HP 445946-001 User's manual

HP 445946-001 User's manual
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch
Application Guide
Part number: 445946-001
First edition: June 2007
Legal notices
© 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are set
forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as
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2
Contents
Contents
Accessing the switch
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Additional references ........................................................................................................................... 10
Typographical conventions.................................................................................................................... 10
Management Network.......................................................................................................................... 10
Connecting through the console port.................................................................................................. 11
Connecting through Telnet................................................................................................................ 11
Connecting through Secure Shell....................................................................................................... 11
Using the command line interfaces ......................................................................................................... 12
Configuring an IP interface............................................................................................................... 12
Using the Browser-based Interface.......................................................................................................... 13
Using Simple Network Management Protocol .......................................................................................... 14
SNMP v1.0 .................................................................................................................................... 14
SNMP v3.0 .................................................................................................................................... 14
Default configuration ....................................................................................................................... 14
User configuration........................................................................................................................... 15
View based configurations ............................................................................................................... 16
CLI user equivalent ..................................................................................................................... 16
CLI oper equivalent .................................................................................................................... 17
Configuring SNMP trap hosts ........................................................................................................... 17
SNMPv1 trap host...................................................................................................................... 17
SNMPv2 trap host configuration ....................................................................................................... 19
SNMPv3 trap host configuration ....................................................................................................... 19
Secure access to the switch ................................................................................................................... 20
Setting allowable source IP address ranges ........................................................................................ 20
Configuring an IP address range for the management network ........................................................ 21
RADIUS authentication and authorization ........................................................................................... 21
How RADIUS authentication works ............................................................................................... 21
Configuring RADIUS on the switch (CLI example) ........................................................................... 22
Configuring RADIUS on the switch (BBI example) ........................................................................... 23
RADIUS authentication features.................................................................................................... 24
User accounts for RADIUS users ................................................................................................... 24
RADIUS attributes for user privileges............................................................................................. 25
TACACS+ authentication ...................................................................................................................... 25
How TACACS+ authentication works................................................................................................. 26
TACACS+ authentication features ..................................................................................................... 26
Authorization.................................................................................................................................. 26
Accounting..................................................................................................................................... 27
Configuring TACACS+ authentication on the switch (CLI example) ....................................................... 28
Configuring TACACS+ authentication on the switch (BBI example) ....................................................... 29
Secure Shell and Secure Copy............................................................................................................... 30
Configuring SSH and SCP features (CLI example)........................................................................... 31
Using SSH and SCP client commands ........................................................................................... 32
SSH and SCP encryption of management messages ....................................................................... 33
Generating RSA host and server keys for SSH access ..................................................................... 33
SSH/SCP integration with RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication..................................................... 34
3
Contents
User access control .............................................................................................................................. 34
Setting up user IDs .......................................................................................................................... 35
Ports and trunking
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 36
Ports on the switch ............................................................................................................................... 36
Port trunk groups.................................................................................................................................. 37
Statistical load distribution................................................................................................................ 37
Built-in fault tolerance....................................................................................................................... 37
Before you configure trunks ................................................................................................................... 37
Trunk group configuration rules.............................................................................................................. 38
Port trunking example ........................................................................................................................... 39
Configuring trunk groups (CLI example) ............................................................................................. 40
Configuring trunk groups (BBI example) ............................................................................................. 41
Configurable Trunk Hash algorithm ........................................................................................................ 44
Link Aggregation Control Protocol .......................................................................................................... 44
Configuring LACP ........................................................................................................................... 46
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
Port-based Network Access control......................................................................................................... 47
Extensible authentication protocol over LAN ....................................................................................... 47
802.1x authentication process.......................................................................................................... 48
EAPoL Message Exchange ............................................................................................................... 48
802.1x port states........................................................................................................................... 49
Supported RADIUS attributes ............................................................................................................ 50
EAPoL configuration guidelines ......................................................................................................... 51
Port-based traffic control ....................................................................................................................... 51
Configuring port-based traffic control................................................................................................. 52
VLANs
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 53
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 53
VLANs and port VLAN ID numbers ......................................................................................................... 53
VLAN numbers ............................................................................................................................... 53
Viewing VLANs ......................................................................................................................... 54
PVID numbers ................................................................................................................................. 54
Viewing and configuring PVIDs ......................................................................................................... 54
Port information ......................................................................................................................... 54
Port configuration....................................................................................................................... 54
VLAN tagging ..................................................................................................................................... 55
VLANs and IP interfaces........................................................................................................................ 58
VLAN topologies and design considerations............................................................................................ 58
VLAN configuration rules ................................................................................................................. 59
Multiple VLANS with tagging................................................................................................................. 60
Configuring the example network...................................................................................................... 61
Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch 1 (CLI example) ................................................................ 61
Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch 2 (CLI example) ................................................................ 63
Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch 1 (BBI example) ................................................................ 64
FDB static entries.................................................................................................................................. 66
Trunking support for FDB static entries................................................................................................ 67
Configuring a static FDB entry .......................................................................................................... 67
Spanning Tree Protocol
4
Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 68
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 68
Bridge Protocol Data Units .................................................................................................................... 68
Determining the path for forwarding BPDUs........................................................................................ 69
Bridge priority ........................................................................................................................... 69
Port priority ............................................................................................................................... 69
Port path cost ............................................................................................................................ 69
Spanning Tree Group configuration guidelines ........................................................................................ 69
Default Spanning Tree configuration .................................................................................................. 69
Adding a VLAN to a Spanning Tree Group ........................................................................................ 70
Creating a VLAN ............................................................................................................................ 70
Rules for VLAN tagged ports............................................................................................................. 70
Adding and removing ports from STGs .............................................................................................. 70
Assigning cost to ports and trunk groups ............................................................................................ 71
Multiple Spanning Trees ....................................................................................................................... 71
Why do we need Multiple Spanning Trees? ....................................................................................... 71
VLAN participation in Spanning Tree Groups ..................................................................................... 72
Configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Groups ....................................................................................... 73
Configuring Switch 1 (CLI example) ............................................................................................. 73
Configuring Switch 2 (CLI example) ............................................................................................. 73
Configuring Switch 1 (BBI example) ............................................................................................. 74
Port Fast Forwarding ............................................................................................................................ 76
Configuring Port Fast Forwarding ...................................................................................................... 76
Fast Uplink Convergence ...................................................................................................................... 76
Configuration guidelines .................................................................................................................. 76
Configuring Fast Uplink Convergence ................................................................................................ 76
RSTP and MSTP
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 77
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol................................................................................................................ 77
Port state changes ........................................................................................................................... 77
Port type and link type ..................................................................................................................... 78
Edge port.................................................................................................................................. 78
Link type ................................................................................................................................... 78
RSTP configuration guidelines ........................................................................................................... 78
RSTP configuration example ............................................................................................................. 78
Configuring Rapid Spanning Tree (CLI example) ............................................................................ 78
Configuring Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (BBI example)................................................................ 79
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol............................................................................................................. 80
MSTP region................................................................................................................................... 80
Common Internal Spanning Tree ....................................................................................................... 80
MSTP configuration guidelines .......................................................................................................... 81
MSTP configuration example ............................................................................................................ 81
Configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (CLI example) ............................................................. 81
Configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (BBI example)............................................................. 82
Quality of Service
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 86
Overview............................................................................................................................................ 86
Using ACL filters .................................................................................................................................. 87
Summary of packet classifiers ........................................................................................................... 87
Summary of ACL actions .................................................................................................................. 89
Understanding ACL precedence ........................................................................................................ 89
5
Contents
Using ACL Groups ............................................................................................................................... 90
ACL Metering and Re-marking ............................................................................................................... 91
Metering ........................................................................................................................................ 91
Re-marking ..................................................................................................................................... 91
Viewing ACL statistics........................................................................................................................... 91
ACL configuration examples .................................................................................................................. 92
Configure Access Control Lists (CLI example) ...................................................................................... 92
Configure Access Control Lists and Groups (BBI example 1) ................................................................. 93
Using DSCP values to provide QoS ........................................................................................................ 97
Differentiated Services concepts ........................................................................................................ 97
Per Hop Behavior............................................................................................................................ 97
QoS levels ..................................................................................................................................... 98
Using 802.1p priorities to provide QoS.................................................................................................. 98
802.1p configuration (CLI example) ................................................................................................ 100
802.1p configuration (BBI example) ................................................................................................ 100
Queuing and scheduling..................................................................................................................... 105
Basic IP routing
IP routing benefits .............................................................................................................................. 106
Routing between IP subnets ................................................................................................................. 106
Example of subnet routing ................................................................................................................... 109
Using VLANs to segregate broadcast domains.................................................................................. 110
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ................................................................................................... 112
DHCP relay agent ......................................................................................................................... 112
DHCP relay agent configuration...................................................................................................... 113
Routing Information Protocol
Distance vector protocol...................................................................................................................... 114
Stability ............................................................................................................................................ 114
Routing updates ................................................................................................................................. 114
RIPv1................................................................................................................................................ 115
RIPv2................................................................................................................................................ 115
RIPv2 in RIPv1 compatibility mode........................................................................................................ 115
RIP Features....................................................................................................................................... 115
Poison ......................................................................................................................................... 115
Triggered updates ......................................................................................................................... 115
Multicast ...................................................................................................................................... 116
Default......................................................................................................................................... 116
Metric.......................................................................................................................................... 116
Authentication .............................................................................................................................. 116
RIP configuration example ................................................................................................................... 117
IGMP Snooping
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 118
Overview.......................................................................................................................................... 118
IGMPv3 ....................................................................................................................................... 119
FastLeave ..................................................................................................................................... 119
IGMP Filtering .............................................................................................................................. 120
Configuring the range .............................................................................................................. 120
Configuring the action .............................................................................................................. 120
Static multicast router..................................................................................................................... 121
IGMP Snooping configuration example............................................................................................ 121
6
Contents
Configuring
Configuring
Configuring
Configuring
Configuring
Configuring
IGMP Snooping (CLI example) ................................................................................. 121
IGMP Filtering (CLI example).................................................................................... 122
a Static Mrouter (CLI example) ................................................................................. 122
IGMP Snooping (BBI example) ................................................................................. 123
IGMP Filtering (BBI example) ................................................................................... 125
a Static Multicast Router (BBI example) ...................................................................... 129
OSPF
OSPF overview .................................................................................................................................. 131
Types of OSPF areas ..................................................................................................................... 131
Types of OSPF routing devices ........................................................................................................ 132
Neighbors and adjacencies ........................................................................................................... 133
Link-State Database ....................................................................................................................... 133
Shortest Path First Tree ................................................................................................................... 133
Internal versus external routing........................................................................................................ 134
OSPF implementation in HP 10GbE switch software ............................................................................... 134
Configurable parameters ............................................................................................................... 134
Defining areas .............................................................................................................................. 135
Assigning the area index .......................................................................................................... 135
Using the area ID to assign the OSPF area number ...................................................................... 136
Attaching an area to a network ................................................................................................. 136
Interface cost ................................................................................................................................ 136
Electing the designated router and backup ....................................................................................... 137
Summarizing routes....................................................................................................................... 137
Default routes .................................................................................................................................... 137
Virtual links .................................................................................................................................. 138
Router ID...................................................................................................................................... 138
Authentication .............................................................................................................................. 139
Host routes for load balancing ........................................................................................................ 140
OSPF features not supported in this release ...................................................................................... 141
OSPF configuration examples .............................................................................................................. 141
Example 1: Simple OSPF domain (CLI example)................................................................................ 141
Example 1: Simple OSPF domain (BBI example) .......................................................................... 142
Example 2: Virtual links ................................................................................................................. 150
Configuring OSPF for a virtual link on Switch A ........................................................................... 150
Configuring OSPF for a virtual link on Switch B................................................................................. 151
Other Virtual Link Options ......................................................................................................... 152
Example 3: Summarizing routes ...................................................................................................... 152
Verifying OSPF configuration.......................................................................................................... 154
Remote monitoring
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 155
Overview.......................................................................................................................................... 155
RMON group 1—statistics ............................................................................................................. 155
Configuring RMON Statistics (CLI example)................................................................................. 156
Configuring RMON Statistics (BBI example)................................................................................. 156
RMON group 2—history................................................................................................................ 158
History MIB objects .................................................................................................................. 159
RMON group 3—alarms ............................................................................................................... 161
Alarm MIB objects.................................................................................................................... 161
RMON group 9—events ................................................................................................................ 165
Configuring RMON Events (CLI example).................................................................................... 165
Configuring RMON Events (BBI example).................................................................................... 166
7
Contents
High availability
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 167
Uplink Failure Detection ...................................................................................................................... 167
Failure Detection Pair..................................................................................................................... 168
Spanning Tree Protocol with UFD .................................................................................................... 168
Configuration guidelines ................................................................................................................ 169
Monitoring Uplink Failure Detection................................................................................................. 169
Configuring Uplink Failure Detection................................................................................................ 169
Configuring UFD on Switch 1 (CLI example) ................................................................................ 170
Configuring UFD on Switch 2 (CLI example) ................................................................................ 170
Configuring Uplink Failure Detection (BBI example) ...................................................................... 171
VRRP overview................................................................................................................................... 173
VRRP components.......................................................................................................................... 173
Virtual router ........................................................................................................................... 173
Virtual router MAC address ....................................................................................................... 173
Owners and renters.................................................................................................................. 173
Master and backup virtual router ............................................................................................... 174
Virtual Interface Router.............................................................................................................. 174
VRRP operation.................................................................................................................................. 174
Selecting the master VRRP router ..................................................................................................... 174
Failover methods................................................................................................................................ 175
Active-Active redundancy ............................................................................................................... 175
HP 10GbE switch extensions to VRRP ................................................................................................... 176
Tracking VRRP router priority .......................................................................................................... 176
Virtual router deployment considerations ............................................................................................... 177
Assigning VRRP virtual router ID ...................................................................................................... 177
Configuring the switch for tracking .................................................................................................. 177
High availability configurations............................................................................................................ 178
Active-Active configuration ............................................................................................................. 178
Task 1: Configure Switch A ....................................................................................................... 178
Task 2: Configure Switch B ....................................................................................................... 180
Task 1: Configure Switch A (BBI example)................................................................................... 181
Troubleshooting tools
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 191
Port Mirroring.................................................................................................................................... 191
Configuring Port Mirroring (CLI example) ......................................................................................... 192
Configuring Port Mirroring (BBI example) ......................................................................................... 193
Other network troubleshooting techniques ............................................................................................. 195
Console and Syslog messages ........................................................................................................ 195
Ping ............................................................................................................................................ 195
Trace route................................................................................................................................... 195
Statistics and state information ........................................................................................................ 195
Customer support tools................................................................................................................... 195
Index
8
Accessing the switch
Accessing the switch
Introduction
This guide will help you plan, implement, and administer the switch software for the HP 10Gb Ethernet
BL-c Switch. Where possible, each section provides feature overviews, usage examples, and configuration
instructions.
•
“Accessing the switch” describes how to configure and view information and statistics on the switch
over an IP network. This chapter also discusses different methods to manage the switch for remote
administrators, such as setting specific IP addresses and using Remote Authentication Dial-in User
Service (RADIUS) authentication, Secure Shell (SSH), and Secure Copy (SCP) for secure access to the
switch.
•
“Ports and port trunking” describes how to group multiple physical ports together to aggregate the
bandwidth between large-scale network devices.
•
“Port-based Network Access and Traffic Control” describes how to authenticate devices attached to
a LAN port that has point-to-point connection characteristics. Port-based Network Access Control
provides security to ports of the HP 10GbE switch that connect to servers. Port-based Traffic Control
allows the switch to guard against broadcast storms.
•
“VLANs” describes how to configure Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) for creating separate
network segments, including how to use VLAN tagging for devices that use multiple VLANs.
•
“Spanning Tree Protocol” discusses how spanning trees configure the network so that the switch uses
the most efficient path when multiple paths exist.
•
“Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol/Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol” describes extensions to the
Spanning Tree Protocol that provide rapid convergence of spanning trees for fast reconfiguration of
the network.
•
“Quality of Service” discusses Quality of Service features, including IP filtering using Access Control
Lists, Differentiated Services, and IEEE 802.1p priority values.
•
“Basic IP Routing” describes how to configure the HP 10GbE switch for IP routing using IP subnets,
and DHCP Relay.
•
“Routing Information Protocol” describes how the HP 10GbE switch software implements standard
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for exchanging TCP/IP route information with other routers.
•
“IGMP Snooping” describes how to use IGMP to conserve bandwidth in a multicast-switching
environment.
•
“OSPF” describes OSPF concepts, how OSPF is implemented, and examples of how to configure
your switch for OSPF support.
•
“Remote Monitoring” describes how to configure the RMON agent on the switch, so the switch can
exchange network monitoring data.
•
“High Availability” describes how the HP 10GbE switch supports high-availability network
topologies. This release provides Uplink Failure Detection and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
(VRRP).
•
“Troubleshooting tools” describes Port Mirroring and other troubleshooting techniques.
9
Accessing the switch
Additional references
Additional information about installing and configuring the switch is available in the following guides,
which are available at http://www.hp.com/go/bladesystem/documentation.
•
•
•
•
•
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch User Guide
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch ISCLI Reference Guide
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Browser-based Interface Reference Guide
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Quick Setup Instructions
Typographical conventions
The following table describes the typographic styles used in this guide:
Table 1 Typographic conventions
Typeface or
symbol
Meaning
Example
AaBbCc123
This type depicts onscreen computer output and prompts.
Main#
AaBbCc123
This type displays in command examples and shows text
that must be typed in exactly as shown.
Main# sys
<AaBbCc123>
This bracketed type displays in command examples as a
parameter placeholder. Replace the indicated text with
the appropriate real name or value when using the
command. Do not type the brackets.
To establish a Telnet session, enter:
host# telnet <IP address>
Command items shown inside brackets are optional and
can be used or excluded as the situation demands. Do
not type the brackets.
host# ls [-a]
[ ]
Read your user guide thoroughly.
Management Network
The 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch is an integral subsystem within the overall BladeSystem. The BladeSystem
chassis includes an Onboard Administrator as the central element for overall chassis and control.
The 10GbE switch communicates with the Onboard Administrator through its internal management port
(port 17). The factory default settings permit management and control access to the switch through the
10/100 Mbps Ethernet port on the Onboard Administrator, or the built-in console port. You also can use
the external Ethernet ports to manage and control the 10GbE switch.
The 10GbE switch management network has the following characteristics:
•
Port 17—Management port 17 has a fixed configuration, as follows:
○
○
○
○
100 Mbps
Full duplex
Flow control: both
No auto-negotiation
10
Accessing the switch
○ Untagged
○ Port VLAN ID (PVID): 4095
•
VLAN 4095—Management VLAN 4095 isolates management traffic within the HP 10GbE switch.
VLAN 4095 contains only one member port (port 17). No other ports can be members of
VLAN 4095.
•
Interface 250—Management interface 250 is associated with VLAN 4095. No other interfaces can
be associated with VLAN 4095. You can configure the IP address of the management interface
manually or through Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP).
•
•
Gateway 254—This gateway is the default gateway for the management interface.
STG 128—If the HP 10GbE switch is configured to use multiple spanning trees, spanning tree group
128 (STG 128) contains management VLAN 4095, and no other VLANS are allowed in STG 128.
The default status of STG 128 is off.
If the 10GbE switch is configured to use Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, STG 1 contains management
VLAN 4095.
To access the 10GbE switch management interface through the Onboard Administrator:
•
•
Use the Onboard Administrator internal DHCP server, through Enclosure-Based IP Addressing
•
Assign a static IP interface to the Onboard Administrator and to the 10GbE switch management
interface (interface 250).
Use an external DHCP server. Connect the Onboard administrator and the 10GbE switch to the
network, and disable Enclosure-Based IP Addressing.
Connecting through the console port
Using a null modem cable, you can directly connect to the switch through the console port. A console
connection is required in order to configure Telnet or other remote access applications. For more
information on establishing console connectivity to the switch, see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch User
Guide.
Connecting through Telnet
By default, Telnet is enabled on the switch. Once the IP parameters are configured, you can access the
CLI from any workstation connected to the network using a Telnet connection. Telnet access provides the
same options for a user and an administrator as those available through the console port, minus certain
commands. The switch supports four concurrent Telnet connections.
To establish a Telnet connection with the switch, run the Telnet program on your workstation and issue the
telnet command, followed by the switch IP address:
telnet <switch IP address>
Connecting through Secure Shell
By default, the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol is disabled on the switch. SSH enables you to securely log into
another computer over a network to execute commands remotely. As a secure alternative to using Telnet
to manage switch configuration, SSH ensures that all data sent over the network is encrypted and secure.
For more information, see the “Secure Shell and Secure Copy” section later in this chapter. For additional
information on the CLI, see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide.
11
Accessing the switch
Using the command line interfaces
The command line interface (CLI) can be accessed via local terminal connection or a remote session using
Telnet or SSH. The CLI is the most direct method for collecting switch information and performing switch
configuration.
The HP 10GbE switch provides two CLI modes: The menu-based AOS CLI, and the tree-based ISCLI. You
can set the HP 10GbE switch to use either CLI mode.
The Main Menu of the AOS CLI, with administrator privileges, is displayed below:
[Main Menu]
info
stats
cfg
oper
boot
maint
diff
apply
save
revert
exit
-
Information Menu
Statistics Menu
Configuration Menu
Operations Command Menu
Boot Options Menu
Maintenance Menu
Show pending config changes [global command]
Apply pending config changes [global command]
Save updated config to FLASH [global command]
Revert pending or applied changes [global command]
Exit [global command, always available]
For complete information about the AOS CLI, see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference
Guide.
The ISCLI provides a tree-based command structure, for users familiar with similar products.
An example of a typical ISCLI command is displayed below:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree stp 1 enable
For complete information about the ISCLI, refer to the ISCLI Reference Guide.
Configuring an IP interface
An IP interface address must be set on the switch to provide management access to the switch over an IP
network. By default, the management interface is set up to request its IP address from a Bootstrap Protocol
(BOOTP) server.
If you have a BOOTP server on your network, add the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the switch
to the BOOTP configuration file located on the BOOTP server. The MAC address can be found on a small
white label on the back panel of the switch. The MAC address can also be found in the System
Information menu (see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide or ISCLI Guide.) If
you are using a DHCP server that also does BOOTP, you do not have to configure the MAC address.
If you do not have a BOOTP server, you must manually configure an IP address.
12
Accessing the switch
The following example shows how to manually configure an IP address on the switch:
1. Configure an IP interface for the Telnet connection, using the sample IP address of 205.21.17.3.
2. The pending subnet mask address and broadcast address are automatically calculated.
>> # /cfg/l3/if 1
(Select IP interface 1)
>> IP Interface 1# addr 205.21.17.3 (Assign IP address for the interface)
Current IP address:
0.0.0.0
New pending IP address: 205.21.17.3
Pending new subnet mask:
255.255.255.0
. . . . . . . . . . . .
>> IP Interface 1# ena
(Enable IP interface 1)
3. If necessary, configure up to two default gateways.
4. Configuring the default gateways allows the switch to send outbound traffic to the routers.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
IP Interface 5#
Default gateway
Default gateway
Default gateway
Default gateway
Default gateway
../gw 1
1# addr 205.21.17.1
1# ena
1# ../gw 2
2# addr 205.21.17.2
2# ena
(Select primary default gateway)
(Assign IP address for primary router)
(Enable primary default gateway)
(Select secondary default gateway)
(Assign address for secondary router)
(Enable secondary default gateway)
5. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
>> Default gateway 2# apply
>> Default gateway 2# save
>> # /cfg/dump
(Apply the configuration)
(Save the configuration)
(Verify the configuration)
Using the Browser-based Interface
By default, the Browser-based Interface (BBI) protocol is enabled on the switch. The Browser-based
Interface (BBI) provides access to the common configuration, management and operation features of the
switch through your Web browser. For more information, see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Browserbased Interface Reference Guide.
The BBI is organized at a high level as follows:
•
•
•
Configuration—These menus provide access to the configuration elements for the entire switch.
○
○
○
○
System—Configure general switch configuration elements.
○
○
○
○
○
RMON menu—Configure Remote Monitoring (RMON) functions.
Switch ports—Configure switch ports and related features.
Port-based port mirroring—Configure mirrored ports and monitoring ports.
Layer 2—Configure Layer 2 features, including trunk groups, VLANs, and Spanning Tree
Protocol.
Layer 3—Configure all of the IP related information, including IGMP Snooping.
QoS—Configure Quality of Service features.
Access Control—Configure Access Control Lists and Groups.
Uplink Failure Detection—Configure a Failover Pair of Links to Monitor and Links to Disable.
Statistics—These menus provide access to the switch statistics and state information.
Dashboard—These menus display settings and operating status of a variety of switch features.
13
Accessing the switch
Using Simple Network Management Protocol
The switch software provides SNMP v1.0 and SNMP v3.0 support for access through any network
management software, such as HP-OpenView.
SNMP v1.0
To access the SNMP agent on the switch, the read and write community strings on the SNMP manager
should be configured to match those on the switch. The default read community string on the switch is
public and the default write community string is private.
The read and write community strings on the switch can be changed using the following commands on the
CLI.
>> /cfg/sys/ssnmp/rcomm
-and>> /cfg/sys/ssnmp/wcomm
The SNMP manager should be able to reach the management interface or any one of the IP interfaces on
the switch.
For the SNMP manager to receive the traps sent out by the SNMP agent on the switch, the trap host on
the switch should be configured with the following command:
/cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/taddr
For more details, see “Configuring SNMP trap hosts”.
SNMP v3.0
SNMPv3 is an enhanced version of the Simple Network Management Protocol, approved by the Internet
Engineering Steering Group in March, 2002. SNMP v3.0 contains additional security and authentication
features that provide data origin authentication, data integrity checks, timeliness indicators, and
encryption to protect against threats such as masquerade, modification of information, message stream
modification, and disclosure.
SNMP v3 ensures that the client can use SNMP v3 to query the MIBs, mainly for security.
To access the SNMP v3.0 menu, enter the following command in the CLI:
>> #
/cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3
For more information on SNMP MIBs and the commands used to configure SNMP on the switch, see the
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide.
Default configuration
The switch software has two users by default. Both the users adminmd5 and adminsha have access to
all the MIBs supported by the switch.
•
•
•
username 1—adminmd5/password adminmd5. Authentication used is MD5.
username 2—adminsha/password adminsha. Authentication used is SHA.
username 3—v1v2only/password none.
To configure an SNMP user name, enter the following command from the CLI:
>> #
/cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 6
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Accessing the switch
User configuration
Users can be configured to use the authentication/privacy options. The HP 10GbE switch supports two
authentication algorithms: MD5 and SHA, as specified in the following command:
/cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm <x>/auth md5|sha
1. To configure a user with name admin, authentication type MD5, authentication password of admin,
and privacy option DES with privacy password of admin, use the following CLI commands:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 5
SNMPv3 usmUser 5 # name "admin"
SNMPv3 usmUser 5 # auth md5
SNMPv3 usmUser 5 # authpw admin
SNMPv3 usmUser 5 # priv des
SNMPv3 usmUser 5 # privpw admin
(Configure ‘admin’ user type)
2. Configure a user access group, along with the views the group may access. Use the access table to
configure the group’s access level.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access 5
SNMPv3 vacmAccess 5 # name "admingrp"
SNMPv3 vacmAccess 5 # level authPriv
SNMPv3 vacmAccess 5 # rview "iso"
SNMPv3 vacmAccess 5 # wview "iso"
SNMPv3 vacmAccess 5 # nview "iso"
(Configure an access group)
Because the read view (rview), write view (wview), and notify view (nview) are all set to “iso,” the
user type has access to all private and public MIBs.
3. Assign the user to the user group. Use the group table to link the user to a particular access group.
>> # /cfg/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/group 5
>> SNMPv3 vacmSecurityToGroup 5 # uname admin
>> SNMPv3 vacmSecurityToGroup 5 # gname admingrp
If you want to allow user access only to certain MIBs, see the “View based configurations” section.
15
Accessing the switch
View based configurations
CLI user equivalent
To configure an SNMP user equivalent to the CLI user, use the following configuration:
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 4
name "usr"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access 3
name "usrgrp"
rview "usr"
wview "usr"
nview "usr"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/group 4
uname usr
gname usrgrp
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 6
name "usr"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.1.2"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 7
name "usr"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.1.3"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 8
name "usr"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.2.2"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 9
name "usr"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.2.3"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 10
name "usr"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.3.2"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 11
name "usr"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.3.3"
(Configure the user)
(Configure access group 3)
(Assign user to access group 3)
(Create views for user)
(Agent statistics)
(Agent information)
(L2 statistics)
(L2 information)
(L3 statistics)
(L3 information)
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Accessing the switch
CLI oper equivalent
To configure an SNMP user equivalent to the CLI oper, use the following configuration:
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 5
name "oper"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access 4
name "opergrp"
rview "oper"
wview "oper"
nview "oper"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/group 4
uname oper
gname opergrp
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 20
name "oper"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.1.2"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 21
name "oper"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.1.3"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 22
name "oper"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.2.2"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 23
name "oper"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.2.3"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 24
name "oper"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.3.2"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/view 25
name "oper"
tree " 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.3.7.11.33.1.2.3.3"
(Configure the oper)
(Configure access group 4)
(Assign oper to access group 4)
(Create views for oper)
(Agent statistics)
(Agent information)
(L2 statistics)
(L2 information)
(L3 statistics)
(L3 information)
Configuring SNMP trap hosts
SNMPv1 trap host
1. Configure a user with no authentication or password.
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 10
name "v1trap"
(Configure user named “v1trap”)
2. Configure an access group and group table entries for the user. Use the following command to
specify which traps can be received by the user:
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access <x>/nview
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access 10
name "v1trap"
model snmpv1
nview "iso"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/group 10
model snmpv1
uname v1trap
gname v1trap
(Define access group to view SNMPv1 traps)
(Assign user to the access group)
In this example the user will receive the traps sent by the switch.
