Design Guide 2009 - OPS Schneider Electric
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Design Guide 2009
Design Guide
UPS Protection
Systems
TGBT
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SCHEMA PROXIMA
General contents
Chapter 1
Key factors in UPS installations
Introduction.........................................................................................1-2
Using this guide..................................................................................1-3
Overview of protection solutions......................................................1-4
UPSs in electrical installations .........................................................1-6
Basic notions on installations with UPSs........................................1-9
Power calculations .............................................................................1-17
Control of upstream harmonics ........................................................1-24
System earthing arrangements.........................................................1-30
Protection ............................................................................................1-35
Cables ..................................................................................................1-43
Energy storage....................................................................................1-45
Human-machine interface and communication ..............................1-49
Preliminary work.................................................................................1-51
Chapter 2
Selection of the UPS configuration
Types of possible configurations .....................................................2-2
Selection table and corresponding ranges......................................2-5
Diagram no. 1 ......................................................................................2-6
Single UPS
Diagram no. 2 ......................................................................................2-7
Active redundancy with two integrated parallel UPS units
Diagram no. 3 ......................................................................................2-8
Active redundancy with integrated parallel UPS units and external maintenance bypass
Diagram no. 4 ......................................................................................2-9
Isolated redundancy with two UPS units
Diagram no. 5 ......................................................................................2-10
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units and centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC)
Diagram no. 6 ......................................................................................2-11
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, SSC and total isolation, single busbar
Diagram no. 7 ......................................................................................2-12
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, SSC and total isolation, double busbar
Diagram no. 8 ......................................................................................2-13
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation, single busbar
Diagram no. 9 ......................................................................................2-14
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation, double busbar
Diagram no. 10 ....................................................................................2-15
Isolated redundancy with N+1 UPS units
Diagram no. 11 ....................................................................................2-16
Redundant distribution with static transfer switch (STS)
Diagram no. 12 ....................................................................................2-18
Redundant distribution with static transfer switch (STS) and PDU
Chapter 3
Elimination of harmonics in installations
Harmonics........................................................................... 3-2
Elimination of harmonics ...................................................... 3-11
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners ..................... 3-14
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
p. I
Chapitre 4
APC by Schneider Electric ranges
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPSs ..............................................................4-4
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs ..............................................................4-12
MGETM Galaxy PWTM UPSs .................................................................4-24
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPSs ..............................................................4-32
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs ..............................................................4-48
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX 160 UPSs ...............................................4-60
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs...........................................................4-68
SymmetraTM MW UPSs .......................................................................4-75
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners..........................4-82
MGETMUpsilonTM STS statis transfer systems .................................4-86
Source synchronisation module.......................................................4-92
Chapter 5
Theoretical review
Supplying sensitive loads .................................................................5-2
UPSs ....................................................................................................5-4
Types of UPSs.....................................................................................5-7
UPS components and operation .......................................................5-14
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ...............................................5-26
UPS standards ....................................................................................5-28
Energy storage....................................................................................5-31
UPS / generator-set combination......................................................5-35
Transient load conditions..................................................................5-37
Harmonics ...........................................................................................5-38
Non-linear loads and PWM technology ............................................5-43
PFC rectifier ........................................................................................5-49
Chapter 6
Specifications guides (available on CD-ROM)
Specification guide no. 1 (single/parallel MGE Galaxy 3500 UPS)...6-1
Single/parallel UPS system, 3-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA
Specification guide no. 2a (single MGE Galaxy 5000 UPS) .............6-2a
Single-UPS unit, 3-phase, 40 to 120 kVA
Specification guide no. 2b (parallel MGE Galaxy 5000 UPS)...........6-2b
Parallel UPS system, 3-phase, 80 to 720 kVA
Specification guide no. 3a (single MGE Galaxy PW) ........................6-3a
Single-UPS unit, 3-phase, 160 to 200 kVA
Specification guide no. 3b (parallel MGE Galaxy PW)......................6-3b
Parallel UPS system, 3-phase, 320 to 800 kVA
Specification guide no. 4a (single MGE Galaxy 7000)......................6-4a
Single-UPS unit, 3-phase, 250 to 500 kVA
Specification guide no. 4b (parallel MGE Galaxy 7000) ...................6-4b
Parallel UPS system, 3-phase, 500 to 4000 kVA
Specification guide no. 5a (single MGE Galaxy 9000)......................6-5a
Single-UPS unit, 3-phase, 800 kVA
Specification guide no. 5b (parallel MGE Galaxy 9000) ...................6-5b
Parallel UPS system, 3-phase, 1600 to 4800 kVA
Specification guide no. 6 (Symmetra PX 48/160) .............................6-6
Modular UPS, 3-phase, 16 to 48 kVA/160 kVA
Specification guide no. 7 (Symmetra PX 250/500) ...........................6-7
Modular UPS, 3-phase, 25 to 500 kVA
Specification guide no. 8 (Symmetra MW)........................................6-8
Scalable UPS, 3-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kVA
Specification guide no. 9 (MGE SineWave) ......................................6-9
Active harmonic conditioner, 20 to 480 A
Specification guide no. 10 (MGE Upsilon STS) ................................6-10
Static transfer switch
Chapter 7
Index, glossary, bibliography
Index ....................................................................................................7-2
Glossary ..............................................................................................7-6
Bibliography........................................................................................7-14
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
p. II
Chapter 1. Key factors in UPS installations
Contents
Introduction .....................................................................1-2
Using this guide ..............................................................1-3
Overview of protection solutions ..................................1-4
Protection solutions ..............................................................................1-4
Accompanying software and services ..................................................1-5
UPSs in electrical installations ......................................1-6
Function of each component in the installation.....................................1-6
Essential installation parameters..........................................................1-7
Sources of information in setting up installation specifications .............1-8
Basic notions on installations with UPSs .....................1-9
Need for high-quality and high-availability power .................................1-9
Supply systems with UPSs...................................................................1-10
UPS power quality................................................................................1-11
UPS power availability..........................................................................1-13
Selection of the configuration ...............................................................1-16
Power calculations..........................................................1-17
Elements required for power calculations.............................................1-17
Ratings of single-UPS configurations ...................................................1-19
Ratings of parallel-UPS configurations.................................................1-22
Control of upstream harmonics.....................................1-24
UPSs and upstream harmonic currents for different input rectifiers .....1-24
Filtering of upstream harmonics for Graetz bridge rectifiers .................1-25
Selection of a filter................................................................................1-27
System earthing arrangements......................................1-30
Background information on system earthing arrangements .................1-30
Applications in UPS installations ..........................................................1-32
Protection ........................................................................1-35
Protection using circuit breakers ..........................................................1-35
Selection of circuit breakers .................................................................1-38
Cables .............................................................................1-43
Selection of cable sizes........................................................................1-43
Example of an installation ....................................................................1-44
Energy storage ...............................................................1-45
Storage technologies............................................................................1-45
Selection of a battery............................................................................1-46
Battery monitoring ................................................................................1-47
Human-machine interface and communication ...........1-49
Human-machine interface (HMI) ..........................................................1-49
Communication ....................................................................................1-49
Preliminary work ............................................................1-51
Installation considerations ....................................................................1-51
Battery room.........................................................................................1-52
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 1
Introduction
Growing needs for high-quality and high-availability power
Problems related to the quality and availability of electrical power have become
vitally important due to the key role of computers and electronics in the development
of many critical applications.
Disturbances in distribution systems (micro-outages, outages, voltage sags, etc.) can
result in major losses or safety hazards in a number of activities such as:
 Sensitive process industries, where a malfunction in the control/monitoring
systems can result in production losses.
 Airports and hospitals where faulty operation of equipment can represent a serious
danger to human life.
 Information and communication technologies, where the necessary level of
reliability and dependability is even higher. Data centers require high-quality, "nobreak" power 24/365, year after year and without halts for maintenance.
UPS protection systems are now an integral part of the value chain of many
companies. Their level of availability and power quality have a direct effect on the
service continuity of operations. Productivity, the quality of products and services, the
competitiveness of the company and site security depend on the smooth operation of
the UPS. Failure is not an option.
APC by Schneider Electric - a complete solution covering
all needs
APC by Schneider Electric offers a complete range of power-protection solutions to
meet the needs of all sensitive applications.
These solutions implement communicating software and products incorporating
state-of-the-art technology offering the highest levels of reliability. They are backed
by complete services based on unique expertise, worldwide presence and use of the
TM
most advanced techniques and technologies. APC Global Services , with 40 years
of experience on customer sites, accompanies your installation throughout its life
cycle, from design and start-up to operation and upgrades, wherever they may be.
Uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) are of course a central part of these solutions.
They supply high-quality, high-availability continuous power with built-in, advanced
communication interfaces that are compatible with both electrical and computer
environments
They are often used in conjunction with other communicating products such as active
harmonic conditioners, transfer switches, distribution switchboards, batterymonitoring systems and supervision software. Taken as a whole, this offering
provides a complete and effective answer to the protection problems that arise in
sensitive installations.
For data centers, on-demand solutions integrate the physical infrastructure including
server racks, UPSs, electrical distribution, cooling and security along with the
associated software.
A guide to assist professionals dealing with electrical
installations for critical applications
APC by Schneider Electric has made a large part of its know-how available in this
design guide.
Its purpose is to assist in designing and installing complete, optimised powerprotection solutions, from the utility line through to the final load, corresponding to the
quality and availability requirements of your critical applications.
It is intended for all professionals dealing with this type of installation, including:
 Independent design offices and engineering firms,
 End-user design departments,
 Installers,
 Project managers,
 Facility managers,
 Computer system managers,
 Financial or purchasing managers.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 2
Using this guide
Structure of this document
 Finding information
Information may be located in a number of ways:
 The general contents at the start of the guide,
 The index in chapter 7,
 The overview on pages 4 and 5 of chapter 1, which presents the products,
communication systems, software and services that are all part of protection
solutions.
 Chapters
 Chapter 1 presents on pages 6 and 7 the role of UPSs in electrical installations
and indicates the main parameters that must be taken into account. The remainder
of the chapter guides you through the selection process for a solution by
determining the main elements of an installation with a UPS.
 Chapter 2 presents a number of practical examples in view of selecting a
configuration, from a simple, single-UPS unit through to installations offering
exceptionally high levels of availability.
 Chapter 3 presents solutions to eliminate harmonic currents in installations.
 Chapter 4 presents the products and services offered by APC by Schneider
Electric.
 Chapter 5 provides background technical information for devices and notions
mentioned in other parts of the guide.
Finally, to facilitate the preparation of projects:
 Chapter 6 contains typical technical-specification documents for different
types of products and installations.
 Chapter 7 provides a glossary defining the main terms used in this guide and a
list of standards and documents dealing with topics related to UPSs.
 Cross references
The various chapters contain cross references (indicated by the symbol ) to
other parts of the design guide presenting more in-depth information on specific
topics.
Refererences to technical articles (White Papers - WP) are indicated by the
following symbol together with the number of the White Paper in question.
See WP no. 
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 3
Overview of protection solutions
Power protection solutions
Fig. 1.1. APC by Schneider Electric products.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 p. 4
Overview of protection solutions
Accompanying software and services
Fig. 1.2. APC by Schneider Electric software and services.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 5
UPSs in electrical installations
Function of each component in the installation
Fig. 1.3. Functions of the components in installations with UPSs.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 6
UPSs in electrical installations (cont.)
Essential installation parameters
Fig. 1.4. Main parameters for the components in installations with UPSs.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 7
UPSs in electrical installations (cont.)
Sources of information in setting up installation specifications
The diagrams on the previous pages provide a general overview of the components and various parameters in installations with
UPSs.
It is now time to go into more detail.
The table below indicates:
● the order in which the subjects are presented in this chapter
● the choices that must be made
● the purpose of each decision with the indication of the pages concerning the relevant elements in this chapter
● where additional information on each subject may be found in the other chapters of this design guide.
Choices
Mono or multisource
architecture and
configuration of
UPS sources
Purpose
Determine the installation architecture
and UPS configuration best suited to
your requirements in terms of energy
availability, upgrades, operation and
budget.
UPS power rating Determine the rating of the UPS unit
or parallel units (for redundancy or
capacity) required, taking into account
the distribution-system and load
characteristics.
Reduce voltage distortion on the
Control of
upstream busbars to acceptable
upstream
levels, depending on the power
harmonics
sources likely to supply the UPS
system.
System earthing Ensure installation compliance with
applicable standards for the protection
arrangements
of life and property and correct
operation of devices. Which system
earthing arrangements are required
for which applications?
Determine the breaking capacity and
Upstream and
the ratings of the circuit breakers
downstream
protection using upstream and downstream of the
circuit breakers UPS, solve any discrimination
problems.
Limit voltage drops and temperature
Connections
rise in the cables, as well as harmonic
distortion at the load inputs.
Operation on battery power (backup
Battery
time) must last long enough to meet
user requirements.
Communication Define UPS communication with the
electrical and computer environment.
Preliminary work Construction work and ventilation
must be planned, notably if there is a
(if any)
special battery room.
Be aware of the main applicable UPS
Standards
standards.
APC by Schneider Electric
See
Ch. 2
Additional information
See
Ch. 2 p. 5
Examples and comparison of 13
typical installations, from single-UPS
units to high-availability architectures.
Supplying sensitive loads.
Ch. 5 p. 2
UPS configurations.
Ch. 5 p. 23
Engine generator sets.
Ch. 5 p. 35
Ch. 1 p. 17 UPS make-up and operation.
Ch. 5 p. 14
Ch. 1 p. 24 Elimination of harmonics in
installations.
Harmonics
Ch. 3
Ch. 5 p. 38
Ch. 1 p. 30
Ch. 1 p. 35
Ch. 1 p. 43
Ch. 1 p. 45 Energy-storage solutions and
batteries.
Ch. 5 p. 31
Ch. 1 p. 49
Ch. 5 p. 51
Ch. 5 p. 33 Electromagnetic compatibility
GUIPR537UK - 01/2007 edition
Ch. 5 p. 26
ch. 1 - p. 8
Basic notions on installations with UPSs
Need for high-quality and
high-availability power
Disturbances in distribution-system power
Public and private utilities supply electricity whose quality may be reduced by a
number of disturbances. These disturbances are inevitable due to the distances
involved and the wide variety of connected loads.
The origin of disturbances includes:
 the distribution system itself (atmospheric conditions, accidents, switching of
protection or control devices, etc.),
 user equipment (motors, disturbing devices such as arc furnaces, welding
machines, systems incorporating power electronics, etc.).
These disturbances include micro-outages, voltage sags, overvoltages, frequency
variations, harmonics, HF noise, flicker, etc. through to extended outages.
 Disturbances in distribution-system power, see Ch. 5 p. 3.
Requirements of sensitive loads
Digital equipment (computers, telecom systems, instruments, etc.) use
microprocessors that operate at frequencies of several mega or even giga
Hertz, i.e. they carry out millions or even billions of operations per second. A
disturbance in the electrical supply lasting just a few milliseconds can affect
thousands or millions of basic operations. The result may be malfunctions and loss of
data with dangerous (e.g. airports, hospitals) or costly consequences (e.g. loss of
production).
That is why many loads, called sensitive or critical loads, require a supply that is
protected against distribution-system disturbances.
Examples.
 industrial processes and their control/monitoring systems - risk of production
losses.
 airports and hospitals - risks for the safety of people.
 information and communication technologies - risk of halts in processing at a very
high hourly cost.
Many manufacturers of sensitive equipment specify very strict tolerances (much
stricter than those for the distribution system) for the supply of their equipment, one
example being CBEMA (Computer Business Equipment Manufacturer’s Association)
for computer equipment.
 Sensitive loads, see Ch. 5 p. 2 "Supply of sensitive loads".
Costs incurred by the quality of electrical power
Over 50% of failures for critical loads are due to the electrical supply and the hourly
cost of downtime for the corresponding applications is generally very high (fig. 1.5).
It is therefore vital for the modern economy, which is increasingly dependent on
digital technologies, to solve the problems affecting the quality and the availability of
the power supplied by the distribution system when it is intended for sensitive loads.
15 %
45 %
Human
error
20 %
Supply
problems
Examples of hourly costs of failures
● mobile telephones - 40 kEuros.
● airline reservation systems - 90 kEuros.
● credit-card transactions - 2.5 MEuros.
● automotive assembly line - 6 MEuros
● stock-market transactions - 6.5 MEuros.
Equipment
failure
20 %
Nuisance tripping
(circuit breaker, etc.)
Fig. 1.5. Origin and cost of system failures due to the electrical supply.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 9
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
Supply systems with
UPSs
Purpose of UPSs
UPSs (uninterruptible power supply) are designed to meet the needs presented
above. First launched in the 1970s, their importance has grown in step with the
development of digital technologies.
UPSs are electrical devices that are positioned between the distribution system and
sensitive loads. They supply power that is much more reliable than the distribution
system and corresponds to the needs of sensitive loads in terms of quality and
availability.
 UPSs, see Ch. 5 p. 4 "The UPS solution".
Types of UPSs
The term UPS covers products with apparent power ratings from a few hundred VA
up to several MVA, implementing different technologies.
That is why standard IEC 62040-3 and its European equivalent ENV 62040-3 define
three standard types (topologies) of UPS.
UPS technologies include:
 Passive standby,
 Interaction with the distribution system,
 Double conversion.
For the low power ratings (< 2 kVA), the three technologies coexist. For higher
ratings, virtually all static UPSs (i.e. implementing semiconductor components, e.g.
IGBTs) implement the double-conversion technology.
Rotary UPSs (with rotating mechanical parts, e.g. flywheels) are not included in the
standards and remain marginal on the market.
 Types of UPSs, see Ch. 5 p. 9 "Types of static UPSs".
Double-conversion static UPSs
This is virtually the only type of UPS used in high-power installations due to their
unique advantages over the other types:
 complete regeneration of the power supplied at the output,
 total isolation of the load from the distribution system and its disturbances,
 no-break transfer (where applicable) to a bypass line.
 The operating principle (fig. 1.6) is presented below.
 during normal operation, a rectifier/charger turns the AC-input power into DC
power to supply an inverter and float charge a battery.
 the inverter completely regenerates a sinusoidal signal, turning the DC power back
into AC power that is free of all disturbances and within strict amplitude and
frequency tolerances.
 if the AC-input power fails, the battery supplies the power required by the inverter
for a specified backup time.
 a static bypass can transfer the load without a break in the supply of power to a
bypass line to continue supplying the load if need be (internal fault, short-circuit
downstream, maintenance). This "fault-tolerant" design makes it possible to continue
supplying power to the load in "downgraded mode" (the power does not transit the
inverter) during the time required to re-establish normal conditions.
 Double-conversion UPSs, see Ch. 5 p. 14 "Components and operation".
Fig. 1.6. Double-conversion static UPS
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 10
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
Power quality of UPSs
Power quality of double-conversion UPSs
By design, double-conversion solid-state UPSs supply to the connected loads a
sinusoidal signal that is:
 high quality because it is continuously regenerated and regulated (amplitude  1%,
frequency  0.5%),
 free of all disturbances from the distribution system (due to the double conversion)
and in particular from micro-outages and outages (due to the battery).
This level of quality must be ensured, whatever the type of load.
Voltage quality for linear loads
What is a linear load?
A linear load supplied with a sinusoidal voltage draws a sinusoidal current having the
same frequency as the voltage. The current may be displaced (angle ) with respect
to the voltage (fig. 1.7).
Examples of linear loads
Many loads are linear, including standard light bulbs, heating units, resistive loads,
motors, transformers, etc. They do not contain any active electronic components,
only resistors (R), inductors (L) and capacitors (C).
UPSs and linear loads
For this type of load, the UPS output signal is very high quality, i.e. the voltage and
current are perfectly sinusoidal, 50 or 60 Hz.
Purely resistive load
Fig. 1.7. Voltage and current for linear loads.
Load with inductor and/or capacitor
Voltage quality for non-linear loads
What is a non-linear load?
A non-linear (or distorting) load supplied with a sinusoidal voltage draws a periodic
current that has the same frequency as the voltage, but is not sinusoidal.
The current drawn by the load is in fact the combination (fig. 1.8) of:
 a sinusoidal current called the fundamental, at the 50 or 60 Hz frequency,
 harmonics, which are sinusoidal currents with an amplitude less than that of the
fundamental, but a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental and which defines
the harmonic order (e.g. the third order harmonic has a frequency 3 x 50 Hz
(or 60 Hz) and the fifth order harmonic has a frequency 5 x 50 Hz (or 60 Hz)).
The harmonic currents are caused by the presence of power-electronic components
(e.g. diodes, SCRs, IGBTs) which switch the input current.
Examples of non-linear loads
Non-linear loads include all those that have a switch-mode power supply at their
input to supply the electronics (e.g. computers, variable-speed drives, etc.).
Voltage and current drawn by a single-phase
Effect of harmonics (H3 and H5 in this
switch-mode power supply (computers).
example).
Fig. 1.8. The current drawn by non-linear loads is distorted by the harmonics.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 11
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
Harmonic spectrum of the current drawn by a non-linear load
The harmonic analysis of a non-linear current consists in determining (fig. 1.9):
 the harmonic orders present in the current,
 the relative importance of each order, measured as the percentage of the order.
rms value of harmonic k
Hk% = distortion of harmonic k =
rms value of the fundamental
Voltage and current harmonic distortion
Non-linear loads cause both current and voltage harmonics. This is because for each
current harmonic, there is a voltage harmonic with the same frequency. The 50 Hz
(or 60 Hz) sinusoidal voltage of the UPS is therefore distorted by the harmonics.
The distortion of a sine wave is presented as a percentage:
rms value of all the harmonic k
THD* % = total distortion =
rms value of the fundamental
* Total Harmonic Distortion.
The following values are defined:
 TDHU % for the voltage, based on the voltage harmonics,
 TDHI % for the current, based on the current harmonics (fig. 1.9).
The higher the harmonic content, the greater the distortion.
Practically speaking, the distortion in the current drawn by the load is much higher
(THDI approximately 30%) than that of the voltage at the input (THDU approximately
5%).
Harmonic distortion levels
H5 = 33%
H7 = 2.7%
H11 = 7.3%
H13 = 1.6%
H17 = 2.6%
H19 = 1.1%
H23 = 1.5%
H25 = 1.3%
THDI = 35% (see calculation ch. 5, p. 41)
Harmonic spectrum and corresponding THDI.
Input current of a three-phase rectifier.
Fig. 1.9. Example of the harmonic spectrum of the current drawn by a non-linear load.
 Non-linear loads, see Ch. 2 "Elimination of harmonics in installations" and
Ch. 5 p. 38 "Harmonics".
UPSs and non-linear loads
Harmonics affect the sinusoidal voltage at the UPS output. Excessive distortion can
disturb the linear loads connected in parallel on the output, notably by increasing the
current they draw (temperature rise).
To maintain the quality of the UPS output voltage, it is necessary to limit its distortion
(THDU), i.e. limit the current harmonics that produce voltage distortion.
In particular, it is necessary that the impedance (at the UPS output and in the cables
supplying the load) remain low.
Limiting the distortion of the output voltage
Due to the free-frequency chopping technique employed, the impedance at the
output of UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric is very low, whatever the frequency
(i.e. whatever the harmonic order). This technique virtually eliminates all distortion in
the output voltage when supplying non-linear loads. The quality of the output voltage
is thus constant, even for non-linear loads.
Practically speaking, installation designers must:
 check UPS output values for non-linear loads and, in particular, make sure that the
announced level of distortion, measured for standardised non-linear loads as per
standard IEC 62040-3, is very low (THDU < 2 to 3%),
 limit the length (impedance) of the output cables supplying the loads.
 UPS performance for non-linear loads, see Ch. 5 p. 43.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 12
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
UPS power availability
What is meant by availability?
Availability of an electrical installation
Availability is the probability that the installation will be capable of supplying energy
with the level of quality required by the supplied loads.
It is expressed as a percentage.
MTTR
Availability (%) = (1
)  100
MTBF
The MTTR is the mean time to repair the supply system following a failure (including
the time to detect the cause of the failure, repair it and start the system up again).
