HP CommonIO Products User's Manual

HP CommonIO Products User's Manual
HP X.25/9000 User’s Guide
HP-UX 11i v3
Edition 8
Manufacturing Part Number: J2793-90072
February 2007
© Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, LP.
Legal Notices
 Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
Confidential computer software. Valid license required from HP for
possession, use or copying. Consistent with FAR 12.211 and 12.212,
Commercial Computer Software, Computer Software Documentation,
and Technical Data for Commercial Items are licensed to the U.S.
Government under vendor’s standard commercial license.
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the
express warranty statements accompanying such products and services.
Nothing herein should be construed as constituting additional warranty.
HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions
contained herein.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
2
Contents
1. About the X.25 Product
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application (L7), Presentation (L6), and Session (L5) Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport Level (L4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packet/network Level (L3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data link (L2) and Physical (L1) Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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18
19
20
21
2. Installation
Before You Install the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Multiple X.25 Interface Cards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OS Platform and Version Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the X.25 Link Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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25
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3. Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SMH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SMH’s On-line Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring an X.25 Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring X.25 Virtual Circuits (VCs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring an Internet Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Level 3 Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Level 2 Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Remote System Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring X.25 over LLC2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting and Stopping Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample setup and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
One Lan and Two Boxes configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Two Lans, with One Box Per Lan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting LLC2 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring PAD Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add/Modify PAD Terminal Emulation (Local to Remote). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add/Modify PAD Support Server (Remote to Local) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add/Modify PAD Printers Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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34
35
39
44
48
54
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60
61
62
65
69
71
71
72
73
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Contents
Add/Modify UUCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add/Modify X.3 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the High Availability Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.25 Cluster Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.25 Commands to be Configured in High Availability Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.25 Package Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.25 High Availability Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unique MAC Address Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring XOL HA for Local Failover Without ServiceGuard . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring XOL HA for Remote Failover Using Service Guard (SG). . . . . . . . . .
XOL Cluster Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.25 Commands Used in the SG Package Control Scripts: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XOL Package Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Failover with Local Failover Support Using Service Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying the X.25 Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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76
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77
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81
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86
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96
4. OLA/R Overview and Concepts
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Important Terms and Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Planning and Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Card Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
On-Line Addition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
On-Line Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Critical Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Failover Actions / Single Points of Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
How to On-line Replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
How to On-line Add (OLA) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5. Diagnostic Utilities
Using Diagnostic Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Before Using the Diagnostic Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
x25check and x25server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
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Contents
Example 1: Running x25check Interactively (No Parameters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2: Running x25check With an X.121 Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3: Running x25check With a Data Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x25stat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1: Displaying the Current Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2: Displaying Global Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3: Displaying Virtual Circuit Data Packet Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 4: Displaying Global X.25 Level 3 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 5: Displaying X.25 Level 1 and 2 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 6: Displaying Virtual Circuit Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 7: Displaying Current IP to X.25 Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x25mibstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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123
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6. PAD Services
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CCITT Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAD services and the HP 9000 host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote PAD Support (x29server) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Call Acceptance Mechanism and System Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported Remote PAD Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Remote PAD Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring pad_spt Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
pad_spt Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Launching Applications Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote PAD Printer Support (x29printd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Remote PAD Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the UNIX Line-printer Spooler for x29printd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x29printd and lpsched Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying the Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UUCP Support (x29uucpd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring UUCP PAD Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the x29hosts file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents
pad_uucp Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring System and Device Files for UUCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local PAD Emulation (padem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Local PAD Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameter Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAD Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.28 PAD Command Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extended Command Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring X.3 Profile Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Set Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default X.3 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.3 Parameter Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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150
156
156
157
157
157
160
160
161
163
163
164
164
165
165
7. Tracing and Logging Utilities
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
nettl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
netfmt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Filter File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filter File Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
strace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of the strace Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of strace Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
strerr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8. Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Flowcharts and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flowchart 2 – Procedures and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 2-1 – x25stat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 2-2 – eisa_config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flowchart 3 – Procedures and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 3-1 – Hardware Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flowchart 4 – Procedures and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 4-1 – x25check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 4-2 – Exit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flowchart 5 – Procedures and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 5-1 – ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 5-2 – Checking your IP over X.25 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note 5-3 – Exit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recovering From a Power Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For Systems With a Backup Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For Systems With No Backup Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reporting Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back-to-back Configuration on the Same Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of x25init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IP-to-X.121 Address Mapping Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Mapping Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198
199
200
200
200
203
203
204
204
204
205
206
206
206
208
208
208
209
211
212
212
214
214
216
216
A. Using Non-English Subscription Forms
Subscription Form Translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
B. X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
X.25 Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The x25init_def File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The x25init_smpl File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The x3config File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
226
228
228
231
233
7
Contents
The x29hosts File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
The Network Type File (x25_networks) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
C. Diagnostic Messages
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnostic Message Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cause Code Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packet Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESTART Packet Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESET/CLEAR Packet Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X.25 Diagnostic Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
240
241
242
243
243
243
244
Tables
Table 2-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Table 3-1. Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Table 3-2. Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Table 3-3. Configure Internet Address Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Table 3-4. IP Address and Default Subnet Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Table 3-5. Modify IP over X.25 Defaults Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Table 3-6. Verify Level 3 Values Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Table 3-7. Switched VC Flow Control Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Table 3-8. Permanent VC Flow Control Field Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Table 3-9. Modify Throughput Class Settings Field Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Table 3-10. Throughput Classes and Line Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Table 3-11. Verify Level 2 Values Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Table 3-12. Add Internet Connectivity Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Table 3-13. Provide X.25 Information Field Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Table 3-14. Additional XOL specific configuration parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Table 4-1. Terms used in this section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Table 4-2. Three Possible Critical Resource Analysis (CRA) Outcomes . . . . . . . . . .104
Table 4-3. Three Possible Critical Resource Analysis (CRA) Outcomes . . . . . . . . . .108
Table 5-1. Available Diagnostic Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Table 5-2. Level 3 State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Table 5-3. Level 2 Link State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Table 5-4. Level 1 Link State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Table 5-5. Statistics for WAN Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Table 5-6. VC State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Table 5-7. Statistics for WAN Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Table 5-8. Example Statistics for x25mibstat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Table 6-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Table 6-2. X.3 Parameter Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Table 6-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Table 6-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Table 6-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Table 6-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Table 6-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Table 6-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Table 6-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
9
Tables
Table 6-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Table 6-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Table 6-13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Table 6-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Table 6-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Table 6-15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Table 6-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Table 7-1. Available Tracing and Logging Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Table 7-2. Tracing Masks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Table 7-3. Filter File Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Table 7-4. Filter File family Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Table 7-5. Single-port Subnet Interface Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Table 7-6. Dual-port Subnet Interface Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Table 7-7. Output Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Table 7-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Table 7-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Table 7-10. Output Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Table 7-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Table 8-1. Troubleshooting Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Table A-1. French TRANSPAC Subscription Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Table A-2. Using Your ITAPAC (Italian) Subscription Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Table A-3. Using your DATEX-P (German) Subscription Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Table A-4. Using your IBERPAC (Spanish) Subscription Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Table B-1. /etc/x25 directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Table B-2. /etc directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Table B-3. /var/x25/log/x25server directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Table B-4. /var/x25/log directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Table B-5. Home directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Table B-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Table B-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Table B-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
Table B-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Table C-1. No Additional Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
Table C-2. Packet Type Invalid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
Table C-3. Packet Not Allowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
10
Tables
Table C-4. Timer Expired. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Table C-5. Call Setup, Call Clearing, or Registration Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Table C-6. CATEGORY - Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Table C-7. International Problem and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Table C-8. DTE-Specific Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Table C-9. OSI Network Service Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Table C-10. Higher Level Initiated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
11
Tables
12
Figures
Figure 1-1. X.25 Link Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Figure 3-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Figure 3-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Figure 3-3. Configure Internet Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Figure 3-4. Modify IP Over X.25 Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Figure 3-5. Verify Level 3 Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Figure 3-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Figure 3-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Figure 3-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Figure 3-9. Add Internet Connectivity Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Figure 3-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Figure 3-11. One LAN, Two Boxes Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Figure 3-12. Two Lans, One Box per Lan configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Figure 3-13. Before the Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Figure 3-14. After the Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Figure 3-15. Before the Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Figure 3-16. After the Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Figure 5-1. Scope of X.25 Diagnostic Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Figure 6-1. PAD Support Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Figure 6-2. PAD Services as a Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Figure 6-3. Remote PAD Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Figure 6-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Figure 6-5. Remote Printer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Figure 6-6. Remote Printer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Figure 6-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Figure 7-1. The Scope of X.25 Tracing and Logging Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Figure 7-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Figure 8-1. Flowchart 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Figure 8-2. Flowchart 2 – Initialization Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Figure 8-3. Flowchart 3 – Hardware Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Figure 8-4. Flowchart 4 – X.25 Configuration Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Figure 8-5. Flowchart 5 – IP Over X.25 Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Figure 8-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
13
Figures
14
1
Chapter 1
About the X.25 Product
15
About the X.25 Product
Introduction
Introduction
The Hewlett-Packard X.25 link for HP 9000 systems provides
networking link hardware and software to allow HP computer systems to
communicate with other HP and non-HP computers over X.25 packet
switching networks.
The X.25 link implements the CCITT X.25 Recommendations and
contains the components necessary to connect an HP 9000 to a public or
private packet switching network conforming to the CCITT X.25
Recommendation (1980, 1984 or 1988), or to another system in a
back-to-back configuration.
The information in this manual applies to HP 9000 Series 700 and 800
systems that use single, dual, or quad-port communications hardware.
Any differences are specifically noted.
NOTE
In a diskless cluster, X.25 software is only supported on the server
system. It is not supported on client systems for this type of
environment.
The following diagram illustrates the X.25 link architecture where:
•
solid white boxes represent the product’s integral components.
•
lightly shaded boxes represent the product’s protocol components.
•
heavily shaded boxes represent optional components (external to the
product) that can be added to the product.
Each component depends on the component(s) below it and must be
installed and running in order to support higher-level components.
16
Chapter 1
About the X.25 Product
Introduction
Figure 1-1
X.25 Link Architecture
Internet
Services
OSI Services
X.25
User
User
PAD
Written
Written
Services
L3
L4
Network
Services NS
OTS/9000
BSD IPC
TCP/UDP
X.25
Programmatic Access
OTS-to-PLP
Translator
BSD-to-PLP Translator
IP-to-PLP Interface
X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP)
X.25 Link Access Procedure-Balanced Protocol (LAP-B)
X.25 Communications Hardware
Chapter 1
17
About the X.25 Product
Application (L7), Presentation (L6), and Session (L5) Levels
Application (L7), Presentation (L6), and
Session (L5) Levels
The X.25 link does not provide any components for the general support of
the application and presentation levels (levels 7 and 6, respectively),
although X.25/9000 PAD Services do provide some of the functionality of
these levels.
User-written application programs, Internet Services/Berkeley Services
(via BSD Sockets) and NS (via NetIPC Sockets), are accessed by means
of TCP or UDP Transport Level (level 4) protocols.
For application level services, you can install OSI Services to run over
the X.25 network (for more information, refer to OSI Services
documentation). The OTS/9000 product provides access to X.25 for OSI
Services. You can install application level services such as
Internet/Berkeley Services and Network Services (for more information,
refer to the documentation for these products).
BSD IPC (Berkeley Software Distribution InterProcess Communication)
allows direct programmatic access to the X.25 packet level (level 3), or
TCP/UDP at the transport level (level 4), for user-written application
programs.
NetIPC sockets also provides a programmatic interface to TCP/UDP at
the transport level.
18
Chapter 1
About the X.25 Product
Transport Level (L4)
Transport Level (L4)
At the transport level (level 4), the X.25 link provides TCP (based on the
DARPA standard) and UDP. These Transport level protocols are used by
Internet/Berkeley Services, by NS, and by user application programs
that access the TCP/UDP and IP protocols.
The TCP protocol is a connection-based protocol. TCP verifies that all
data is delivered without duplication to its destination. The UDP
protocol, unlike TCP, has no concept of a connection. Messages are sent
as a unit with source and destination information in the header.
The X.25 link provides a BSD to PLP (Packet Level Protocol) translator
to allow access to PLP at level 3 for user-written application programs
via BSD IPC.
The X.25 link also provides an OTS to PLP translator to allow access to
PLP at level 3 for OSI Services via Xport OSI.
Chapter 1
19
About the X.25 Product
Packet/network Level (L3)
Packet/network Level (L3)
At the packet/network level (L3), X.25 link provides direct X.25
programmatic access via BSD IPC. For full details on X.25 programmatic
access, refer to the X.25/9000 Programmer’s guide (part number:
J2793-90065).
The X.25 link also provides IP access to TCP or UDP Transport protocols
for programs such as Internet/Berkeley Services and NS, allowing
communication over X.25 in accordance with RFC 877.
20
Chapter 1
About the X.25 Product
Data link (L2) and Physical (L1) Levels
Data link (L2) and Physical (L1) Levels
At the data link level (level 2), the X.25 link provides the LAP-B (Link
Access Procedure-Balanced) protocol. LAP-B is a data link protocol,
specified by the 1980 CCITT X.25 recommendations, that determines
frame exchange procedures.
At the physical level (level 1), the X.25 link provides support for X.21,
X.21bis, and V.35 interfaces (depending on your particular
communications hardware). These sets of recommendations define the
standards for X.25 at the physical level and apply specifically to
connections to a packet switching network. X.21bis (equivalent to V.24
and RS-232) is applicable to X.25 physical interfaces with transmission
speeds up to 64 kb/s. V.35, RS-449, X.21, and RS-530 supports
transmission speeds up to 2 Mb/s. Other standards may also be
supported as they become available.
Chapter 1
21
About the X.25 Product
Data link (L2) and Physical (L1) Levels
22
Chapter 1
2
Chapter 2
Installation
23
Installation
Before You Install the Software
Before You Install the Software
Before installing the X.25 link software, check the requirements below to
make sure that all required software and hardware has been correctly
installed and configured.
NOTE
This product is only supported on the system that is acting as a server. It
is not supported on client systems.
Hardware Requirements
This section describes the hardware requirements of the J2793B X.25
software for HP 9000 server systems.
If you have not already done so, install the X.25 interface card as
described in the hardware installation guide for your X.25 product. If you
are installing multiple X.25 cards, check the requirements in “Installing
Multiple X.25 Interface Cards” below.
If a modem connection is required, connect the X.25 card to the modem
or the modem eliminator according either to the modem vendor’s
specification sheet, or the instructions provided by the network provider.
Installing Multiple X.25 Interface Cards
When installing multiple X.25 cards,
•
Always install the cards in adjacent slots in ascending slot order.
•
Always install X.25 cards with the system shut down.
•
Do not skip slots between X.25 cards.
Hardware Compatibility
•
HP 9000 PCI bus
The High Availability feature can run on:
•
24
PCI hardware cards, Product Numbers J3525A (2-ports)
Chapter 2
Installation
Before You Install the Software
OS Platform and Version Compatibility
The version of the X.25 link software you’re installing must be
compatible with the version of HP-UX you’re running (for example,
HP-UX version 11i v3 for B.11.31.01)
•
Disk space required to install: 7 Mb
•
Software install with system up or down? Up
•
Single-user state required or recommended? No
•
Reboot? Yes
Memory
Your X.25 link supports a high number of virtual circuits operating at
high baud rates. Since both X.25 and the BSD sockets API may store a
certain amount of data for each socket/circuit, HP recommends that you
check that your system has enough memory to handle the number of VCs
you plan to use. A few guidelines to help you are provided below.
Related Parameters
•
Level 3 window size (W in formulas below) as configured in the
x25config file
•
Level 3 packet size (P in formulas below) as configured in X.25
configuration file
•
Socket buffer size (B in formulas below) used in your applications
(setsockopt() system call). The default is 4 Kb.
Evaluation Formulas The following formulas can be used to evaluate
X.25 memory requirements:
Memory for each VC (MVC) in bytes:
MVC = (B x 3) + (2 x (W + 1) x P)
Total Memory (TM) for X.25 in bytes:
TM = sum (MVC) + Number of cards x 5120
NOTE
Chapter 2
These figures are only for protocol and API requirements. You should
also consider the memory required by your applications.
25
Installation
Before You Install the Software
Shortcut Method Assuming B = P for all VCs, TM can be rounded to:
•
If B < 512, TM = approx. (1,536 + (2 x W + 2) x B) x No. of VCs
•
If B > or = 512, TM = approx. (2 x W + 5) x B x No. of VCs
The following table (in bytes/VC) provides a quick guide:
Table 2-1
Buffer Size (B) = Packet Size (P) in bytes
Window (W)
size
Example 2-1
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
1
2K
2.5 K
3.5 K
7K
14 K
28 K
2
2.3 K
3K
4.5 K
9K
18 K
36 K
3
2.5 K
3.5 K
5.5 K
11 K
22 K
44 K
4
2.8 K
4K
6.5 K
13 K
26 K
52 K
5
3K
4.5 K
7.5 K
15 K
30 K
60 K
6
3.3 K
5K
8.5 K
17 K
34 K
68 K
7
3.5 K
5.5 K
9.5 K
19 K
38 K
76 K
Example:
A system has two X.25 cards configured as follows:
Card 1:
Window = 2
Packet size = 1024
Socket buffer size = 4096 (default)
200 VCs are used
Card 2:
Window = 4
Packet size = 128
Socket buffer size = 4096 (default)
400 VCs are used
26
Chapter 2
Installation
Before You Install the Software
TM = (4096 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 1024)) x 200
+ ((4096 x 3) + (2 x 5 x 128)) x 400
+ (2 x 5120)
TM = 9,123,840 (8.7 Mb)
Software Requirements
Before installing the X.25 link product, make sure that the software
listed below has been correctly installed on your system. Refer to the
related publication if you need more information about any of these
products. If you cannot find the software or information you need,
contact your HP representative.
Chapter 2
•
HP-UX operating system version 11i v3 – see Installation and
Update for HP Integrity Servers and HP 9000 servers.
•
Internet Services – see HP-UX Internet Services Administrator’s
Guide: HP-UX 11i v3
27
Installation
Installing the X.25 Link Software
Installing the X.25 Link Software
Follow the steps below to install the X.25 link software:
Step 1. Insert the software media (tape or disk) in the appropriate drive.
Step 2. Type: swinstall.
(See the man page on swinstall for more information on this
command).
Step 3. Click on OK on the “Specify Source” window.
Step 4. Highlight J2793B in the “Software Selection” dialog, then select Mark
For Install from the Actions menu to install all file sets in the bundle.
If you want to select only certain file sets, double-click on the product
name to access the file sets that you want to mark for installation (each
time you double-click, you go down one level in the bundle structure).
Step 5. When you have marked the product components you want to install,
select Install (analysis) from the “Actions” menu.
Step 6. When you have successfully completed the analysis, click on OK from the
Analysis dialog to load the X.25 file sets.
The swinstall utility loads the file sets, runs the customized scripts for
the file set, and builds the kernel. Estimated time for processing: 8 to 10
minutes.
If the kernel build is not successful, the swinstall program returns you
to a new shell. The cause of the failure will appear at the end of the
/var/adm/sw/swinstall.log file.
28
Chapter 2
3
Chapter 3
Configuration
29
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Configuring the X.25 Link
This section describes how to configure your X.25 link using HP System
Management Homepage(SMH).
HP SMH provides Graphical User Interface (GUI), Terminal User
Interface (TUI) and Command Line Interface (CLI) for managing
HP-UX. You can access these interfaces using the smh command
(/usr/sbin/smh).
If the DISPLAY environment variable is set, HP SMH opens in the
default web browser. If the DISPLAY environment variable is not set,
HP SMH opens in the TUI. For more information, see the HP-UX 11i v3
release notes and the SMH product online help.
In SMH, the term “card” refers to a particular X.25 interface. Dual-port
cards have two interfaces. In this context, an interface is the same as a
port.
NOTE
System Administration Manager (SAM) is deprecated on HP-UX 11i v3
and replaced with the enhanced HP System Management Homepage
(HP SMH). Users who attempt to start SAM from the command line
interface are automatically redirected to the SMH user interface. SMH
can be run directly in a web browser window by entering
http://hostname:2301. In the Graphical User Interface (GUI), after
logging in, the SMH main menu is displayed. Select Tools > networking
and communications > network interface cards > choose X.25. For more
information on SMH, see the HP System Management Homepage
Release Notes (Part Number:381383-009) on
http://docs.hp.com.
Using SMH
Follow the steps below to start SMH and display the “Configure X.25
Card” window:
Step 1. Make sure that you are logged in as root. Then, at the HP-UX prompt,
enter:
smh
30
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
(To run SMH in the background, type: smh &).
Step 2. At the SMH main window, select “Tools” menu. SMH displays numerous
object lists.
Step 3. Double-click on the Network Services Configuration menu. SMH
displays an object list that shows all network interfaces (devices)
installed in your system.
SMH displays each port (for multi-port cards) as a unique interface with
its hardware path and name. Interfaces are listed in order of their slot
number.
Step 4. Highlight the X.25 device that you want to configure on the object list
and select Configure from the Actions menu, or double-click the device
you want.
The “Configure X.25 Software” window displays. If you are modifying a
device that is already configured, the window is entitled, “Configure X.25
Card.”
NOTE
Refer to Appendix A, Using Non-English Subscription Forms, for the
English equivalents of the French, Italian, German, and Spanish fields
that appear on non-English subscription forms.
Using SMH’s On-line Help
The SMH on-line Help provides information (descriptions, formatting,
and ranges) for all fields. You can access the SMH on-line Help system
by:
Chapter 3
•
Clicking on the Help button in a dialog or message box to display
information about how to use the dialog, or about the message.
•
Pressing F1 to display information about the object selected by the
cursor (for example, a data entry field).
•
Selecting an item from the Help menu (located on the menu bar). You
can display information about the current SMH dialog, keyboard
navigation within SMH, using the SMH Help system, and the
version of SMH you are currently running.
31
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Configuring an X.25 Address
Follow the steps below to configure an X.25 address:
Step 1. From the “Configure X.25 Software” window, select Configure X.25
Address. The following dialog appears:
Figure 3-1
NOTE
The SMH windows and dialogs shown on these pages are intended only
as examples. The information that appears in your SMH dialogs, such as
the Card Name and Programmatic Access Name, depends on your
particular communications hardware.
Step 2. Enter or modify the field values as required (refer to the field
descriptions below).
32
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Table 3-1
Field Descriptions
Configuration
File name
Name of the file that will contain the parameters
for configuring the interface (a physical port). If
you are configuring more than one interface,
specify a unique configuration file for each
interface.
The configuration file must be named
x25config_npx, where n represents the
communications card number (use 0 for the first
card, increasing the value by 1 for each additional
card up to 255), p is a place marker, and x is the
port number (1 to 4). Note that p and x are only
required for systems with dual-port or quad-port
cards.
X.25 Address
Address assigned to each local X.25 interface
(card or port) by the network carrier. X.25 checks
it for diagnostic and identification purposes only.
This address is sometimes referred to as the
X.121 address. Use the value given on your
subscription form.
Programmatic
Access Name
Name given to the interface you are configuring
(used for X.25 level 3 programmatic access).
Network Carrier
Type
Type of network to which the X.25 interface is
attached (as it appears on your subscription
form). A complete list of possible networks is
shown below. The default is DTE_84.
X.25 Packet
Address
This field appears (with its default value) only if
you select TRANSPAC as the Network Carrier
Type.
Network types
You must select a Network Carrier Type that matches the type of
network to which you are connected.
Chapter 3
33
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
DCE_80
DTE_84
DATAPAC
DDN
LUXPAC
TYMNET
DCE_84
DTE_88
DATEXP_AUSTRIA
DDXP
PSS
IBERPAC
DCE_88
AUSPAC
DATEXP_DEUTSCHE
HPPPN
TELENET
TELEPAC
DTE_80
DATANET1
DCS
ITAPAC
TRANSPAC
DATAPAK
Step 3. Click on OK to return to the “Configure X.25 Card” window when you
have finished configuring the X.25 Address.
Configuring X.25 Virtual Circuits (VCs)
Follow the steps below to configure X.25 virtual circuits:
Step 1. From the “Configure X.25 Card” window, select Configure Virtual
Circuits. The following dialog appears:
Figure 3-2
Step 2. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below).
When you configure the Quantity column (starting with the number of
Permanent VCs), SMH automatically fills in the starting Logical Circuit
Identification (LCI) as you Tab between fields.
34
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Table 3-2
Field Descriptions
Permanent Quantity
Number of Permanent VCs. Use the value given
on your subscription form.
Switched
(inbound) Quantity
Number of Switched (inbound) VCs. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
Switched
(two-way) Quantity
Number of Switched (two-way) VCs. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
Switched
(outbound) Quantity
Number of Switched (outbound) VCs. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
Step 3. Click on OK to return to the “Configure X.25 Card” window when you
have finished configuring X.25 Virtual Circuits.
Configuring an Internet Address
Follow the steps below to configure an Internet address:
Step 1. From the “Configure X.25 Card” window, select Configure Internet
Address. The following dialog appears:
Chapter 3
35
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Figure 3-3
Configure Internet Address
The “Configure Internet Address” dialog gives you a yes or no option to
configure an IP address for this port.
Step 2. Choose Yes or No to configure an IP address.
If you select No, you indicate that no IP address is associated with this
X.25 port. When you select No, all other fields in this dialog disappears.
If you select Yes, you must fill in the other required fields in this dialog.
36
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Step 3. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the following field
descriptions).
Table 3-3
Configure Internet Address Field Descriptions
Internet Address
The identifier by which this interface (port) is
known on the network. It consists of four sets of
integer values (0 to 255) separated by periods (for
example, 192.2.3.6). The IP address must be
unique for each X.25 interface. It must also
specify a different subnet from the IP address of
any other X.25 or LAN interface on this system.
To obtain an IP address, see your system
administrator, network administrator, or HP
representative.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask (like IP addresses) is composed
of four integers (0 to 255) separated by periods.
The subnet mask is used for routing.
When you enter an IP address, SMH places a
default subnet mask in the subnet mask field,
depending on the class of IP address you enter.
You may use the default or enter another one if
required. Table 3-4, “IP Address and Default
Subnet Masks,” shows the IP addresses listed by
class and their default subnet masks).
IP Address Alias
Table 3-4
The symbolic name (in alphanumeric format) by
which this network interface will be known on
the network. Use the Add/Modify Host Name
Aliases button to add or modify aliases.
IP Address and Default Subnet Masks
IP Address
A.*.*.* (A between 1 and
127)
Chapter 3
Class
A
Default Subnet
Mask
255.0.0.0
37
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Table 3-4
IP Address and Default Subnet Masks (Continued)
IP Address
Class
Default Subnet
Mask
A.B.*.*
(A between 128 and 191)
(B between 0 and 254)
B
255.255.0.0
A.B.C.*
(A between 192 and 239)
(B,C between 0 and 254)
C
255.255.255.0
A.B.C.*
(A between 240 and 254)
(B,C between 0 and 254)
D
Not Allowed
The Internet address is composed of two addresses: the network address
and the subaddress. Zero (0) and -1 are not allowed in the subaddress.
Step 4. If required, click on Modify IP over X.25 Defaults to modify the Idle
Timer, Hold Timer, MTU Size and System Max. IP Connections
defaults.
Figure 3-4
38
Modify IP Over X.25 Defaults
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below).
Table 3-5
Modify IP over X.25 Defaults Field Descriptions
Idle Timer
Sets the number of seconds a circuit stands idle
before it is cleared by IP. The range is 0 to 32767.
The default is 600.
Hold Timer
Sets the number of seconds a circuit may be
inactive before it is designated as inactive.
Inactive circuits may be cleared when all other
circuits are unavailable and a connection request
is received by IP. Do not set the hold timer to a
value greater than the idle timer. The range is 0 to
32767. The default is 300.
MTU Size
The maximum transmission unit size in octets
(bytes). The range is 20 to 8192. The default is
2048. For DDN configured interfaces, it must be
less than or equal to 1007.
System Max. IP
Connections
The maximum number of IP connections that can
be simultaneously active for the whole system.
This is a global parameter. The default value for
this parameter is 256 connections.
Step 5. Click on OK to return to the “Configure X.25 Card” window when you
have finished configuring the Internet address.
Verifying Level 3 Values
If you subscribe to a public network, the network provider will supply the
appropriate settings for most level 3 parameters. These settings will
differ depending on the network provider and the type of service to which
you subscribe. Refer to your Network Subscription Form for the correct
values for your configuration.
Follow the steps below to verify level 3 values:
Step 1. At the “Configure X.25 Card” window, select Verify Level 3 Values.
The following dialog appears:
Chapter 3
39
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Figure 3-5
Verify Level 3 Values
Step 2. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below).
Table 3-6
40
Verify Level 3 Values Field Descriptions
Fast Select
Accepted
If fast select is enabled (Yes), up to 128 octets of
information can be transferred in call request and
clear packets. The default is No (disabled). See
your subscription form.
Flow Control
Negotiation
The default is No (disabled). Use the value given
on your subscription form.
Reverse Charge
Accepted
If reverse charge is enabled (Yes), reverse charge
calls can be accepted by the application. If reverse
charge is disabled (No), X.25 rejects reverse
charge calls automatically. The default is No. Use
the value given on your subscription form.
Throughput Class
Negotiation
Throughput class refers to line speed. If it is
enabled (Yes), the Switched VC Negotiated value
is used; if disabled (No), no throughput class
negotiation is accepted. The default is No.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Step 3. Click on Modify Flow Control Settings to modify Switched and
Permanent VC flow control settings. The following dialog appears:
Figure 3-6
Step 4. Select either Modulo-8 or Modulo-128 to set level 3 Modulo parameters.
The default is Modulo-8.
The valid window-size values for Modulo-8 range from 1 to 7. For
Modulo-128, the valid window-size values range from 1 to 127.
NOTE
Chapter 3
Flow Control Negotiation must be enabled on the “Verify Level 3 Values”
dialog to allow the use of the negotiated flow control fields. If you do not
enable Flow Control Negotiation, the Default Packet Size and Default
Window Size values will be used.
41
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below).
Table 3-7
Table 3-8
42
Switched VC Flow Control Field Descriptions
Default Packet
Size: Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum packet size to be used over an SVC.
The range is 16 through 4096 octets. The default
is 128 for inbound and outbound packets. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
Default Window
Size: Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum number of default packets that can be
transmitted without acknowledgment over an
SVC. The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8, and
1 through 127 for Modulo-128. (We recommend a
value greater than 7 for Modulo-128). The default
is 2 for inbound and outbound transmission. Use
the value given on your subscription form.
Negotiated
Packet Size:
Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum packet size to be used over an SVC.
The range is 16 through 4096 octets. The default
is 128 for inbound and outbound packets.