17
Accessing the switch
3. Configure an entry in the notify table.
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/notify 10
name v1trap
tag v1trap
(Assign user to the notify table)
4. Specify the IP address and other trap parameters in the Target Address( targetAddr) and Target
Parameters (targetParam) tables. Use the following command to specify the user name used with this
targetParam table:
c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/tparam <x>/uname
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/taddr 10
name v1trap
addr 47.80.23.245
taglist v1trap
pname v1param
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/tparam 10
name v1param
mpmodel snmpv1
uname v1trap
model snmpv1
(Define an IP address to send traps)
(Specify SNMPv1 traps to send)
5. Use the community table to define the community string used in the traps.
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/comm 10
index v1trap
name public
uname v1trap
(Define the community string)
18
Accessing the switch
SNMPv2 trap host configuration
The SNMPv2 trap host configuration is similar to the SNMPv1 trap host configuration. Wherever you
specify the model, specify snmpv2 instead of snmpv1.
c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 10
name "v2trap"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access 10
name "v2trap"
model snmpv2
nview "iso"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/group 10
model snmpv2
uname v2trap
gname v2trap
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/notify 10
name v2trap
tag v2trap
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/taddr 10
name v2trap
addr 47.81.25.66
taglist v2trap
pname v2param
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/tparam 10
name v2param
mpmodel snmpv2c
uname v2trap
model snmpv2
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/comm 10
index v2trap
name public
uname v2trap
(Configure user named “v2trap”)
(Define access group to view SNMPv2 traps)
(Assign user to the access group)
(Assign user to the notify table)
(Define an IP address to send traps)
(Specify SNMPv2 traps to send)
(Define the community string)
SNMPv3 trap host configuration
To configure a user for SNMPv3 traps, you can choose to send the traps with both privacy and
authentication, with authentication only, or without privacy or authentication. Use the following commands
to configure the access table:
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access <x>/level
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/tparam <x>
Configure the user in the user table to match the configuration of the access table.
It is not necessary to configure the community table for SNMPv3 traps because the community string is not
used by SNMPv3.
19
Accessing the switch
The following example shows how to configure a SNMPv3 user v3trap with authentication only:
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/usm 11
name "v3trap"
auth md5
authpw v3trap
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/access 11
name "v3trap"
level authNoPriv
nview "iso"
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/group 11
uname v3trap
gname v3trap
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/notify 11
name v3trap
tag v3trap
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/taddr 11
name v3trap
addr 47.81.25.66
taglist v3trap
pname v3param
/c/sys/ssnmp/snmpv3/tparam 11
name v3param
uname v3trap
level authNoPriv
(Configure user named “v3trap”)
(Define access group to view SNMPv3 traps)
(Assign user to the access group)
(Assign user to the notify table)
(Define an IP address to send traps)
(Specify SNMPv3 traps to send)
(Set the authentication level)
For more information on using SNMP, see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide.
See the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch User Guide for a complete list of supported MIBs.
Secure access to the switch
Secure switch management is needed for environments that perform significant management functions
across the Internet. The following are some of the functions for secured management:
•
Limiting management users to a specific IP address range. See the “Setting allowable source IP
address ranges” section in this chapter.
•
Authentication and authorization of remote administrators. See the “RADIUS authentication and
authorization” section or the “TACACS+ authentication” section, both later in this chapter.
•
Encryption of management information exchanged between the remote administrator and the switch.
See the “Secure Shell and Secure Copy” section later in this chapter.
Setting allowable source IP address ranges
To limit access to the switch without having to configure filters for each switch port, you can set a source
IP address (or range) that will be allowed to connect to the switch IP interface through Telnet, SSH, SNMP,
or the switch browser-based interface (BBI).
When an IP packet reaches the application switch, the source IP address is checked against the range of
addresses defined by the management network and management mask. If the source IP address of the
host or hosts is within this range, it is allowed to attempt to log in. Any packet addressed to a switch IP
interface with a source IP address outside this range is discarded.
20
Accessing the switch
Configuring an IP address range for the management network
Configure the management network IP address and mask from the System Menu in the CLI. For example:
>> Main# /cfg/sys/access/mgmt/add
Enter Management Network Address: 192.192.192.0
Enter Management Network Mask: 255.255.255.128
In this example, the management network is set to 192.192.192.0 and management mask is set to
255.255.255.128. This defines the following range of allowed IP addresses:
192.192.192.1 to 192.192.192.127
The following source IP addresses are granted or not granted access to the switch:
•
A host with a source IP address of 192.192.192.21 falls within the defined range and would be
allowed to access the switch.
•
A host with a source IP address of 192.192.192.192 falls outside the defined range and is not
granted access. To make this source IP address valid, you would need to shift the host to an IP
address within the valid range specified by the mnet and mmask or modify the mnet to be
192.192.192.128 and the mmask to be 255.255.255.128. This would put the 192.192.192.192
host within the valid range allowed by the mnet and mmask (192.192.192.128-255).
RADIUS authentication and authorization
The switch supports the Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) method to authenticate and
authorize remote administrators for managing the switch. This method is based on a client/server model.
The Remote Access Server (RAS)—the switch—is a client to the back-end database server. A remote user
(the remote administrator) interacts only with the RAS, not the back-end server and database.
RADIUS authentication consists of the following components:
•
A protocol with a frame format that utilizes User Datagram Protocol (UDP) over IP, based on Request
For Comments (RFC) 2138 and 2866
•
•
A centralized server that stores all the user authorization information
A client, in this case, the switch
The switch, acting as the RADIUS client, communicates to the RADIUS server to authenticate and authorize
a remote administrator using the protocol definitions specified in RFC 2138 and 2866. Transactions
between the client and the RADIUS server are authenticated using a shared key that is not sent over the
network. In addition, the remote administrator passwords are sent encrypted between the RADIUS client
(the switch) and the back-end RADIUS server.
How RADIUS authentication works
RADIUS authentication works as follows:
1. A remote administrator connects to the switch and provides the user name and password.
2. Using Authentication/Authorization protocol, the switch sends the request to the authentication
server.
3. The authentication server checks the request against the user ID database.
4. Using RADIUS protocol, the authentication server instructs the switch to grant or deny administrative
access.
21
Accessing the switch
Configuring RADIUS on the switch (CLI example)
To configure RADIUS on the switch, do the following:
1. Turn RADIUS authentication on, and then configure the Primary and Secondary RADIUS servers. For
example:
>> Main# /cfg/sys/radius
(Select the RADIUS Server menu)
>> RADIUS Server# on
(Turn RADIUS on)
Current status: OFF
New status:
ON
>> RADIUS Server# prisrv 10.10.1.1
(Enter primary server IP)
Current primary RADIUS server:
0.0.0.0
New pending primary RADIUS server: 10.10.1.1
>> RADIUS Server# secsrv 10.10.1.2
(Enter secondary server IP)
Current secondary RADIUS server:
0.0.0.0
New pending secondary RADIUS server: 10.10.1.2
2. Configure the primary RADIUS secret and secondary RADIUS secret.
>> RADIUS
Enter new
>> RADIUS
Enter new
Server# secret
RADIUS secret: <1-32 character secret>
Server# secret2
RADIUS second secret: <1-32 character secret>
CAUTION: If you configure the RADIUS secret using any method other than a direct console
connection, the secret may be transmitted over the network as clear text.
3. If desired, you may change the default User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number used to listen to
RADIUS. The well-known port for RADIUS is 1645.
>> RADIUS Server# port
Current RADIUS port: 1645
Enter new RADIUS port [1500-3000]: <UDP port number>
4. Configure the number of retry attempts for contacting the RADIUS server and the timeout period.
>> RADIUS Server# retries
Current RADIUS server retries: 3
Enter new RADIUS server retries [1-3]:<server retries>
>> RADIUS Server# time
Current RADIUS server timeout: 3
Enter new RADIUS server timeout [1-10]: 10 (Enter the timeout period
in seconds)
5. Apply and save the configuration.
>> RADIUS Server# apply
>> RADIUS Server# save
22
Accessing the switch
Configuring RADIUS on the switch (BBI example)
1. Configure RADIUS parameters.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the System folder, and select Radius.
c. Enter the IP address of the primary and secondary RADIUS servers, and enter the RADIUS secret
for each server. Enable the RADIUS server.
CAUTION: If you configure the RADIUS secret using any method other than a direct console
connection, the secret may be transmitted over the network as clear text.
d. Click Submit.
23
Accessing the switch
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
RADIUS authentication features
The switch supports the following RADIUS authentication features:
•
Supports RADIUS client on the switch, based on the protocol definitions in RFC 2138 and
RFC 2866.
•
•
Allows RADIUS secret password up to 32 bytes.
•
Supports secondary authentication server so that when the primary authentication server is
unreachable, the switch can send client authentication requests to the secondary authentication
server. Use the /cfg/sys/radius/cur command to show the currently active RADIUS
authentication server.
Supports user-configurable RADIUS server retry and time-out values:
○ Time-out value = 1-10 seconds
○ Retries = 1-3
•
The switch will time out if it does not receive a response from the RADIUS server in one to three
retries. The switch will also automatically retry connecting to the RADIUS server before it declares the
server down.
•
Supports user-configurable RADIUS application port. The default is 1645/User Datagram Protocol
(UDP)-based on RFC 2138. Port 1812 is also supported.
•
Allows network administrator to define privileges for one or more specific users to access the switch
at the RADIUS user database.
•
Allows the administrator to configure RADIUS backdoor and secure backdoor for Telnet, SSH, HTTP,
and HTTPS access.
User accounts for RADIUS users
The user accounts listed in the following table can be defined in the RADIUS server dictionary file.
Table 2 User access levels
User account
Description and tasks performed
User
User interaction with the switch is completely passive; nothing can be changed on the
switch. Users may display information that has no security or privacy implications, such as
switch statistics and current operational state information.
Operator
Operators can only effect temporary changes on the switch. These changes are lost when
the switch is rebooted/reset. Operators have access to the switch management features
used for daily switch operations. Because any changes an operator makes are undone by a
reset of the switch, operators cannot severely impact switch operation, but do have access
to the Maintenance menu. By default, the operator account is disabled and has no
password.
24
Accessing the switch
Table 2 User access levels
User account
Description and tasks performed
Administrator
Administrators are the only ones that can make permanent changes to the switch
configuration—changes that are persistent across a reboot/reset of the switch.
Administrators can access switch functions to configure and troubleshoot problems on the
switch level. Because administrators can also make temporary (operator-level) changes as
well, they must be aware of the interactions between temporary and permanent changes.
RADIUS attributes for user privileges
When the user logs in, the switch authenticates the level of access by sending the RADIUS access request,
that is, the client authentication request, to the RADIUS authentication server.
If the authentication server successfully authenticates the remote user, the switch verifies the privileges of
the remote user and authorizes the appropriate access. The administrator has the option to allow
backdoor access through the console port only, or through the console and Telnet/SSH/HTTP/HTTPS
access. When backdoor access is enabled, access is allowed even if the primary and secondary
authentication servers are reachable. Only when both the primary and secondary authentication servers
are not reachable, the administrator has the option to allow secure backdoor (secbd) access through the
console port only, or through the console and Telnet/SSH/HTTP/HTTPS access. When RADIUS is on, you
can have either backdoor or secure backdoor enabled, but not both at the same time. The default value
for backdoor access through the console port only is enabled. You always can access the switch via the
console port, by using noradius and the administrator password, whether backdoor/secure backdoor
are enabled or not. The default value for backdoor and secure backdoor access through
Telnet/SSH/HTTP/HTTPS is disabled.
All user privileges, other than those assigned to the administrator, must be defined in the RADIUS
dictionary. RADIUS attribute 6, which is built into all RADIUS servers, defines the administrator. The file
name of the dictionary is RADIUS vendor-dependent. The RADIUS attributes shown in the following table
are defined for user privilege levels.
Table 3 Proprietary attributes for RADIUS
User name/access
User service type
Value
User
Vendor-supplied
255
Operator
Vendor-supplied
252
TACACS+ authentication
The switch software supports authentication, authorization, and accounting with networks using the Cisco
Systems TACACS+ protocol. The switch functions as the Network Access Server (NAS) by interacting with
the remote client and initiating authentication and authorization sessions with the TACACS+ access
server. The remote user is defined as someone requiring management access to the switch either through
a data or management port.
25
Accessing the switch
TACACS+ offers the following advantages over RADIUS:
•
TACACS+ uses TCP-based connection-oriented transport; whereas RADIUS is UDP based. TCP offers
a connection-oriented transport, while UDP offers best-effort delivery. RADIUS requires additional
programmable variables such as re-transmit attempts and time-outs to compensate for best-effort
transport, but it lacks the level of built-in support that a TCP transport offers.
•
TACACS+ offers full packet encryption whereas RADIUS offers password-only encryption in
authentication requests.
•
TACACS+ separates authentication, authorization, and accounting.
How TACACS+ authentication works
TACACS+ works much in the same way as RADIUS authentication.
1. Remote administrator connects to the switch and provides user name and password.
NOTE: The user name and password can have a maximum length of 128 characters. The
password cannot be left blank.
2. Using Authentication/Authorization protocol, the switch sends request to authentication server.
3. Authentication server checks the request against the user ID database.
4. Using TACACS+ protocol, the authentication server instructs the switch to grant or deny
administrative access.
During a session, if additional authorization checking is needed, the switch checks with a TACACS+
server to determine if the user is granted permission to use a particular command.
TACACS+ authentication features
Authentication is the action of determining the identity of a user, and is generally done when the user first
attempts to log in to a device or gain access to its services. Switch software supports ASCII inbound login
to the device. PAP, CHAP and ARAP login methods, TACACS+ change password requests, and one-time
password authentication are not supported.
Authorization
Authorization is the action of determining a user’s privileges on the device, and usually takes place after
authentication.
The default mapping between TACACS+ authorization privilege levels and switch management access
levels is shown in the table below. The privilege levels listed in the following table must be defined on the
TACACS+ server.
Table 4 Default TACACS+ privilege levels
User access level
TACACS+ level
user
0
oper
3
admin
6
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Accessing the switch
Alternate mapping between TACACS+ privilege levels and HP 10GbE switch management access levels
is shown in the table below. Use the command /cfg/sys/tacacs/cmap ena to use the alternate
TACACS+ privilege levels.
Table 5 Alternate TACACS+ privilege levels
User access level
TACACS+ level
user
0—1
oper
6—8
admin
14—15
You can customize the mapping between TACACS+ privilege levels and HP 10GbE switch management
access levels. Use the command /cfg/sys/tacacs/usermap to manually map each TACACS+
privilege level (0-15) to a corresponding HP 10GbE switch management access level (user, oper, admin,
none).
If the remote user is authenticated by the authentication server, the HP 10GbE switch verifies the privileges
of the remote user and authorizes the appropriate access. When both the primary and secondary
authentication servers are not reachable, the administrator has an option to allow backdoor access via
the console only or console and Telnet access. The default value is disable for Telnet access and
enable for console access. The administrator also can enable secure backdoor
(/cfg/sys/tacacs/secbd) to allow access if both the primary and secondary TACACS+ servers fail to
respond.
Accounting
Accounting is the action of recording a user’s activities on the device for the purposes of billing and/or
security. It follows the authentication and authorization actions. If the authentication and authorization is
not performed via TACACS+, no TACACS+ accounting messages are sent out.
You can use TACACS+ to record and track software logins, configuration changes, and interactive
commands.
The switch supports the following TACACS+ accounting attributes:
•
•
•
•
protocol (console/telnet/ssh/http)
start_time
stop_time
elapsed_time
NOTE: When using the browser-based Interface, the TACACS+ Accounting Stop records are sent
only if the Quit button on the browser is clicked.
27
Accessing the switch
Configuring TACACS+ authentication on the switch
(CLI example)
1. Turn TACACS+ authentication on, and then configure the Primary and Secondary TACACS+ servers.
>> Main# /cfg/sys/tacacs
(Select the TACACS+ Server menu)
>> TACACS+ Server# on
(Turn TACACS+ on)
Current status: OFF
New status: ON
>> TACACS+ Server# prisrv 10.10.1.1 (Enter primary server IP)
Current primary TACACS+ server: 0.0.0.0
New pending primary TACACS+ server: 10.10.1.1
>> TACACS+ Server# secsrv 10.10.1.2 (Enter secondary server IP)
Current secondary TACACS+ server: 0.0.0.0
New pending secondary TACACS+ server: 10.10.1.2
2. Configure the TACACS+ secret and second secret.
>> TACACS+ Server# secret
Enter new TACACS+ secret: <1-32 character secret>
>> TACACS+ Server# secret2
Enter new TACACS+ second secret: <1-32 character secret>
CAUTION: If you configure the TACACS+ secret using any method other than a direct console
connection, the secret may be transmitted over the network as clear text.
3. If desired, you may change the default TCP port number used to listen to TACACS+. The well-known
port for TACACS+ is 49.
>> TACACS+ Server# port
Current TACACS+ port: 49
Enter new TACACS+ port [1-65000]: <TCP port number>
4. Configure the number retry attempts for contacting the TACACS+ server and the timeout period.
>> TACACS+ Server# retries
Current TACACS+ server retries: 3
Enter new TACACS+ server retries [1-3]: 2
>> TACACS+ Server# time
Current TACACS+ server timeout: 5
Enter new TACACS+ server timeout [4-15]: 10 (Enter the timeout period
in minutes)
5. Configure custom privilege-level mapping (optional).
>> TACACS+ Server# usermap 2
Current privilege mapping for remote privilege 2: not set
Enter new local privilege mapping: user
>> TACACS+ Server# usermap 3 user
>> TACACS+ Server# usermap 4 user
>> TACACS+ Server# usermap 5 oper
6. Apply and save the configuration.
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Accessing the switch
Configuring TACACS+ authentication on the switch
(BBI example)
1. Configure TACACS+ authentication for the switch.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the System folder, and select Tacacs+.
c. Enter the IP address of the primary and secondary TACACS+ servers, and enter the TACACS+
secret. Enable TACACS+.
d. Click Submit.
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Accessing the switch
e. Configure custom privilege-level mapping (optional). Click Submit to accept each mapping
change.
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
Secure Shell and Secure Copy
Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Copy (SCP) use secure tunnels to encrypt and secure messages between a
remote administrator and the switch. Telnet does not provide this level of security. The Telnet method of
managing a switch does not provide a secure connection.
SSH is a protocol that enables remote administrators to log securely into the switch over a network to
execute management commands. By default, SSH is disabled (off) on the switch.
SCP is typically used to copy files securely from one machine to another. SCP uses SSH for encryption of
data on the network. On a switch, SCP is used to download and upload the switch configuration via
secure channels. By default, SCP is disabled on the switch.
30
Accessing the switch
The switch implementation of SSH is based on version 1.5 and version 2.0, and supports SSH clients from
version 1.0 through version 2.0. Client software can use SSH version 1 or version 2. The following SSH
clients are supported:
•
•
•
•
•
SSH 3.0.1 for Linux (freeware)
SecureCRT® 4.1.8 (VanDyke Technologies, Inc.)
OpenSSH_3.9 for Linux (FC 3)
FedoraCore 3 for SCP commands
PuTTY Release 0.58 (Simon Tatham) for Windows
Configuring SSH and SCP features (CLI example)
Before you can use SSH commands, use the following commands to turn on SSH and SCP.
Enabling or disabling SSH
To enable the SSH feature, connect to the switch CLI and enter the following commands:
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/on
Current status: OFF
New status: ON
SSHD# apply
(Turn SSH on)
(Apply the changes to start generating
RSA host and server keys)
RSA host key generation starts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSA host key generation completes (lasts 212549 ms)
RSA host key is being saved to Flash ROM, please don’t reboot the box
immediately.
RSA server key generation starts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSA server key generation completes (lasts 75503 ms)
RSA server key is being saved to Flash ROM, please don’t reboot the box
immediately.
------------------------------------------------------------------------Apply complete; don’t forget to “save” updated configuration.
Enabling or disabling SCP apply and save
Enter the following commands from the switch CLI to enable the SCP putcfg_apply and
putcfg_apply_save commands:
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/ena
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/dis
SSHD# apply
(Enable SCP apply and save)
(Disable SCP apply and save)
(Apply the changes)
31
Accessing the switch
Configuring the SCP administrator password
To configure the scpadmin (SCP administrator) password, first connect to the switch via the RS-232
management console. For security reasons, the scpadmin password can be configured only when
connected directly to the switch console.
To configure the password, enter the following CLI command. At factory default settings, the current SCP
administrator password is admin.
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/scpadm
Changing SCP-only Administrator password; validation required. . .
Enter current administrator password: <password>
Enter new SCP-only administrator password: <new password>
Re-enter new SCP-only administrator password: <new password>
New SCP-only administrator password accepted.
IMPORTANT: The SCP-only administrator password must be different from the regular
administrator password.
Using SSH and SCP client commands
The following shows the format for using some client commands. The examples below use
205.178.15.157 as the IP address of a sample switch.
Logging in to the switch
Enter the following command to log in to the switch:
ssh <user>@<switch IP address>
For example:
>> # ssh [email protected]
Downloading configuration from the switch using SCP
Enter the following command to download the switch configuration using SCP. You will be prompted for a
password:
scp <user>@<switch IP address>:getcfg <local filename>
For example:
>> # scp [email protected]:getcfg ad4.cfg
The switch prompts you for the scpadmin password.
Uploading configuration to the switch using SCP
Enter the following command to upload configuration to the switch. You will be prompted for a password.
scp <local filename> <user>@<switch IP address>:putcfg
For example:
>> # scp ad4.cfg [email protected]:putcfg
32
Accessing the switch
Applying and saving configuration
Enter the apply and save commands after the command above (scp ad4.cfg
205.178.15.157:putcfg), or use the following commands. You will be prompted for a password.
>> # scp <local_filename> <user>@<switch IP addr>:putcfg_apply
>> # scp <local_filename> <user>@<switch IP addr>:putcfg_apply_save
For example:
>> # scp ad4.cfg [email protected]:putcfg_apply
>> # scp ad4.cfg [email protected]:putcfg_apply_save
NOTE:
• The diff command is automatically executed at the end of putcfg to notify the remote client of the
difference between the new and the current configurations.
• putcfg_apply runs the apply command after the putcfg is done.
• putcfg_apply_save saves the new configuration to the flash after putcfg_apply is done.
• The putcfg_apply and putcfg_apply_save commands are provided because extra apply and
save commands are usually required after a putcfg.
SSH and SCP encryption of management messages
The following encryption and authentication methods are supported for SSH and SCP:
•
•
•
•
Server Host Authentication—Client RSA authenticates the switch at the beginning of every connection
Key Exchange—RSA
Encryption—AES256-CBC, AES192-CBC, 3DES-CBC, 3DES, ARCFOUR
User Authentication—Local password authentication, RADIUS, TACACS+
Generating RSA host and server keys for SSH access
To support the SSH server feature, two sets of RSA keys (host and server keys) are required. The host key
is 1024 bits and is used to identify the switch. The server key is 768 bits and is used to make it
impossible to decipher a captured session by breaking into the switch at a later time.
When the SSH server is first enabled and applied, the switch automatically generates the RSA host and
server keys and is stored in the flash memory.
To configure RSA host and server keys, first connect to the switch console connection (commands are not
available via Telnet connection), and enter the following commands to generate them manually:
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/hkeygen
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/skeygen
(Generates the host key)
(Generates the server key)
These two commands take effect immediately without the need of an apply command.
When the switch reboots, it will retrieve the host and server keys from the flash memory. If these two keys
are not available in the flash memory and if the SSH server feature is enabled, the switch automatically
generates them during the system reboot. This process may take several minutes to complete.
The switch can also automatically regenerate the RSA server key. To set the interval of RSA server key
autogeneration, use the following command:
>> # /cfg/sys/sshd/intrval <number of hours (0-24)>
33
Accessing the switch
A value of 0 denotes that RSA server key autogeneration is disabled. When greater than 0, the switch will
auto generate the RSA server key every specified interval; however, RSA server key generation is skipped
if the switch is busy doing other key or cipher generation when the timer expires.
The switch will perform only one session of key/cipher generation at a time. Thus, an SSH/SCP client will
not be able to log in if the switch is performing key generation at that time, or if another client has logged
in immediately prior. Also, key generation will fail if an SSH/SCP client is logging in at that time.
SSH/SCP integration with RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication
SSH/SCP is integrated with RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication. After the RADIUS or TACACS+ server
is enabled on the switch, all subsequent SSH authentication requests will be redirected to the specified
RADIUS or TACACS+ servers for authentication. The redirection is transparent to the SSH clients.
User access control
The switch allows an administrator to define end user accounts that permit end users to perform limited
actions on the switch. Once end user accounts are configured and enabled, the switch requires
username/password authentication.
For example, an administrator can assign a user who can log into the switch and perform operational
commands (effective only until the next switch reboot).
The administrator defines access levels for each switch user, as shown in the following table.
Table 6 User access levels
User account
Description
Password
Administrator
The Administrator has complete access to all menus, information, and
configuration commands on the switch, including the ability to change both
the user and administrator passwords.
admin
Operator
The Operator manages all functions of the switch. The Operator can reset
ports or the entire switch.
oper
User
The User has no direct responsibility for switch management.
user
Users can view all switch status information and statistics but cannot make
any configuration changes to the switch.
Passwords can be up to 128 characters in length for TACACS+, Telnet, SSH, console, and BBI access.
When RADIUS authentication is used, the maximum password length is 32 characters.
If RADIUS authentication is used, the user password on the Radius server will override the user password
on the switch. Also note that the password-change command on the switch modifies only the use
switch password and has no effect on the user password on the Radius server. RADIUS authentication
and user password cannot be used concurrently to access the switch.
34
Accessing the switch
Setting up user IDs
The administrator can configure up to 10 user accounts.
To configure an end-user account, perform the following steps:
1. Select a user ID to define.
>> # /cfg/sys/access/user/uid 1
2. Define the user name and password.
>> User ID 1 # name jane
Current user name:
New user name: jane
(Assign name “jane” to user ID 1)
3. Define the user access level. By default, the end user is assigned to the user access level. To change
the user’s access level, enter the user Class of Service (cos) command, and select one of the
available options.
>> User ID 1 # cos <user|oper|admin>
4. Enable the user ID.
>> # /cfg/sys/access/user/uid <#>/ena
Once an end user account is configured and enabled, the user can login to the switch using the
username/password combination. The level of switch access is determined by the user CoS for the
account. The CoS corresponds to the user access levels described in the User access levels table.
35
Ports and trunking
Ports and trunking
Introduction
The first part of this chapter describes the different types of ports used on the switch. This information is
useful in understanding other applications described in this guide, from the context of the embedded
switch/server environment.
For specific information on how to configure ports for speed, auto-negotiation, and duplex modes, see the
port commands in the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide.
The second part of this chapter provides configuration background and examples for trunking multiple
ports together. Trunk groups can provide super-bandwidth, multi-link connections between switches or
other trunk-capable devices. A trunk group is a group of links that act together, combining their
bandwidth to create a single, larger virtual link. The switch provides trunking support for the four external
ports and 16 server ports.
Ports on the switch
The following table describes the Ethernet ports of the switch, including the port name and function.
NOTE: The actual mapping of switch ports to NIC interfaces is dependant on the operating
system software, the type of server blade, and the enclosure type. For more information, see the
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch User Guide.
Table 7 Ethernet switch port names
Port number
Port alias
1
Downlink1
2
Downlink2
3
Downlink3
4
Downlink4
5
Downlink5
6
Downlink6
7
Downlink7
8
Downlink8
9
Downlink9
10
Downlink10
11
Downlink11
12
Downlink12
36
Ports and trunking
Table 7 Ethernet switch port names
Port number
Port alias
13
Downlink13
14
Downlink14
15
Downlink15
16
Downlink16
17
Mgmt
18
Uplink1
19
Uplink2
20
Uplink3
21
Uplink4
Port trunk groups
When using port trunk groups between two switches, you can create an aggregate link operating at up to
forty Gigabits per second, depending on how many physical ports are combined. The switch supports up
to 12 trunk groups per switch, each with up to six ports per trunk group.
The trunking software detects broken trunk links (link down or disabled) and redirects traffic to other trunk
members within that trunk group. You can only use trunking if each link has the same configuration for
speed, flow control, and auto-negotiation.
Statistical load distribution
In a configured trunk group containing more than one port, the load distribution is determined by
information embedded within the data frame. For IP traffic, the switch will calculate the trunk port to
use for forwarding traffic by implementing the load distribution algorithm on value equals to modulus of
(XOR of last 3 bits of Source and last 3 bits of Destination IP address). For non-IP traffic, the switch will
calculate the trunk port to use for forwarding traffic by implementing the load distribution algorithm on
value equals to modulus of (XOR of last 3 bits of Source and last 3 bits of Destination MAC address).
Built-in fault tolerance
Since each trunk group is composed of multiple physical links, the trunk group is inherently fault tolerant.
As long as even one physical link between the switches is available, the trunk remains active.
Statistical load distribution is maintained whenever a link in a trunk group is lost or returned to service.
Before you configure trunks
When you create and enable a trunk, the trunk members (switch ports) take on certain settings necessary
for correct operation of the trunking feature.
Before you configure your trunk, you must consider these settings, along with specific configuration rules,
as follows:
37
Ports and trunking
1. Read the configuration rules provided in the “Trunk group configuration rules” section.
2. Determine which switch ports (up to six) are to become trunk members (the specific ports making up
the trunk).
3. Ensure that the chosen switch ports are set to enabled, using the following command:
/cfg/port x/cur
4. Trunk member ports must have the same VLAN configuration.
5. Consider how the existing spanning tree will react to the new trunk configuration. See the “Spanning
Tree Protocol” chapter for spanning tree group configuration guidelines.
6. Consider how existing VLANs will be affected by the addition of a trunk.
Trunk group configuration rules
The trunking feature operates according to specific configuration rules. When creating trunks, consider
the following rules that determine how a trunk group reacts in any network topology:
•
All trunks must originate from one device, and lead to one destination device. For example, you
cannot combine a link from Server 1 and a link from Server 2 into one trunk group.
•
•
•
Any physical switch port can belong to only one trunk group.
•
If you change the VLAN settings of any trunk member, you cannot apply the change until you
change the VLAN settings of all trunk members.
•
When an active port is configured in a trunk, the port becomes a trunk member when you enable the
trunk using the /cfg/l2/trunk x/ena command. The spanning tree parameters for the port then
change to reflect the new trunk settings.
•
All trunk members must be in the same spanning tree group and can belong to only one spanning
tree group. However if all ports are tagged, then all trunk ports can belong to multiple spanning tree
groups.
•
When a trunk is enabled, the trunk spanning tree participation setting takes precedence over that of
any trunk member.
•
•
You cannot configure a trunk member as a monitor port in a Port Mirroring configuration.
Trunking from non-HP devices must comply with Cisco® EtherChannel® technology.
All trunk member ports must be assigned to the same VLAN configuration before the trunk can be
enabled.
A monitor port cannot monitor trunks; however, trunk members can be monitored.
38
Ports and trunking
Port trunking example
In this example, the 10 Gigabit uplink ports on each switch are configured into a total of four trunk
groups: two on each switch.
NOTE: The actual mapping of switch ports to NIC interfaces is dependant on the operating system
software, the type of server blade, and the enclosure type. For more information, see the HP 10Gb
Ethernet BL-c Switch User Guide.
Figure 1 Port trunk group configuration example
The trunk groups are configured as follows:
Trunk groups 2-5 consist of two 10 Gigabit uplink ports each, configured to act as a single link to the
upstream routers. The trunk groups on each switch are configured so that there is a link to each router for
redundancy.