The MTBF is the mean time between failures, i.e. the time the supply system is
capable of ensuring correct operation of the loads.
 Example.
An availability of 99.9% (called thee nines) corresponds to a 99.9% chance that the
system will effectively carry out the required functions at any given time. The
difference between this probability and 1 (i.e. 1 - 0.999 = 0.001) indicates the level of
non-availability (i.e. one chance out of 1000 that the system will not carry out the
required functions at any given time).
Fig. 1.10. MTTR and MTBF.
What is the practical signification of availability?
Down-time costs for critical applications are very high (see fig. 1.5).
These applications must obviously remain in operation as long as possible.
The same is true for their electrical supply.
The availability of the energy supplied by an electrical installation corresponds to a
statistical measurement (in the form of a percentage) of its operating time.
The MTBF and MTTR values are calculated or measured (on the basis of sufficiently
long observations) for the components. They can then be used to determine the
availability of the installation over the period.
What are the factors contributing to availability?
Availability depends on the MTBF and the MTTR.
 Availability would be equal to 100% if the MTTR is equal to zero (instantaneous
repair) or if the MTBF is infinite (operation with no breakdowns). This is statistically
impossible.
 Practically speaking, the lower the MTTR and the higher the MTBF, the greater the
availability.
From "3 nines" to "6 nines"
The critical nature of many applications has created the need for much higher levels
of availability for electrical power.
 The "traditional" economy uses power from the public utility. An average-quality
distribution system with HV backup offers 99.9% availability (3 nines), which
corresponds to eight hours of non-availability per year.
 Sensitive loads require an electrical supply capable of providing 99.99% availability
(4 nines), which corresponds to 50 minutes of non-availability per year.
 The computer and communication equipment in data centres requires 99.9999%
availability (6 nines), which corresponds to 30 seconds of non-availability per year.
This level is the means to ensure, without risk of major financial loss, operation of
infrastructures 24/365, without shutdown for maintenance. It is a step toward a
continuous supply.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 13
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
 The "traditional" economy uses
public-utility power offering 99.9%
availability, i.e. 3 nines.
 Sensitive loads require a 99.99%
level of availability, i.e. 4 nines.
 Data centres require 99.9999%,
i.e. 6 nines.
Fig. 1.11. Evolution in the level of availability required by applications.
How can availability be improved?
To improve availability, it is necessary to reduce the MTTR and increase the
MTBF.
Reduce the MTTR
Real-time fault detection, analysis by experts to ensure a precise diagnosis and rapid
repair all contribute to reducing the MTTR.
These efforts depend on the key factors listed below.
Quality of service
 International presence of the manufacturer.
 International availability of services.
 The number, the qualification and the experience of service teams.
 The installed product base and the experience gained.
 Easy to maintain, modular UPSs
 The resources and the proximity of the technical support.
 Local availability of original spare parts.
 High-performance manufacturer methods and tools.
 Remote diagnostics.
 Training in courses adapted to customer needs.
 Quality and availability of documentation in the local language.
APC Global ServicesTM offers a complete range of consulting services,
training and audits to provide users with the knowledge required for
system operation, diagnostics and level-one maintenance.
TM
APC Global Services
Reduce the MTTR
Increase availability
Fig. 1.12. The quality of service is an essential factor in high availability.
UPS communication capabilities
 User-friendly interface providing easy operating diagnostics.
 Communication with the electrical and computer environment.
 Communication and supervision of UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric, see
Ch. 4. UPS communication.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 14
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
Increase the MTBF
This goal depends primarily on the factors listed below.
Selection of components with proven reliability
 Products with certified design, development and manufacturing processes.
 Performance levels certified by recognised, independent organisations.
 Compliance with international standards on electrical safety, EMC
(electromagnetic compatibility) and performance measurement.
With 40 years experience and protecting 350 GVA of critical power, solutions
from APC by Schneider Electric have proven their value to the major industrial
companies. All products comply with the main international standards and their
level of performance is certified by recognised organisations.
Certified quality and reliability
Increase the MTBF
Increase availability
Fig. 1.13. The proven reliability of products increase the MTBF and availability.
Built-in fault tolerance
Fault tolerance makes possible operation in a downgraded mode following faults that
may occur at different levels of the installation (see fig. 1.14). During the time
required to repair, the load continues to be supplied and generates revenues.
Immediate tripping:
- detection and alarms
- identification of causes
- corrective action
Fig. 1.14. Fault tolerance increases availability.
Installation maintainability
This is the capacity to isolate (de-energise) parts of the installation for maintenance
under safe conditions, while continuing to supply the load. It should be possible:
 in the UPS, due to the static bypass and maintenance bypass,
 in other parts of the installation, depending on the architecture.
Direct supply of the load during
maintenance.
Automatic, no-break transfer of the
load to the bypass line following a
downstream internal fault or
overload.
Fig. 1.15. Static bypass and manual maintenance bypass.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 15
Basic notions on installations with UPSs (cont.)
APC by Schneider Electric solutions ensure fault tolerance and maintainability by
implementing:
 double-conversion UPSs capable of transferring the load to the Bypass AC input
via the automatic bypass and equipped with a maintenance bypass,
 redundant, multi-source UPS configurations with STS units.
Key factors to the availability of installations with UPSs
A few years ago, most installations were made up of single-UPS units and the
number of parallel systems was small. The applications requiring this type of
installation still exist.
However, the shift toward high availability requires use of configurations offering
redundancy at a number of levels in the installation (see fig. 1.16).
Source redundancy:
availability even during long
utility outages.
UPS redundancy:
reliability, easier and safer
maintenance.
Redundant distribution
with STS units: maximum
availability.
Fig. 1.16. The required levels of availability have resulted in the use of redundancy on a
number of levels in the installation.
This trend has led designers, depending on the criticality of the loads and the
operating requirements, to take into account some or all of the key factors listed
below.
Reliability and availability
Propose a configuration corresponding to the level of availability required by the
load, comprising components with proven levels of reliability and backed up by a
suitable level of service quality.
Maintainability
Ensure easy maintenance of the equipment under safe conditions for personnel and
without interrupting operation.
Upgradeability
It must be possible to upgrade the installation over time, taking into account both the
need to expand the installation gradually and operating requirements.
Discrimination and non propagation of faults
It must be possible to limit faults to as small a part of the installation as possible,
while enabling servicing without stopping operations.
Installation operation and management
Make operations easier by providing the means to anticipate events via installation
supervision and management systems.
Selection of the
configuration
Prerequisite step in establishing installation specifications
The selection of a configuration determines the level of availability that will be
created for the load. It also determines the possible solutions for most of the factors
listed above.
The configuration may be single or multi-source, with single or parallel UPS units and
with or without redundancy.
Selection of the configuration is the initial step in establishing installation
specifications. To assist in making the right decision, chapter 2 is entirely devoted to
this subject. It compares the various configurations in terms of availability, protection
of the loads, maintainability, upgradeability and cost.
 Configuration selection based on typical installations corresponding to different
levels of availability, see Ch. 2.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 16
Power calculations
Elements required for
power calculations
Installation considerations
Type of load supplied
Linear loads (cos ) or non-linear loads (power factor).
These characteristics determine the power factor at the UPS output.
Maximum power drawn by the load under steady-state conditions
For a load, this is the power rating. If a number of loads are connected in parallel on
the UPS output, it is necessary to calculate the total load when all the loads operate
at the same time. Otherwise, it is necessary to use diversity to calculate the most
unfavourable operation in terms of the power drawn.
In-rush currents under transient conditions or for a short-circuit
downstream
The overload capacity of a UPS system depends on the time the overload lasts.
If this time limit is exceeded, the UPS transfers the load to the Bypass AC input, if its
voltage characteristics are within tolerances. In this case, the load is no longer
protected against disturbances on the distribution system.
Depending on the quality of the Bypass AC power, it is possible to:
 use the Bypass AC input to handle current spikes due to switching of devices or
downstream short-circuits. This avoids oversizing the system,
 disable automatic transfer (except for internal faults), while maintaining the
possibility of manual transfers (e.g. for maintenance).
UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric operate in current-limiting mode. By spacing
switching of devices over time, it is generally possible to handle in-rush currents
without having to transfer to the Bypass AC power. If the in-rush current exceeds the
limiting threshold (e.g. 2.33 In for MGE Galaxy 9000 UPSs) for a few periods (but
less than one second), the UPS current limits for the necessary time. This
downgraded operating mode may be acceptable, for example, for a cold start (on
battery power, utility power absent).
Power of a UPS
Rated power of a UPS
This rating, indicated in the catalogues, is in the output power. It is indicated as an
apparent power Sn in kVA, with the corresponding active power Pn in kW, for a:
 linear load,
 load with a cos  = 0.8.
However, last-generation UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric can supply loads
with a cos  = 0.9 leading.
Calculation of the rated power
Pn (kW) = 0.8 Sn (kVA). rated active power
This calculation depends on the output voltage of the UPS and the current drawn by
the load, where:
Sn (kVA) = UnIn 3
in three-phase systems
Sn (kVA) = VnIn in single-phase systems
For a three-phase UPS, U and I are rms line values, for a single-phase UPS, V is a
phase-to-neutral voltage, where:
Un = phase-to-phase voltage
Vn = phase-to-neutral voltage
Un = Vn 3
For example, if Un = 400 volts, Vn = 230 Volts.
Power and type of load
The two tables below present the equations linking the power, voltage and current,
depending on the type of load (linear or non-linear).
The following symbols are used:
 instantaneous voltage u(t) and current i(t) values,
 the corresponding rms values U and I,
  = angular frequency = 2  f where f is the frequency (50 or 60 Hz),
  = displacement between the voltage and the current under sinusoidal conditions.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 17
Power calculations (cont.)
Linear loads
Three-phase
Sinusoidal voltage
Single-phase
u(t) = U 2 sin t
v(t) = V 2 sin t
between phases
phase to neutral
U=V 3
i(t) = I 2 sin (t - )
Displaced sinusoidal current
phase current
Current crest factor
2
Apparent power
S (kVA) = UI 3 cos 
S (kVA) = VI
Active power
P (kW) = UI 3 cos  = S (kVA) cos 
P (kW) = VI cos  = S (kVA) cos 
Reactive power
Q (kvar) = UI 3 sin  = S (kVA) sin 
Q (kvar) = VI sin  = S (kVA) sin 
S=
P 2 +Q
2
Non-linear loads
Sinusoidal voltage
u(t) = U 2 sin t
v(t) = V 2 sin t
between phases
The regulated UPS voltage remains sinusoidal (low
THDU), whatever the type of load.
phase to neutral
U=V 3
i(t) = i1(t) + ihk(t)
Current with harmonics
total phase current
i1(t) = I1 2 sin (t - 1)
fundamental current
ik(t) = Ihk 2 sin (kt - k)
I=
I12
2
2
2
+ I2 + I3 + I4 + ....
k-order harmonic
rms value of the total current
Fc = peak current value / rms value
THDI =
I12
2
2
Current crest factor
2
+ I2 + I3 + I4 + ....
I1
Current total harmonic distortion
Apparent power
S (kVA) = UI 3
S (kVA) = VI
Active power
P (kW) =  UI 3 =  S (kVA)
P (kW) =  VI =  S (kVA)
Power factor
=
P(kW )
S(kVA )
UPS percent load
This is the percentage of the rated power that is effectively drawn by the load.
Sload (kVA )
Load (%) =
Sn (kVA )
 Recommendation: take into account growth in loads
It is advised to leave a margin (excess power) when setting the rated power,
particularly if a site expansion is planned. In this case, make sure the percent load on
the UPS is still acceptable after the expansion.
UPS efficiency
This factor determines the power drawn by the UPS on the upstream distribution
system, i.e. the consumption. It may be calculated as:
PUPSoutput (kW )
 (%) =
PUPSinput (kW )
For a given power rating, a high level of efficiency:
 reduces power bills,
 reduces heat losses and, consequently, ventilation requirements.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 18
Power calculations (cont.)
It is possible to calculate the efficiency at full rated load, i.e. with a 100% load.
Pn (kW )
n (%) =
PUPSinput (kW )
The rated active power of the UPS is obtained by multiplying the rated apparent
power Sn (kVA) by 0.8 (if  > 0.8) or by  (if < 0.8).
The efficiency can vary significantly depending on the percent load and the type of
load.
The installation designer must therefore pay attention to two aspects of efficiency.
 Recommendation 1: check the efficiency for non-linear loads
The presence of non-linear loads tends to reduce the power factor to values below
0.8. It is therefore necessary to check the efficiency value for standardised non-linear
loads. This check is recommended by standards IEC 62040-3 / EN 62040-3.
 Recommendation 2: check the efficiency at the planned percent
load
Manufacturers generally indicate the efficiency at full rated load. However, its value
may drop if the percent load is lower (1). Attention must therefore be paid to UPSs
operating in an active-redundancy configuration, where the units share the total load
and often operate at 50% of their full rated load, or less.
(1) A UPS is optimised to operate at full rated load. Even though losses are at their
maximum at full rated load, the efficiency is also at its maximum. In a standard UPS,
losses are not proportional to the percent load and the efficiency drops sharply when
the percent load drops. This is because a part of the losses is constant and the
relative percentage of this part increases when the load decreases. To obtain high
efficiency at low load levels, the constant losses must be very low.
Due to their design, UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric have very low constant
losses and as a result, the efficiency is virtually stable for loads from 30 to 100%.
 UPS efficiency, see Ch. 5 p. 20.
Ratings of single-UPS
configurations
Single-UPS configurations
These configurations comprise a single, double-conversion UPS unit (see fig. 1.17).
The overload capacity at the UPS output is indicated by a diagram (the example
below is for the MGE Galaxy 9000 range).
In the event of an internal fault or an overload exceeding UPS capacity, the system
automatically transfers to the Bypass AC input. If transfer is not possible, UPSs from
APC by Schneider Electric current limit for overloads greater than the maximum
value (e.g. 2.33 In peak for one second for Galaxy 9000, which corresponds to a
maximum sine wave with an rms value of 2.33 / 2 = 1.65 In). Beyond one second,
the UPS shuts down.
A set of disconnection switches is available to isolate the UPS for maintenance in
complete safety.
Fig. 1.17. Single double-conversion static UPS unit and example of an overload curve.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 19
Power calculations (cont.)
Power levels under steady-state conditions
A UPS is sized using the apparent rated output power Sn (kVA) and an output power
factor of 0.8. These conditions correspond to an active rated power of Pn (kW) = 0.8
Sn (kVA).
In real-life situations, a UPS supplies a number of loads with an overall power factor
 that is often not 0.8 due to the presence of non-linear loads and means to improve
the power factor;
 If   0.8, the UPS is still limited to Pn (kW),
 If  < 0.8, the UPS is limited to  Sn (kW) < Pn (kW).
Consequently, selection of the power rating in kVA must take into account the active
power supplied to the loads.
The active power is determined by following the four steps below.
1 - Apparent and active power drawn by the loads
The first step is to evaluate the power requirements of the load.
The table below must be drawn up for the k loads to be supplied.
Load
Load 1
Load 2
…
Load i
…
Load k
Total
Apparent rated
power (kVA)
S1
S2
Input power factor 
(or cos )
1
2
Active rated power
(kW)
P1 =  1 S1
P2 =  2 S2
Si
i
Pi =  i S i
Sk
S
(1) S is not the sum of
Si.
k

(2)  must be
measured or
calculated.
Pk =  k S k
P = S
(3) P =  S =  i S i
(1) S is not the sum of Si because:
- it would be necessary to calculate the vectoral sum if all the loads were linear, using the
angles of the different cos ,
- some of the loads are not linear.
(2)  must be measured on site or evaluated on the basis of past experience.
(3) P =  S =  i S i because the active power is added (no displacement).
2 - Rated apparent power of the UPS (Sn)
The second step is to select a UPS with an apparent-power rating sufficient to cover
the load requirements (in kVA).
Under the given conditions, the suitable rated apparent power for the UPS is:
Sn(kVA) > S. where S = P / .
In the UPS range, select the UPS with a rated power Sn (kVA) just above S. If
reserve power is required and the selected rating is too close to S, select the next
highest rating.
3 - Check on the active power
The third step is a check to ensure that the selected power rating can cover
the load requirements in kW under the stipulated operating conditions.
For the selected rating, the UPS will supply the rated active power
Pn (kW) = 0.8 Sn (kVA)
 If   0.8, make sure that Pn (kW) > P, i.e. that the UPS can supply the additional
power required, otherwise select the next highest rating.
 If  < 0.8, the power supplied by the UPS is sufficient because Pn (kW) >  Sn
(kVA), i.e. the selection is correct.
4. - Percent load
The fourth step is a check to ensure that the percent load is acceptable now and in
the future, given the desired operating conditions.
The percent load is:
Load = S / Sn(kVA) .
It must be sufficient to cover any increases in the load or if there are plans to expand
the system to become redundant.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 20
Power calculations (cont.)
Power levels under transient conditions
Load in-rush currents
It is necessary to know the in-rush current of each load and the duration of the
transient conditions. If a number of loads risk being turned on at the same time, it is
necessary to sum the in-rush currents.
Necessary checks
It is then necessary to check that the planned UPS power rating can handle the inrush currents. Note that the UPS can operate for a few periods in current-limiting
mode (e.g. 2.33 In for one second for an MGE Galaxy 9000). If the UPS cannot
handle the in-rush currents, it is necessary to decide whether it is acceptable to
transfer to the Bypass AC input when the transient conditions occur. If transfer is not
acceptable, it is necessary to increase the power rating.
 Review of in-rush currents, see Ch. 5 p. 37.
Example
The example below is simply to illustrate the point and does not correspond to a real
situation. The purpose is to indicate the required steps. The installation is made up of
three 400 V three-phase loads connected in parallel:
 Computer system - S1 = 4 x 10 kVA (4 identical 10 kVA loads),  = 0.6 for all the
loads, in-rush current 8 In over four periods 50 Hz (80 ms) for each load,
 Variable-speed drive - S2 = 20 kVA,  = 0.7, in-rush current 4 In over five periods
(100 ms),
 Isolation transformer - S3 = 20 kVA,  = cos  = 0.8, in-rush current 10 In over six
periods (120 ms).
Rated apparent output
power Sn(kVA)
Active power
Pn(kW) = 0.8 Sn(kVA)
Power factor  at UPS
output for all loads
Total power consumed by
the loads
4 x 10 kVA
P (kW) = 54 kW
1 = 0.6
Fig. 1.18. Example of an installation.
20 kVA
2 = 0.7
20 kVA
cos  = 0.8
Maximum active output
power (that the UPS can
supply to the loads)
 Sn (kVA)
Power levels under steady-state conditions
1 - Apparent and active power drawn by the loads
Below is the table that should be drawn up.
Load
Computer system
Variable-speed drive
LV/LV transformer
Total
Rated apparent
power (kVA)
40
20
20
S
Input power factor
0.8*
0.7
0.8
 = 0.68
measured or estimated
Rated active power
(kW)
32*
14
16
P = 54 kW
* average of new top of the range systems with power factor 0.9 and older equipment
with power factor between 0.7 and 0.8.
2 - Rated apparent power of the UPS
S = 54 / 0.68 = 79.4 kVA
A Galaxy PW UPS with a sufficient rating should be selected. The 80 kVA rating
would not be sufficient, i.e. the 100 kVA rating should be selected or higher if a site
extension is planned.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 21
Power calculations (cont.)
3 - Check on the active power
 The UPS can supply the loads 100 x 0.68 = 68 kW > 54 kW.
4 - Checks on the percent load and rated current
 The percent load is therefore 79.4 / 100 = 79.4%.
 Rated current of the UPS - Sn (kVA) = UI 3 , i.e. I = 100 / (400 x 1.732) = 144 A.
In-rush currents under transient conditions
The loads should be started up one after the other to avoid combining the in-rush
currents. It is necessary to check that the UPS can handle the in-rush currents.
The rated currents are calculated as S (kVA) = UI 3 , i.e.:
 Computer system - In = 10 / (400 x 1.732) = 14.4 A, i.e. 8 In  115 A for 80 ms
 Variable-speed drive - In = 20/(400 x 1.732) = 28.8 A, i.e. 4 In  115 A for 100 ms
 Transformer - In = 20 / (400 x 1.732) = 28.8 A, i.e. 10 In = 288 A for 120 ms
 A 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW UPS has an overload capacity of 120%, i.e. 151 A x
1.2 = 173 A for 1 minute and 150%, i.e. 151 A x 1.5 = 216 A for 1 minute
 Operation in current-limiting mode at 2.33 In, i.e. 335 A for one second.
If the four computer loads (10 kVA each) are started one after the other, the 20%
overload capacity of the UPS is sufficient (173 A -1mn > 115 A - 80 ms).
If the four loads are started simultaneously, the in-rush current would be
4 x 115 = 460 A > 335 A. The system would current limit for 80 ms.
For the variable-speed drive, the overload capacity is sufficient. For the isolation
transformer (288 A for 120 ms), the overload capacity is again sufficient.
Ratings of parallel-UPS
configurations
Parallel-UPS configurations
Purpose of parallel connection
Parallel connection of a number of identical units is the means to:
 increase the power rating,
 establish redundancy that increases the MTBF and availability.
Types of parallel connection
Two types of UPS units can be connected in parallel.
 Integrated parallel UPS units - each UPS unit includes an automatic bypass and
a manual maintenance bypass. The manual bypass may be common to the entire
system (in an external cubicle).
 Parallel UPS units with an SSC - the static-switch cubicle comprises an
automatic bypass and a maintenance bypass that are common for a number of
parallel units without bypasses (see fig. 1.19).
True modular parallel systems are also available, made up of dedicated and
redundant modules-power, intelligence, battery and bypass, all engineered into a
design that is easily and efficiently serviceable. Power modules can be easily added
as demand grows or as higher levels of availability are required.
There are two types of parallel configurations:
 Without redundancy - all the UPS units are required to supply the load. Failure of
one unit means the entire system shuts down (not recommended),
 With redundancy N+1, N+2, etc. - the number of UPS units required for the load
is equal to N. All the UPS units (N+1, N+2, etc.) share the load. If one UPS unit shuts
down, the remaining units (at least equal in number to N) continue to share the load.
 Typical configurations and characteristics, see Ch. 2.
Fig. 1.19. UPS system with parallel-connected units and a static-switch cubicle (SSC).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 22
Power calculations (cont.)
Power levels in redundant parallel configurations
In a redundant parallel configuration made up of identical units, the units share the
load. The power rating of each unit does not depend on the level of redundancy, but
must be calculated to continue supplying the load even if redundancy is completely
lost.
Active redundancy:
 improves availability,
 increases the overload capacity,
 reduces the percent load on each UPS unit.
The power level is determined by following the same four steps as for a single-UPS
configuration.
1 - Apparent and active power drawn by the loads
The same type of table is used as that for a single UPS (see Ch1 p. 20).
The result is the apparent power S that must be supplied to the load.
2 - Rated apparent power of the UPS units (Sn) in the configuration
Consider a level of redundancy N + K (e.g. 2 + 1), which means:
- N units (e.g. 2) are required to supply the load,
- K units (e.g. 1 extra unit) ensure redundancy.
Each UPS unit must be sized to enable the system as a whole to operate without
redundancy, i.e. with N operational units and K units shut down.
In this case, the N units must each have an apparent power rating Sn (kVA) such
that:
Sn(kVA) > S / N.
Select in the UPS range the power rating Sn (kVA) just above S/N. If reserve power
is required or the selected rating is too close to S, select the next highest rating.
3 - Check on the active power
For the selected rating, the UPS will supply the active rated power
Pn (kW) = 0.8 Sn (kVA)
 if   0.8, make sure that Pn (kW) > P, i.e. that the UPS can supply the additional
power required, otherwise select the next highest rating.
 if  < 0.8, the power supplied by the UPS is sufficient because Pn (kW) >  Sn
(kVA), i.e. the selection is correct.
4 - Percent load
With redundancy, the UPS units share the load according to the equation
S / (N+K). The percent load for each unit when there is redundancy is therefore:
TL = S / (N + k) Sn(kVA) .
