 Number of Digits for Internal Calculation 15 digits Precision In general, ±1 at the 10th digit for a single calculation. Precision for exponential display is ±1 at the least significant digit. Errors are cumulative in the case of consecutive calculations. Function Calculation Input Ranges and Precision Functions sin x Input Range DEG 0 ≦ x < 9 ✕ 109 RAD 0 ≦ x < 157079632.7 GRA 0 ≦ x < 1 ✕ 1010 81 cos x tan x sin-1 x cos-1 x tan-1 x sinh x cosh x DEG 0 ≦ x < 9 ✕ 109 RAD 0 ≦ x < 157079632.7 GRA 0 ≦ x < 1 ✕ 1010 DEG Same as sin x , except when x = ( 2n – 1 ) × 90 GRA Same as sin x , except when π x = ( 2n – 1 ) × --2 RAD Same as sin x , except when x = ( 2n – 1 ) × 100 0≦ x ≦1 0≦ x ≦9.999999999 ✕ 1099 0≦ x ≦230.2585092 sinh-1 x 0≦ x ≦4.999999999 ✕ 1099 cosh-1 x 0≦ x ≦4.999999999 ✕ 1099 tanh x 0≦ x ≦9.999999999 ✕ 1099 tanh-1 x 0≦ x ≦4.999999999 ✕ 10-1 Log x /ln x 0< x ≦9.999999999 ✕ 1099 10x -9.999999999 ✕ 1099 ≦ x ≦ 99.999999999 ex -9.999999999 ✕ 1099 ≦ x ≦ 230.2585092 x x 2 1⁄x 0≦ x <1 ✕ 10100 x <1 ✕ 1050 x <1 ✕ 10100 ; x ≠0 82 3 x <1 ✕ 1010 x x! 0≦ x ≦69 ( x is an integer) n Pr 0≦ n <1 ✕ 1010, 0≦ r ≦ n ( n , r are integers) 1≦ { n! ⁄ ( n – r )! } <1 ✕ 10100 n Cr 0≦ n <1 ✕ 1010, 0≦ r ≦ n ( n , r are integers) 1≦ [ n! ⁄ { r! ( n – r )! } ] <1 ✕ 10100 Pol( x, y ) x , y ≦9.999999999 ✕ 1049 2 2 ( x + y ) ≦9.999999999 ✕ 1099 Rec( r, θ) 0≦ r ≦9.999999999 ✕ 1099 θ : Same as for sin x °’” a , b, c<1 ✕ 10100 0≦b,c ← x <1 ✕ 10100 Decimal ↔ Sexagesimal Conversions 0° 0’ 0” ≦ x ≦ 999999°59’59” °’” ^ (x y ) x >0; -1✕ 10100< y log x <100 x =0; y >0 m x <0 : y = n , --------------2n + 1 ( m , n are integers) However, -1✕ 10100<1/ y log x <100 x y y >0 : x ≠0, -1 ✕ 10100<1/ x log y <100 y =0; x >0 2n + 1 y <0; x = 2n + 1 , ---------------- ( m ≠0, m , n are m integers) However, -1 ✕ 10100<1/ x log y <100 a b/c The total number of integer, numerator, and denominator digits must be 10 or less (including division marks) GCD -1 ✕ 1010 < x < 1 ✕ 1010 -1 ✕ 1010 < y < 1 ✕ 1010 83 LCM 0 ≦ x < 1 ✕ 1010 0 ≦ y <1 ✕ 1010 Simp 1 ≦ n ≦ 9999 (n is an integer) RanInt#(a,b) a < b, a b < 1 ✕ 1010, b-a < 1 ✕ 1010 • Precision is basically the same as that described under “Calculation Range and Precision,” above. • ^ ( x ) , x y , , x!, nPr , nCr type functions require consecutive internal calculation, which can cause accumulation of errors that occur with each calculation. Error is cumulative and tends to be large in the vicinity of a function’s singular point and inflection point. • y Error Messages The calculator will display an error message when a result exceeds the calculation range, when you attempt an illegal input, or whenever any other similar problem occurs. When an Error Message Appears The following are general operations you can use when any error message appears. • • Pressing or displays to the calculation expression editing screen you were using before the error message appeared, with the cursor located at the position of error. For more information see “Displaying the Location of an Error.” Pressing clears the calculation expression you were using before the error message appeared, You can then re-input and re-execute the calculation, if you want. Note that in this case, the original calculation will not be retained in calculation history memory. Math Error Cause • • • The intermediate or final result of the calculation you are performing exceeds the allowable calculations range. Your input exceeds the allowable input range (particularly when using functions). The calculation you are performing contains an illegal mathematical operation (such as division by zero). 84 Action • • Check the input values, reduce the number of digits, and try again. When using independent memory or a variable as the argument of a function, make sure that the memory or variable value is within the allowable range for the function. Stack ERROR Cause • The calculation you are performing has caused the capacity of the numeric stack or the command stack to be exceeded. Action • • Simplify the calculation expression so it does not exceed the capacity of the stack. Try splitting the calculation into two or more parts. Syntax ERROR Cause • There is a problem with the format of the calculation you are performing. Action • Make necessary corrections. Insufficient MEM Error Cause • There is not enough memory to perform your calculation. Action • Narrow the table calculation range by changing the Start, End, and Step values, and try again. Before assuming malfunction of the calculator Perform