Prior to configuring each switch in this example, you must connect to the appropriate switch CLI as the
administrator. For details about accessing and using any of the commands described in this example, see
the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference.
39
Ports and trunking
Configuring trunk groups (CLI example)
1. On Switch 1, configure trunk groups 5 and 3:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l2/trunk 5
Trunk group 5# add 20
Trunk group 5# add 21
Trunk group 5# ena
Trunk group 5# apply
(Select trunk group 5)
(Add port 20 to trunk group 5)
(Add port 21 to trunk group 5)
(Enable trunk group 5)
(Make your changes active)
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l2/trunk 3
Trunk group 3# add 18
Trunk group 3# add 19
Trunk group 3# ena
Trunk group 3# apply
Trunk group 3# save
(Select trunk group 3)
(Add port 18 to trunk group 3)
(Add port 19 to trunk group 3)
(Enable trunk group 3)
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
2. On Switch 2, configure trunk groups 4 and 2:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l2/trunk 4
Trunk group 4# add 20
Trunk group 4# add 21
Trunk group 4# ena
Trunk group 4# apply
(Select trunk group 4)
(Add port 20 to trunk group 4)
(Add port 21 to trunk group 4)
(Enable trunk group 4)
(Make your changes active)
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l2/trunk 2
Trunk group 2# add 18
Trunk group 2# add 19
Trunk group 2# ena
Trunk group 2# apply
Trunk group 2# save
(Select trunk group 2)
(Add port 18 to trunk group 2)
(Add port 19 to trunk group 2)
(Enable trunk group 2)
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
NOTE: In this example, two switches are used. Any third-party device supporting link aggregation
should be configured manually. Connection problems might arise when using automatic trunk group
negotiation on the third-party device.
3. Examine the trunking information on each switch, using the following command:
>> /info/l2/trunk
(View trunking information)
Information about each port in each configured trunk group is displayed. Make sure that trunk groups
consist of the expected ports and that each port is in the expected state.
40
Ports and trunking
Configuring trunk groups (BBI example)
1. Configure trunk groups.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the Layer 2 folder, and select Trunk Groups.
c. Click a Trunk Group number to select it.
41
Ports and trunking
d. Enable the Trunk Group. To add ports, select each port in the Ports Available list, and click Add.
e. Click Submit.
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
3. Examine the trunking information on each switch.
a. Click the Dashboard context button on the Toolbar.
42
Ports and trunking
b. Select Trunk Groups.
c. Information about each configured trunk group is displayed. Make sure that trunk groups consist
of the expected ports and that each port is in the expected state.
43
Ports and trunking
Configurable Trunk Hash algorithm
This feature allows you to configure the particular parameters for the HP 10GbE switch Trunk Hash
algorithm instead of having to utilize the defaults. You can configure new default behavior for Layer 2
traffic and Layer 3 traffic, using the CLI menu cfg/l2/thash. You can select a minimum of one or a
maximum of two parameters to create one of the following configurations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Source IP (SIP)
Destination IP (DIP)
Source MAC (SMAC)
Destination MAC (DMAC)
Source IP (SIP) + Destination IP (DIP)
Source MAC (SMAC) + Destination MAC (DMAC)
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is an IEEE 802.3ad standard for grouping several physical
ports into one logical port (known as a dynamic trunk group or Link Aggregation group) with any device
that supports the standard. Refer to the IEEE 802.3ad-2002 for a full description of the standard.
The 802.3ad standard allows standard Ethernet links to form a single Layer 2 link using the Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). Link aggregation is a method of grouping physical link segments of
the same media type and speed in full duplex, and treating them as if they were part of a single, logical
link segment. If a link in a LACP trunk group fails, traffic is reassigned dynamically to the remaining link(s)
of the dynamic trunk group.
NOTE: Currently, LACP implementation does not support the Churn machine, an option used to
detect if the port is operable within a bounded time period between the actor and the partner. Only
the Market Responder is implemented, and there is no marker protocol generator.
A port’s Link Aggregation Identifier (LAG ID) determines how the port can be aggregated. The Link
Aggregation ID (LAG ID) is constructed mainly from the system ID and the port’s admin key, as follows:
•
System ID—The system ID is an integer value based on the switch’s MAC address and the system
priority assigned in the CLI.
•
Admin key—A port’s admin key is an integer value (1-65535) that you can configure in the CLI.
Each HP 10GbE switch port that participates in the same LACP trunk group must have the same
admin key value. The admin key is local significant, which means the partner switch does not need
to use the same admin key value.
For example, consider two switches, an Actor (the HP 10GbE switch) and a Partner (another switch), as
shown in the following table:
Table 8 Actor vs. partner LACP configuration
Actor Switch
Partner Switch 1
Port 18 (admin key = 100)
Port 1 (admin key = 50)
Port 19 (admin key = 100)
Port 2 (admin key = 50)
Partner Switch 2
Port 20 (admin key = 200)
Port 3 (admin key = 60)
Port 21 (admin key = 200)
Port 4 (admin key = 60)
44
Ports and trunking
In the configuration shown in the table above, Actor switch ports 18 and 19 aggregate to form an LACP
trunk group with Partner switch ports 1 and 2. At the same time, Actor switch ports 20 and 21 form a
different LACP trunk group with a different partner.
LACP automatically determines which member links can be aggregated and then aggregates them. It
provides for the controlled addition and removal of physical links for the link aggregation.
Each port in the HP 10GbE switch can have one of the following LACP modes.
•
•
•
off (default)—The user can configure this port in to a regular static trunk group.
active—The port is capable of forming an LACP trunk. This port sends LACPDU packets to partner
system ports.
passive—The port is capable of forming an LACP trunk. This port only responds to the LACPDU
packets sent from an LACP active port.
Each active LACP port transmits LACP data units (LACPDUs), while each passive LACP port listens for
LACPDUs. During LACP negotiation, the admin key is exchanged. The LACP trunk group is enabled as
long as the information matches at both ends of the link. If the admin key value changes for a port at
either end of the link, that port’s association with the LACP trunk group is lost.
When the system is initialized, all ports by default are in LACP off mode and are assigned unique admin
keys. To make a group of ports aggregatable, you assign them all the same admin key. You must set the
port’s LACP mode to active to activate LACP negotiation. You can set other port’s LACP mode to passive,
to reduce the amount of LACPDU traffic at the initial trunk-forming stage.
Use the /info/l2/trunk command or the /info/l2/lacp/dump command to check whether the
ports are trunked.
NOTE: If you configure LACP on ports with 802.1x network access control, make sure the ports on
both sides of the connection are properly configured for both LACP and 802.1x.
45
Ports and trunking
Configuring LACP
Use the following procedure to configure LACP for port 20 and port 21 to participate in link aggregation.
1. Set the LACP mode on port 20.
>> # /cfg/l2/lacp/port 20
>> LACP port 20# mode active
(Select port 20)
(Set port 20 to LACP active mode)
2. Define the admin key on port 20. Only ports with the same admin key can form a LACP trunk group.
>> LACP port 20# adminkey 100
Current LACP port adminkey:
17
New pending LACP port adminkey: 100
(Set port 20 adminkey to 100)
3. Set the LACP mode on port 21.
>> # /cfg/l2/lacp/port 21
>> LACP port 21# mode active
(Select port 21)
(Set port 21 to LACP active mode)
4. Define the admin key on port 21.
>> LACP port 21# adminkey 100
Current LACP port adminkey:
18
New pending LACP port adminkey: 100
(Set port 21 adminkey to 100)
5. Apply and verify the configuration.
>> LACP port 21# apply
>> LACP port 21# cur
(Make your changes active)
(View current trunking configuration)
6. Save your new configuration changes.
>> LACP port 21# save
(Save for restore after reboot)
46
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
Port-based Network Access control
Port-based Network Access control provides a means of authenticating and authorizing devices attached
to a LAN port that has point-to-point connection characteristics. It prevents access to ports that fail
authentication and authorization. This feature provides security to all ports of the HP 10GbE switch
(except the management port 17).
The following topics are discussed in this section:
•
•
•
•
•
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN
802.1x Authentication Process
802.1x Port States
Supported RADIUS Attributes
Configuration Guidelines
Extensible authentication protocol over LAN
HP 10GbE switch software can provide user-level security for its ports using the IEEE 802.1x protocol,
which is a more secure alternative to other methods of port-based network access control. Any device
attached to an 802.1x-enabled port that fails authentication is prevented access to the network and
denied services offered through that port.
The 802.1x standard describes port-based network access control using Extensible Authentication
Protocol over LAN (EAPoL). EAPoL provides a means of authenticating and authorizing devices attached
to a LAN port that has point-to-point connection characteristics and of preventing access to that port in
cases of authentication and authorization failures.
EAPoL is a client-server protocol that has the following components:
•
Supplicant or Client—The Supplicant is a device that requests network access and provides the
required credentials (user name and password) to the Authenticator and the Authentication Server.
•
Authenticator—The Authenticator enforces authentication and controls access to the network. The
Authenticator grants network access based on the information provided by the Supplicant and the
response from the Authentication Server. The Authenticator acts as an intermediary between the
Supplicant and the Authentication Server: requesting identity information from the client, forwarding
that information (encapsulated in RADIUS packets) to the Authentication Server for validation,
relaying the server’s responses to the client, and authorizing network access based on the results of
the authentication exchange. The HP 10GbE switch acts as an Authenticator.
•
Authentication Server—The Authentication Server validates the credentials provided by the
Supplicant to determine if the Authenticator should grant access to the network. The Authentication
Server may be co-located with the Authenticator. The switch relies on external RADIUS servers for
authentication.
Upon a successful authentication of the client by the server, the 802.1x-controlled port transitions from
unauthorized to authorized state, and the client is allowed full access to services through the port. When
the client sends an EAP-Logoff message to the authenticator, the port will transition from authorized to
unauthorized state.
47
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
802.1x authentication process
The clients and authenticators communicate using Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which was
originally designed to run over PPP, and for which the IEEE 802.1x Standard has defined an
encapsulation method over Ethernet frames, called EAP over LAN (EAPOL).
The following figure shows a typical message exchange initiated by the client.
Figure 2 Using EAPoL to authenticate a port
EAPoL Message Exchange
During authentication, EAPOL messages are exchanged between the client and the switch authenticator,
while RADIUS-EAP messages are exchanged between the switch authenticator and the Radius
authentication server.
Authentication is initiated by one of the following methods:
Switch authenticator sends an EAP-Request/Identity packet to the client.
Client sends an EAPOL-Start frame to the switch authenticator, which responds with an EAPRequest/Identity frame.
The client confirms its identity by sending an EAP-Response/Identity frame to the switch authenticator,
which forwards the frame encapsulated in a RADIUS packet to the server.
48
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
The Radius server chooses an EAP-supported authentication algorithm to verify the client’s identity, and
sends an EAP-Request packet to the client via the switch authenticator. The client then replies to the Radius
server with an EAP-Response containing its credentials.
Upon a successful authentication of the client by the server, the 802.1x-controlled port transitions from
unauthorized to authorized state, and the client is allowed full access to services through the controlled
port. When the client later sends an EAPOL-Logoff message to the switch authenticator, the port transitions
from authorized to unauthorized state.
If a client that does not support 802.1x connects to an 802.1x-controlled port, the switch authenticator
requests the client's identity when it detects a change in the operational state of the port. The client does
not respond to the request, and the port remains in the unauthorized state.
NOTE: When an 802.1x-enabled client connects to a port that is not 802.1x-controlled, the client
initiates the authentication process by sending an EAPOL-Start frame. When no response is
received, the client retransmits the request for a fixed number of times. If no response is received,
the client assumes the port is in authorized state, and begins sending frames, even if the port is
unauthorized.
802.1x port states
The state of the port determines whether the client is granted access to the network, as follows:
•
Unauthorized—While in this state, the port discards all ingress and egress traffic except EAP
packets.
•
Authorized—When the client is authenticated successfully, the port transitions to the authorized state
allowing all traffic to and from the client to flow normally.
•
•
Force Unauthorized—You can configure this state that denies all access to the port.
Force Authorized—You can configure this state that allows full access to the port.
Use the 802.1x Global Configuration Menu (/cfg/l2/8021x/global) to configure 802.1x
authentication for all ports in the switch. Use the 802.1x Port Menu (/cfg/l2/8021x/port x) to
configure a single port.
49
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
Supported RADIUS attributes
The HP 10GbE switch 802.1x Authenticator relies on external RADIUS servers for authentication with
EAP. The following table lists the RADIUS attributes that are supported as part of RADIUS-EAP
authentication based on the guidelines specified in Annex D of the 802.1x standard and RFC 3580.
Table 9 EAP support for RADIUS attributes
#
Attribute
Attribute Value
A-R
A-A
A-C
A-R
1
User-Name
The value of the Type-Data field from the
supplicant’s EAP-Response/Identity message.
If the Identity is unknown (i.e. Type-Data field
is zero bytes in length), this attribute will have
the same value as the Calling-Station-Id.
1
0-1
0
0
4
NAS-IP-Address
IP address of the authenticator used for
RADIUS communication.
1
0
0
0
5
NAS-Port
Port number of the authenticator port to which
the supplicant is attached.
1
0
0
0
24
State
Server-specific value. This is sent unmodified
back to the server in an Access-Request that is
in response to an Access-Challenge.
0-1
0-1
0-1
0
30
Called-Station-ID
The MAC address of the authenticator
encoded as an ASCII string in canonical
format, e.g. 000D5622E3 9F.
1
0
0
0
31
Calling-Station-ID
The MAC address of the supplicant encoded
as an ASCII string in canonical format, e.g.
00034B436206.
1
0
0
0
79
EAP-Message
Encapsulated EAP packets from the supplicant
to the authentication server (Radius) and viceversa. The authenticator relays the decoded
packet to both devices.
1+
1+
1+
1+
80
Message-Authenticator
Always present whenever an EAP-Message
attribute is also included. Used to integrityprotect a packet.
1
1
1
1
87
NAS-Port-ID
Name assigned to the authenticator port, e.g.
Server1_Port3
1
0
0
0
Legend:
RADIUS Packet Types: A-R (Access-Request), A-A (Access-Accept), A-C (Access-Challenge), A-R (Access-Reject)
RADIUS Attribute Support:
0—This attribute MUST NOT be present in a packet.
0+—Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in a packet.
0-1—Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in a packet.
1—Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present in a packet.
1+—One or more of these attributes MUST be present.
50
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
EAPoL configuration guidelines
When configuring EAPoL, consider the following guidelines:
•
The 802.1x port-based authentication is currently supported only in point-to-point configurations, that
is, with a single supplicant connected to an 802.1x-enabled switch port.
•
When 802.1x is enabled, a port has to be in the authorized state before any other Layer 2 feature
can be operationally enabled. For example, the STG state of a port is operationally disabled while
the port is in the unauthorized state.
•
The 802.1x supplicant capability is not supported. Therefore, none of its ports can connect
successfully to an 802.1x-enabled port of another device, such as another switch, which acts as an
authenticator, unless access control on the remote port is disabled or is configured in forcedauthorized mode. For example, if a HP 10GbE switch is connected to another HP 10GbE switch,
and if 802.1x is enabled on both switches, the two connected ports must be configured in forceauthorized mode.
•
The 802.1x standard has optional provisions for supporting dynamic virtual LAN assignment via
RADIUS tunneling attributes, for example, Tunnel-Type (=VLAN), Tunnel-Medium-Type (=802), and
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID (=VLAN id). These attributes are not supported and might affect 802.1x
operations. Other unsupported attributes include Service-Type, Session-Timeout, and TerminationAction.
RADIUS accounting service for 802.1x-authenticated devices or users is not supported.
Configuration changes performed using SNMP and the standard 802.1x MIB take effect immediately.
Port-based traffic control
Port-based traffic control prevents HP 10GbE switch ports from being disrupted by LAN storms. A LAN
storm occurs when data packets flood the LAN, which can cause the network to become congested and
slow down. Errors in the protocol-stack implementation or in the network configuration can cause a LAN
storm.
You can enable port-based traffic control separately for each of the following traffic types:
•
•
•
Broadcast—packets with destination MAC address ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Multicast—packets that have MAC addresses with the least significant bit of their first octet set to one
Destination Lookup Failed (DLF)—packets with unknown destination MAC address, that are treated
like broadcast packets
With Port-based Traffic Control enabled, the port monitors incoming traffic of each type noted above. If
the traffic exceeds a configured threshold, the port blocks traffic that exceeds the threshold until the traffic
flow falls back within the threshold.
The HP 10GbE switch supports separate traffic-control thresholds for broadcast, multicast, and DLF traffic.
The traffic threshold is measured in number of frames per second.
NOTE: All ports that belong to a trunk must have the same traffic-control settings.
51
Port-based Network Access and traffic control
Configuring port-based traffic control
To configure a port for traffic control, perform the following steps:
1. Configure the traffic-control threshold and enable traffic control.
Main# /cfg/port 2
>> Port 2# brate 150000
>> Port 2# mrate 150000
>> Port 2# drate 150000
(Set broadcast threshold)
(Set multicast threshold)
(Set DLF threshold)
2. To disable a traffic-control threshold, use the following command:
>> Port 2# mrate dis
(Disable multicast threshold)
3. Apply and save the configuration.
>> Port 2# apply
>> Port 2# save
(Apply the port configurations)
(Save the port configurations)
52
VLANs
VLANs
Introduction
This chapter describes network design and topology considerations for using Virtual Local Area Networks
(VLANs). VLANs are commonly used to split up groups of network users into manageable broadcast
domains, to create logical segmentation of workgroups, and to enforce security policies among logical
segments.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers
VLAN Tagging
VLANs and IP Interfaces
VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations
NOTE: Basic VLANs can be configured during initial switch configuration.
More comprehensive VLAN configuration can be done from the command line interface. See the
HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide.
Overview
Setting up VLANs is a way to segment networks to increase network flexibility without changing the
physical network topology. With network segmentation, each switch port connects to a segment that is a
single broadcast domain. When a switch port is configured to be a member of a VLAN, it is added to a
group of ports (workgroup) that belongs to one broadcast domain.
Ports are grouped into broadcast domains by assigning them to the same VLAN. Multicast, broadcast,
and unknown unicast frames are flooded only to ports in the same VLAN.
VLANs and port VLAN ID numbers
VLAN numbers
The HP 10GbE switch supports up to 1,000 VLANs per switch. Even though the maximum number of
VLANs supported at any given time is 1,000, each can be identified with any number between 1 and
4095. VLAN 1 is the default VLAN, and all ports are assigned to it. VLAN 4095 is reserved for switch
management, and it cannot be configured.
53
VLANs
Viewing VLANs
The VLAN information menu (/info/l2/vlan) displays all configured VLANs and all member ports that
have an active link state, for example:
>> Layer 2# vlan
VLAN
Name
Status Ports
---- -------------------------------- ------ ---------------------1
Default VLAN
ena
1 4-16 18-21
2
VLAN 2
ena
2 3
4095 VLAN 4095
ena
17
PVID numbers
Each port in the switch has a configurable default VLAN number, known as its PVID. This places all
ports on the same VLAN initially, although each port PVID is configurable to any VLAN number
between 1 and 4094.
The default configuration settings for switches have all ports set as untagged members of VLAN 1 with all
ports configured as PVID = 1. In the default configuration example shown in the following figure, all
incoming packets are assigned to VLAN 1 by the default port VLAN identifier (PVID =1).
Viewing and configuring PVIDs
You can view PVIDs from the following CLI commands:
Port information
>> /info/port
Port Tag RMON PVID
NAME
VLAN(s)
---- --- ---- ---- -------------- ------------------------------1
n
d
1 Downlink1
1
2
n
e
1 Downlink2
1
3
n
d
1 Downlink3
1
4
n
d
1 Downlink4
1
5
n
d
1 Downlink5
1
6
n
d
1 Downlink6
1
7
n
d
1 Downlink7
1
:
:
Port configuration
>> /cfg/port 21/pvid 21
Current port VLAN ID:
1
New pending port VLAN ID: 21
>> Port 21#
Each port on the switch can belong to one or more VLANs, and each VLAN can have any number of
switch ports in its membership. Any port that belongs to multiple VLANs, however, must have VLAN
tagging enabled. See the “VLAN tagging” section in this chapter.
Any untagged frames (those with no VLAN specified) are classified with the PVID of the sending port.
54
VLANs
VLAN tagging
The switch supports IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging, providing standards-based VLAN support for Ethernet
systems.
Tagging places the VLAN identifier in the frame header, allowing each port to belong to multiple VLANs.
When you configure multiple VLANs on a port, you must also enable tagging on that port.
Since tagging fundamentally changes the format of frames transmitted on a tagged port, you must
carefully plan network designs to prevent tagged frames from being transmitted to devices that do not
support 802.1Q VLAN tags, or devices where tagging is not enabled.
Important terms used with the 802.1Q tagging feature are:
•
VLAN identifier (VID)—the 12-bit portion of the VLAN tag in the frame header that identifies an
explicit VLAN.
•
Port VLAN identifier (PVID)—a classification mechanism that associates a port with a specific VLAN.
For example, a port with a PVID of 3 (PVID = 3) assigns all untagged frames received on this port to
VLAN 3.
•
Tagged frame—a frame that carries VLAN tagging information in the header. The VLAN tagging
information is a 32-bit field (VLAN tag) in the frame header that identifies the frame as belonging to
a specific VLAN. Untagged frames are marked (tagged) with this classification as they leave the
switch through a port that is configured as a tagged port.
•
•
Untagged frame—a frame that does not carry any VLAN tagging information in the frame header.
•
Tagged member—a port that has been configured as a tagged member of a specific VLAN. When
an untagged frame exits the switch through a tagged member port, the frame header is modified to
include the 32-bit tag associated with the PVID. When a tagged frame exits the switch through a
tagged member port, the frame header remains unchanged (original VID remains).
Untagged member—a port that has been configured as an untagged member of a specific VLAN.
When an untagged frame exits the switch through an untagged member port, the frame header
remains unchanged. When a tagged frame exits the switch through an untagged member port, the
tag is stripped and the tagged frame is changed to an untagged frame.
NOTE: If an 802.1Q tagged frame is sent to a port that has VLAN-tagging disabled, then the
frames are forwarded based on their port-VLAN ID (PVID).
55
VLANs
Figure 3 Default VLAN settings
NOTE: The port numbers specified in these illustrations may not directly correspond to the physical
port configuration of your switch model.
When you configure VLANs, you configure the switch ports as tagged or untagged members of specific
VLANs. See the following figures.
In the following figure, the untagged incoming packet is assigned directly to VLAN 2 (PVID = 2). Port 5 is
configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2, and port 7 is configured as an untagged member of
VLAN 2.
Figure 4 Port-based VLAN assignment
As shown in the following figure, the untagged packet is marked (tagged) as it leaves the switch through
port 5, which is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2. The untagged packet remains unchanged as
it leaves the switch through port 7, which is configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
56
VLANs
Figure 5 802.1Q tagging (after port-based VLAN assignment)
In the following figure, the tagged incoming packet is assigned directly to VLAN 2 because of the tag
assignment in the packet. Port 5 is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2, and port 7 is configured
as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
Figure 6 802.1Q tag assignment
As shown in the following figure, the tagged packet remains unchanged as it leaves the switch through
port 5, which is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2. However, the tagged packet is stripped
(untagged) as it leaves the switch through port 7, which is configured as an untagged member of
VLAN 2.
57
VLANs
Figure 7 802.1Q tagging (after 802.1Q tag assignment)
NOTE: Using the /boot/conf factory command resets all ports to VLAN 1 (except
management port 17) and all other settings to the factory defaults at the next reboot.
VLANs and IP interfaces
Carefully consider how you create VLANs within the switch, so that communication with the switch
remains possible. In order to access the switch for remote configuration, trap messages, and other
management functions, be sure that at least one IP interface on the switch has a VLAN defined.
You can also inadvertently cut off access to management functions if you exclude the ports from the VLAN
membership. For example, if all IP interfaces are left on VLAN 1 (the default), and all ports are configured
for VLAN 2, and then switch management features are effectively cut off.
To remedy this, keep all ports used for remote switch management on the default VLAN and assign an IP
interface to the default VLAN.
For more information on configuring IP interfaces, see the “Configuring an IP interface” section in the
“Accessing the switch” chapter.
VLAN topologies and design considerations
By default, all switch ports are configured to the default VLAN 1. This configuration groups all ports into
the same broadcast domain. The VLAN has an 802.1Q VLAN ID of 1. VLAN tagging is turned off,
because, by default, all ports are members of a single VLAN only.
If configuring Spanning Tree Protocol (/cfg/l2/stp), note that each of spanning tree groups 2-128
may contain only one VLAN. If configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (/cfg/l2/mrst), each of
the spanning tree groups (1-32 for MSTP) may contain multiple VLANs.
58
VLANs
VLAN configuration rules
VLANs operate according to specific configuration rules which must be considered when creating VLANs.
For example:
•
HP recommends that all ports involved in trunking and Port Mirroring have the same VLAN
configuration. If a port is on a trunk with a mirroring port, the VLAN configuration cannot be
changed. For more information on port trunking, see the “Port trunking example” section in the “Ports
and trunking” chapter.
•
All ports involved in Port Mirroring must have memberships in the same STP group, but they can
have memberships in different VLANs.
•
When you delete a VLAN, untagged ports are moved to the default VLAN (VLAN 1). Tagged ports
that belong only to the deleted VLAN are moved to the default VLAN 1. Tagged ports that belong to
multiple VLANs are removed from the deleted VLAN only.
59
VLANs
Multiple VLANS with tagging
The following figure shows only those switch-port-to-server links that must be configured for the example.
While not shown, all other server links remain set at their default settings.
Figure 8 Multiple VLANs with VLAN tagging
The features of this VLAN are described in the following table:
Table 10 Multiple VLANs with tagging
Component
Description
Switch 1
Switch 1 is configured for VLANS 1, 2, and 3. Port 1 is tagged to accept traffic
from VLANs 1 and 2. Port 18 is tagged to accept traffic from VLANs 1, 2, and 3.
Port 20 is an untagged member of VLAN 2. Port 21 is tagged, and accepts traffic from
VLANs 1 and 3.
Switch 2
Switch 2 is configured for VLANS 1, 3, and 4. Port 2 is tagged to accept traffic from VLANS
3 and 4. Port 4 is configured only for VLAN 3, so VLAN tagging is off. Port 18 is tagged to
accept traffic from VLANs 1 and 3. Port 20 is an untagged member of VLAN 4. Port 21 is
tagged, and accepts traffic from VLANs 1 and 3.
60
VLANs
Table 10 Multiple VLANs with tagging
Component
Description
Blade Server #1
This high-use blade server needs to be accessed from all VLANs and IP subnets. The server
has a VLAN-tagging adapter installed with VLAN tagging turned on.
One adapter is attached to one of the switch's 10 Gbps ports, that is configured for
VLANs 1 and 2. One adapter is configured for VLANs 3 and 4.
Because of the VLAN tagging capabilities of both the adapter and the switch, the server is
able to communicate on all four VLANs in this network while maintaining broadcast
separation among all four VLANs and subnets.
Blade Server #2
This blade server belongs to VLAN 3. The port that the VLAN is attached to is configured
only for VLAN 3, so VLAN tagging is off.
PC #1
This PC is a member of VLAN 2 and 3. Via VLAN 2, it can communicate with Server 1,
PC 3, and PC 5. Using VLAN 3, it can communicate with Server 1, Server 2, and PC 4.
PC #2
This PC is a member of VLAN 4, and can only communicate with Server 1.
PC #3
This PC is a member of VLAN 1 and VLAN 2. Using VLAN 1, it can communicate with
Server 1 and PC 5. Using VLAN 2, it can communicate with Server 1, PC 1, and PC 5.
PC #4
This PC is a member of VLAN 3, and it can communicate with Server 1, Server 2, and PC 1.
PC #5
This PC is a member of both VLAN 1 and VLAN 2. Using VLAN 1, it can communicate with
Server 1 and PC 3. Using VLAN 2, it can communicate with Server 1, PC 1, and PC 3.
The Layer 2 switch port to which it is connected is configured for both VLAN 1 and VLAN 2
and has tagging enabled.
NOTE: All PCs connected to a tagged port must have an Ethernet adapter with VLAN-tagging
capability installed.
Configuring the example network
These examples describe how to configure ports and VLANs on Switch 1 and Switch 2.
Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch 1 (CLI example)
To configure ports and VLANs on Switch 1, do the following:
1. On Switch 1, enable VLAN tagging on the necessary ports.
Main# /cfg/port 1
>> Port 1# tag e
Current VLAN tag support: disabled
New VLAN tag support:
enabled
Port 1 changed to tagged.
Main# /cfg/port 18
>> Port 18# tag e
Current VLAN tag support: disabled
New VLAN tag support:
enabled
Port 18 changed to tagged.
>> Port 18# apply
(Select port 1: connection to server 1)
(Enable tagging)
(Select uplink port 18)
(Enable tagging)
(Apply the port configurations)
61
VLANs
2. Configure the VLANs and their member ports. Since all ports are by default configured for VLAN 1,
configure only those ports that belong to VLAN 2.
>> /cfg/l2/vlan 2
>> VLAN 2# add 1
Current ports for VLAN 2: empty
Pending new ports for VLAN 2: 1
(Add port 1 to VLAN 2)
>> VLAN 2# add 18
Current ports for VLAN 2: 1
Pending new ports for VLAN 2: 18
(Add port 18 to VLAN 2)
>> VLAN
Port 20
Confirm
Current
Pending
2# add 20
(Add port 20 to VLAN 2)
is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]: y
ports for VLAN 2: 1, 18
new ports for VLAN 2: 20
>> VLAN 3# add 18
Current ports for VLAN 3:
Pending new ports for VLAN 3: 18
>> apply
>> save
(Add port 18 to VLAN 3)
(Apply the port configurations)
(Save the port configurations)
62
VLANs
Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch 2 (CLI example)
To configure ports and VLANs on Switch 2, do the following:
1. On Switch 2, enable VLAN tagging on the necessary ports. Port 4 (connection to server 2) remains
untagged, so it is not configured below.
Main# /cfg/port 2
>> Port 2# tag e
Current VLAN tag support: disabled
New VLAN tag support:
enabled
Port 2 changed to tagged.
Main# /cfg/port 18
>> Port 18# tag e
Current VLAN tag support: disabled
New VLAN tag support:
enabled
Port 18 changed to tagged.
>> Port 18# apply
(Select port 2: connection to server 1)
(Select uplink port 18)
(Enable tagging)
(Apply the port configurations)
2. Configure the VLANs and their member ports. Since all ports are by default configured for VLAN 1,
configure only those ports that belong to other VLANs.