In a non-redundant system, it is calculated as:
TL = S / N Sn(kVA).
It must be sufficient to cover any increases in the load.
Example
This example will use the results from the last example and we will suppose that the
loads are critical, i.e. redundancy is required.
 The total load is 54 kW with an overall power factor for all the loads of 0.68, i.e. S =
54 / 0.68 = 79.4 kVA.
 If 2+1 redundancy is used, two units must be capable of supplying the load. Each
must will have to supply S / 2 = 79.4 / 2 = 39.7 kVA.
 An MGE Galaxy PW UPS with a sufficient rating should be selected. The 40 kVA
rating would not be sufficient, i.e. the 50 kVA rating should be selected or higher if a
site extension is planned.
 If redundancy is not available, the two UPS units must be capable of supplying the
load.
 This is the case because 2 x 50 x 0.68 = 68 kW > 54 kW.
 During operation, the percent load will be:
- with redundancy, i.e. with 3 UPS units sharing the load: 79.4 / 3 x 50 = 52.9%,
- without redundancy, i.e. with only 2 UPS units sharing the load: 79.4 / 2 x 50 =
79.4%.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 23
Control of upstream harmonics
UPSs and upstream
harmonics
Role of the input rectifier
UPS units draw power from the AC distribution system via a rectifier/charger. With
respect to the upstream system, the rectifier is a non-linear load that causes
harmonics. In terms of harmonics, there are two types of rectifiers.
Standard rectifiers
These are three-phase rectifiers incorporating SCRs and using a six-phase bridge
(Graetz bridge) with standard chopping of the current.
This type of bridge draws harmonic currents with orders of n = 6 k  1 (where k is a
whole number), mainly H5 and H7, and to a lesser degree H11 and H13.
Harmonics are controlled by using a filter (see fig. 1.20).
PFC-type transitor-based controlled active rectifiers
These transistor-based active rectifiers have a regulation system that adjusts the
input voltage and current to a reference sine wave. This technique ensures an input
voltage and current that are:
 perfectly sinusoidal, i.e. free of harmonics,
 in phase, i.e. with a power factor close to 1.
With this type of rectifier, no filters are required.
 Clean transitor-based rectifiers, see Ch. 4.
All high-power UPS ranges from APC by Schneider Electric (except MGE Galaxy PW
and and MGE Galaxy 9000) use PFC type controlled active rectifier technologies and
therefore do not generate harmonics.
Fig. 1.20. Input rectifier and harmonics.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 24
Control of upstream harmonics (cont.)
Filtering of upstream
harmonics for UPSs with
Graetz bridge rectifiers
Goals of harmonic filtering
This section concerns only the MGE Galaxy PW and MGE Galaxy 9000 ranges and
UPSs with conventional Graetz bridge rectifiers.
A "clean" upstream system
The goal is to ensure a level of voltage distortion (THDU) on the busbars supplying
the UPS that is compatible with the other connected loads.
The UTE recommends limiting the THDU to:
 5% when the source is a generator,
 3% when the source is a transformer to take into account 1 to 2% of THDU which
may already be present on the HV distribution system.
This recommendation may differ for each country.
Practically speaking, solutions for voltage distortion (THDU) must be implemented in
a manner specific to the country where the installation is located.
Easy combination with an engine generator set
The goal is to make possible a UPS/engine generator set combination with no risk of
increasing the level of harmonics when the load is transferred to the generator. This
risk exists because the generator has a source impedance lower than that of a
transformer, which increases the effects of harmonics.
High power factor at the rectifier input
The goal is to increase the input power factor (generally to a level higher than 0.94).
This reduces the consumption of kVA and avoids oversizing the sources.
Installation complying with standards
The goal is to comply with standards concerning harmonic disturbances and with the
recommendations issued by power utilities.
 Standards on harmonic disturbances (see table 1.2)
- IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2 for devices with an input current  16 A/ph.
- IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4 for devices with an input current > 16 A/ph.
 Standards and recommendations on the quality of distribution systems, notably:
- IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5,
- EN 50160 (Europe),
- IEEE 519-2 (United States),
- ASE 3600 (Switzerland),
- G5/3 (U.K.), etc.
 Standards on harmonics, see "UPS standards" in Ch. 5, p. 29.
Table 1.2. Example of harmonic-current limitations as per guide IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-34 for devices with an input current > 16 A/ph (stage 1, simplified connection).
Harmonic
% of H1 (fundamental)
H3
21.6%
H5
10.7%
H7
7.2%
H9
3.8%
H11
3.1%
H13
2.0%
H15
0.7%
H17
1.2%
H19
1.1%
H21
 0.6%
H23
0.9%
H25
0.8%
H27
 0.6%
H29
0.7%
H31
0.7%
 H33
 0.6%
Even orders
 0.6% or  8/n (n even order)
Types of harmonics filters
Harmonics filters eliminate certain orders or all orders, depending on their
technology. The following types are available.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 25
Control of upstream harmonics (cont.)
Passive LC filters
 non-compensated
 compensated
 non-compensated with contactor
Double-bridge rectifier
Phase-shift filter
THM active filter (Active 12-pulse technology).
Filtering and parallel connection
When a number of UPS units are connected in parallel and depending on the type of
filter used, it is possible to install:
 an individual filter on each UPS unit,
 a common filter for the entire parallel configuration.
The goal is to achieve a balance between cost and effectiveness, taking into account
the acceptable levels of harmonic distortion.
The comparison tables for the various solutions (Ch. 1, p. 28) are helpful in making a
selection.
Combination of LC filters and generator
The generator can supply only relatively low capacitive currents (10 to 30% of In).
When an LC filter is installed, the main difficulty lies in the gradual start-up of the
rectifier on generator power, when active power is equal to zero and the generator
supplies only the capacitive current for the filter. Consequently, the use of LC filters
must be correctly analysed to ensure that operation complies with manufacturer
specifications. Below is a method for selection of LC filters, using as an example a
generator derating curve, similar to those provided by manufacturers.
Fig. 1.21. Derating curve for a generator, as a function of the installation power factor.
The curve in the figure above, provided as one example among many, shows the
power derating as a function of the operating point, for a given generator. For a
purely capacitive load (= 0), the power available is equal to only 30% of the rated
power (point A). If we assume an apparent power rating such that Pn generator = Pn
rectifier, the meaning of points A, B, C, D, E and F is the following:
A: reactive power corresponding to the capacitive current of a non-compensated
filter,
B: reactive power corresponding to the capacitive current of a compensated filter,
C: operating point at start-up with a non-compensated filter with contactor,
D: operating point at the rated load with a non-compensated filter,
E: operating point at the rated load with a compensated filter,
F: operating point at the rated load, without a filter or with a phase-shift filter.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 26
Control of upstream harmonics (cont.)
Example
Consider a non-compensated filter with a 300 kVA generator and a 200 kVA MGE
Galaxy PW UPS.
The power rating of the rectifier, taking 87% as the efficiency value (1 / 0.87 = 1.15),
is 1.15 times that of the inverter, i.e. 200 x 1.15 = 230 kVA.
The capacitive current of the non-compensated filter is 230 x 30% (1) = 69 kVA.
The reactive power that the generator can handle (point A) is 300 x 0.3 = 90 kVA.
The filter is therefore compatible with the generator.
(1) The value of 30% has been determined experimentally.
Selection of a filter
Selection parameters for a filter
Overall effectiveness - reduction in distortion (THDI and THDU)
The effectiveness depends on the harmonic orders filtered and the degree to which
they are attenuated or eliminated. It is measured by the THDI at the rectifier input.
The impact on the THDI determines the level of the THDU. It is necessary to check
the performance at the planned percent load, given that many UPS systems operate
at percent loads between 50 and 75%.
Improvement in the power factor 
The filter improves the power factor (generally to a level higher than 0.92).
Compatibility with an engine generator set
It is also necessary to check the performance with the planned source(s), either a
transformer or an engine generator set. This is because the generator has an output
impedance lower than that of a transformer, which increases the effects of
harmonics.
Suitable for parallel-UPS configurations
Depending on the type of filter, it is possible to install one on each UPS unit or set up
a single filter for overall elimination of harmonics.
Efficiency
Consumption of the filters can slightly modify the efficiency of the installation as a
whole.
Flexibility for set-up and upgrades
Filters are generally specific to a UPS and may be factory-mounted or installed after
installation. The SineWave conditioner provides overall elimination of harmonics and
great flexibility in the configuration.
Dimensions
It is necessary to check whether the filter can be installed in the UPS cabinet or in a
second cabinet.
Cost
It impacts on the effectiveness of the filter and must be weighed against the
advantages obtained.
Compliance with standards
It is necessary to determine compliance with standards, in particular IEC 61000-3-4,
in terms of the individual harmonic levels indicated in the texts.
Comparison table of solutions
The following tables list the elements for comparison, with a general comment on use
of each type of solution.
Table 1.3 presents individual solutions for single-UPS configurations. These
solutions may also be used in parallel configurations.
Table 1.4 presents overall solutions for entire configurations.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 27
Control of upstream harmonics (cont.)
Table 1.3. Comparison of individual harmonic-filtering solutions.
Type of filter
Criterion
Diagram
Reduction in distortion
THDI at 100% load
THDI at 50% load
Harmonics eliminated
LC noncompensated
LC compensated
LC with contactor
Double bridge
Built-in THM
Fig. 1.22a
Fig. 1.22b
Fig. 1.22c
Fig. 1.22d
Fig. 1.22e
7 to 8%
10%
H5, H7
7 to 8%
10%
H5, H7
7 to 8%
10%
H5, H7
10%
15%
H5, H7, H17, H19
4%
5%
H2 to H25
0.95
1
0.95
1
0.95
1
0.85
0.8
0.94
0.94
*
**
**
**
***
***
*
***
***
***
*
***
***
***
*
***
***
*
*
*
*
**
***
**
***
*
*
*
*
**
Fig. 1.22f
Fig. 1.22g
Fig. 1.22h
Fig. 1.22i
Fig. 1.22j
no
no
no
no
yes
Power factor
 at 100% load
 at 50% load
Compatibility with
generator
Efficiency of filter
Flexibility, upgradeability
Cost
Dimensions
Connection in parallel with
UPS
Compliance with guide
IEC 61000-3-4
General comment
*** Excellent
** Good
APC by Schneider Electric
Solution suitable for
installations without
an engine generator
set.
Solution suitable for
installations with an
engine generator set.
The added inductor
load reduces the
capacitive power that
must be supplied by
the engine-generator
set.
Solution suitable for
Solution suitable for
installations
installations with
comprising an engine gensets
generator set with a
power rating lower
than that of the UPS.
The LC line is
switched in by the
contactor at a preset
value corresponding
to an inverter percent
load that is
acceptable for the
engine generator set.
Solution suited to
sensitive installations
or with changing load
levels. The most
effective and the most
flexible solution. Does
not depend on the
percent load or the
type of upstream
source.
* Sufficient
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 28
Control of upstream harmonics (cont.)
Table 1.4 Comparison of overall solutions.
Type of filter
SineWave
Criterion
Diagram
Phase-shift filter
AC input
SW
UPS
UPS
UPS
Load
Fig. 1.23b
Fig. 1.23a
Reduction in distortion
THDI at 100% load
THDI at 50% load
4%
5%
Harmonics eliminated
H2 to H25
Fig. 1.23c
Fig. 1.23d
< 10%
< 5%
< 4%
35% with 1 UPS shut 19% with 1 UPS shut 12% with 1 UPS shut
down
down
down
Power factor
 at 100% load
 at 50% load
Compatibility with
generator
Efficiency of filter
Flexibility, upgradeability
Cost
Dimensions
Compliance with guide
IEC 61000-3-4
General comment
*** Excellent
** Good
APC by Schneider Electric
0.95
1
0.8
0.8
***
**
***
***
***
***
**
*
***
*
yes
yes
Solution suited to sensitive installations or
with changing load levels. The most effective
and the most flexible solution. Does not
depend on the percent load or the type of
upstream source.
Solution cannot be modified. Suited to installations with more than
two parallel-connected UPS units.
* Sufficient
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 29
System earthing arrangements
Background information
on system earthing
arrangements
Protection of persons against electrical contact
International standards require that electrical installations implement two types of
protection of persons against the dangers of electrical currents.
Protection against direct contacts
The purpose of this form of protection is to avoid "direct" contact between persons
and intentionally live parts (see fig. 1.24).
It includes the points listed below.
 isolation of live parts using barriers or enclosures offering a degree of protection
at least equal to IP2X or IPXXB.
 opening of the enclosure (doors, racks, etc.) must be possible only using a key or a
tool, or following de-energising of the live parts or automatic installation of a screen.
 connection of the metal enclosure to a protective conductor.
Protection against indirect contacts and system earthing arrangements
The purpose of this form of protection is to avoid "indirect" contact between persons
and exposed conductive parts (ECP) that have become live accidentally due to
an insulation fault. The fault current creates in the exposed conductive parts (ECP)
a potential that may be sufficient to cause a dangerous current to flow through the
body of the person in contact with the exposed conductive parts (see fig. 1.24).
This protection includes the points listed below.
 mandatory earthing of all exposed conductive parts (ECP) that may be accessed
by the user.
The protective conductor is used for connection to the earth. It must never be
interrupted (no breaking devices on the protective conductor).
The interconnection and earthing techniques for the exposed conductive parts (ECP)
determine the system earthing arrangement (SEA) for the installation.
 disconnection of the supply when the potential of the ECPs risks reaching
dangerous levels. Interruption is carried out by a protection device that depends on
the selected system earthing arrangement (SEA). It often requires residual-current
devices (RCD) because the insulation-fault currents are generally too low to be
detected by standard overcurrent protection devices.
Fig. 1.24. Direct and indirect contacts.
Types of system earthing arrangements (SEA)
There are three types of system earthing arrangements (SEA).
 Isolated neutral (IT).
 Earthed neutral (TT).
 Exposed conductive parts connected to the neutral (TN with TN-C and TN-S).
The first two letters indicate how the neutral and the ECPs of the loads are
connected.
T = earthed neutral
T = exposed conductive parts
Third letter (for TN)
Type of protective
conductor
C = Common neutral and
earthed
protective conductor (PEN)
I = isolated neutral
N = exposed conductive parts S = Separate neutral (N) and
Second letter
First letter
Connection of the neutral Connection of the ECPs
connected to the neutral
IT, TT or TN systems
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
protective conductor (PE)
TN-C or TN-S
ch. 1 - p. 30
System earthing arrangements (cont.)
System earthing arrangements (SEA)
Isolated neutral (IT)
● The source neutral is:
- either isolated from the earth (isolated
neutral),
- or connected to the earth via a high
impedance res (impedant neutral).
● The exposed conductive parts (ECP), all
protected by the same breaking device, are
earthed (earth electrode resistance RA).
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
Zres
Id
Ud
RA
E.g. Phase-to-ECP fault in a load.
Uo is the phase-to-neutral voltage in the
distribution system (230 V).
● Current of the first fault
RA= 10  and Zres= 3500  (approximately),
Id = Uo / (RA + Zres) = 66 mA.
● Voltage of the first fault
Ud = Uo x RA / (RA + Zres) = 0.66 V.
This potential is not dangerous.
The fault must be detected by an IMD
(insulation monitoring device), located by a
fault-locating device and repaired.
● Current of the second fault
A second fault occuring before the first fault
has been repaired results in the flow of a
phase-to-phase or phase-to-neutral short
circuit. It must be cleared by the overcurrent
protection devices within the time limits set by
the standards.
Fig. 1.25. IT system.
Earthed neutral (TT)
● The source neutral is earthed.
● The exposed conductive parts (ECP), all
protected by the same breaking device, are
earthed (earth electrode resistance RA).
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
RB
Id
Ud
RA
E.g. Phase-to-ECP fault in a load.
Uo is the phase-to-neutral voltage in the
distribution system (230 V).
● Fault current
E.g. RA = 10  and RB = 5 
Id = Uo / (RA + RB) = 15.3 A
● Fault voltage
Ud = Uo x RA / (RA + RB) = 153 V
This potential is dangerous (> 50 V).
The fault must be cleared by the protection
devices within the times set by the standards.
The fault current is low and must therefore be
detected by a residual-current protection
device (RCD) that actuates the protective
device immediately upstream. The operating
current of the RCD and the time required to
clear the fault are set by the standards.
Fig. 1.26. TT system.
Exposed conductive parts connected to the neutral (TN)
● Impedance of the fault loop
● The source neutral is directly earthed.
● The installation ECPs are connected to the Zb = ZABCDEF (part of circuit ABCDEF)
neutral and consequently to the earth via the
protective conductor (PEN). This arrangement
transforms all insulation faults into phase-toneutral short-circuits.
● The potential of the protective conductor is
maintained close to that of the earth by
numerous connection points.
A
Id
F
E
L1
L2
L3
B
PEN
D
C
Ud
Zb  ZBCDE  2 ZDE because ZBC = ZDE (BC and
DE are identical, the fault impedance is
negligible)
E.g. A load supplied by a 50 mm² copper cable
that is 50 metres long (phase and PE).
2
Zb = 2  L / S where  = 22.5 . mm /m
-3
Zb = 2 x 22.5 10 x 50 / 50 = 45 m.
● Fault voltage
A voltage drop of 20% is permissible for the
phase-to-neutral voltage Uo, i.e. UBE = 0.8 Uo.
In that ZBC = ZDE, the potential of the ECPs
rises to Ud = UBE / 2 = 0.8.Uo / 2 = 92 V
● Fault current
-3
Id = 0.8 Uo / Zb = 0.8 x 230 / 45 10 = 4089 A
Breaking is carried out by the overcurrent
protection devices within the times set by the
standards. The fault current depends on the
impedance of the fault loop.
Care must be taken to ensure that at all
points in the system, the fault current is
greater than the operating threshold of the
protection devices.
Fig. 1.27. TN-S system (the basic principle is identical for the TN-C system).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 31
System earthing arrangements (cont.)
Comparison of system earthing arrangements (SEA)
Type of SEA
Operation
Protection of
persons
Specific equipment
Advantages and
disadvantages
EMC
IT (isolated neutral)
TT (earthed neutral)
● Signalling of first insulation ● Disconnection for the first
TN-S (ECP to neutral)
● Disconnection for the first
TN-C (ECP to neutral)
● Disconnection for the first
fault.
● Location and elimination of
the first fault.
● Disconnection for the
second fault.
● Interconnection and
earthing of ECPs.
● First fault:
- very low current,
- monitoring/indication by an
IMD.
● Second fault:
- potentially dangerous
current,
- interruption by overcurrent
protection devices (e.g.
circuit breaker).
Insulation-monitoring device
(IMD) and fault-locating
device.
● Solution offering the best
continuity of service (the first
fault is signalled).
● Requires competent
surveillance personnel
(location of the first fault).
● High EMC performance,
very low currents in the earth
cable.
insulation fault.
insulation fault occurs
● Separate neutral (N) and
protective conductor (PE).
insulation fault.
● Common neutral and
protective conductor (PEN).
● Earthing of ECPs
● Interconnection and
● Interconnection and
combined with use of
residual-current devices
(RCD).
● First fault:
- leakage current is
dangerous, but too low to be
detected by the overcurrent
protection devices,
- detection by the RCDs
combined with breaking
devices.
Residual-current devices
(RCD).
earthing of ECPs and neutral
imperative.
● first fault:
- fault current,
- interruption by overcurrent
protection devices (e.g.
circuit breaker).
earthing of ECPs and neutral
imperative.
● First fault:
- fault current,
- interruption by overcurrent
protection devices (e.g.
circuit breaker).
● Easiest solution to design
● High installation costs for
● Reduced installation costs
and install.
● Mandatory use of RCDs.
● Different earth electrodes
(distant sources).
● Highly sensitive to
lightning strikes.
high power ratings.
● Difficult to design
(calculation of the loop
impedances).
● Flow of high fault currents.
● High EMC performance,
low current in the PE during
normal operation.
(one less conductor).
● Difficult to design
(calculation of the loop
impedances).
● Flow of high fault currents.
● Low EMC performance,
high currents in the PEN
(connections between
ECPs).
● Large commercial
premises, tall buildings, etc.
● Industries without
continuous processes (IT
system).
● Supply of computer
systems.
● Commercial and
continuity of service, e.g.
residential premises, public
hospitals, airports, industrial lighting, schools, etc.
processes, ships.
● Installations and premises
where there is a risk of fire or
explosion, i.e. mines, etc.
ECP = Exposed conductive parts.
Use
● Installations requiring
Applications in UPS
installations
For long distances, RCDs
must be used.
● Large commercial
premises, tall buildings, etc.
● Industries without
continuous processes (IT
system).
● Supply of computer
systems.
Specific aspects in systems with UPSs
Implementation of the above protection systems in installations comprising a UPS
requires a number of precautions for a number of reasons:
 The UPS plays two roles:
- a load for the upstream system,
- a power source for the downstream system,
 When the battery is not installed in a cabinet, an insulation fault on the DC system
can lead to the flow of a residual DC component. This component can disturb
operation of certain protection devices, notably RCDs used for the protection of
persons.
Protection against direct contact
All APC by Schneider Electric UPS installations satisfy the applicable requirements
because the equipment is installed in cabinets providing a degree of protection IP 20.
This is true even for the battery when it is housed in a cabinet.
When the battery is not installed in a cabinet (generally in a special room), the
measures presented at the end of this chapter should be implemented.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 32
System earthing arrangements (cont.)
Protection against indirect contact
Selection of a system earthing arrangement
A basic protection measure required by the standards is the creation of a
standardised system earthing arrangement both upstream and downstream of the
UPS. The two systems can be the same or different if certain precautions are taken.
In an existing installation to which the UPS is added, the upstream system is already
determined. Selection of the downstream system, either the same or a different one,
depends on its compatibility with sensitive loads.
The table on the previous page provides the necessary elements to compare the
various standardised system earthing arrangements.
 Caution, local regulations may prohibit certain types of system earthing
arrangements.
Selection of the breaking devices
Above and beyond the interconnection and earthing of the exposed conductive parts
in compliance with a standardised system earthing arrangement, the protection of
persons must be ensured by breaking devices selected according to the system
earthing arrangement. These devices must cause tripping of the overcurrent
protection devices in the event of an insulation fault.
Tripping may:
 be directly provoked by suitable settings on the overprotection devices (circuit
breakers, fuses),
 or require (mandatory for the IT system) use of residual-current devices (RCD) that
may or may not be built into the circuit breaker.
The RCDs are required to detect the insulation-fault currents that are often too low to
trip standard overcurrent protection devices.
 Check local requirements concerning the safety of electrical installations.
Types of systems for UPSs
The possible systems depend on:
 the existing or selected system upstream of the UPS,
 the system downstream of the UPS for which selection may be determined by:
- reuse of the same system as upstream,
- the presence of isolation transformers upstream or downstream which make it
possible to change the system earthing arrangement,
- the loads (e.g. computer systems require a TN-C or TN-s system),
- the organisation of the downstream distribution system, with static transfer switches
(STS),
 certain requirements imposed by standards, e.g. the protective conductor PE or
PEN must never be interrupted to ensure flow of the fault current. A TN-C system
(non-interrupted PEN) can be installed upstream of a TN-S system (separate N and
PE conductors), but not the contrary.
See WP 98 
UPSs are increasingly designed without transformers, offering advantages in terms
of weight, size and efficiency. Transformerless technology also makes it possible to
modulate the voltage for improved adapatation to all types of loads, in particular nonlinear loads with harmonics.
Transformerless technology has an impact on the use of system earthing
arrangements. For more information see White Paper - WP 98: "The Elimination of
Isolation Transformers in Data Center Power Systems").
Many different cases may be encountered depending on the upstream and
downstream earthing arrangements and the type of UPS. Your APC by Schneider
Electric representative has a complete set of diagrams for all system earthing
arrangements and UPS ranges concerned.
The MGE Galaxy PW and MGE Galaxy 9000 ranges are designed with isolation
transformers. All the other ranges use transformless technology with the neutral
recreated electronically.