the following steps whenever an error occurs during a calculation or when calculation are not what you expected. If one step does not correct the problem, move on to the next step. 85 Note that you should make separate copies of important data before performing these steps. (1) Check that calculation expression to make sure that it does not contain any errors. (2) Make sure that you are using the correct mode for the type of calculation you are trying to perform. (3) If the above steps do not correct your problem, press the key. This will cause the calculator to perform a routine that checks whether calculation functions are operating correctly. If the calculator discovers any abnormality, it automatically initializes the calculation mode and clears memory contents. For details about initialized settings, see “Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Calculator Setup.” (4) Initialize all modes and settings by performing the following operations: (CLR) (Setup) (Yes). Reference Power Requirements and Battery Replacement This calculator is powered by solar with a battery (LR44) backup. Replacing the Battery Dim figures on the display of the calculator indicate that battery power is low. Continued use of the calculator when the battery is low can result in improper operation. Replace the battery as soon as possible when display figures becomes dim. Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at least once every two years, Important: Removing the battery from the calculator causes independent memory contents and values assigned to variables to be cleared. 1) Press (OFF) 86 2) Remove the battery cover. 3) Load a new battery into the calculator with its positive and negative ends facing correctly. 4) Replace the battery cover. 5) Perform the following key operation: (CLR) (All) (Yes). Make sure to perform the key operation. Auto Power Off Your calculator will turn off automatically if you do not perform any operation for about eight minutes. If this happens, press the key to turn the calculator back on. Specifications Power Requirements: Battery: LR44 1 year (when used 1 hr/day) Operating Temperature: 0°C to 40°C Bundled Items: Hard Case 87 Regulatory Notices European Union Regulatory Notice Products bearing the CE marking comply with the following EU Directives: • Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC • EMC Directive 2004/108/EC • Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC, where applicable • RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU CE compliance of this product is valid if powered with the correct CE-marked AC adapter provided by HP. Compliance with these directives implies conformity to applicable harmonized European standards (European Norms) that are listed in the EU Declaration of Conformity issued by HP for this product or product family and available (in English only) either within the product documentation or at the following web site: www.hp.eu/certificates (type the product number in the search field). The compliance is indicated by one of the following conformity markings placed on the product: Please refer to the regulatory label provided on the product. The point of contact for regulatory matters is: Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Dept./MS: HQ-TRE, Herrenberger Strasse 140, 71034 Boeblingen, GERMANY. Japanese Notice Korean Notice Class B 88 Perchlorate Material – special handling may apply This calculator's Memory Backup battery may contain perchlorate and may require special handling when recycled or disposed in California. Disposal of Waste Equipment by Users in Private Household in the European Union This symbol means do not dispose of your product with your other household waste. Instead, you should protect human health and the environment by handing over your waste equipment to a designated collection point for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment. For more information, please contact your household waste disposal service or go to http://www.hp.com/recycle. Chemical Substances HP is committed to providing our customers with information about the chemical substances in our products as needed to comply with legal requirements such as REACH (Regulation EC No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and the Council). A chemical information report for this product can be found at: www.hp.com/go/reach. China RoHS 89

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

### Related manuals

Download PDF

advertisement