Negotiated
Window Size:
Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum number of default packets that can be
transmitted without acknowledgment over an
SVC. The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8, and
1 through 127 for Modulo-128. (We recommend a
value greater than 7 for Modulo-128). The default
is 2 for inbound and outbound transmission.
Permanent VC Flow Control Field Descriptions
Packet Size:
Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum packet size to be used over a PVC. The
range is 16 through 4096 octets. The default is
128 for inbound and outbound packets. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
Window Size:
Inbound &
Outbound
Maximum number of packets that can be
transmitted without acknowledgment over a
PVC. The range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8, and
1 through 127 for Modulo-128. (We recommend a
value greater than 7 for Modulo-128). The default
is 2 for inbound and outbound transmission.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Step 5. Click on Modify Throughput Class Settings to modify Switched and
Permanent VC throughput class settings. The following dialog appears:
Figure 3-7
Step 6. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below).
Table 3-9
Modify Throughput Class Settings Field Descriptions
Switched VC
Default: Inbound
and Outbound
Chapter 3
CCITT class number. If Throughput Class
negotiation is disabled, this value replaces the
Switched VC Negotiated field value. The range is
3 through 13 and the default is 11. See the table
after these field descriptions listing the CCITT
class numbers and the corresponding line speed
Baud rate. Use the value given on your
subscription form.
43
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Table 3-9
Modify Throughput Class Settings Field Descriptions
Switched VC
Negotiated:
Inbound and
Outbound
Table 3-10
CCITT class number. If Throughput Class
negotiation is enabled, this value is used as the
opening bid for outbound calls and as a counter
offer when the inbound opening bid is higher. The
range is 3 through 13, and the default is 11. See
the table below for CCITT class numbers and
corresponding line speed Baud rate. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
Throughput Classes and Line Speeds
CCITT class number
Line speed Baud rate (bps)
3
75
4
150
5
300
6
600
7
1200
8
2400
9
4800
10
9600
11
19200
12
48000
13
64000
Step 7. Click on OK to return to the “Configure X.25 Card” window when you
have finished verifying level 3 values.
Verifying Level 2 Values
Follow the steps below to verify level 2 values:
44
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
If you subscribe to a public network, the network provider will provide
the appropriate settings for all level 2 parameters. These settings will
differ depending on the network provider and the type of service to which
you subscribe. Refer to your Network Subscription Form for the correct
settings for your configuration.
NOTE
Step 1. At the “Configure X.25 Card” window, select Verify Level 2 Values.
The following dialog appears:
Figure 3-8
Select either Modulo-8 or Modulo-128 to set the Level 2 Modulo values.
The default is Modulo-8.
The valid window-size values for Modulo-8 range from 1 to 7. For
Modulo-128, the valid window-size values range from 1 to 127.
Chapter 3
45
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Step 2. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below). Use the Help button to display information and instructions for
each field.
Table 3-11
NOTE
Verify Level 2 Values Field Descriptions
k - Level 2
Window Size
Maximum number of frames that can be
transmitted without an acknowledgment. The
range is 1 through 7 for Modulo-8 and 1 through
127 for Modulo-128. The default is 7. Use the
value given on your subscription form.
T1 Retransmission
Timer
Maximum number of milliseconds to wait for an
acknowledgment before retransmitting a frame.
The range is 100 to 12000. The default is 3000.
Use the value given on your subscription form.
T3 - Idle Timer
Maximum number of milliseconds that a line can
be idle before it is declared disconnected. This
value should be greater than or equal to the
Retransmission Timer (T1) times the
Retransmission Count (N2). The range is 1000 to
240000. The default is 60000. Use the value given
on your subscription form.
N1 - Frame Size
Maximum number of octets that can be
transmitted in a single frame. The range is 149
(minimum) through 4103. The default is 149.
N2 Retransmission
Count
Maximum number of times a given frame can be
transmitted before an error condition is
identified. The range is 0 through 255. The
default is 20.
Because the timer values count the amount of time between
unacknowledged frames, you may need to increase the values of T1
(Retransmission Timer) and T3 (Idle Timer) if you use Modulo-128 with
a window size greater than seven.
Step 3. Click on OK to return to the “Configure X.25 Card” dialog when you have
finished verifying level 2 values.
46
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the X.25 Link
Step 4. Click on OK to complete X.25 software configuration and save your
changes. Your X.25 interface (port) should appear in the object list with
status Enabled (no problem found and link connected correctly). If not,
carefully repeat the steps in this chapter until the configuration is
enabled.
If your port is not connected to a running network, it will display as
configured.
You have completed the interface configuration.
Step 5. Select Exit from the File menu if you have no need to configure access
to other systems or to PAD services. Then exit SMH.
If you need to configure access to other systems or configure PAD
services, stay in SMH and continue with the instructions in “Configuring
Remote System Access” (to configure access to other systems) and in
“Configuring PAD Services” (to configure PAD services).
NOTE
Your system will not reboot when you exit. Your configuration is effective
immediately without the need to create a new kernel.
If you want to control Services (Internet/Berkeley Services or Network
Services (NS)), refer to the documentation set for those products.
Chapter 3
47
Configuration
Configuring Remote System Access
Configuring Remote System Access
Follow the steps below to configure access to other hosts and systems
that use TCP/IP protocol. (The procedures in this section are optional.
Your X.25 link software does not require that you configure access to
other systems).
NOTE
System Administration Manager (SAM) is deprecated in the 11iv3
release of HP-UX. HP System Management Homepage (HP SMH), an
enhanced version of SAM, is introduced for managing HP-UX.
Step 1. If you have not already done so, type smh at the HP-UX prompt.
Step 2. At the SMH main window, select “Tools”. Numerous object lists are
displayed.
Step 3. At the “Networking and Communications” window, highlight Hosts and
click on OPEN. Highlight Local Hosts and click on OPEN.
SMH displays all remote system names and IP addresses that have
already been configured.
Step 4. Select Add from the Actions menu. The following dialog appears:
NOTE
48
The appearance of the “Add Internet Connectivity” dialog may be slightly
different from the example below depending on the version of the X.25
software you are running.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring Remote System Access
Figure 3-9
Add Internet Connectivity Dialog
Step 5. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below). Use the Help button for information and instructions for each
field.
A Provide X.25 Information button may appear on this dialog
depending on the Internet address you configure. If it does, follow the
instructions in Step 6. SMH may also decide that a gateway is required,
again depending on the Internet address you configure (see the on-line
Help for more information on gateways and the gateway dialog).
Chapter 3
49
Configuration
Configuring Remote System Access
Table 3-12
Add Internet Connectivity Field Descriptions
Internet Address
Identifier by which the remote system is known
on the network. It is composed of four integers (0
to 255) separated by periods (for example,
192.2.3.6). Use the Add Aliases button to assign
one or more aliases (in alphanumeric format) to
the IP Address for easier referencing. When you
exit this field, SMH determines whether a
gateway is needed for the connection, or whether
you need to provide X.25 information for the
remote system. If the Provide X.25
Information button is displayed, follow the
instructions in Step 6 below.
Remote System
Name
Name assigned to the remote system to which you
want to connect.
Comments
Use this field to add useful information about the
remote system (for example, the name and
telephone number of the user).
Step 6. If the Provide X.25 Information button is displayed, you must use it
to configure X.25 information about the remote system. When you click
on Provide X.25 Information, the following dialog appears:
50
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring Remote System Access
Figure 3-10
Step 7. Enter or modify field values as required (refer to the field descriptions
below).
If you add more VCs to an interface in the future, you must stop the
interface with x25stop or with SMH’s Disable Card function and
restart it as an IP interface with SMH’s Enable Card function or with
the following command:
x25init -c [configuration_file]-a [ipmapfile]
Chapter 3
51
Configuration
Configuring Remote System Access
Table 3-13
52
Provide X.25 Information Field Descriptions
X25 Address
X.25 address (sometimes referred to as the X.121
address) of the remote system. The X.25 address
assigned by the network provider uniquely
identifies the node in an X.25 network. The
address consists of a maximum of 15 digits. You
must complete this field.
Switched VC
Enable this field if a switched virtual circuit
(SVC) will be used for this connection. When
Switched VC is enabled (default), three additional
fields can be configured: Request reverse
charging, Accept reverse charging, and Closed
user group (refer to the field descriptions below).
Permanent VC
Enable this field if a permanent virtual circuit
(PVC) will be used for this connection. When
Permanent VC is enabled, two additional fields
can be configured: PVC Number and Local
Programmatic Access Name.
Request reverse
charging
Enable this field if the local system will make
collect calls to the remote system. If this field is
disabled, no collect calls can be made.
Accept reverse
charging
Enable this field if you want the local system to
accept collect calls from the remote system. If this
field is disabled, no collect calls will be accepted.
Closed user group
Enable this field if you subscribed to a closed user
group (CUG) and you want to use the CUG with
this connection. Do not select this item if you did
not subscribe to a CUG or if you do not want this
connection to belong to a CUG. If you enable this
field, an additional field (CUG Number) appears.
Enter the number of the CUG to be associated
with this connection.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring Remote System Access
Step 8. Click on Apply or OK. The Apply button leaves you in the current dialog
so you can configure other remote systems; the OK button returns you to
the Internet Addresses (& Routes) object list. SMH updates the
object list to include the remote system you configured regardless of
which button you used.
NOTE
You can modify or remove remote systems and modify default gateways
by highlighting the Remote System Name on the object list and selecting
Modify, Remove, or Modify Default Gateway from the Actions menu.
Step 9. Select Exit from the File menu.
Remote system access for your X.25 link is now configured.
Chapter 3
53
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
This section describes how to configure X.25 over LLC2. Configuring
X.25 over LLC2 allows X.25 layer 3 to connect to DLPI instead of LAP-B
and provides the X.25 functionality on top of LAN cards such as
Ethernet, FDDI, and TokenRing.
NOTE
In this document, an XOL interface on the peer or local system is
referred to as “box”.
Configuration Files
To configure the LLC2 feature, the following configuration files must be
added or updated manually:
•
Generic X.25 configuration file
•
LLC2 specific configuration file
Generic X.25 Configuration file
The generic X.25 configuration file is used with a few additional XOL
specific parameters to configure X.25 over LLC2 (XOL). To support the
XOL HA feature, some of the existing parameter names are modified and
a few new parameters are introduced.
NOTE
54
The parameters introduced in an earlier release of X.25 are supported.
However, HP recommends that you migrate to the new parameters.
Migration is required for XOL HA support.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
Table 3-14 lists the XOL specific parameters that must be defined while
configuring an XOL interface.
Table 3-14
Additional XOL specific configuration parameters
Field
Format
device
Device name
string.
Name of the LAN card
where the XOL
interface is
configured.
XOL_logical_port_id
Integer 0-n
The XOL logical port
identifier for the XOL
interface on the given
LAN card.
One
hexadecimal
value. This
value must be
prefixed with
0x.
The destination MAC
address to which the
XOL interface is
connected.
XOL_DSAP
One
hexadecimal
value. This
value must be
prefixed with
0x.
The destination SAP
value of the peer XOL
interface. Set the
value of DSAP to any
even value in the
range 0x70 - 0x7e,
both inclusive.
XOL_SSAP
One
hexadecimal
value. This
value must be
prefixed with
0x.
The source SAP value
of the local XOL
interface. Set the
value of SSAP to any
even value in the
range 0x70 - 0x7e,
both inclusive. If the
value for SSAP is not
provided, then SSAP
takes the value of
DSAP.
(replaces lan_box_id)
XOL_destination_macaddr
(replaces the MAC address
in the lan_box_addr)
Chapter 3
Value
55
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
Table 3-14
Additional XOL specific configuration parameters (Continued)
Field
Format
Value
standby_device**
Device name
string
Name of the standby
LAN device used for
local failover. For
more details about
this parameter, see
“Configuring the High
Availability Feature
for X.25 over LLC2” on
page 81. Required
only for local failover
support.
XOL_floating_macaddr**
One
hexadecimal
value; must be
prefixed with
0x
The unique MAC
address for the LAN
card in the LAN
subnet. For more
details about this
parameter, see
“Configuring the High
Availability Feature
for X.25 over LLC2” on
page 81. Required
only for local failover
support.
** Required for HA feature
NOTE
The configuration parameters may be specified in the old format.
However, HP recommends that you use the new format while specifying
the configuration parameter. XOL is not supported over APA (Auto Port Aggregation).
Following are two sample files. Example 3-1 provides a sample file that
has the old parameters in the old format. Example 3-2 provides a sample
file that has the new parameters in the new format.
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Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
Example 3-1
Sample File with the Old Parameters in the Old Format
device
lan00x7c
lan_box_id
1
lan_box_addr
0x080009c4728a 0x7e
Example 3-2
device
Sample File with the New Parameters in the New Format
lan0
XOL_logical_port_id
1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009c4728a
XOL_DSAP 0x72
XOL_SSAP 0x7C
standby_device lan1
XOL_floating_macaddr 0x0060B0A4EBE5
A sample generic configuration file is available for reference. It is
available in the /etc/x25 directory and the filename is
x25init_llc2_smpl.
Specific Configuration File
This file is an X.25 over LLC2 specific configuration file and contains
information about every LAN. This file is unique to the host.
Following is the syntax of this file:
lan<#>
<number of boxes>
Following is a sample configuration file:
lan0
lan1
3
1
Following is an example of an XOL configuration file that is installed in
/etc/x25 directory. Following are the assumptions: The X.121 address
of the local XOL interface is 7111 and that of the remote XOL interface is
7222.
Example 3-3
LLC2 Configuration
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c x25init_llc2_smpl
X.121 7111
Chapter 3
# X.121 address
57
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
X.121_packet '' “
(TransPacaddressing)
name interface0
# use a null (i.e. length 0) packet address
# interface name for Level 3 access
device lan0
# device to initialize
XOL_logical_port_id 0
# logical port id for lan interface
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
# destination SAP id
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
# source SAP id
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009c4728a
# Remote mac address
# Following needed only for Local High Availability feature
#standby_device lan1 # standby lan card for local failover.
#XOL_floating_macaddr 0x0060B0A4EBE5 # Unique Mac address to be assigned to the
lan card before bringing the XOL interface up.
# Level 2 Parameters
#
t1
3000
t3
60000
framesize
n2
149
20
l2window
7
# Level 3 Parameters
#
virtual circuit parameters
#
logical channel id,
lci 1 pvc 5
start num [1-4095],
type,
# 5 permanent VCs
lci 255 insvc 5
# 5 one-way incoming SVCs
lci 2048 svc 6
# 6 two-way switched VCs
networktype TRANSPAC
fast_select
enabled
reverse_charge enabled
def_inpacketsize 128
def_outpacketsize 128
58
how many
# CCITT 1984, DTE (see /etc/x25/x25_networks)
# allow incoming calls with call user data
# allow incoming calls requesting reverse changes
# default packetsize
# default packetsize
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
def_inwindow 7
# default window size
def_outwindow 7
# default window size
def_inthruputclass 19200
# default thruput class
def_outthruputclass 19200
# default thruput class
flowcontrol
on
# flow control negotiation allowed
neg_inpacketsize 128
neg_outpacketsize 128
# offered packet size if using flow control negotiation
# offered packetsize if using flow control negotiation
neg_inwindow 7
# offered window size if using flow control negotiation
neg_outwindow 7 # offered window size if using flow control negotiation
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass 19200
negotiation
# offered thruput class if using thruput class
neg_outthruputclass 19200
negotiation
# offered thruput class if using thruput class
pvc_inpacketsize 128
# packetsize for PVCs
pvc_outpacketsize 128
# packetsize for PVCs
pvc_inwindow 7
# window size for PVCs
pvc_outwindow 7
# window size for PVCs
# IP Related Parameters
IP
15.4.64.120
255.255.248.0
# IP address and subnet mask
mtu 1024
# max transmission unit 1024 octets
hold 300
# 5 minute hold timer
idle 600
# 10 minute idle timer
NOTE
For an XOL configuration, L3 packet sizes greater than 1024 are not
supported.
If the XOL interface on the host is connected to a router supporting X.25
over LLC2, the router must be configured with the correct routing
entries. For example, if an XOL interface on the host is connected to a
CISCO router and the XOL configuration on the host is identical to the
configuration in the previous example, the following configuration is
required:
Chapter 3
59
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
•
To enable the cmns, complete the following steps:
Step 1. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Configure Terminal
Step 2. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Interface fastethernet 1/0
Step 3. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
cmns enable
Step 4. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
<Ctrl+Z>
•
To add routing entries to X.25 routing table, complete the following
steps:
Step 1. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
Configure Terminal
Step 2. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
x25 route ^ 7111 interface FastEthernet1/10 mac
0011.0a80.31d6
Step 3. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
x25 route ^ 7222 interface FastEthernet1/10 mac
0800.09c4.728a
Step 4. Run the following command at the CISCO console:
<Ctrl+Z>
Starting and Stopping Configuration
Starting
To initialize the x25overllc2 devices, execute the x25init command with
the -L option at the command prompt.
The syntax for execution is:
x25init -c <config_file> -L <llc2_config_file>
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Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
config_file is the generic X.25 product configuration file and
llc2_config_file is the LLC2 specific configuration file.
A sample invocation is as shown below:
x25init -c x25init_def -L llc2_conf_def
This command is executed once per box. It can be executed with different
<x25init_llc2_sampl> file but with the same <llc2_conf_def> file.
Stopping
To stop the communication with one box, the x25stop command is
executed with the -L option.The syntax for execution is:
x25stop -d <lan#> -L <XOL_logical_port_id>
<XOL_logical_port_id> is the XOL logical port identifier for the XOL
interface on the given LAN card.
NOTE
SMH support is not available for configuring X.25 over LAN(LLC2). Also,
the x25init command needs to be executed manually if the system is
rebooted.
For a detailed description of the configuration, see x25overllc2 (7). For
more information on how to configure High Availability, see “Configuring
the High Availability Feature” on page 76.
For more information on LLC2, see x25init (1M), x25stop (1M), and
x25stat (1M) manpages.
NOTE
To configure a Highly Available XOL interface, See “X.25 High
Availability Configuration” on page 78.
Sample setup and Configuration
The X.25 over llc2 supports one or more XOL interfaces. Following are
the two example configurations:
Chapter 3
61
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
One Lan and Two Boxes configuration
A graphical representation of the above configuration with some
arbitrary values for the MAC addresses and lan-ids is shown below:
Figure 3-11
One LAN, Two Boxes Configuration
To connect HOST to BOX 0
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files
need to be created on the HOST system.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_host_box_0
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_0
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25
directory using the example configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_def.
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Configuring X.25 over LLC2
The file x25_host_box_0 should contain all the mandatory level 2 and
level 3 parameters. Along with them it should contain the following
entries:
device lan 0
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009411371
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_0 is created in the /etc/x25
directory with the following entries:
lan0
2
To connect HOST to BOX 1
To configure HOST to communicate with BOX1, the generic configuration file
named /etc/x25/x25_host_box_1 has be created as follows:
Apart from the mandatory level2 and level3 parameters the following
parameters have to be added:
device lan 0
XOL_logical_port_id 1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009C4728A
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
The LLC2 specific configuration is /etc/x25/llc2_lan_0.
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_host_box_0 -L llc2_lan_0
Stopping:
To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan0 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on lan0
x25stop -d lan0 -L 1 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 1 on lan0
To Connect Box 0 to HOST
Chapter 3
63
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to
be created on the BOX 0.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_0_host
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_1
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25 directory
using the example configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
device lan1
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The file x25_box_0_host must contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3
parameters. Along with them it should contain the following entries:
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_1 is created in the /etc/x25
directory with the following entries:
lan1
1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_0_host -L llc2_lan_1
Stopping:
To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan1 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on lan1
To Connect Box 1 to HOST
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files need to
be created on the BOX 1.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_1_host
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_2
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25 directory
using the example configuration file, /etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
The file x25_box_1_host must contain all the mandatory level 2 and level 3
parameters. Along with them it must contain the following entries:
64
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
device lan2
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_2 is created in the /etc/x25
directory with the following entries:
lan2
1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_1_host -L llc2_lan_2
Stopping:
To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan2 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on lan2
Configuring Two Lans, with One Box Per Lan
A graphical representation of the above configuration with some
arbitrary values for the MAC addresses and lan-ids is as shown:
Chapter 3
65
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
Figure 3-12
Two Lans, One Box per Lan configuration
To Configure Host to LAN0 to Box0
To configure the Host to LAN 0, BOX 0 communication the following
configuration files need to be created.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_lan_0_box_0
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_0_lan_1
The x25_lan-0_box_0 file will contain all the level 3 and level2
parameters. It also contains the following entries:
device lan0
XOL_logical_port_id 1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009411371
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
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Configuring X.25 over LLC2
The LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_0_lan_1 will have the following
entires:
lan0
lan1
1
1
To configure Host to LAN 1 to BOX 1
To configure the Host to LAN 1 to BOX 1communication, the following
configuration file need to be created.
•
X.25 generic configuration file, x25_lan_1_box_1
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_2_lan_0_lan_1
The x25_lan_1_box_1 file is created in the /etc/x25 directory. It will
contain all the level 2 and level 3 parameters. It will also contain the
following entries:
device lan1
XOL_logical_port_id 1
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009C4728A
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
There is only one LLC2 specific configuration file per Host. The file is
llc2_lan_0_lan_1.
To Start and Stop above configuration:
Starting:
After reconfiguring the kernel of the two boxes execute the following
commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_lan_0_box_0 -L llc2_lan_0_lan_1
x25init -c x25_lan_1_box_1 -L llc2_lan_0_lan_1
Stopping:
To stop the configuration, execute the following commands at the
command prompt:
xstop -d lan0 -L 1 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 1 on lan0
xstop -d lan1 -L 1 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 1 on lan1
To Connect Box 0 to HOST
Chapter 3
67
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files
need to be created on the BOX 0.
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_0_host.
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_2
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25
directory using the example configuration file,
/etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
The file x25_box_0_host must contain all the mandatory level 2 and level
3 parameters. Along with them it must contain the following entries:
device lan2
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x70
XOL_SSAP 0x70
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_2 is created in the /etc/x25
directory with the following entries:
lan2
1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_0_host -L llc2_lan_2
Stopping:
To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan2 -L 0 # stop XOL interface with logical port id 0 on lan2
To Connect Box 1 to HOST
To implement the above configuration, the following configuration files
need to be created on the BOX 1.
68
•
Generic X.25 configuration file, x25_box_1_host.
•
LLC2 configuration file, llc2_lan_3
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
The generic X25 configuration file has to be created in the /etc/x25
directory using the example configuration file,
/etc/x25/x25init_llc2_smpl.
The file x25_box_0_host should contain all the mandatory level 2 and
level 3 parameters. Along with them it should contain the following
entries:
device lan3
XOL_logical_port_id 0
XOL_destination_macaddr 0x080009DBEA7
XOL_DSAP 0x7E
XOL_SSAP 0x7E
The LLC2 specific configuration file, llc2_lan_2 is created in the /etc/x25
directory with the following entries:
lan3
1
To start and stop above configuration:
Starting:
Execute the following commands at the command prompt:
x25init -c x25_box_0_host -L llc2_lan_3
Stopping:
To stop the configuration execute the following commands:
x25stop -d lan3 -L 0 # stop XOL interface having logical port id 0 on lan3
Troubleshooting LLC2 Configuration
Symptom: Unable to connect to the remote node.
Causes:
•
Hardware address of the remote node is wrongly configured in the
configuration file.
•
The SAP value is incorrectly configured.
•
The LCI value is incorrectly configured.
Action:
Chapter 3
69
Configuration
Configuring X.25 over LLC2
70
•
Check the remote node’s hardware address using lanscan. Use the
same hardware address in the generic X.25 configuration file. If you
modify the hardware address to correct the error then, re-initialize
the card using x25init.
•
If the nodes are connected back to back, check if the SAP’s are
identical for both the nodes in the generic X.25 configuration file.
•
If the nodes are connected back to back and one of the machines is
configured for inbound connections only and the other machine is
configured for outbound connections only then, the starting LCI for
both the nodes must be identical in the generic X.25 configuration
file.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring PAD Services
Configuring PAD Services
This section contains step-by-step instructions for configuring PAD
services. Skip this section if you don’t need to configure PAD services.
The procedures in this section are optional. Your X.25 link software does
not require you to configure PAD services.
You can use SMH to add or modify the following:
•
PAD terminal emulation (local to remote)
•
PAD support server (remote to local)
•
PAD printer server
•
PAD UUCP server
•
X.3 sets of parameters
See Chapter 6, PAD Services, for detailed reference information on PAD
services.
This section assumes that SMH is running and that you are starting
from the main window. If this is not the case, type smh at the HP-UX
prompt before continuing.
Remember to use the Help button (in the SMH window) to display
information and instructions for the content of each field.
Add/Modify PAD Terminal Emulation (Local to
Remote)
Follow the steps below to add or modify PAD terminal emulation for a
remote system:
Step 1. At the SMH main window, highlight “Networking and Communications”
and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 2. At the “Networking and Communications” window, highlight X.25 PAD
Services and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 3. Highlight Terminal Emulator and select Open Item from the Actions
menu.
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Configuring PAD Services
SMH displays an object list that shows all remote systems currently
configured for PAD terminal emulation.
Step 4. Select Add from the Actions menu to configure PAD terminal emulation
for an unlisted remote system, or highlight a remote system from the list
and select Modify.
Step 5. Enter or modify field values as required.
Step 6. Click on Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional system
connections. Click on OK to save changes and exit this dialog.
Step 7. Select Exit from the List menu to return to the “X.25 PAD Services”
dialog.
NOTE
If you enabled Reverse Charge Requested, you must also configure the
PAD support server. See “Add/Modify PAD Support Server (Remote to
Local)” for step-by-step instructions for configuring the PAD support
server.
Step 8. Select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list on the
“X.25 PAD Services” dialog.
Add/Modify PAD Support Server (Remote to Local)
Follow the steps below to add or modify a PAD support server for a local
terminal or system:
Step 1. At the SMH main window, highlight “Networking and Communications”
and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 2. At the “Networking and Communications” window, highlight X.25 PAD
Services and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 3. Highlight Support Server and select Open Item from the Actions
menu.
SMH displays an object list that shows all terminals/systems currently
configured for access via X.25.
Step 4. Select Add from the Actions menu to configure a terminal/system that is
not listed for access via X.25, or highlight a terminal/system from the list
and select Modify.
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Configuring PAD Services
Step 5. Enter or modify field values as required.
Step 6. Click on Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional PAD
support servers. Click on OK to save changes and exit this dialog.
Step 7. Select Exit from the List menu to return to the “X.25 PAD Services”
dialog.
Step 8. Select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list on the
“X.25 PAD Services” dialog.
Add/Modify PAD Printers Server
Follow the steps below to add or modify remote PAD printers:
Step 1. At the SMH main window, highlight “Networking and Communications”
and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 2. At the “Networking and Communications” window, highlight X.25 PAD
Services and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 3. Highlight Printers Server and select Open Item from the Actions
menu.
SMH lists all remote printers that your system can currently access via
X.25.
Step 4. Select Add from the Actions menu to configure access to an unlisted
remote printer, or highlight a remote printer from the list and select
Modify.
Step 5. Enter or modify field values as required.
Step 6. Click on Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional PAD
printers. Click on OK to save changes and exit this dialog.
Step 7. Select Exit from the List menu to return to the “X.25 PAD Services”
dialog.
Step 8. Select the next PAD service you need to configure from the list on the
“X.25 PAD Services” dialog.
Add/Modify UUCP Server
Follow the steps below to add or modify a UUCP server:
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Configuration
Configuring PAD Services
Step 1. At the SMH main window, highlight “Networking and Communications”
and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 2. At the “Networking and Communications” window, highlight X.25 PAD
Services and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 3. Highlight UUCP Server and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
SMH lists all remote systems currently configured for X.25 PAD UUCP
connectivity.
Step 4. Select Add from the Actions menu to configure PAD UUCP connectivity
for an unlisted remote system, or highlight a remote system from the list
and select Modify.
Step 5. Enter or modify field values as required.
Step 6. Click on Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional PAD
UUCP connections. Click on OK to save changes and exit this dialog.
Step 7. Select Exit from the List menu to return to the “X.25 PAD Services”
dialog.
Step 8. If necessary, select the next PAD service you need to configure from the
list.
In order for PAD UUCP connectivity to function correctly, UUCP must
also be configured. If you have not already done this, you can configure
UUCP by returning to the “Networking and Communications” window,
highlighting UUCP and selecting Open Item from the Actions menu.
From this dialog you can configure UUCP Devices and/or UUCP Remote
Systems (see the on-line Help or UUCP documentation for more
information).
Add/Modify X.3 Parameters
Follow the steps below to add or modify X.3 parameters. Refer to
Chapter 6, PAD Services, for detailed descriptions of the X.3 parameters.
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Configuring PAD Services
NOTE
The X.3 values that you configure here are initially downloaded to the
PAD. As the terminal characteristics of your session change, the X.25
software automatically downloads new values for certain parameters. Do
not be alarmed if the values of some parameters are different from the
values you initially specified.
Step 1. At the SMH main window, highlight “Networking and Communications”
and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 2. At the “Networking and Communications” window, highlight X.25 PAD
Services and select Open Item from the Actions menu.
Step 3. Highlight X.3 Sets of Parameters and select Open Item from the
Actions menu.
SMH displays an object list showing all X.3 sets or profiles currently
configured.
Step 4. Select Add from the Actions menu to configure an unlisted X.3 set, or
highlight an X.3 set from the list and select Modify.
When you select Add, SMH displays the “Set X.3 Default Values” dialog.
This dialog lets you set defaults for PAD terminal emulation, PAD
support server, PAD printers server, or PAD UUCP server.
Step 5. Enter or modify field values as required. Click on Help for information
and instructions for each field. A full description of X.3 parameters are
provided in Chapter 6, “PAD Services.”
Step 6. Click on Apply to apply the new settings and to add additional X.3 sets.
Click on OK to save changes and exit this dialog.
Step 7. Select Exit from the List menu.
Chapter 3
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Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature
Configuring the High Availability Feature
The X.25 link software provides integration of the X.25/Streams solution
to the High Availability HP MC/ServiceGuard feature on HP 9000 Series
800 Systems, allowing local and remote failure recovery.
This feature requires that the HP MC/ServiceGuard product (B3936AA)
has been installed and that the X.25 software uses switches that support
Hunt Group Facility allowing multiple DTEs to share a common X.121
address.
You should be familiar with the HP MC/ServiceGuard product prior to
installation. For more information on Serviceguard, see Managing
MC/ServiceGuard.