>> /cfg/l2/vlan 3
>> VLAN 3# add 2
Current ports for VLAN 3: empty
Pending new ports for VLAN 3: 2
>> VLAN 3# add 4
Port 4 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]: y
Current ports for VLAN 3: 2
Pending new ports for VLAN 3:
>> VLAN 3# add 18
Current ports for VLAN 3: 2
Pending new ports for VLAN 3: 18
>> /cfg/l2/vlan 4
>> VLAN 4# add 20
Port 20 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]: y
Current ports for VLAN 4: empty
Pending new ports for VLAN 4: 20
>> apply
>> save
(Apply the port configurations)
(Save the port configurations)
The external Layer 2 switches should also be configured for VLANs and tagging.
63
VLANs
Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch 1 (BBI example)
To configure ports and VLANs on Switch 1, do the following:
1. On the switch 1, enable VLAN tagging on the necessary ports.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select Switch Ports (click the underlined text, not the folder).
c. Click a port number to select it.
64
VLANs
d. Enable the port and enable VLAN tagging.
e. Click Submit.
2. Configure the VLANs and their member ports.
a. Open the Virtual LANs folder, and select Add VLAN.
65
VLANs
b. Enter the VLAN name, VLAN ID number, and enable the VLAN. To add ports, select each port in
the Ports Available list and click Add. Since all ports are configured for VLAN 1 by default,
configure only those ports that belong to VLAN 2.
c. Click Submit.
The external Layer 2 switches should also be configured for VLANs and tagging.
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
FDB static entries
Static entries in the Forwarding Database (FDB) allow the switch to forward packets without flooding ports
to perform a lookup. A FDB static entry is a MAC address associated with a specific port and VLAN. The
switch supports 128 static entries. Static entries are manually configured, using the following command:
/cfg/l2/fdb/static
66
VLANs
FDB static entries are permanent, so the FDB Aging value does not apply to them. Static entries are
manually added to the FDB, and manually deleted from the FDB.
Incoming frames that contain the static entry as the source MAC can use only ports configured for the
static entry.
Trunking support for FDB static entries
A FDB static entry can be added to a port that is a member of a trunk group, as follows:
•
•
Static (manually configured) trunk group
Dynamic (LACP) trunk group
The trunk group supports the FDB static entry. If the port with the static entry fails, other ports in the trunk
handle the traffic. If the port is removed from the trunk, the static entry is removed from the trunk, but
remains configured on the port.
The FDB information commands (/info/l2/fdb) display trunk support for static FDB entries, if
applicable:
>> Forwarding Database# dump
MAC address
VLAN Port
----------------- ---- ---00:00:2e:9b:db:f8
1
00:00:5e:00:01:f4
1 21
00:01:81:2e:b5:60
1 21
00:02:a5:e9:76:30
1
00:03:4b:e2:15:f1
1 21
Trnk
---1
1
State
----TRK
FWD
FWD
TRK
FWD
Configuring a static FDB entry
Perform the following actions to configure a static FDB entry:
Main# /cfg/l2/fdb/static
>> Static FDB# add 00:60:af:00:02:30
Enter VLAN number: 2
Enter port (1-21): 2
>> Static FDB# apply
>> Static FDB# save
(Select static FDB menu)
(Apply the configuration)
(Save the configuration)
67
Spanning Tree Protocol
Spanning Tree Protocol
Introduction
When multiple paths exist on a network, Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) configures the network so that a
switch uses only the most efficient path. The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
Overview
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs)
Spanning Tree Group (STG) configuration guidelines
Multiple Spanning Trees
Overview
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) detects and eliminates logical loops in a bridged or switched network. STP
forces redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. When multiple paths exist, STP configures the
network so that a switch uses only the most efficient path. If that path fails, STP automatically sets up
another active path on the network to sustain network operations.
The switch supports IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol for STG 1, and Per VLAN Spanning Tree
Protocol (PVST+) for STGs 2-128, by default.
NOTE: The switch also supports IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol and IEEE 802.1s
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol. For more information, see the “RSTP and MSTP” chapter in this
guide.
Bridge Protocol Data Units
To create a spanning tree, the application switch generates a configuration Bridge Protocol Data Unit
(BPDU), which it then forwards out of its ports. All switches in the Layer 2 network participating in the
spanning tree gather information about other switches in the network through an exchange of BPDUs.
A BPDU is a 64-byte packet that is sent out at a configurable interval, which is typically set for two
seconds. The BPDU is used to establish a path, much like a hello packet in IP routing. BPDUs contain
information about the transmitting bridge and its ports, including bridge and MAC addresses, bridge
priority, port priority, and port path cost. If the ports are tagged, each port sends out a special BPDU
containing the tagged information.
The generic action of a switch on receiving a BPDU is to compare the received BPDU to its own BPDU that
it will transmit. If the received BPDU has a priority value closer to zero than its own BPDU, it will replace
its BPDU with the received BPDU. Then, the application switch adds its own bridge ID number and
increments the path cost of the BPDU. The application switch uses this information to block any redundant
paths.
68
Spanning Tree Protocol
Determining the path for forwarding BPDUs
When determining which port to use for forwarding and which port to block, the switch uses information
in the BPDU, including each bridge priority ID. A technique based on the lowest root cost is then
computed to determine the most efficient path for forwarding.
Bridge priority
The bridge priority parameter controls which bridge on the network is the STP root bridge. To make one
switch the root bridge, configure the bridge priority lower than all other switches and bridges on your
network. The lower the value, the higher the bridge priority. The bridge priority is configured using the
following command:
/cfg/l2/stp x/brg/prior
Port priority
The port priority helps determine which bridge port becomes the designated port. In a network topology
that has multiple bridge ports connected to a single segment, the port with the lowest port priority
becomes the designated port for the segment. The port priority is configured using the following
command:
/cfg/l2/stp y/port x/prior
Port path cost
The port path cost assigns lower values to high-bandwidth ports, such as Gigabit Ethernet, to encourage
their use. The objective is to use the fastest links so that the route with the lowest cost is chosen. A value
of zero indicates that port cost is computed dynamically based on link speed. This works when forcing
link speed, so it does not just apply to auto negotiated link speed.
By default, all switch ports have the path cost set to 2. To use dynamic path cost, based on link speed, set
the path cost to 0 (zero). For example, if the path cost is set to zero:
•
•
A 10 Gbps link receives a path cost of 2
A 100 Mbps link receives a path cost of 19
Configure the port path cost using the following command:
/cfg/l2/stp y/port x/cost
Spanning Tree Group configuration guidelines
This section provides important information on configuring Spanning Tree Groups (STGs).
Default Spanning Tree configuration
In the default configuration, a single STG with the ID of 1 includes all ports on the switch. It is called the
default STG. All other STGs (except the default STG) are empty, and VLANs must be added by the user.
You cannot assign ports directly to an STG. Add the ports to a VLAN, and add the VLAN to the STG.
STGs 1-127 are enabled by default and assigned an ID number from 1 to 127. STG 128 is disabled by
default, and contains the management VLAN 4095.
An STG cannot be deleted, only disabled. If you disable the STG while it still contains VLAN members,
Spanning Tree will be off on all ports belonging to that VLAN.
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Spanning Tree Protocol
Adding a VLAN to a Spanning Tree Group
If no VLANs exist beyond the default VLAN 1, see the “Creating a VLAN” section in this chapter for
information on adding ports to VLANs.
Add the VLAN to the STG using the command /cfg/l2/stp <stg number>/add <vlan number>.
Creating a VLAN
When you create a VLAN, then that VLAN automatically belongs to STG 1, the default STG. If you want
the VLAN in another STG, you must move the VLAN by assigning it to another STG.
To move a newly created VLAN to an existing STG:
1. Create the VLAN.
2. Add the VLAN to an existing STG.
When creating a VLAN also consider the following:
•
•
A VLAN cannot belong to more than one STG.
VLANs that span multiple switches must be mapped within the same Spanning Tree Group (have the
same STG ID) across all the switches.
Rules for VLAN tagged ports
Rules for VLAN tagged ports are listed below:
•
•
If a port is tagged, it can belong to multiple STGs.
•
An untagged port cannot span multiple STGs.
When a tagged port belongs to more than one STG, the egress BPDUs are tagged to distinguish the
BPDUs of one STG from those of another STG.
Adding and removing ports from STGs
Information on adding and removing ports from STGs is as follows:
•
•
By default, all ports belong to VLAN 1 and STG 1.
•
When you remove a port from a VLAN, that port is also removed from the STG to which the VLAN
belongs. However, if that port belongs to another VLAN in the same STG, the port remains in the
STG.
•
If you remove an untagged port from a non-default VLAN and STG, it is added to VLAN 1 and
STG 1.
Each port is always a member of at least one VLAN. Each VLAN is always a member of at least one
STG. Port membership within VLANs can be changed, and VLAN membership within STGs can be
changed. To move a port from one STG to another, move the VLAN to which the port belongs, or
move the port to a VLAN that belongs to the STG.
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Spanning Tree Protocol
The relationship between ports, trunk groups, VLANs, and spanning trees is shown in the following table.
Table 11 Ports, trunk groups, and VLANs
Switch element
Belongs to
Port
Trunk group, or one or more VLANs
Trunk group
Only one VLAN
VLAN (non-default)
One Spanning Tree Group
Assigning cost to ports and trunk groups
When you configure a trunk group to participate in a Spanning Tree Group, all ports must have the same
Spanning Tree configuration, as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
port priority
path cost
link type
Edge port status
Port Fast Forward status
Assign lower path costs on each member of a trunk group, to ensure the trunk group remains in the
Forwarding state.
Multiple Spanning Trees
Each switch supports a maximum of 128 Spanning Tree Groups (STGs). Multiple STGs provide multiple
data paths, which can be used for load-balancing and redundancy.
You enable independent links on two switches using multiple STGs by configuring each path with a
different VLAN and then assigning each VLAN to a separate STG. Each STG is independent. Each STG
sends its own Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs), and each STG must be independently configured.
The STG, or bridge group, forms a loop-free topology that includes one or more virtual LANs (VLANs).
The switch supports 128 STGs running simultaneously. The default STG 1 supports IEEE 802.1d Spanning
Tree Protocol, and may contain more than one VLAN. All other STGs support Per VLAN Spanning Tree
(PVST+), and may contain only one VLAN each. The switch can support multiple VLANs in STGs 2-128;
however, you must enable IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol mode. For more information, see
the “RSTP and MSTP” chapter in this guide.
Why do we need Multiple Spanning Trees?
The following figure shows a simple example of why we need multiple Spanning Trees. This example
assumes that port 20 and 21 are not part of a Trunk Group. Two VLANs (VLAN 1 and VLAN 2) exist
between Switch 1 and Switch 2. If the same Spanning Tree Group is enabled on both switches, the
switches see an apparent loop and block port 21 on Switch 2, which cuts off communication between the
switches for VLAN 2.
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Spanning Tree Protocol
Figure 9 Two VLANs on one instance of Spanning Tree Protocol
In the following figure, VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 belong to different Spanning Tree Groups. The two instances
of spanning tree separate the topology without forming a loop, so that both VLANs can forward packets
between the switches without losing connectivity.
Figure 10 Two VLANs on separate instances of Spanning Tree Protocol
VLAN participation in Spanning Tree Groups
The following table shows which switch ports participate in each Spanning Tree Group. By default, server
ports (ports 1-16) do not participate in Spanning Tree, even though they are members of their respective
VLANs.
Table 12 VLAN participation in Spanning Tree Groups
Switch 1
Switch 2
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
Spanning Tree Group 1
Spanning Tree Group 2
Port 20
Port 21
Spanning Tree Group 1
Spanning Tree Group 2
Port 20
Port 21
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Spanning Tree Protocol
Configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Groups
This section explains how to assign each VLAN to its own Spanning Tree Group on the switches 1 and 2.
By default, Spanning Tree Groups 2-127 are empty, and Spanning Tree Group 1 contains all configured
VLANs until individual VLANs are explicitly assigned to other Spanning Tree Groups. Except for the
default Spanning Tree Group 1, which may contain more than one VLAN, Spanning Tree Groups 2-128
may contain only one VLAN each.
NOTE: Each instance of Spanning Tree Group is enabled by default.
Configuring Switch 1 (CLI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on Switch 1 as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs on Switch 1 (CLI example)” section, in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Add VLAN 2 to Spanning Tree Group 2.
>> /cfg/l2/stp 2
>> Spanning Tree Group 2# add 2
(Select Spanning Tree Group 2)
(Add VLAN 2)
VLAN 2 is removed from Spanning Tree Group 1.
3. Apply and save.
>> apply
>> save
(Apply the port configurations)
(Save the port configurations)
Configuring Switch 2 (CLI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership as described in the “Configuring ports and VLANs on Switch
2 (CLI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Add VLAN 2 to Spanning Tree Group 2.
>> /cfg/l2/stp 2
>> Spanning Tree Group 2# add 2
(Select Spanning Tree Group 2)
(Add VLAN 2)
VLAN 2 is removed from Spanning Tree Group 1.
3. Apply and save.
>> apply
>> save
(Apply the port configurations)
(Save the port configurations)
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Spanning Tree Protocol
Configuring Switch 1 (BBI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on Switch 1 as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs on Switch 1 (BBI example)” section, in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Add VLAN 2 to Spanning Tree Group 2.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Select Spanning Tree Groups (click the underlined text, not the folder).
c. Select a Spanning Tree Group number.
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Spanning Tree Protocol
d. Enter the Spanning Tree Group number and set the Switch Spanning Tree State to on. To add a
VLAN to the Spanning Tree Group, select the VLAN in the VLANs Available list, and click Add.
VLAN 2 is automatically removed from Spanning Tree Group 1.
e. Scroll down, and click Submit.
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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Spanning Tree Protocol
Port Fast Forwarding
Port Fast Forwarding permits a port that participates in Spanning Tree to bypass the Listening and
Learning states and enter directly into the Forwarding state. While in the Forwarding state, the port listens
to the BPDUs to learn if there is a loop and, if dictated by normal STG behavior (following priorities, etc.),
the port transitions into the Blocking state.
This feature permits the switch to interoperate well with Fast Path, a NIC Teaming feature.
Configuring Port Fast Forwarding
Use the following CLI commands to enable Port Fast Forwarding on an external port.
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l2/stp
Spanning Tree
Spanning Tree
Spanning Tree
1/port 20
(Select port 20)
Port 20# fastfwd ena (Enable Port Fast Forwarding)
Port 20# apply
(Make your changes active)
Port 20# save
(Save for restore after reboot)
Fast Uplink Convergence
Fast Uplink Convergence enables the switch to quickly recover from the failure of the primary link or trunk
group in a Layer 2 network using Spanning Tree Protocol. Normal recovery can take as long as 60
seconds, while the backup link transitions from Blocking to Listening to Learning and then Forwarding
states. With Fast Uplink Convergence enabled, the switch immediately places the secondary path into
Forwarding state, and sends multicasts of addresses in the forwarding database (FDB) and ARP table over
the secondary link so that upstream switches can learn the new path.
Configuration guidelines
When you enable Fast Uplink Convergence, the switch software automatically makes the following
configuration changes:
•
•
Increases the bridge priority to 65500 so that it does not become the root switch.
Increases the cost of all of the external ports by 3000, across all VLANs and Spanning Tree Groups.
This ensures that traffic never flows through the switch to get to another switch unless there is no
other path.
When you disable Fast Uplink Convergence, the bridge priorities and path cost are set to their default
values for all STP groups.
Configuring Fast Uplink Convergence
Use the following CLI commands to enable Fast Uplink Convergence on external ports:
>> # /cfg/l2/upfast ena(Enable Fast Uplink convergence)
>> Layer 2# apply(Make your changes active)
>> Layer 2# save(Save for restore after reboot)
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RSTP and MSTP
RSTP and MSTP
Introduction
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w) enhances the Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d) to
provide rapid convergence on Spanning Tree Group 1. Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
extends the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol to provide both rapid convergence and load balancing in a
VLAN environment.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
•
•
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) provides rapid convergence of the spanning tree and provides for
fast reconfiguration critical for networks carrying delay-sensitive traffic such as voice and video. RSTP
significantly reduces the time to reconfigure the active topology of the network when changes occur to the
physical topology or its configuration parameters. RSTP reduces the bridged-LAN topology to a single
Spanning Tree.
For more information about Spanning Tree Protocol, see the “Spanning Tree Protocol” chapter in this
guide.
RSTP parameters are configured in Spanning Tree Group 1. STP Groups 2-128 do not apply to RSTP, and
must be cleared. There are new STP parameters to support RSTP, and some values to existing parameters
are different.
RSTP is compatible with devices that run 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol. If the switch detects 802.1d
BPDUs, it responds with 802.1d-compatible data units. RSTP is not compatible with Per VLAN Spanning
Tree (PVST) protocol.
Port state changes
The port state controls the forwarding and learning processes of Spanning Tree. In RSTP, the port state
has been consolidated to the following: discarding, learning, and forwarding.
Table 13 RSTP vs. STP port states
Port operational status
STP port state
RSTP port state
Enabled
Blocking
Discarding
Enabled
Listening
Discarding
Enabled
Learning
Learning
Enabled
Forwarding
Forwarding
Disabled
Disabled
Discarding
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RSTP and MSTP
Port type and link type
Spanning Tree Configuration includes the following parameters to support RSTP and MSTP:
•
•
Edge port
Link type
Although these parameters are configured for Spanning Tree Groups 1-128 (/cfg/l2/stp y/port x),
they only take effect when RSTP/MSTP is turned on.
Edge port
A port that connects to a server or stub network is called an edge port. Therefore, ports 1-16 should have
edge enabled. Edge ports can start forwarding as soon as the link is up.
Edge ports do not take part in Spanning Tree, and should not receive BPDUs. If a port with edge enabled
does receive a BPDU, it begins STP processing until it is re-enabled.
Link type
The link type determines how the port behaves in regard to Rapid Spanning Tree. The link type
corresponds to the duplex mode of the port. A full-duplex link is point-to-point (p2p), while a half-duplex
link should be configured as shared. If you select auto as the link type, the port dynamically configures
the link type.
RSTP configuration guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring Rapid Spanning Tree Groups:
•
•
When RSTP is turned on, STP parameters apply only to STP Group 1.
When RSTP is turned on, all VLANs from STP Groups other than STP Group 1 are moved to STP
Group 1. The other STP Groups (2-128) are turned off.
RSTP configuration example
This section provides steps to configure Rapid Spanning Tree on the switch, using the Command Line
Interface (CLI) or the Browser-based Interface (BBI).
Configuring Rapid Spanning Tree (CLI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch, as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs (CLI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Set the Spanning Tree mode to Rapid Spanning Tree.
>> /cfg/l2/mrst
(Select Multiple Spanning Tree menu)
>> Multiple Spanning Tree# mode rstp
(Set mode to Rapid Spanning Tree)
>> Multiple Spanning Tree# on
(Turn Rapid Spanning Tree on)
3. Apply and save the changes.
>> # apply
>> # save
(Apply the configuration)
(Save the configuration)
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RSTP and MSTP
Configuring Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (BBI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch, as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs (BBI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Configure RSTP general parameters.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the MSTP/RSTP folder, and select General.
c. Select RSTP mode, and set the MSTP/RSTP state to ON.
d. Click Submit.
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RSTP and MSTP
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree extends the IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol through
multiple Spanning Tree Groups. MSTP maintains up to 32 spanning-tree instances that correspond to STP
Groups 1-32.
In Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), several VLANs can be mapped to each Spanning-Tree
instance. Each Spanning-Tree instance is independent of other instances. MSTP allows frames assigned to
different VLANs to follow separate paths, each path based on an independent Spanning-Tree instance.
This approach provides multiple forwarding paths for data traffic, enabling load balancing, and reducing
the number of Spanning-Tree instances required to support a large number of VLANs.
MSTP region
A group of interconnected bridges that share the same attributes is called an MST region. Each bridge
within the region must share the following attributes:
•
•
•
Alphanumeric name
Revision level
VLAN-to-STG mapping scheme
MSTP provides rapid reconfiguration, scalability, and control due to the support of regions, and multiple
Spanning-Tree instances support within each region.
Common Internal Spanning Tree
The Common Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) provides a common form of Spanning Tree Protocol, with one
Spanning Tree instance that can be used throughout the MSTP region. CIST allows the switch to
interoperate with legacy equipment, including devices that run IEEE 802.1d (STP).
CIST allows the MSTP region to act as a virtual bridge to other bridges outside of the region, and
provides a single Spanning-Tree instance to interact with them.
CIST is the default spanning tree group. When VLANs are removed from STG 1-128, the VLANs
automatically become members of the CIST.
CIST port configuration includes Hello time, Edge port status (enable/disable), and Link Type. These
parameters do not affect Spanning Tree Groups 1-128. They apply only when the CIST is used.
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RSTP and MSTP
MSTP configuration guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Groups:
•
When you turn on MSTP, the switch automatically moves VLAN 1 to the Common Internal Spanning
Tree (CIST).
•
Region Name and revision level must be configured. Each bridge in the region must have the same
name and revision level.
•
•
•
The VLAN and STP Group mapping must be the same across all bridges in the region.
You can move any VLAN to the CIST.
You can move VLAN 1 into any Spanning Tree Group.
MSTP configuration example
This section provides steps to configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol on the switch, using the
Command Line Interface (CLI) or the Browser-based Interface (BBI).
Configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (CLI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch, as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs (CLI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Set the mode to Multiple Spanning Tree, and configure MSTP region parameters.
>> /cfg/l2/ mrst
(Select Multiple Spanning Tree menu)
>> Multiple Spanning Tree# mode mstp (Set mode to
Multiple Spanning Trees)
>> Multiple Spanning Tree# on
(Turn Multiple Spanning Trees on)
>> Multiple Spanning Tree# name xxxxxx (Define the Region name)
>> Multiple Spanning Tree: rev xx
(Define the Region revision level)
3. Assign VLANs to Spanning Tree Groups.
>> /cfg/l2/stp 2
>> Spanning Tree Group 2# add 2
>> Spanning Tree Group 2# apply
(Select Spanning Tree Group 2)
(Add VLAN 2)
(Apply the configurations)
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RSTP and MSTP
Configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (BBI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch, as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs (BBI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter of this guide.
2. Configure MSTP general parameters.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the MSTP/RSTP folder, and select General.
c. Enter the region name and revision level. Select MSTP mode, and set the MSTP/RSTP state to
ON.
d. Click Submit.
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RSTP and MSTP
3. Configure Common Internal Spanning Trees (CIST) bridge parameters.
a. Open the MSTP/RSTP folder, and select CIST-Bridge.
b. Enter the Bridge Priority, Maximum Age, and Forward Delay values.
c. Click Submit.
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RSTP and MSTP
4. Configure Common Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) port parameters.
a. Open the MSTP/RSTP folder, and select CIST-Ports.
b. Click a port number to select it.
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RSTP and MSTP
c. Enter the Port Priority, Path Cost, and select the Link Type. Set the CIST Port State to ON.
d. Click Submit.
5. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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Quality of Service
Quality of Service
Introduction
Quality of Service features allow you to allocate network resources to mission-critical applications at the
expense of applications that are less sensitive to such factors as time delays or network congestion. You
can configure your network to prioritize specific types of traffic, ensuring that each type receives the
appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) level.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
•
•
•
•
•
Quality of Service Overview
Using ACL Filters
Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS
Using 802.1p Priorities to Provide QoS
Queuing and Scheduling
Overview
QoS helps you allocate guaranteed bandwidth to the critical applications, and limit bandwidth for less
critical applications. Applications such as video and voice must have a certain amount of bandwidth to
work correctly; using QoS, you can provide that bandwidth when necessary. Traffic for applications that
are sensitive to timing out or cannot tolerate delay can be assigned to a high-priority queue.
By assigning QoS levels to traffic flows on your network, you can ensure that network resources are
allocated where they are needed most. QoS features allow you to prioritize network traffic, thereby
providing better service for selected applications.
The following figure shows the basic QoS model used by the HP 10GbE switch.
Figure 11 QoS model
Ingress
Ports
Classify
Packets
Meter
Traffic
Perform
Actions
ACL
Filter
ACL
Meter
Drop/Pass/
Re-Mark
Queue and
Schedule
Egress
COS
Queue
The switch uses the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture to provide QoS functions. DiffServ
is described in IETF RFCs 2474 and 2475.
With DiffServ, you can establish policies to direct traffic. A policy is a traffic-controlling mechanism
that monitors the characteristics of the traffic, (for example, its source, destination, and protocol) and
performs a controlling action on the traffic when certain characteristics are matched.
The switch can classify traffic by reading the IEEE 802.1p priority value, or by using filters to match
specific criteria. When network traffic attributes match those specified in a traffic pattern, the policy
instructs the switch to perform specified actions on each packet that passes through it. The packets are
assigned to different Class of Service (COS) queues and scheduled for transmission.
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Quality of Service
The basic HP 10GbE switch QoS model works as follows:
•
Classify traffic:
○ Read 802.1p Priority.
○ Match ACL filter parameters.
•
Meter traffic:
○ Define bandwidth and burst parameters.
○ Select actions to perform on in-profile and out-of-profile traffic.
•
Perform actions:
○
○
○
○
•
Drop packets.
Pass packets.
Mark DSCP or 802.1p Priority.
Set COS queue (with or without re-marking).
Queue and schedule traffic:
○ Place packets in a COS queue (configurable as either 2 or 8 queues).
○ Schedule transmission based on the COS queue weight.
Using ACL filters
Access Control Lists are filters that allow you to classify and segment traffic, so you can provide different
levels of service to different traffic types. Each filter defines the conditions that must match for inclusion in
the filter, and also the actions that are performed when a match is made.
Summary of packet classifiers
The HP 10GbE switch allows you to classify packets based on various parameters, such as:
•
Ethernet
○
○
○
○
○
•
Source MAC address/mask
Destination MAC address/mask
VLAN number/mask
Ethernet type
Ethernet Priority, which is the IEEE 802.1p Priority
IPv4
○
○
○
○
Source IP address/mask
Destination IP address/mask
Type of Service value
IP protocol number: The protocol number or name as shown in the following table:
Table 14 Well-known protocol types
Number
Protocol Name
1
icmp
2
igmp
6
tcp
17
udp
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Quality of Service
Table 14 Well-known protocol types
Number
Protocol Name
89
ospf
112
vrrp
•
TCP/UDP
○ TCP/UDP application source port, as shown in the table titled “Well-Known Application Ports”
○ TCP/UDP application destination port, as shown in the table titled “Well-Known Application
Ports”
○ TCP/UDP flag value, as shown in the table titled “Well-Known TCP Flag Values”
Table 15 Well-known application ports
Number
TCP/UDP
Application
Number
TCP/UDP
Application
Number
TCP/UDP
Application
20
ftp-data
79
finger
179
irc
21
ftp
80
http
194
imap3
22
ssh
109
pop2
220
ldap
23
telnet
110
pop3
389
https
25
smtp
111
sunrpc
443
rip
37
time
119
nntp
520
rtsp
42
name
123
ntp
554
Radius
43
whois
143
imap
1645;1812
Radius
Accounting
53
domain
144
news
1813
hsrp
69
tftp
161
snmp
1985
70
gopher
162
snmptrap
Table 16 Well-krown TCP flag values
Flag
Value
URG
0x0020
ACK
0x0010
PSH
0x0008
RST
0x0004
SYN
0x0002
FIN
0x0001
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Quality of Service
•
Packet Format
○ Ethernet format (eth2, SNAP, LLC)
○ Ethernet tagging format
•
Egress port packets
Note that the egress port ACL will not match a broadcast, multicast, unknown unicast, or Layer 3
packet. The egress port ACL will not match packets if the destination port is a trunk member.
Summary of ACL actions
Actions determine how the traffic is treated. The HP 10GbE switch QoS actions include the following:
•
•
•
•
Pass or Drop
Re-mark a new DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)
Re-mark the 802.1p field
Set the COS queue
Understanding ACL precedence
Each ACL has a unique precedence level, based on its number. When an incoming packet matches the
highest precedence ACL, the ACL’s configured action takes place. The other assigned ACLs also are
considered, in order of precedence.
ACLs are divided into Precedence Groups, as shown in the following table.
Precedence Group
ACLs
Precedence Level
Precedence Group 1
ACL 1 – ACL 128
Low
Precedence Group 2
ACL 129 – ACL 256
Precedence Group 3
ACL 257 – ACL 384
High
NOTE: Precedence Groups are not related to ACL Groups.
Each Precedence Group has its own precedence level, such that Precedence Group 2 has a higher
precedence level than Precedence Group 1. Within each Precedence Group, higher-numbered ACLs
receive higher precedence, so that the lowest-numbered ACL has the lowest precedence level, and the
highest-numbered ACL has the highest precedence level. However, the other ACLs within the Precedence
Group have an unspecified precedence level, as follows:
ACL
ACL
ACL
...
ACL
ACL
ACL
1 = lowest precedence level within Precedence Group 1
2 = unspecified precedence level within Precedence Group 1
3 = unspecified precedence level within Precedence Group 1
126 = unspecified precedence level within Precedence Group 1
127 = unspecified precedence level within Precedence Group 1
128 = highest precedence level within Precedence Group 1
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Quality of Service
Using ACL Groups
Access Control Lists (ACLs) allow you to classify packets according to a particular content in the packet
header, such as the source address, destination address, source port number, destination port number,
and others. Packet classifiers identify flows for more processing.
You can define a traffic profile by compiling a number of ACLs into an ACL Group, and assigning the
ACL Group to a port.
ACL Groups are assigned and enabled on a per-port basis. Each ACL can be used by itself or in
combination with other ACLs or ACL Groups on a given switch port.
ACLs can be grouped in the following manner:
•
Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACLs) allow you to classify packets according to a particular content in the
packet header, such as the source address, destination address, source port number, destination port
number, and others. Packet classifiers identify flows for more processing.
The HP 10GbE switch supports up to 384 ACLs. Each ACL defines one filter rule. Each filter rule is a
collection of matching criteria, and can include an action (permit or deny the packet). For example:
ACL 200:
VLAN = 1
SIP = 10.10.10.1 (255.255.255.0)
Action = permit
•
Access Control Groups
An Access Control Group (ACL Group) is a collection of ACLs. For example:
ACL Group 1
ACL 382:
VLAN = 1
SIP = 10.10.10.1 (255.255.255.0)
Action = permit
ACL 383:
VLAN = 2
SIP = 10.10.10.2 (255.255.255.0)
Action = deny
ACL 384:
PRI = 7
DIP = 10.10.10.3 (255.255.0.0)
Action = permit
In the example above, each ACL defines a filter rule. ACL 383 has a higher precedence than
ACL 382, based on its number.
Use ACL Groups to create a traffic profile by gathering ACLs into an ACL Group, and assigning the
ACL Group to a port. The HP 10GbE switch supports up to 384 ACL Groups. Each ACL group
supports up to 96 ACLs.