The following pages show some examples for MGE Galaxy PW and MGE Galaxy
5000, 7000 and 9000 UPSs. For other cases, contact your APC by Schneider
Electric representative to obtain the applicable diagram.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 33
System earthing arrangements (cont.)
Output transformer
(MGE Galaxy PW and 9000)
No output transformer
(MGE Galaxy 5000 and 7000))
Separate Normal and Bypass AC inputs.
Common Normal and BP
inputs.
Fig. 1.28. Standard diagrams.
Identical systems upstream and downstream
Same system upstream and downstream
IT or TT or TN-S.
Distributed neutral on the two lines.
Same system upstream and downstream
IT or TT or TN-S.
Distributed neutral on the bypass line only.
Same system upstream and downstream
TN-C
Same system upstream and downstream
IT or TT or TN-S.
Distributed neutral.
MGE Galaxy PW and 9000
MGE Galaxy 5000 and 7000
Fig. 1.29. A few examples with the same system upstream and downstream.
Different systems upstream and downstream
Change in earthing systems
to IT or TT or TN-S downstream.
Distributed neutral on the two lines.
Change in earthing systems
to IT or TT or TN-S downstream.
Distributed neutral on the two lines.
Change in earthing systems
to TN-C downstream.
Change in earthing systems
to TN-C downstream.
MGE Galaxy PW and 9000
MGE Galaxy 5000 and 7000
Fig. 1.30. A few examples with different systems upstream and downstream.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 34
Protection
Protection using circuit
breakers
The protection system for installations with UPS units presented here will implement
circuit breakers. Below is a presentation of the main characteristics of circuit
breakers and their trip units. The part number mentioned as examples pertain to
Schneider Electric circuit breakers. Other characteristics, such as limiting thermal
stress and current, are among the strong points of the Compact NSX range of circuit
breakers, but will not be discussed here.
 For further information, see the Schneider Electric low-voltage and mediumvoltage distribution catalogue and the "Electrical installation guide".
Trip units
Technology
There are two types of trip units:
 thermal-magnetic,
 electronic.
Construction
 built-in (thermal-magnetic only).
 interchangeable.
Comparison
Thermal-magnetic trip units are simple and inexpensive.
Electronic trip units offer more precise and comprehensive settings for better
adaptation to installations and their requirements.
The table below sums up the characteristics of both types of trip units for circuitbreakers from 1 to 630 A and should enable you to solve most of the problems
commonly encountered (from 1 to 400 kVA).
Figure 1.31 presents the characteristic curves for the trip units.
Protection
Symb. Definition
Availability
Overload protection
(thermal or long
delay) (1)
Long delay (2)
Ir
Overload current setting.
All trip units.
tr
Short-circuit
protection
(magnetic or short
delay) (3)
Short delay (4)
Im
or
Isd
Applies a long tripping delay (e.g.
Electronic trip units (e.g.
for motor starting).
Micrologic 2, 5, 6).
Short-circuit current setting. On
All trip units.
electronic trip units, Isd is a function
of Ir (generally 2 to 10 Ir).
Short-circuit
protection,
instantaneous trip (5)
tm
or
tsd
Ii
Applies a short tripping delay (e.g.
for time discrimination with
downstream circuit breaker).
Instantaneous short-circuit setting.
Depends exclusively on trip-unit
rating (e.g. protection of static
switches).
Electronic trip units (e.g.
Micrologic 5, 6).
Electronic trip units (e.g.
Micrologic 5, 6 ).
(1) Ir is the thermal protection threshold (sometimes written Ith) of thermal-magnetic trip units or
the long-delay protection threshold of electronic trip units. These thresholds are defined by an
inverse time curve that depends on the selected setting.
(2) tr is the time delay of the long-delay thermal protection for a given value of Ir.
(3) Im is the magnetic threshold of thermal-magnetic trip units and Isd the short-delay threshold
of electronic trip units.
(4) tm is the time delay (adjustable or fixed) of the magnetic protection of thermal-magnetic trip
units and tsd the time delay (generally adjustable) of the short-delay protection of electronic trip
units.
(5) Ii is the instantaneous tripping threshold.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 35
Protection (cont.)
Fig. 1.31. Circuit-breaker time/current curves (Icu is the ultimate breaking capacity).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 36
Protection (cont.)
Discrimination, cascading, current limiting
Discrimination
Discrimination results from correct circuit-breaker selection and setting such that, if a
fault occurs, it trips only the first upstream circuit breaker.
Discrimination thus limits the part of the installation affected by the fault to a strict
minimum. There are a number of types of discrimination summed up in the table
below and illustrated on the previous page.
Current limiting
When a high fault current hits the circuit breaker, the breaker contacts separate
under the electrodynamic forces, an arc is created and its resistance limits the shortcircuit energy.
Cascading
When a short-circuit occurs downstream of the installation (see fig. 1.32), the fault
current also flows through the upstream circuit breaker which current limits, thus
attenuating the current applied to the downstream circuit breaker. The breaking
capacity of the latter is thus reinforced.
Discrimination
Current
discrimination
Concerns
All types of trip
units
Principle
The fault current is lower than the upstream
threshold setting.
Ir upstream > Ir downstream and Im or Isd
upstream > Im or Isd downstream
Delays upstream tripping by the long-time
(Ir) and short-time (Im or Isd) delay.
Time discrimination Electronic trip
units only
(e.g. Micrologic)
Compact NSX
Arc pressure upstream is not sufficient to trip
Energy
and NS
the upstream circuit breaker, but it is
discrimination
sufficient to trip the downstream circuit
breaker.
Delays upstream tripping if the short-circuit
Compact
Zone-selective
is also detected downstream.
NSX 100 to
interlocking
Masterpact with A pilot wire connects the upstream and
downstream trip units.
Micrologic trip
units
Fig. 1.32. Upstream/downstream discrimination and cascading.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 37
Protection (cont.)
Selection of
circuit breakers
Rating
The selected rating (rated current) for the circuit breaker must be the one just above
the rated current of the protected downstream cable.
Breaking capacity
The breaking capacity must be selected just above the short-circuit current that can
occur at the point of installation.
Ir and Im thresholds
The table below indicates how to determine the Ir and Im thresholds to ensure
discrimination, depending on the upstream and downstream trip units.
Remark.
Time discrimination must be implemented by qualified personnel because time
delays before tripping increase the thermal stress (I2t) downstream (cables, semiconductors, etc.). Caution is required if tripping of CB2 is delayed using the Im
threshold time delay.
Energy discrimination does not depend on the trip unit, only on the circuit breaker.
Ir and Im thresholds depending on the upstream and downstream trip units
Type of downstream Ir upstream / Ir
circuit
downstream
ratio
downstream trip unit
all types
distribution
> 1.6
asynchronous motor
>3
Im upstream / Im Im upstream / Im
downstream ratio downstream ratio
magnetic
>2
>2
electronic
> 1.5
> 1.5
Special case of generator short-circuits
Figure 1.33 shows the reaction of a generator to a short-circuit.
To avoid any uncertainty concerning the type of excitation, we will trip at the first
peak (3 to 5 In as per X"d) using the Im protection setting without a time delay.
Fig. 1.33. Generator during a short-circuit.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 38
Protection (cont.)
Example
Consider the example used to determine the UPS power rating (Ch. 1 p. 21) with a
number of parallel-connected 400 V three-phase loads, namely:
 Computer system - S1 = 4 x 10 kVA,  = 0.6, in-rush current 8 In over four periods
(80 ms),
 Variable-speed drive - S2 = 20 kVA,  = 0.7, in-rush current 4 In over five periods
(100 ms),
 Isolation transformer - S3 = 20 kVA,  = 0.8, in-rush current 10 In over six periods
(120 ms).
The three loads represent 54 kW with a power factor of 0.68.
In chapter 1, p. 21, an MGE Galaxy PW was selected, with a power rating of 100
kVA, I = 100 / (400 x 3 ) = 144 A.
630 kVA transformer
400 kVA generator
Determine CB1 and CB2
Rated apparent output
power
100 kVA
In = 144 A
Power factor at UPS
output for all loads
 = 0.68
Determine the most
powerful CB3 for
discrimination
Total power consumed by
the loads
P (kW) = 54 kW
40 kVA
 = 0.6
Fig 1.34. Example of an installation.
20 kVA
 = 0.7
20 kVA
cos  = 0.8
Maximum active output
power (that the UPS can
supply to the loads)
 Sn (kVA) = 68 kW
The goal is to select circuit breakers CB1 and CB2, and the most powerful circuit
breaker CB3 compatible with discrimination requirements, given that the upstream
installation includes the following:
 20 kV / 400 V transformer with a power rating of 630 kVA,
 400 V engine generator set with a power rating of 400 kVA,
 Transformer to MLVS link, five meters of aluminium cable 4 x 240 mm2 per phase,
 Busbars to circuit breaker link, four meters using three copper bars 400 mm² per
phase.
Calculation of CB1 and CB2 ratings and breaking
capacities
The breaking capacity depends on the short-circuit currents downstream of CB1 and
CB2 at the level of the main low-voltage switchboard (MLVS). Most often, this
upstream short-circuit value is supplied by the utility. It can also be calculated. It is
necessary to determine the sum R of the resistances upstream and the sum X of the
reactances upstream of the considered point.
The three-phase short-circuit current is calculated as:
U
Isc 3-ph =
3 R2  X 2
U is the phase-to-phase no-load voltage (load voltage + 3 to 5%).
R =  Rupstream and X =  Xupstream
In this example, we simply indicate the general method with a number of
simplifications to shorten the calculations.
 For more detailed information, see the Cahier Technique document no. 158
"Calculation of short-circuit currents" from Schneider Electric.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 39
Protection (cont.)
Upstream system
Ra, Xa
Sources
Rtr Xtr
Source output to MLVS cable link
Rc, Xc
General circuit breaker
Rd, Xd
MLVS busbars
Rb, Xb
Fig. 1.35. Calculation of short-circuit current for CB1 and CB2.
It is necessary to calculate the resistances and reactances upstream of CB1 and
CB2 in figure 1.34.
Distribution system upstream of the transformer
 Psc = upstream short-circuit power = 500 MVA = 500 x 106 VA
 U20 = phase-to-phase no-load voltage on the transformer secondary winding = 400
V, + 3%, i.e. 410 V
 Rup = resistance upstream  15% Xup, negligible given Xup
 Xup = reactance upstream with respect to transformer secondary winding
Xup =
410 2
U20 2
= 0.288 m
=
Psc
500 x 10 6
Rup  0
and
Xup = 0.33 m.
Transformer
 Sn = rated apparent power 630 kVA
 In = rated current = 630 / U 3 = 630 103 / (400 x
 Usc = transformer short-circuit voltage = 4%
 Pcu = transformer copper losses in VA
Rtr = transformer resistance =
Pcu
3 In2
Xtr  Ztr = transformer impedance =
Rtr  0
and
3 ) = 909 A
 20% Xtr, negligible given Ztr
U20 2
x Usc = 4102 x 0.04 / 630 103 = 10.7 m
Sn
Xtr = 10.7 m.
Cables linking the transformer to the MLVS
 Length 5 meters
 Cross-section 240 mm²
  = resistivity at the normal temperature of the conductors
copper:  = 22.5 m.mm2/m, aluminium:  = 36 m.mm2/m
 Xc = conductor reactance (typically 0.08 m/m) = 0.08 x 5 = 0.4 m
L
= 22.5 x 5 / (4 x 240) = 0.12 m
Rc = cable resistance (copper) = 
S
Rc = 0.12 m and Xc = 0.4 m.
General circuit breaker
Typical values
Rd  0 et Xd = 0.15 m.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 40
Protection (cont.)
Busbars
 Xb = busbar reactance (typically 0.15 m/m) = 0.15 x 4 = 0.6 m
 Rb = busbar resistance =  L / S= 22.5 x 4 / (3 x 400) = 0.075 m (negligible)
Rb  0
and
Xb = 0.6 m.
Transformer Isc at the level of CB1 and CB2
 R = Total upstream resistance = 0.12 m
 X = Total upstream reactance = 0.33 + 10.7 + 0.4 + 0.15 + 0.6 =12.18 m
R can be neglected, given X.
U
U
Isc 3-ph =

2
2
3 X
3 R X
410
3 x 12.18 x 10  3
= 19.4 kA
Note. A rough estimate is provided by the short-circuit current on the transformer
terminals, assuming that the upstream short-circuit power is infinite.
ISCT = on transformer terminals = In / Usc = 20 In = 20 x 909 = 18.2 kA
Generator Isc at the level of CB1 and CB2
 rated apparent power of the generator = 400 kVA
 rated current of the generator = 400 / U 3 = 400 103 / (400 x
 X"d = short-circuit voltage of the generator = 10%
3 ) = 577 A
It is decided to trip at 5 In (see fig. 1.33).
ISCG = on the generator terminals = 5 In = 5 x 577 = 2.9 kA
Continuous current of CB1
This is the current at the UPS input. It is necessary to multiply the UPS rating by 1.2
to take into account the efficiency, i.e. 120 kVA.
Iinput = 120 / U 3 = 120 103 / (400 x 3 ) = 173 A
Continuous current of CB2
This is the continuous current of the loads supplied via the bypass, i.e. 54 kW with a
power factor of 0.68 for an apparent power S = 54 / 0.68 = 67.5 kVA.
Iload = 67.5 / U 3 = 120 103 / (400 x 3 ) = 97 A
Energising current of the largest load
The loads must be energised at different times. The highest inrush current is that of
the 20 kVA transformer, i.e. In = 28.8 A and 10 In = 288 A - 120 ms.
Calculation of the maximum static-switch current
This is the short-circuit current at the level of CB3, which is practically that of CB2.
Selection parameters
The table below sums up the various values calculated.
Parameter
transformer short-circuit current
generator short-circuit current
rectifier current (UPS input)
continuous load current downstream of the UPS
energising current of the largest load
maximum static-switch current
Value
19.4 kA
2.9 kA
173 A
97 A
288 A - 120 ms
19.4 kA
Characteristics of CB1 and CB2
Characteristic
Breaking capacity
Continuous current
Ir threshold
Im threshold
D1
D2
> 19.4 kA, i.e. 25 kA
> 19.4 kA, i.e. 25 kA
> 173 A, i.e. 200 A
> 97 A, i.e. 125 A
> 173 A +20%
> 97 A + 20%
> 173 A + 20% and
> 288 A +20% and
< 2.9 kA - 20%
< 2.9 kA - 20%
20% represents here the typical tolerance range of circuit-breaker settings.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 41
Protection (cont.)
Characteristics of the most power circuit breaker CB3
possible
Sources
Incomer circuit breakers (input)
Static bypass
Negligible impedance
Outgoing circuit breakers (output)
Isc at CB3  Isc at CB2
Fig. 1.36. Calculation of the short-circuit current at CB3.
Operation with bypass power
 Breaking capacity
The highest short-circuit current downstream of CB3 is virtually that of CB2 because
it is assumed that the outgoing circuits are near the UPS.
Consequently, the breaking capacity of CB3 is also 25 kA.
 The rating is determined by the largest load, i.e. the 4 x 10 kVA of the computer
system with a continuous current of:
Iload = 40 / U 3 = 40 103 / (400 x 3 ) = 57 A
A 60 A device should be selected.
 Settings
A majority of the loads is of the distribution type, i.e. the Ir threshold of CB3 must be
less than 97 A / 1.6, i.e. < 61 A.
The Im threshold must be less than 1847 / 2, i.e. < 900 A.
Operation without bypass power
In this case, the short-circuited UPS limits its current to 2.33 In for one second.
For APC by Schneider Electric UPSs of the MGE Galaxy range, experimental results
have determined that the highest rating of CB3 must be less than 0.5 In to ensure
discrimination.
This is the case for the circuit breaker for the computer loads.
60 A < 0.5 x 144= 72 A
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 42
Cables
Selection of cable sizes
Cable temperature rise and voltage drops
The cross section of cables depends on:
 permissible temperature rise,
 permissible voltage drop.
For a given load, each of these parameters results in a minimum permissible cross
section. The larger of the two must be used.
When routing cables, care must be taken to maintain the required distances between
control circuits and power circuits, to avoid any disturbances caused by HF currents.
Temperature rise
Permissible temperature rise in cables is limited by the withstand capacity of cable
insulation.
Temperature rise in cables depends on:
 the type of core (Cu or Al),
 the installation method,
 the number of touching cables.
Standards stipulate, for each type of cable, the maximum permissible current.
Voltage drops
Maximum values
The maximum permissible voltage drops are:
 3% for AC circuits (50 or 60 Hz),
 1% for DC circuits.
Selection tables
The tables below indicate the voltage drop in percent for a circuit made up of 100
meters of copper cable. To calculate the voltage drop in a circuit with a length L,
multiply the value in the table by L/100.
If the voltage drop exceeds 3% on a three-phase circuit or 1% on a DC circuit,
increase the cross section of the conductors until the value is within tolerances.
Voltage drop for 100-meter cables
 Sph - the cross section of the conductors
 In - rated current of the protection devices on the circuit
Three-phase circuit (copper conductors)
50-60 Hz - 400 V three phase, cos  = 0.8, balanced 3-ph + N system
2
Sph (mm ) 10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120 150
0.9
In (A) 10
1.2
16
1.6
1.1
20
2.0
1.3
0.9
25
2.6
1.7
1.1
32
3.3
2.1
1.4
1.0
40
4.1
2.6
1.7
1.3
1.0
50
5.1
3.3
2.2
1.6
1.2
0.9
63
5.7
3.7
2.4
1.7
1.3
1.0
0.8
70
6.5
4.2
2.7
2.1
1.5
1.2
0.9
0.7
80
5.3
3.4
2.6
2.0
2.0
1.1
0.9
0.8
100 8.2
6.6
4.3
3.2
2.4
2.4
1.4
1.1
1.0
125
5.5
4.3
3.2
3.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
160
5.3
3.9
3.9
2.2
1.8
1.6
200
4.9
4.9
2.8
2.3
1.9
250
3.5
2.9
2.5
320
4.4
3.6
3.1
400
4.5
3.9
500
4.9
600
800
1000
For a three-phase 230 V circuit, multiply the result by 3 .
For a single-phase 208/230 V circuit, multiply the result by 2.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
185
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.7
2.1
2.7
3.4
4.2
5.3
240
300
0.9
1.2
1.4
1.9
2.3
2.9
3.6
4.4
6.5
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.9
2.4
3.0
3.8
4.7
ch. 1 - p. 43
Cables (cont.)
DC circuit (copper conductors)
2
Sph (mm ) 25
In (A) 100 5.1
125
160
200
250
320
400
500
600
800
1000
1250
35
3.6
4.5
50
2.6
3.2
4.0
70
1.9
2.3
2.9
3.6
95
1.3
1.6
2.2
2.7
3.3
120
1.0
1.3
1.6
2.2
2.7
3.4
150
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.2
2.7
3.4
185
0.7
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.7
2.1
2.8
3.4
4.3
240
0.5
0.6
0.6
1.0
1.3
1.6
2.1
2.6
3.3
4.2
5.3
300
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.6
2.1
2.7
3.4
4.2
5.3
Special case for neutral conductors
In three-phase systems, the third-order harmonics (and their multiples) of singlephase loads add up in the neutral conductor (sum of the currents on the three
phases).
For this reason, the following rule is applied - neutral cross section = 1.5 x phase
cross section.
Calculation example
Consider a 70-meter 400 V three-phase circuit, with copper conductors and a rated
current of 600 A.
Standard IEC 60364 indicates, depending on the installation method and the load, a
minimum cross section. We shall assume that the minimum cross section is 95 mm2.
It is first necessary to check that the voltage drop does not exceed 3%.
The table for three-phase circuits on the following page indicates, for a 600 A current
flowing in a 300 mm2 cable, a voltage drop of 3% for 100 meters of cable, i.e. for 70
meters:
3 x 70/100 = 2.1%, less than the 3% limit.
A identical calculation can be run for a DC current of 1000 A in a 10-meter cable with
a cross section of 240 mm². The voltage drop for 100 meters is 5.3%, i.e. for ten
meters:
5.3 x 10/100 = 0.53%, less than the 1% limit.
Example of an installation
Fig. 1.37. Connection of cables.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 44
Energy storage
Storage technologies
Energy storage in UPSs
UPSs require an energy-storage system to supply the inverter with power if utility
power fails or is no longer within tolerances.
The stored energy must have the following characteristics:
 electricity that is immediately available to ride through micro-breaks, short voltage
drops and utility outages,
 sufficient power level to supply the entire load, i.e. a rating equivalent to that of the
UPS system itself,
 backup time, generally about ten minutes, suited to the needs of the loads and to
any other sources available (e.g. an engine generator set for long backup times).
Fig. 1.38. Simplified diagram of a UPS with backup energy storage.
Available technologies
The various technologies currently available are the following:
 batteries:
- sealed lead-acid,
- vented lead-acid,
- nickel cadmium,
 ultracapacitors,
 flywheels:
- traditional units turning at low speeds (1500 rmp) and combined with engine
generator sets,
- medium-speed (7000 rpm) or high-speed (30 to 100 000 rpm) units.
Comparison of technologies
See WP 65 
Batteries are by far the most commonly employed solution today.
They are the dominant solution due to low cost, proven effectiveness and storage
capacity, but nonetheless have a number of disadvantages in terms of size,
maintenance and the environment.
Ultracapacitors do not yet offer the necessary performance levels.
Flywheels operating at high speeds constitute a possible technology in terms of their
power ratings (40 to 500 kW), for short backup times (12 seconds to 1 minute).
Figure 1.39 shows the fields of application for the different technologies.
 For more information, see White Paper WP 65: "Comparing Data Center
Batteries, Flywheels, and Ultracapacitors".
Fig. 1.39. Characteristics in terms of power ratings and backup times.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 45
Energy storage (cont.)
The table below compares the different solutions in terms of their capacity to meet
the energy-storage requirements of static UPSs.
Criteria for comparison
Technology
Sealed lead-acid Vented lead-acid Ni/Cad batteries Ultracapacitors Flywheels
batteries
batteries
Power
****
****
Backup time
***
5 minutes up to
several hours
****
low
***
no
*
**
**
***
Purchase price
Implementation / installation / start-up
Requires a special room
Temperature
Service life
Footprint
Maintenance
Frequency / time required
Maturity of the technology for UPSs
****
*
***
****
*
*
**
5 minutes up to
several hours
5 minutes up to
several dozen
minutes
a few seconds
a few dozen
seconds
***
**
*
*
low to medium
high
cost multiplied by 2
or 3 compared to
batteries, for 10
seconds of backup
time
cost multiplied by 8
compared to
batteries, for 10
seconds of backup
time
**
*
****
**
yes
yes
no
yes
*
**
**
**
**
***
**
*
****
****
****
****
***
***
***
*
low
medium
high
none
long servicing times
****
****
****
**
***
**** excellent *** good ** fair
* poor
Flywheels
APC by Schneider Electric offers flywheel energy storage systems on request.
This solution is suitable to complement batteries in that it may be used to ride
through short disturbances without calling on battery power, thus preserving the
battery.
Use without a battery is possible, but the backup time is only a dozen seconds. For
certain applications, such a short backup time is insufficient to start an engine
generator set.
Selection of a battery
Types of batteries
The batteries most frequently used in UPSs are:
 sealed lead-acid, also called gas-recombination batteries,
 vented lead-acid,
 nickel cadmium.
Lithium-polymer batteries are currently being studied for use in UPSs. Solutions
using this technology should be available in two to three years.
 Types of batteries, see Ch. 5 p. 32 "Energy storage - Types of batteries".
For use in conjunction with its UPS ranges, APC by Schneider Electric recommends
sealed lead-acid batteries.
Selection of a battery depends on the following factors:
 operating conditions and requirements (special room, battery cabinet, racks, etc.),
 required backup time,
 cost considerations.
Backup time
APC by Schneider Electric offers:
 standard backup times of 5, 10, 15 or 30 minutes,
 custom backup times that can reach a number of hours.
Selection depends on:
 the average duration of power-system failures,
 any available sources offering long backup times (engine generator set, etc.),
 the type of application.
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05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 46
Energy storage (cont.)
The following general rules apply.