The High Availability features include:
•
Local Failure: Support of local failure for an X.25 link is provided
by a PDN using existing X.25 functionality. If a local X.25 PSI card
fails, the calling DTE will see the link go down.
The Hunt Group facility results in all incoming calls being directed
to the remaining “good” X.25 PSI card in the system.
•
Remote Failure: HP MC/ServiceGuard, uses the x25ifstate
command to monitor the X.25 status. If the monitor detects that the
X.25 link it is monitoring has gone down, all it has to do is exit.
HP MC/ServiceGuard detects that the monitor service belonging to
the package has disappeared, stops the package, and starts the
migration towards a second system.
The X.121 address of the first package is taken over by the second
system from the X.25 configuration file.
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Configuring the High Availability Feature
X.25 Cluster Definition
To configure a High Availability cluster, use SMH to define all cluster
systems by giving their:
NODE_NAME
NETWORK_INTERFACE
HEARTBEAT_IP
X.25 Commands to be Configured in High Availability
Packages
Start X.25 link
x25init -c x25config -a ipmap -d x25dev (see x25init (1m))
Stop X.25 link
x25stop -d x25dev (see x25stop (1m))
Monitor X.25 link
x25ifstate -d x25dev -H (see x25ifstate (1m))
X.25 Package Definition
An X.25 package is needed for each HA X.25 node. This package allows
HP MC/ServiceGuard to automatically:
•
start the X.25 link (x25init command) when the X.25 package starts
•
start a process (x25ifstate command) to monitor the state of the
X.25 link
•
stop the failed X.25 package before migrating to a backup node
To define each X.25 package, you need:
Package Name:
to identify the X.25 package. Use a name such as
x25pkg1.
Service Name:
to monitor the X.25 link to be managed
Service Command:
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Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature
to monitor the X.25 link status. It could be either a
script based on x25ifstate or the x25ifstate
command directly, depending on your configuration.
Package Control Script Location:
location of the script to start/stop the X.25 link and
execute the service(s).
X.25 High Availability Configuration
General Solution for Local and Remote Failover
PKG A
Client
Package A
Hunt Group
Connections
X.25PDN
Package B
Hunt Group
Connections
Alternate
Connections
(Idle)
PKG B
Client
X.25
switch
when package
A is functional
on system 1,
system 2 is on
standby for
package A
Example 3-4
DTE
PKG
A
DTE DTE
PKG PKG
A
B
X.25
switch
DTE
PKG
B
DTE DTE
PKG PKG
A
A
Package A
DTE
PKG
B
DTE
PKG
B
Package B
if package A
fails on system
1, system 2
takes over
package A
One EXAMPLE of Remote Failure
The only file that contains the X.25 commands to run for High
Availability is the /etc./cmcluster/pkg*/control.sh file (one per
X.25 package).
# SERVICE NAMES AND COMMANDS
SERVICE_NAME [0] =pkg1.Service_Name_01 (same SERVICE_NAME as in pkg conf)
SERVICE_CMD [0] =”/usr/sbin/x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_1 -H -t 5”
SERVICE_RESTART [0] = “ “
#add below the service names which define the applications that rely on the X.25
card
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Configuring the High Availability Feature
# e.g.# SERVICE_NAME [1] = <other name>
# SERVICE_CMD [1] = <other monitor>
# START OF CUSTOMER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
function customer_defined_run_cmds
{
#ADD customer defined run commands
: # do nothing instruction, because a function must contain at least one command.
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_1 -a /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map
sleep 5
test_return 51
}
function customer_defined_halt_cmds
{
#ADD customer defined halt commands
: # do nothing instruction, because a function must contain some command.
#stopping the specific X.25 card means the signal modem will be down
x25stop -d /dev/x25_1
test_return 52
}
Checking the Configuration
Check that your configuration is correct using x25server, x25check,
and ping.
x25server Run the x25server command. This starts a background
process that waits for packets from an x25check command and sends a
reply.
x25check Execute the x25check command, using your X.121 address:
$ x25check 250207
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:01 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 267 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Execute the x25check command again, but this time with data packets:
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Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature
$ x25check 250207 -s 32 -n 1
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:47 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
DATA packet sent ... DATA packet received
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 286 ms
Transit time : 245 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
If your system has multiple X.25 cards, you may need to specify the
particular interface in order for x25check to work properly. For example,
to run x25check on the second port of the first card (interface x25_0p2),
you would use the following format:
x25check 250207 -i interface0p2
ping command Run the ping command to check your IP over X.25
connection. You can use either an IP address, or the alias for the local
node (defined in the hosts file). The following example sends 6 packets of
100 bytes:
ping hpindla 100 -n 6
PING hpindla: 100 byte packets
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
100 bytes from 15.128.131.152:
icmp_seq=1.
icmp_seq=2.
icmp_seq=3.
icmp_seq=4.
icmp_seq=5.
icmp_seq=6.
time=321.
time=320.
time=319.
time=318.
time=320.
time=321.
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
--hpindla PING Statistics-6 packets transmitted, 6 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip (ms) min/avg/max = 318/319/321
You can then check your IP over X.25 connection to a remote host using
its IP address or alias.
If ping does not run successfully on the local node address, refer to
Chapter 8, “Troubleshooting.”
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Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
Configuring the High Availability Feature for
X.25 over LLC2
This section describes how to configure the local and remote failover
features for X.25 over LLC2 (XOL) interface. It also describes the local,
remote, and a combination of local and remote failover.
WARNING
The failover is not transparent and results in loss of data and
existing connections. After a failover, the XOL connections must
be re-established.
Unique MAC Address Requirement
XOL High Availability (XOL HA) is based on sharing a unique MAC
address for the primary and standby LAN cards, whichever is active. The
use of a unique MAC address makes the card swap transparent from the
XOL router side or peer system, which sees the same MAC address
associated with the active interface.
NOTE
To avoid MAC address collision, the system administrator must identify
an unused, unique MAC address in their LAN subnet. The lanadmin
command is used to change the MAC address of the card. After failover,
the failed LAN card is reconfigured with its factory default MAC
address. XOL is not supported over APA (Auto Port Aggregation).
Before you run the lanadmin command to set up the unique MAC
address, you may test whether the MAC address chosen by you is
selected by running the linkloop command. For more information, see
linkloop (1m). The uniqueness of the MAC address is verified on the
LAN cards currently active in the LAN segment. The linkloop
command sends an OK message if the MAC address is already in use.
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Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
NOTE
The routing table of the router connected to the host system must be
updated with the unique MAC address identified by the user. If the XOL
router supports the Hunt Group facility for XOL HA, the unique MAC
address may not be required to achieve the HA functionality for XOL
interface. For more information on Hunt Group facility, see “Configuring
the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2” on page 81.
WARNING
When several highly available XOL interfaces are configured on
a given LAN card, failover of all the highly available XOL
interfaces to the standby LAN card occurs immediately after one
XOL interface fails. This is because the same unique MAC
address is used by all XOL interfaces on the given LAN card.
Local Failover
NOTE
You need not install ServiceGuard for Local failover.
For local failover to happen, you must define a standby LAN card in the
X.25 configuration file. The primary X.25 configuration file is used to
configure the XOL interface on the standby LAN card after the local
failover. As a result, the standby LAN card inherits all the configuration
parameters from the primary interface, including the XOL logical port-id
(also called box-id). The XOL interface starts first on the primary LAN
card. If this XOL interface fails, an attempt is made to restart it on the
standby LAN card. If the XOL interface fails on the standby LAN card,
an attempt is made to failover back to the primary LAN card. This
failover succeeds only if the primary LAN card is back UP and
operational. Otherwise, the XOL interface goes down.
For more information on how to use this local failover functionality, see
“Configuring XOL HA for Local Failover Without ServiceGuard” on
page 83.
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Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
Configuring XOL HA for Local Failover Without ServiceGuard
In Figure 3-13, system A has two LAN cards, namely, lan0 (the primary
LAN card) and lan1 (the standby LAN card). The standby LAN card
provides local failover for the XOL interface with X.121 address 1111.
The user supplied, unique MAC address that is specified in the XOL
configuration file as a value for the field XOL_floating_macaddr, for that
LAN segment is uMAC.
The XOL interface with X.121 address 1111 is brought up on lan0 on
system A (uMAC is automatically assigned to lan0 on system A when the
XOL interface is initialized).
Figure 3-13
Before the Failover
When the lan0 (the primary LAN card) fails, the XOL interface stops on
lan0, and a XOL interface is brought up automatically on lan1 (the
standby LAN card on system A) using the same configuration file. An
attempt is made to configure lan0 with the factory default MAC address,
and uMAC is assigned to lan1 on system A during the local failover. The
Chapter 3
83
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
X.25 connection must be re-established on the XOL interface. When the
card lan0 comes up later, it is configured with the factory default MAC
address.
Figure 3-14
After the Failover
To configure XOL local failover, complete the following steps:
NOTE
84
The XOL HA feature is enabled by default in HP-UX 11i v3.
Therefore, the -enableXOLHA option is no longer required.
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
Step 1. To configure the standby device and the unique MAC address in the
configuration file of the XOL primary interface, modify the following
syntax:
Standby_device <standby LAN card name> # used for local
failover
XOL_floating_macaddr <unique MAC address>
NOTE
Local failover is automatically enabled by defining a standby_device in
the configuration file. If you do not require the local failover feature for
this interface, you must de-configure the standby_device by removing or
commenting the line in the configuration file. The standby XOL interface
inherits the configuration of the primary XOL interface during failover
because the same configuration file is used to configure the XOL
interface.
Example 3-5
Configuring Standby Device and Unique MAC Address
If the asumptions in the XOL configuration file are the following:
•
The primary LAN card is lan0
•
The standby LAN card is lan1
•
The MAC address is 0x0060B0A4EbE5
Then, the XOL HA parameters take the following values:
standby_device
lan1
XOL_floating_macaddr
NOTE
0x0060B0A4EBE5
In the event of a failover, the XOL_floating_macaddr is moved from the
primary LAN card to the standby LAN card. HP recommends that you
use the primary and standby LAN cards only for the XOL links
configured with HA feature.
Step 2. To initialize the XOL HA interface with local failover support, run the
following command:
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85
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
x25init -c <XOL_config_file> -L <llc2_conf_def>
Remote Failover
NOTE
Remote failover, with or without local failover, requires the installation
of the ServiceGuard product on the system. For more information on HP
MC/ServiceGuard product, see Managing MC/ServiceGuard document.
In the ServiceGuard cluster, the remote failover works between LAN
cards on different nodes. Each LAN card has an XOL interface which is
defined by the same configuration filename used in the SG package. The
x25ifstate command monitors the XOL interface status. When the
XOL interface fails, the x25ifstate command exits. HP MC/Service
Guard detects that the monitor service belonging to the package has
exited and stops the package. HP MC/Service Guard then starts the
same package on the standby node of the ServiceGuard cluster, which
starts the XOL interface on the LAN card on the standby node.
For more information on using the remote failover functionality with
Service Guard, see “Configuring XOL HA for Remote Failover Using
Service Guard (SG)” on page 86.
Configuring XOL HA for Remote Failover Using Service Guard
(SG)
In Figure 3-15, primary system A and standby system B are part of the
SG cluster and provide remote failover of an XOL interface with X.25
address 1111. The unique, user supplied MAC address is uMAC for that
LAN segment. It is initially assigned to the card lan0 on primary system
A.
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Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
Figure 3-15
Before the Failover
If the SG package for XOL detects an error in the XOL interface, the
package is stopped on the primary system and the equivalent package
starts on the standby system. When the SG package is stopped on system
A, the XOL interfaces (and optionally applications) on the failed LAN
card are stopped. An attempt is made to configure LAN card on system A
with the factory default MAC address. When the SG package starts on
system B, the LAN card on system B is configured with the unique MAC
(uMAC) address, and the XOL interfaces (and optionally applications)
starts on it. When the failed LAN card on system A comes up later, it is
configured with the factory default MAC address.
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Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
Figure 3-16
After the Failover
XOL Cluster Definition
You must define the cluster by providing the system names that are part
of SG cluster.
X.25 Commands Used in the SG Package Control Scripts:
•
To set the MAC address, run the following command:
lanadmin -A <MAC address>
•
<PPA>
To start XOL interface, run the following command:
x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2 -L
/etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
•
To monitor the XOL interface, run the following command:
x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_0l1 -H
•
88
To stop the XOL interface, run the following command:
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
x25stop -d /dev/x25_0l1
XOL Package Definition
An XOL SG package is required to configure a highly available XOL
interface on all nodes in the SG cluster. This package allows HP
MC/Service Guard to automatically:
•
Assign a unique MAC address (using the lanadmin command) to the
LAN card in use.
•
Start the X.25 link (x25init command) when the X.25 package
starts.
•
Run the command x25ifstate to monitor the state of the XOL
interface.
•
Stop the XOL interface when the monitoring command detects a
failure.
To define the X.25 package, you require the following attributes:
Package Name
Identifies the X.25 package, for example, xol_pkg1.
Service Name
Monitors the XOL interface to be managed, for
example, xol_SG_service1
Service Command Monitors the XOL interface status, for example,
x25ifstate
To configure XOL remote failover, complete the following steps:
NOTE
Chapter 3
The XOL HA feature is enabled by default in HP-UX 11i v3.
Therefore, the -enableXOLHA option is no longer required.
89
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
NOTE
When the XOL interface goes down, the service command (x25ifstate)
exits. The SG performs a package failover to the standby node configured
in the SG cluster.
The SG package file that contains the X.25 commands is
/etc./cmcluster/pkg*/control.sh file (one per XOL package).
Following is a sample SG package file:
Example 3-6
XOL SG package for remote failover
# SERVICE NAMES AND COMMANDS
SERVICE_NAME [0] =pkg1.Service_Name_01 (same SERVICE_NAME as in pkg conf)
SERVICE_CMD [0] ="/usr/sbin/x25ifstate -d /dev/x25_0l1 -H "
SERVICE_RESTART [0] = " "
# Unique MAC address in the subnet (LAN segment), which is
# not in use. This will be the Active MAC address on the
# active node in the cluster.
Supplied_MAC = 0x0060B0A4EBE5
# START OF CUSTOMER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
function customer_defined_run_cmds
{
# START of customer defined run commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_0l1
sleep 2
/usr/sbin/lanadmin -A $Supplied_MAC 0
/usr/sbin/x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2_1 -L /etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
sleep 5
test_return 51
# END of customer defined run commands
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Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
}
function customer_defined_halt_cmds
{
# START of customer defined halt commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_0l1
Sleep 2
test_return 52
# END of customer defined halt commands
}
Remote Failover with Local Failover Support Using
Service Guard
This is a combination of local failover and remote failover. For
information on the local and remote failovers, see “Configuring XOL HA
for Local Failover Without ServiceGuard” on page 83 and “Configuring
XOL HA for Remote Failover Using Service Guard (SG)” on page 86. If
the interface cannot be activated on either the primary or the standby
LAN card at a given time on the local node, the SG package initiates the
remote failover to the LAN card on the standby node in the SG cluster.
NOTE
On any given LAN card, the combination of highly available and not
highly available XOL interfaces is not supported. Either all or none of
the interfaces must be configured with HA (for local or remote failover)
on any given LAN card. This is because the same unique MAC address is
used by all XOL interfaces on the given LAN card.
To support remote failover with local failover, complete the following
steps:
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Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
NOTE
Enabling or disabling of HA feature for XOL interface is system wide.
Before enabling or disabling the HA feature on a system, all existing
XOL interfaces must be stopped. The XOL HA feature is enabled by default on 11i v3.
Step 1. To configure the standby device and the unique MAC address in the
configuration file of the XOL primary interface, modify the following
syntax:
Standby_device <standby LAN card name> # used for local
failover
XOL_floating_macaddr <unique MAC address>
NOTE
Local failover is automatically enabled if a “standby_device” is defined in
the configuration file. If you do not want the local failover feature for this
interface, you must de-configure the standby_device by removing or
commenting the line in the configuration file. The XOL interface inherits
the configuration of the primary XOL interface during failover because
the same configuration file is used to configure the XOL interface.
Example 3-7
Configuring Standby Device and Unique MAC Address
If the assumptions in the XOL configuration file are the following:
•
The primary LAN card is lan0
•
The standby LAN card is lan1
•
The MAC address is 0x0060B0A4EbE5
Then, the above parameters take the following values:
standby_device
lan1
XOL_floating_macaddr
92
0x0060B0A4EBE5
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
In the event of a failover, the XOL_floating_macaddr is moved from the
Primary LAN card to the standby LAN card. HP recommends that you
use the primary and standby LAN cards only for the XOL links
configured with HA feature.
NOTE
Step 2. Configure the SG package. For information on achieving remote failover
functionality, see “XOL Package Definition” on page 89.
For remote failover with local failover support, define the XOL package
with the following changes:
•
In the Start script of the package, stop the monitor if it is running.
For details, see Example 3-6 on page 90.
•
In the XOL package definition, use x25HAmonitor command instead
of x25ifstate as the service command, as follows:
x25HAmonitor -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2 -L
/etc/x25/llc2_conf_def -m
The x25HAmonitor command helps in failover of the XOL interface
between the primary and standby LAN cards (on the local system), if the
LAN card (either primary or standby) on which the XOL interface was
active fails. The x25HAmonitor exits if it is does not start the XOL
interface on the local system on either the primary or standby LAN card.
The SG does a package failover to the standby node configured in the SG
cluster.
NOTE
Step 3. To start the SG package, run the following command
cmrunpkg -v <package name>
Example 3-8
Remote Failover with Local Failover support
The following two entries must be added to the LLC2 configuration file:
standby_device lan2
XOL_floating_macaddr
# lan2 is standby LAN.
0x0060B0A4EBE5
# Unique MAC address in the subnet
The SG package file that contains the X.25 commands is
/etc./cmcluster/pkg*/control.sh file (one per XOL package).
Chapter 3
93
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
# SERVICE NAMES AND COMMANDS
SERVICE_NAME [0] =pkg1.Service_Name_01 (same SERVICE_NAME as in pkg conf)
SERVICE_CMD [0] ="/usr/sbin/x25HAmonitor -c x25config_llc2 -L llc2_conf_def -m "
SERVICE_RESTART [0] = " "
# Unique MAC address in the subnet (LAN segment) which is not in use. This will
be the Active MAC address on the active node in the cluster.
Supplied_MAC = 0x0060B0A4EBE5
# START OF CUSTOMER DEFINED FUNCTIONS
function customer_defined_run_cmds
{
# START of customer defined run commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_1l0
XOL_logical_port_id is 0
# primary lan PPA is 1 and
sleep 2
/usr/sbin/lanadmin -A $Supplied_MAC 1
/usr/sbin/x25init -c /etc/x25/x25config_llc2_1 -L /etc/x25/llc2_conf_def
sleep 5
# Check and stop the x25HAmonitor if already running
# This is needed as Service Guard monitor starts the monitor later
PID=`/usr/bin/ls /var/x25/tmp/x25HAmonitor_1l0.* | /usr/bin/awk -F '.' '{ print
$2 }'`
PROC_NAME=`/usr/bin/ps -e | /usr/bin/grep $PID
/usr/bin/awk '{ print $4 }'`
if [[ $PROC_NAME = "x25HAmonitor" ]]
then
/usr/bin/kill $PID
fi
test_return 51
# END of customer defined run commands
}
94
Chapter 3
Configuration
Configuring the High Availability Feature for X.25 over LLC2
function customer_defined_halt_cmds
{
# START of customer defined halt commands.
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_1l0
Sleep 2
# Assuming that lan2 was configured as standby lan
/usr/sbin/x25stop -d /dev/x25_2l0
Sleep 2
test_return 52
# END of customer defined halt commands
}
Chapter 3
95
Configuration
Verifying the X.25 Link
Verifying the X.25 Link
After completing the installation and configuration instructions, follow
these steps to verify your link:
Step 1. If you are using IP over X.25, use the ping command to check that the IP
connection is operating properly. Refer to your man pages for details on
the ping command. Examples are given below.
To check the connection to and from the network to the IP address (for
example, 193.6.3.2), type:
ping 193.6.3.2
To check the full connection across the network to the remote system’s IP
address (for example, 193.6.1.1), type:
ping 193.6.1.1
Step 2. If ping was unsuccessful, use the x25check and x25server commands to
verify that the X.25 connections are operating properly. Refer to your
man pages for detailed information on the these commands.
NOTE
96
If you have problems with the operation of your X.25 link, repeat the
installation process described in Chapter 2, Installation, and the
configuration instructions in this chapter, or refer to Chapter 8,
Troubleshooting, for troubleshooting information.
Chapter 3
4
Chapter 4
OLA/R Overview and Concepts
97
OLA/R Overview and Concepts
Introduction
Introduction
The letters O, L, A and R stand for On Line Addition [and] Replacement.
This, of course, refers to the ability of a PCI I/O card to be replaced/added
to an HP-UX computer system designed to support this feature without
the need for completely shutting down, then re-booting the system or
affecting other system components. The system hardware uses the
per-slot power control combined with operating system support to enable
this feature.
Initially, not all add-in cards will have this capability but over time users
should see many cards adding this capability to their set of functions.
IMPORTANT
Certain “Classes” of hardware are not intended for access by users. At
this time this includes Z-class (SuperDome) systems. HP recommends
that these systems only be opened by a qualified HP Engineer. Failure to
observe this requirement can invalidate any support agreement or
warantee to which the owner might otherwise be entitled.
IMPORTANT
For those wishing to use OLAR, your system may need to update its
system firmware. For additional details, please refer to the "Read Before
Installing or Updating to HP-UX 11i v3" document.
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Important Terms and Concepts
Important Terms and Concepts
Table 4-1
Terms used in this section
Term
IMPORTANT
Meaning
OLA/R
All aspects of the OLA/R feature
including On-line Addition
(OLA) and On-line Replacement
(OLR).
Power Domain
A grouping of 1 or more
interface card slots that are
powered on or off as a unit.
target card / target card slot
The interface card which will be
added or replaced using OLA/R,
and the card slot it resides in.
affected card / affected card
slot
Interface cards and the card
slots they reside in and are in
the same power domain as the
target slot.
In many cases, other interface cards and slots within the system are
dependent upon the target card. For example:
•
If the target card slot is in a power domain and you temporarily stop
power to the target card slot, you will also stop power to any other
card slots (affected card slots) in that power domain.
•
If the target card is a multiple-function card (MFC), suspending or
deleting drivers for the target card slot also suspends individual
drivers for the multiple hardware paths on that card).
During a card replacement operation, SMH performs a Critical Resource
Analysis, which checks the target card for critical resources that would
be lost when the card is shut down.
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OLA/R Overview and Concepts
Planning and Preparation
Planning and Preparation
For the most part SMH prevents you from performing OLA/R procedures
that would adversly affect other areas of the server. This section provides
you with important information that can help minimize errors or
problems when performing OLA/R procedures.
Card Compatibility
On-Line Addition
When on-line adding an interface card, the first issue that must be
resolved is whether the new card is compatible with the system. Each
OLA/R-capable PCI slot provides a set amount of power. The
replacement card cannot draw more power than is available.
The card must also operate at the slot’s bus frequency. A PCI card must
run at any frequency lower than its maximum capability, but a card that
could only operate at 33 MHz would not work on a bus running at 66
MHz. rad provides information about the bus frequency and power
available at a slot, as well as other slot-related data.
On-Line Replacement
When on-line replacing an interface card, the replacement card must be
identical to the card being replaced. This is referred to as like-for-like
replacement and should be adhered to because using a similar but not
identical card may cause unpredictable results. For example, a newer
version of the target card which is identical in terms of hardware may
contain an updated firmware version that could potentially conflict with
the current driver.
The PCI specification allows a single physical card to contain more than
one function. A single-function SCSI bus adapter can not be replaced by
a dual-function adapter, even if the additional function on the card was
identical to the original SCSI bus adapter.
When the replacement card is added to the system, the appropriate
driver for that card must be configured in the kernel before beginning
the operation. SMH ensures the correct driver is present. (In most cases,
the replacement card will be the same type as a card already in the
system, and this requirement will be automatically met.) If you have any
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OLA/R Overview and Concepts
Planning and Preparation
question about the driver’s presence, or if you are not certain that the
replacement card is identical to the existing card, you can use ioscan
together with rad to investigate.
•
During the replacement process, the original driver instance runs in
a suspended state. I/O to the card is either queued or failed while the
card is suspended. When the replacement card is brought on-line, the
driver instance resumes normal operation. The driver instance must
be capable of resuming and controlling the replacement card.
•
If the necessary driver is not present and the driver is a dynamically
loadable kernel module (DLKM), you can load it manually.
•
If the driver is static and not configured in the kernel, then the card
cannot be On-line Added. The card could be physically inserted
on-line, but no driver would claim it.
Critical Resources
Replacing a card that is still operating can have extensive ramifications.
Since power to the slot must be off when the old card is removed and the
new card is inserted, the effects of shutting down the card’s functions
must be considered.
This is particularly important if there is no on-line failover or backup
card to pick up those functions. For example:
•
Which mass storage devices will be temporarily disconnected when
the card is shut down?
•
Will a critical networking connection be lost?
A critical resource is one that would cause a system crash or prevent the
operation from successfully completing if the resource were temporarily
suspended or disconnected. For example, if the SCSI adapter to be
replaced connects to the unmirrored root disk or swap space, the system
will crash when the card is shut down.
During an OLA/R procedure, it is essential to check the targeted card for
critical resources, as well as the effects of existing disk mirrors and other
situations where a card’s functions can be taken over by another card
that will not be affected.
Fortunately SMH performs a thorough critical resource analysis
automatically, and presents options to you based on it’s findings. If you
determine that critical resources will be affected by the procedure, you
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OLA/R Overview and Concepts
Planning and Preparation
could replace the card when the server is off-line, or if you must take
action immediately, you can use rad to attempt an on-line addition of a
backup card and deletion of the target card.
Failover Actions / Single Points of Failure
In most cases, the system will automatically fail over to the alternate
resource when a card is suspended. However, some subsystems might
require manual intervention. For example, the Logical Volume Manager
(LVM), will automatically redirect I/O for a temporarily disconnected
disk resource to a mirror, logging errors as it handles this situation.
•
Along those lines, if the resource will be suspended for an extended
period of time, a large number of error log entries could result.
•
In this type of situation, you may want to manually switch over to a
mirror beforehand. When you have completed the OLA/R procedure,
the mirror and disk can be resynchronized.
If you suspend a card and the backup takes over, the system can contain
a single point of failure. If the backup resource fails before the new card
is on-line, the system could potentially crash. This window of
vulnerability can be minimized by keeping the period of suspension as
short as possible. This requires careful planning, and gathering as much
information as possible before actually suspending driver operation and
powering-down a card slot.
When an extended suspension period is unavoidable, or when the system
is mission-critical, it is desirable to configure a second backup resource if
possible.
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How to On-line Replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
How to On-line Replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI
Card using SMH
WARNING
When performing online replacemant, the stack for all the ports
of the interface card under consideration will be stopped before
repalcement. They will be restarted after the repalcement. Thus
any user application which has open connections will receive
DISCONNECT messages. The connections will have to be
re-established after successful replacement of the interface card.
Step 1. Start SMH.
Step 2. From the SMH Areas screen, select PeripheralDevices.
Step 3. From the PeripheralDevices screen, select Cards.
Step 4. From the I/O Cards screen, view the list of available I/O cards. Select
from the possible entries mentioned below:
•
HP J3525A PCI 2-port PSI card
Step 5. From the Menu bar, select Actions.
Step 6. From the Actions drop-down list, select Replace.
Step 7. SMH now performs a Critical Resource Analysis (CRA). That is, now
that you have selected to Replace a card, SMH’s first step is to confirm
that no critical resources will be disabled when the card is taken off-line.
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How to On-line Replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
Output messages from the CRA process are presented in the Analyze
Critical Resources screen which will be shown before you can
proceed. The messages displayed on this screen and the availability to
continue on from it (“OK” button activated) depend on the results of the
analysis.
Table 4-2
104
Three Possible Critical Resource Analysis (CRA) Outcomes
Outcome
Notes
No
critical
resources
identified.
At this point, you
can still cancel
the replacement
process.
Screen
Displays
Buttons
Activate
d
“No affected
resources are
critical or
in-use” and
“Critical
Resource
Analysis
complete”
messages.
OK and
Cancel
User Actions
Click “Cancel” to
halt the operation
and cancel the
replacement with no
change to the
system. Or,
Remove all cables
from the PCI I/O
card and click “OK”
to take you to the
next step.
Critical
resource(s
)
identified.
SMH will not
allow the
operation to
proceed.
Detailed
message
describing the
affected
critical
resource.
Cancel
Click “Cancel” to
halt the operation
with no change to
the system
Other
resources
identified.
SMH reports
other resources
that are in use
with no detectable
alternates. For
these resources,
you can cancel or
continue the
operation based
on your
knowledge of the
current system
configuration.
Detailed
message
describing
these
resources.
OK and
Click “Cancel” to
halt the operation
with no change to
the system.
Or,
Cancel
Remove all cables
from the PCI I/O
card and click “OK”
to continue
operations based on
your knowledge of
the information
being reported.
Chapter 4
OLA/R Overview and Concepts
How to On-line Replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
NOTE
The cables must be removed from the PCI I/O card before proceeding
with the OLR operation.
Step 8. Once you click the “OK” button on the Analyze Critical Resources
screen, SMH begins to take the selected card out of service. SMH
requests a suspend operation for the driver of the selected card.
Step 9. Once the drivers are suspended, SMH turns off the power to the slot in
which the card is located.
Step 10. SMH then illuminates the amber attention LED on the slot itself to
make the suspended card more easily locatable on the system chassis.
Step 11. SMH now requests that the card be replaced via a dialog box. Read the
contents of this dialog for any extra information (Expansion cabinets,
warnings, etc.). Also at this point, SMH turns off the slot’s green power
LED.
Step 12. Replace the target card. Please refer to your system manual for removal
and insertion of the PCI I/O cards.
NOTE
Do not connect the cables to the card at this point.
Step 13. At this point, the amber LED should still be be activated, and the green
power LED should still be off.
Return to the console, and click the “OK” button on the Replace Card
dialog.
WARNING
Pressing the “Cancel” button here will prevent you from easily
restoring power to this slot (or Power Domain). If this happens,
you must shut-down, then re-boot, the system to restore power.
Step 14. Once you click “OK”, SMH first resets the attention LED to it’s normal
state.
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How to On-line Replace (OLR) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
Step 15. SMH completes the operation by reversing the sequence of actions. That
is, SMH will:
a. return power to the card slot, and enables power to the Green LED
b. identify the new card
c. resume driver operations to the card
Step 16. Connect the cables to the card.