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Quality of Service
ACL Metering and Re-marking
You can define a profile for the aggregate traffic flowing through the HP 10GbE switch, by configuring a
QoS meter (if desired), and assigning ACL Groups to ports. When you add ACL Groups to a port, make
sure they are ordered correctly in terms of precedence.
For example, consider two ACL Groups, ACL Group 1 and ACL Group 2. Each contains three levels of
precedence. If you add ACL Group 1 to a port, then add ACL Group 2 to the port, the port’s ACL filters
contain a total of six precedence levels. ACL Group 1 has precedence over ACL Group 2.
Each port supports up to seven precedence levels.
Actions taken by an ACL are called In-Profile actions. You can configure additional In-Profile and Out-ofProfile actions on a port. Data traffic can be metered, and re-marked to ensure that the traffic flow
provides certain levels of service in terms of bandwidth for different types of network traffic.
Metering
QoS metering provides different levels of service to data streams through user-configurable parameters. A
meter is used to measure the traffic stream against a traffic profile, which you create. Thus, creating
meters yields In-Profile and Out-of-Profile traffic for each ACL, as follows:
•
In-Profile—If there is no meter configured or if the packet conforms to the meter, the packet is
classified as In-Profile.
•
Out-of-Profile—If a meter is configured and the packet does not conform to the meter (exceeds the
committed rate or maximum burst rate of the meter), the packet is classified as Out-of-Profile.
Using meters, you set a Committed Rate in Kb/s (1024 bits per second in each Kb/s). All traffic within
this Committed Rate is In-Profile. Additionally, you set a Maximum Burst Size that specifies an allowed
data burst larger than the Committed Rate for a brief period. These parameters define the In-Profile traffic.
Meters keep the sorted packets within certain parameters. You can configure a meter on an ACL, and
perform actions on metered traffic, such as packet re-marking.
Re-marking
Re-marking allows for the treatment of packets to be reset based on new network specifications or desired
levels of service. You can configure the ACL to re-mark a packet as follows:
•
•
Change the DSCP value of a packet, used to specify the service level traffic should receive.
Change the 802.1p priority of a packet.
Viewing ACL statistics
ACL statistics display how many packets hit (matched) each ACL. Up to 64 statistic counters can be
displayed for each ACL Precedence Group. Use ACL statistics to check filter performance, and debug the
ACL filters.
You must enable statistics (cfg/acl/acl x/stats ena) for each ACL that you want to monitor.
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Quality of Service
ACL configuration examples
Configure Access Control Lists (CLI example)
The following configuration examples illustrate how to use Access Control Lists (ACLs) to block traffic.
These basic configurations illustrate common principles of ACL filtering.
NOTE: Each ACL filters traffic that ingresses on the port to which the ACL is added. The egrport
classifier filters traffic that ingresses the port to which the ACL is added, and then egresses the port
specified by egrport. In most common configurations, egrport is not used.
•
Example 1 Use this configuration to block traffic to a specific host.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
Main# /cfg/acl/acl 255
ACL 255# ipv4/dip 100.10.1.116 255.255.255.255
Filtering IPv4# ..
ACL 255# action deny
ACL 255# /cfg/port 20/aclqos
Port 20 ACL# add acl 255
Port 20 ACL# apply
Port 20 ACL# save
(Define ACL 255)
(Add ACL to port 20)
In this example, all traffic that ingresses on port 20 is denied if it is destined for the host at IP
address 100.10.1.116.
•
Example 2 Use this configuration to block traffic from a network destined for a specific host
address.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
Main# /cfg/acl/acl 256
ACL 256# ipv4/sip 100.10.1.0 255.255.255.0
ACL 256# ipv4/dip 200.20.1.116 255.255.255.255
Filtering IPv4# ..
ACL 256# action deny
ACL 256# /cfg/port 20/aclqos
Port 20 ACL# add acl 256
Port 20 ACL# apply
Port 20 ACL# save
(Define ACL 256)
(Add ACL to port 20)
In this example, all traffic that ingresses on port 20 with source IP from the class 100.10.1.0/24
and destination IP 200.20.1.116 is denied.
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Quality of Service
•
Example 3 Use this configuration to block traffic from a source that is destined for a specific egress
port.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
Main# /cfg/acl/acl 1
(Define ACL 1)
ACL 1# ethernet/smac 00:21:00:00:00:00 ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Filtering Ethernet# ..
ACL 1# action deny
ACL 1# stats e
ACL 1# /cfg/acl/acl 257
(Define ACL 257)
ACL 257# egrport 21
ACL 257# action deny
ACL 257# stats e
ACL 257# /cfg/port 20/aclqos
Port 20 ACL# add acl 1
(Add ACL 1 to port 20)
Port 20 ACL# add acl 257
(Add ACL 257 to port 20)
Port 20 ACL# apply
Port 20 ACL# save
In this example, all traffic (Layer 2 known unicast) that ingresses on port 20 from source MAC
00:21:00:00:00:00 and is destined for port 21 is denied.
Configure Access Control Lists and Groups (BBI example 1)
1. Configure Access Control Lists (ACLs).
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the Access Control Lists folder, and select Add ACL.
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Quality of Service
c. Configure the ACL parameters. Set the Filter Action to Deny, the Ethernet Type to IPv4, and the
Destination IP Address to 100.10.1.116.
d. Click Submit.
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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3. Add ACL 1 to port 1.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Select Switch Ports (click the underlined text, not the folder).
c. Select a port.
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d. Add the ACL to the port.
e. Click Submit.
4. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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Quality of Service
Using DSCP values to provide QoS
The six most significant bits in the TOS byte of the IP header are defined as DiffServ Code Points (DSCP).
Packets are marked with a certain value depending on the type of treatment the packet must receive in the
network device. DSCP is a measure of the Quality of Service (QoS) level of the packet.
Differentiated Services concepts
To differentiate between traffic flows, packets can be classified by their DSCP value. The Differentiated
Services (DS) field in the IP header is an octet, and the first six bits, called the DS Code Point (DSCP), can
provide QoS functions. Each packet carries its own QoS state in the DSCP. There are 64 possible DSCP
values (0-63).
Figure 12 Layer 3 IPv4 packet
The switch can perform the following actions to the DSCP:
•
•
•
Read the DSCP value of ingress packets
Re-mark the DSCP value to a new value
Map the DSCP value to an 802.1p priority
Once the DSCP value is marked, the switch can use it to direct traffic prioritization.
Per Hop Behavior
The DSCP value determines the Per Hop Behavior (PHB) of each packet. The PHB is the forwarding
treatment given to packets at each hop. QoS policies are built by applying a set of rules to packets,
based on the DSCP value, as they hop through the network.
The HP 10GbE switch default settings are based on the following standard PHBs, as defined in the IEEE
standards:
•
Expedited Forwarding (EF)—This PHB has the highest egress priority and lowest drop precedence
level. EF traffic is forwarded ahead of all other traffic. EF PHB is described in RFC 2598.
•
Assured Forwarding (AF)—This PHB contains four service levels, each with a different drop
precedence, as shown below. Routers use drop precedence to determine which packets to discard
last when the network becomes congested. AF PHB is described in RFC 2597.
Table 17 Assured forwarding drop-down precedence
Drop Precedence
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Low
AF11 (DSCP 10)
AF21 (DSCP 18)
AF31 (DSCP 26)
AF41 (DSCP 34)
Medium
AF12 (DSCP 12)
AF22 (DSCP 20)
AF32 (DSCP 28)
AF42 (DSCP 36)
High
AF13 (DSCP 14)
AF23 (DSCP 22)
AF33 (DSCP 30)
AF43 (DSCP 38)
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Quality of Service
•
Class Selector (CS)—This PHB has eight priority classes, with CS7 representing the highest priority,
and CS0 representing the lowest priority, as shown below. CS PHB is described in RFC 2474.
Table 18 Class selector priority classes
Priority
Class Selector
DSCP
Highest
CS7
56
CS6
48
CS5
40
CS4
32
CS3
24
CS2
16
CS1
8
CS0
0
Lowest
QoS levels
The following table shows the default service levels provided by the switch, listed from highest to lowest
importance:
Table 19 Default QoS service levels
Service Level
Default PHB
802.1p Priority
Critical
CS7
7
Network Control
CS6
6
Premium
EF, CS5
5
Platinum
AF41, AF42, AF43, CS4
4
Gold
AF31, AF32, AF33, CS3
3
Silver
AF21, AF22, AF23, CS2
2
Bronze
AF11, AF12, AF13, CS1
1
Using 802.1p priorities to provide QoS
The HP 10GbE switch software provides Quality of Service functions based on the priority bits in a
packet’s VLAN header. (The priority bits are defined by the 802.1p standard within the IEEE 802.1q
VLAN header.) The 802.1p bits, if present in the packet, specify the priority given to packets during
forwarding. Packets with a numerically higher (non-zero) priority are given forwarding preference over
packets with lower priority.
Packets with a priority mapped to a higher Class of Service (COS) and COS queue (COSq) weight are
given forwarding preference over packets with priority mapped to a lower COS and COSq weight. The
scheduling scheme is Weight Round Robin (WRR), with user-configurable weight from 0 to 15 for a
COSq. The switch can be configured with either two or eight output Class of Service queues (COSq).
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Quality of Service
The IEEE 802.1p standard uses eight levels of priority (0-7). Priority 7 is assigned to highest priority
network traffic, such as OSPF or RIP routing table updates, priorities 5-6 are assigned to delay-sensitive
applications such as voice and video, and lower priorities are assigned to standard applications. A value
of 0 (zero) indicates a best effort traffic prioritization, and this is the default when traffic priority has not
been configured on your network. The switch can filter packets based on the 802.1p values, and it can
assign or overwrite the 802.1p value in the packet.
Figure 13 Layer 2 802.1q/802.1p VLAN tagged packet
Ingress packets receive a priority value, as follows:
•
•
Tagged packets—the switch reads the 802.1p priority in the VLAN tag.
Untagged packets—the switch tags the packet and assigns an 802.1p priority, based on the port’s
default priority (/cfg/port x/8021ppri).
Egress packets are placed in a COS queue based on the priority value, and scheduled for transmission
based on the scheduling weight of the COS queue.
Use the /cfg/qos/8021p/cur command to display the mapping between 802.1p values, Class of
Service queues (COSq), and COSq scheduling weights.
>> 802.1p# cur
Current priority to COS queue configuration:
Number of COSq: 2
Priority COSq Weight
-------- ---- -----0
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
3
0
1
4
1
2
5
1
2
6
1
2
7
1
2
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Quality of Service
802.1p configuration (CLI example)
1. Configure a port’s default 802.1 priority.
>> Main# cfg/port 20
(Select port)
>> Port 20# 8021ppri
(Set port’s default 802.1p priority)
Current 802.1p priority: 0
Enter new 802.1p priority [0-7]: 1
>> Port 20# apply
2. Map the 802.1p priority value to a COS queue and set the COS queue scheduling weight.
>> Main# cfg/qos/8021p
(Select 802.1p menu)
>> 802.1p# priq
(Set COS queue assignments)
Enter priority [0-7]: 1
Current COS queue (for priority 1): 0
Enter new COS queue (for priority 1) [0-1]: 1
>> 802.1p# qweight
(Set COS queue weights)
Enter COS queue [0-2]: 1
Current weight (for COS queue 1): 0
Enter new weight (for COS queue 1) [0-15]: 1
>> 802.1p# apply
802.1p configuration (BBI example)
1. Configure a port’s default 802.1p priority.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Select Switch Ports (click the underlined text, not the folder).
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Quality of Service
c. Select a port.
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Quality of Service
d. Set the 802.1p priority value.
e. Click Submit.
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Quality of Service
2. Map the 802.1p priority value to a COS queue.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the 802.1p folder, and select Priority - CoS.
c. Select an 802.1p priority value.
d. Select a Class of Service queue (CoSQ) to correlate with the 802.1p priority value.
e. Click Submit.
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Quality of Service
3. Set the COS queue scheduling weight.
a. Click the Configure context button on the Toolbar.
b. Open the 802.1p folder, and select CoS - Weight.
c. Select a Class of Service queue (CoS).
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Quality of Service
d. Enter a value for the weight of the Class of Service queue.
e. Click Submit.
4. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
Queuing and scheduling
The switch can be configured with either two or eight output Class of Service queues (COSq), into which
each packet is placed. Each packet’s 802.1p priority determines its COSq, except when an ACL action
sets the COSq of the packet.
Each COS queue uses Weighted Round Robin (WRR) scheduling, with user-configurable weight from
0 to 15. The weight of 0 (zero) indicates strict priority, which might starve the low priority queues.
You can configure the following attributes for COS queues:
•
•
Map 802.1p priority value to a COS queue.
Define the scheduling weight of each COS queue.
Use the 802.1p menu (/cfg/qos/8021p) to configure Class of Service queues.
105
Basic IP routing
Basic IP routing
This chapter provides configuration background and examples for using the HP 10GbE switch to perform
IP routing functions. The following topics are addressed in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
IP Routing Benefits
Routing Between IP Subnets
Example of Subnet Routing
Defining IP Address Ranges for the Local Route Cache
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
IP routing benefits
The switch uses a combination of configurable IP switch interfaces and IP routing options. The switch IP
routing capabilities provide the following benefits:
•
•
Connects the server IP subnets to the rest of the backbone network.
•
Provides the ability to route IP traffic between multiple Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)
configured on the switch.
Provides another means to invisibly introduce Jumbo frame technology into the server-switched
network by automatically fragmenting UDP Jumbo frames when routing to non-Jumbo frame VLANs
or subnets.
Routing between IP subnets
The physical layout of most corporate networks has evolved over time. Classic hub/router topologies
have given way to faster switched topologies, particularly now that switches are increasingly intelligent.
HP 10GbE switches are intelligent and fast enough to perform routing functions on a par with wire speed
Layer 2 switching.
The combination of faster routing and switching in a single device provides another service—it allows you
to build versatile topologies that account for legacy configurations.
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Basic IP routing
For example, consider the following topology migration:
Figure 14 Router legacy network
In this example, a corporate campus has migrated from a router-centric topology to a faster, more
powerful, switch-based topology. As is often the case, the legacy of network growth and redesign has left
the system with a mix of illogically distributed subnets.
This is a situation that switching alone cannot cure. Instead, the router is flooded with cross-subnet
communication. This compromises efficiency in two ways:
•
Routers can be slower than switches. The cross-subnet side trip from the switch to the router and back
again adds two hops for the data, slowing throughput considerably.
•
Traffic to the router increases, increasing congestion.
Even if every end-station could be moved to better logical subnets (a daunting task), competition for
access to common server pools on different subnets still burdens the routers.
This problem is solved by using HP 10GbE switch with built-in IP routing capabilities. Cross-subnet LAN
traffic can now be routed within the switches with wire speed Layer 2 switching performance. This not
only eases the load on the router but saves the network administrators from reconfiguring each and every
end-station with new IP addresses.
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Basic IP routing
Take a closer look at the HP 10GbE switch in the following configuration example:
Figure 15 Switch-based routing topology
The switch connects the Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet trunks from various switched subnets
throughout one building. Common servers are placed on another subnet attached to the switch. Primary
and backup routers are attached to the switch on yet another subnet.
Without Layer 3 IP routing on the switch, cross-subnet communication is relayed to the default gateway (in
this case, the router) for the next level of routing intelligence. The router fills in the necessary address
information and sends the data back to the switch, which then relays the packet to the proper destination
subnet using Layer 2 switching.
With Layer 3 IP routing in place on the switch, routing between different IP subnets can be accomplished
entirely within the switch. This leaves the routers free to handle inbound and outbound traffic for this
group of subnets.
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Basic IP routing
Example of subnet routing
Prior to configuring, you must be connected to the switch Command Line Interface (CLI) as the
administrator.
NOTE: For details about accessing and using any of the menu commands described in this
example, see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference.
1. Assign an IP address (or document the existing one) for each router and client workstation.
2. In the example topology, the following IP addresses are used:
Table 20 Subnet routing example: IP address assignments
Subnet
Devices
IP Addresses
1
Primary and Secondary Default Routers
205.21.17.1 and 205.21.17.2
2
First Floor Client Workstations
100.20.10.2-254
3
Second Floor Client Workstations
131.15.15.2-254
4
Common Servers
206.30.15.2-254
3. Assign an IP interface for each subnet attached to the switch.
4. Since there are four IP subnets connected to the switch, four IP interfaces are needed:
Table 21 Subnet routing example: IP interface assignments
Interface
Devices
IP Interface Address
IF 1
Primary and Secondary Default Routers
205.21.17.3
IF 2
First Floor Client Workstations
100.20.10.1
IF 3
Second Floor Client Workstations
131.15.15.1
IF 4
Common Servers
206.30.15.1
5. IP interfaces are configured using the following commands at the CLI:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/if
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
1
1#
1#
1#
2#
2#
2#
3#
3#
3#
4#
4#
addr 205.21.17.3
ena
../if 2
addr 100.20.10.1
ena
../if 3
addr 131.15.15.1
ena
../if 4
addr 206.30.15.1
ena
(Select
(Assign
(Enable
(Select
(Assign
(Enable
(Select
(Assign
(Enable
(Select
(Assign
(Enable
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
interface
address)
interface
interface
address)
interface
interface
address)
interface
interface
address)
interface
1)
1)
2)
2)
3)
3)
4)
5)
6. Set each server and workstation’s default gateway to the appropriate switch IP interface (the one in
the same subnet as the server or workstation).
7. Configure the default gateways to the routers’ addresses.
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Basic IP routing
8. Configuring the default gateways allows the switch to send outbound traffic to the routers:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
IP Interface 5#
Default gateway
Default gateway
Default gateway
Default gateway
Default gateway
../gw 1
(Select primary default gateway)
1# addr 205.21.17.1(Assign IP address)
1# ena
(Enable primary default gateway)
1# ../gw 2
(Select secondary default gateway)
2# addr 205.21.17.2 (Assign address)
2# ena
(Enable secondary default gateway)
9. Enable, apply, and verify the configuration.
>>
>>
>>
>>
Default gateway 2# ../fwrd
IP Forwarding# on
IP Forwarding# apply
IP Forwarding# /cfg/l3/cur
(Select the IP Forwarding Menu)
(Turn IP forwarding on)
(Make your changes active)
(View current IP settings)
10. Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make the appropriate changes.
11. Save your new configuration changes.
>> IP Forwarding # save
(Save for restore after reboot)
Using VLANs to segregate broadcast domains
In the previous example, devices that share a common IP network are all in the same broadcast domain. If
you want to limit the broadcasts on your network, you could use VLANs to create distinct broadcast
domains. For example, as shown in the following procedure, you could create one VLAN for the client
trunks, one for the routers, and one for the servers.
In this example, you are adding to the previous configuration.
1. Determine which switch ports and IP interfaces belong to which VLANs.
2. The following table adds port and VLAN information:
Table 22 Subnet routing example: Optional VLAN ports
VLAN
Devices
IP Interface
Switch Port
VLAN #
1
First Floor Client Workstations
2
20
1
Second Floor Client Workstations
3
21
1
Primary Default Router
1
18
2
Secondary Default Router
1
19
2
Common Servers 1
4
1
3
Common Servers 2
4
2
3
2
3
3. Add the switch ports to their respective VLANs.
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Basic IP routing
4. The VLANs shown in the table above are configured as follows:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l2/vlan 1(Select VLAN 1)
VLAN 1# add port 20
VLAN 1# add port 21
VLAN 1# ena
VLAN 1# ../VLAN 2
VLAN 2# add port 18
VLAN 2# add port 19
VLAN 2# ena
VLAN 2# ../VLAN 3
VLAN 3# add port 1
VLAN 3# add port 2
VLAN 3# ena
(Add port for 1st floor to VLAN 1)
(Add port for 2nd floor to VLAN 1)
(Enable VLAN 1)
(Select VLAN 2)
(Add port for default router 1)
(Add port for default router 2)
(Enable VLAN 2)
(Add port for default router 3)
(Select VLAN 3)
(Select port for common server 1)
(Enable VLAN 3)
5. Each time you add a port to a VLAN, you may get the following prompt:
Port 4 is an untagged port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]?
6. Enter y to set the default Port VLAN ID (PVID) for the port.
7. Add each IP interface to the appropriate VLAN.
8. Now that the ports are separated into three VLANs, the IP interface for each subnet must be placed
in the appropriate VLAN. The settings are made as follows:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
VLAN 3# /cfg/l3/if 1
IP Interface 1# vlan 2
IP Interface 1# ../if 2
IP Interface 2# vlan 1
IP Interface 2# ../if 3
IP Interface 3# vlan 1
IP Interface 3# ../if 4
IP Interface 4# vlan 3
(Select
(Set to
(Select
(Set to
(Select
(Set to
(Select
(Set to
IP interface
VLAN 2)
IP interface
VLAN 1)
IP interface
VLAN 1)
IP interface
VLAN 3)
1 for def. routers)
2 for first floor)
3 for second floor)
4 for servers)
9. Apply and verify the configuration.
>> IP Interface 4# apply
>> IP Interface 4# /info/l2/vlan
>> Information# port
(Make your changes active)
(View current VLAN information)
(View current port information)
10. Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make the appropriate changes.
11. Save your new configuration changes.
>> Information# save
(Save for restore after reboot)
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Basic IP routing
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a transport protocol that provides a framework for
automatically assigning IP addresses and configuration information to other IP hosts or clients in a large
TCP/IP network. Without DHCP, the IP address must be entered manually for each network device. DHCP
allows a network administrator to distribute IP addresses from a central point and automatically send a
new IP address when a device is connected to a different place in the network.
DHCP is an extension of another network IP management protocol, Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), with an
additional capability of being able to dynamically allocate reusable network addresses and configuration
parameters for client operation.
Built on the client/server model, DHCP allows hosts or clients on an IP network to obtain their
configurations from a DHCP server, thereby reducing network administration. The most significant
configuration the client receives from the server is its required IP address; (other optional parameters
include the generic file name to be booted, the address of the default gateway, and so forth).
The DHCP relay agent eliminates the need to have DHCP/BOOTP servers on every subnet. It allows the
administrator to reduce the number of DHCP servers deployed on the network and to centralize them.
Without the DHCP relay agent, there must be at least one DHCP server deployed at each subnet that has
hosts needing to perform the DHCP request.
DHCP relay agent
DHCP is described in RFC 2131, and the DHCP relay agent supported on HP 10GbE switches is
described in RFC 1542. DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol. The client sends messages to the server
on port 67 and the server sends messages to the client on port 68.
DHCP defines the methods through which clients can be assigned an IP address for a finite lease period
and allowing reassignment of the IP address to another client later. Additionally, DHCP provides the
mechanism for a client to gather other IP configuration parameters it needs to operate in the TCP/IP
network.
In the DHCP environment, the switch acts as a relay agent. The DHCP relay feature (/cfg/l3/bootp)
enables the switch to forward a client request for an IP address to two BOOTP servers with IP addresses
that have been configured on the switch.
When a switch receives a UDP broadcast on port 67 from a DHCP client requesting an IP address, the
switch acts as a proxy for the client, replacing the client source IP (SIP) and destination IP (DIP) addresses.
The request is then forwarded as a UDP Unicast MAC layer message to two BOOTP servers whose IP
addresses are configured on the switch. The servers respond as a UDP Unicast message back to the
switch, with the default gateway and IP address for the client. The destination IP address in the server
response represents the interface address on the switch that received the client request. This interface
address tells the switch on which VLAN to send the server response to the client.
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Basic IP routing
DHCP relay agent configuration
To enable the switch to be the BOOTP forwarder, you need to configure the DHCP/BOOTP server IP
addresses on the switch. Generally, you should configure the command on the switch IP interface closest
to the client so that the DHCP server knows from which IP subnet the newly allocated IP address should
come.
The following figure shows a basic DHCP network example:
Figure 16 DHCP relay agent configuration
In HP 10GbE switch implementation, there is no need for primary or secondary servers. The client request
is forwarded to the BOOTP servers configured on the switch. The use of two servers provides failover
redundancy. However, no health checking is supported.
Use the following commands to configure the switch as a DHCP relay agent:
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/bootp
Bootstrap Protocol
Bootstrap Protocol
Bootstrap Protocol
Bootstrap Protocol
Bootstrap Protocol
Relay#
Relay#
Relay#
Relay#
Relay#
addr
addr2
on
off
cur
(Set IP address of BOOTP server)
(Set IP address of 2nd BOOTP server)
(Globally turn BOOTP relay on)
(Globally turn BOOTP relay off)
(Display current configuration)
Additionally, DHCP Relay functionality can be assigned on a per interface basis. Use the following
command to enable the Relay functionality:
>> # /cfg/l3/if <1-249>/relay ena
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Routing Information Protocol
Routing Information Protocol
In a routed environment, routers communicate with one another to keep track of available routes. Routers
can learn about available routes dynamically, using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). HP 10GbE
switch software supports RIP version 1 (RIPv1) and RIP version 2 (RIPv2) for exchanging TCP/IP route
information with other routers.
Distance vector protocol
RIP is known as a distance vector protocol. The vector is the network number and next hop, and the
distance is the cost associated with the network number. RIP identifies network reachability based on cost,
and cost is defined as hop count. One hop is considered to be the distance from one switch to the next
which is typically 1. This cost or hop count is known as the metric.
When a switch receives a routing update that contains a new or changed destination network entry, the
switch adds 1 to the metric value indicated in the update and enters the network in the routing table. The
IP address of the sender is used as the next hop.
Stability
RIP includes a number of other stability features that are common to many routing protocols. For example,
RIP implements the split horizon and hold-down mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from
being propagated.
RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by implementing a limit on the number of hops
allowed in a path from the source to a destination. The maximum number of hops in a path is 15. The
network destination network is considered unreachable if increasing the metric value by 1 causes the
metric to be 16 (that is infinity). This limits the maximum diameter of a RIP network to less than 16 hops.
RIP is often used in stub networks and in small autonomous systems that do not have many redundant
paths.
Routing updates
RIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. Each
router advertises routing information by sending a routing information update every 30 seconds. If a
router doesn’t receive an update from another router for 180 seconds, those routes provided by that
router are declared invalid. After another 120 seconds without receiving an update for those routes, the
routes are removed from the routing table and respective regular updates.
When a router receives a routing update that includes changes to an entry, it updates its routing table to
reflect the new route. The metric value for the path is increased by 1, and the sender is indicated as the
next hop. RIP routers maintain only the best route (the route with the lowest metric value) to a destination.
For more information see The Configuration Menu, Routing Information Protocol Configuration
(/cfg/l3/rip) in the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference.
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Routing Information Protocol
RIPv1
RIP version 1 use broadcast User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets for the regular routing updates.
The main disadvantage is that the routing updates do not carry subnet mask information. Hence, the
router cannot determine whether the route is a subnet route or a host route. It is of limited usage after the
introduction of RIPv2. For more information about RIPv1 and RIPv2, refer to RFC 1058 and RFC 2453.
RIPv2
RIPv2 is the most popular and preferred configuration for most networks. RIPv2 expands the amount of
useful information carried in RIP messages and provides a measure of security. For a detailed explanation
of RIPv2, refer to RFC 1723 and RFC 2453.
RIPv2 improves efficiency by using multicast UDP (address 224.0.0.9) data packets for regular routing
updates. Subnet mask information is provided in the routing updates. A security option is added for
authenticating routing updates, by using a shared password. HP 10GbE switch software supports using
clear password for RIPv2.
RIPv2 in RIPv1 compatibility mode
HP 10GbE switch software allows you to configure RIPv2 in RIPv1compatibility mode, for using both RIPv2
and RIPv1 routers within a network. In this mode, the regular routing updates use broadcast UDP data
packet to allow RIPv1 routers to receive those packets. With RIPv1 routers as recipients, the routing
updates have to carry natural or host mask. Hence, it is not a recommended configuration for most
network topologies.
NOTE: When using both RIPv1 and RIPv2 within a network, use a single subnet mask throughout
the network.
RIP Features
HP 10GbE switch software provides the following features to support RIPv1 and RIPv2:
Poison
Simple split horizon in RIP scheme omits routes learned from one neighbor in updates sent to that
neighbor. That is the most common configuration used in RIP that is setting this Poison to disable. Split
horizon with poisoned reverse includes such routes in updates, but sets their metrics to 16. The
disadvantage of using this feature is the increase of size in the routing updates.
Triggered updates
Triggered updates are an attempt to speed up convergence. When Triggered Updates is enabled
(/cfg/l3/rip/if x/trigg ena), whenever a router changes the metric for a route, it sends update
messages almost immediately, without waiting for the regular update interval. It is recommended to
enable Triggered Updates.
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Routing Information Protocol
Multicast
RIPv2 messages use IP multicast address (224.0.0.9) for periodic broadcasts. Multicast RIPv2
announcements are not processed by RIPv1 routers. IGMP is not needed since these are inter-router
messages which are not forwarded.
To configure RIPv2 in RIPv1-compatibility mode, set multicast to disable.
Default
The RIP router can listen and supply a default route, usually represented as 0.0.0.0 in the routing table.
When a router does not have an explicit route to a destination network in its routing table, it uses the
default route to forward those packets.
Metric
The metric field contains a configurable value between 1 and 15 (inclusive) which specifies the current
metric for the interface. The metric value typically indicates the total number of hops to the destination.
The metric value of 16 represents an unreachable destination.
Authentication
RIPv2 authentication uses plaintext password for authentication. If configured using Authentication
password, then it is necessary to enter an authentication key value.
The following method is used to authenticate a RIP message:
•
If the router is not configured to authenticate RIPv2 messages, then RIPv1 and unauthenticated RIPv2
messages are accepted; authenticated RIPv2 messages are discarded.
•
If the router is configured to authenticate RIPv2 messages, then RIPv1 messages and RIPv2 messages
which pass authentication testing are accepted; unauthenticated and failed authentication RIPv2
messages are discarded.
For maximum security, RIPv1 messages are ignored when authentication is enabled (cfg/l3/rip/if
x/auth password); otherwise, the routing information from authenticated messages is propagated by
RIPv1 routers in an unauthenticated manner.
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Routing Information Protocol
RIP configuration example
NOTE: An interface RIP disabled uses all the default values of the RIP, no matter how the RIP
parameters are configured for that interface. RIP sends out RIP regular updates to include an Up
interface, but not a Down interface.