 Computer systems
Battery backup time must be sufficient to cover file-saving and system-shutdown
procedures required to ensure a controlled shutdown of the computer system.
Generally speaking, the computer department determines the necessary backup
time, depending on its specific requirements.
 Industrial processes
The backup-time calculation should take into account the economic cost incurred by
an interruption in the process and the time required to restart.
 Applications requiring long backup times
An engine generator set can back up a battery if long outages occur, thus avoiding
the need for very large batteries. Generally speaking, use of an engine generator set
becomes feasible for backup times greater than 30 minutes to one hour. The
combination must be carefully studied to optimise the generator rating and ensure
correct operation.
 Combination with an engine generator set, see Ch. 5 p. 35 "Engine generator set".
Service life
APC by Schneider Electric offers batteries with service lives of 5 or 10 years, or
longer.
 Battery service life, see Ch. 5 p. 33.
Comparison between types of batteries
Sealed lead-acid batteries (gas-recombination)
These are the most commonly used batteries for the following reasons:
 no maintenance,
 easy implementation,
 installation in all types of rooms (computer rooms, technical rooms not specifically
intended for batteries, etc.).
Vented batteries
This type of battery (lead-acid or Ni/Cad) offers certain advantages:
 long service life,
 long backup times,
 high power ratings.
Vented batteries must be installed in special rooms complying with precise
regulations (see Ch. 1 p. 51 "Preliminary work") and require appropriate maintenance.
UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric include advanced battery-monitoring systems.
Battery monitoring
Battery monitoring on MGETM GalaxyTM UPSs
DigiBatTM
The DigiBatTM battery-monitoring system is an assembly of hardware and software,
installed as standard on UPSs of the MGE Galaxy range from APC by Schneider
Electric and offering the following functions:
 automatic entry of battery parameters,
 optimised battery service life,
 protection against excessive discharges,
 regulation of the battery floating voltage depending on the temperature,
 limitation of the battery current,
 continuous evaluation of available power taking into account the battery age, the
temperature and the percent load,
 forecast of battery service life,
 periodic, automatic tests on the battery, including a check on the battery circuit, an
open-circuit test, a partial-discharge test, etc.
 DigiBat, see Ch. 5 p. 34 "Battery Management".
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 47
Energy storage (cont.)
Environment sensor unit
Battery operating parameters and particularly the temperature affect battery life.
The Environment Sensor, easy to install and combined with a Network Management
card (SNMP/Web), makes possible monitoring of temperature/humidity and the
status of two contacts via SNMP or the web. It also initiates equipment shutdown if
necessary.
Detection and prevention of battery failure for
MGETM GalaxyTM UPSs
In spite of the advantages of sealed lead-acid batteries, over time, all batteries will
fail due to ageing. Without rigorous monitoring, the true integrity and capacity of a
battery remains unknown.
Battery-monitoring techniques have a major impact on reliability and can be used to
define the best strategy for replacement, resulting in a better level of protection.
APC by Schneider Electric also offers continuous, cell by cell, battery-monitoring
systems with software and communication capabilities. These systems can be
implemented by the user or integrated in the Teleservice offer.
B2000 battery-monitoring system
The B2000 system offers continuous, overall monitoring of the main battery
parameters. That includes the voltage, current, temperature and any drift detected
during charge and discharge cycles. It issues an alarm when tolerance levels are
overrun. Automatic recording of discharges, whether planned or unplanned, is also
available for data analysis.
The monitoring system can help detect possible problems before the battery fails and
thus enhance availability of UPS energy.
Cellwatch battery-monitoring system
General battery maintenance may not be sufficient to ensure correct operation,
notably for mission-critical applications where there is no room for error.
Between periodic tests (generally once every three months), a cell may suddenly fail.
A valve-regulated sealed lead-acid cell can fail in just a few days after a periodic test.
The cause is the chemical reactions that take place in the cell following charge and
discharge cycles. These cycles occur even if the protection system is not in
operation. What is more, corrosion can affect the entire connection system of the
battery string, inside or outside of the cell.
It was therefore necessary to do more than simply check the voltage. The research
carried out showed that the internal resistance or the impedance of the cell is a good
indicator of its status, in that it reveals both deterioration and any physical problems.
The Cellwatch monitoring system uses this system based on cell impedance to
monitor each cell. It provides reliable monitoring of the service life of each cell.
APC battery management system for SymmetraTM UPSs
The APC battery management system, available for UPSs of the Symmetra range
from APC by Schneider Electric, ensures your batteries are optimally charged and
ready for use. This browser-accessible, 1U rackmountable system combines battery
monitoring and testing with individual boost charging for peak battery performance.
Integration into your preferred building management system or use of a Web browser
provides visibility of the health and status of your batteries. This system makes it
possible to solve battery problems before they affect availability.
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05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 48
Human-machine interface and communication
Human-machine interface
(HMI)
General characteristics
The human-machine interface on the UPS must be user-friendly, easy to use and
multi-lingual (adjustable to the user's language).
It is generally made up of a mimic panel, a status and control panel, and an
alphanumeric display. A password-protected personalisation menu may be available
for entry of installation parameters and access to detailed information.
Example
The HMI typically offers the functions listed below.
On and Off buttons
 delayed to avoid erroneous operations.
 with an option for a remote EPO (emergency power off).
 independent with respect to the rest of the display
Status LEDs that clearly identify:
 normal operation (load protected),
 downgraded operating mode (malfunction),
 dangerous situations for the load (load not protected),
 operation on battery power.
Alarms
 alarm buzzer and buzzer reset button.
 battery shutdown warning.
 general alarm.
 battery fault.
A screen providing:
 access to measurements
- input power (voltage, current, frequency).
- battery (voltage, charge and discharge currents, remaining backup time,
temperature).
- inverter output (phase-to-neutral voltage, current, frequency, active and apparent
power, crest factor).
 access to history logs
- log containing time-stamped events.
- curves and bargraphs of the measured values.
Communication
High availability for critical applications requires
communicating protection equipment
The UPS system, essential for mission-critical equipment, must include
communication features that keep operators continously informed, wherever they
may be, of any risk of compromising the operating security of the system so that
they can take immediate action.
To ensure power availability, the UPS communication features provide the following
four essential functions:
 Supervision / monitoring of all installed UPSs via software.
 Notification via the network and the Internet.
 Controlled shutdown (local or remote, automatic or manual) of protected
applications.
 Teleservice via a modem and telephone line to a support centre.
APC by Schneider Electric
Edition 05/2009
ch. 1 - p. 49
Human-machine interface and communication (cont.)
APC by Schneider Electric solutions
Communication cards
 Network Management Card (Ethernet)
- Web monitoring
- Email notification
- SNMP MIB & Traps
- Server protection with Network Shutdown Module
- Supervision with Enterprise Power Manager or ISX Central
- Environment monitoring with Environment Sensor (T°, H%, Inputs)
 Modbus – Jbus card (RS232 & RS485)
- Monitoring
 Teleservice card (Modem)
- Alerts
- Monitoring
- Diagnostics
- Reporting
 Relay card (contacts)
- Indications
Management software
 Enterprise Power Manager & ISX Central (software & server)
Software solutions to manage all installed UPSs via IP networks, web compatible and
accessible from any web browser.
 NMS Integration kits (Network Management System)
Integration in NMSs such as HP OpenView, IBM Tivoli, CA Unicenter, etc.
 Network Shutdown Module
- Software module for safe system shutdown.
Fig. 1.40. The communication cards combined with supervision software offer a wide range of
functions.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 50
Preliminary work
Installation considerations
The main elements that must be taken into account for the UPS installation are the
following:
 plans for site modifications, any preliminary work (notably for a battery room),
taking into account:
- the dimensions of equipment,
- operating and maintenance conditions (accessibility, clearances, etc.),
- temperature conditions that must be respected,
- safety considerations,
- applicable standards and regulations,
 ventilation or air-conditioning of rooms,
 creation of a battery room.
Dimensions
Layout of UPS cabinets and enclosures should be based on precise plans.
The physical characteristics of UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric that may be
used to prepare the plans are presented in chapter 4.
They indicate, for each range:
 the dimensions and weights of:
- UPS and centralised-bypass cabinets;
- battery cabinets,
- any auxiliary cabinets (autotransformers, transformers, filters, etc.),
 minimum clearances required for cabinets and enclosures to ensure optimal
ventilation and sufficient access.
Ventilation, air-conditioning
Ventilation requirements
UPSs are designed to operate within a given temperature range (0 to 40°C for UPSs
from APC by Schneider Electric ) that is sufficient for most operating conditions
without modifications.
However, UPSs and their auxiliary equipment produce heat losses that can, if no
steps are taken, increase the temperature of a poorly ventilated room.
What is more, the service life of a battery is heavily dependent on the ambient
temperature. The service life is optimal for temperatures between 15° C and 25° C.
This factor must be taken into account if the battery is installed in the same room as
the UPS.
A further consideration is the fact that UPSs may be installed in the same room as
computer equipment which often has more severe requirements concerning
operating-temperature ranges.
Selecting a type of ventilation
For all the above reasons, a minimum amount of ventilation is required, and where
applicable air-conditioning, to avoid any risk of excessive temperature rise in the
room due to the heat losses.
Ventilation can be by:
 natural convection,
 forced exchange by a ventilation system,
 installation of an air-conditioning unit.
Selection depends on:
 the heat losses that must be evacuated,
 the size of the room.
The thermal characteristics of UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric are indicated in
chapter 4 and may be used to calculate ventilation needs. They mention for each
range:
 the heat losses of cabinets and any filters installed,
 the volume of air output by a ventilation system.
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ch. 1 - p. 51
Preliminary work (cont.)
IP degree of protection and noise level
Degree of protection (IP)
UPSs must operate in an environment that is compatible with their degree of
protection (IP 20 for UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric), defined by standard IEC
60529/EN 60529. The presence of dust, water and corrosive substances must be
avoided.
Noise level
UPSs must produce a low level of noise, suited to the room where they are installed.
Measurement conditions for the level of noise indicated by the manufacturer must
comply with standard ISO 3746 (measurement of noise).
Battery room
Where possible and if desired, the battery should be installed in a cabinet.
Battery-cabinet dimensions are indicated for each UPS range, depending on the
rated power.
However, for very high-power UPSs, batteries are generally installed in special
rooms (electrical room).
Batteries must be installed in compliance with international standards, local
regulations and standard IEC 60364.
Battery installation method
The criteria determining the battery-installation method are the following:
 available floor space,
 the weight that the floor can handle (kg/m2),
 ease of access and maintenance.
The following three methods are used.
Battery installed directly on floor
This is the most simple arrangement. However, a large battery room is required,
given:
 the large amount of floor space occupied by the battery,
 the insulated flooring (duck board), which is mandatory if the voltage exceeds 150
volts.
Battery on racks
The battery cells are installed on a number of different levels, off the floor.
When determining the height between each rack, it is necessary to take into account
the space required to check battery levels and fill the battery cells easily. A minimum
height of 450 mm is recommended.
Battery on tiers
This installation method is similar to the preceding. It is the most convenient method
for checking battery levels.
Battery-room features
Whatever the installation method selected, the battery installation must comply with
the following requirements (the numbers indicate the elements shown in figure 1.40).
Floor and walls (1)
 The floor must slope to an evacuation trough which leads to a holding tank.
 Protection coating against acid on the floor and walls, up to a height of at least 0.5
meters.
For example, asphalt for lead-acid batteries, PVC or chlorine-based paint for alkaline
batteries.
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05/2009 edition
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Preliminary work (cont.)
Ventilation (2)
 calculation of throughput
The volume of air to be evacuated depends on the maximum load current and the
type of battery. In installations comprising a number of batteries, the quantities of air
that must be evacuated are cumulative.
- vented batteries
d = 0.05 x N x Im, where
d - throughput in cubic meters per hour,
N - number of battery cells,
Im - maximum load current in amperes.
- sealed battery
The ventilation conditions in a general-purpose room are sufficient.
 safety
An automatic device must stop battery charging if the ventilation system fails.
 location
Air must be drawn out from the top of the battery room.
Layout of cells (3)
Layout must inhibit simultaneous contact with two bare parts presenting a voltage
greater than or equal to 150 V. If the above condition cannot be met, terminal shields
must be installed and connections must be made using insulated cables.
Service flooring (4)
If the voltage exceeds 150 V, special flooring is required. It must offer sure footing,
be insulated from the floor and offer at least one meter of walkway around the
battery.
Battery connection (5)
Connections must be as short a possible.
Battery-protection circuit breaker (6)
The circuit breaker is generally installed in a wall-mounted enclosure.
Fire-fighting equipment (7)
Authorized fire extinguishers include power, CO2 or sand.
Safety equipment (8)
The safety equipment must include protective glasses, gloves and a source of water.
Inspection equipment (9)
 Hydrometer.
 Filling device.
 Thermometer.
Sensors (10)
 Hydrogen detector.
 Temperature sensor.
Fig. 1.41. Layout of battery room.
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05/2009 edition
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APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 1 - p. 54
Chapter 2. Selection of the UPS configuration
Contents
Types of possible configurations ..................................2-2
Selection table and corresponding ranges...................2-5
Diagram no. 1 ..................................................................2-6
Single UPS
Diagram no. 2 ..................................................................2-7
Active redundancy with two integrated parallel UPS units
Diagram no. 3 ..................................................................2-8
Active redundancy with integrated parallel UPS units and external
maintenance bypass
Diagram no. 4 ..................................................................2-9
Isolated redundancy with two UPS units
Diagram no. 5 ..................................................................2-10
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units and centralised static-switch
cubicle (SSC)
Diagram no. 6 ..................................................................2-11
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units and total isolation, single busbar
Diagram no. 7 ..................................................................2-12
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units and total isolation, double busbar
Diagram no. 8 ..................................................................2-13
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation,
single busbar
Diagram no. 9 ..................................................................2-14
Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation,
double busbar
Diagram no. 10 ................................................................2-15
Isolated redundancy with N+1 UPS units
Diagram no. 11 ................................................................2-16
Redundant distribution with static transfer switch (STS)
Diagram no. 12 ................................................................2-18
Redundant distribution with static transfer switch (STS) and PDU
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 1
Types of possible configurations
Basic diagrams
Single source
The load is supplied by a single set of UPSs.
Multi-source
The load is supplied by more than one set of UPSs.
Fig. 2.1. Basic diagrams.
UPS configurations
Single UPS
This is the standard double-conversion UPS (see fig. 2.2). Single UPSs can be used
to form redundant configurations as shown in diagrams 4 and 11.
 Single UPS, see Ch. 1 p. 9 and Ch. 4 p. 14 "UPS components and operation".
Standard diagrams:
No. 1
No. 4
No. 11
Fig. 2.2. Double-conversion single UPS.
Parallel UPS
Purpose of parallel connection
Parallel connection of a number of identical UPS units is the means to:
 increase the power rating,
 establish redundancy that increases MTBF and availability,
 make the installation scalable.
TM
TM
Two types of MGE Galaxy UPS units can be connected in parallel:
 integrated parallel UPS units: each UPS unit includes an automatic bypass and a
manual maintenance bypass (fig. 2.2). The manual bypass may be common to the
entire system and located in an external cubicle (e.g. fig. 2.3).
 parallel UPS units with a centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC) (e.g. fig. 2.4).
Modular UPS
TM
UPSs of the Symmetra range are true modular parallel systems. They are made
up of dedicated and redundant modules (power, intelligence, battery and bypass), all
engineered into a design that is easily and efficiently serviceable and scalable.
Identical plug-in power modules can be easily added in parallel as demand grows or
as higher levels of availability are required (e.g. up to four 16 kW modules for
Symmetra PX 48 with N+1 redundancy). The modules are hot-swappable.
Modular design with plug-in power modules improves dependability, in particular
maintainability and availability, as well the upgradeability of the installation.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 2
Types of possible configurations (cont.)
MGETM GalaxyTM parallel UPSs
Integrated parallel UPSs
This configuration is upgradeable, starting for instance with one integrated parallel
UPS unit equipped with an automatic bypass and a manual maintenance bypass.
When starting with two units or when expanding to two units or more, a common
maintenance bypass is installed in an external enclosure (see fig. 2.3).
Standard diagrams:
No. 2
No. 3
Fig. 2.3. Installation with three integrated parallel UPS units and a common maintenance
bypass.
Parallel UPS units with a centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC)
The static-switch cubicle comprises an automatic bypass and a maintenance bypass
that are common for a number of modules without a bypass (see fig. 2.4). It is
possible to have two redundant SSCs.
Upgrading of this configuration depends on the rating of the static switch. It offers the
highest level of reliability (SSC with independent UPS units).
Standard diagrams:
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
Fig. 2.4. Three parallel UPS units with a centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC).
APC by Schneider Electric
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ch. 2 - p. 3
Types of possible configurations (cont.)
Parallel connection with redundancy
The parallel configurations presented above may or may not be redundant.
Without redundancy
All the UPS units are required to supply the load. Failure of one unit means the entire
system shuts down.
With active redundancy (N+1, N+2, etc.)
Only N UPS units are required to supply the load, even though N+1, N+2 or more
units are installed. This ensures a secure supply of power to the load even if one (for
N+1 redundancy) or two (for N+2 redundancy) UPS units fail or require maintenance.
Optimum redundancy of non-modular UPSs
For non-modular systems, differences in the lengths or tightening torques of cables
connecting the different units can lead to problems concerning the impedance
upstream and downstream of each UPS. For this reason, the highest MTBF is
obtained for redundant systems with just two UPSs (fig. 2.5). For modular UPS
systems, module interconnections are an integral part of the system, thereby
eliminating installation problems that can lower the MTBF as more units are added.
Fig. 2.5. For non-modular redundant UPS systems, the best MTBF is obtained with two units.
Redundant distribution with an STS
All the loads are supplied by more than one UPS source (two single UPS units in
figure 4.5). Each source can be made up of a number of parallel-connected units
offering active redundancy. Use of a static transfer switch (STS) ensures transfer of
the load between the sources in the event of a downstream fault (while avoiding any
risk of fault propagation) or for maintenance.
Power distribution units (PDUs) can be used to complete this distribution
configuration, offering:
 load management,
 multi-channel supply of power to the loads (dual attach),
 isolation of parts of the installation for maintenance or upgrading.
This type of configuration ensures a very high degree of availability and offers a
number of installation-upgrade possibilities.
Standard diagrams:
No. 11
No. 12
Fig 2.6. Redundant distribution with an STS.
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05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 4
Selection table and corresponding ranges
Criteria for comparison
The table below compares the standard diagrams of this chapter, mainly related to
MGETM GalaxyTM UPSs, according to the following criteria.
Availability
A level of availability meeting the needs of the application. Figures are based on:
 an estimated level of utility-power availability of 99.9% (the European average),
 an MTTR of ten hours as per standard MIL-HDB-217-F level 2 (U.S. military) and
IEEE.
Maintainability
Ensure easy maintenance of the equipment under safe conditions for personnel and
without interrupting operation.
Upgradeability
It must be possible to upgrade the installation over time, taking into account both the
need to expand the installation gradually and operating requirements.
Discrimination and non propagation of faults
It must be possible to limit faults to as small a part of the installation as possible,
while enabling servicing without stopping operations.
Installation operation and management
Make operations easier by providing the means to anticipate events via installation
supervision and management systems.
Single-source configurations
Standard
Criteria for comparison
diagram number Availability MTBF
Maintainability Upgradeability Comment
1. Single UPS
99.99790% M1=475 000 h *
4 parallel-connected Reference for
UPS units
calculations
2. 2 integrated
99.99947% up to 4 x M1
**
4 parallel-connected
parallel UPS units
UPS units
99.99947% up to 4 x M1
**
4 parallel-connected
3. Integrated
UPS units
parallel units and
external
maintenance bypass
4. Isolated redund. 99.99970% 6.8 x M1
**
Flexible
5. Centralised
99.99968% 6.5 x M1
**
6 parallel-connected
SSC
UPS units
6. Total isolation,
99.99968% 6.5 x M1
***
6 parallel-connected
single busbar
UPS units
7. Total isolation,
99.99968% 6.5 x M1
***
6 parallel-connected
double busbar
UPS units
8. Total isolation,
99.99968% 6.5 x M1
****
6 parallel-connected
single busbar
UPS units
9. Total isolation,
99.99968% 6.5 x M1
****
6 parallel-connected
double busbar
UPS units
Multi-source configurations
Standard
diagram number
10. Isolated
redundancy
11. With STS
12. STS + PDU
Criteria for comparison
Availability MTBF
99.99970%
7 x M1
99.99970%
7 x M1
99.99930% The highest level
of availability
Maintainability Upgradeability
**
No limit
****
****
No limit to the
power rating
No limit to the
power rating
Comment
No propagation
of faults
+ load
management
**** excellent *** good ** fair * poor
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 5
Diagram no. 1. Single UPS
Fig. 2.7. Double-conversion single-UPS unit.
This is the basic solution for UPS installations. The double-conversion UPS unit
supplies high-quality voltage, whatever the level of disturbances in the utility power.
Availability of power for the load
99.99790% and an MTBF of 475 000 hours, compared to a utility MTBF of 96 hours.
UPS maintenance
Made easy due to the built-in bypass for supply of power to the load during servicing.
Possible upgrades
On site by connecting several identical UPS units in parallel.
Applicable ranges
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500, PW, 5000, 7000, 9000.
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Diagram no. 2. Active redundancy with two integrated
parallel UPS units
Fig. 2.8. Active redundancy with two integrated parallel UPS units.
A simple solution where the UPS units share the load.
Availability of power for the load
99.99947% and an MTBF up to four times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one unit, the load remains protected by the other.
Possible upgrades
Several identical UPS units can be connected in parallel and equipped with an
external maintenance bypass.
Special characteristics
 The automatic-bypass function is ensured by managing the static switches.
 Centralised monitoring of the various modules.
 Can be used only with two identical units.
Applicable ranges
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500, PW, 5000, 7000, 9000.
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Diagram no. 3. Active redundancy with integrated parallel
UPS units and external maintenance bypass
Fig. 2.9. Active redundancy with integrated parallel UPS units and external maintenance
bypass.
An upgradeable solution where the power rating can be increased up to 4000 kVA*.
Availability
99.99947% and an MTBF up to four times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one unit, the load remains protected by the other units.
Easy upgrades
Several identical UPS units can be connected in parallel for a low cost solution with
small dimensions.
Special characteristics
 The UPS units share the load.
 The automatic-bypass function is ensured by managing the static switches.
 Centralised monitoring of the various modules.
 Identical modules must be used.
Applicable ranges
MGETM GalaxyTM
3500
PW
5000
7000
9000
Max. number of parallel-connected units
4
4
6
8
4
* Power rating for N+1 redundancy.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 8
Diagram no. 4. Isolated redundancy with two UPS units
Fig. 2.10. Isolated redundancy with two UPS units.
An extremely flexible solution that can combine heterogeneous and distant UPS
units. It also offers improved backup time and is perfectly suited to the technology
implemented by MGE Galaxy UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric which provide
excellent withstand capacity for load step changes.
Availability
99.99970% and an MTBF 6.8 times higher than that of a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one unit, the load remains protected.
Special characteristics
 For a single load, the two UPS units have the same power rating, but if there is a
second load (possible load), the rating of the backup UPS unit must be adapted
correspondingly.
 No control wires between the UPS units.
Applicable ranges
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500, PW, 5000, 7000, 9000.
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Diagram no. 5. Active redundancy with parallel units and
centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC)
Fig. 2.11. Active redundancy with parallel units and centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC).
The solution for centralised installations up to 4 MVA*. Excellent reliability due to the
independence between the units and the static-switch cubicle (SSC).
Availability
99.99968% and an MTBF up to 6.5 times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one unit, the load remains protected by the other units and
the SSC. During maintenance on the SSC, redundancy of the UPS units is
maintained.
Easy upgrades
Up to eight UPS units.
Special characteristics
The UPS units share the load.
Applicable range
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000, 9000.
The Symmetra series is designed according to this type of diagram with hotswappable rack-mounted power modules.