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How to On-line Add (OLA) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
How to On-line Add (OLA) a J3525A PCI Card
using SMH
NOTE
On-line addition will recognize and claim the interface card only if the
X.25/9000 software is already loaded on the system. Also check if the
appropriate J3525A drivers are loaded in the kernel.
Step 1. Read the information (below) in this step. An understanding of this
section is important in order for you to make the correct decision later in
the procedure.
1. Enter the SMH I/O Cards area and look for a slot prior to inserting
the card.
•
You will see one or more entries marked “empty slot”, one of
which you will choose to house the new card.
•
SMH will perform a Critical Resource Analysis prior to bringing
the card on-line
Step 2. Start SMH.
Step 3. From the SMH Areas screen, select Peripheral Devices.
Step 4. From the Peripheral Devices screen, select Cards.
Step 5. From the I/O Cards screen, view the list of available I/O slots (will read
“empty slot”. Select the slot you wish to use.
Step 6. From the Menu bar, select Actions.
Step 7. From the Actions drop-down list, select Add.
Step 8. SMH now performs a Critical Resource Analysis (CRA). That is, now
that you have selected to Add a card, SMH’s first step is to confirm that
no critical resources will be disabled when the power to the slot is
switched off.
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OLA/R Overview and Concepts
How to On-line Add (OLA) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
Output messages from the CRA process are presented in the Analyze
Critical Resources screen which will be shown before you can
proceed. The messages displayed on this screen and the availability to
continue on from it (“OK” button activated) depend on the results of the
analysis.
Table 4-3
Three Possible Critical Resource Analysis (CRA) Outcomes
Outcome
Notes
No
critical
resources
identified.
At this point, you
can still cancel
the replacement
process.
Screen
Displays
Buttons
Activate
d
“No affected
resources are
critical or
in-use” and
“Critical
Resource
Analysis
complete”
messages.
OK and
Cancel
User Actions
Click “Cancel” to
halt the operation no
change to the
system. Or,
Click “OK” to take
you to the next step .
Critical
resource(s
)
identified.
SMH will not
allow the
operation to
proceed.
Detailed
message
describing the
affected
critical
resource.
Cancel
Click “Cancel” to
halt the operation
with no change to
the system
Other
resources
identified.
SMH reports
other resources
that are in use
with no detectable
alternates. For
these resources,
you can cancel or
continue the
operation based
on your
knowledge of the
current system
configuration.
Detailed
message
describing
these
resources.
OK and
Click “Cancel” to
halt the operation
with no change to
the system.
Cancel
Click “OK” to
continue operations
based on your
knowledge of the
information being
reported.
SMH displays a dialog indicating that the selected slot has power
disabled and it is now safe to add the card to the desired slot.
Step 9. At this point, the amber LED is activated and the green LED is off. Now
add the new PCI card. Refer to the system manual for the insertion of the
PCI card.
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How to On-line Add (OLA) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
NOTE
Do not connect the cables to the card at this point
Step 10. Once you have inserted the new card, return to the console and click
“OK” on the dialog, assuming there is one. At this point, SMH will:
a. return power to the card slot and enable power to the Green LED
b. attach drivers by running ioscan on the new hardware
c. update the list of cards and slots on the system shown in the I/O cards
area
NOTE
At this point, the OLA is complete. Note that in some cases additional
configuration in another area of SMH may also be required. A network
interface card, for example, might require network parameter setup in
the Network Interface Card portion of the Networking and
Communications area.
Step 11. If the OLA is successful, connect the cables to the card.
Chapter 4
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OLA/R Overview and Concepts
How to On-line Add (OLA) a J3525A PCI Card using SMH
110
Chapter 4
5
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
111
Diagnostic Utilities
Using Diagnostic Utilities
Using Diagnostic Utilities
This chapter describes how to use the X.25 diagnostic utilities.
The diagnostic utilities provided with your X.25 link are described briefly
in the following table. Refer to Chapter 8, Troubleshooting, if you need
help deciding which utility to use.
Table 5-1
Available Diagnostic Utilities
Utility
Description
Refer to:
x25check
x25server
Tests connectivity up to X.25
level 3 between the local and
remote nodes.
man page and
this chapter for
examples
x25stat
Provides X.25 and IP over X.25
status and configuration VC
statistics.
man page and
this chapter for
examples
x25mibstat
Uses X.25 MIB structure to
provide statistical information.
man page
netstat
Provides network statistics and
information about network
connections.
man page
ping
IP-to-IP connections only. Tests
connection to a remote host (to
IP level) and reports round-trip
communication time.
man page
The following diagram shows the areas of the X.25 product covered by
the diagnostic utilities. The X.21bis level is physically integrated in the
interface card.
112
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
Using Diagnostic Utilities
Figure 5-1
Scope of X.25 Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
options
UserWritten
Programs
netstat
options
OSI
Services
x25check/x25server
PSIDAD
Berkeley IPC
Programmatic
Access
OTS to PLP Translator
OTS/9000
X.25 Packet Level
-m
-v
-t
-x
-c
-z
-g
LAP-B
-f
X.21bis or V.35 or RS-449
or RS-530 or RS-232
modem/switch
Chapter 5
113
Diagnostic Utilities
Before Using the Diagnostic Utilities
Before Using the Diagnostic Utilities
Some of the diagnostic utilities request or display information about the
X.25 interface card using one or more of the naming conventions
described below. Keep these conventions in mind when using the
diagnostic utilities:
•
the name of the device file, uses the format x25_npx, where n
represents the card instance number (0 to 15). For systems with
multi-port cards only, the p is a mandatory place holder and x
represents the port (interface) number (either 1 or 4).
•
the programmatic access name (for example, interfacenpx)
•
the X.25 interface name used by netstat uses the format
x25_npx, where n represents the card instance number (0 to 15). For
systems with multi-port cards only, the p is a mandatory place holder
and the x represents the port (interface) number (either 1 or 4).
The interrupt signal is often used to terminate diagnostic utilities. This
chapter assumes you have designated the Break key as your interrupt
character by setting the stty flags, brkint and -ignbrk. See the man
page for stty for details.
NOTE
114
You should be familiar with X.25 data formats in order to understand
diagnostic output.
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25check and x25server
x25check and x25server
These commands are used together to test the connection between a
source node and a destination node, up to and including X.25
programmatic access level. x25check is a major tool for debugging the
X.25 subsystem and for checking the configuration for that subsystem.
x25server is a background process that waits for call requests from
x25check. The x25server must be running before you execute
x25check.
See the man pages for x25check and x25server for syntax and
parameter information.
NOTE
The x25server daemon will be killed if all of the X.25 interfaces are
deactivated .
Example 1: Running x25check Interactively (No
Parameters)
The example below shows x25check used interactively to do three tests.
•
The first test (sending a call packet only) is successful and the
results are shown. (Generally, when running x25check, first send
the CALL packet alone, without data, to verify that a VC has been
established between the nodes).
•
The second test uses the same destination address to send five data
packets. Note that the X.121 address you enter becomes the default
value the next time your run the test.
•
The third test (to a different X.121 address) is unsuccessful. An error
message stating the problem is displayed.
When x25check prompts you for a programmatic access name, press
Return. The programmatic access name is not used for 712 Series
workstations.
$ x25check
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on.. Wed Dec 8 09:13:41 1993
Chapter 5
115
Diagnostic Utilities
x25check and x25server
Initialization of the test...
Do you want to send only a CALL packet (no DATA)? (y/n) > y
Enter the X.121 Address of the remote node ( ) > 2502057
Enter the programmatic access name through which you want to
check ( ) > interface2
Use reverse charging? (y/n) > y
Closed user group identification number (Blank or xx or xxxx) >
CALL packet sent ...
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time: 302 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Do you want to run the test once again? (y/n) > y
Initialization of the test...
Do you want to send only a CALL packet (no DATA)? (y/n) > n
Enter the X.121 Address of the remote node (250207)>
Enter the programmatic access name through which you want to check
(interface20) >
CALL
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
packet
packet
packet
packet
packet
packet
sent
sent
sent
sent
sent
sent
...
...
...
...
...
...
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
packet
packet
packet
packet
packet
received
received
received
received
received
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 311 ms
Transit time : 120 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Do you want to run the test once again? (y/n) > y
Initialization of the test...
Do you want to send only a CALL packet (no DATA)? (y/n) > y
Enter the X.121 Address of the remote node ( 250207 ) > 2502059
Enter the programmatic access name through which you want to check
(interface20) > interface3
Unable to Connect to Remote Node
116
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25check and x25server
VC_CLEAR Packet was received with
CAUSE
0 :
DTE Originated
DIAG
245 :
Cannot Interpret Diagnostic Code
Example 2: Running x25check With an X.121 Address
In the example below, the destination X.121 address of the destination
node is specified as a parameter to x25check. This example shows a
successful test and assumes the closed_user_group to be 51.
$ x25check 250207 -i interface0 -g 51
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:01 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 267 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Example 3: Running x25check With a Data Packet
In this example, a DATA packet is sent following the CALL packet. The
size of the DATA packet (in octets) and the number of DATA packets to
be sent are specified in addition to the X.121 address of the destination
node. This example shows a successful test.
$ x25check 250207 -i interface0 -s 32767 -n 1
X25CHECK (c) COPYRIGHT Hewlett-Packard Company 1988.
Test Starts on .. Wed Dec 8 09:15:47 1993
Initialization of the test...
CALL packet sent ...
DATA packet sent ... DATA packet received
The following figures have been measured on the network:
Set up time : 286 ms
Transit time : 24205 ms
Remote Connection Succeeded
Chapter 5
117
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
x25stat
This command displays the status, configuration, and VC statistics of an
X.25 interface. See the man pages on x25stat for syntax and parameter
information.
Example 1: Displaying the Current Configuration
x25stat -c -d x25_0
-------- X.25 CONFIG ----------General Parameters:
X.121 Address: 110
X.121 Pkt Addr: 110
Programatic Access Name: x25interface_0
Level 1 parameters
Linespeed: external clock
Level 2 parameters
t1 [frame timeout]:
3000 ms
t3 [idle timer]:
12000 ms
n2 [retransmissions]: 3
Max. Framesize:
269
Level 2 Window:
7
Level 3 parameters
network type: DTE_8
VC parameters ( Low High ) values :
PVCs
:
0
0
SVCs In
:
0
0
SVCs 2ways:
1
64
SVCs Out :
0
Total Number of VCs configured: 64
Default inbound packet size:
128
Default outbound packet size:
128
Default inbound window size:
2
Default outbound window size:
2
Default inbound throughput class: 12
Default outbound throughput class:12
Facilities settings:
Fast Select is : DISABLED
Flowcontrol Neg is : OFF
Reverse Charging is : DISABLED
118
0
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
Example 2: Displaying Global Statistics
See the tables provided after this example under the headings
“SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25” and “STATISTICS FOR LAPB” for
help in interpreting the displayed “State” of the X.25 link.
x25stat -d x25_0 or
x25stat -g -d x25_0
SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25
----------------------------Subnetwork ID : 0
State
: Connected and resolved DXE
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Restart Request
0
1
Restart Confirm
1
0
Calls (out/in)
1
0
Calls Accepts
0
1
Reset Request
0
0
Reset Confirm
0
0
Packets (total)
30
29
Bytes (total)
3840
3712
------------------STATISTICS FOR LAPB
Subnetwork : 0
Link mode
: LC_LAPBDTE
Link state : NORMAL
---------------------------------------------------------FRAMES
TX_CMD
TX_RSP
RX_CMD
RX_RSP
---------------------------------------------------------Supervisory:
RR
22
27
0
23
RNR
0
0
0
0
REJ
0
0
0
0
Unumbered:
SABM
0
1
DISC
0
0
DM
0
0
UA
1
0
FRMR
0
0
Information:
I
33
62
----------------------------------------------------------TX
RX
-----------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 5
119
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
Other:
Bad length
0
Unknown
0
Erroneous
0
Discarded
0
Ignored
0
0
Retransmitted
0
----------------------------------------------------------Timers:
T1
0
T4
0
T4 (N2 times)
0
STATISTICS FOR WAN
-----------------Subnetwork Link State : HDLC_ESTB
WAN:
83 good frames transmitted
87 good frames received
0 transmit underruns
0 receive overruns
0 CRC/frame errors received
0 received frames with no buffer
0 received frames with no flow control
0 receive buffer overflows
The level 3 “State” under the heading “SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR
X25” can be:
Table 5-2
Level 3 State
Output on Screen
120
Description/Meaning
Link not up
X.25 link level 3 is down
Connecting to DXE a
Restart packet sent (r2 b)
Connected resolving DXE
Restart packet sent (r2)
Random wait started
Waiting before retransmitting a
restart after a “collision” (packet
sent at the same time as packet
received)
Connected and resolved DXE
X.25 link level 3 normal (r1)
DTE RESTART REQUEST
Waiting on restart confirmation
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
Table 5-2
Level 3 State (Continued)
Waiting link disc reply
Level 2 going down
Buffer to enter WtgRES
Restart sent after retry
Buffer to enter L3restarting
Waiting for restart reply during
“link going down” phase
Buffer to enter L_disconnect
Waiting for buffer to clear VCs
during “link going down” phase
Unknown
Unable to define error/problem
a. DXE is DCE or DTE
b. r2, like r1, is a CCITT definition of a state/condition
The level 2 “Link state” under the heading “STATISTICS FOR LAPB” can
be:
Table 5-3
Level 2 Link State
Output on Screen
NOTE
Chapter 5
Description/Meaning
NORMAL
Level 2 up
ADM
DTE - Level 1 disconnected
POLLING
DCE - Level 1 disconnected
START
Level 1 connected
RESET
Level 2 down
OFF
Level 2 down
T4 under “STASTISTICS FOR LAPB” is only an internal parameter; it is
not configurable.
121
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
The level 1 “Link state” under the “STASTISTICS FOR WAN” heading
can be:
Table 5-4
Level 1 Link State
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
HDLC_ESTB
WAN connection established
HDLC_IDLE
No WAN connection established
HDLC_DISABLED
WAN connection disabled
The output under the heading “STATISTICS FOR WAN” is explained in the
table below:
Table 5-5
Statistics for WAN Output
Output on Screen
122
Description/Meaning
transmit underruns
Shows the number of times a
transmission was aborted
because the next octets to be
transmitted were not provided
soon enough for the level 2
firmware
receive overruns
Shows often-received octets were
overwritten because they were
not processed by the card
received frames with no
buffer
No message available in level 1 to
copy received data to
received frames with no flow
control
Never used
receive buffer overflows
Number of frames that were “too
long”
receive aborts
Number of frames that have been
aborted
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
Example 3: Displaying Virtual Circuit Data Packet
Counters
The following example shows the output when there is one virtual circuit
connected.
Note that the virtual circuit specified in the command line is 64, in
decimal. The LCN shown in the example output is displayed as 40, the
hexadecimal equivalent of 64.
x25stat -t 64 -d x25_0
PER-VC STATISTICS FOR X25
------------------------Subnetwork
: 0
LCN
: 040 (hexadecimal)
User ID
: 213
Call direction : outward To DTE
To DTE
: 202
VC state
: 6 - Datatransfer
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Call
1
0
Call confirm
0
1
Data
422
421
Interrupt
0
0
RNR
0
0
RR
0
421
Reset
0
0
Reset confirm
0
0
Clear
0
0
Clear confirm
0
0
------------------------------------Total
423
843
-------------------------------------
: 202
The “VC state” under the heading “PER-VC STATISTICS FOR X25” can
be:
Table 5-6
VC State
Output on Screen
3 - P2
Chapter 5
Description/Meaning
CALL REQUEST sent, but not yet replied
123
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
Table 5-6
VC State (Continued)
4 - P3
INCOMING CALL received, but not yet
replied
6 - Datatransfer
Connection established
7 - DXEa busy
RNR sent
8 - D2
RESET REQUEST sent, but not yet replied
19 - DXE resetting
RESET INDICATION received, but not yet
replied
20 - P6
CLEAR REQUEST sent, but not yet replied
a. DXE is DCE or DTE.
Example 4: Displaying Global X.25 Level 3 Statistics
x25stat -x -d x25_0
SUBNETWORK STATISTICS FOR X25
----------------------------Subnetwork ID : 0
State
: Connected and resolved DXE
------------------------------------Packet type
TX
RX
------------------------------------Restart Request
0
1
Restart Confirm
1
0
Calls (out/in)
3
0
Calls Accepts
0
3
Reset Request
0
0
Reset Confirm
0
0
Packets (total)
1273
1271
Bytes (total)
162944
162688
Example 5: Displaying X.25 Level 1 and 2 Statistics
x25stat -f -d x25_0
STATISTICS FOR LAPB
------------------
124
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
Subnetwork : 0
Link mode
: LC_LAPBDTE
Link state : NORMAL
---------------------------------------------------------FRAMES
TX_CMD
TX_RSP
RX_CMD
RX_RSP
---------------------------------------------------------Supervisory:
RR
45
1045
0
46
RNR
0
0
0
0
REJ
0
0
0
0
Unumbered:
SABM
0
1
DISC
0
0
DM
0
0
UA
1
0
FRMR
0
0
Information:
I
1280
2551
----------------------------------------------------------TX
RX
----------------------------------------------------------Other:
Bad length
0
Unknown
0
Erroneous
0
Discarded
0
Ignored
0
0
Retransmitted
0
----------------------------------------------------------Timers:
T1
0
T4
0
T4 (N2 times)
0
STATISTICS FOR WAN
-----------------Subnetwork : 0
Link State : HDLC_ESTB
WAN:
2371 good frames transmitted
2599 good frames received
0 transmit underruns
0 receive overruns
0 CRC/frame errors received
0 received frames with no buffer
0 received frames with no flow control
Chapter 5
125
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
0
0
NOTE
receive buffer overflows
receive aborts
T4 under “STASTISTICS FOR LAPB” in the example above is only an
internal parameter; it is not configurable.
The output under the heading “STATISTICS FOR WAN” is explained as
follows:
Table 5-7
Statistics for WAN Output
Output on Screen
Description/Meaning
transmit underruns
Shows the number of times a
transmission was aborted
because the next octets to be
transmitted were not provided
soon enough for the level 2
firmware
receive overruns
Shows often-received octets were
overwritten because they were
not processed by the card
received frames with no
buffer
No message available in level 1 to
copy received data to
received frames with no flow
control
Never used
receive buffer overflows
Count of “too long” frames
received
receive aborts
Count of frames that have been
aborted
Example 6: Displaying Virtual Circuit Status
x25stat -v -d x25_0
PER-VC STATISTICS FOR X25
-----------------------------
126
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Utilities
x25stat
LCI
--040
Type
VC State
Subnetwork Local address Remote Address
-------------------- ------------- -------------SVC-2way Datatransfer 0
110
202
Note that the LCI number given in this example output is displayed in
hexadecimal, not decimal.
Example 7: Displaying Current IP to X.25 Address
Mapping
x25stat -a
IP Address PktszWindow VCs
192.25.0.12
1
1
192.25.0.22
1
1
192.25.0.32
1
1
CUG
GOO11
-
SUB-REV
y
y
y
BAR-REV
n
n
n
X25 Address
0.250107..
0.250112..
0.250208..
Some of the fields in the example above are:
Chapter 5
•
CUG – An example Call User Group would be GOO11, which means
group ll.
•
SUB-REV – Subscribe to Reverse charges (y=yes, n=no).
•
BAR-REV – Stop Reverse charges (y=stop, n=don’t stop).
127
Diagnostic Utilities
x25mibstat
x25mibstat
This is a programmatic application that can be used to display statistics
for X.25 sub-systems. Refer to the x25mibstat(1) man pages for
instructions on using this utility.
Some examples of x25mibstat statistics are provided in the following
table.
Table 5-8
Example Statistics for x25mibstat
Statistic
128
x25mibstat Option
Remark
VC open
duration
-s
x25CircuitEntry
-s mioxPeerEntry
Time duration in seconds
Time duration of IP
connection
Number of open
SVCs per X.25
connection
-s x25StatEntry
According to VC type (that
is, inbound, outbound, or
2-way)
Clear
information
-s x25statEntry
-s mioxPleEntry
About clear initiator
About refused calls
Clear
information
-s lapbFlowEntry
Number of LAPD-B state
changes
Chapter 5
6
Chapter 6
PAD Services
129
PAD Services
Introduction
Introduction
This section describes X.25/9000 PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler)
Services which enable HP 9000 computers to connect and communicate
with remote systems over a Packet Switching Network (PSN).
NOTE
Refer to “Configuring PAD Services” in Chapter 3 for information on
configuring PAD Services with SMH.
PAD Services include the following commands and functions:
•
x29server – for PAD support for remote terminals:
A daemon process that allows a local HP 9000 system to function as
a host for (real or emulated) terminals attached to a remote PAD.
•
x29printd – for remote PAD printer support:
A daemon process that allows local HP 9000 computers to print at
printers attached to a remote PAD.
•
x29uucpd – for PAD-UUCP connectivity:
A daemon process that allows HP 9000 computers to originate
UNIX-to-UNIX copy services over an X.25 Switched Virtual Circuit
(SVC).
•
padem – for local PAD emulation:
A user command that allows a local HP 9000 system to emulate both
a terminal and a PAD for connection with remote systems over a
PSN.
CCITT Recommendations
X.25/9000 PAD Services are compliant with the X.25, X.28, X.29, and X.3
CCITT Recommendations of 1984.
Recommendation X.28 defines the exchange of messages between PAD
terminals and the PAD. A superset of the commands defined by this
protocol are performed by padem.
130
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Introduction
Recommendation X.29 is the protocol for the exchange of messages
between the host and PADs.
Recommendation X.3 defines a set of parameters that control PAD
operation. The following illustration shows the relationship between
each of these recommendations.
Figure 6-1
PAD Support Protocols
Packet Switching
Network
HOST
X.25
PAD
X.25
T
X.28
X.3
X.29
PAD services and the HP 9000 host
All of the PAD services can be seen as a pipe through which data is
passed from X.25 to the PTY (Pseudo Type) terminal and vice versa (see
the illustration below). Terminal data is not modified, but the X.25
headers are stripped before data reaches the PTY.
Chapter 6
131
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
Figure 6-2
PAD Services as a Pipe
PSN
X.25
HP 9000 host
X.25
Level 3
PAD
Services
PTY
User
Applications
(uucp, lp,
login, etc.)
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
Overview
The x29server user-level process provides support for communications
with terminals attached to a remote PAD. This process accesses X.25
level 3 through Berkeley Sockets (programmatic interface) and has an
interface to PTYs (see illustration below).
132
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
Figure 6-3
Remote PAD Support
HP 9000 host
User Level
T
UNIX
Applications
x29server
T
PAD
BSD
T
Sockets
X.25
Level III
Kernel
Pseudoterminal
drivers
(PTYs)
Packet-Switching
Network
The x29server remote PAD support provides capabilities for:
•
Managing call acceptance.
•
Launching applications automatically.
•
Ensuring system security.
•
Monitoring access and data transfers.
When x29server begins execution, it examines the PAD support section
(pad_spt) of the /etc/x25/x29hosts file. The PAD support section
contains user-configurable parameters for all devices. See Appendix B,
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples, for an example of the x29hosts
file.
Call Acceptance Mechanism and System Security
The x29server process operates in conjunction with devices declared in
the set of pad_spt (PAD support) entries contained in the x29hosts file.
It continually “listens” to the network and initializes communications
channels at the user level when a call request is received. x29server can
handle a large number of calls because each communication channel is
managed by an independent process.
Chapter 6
133
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
The x29server process employs Berkeley Sockets (at X.25 level 3) to set
up dedicated listening sockets that only handle calls arriving at a
particular subsystem. Addressing information contained in incoming call
request packets enables the listening process to determine if the call
should be accepted.
When a call request packet arrives x29server looks in the pad_spt
entries to verify the following:
•
Legal PID in the incoming call request packet – The PID must
conform to the X.29 standard to ensure support on all X.25 networks.
x29server only verifies that the PID begins with 01 and that it is 4
bytes in length as illustrated below.
Figure 6-4
1st byte must be 01
0x01000000
PID is 4 bytes in length
•
Correct interface_name – If there is an entry in the
interface_name field in the pad_spt section (optional), it must
contain the name of the interface over which the call has arrived.
•
Correct address – If there is an entry in the local_x121 field in
the pad_spt section (optional), this entry must match the called
address specified in the call request packet. Furthermore, the
local_x121 field entry must contain the complete address (that is,
both the address and subaddress of the local interface).
If all of the above conditions are met, the call is connected and
x29server does the following:
— parses the x29hosts file to find the first previously accepted
pad_spt entry whose remote_x121 field matches the calling
address contained in the call request packet,
— and, if there is a pty_slave_fname field in the selected pad_spt
entry, x29server verifies that the corresponding PTY
master/slave pair exists and is available.
If the last two items are completed successfully, the call is accepted;
otherwise, x29server rejects the call.
134
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
NOTE
See the man pages for x29server for its syntax and parameters.
Supported Remote PAD Terminals
•
700/41, 700/92, 700/94, 700/22
•
2392A
•
2393A
•
Vectra with AdvanceLink Terminal Emulation
Configuring Remote PAD Support
You can configure remote PAD support with SMH or by editing
configurable parameters in the /etc/x25/x29hosts and
/etc/x25/x3config files. The x29hosts file contains general
parameters for each remote device and the x3config file contains X.3
communications profile parameters for each device declared in the
x29hosts file. See Appendix B, X.25 Configuration Files and Examples,
for examples of the x29hosts and x3config files.
Configuring pad_spt Parameters
Remote PAD support parameters are specified in the pad_spt section of
the x29hosts file. An example pad_spt section with parameter values is
shown below.
pad_spt {
interface_name
remote_x121
local_x121
pty_slave_fname
application
cud
logging
reverse_charge
size_parity
x3
interface0
408555120801
1235451
ptynb01
/bin/login2
yes
1
disable
8_none
hp_padsrvr
}
Chapter 6
135
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
pad_spt Parameters
This section describes the remote PAD support parameters shown in the
above example:
interface_name Optional. This is a character string (maximum 12
characters) with no wildcards allowed. If this field is
not present, x29server will listen on all X.25
interfaces.
remote_x121
Mandatory (no default value). This is the calling
address (the address of the remote system).
There are three ways of expressing addresses:
•
exact address: the complete, exact address
•
wildcard address: partially or completely composed
of legal wildcards
•
special address: for PADs with no local address
Legal characters include the digits 0 through 9, the
capital letter “F”, the question mark (?), and the
asterisk (*). The (?) is a legal wildcard (substitute) for
values 0 through 9. The (*) is a legal wildcard for any
character. You can mix wildcards and characters.
The special address is FFFFFFFFFF which maps to a
null calling address. This feature is supported for PADs
that have no local addresses.
local_x121
Optional. Specified with a maximum of 16 digits (no
wildcards allowed). This must be the complete address
(including both the subscription address of the
interface and a subaddress).
The complete address protects the interface from being
activated by calls arriving at other addresses.
pty_slave _fname Optional. Specifies the file containing the name of
the slave PTY driver that will provide terminal
services for user applications. The name of this file
(maximum 14 characters) must begin with “pty”
(format: pty [filename]) and the file must be located
in the /dev/pty/ directory.
136
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
The name of the corresponding master PTY driver
must also exist in a file beginning with “ptym” (format:
ptym [filename]) located in the /dev/ptym/
directory:
Wildcards are not allowed in these file and path names.
If the pty_slave_fname field contains an entry,
x29server considers any communication initiated by
this entry to be restricted to exclusive use by the TTY/
PTY (master/slave) pair. The call is refused if the
TTY/PTY pair does not exist, is already in use, or
cannot be accessed (permission should be set to 666).
logging
Optional. Specifies the logging level for each call. Log
information is stored in the file
/var/x25/log/x29server/x29logXXXXX, where XXXXX
is the process ID of the current x29server child
process. Logging can be at levels 0, 1, 2, or 3. Level 0 is
no logging and the default is level 1 (error logging).
Level 2 is error and warning logging. Level 3 is error,
warning, information, and status logging.
reverse_charge Optional. Specifies reverse charge options for the
calling address. Possible settings are: disabled (or
disable), enabled (or enable). With the default value
(disable), reverse charge calls will not be accepted.
When reverse charging is enabled and is requested by
the remote PAD or system, the call is accepted and is
charged to the local system. You must also configure
the X.25 interface card to allow reverse charging (refer
to “Configuring Remote System Access” in Chapter 3
for instructions on how to use SMH to enable reverse
charging) in order for reverse charging to work with
PAD services.
size_parity
Chapter 6
Optional. Legal values are 8_none (the default),
7_even, and 7_odd. Specifies the character size and
parity setting of the remote PAD and terminal. This
parameter is useful when the asynchronous port of the
PAD cannot be configured in 8 bits. In this case, this
parameter must be set to match the remote PAD and
terminal settings. x29server will set the PTY pair
correctly so that 7-bit PAD users can log in without
137
PAD Services
Remote PAD Support (x29server)
problems. Note that size and parity processing will
only be performed on input from the PAD to the
system.
x3
Optional. This is the X.3 configuration set name for
this x29server session. If this entry is included in the
/etc/x25/x29hosts file, the configuration name and
its set of X.3 parameters must also be specified in the
/etc/x25/x3config file. If more than one X.3
configuration set with the same name exists in
x3config, the first one is used. X.3 parameters are not
downloaded unless both the X.3 configuration set name
and the parameters are given.
application
Optional. Used with cud to specify the full path name
of the application to be launched when the connection
is established (maximum 80 characters, no wildcards).
See “Launching applications automatically” below for
more information.
cud
Optional. Specifies a yes or no condition. Legal values
for this field are: enable (or yes), disable (or no). See
“Launching applications automatically” below for more
information on this.
Launching Applications Automatically
A user-level application can be launched automatically by configuring
the application and cud fields in the pad_spt section of the x29hosts
file.
The application parameter specifies the name of the user application
(or script) to be automatically launched when the connection is
established. The cud parameter is used like an on/off switch to enable or
disable the use of Call User Data (CUD) instructions.
If you are using a UNIX script, it must contain the character string
#!/bin/ksh at the beginning of the first line. If this string is not
included, the system will return an error code.
If the application and cud fields do not appear in the pad_spt file, the
/bin/login (default) program is automatically launched.
138
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Remote PAD Printer Support (x29printd)
CAUTION
Use extreme caution when specifying applications other than the default
(login) application. Since the x29server process is started with
superuser privileges, it gives root privileges to applications triggered by
incoming calls.