1. Add VLANs for routing interfaces.
>> Main# cfg/l2/vlan 2/ena
>> VLAN 2# add 20
(Enable VLAN 2)
(Add port 20 to VLAN 2)
Port 20 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]: y
>> VLAN 2# /cfg/l2/vlan 3/ena
>> VLAN 3# add 21
(Enable VLAN 3)
(Add port 21 to VLAN 3)
Port 21 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 3 [y/n]: y
2. Add IP interfaces to VLANs.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
Main# cfg/l3/if
IP Interface 2#
IP Interface 2#
IP Interface 2#
IP Interface 3#
IP Interface 3#
2/ena
addr 102.1.1.1
vlan 2
/cfg/l3/if 3/ena
addr 103.1.1.1
vlan 3
(Enable interface 2)
(Define IP address for interface 2)
(Add interface 2 to VLAN 2)
(Enable interface 3)
(Define IP address for interface 3)
(Add interface 3 to VLAN 3)
3. Turn on RIP globally and enable RIP for each interface. IP Forwarding must be on
(/cfg/l3/frwd/on) before you turn RIP on.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
Main# cfg/l3/rip on
(Turn on RIP globally)
Routing Information Protocol# if 2/ena (Enable RIP on IP interface 2)
RIP Interface 2# ..
Routing Information Protocol# if 3/ena (Enable RIP on IP interface 3)
RIP Interface 3# apply
(Apply your changes)
RIP Interface 3# save
(Save the configuration)
Use the /maint/route/dump command to check the current valid routes in the routing table of the
switch.
For those RIP learned routes, within the garbage collection period, that are routes phasing out of the
routing table with metric 16, use the /info/l3/rip/routes command. Locally configured static routes
do not appear in the RIP Routes table.
117
IGMP Snooping
IGMP Snooping
Introduction
IGMP Snooping allows the switch to forward multicast traffic only to those ports that request it. IGMP
Snooping prevents multicast traffic from being flooded to all data ports. The switch learns which server
hosts are interested in receiving multicast traffic, and forwards it only to ports connected to those servers.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Overview
IGMPv3
FastLeave
IGMP Filtering
Static Multicast Router
IGMP Snooping Configuration example
Overview
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by IP Multicast routers to learn about the existence of
host group members on their directly attached subnet (see RFC 2236). The IP Multicast routers get this
information by broadcasting IGMP Query Reports and listening for IP hosts reporting their host group
memberships. This process is used to set up a client/server relationship between an IP Multicast source
that provides the data streams and the clients that want to receive the data.
IGMP Snooping conserves bandwidth. With IGMP Snooping, the switch learns which ports are interested
in receiving multicast data, and forwards multicast data only to those ports. In this way, other ports are
not burdened with unwanted multicast traffic.
The switch currently supports snooping for IGMP version 1, version 2, and version 3.
The switch can sense IGMP Membership Reports from attached host servers and act as a proxy to set up a
dedicated path between the requesting host and a local IP Multicast router. After the pathway is
established, the switch blocks the IP Multicast stream from flowing through any port that does not connect
to a host member, thus conserving bandwidth.
The client-server path is set up as follows:
•
An IP Multicast Router (Mrouter) sends Membership Queries to the switch, which forwards them to all
ports in a given VLAN.
•
Hosts that want to receive the multicast data stream send Membership Reports to the switch, which
sends a proxy Membership Report to the Mrouter.
•
The switch sets up a path between the Mrouter and the host, and blocks all other ports from
receiving the multicast.
•
Periodically, the Mrouter sends Membership Queries to ensure that the host wants to continue
receiving the multicast. If the host fails to respond with a Membership Report, the Mrouter stops
sending the multicast to that path.
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IGMP Snooping
•
The host can send an IGMPv2 Leave report to the switch, which sends a proxy Leave report to the
Mrouter. The multicast path is terminated immediately.
A maximum of 8 VLANs can be configured for IGMP Snooping. The switch can learn up to 16 multicast
routers, and supports up to 1,000 multicast groups.
IGMPv3
IGMPv3 includes new membership report messages to extend IGMP functionality. The switch provides
snooping capability for all types of IGMP version 3 (IGMPv3) Membership Reports, as described in
RFC 3376.
IGMPv3 supports Source-Specific Multicast (SSM). SSM identifies session traffic by both source and group
addresses. The switch uses source filtering, which allows hosts to report interest in receiving multicast
packets only from specific source addresses, or from all but specific source addresses.
The switch supports the following IGMPv3 filter modes:
•
INCLUDE mode: The host requests membership to a multicast group and provides a list of IP
addresses from which it wants to receive traffic.
•
EXCLUDE mode: The host requests membership to a multicast group and provides a list of IP
addresses from which it does not want to receive traffic. This indicates that the host wants to receive
traffic only from sources that are not part of the Exclude list.
To disable snooping on EXCLUDE mode reports, use the following command:
/cfg/l3/igmp/snoop/igmpv3/exclude dis
By default, the switch snoops the first eight sources listed in the IGMPv3 Group Record. Use the following
command to change the number of snooping sources:
/cfg/l3/igmp/snoop/igmpv3/sources <1-64>
IGMPv3 Snooping is compatible with IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Snooping. You can disable snooping on
version 1 and version 2 reports, using the following command:
/cfg/l3/igmp/snoop/igmpv3/v1v2 dis
FastLeave
When the switch with IGMP Snooping enabled receives an IGMPv2 leave message, it sends a GroupSpecific Query to determine if any other devices in the same group (and on the same port) are still
interested in the specified multicast group traffic. The switch removes the affiliated port from that particular
group, if the following conditions apply:
•
If the switch does not receive an IGMP Membership Report message within the query-responseinterval
•
If no multicast routers have been learned on that port.
With FastLeave enabled on the VLAN, a port can be removed immediately from the port list of the group
entry when the IGMP Leave message is received, unless a multicast router was learned on the port.
Enable FastLeave only on VLANs that have only one host connected to each physical port.
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IGMP Snooping
IGMP Filtering
With IGMP Filtering, you can allow or deny a port to send and receive multicast traffic to certain multicast
groups. Unauthorized users are restricted from streaming multicast traffic across the network.
If access to a multicast group is denied, IGMP Membership Reports from the port for that group are
dropped, and the port is not allowed to receive IP multicast traffic from that group. If access to the
multicast group is allowed, Membership Reports from the port are forwarded for normal processing.
To configure IGMP Filtering, you must globally enable IGMP Filtering, define an IGMP Filter, assign the
filter to a port, and enable IGMP Filtering on the port. To define an IGMP Filter, you must configure a
range of IP multicast groups, choose whether the filter will allow or deny multicast traffic for groups within
the range, and enable the filter.
NOTE: Low-numbered filters take precedence over high-number filters. For example, the action
defined for IGMP Filter 1 supersedes the action defined for IGMP Filter 2.
Configuring the range
Each IGMP Filter allows you to set a start and end point that defines the range of IP addresses upon
which the filter takes action. Each IP address in the range must be between 224.0.0.0 and
239.255.255.255.
Configuring the action
Each IGMP Filter can allow or deny IP multicasts to the range of IP addresses configured. If you configure
the filter to deny IP multicasts, then IGMP Membership Reports from multicast groups within the range are
dropped.
You can configure a secondary filter to allow IP multicasts to a small range of addresses within a larger
range that a primary filter is configured to deny. The two filters work together to allow IP multicasts to a
small subset of addresses within the larger range of addresses. The secondary filter must have a lower
number than the primary filter, so that it takes precedence.
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IGMP Snooping
Static multicast router
A static multicast router (Mrouter) can be configured for a particular port on a particular VLAN. A static
Mrouter does not have to be learned through IGMP Snooping.
You can configure static Mrouters on any switch port except the management port 17. The switch
supports up to total of sixteen static Mrouters.
When you configure a static Mrouter on a VLAN, it replaces any dynamic Mrouters learned through
IGMP Snooping.
IGMP Snooping configuration example
This section provides steps to configure IGMP Snooping on the switch, using the Command Line Interface
(CLI) or the Browser-based Interface (BBI).
Configuring IGMP Snooping (CLI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch, as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs (CLI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter.
2. Add VLANs to IGMP Snooping and enable the feature.
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/l3/igmp/on
IGMP# snoop
IGMP Snoop# add 1
IGMP Snoop# apply
(Globally turn IGMP on)
(Select IGMP Snooping menu)
(Add VLAN 1 to IGMP Snooping)
(Make your changes active)
3. Enable IGMPv3 Snooping (optional).
>> IGMP Snoop# igmpv3
>> IGMP V3 Snoop# ena
(Select IGMPv3 menu)
(Enable IGMPv3 Snooping)
4. Apply and save the configuration.
>> IGMP V3 Snoop# apply
>> IGMP V3 Snoop# save
(Apply the configuration)
(Save your changes)
5. View dynamic IGMP information.
>> /info/l3/igmp
>> IGMP Multicast# dump
(Select IGMP Information menu)
(Show IGMP Group information)
Note: Local groups (224.0.0.x) are not snooped and will not appear.
Source
Group
VLAN
Port
Version
Mode Expires
Fwd
--------------- --------------- ------ ------- -------- ---- ---------- --224.10.2.0
232.1.0.0
2
18
V3
INC
4:17
Yes
228.12.1.0
232.1.0.4
2
18
V3
INC
4:18
Yes
*
235.2.0.1
3
21
V3
INC
-
No
*
236.1.0.2
3
21
V3
EXC
-
Yes
>> /info/l3/igmp/mrouter
>> Mrouter# dump
VLAN
Port
Version
Expires
(Access Mrouter information menu)
(Show IGMP Group information)
Max Query Resp. Time QRV QQIC
------ ------- -------- -------- -------------------- --- ---1
21
V2
static
unknown
-
-
2
20
V3
4:09
128
2
125
These commands display information about IGMP Groups and Mrouters learned through IGMP Snooping.
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IGMP Snooping
Configuring IGMP Filtering (CLI example)
1. Enable IGMP Filtering on the switch.
>> /cfg/l3/igmp/igmpflt
>> IGMP Filter# ena
Current status: disabled
New status: enabled
(Select IGMP Filtering menu)
(Enable IGMP Filtering)
2. Define an IGMP Filter.
>> //cfg/l3/igmp/igmpflt
(Select IGMP Filtering menu)
>>IGMP Filter# filter 1
(Select Filter 1 Definition menu)
>>IGMP Filter 1 Definition# range 224.0.1.0 (Enter first IP
address of the range)
Current multicast address2:
Enter new multicast address2: 226.0.0.0
(Enter second IP
address of the range)
Current multicast address1:
New pending multicast address1: 224.0.1.0
Current multicast address2:
New pending multicast address2: 226.0.0.0
>>IGMP Filter 1 Definition# action deny (Deny multicast traffic)
>>IGMP Filter 1 Definition# ena
(Enable the filter)
3. Assign the IGMP Filter to a port.
>> //cfg/l3/igmp/igmpflt
(Select IGMP Filtering menu)
>>IGMP Filter# port 21
(Select port 21)
>>IGMP Port 21# filt ena
(Enable IGMP Filtering on the port)
Current port 21 filtering: disabled
New port 21 filtering: enabled
>>IGMP Port 21# add 1
(Add IGMP Filter 1 to the port)
>>IGMP Port 21# apply
(Make your changes active
Configuring a Static Mrouter (CLI example)
1. Configure a port to which the static Mrouter is connected, and enter the appropriate VLAN.
>> /cfg/l3/igmp/mrouter
>> Static Multicast Router# add 20
(Select IGMP Mrouter menu)
(Add port 20 as Static
Mrouter port)
Enter VLAN number: (1-4094) 1
(Enter the VLAN number)
Enter the version number of mrouter [1|2|3]: 2 (Enter the IGMP
version number)
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
>> Static Multicast Router# apply
>> Static Multicast Router# cur
>> Static Multicast Router# save
(Apply the configuration)
(View the configuration)
(Save the configuration)
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IGMP Snooping
Configuring IGMP Snooping (BBI example)
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch, as described in the “Configuring ports and
VLANs (BBI example)” section in the “VLANs” chapter.
2. Configure IGMP Snooping.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the IGMP folder, and select IGMP Snooping (click the underlined text, not the folder).
123
IGMP Snooping
c. Enable IGMP Snooping.
d. Click Submit.
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
124
IGMP Snooping
Configuring IGMP Filtering (BBI example)
1. Configure IGMP Snooping.
2. Enable IGMP Filtering.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the IGMP folder, and select IGMP Filters (click the underlined text, not the folder).
c. Enable IGMP Filtering globally.
d. Click Submit.
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IGMP Snooping
3. Define the IGMP Filter.
a. Select Layer 3 > IGMP > IGMP Filters > Add Filter.
b. Enable the IGMP Filter. Assign the range of IP multicast addresses and the filter action (allow or
deny).
c. Click Submit.
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IGMP Snooping
4. Assign the filter to a port and enable IGMP Filtering on the port.
a. Select Layer 3 > IGMP > IGMP Filters > Switch Ports.
b. Select a port from the list.
127
IGMP Snooping
c. Enable IGMP Filtering on the port. Select a filter in the IGMP Filters Available list, and click Add.
d. Click Submit.
5. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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IGMP Snooping
Configuring a Static Multicast Router (BBI example)
1. Configure Static Mrouter.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder and select Layer 3 > IGMP > IGMP Static Mrouter > Add
Mrouter.
c. Enter a port number, VLAN ID number, and IGMP version number.
d. Click Submit.
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IGMP Snooping
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
130
OSPF
OSPF
The HP 10GbE switch software supports the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol. The switch
implementation conforms to the OSPF version 2 specifications detailed in Internet RFC 1583. The
following sections discuss OSPF support for the HP 10GbE switch:
•
OSPF Overview: This section provides information on OSPF concepts, such as types of OSPF areas,
types of routing devices, neighbors, adjacencies, link state database, authentication, and internal
versus external routing.
•
OSPF Implementation in HP 10GbE switch software. This section describes how OSPF is
implemented in switch software, such as configuration parameters, electing the designated router,
summarizing routes, defining route maps and so forth.
•
OSPF Configuration Examples. This section provides step-by-step instructions on configuring different
configuration examples:
○ Creating a simple OSPF domain
○ Creating virtual links
○ Summarizing routes
OSPF overview
OSPF is designed for routing traffic within a single IP domain called an Autonomous System (AS). The AS
can be divided into smaller logical units known as areas.
All routing devices maintain link information in their own Link State Database (LSDB). The LSDB for all
routing devices within an area is identical but is not exchanged between different areas. Only routing
updates are exchanged between areas, thereby significantly reducing the overhead for maintaining
routing information on a large, dynamic network.
The following sections describe key OSPF concepts.
Types of OSPF areas
An AS can be broken into logical units known as areas. In any AS with multiple areas, one area must be
designated as area 0, known as the backbone. The backbone acts as the central OSPF area. All other
areas in the AS must be connected to the backbone. Areas inject summary routing information into the
backbone, which then distributes it to other areas as needed.
OSPF defines the following types of areas:
•
Stub Area—an area that is connected to only one other area. External route information is not
distributed into stub areas.
•
Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA)—similar to a stub area with additional capabilities. External routes from
outside the AS can be advertised within the NSSA but only if they are originated by a router from
inside the NSSA area. External routes originated by a router that is not a member of the NSSA area
are not advertised in the NSSA area.
•
Transit Area—an area that allows area summary information to be exchanged between routing
devices. The backbone (area 0), any area that contains a virtual link to connect two areas, and any
area that is not a stub area or an NSSA are considered transit areas
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OSPF
Figure 17 OSPF area types
Types of OSPF routing devices
As shown in the figure, OSPF uses the following types of routing devices:
•
Internal Router (IR)—a router that has all of its interfaces within the same area. IRs maintain LSDBs
identical to those of other routing devices within the local area.
•
Area Border Router (ABR)—a router that has interfaces in multiple areas. ABRs maintain one LSDB
for each connected area and disseminate routing information between areas.
•
Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR)—a router that acts as a gateway between the OSPF
domain and non-OSPF domains, such as RIP, BGP, and static routes.
Figure 18 OSPF domain and an autonomous system
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OSPF
Neighbors and adjacencies
In areas with two or more routing devices, neighbors and adjacencies are formed.
Neighbors are routing devices that maintain information about each others’ health. To establish neighbor
relationships, routing devices periodically send hello packets on each of their interfaces. All routing
devices that share a common network segment, appear in the same area, and have the same health
parameters (hello and dead intervals) and authentication parameters respond to each other’s hello
packets and become neighbors. Neighbors continue to send periodic hello packets to advertise their
health to neighbors. In turn, they listen to hello packets to determine the health of their neighbors and to
establish contact with new neighbors.
The hello process is used for electing one of the neighbors as the area’s Designated Router (DR) and one
as the area’s Backup Designated Router (BDR). The DR is adjacent to all other neighbors and acts as the
central contact for database exchanges. Each neighbor sends its database information to the DR, which
relays the information to the other neighbors.
The BDR is adjacent to all other neighbors (including the DR). Each neighbor sends its database
information to the BDR just as with the DR, but the BDR merely stores this data and does not distribute it. If
the DR fails, the BDR will take over the task of distributing database information to the other neighbors.
Link-State Database
OSPF is a link-state routing protocol. A link represents an interface (or routable path) from the routing
device. By establishing an adjacency with the DR, each routing device in an OSPF area maintains an
identical Link-State Database (LSDB) describing the network topology for its area.
Each routing device transmits a Link-State Advertisement (LSA) on each of its interfaces. LSAs are entered
into the LSDB of each routing device. OSPF uses flooding to distribute LSAs between routing devices.
When LSAs result in changes to the routing device’s LSDB, the routing device forwards the changes to the
adjacent neighbors (the DR and BDR) for distribution to the other neighbors.
OSPF routing updates occur only when changes occur, instead of periodically. For each new route, if an
adjacency is interested in that route (for example, if configured to receive static routes and the new route
is indeed static), an update message containing the new route is sent to the adjacency. For each route
removed from the route table, if the route has already been sent to an adjacency, an update message
containing the route to withdraw is sent.
Shortest Path First Tree
The routing devices use a link-state algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm) to calculate the shortest path to all
known destinations, based on the cumulative cost required to reach the destination.
The cost of an individual interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets
across it. The cost is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the interface. A lower cost indicates a
higher bandwidth.
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OSPF
Internal versus external routing
To ensure effective processing of network traffic, every routing device on your network needs to know
how to send a packet (directly or indirectly) to any other location/destination in your network. This is
referred to as internal routing and can be done with static routes or using active internal routing protocols,
such as OSPF, RIP, or RIPv2.
It is also useful to tell routers outside your network (upstream providers or peers) about the routes you have
access to in your network. Sharing of routing information between autonomous systems is known as
external routing.
Typically, an AS will have one or more border routers (peer routers that exchange routes with other OSPF
networks) as well as an internal routing system enabling every router in that AS to reach every other
router and destination within that AS.
When a routing device advertises routes to boundary routers on other autonomous systems, it is effectively
committing to carry data to the IP space represented in the route being advertised. For example, if the
routing device advertises 192.204.4.0/24, it is declaring that if another router sends data destined for
any address in the 192.204.4.0/24 range, it will carry that data to its destination.
OSPF implementation in HP 10GbE switch software
The HP 10GbE switch supports a single instance of OSPF and up to 4 K routes on the network. The
following sections describe OSPF implementation in switch software:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Configurable Parameters
Defining Areas
Interface Cost
Electing the Designated Router and Backup
Summarizing Routes
Default Routes
Virtual Links
Router ID
Authentication
Configurable parameters
In HP 10GbE switch software, OSPF parameters can be configured through the Command Line Interface
(CLI), Browser-Based Interface (BBI) for HP 10GbE switches, or through SNMP. For more information, see
“Accessing the Switch.”
The CLI supports the following parameters: interface output cost, interface priority, dead and hello
intervals, retransmission interval, and interface transit delay.
OSPF traps—Traps produce messages upon certain events or error conditions, such as missing a hello,
failing a neighbor, or recalculating the SPF.
In addition to the above parameters, you can also specify the following:
•
Link-State Database size—The size of the external LSA database can be specified to help manage
the memory resources on the switch.
•
Shortest Path First (SPF) interval—Time interval between successive calculations of the shortest path
tree using the Dijkstra’s algorithm.
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OSPF
•
Stub area metric—A stub area can be configured to send a numeric metric value such that all routes
received via that stub area carry the configured metric to potentially influence routing decisions.
•
Default routes—Default routes with weight metrics can be manually injected into transit areas. This
helps establish a preferred route when multiple routing devices exist between two areas. It also helps
route traffic to external networks.
Defining areas
If you are configuring multiple areas in your OSPF domain, one of the areas must be designated as
area 0, known as the backbone. The backbone is the central OSPF area and is usually physically
connected to all other areas. The areas inject routing information into the backbone which, in turn,
disseminates the information into other areas.
Since the backbone connects the areas in your network, it must be a contiguous area. If the backbone is
partitioned (possibly as a result of joining separate OSPF networks), parts of the AS will be unreachable,
and you will need to configure virtual links to reconnect the partitioned areas (see “Virtual Links”).
Up to three OSPF areas can be connected to the HP 10GbE switch. To configure an area, the OSPF
number must be defined and then attached to a network interface on the switch. The full process is
explained in the following sections.
An OSPF area is defined by assigning two pieces of information—an area index and an area ID. The
command to define an OSPF area is as follows:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/aindex <area index>/areaid <n.n.n.n>
NOTE: The aindex option above is an arbitrary index used only on the switch and does not
represent the actual OSPF area number. The actual OSPF area number is defined in the areaid
portion of the command as explained in the following sections.
Assigning the area index
The aindex <area index> option is actually just an arbitrary index (0-2) used only by the switch. This
index does not necessarily represent the OSPF area number, though for configuration simplicity, it should
where possible.
For example, both of the following sets of commands define OSPF area 0 (the backbone) and area 1
because that information is held in the area ID portion of the command. However, the first set of
commands is easier to maintain because the arbitrary area indexes agree with the area IDs:
•
Area index and area ID agree
/cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 0/areaid 0.0.0.0 (Use index 0 to set area 0 in ID octet format)
/cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 1/areaid 0.0.0.1 (Use index 1 to set area 1 in ID octet format)
•
Area index set to an arbitrary value
/cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 1/areaid 0.0.0.0 (Use index 1 to set area 0 in ID octet format)
/cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 2/areaid 0.0.0.1 (Use index 2 to set area 1 in ID octet format)
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OSPF
Using the area ID to assign the OSPF area number
The OSPF area number is defined in the areaid <IP address> option. The octet format is used in
order to be compatible with two different systems of notation used by other OSPF network vendors. There
are two valid ways to designate an area ID:
•
Placing the area number in the last octet (0.0.0.n)
Most common OSPF vendors express the area ID number as a single number. For example, the
Cisco IOS-based router command network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 defines the area
number simply as area 1. On the switch, using the last octet in the area ID, area 1 is equivalent
to areaid 0.0.0.1.
•
Multi-octet (IP address)
Some OSPF vendors express the area ID number in multi-octet format. For example, area 2.2.2.2
represents OSPF area 2 and can be specified directly on the switch as areaid 2.2.2.2.
NOTE: Although both types of area ID formats are supported, be sure that the area IDs are in the
same format throughout an area.
Attaching an area to a network
Once an OSPF area has been defined, it must be associated with a network. To attach the area to a
network, you must assign the OSPF area index to an IP interface that participates in the area. The format
for the command is as follows:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/if <interface number>/aindex <area index>
For example, the following commands could be used to configure IP interface 14 for a presence on the
10.10.10.1/24 network, to define OSPF area 1, and to attach the area to the network:
>> # /cfg/l3/if 14
(Select menu for IP interface 14)
>> IP Interface 14# addr 10.10.10.1(Define IP address on backbone
network)
>> IP Interface 14# mask 255.255.255.0(Define IP mask on backbone)
>> IP Interface 14# ena
(Enable IP interface 14)
>> IP Interface 14# ../ospf/aindex 1(Select menu for area index 1)
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # areaid 0.0.0.1(Define area ID as OSPF area 1)
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # ena
(Enable area index 1)
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # ../if 14
(Select OSPF menu for interface 14)
>> OSPF Interface 14# aindex 1
(Attach area to network on
interface 14)
>> OSPF Interface 14# enable
(Enable interface 14 for area index 1)
Interface cost
The OSPF link-state algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm) places each routing device at the root of a tree and
determines the cumulative cost required to reach each destination. Usually, the cost is inversely
proportional to the bandwidth of the interface. Low cost indicates high bandwidth. You can manually
enter the cost for the output route with the following command:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/if <OSPF interface number>/cost <cost value (1-65535)>
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OSPF
Electing the designated router and backup
In any area with more than two routing devices, a Designated Router (DR) is elected as the central contact
for database exchanges among neighbors, and a Backup Designated Router (BDR) is elected in case the
DR fails.
DR and BDR elections are made through the hello process. The election can be influenced by assigning a
priority value to the OSPF interfaces on the switch. The command is as follows:
>>#/cfg/l3/ospf/if <OSPF interface number>/prio <priority value (0-255)>
A priority value of 255 is the highest, and 1 is the lowest. A priority value of 0 specifies that the interface
cannot be used as a DR or BDR. In case of a tie, the routing device with the lowest router ID wins.
Summarizing routes
Route summarization condenses routing information. Without summarization, each routing device in an
OSPF network would retain a route to every subnet in the network. With summarization, routing devices
can reduce some sets of routes to a single advertisement, reducing both the load on the routing device
and the perceived complexity of the network. The importance of route summarization increases with
network size.
Summary routes can be defined for up to 16 IP address ranges using the following command:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/range <range number>/addr <IP address>/mask <mask>
where <range number> is a number 1 to 16, <IP address> is the base IP address for the range,
and <mask> is the IP address mask for the range.
Default routes
When an OSPF routing device encounters traffic for a destination address it does not recognize, it
forwards that traffic along the default route. Typically, the default route leads upstream toward the
backbone until it reaches the intended area or an external router.
Each switch acting as an ABR automatically inserts a default route into each attached area. In simple
OSPF stub areas or NSSAs with only one ABR leading upstream (see Area 1 in the figure below), any
traffic for IP address destinations outside the area is forwarded to the switch’s IP interface, and then into
the connected transit area (usually the backbone). Since this is automatic, no further configuration is
required for such areas.
Figure 19 Injecting default routes
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OSPF
In more complex OSPF areas with multiple ABRs or ASBRs (such as area 0 and area 2 in the figure), there
are multiple routes leading from the area. In such areas, traffic for unrecognized destinations cannot tell
which route leads upstream without further configuration.
To resolve the situation and select one default route among multiple choices in an area, you can manually
configure a metric value on each ABR. The metric assigns a priority to the ABR for its selection as the
priority default route in an area. The following command is used for setting the metric value:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/default <metric value> <metric type (1 or 2)>
where <metric value> sets the priority for choosing this switch for default route. The value none sets
no default and 1 sets the highest priority for default route. Metric type determines the method for
influencing routing decisions for external routes.
To clear a default route metric from the switch, use the following command:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/default none
Virtual links
Usually, all areas in an OSPF AS are physically connected to the backbone. In some cases where this is
not possible, you can use a virtual link. Virtual links are created to connect one area to the backbone
through another non-backbone area.
The area which contains a virtual link must be a transit area and have full routing information. Virtual links
cannot be configured inside a stub area or NSSA. The area type must be defined as transit using the
following command:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/aindex <area index>/type transit
The virtual link must be configured on the routing devices at each endpoint of the virtual link, though they
may traverse multiple routing devices. To configure a switch as one endpoint of a virtual link, use the
following command:
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/virt <link number>/aindex <area index>/nbr <router ID>
where <link number> is a value between 1 and 3, <area index> is the OSPF area index of the
transit area, and <router ID> is the IP address of the virtual neighbor (nbr), the routing device at the
target endpoint. Another router ID is needed when configuring a virtual link in the other direction. To
provide the switch with a router ID, see “Router ID.”
For a detailed configuration example on Virtual Links, see “Example 2: Virtual Links.”
Router ID
Routing devices in OSPF areas are identified by a router ID. The router ID is expressed in IP address
format. The IP address of the router ID is not required to be included in any IP interface range or in any
OSPF area.
The router ID can be configured in one of the following two ways:
•
Dynamically—OSPF protocol configures the lowest IP interface IP address as the router ID. This is the
default.
•
Statically—Use the following command to manually configure the router ID
>> # /cfg/l3/rtrid <IP address>
To modify the router ID from static to dynamic, set the router ID to 0.0.0.0, save the configuration, and
reboot the switch. To view the router ID, enter:
>> # /info/l3/ospf/gen
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OSPF
Authentication
OSPF protocol exchanges can be authenticated so that only trusted routing devices can participate. This
ensures less processing on routing devices that are not listening to OSPF packets.
OSPF allows packet authentication and uses IP multicast when sending and receiving packets. Routers
participate in routing domains based on predefined passwords. The switch software supports simple
password (type 1 plain text passwords) and MD5 cryptographic authentication. This type of
authentication allows a password to be configured per area.
The following figure shows authentication configured for area 0 with the password test. Simple
authentication is also configured for the virtual link between area 2 and area 0. Area 1 is not configured
for OSPF authentication.
Figure 20 OSPF authentication
To configure simple plain text OSPF passwords on the switches shown in the figure use the following
commands:
1. Enable OSPF authentication for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 0/auth password
2. Configure a simple text password up to eight characters for each OSPF IP interface in Area 0 on
switches 1, 2, and 3.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/ospf/if 1
OSPF Interface 1 # key test
OSPF Interface 1 # ../if 2
OSPF Interface 2 # key test
OSPF Interface 1 # ../if 3
OSPF Interface 3 # key test
3. Enable OSPF authentication for Area 2 on switch 4.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 2/auth password
4. Configure a simple text password up to eight characters for the virtual link between Area 2 and
Area 0 on switches 2 and 4.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/virt 1/key packard
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OSPF
Use the following commands to configure MD5 authentication on the switches shown in the figure:
1. Enable OSPF MD5 authentication for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 0/auth md5
2. Configure MD5 key ID for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/md5key 1/key test
3. Assign MD5 key ID to OSPF interfaces on switches 1, 2, and 3.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/ospf/if 1
OSPF Interface 1 # mdkey
OSPF Interface 1 # ../if
OSPF Interface 2 # mdkey
OSPF Interface 1 # ../if
OSPF Interface 3 # mdkey
1
2
1
3
1
4. Enable OSPF MD5 authentication for Area 2 on switch 4.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/aindex 2/auth md5
5. Configure MD5 key for the virtual link between Area 2 and Area 0 on switches 2 and 4.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/md5key 2/key packard
6. Assign MD5 key ID to OSPF virtual link on switches 2 and 4.
>> # /cfg/l3/ospf/virt 1/mdkey 2
Host routes for load balancing
The HP 10GbE switch implementation of OSPF includes host routes. Host routes are used for advertising
network device IP addresses to external networks, accomplishing the following goals:
•
ABR Load Sharing
As a form of load balancing, host routes can be used for dividing OSPF traffic among multiple ABRs.
To accomplish this, each switch provides identical services but advertises a host route for a different
IP address to the external network. If each IP address serves a different and equal portion of the
external world, incoming traffic from the upstream router should be split evenly among ABRs.