* Power rating for N+1 reduncancy.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 10
Diagram no. 6. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units
and total isolation, single busbar
Fig. 2.12. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units and total isolation, single busbar.
A solution that can evolve with needs up to 4 MVA*. Excellent reliability and
improved maintainability due to the total independence between the UPS units and
the static-switch cubicle (SSC).
Availability
99.99968% and an MTBF up to 6.5 times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one unit, the load remains protected by the other units and
the SSC. During maintenance on the SSC, redundancy of the UPS units is
maintained.
Easy upgrades
Up to eight UPS units.
Special characteristics
 Total isolation of the UPS units or the SSC for maintenance.
 The UPS units can be tested using a test load.
 Isolation of each UPS unit and the SSC, thus eliminating the single point of failure
in the SSC.
Applicable range
TM
MGE
Galaxy
TM
7000, 9000.
* Power rating for N+1 redundancy.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 11
Diagram no. 7. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units
and total isolation, double busbar
Fig. 2.13. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation, double
busbar.
A solution that can evolve with needs up to 4 MVA*. Excellent reliability and
improved maintainability due to the total independence between the UPS units, the
static-switch cubicle (SSC) and the busbars.
Availability
99.99968% and an MTBF up to 6.5 times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on the UPS units and one busbar, the load remains protected
by the other units and the SSC, which are parallel-connected to the second busbar.
During maintenance on the SSC, redundancy of the UPS units is maintained.
Easy upgrades
Up to eight UPS units.
Special characteristics
 Transfer from one busbar to the other without disturbing the load.
 Total isolation of the UPS units or the SSC for maintenance.
 Isolation of each UPS unit and the SSC, thus eliminating the single point of failure
in the SSC.
Applicable range
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000, 9000.
* Power rating for N+1 redundancy.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 12
Diagram no. 8. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units,
double SSC and total isolation, single busbar
Fig. 2.14. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation, single
busbar.
An upgradeable solution offering improved maintainability due to the total
redundancy of the UPS units and the static-switch cubicles (SSC).
Availability
99.99968% and an MTBF up to 6.5 times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on the UPS units and one SSC, the load remains protected by
the other units and the second SSC. During maintenance on one SSC, redundancy
of the UPS units is maintained.
Easy upgrades
Up to eight UPS units.
Special characteristics
 Only one SSC is active, the other is on stand-by and transfer of the UPS units from
one to the other takes place without disturbing the load.
 During operation on the bypass, the load is split 50/50 between the two SSCs.
 Total isolation of each SSC for maintenance.
 Parallel connection of the UPS units in the output cabinet eliminates the single
point of failure in an SSC.
 The possibility of installing the SSCs in two separate rooms increases system
availability in the event of fire or other problems.
Applicable range
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000, 9000.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 13
Diagram no. 9. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units,
double SSC and total isolation, double busbar
Fig. 2.15. Active redundancy with parallel UPS units, double SSC and total isolation, double
busbar.
A solution for two evolving loads with different needs in terms of power ratings and
redundancy.
Availability
99.99968% and an MTBF up to 6.5 times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one UPS unit and one SSC, the load remains protected by
the other units and the second SSC. During maintenance on one SSC, redundancy
of the UPS units is maintained.
Easy upgrades
Up to eight UPS units.
Special characteristics
 During operation of only one load, only one SSC is active, the other is on stand-by
and transfer of the UPS units from one to the other takes place without disturbing the
load.
 During operation of the two different loads, both SSCs are active, each with a
number of assigned UPS units.
 Parallel connection of the UPS units in the output cabinet eliminates the single
point of failure in an SSC.
 The possibility of installing the SSCs in two separate rooms increases system
availability in the event of fire or other problems.
Applicable range
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000, 9000.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 14
Diagram no. 10. Isolated redundancy N+1
Fig. 2.16. Isolated redundancy N+1.
Solution combining heterogeneous and distant UPS units to protect a number of
independent loads.
Availability of power for the load
Greater than 99.99970% and an MTBF up to seven times higher than that for a single UPS.
UPS maintenance
During maintenance on one UPS unit, the load remains protected. However, the
UPS units are not totally isolated (servicing under energised conditions).
Possible upgrades
No limit to the power rating.
Short-circuit propagation
Impossible between the sources.
Special characteristics
 Short-circuit capacity is lower than in a configuration with parallel UPS units
 (Isc, discrimination, crest factor, etc.).
 Sizing of the backup UPS must take into account the number of UPS units
downstream, their power ratings and their criticality, as well as any future plans for
the installation (generally speaking, the backup UPS has a parallel configuration).
 All the advantages of isolated redundancy (diagram no. 4).
Applicable ranges
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500, 5000, 7000.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 15
Diagram no. 11. Redundant distribution with STS
Fig. 2.17. Redundant distribution with STS units.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 16
Diagram no. 11. Redundant distribution with STS (cont.)
The best solution in terms of availability, site operation and safety. It is the only
solution that deals with power distribution through to the loads. It is particularly
flexible and makes for easy adaptation of redundancy to the needs of the load.
Availability of power for the load
Greater than 99.9999%, the highest level of availability!
UPS maintenance
Total distribution redundancy and servicing under no-load conditions make for
maximum safety during maintenance.
Easy upgrades
Using single-UPS units and with no limit to the total power rating, upgrading is made
easy by the capacity to partially isolate distribution subassemblies.
Fault propagation
Load segmenting and the technology employed in Upsilon STS units (break-beforemake source transfer with no interruption to the loads) ensures isolation of loads
from disturbances caused by other, faulty loads.
Easy operation
Automatic or manual source transfer.
Continuous monitoring of the sources (11 parameters and internal circuits).
Secure transfer of desynchronised sources.
Special characteristics
 The synchronisation module ensures perfect source synchronisation under all
conditions (long outages, etc.).
 Selection of the load distribution for the UPS units.
 The UPS units can be heterogeneous and remote from the load.
Applicable ranges
TM
TM
All 3-phase ranges from APC by Schneider Electric: MGE Galaxy and
TM
Symmetra .
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 17
Diagram no. 12 . Active redundancy with parallel UPS and a
common battery
PDU 1
PDU 2
PDU 3
Fig. 2.18. Redundant distribution with STS units and PDU.
Redundancy is built into each level, including the PDUs, the Upsilon STS units, the
Galaxy UPS units and the synchronisation modules.
Same advantages as diagram no. 11, plus:
 Capacity to enhance the reliability of a particular point in the installation.
 Four different supply channels to dual-attach servers.
Applicable ranges
All 3-phase ranges from APC by Schneider Electric: MGETM GalaxyTM and
TM
Symmetra .
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 2 - p. 18
Chapter 3. Elimination of harmonics in installations
Contents
Harmonics........................................................................3-2
Definition, origin and types of harmonics..............................................3-2
Characteristic harmonic values ............................................................3-5
Effects of harmonics.............................................................................3-7
Elimination of harmonics ...............................................3-11
Strategies against harmonics ...............................................................3-11
Living with harmonics ...........................................................................3-11
APC by Schneider Electric solutions to eliminate harmonics ...............3-12
MGETM SineWaveTM
Active harmonic conditioners........................................3-14
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioner ranges .....................3-14
Procedure for implementing active conditioning ...................................3-20
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 1
Harmonics
Definition, origin and
types of harmonics
Harmonics
Harmonics are sinusoidal currents or voltages with a frequency that is a whole
multiple (k) of the frequency of the distribution system, called the fundamental
frequency (50 or 60 Hz).
When combined with the sinusoidal fundamental current or voltage respectively,
harmonics distort the current or voltage waveform (see fig. 3.1).
Harmonics are generally identified as Hk, where k is the harmonic order.
 IHk or UHk indicate the type of harmonic (current or voltage).
 IH1 or UH1 designates the sinusoidal current or voltage at 50 or 60 Hz that exists
when there are no harmonics (the fundamental current or voltage).
H1 (50 Hz)
H3 (150 Hz)
H1 + H3
Fig. 3.1. Distortion of H1 (the fundamental) by H3 (third-order harmonic).
Non-linear loads are the cause
Equipment implementing power electronics is the main cause of harmonics. To
supply the electronics with DC power, the equipment has a switch-mode power
supply with a rectifier at the input that draws harmonic currents.
Examples are computers, variable-speed drives, etc.
Other loads distort the current due to their operating principle and also cause
harmonics.
Examples are fluorescent lamps, discharge lamps, welding machines and devices
with a magnetic core that can be saturated.
All the loads that distort the normal sinusoidal current cause harmonics and are
called non-linear loads.
PC.
Variable-speed drive.
Fluorescent lamp.
Fig. 3.2. Examples of non-linear loads that cause harmonics.
Linear and non-linear loads
Utility power supplies 50/60 Hz sinusoidal voltage to loads. The current waveform
supplied by the source in response to the needs of the load depends on the type of load.
Linear loads
The current drawn is sinusoidal with the same frequency as the voltage. The current
may be displaced (angle ) with respect to the voltage.
 Ohm's law defines a linear relation between the voltage and the current (U = ZI)
with a constant coefficient, the load impedance. The relation between the current
and the voltage is linear.
Examples are standard light bulbs, heating units, resistive loads, motors, transformers.
 This type of load does not contain any active electronic components, only resistors
(R), inductors (L) and capacitors (C).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 2
Harmonics (cont.)
Non-linear loads
 The current drawn by the load is periodic, but not sinusoidal. The current waveform
is distorted by the harmonic currents.
 Ohm's law defining the relation between the total voltage and current (1) is no
longer valid because the impedance of the load varies over one period (see fig. 3.3).
The relation between the current and the voltage is not linear.
 The current drawn by the load is in fact the combination of:
- a sinusoidal current called the fundamental, at the 50 or 60 Hz frequency,
- harmonics, which are sinusoidal currents with an amplitude less than that of the
fundamental, but a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental and which defines
the harmonic order (e.g. the third order harmonic has a frequency 3 x 50 Hz (or 60 Hz)).
(1) Ohm's law applies to each voltage and current of the same harmonic order, Uk = Zk Ik,
where Zk is the load impedance for the given order, but is no longer valid for the total voltage
and current.
 Linear loads, non-linear loads, see Ch. 1 p. 11 "UPS power quality".
An example is RCD loads (Resistance,
Capacitor, Diode) that are found in a majority
of power supplies used for electronic devices.
● The capacitor C, under steady-state
conditions, charges only when the
instantaneous line voltage is greater than the
voltage across its terminals.
● From that point on, the load impedance is
low (diode turned on). Before, the impedance
was high (diode turned off).
● The impedance of a non-linear load
therefore varies according to the voltage
across its terminals.
● The impedance is not constant and the
voltage and current are no longer sinusoidal.
● The form of the current is more complex and
can be represented, using the Fourier
theorem, by adding:
- a current with the same frequency f as the
voltage, called the fundamental,
- other currents with frequencies kf (k is a
whole number > 1) called harmonics.
● The figure provides a general idea of the
load current showing only two harmonic
orders, IH3 and IH5.
Fig. 3.3. Voltage and current for non-linear loads
Types of harmonics and specific aspects of zero-sequence
harmonics
Types of harmonics
Non-linear loads cause three types of harmonic currents, all in odd orders (because
the sinusoidal is an "odd" function).
 Harmonics H7 - H13 - …. : positive sequence.
 Harmonics H5 - H11 - …. : negative sequence.
 Harmonics H3 - H9 - …. : zero sequence.
Specific aspects of zero-sequence harmonics (H3 and multiples)
Zero-sequence harmonic currents (H3 and odd multiples, written 3(2k+1) where k is
an integer) in three-phase systems add up in the neutral conductor.
This is because their order 3(2k+1) is a multiple of the number of phases (3), which
means they coincide with the displacement (one third of a period) of the phase
currents.
Figure 3.4 illustrated this phenomenon over one period. The currents of the three
phases are displaced one third of a period (T/3), i.e. the respective IH3 harmonics
are in phase and the instantaneous values add up. Consequently:
 When there are no harmonics, the current in the neutral is equal to zero:
IN = I1+I2+I3 = 0
 When there are harmonics, the current in the neutral is equal to:
I1 + I2 + I3 = 3 IH3 .
It is therefore necessary to pay particular attention to this type of harmonics in
installations with a distributed neutral (commercial and infrastructure applications).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 3
Harmonics (cont.)
Fig. 3.4. The third-order harmonics and their multiples add up in the neutral.
Fig. 3.5. When there are H3 harmonics and their odd multiples, the current in the neutral is no
longer equal to zero, it is the sum of the zero-sequence harmonics.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 4
Harmonics (cont.)
Characteristic
harmonic values
See WP 17 
The harmonic analysis of a non-linear current consists in determining:
 the harmonic orders present in the current,
 the relative importance of each harmonic order.
Below are a few characteristic harmonic values and fundamental relations used in
harmonic analysis.
 Further information on harmonics, see Ch. 5 and the explanations in White Paper
no. 17 "Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor and Surge Factor".
Rms value of harmonics
It is possible to measure the rms value of each harmonic order because the various
harmonic currents are sinusoidal, but with different frequencies that are multiples of
the fundamental frequency.
 IH1 is the fundamental component (50 or 60 Hz).
 IHk is the harmonic component where k is the harmonic order (k times 50 or 60 Hz).
Harmonic analysis is used to determine the values.
Total rms current
Irms  IH12  IH22  IH3 2  ...  IHk 2  ...
Individual harmonics
Each harmonic is expressed as a percentage, i.e. the ratio of its rms value to the rms
value of the fundamental. This ratio is the level of the individual harmonic.
IH
Hk% = distortion of harmonic k = 100 k
IH1
Voltage and current harmonic distortion
Non-linear loads cause both current and voltage harmonics. This is because for each
load current harmonic, there is a supply voltage harmonic with the same frequency.
As a result, the voltage is also distorted by harmonics.
The distortion of a sine wave is presented as a percentage:
rms value of all harmonics
THD* % = total distortion = 100
rms value of fundamental
* Total Harmonic Distortion.
The following values are defined:
 TDHU % for the voltage, based on the voltage harmonics,
 TDHI % for the current, based on the current harmonics.
The THDI (or the THDU using the UHk values) is measured using the equation:
THDI %  100
IH22  IH3 2  IH4 2  ...  Hk 2  ...
IH1
Crest factor
The crest factor (Fc), used to characterise the form of the signal (current or voltage),
is the ratio between the peak value and the rms value.
Fc 
peak value
rms value
Below are typical values for different loads:
 linear load: Fc = 2 = 1.414
 main frame: Fc = 2 to 2.5
 microcomputers: Fc = 2 to 3.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 5
Harmonics (cont.)
Spectrum of the harmonic current
Defining the spectrum of a harmonic current consists in determining the current
waveform and the individual harmonics, as well as certain values such as the THDI
and Fc.
Individual harmonics
H5 = 33 %
H7 = 2.7 %
H11 = 7.3%
H13 = 1.6 %
H17 = 2.6 %
H19 = 1.1 %
H23 = 1.5 %
H25 = 1.3 %
THDI = 35%
Fc = 1.45
Input current of a three-phase rectifier.
Harmonic spectrum and corresponding THDI.
Fig. 3.6. Harmonic spectrum of the current drawn by a non-linear load.
Power factor
Power factor
The power factor is the ratio between the active power (kW) and the apparent power
S (kVA) across the terminals of a given non-linear load.
P (kW )

S (kVA )
It is not the phase displacement between the voltage and the current, because they
are no longer sinusoidal.
Displacement between the fundamental current and voltage
The phase displacement 1 between the fundamental current and voltage, both
sinusoidal, can be defined as:
P1 (kW )
cos 1 
S1 (kVA )
where P1 and S1 are the active and apparent power, respectively, of the fundamental.
Distortion factor
The distortion factor is defined as:

  THDI2 

(as defined by IEC 60146).
cos 1
When there are no harmonics, this factor is equal to 1 and the power factor is simply
the cos .
Power
Linear load
Across the terminals of a balanced, three-phase linear load, supplied with a phaseto-phase voltage U and a current I, where the displacement between U and I is , the
power values are:
 P apparent = S = UI, in kVA,
 P active = S cos , in kW,
 P reactive = Q = S sin , in kVAr,
S
P2  Q2
Non-linear load
Across the terminals of a non-linear load, the equation for P is much more complex
because U and I contain harmonics. It can however be expressed simply as:
 P = S  ( = power factor)
For the fundamentals U1 and I1, displaced by 1:
 P apparent fundamental = S1  U1 I1 3
 P active fundamental = P1 = S1 cos 1
 P reactive fundamental Q1 = S1 sin 1
S
APC by Schneider Electric
P12  Q12  D2
where D is the distortion power, due to the harmonics.
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 6
Harmonics (cont.)
Effects of harmonics
Loss of apparent power
 In electrical devices, harmonics
Figure 3.7 shows that the product of a voltage at the fundamental frequency without
harmonics multiplied by a third-harmonic current is zero at the end of one period.
This is true whatever the phase and order of the harmonic.
produce neither active nor reactive
power, only losses through the Joule
2
effect (ri ).
See WP 26 
This is expressed by the relation S 
P12  Q12  D2
A part of the apparent power is consumed by the harmonics, to no effect.
 In rotating machines, the resulting motor torque is equal to zero and only a
parasitic pulsating torque exists, creating vibrations.
 The only active power present during a voltage drop is the heating produced by
the harmonic current (Ihk) in a conductor with a resistance r (r IHk2).
 See White Paper no. 26 “Hazards of Harmonics and Neutral Overloads” for
further information.
Fig. 3.7. U x I products for fundamentals (top) and for fundamentals with harmonics (bottom).
 Temperature rise due to harmonic
Temperature rise in cables
currents adds to the temperature rise
due to the fundamental current.
Temperature rise in cables is expressed as:

Losses = r
 IHn
2
n 1
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 7
Harmonics (cont.)
 The neutral must be oversized to take
into account the third-order harmonic
currents and their multiples.
Current in the neutral
All third-order harmonic currents and their odd multiples add up in the neutral (see
fig. 3.8). The current in the neutral can reach 1.7 times that in the phases.
Consequences
Significant losses in the neutral
r Ineutral2 = temperature rise in the neutral.
Fig. 3.8. The third-order harmonics and their multiples add up in the neutral.
Self-polluting loads
 Voltage distortion mirrors that of the
current and increases in step with the
sum of the impedances upstream of the
non-linear load.
Current distortion THDI, caused by the load, results in voltage distortion THDU
caused by the harmonic currents flowing through the various impedances from the
source on down. Figure 3.9 shows the various forms of distortion throughout a
common electrical installation.
Fig. 3.9. Effects of harmonics throughout the installation.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 8
Harmonics (cont.)
Risk of capacitor breakdown
 In conclusion, the higher the
content of high-order components in
the voltage, the worse the situation for
the capacitor. It is often necessary to
use reinforced capacitors.
The value of a current in a capacitor is equal to:
.I = U C 
For a harmonic current of order k, the angular frequency is equal to  = 2 k f, and
the current is equal to:
.I = 2  k f U C
where f = the fundamental frequency and k = the harmonic order.
It follows that the value of the current increases with k.
What is more, for a harmonic frequency, there can also be resonance (1) of the
capacitor (capacitance C) with the equivalent inductance (L) of the source
(transformer, essentially inductive) in parallel with that of the other supplied loads.
This resonant circuit (see fig. 3.10) significantly amplifies the harmonic current of the
corresponding order, thus worsening the situation for the capacitor.
(1) This is the case if, for a harmonic order k, with a frequency fk = k x 50 (or 60) Hz, LCk
where = 2 π fk.
2
˜
1,
IH
Source
impedance
(transformer) in
parallel with that
of other loads
supplied
harmonic
currents
L
resonant
LC circuit
C
All
non-linear
loads
Fig. 3.10. Effects of harmonics with capacitors, risk of resonance.
Consequences
 Risk of capacitor breakdown.
 Risk of resonance due to the presence of the inductors.
Certain limitations must be respected:
 U max = 1.1 Un
 I max = 1.3 In
 THDU max = 8%
 Selection of capacitor type, depending on the situation, i.e. standard, class h
(reinforced isolation), with harmonic inductors.
Derating of transformers
 Generally speaking, harmonics
result in source derating that is
inversely proportional to the load
power factor, i.e. the lower the power
factor, the more the source must be
derated.
A number of effects are combined:
 due to the skin effect, the resistance of a transformer winding increases with the
order of the harmonics,
 losses due to hysteresis are proportional to the frequency,
 losses due to Foucault currents are proportional to the square of the frequency.
Consequences
 In compliance with standard NFC 52-114, transformers must be derated by
applying a coefficient k to their rated power, such that:
k
1
n
H n
2 1,6
n
1  0,1
n2
This is an empirical equation.
Other national standards recommend derating using a similar k factor that depends
on the country (e.g. BS 7821 Part 4, IEE 1100-1992).
Example
A 1000 kVA transformer supplies a six-pulse rectifier bridge drawing the following
harmonics:
H5 = 25%, H7 = 14%, H11 = 9%, H13 = 8%.
The derating coefficient is k = 0.91.
The apparent power of the transformer is therefore 910 kVA.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 9
Harmonics (cont.)
Risk of disturbing generators
 Practically speaking, the THDI of
the current in the generator must not
exceed 20%. Above, derating is
necessary.
Similar to transformers, generators suffer greater losses due to hysteresis and
Foucault currents.
 The subtransient reactance X"d increases as a function of the frequency.
 The "harmonic" rotating field sweeps the rotor at a frequency other than the
synchronism frequency (50 or 60 Hz).
Consequences
 Creation of parasitic torque resulting in lower efficiency of the mechanical to
electrical conversion.
 Additional losses in the inductor windings and the rotor damper.
 Presence of vibration and abnormal noise.
Losses in asynchronous motors
Harmonics produce the following effects in asynchronous motors:
 increases in Joule and iron losses (stator losses),
 pulsating torque (rotor losses with a drop in mechanical efficiency).
 The THDU must be less than 10% to limit these phenomena.
Effects on other equipment
Harmonics can disturb operation of the following equipment as well:
 non-rms trip units, resulting in nuisance tripping of circuit breakers,
 automatic telephone exchanges,
 alarms,
 sensitive electronic equipment,
 remote-control systems.
Effect on recent UPS systems
Modern UPS systems have high chopping frequencies (PWM) and very low output
impedance (equivalent to a transformer five times more powerful).
When confronted with non-linear loads, these UPSs offer:
 limited losses,
 current-limiting operation,
 very low voltage distortion (THDU < 3%).
 UPSs are an excellent means to supply non-linear loads.
Conclusion
Harmonics may have damaging effects on electrical installations and on the quality
of operation.
That is why international standards stipulate increasingly precise harmoniccompatibility levels for equipment and set limits for the harmonic content on public
distribution systems.
 Standards on harmonics, see Ch. 5 p. 28 "UPS standards".
On the following pages are a presentation of the various strategies concerning
harmonics and the usefulness of MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch 3 p. 10
Elimination of harmonics
Strategies against
harmonics
There are two strategies:
 accept and live with harmonics, which essentially means it is necessary to oversize
equipment to take the effects of harmonics into account,
 eliminate the harmonics, in part or in whole, using filters or active harmonic
conditioners.
Living with harmonics
Oversizing of equipment
See WP 38 
Given that the negative effects of harmonic currents increase with the cumulative
impedance of cables and sources, the obvious solution is to limit the total impedance
in order to reduce both voltage distortion and temperature rise.
Figure 3.11 shows the results when cable cross-sections and the power rating of the
source are doubled.
Given that the THDU depends primarily on the inductive component and thus on the
length of the cables, it is clear that this solution is not very effective and results
simply in limiting temperature rise.
Figure 3.12 shows that for the strongest harmonic currents (H3 to H7), the L/R ratio
is equal to 1 for cables with a cross-section of 36 mm². Consequently, above 36
mm², it is necessary to reduce the impedance by using multicore cable to create
parallel impedances.
 For Data Centers, see “Harmonic Currents in the Data Center: A Case Study”.
Fig. 3.11. Increased cable cross-sections to limit distortion and losses.
Fig. 3.12. Influence of cable cross-section on L/R.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 3 - p. 11
Elimination of harmonics (cont.)