You can automatically launch a user application by:
•
configuring the application field with the relevant application
name as its value without specifying the cud field. The application
name must be the full path name of the application to be launched.
•
configuring the application field with the application name and
setting the cud field to yes. In this case, the cud field is considered as
the argument to the application. The application name must be the
full path name of the application to be launched.
•
not including the application field and setting the cud field to yes.
This allows the application to be defined by the incoming Call
Request Packet.
The first four bytes of the CUD field (in call request packets) are NOT
part of the application’s full path name. The first four bytes are used for
protocol ID as explained in the section “Call acceptance mechanism and
system security.”
Remote PAD Printer Support (x29printd)
Overview
The x29printd user-level program provides support for printers
attached to remote PADs. It accesses X.25 level 3 through Berkeley
Sockets (programmatic interface). It also has an interface to special
PTYs (see illustration below).
139
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Remote PAD Printer Support (x29printd)
Figure 6-5
Remote Printer Support
HP 9000
User Level
LP Spooler
or other
Spooler
x29printd
PAD
Printer
BSD
Sockets
X.25
Level III
Kernel
Pseudoterminal
drivers
(PTYs)
Packet-Switching
Network
When x29printd begins execution, it examines the /etc/x25/x29hosts
file for all PAD devices configured with a PAD type printer. For each of
these configured devices, x29printd monitors all print requests sent to
the spooling system (see Appendix B, X.25 Configuration Files and
Examples, for an example of the x29hosts file).
When x29printd detects a print request, it establishes an SVC with the
remote PAD printer specified in the remote X.121 address. x29printd
then transmits the print data to the remote PAD printer, closes the SVC,
and waits for another print request.
System Requirements
Because each printing device requires system resources, HP recommends
that the kernel parameters be set to following values (or greater):
140
•
MAX_PAD_PR – is the number of PAD printers to be configured.
•
NPTY – is 60 + MAX_PAD_PR
•
MAXURPC – is 50 + (3 x MAX_PAD_PR)
•
NPROC – is 20 + ((8 x MAXUSERS) + NGCSP + (6 x MAX_PAD_PR))
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Remote PAD Printer Support (x29printd)
The following kernel parameters should not be modified and should
retain the values indicated below:
•
NFILE =(16 x (NPROC + 16 + MAXUSERS)/(10 + 32+(2 x NPTY))
•
NINODE = ((NPROC + 16 + MAXUSERS) + 32 + (2 x NPTY) + (SERVER_NODE
x 18 x NUM_CODES))
For more information on dependencies, refer to your System
Administration Tasks manual.
NOTE
See the man pages for x29printd for its syntax and parameters.
Configuring Remote PAD Printers
You must configure each remote PAD printer by specifying parameters
in the printer section of the /etc/x25/x29hosts file (see Appendix B,
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples, for an example x29hosts file).
An example printer section is shown below.
printer {
device
name
remote_x121
cud
cug
logging
reverse_charge
x3
}
printer1
interface0
408555111201
dbad
02
1
enable
hp_printer
device
Chapter 6
Mandatory. This is the name of the device file that
will be located in /dev/x29/. It is created by
x29printd and will be symbolically linked to a slave
PTY in /dev/pty/. The device file must also be
configured in the spooler system using lpadmin and
the -v option (see “Configuring the UNIX Line-printer
Spooler for x29printd” below).
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name
Mandatory. This is the name of the programmatic
interface that will be used for call setup. There is no
default for this entry. This name must match the
programmatic access name (also called name) specified
in the x25init X.25 configuration file.
remote_x121
Mandatory (no default). This is the X.121 address of
the PAD device plus the subaddress of the printer. This
address is required for calls to be initiated. Only digits
0 through 9 are legal.
cud
Optional. This is the Call User Data (CUD) appended
to the protocol ID (0x01000000) for any call request
packets sent to this printer. Only strings of 12
characters or less are permitted.
cug
Optional. This is the Call User Group (CUG) that will
be allowed access to the printer. Only integers are
permitted.
logging
Optional (default = 1). This is the logging level used
for each printer device. Printer device logging can be
set to 0, 1, 2, or 3 where the respective values are:
0 – No logging (do not create a log file).
1 – Minimum session error logging.
2 – Error and warning logging.
3 – Error, warning, information, and status logging.
HP recommends logging level 0 or 1 for normal
operation. Logging levels 2 and 3 should only be used
for troubleshooting for short periods of time.
Logging messages for x29printd provide descriptions
of what the messages mean and the actions required to
correct any errors that may occur. The log file is
written to
/var/x25/log/x29printd/[device_name][child_process_id].
reverse_charge Optional (default = disabled). Specifies the reverse
charge option for the call setup for the particular
printer address. It can be disabled (or disable),
enabled (or enable).
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x3
Optional. This is the X.3 configuration set name for
this x29server login session. If used, the configuration
set name (and X.3 parameter set) must also exist in
/etc/x25/x3config. If more than one X.3
configuration set with the same name exists, the first
one found in the file is used.
If there is no configuration set name in
/etc/x25/x29hosts or no matching X.3 configuration
set name in /etc/x25/x3config, default values are
used.
Configuring the UNIX Line-printer Spooler for
x29printd
The remote PAD printer must also be configured in the spooler system in
order for remote printing to work with the standard UNIX LP
commands. To configure a remote PAD printer in the spooler system,
execute the following command:
lpadmin -v <device name> -p <printer name> -m <printer model>
-p
Printer name is the name given to this printer at the
user level. This is the same name specified with the lp
command’s -d option (used when you print a file to a
printer).
-v
Device file name is /dev/x29/[device name]. The
value for device name is the same character string as
the one entered in the device entry in the
/etc/x25/x29hosts file.
-m
Printer model is the HP printer model name (for
example, thinkjet, laserjet, hp2563a, etc.).
The lpadmin command associates the printer name
with the device file name in /etc/x25/x29hosts and
maps this name to the remote X.121 address of the
printer.
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Examples
x29printd and lpsched Operation
For this example, a printer (a RuggedWriter) is connected on port 5 (or
B1 on HP 2335a PADs) to a PAD whose address is 4085551203. The
address of the printer in this case would be 408555120305. In the PAD
device local configuration, port 5 must be downloaded with:
parm_no: parm_value;1:0; 2:0; 3:0; 4:10; 5:0; 6:0; 7:0;
8:0; 9:0; 10:0; 11:14; 12:1; 13:0; 14:0; 15:0; 16:8;
17:24; 18:0; 19:1; 20:0; 21:0; 22:0
which is profile 21 on HP 2335a.
On the host side, the printer name is foo. This means that when a user
types lp -d foo /tmp/file, the file /tmp/file will be printed on this
printer. The X.25 interface on the host is interface0.
Printer Configuration
To configure a printer (foo in the examples below) for use with the
standard UNIX LP spooler system and x29printd, follow these steps:
Step 1. Edit the /etc/x25/x29hosts file to include:
printer {
device
name
remote_x121
x3
logging
}
x29printer1
interface0
408555120305
default_printer
3
x29printd uses /etc/x25/x29hosts to configure remote PAD printers.
Step 2. Execute /usr/sbin/x29printd with the -l3 option.
After /usr/sbin/x29printd starts, it creates a device file named
/dev/x29/x29printer1. You can verify that this device file exists with
the command: ll /dev/x29.
x29printd creates the device file by linking it to a slave PTY. This
master/slave PTY pair is the interface for lpsched and x29printd (see
the pty(7) man pages for information about UNIX PTYs). The device file
for printer foo will be written to /dev/x29/x29printer1.
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Step 3. Configure the printer in the spooler system with the following
commands:
lpshut
lpadmin -v/dev/x29/x29printer1 -pfoo -mruggedwriter
lpsched
accept foo
enable foo
lpshut(1M) is necessary since lpadmin will not execute when lpsched is
running. You must restart LP scheduler after lpadmin. lpsched(1M)
schedules requests taken by lp(1) for line printing. After a printer is
configured in the spooler, you must enable it to accept printing requests.
Verifying the Configuration
After you complete the steps above, check the configuration as shown
below:
•
lpstat -t should display the following (assuming that only this
printer is configured in the spooler system and you did these steps on
January 23, 11:00 am):
scheduler is running
no system default destination
device for foo: /dev/x29/x29printer1
foo accepting requests since Jan 23 11:00
printer foo is idle. enabled since Jan 23 11:00
fence priority : 0
Chapter 6
•
ps -ef should show that both lpsched and x29printd are running.
•
/var/x25/log/x29printd/x29printd.log should have been
created and should contain information on the configuration of
/dev/x29/x29printer1.
•
/var/x25/log/x29printd/x29printd.log should not contain any
configuration error messages.
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UUCP Support (x29uucpd)
UUCP Support (x29uucpd)
Overview
x29uucpd provides UUCP connectivity on X.25 networks using CCITT
Recommendations X.3 and X.29. With x29uucpd, users on HP 9000 host
systems with X.25 access and UUCP can execute UUCP subsystem
commands to other systems running X.25, PAD support, and UUCP.
x29uucpd interfaces with the X.25 subsystem through BSD Sockets to
initiate call request packets to remote systems on X.25. When a call
request arrives at a destination system, it is received by the PAD support
service.
NOTE
x29uucpd creates device files in the /dev/x29/ directory. The device files
must be configured in the UUCP subsystem in order for UUCP to
interface with x29uucpd.
The x29uucpd user-level program provides support for UUCP file
transfers. It accesses X.25 level 3 through Berkeley Sockets
(programmatic interface) and uses PTY pairs for the terminal interface
to UUCP (see the following illustration).
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UUCP Support (x29uucpd)
Figure 6-6
Remote Printer Support
Receiving HP 9000
Sending HP 9000
User Level
UUCP
Pseudoterminal
drivers
(PTYs)
User Level
x29uucpd
Kernel
uucico
Slave
x29server
X.25
X.25
Level III
Level III
Kernel
Pseudoterminal
drivers
(PTYs)
Packet-Switching
Network
When x29uucpd is executed, it examines the /etc/x25/x29hosts file for
all PAD devices that are configured for UUCP.
When x29uucpd receives a copy request, it establishes an SVC with the
remote host specified by the X.121 address and transfers the data.
If the remote host is an HP 9000, the x29server process monitors that
system for incoming calls. x29server and x29uucpd cooperate to handle
all SVC requirements while the UUCP processes on each system perform
the UUCP operations.
When the UUCP data transfer is complete, the UUCP processes
terminate. x29server and x29uucpd then terminate the SVC connection.
Configuring UUCP PAD Support
To configure PAD support for UUCP services, the x29hosts file and
other system and device files must contain the appropriate references
and parameters. This section provides information on configuring these
files. See Appendix B, X.25 Configuration Files and Examples, for
examples of the x29hosts and x3config files.
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NOTE
See the man pages for x29uucpd for full details on syntax and
parameters.
Table 6-1
File
Contents
/etc/x25/x29hosts pad_uucp
parameters for each remote
host
/etc/passwd
uucp entry
/etc/x25/x3config
optional X.3 parameters
/usr/lib/uucp/Systems
remote system’s name
/usr/lib/uucp/Permissions
remote system’s login name
/usr/lib/uucp/Devices
device file name
Configuring the x29hosts file
The /etc/x25/x29hosts file must contain a separate pad_uucp section
for each remote site. An example pad_uucp section is shown below.
pad_uucp {
device
name
remote_x121
cud
cug
logging
reverse_charge
x3
}
x25uucp
interface0
4085551113
abc
2
3
enable
hp_uucp
pad_uucp Parameters
device
148
Mandatory. This is the device file name located in the
/dev/x29 directory. It is created when x29uucpd is
executed and is used for communication between
UUCP and x29uucpd. This device file must also exist in
/usr/lib/uucp/Devices file for the UUCP system.
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UUCP Support (x29uucpd)
name
Mandatory. This is the name of the programmatic
interface that will be used for call setup. There is no
default for this entry. If this entry does not exist, the
call setup will not be completed and file transfer will
not take place. This name must match with the
programmatic access name (also called name) specified
in x25init.
remote_x121
Mandatory. This is the X.121 address of the X.25
interface card of a host system where the PAD support
program (for example, /usr/sbin/x29server) is
running. This address is required for calls to be
initiated. There is no default for this address.
cud
Optional. This is the Call User Data (CUD) appended
to the protocol ID (0x01000000) for any call request
packets sent to this device. Strings of 12 characters or
less are permitted.
cug
Optional. This is a the Call User Group (CUG)
number (a positive value between 0 and 99) embedded
in the call request packet sent to this device.
logging
Optional (default = 1). Specifies the logging level for
each UUCP connection to this device. The log file is
/var/x25/log/x29uucpd/[device_name][child_pid
]. Logging levels for this UUCP device are 0, 1, 2, or 3
where:
0 – No logging (no log file is created).
1 – Error logging.
2 – Error and warning logging.
3 – Error, warning, information, and status logging for
troubleshooting.
HP recommends using log level 0 (no logging) for
normal operation.
reverse_charge Optional (default is disable). Specifies the reverse
charge option for call setup at this address. Possible
settings are disabled (or disable) and enabled (or
enable). When reverse charge is enabled, x29uucpd
sends out call request packets with reverse charge
requested.
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x3
Optional. This is the X.3 configuration set name for
UUCP file transfers. If this entry is used in
/etc/x25/x29hosts, the configuration set name with
its set of X.3 parameters must be specified in
/etc/x25/x3config. All legal X.3 parameters
contained in the x3config file are downloaded at
connection time. If there is more than one X.3
configuration set with the same set name in
/etc/x25/x3config, the first one is used.
If there is no configuration set name in x29hosts or
matching X.3 configuration set name in x3config, the
default parameters are downloaded (see “X.3
Parameter Descriptions” for information on X.3
parameters). x29uucpd operates in line mode only.
Configuring System and Device Files for UUCP
The following example describes the configuration procedure for cu, uucp
and uucico transfers between two systems. In this example, the local
system is called “dave” and the remote system is called “bill.” The two
systems are configured to handle file transfers originating from the local
system (dave) and received by the remote system (bill).
NOTE
Refer to the man pages for information on x25uucp device entry
parameters.
At the “dave” system:
Step 1. Make sure that the directory /var/spool/uucp/LCK..x29 exists. If it
doesn’t exist, create it.
Step 2. Configure the usr/lib/uucp/Systems file as follows:
bill Any;5 dev_bill, f 19200 - ““ \r\d\r\d\r login: -BREAK
-login: uucp word: test
where:
bill – is the name of the destination system (7 characters maximum).
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Any – indicates that bill can be called at any time.
5 – is the retry duration (dave will try again to connect to bill in 5
minutes).
dev_bill – is the name of the remote system declared in dave’s Devices
file.
f – is the file transfer protocol. HP recommends using f rather than g for
better performance.
19200 – is the transfer rate (it must be set at the same speed as that
specified in the dave’s Devices file).
““ \r\d\r\d\r login: -BREAK -login: uucp word: test – is login
information declaring uucp as the user for uucp and uucico processes,
with the password “test”. The password creates a link to the entry in the
/etc/passwd file of bill.
Step 3. Make sure that the following entry appears in the
/usr/lib/uucp/Devices file:
dev_bill x29/bill - 19200 direct
x29/bill has a maximum of 14 characters. The x29/bill entry creates
a link with the pad_uucp entry in the x29hosts file.
Step 4. Add the following lines to the /usr/lib/uucp/Permissions file:
MACHINE=bill \
SENDFILES=yes REQUEST=yes CALLBACK=no \
READ=/
WRITE=/
COMMANDS=ALL
NOTE
You can verify current permissions with the uucheck -v command.
Step 5. Create the following entry in the /etc/x25/x29hosts file:
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UUCP Support (x29uucpd)
pad_uucp {
device
name
remote_x121
logging
x3
}
bill
interface0
[bill’s X.121_address]
3
default_x3
Refer to “Configuring the x29hosts file” earlier in this section for the
definitions of these parameters.
Step 6. Launch /usr/sbin/x29uucpd at the HP-UX command prompt.
At the “bill” system:
Step 7. Make the following modifications to the pad_spt section of
/etc/x25/x29hosts file:
pad_spt {
remote_x121
logging
x3
[dave’s X.121_address or
“*” for all addresses]
3
hp_padsrvr
}
Refer to “Configuring the x29hosts file” earlier in this section for the
definitions of these parameters.
Step 8. Launch the x29server process with /usr/sbin/x29server -l3 for
example.
Step 9. Verify the contents of /etc/passwd (this file is linked with dave’s
Systems file) which should look like this:
uucp::5:3::/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
At the terminal prompt, assign the password “test” to the uucp user:
bill# passwd uucp
Step 10. Add the following lines to the /usr/lib/uucp/Permissions file:
LOGNAME=uucp \
SENDFILES=yes REQUEST=yes CALLBACKI=no \
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READ=/ \
WRITE=/ \COMMANDS=ALL
where the LOGNAME parameter creates a link with dave’s Systems file.
Step 11. Test the X.25 connection using:
bill# x25server
dave# x25check [bill’s X.121 address]
If successful, you will receive the message “Remote connection
succeeded.”
Step 12. Test the files: x29hosts, x3config (at bill) using:
dave# padem [bill’s X.121 address]
If successful, you will receive the “login” message and you will be able to
enter your details.
Step 13. Test the files: x29hosts, x3config, Systems, Devices (at dave) using:
dave# cu -d9 bill
If successful, you will receive an output something like:
Autodialing - please wait
call dial(1761259328)
baud=19200, speed=19200, line=(null), telno=call find_dev(15076527500)
baud=19200, speed=19200, line=(null), telno=nomodem is 0
fixline(6, 19200)
fixline - direct
MDTR was not set
gdial(direct) called
call mode(1)
Connected
transmit started
receive started
Generic-Sys (generic) [HP Release A.B9.04]
login:
If you don’t see the “login:” prompt, type dave# uusnap. You should
receive the following output:
x29
--- --- --- LOCKED (pid 57602)
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bill
--- --- --- [error message]
Refer to the UUCP section in Chapter 9 of the Remote Access: User’s
Guide (part number B2355-90037) for more information on UUCP error
messages.
Step 14. Test the file permissions of both bill and dave using:
dave# /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -x9 -sbill
where -r1 indicates that dave is the “master” (for UUCP purposes) and
-x9 is the highest debugging level.
If successful, you should receive output similar to:
mchFind called (bill)
list (rmail) num = 1
list (/) num = 1
list (/) num = 1
list (ALL) num = 1
_Request (TRUE), _Switch (TRUE), _CallBack (FALSE), _MyName
(dave),
_Commands ALL
chdir(/var/spool/uucp/bill)
conn(bill)
ProtoStr = f
Device Type dev_bill wanted
mlock x29/bill succeeded
fixline(5, 19200)
fixline - direct
gdial(direct) called
/* X.25 connection established*/
getto ret 6
expect: (““)
got it
sendthem (ˆMDELAY
ˆMDELAY
ˆMˆM)
expect: (ogin:)
/* reception of “bill”’s banner*/
ˆMGeneric-Sys (generic) [HP Release A.B9.04]ˆJˆMˆJˆMlogin:got it
sendthem (uucpˆM)
enter ub_sst, status is : 0
Rmtname: bill
imsg > ˆMˆMˆJlogin: ˆMˆMˆJlogin: ˆMˆMˆMˆJlogin: ˆMˆJlogin:
uucpˆMˆMˆJPlease wait
..checking for disk quotasˆMˆJˆPShere=billˆ@Login Successful: System=bill
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imsg >ˆPROKˆ@msg-ROK
Rmtname bill, Role MASTER, Ifn - 6, Loginuser - root
rmesg - ‘P’ imsg >ˆPPgfdxˆ@got Pgfdx
wmesg ‘U’f
Proto started f
/*the f protocol for UUCP is selected*/
*** TOP *** - role=1, setline - X
gtwvec: dir /var/spool/uucp/bill
wmesg ‘H’
got HY- ‘H’ enter frdmsg:HY
PROCESS: msg - HY
HUP:
wmesg ‘H’Y
cntrl - 0
send OO 0,imsg >HYˆMˆPOOOOOOˆ@exit code 0
Conversation Complete: Status SUCCEEDED
If you receive an error such as “RETRY TIME NOT REACHED,” you can
delete the status file as follows:
dave# rm /var/spool/uucp/.Status/bill
If you receive the message “SUCCEEDED,” your uucp/X.25 connection is
operating correctly.
Step 15. Test file transfers using:
dave# uucp -r /tmp/filename bill!/tmp/filename
where you’re transferring a file from dave to bill and the -r option puts
the request in the queue.
To launch the file transfer correctly, now use:
dave# /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 -x9 -sbill
This completes the testing procedure.
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Local PAD Emulation (padem)
Local PAD Emulation (padem)
The padem program provides local PAD emulation to enable a local
terminal (real or emulated) to connect to a remote system over an X.25
PSN. x29server handles the connection on the remote host side. The
remote system can be specified upon execution or with subsequent padem
commands issued during operation (see illustration below).
Figure 6-7
HP 9000
User Level
Packet-Switching
Network
padem
X.25
Level III
Remote
System
TTY or
PTY
T
The padem program operates in either command or data transfer mode.
The operating mode depends on whether an X.121 address or a symbolic
address is specified when padem is launched.
Command Mode
If the X.121 address or symbolic address of the remote host is not
specified, padem begins execution in command mode and prompts the
user for commands with X28> (the padem prompt).
In command mode, padem receives X.28 PAD commands from users. Any
padem command can be entered at the prompt. Once padem establishes
an SVC with a remote host, it switches to data transfer mode.
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Local PAD Emulation (padem)
Data Transfer Mode
If the X.121 address or the symbolic address of the remote host is
specified, padem begins execution in data transfer mode.
In data transfer mode, typed text is sent to the remote host and text
received from the remote host is displayed at the local terminal. You can
re-enter command mode to issue a padem command by pressing Ctrl P.
If the VC is cleared at any time (by the remote host or by the X.25
network), padem returns to command mode or exits if the remote host
address was at the HP-UX prompt.
Configuring Local PAD Emulation
NOTE
See the man pages for padem for its syntax and parameters.
You can configure local PAD emulation by modifying parameters in the
pad_em and host_table sections of the /etc/x25/x29hosts file.
Examples of these sections are given below. See Appendix B, X.25
Configuration Files and Examples, for an example of the x29hosts file.
pad_em {
remote_x121
name
logging
reverse_charge
profile
}
host_table {
Gale
Tornado
Deepthought
}
4085551111
interface0
3
enable
0
4085551111
4085551113
4085551115
Parameter Descriptions
remote_x121
Chapter 6
Mandatory. This is the X.121 address of the remote
system. Only numbers 0 through 9 are legal; wildcards
or special address types are not allowed. If this entry
exists, any call to the remote X.121 address will use the
associated fields (logging, reverse_charge, profile,
and name).
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name
Optional. This is the name of the programmatic
interface used for call setup. If this entry does not exist,
the default name associated with /dev/x25_0 is used.
This name must match the programmatic access name
(also called name) in the X.25 configuration file.
logging
Optional. Specifies the logging level that applies to all
calls made during this session. The log file is
$HOME/plog.aXXXXX, where the last five characters are
from the process ID of padem. If this parameter is not
specified, the logging level is set to the default level of 0
(no logging). Logging levels are: 1 = error logging, 2 =
error and warning logging, 3 = error, warning,
information, and status logging.
reverse_charge Optional. Specifies the reverse charge option for call
setup. Possible settings are: disabled (or disable)
and enabled (or enable). The default value is
disabled. When reverse charge is enabled, padem
sends a reverse charge request with all call request
packets.
profile
Optional. Describes the X.3 configuration for the login
session. The X.3 default values are defined in the code
(programmatically) and cannot be altered by users.
These default parameters comply with the 1984 profile
0 specification for a PAD device. If profile X is in
x29hosts and profile Y=X is in x3config, padem uses
profile X. If there is no profile in x29hosts, and
x3config contains profile 0, padem uses profile 0. In all
other cases padem uses the hard-coded default values.
padem only operates in line mode for X.3 configuration.
host_table{}
NOTE
158
Optional. Defines symbolic host names for remote
X.121 addresses. The first entry defines the symbolic
name and the second entry is the remote X.121
address. If an X.121 address is given, it must also exist
in the remote_x121 field in the pad_em section of the
x29hosts file.
You do NOT need to have pad_em {} entries in the
x29hosts file. You can specify all of the above
parameters at the command line when you run padem.
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Local PAD Emulation (padem)
Command line options are given priority over those in
the x29hosts file. If options are not specified at the
command line or in the x29hosts file, the
programmatic access name associated with
/dev/x25_0 is used for call setup, the logging level is
set to 1, the reverse charge option is disabled, and the
default X.3 profile values are used.
Chapter 6
159
PAD Services
PAD Commands
PAD Commands
PAD command signals are grouped into the X.28 PAD command set
(defined by CCITT X.28 recommendations) and include an extended
command set providing additional functionality.
X.28 PAD Command Set
clr
Clears a virtual circuit (VC), disconnecting the VC from
the remote host.
int
Transmits an interrupt to the remote host.
par?
Displays all of the X.3 parameters and their current
values. The format for the display is:
X.3 parameter number: current value
prof [profile_id]
Interprets a prepared set of command signals from a
profile. Profiles must be placed in the file
/etc/x25/x3config.
reset
Resets a virtual circuit (VC). When a VC is reset, all
data received (but unread) is lost, and all X.3
parameters are set to the default values (as they were
defined before the VC was established).
set n:v [,n:v]
Sets the X.3 parameter n to value v. If there is a syntax
error, padem responds with an ERR service signal and
updates the diagnostic text. All changes take effect
when a new VC is established, or immediately if one is
already established.
set? n:v [,n:v]
160
Chapter 6
PAD Services
PAD Commands
Sets the X.3 parameter n to value v and displays the
current setting of all parameters. This command is a
combination of the set and par? commands.
stat
Displays status information of a VC. padem responds
with “FREE” if no VC is established or with “ENGAGED” if
there is a VC established.
[r,g[n[n]]-] x121_address [subaddress] [P/Dd..d
Performs a virtual call to the remote host defined by its
X.121 address. x121_address[subaddress] can be
replaced with “|symad|” where symad is defined in the
file /etc/x25/x29hosts. P specifies the packet size
negotiation. D specifies the Call User Data (CUD).
Extended Command Set
aprof
Lists all profile IDs known to padem. The profile IDs
are contained in the x3config file.
help
Displays a complete list of all padem commands with a
short description of each.
ifname [string]
Displays or sets the programmatic access name of the
interface to which padem is (or will be) connected.
If this command is entered with a programmatic access
name specified in string, padem sets the
programmatic access name for the interface. If the
command is entered and string is not specified, padem
displays the programmatic access name for the
interface.
Chapter 6
list
Lists all symbolic names for remote hosts that are
accessible to the user. The symbolic reference names
are contained in the /etc/x25/x29hosts file.
lprof
Displays the last loaded profile ID.
quit
Terminates padem. If the SVC is still connected, it is
cleared.
sleep s
Suspends padem for s seconds (maximum 3600).
161
PAD Services
PAD Commands
verbose
NOTE
162
Puts padem in verbose display mode. When padem
operates in verbose display mode, it displays CAUSE,
EFFECT, and ACTION messages in addition to the
standard diagnostic message.
Certain parameters may be changed automatically
during the session as a result of PTY reconfigurations
by the application at the other side of the connection.
These changes will temporarily alter the original
defaults set by the PAD Services. The PAD terminal
user may also change PAD parameters at any time
with X.28 commands. However, this may result in
unpredictable behavior from the application being
processed.
Chapter 6
PAD Services
Configuring X.3 Profile Parameters
Configuring X.3 Profile Parameters
X.3 PAD parameters are used to specify how certain I/O operations are
performed between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and the remote
host PAD. These parameters are used to ensure that the local DTE and
the remote PAD use the same communications profile.
Each of the 22 parameters has an identifier known as the parameter
reference. This identifier is an integer value from 1 to 22. Each
parameter has a defined range of possible values as specified by the X.3
recommendations.
X.3 parameters are specified in one or more configuration sets contained
in the /etc/x25/x3config file. Each configuration set includes:
•
X.3 configuration set name and profile number
•
Parameter number
•
Parameter value for line mode (value1) and raw mode (value2)
•
Comment lines starting with “#”
See Appendix B, X.25 Configuration Files and Examples, for an example
of the x3config file.
Configuration Set Syntax
The syntax for an X.3 configuration set is shown in the following
example:
config_name : profile_number
# <X.3 parameter_no>
1
2
.
.
.
22
}
{
<value1>
1
1
.
.
.
0
<value2>
1
1
.
.
.
0
An X.3 configuration set is a string which embodies the group of X.3
parameters and parameter values beginning with “{” and ending with “}”.
Each configuration set is identified by a configuration set name
(config_name) and an optional profile number (profile_number).
Chapter 6
163
PAD Services
Configuring X.3 Profile Parameters
Parameter Values
config_name
Mandatory. Specifies the configuration set name, a
character string that identifies the X.3 parameter set.
Each config_name must be unique. This is a required
parameter for all PAD services if user-defined X.3
parameters are to be used. This name must match the
x3 value given in the x29hosts file for pad_spt,
printer, or pad_uucp entries. Since X3 has no effect on
pad_em entries, a dummy string for config_name
together with a profile number should be entered for
padem profile parameters.
profile_number Optional. Applies only to the padem configuration.
This is a number that must match the number entered
for profile in the pad_em {} section of the x29hosts
file. If the profile entry exists and is assigned a value in
the x29hosts file, it must also appear in the x3config
file.
X.3_parameter _no Mandatory. This is an integer value from 1 to 22.
See “X.3 parameter descriptions” later in this chapter
for a full description of each X.3 parameter.
value1, value2 Mandatory. These are the values to be used in X.3
configuration. Each value is defined for a specific X.3
parameter: value1 is for line-mode configuration;
value2 is for raw-mode configuration. Only x29server
implements raw-mode data transfer and only
parameters 3 and 4 are used for raw-mode data
transfer. x29printd, x29uucpd, and padem do not use
value2.
Modifying Parameters
Initial parameter settings can be changed at any time during a call. This
occurs when x29server detects an ioctl() call to configure the PTY for
a PAD terminal. This system call could be issued by the UNIX login
process, by a shell initialization script such as .login, or by an
application.
Each ioctl() request is examined by the server. If a mapping exists
between the terminal I/O parameter and X.3, the terminal I/O value is
checked against the current X.3 setting. If the request calls for a change,
164
Chapter 6
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
the current X.3 setting is overwritten on the server. A set command is
sent to reset the parameter in the remote PAD. If x29server cannot map
the terminal I/O parameter to X.3, the request is processed as a normal
terminal I/O ioctl().