•
ABR Failover
Complementing ABR load sharing, identical host routes can be configured on each ABR. These host
routes can be given different costs so that a different ABR is selected as the preferred route for each
server and the others are available as backups for failover purposes.
•
Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP)
With equal cost multipath, a router potentially has several available next hops towards any given
destination. ECMP allows separate routes to be calculated for each IP Type of Service. All paths of
equal cost to a given destination are calculated, and the next hops for all equal-cost paths are
inserted into the routing table.
If redundant routes via multiple routing processes (such as OSPF, RIP, BGP, or static routes) exist on your
network, the switch defaults to the OSPF-derived route.
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OSPF
OSPF features not supported in this release
The following OSPF features are not supported in this release:
•
•
•
•
Summarizing external routes
Filtering OSPF routes
Using OSPF to forward multicast routes
Configuring OSPF on non-broadcast multi-access networks (such as frame relay, X.25, and ATM)
OSPF configuration examples
A summary of the basic steps for configuring OSPF on the switch is listed here. Detailed instructions for
each of the steps are covered in the following sections:
•
Configure IP interfaces.
One IP interface is required for each desired network (range of IP addresses) being assigned to an
OSPF area on the switch.
•
(Optional) Configure the router ID.
The router ID is required only when configuring virtual links on the switch.
•
•
•
Enable OSPF on the switch.
Define the OSPF areas.
Configure OSPF interface parameters.
IP interfaces are used for attaching networks to the various areas.
•
•
•
(Optional) Configure route summarization between OSPF areas.
(Optional) Configure virtual links.
(Optional) Configure host routes.
Example 1: Simple OSPF domain (CLI example)
In this example, two OSPF areas are defined—one area is the backbone and the other is a stub area. A
stub area does not allow advertisements of external routes, thus reducing the size of the database.
Instead, a default summary route of IP address 0.0.0.0 is automatically inserted into the stub area. Any
traffic for IP address destinations outside the stub area will be forwarded to the stub area’s IP interface,
and then into the backbone.
Figure 21 Simple OSPF domain
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OSPF
Follow this procedure to configure OSPF support as shown in the figure.
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas.
2. In this example, two IP interfaces are needed: one for the backbone network on 10.10.7.0/24 and
one for the stub area network on 10.10.12.0/24.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/if
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
(Select menu for IP interface 1)
addr 10.10.7.1(Set IP address on backbone network)
mask 255.255.255.0(Set IP mask on backbone network)
enable(Enable IP interface 1)
../if 2(Select menu for IP interface 2)
addr 10.10.12.1(Set IP address on stub area network)
mask 255.255.255.0(Set IP mask on stub area network)
enable(Enable IP interface 2)
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
3. Enable OSPF.
>> IP Interface 2 # /cfg/l3/ospf/on(Enable OSPF on the switch)
4. Define the backbone.
5. The backbone is always configured as a transit area using areaid 0.0.0.0.
>>
>>
>>
>>
Open
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Shortest Path First # aindex 0(Select menu for area index 0)
Area (index) 0 # areaid 0.0.0.0(Set the ID for backbone area 0)
Area (index) 0 # type transit(Define backbone as transit type)
Area (index) 0 # enable(Enable the area)
6. Define the stub area.
>>
>>
>>
>>
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Area
Area
Area
Area
(index)
(index)
(index)
(index)
0
1
1
1
#
#
#
#
../aindex 1(Select menu for area index 1)
areaid 0.0.0.1(Set the area ID for OSPF area 1)
type stub(Define area as stub type)
enable(Enable the area)
7. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
>> OSPF Area 1 # ../if 1(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 1)
>> OSPF Interface 1 # aindex 0(Attach network to backbone index)
>> OSPF Interface 1 # enable(Enable the backbone interface)
8. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
>> OSPF Interface 1 # ../if 2(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 2)
>> OSPF Interface 2 # aindex 1(Attach network to stub area index)
>> OSPF Interface 2 # enable(Enable the stub area interface)
9. Apply and save the configuration changes.
>> OSPF Interface 2 # apply
>> OSPF Interface 2 # save
(Global command to apply all changes)
(Global command to save all changes)
Example 1: Simple OSPF domain (BBI example)
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas:
− IF 1
IP address = 10.10.7.1
Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
− IF 2
IP address = 10.10.12.1
Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
a. Click the Configure context button.
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OSPF
b. Open the IP Interfaces folder, and select Add IP Interface.
c. Configure an IP interface. Enter the IP address, subnet mask, and enable the interface.
d. Click Submit.
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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OSPF
3. Enable OSPF.
a. Open the OSPF Routing Protocol folder, and select General.
b. Enable OSPF.
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OSPF
c. Click Submit.
4. Configure OSPF Areas.
a. Open the OSPF Areas folder, and select Add OSPF Area.
b. Configure the OSPF backbone area 0.
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OSPF
c. Click Submit.
d. Select Add OSPF Area.
e. Configure the OSPF area 1.
f.
Click Submit.
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OSPF
5. Configure OSPF Interfaces.
a. Open the OSPF Interfaces folder, and select Add OSPF Interface.
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OSPF
b. Configure the OSPF Interface 1, and attach it to the backbone area 0.
c. Click Submit.
d. Select Add OSPF Interface.
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OSPF
e. Configure the OSPF Interface 2, and attach it to the stub area 1.
f.
Click Submit.
6. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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OSPF
Example 2: Virtual links
In the example shown in the following figure, area 2 is not physically connected to the backbone as is
usually required. Instead, area 2 will be connected to the backbone via a virtual link through area 1. The
virtual link must be configured at each endpoint.
Figure 22 Configuring a virtual link
Configuring OSPF for a virtual link on Switch A
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to the switch.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed on Switch A: one for the backbone network on
10.10.7.0/24 and one for the transit area network on 10.10.12.0/24.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/if
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
1
1
1
1
1
2
(Select menu for IP interface 1)
addr 10.10.7.1 (Set IP address on backbone network)
mask 255.255.255.0 (Set IP mask on backbone network)
enable
(Enable IP interface 1)
../if 2
(Select menu for IP interface 2)
addr 10.10.12.1 (Set IP address on
transit area network)
>> IP Interface 2 # mask 255.255.255.0 (Set IP mask on
transit area network)
>> IP Interface 2 # enable
(Enable interface 2)
#
#
#
#
#
2. Configure the router ID.
3. A router ID is required when configuring virtual links. Later, when configuring the other end of the
virtual link on Switch B, the router ID specified here will be used as the target virtual neighbor (nbr)
address
>> IP Interface 2 # /cfg/l3/rtrid 10.10.10.1
(Set static router ID)
4. Enable OSPF.
>> IP # /cfg/l3/ospf/on
5. Define the backbone.
>>
>>
>>
>>
Open
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Shortest Path First # aindex 0
(Select menu for area index 0)
Area (index) 0 # areaid 0.0.0.0
(Set the area ID)
Area (index) 0 # type transit (Define backbone as transit type)
Area (index) 0 # enable
(Enable the area)
6. Define the transit area.
7. The area that contains the virtual link must be configured as a transit area
>>
>>
>>
>>
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Area
Area
Area
Area
(index)
(index)
(index)
(index)
0
1
1
1
#
#
#
#
../aindex 1
(Select menu for area index 1)
areaid 0.0.0.1(Set the area ID for OSPF area 1)
type transit (Define area as transit type)
enable
(Enable the area)
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OSPF
8. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # ../if 1
>> OSPF Interface 1 # aindex 0
>> OSPF Interface 1 # enable
(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 1)
(Attach network to backbone index)
(Enable the backbone interface)
9. Attach the network interface to the transit area.
>> OSPF Interface 1 # ../if 2
>> OSPF Interface 2 # aindex 1
>> OSPF Interface 2 # enable
(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 2)
(Attach network to transit area index)
(Enable the transit area interface)
10. Configure the virtual link.
11. The nbr router ID configured in this step must be the same as the router ID that will be configured for
Switch B in step 2.
>> OSPF Interface 2 # ../virt 1
>> OSPF Virtual Link 1 # aindex 1
(Specify a virtual link number)
(Specify the transit area
for the virtual link)
>> OSPF Virtual Link 1 # nbr 10.10.14.1 (Specify the router ID
of the recipient)
>> OSPF Virtual Link 1 # enable
(Enable the virtual link)
12. Apply and save the configuration changes
>> OSPF Interface 2 # apply
>> OSPF Interface 2 # save
(Apply all changes)
(Save all changes)
Configuring OSPF for a virtual link on Switch B
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas.
2. Two IP interfaces are needed on Switch B: one for the transit area network on 10.10.12.0/24 and
one for the stub area network on 10.10.24.0/24.
>> # /cfg/l3/if 1
(Select menu for IP interface 1)
>> IP Interface 1 # addr 10.10.12.2
(Set IP address
on transit area network)
>> IP Interface 1 # mask 255.255.255.0 (Set IP mask
on transit area network)
>> IP Interface 1 # enable
(Enable IP interface 1)
>> IP Interface 1 # ../if 2
(Select menu for IP interface 2)
>> IP Interface 2 # addr 10.10.24.1(Set IP address on stub area network)
>> IP Interface 2 # mask 255.255.255.0(Set IP mask on stub area network)
>> IP Interface 2 # enable
(Enable IP interface 2)
3. Configure the router ID.
4. A router ID is required when configuring virtual links. This router ID should be the same one specified
as the target virtual neighbor (nbr) on Switch A.
>> IP Interface 2 # /cfg/l3/rtrid 10.10.14.1(Set static router ID)
5. Enable OSPF.
>> IP# /cfg/l3/ospf/on
6. Define the backbone.
7. This version of switch software requires that a backbone index be configured on the non-backbone
end of the virtual link as follows:
>> Open Shortest Path First # aindex 0(Select the menu for area index 0)
>> OSPF Area (index) 0 # areaid 0.0.0.0(Set the area ID for OSPF area 0)
>> OSPF Area (index) 0 # enable
(Enable the area)
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OSPF
8. Define the transit area.
>>
>>
>>
>>
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Area
Area
Area
Area
(index)
(index)
(index)
(index)
0
1
1
1
#
#
#
#
../aindex 1
(Select menu for area index 1)
areaid 0.0.0.1(Set the area ID for OSPF area 1)
type transit (Define area as transit type)
enable
(Enable the area)
(index)
(index)
(index)
(index)
1
2
2
2
#
#
#
#
../aindex 2 (Select the menu for area index 2)
areaid 0.0.0.2(Set the area ID for OSPF area 2)
type stub
(Define area as stub type)
enable
(Enable the area)
9. Define the stub area.
>>
>>
>>
>>
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Area
Area
Area
Area
10. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
>> OSPF Area (index) 2 # ../if 1
>> OSPF Interface 1 # aindex 1
>> OSPF Interface 1 # enable
(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 1)
(Attach network to transit area index)
(Enable the transit area interface)
11. Attach the network interface to the transit area.
>> OSPF Interface 1 # ../if 2
>> OSPF Interface 2 # aindex 2
>> OSPF Interface 2 # enable
(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 2)
(Attach network to stub area index)
(Enable the stub area interface)
12. Configure the virtual link.
13. The nbr router ID configured in this step must be the same as the router ID that was configured for
Switch A in step 2.
>> OSPF Interface 2 # ../virt 1
>> OSPF Virtual Link 1 # aindex 1
(Specify a virtual link number)
(Specify the transit area
for the virtual link)
>> OSPF Virtual Link 1 # nbr 10.10.10.1(Specify the router ID
of the recipient)
>> OSPF Virtual Link 1 # enable
(Enable the virtual link)
14. Apply and save the configuration changes.
>> OSPF Interface 2 # apply
>> OSPF Interface 2 # save
(Apply all changes)
(Save all changes)
Other Virtual Link Options
•
•
You can use redundant paths by configuring multiple virtual links.
Only the endpoints of the virtual link are configured. The virtual link path may traverse multiple
routers in an area as long as there is a routable path between the endpoints.
Example 3: Summarizing routes
By default, ABRs advertise all the network addresses from one area into another area. Route
summarization can be used for consolidating advertised addresses and reducing the perceived
complexity of the network.
If the network IP addresses in an area are assigned to a contiguous subnet range, you can configure the
ABR to advertise a single summary route that includes all the individual IP addresses within the area.
The following example shows one summary route from area 1 (stub area) injected into area 0 (the
backbone). The summary route consists of all IP addresses from 36.128.192.0 through 36.128.254.255
except for the routes in the range 36.128.200.0 through 36.128.200.255.
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OSPF
Figure 23 Summarizing routes
NOTE: You can specify a range of addresses to prevent advertising by using the hide option. In
this example, routes in the range 36.128.200.0 through 36.128.200.255 are kept private.
Follow this procedure to configure OSPF support on Switch A and Switch B, as shown in the figure.
1. Configure IP interfaces for each network which will be attached to OSPF areas.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
# /cfg/l3/if
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
IP Interface
1(Select menu for IP interface 1)
1 # addr 10.10.7.1(Set IP address on backbone network)
1 # mask 255.255.255.0(Set IP mask on backbone network)
1 # ena(Enable IP interface 1)
1 # ../if 2(Select menu for IP interface 2)
2 # addr 36.128.192.1(Set IP address on stub area network)
2 # mask 255.255.192.0(Set IP mask on stub area network)
2 # ena(Enable IP interface 2)
2. Enable OSPF.
>> IP Interface 2 # /cfg/l3/ospf/on
3. Define the backbone.
>>
>>
>>
>>
Open
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Shortest Path First # aindex 0 (Select menu for area index 0)
Area (index) 0 # areaid 0.0.0.0(Set the ID for backbone area 0)
Area (index) 0 # type transit (Define backbone as transit type)
Area (index) 0 # enable
(Enable the area)
4. Define the stub area.
>> OSPF Area (index) 0 # ../aindex 1
(Select menu for area index 1)
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # areaid 0.0.0.1 (Set the area ID for OSPF
area 1)
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # type stub
(Define area as stub type)
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # enable
(Enable the area)
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
>> OSPF Area (index) 1 # ../if 1
>> OSPF Interface 1 # aindex 0
>> OSPF Interface 1 # enable
(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 1)
(Attach network to backbone index)
(Enable the backbone interface)
6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
>> OSPF Interface 1 # ../if 2
>> OSPF Interface 2 # aindex 1
>> OSPF Interface 2 # enable
(Select OSPF menu for IP interface 2)
(Attach network to stub area index)
(Enable the stub area interface)
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OSPF
7. Configure route summarization by specifying the starting address and mask of the range of
addresses to be summarized.
>> OSPF Interface 2 # ../range 1 (Select menu for summary range)
>> OSPF Summary Range 1 # addr 36.128.192.0 (Set base IP address
of summary range)
>> OSPF Summary Range 1 # mask 255.255.192.0(Set mask address
for summary range)
>> OSPF Summary Range 1 # aindex 0 (Inject summary route into backbone)
>> OSPF Summary Range 1 # enable
(Enable summary range)
8. Use the hide command to prevent a range of addresses from advertising to the backbone.
>>
>>
>>
>>
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
Interface 2 #
Summary Range
Summary Range
Summary Range
../range
2 # addr
2 # mask
2 # hide
2
(Select menu for summary range)
36.128.200.0
(Set base IP address)
255.255.255.0 (Set mask address)
enable
(Hide the range of addresses)
9. Apply and save the configuration changes.
>> OSPF Summary Range 2 # apply
>> OSPF Summary Range 2 # save
(Apply all changes)
(Save all changes)
Verifying OSPF configuration
Use the following commands to verify the OSPF configuration on your switch:
•
•
•
•
•
/info/l3/ospf/general
/info/l3/ospf/nbr
/info/l3/ospf/dbase/dbsum
/info/l3/ospf/routes
/stats/l3/route
See the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference for information on the above commands.
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Remote monitoring
Introduction
Remote Monitoring (RMON) allows network devices to exchange network monitoring data.
RMON performs the following major functions:
•
•
•
Gathers cumulative statistics for Ethernet interfaces
Tracks a history of statistics for Ethernet interfaces
Creates and triggers alarms for user-defined events
Overview
The RMON MIB provides an interface between the RMON agent on the switch and an RMON
management application. The RMON MIB is described in RFC 1757.
The RMON standard defines objects that are suitable for the management of Ethernet networks. The
RMON agent continuously collects statistics and proactively monitors switch performance. RMON allows
you to monitor traffic flowing through the switch.
The switch supports the following RMON Groups, as described in RFC 1757:
•
•
•
•
Group 1: Statistics
Group 2: History
Group 3: Alarms
Group 9: Events
RMON group 1—statistics
The switch supports collection of Ethernet statistics as outlined in the RMON statistics MIB, in reference to
etherStatsTable. You can enable RMON statistics on a per-port basis, and you can view them using the
following command: /stat/port x/rmon. RMON statistics are sampled every second, and new data
overwrites any old data on a given port.
NOTE: RMON port statistics must be enabled for the port before you can view RMON statistics.
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Remote monitoring
Configuring RMON Statistics (CLI example)
1. Enable RMON on each port where you wish to collect RMON statistics.
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/port 20/rmon
Port 20 RMON# ena
Port 20 RMON# apply
Port 20 RMON# save
(Select Port 20 RMON)
(Enable RMON)
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
2. View RMON statistics for the port.
>> /stats/port 20
(Select Port 20 Stats)
>> Port Statistics# rmon
-----------------------------------------------------------------RMON statistics for port 20:
etherStatsDropEvents:
NA
etherStatsOctets:
7305626
etherStatsPkts:
48686
etherStatsBroadcastPkts:
4380
etherStatsMulticastPkts:
6612
etherStatsCRCAlignErrors:
22
etherStatsUndersizePkts:
0
etherStatsOversizePkts:
0
etherStatsFragments:
2
etherStatsJabbers:
0
etherStatsCollisions:
0
etherStatsPkts64Octets:
27445
etherStatsPkts65to127Octets:
12253
etherStatsPkts128to255Octets:
1046
etherStatsPkts256to511Octets:
619
etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets:
7283
etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets:
38
Configuring RMON Statistics (BBI example)
1. Configure ports.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Select Switch Ports (click the underlined text, not the folder).
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2. Select a port.
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3. Enable RMON on the port.
4. Click Submit.
5. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
RMON group 2—history
The RMON History group allows you to sample and archive Ethernet statistics for a specific interface
during a specific time interval.
NOTE: RMON port statistics must be enabled for the port before an RMON history group can
monitor the port.
Data is stored in buckets, which store data gathered during discreet sampling intervals. At each
configured interval, the history instance takes a sample of the current Ethernet statistics, and places them
into a bucket. History data buckets reside in dynamic memory. When the switch is re-booted, the buckets
are emptied.
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Remote monitoring
Requested buckets (/cfg/rmon/hist x/rbnum) are the number of buckets, or data slots, requested by
the user for each History Group. Granted buckets (/info/rmon/hist x/gbnum) are the number of
buckets granted by the system, based on the amount of system memory available. The system grants a
maximum of 50 buckets.
Use an SNMP browser to view History samples.
History MIB objects
The type of data that can be sampled must be of an ifIndex object type, as described in RFC1213 and
RFC1573. The most common data type for the history sample is as follows:
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.x -mgmt.interfaces.ifTable.ifIndex.interface
The last digit (x) represents the interface on which to monitor, which corresponds to the port number
(1-16, 18-21). History sampling is done per port, by utilizing the interface number to specify the port
number.
Configure RMON History (CLI example)
1. Enable RMON on each port where you wish to collect RMON History.
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/port 21/rmon
Port 21# ena
Port 21 RMON# apply
Port 21 RMON# save
(Select Port 21 RMON)
(Enable RMON)
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
2. Configure the RMON History parameters.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/rmon/hist 1
(Select RMON History 1)
RMON History 1# ifoid 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.21
RMON History 1# rbnum 30
RMON History 1# intrval 120
RMON History 1# owner “Owner_History_1”
3. Apply and save the configuration.
>> RMON History 1# apply
>> RMON History 1# save
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
This configuration creates an RMON History group to monitor port 21. It takes a data sample every two
minutes, and places the data into one of the 30 requested buckets. After 30 samples are gathered, the
new samples overwrite the previous samples, beginning with the first bucket. Use SNMP to view the data.
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Remote monitoring
Configure RMON History (BBI example)
1. Configure an RMON History group.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select RMON > History > Add History Group.
2. Configure RMON History Group parameters.
3. Click Submit.
4. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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Remote monitoring
RMON group 3—alarms
The RMON Alarm group allows you to define a set of thresholds used to determine network performance.
When a configured threshold is crossed, an alarm is generated. For example, you can configure the
switch to issue an alarm if more than 1,000 CRC errors occur during a 10-minute time interval.
Each Alarm index consists of a variable to monitor, a sampling time interval, and parameters for rising
and falling thresholds. The Alarm group can be used to track rising or falling values for a MIB object. The
object must be a counter, gauge, integer, or time interval.
Use the /cfg/rmon/alarm x/revtidx or /fevtidx to correlate an alarm index to an event index.
When the alarm threshold is reached, the corresponding event is triggered.
Alarm MIB objects
The most common data types used for alarm monitoring are ifStats: errors, drops, bad CRCs, and so on.
These MIB Object Identifiers (OIDs) correlate to the ones tracked by the History group. An example of an
ICMP stat is as follows:
1.3.6.1.2.1.5.1.0 – mgmt.icmp.icmpInMsgs
The last digit (x) represents the interface on which to monitor, which corresponds to the interface number,
or port number, as follows:
•
•
•
•
1-250 = IF 1-250
251 = port 1
252 = port 2
271 = port 21
This value represents the alarm’s MIB OID, as a string. Note that for non-tables, you must supply a .0 to
specify end node.
Configure RMON Alarms (CLI example 1)
1. Configure the RMON Alarm parameters to track the number of packets received on a port.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/rmon/alarm 6
RMON Alarm 6# oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.270
RMON Alarm 6# intrval 3600
RMON Alarm 6# almtype rising
RMON Alarm 6# rlimit 2000000000
RMON Alarm 6# revtidx 6
RMON Alarm 6# sample abs
RMON Alarm 6# owner “Alarm_for_ifInOctets”
(Select RMON Alarm 6)
2. Apply and save the configuration.
>> RMON Alarm 6# apply
>> RMON Alarm 6# save
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
This configuration creates an RMON alarm that checks ifInOctets on port 20 once every hour. If the
statistic exceeds two billion, an alarm is generated that triggers event index 6.
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Configure RMON Alarms (CLI example 2)
1. Configure the RMON Alarm parameters to track ICMP messages.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/rmon/alarm 5
RMON Alarm 5# oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.5.8.0
RMON Alarm 5# intrval 60
RMON Alarm 5# almtype rising
RMON Alarm 5# rlimit 200
RMON Alarm 5# revtidx 5
RMON Alarm 5# sample delta
RMON Alarm 5# owner “Alarm_for_icmpInEchos”
(Select RMON Alarm 5)
2. Apply and save the configuration.
>> RMON Alarm 5# apply
>> RMON Alarm 5# save
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
This configuration creates an RMON alarm that checks icmpInEchos on the switch once every minute. If
the statistic exceeds 200 within a 60 second interval, an alarm is generated that triggers event index 5.
Configure RMON Alarms (BBI example 1)
1. Configure an RMON Alarm group.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select RMON > Alarm > Add Alarm Group.
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c. Configure RMON Alarm Group parameters to check ifInOctets on port 20 once every hour.
Enter a rising limit of two billion, and a rising event index of 6. This configuration creates an
RMON alarm that checks ifInOctets on port 20 once every hour. If the statistic exceeds two
billion, an alarm is generated that triggers event index 6.
2. Click Submit.
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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Remote monitoring
Configure RMON Alarms (BBI example 2)
1. Configure an RMON Alarm group.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select RMON > Alarm > Add Alarm Group.
c. Configure RMON Alarm Group parameters to check icmpInEchos, with a polling interval of
60, a rising limit of 200, and a rising event index of 5. This configuration creates an RMON
alarm that checks icmpInEchos on the switch once every minute. If the statistic exceeds 200
within a 60 second interval, an alarm is generated that triggers event index 5.
2. Click Submit.
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Remote monitoring
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
RMON group 9—events
The RMON Event group allows you to define events that are triggered by alarms. An event can be a log
message, an SNMP trap message, or both.
When an alarm is generated, it triggers a corresponding event notification. Use the /cfg/rmon/alarm
x/revtidx and /fevtidx commands to correlate an event index to an alarm.
RMON events use SNMP and syslogs to send notifications. Therefore, an SNMP trap host must be
configured for trap event notification to work properly.
RMON uses a SYSLOG host to send syslog messages. Therefore, an existing SYSLOG host
(/cfg/sys/syslog) must be configured for event log notification to work properly. Each log event
generates a SYSLOG of type RMON that corresponds to the event.
Configuring RMON Events (CLI example)
1. Configure the RMON Event parameters.
>>
>>
>>
>>
/cfg/rmon/event 5
(Select RMON Event 5)
RMON Event 5# descn "SYSLOG_generation_event"
RMON Event 5# type log
RMON Event 5# owner “Owner_event_5”
2. Apply and save the configuration.
>> RMON Alarm 5# apply
>> RMON Alarm 5# save
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
This configuration creates an RMON event that sends a SYSLOG message each time it is triggered by an
alarm.
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Configuring RMON Events (BBI example)
1. Configure an RMON Event group.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select RMON > Event > Add Event Group.
c. Configure RMON Event Group parameters. This configuration creates an RMON event that
sends a SYSLOG message each time it is triggered by an alarm.
2. Click Submit.
3. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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High availability
Introduction
Switches support high availability network topologies. This release provides information about Uplink
Failure Detection and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP).
Uplink Failure Detection
Uplink Failure Detection (UFD) is designed to support Network Adapter Teaming on HP server blades. For
details about Network Adapter Teaming on HP ProLiant server blades, see the white paper at the
following location:
http://h18004.www1.hp.com/products/servers/networking/whitepapers.html
UFD allows the switch to monitor specific uplink ports to detect link failures. When the switch detects a link
failure, it automatically disables specific downlink ports. The corresponding server’s network adapter can
detect the disabled downlink, and trigger a network-adapter failover to another port on the switch, or
another switch in the chassis.
The switch automatically enables the downlink ports when the uplink returns to service.
The following figure shows a basic UFD configuration, with a Failure Detection Pair (FDP) that consists of
one LtM (Link to Monitor) and one LtD (Link to Disable). When the switch detects a link failure in the LtM, it
disables the ports in the LtD. The server blade detects the disabled downlink port, which triggers a NIC
failover.
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Figure 24 Uplink Failure Detection for switches
Failure Detection Pair
To use UFD, you must configure a Failure Detection Pair and then turn UFD on. A Failure Detection Pair
consists of the following groups of ports:
•
Link to Monitor (LtM)
The Link to Monitor group consists of one uplink port (18-21), or one trunk group that contains only
uplink ports. The trunk group can be a Link Aggregation Control Protocol trunk. The switch monitors
the LtM for link failure.
•
Link to Disable (LtD)
The Link to Disable group consists of one or more downlink ports (1-16) and trunk groups that
contain only downlink ports. The trunk groups can be Link Aggregation Control Protocol trunks.
When the switch detects a link failure on the LtM, it automatically disables all ports in the LtD.
When the LtM returns to service, the switch automatically enables all ports in the LtD.
Spanning Tree Protocol with UFD
If Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is enabled on ports in the LtM, then the switch monitors the STP state and
the link status on ports in the LtM. The switch automatically disables the ports in the LtD when it detects a
link failure or STP Blocking state.
When the switch determines that ports in the LtM are in STP Forwarding State, then it automatically
enables the ports in the LtD, to fall back to normal operation.
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Configuration guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring UFD:
•
•
UFD is required only when uplink-path redundancy is not available on the blade switches.
•
•
•
An LtM can be either one uplink port or one Multi-Link trunk group of uplink ports.
•
•
•
An uplink port cannot be added to a trunk group if it already belongs to an LtM.
Only one Failure Detection pair (one group of Links to Monitor and one group of Links to Disable) is
supported on each switch (all VLANs and Spanning Tree Groups).
Ports that are already members of a trunk group are not allowed to be assigned to an LtM.
A trunk group configured as an LtM can contain multiple uplink ports (18-21), but no downlink
ports (1-16).
An LtD can contain one or more ports, and/or one or more trunks
A trunk group configured as an LtD can contain multiple downlink ports (1-16), but no uplink
ports (18-21).
Monitoring Uplink Failure Detection
The UFD information menu displays the current status of the LtM and LtD, and their member ports or
trunks. For example:
>> Information# ufd
Uplink Failure Detection: Enabled
LtM status: Down
Member
STG
STG State
---------------------port 19
1
DISABLED
10
DISABLED *
15
DISABLED *
* = STP turned off for this port.
Link Status
----------down
LtD status: Auto Disabled
Member
Link Status
------------------port 1
disabled
port 2
disabled
port 3
disabled
port 4
disabled
Use the /stats/ufd command to find out how many times link failure was detected on the LtM, how
many times Spanning Tree blocking state was detected on the LtM, and how many times UFD disabled
ports in the LtD.
Configuring Uplink Failure Detection
The preceding figure shows a basic UFD configuration. Assume that port 19 on Blade Switch 1 is
connected to a Layer 2/3 routing switch outside of the chassis. Port 18 and port 19 on Blade Switch 2
form a trunk that is connected to a different Layer 2/3 routing switch.
In this example, NIC 1 is the primary network adapter; NIC 2, NIC 3, and NIC 4 are non-primary
adapters. NIC 1 and NIC 2 are connected to port 1 and port 2 on Blade Switch 1. NIC 3 and NIC 4 are
connected to port 1 and port 2 on Blade Switch 2.
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Configuring UFD on Switch 1 (CLI example)
1. Assign uplink ports (18-21) to be monitored for communication failure.
>> Main# /cfg/ufd/fdp ena
(Enable Failure Detection Pair)
>> FDP# ltm
(Select Link to Monitor menu)
>> Failure Link to Monitor# addport 19 (Monitor uplink port 19)
2. Assign downlink ports (1-16) to disable when an uplink failure occurs.
>> /cfg/ufd/fdp/ltd
>> Failure Link to Disable# addport 1
>> Failure Link to Disable# addport 2
(Select Link to Disable menu)
(Add port 1 as a Link to Disable)
(Add port 2 as a Link to Disable)
3. Turn UFD on.
>> /cfg/ufd/on
>> Uplink Failure Detection# apply
>> Uplink Failure Detection# save
(Turn Uplink Failure Detection on)
(Make your changes active)
(Save for restore after reboot)
When a link failure or Spanning Tree blocking occurs on port 19, Blade Switch 1 disables port 1 and
port 2.