APC by Schneider Electric
solutions to eliminate
harmonics
There are different types of solutions to eliminate harmonics.
 Filters, see Ch.1 p. 27 “ Selection of a filter” .
Passive filters
LC passive filters are tuned to the frequency requiring elimination or attenuate a
band of frequencies. Harmonic recombination systems (double bridge, phase
shifting) can also be grouped in this category.
 On request, APC by Schneider Electric can integrate this type of filter in its
solutions.
Passive filters have two major disadvantages:
 elimination of harmonics is effective only for a specific installation, i.e. the addition
or removal of loads can disrupt the filtering system,
 it is often difficult to implement them in an existing installation.
Active filters / active harmonic conditioners
TM
TM
Active filters, also called active harmonic conditioners, such as MGE SineWave ,
cancel harmonics by injecting exactly equal harmonic currents where they arise. This
type of filter reacts in real time (i.e. actively) to the existing harmonics in order to
eliminate them. More effective and flexible than passive filters, they avoid their
disadvantages and, in comparison, constitute a solution that:
 offers greater performance (total elimination of all harmonics is possible, up to the
50th order),
 is flexible, adaptable (action can be configured) and reusable.
Table summing up the possible strategies against harmonics
Strategy
Advantages
Disadvantages
APC by Schneider Electric
solutions
Live with harmonics
Reduction in supply
Increase the ratings of
sources and/or the cross- THDU by reducing the
source impedance.
sections of cables
Reduction in Joule
losses.
Difficult in existing solutions. Costly solution limited to
reducing the resistive component for small crosssections (the inductance remains constant).
Requires parallel cables for large cross-sections. Does
not avoid disturbances upstream of the installation.
Does not comply with standards.
Special supply for nonLimits disturbances to Same as above.
linear loads.
neighbouring loads
through decoupling.
Partially eliminate harmonics
Simple solution.
Tuned passive filters.
Only for one or two harmonic orders. Wide-band filters
are not very effective. Possibility of resonance. Costly
design work is required.
Inductors upstream of the Reduction in harmonic Increase in THDU across the terminals of the load.
currents. Limits the
non-linear loads.
effects of transient
overvoltages.
Elimination of only certain harmonic orders. NonSpecial transformers.
standard construction.
Completely eliminate harmonics
Active harmonic
Simple and flexible
Total elimination of all harmonics is possible (up to the
th
conditioners.
solution.
25 order), adaptable (action configured) and reusable
system.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Range of passive filters
Including double-bridge and phaseshifting solutions
TM
TM
MGE SineWave
active conditioners
ch. 3 - p. 12
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic
conditioners
MGETM SineWaveTM characteristics
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners constitute a more general
approach to the problem of harmonics. These active filters are not only for a UPS
unit, but are designed to eliminate harmonics throughout the installation.
MGETM SineWaveTM is particularly well suited to medium-power industrial and
infrastructure applications, offering conditioning currents from 20 to 480 A in threephase systems with a neutral.
These solutions are presented in the following section.
The table below sums up the main characteristics.
Range
MGE
TM
SineWave
TM
Power
level
50/60 Hz
systems
Main characteristics
Applications
20 to
480 A
380 to 415
V
3 Ph+N
and 3 Ph
● Filtering up to H25
● Digital active
Filtering of mediumpower commercial,
infrastructure and
industrial systems,
3Ph+N and 3 Ph,
single-phase loads
conditioning with:
- analysis and
conditioning of individual
orders
- response time 40 ms for
load fluctuations
Advantages of MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic
conditioning
 Wide-band solution from H2 to H25 with individual conditioning of each phase.
 It is possible to select individual harmonic orders for conditioning.
 No risk of overloads, conditioning limits to the maximum power rating, even if the
load power exceeds the rating.
 Automatically adapts to all types of loads, single-phase and three-phase.
 Compatible with all system earthing arrangements.
 Power factor correction.
 Economic, when harmonics are cut in half, losses are reduced by four.
 Can be reused in other installations.
 Upgradeable with parallel-connected units.
 Very compact.
 Simple installation, with current transformers upstream or downstream.
Operating principle
The source supplies exclusively the fundamental component (IF) of the load current.
The active conditioner measures in real time the harmonics (IH) drawn by the load
and supplies them.
Upstream of point A, where the conditioner is connected, the fundamental current IF
is not altered, downstream the load draws the non-linear current IF + IH.
IF
IF + IH
A
Source
Injection of
compensation
current
Active harmonic
conditioner
Fig. 3.13. Harmonic conditioning by MGE
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Non-linear
load
IH
TM
Measurement
of load
harmonics
TM
SineWave .
ch. 3 - p. 13
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Operating modes
Digital mode, conditioning of individual orders
The basic operating mode of MGETM SineWaveTM is digital, with a current sensor,
analogue/digital conversion of the current measurements and real-time calculation of
the harmonic spectrum. This information is supplied to the inverter for compensation
of the individual harmonic orders.
The response time to load fluctuations is 40 ms (two cycles).
Operating diagram
The power required for conditioning is drawn on the three-phase distribution system
and stored in the inductor L and the capacitors charged to +Vm and -Vm respectively
(see fig. 3.14).
Depending on the sign of the harmonic current required, the pulse width of one
capacitor or the other is modulated. This means the same connection to the supply
system can be used to draw power and inject the harmonics.
The power sent to the load depends on:
 The harmonic values measured,
 User requirements, set during system configuration: harmonic orders to be
eliminated and power-factor correction (yes or no).
The current transformer, combined with an analogue/digital converter, determines
the spectrum (fundamental and harmonics) of the current supplying the load.
Depending on these values and the selecting program, a processor prepares the
commands for the inverter, for execution one phase after the measurements.
Power factor correction is obtained by generating a fundamental current +90° out of
phase with the voltage
TM
Fig. 3.14. Operation of MGE
SineWaveTM.
Options
On 3Ph or 3 ph+N systems, the user can decide to condition:
 All or only certain harmonics up to H25.
 The power factor
 MGETM SineWaveTM is always supplied with three-phase power, but it can
condition single-phase loads, i.e. 3k zero-sequence harmonics.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 3 - p. 14
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Installation modes
Parallel mode
Up to four MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners can be connected in
parallel at the same point of installation. This the means to increase harmonicconditioning capacity and/or system availability.
For parallel installations, a single set of sensors is required on the conditioned circuit
and a wire link is used to send the load-current measurements to the various
conditioners. If one conditioner shuts down, the remaining conditioners continue to
condition the harmonics, within the limits of their rated conditioning capacity.
Fig. 3.15. Parallel operation of three MGE
TM
SineWave
TM
active harmonic conditioners.
Cascade or in-series mode
"Cascade" or "in-series" operation is possible, but simply requires special settings to
avoid any interaction between the different conditioners.
The downstream conditioner generally conditions a high-power load. The upstream
device conditions other low-power outgoing circuits and, where applicable, any
residual harmonics not conditioned by the first conditioner.
Fig. 3.16. MGE
TM
SineWave
TM
active harmonic conditioners in cascade mode.
Multi-circuit mode
In this mode, a single conditioner can condition up to three outgoing circuits. A set of
sensors is required for each circuit conditioned and all are connected to
MGETM SineWaveTM . This configuration is very useful when the harmonics are
concentrated on a small number of circuits.
Fig. 3.17. One MGE
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
SineWave
05/2009 edition
TM
active conditioner for several circuits.
ch. 3 - p. 15
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Position in the installation
Total (or centralised) conditioning
The active harmonic conditioner is connected just downstream of the sources,
generally at the main low-voltage switchboard (MLVS) level.
Partial conditioning
The active harmonic conditioner is connected at the main or secondary switchboard
level and conditions a set of loads.
Local conditioning
The active harmonic conditioner is connected directly to the terminals of each load
Fig. 3.18. Three possible MGE
requirements.
TM
SineWave
TM
installation points, depending on user
Comparison of installation possibilities
Type of conditioning
Total
(MLVS level)
Advantages
Economical.
Relieves generators (transformers,
generators).
Partial
(secondary-switchboard
level)
Avoids oversizing the cables
between the main and secondary
switchboards.
Recombination of certain
harmonics may make it possible to
reduce conditioner rating.
Eliminates harmonics where they
Costly when a number of
occur.
conditioners are required.
Reduces losses in all cables, up to
the source.
Local
(load level)
APC by Schneider Electric
Disadvantages
Harmonics remain in the
downstream part of the
installation.
Cables must be oversized.
Harmonics remain between the
secondary switchboard and the
non-linear load.
Outgoing cable to the load must
be oversized.
05/2009 edition
Applications
Compliance with utility requirements.
Avoid injecting harmonics upstream of the
installation.
Large buildings.
Conditioning regularly spaced on each
floor or set of floors.
Several circuits supplying non-linear loads.
For installations where non-linear loads
are few in number and high-powered with
respect to the other loads. Example, large
variable-speed drives, high-power UPSs.
Examples: server bays, lighting, highpower UPSs, fluorescent lighting systems.
ch. 3 - p. 16
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Practically speaking
 Total conditioning does not pose any calculation problems.
 Partial conditioning requires a few precautions.
 For all non-compensated RCD loads (high-power variable-speed drives without
inductors for variable-torque applications), local conditioning can guarantee only a
THDU not exceeding certain limits to ensure proper load operation.
Position of current transformers upstream or downstream
In most of the above installation modes, two different types of current-transformer
(CT) installation can be used with MGETM SineWaveTM.
CT upstream of the load
This is the most common situation.
IH
IF
IF + IH
active harmonic
conditioner
CT to measure load
harmonics
non-linear
load
Fig. 3.19. Installation with one CT upstream of the load.
Installation with one CT upstream of the MGETM SineWaveTM and one
CT on the switchboard incomer
This configuration simplifies matters when it is difficult to install a CT on the line just
upstream of the load. The two CTs must have compatible and complementary
characteristics. The difference between the measured currents determines the
necessary compensation current.
CT1 to measure
source current
IH
IF
CT2 to measure
conditioner current
IF + IH
information on current to be
reinjected
(différence CT1 - CT2)
active harmonic
conditioner
non-linear
load
Fig. 3.20. Installation with two CTs, one on the switchboard incomer and the other upstream of
the conditioner.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 3 - p. 17
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Advantages of MGETM SineWaveTM
Elimination of the conditioned harmonic currents
For the selected harmonics, MGETM SineWaveTM is designed to provide a path for the
harmonic currents with virtually zero impedance with respect to that of the source.
This eliminates their flow upstream towards the source.
TM
TM
Figure 3.21 shows MGE SineWave between two line sections ZL1 and ZL2,
supplying a standard RCD load that can be either single or three-phase (switch-mode
power supply or variable-speed drive).
The harmonic currents IHn that previously flowed through impedances Zs and ZL1
upstream of the MGETM SineWaveTM point of installation, are eliminated.
The source now supplies exclusively the fundamental current If.
It is the MGETM SineWaveTM that supplies the harmonic currents IHn to the load, by
continuously measuring the harmonics drawn by the load.
TM
Fig. 3.21. MGE
SineWaveTM modifies the current upstream of its point of installation.
Reduction in THDU at the point of installation
Upstream of MGETM SineWaveTM, the selected harmonic currents IHn (all or only
some of the harmonics up to the 25th) are eliminated.
Total harmonic distortion upstream of the point of installation is calculated as (see
Ch. 4 p. 49):

 UH
n
THDU %  100
2
n2
UH1
where UHn is the voltage drop corresponding to harmonic IHn.
Elimination of the harmonic current for a given order eliminates the harmonic voltage
for the same order (1).
The result is a major reduction in the THDU, by selecting the most significant
harmonics.
Given that above the 25th order, individual harmonics are negligible, the THDU is
practically equal to zero and distortion is totally eliminated if it is decided to condition
all harmonics up to the 25th.
(1) In that UHn and IHn are sinusoidal components at frequency nf (where f is the frequency of
the fundamental), they are related by the Ohm law, taking into account the value of the
concerned impedances (Zs and ZL1) with an angular frequency n.
Therefore:
UHn = (Zs(n) + ZL1(n)) IHn.
For all the conditioned harmonics, IHn = 0 and consequently, UHn = 0.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 3 - p. 18
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Procedure for
implementing active
conditioning
Conclusion on active conditioning
Precise conditioning calculations require:
 precise and in-depth knowledge on the installation (sources, lines and installation
method),
 precise knowledge on the loads (harmonic and displacement curves depending on
the source impedance),
 special calculation tools,
 analysis and simulation.
New installations
The standard rules governing electrical installations remain valid, but an evaluation of
the voltage distortion (THDU) is required where harmonic currents flow.
This evaluation is very complex and requires special calculation software as well as
in-depth knowledge of the non-linear loads, in particular the harmonic distribution as
a function of the upstream impedance.
APC by Schneider Electric has the simulation tools required for theses calculations.
Existing installations
For existing installations, a precise evaluation of the site is the indispensable
prerequisite to any corrective action. The mathematical relationship between current
and voltage distortion is complex and depends on the various components of the
installation.
Control over harmonic phenomena requires know-how and experience, as well as
specialised tools and software (spectrum analyser, calculation software for distortion
in cables, simulation software, etc.).
However, even if each solution is specific to a given site, proper professional
techniques and rigorous methods ensure maximum probability that the installation
will operate correctly.
Methodology
APC by Schneider Electric has mastered the entire harmonic-elimination process
and proposes a three-step approach:
1. site audit,
2. determination of the most suitable solution,
3. system installation and checks.
1. Site audit
Installation diagram
Before initiating a series of measurements, we suggest you draft a simplified diagram
of the installation, indicating the following.
 types of equipment
- generators: type, power rating, voltage, Usc, X"d (engine generator set).
- isolation transformers: voltage, power rating, type, Usc, coupling.
- distribution: type of cables, length, cross-section, installation method.
- loads: power rating, type.
- system earthing arrangements at the various points in the installation.
 operating modes
- on utility power.
- on engine generator sets (standby power or cogeneration).
- on UPSs.
 downgraded operating modes
- without redundancy.
- on engine generator set power.
This diagram should enable you to locate the different measurement points and
identify critical operating phases (for evaluation by simulation or calculation).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 3 - p. 19
MGETM SineWaveTM
active harmonic conditioners (cont.)
Measurements
Following the previous indispensable step, the measurement phase can begin,
starting preferably at the source and working downstream toward the loads drawing
the harmonics, in order to limit the number of measurements.
The quality of measurements is more important than their quantity and makes the
next step easier.
Preliminary installation study
This first step ends with a preliminary study of the installation:
 point(s) of installation of the conditioner(s),
 installation conditions for the protection circuit breakers,
 installation of sensors (energised conditions or not),
 possibility of shutting down the load,
 available space,
 evacuation of losses (ventilation, air-conditioning, etc.),
 environmental constraints (noise, EMC, etc.).
2. Determination of the most suitable solution
The previous elements are used to determine the optimum solution through:
 analysis of the measurement results,
 simulation of different solutions for the problem encountered,
 determination of the most suitable solution,
 drafting of a summary report with the proposed solutions.
3. System installation and checks
This last step includes:
 implementation of the selected solutions,
 checks on performance levels with respect to the guaranteed results,
 drafting of a system start-up report.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 3 - p. 20
Chapter 4. APC by Schneider Electric ranges
Contents
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPSs ...........................................4-3
Presentation .........................................................................................4-3
Main features........................................................................................4-4
Installation ............................................................................................4-7
Parallel connection ...............................................................................4-7
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-8
Characteristics......................................................................................4-9
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs ...........................................4-12
Presentation .........................................................................................4-12
Main features........................................................................................4-13
Installation ............................................................................................4-17
Parallel connection ...............................................................................4-18
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-19
Characteristics......................................................................................4-20
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs .............................................4-24
Presentation .........................................................................................4-24
Main features........................................................................................4-24
Installation ............................................................................................4-26
Parallel connection ...............................................................................4-27
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-28
Characteristics......................................................................................4-29
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPSs ...........................................4-32
Presentation .........................................................................................4-32
Main features........................................................................................4-34
Installation ............................................................................................4-38
Parallel connection ...............................................................................4-39
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-43
Characteristics......................................................................................4-44
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs ...........................................4-48
Presentation .........................................................................................4-48
Main features........................................................................................4-49
Installation ............................................................................................4-52
Parallel connection ...............................................................................4-52
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-55
Characteristics......................................................................................4-57
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX 160 UPSs.............................4-60
Presentation .........................................................................................4-60
Main features........................................................................................4-61
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-64
Characteristics......................................................................................4-65
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs .......................................4-68
Presentation .........................................................................................4-68
Main features........................................................................................4-69
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-71
Characteristics......................................................................................4-72
SymmetraTM MW ..............................................................4-75
Presentation .........................................................................................4-75
Main features........................................................................................4-76
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-78
Characteristics......................................................................................4-79
MGETM SinewaveTM active harmonic conditioners........4-82
Presentation .........................................................................................4-82
Main features........................................................................................4-83
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-84
Characteristics......................................................................................4-85
MGETM Upsilon STSTM static transfer switches ............4-86
Presentation .........................................................................................4-86
Main features........................................................................................4-87
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-90
Characteristics......................................................................................4-91
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p. 1
Chapter 4. APC by Schneider Electric ranges (cont.)
Source synchronisation module....................................4-92
Presentation .........................................................................................4-92
Main features........................................................................................4-92
Equipment and diagrams .....................................................................4-93
Characteristics......................................................................................4-93
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p. 2
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS
Presentation
Performance power protection for critical applications
ranging from standard electrical rooms to demanding
industrial environments
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500
● 5 power ratings:
Narrow tower,
325 mm wide
(10, 15, 20 kVA)
Fig 4.1. MGE
TM
Wide tower,
523 mm wide
(10 to 40 kVA)
TM
Galaxy
10 - 15 - 20 - 30 - 40 kVA
● 2 versions:
- 3-ph input and output: 10 to 40 kVA
- 3-ph input - 1-ph output: 15 to 40 kVA
● Two widths, 352 mm and 523 mm for
optimum footprints
● Parallel connection of up to 4 units,
i.e. 4 x 40 = 160 kVA
● Double-conversion (VFI) design
● IGBT-based PFC rectifier, THDI < 5%,
FP > 0.98 starting at 50% load
● Static switch and manual bypass
● Backup times from 6 min. to 8 hours
depending on power rating
● Built-in modular hot-swappable
batteries: (up to 4 modules of 4 batteries
each)
● Highest efficiency in its category, up to
96%
● Cold-start function without AC power,
on battery power
● Backfeed protection
● Designed for severe environments:
- IP 51
- 2 mm steel front panel
- easy-to-replace air filters
3500 range.
Applications
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 is a high-performance, general-purpose UPS that can be
used anywhere from standard technical rooms to demanding industrial
environments. The range offers performance power protection for critical
applications.
● IT and telecommunications systems.
● Infrastructure and transportation: hospitals, airports, tunnels, traffic control
systems and safety infrastructure.
● Commercial and public buildings: malls, shopping centers, hypermarkets,
hotels, convention centers.
● Manufacturing equipment: machine control, process control, packaging lines,
laboratory equipment.
● Automation control: PLCs, industrial PCs, I/O controllers, SCADA systems.
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 is the ideal solution in its power range due to fast installation
and start-up, high efficiency, redundancy, easy maintenance and heavy-duty design.
Fig. 4.2. General applications in infrastructure, commercial buildings and manufacturing.
Colour
● RAL 9023 grey.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.3
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Main features
High-performance features to meet the challenges facing building
technical managers
Thanks to its high level of performance, modular industrial design, heavy-duty
construction and upgradeability, MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 meets the challenges facing
most technical managers in commercial or industrial buildings.
● Disturbed networks. The double-conversion "on-line" technology totally protects
the load and a long backup time avoids problems if a genset is not available.
● Budget limits. The small footprint saves on floor space and the optimized design
reduces the total cost of ownership.
● No qualified personnel. The ease of use avoids the need for qualified personnel.
Figure 4.3 sums up the key features of Galaxy 3500.
p Double-conversion "on-line" topology
Total load protection with no-break transfer to
battery power and excellent regulation
p Hot scalable backup time
Modular batteries can be hot swapped
p Best-in-class efficiency
Up to 96% for reduced cost of ownership
p Parallel connection of up to 4 units
For capacity or redundancy
p Heavy-duty design
IP51 (NEMA 12) for industrial environments
p Compact size
2 form factors for an optimized footprint 838
mm deep and 2 widths
Fig. 4.3. Key features.
Narrow tower
Wide tower
High availability of high-quality power
● Double-conversion "on-line" technology (VFI as per IEC 62040-3/EN 62040-3)
totally isolates the load from network disturbances and fully regenerates the output
voltage and frequency to ensure a high level of quality.
● Two separate AC inputs.
● Built-in automatic static bypass and manual maintenance bypass.
Optimized battery investment
● User-replaceable, hot-swappable batteries and extendable backup times.
- Batteries can be replaced or added on load (Fig 4.4).
- Up to 4 external battery cabinets can be added, with up to 6 battery modules per
cabinet (1 module = 1 row of 4 batteries).
● Temperature-compensated cyclic battery charging.
● Electronic battery management.
Generator friendly
● Soft generator walk-in for 10 seconds means a smaller generator can be used
(1.3 to 1.5 x UPS power rating in kW).
● No derating, thanks to the PFC rectifer that maintains PF > 98%.
Standard heavy-duty design for industrial environments
All MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 units offer characteristics suitable for severe
environments.
● Front panel, enclosure and frame all made of 2 mm steel plate.
● Electrostatically applied paint reduces the risk of scratches.
● Easy user-replaceable filters that avoid dust and debris from affecting UPS
performance.
● IP51 / NEMA12 degree of protection against sprayed liquids and dust.
● Compact design with a footprint up to 60% smaller than other brands, two
enclosure sizes available from 10 kVA to 40 kVA.
● UPS secured to the floor to avoid tipping.
● Mounted on wheels for easy UPS handling.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.4
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
2 mm plate
IP51
Filters
Wheels
Fig 4.4. Replaceable filters and heavy-duty design.
Simplified maintenance
● Maintenance bypass. A mechanical bypass makes for easy maintenance without
shutting down the UPS.
● Modular battery. Extendable for longer backup time. Modules can be easily hotswapped (added or replaced) without tools by trained personnel.
● Withdrawable rack. A support rack can be pulled out from the chassis and held
up by two struts. The power module can then be safely pulled out and transferred to
a table or platform.
● Access through the front panel. Easy access to the bypass switch and to the
battery connections.
Maintenance bypass switch
Power module in the process of
being drawn out
Withdrawable rack
Battery module
(1 module = 1 row of 4 batteries)
Fig 4.5. Availability is improved by easy maintenance.
Maintenance bypass switch
Separate AC inputs
Easy access to connections
Busbar connections for
additional batteries
Fig 4.6. Easy access to connectors with an ergonomic work position.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.5
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Easy management and operation
● Management via the IT network. The UPS Network Management Card monitors
the UPS environment. The UPS is directly managed by the IT network using a web
browser. A screen is provided for the main system parameters and an automatic
shutdown function protects the data if necessary.
● Backlit LCD display. All status and control information is shown on the backlit
display for enhanced visibility.
● Navigation and help keys. These keys facilitate navigation and provide access to
the information in the menus (status conditions, operating modes, alarm settings,
etc.) as well as to immediate, context-sensitive help.
Display
Consistent user interface
All status and control information on
the backlit display
Same user interface for all APC UPS, cooling and
monitoring products
ESC key
Return to
previous item
Help key
Context-sensitive
help
Default LED
Red LED goes
on if a fault
occurs
Enter key
Status LEDs
Select and
confirm items
Easy navigation in the menu and access to
information such as status conditions, changes in
the operating mode, settings, etc.
Navigation keys
Instant overview of system status, indications and
alarms, independent of the LCD display
Fig 4.7. User-interface display.
● Indications and alarms via LEDs that are independent of the LCD display.
● Audio alarms.
● Consistent user interface. The same interface is used of all APC UPS, cooling
and monitoring products.
Information screen with graceful-shutdown
function that can be automated.
UPS Network Management Card with
environmental monitoring.
Fig 4.8. Management via the IT network.