When x29printd and x29server transform terminal I/O parameters
into X.3 parameters, they intercept the ioctl (tcseta) call and send an
X.29 set command with new X.3 parameter values if necessary. The
related X.3 parameters are: 2 (echo), 3 (data forward), 4 (idle timer), 5
(device control), 12 (flow control), 15 (editing), 16 (character delete), and
17 (line delete).
The x29server process downloads only those X.3 parameters that are
specified in the x3config file for a particular remote system. The
x29print process always downloads a set of X.3 parameters (if they exist
in the x3config file) at the beginning of a connection, or the default X.3
parameters (given in the preceding table) if the X.3 parameters do not
exist in the x3config file.
The X.3 parameters for padem can be changed by an X.29 set message
from the remote host or by the terminal operator with a set command.
Default X.3 Parameters
If the x3config file does not have a definition for a particular device, the
defaults (listed in the next section) are used. See Appendix B, X.25
Configuration Files and Examples, for an example of the x3config file.
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
The following pages contain a description of X.3 parameters 1 through
22. The default X.3 parameters vary for each PAD service.
Chapter 6
165
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
NOTE
Parameters 1 to 18 are available for networks using either the 1980 or
1984 standard. Parameters 19 through 22 only apply to the 1984
standard.
Table 6-2
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
X.3 Parameter
Description
1 - ESC/Data
Transfer
Specifies whether or not the terminal user will be
allowed to escape from data transfer mode in
order to send PAD command signals. 0 indicates
escape is not allowed, 1 permits escape from data
transfer mode with Ctrl-P, 32 to 126 permits
escape from data transfer mode with the defined
character.
2 - Echo
Specifies whether or not the PAD echoes to the
local terminal all the characters received from
that device. 1 turns echoing on; 0 turns echoing
off.
3 - Data Fwd
Signal 1
Specifies one of the defined sets of characters for
use as a data forwarding signal. When one of the
characters in the set is received from the
terminal, the PAD terminates the assembly of a
packet and forwards it to the remote host. The
possible values are listed below.
Table 6-3
Value
166
Meaning
0
No data forwarding character.
1
Alphanumerics.
2
Carriage Return only. (This is the
default.)
4
ESC, BEL, ENQ, and ACK only.
8
DEL, CAN, and DC2 only.
Chapter 6
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-3
NOTE
(Continued)
16
ETX and EOT only.
32
HT, LT, VT, FF only.
64
NUL, SOH, STX, BS, LF, CR, SO, SI,
DLE, DC1, DC3, DC4, NAK, SYN,
ETB, EM, SUB, FS, GS, RS, and US
(all other characters in the first two
columns of the International
Alphabet #5).
126
All characters, except
alphanumerics.
127
All characters are data forwarding.
The values listed for parameter 3 may be combined by specifying the sum
of the values. For example, specifying 10 is the same as specifying 2 and
8.
Table 6-4
X.3 Parameter
Chapter 6
Description
4 - Idle Timer
Specifies a timer duration interval in units of
1/20 of a second. If the time between characters
entered at the terminal exceeds the specified
timer value, the packet being assembled by the
PAD is automatically transmitted. The range is 0
through 255. If 0 is specified, there is no idle
timer and packets will never be transmitted due
to a time-out.
5 - Anc Device
Control
The ancillary device control parameter permits
flow control toward the terminal by the PAD. The
PAD indicates its readiness to receive characters
from the terminal by transmitting X-ON (DC1) or
X-OFF (DC3) to the terminal. 0 indicates that
flow control by the PAD is not operational, and 1
permits flow control by the PAD.
167
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-4
(Continued)
6 - Service
Signals
Specifies that the terminal is to receive the PAD
service signals that are received by the PAD.
PAD service signals are described in X.25: The
PSN Connection. 0 indicates that no PAD service
signals are received by the terminal, and 1
indicates that the terminal will receive PAD
service signals.
7 - On Break
Specifies the action to be taken by the PAD when
it receives a break signal from the terminal. The
possible values are shown below.
Table 6-5
Value
NOTE
Meaning
1
Transmit interrupt packet.
2
Reset.
4
Transmit indication of break (PAD
message)
8
Escape from data transfer mode.
16
Discard output to terminal.
The values listed for parameter 7 may be combined by specifying the sum
of the values.
Table 6-6
X.3 Parameter
168
Description
Chapter 6
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-6
(Continued)
8 - Discard
Output
This parameter restores data delivery to the
terminal after the reception of the break
character and value 16 has been specified for X.3
Parameter 7. This value may be modified by the
reception of the break character. 0 indicates
normal data delivery, and 1 indicates that data is
discarded.
9 - Number of CR
Padding Chars
Specifies the number of buffer characters to be
added following a carriage return. This is used for
hard copy terminals to allow time for the carriage
to return to the left side of the page. The range is
0 through 7.
10 - Chars per
Line/Wrap
-Around
Specifies the number of printing characters to be
transmitted before the PAD inserts a carriage
return in the data stream. This parameter is not
needed on terminals with auto-wrap-around. The
range is 0 through 255.
11 - Baud
This parameter specifies the terminal access
speed (Baud rate). x29server does not allow
users to change the Baud rate. It defaults to the
terminal Baud rate, which is usually 9600. The
possible values and their associated Baud rates
are listed below.
Table 6-7
Value
Chapter 6
Baud Rate
0
110
1
134.5
2
300
3
1200
4
600
5
75
169
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-7
(Continued)
6
150
7
1800
8
200
9
100
10
50
11
75 from terminal, 1200 to terminal
12
2400
13
4800
14
9600
15
19200
16
48000
17
56000
18
64000
Table 6-8
X.3 Parameter
Description
12 - Flow Control
Specifies whether the terminal can control the
flow of data from the PAD to the terminal. 0
indicates no flow control by the terminal, and 1
indicates that flow control by the terminal may be
used.
13 - Line Feed
Specifies whether the PAD inserts a line feed
when a carriage return is detected. The possible
values are shown below.
Table 6-9
Value
170
Meaning
Chapter 6
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-9
NOTE
(Continued)
1
Line feed inserted after carriage
return in data stream to the
terminal.
2
Line feed inserted after carriage
return in data stream from the
terminal.
4
Line feed inserted after carriage
return when echoed to the terminal.
The values listed for parameter 13 may be combined by specifying the
sum of the values. For example, specifying 3 is the same as specifying 1
and 2.
Table 6-10
X.3 Parameter
Chapter 6
Description
14 - Line Feed
Padding
Specifies the number of padding characters to be
added following a line feed. This is used for hard
copy terminals to allow time for the paper to be
moved up. The range is 0 through 7.
15 - Editing
Specifies whether data editing is allowed from
the terminal during data transfer (for example,
character delete and line delete). 1 indicates that
editing is allowed; 0 indicates that no editing is
allowed.
16 - Character
Delete
When editing is allowed, specifies which
character to use for character delete. The range is
0 through 127.
17 - Line Delete
Specifies which character to use for the line
delete character (when editing is allowed). The
range is 0 through 127.
171
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-10
(Continued)
18 - Line Display
Specifies which character to use for the line
display character (when editing is allowed). The
range is 0 through 127.
19 - Edit Service
Signals
Specifies whether and how PAD service signals
can be edited. This parameter is valid when the
setting of X.3 Parameter 6 is not 0. The possible
values are shown below.
Table 6-11
Value
NOTE
Meaning
0
No editing permitted.
1
Editing permitted for printing
terminals.
2
Editing permitted for display
terminals.
8 OR
32 to 126
Editing permitted using specified
character.
If you specify a value greater than 7, that value specifies the editing
character. This parameter is available only for networks using the 1984
standard.
Table 6-12
X.3 Parameter
20 - Echo Mask
Description
This parameter specifies which characters will
not be echoed. X.3 Parameter 2 - Echo takes
precedence over this parameter. The possible
values are shown below.
Table 6-13
Value
172
Meaning
Chapter 6
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-13
NOTE
(Continued)
1
Do not echo carriage return.
2
Do not echo line feed.
4
Do not echo VT, HT, and FF.
8
Do not echo BEL and BS
16
Do not echo ESC and ENQ.
32
Do not echo ACK, NAK, STX, SOH,
EOT, ETB, and ETX.
64
Do not echo characters specified in
X.3 Parameters 16, 17, and 18.
128
Do not echo NUL, SO, SI, DLE, DC1,
DC4, SYN, CAN, EM, SUB, FS, GS,
RS, US, and DEL.
The values above may be combined by specifying the sum of the values.
For example, specifying 3 is the same as specifying 1 and 2. This
parameter is available only for networks using the 1984 or 1988
standards.
Table 6-14
X.3 Parameter
21 - Parity
Description
Specifies how parity should be treated. The
possible values are shown below.
Table 6-15
Value
Chapter 6
Meaning
0
No parity checking or generation.
1
Parity checking.
2
Parity generation.
173
PAD Services
X.3 Parameter Descriptions
Table 6-15
(Continued)
3
NOTE
Parity checking or generation.
This parameter is available only for networks using the 1984 or 1988
standards.
Table 6-16
X.3 Parameter
22 - Number of
Chars Before
Page Wait
174
Description
Indicates whether an end of page wait should
occur and, if so, the number of lines per page. The
range is 0 through 255. This parameter is
available only for networks using the 1984
standard.
Chapter 6
7
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
175
Tracing and Logging Utilities
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter describes the use of the X.25 tracing and logging utilities
provided with your X.25 link. These utilities are briefly described in the
following table. Refer to Chapter 8, Troubleshooting, if you need help
deciding which utility to use.
Table 7-1
Available Tracing and Logging Utilities
Utility
Description
Refer to:
nettl
Creates a user-defined log file
containing frame and packet trace
information from X.25 packet and
LAP-B levels.
man page and this
chapter for
examples
netfmt
Formats trace information
contained in the user-defined log file
that was generated with the nettl
command
man page and this
chapter for
examples
strace
Creates a log file of event messages
for X.25 levels 2 and 3, and IP over
X.25.
man page and this
chapter for
examples
strerr
Receives error messages from the
Streams log driver.
man page and this
chapter for
examples
The following diagram shows the areas of the X.25 product covered by
the network event logging and network tracing utilities.
176
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
Introduction
Figure 7-1
The Scope of X.25 Tracing and Logging Utilities
OSI Services
X.25
User
User
PAD
Written
Written
Services
L3
L4
OTS/9000
Internet
Services
Network
Services
(NS)
BSD
Sockets
NetIPC
Sockets
BSD IPC
TCP/UDP
X.25
OTS-to-PLP
Programmatic Access
Translator
BSD-to-PLP translator
IP-to-PLP Interface
strace
X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP)
nettl
X.25 Link Access Procedure-Balanced Protocol (LAP-B)
X.25 Hardware
Chapter 7
177
Tracing and Logging Utilities
nettl
nettl
Use this command to create an X.25 trace file. The description below is
limited to the context of X.25 and assumes that nettl is already
operating on your system. For more information and examples for this
command, refer to your man pages.
NOTE
Before you can use the nettl command, your X.25 connection must be
operating (launched with the x25init command).
Syntax
nettl [-traceon kind [kind...]][-entity subsystem
[subsystem...]] [-file name] [-card dev name] [-size limit]
[-tracemax maxsize] [-m bytes]
nettl [-traceoff] [-entity subsystem [subsystem...]]
nettl [-status info]
Parameters
-traceon(-tn) Starts tracing on the specified subsystem(s). The
traceon argument must be accompanied by the
-entity and -card options. The kind (parameter)
mask must also be specified. All operations on specified
subsystems are recorded when there is a match to the
kind mask.
-tn kind
The kind parameter defines the masks (keywords with
associated mask values) used by the tracing facility
before recording messages.
You can use any of the following keywords and mask
values:
178
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
nettl
Table 7-2
Tracing Masks
keyword a
mask
hdrin
0x80000000
hdrout
0x40000000
pduin
0x20000000
pduout
0x10000000
a. Use hdrin or hdrout when you only want packet
header information displayed. Use pduin or
pduout when you want both the packet header
AND the data displayed.
You can specify masks separately or combine them into
a single number. For example, to enable tracing for
both pduin and pduout (all packets coming in and out
of the node) use the value 0x30000000.
-entity (-e)
Enter -e SX25L2 for level 2 tracing or -e SX25L3 for
level 3 tracing.
-file (-f)
Use this option to specify an output file for tracing
information (mandatory unless tracing has already
been started on another interface). Use the -traceon
option the first time you run nettl to specify an output
file.
The .TRCX suffix is automatically appended to the
output file where X starts at 0 and changes to 1 when
the file becomes full. Traces are always written to the
.TRC0 file.
NOTE
-card(-c)
Chapter 7
This option is required with the traceon command to
specify the X.25 subsystem interface (port) name. The
X.25 device is specified with x25_npx which identifies
the interface defined in your X.25 configuration file.
179
Tracing and Logging Utilities
nettl
The device file must be called x25_npx, where n
represents the mandatory card instance number (range
0 to 255). The card instance number is the number
reported by the ioscan -f command output (in the “I”
column). The (lower case) p is a place holder and x
represents the port number (1 or 2). p and x are
required only for systems with dual-port cards.
NOTE
-traceoff (-tf) This option turns tracing, specified with the -entity
option, off.
-status(-ss) trace Use this option to get a report on the
tracing/logging status.
Examples
To turn tracing on at Level 3 for device x25_1 (interface number 1) and
receive packet header AND packet data information:
nettl -tn pduin pduout -e SX25L3 -c x25_1 -f /tmp/tracex25
To turn tracing off at Level 3 for the device x25_1:
nettl -tf -e SX25L3 -c x25_1
180
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
netfmt
netfmt
Use this command to format the trace file that was created with nettl.
Refer to the man pages for x25trace for more information and examples
on this command
Syntax
netfmt [-c filter file [-p]] [-F] [-t records] [-N] [-v] [-l]
[-1[LT]] [[-f] file_name]
Parameters
-c filter file
Specifies the name of the file containing the filter
configuration commands. You create this file with your
text editor. If this option is omitted, filter configuration
commands are read from the $HOME/.nettr file if it
exists. Refer to “Creating a filter file” at the end of this
section for an explanation of filter file syntax.
-p
The parse input option lets you do a syntax check on
the configuration file specified with the -c option. If
the syntax is correct, netfmt terminates with no output
or warnings.
-F
The follow input file option causes netfmt to keep the
input file open when it reaches the end of the file. The
file is kept open and netfmt continues to read from it
as new data arrives. This option is useful for
troubleshooting because it lets you monitor events in
real time.
-t records
Lets you specify how many records you want to format
from the end of the file. This enables you to get the
most recent information. The maximum number of
records is 1000. By default, all records are formatted.
-f file_name
Chapter 7
181
Tracing and Logging Utilities
netfmt
Use this option to specify the binary file containing the
log or trace data. This is the name of the .TRC0 file that
was specified when nettl was run the first time with
the -traceon and -file options. By default, data is
read from standard input.
-v
Enables “verbose” mode, but also gives the full data
output for each packet header (see Examples section
below).
-N
Enables “Nice” formatting of output. Only packet
headers and the first few lines of the main data output
are displayed. Only the data length is provided in
addition to the packet header to make the output easier
to read (see Examples section below).
-1
(one) Enables “terse” (short) mode formatting of each
traced packet on a single line. Output lines will be
more than 80 characters long if the -L and/or -T
options are used (see Examples section below).
-l
(small letter “l”) Use this option when you send
formatted trace data to a line printer to turn off inverse
video highlighting of all trace fields.
Examples
To format the file /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 in “verbose” mode (packet
headers plus full data output for each header) with no filtering:
/etc/netfmt -v -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
The output will resemble the following:
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvLAN/X.25NETWORKINGvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
Timestamp : Wed Sep 28 1994 10:16:19.696042
Process ID
: 10
Subsystem
: SX25L3
User ID ( UID )
: 0
Trace Kind
: 0x10000000
Device ID
: 0
Path ID
: -1
Connection ID
: 0
Location
: 00123
Tx board: 0 at Wed Sep 28 1994 10:16:19.689181 Data Packet lci 64
Q-bit : 0
D-bit : 0
M-bit : 0
P(R) : 0
P(S) : 0
User Data = 20 bytes
182
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
netfmt
0: 00 00 00 01 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 ...aaaaaaaaaaaa
16: 61 61 61 61 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- aaaa..........
To format the file /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 in “Nice” mode (output is mainly
packet headers) with no filtering:
/etc/netfmt -N -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
The output will be:
Tx
board: 0 at Wed Sep 28 1994 10:16:19.689181 Data Packet lci 64
Q-bit : 0
D-bit : 0
M-bit : 0
P(R) : 0
P(S) : 0
User Data = 20 bytes
To format the file /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 in “terse” (short) mode, with no
filtering:
/etc/netfmt -1 -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
The output will be:
Tx
board: 0
at 10:16:19.689181 Data Packet lci 64
PR: 0 PS: 0
Creating a Filter File
You can use a filter file to filter information according to various criteria.
This enables you to apply system-level filtering to get information such
as a time stamp for a specific subsystem.
You create a filter file with your text editor by entering the filter
configuration commands in predetermined fields on the same line. The
filter commands are: type, “!” (not), and value.
The values specified in the filter file are compared against the input
values. When there is a match, the information is recorded. It is possible
to create specific filters for all configured subsystems.
Refer to the man pages for netfmt for a complete explanation of the
format file syntax.
Filter File Syntax
Each line (filter) in the system level filter file begins with the keyword
FORMATTER FILTER (for system level filters) or SX25L3 (for subsystem
level filters, level 3 only). Entries are not case-sensitive, and spaces and
tabs are ignored. The syntax is shown below:
FORMATTER FILTER [type][!] [value]
Chapter 7
183
Tracing and Logging Utilities
netfmt
or
SX25L3
[type][!] [value][value]...
The value field specifies the value for the given type. By default, this
value is on (applies as a filter), but can be set to off with the “!” (not)
prefix. The value used with SX25L3 can be a list of consecutive values, or
a range of values.
The permitted values for the types are given in the table below. See the
man pages for netfmt for examples.
Table 7-3
Filter File Options
System/subsystem
level
FORMATTER
FILTER
(system level)
SX25L3
(subsystem level)
184
Type
Value
kind
all, hdrin, hdrout, pduin
or pduout
time_from
12:54:22 (hr:min:sec)
7/25/94 (month/day/year)
time_through
12:54:22 (hr:min:sec)
7/25/94 (month/day/year)
subsystem
SX25L3 (level 3)
lci
decimal number between 0
and 4095 (this can be a list or
range of values)
packet
call, callc, clear,
clearc, data, rr, rnr,
interrupt, reset, resetc,
restart, restartc,
diagnostic, registration,
reject
family (refer to
Table 7-4 below)
connect, disconnect,
data, fctl, network
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
netfmt
The following table lists the packet types displayed for each value
combined with family.
Table 7-4
Filter File family Options
Packet types displayed
family
connect
disconnect
from DTE to
DCE
from DCE to DTE
CALL REQUEST
INCOMING CALL
CALL
ACCEPTED
CALL CONNECTED
CLEAR
REQUEST
CLEAR INDICATION
CLEAR CONFIRMATION
CLEAR
CONFIRMATIO
N
data
DATA
DATA
DTE
INTERRUPT
DCE INTERRUPT
DTE
INTERRUPT
CONFIRMATIO
N
fctl
DCE INTERRUPT
CONFIRMATION
DTE RR
DCE RR
DTE RNR
DCE RNR
RESET
REQUEST
RESET INDICATION
DCE RESET CONFIRMATION
DTE RESET
CONFIRMATIO
N
network
RESTART
REQUEST
DTE RESTART
CONFIRMATIO
N
Chapter 7
DIAGNOSTIC
RESTART INDICATION
DCE RESTART INDICATION
REGISTRATION
185
Tracing and Logging Utilities
netfmt
Filter File Examples
The following examples illustrate the use of filter configuration
commands within the filter file.
Starts formatting at 10:55:21 on 7/16/94, finishing 3 minutes later:
FORMATTER FILTER time_from 10:55:00 7/16/94
FORMATTER FILTER time_through 10:58:00 7/16/94
Filters data only on lci numbers 1, 3, 4, 5:
SX25L3 lci 1 3-5
SX25L3 packet data
After you have created the filter file, check its syntax with:
netfmt -p -c filter_file
and then run:
netfmt -v -c /tmp/filter -f /tmp/tracex25.TRC0 | more
186
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
strace
The strace command collects logging event messages from X.25 level 3
and X.25 level 2 STREAMS modules and writes them to standard
output. strace runs until terminated by the user. See the man pages for
strace(1) for a more detailed description.
Running strace with several sets of arguments can impair STREAMS
performance. Also, some messages may be lost if too many are logged at
one time.
HP recommends that you run strace as a background process with
output directed to a file.
NOTE
Only one process can run the STREAMS log driver at a time.
Syntax
strace [mod sub pri] ...
Parameters
mod
sub
Specifies the STREAMS module identifier for:
•
X.25 level 3, mod should have a value of 200
•
X.25 level 2, mod should have a value of 201
•
X.25 level 1, mod should have a value of 210
•
IP over X.25, mod should have a value of 208
•
BSD over X.25, mod should have a value of 2503
X.25 subnetwork identifier. Use all the first time to
get subnetwork identifiers (afterwards, you can enter
the identifier for a specific subnetwork/interface).
For single-port cards, the code for the sub option is the
decimal equivalent of 30 + n (both expressed in
hexadecimal), where n is the card instance number. For
example, for the interface defined by the device file
Chapter 7
187
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
x25_1, the sub would be 49 (48 + 1 = 49). See the table
below for more examples of the codes to be used for
specific interfaces.
Table 7-5
Single-port Subnet Interface Codes
Card
Calculation
(hexadecimal)
Sub code
(decimal)
First card = 0 (x25_0)
30 + 0 = 30
48
Second card = 1 (x25_1)
30 + 1 = 31
49
Third card = 2 (x25_2)
30 + 2 = 32
50
For dual-port cards, the sub code is the decimal
equivalent to the four-digit hexadecimal composite of
the place holder code (70) + the card instance number +
30. The example below shows the calculation for the
interface defined by the device file x25_0p1.
The sub code for dual-port cards will be the same for
both ports.
NOTE
Figure 7-2
x25_0p1
Device File
place holder
card instance number
7030
convert to decimal
Sub code = 282720
188
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
A simple way to think of dual-port sub codes is as the
decimal equivalent of 7030 + n (expressed in
hexadecimal), where n is the card instance number. For
example, for the device file x25_1p2, the sub in
hexadecimal would be
7030 + 1 = 7031
which, when converted to decimal gives you 28721.
Some sample calculations of the sub code for dual-port
cards are provided in the table below.
When specifying the name of device files in systems
with dual-port cards, you must use the form
NOTE
x25_npx
where n represents the card number (0 to 15, and the
first card must be zero), the letter p is a place holder
(for port), and x represents the interface (port) number
(1 or 2).
Table 7-6
Dual-port Subnet Interface Codes
Interface
Sub code
(decimal)
x25_0p1, x25_0p2
7030 + 0 = 7030
28720
x25_1p1, x25_1p2
7030 + 1 = 7031
28721
x25_2p1, x25_2p2
7030 + 2 = 7032
28725
x25_5p1, x25_5p2
7030 + 5 = 7035
28725
pri
Chapter 7
Calculation
(hexadecimal)
Specifies the logging priority level. Collects messages
from the level equal to or less than the value given by
pri. Values 1 to 6 are allowed for X.25 level 3, 1 to 4 for
level 2, and 1 to 5 for IP over X.25.
189
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
The value all can be used for any argument in the
command line to indicate that there are no restrictions
for that argument.
Table 7-7
Output Format
X.25 level 3
(mod=200)
X.25 level 2
(mod=201)
IP over X.25
(mod=208)
pria1
Call/Call Conf (CALL In/Out, CAA)
pri 2
Clear/Clear Conf (CLR In/Out, CLC)
pri 3
Reset/Reset Conf (RST In/Out, RSC: Reset
Conf)
pri 4
Restart/Restart Conf (REST In/Out, RESTC)
pri 5
Interrupt/Int Conf (INT In/Out, INTC)
pri 6
Data (DATA In/Out)
pri 1
Link Up/Down
pri 2
Link reset events (LINK Rst)
pri 3
Frame Reject, Reject (FRMR In/Out, REJ
In/Out)
pri 4
Busy conditions (LINK Bsy)
pri 0
IP over X.25 fatal error (call your HP
representative)
pri 1
IP over X.25 error (check configuration or
addresses)
pri 2
IP over X.25 warning (unexpected event)
pri 3
IP over X.25 info (IP over X.25 Up/Down)
pri 4
IP over X.25 trace (internal procedures
tracing)
pri 5
IP over X.25 Data (datagram tracing)
a. pri = Logging priority level
Priorities 4 and 5 for IP over X.25 can only be used if IP
over X.25 has been started with the ifconfig debug
option set
190
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
The following table describes the parameters displayed
for the various packet types at level 3.
Table 7-8
Packet Type
Parameters Displayed
CALL In/Out
lci number, gfi number
CAA
lci number, gfi number
CLR In/Out
lci number, cause/diagnostic
CLC
lci number
RST In/Out
lci number, cause/diagnostic
RSC:Reset Conf
lci number
REST In/Out
cause/diagnostic
RESTC
no parameter displayed
INT In/Out
lci number
INTC
lci number
DATA
lci number, N(R)/N(S)
The following table describes the parameters displayed
for the various frame types at level 2.
Table 7-9
Frame Type
Chapter 7
Parameters Displayed
LINK Up
No parameter displayed
LINK Dwn
“Local” means DISC frame sent.
“Remote” means DISC frame
received.
LINK Rst
“Local” means SABM/UA
exchanged, local initiated.
“Remote” means SABM/UA
exchanged, remote initiated.
FRMR In
No parameter displayed
191
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
Table 7-9
Table 7-10
(Continued)
FRMR Out
“Rsn 1” means the control field
received was not defined or not
implemented. “Rsn 3” means the
control field received was invalid.
“Rsn 4” means the information
field received was too long. “Rsn
8” means the control field
received contained an invalid
variable.
REJ In/Out (level 2)
“N(XX)” is an internal variable of
no importance or meaning.
LINK Bsy (level 2)
“Local” means that the RNR has
been sent. “Remote” means that
the RNR has been received.
Output Format
X.25 level 1
(mod=210)
pria0
Baud control (tx and rx counter)
pri 0
Baud control (threshold exceeded)
pri 0
Baud control (number of times threshold
exceeded)
a. pri = Logging priority level
Examples of the strace Command
To display all event messages from X.25 level 3 for all interfaces, use:
strace 200 all all
To display all event messages from X.25 level 3 for interface 0, use:
strace 200 48 all
To display event messages from X.25 level 3 with priority levels 1 to 3,
and from X.25 level 2 with priority levels 1 and 2, use:
strace 200 all 3 201 all 2
192
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
Examples of strace Output
The command:
strace 200 48 all
gives the following output:
324112 14:59:16 33683766 1 ... 200 48 CALL Out:‘30’ lci 400 gfi 1
324115 14:59:16 33683776 1 ... 200 48 CAA
In:‘30’ lci 400 gfi 1
324116 14:59:16 33683776 6 ... 200 48 DATA Out:‘30’ lci 400 ns/nr 0000
324119 14:59:16 33683778 6 ... 200 48 DATA In:‘30’ lci 400 ns/nr 0001
324124 14:59:16 33683781 2 ... 200 48 CLR
Out:‘30’ lci 400 C/D 00f2
324127 14:59:16 33683782 2 ... 200 48 CLC
In:‘30’ lci 400
Column labels to help you interpret the output are shown in the
following table:
Table 7-11
record
num
time
tics
324112
14:59:16
33683766
pri
ind
mod
sub
data
1
...
200
48
CALL
Out
The command:
strace 200 49 all
gives the following output:
324191 14:59:59 33688076 1 ... 200 49 CALL
In:‘31’ lci 400 gfi 1
324192 14:59:59 33688086 1 ... 200 49 CAA
Out:‘31’ lci 400 gfi 1
324195 14:59:59 33688087 6 ... 200 49 DATA
In:‘31’ lci 400 ns/nr 0000
324196 14:59:59 33688087 6 ... 200 49 DATA Out:‘31’ lci 400 ns/nr 0001
Chapter 7
193
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strace
324203 14:59:59 33688091 2 ... 200 49 CLR
In: ‘31’ lci 400 C/D 00f2
324204 14:59:59 33688091 2 ... 200 49 CLC
Out: ‘31’ lci 400
The command:
strace 201 48 all
gives the following output:
324790 15:06:17 33725841 1 ... 201 48 LINK Up : ‘30’
The command:
strace 201 49 all
gives the following output:
324893 15:07:18 33731984 1 ... 201 49 LINK Dwn: ‘31’ [Remote]
NOTE
194
The last example indicates a remote disconnection. ‘30’ and ‘31’ in the
examples above are the hexadecimal code for subnetworks 48 and 49
(decimal) respectively.
Chapter 7
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strerr
strerr
Receives error messages from the STREAMS log driver.
The strerr daemon receives error messages from the STREAMS log
driver (see the man pages for strlog(7)). By default, additions to the
STREAMS error log files (error.dd-mm) are in the STREAMS error log
directory (/usr/adm/streams).
When first called, strerr creates the log file error.mm-dd. This is a
daily log file where mm indicates the month and dd indicates the day of
the logged messages. strerr then appends error messages to the log file
as they are received from the STREAMS log driver.
NOTE
strerr should always be used as a background process as it does not
return the prompt to the user (the only way to stop it is to kill the
process).
Refer to the man pages for strerr(1) for a detailed description of the
output format.
Syntax
strerr [-a sys_admin_mail_name] [-d log_directory]
Parameters
-a sys_admin _mail_name
Specifies the name of the user who will receive error
message by electronic mail.
-d log_directory
Specifies the directory that will contain the error log
file. The default is /usr/adm/streams.