Configuring UFD on Switch 2 (CLI example)
1. Create a trunk group of uplink ports (18-21) to monitor.
>>
>>
>>
>>
Main#
Trunk
Trunk
Trunk
/cfg/trunk 2
group 2# ena
group 2# add 18
group 2# add 19
(Create trunk group 2)
(Enable trunk group 2)
(Add port 18 to trunk group 2)
(Add port 19 to trunk group 2)
2. Assign the trunk group to be monitored for communication failure.
>> Main# /cfg/ufd/fdp ena
>> FDP# ltm
>> Failover Link to Monitor# addtrnk 2
(Enable Failover Pair)
(Select Link to Monitor menu)
(Monitor trunk group 2)
3. Assign downlink ports (1-16) to disable when an uplink failure occurs.
>> Main# /cfg/ufd/fdp/ltd
>> Failover Link to Disable# addport 1
>> Failover Link to Disable# addport 2
(Select Link to Disable menu)
(Add port 1 as a Link to Disable)
(Add port 2 as a Link to Disable)
4. Turn UFD on.
>> Main# /cfg/ufd/on
(Turn Uplink Failure Detection on)
>> Uplink Failure Detection# apply (Make your changes active)
>> Uplink Failure Detection# save (Save for restore after reboot)
When a link failure or Spanning Tree blocking occurs on trunk group 2, Blade Switch 2 disables port 1
and port 2.
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Configuring Uplink Failure Detection (BBI example)
1. Configure Uplink Failure Detection.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select Uplink Failure Detection (click the underlined text, not the
folder).
c. Turn Uplink Failure Detection on, and then select FDP.
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d. Enable the FDP. Select ports in the LtM Ports Available list, and click Add to place the ports into
the Link to Monitor (LtM). Select ports in the LtD Ports Available list, and click Add to place the
ports into the Link to Disable (LtD).
e. Click Submit.
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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VRRP overview
In a high-availability network topology, no device can create a single point-of-failure for the network or
force a single point-of-failure to any other part of the network. This means that your network will remain in
service despite the failure of any single device. To achieve this usually requires redundancy for all vital
network components.
VRRP enables redundant router configurations within a LAN, providing alternate router paths for a host to
eliminate single points-of-failure within a network. Each participating VRRP-capable routing device is
configured with the same virtual router IP address and ID number. One of the virtual routers is elected as
the master, based on a number of priority criteria, and assumes control of the shared virtual router IP
address. If the master fails, one of the backup virtual routers will take control of the virtual router IP
address and actively process traffic addressed to it.
With VRRP, Virtual Interface Routers (VIR) allows two VRRP routers to share an IP interface across the
routers. VIRs provide a single Destination IP (DIP) for upstream routers to reach various servers, and
provide a virtual default Gateway for the server blades.
VRRP components
Each physical router running VRRP is known as a VRRP router.
Virtual router
Two or more VRRP routers can be configured to form a virtual router (RFC 2338). Each VRRP router may
participate in one or more virtual routers. Each virtual router consists of a user-configured virtual router
identifier (VRID) and an IP address.
Virtual router MAC address
The VRID is used to build the virtual router MAC Address. The five highest-order octets of the virtual router
MAC Address are the standard MAC prefix (00-00-5E-00-01) defined in RFC 2338. The VRID is used to
form the lowest-order octet.
Owners and renters
Only one of the VRRP routers in a virtual router may be configured as the IP address owner. This router
has the virtual router’s IP address as its real interface address. This router responds to packets addressed
to the virtual router’s IP address for ICMP pings, TCP connections, and so on.
There is no requirement for any VRRP router to be the IP address owner. Most VRRP installations choose
not to implement an IP address owner. For the purposes of this chapter, VRRP routers that are not the IP
address owner are called renters.
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Master and backup virtual router
Within each virtual router, one VRRP router is selected to be the virtual router master. See “Selecting the
Master VRRP Router” for an explanation of the selection process.
NOTE: If the IP address owner is available, it will always become the virtual router master.
The virtual router master forwards packets sent to the virtual router. It also responds to Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) requests sent to the virtual router's IP address. Finally, the virtual router master sends out
periodic advertisements to let other VRRP routers know it is alive and its priority.
Within a virtual router, the VRRP routers not selected to be the master are known as virtual router backups.
Should the virtual router master fail, one of the virtual router backups becomes the master and assumes its
responsibilities.
Virtual Interface Router
At Layer 3, a Virtual Interface Router (VIR) allows two VRRP routers to share an IP interface across the
routers. VIRs provide a single Destination IP (DIP) for upstream routers to reach various destination
networks, and provide a virtual default Gateway.
NOTE: Every VIR must be assigned to an IP interface, and every IP interface must be assigned to a
VLAN. If no port in a VLAN has link up, the IP interface of that VLAN is down, and if the IP interface
of a VIR is down, that VIR goes into INIT state.
VRRP operation
Only the virtual router master responds to ARP requests. Therefore, the upstream routers only forward
packets destined to the master. The master also responds to ICMP ping requests. The backup does not
forward any traffic, nor does it respond to ARP requests.
If the master is not available, the backup becomes the master and takes over responsibility for packet
forwarding and responding to ARP requests.
Selecting the master VRRP router
Each VRRP router is configured with a priority between 1 and 254. A bidding process determines which
VRRP router is or becomes the master—the VRRP router with the highest priority.
The master periodically sends advertisements to an IP multicast address. As long as the backups receive
these advertisements, they remain in the backup state. If a backup does not receive an advertisement for
three advertisement intervals, it initiates a bidding process to determine which VRRP router has the highest
priority and takes over as master.
If, at any time, a backup determines that it has higher priority than the current master does, it can preempt
the master and become the master itself, unless configured not to do so. In preemption, the backup
assumes the role of master and begins to send its own advertisements. The current master sees that the
backup has higher priority and will stop functioning as the master.
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A backup router can stop receiving advertisements for one of two reasons—the master can be down, or
all communications links between the master and the backup can be down. If the master has failed, it is
clearly desirable for the backup (or one of the backups, if there is more than one) to become the master.
NOTE: If the master is healthy but communication between the master and the backup has failed,
there will then be two masters within the virtual router. To prevent this from happening, configure
redundant links to be used between the switches that form a virtual router.
Failover methods
With service availability becoming a major concern on the Internet, service providers are increasingly
deploying Internet traffic control devices, such as application switches, in redundant configurations.
Traditionally, these configurations have been hot-standby configurations, where one switch is active and
the other is in a standby mode. A non-VRRP hot-standby configuration is shown in the figure below:
Figure 25 Non-VRRP hot-standby configuration
While hot-standby configurations increase site availability by removing single points-of-failure, service
providers increasingly view them as an inefficient use of network resources because one functional
application switch sits by idly until a failure calls it into action. Service providers now demand that vendor
equipment support redundant configurations where all devices can process traffic when they are healthy,
increasing site throughput and decreasing user response times when no device has failed.
The HP 10GbE switch high availability configurations are based on VRRP. The switch software
implementation of VRRP includes proprietary extensions.
The switch software implementation of VRRP supports the Active-Active mode of high availability.
Active-Active redundancy
In an active-active configuration, shown in the following figure, two switches provide redundancy for each
other, with both active at the same time. Each switch processes traffic on a different subnet. When a
failure occurs, the remaining switch can process traffic on all subnets.
The following figure shows an Active-Active configuration example.
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High availability
Figure 26 Active-Active redundancy
HP 10GbE switch extensions to VRRP
This section describes VRRP enhancements that are implemented in switch software:
Tracking VRRP router priority
The HP 10GbE switch software supports a tracking function that dynamically modifies the priority of a
VRRP router, based on its current state. The objective of tracking is to have, whenever possible, the master
bidding processes for various virtual routers in a LAN converge on the same switch. Tracking ensures that
the selected switch is the one that offers optimal network performance. For tracking to have any effect on
virtual router operation, preemption must be enabled.
Switch software can track the attributes listed in the following table:
Table 23 VRRP tracking parameters
Parameter
Description
Number of IP interfaces on the switch that are active (up)
/cfg/l3/vrrp/track/ifs
Helps elect the virtual routers with the most available
routes as the master. (An IP interface is considered
active when there is at least one active port on the same
VLAN.) This parameter influences the VRRP router's
priority in virtual interface routers.
Number of active ports on the same VLAN
/cfg/l3/vrrp/track/ports
Helps elect the virtual routers with the most available
ports as the master. This parameter influences the VRRP
router's priority in virtual interface routers.
Number of virtual routers in master mode on the switch
/cfg/l3/vrrp/track/vrs
Useful for ensuring that traffic for any particular client/
server pair is handled by the same switch, increasing
routing efficiency. This parameter influences the VRRP
router's priority in virtual interface routers.
Each tracked parameter has a user-configurable weight associated with it. As the count associated with
each tracked item increases (or decreases), so does the VRRP router's priority, subject to the weighting
associated with each tracked item. If the priority level of a standby is greater than that of the current
master, then the standby can assume the role of the master.
See “Configuring the Switch for Tracking” for an example on how to configure the switch for tracking
VRRP priority.
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High availability
Virtual router deployment considerations
Review the following issues described in this section to prevent network problems when deploying virtual
routers:
•
•
Assigning VRRP Virtual Router ID
Configuring the Switch for Tracking
Assigning VRRP virtual router ID
During the software upgrade process, VRRP virtual router IDs are assigned automatically if failover is
enabled on the switch. When configuring virtual routers at any point after upgrade, virtual router ID
numbers (/cfg/l3/vrrp/vr #/vrid) must be assigned. The virtual router ID may be configured as any
number between 1 and 250.
Configuring the switch for tracking
Tracking configuration largely depends on user preferences and network environment. Consider the
configuration shown in the previous figure. Assume the following behavior on the network:
•
•
Switch A is the master router upon initialization.
•
This behavior is preferred because running one server down is less disruptive than bringing a new
master online and severing all active connections in the process.
•
If Switch A is the master and it has two or more active servers fewer than Switch B, then Switch B
becomes the master.
•
If Switch B is the master, it remains the master even if servers are restored on Switch A such that it
has one fewer or an equal number of servers.
•
If Switch B is the master and it has one active server fewer than Switch A, then Switch A becomes
the master.
If Switch A is the master and it has one fewer active servers than Switch B, then Switch A remains
the master.
The user can implement this behavior by configuring the switch for tracking as follows:
1. Set the priority for Switch A to 101.
2. Leave the priority for Switch B at the default value of 100.
3. On both switches, enable tracking based on ports (ports), interfaces (ifs), or virtual routers (vr).
You can choose any combination of tracking parameters, based on your network configuration.
NOTE: There is no shortcut to setting tracking parameters. The goals must first be set and the
outcomes of various configurations and scenarios analyzed to find settings that meet the goals.
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High availability configurations
The HP 10GbE switches offer flexibility in implementing redundant configurations. This section discusses
the Active-Active configuration.
Active-Active configuration
The following figure shows an example configuration, where two switches are used as VRRP routers in an
active-active configuration. In this configuration, both switches respond to packets.
Figure 27 Active-Active high availability configuration
Although this example shows only two switches, there is no limit on the number of switches used in a
redundant configuration. It is possible to implement an active-active configuration across all the
VRRP-capable switches in a LAN.
Each VRRP-capable switch in an active-active configuration is autonomous. Switches in a virtual router
need not be identically configured.
In the scenario illustrated in the figure, traffic destined for IP address 10.0.1.1 is forwarded through the
Layer 2 switch at the top of the drawing, and ingresses Switch A on port 20. Return traffic uses default
gateway 1 (192.168.1.1). If the link between Switch A and the Layer 2 switch fails, Switch B becomes
the Master because it has a higher priority. Traffic is forwarded to Switch B. Return traffic uses default
gateway 2 (192.168.2.1), and is forwarded through the Layer 2 switch at the bottom of the drawing.
To implement the active-active example, perform the following switch configuration.
Task 1: Configure Switch A
1. Configure ports.
/cfg/l2/vlan 10
>> VLAN 10# ena
>> VLAN 10# add 20
>> VLAN 10# ..
>> Layer 2# vlan 20
>> VLAN 20# ena
>> VLAN 20# add 21
(Select VLAN 10)
(Enable VLAN 10)
(Add port 20 to VLAN 10)
(Select VLAN 20)
(Enable VLAN 20)
(Add port 21 to VLAN 20)
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2. Configure client and server interfaces.
/cfg/l3/if 1
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> Layer 3# if 2
>> IP Interface 2#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 2#
>> IP Interface 2#
>> Layer 3# if 3
>> IP Interface 3#
>> IP Interface 3#
>> IP Interface 3#
>> IP Interface 2#
>> Layer 3# if 4
>> IP Interface 4#
>> IP Interface 4#
>> IP Interface 4#
addr 192.168.1.100
vlan 10
ena
..
addr 192.168.2.101
vlan 20
ena
..
addr 10.0.1.100
mask 255.255.255.0
ena
..
addr 10.0.2.101
mask 255.255.255.0
ena
(Select
(Define
(Assign
(Enable
interface 1)
IP address for interface 1)
VLAN 10 to interface 1)
interface 1)
(Select
(Define
(Assign
(Enable
interface 2)
IP address for interface 2)
VLAN 20 to interface 2)
interface 2)
(Select
(Define
(Define
(Enable
interface 3)
IP address for interface 3)
subnet mask for interface 3)
interface 3)
(Select interface 4)
(Define IP address for interface 4)
(Define subnet mask for interface 4)
(Enable interface 4)
3. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to one of the Layer 2 routers.
/cfg/l3/gw 1
>> Default gateway
>> Default gateway
>> Default gateway
>> Layer 3# gw 2
>> Default gateway
>> Default gateway
(Select default gateway 1)
1# addr 192.168.1.1 (Point gateway to the first L2 router)
1# ena
(Enable the default gateway)
1# ..
(Select default gateway 2)
1# addr 192.168.2.1 (Point gateway to the second router)
1# ena
(Enable the default gateway)
4. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface Routers.
/cfg/l3/vrrp/on
(Turn VRRP on)
>> Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol# vr 1
(Select virtual router
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# vrid 1
(Set VRID to 1)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# if 1
(Set interface 1)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# addr 192.168.1.200
(Define IP address)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# ena
(Enable virtual router
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# ..
(Enable virtual router
>> Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol# vr 2
(Select virtual router
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# vrid 2
(Set VRID to 2)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# if 2
(Set interface 2)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# addr 192.168.2.200
(Define IP address)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# ena
(Enable virtual router
1)
1)
1)
2)
2)
5. Enable tracking on ports. Set the priority of Virtual Router 1 to 101, so that it becomes the Master.
/cfg/l3/vrrp/vr 1
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# track/ports/ena
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1 Priority Tracking# ..
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# prio 101
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# ..
>> Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol# vr 2
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# track/ports/ena
(Select VRRP virtual router 1)
(Set tracking on ports)
(Set the VRRP priority)
(Select VRRP virtual router 2)
(Set tracking on ports)
6. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally.
/cfg/l2/stg 1/off
>> Spanning Tree Group 1# apply
>> Spanning Tree Group 1# save
(Turn off STG)
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Task 2: Configure Switch B
1. Configure ports.
/cfg/l2/vlan 10
>> VLAN 10# ena
>> VLAN 10# add 20
>> VLAN 10# ..
>> Layer 2# vlan 20
>> VLAN 20# ena
>> VLAN 20# add 21
(Select VLAN 10)
(Enable VLAN 10)
(Add port 20 to VLAN 10)
(Select VLAN 20)
(Enable VLAN 20)
(Add port 21 to VLAN 20)
2. Configure client and server interfaces.
/cfg/l3/if 1
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> Layer 3# if 2
>> IP Interface 2#
>> IP Interface 1#
>> IP Interface 2#
>> IP Interface 2#
>> Layer 3# if 3
>> IP Interface 3#
>> IP Interface 3#
>> IP Interface 3#
>> IP Interface 2#
>> Layer 3# if 4
>> IP Interface 4#
>> IP Interface 4#
>> IP Interface 4#
addr 192.168.1.101
vlan 10
ena
..
addr 192.168.2.100
vlan 20
ena
..
addr 10.0.1.101
mask 255.255.255.0
ena
..
addr 10.0.2.100
mask 255.255.255.0
ena
(Select
(Define
(Assign
(Enable
interface 1)
IP address for interface 1)
VLAN 10 to interface 1)
interface 1)
(Select
(Define
(Assign
(Enable
interface 2)
IP address for interface 2)
VLAN 20 to interface 2)
interface 2)
(Select
(Define
(Define
(Enable
interface 3)
IP address for interface 3)
subnet mask for interface 3)
interface 3)
(Select
(Define
(Define
(Enable
interface 4)
IP address for interface 4)
subnet mask for interface 4)
interface 4)
3. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to one of the Layer 2 routers.
/cfg/l3/gw 1
>> Default gateway
>> Default gateway
>> Default gateway
>> Layer 3# gw 2
>> Default gateway
>> Default gateway
1# addr 192.168.2.1
1# ena
1# ..
1# addr 192.168.1.1
1# ena
(Select default gateway 1)
(Point gateway to the first L2 router)
(Enable the default gateway)
(Select default gateway 2)
(Point gateway to the second router)
(Enable the default gateway)
4. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface Routers.
/cfg/l3/vrrp/on
(Turn VRRP on)
>> Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol# vr 1 (Select virtual router
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# vrid 1
(Set VRID to 1)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# if 1
(Set interface 1)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# addr 192.168.1.200(Define IP address)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# ena
(Enable virtual router
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# ..
(Enable virtual router
>> Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol# vr 2 (Select virtual router
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# vrid 2
(Set VRID to 2)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# if 2
(Set interface 2)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# addr 192.168.2.200(Define IP address)
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# ena
(Enable virtual router
1)
1)
1)
2)
2)
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High availability
5. Enable tracking on ports. Set the priority of Virtual Router 2 to 101, so that it becomes the Master.
/cfg/l3/vrrp/vr 1
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# track/ports/ena
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1 Priority Tracking#
>> VRRP Virtual Router 1# ..
>> Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol# vr 2
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# track/ports/ena
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2 Priority Tracking#
>> VRRP Virtual Router 2# prio 101
(Select VRRP virtual router 1)
(Set tracking on ports)
..
(Select VRRP virtual router 2)
(Set tracking on ports)
..
(Set the VRRP priority)
6. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally. Apply and save changes.
/cfg/l2/stg 1/off
>> Spanning Tree Group 1# apply
>> Spanning Tree Group 1# save
(Turn off STG)
Task 1: Configure Switch A (BBI example)
1. Configure ports and VLANs.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Virtual LANs folder, and select Add VLAN.
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High availability
c. Configure port 20 as a member of VLAN 10 and port 21 as a member of VLAN 20. Enable
each VLAN.
d. Click Submit.
2. Configure the following client and server interfaces:
− IF 1
IP address = 192.168.1.100
Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
VLAN 10
− IF 2
IP address = 10.10.12.1
Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
VLAN 20
− IF 3
IP address = 10.10.12.1
Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
− IF 4
IP address = 10.10.12.1
Subnet mask = 255.255.255.0
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High availability
a. Open the IP Interfaces folder, and select Add IP Interface.
b. Configure an IP interface. Enter the IP address, subnet mask, and VLAN membership. Enable the
interface.
c. Click Submit.
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High availability
3. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to one of the Layer 2 routers.
a. Open the Default Gateways folder, and select Add Default Gateway.
b. Configure the IP address for each default gateway. Enable the default gateways.
c. Click Submit.
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High availability
4. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface routers.
a. Open the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol folder, and select General.
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b. Enable VRRP processing.
c. Click Submit.
d. Open the Virtual Routers folder, and select Add Virtual Router.
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High availability
e. Configure the IP address for Virtual Router 1 (VR1). Enable tracking on ports, and set the
priority to 101. Enable The Virtual Router.
Click Submit.
g. Select Add Virtual Router.
f.
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High availability
h. Configure the IP address for Virtual Router 2 (VR2). Enable tracking on ports, but set the priority
to 100 (default value). Enable The Virtual Router.
i.
Click Submit.
5. Turn off Spanning Tree globally.
a. Open the Spanning Tree Groups folder, and select Add Spanning Tree Group.
b. Select a Spanning Tree Group.
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High availability
c. Enter Spanning Tree Group ID 1 and set the Switch Spanning Tree State to off.
d. Click Submit.
6. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
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Troubleshooting tools
Troubleshooting tools
Introduction
This appendix discusses some tools to help you use the Port Mirroring feature to troubleshoot common
network problems on the switch.
Port Mirroring
The Port Mirroring feature on the switch is very useful for troubleshooting any connection-oriented
problem. Any traffic in or out of one or more ports can be mirrored to a single monitoring port to which a
network monitor can be attached.
Port Mirroring can be used as a troubleshooting tool or to enhance the security of your network. For
example, an Intrusion Detection Service (IDS) server can be connected to the monitor port to detect
intruders attacking the network.
As shown in the following figure, port 18 is monitoring ingress traffic (traffic entering the switch) on
port 21 and egress traffic (traffic leaving the switch) on port 1. You can attach a device to port 18 to
monitor the traffic on ports 21 and 1.
Figure 28 Port Mirroring
This figure shows two mirrored ports monitored by a single port. Similarly, you can have one mirrored
port to one monitored port, or many mirrored ports to one monitored port. The switch does not support a
single port being monitored by multiple ports because it supports only one monitored port configured at a
time.
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Troubleshooting tools
Ingress traffic is duplicated and sent to the mirrored port before processing, and egress traffic is
duplicated and sent to the mirrored port after processing.
Configuring Port Mirroring (CLI example)
To configure Port Mirroring for the example shown in the preceding figure:
1. Specify the monitoring port.
>> # /cfg/pmirr/monport 18
(Select port 18 for monitoring)
2. Select the ports that you want to mirror.
>> Port 18 # add 21
(Select port 21 to mirror)
>> Enter port mirror direction [in, out, or both]: in (Monitor ingress traffic
on port 21)
>> Port 18 # add 1
(Select port 1 to mirror)
>> Enter port mirror direction [in, out, or both]: out (Monitor egress traffic
on port 1)
3. Enable Port Mirroring.
>> # /cfg/pmirr/mirr ena
(Enable port mirroring)
4. Apply and save the configuration.
>> PortMirroring# apply
>> PortMirroring# save
(Apply the configuration)
(Save the configuration)
5. View the current configuration.
>> PortMirroring# cur
Port mirroring is enabled
Monitoring Ports Mirrored Ports
1
none
2
none
3
none
4
none
5
none
:
:
16
none
18 (21, in) (1, out)
20
none
21
none
(Display the current settings)
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Troubleshooting tools
Configuring Port Mirroring (BBI example)
1. Configure Port Mirroring.
a. Click the Configure context button.
b. Open the Switch folder, and select Port-Based Port Mirroring (click the underlined text, not
the folder).
c. Click a port number to select a monitoring port.
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Troubleshooting tools
d. Click Add Mirrored Port.
e. Enter a port number for the mirrored port, and select the Port Mirror Direction.
f.
Click Submit.
2. Apply, verify, and save the configuration.
3. Verify the Port Mirroring configuration on the switch.
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Troubleshooting tools
Other network troubleshooting techniques
Other network troubleshooting techniques include the following.
Console and Syslog messages
When a switch experiences a problem, review the console and Syslog messages. The switch displays
these informative messages when state changes and system problems occur. Syslog messages can be
viewed by using the /info/sys/log command. For more information on interpreting syslog messages,
see the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference Guide.
Ping
To verify station-to-station connectivity across the network, execute the following command:
ping <host name> | <IP address> [ (attempts, 1-32) [ msec delay ]] [-m|-mgt|-d|-data]
The IP address is the hostname or IP address of the device. The number of attempts is optional.
Msec delay (optional) is the number of milliseconds between attempts. By default, the -m or -mgt option
for the management port is used. To use data ports, specify the -d or –data option.
Trace route
To identify the route used for station-to-station connectivity across the network, execute the following
command:
traceroute <host name> | <IP address> [<max-hops> [ msec delay ]]
The IP address is the hostname or IP address of the target station. Max-hops (optional) is the maximum
distance to trace (1-32 devices). Msec delay (optional) is the number of milliseconds to wait for the
response.
Statistics and state information
The switch keeps track of a large number of statistics and many of these are error condition counters. The
statistics and state information can be very useful when troubleshooting a LAN or Real Server problem.
For more information about available statistics, see one of the following:
•
"Viewing statistics" chapter of the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Browser-based Interface Reference
Guide, or
•
"Statistics Menu" chapter of the HP 10Gb Ethernet BL-c Switch Command Reference
Customer support tools
The following diagnostics tools are not user-configurable and should be performed through HP technical
support.
•
Offline Diagnostics—This tool is used for troubleshooting suspected switch hardware issues. These
tests verify that the selected hardware is performing within expected engineering specifications.
•
Software Panics—If a fatal software condition is found during runtime, the switch will capture the
current hardware and software state information into a panic dump. This dump file can be analyzed
post-mortem to determine the cause of the problem.
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Troubleshooting tools
•
Stack Trace—If a fatal software condition occurs, the switch dumps stack trace data to the console. If
you have a console attached to the switch, capture the console dump, and forward it to HP technical
support.
196
Index
Index
8
802.1x port states, 49
A
accessing the switch: defining
source IP addresses, 20;
RADIUS authentication, 21;
security, 20; using the command
line interface (CLI), 12
ACL Blocks and Groups, 90
ACL configuration examples, 92
ACL filters, 87
active-active redundancy, 175
allowable source IP addresses, 20
B
BBI: See Browser-Based Interface,
134
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU),
68
broadcast domains, 53, 58
Browser-Based Interface, 134
C
Cisco EtherChannel, 38
Command Line Interface, 134
command line interface (CLI), 12
configuration, 38
configuration rules: port mirroring,
38; trunking, 38; VLANs, 38
configuring: OSPF, 141
configuring SNMP trap hosts, 17
console messages, 195
customer support tools, 195
D
default gateway: configuration
example, 13, 109
Differentiated Services Code Point
(DSCP)DSCP, 97
Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol, 112
E
EAPoL configuration guidelines, 51
EtherChannel, as used with port
trunking, 38
Extensible Authentication Protocol
over LAN (EAPoL)EAPoL, 47
F
fault tolerance, port trunking, 37
FDB static entries, 66
frame tagging, 55
G
default gateway, 108
H
high-availability, 9, 167
I
IBM DirectorSNMP: IBM Director,
14
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging, 55, 58
IEEE standards: 802.1x, 47
IGMP Filtering, configuring (BBI
example), 125
IGMP Filtering, configuring (CLI
example), 122
IGMP Snooping, 118
IGMP Snooping, configuring (BBI
example), 123
IGMP Snooping, configuring (CLI
example), 121
IGMPv3: snooping, 119
IP address: routing example, 109
IP interfaces: configuring, 12;
example configuration, IP
interface configuration, 111;
VLAN #1 (default), 58; VLANs,
58
IP routing, 106; default gateway
configuration, 13, 109; IP
interface configuration, 109, 111;
IP interfaces example
configuration, 109
IP subnets: routing; IP subnets,
107; routing, 108
IP subnets, VLANs, 53
J
fragmenting jumbo frames:
fragmenting to normal size;
routing, 106
L
LACP, 44
Link Aggregation Control Protocol,
44
logical segment, 53
LSAs, 133
M
Main Menu, command line interface
(CLI), 12
media access control (MAC)
address, 12
meter, 91
mirroring ports, 191
monitoring ports, 191
MSTP, 77
multi-links between switches, using
port trunking, 36
multiple spanning tree groups, 71
N
network management, 14
O
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF),
131
ICMP;IGMP;TCP;UDP: filtering
criteria, 87
OSPF: overview, 131
OSPF: area types, 131
OSPF: neighbors, 133
OSPF: link state database, 133
OSPF: route summarization, 137
OSPF: default route; OSPF, 137
OSPF: virtual link, 138
OSPF: authentication, 139
OSPF: host routes; OSPF, 140
OSPF: external routes, 141
OSPF configuration examples, 141,
142, 150, 151, 152
OSPF configuration, verifying, 154
P
ping, 195
Port Fast Forwarding, 76
port mirroring: configuration rules,
38; troubleshooting, 191
port trunking, 37
port trunking, fault tolerance, 37
Port-based Network Access control,
47
Port-based traffic control, 51
ports: monitoring, 191; physical, 54
priority value (802.1p), 98
PVID (port VLAN ID), 54
switch failover: overview, 175
Fast Uplink Convergence, 76
197
Index
Q
Quality of Service, 86
queuing and scheduling, 105
R
RADIUS: port 1812 and 1645, 88;
port 1813, 88
redundancy: active-active, 175;
VRRP (Virtual Router
Redundancy Protocol), 175
re-mark, 91
Remote Authentication Dial-in User
Service (RADIUS):
authentication, 21; SSH/SCP, 34
Remote monitoring (RMON), 155
RIP (Routing Information Protocol):
advertisements, 114; distance
vector protocol, 114; hop count,
114; metric, 114
RIP configuration, example, 117
RIP features, 115
RMON (remote monitoring), 155
RMON groups: alarms, 161; events,
165; examples of, 156, 159, 160,
161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 170;
history, 158; statistics, 155
Router ID: OSPF; router ID, 138
routers, 107, 109; border;
peer;autonomous systems (AS),
134; switch-based routing
topology, 108
routing: internal and
external;internal routing, 134
RSA keys, 33
RSTP, 77
S
security, 20; RADIUS
authentication, 21; switch
management, 20; VLANs, 53
segmentation, 53
HP-OpenView: HP-OpenView, 14
SNMP, 14
SNMP, 134
SNMP v1.0, 14
SNMP v3.0, 14
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP),
multiple instances, 72
spanning tree, configuration rules,
38
SSH: RSA host and server keys,
33; supported clients, 31
SSH/SCP configuring, 31
Static MRouter, configuring (CLI
example), 122
Static Multicast Router, configuring
(BBI example), 129
statistics, 195
switch management: security, 20;
via IP interface, 58
switch ports VLANs membership,
54
syslog messages, 195
T
tagging, 55
technical terms: port VLAN identifier
(PVID), 55; tagged frame, 55;
tagged member, 55; untagged
frame, 55; untagged member,
55; VLAN identifier (VID), 55
Telnet, 11
trace route, 195
Trunk Hash algorithm, 44
trunking: configuration rules, 38
typographical conventions, 10
V
VLANs: broadcast domains, 53, 58,
110; configuration rules, 38;
default PVID, 54; example
showing multiple VLANs, 60; ID
numbers, 53; IP interface
configuration, 111; IP interfaces,
58; multiple spanning trees, 68;
multiple VLANs, 55; port
members, 54; PVID, 54; security,
53; Spanning-Tree Protocol, 68;
tagging, 54; topologies, 58;
VLAN #1 (default), 58
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy
Protocol): active-active
redundancy, 175; overview, 173;
virtual router ID numbering; ID
numbering, 177; overview;
tracking, 176; vrid, 173
198
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