Chapter 7
195
Tracing and Logging Utilities
strerr
196
Chapter 7
8
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
197
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
This section describes troubleshooting procedures for checking your X.25
link up to X.25 level 3. It also provides information on troubleshooting IP
over X.25, as well as procedures for diagnosing switching problems. To
use these procedures you should be familiar with the following
commands:
Table 8-1
Troubleshooting Commands
Command
198
Purpose
Refer to...
x25init
Initializes X.25 interface and
software. Superuser only.
man pages and
examples at the end of
Appendix B, X.25
Configuration Files and
Examples,
x25stop
Safely shuts down the
interface. Superuser only.
man pages
x25stat
Reports on X.25 status. Some
options are for superuser
only.
man pages and
Chapter 5, Diagnostic
Utilities, for examples
x25check
x25server
Tests connectivity up to X.25
Level 3 between local and
remote nodes.
man pages and
Chapter 5, Diagnostic
Utilities, for examples
ping
Tests IP to IP connectivity.
man pages
x25ping
Checks that X.25 interface
can reach the remote server.
man pages
nettl
Traces and logs X.25 at X.25
packet and LAP B levels
man pages and
Chapter 7, Tracing and
Logging Utilities, for
examples
netfmt
Formats trace information
collected by nettl.
man pages and
Chapter 7, Tracing and
Logging Utilities, for
examples
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Table 8-1
Troubleshooting Commands (Continued)
strace
Logs X.25 event messages.
man pages and
Chapter 7, Tracing and
Logging Utilities,
strerr
Receives error messages
from the Streams log driver.
man pages
netstat
Displays configured IP
interfaces
man pages
ifconfig
Displays IP interface status
man pages
If you still have problems after using the troubleshooting procedures in
this section, ask the System Administrator of the remote host to check
the X.25 link using the same procedures.
If you have difficulties with high-level network software, refer to the
appropriate troubleshooting manual for the particular software product.
This section includes the following troubleshooting flowcharts:
•
Hardware check
•
X.25 configuration check
•
IP over X.25 check
This section also includes information on recovering from a power
failure.
Troubleshooting Flowcharts and Procedures
The following pages provide flowcharts and procedures for
troubleshooting common problems. Begin with Flowchart 1. If you are
running IP over X.25, you should also refer to flowchart 5.
Troubleshooting procedures begin with the x25stat command. If
x25stat -d [devices] -f returns a level 2 link state other than
“normal,” there is a problem.
Chapter 8
199
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Figure 8-1
Flowchart 1
Start
Run x25stat
X.25 not initialized
Level 2 down
Statistics dispayed
Go to Flowchart 2
Go to Flowchart 3
Go to Flowchart 4
Flowchart 2 – Procedures and Notes
Use these procedures to verify that your X.25 link is correctly initialized.
Read the following notes before carrying out the initialization check
procedures in Flowchart 2.
Note 2-1 – x25stat
Level 2 is down if x25stat -d [device] -f returns a level 2 link state
other than “normal.”
Note 2-2 – eisa_config
Sometimes x25init does not recognize the dual-port EISA interface
(J2815A) after a first-time installation. When you reboot your system
after installing the dual-port EISA interface, you may receive a message
similar to:
Device /dev/x25_0p1 is not configured in the kernel
200
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
If this problem occurs, you can work around it by running the
eisa_config utility in interactive mode as shown below.
Step 1. At the EISA prompt, type:
add !HWP19A0.CGF <slot number>
where <slot number> is the number of the EISA slot in which the
interface card is installed.
Step 2. Then type:
save
quit
Step 3. Reboot your system.
Chapter 8
201
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Figure 8-2
Flowchart 2 – Initialization Check
Use SMH to configure and enable X.25 interfaces
SMH
successful?
No
Contact HP
(see Note 2-2)
No
Go to Flowchart 3
to check your
hardware
Yes
Run X25stat
(see Note 2-1)
Level 2 link
state “Normal?”
Yes
Go to Flowchart 4
and perform
loopback test
202
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Flowchart 3 – Procedures and Notes
Use these procedures to verify that your hardware is properly connected
and operating correctly. Read the following notes before running the
hardware check procedures in Flowchart 3.
Note 3-1 – Hardware Check
Check the following:
Figure 8-3
•
Interface cable
•
Modem
•
Network configuration
•
Status light (for single port cards only)
Flowchart 3 – Hardware Check
Check hardware as described in Note 3-1
Hardware
OK?
No
Fix hardware
then go to
Flowchart 1 and
run x25stat
Yes
Contact HP
Chapter 8
203
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Flowchart 4 – Procedures and Notes
This flowchart describes how to run a loopback test using x25check on
the local node. This checks that your X.25 link to the network or X.25
switch is working correctly.
Note 4-1 – x25check
You do a loopback test using the x25server and x25check commands.
The x25server process is only used to accept and echo back an X.25
packet coming from an x25check process. To run the loopback test, you
need:
•
2 virtual circuits (either 1 one-way inbound and 1 one-way outbound,
or 2 two-way),
•
if you are connected to a private X.25 switch (rather than connected
directly to a network), then the switch must be configured to return a
call packet.
Note 4-2 – Exit
Your local X.25 configuration is correct. You can use x25check to verify
connections to the remote host only if the remote host is running and:
•
has X.25 initialized,
•
is running x25server,
•
has an X.25 configuration that is compatible with the local host’s
configuration.
If you still experience problems, contact the System Administrator at the
remote host and ask them to check their X.25 configuration.
204
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Figure 8-4
Flowchart 4 – X.25 Configuration Check
Start x25server
Run x25check to
perform loopback test
(See Note 4-1)
x25check successful?
No
Check your
configuration parameters
using information
contained in error
messages
Yes
Local configuration OK?
Your local X.25
configuration is correct
(See Note 4-2)
No
Fix local
configuration and
go to Flowchart 1
Yes
Go to
Flowchart 2
to run SMH
Flowchart 5 – Procedures and Notes
Use these procedures to verify your IP addressing and remote host
connection.
Chapter 8
205
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
Note 5-1 – ping
Use ping on your own IP over X.25 address, for example:
ping 195.25.0.13
Do not use aliases (for example, as defined in/etc/hosts), since this
may introduce other errors.
Use the Break key or Ctrl-C to terminate ping if you have not set the
number of packets with the -n option.
Note 5-2 – Checking your IP over X.25 Configuration
If ping returns errors such as “100% packet loss,” or “Network
Unreachable,” use x25stat -a to check your address configuration. The
most likely causes of problems are:
•
No IP address was specified when X.25 was initialized (either in the
X.25 configuration file or as a command line option to the x25init
command).
•
IP to X.121 address mapping has not been initialized (using the -a
option with the x25init command).
•
The IP address is incorrect.
•
The mapping of your IP address to your X.121 address is incorrect.
Check the IP to X.121 map table file (the default file is
/etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map).
If no IP communication is possible (ping to a local IP address fails) and
netstat -a shows no entries despite the fact that x25init reported a
successful IP mapping, the likely cause is:
•
the device=x25_card_device parameter has not been added to the
/etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map file. See the section, “IP-to-X.121
Address Mapping Table” in this chapter.
You can also use the netstat command with the -r option to get
information about IP addresses associated with a particular interface.
Note 5-3 – Exit
Your local IP over X.25 configuration is correct. You can use ping to
verify connections if the remote host:
•
206
is operational,
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Your X.25 Link
•
has X.25 initialized,
•
is compatible with IP and ICMP protocols,
•
and has an entry for your node in its map table (can map your IP
address to your X.121 address).
If you still experience problems, ask the remote host System
Administrator to check the IP over X.25 configuration on the remote side
of the connection.
Figure 8-5
Flowchart 5 – IP Over X.25 Check
Start
Use ping
(See Note 5-1)
0% packet loss
No
Check your IP over X.25
configuration and make
any necessary
corrections
(See Note 5-2)
Yes
Exit
Chapter 8
207
Troubleshooting
Recovering From a Power Failure
Recovering From a Power Failure
For Systems With a Backup Power Supply
If your site is equipped with a backup power supply, system memory will
be preserved in the event of power failure. However, because your X.25
hardware does not have backup capability, any on-board RAM-based
memory is lost.
Recovery from a power failure is automatic when the /etc/powerfail
script is invoked by /etc/inittab. Otherwise SMH (or x25init) must
be used to manually re-initialize the interface after a power failure.
The recovery mechanism informs the X.25 driver of the power failure.
The X.25 driver then “marks” the interface as “down” and a
DISCONNECT INDICATE is received on all open SVCs.
For Systems With No Backup Power Supply
If your system does not possess the battery backup option, both system
memory and interface card memory are lost. You must reboot your
system.
208
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Reporting Problems
Reporting Problems
If you have a service contract with HP, ask your service representative to
document the problem as a Service Request (SR).
Include the following information where applicable:
NOTE
Chapter 8
•
A detailed description of the problem. Describe the events leading up
to the problem and the symptoms of the problem. Include
information on HP-UX commands, communication subsystem
commands, job streams, result codes, and error messages (the exact
wording).
•
A record of the output from x25 stat -c or a copy of the
configuration file for each node. Record the output from netstat.
•
A printout of the existing configuration files.
•
A copy of the ipmap file.
•
A copy of the PSI upload file.
•
The version, update, and fix information for all software. From this
information HP can determine if the problem is already known and if
the correct software is installed at your site.
•
Use the what command to check your X.25 version.
Your host node should be running HP-UX Release 10.0 or later. To check
the version of your kernel, execute uname -r.
•
Any network log files produced using the netfmt command (see
Chapter 7, Tracing and Logging Utilities, for details of netfmt), and
formatted copies of any X.25 trace files that were active when the
problem occurred.
•
A short description of your application and how it should work.
•
In the event of a system failure, take a full memory dump. Use
the HP-UX utility /etc/savecore to save a core dump. Refer
Debugging Streams/UX Modules and Drivers - Streams/UX for the
HP 9000 Reference Manual for details.
209
Troubleshooting
Reporting Problems
•
For PAD Problems:
— Copies of the x29hosts and x3config files.
— A copy of the output from the ls -l /dev/x29 command if you
are running x29printd or x29uucpd.
— Identify which PAD utility is encountering the error (PAD
services, PAD emulation, Remote PAD printer, or UUCP).
Include all files relative to that service (for example, .login,
profile ID, /usr/spool/lp/*, or /usr/lib/uucp/*).
— Include log files for the PAD services.
— Provide a detailed description of the problem.
For more information about files related to PAD services see Chapter 6,
“PAD Services.”
NOTE
210
If you do not have a service contract with HP, you can still follow the
procedure described above, but you will be billed accordingly for time and
materials.
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Back-to-back Configuration on the Same Host
Back-to-back Configuration on the Same Host
Systems with multiple X.25 interfaces can use back-to-back
configurations to perform diagnostics. If you suspect that a switch might
be the source of your connection problem, you can set up a back-to-back
configuration to test the circuit without the PAD switch.
To set up a back-to-back connection on a single host, you connect one
card to another card on the same host through a modem eliminator, as
shown below. The modem eliminator provides the necessary clocking for
the DCE. The most common modem eliminators are RS-232 and V.35.
Figure 8-6
Card 2
Card 1
HOST
Modem
Eliminator
In order for two cards (on the same host) to communicate, one card must
be configured as the DTE and the other card as DCE.
To set up a card as DCE, use the x25init command and enter DCE_80,
DCE_84 or DCE_88 (according to the standard you are using) in the
networktype parameter.
You must also make sure that the two cards are using compatible level 2
parameters.
Once both cards are initialized, you can run x25check and x25server to
verify the connections. If x25check completes successfully in this setup
but does not complete successfully with the switch in place, the switch is
incorrectly configured. Check with your network provider for correct
switch configuration.
Chapter 8
211
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
Configuration and Troubleshooting
Commands
This section provides a brief summary of X.25 commands and indicates
where further information can be found. Examples of x25init and the
syntax for IP over X.25 mapping are provided at the end of the section.
Command Summary
NOTE
You can use the x25message utility to get an explanation of an error
message. Enter the command at the HP-UX prompt followed by the text
of the message, and the system will display an explanation of the cause
along with recommendations for corrective action.
x25init
Initializes your X.25 link (requires Superuser
privileges). See your man pages and the examples later
in this section.
x25stop
Gracefully shuts down an X.25 link (requires
Superuser privileges). See your man pages.
x25check and x25server
Together, these commands can be used to test
connectivity between two nodes up to the X.25 access
level (level 3). See your man pages and the examples in
Chapter 5, “Diagnostic Utilities.”
x25stat
Displays X.25 link status, configuration information,
and virtual circuit statistics. See your man pages and
the examples in Chapter 5, “Diagnostic Utilities.” Some
options require Superuser privileges.
x25mibstat
212
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
Utility with programmatic interface that allows users
to get additional X.25 statistics.
x25ping
Checks if a remote host can be reached via the X.25
interface. See your man pages.
ping
Tests connectivity to a remote host up to the Internet
Protocol (IP) level (level 3). See your man pages.
route
Used to add a host or network to the network routing
table. See your man pages.
proxy
The Probe proxy table is the NS equivalent of the
Internet/Berkeley Services /etc/hosts file. See your
man pages.
netstat
Displays network statistics and information about
network connections. See your man pages.
x25trace
Protocol level tracing facility. See your man pages.
x25upload
Dumps the interface card memory into a file. See your
man pages.
nettl
Creates a user-defined log file containing frame and
packet trace information from X.25 packet and LAP-B
levels. See your man pages for x25trace and the
examples in Chapter 7, “Tracing and Logging Utilities.”
netfmt
Formats trace information contained in the
user-defined log file that was generated with the nettl
command. See your man pages for x25trace and the
examples in Chapter 7, “Tracing and Logging Utilities.”
Chapter 8
213
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
strace
Collects and writes X.25 logging event message. See
your man pages and the examples in Chapter 7,
“Tracing and Logging Utilities.”
strerr
Receives error messages from the STREAMS log driver.
See your man pages and the examples in Chapter 7,
“Tracing and Logging Utilities.”
ifconfig
Configures network interface parameters. See your
man pages.
Examples of x25init
The following example shows a valid usr/sbin/x25init command
(provided that the programmatic access name has been specified in the
configuration file x25config_0):
x25init -c x25config_0 4085551111 -a
ip_to_x121_map
Alternatively, the IP-to-X.121 map table can be specified in a separate
x25init command:
x25init -c x25config_0 4085551111
x25init -a ip_to_x121_map
NOTE
If x25init fails, you can look at the /usr/adm/x25/x25init.log log file
for troubleshooting information.
IP-to-X.121 Address Mapping Table
The IP-to-X.121 address mapping table is used to enable IP to route
through X.25 networks by mapping a host's IP address to its X.121
address. The table is used for both inbound and outbound packets.
The IP-to-X.121 address mapping table is a kernel table created from an
ASCII file containing one entry per line. It is created using x25init with
the -a option. Each line describes the destination X.121 address used to
214
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
reach a host with a particular IP address. Reverse mapping reverses the
order of translation. The default file name and directory for the mapping
table is /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map.
When the packet is outbound, the IP address is mapped to the X.121
address that is associated with it in the IP map file. When the packet is
inbound, the X.121 address is mapped to the IP address of the same
destination host. This is called “reverse mapping.” The table is not used
when IP packets are transmitted to X.25 over DDN. In this case, the
DDN-specific mapping algorithm is used instead. See DDN X.25 Host
Interface Specification (BBN83).
There must be an entry in the mapping table for each host you want to
communicate with over a direct-connect X.25 network. If the host is
connected through a gateway, you only need an entry for the gateway
(containing the IP and X.121 addresses of the gateway).
NOTE
If the destination host is only reachable through a gateway, you must
have a route to that host (a host or a net route).
The IP address in the table must belong to the same IP subnet as a
configured card in your system, and this card must be already started
when you initialize IP routing with the command:
/usr/sbin/x25init -a /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map
If the IP address does not correspond to a configured card, the X.25
product does not know which interface to use to send packets. Therefore,
you must place this information in your /etc/x25/ip_to_x121_map file
by adding the x25_card_device parameter as shown in the syntax
example below. This is a manual procedure that cannot be done in
SMH.
Syntax for SVCs
IP_address X.121_address [{+URC|-URC}][+ARC|-ARC}] device=x25_card_device,
packet_size, window_size [CUG=n]
Syntax for PVCs
IP_address
Chapter 8
X.121_address pvc=n name=prog_access_name
215
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
NOTE
If you do not include the packet_size and window_size values, and the
x25_card_device is the last field, the default values will be applied to
the packet_size and window_size fields.
Example
15.128.174.04 12345 -URC -ARC
30.0.0.2 34567 -URC -ARC device=x25_0,256,7
In this example, a card has been configured with a device equal to x25_0,
a packet size of 256, and a window size of 7.
You can then use the gated or route add command to send datagrams
to the IP address, 30.0.0.2, routed through your X.25 network to the
address, 34567. These packets will be sent out through the X.25 card
that corresponds to the deveice x.25_0.
File Mapping Parameters
IP_address
Specifies a valid IP address in standard dot notation
form:
n.n.n.n
where n is a number from 0 to 255 inclusive.
X.121_address Specifies the corresponding X.121 address for the host
with the above IP address.
pvc=n
Specifies which permanent virtual circuit should be
used for the X.121 destination. The value pvc= is a
keyword set to n, which is an integer variable
indicating the lci of the permanent virtual circuit. This
keyword/variable pair is specified only when a
permanent virtual circuit is to be used for IP access.
When it is not specified, the default value of a two-way
SVC is assumed.
The following information is provided for reference
only.
216
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
Because pvc describes a permanent circuit for a
particular interface, that interface must have been
initialized prior to the initialization of the address map
table. If the interface or the specified PVC does not
exist, an error is reported.
prog_access
_name
Specifies the card's programmatic access name.
For Series 712 workstations this is always
name=interface0.
NOTE
+URC
Specifies that outbound calls to this IP address will
Use Reverse Charging (URC).
-URC
(Default) Specifies that outbound calls to this IP
address will not Use Reverse Charging (URC).)
+ARC
Specifies that inbound calls to this IP address will
Accept Reverse Charging (ARC).
-ARC
(Default) Specifies that inbound calls to this IP address
will not Accept Reverse Charging (ARC).
x25_card_device A device configured for one of your existing X.25
cards. This information is used by the IP_to_X25
software to identify the interface port through which
the outbound packets will be sent.
Chapter 8
CUG=n
Specifies the Closed User Group index number used for
placing calls to this IP address. The index number is a
two- or four-digit number. Two digits corresponds to
the basic format, and four digits corresponds to the
extended format of the CUG selection facility.
#
You can put comments in your IP mapping table by
including the # character at the beginning of the line.
Note that you cannot add comments after a table entry.
217
Troubleshooting
Configuration and Troubleshooting Commands
NOTE
218
For non-DDN configured interfaces, all remote hosts must have entries
in the IP-to-X.121 address map table. Remote hosts not on your X.25
network (that is, on the other side of gateways) do not need to have map
table entries. For more information, refer to the routing description in
this section.
Chapter 8
A
Appendix A
Using Non-English Subscription
Forms
219
Using Non-English Subscription Forms
Subscription Form Translations
Subscription Form Translations
This appendix lists the English (SMH dialog field) equivalents for terms
that appear on your French, Italian, German or Spanish subscription
form. Use this information to locate the English SMH dialog field
equivalents of these terms. Terms are listed in order of appearance.
Online help (using the Help button) is available for each field.
Table A-1
French TRANSPAC Subscription Form
English on SMH dialogs
220
French on subscription form
X.25 Address
No Transpac
Network Carrier Type
TRANSPAC
Permanent - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVP
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVC Arrivée
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVC Mixte
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Nombre V.L. CVC Départ
Fast Accept Selected
Acceptation sélection rapide
Flow Control Negotiation
Nég. taille Paquet et Fenêtre
Reverse Charge Accepted
Acceptation, PVC (TAD)
Default Packet Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC Flow
Control
Longueur paquet
Default Window Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC Flow
Control
Taille de la fenêtre
Packet Size - Permanent VC Flow
Control
Longueur paquet
Switched VC Default - Inbound &
Outbound
Choix classe de débit
Switched VC Negotiated
Négociation classes de débit
Appendix A
Using Non-English Subscription Forms
Subscription Form Translations
Table A-1
Table A-2
French TRANSPAC Subscription Form (Continued)
k - Level 2 Window Size (frames)
Fenêtre
T1 - Retransmission Timer (ms)
Temporisateur
Using Your ITAPAC (Italian) Subscription Form
English on SMH dialogs
Appendix A
Italian on subscription form
X.25 Address
Indirizzo X.25
Network Carrier Type
ITAPAC
Permanent - Quantity
Circuiti permanenti-numero
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Circuiti commutati
unidirectionali in entrata numero
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Circuiti commutati bidiretionali
in entrata - numero
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Circuiti commutati
unidirectionali in uscita- numero
Fast Accept Selected
Selectione rapida
Flow Control Negotiation
Negoziazione dei parametri di
controllo di flusso
Reverse Charge Accepted
Accettazione delle tassa zione al
chiamato
Default Packet Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC Flow
Control
Dimensione di default del
pacchetto - uscente, controllo di
flusso VC commutato
Default Window Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC Flow
Control
Dimensione di default della
finestra - uscente, controllo di
flusso VC commutato
Packet Size - Permanent VC Flow
Control
Dimensione del pacchetto controllo di flusso VC permanente
221
Using Non-English Subscription Forms
Subscription Form Translations
Table A-2
Table A-3
Using Your ITAPAC (Italian) Subscription Form (Continued)
Switched VC Default - Inbound &
Outbound (Modify Throughput
Class Setting)
Classe di throughput di default in
entrata & in uscita
Switched VC Negotiated (Modify
Throughput Class Setting)
Classe di throughput negocia
k - Level 2 Window Size (frames)
k - Dimensione di finestra a
livello 2
T1 - Retransmission Timer (ms)
T1 - Timer di ritramissione (ms).
Using your DATEX-P (German) Subscription Form
English on SMH dialogs
Table A-4
X.25 Address
Rufnummer des Wählanschlusses
Network Carrier Type
DATEX-P
Permanent - Quantity
Feste virtuelle Verbindungen
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Nur ankommende
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Nur abgehend
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Abgehend und ankommend
Reverse Charge Accepted
Möglichkeit der
Verbindungsgebühreüber nahme
bei ankommenden gewählten Ruf
Default Window Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC
FlowControl
Fenstergrösse w Senden
Fenstergrösse w Empfangen
Using your IBERPAC (Spanish) Subscription Form
English on SMH dialogs
222
German on subscription form
Spanish on subscription form
X.25 Address
NRI (Número Red IBERPAC)
Network Carrier Type
Tipo de Red (IBERPAC)
Appendix A
Using Non-English Subscription Forms
Subscription Form Translations
Table A-4
Appendix A
Using your IBERPAC (Spanish) Subscription Form (Continued)
Permanent - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Permanentes cantidad
Switched (inbound) - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Unidireccionales
Entrante - cantidads
Switched (two-way) - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Bidireccionales cantidad
Switched (outbound) - Quantity
Canales Lógicos Unidireccionales
Salientes - cantidad
Fast Accept Selected
Selección Rápida
Flow Control Negotiation
Negociación del Control de Flujo
Reverse Charge Accepted
Cobro Revertido
Default Packet Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC Flow
Control
Tamaño de Paquete por defecto entrante y saliente, control de
flujo en CV conmutados
Default Window Size - Inbound &
Outbound, Switched VC Flow
Control
Tamaño de Ventana por defecto entrante y saliente, control de
flujo en CV conmutados
Packet Size - Permanent VC Flow
Control
Tamaño de Paquete - control de
flujo en CV permanentes
Switched VC Default - Inbound &
Outbound (Modify Throughput
Class Setting)
CV conmutados por defecto entrantes y salientes
(Negociación de la Clase de
Caudal)
Switched VC Negotiated (Modify
Throughput Class Setting)
Clase negociada en CV
conmutado (Negociación de la
Clase de Caudal)
k - Level 2 Window Size (frames)
k - Tamaño de Ventana en Nivel 2
(tramas)
T1 - Retransmission Timer (ms)
T1 - Temporizador de
Retransmisión (ms)
223
Using Non-English Subscription Forms
Subscription Form Translations
224
Appendix A
B
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and
Examples
225
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
X.25 Configuration Files
X.25 Configuration Files
This section lists X.25 configuration and addressing files.
Table B-1
Table B-2
226
/etc/x25 directory
x25config_0
ASCII file containing X.25 parameters. This file
can be used by the x25init command when
initializing the card. It is created automatically if
you configure X.25 using SMH. To configure X.25
manually, copy and edit either x25init_def or
x25init_smpl.
x25init_def
Contains default X.25 configuration parameters
and example configuration parameters for
parameters that have no default. The listing for
this file is shown later in this chapter. This file is
read-only.
x25init_smpl
Contains example X.25 configuration parameters.
The listing for this file is shown later in this
chapter. This file is read-only.
ip_to_x121_map
Mapping table between X.25 and IP addresses.
See “Configuration and Troubleshooting
Commands” in Chapter 8, Troubleshooting, for
more information on this file.
x25_networks
Contains information describing several
canonical network types. The listing for this file
is shown later in this chapter. This file is
read-only.
/etc directory
hosts
Associates Internet addresses with official host
names and aliases. See the man page for hosts.
hosts.equiv
(optional)
Security file which authorizes remote hosts and
users on local host. See the man page for
hosts.equiv.
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
X.25 Configuration Files
Table B-2
/etc directory (Continued)
networks
Table B-3
/var/x25/log/x25server directory
x25server.log
Table B-4
Appendix B
Log file of output from x25server process.
/var/x25/log directory
x25init.log
Table B-5
Contains information regarding known networks.
Log file of output from x25init command.
Home directory
.rhosts
(optional)
Security file which authorizes remote hosts and
users on local host. See the man page for
hosts.equiv.
.netrc
(optional)
Contains login and initialization information
used by the ftp auto-login process. See the man
page for netrc.
227
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
Example Files
This section provides example file listings for of the x25init_def,
x_25init_smpl, x3config, x29hosts, and x25_networks files.
The x25init_def File
Table B-6
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c x25init_def
# This sample X.25 configuration contains default values
# Mandatory parameter - X.121 address
# X.121 4085551202
# Typically the address on the packet is identical to X.121
# packet address except for some networks like TransPac which
# require that we put null address on the packet.
# X.121_packet ’’
# use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
# Mandatory parameter - interface name for Level 3 access
# name interface0
# Mandatory parameter - device to initialize
# device x25_0p1
# Level 2 Parameters
t1 3000
# frame retransmission timeout; 3 seconds
t3 60000
# Level 2 idle timer; 60 seconds
#
#
#
#
The
and
max
128
frame size varies depending on flow-control negotiation
whether you subscribe for fast-select feature or not.
Level 2 transmission size (octets) [n1/8] for packet size
with fast select disabled is 149.
framesize 149
n2 20
k 7
228
# n1/8 octets
# number of retransmissions allowed
# Level 2 window
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
Table B-6
(Continued)
# Level 3 Parameters
#
#
#
#
Mandatory Parameters - virtual circuit parameters
logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
At least one lci type (PVC, incoming, two-way or outgoing SVC)
needs to be configured.
#lci
#lci
#lci
#lci
1 pvc 5
255 insvc 5
2048 svc 6
3072 outsvc 6
# 5 permanent VCs starting at LCI 1
# 5 one-way incoming SVCs starting at LCI
255
# 6 two-way switched SVCs starting at LCI
2048
# 6 one-way outgoing SVCs starting at LCI
3072
networktype DTE_84
fast_select disabled
reverse_charge
disabled
# CCITT 1984, DTE (see
/etc/x25/x25_networks)
# disallow incoming calls with call user
data
# disallow incoming calls requesting
reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 128
def_outpacketsize 128
def_inwindow 2
def_outwindow 2
# def_inthruputclass
19200
# def_outthruputclass
19200
#
#
#
#
#
#
flowcontrol off
neg_inpacketsize 128
neg_outpacketsize 128
neg_inwindow 2
neg_outwindow 2
# flow control negotiation not allowed
# offered pkt size if using flow control
negotiation
# offered pkt size if using flow control
negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow control
negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow control
negotiation
default
default
default
default
default
default
packetsize
packetsize
window size
window size
thruput class
thruput class
thruputclass off
Appendix B
229
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
Table B-6
(Continued)
# neg_inthruputclass
19200
# neg_outthruputclass
19200
pvc_inpacketsize 128
pvc_outpacketsize 128
pvc_inwindow 2
pvc_outwindow 2
#
#
#
#
offered thruput class if using thruput
class negotiation
offered thruput class if using thruput
class negotiation
#
#
#
#
packetsize for PVCs
packetsize for PVCs
window size for PVCs
window size for PVCs
# These set of parameters are specified only if you wish to run
IP over X.25.
# IP Related Parameters
# IP 15.4.64.120
255.255.248.0
# mtu 2048
# mtu 1007
hold 300
idle 600
230
# IP address and subnet mask
# max transmission unit 2048 octets for
standard
# max transmission unit 1007 octets for
DDN
# 5 minute hold timer
# 10 minute idle timer#
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
The x25init_smpl File
Table B-7
#
# Likely runstring: x25init -c x25init_smpl
X.121 4085551202
X.121_packet ’’
name interface0
device x25_0p1
#
#
#
#
#
X.121 address
use a null (i.e. length 0) packet
address (TransPac addressing)
interface name for Level 3 access
device to initialize
# Level 2 Parameters
t1 3000
t3 12000
framesize 263
n2 3
k 7
# frame retransmission timeout; 3
seconds
# Level 2 idle timer; 12 seconds
# max Level 2 transmission size
(octets) [n1/8]
# number of retransmissions allowed
# Level 2 window
# Level 3 Parameters
# virtual circuit parameters
# logical channel id, start num [1-4095], type, how many
Appendix B
lci 1 pvc 5
lci 255 insvc 5
lci 2048 svc 6
# 5 permanent VCs
# 5 one-way incoming SVCs
# 6 two-way switched VCs
networktype TRANSPAC
fast_select enabled
reverse_charge
enabled
# CCITT 1984, DTE (see
/etc/x25/x25_networks)
# allow incoming calls with call user
data
# allow incoming calls requesting
reverse changes
def_inpacketsize 128
def_outpacketsize 128
def_inwindow 7
def_outwindow 7
def_inthruputclass
19200
def_outthruputclass
19200
#
#
#
#
#
#
default
default
default
default
default
default
packetsize
packetsize
window size
window size
thruput class
thruput class
231
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
Table B-7
(Continued)
flowcontrol on
neg_inpacketsize 128
neg_outpacketsize 128
neg_inwindow 7
neg_outwindow 7
thruputclass on
neg_inthruputclass
19200
neg_outthruputclass
19200
pvc_inpacketsize 128
pvc_outpacketsize 128
pvc_inwindow 7
pvc_outwindow 7
# flow control negotiation allowed
# offered pckt size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered pckt size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered wndw size if using flow
control negotiation
# offered thruput class if using
thruput class negotion
# offered thruput class if using
thruput class negotiation
#
#
#
#
packetsize for PVCs
packetsize for PVCs
window size for PVCs
window size for PVCs
#
#
#
#
IP address and subnet mask
max transmission unit 2048 octets
5 minute hold timer
10 minute idle timer
# IP Related
Parameters
IP 15.4.64.120
255.255.248.0
mtu 2048
hold 300
idle 600
232
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
The x3config File
hp_printer {
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
10
5
1
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
14
12
1
13
0
14
0
15
0
16
8
17
24
18
0
19
1
20
0
21
0
22
0
}
hp_uucp {
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
10
5
1
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
14
12
1
13
0
14
0
15
0
16
8
17
24
18
0
19
1
Appendix B
233
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
20
21
22
0
0
0
}
hp_padsrvr {
1
1
2
1
3
94
4
0
5
1
6
5
7
21
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
14
12
1
13
0
14
0
15
1
16
8
17
24
18
0
19
1
20
0
21
0
22
0
}
hp_profile : 0 {
1
1
2
1
3
127
4
0
5
1
6
5
7
21
8
0
9
0
10
0
11
14
12
1
13
0
14
0
15
1
16
8
17
24
234
1
1
127
0
1
5
21
0
0
0
14
1
0
0
0
8
24
0
1
0
0
0
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
18
19
20
21
22
0
1
0
0
0
}
Appendix B
235
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
The x29hosts File
Table B-8
# for x29printd
printer {
device
name
remote_x121
x3
reverse_charge
logging
printer1
hptndxk0
408555111201
hp_printer
enable
1
}
# for x29uucpd
pad_uucp {
device
name
remote_x121
x3
reverse_charge
logging
x25uucp
hptndxk0
4085551113
hp_uucp
enable
3
}
# for padem
pad_em {
name
remote_x121
reverse_charge
profile
logging
hptndxk0
4085551111
enable
0
3
}
host_table {
Gale
Tornado
Typhoon
236
4085551111
4085551113
4085551115
Appendix B
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
Table B-8
(Continued)
}
# for x29server
pad_spt {
remote_x121
x3
logging
reverse_charge
408555120801
hp_padsrvr
1
disable
}
The Network Type File (x25_networks)
The network type file describes standard network types. If the network
to which you are subscribing does not meet any of the network
descriptions specified in this file, use one of the generic entries (DTE_80,
DTE_84 or DTE_88). The network type file is read-only.
The value in the first column of the file is an alias assigned to the
network type. This is the value that you specify for the networktype
configuration parameter in the x25init configuration file. The value in
the second column is the actual network type. The value in the third
column is the version of the CCITT X.25 Recommendation with which
the network complies: 1980, 1984, or 1988.
Appendix B
237
X.25 Configuration Files and Examples
Example Files
The delivered X.25 networktype file, /etc/x25/x25_networks is shown
below:
Table B-9
DTE_80
DTE_84
DTE_88
DCE_80
DCE_84
DCE_88
AUSPAC
DATANET1
DATAPAC
DATEXP_AUSTRIA
DATEXP_DEUTSCHE
DCS
DDN
DDXP
HPPPN
ITAPAC
LUXPAC
PSS
TELENET
TRANSPAC
TYMNET
L3_DTE
L3_DTE
L3_DTE
L3_DCE
L3_DCE
L3_DTE
AUSPAC
DATANET1
DATAPAC
DATEXP_AUSTRIA
DATEXP_GERMANY
DCS
DDN_NET
DDXP
HPPPN
ITAPAC
LUXPAC
PSS
TELENET
TRANSPAC
TYMNET
1980
1984
1988
1980
1984
1988
1984
1984
1980
1984
1980
1980
1980
1980
1984
1980
1980
1980
1980
1984
1980
An alias associated with a network type chosen from this file is used to
identify the network type during the configuration process.
238
Appendix B
C
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
239
Diagnostic Messages
Introduction
Introduction
This appendix describes the diagnostic codes and messages which are a
subset of the list defined by the International Standards Organization
(ISO) in IS-8202:1987(E). Only those diagnostics supported on X.25 for
HP 9000 systems are listed. Each message is listed in numerical order by
its diagnostic code and includes an ISO description and explanation.
Refer to Appendix D of the X.25 PSN Connection for a complete list of
diagnostic codes and messages, and to ISO IS-8202:1987(E) for a list of
the corresponding cause codes and messages.
240
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
Diagnostic Message Example
Diagnostic Message Example
An example diagnostic message generated by the network from a CLEAR
REQUEST packet is shown below:
Clear request
LCGN: 0
LCN : 32
Clearing Cause [0] : DTE originated.
Diagnostic [241] :
In the example above, LCGN is the Logical Channel Group Number and
LCN is the Logical Channel Number (the number denoting the logical
association between a DTE and DTE connected by a VC). Refer to the
discussion below for more information on cause codes.
Diagnostic codes are generated by the network and may appear in octet 5
of RESTART INDICATION, RESET INDICATION, or CLEAR
INDICATION packets. If a diagnostic field is not present in a CLEAR
INDICATION or RESET INDICATION packet, 0 is returned as the
diagnostic code.
A cause code and message is usually returned from the network with
each diagnostic. Diagnostic codes and messages are usually displayed
only when tracing or logging is on, the x25check utility is run, or cause
and diagnostic codes are printed in level 3 application programs. Refer to
the listing of diagnostic codes later in this appendix for more
information.
In the descriptions in the diagnostic listing, a REQUEST or ACCEPTED
packet refers to a packet generated by the local application and an
INDICATION or CONFIRM packet refers to a packet received from the
network. The requests in which a diagnostic code can be found are shown
after the numeric code of the diagnostic.
Once the application specifies CLEAR or RESET cause and diagnostic
codes, this code combination is used for all RESET REQUEST packets
generated by the application. This combination is also used for the
CLEAR REQUEST generated when the application calls close() or
shutdown() on a given socket.
Appendix C
241
Diagnostic Messages
Cause Code Settings
Cause Code Settings
X.25 automatically resets (silently forces) the network-generated cause
code of CLEAR or RESET REQUEST packets to comply with the
applicable CCITT X.25 Recommendation.
•
1980 – The cause is silently forced to zero.
•
1984 – The cause is left at zero or OR'ed with 128 if it is not zero.
•
1988 – The cause is left at zero or OR'ed with 128 if it is not zero.
X.25 does not guarantee that the cause, diagnostic, facility, or clear user
data fields of a CLEAR REQUEST or a RESET REQUEST are delivered
to the remote destination because these fields may be altered by the
network, the X.25 implementation (under certain circumstances) or both.
In particular, X.25 discards the clear user data and facility fields of a
CLEAR REQUEST when the facility field is found to be invalid for the
given system configuration or when any other error occurs. When an
error occurs on a CLEAR REQUEST, the cause and diagnostic fields
delivered to the network are silently set according to the error.
242
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
Packet Codes
Packet Codes
RESTART Packet Codes
When the system receives a RESTART INDICATION packet, the
received CLEAR INDICATION or RESET INDICATION packet contains
a cause code of 0 and the diagnostic code used in the RESTART.
RESET/CLEAR Packet Codes
The system may generate a RESET/CLEAR because of an error, lack of
memory, or other condition. When this occurs, a RESET/CLEAR
INDICATION is delivered to the application and a RESET/CLEAR
REQUEST packet is sent to the network. The cause code is always zero
as dictated by ISO in the IS-8208 standard, and the diagnostic is one of
the codes in this appendix. Both the REQUEST and the INDICATION
carry the same cause/diagnostic combination.
Appendix C
243
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-1
No Additional Information
ISO
Description
Diagnostic
Explanation
1 (RESET)
Invalid P(S).
DATA packet received from network with P(S)
invalid or outside of allowable window.
2 (RESET)
Invalid P(R).
DATA packet received from network with P(R)
invalid.
Table C-2
Packet Type Invalid
Diagnostic
17 (RESTART,
CLEAR,
RESET)
ISO
Description
Explanation
Packet type
invalid for state
R1.
Invalid packet received with interface in state R1
(packet level ready). RESTART REQUEST is
sent on network.
Invalid packet is probably RESTART
CONFIRMATION.
244
20 (CLEAR)
Packet type
invalid for state
P1.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P1
(Ready).
21 (CLEAR)
Packet type
invalid for state
P2.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P2 (DTE
CALL REQUEST).
22 (CLEAR)
Packet type
invalid for state
P3.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P3 (DCE
Incoming Call).
23 (CLEAR,
RESET)
Packet type
invalid for state
P4.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P4 (Data
Transfer).
24 (CLEAR)
Packet type
invalid for state
P5.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P5 (Call
Collision).
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-2
Packet Type Invalid (Continued)
25 (CLEAR)
Packet type
invalid for state
P6.
Invalid packet received on VC in state P6 (DTE
Clear Request).
27 (RESET)
Packet type
invalid for state
D1.
Invalid packet received on VC in state D1 (Flow
Control Ready).
29 (RESET)
Packet type
invalid for state
D3
Invalid packet received on VC in state D3 (DCE
Reset Indication).
Table C-3
Packet Not Allowed
Diagnostic
33 (RESTART,
CLEAR,
RESET)
ISO
Description
Unidentifiable
packet.
Explanation
Packet that cannot be identified (3rd byte of the
level 2 information field not defined in CCITT
X.25 Recommendation received).
REJECT or REGISTRATION packet received.
34 (CLEAR)
Call on one way
logical channel.
If configured as DTE, CALL INDICATION
received with logical channel identifier (LCI)
corresponding to one-way logical channel
outgoing.
If configured as DCE (DXE), CALL
INDICATION received with logical channel
identifier (LCI) corresponding to one way logical
channel incoming.
38 (RESTART,
CLEAR,
RESET)
Appendix C
Packet too
short.
Received packet is less than minimum length. It
may be a CALL INDICATION packet without
address length or facility length fields, CLEAR
or RESET INDICATION without cause field, or
the packet length may be insufficient to hold
address or facility fields.
245
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-3
Packet Not Allowed (Continued)
39 (RESTART,
CLEAR,
RESET)
Packet too long.
Received packet exceeds maximum length. The
packet may be larger than allowed by the
configuration and negotiations (i.e., fast select),
or contain a field (i.e., call/clear user data) that is
larger than the allowed size.
41 (RESTART,
CLEAR,
RESET)
RESTART or
REGISTRATION packet
with non-zero
LCI.
RESTART REQUEST sent because RESTART
INDICATION arrived with logical channel
identifier other than 0.
42 (CLEAR)
Packet type not
compatible
with facility.
CALL ACCEPTED or CONFIRMATION packet
received when CALL INDICATION or
REQUEST had fast select with restriction on
response facility.
43 (RESET)
Unauthorized
interrupt
confirmation.
INTERRUPT CONFIRM packet received when
no matching INTERRUPT had been sent.
44 (RESET)
Unauthorized
interrupt.
Sequence of two INTERRUPT INDICATIONs
received and system sent no INTERRUPT
CONFIRMATION packet.
Table C-4
Timer Expired
Diagnostic
246
ISO
Description
Explanation
48 (CLEAR)
Timer expired
(generic).
IP circuit is disconnected because it was
inactive for more than the configured
minimum time limit and the system must free
the circuit to complete CALL REQUEST.
49 (CLEAR)
Timer expired
for INCOMING
CALL or DTE
timer expired for
CALL
REQUEST.
CALL CONFIRM not received within the T21
time limit (set at approximately 200 seconds)
after transmission of CALL REQUEST.
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-4
Timer Expired (Continued)
50 (CLEAR)
Timer expired
for CLEAR
INDICATION
(or DTE timer
expired or
retransmission
count surpassed
for CLEAR
REQUEST).
CLEAR CONFIRM not received within T23
time limit (set at approximately 180 seconds)
after transmission of CLEAR REQUEST. After
a certain number of CLEAR retries, system
places logical channel in state P1 (Ready).
51 (CLEAR,
RESET)
Timer expired
for RESET
INDICATION
(or DTE timer
expired or
retransmission
count surpassed
for RESET
REQUEST).
RESET CONFIRM not received within T22
time limit, set at approximately 180 seconds,
after transmission of RESET REQUEST. After
a certain number of RESET retries, the system
places logical channel in state D1 (Flow
Control Ready) if PVC, or in state P6 (DTE
Request) by sending CLEAR REQUEST if
SVC.
Timer expired
for RESTART
INDICATION
(or DTE timer
expired or
retransmission
count surpassed
for RESTART
REQUEST).
RESTART CONFIRM not received within T20
time limit (set at approximately 180 seconds)
after transmission of RESTART REQUEST.
52 (RESTART)
Table C-5
Diagnostic
Appendix C
Count of RESET retries has been surpassed.
CLEAR REQUEST has been sent.
SABM frame received while in state R2 (DTE
RESTART REQUEST). RESTART REQUEST
is transmitted.
Call Setup, Call Clearing, or Registration Problem
ISO
Description
Explanation
247
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-5
65 (CLEAR)
Call Setup, Call Clearing, or Registration Problem (Continued)
Facility/
registration
code not
allowed.
Packet size negotiation, Window Size
Negotiation or Throughput Class Negotiation
facility codes found in the facility field of the call
setup packet when corresponding negotiation
had not been configured. In CALL REQUEST,
condition results in error returned to user
instead of generation of CLEAR.
If facility checking was configured, a facility code
not allowed by configured level (1980 or 1984)
was found before the first facility marker. In
CALL REQUEST, this condition results in an
error returned to user instead of generation of
CLEAR.
If facility checking was configured along with
rejection of duplicate facilities, a combination of
invalid facility codes was detected.
The combination may indicate that the basic and
extended format of given facility are present or
that both the Closed User Group and Closed
User Group with Outgoing Access facilities are
present. In CALL REQUEST, this condition
results in an error instead of a CLEAR.
Facility marker 00 3B (hex) found, which
corresponds to “internal” facilities. This facility
marker is not allowed by either application or
network. In CALL REQUEST, this condition
results in an error returned to the user instead of
CLEAR.
248
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-5
66 (CLEAR)
Call Setup, Call Clearing, or Registration Problem (Continued)
Facility
parameter not
allowed.
Parameter field of a packet size negotiation,
window size negotiation or throughput class
negotiation facility in a call setup packet has
been found to be invalid because it contains
values not allowed by the configured level (1980
or 1984).
Parameter field of a packet size negotiation,
window size negotiation, or throughput class
negotiation facility in a CALL ACCEPTED or
CALL CONFIRM packet has been found to be
invalid because it contains values outside of the
allowed range specified by the configuration and
previous call setup packet.
For DDN configured interfaces, the parameter
field of the DDN standard or DDN precedence
facility in a call setup packet has been found to
be invalid because it contains values not allowed
by the DDN X.25 Host Interface Specification
(BBN83).
67 (CLEAR)
68 (CLEAR)
Invalid called
address.
Unknown called address.
Invalid calling
address.
Calling address contains a non-BCD digit (i.e., a
half byte with a value other than 0 through 9).
Called address contains a non-BCD digit (i.e., a
half byte with a value other than 0 through 9).
Last digit of address field is not 0 and the total
number of digits present in address field is odd.
Appendix C
249
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-5
69 (CLEAR)
Call Setup, Call Clearing, or Registration Problem (Continued)
Invalid facility/
registration
length.
Length of the facility field is greater than the
maximum allowed by the configured revision
level of CCITT X.25 Recommendation (63 for
1980, 109 for 1984). The condition will result in
an error returned to the user instead of
generation of CLEAR if it is detected in CALL
REQUEST.
No combination of facilities can equal the value
indicated in the packet’s facility length field. If
this condition is detected in the CALL
REQUEST packet it produces an error instead of
a CLEAR.
System could not add negotiation facilities
without the facility field becoming larger than
allowed by the configured revision level of the
CCITT X.25 Recommendation (63 for 1980, 109
for 1984). This can happen only if the configured
negotiation facility codes are not present in the
facility field.
70 (CLEAR)
Incoming call
barred.
Configuration and status of interface disallows
the opening of new inbound connection.
71 (CLEAR)
No logical
channel
available.
No VC suitable for placing a connection in
READY (P1) state. Generated when CALL
REQUEST cannot be completed successfully.
ENOSPC was returned to the caller if condition
was detected in synchronous manner.
The number of internal connections prohibits
new connections being allocated for CALL
INDICATION.
72 (CLEAR)
250
Call collision.
When configured as DCE, CALL INDICATION
was received on logical channel where CALL
REQUEST had been sent. CALL REQUEST was
cleared because the CALL INDICATION has
priority.
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-5
Call Setup, Call Clearing, or Registration Problem (Continued)
73 (CLEAR)
Duplicate
facility
requested.
Same facility code appeared twice in the facility
field. Error is returned to caller if condition was
detected in CALL REQUEST. CLEAR was not
generated.
76 (CLEAR)
Facility not
provided when
expected.
When system was configured to handle IP over
X.25 as per DDN specifications, CALL
INDICATION for IP did not have DDN standard
selection facility code.
Table C-6
Diagnostic
83 (CLEAR)
Table C-7
Diagnostic
CATEGORY - Miscellaneous
ISO
Description
Inconsistent Q
bit setting.
Explanation
The connection was cleared due to an
inconsistent Q bit found in the packet.
International Problem and Maintenance
ISO
Description
Explanation
113 (CLEAR)
Remote
network
problem.
The remote network is not operational.
115 (CLEAR)
International
link out of
order.
Connection to the PSN is not currently available
(network not operational).
121 (CLEAR)
Unknown
called DNIC.
The CALL could not be routed because the DNIC
in the called address is unknown.
122 (CLEAR,
RESET)
Maintenance
action.
System administrator shut down specific VC or
the entire interface.
Table C-8
Diagnostic
Appendix C
DTE-Specific Signals
ISO
Description
Explanation
251
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-8
160 (CLEAR,
RESET)
DTE-Specific Signals (Continued)
DTE-specific
signal (generic).
CALL INDICATION with reverse charge
requested has been received, and reverse charge
is configured to be rejected by system.
CALL INDICATION with reverse charge
requested has been received by IP and reverse
charge is configured to be rejected for that
IP/X.121 address pair. Check is done via IP to
X.121 address map table.
CALL INDICATION with reverse charge
requested has been received by IP and no entry
in the IP-to-X.121 address map table exists for
this X.121 address. Internal problem which may
be generated by components of X.25/9000
architecture.
252
161
(RESTART)
DTE
operational.
Level 2 is coming up or a SABM frame is
received. System sends RESTART REQUEST
indicating host is up.
162 (CLEAR,
RESET)
DTE not
operational.
Either level 3 or level 2 detected as down.
Request delivered when network interface was
not operational. Condition usually results in an
error returned to the application instead of
CLEAR. Diagnostic is used when RESTART
INDICATION has been received by interface.
Interface is going down. RESTART REQUEST
was sent on network.
163 (CLEAR,
RESET)
DTE resource
constraint.
Lack of memory to establish, reset, or clear a call,
to process data, expedite data or
acknowledgments, or to perform internal
operation. This may indicate lack of network
memory, or resource constraints on card. When
resource constraint appears on connected circuit,
CLEAR will be sent only if no recovery is
possible.
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-8
DTE-Specific Signals (Continued)
164 (CLEAR)
Fast select not
subscribed.
CALL INDICATION requiring fast select facility
has been received and fast select is not
configured. Results in error when detected on
CALL REQUEST.
225 (CLEAR)
Disconnection
(transient
condition).
X.25 subsystem is down when X.25/9000 to IP
subsystem is servicing CALL CONFIRMATION
or incoming DATA.
Table C-9
Diagnostic
OSI Network Service Problem
ISO
Description
Explanation
227 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
Cause
unspecified
(transient
condition).
Due to internal constraints at high levels other
than lack of network memory, CALL
INDICATION cannot be serviced.
224 (CLEAR,
RESET)
OSI Network
Service
problem.
OSI network service not operational.
228 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
Reason
unspecified.
(Permanent
condition)
(Transient
condition).
X.25 to IP subsystem clears incoming CALL
INDICATION which has calling address not
present in IP to X.121 mapping table. If call were
accepted, circuit would be half-duplex enabling
remote node to send and receive while local host
would only be able to receive. When X.25/IP
output routine has data addressed to remote
node it must be able to map the IP address to the
X.121 address. If it cannot do so, the IP packet is
discarded. Clearing the INCOMING CALL when
the remote's X.121 address is not in the map
table prevents a half-duplex circuit from being
established.
Appendix C
253
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-9
231 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
NSAP
unreachable
(transient
condition).
No listen socket capable of servicing CALL
INDICATION. X.25 subsystem is down when
X.25-to-IP subsystem is servicing CALL
INDICATION.
232 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
NSAP
unreachable
(permanent
condition).
CALL INDICATION with first byte of call user
data other than CC (hex) received on system
which does not have X.25/9000 programmatic
access configured in kernel.
233 (RESET)
Reset. Cause
unspecified.
Message (sequence of packets with the M bit set
followed by packet with M bit not set) received,
and size exceeds maximum size allowed by
application for inbound data message.
Corresponds to specific out-of-band event
delivered to user. Data was received on VC
without a user, that is, an IP or programmatic
access application. X.25 subsystem was down
when X.25 to IP subsystem serviced incoming
DATA on permanent VC.
234 (RESET)
Reset.
Congestion.
Error returned to the application due to network
congestion condition.
235 (CLEAR)
NSAP address
unknown.
CALL INDICATION was received with unknown
NSAP address (first byte of call user data).
251 (RESET)
Reset. Cause
unspecified.
System failed to synchronize data transfer to
interface.
Table C-10
Diagnostic
254
OSI Network Service Problem (Continued)
Higher Level Initiated
ISO
Description
Explanation
Appendix C
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-10
Higher Level Initiated (Continued)
241 (CLEAR)
Disconnection
normal.
Application closed or shut down socket and did
not specify cause/diagnostic combination to be
used on socket. This is the default. If available,
application-specified cause/diagnostic
combination is used. This is not an error
condition.
242 (CLEAR)
Disconnection
abnormal.
Application using a socket supporting virtual
connection crashed. Diagnostic, along with a
cause code of 0, is used regardless of setting of
cause/diagnostic combination. Related to
x29server process.
243 (CLEAR)
Disconnection.
Incompatible
info in user
data.
Application closed or shut down socket because
of incompatible information in the user data
field. Related to the x29server process.
244 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
Reason
unspecified
(transient
condition).
Application rejected the CALL for an unspecified
reason. No listen socket was found. Related to
the x29server process.
245 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
Reason
unspecified
(permanent
condition).
Application rejected the CALL for an unspecified
reason. No listen socket was found. Related to
the x29server process.
248 (CLEAR)
Connection
rejection.
Incompatible
info in user
data.
Application closed or shutdown socket because of
a problem with the user data information.
Related to the x29server process.
Appendix C
255
Diagnostic Messages
X.25 Diagnostic Messages
Table C-10
250 (RESET)
256
Higher Level Initiated (Continued)
Reset. User resynchronizatio
n.
PVC is claimed by programmatic access socket.
RESET is sent as part of socket initialization
procedure. Code is used if the application did not
specify which cause/diagnostic combination to
use. Application requires RESET to be sent. No
cause/diagnostic combination is specified on
socket.
Appendix C
Index
Symbols
.netrc file, 227
.rhosts file, 227
A
accept reverse charge
IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
add PAD-UUCP services, 74
add remote PAD support, 72
addresses
IP to X.121 mapping, 214
summary of files, 225
B
battery backup, 208
Break key, 114
C
cause code, 242
CCITT X.25 Recommendations, 237
closed user group
IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
codes
cause, 242
diagnostic, 240
RESET/CLEAR packet, 243
RESTART packet, 243
commands
netstat, 213
strace, 187
strerr, 195
x25check, 115
x25server, 115
x25stat, 118
comments
in IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
compatibility
High Availability feature, 24
configuration
displaying, 118
configuration file, 237
configuration parameters
Network Type, 237
Configure Internet Address screen, 36
Configure Internet Address screen field
descriptions, 37
configure remote PAD printer support, 73
Configure Virtual Circuits field descriptions ,
35
configuring
internet address, 35
local emulation, 157
remote access, 48
X.25 address, 31
Configuring X.25 Address screen, 32
Configuring X.25 Address screen field
descriptions, 33
network carrier type, 33
programmatic access name, 33
X.25 address, 33
X.25 packet address, 33
configuring x.25 link, 30
CUG
IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
D
DDN, 215
default subnet masks, 38
device file name, 114
diagnostic messages, 239–244
diagnostic utilities
scope of, 113
terminating, 114
x25check command, 115
x25server command, 115
x25stat command, 118
E
error log files
strerr command, 195
event messages
tracing, 187
Exiting SAM, 47
F
failure
power, 208
files
.netrc, 227
.rhosts, 227
device, 114
hosts, 226
hosts.equiv, 226
IP to X.121 mapping, 215
ip_to_x121_map, 215
network type, 237, 238
networks, 227
strerr error log, 195
summary, 225
257
Index
x25_networks, 226, 237
x25init.log, 227
x25init_def, 226, 228
x25init_smpl, 226, 231
x25server.log, 227
Filter file, 183
G
gateway, 215
H
hardware requirements, 24
High Availability feature, 24
hosts file, 226
hosts.equiv file, 226
I
ifconfig
see man pages
installing multiple X.25 cards, 24
interface card
displaying configuration, 118
displaying statistics, 118
displaying status, 118
initialization, 208
name, 114
troubleshooting, 199
interrupt signal, 114
IP, 18
IP address
mapped to X.121 address, 214
IP over X.25
troubleshooting, 206
IP routing
description of, 214
IP to X.121 mapping file
accept reverse charge, 217
closed user group , 217
comments, 217
description, 215
parameters, 216
programmatic access name, 217
specifying PVCs, 216
syntax, 215
use reverse charge, 217
X.121 address, 216
IP-to-X.121 address mapping
description, 214
258
K
keys
Break, 114
L
logging
priority level, 189
logging utilities, 175
strace command, 187
strerr command, 195
lpstat
verifying configuration, 145
M
mapping X.25-to-IP
description, 214
memory
loss during power failure, 208
messages
diagnostic, 239–244
Modify IP Over X.25 Defaults screen, 39
Modify IP Over X.25 Defaults screen field
descriptions, 39
modify PAD-UUCP services, 74
modify remote PAD support, 72
Modify Throughput Class Settings field
descriptions, 43
Modify X.25 Throughput Class Defaults
screen, 43
modify X.3 parameters
padem, 74
PAD-UUCP support, 74
remote PAD support, 74
remote printer support, 74
modifying level 2 values, 45
Modifying X.25 Flow Control Defaults
screen, 41
Modulo-128, 41, 42, 45
Modulo-8, 41, 42, 45
multiple X.25 cards
installing, 24
N
name
device file, 114
interface, 114
programmatic access, 114
netfmt
see man pages
netfmt command, 181
Index
netstat
see man pages
netstat command, 213
nettl
see man pages
nettl command, 178
network carrier type, 33
network type, 237
network type file, 237
networks
types of, 237
networks file, 227
O
online help (SAM) , 31
P
packet codes
RESET/CLEAR, 243
RESTART, 243
PAD, 157
call acceptance, 133
CCITT, 130
command sets, 160
configuring remote printers, 141
configuring remote support, 135
configuring uucp support, 148
extended command set, 161
launching applications automatically, 138
padem, 156
remote PAD support, 132
remote printer support, 139
system security, 133
UUCP support, 145
uucp support, 145
x25printd, 139
x29server, 132
x29uucpd, 146
PAD emulation
add/modify, 71
pad_spt
configuring, 135
padem, 156
command mode, 156
data transfer mode, 157
modify X.3 parameters, 74
PAD-UUCP services
add/modify, 74
PAD-UUCP support
modify X.3 parameters, 74
parameters
configuration, 237
Permanent VC Flow Control field
descriptions, 42
ping
see man pages
ping command
troubleshooting, 206
power failure
memory loss, 208
recovering from, 208
priority level
logging, 189
problems
contacting service representative, 209
known, 209
power failure, 208
programmatic access name, 33, 114
IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
x25check command, 115
proxy
see man pages
PVCs
IP to X.121 mapping file, 216
R
remote PAD printer support
add/modify, 73
remote PAD support
add/modify, 72
modify X.3 parameters, 74
remote printer support
modify X.3 parameters, 74
RESET/CLEAR packet code , 243
RESTART packet code, 243
route
see man pages
S
SAM, using, 30
service
representative;contacting, 209
service representative
providing information for, 209
setting window size values, 41
signal
interrupt, 114
software requirements, 27
spooler
configuring, 143
259
Index
statistics
VCs, 118
status
of interface card, 118
strace
see man pages
strace command, 187
examples, 192
options, 187
output format, 190
syntax, 187
strerr
see man pages
strerr command, 195
description, 195
options, 195
syntax, 195
subnet masks defaults, 38
support
See service representative
Switched VC Flow Control field descriptions,
42
T
TCP/UDP, 18
throughput classes and line speeds, 44
tracing utilities, 175
troubleshooting, 198
hardware check, 203
ping command, 206
X.25 configuration, 198, 205
x25check command , 204
x25server command , 204
U
URC option
IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
use reverse charge
IP to X.121 mapping file, 217
using SAM , 30
using SAM’s online help, 31
utilities
logging, 175
tracing, 175
uucp
configuring, 150
V
VCs
statistics, 118
260
Verify Level 2 Values field descriptions, 46
Verify Level 2 Values screen, 45
verifying level 2 values, 44
verifying level 3 values, 39
Verifying Level 3 Values screen, 39
Verifying Level 3 Values screen field
descriptions, 40
virtual circuits
configuration with SAM, 34
X
X.121 address
IP to X.121 mapping file, 216
mapped from IP address, 214
X.25
troubleshooting, 198
X.25 address, 33
X.25 configuration
troubleshooting, 198, 205
X.25 configuration file, 166, 167, 168, 171
X.25 configuration files
summary, 225
X.25 level 2
event messages, 187
X.25 level 3
event messages, 187
X.25 packet address, 33
X.25/9000
components of, 18
components provided with, 18
network services supported, 18
overview of, 18
X.28 PAD command set, 160
X.3
default parameters, 165
parameter descriptions, 165
X.3 profile parameters
configuring, 163
X25 configuration
displaying, 118
x25_networks file, 226, 237, 238
x25check
see man pages
x25check command, 115
description, 115
example with parameters, 117
running interactively, 115
troubleshooting, 204
x25init
examples, 214
x25init.log file, 227
Index
x25init_def file, 226, 228
x25init_smpl file, 226, 231
x25mibstat, 128
see man pages
x25ping
see man pages
x25printd, 139
x25server, 132
see man pages
x25server command, 115
description, 115
troubleshooting, 204
x25server.log file, 227
x25stat
see man pages
x25stat command, 118
brief description of, 118
examples, 118
x25stop
see man pages
x25trace
see man pages
x25upload
see man pages
x29printd and lpsched
operation during configuration, 144
x29uucpd, 146
261
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