Cost savings
● PFC rectifier does not inject disturbances upstream.
- Low level of upstream current distortion, THDI < 5%.
- Input power factor PF > 0.98 starting at 50% load.
Normal cable sizes and optimum system efficiency, i.e. 1 kVA drawn on the network
= 1 kW available for the load.
● Battery charger with temperature compensation.
● Voltage and frequency regulation.
● Wide input-range tolerances suitable for all types of network.
- Voltage in 400 V system, range = 304 to 477 V at full rated load.
- Frequency range = 40 to 70 Hz.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.6
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Options
● Battery cabinets.
● Cabinets for voltage-matching and isolation transformers.
● Empty auxiliary cabinets for installation of transformers or batteries by a third
party.
● Maintenance bypass for parallel connection, in a wall-mounted enclosure with
indication of switch positions.
● Technical documentation for installers.
Installation
Two widths
● Height = 1490 mm and depth = 854 mm for all units.
● 352 mm wide unit for 10/15/20 kVA.
● 523 mm wide unit for 10/15/20/30/40 kVA.
Parallel connection
Up to four units
● Up to four units can be parallel connected for capacity or N+1 redundancy.
● A manual maintenance bypass is sized for the full load power and installed in an
external enclosure.
● Baying kit.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.7
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Equipment and diagrams
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 single-unit UPSs come fully equipped and offer a wide range
of functions.
Standard
● PFC three-phase rectifier/charger
● Multi-level three-phase inverter offering very
high efficiency
● Static switch
● Manual maintenance bypass
● Backlit LCD display
● Battery monitoring
● Cold-start function on battery power
● Shutdown of battery-charge function during
operation on genset power
● Smooth walk-in with 10-second delay for
operation on genset power
● Communication cards:
- Network Management card with SNMP/web
multiprotocols
- Dry contacts
Optional
● Battery cabinets
● Cabinets for voltage-matching and isolation
transformers
● Empty auxiliary cabinets for installation of
transformers or batteries by a third party
● Maintenance bypass for parallel
configurations, in a wall-mounted enclosure
with indication of switch positions
● Baying kit for parallel systems
● Enterprise Power Manager and ISX
manager software
Fig 4.9. Single-unit UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.8
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Electrical and communication characteristics
Power rating (KVA at FP= 0.8)
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Input (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
Voltage
Normal AC input
Bypass AC input
Frequency
Power factor
(2)
THDI
Output (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
Voltage
Frequency
AC power sync
free running
Power factor
(3)
THDU
linear load
non-linear load
Short-circuit capacity of bypass
Overload capacity
Permissible crest
380 / 400 / 415 V
factor
Dynamic performance: voltage transients
during load step changes
Voltage and phase imbalance
Maximum frequency variation
Efficiency
Normal operation
100% load
50% load
Battery operation
Batteries
Type
Service life
Backup time
Possible range
1 module
Backup time
depending number of 2 modules
battery modules
3 modules
mounted in the UPS
4
modules
(1 modules = 1 row of
4 batteries)
Typical recharge time
Communication
Standard
Options
10
15
20
30
40
8
12
16
24
32
3+N
(1)
380 / 400 / 415 V 3-phase
Tolerances for 400 V: 304 to 477 V at full load; 200 to 477 V at half load
(1)
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 10% standard (adjustable to ± 4, 6, 8, 10%) 3-phase
50 or 60 Hz
Tolerances 40 to 70 Hz
> 0.98 for load > 50% et > 0.95 for load > 15%
< 5% at full load
3+N
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1%
50 or 60 Hz
Synchronised with AC input:
For 50 Hz : 49 to 51 Hz, 47 to 53 Hz or 40 to 60 Hz.
For 60 Hz : 50 to 61 Hz, 57 to 63 Hz or 60 to 70 Hz
The synchronisation range can be set on the front panel.
50 or 60 Hz
± 0.02 Hz
0.5 lagging to 0.5 leading
 1.5% from 0% to 100% load
 3.5% for computer loads as per EN50091-3 / IEC 62040-3
(4)
8 In - 500 ms
110% continuous - 125% for 1 min. - 150% for 30 s
Up to 2.7 :1
± 5% on 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% load step changes
recovery time < 100 ms
20° ± 1° for 50% current unbalance
20° ± 3° for 100% current unbalance
0.25 to 1 Hz/s (adjustable via PowerView software)
94.5%
94.4%
94.1%
95.8%
95.3%
95.1%
95.5%
95.7%
94.9%
95.8%
95.5%
95.2%
Maintenance-free sealed lead-acid battery with suspended electrolyte
Up to 10 years or more than 10 years
6 minutes to 8 hours (with up to 4 additional battery cabinets)
6 min.
18 min.
10 min.
6 min.
32 min.
18 min.
12 min.
6 min.
47 min.
27 min.
18 min.
10 min.
95.6%
95.8%
95.0%
6 min.
5 h - up to 90% ± 5% capacity after complete discharge
RS232
Communication cards:
- Network Management card (SNMP/web multiprotocols)
- Dry contacts
(1) Other voltages available on request: 208, 220, 480 V, 660 V…
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion - I for current)
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion - U or voltage)
Pn
(4) In = rms output current (for PF = 0.8) i.e. In =
0,8Un 3
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.9
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Physical characteristics, environment and standards
Power rating (KVA at FP= 0.8)
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Dimensions and weights
Height (mm)
Width (mm)
Depth (mm)
Weight (kg) of UPS frame with power
module
Weight (kg) of external battery cabinet
frame
Weight (Kg) of one battery
Weight (Kg) of UPS with batteries
Environment
Noise level (dBA)
1 m from enclosure, at 25°C
Degree of protection (as per IEC 60529)
Maximum altitude without derating
Storage temperature without battery
range
with battery
inverter
Operating
temperature range
battery
Standards
Construction and safety
EMC
Harmonics
Design, manufacturing
Certification and marking
APC by Schneider Electric
10
15
20
30
40
8
12
16
24
32
1490
352 (narrow tower) / 523 (wide tower)
838
209 (narrow tower) / 255 (wide tower)
523
272
xxx
Each cabinet can house up to 6 battery modules (1 module = 1 row of 4 batteries)
24 (1 module = 1 row of 4 batteries, i.e. 96 kg)
The weight of the UPS cubicle with its batteries equals the weight of the frame with its power module
plus 96 kg x number of battery modules installed (see Batteries / Backup time)
< 43.3 dBA at 70% load (fan at low speed)
< 46.2 dBA à < 70% load
< 51.3 dBA at 100% load (fan at high speed)
< 55 dBA at < 100% load
IP 51
 1000 m
-25°C to +70°C dry heat
-10°C to +45°C
Full rated load, PF = 0.8: 0 to 40°C mean daily (40°C for 8 hours, 35°C for 24 hours)
20°C to 25°C recommended; overload with PF = 0.8: 0 to 30°C
tolerable: 0 to 40°C
optimum: +15°C to +25°C (service life cut in half for every 10°C increase above 25°C)
IEC 60950-1
IEC 62040-1 and IEC 62040-3
EN 50091-2
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2
EMC directive 2004/108/EC
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2, IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4, IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
ISO14001 / ISO 9001
TüV / CE / LCIE
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.10
MGETM GalaxyTM 3500 UPS (cont.)
Current and protection characteristics
Power rating (KVA at FP= 0.8)
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Input currents
Currents and measurement conditions
10
15
20
30
40
8
12
16
24
32
● I1: current at normal AC input
N.B. Currents are measured at:
- full rated load, PF = 0.8
- rated voltage of normal AC source is
of 400 V
- battery float charging.
For normal AC-source rated voltages of
380 and 415 V, multiply the I1 and Iu
values by 1.05 and 0.96 respectively.
Max. input current I1 (A)
battery recharging
Load current Iu (A)
Max. current supplied by battery Ibmax (A)
APC by Schneider Electric
● Iu: load current
(110% of continuous load)
● Ibmax: maximum battery current
(at low battery shutdown voltage)
Fig 4.10. Input currents
13.7
20.3
27.1
40.6
54.2
16.4
27.7
32.6
54.9
48.8
82
65.2
109.6
24.4
41.1
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.11
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs
Optimised power protection offering high availability and
upgradeability for data centres, telecommunications and
industrial processes
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000
● 5 power ratings:
● 40 - 60 - 80 - 100 - 120 kVA
● 3-phase input (without neutral) and output
● Parallel connection of up to 6 UPS units,
i.e. 6 x 120 = 720 A
● On-line double conversion (VFI) providing
voltage regeneration and isolation from the
distribution system
● Automatic and manual bypasses
● PFC rectifier with sixpack IGBT modules
to avoid upstream distortion (upstream
THDI < 3%) and with a PF close to 1
● Sixpack IGBT modules designed to
reduce the number of connections for
greater reliability, compactness and easy
access from the front
● Sealed lead-acid batteries installed in the
UPS cabinet up to 80 kVA
● Backup times from 5 minutes to 8 hours
and a fast charger for more secure
operation
● Wide input-voltage range from 250 to 470
V to handle disturbed distribution systems
● High overload and discrimination capacity
● Input-current limiting during genset start
● Multilingual, graphic display, high
resolution quarter VGA
● Battery monitoring by Digibat (calculation
of real backup time and remaining battery
life) and block by block monitoring (optional)
● Monitoring and communication
possibilities via networks and the web with
preventive maintenance (Life Cycle
monitoring)
● Low TCO due to an optimised
environment (cables, protection, genset
compatibility), small footprint, high efficiency
and monitoring of multiple UPS units using
Enterprise Power Manager software
TM
Fig. 4.11. MGE
GalaxyTM 5000 range
Applications
MGETM GalaxyTM meets the needs of the most sensitive applications in terms of high
energy availability, installation flexibility and control over operating costs:
 Data centres - high energy quality and availability are combined with a wide range
of power-upgrade possibilities from 40 to 720 kVA, easily, in complete safety and
without interrupting operations.
 Telecommunications - uninterrupted, mission-critical operation 24/365 is ensured
by redundant architectures. Long backup times are guaranteed by continuous
battery monitoring and installation supervision via computer networks or the internet.
These systems increase availability and make it possible to plan preventive
maintenance.
 Industrial processes - operation in severe environments is possible due to the
robust electrical characteristics capable of handling disturbed distribution systems
and a vast catalogue of options and functions (reinforced IP, Ni-Cad batteries,
marine versions, etc.).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.12
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs
Colour
 RAL9023 grey.
F
i
g
.
4
.
3
6
:
Fig. 4.12. For applications such as Data centers, telecommunications and industrial processes
Main advantages
Highest availability
The performance level of MGETM GalaxyTM contributes to providing high-quality
energy 24/365 in all environments and for all applications.
 Double conversion (VFI as per IEC 62040-3/EN 62040-3), providing regeneration
of the output voltage and frequency.
 PFC rectifier with sixpack IGBT modules to avoid disturbances on the upstream
system:
- low current distortion upstream, THDI < 3%
- input power factor (PF) > 0.99.
Sixpack
component
AC Input
T
U1
i1
U2
i2
U3
i3
Input rectifier Sixpack
D
Vout
THDI < 3 %
PF > 0.998
Fig. 4.13. Three-phase rectifier with sixpack IGBT modules, drawing sinusoidal current
 Digital control of the voltage combined with the charger input(1) and inverter
(1)
output sixpack IGBT modules ensuring:
- a wide input-voltage range from 250 to 470 V, depending on the percent load,
suited to all types of applications and disturbed distribution systems
- high quality and stability of the output voltage: THDU < 2% on the latest generation
of so-called capacitive computer and non-linear loads with a leading power factor of
around 0.9 and a high crest factor.
- high dynamic performance for load-step changes (< 2% for 100 to 0% and for 0 to
100%), return to the +1% range (rms value) in less than 100 ms.
(1)
The charger input uses fixed-frequency chopping for stability with respect to the AC input
source while the inverter output uses free-frequency chopping to follow fast load variations.
 See chopping principle in Ch. 5 p. 47.
P/Pn
100%
70%
Normal
AC input
Réseau
AC normal
250V
340V
470 V
Fig. 4.14. Wide input voltage range.
(Note: On almost 90% of sites, the UPS percent load is < 75%).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.13
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
 BackupTMtime remains
available due to digital management of batteries:
TM
The MGE Digibat system checks and enhances battery status, and informs the
user. Based on a large number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery
type and age), it controls the battery charge voltage and continuously calculates:
- The true available backup time
- The remaining service life.
The system calculates the optimum cutoff value at the end of the backup time to
avoid damaging the battery (excessive discharge) when the percent load is low. This
is because when loads are low, the backup time can be very long and result in
battery damage without the protection system stepping in.
Voltage
Backup time
Current
Percent
load
Temperature
Digibat
Calculation
Software
Battery
shutdown
warning
Service life
Battery
parameters
Fig. 4.15. Digibat.
TM
TM
The MGE B2000 or MGE Cellwatch battery-monitoring systems are available
for monitoring each battery string around the clock and predict the risk of failure
block by block.
- Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
- Continuous measurement of the internal resistance (Cellwatch only).
- Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
- Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
- Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
These options ensure battery availability and maximise its service life.
 Powerful regulated standard charger separate from the rectifier
- supplies the battery with a voltage that is independent with respect to that of the
inverter in order to protect the battery and maximise its service life
- designed for long battery backup times (several hours) and fast recharging
(recharging to 90% of battery capacity in less than 11 hours for a 10-minute battery
and in less than 24 hours for a 4-hour battery).
 Discrimination due to high overload capacity (2.12 In for 1 second) and a
permissible crest factor of 3 to 1.
 Redundancy with up to six parallel UPS units to protect servers requiring high
availability.
 Automatic static switch for no-break transfer to AC power if an internal fault
occurs (fault tolerance).
 UPS servicing and replacement of communication cards and battery modules
without interrupting operation.
 Cold start on battery power if AC power is not available.
 Input-current limiting during genset start:
The charger gradually increases the power drawn on the genset for ten seconds,
thus enabling generators equipped with a turbo to ramp up and supply the full rated
load. During the 10-second period, the battery supplies part of the necessary energy,
using the charger as a chopper to step-up the voltage.
Flexibility
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 can meet the upgrade needs of sites, in terms of both power
increases and different types of applications, without interrupting operation.
 Changes in available power - the initial power rating can be multiplied by six
through parallel connection, in step with the needs of the application.
 Tailored batteries (sealed or vented lead acid, Ni-Cad) and backup times from 5
minutes to 8 hours, fast recharging.
 Many possible architectures with up to six parallel units, isolated redundancy,
redundant distribution with an STS (static transfer system).
 Catalogue of options to cover all safety needs including lightning arrestors,
backfeed protection to avoid injecting DC power upstream, industrial adaptation kits,
etc.
 No derating of the active power, whether for inductive or capacitive loads.
 Operation does not require an input source with a neutral.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.14
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Advanced protection, monitoring and regulation systems
 A sensor placed directly on the base of the rectifier and inverter sixpack
modules monitors the cooling system. This allows an early detection of a
malfunction that, so far, could have been destructive. (i.e. body on the heatsink).
Then, the UPS transfers without a break to the bypass AC input and sends an alarm
to the user. Avoiding the component to be damaged greatly improves the availability
of the UPS.
Sensor on base of sixpack IGBT
module
Sixpack IGBT components
Fig. 4.16. Direct thermal monitoring of the sixpack IGBT modules.
 Charge system with independent digital regulation and monitoring devices
A microprocessor-based digital system regulates:
- the battery voltage using a measurement circuit
- the charge current using a measurement circuit.
The result is a DC voltage with ripple < 1%.
A second circuit, independent of the regulation, monitors the battery voltage and the
charge current. Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system
steps in to shut down the charger and avoid overcharging. This system is required by
certain standards (e.g. NFC 58-311).
 Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage to the ambient temperature.
The measurement is carried out locally (built-in batteries) by a sensor in the UPS
cabinet or remotely by a sensor in the battery cabinet. This regulation system takes
into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life.
The permissible temperature range (0 to 40°C by default) is set in the
personalisation parameters. An alarm is issued for temperatures outside the
permissible range.
 Built-in circuit-breaker protection against deep discharge of the battery
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 is equipped with a circuit breaker to protect the battery. The
breaker has an undervoltage release to disable incorrect closing and provoke
opening if necessary (e.g. emergency off).
It provides battery protection against excessive discharges: when the battery voltage
drops below 297 V, the inverter shuts down and the circuit breaker opens.
 Management of two battery circuit breakers: battery circuit-breaker kit and
enclosure
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 can be equipped with and manage two battery circuit
breakers. This function can be personalised using the setup software. Battery
availability is improved by dividing it into two sections. If one section is faulty, the
second is still available. The kit comprising the circuit breaker(s) and the auxiliaries is
housed in an enclosure that can be ordered with or without an insulation-monitoring
device.
 Static-switch protection by an RC filter against switching overvoltages and
lightning strikes.
 Fuses at the inverter output ensuring discrimination if a major fault occurs on the
inverter output filter.
 Redundant ventilation as standard, contributing to energy availability in the most
critical cases.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.15
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Easy start-up and operation
A highly compact UPS for its category, made possible in particular by the use of
TM
TM
IGBTs and the absence of an output transformer, MGE Galaxy 5000 is easy to
set up and install. Operation is made easy by:
 Intuitive user-machine interface
- Graphics and pictograms for enhanced safety and comfort:
- Black and white graphical display, wide (quarter VGA, 120 x 93 mm) and high
resolution (320 x 240 pixels), easy to read under all lighting conditions.
- Step-by-step help on the screen for operations.
- Animated mimic diagram.
- Time-stamping of 2 500 events.
 Open communication
Electronic cards and software can be used to:
- Inform on UPS operation and the environment
- Protect server data by automatic, clean shutdown of operating systems
- Actively supervise an entire set of UPSs.
These functions implement different protocols depending on the environment,
including dry contacts, the JBus/Modbus protocols for communication with a BMS
(Building Management System) and Ethernet for web supervision.
Reduction in operating costs and the TCO
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) analysis shows that MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 provides
an excellent return on the investment.
 Reduced installation costs
- System components (protection circuit breakers, cables, genset) can be sized to
the precise need due to the absence of upstream harmonic currents (THDI < 3%).
- System compactness, installation of batteries in the UPS cabinets up to 80 kVA and
positioning with the back to the wall all reduce the MGETM GalaxyTM footprint.
 Reduced operating costs
The innovative technology implemented in MGETM GalaxyTM (sixpack IGBT modules,
no transformer, high-tech output filter) results in high efficiency, particularly at typical
percent loads. MGETM GalaxyTM offers a virtually constant efficiency of up to 94% for
percent loads from 25 to 100%. If also has an ECO mode, boosting efficiency up to
97% when the AC source is within tolerances.
That means significant savings on the energy bill and in sizing air-conditioning and
ventilation systems.
Efficiency (%)
100
0
92
25
93
50
94
75
94
100
Load (%)
Fig. 4.17. Efficiency.
 Preventive maintenance: Life cycle monitoring
Easy maintenance was a major guideline in designing MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 with:
- computer tools for improved servicing and diagnostics
- remarkable access to all modules for fast and safe repairs
- the Life-cycle monitoring system comprising a range of sensors for preventive
maintenance on components such as batteries, fans and capacitors. The system
signals the approaching end of component life to the diagnostics tool for timely
replacement and enhanced continuity of service for the protected application.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.16
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Installation
Compact design with total access through the front
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 implements the latest technical and mechanical advances in
terms of electrical and power-electronic components. The significantly reduced
number of components makes possible:
 A particularly compact solution, but that ensures easy access for maintenance
 Integration of many functions in a single cabinet (harmonic filtering, lightning
arrestor, backfeed protection and redundant ventilation)
 Integration of the battery up to 80 kVA (5 minutes backup time), in lateral
compartments.
Two types of UPS cabinets
 UPS cabinet with built-in battery, dimensions H x W x D: 1900 x 1110 x 850
mm, up to 80 kVA /5 minutes, 60 kVA /10 minutes, 40 kVA / 15 minutes 30 kVA / 30
minutes of backup time.
This innovative design makes for easy handling and connections, while maintaining
access through the front, a requirement for fast maintenance. Batteries can be hot
swapped (inverter running).
 UPS cabinet without battery (in separate cabinet), dimensions H x W x D:
1900 x 710 x 850 mm, same dimensions for the entire range from 40 to 120 kVA
Battery cabinets - two widths, 710 and 1010 mm
 For 40 - 60 kVA: H x W x D: 1900 x 710 x 850 mm
 For 80 - 100 - 120 kVA: H x W x D: 1900 x 1010 x 850 mm.
 Installation in a limited-access room (qualified personnel).
 Can be positioned back to the wall, 250 mm minimum overhead clearance.
1110 mm
710 mm
Fig. 4.18. UPS cabinet with or without
built-in battery.
Fig. 4.19. Two widths for battery cabinets.
> 250 mm
> 1000 mm
710 mm
Fig. 4.20. No major constraints.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Fig. 4.21. Installation with separate battery cabinets.
ch. 4 - p.17
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Parallel connection
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 is designed for parallel connection of units with identical
ratings.
Active redundancy with two integrated parallel UPS units
In this case, parallel connection of a second unit is intended to increase the
availability of energy. Two identical UPS units, each with its built-in static and
manual bypass, supply the load at the same time in parallel (hence the term active
redundancy). However, each unit can supply the load alone if the other is stopped.
This type of redundancy is called 1/2. The second unit can be connected in parallel
without interrupting the load. Connection is possible with separate or common
normal and bypass AC inputs.
Normal
AC input
Module 1
(a)
Bypass
AC input
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
Bypass
AC input
Load
Bypass
AC input
Module 2
Module 1
Module 2
Normal
AC input
Load
(b)
Fig. 4.22. Active redundancy with two integrated parallel UPS units, with separate (a) or
common (b) normal and bypass AC inputs.
Parallel connection of 3 to 6 UPS units
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 also allows parallel connection of 3 to 6 integrated parallel
UPS units.
 Parallel connection with active redundancy for configurations with up to 4
UPS units (i.e. up to 2 redundant units). Each modular unit includes a static
bypass, with a common external maintenance bypass unit sized for the maximum
power. The UPS units share the load to be supplied. If one UPS unit stops, the
others continue to supply the load.
 Parallel connection without redundancy for up to 6 UPS units.
This requires a common external maintenance bypass unit. The UPS units share the
load to be supplied. If one UPS unit stops, the other are not sufficient to supply the
load and the entire UPS system stops.
Bypass
AC input
EXTERNAL BYPASS UNIT
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
UPS1
P1(kVA)
Normal
AC input
UPS2
P1(kVA)
UPS3
P1(kVA)
Load
Fig. 4.23. Active redundancy with 3 units and external bypass unit.
Maximum number of UPS units connected in parallel, depending on the
type of bypass
Rated power (kVA) of each unit
40
60
80 100
120
150 kVA enclosure
3
2
1
1
1
360 kVA cubicle
6
6
4
3
3
600 kVA cubicle
6
6
6
6
4
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.18
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Diagram and functions
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 single UPS units offer the following equipment and functions.
Standard
● Three-phase PFC rectifier/charger with
sixpack IGBT modules
● Three-phase IGBT inverter with PWM
chopping (free-running frequency) and no
output transformer
● Automatic bypass (static switch)
● Manual maintenance bypass.
● Multilingual high-resolution quarter VGA
graphic display
● Event logging and time-stamping of the 2500
most recent events
● LED-based mimic diagram
● Built-in batteries (up to 80 kVA / 5min)
● Battery protected against excessive
discharges by a circuit breaker
● EMC C3 monitored distribution
● 1 relay card with dry contacts, 2 inputs and 6
outputs, 250 V 2 A
● DigiBat Battery Monitoring, with calculation of
the true backup time
● Cold start on battery power
● Rectifier walk-in and current limiting to
ensure compatibility with gensets
● Battery charger adapts to ambient
temperature of battery room
● Redundant ventilation for the static switch
● Terminal block for EPO (emergency power
off)
● Sequential start of UPS units (parallel
configuration)
Optional:
● ECO mode
● Connection from the top
● Galvanic isolation transformer
● Lightning arrestor (built into the UPS cabinet)
● Backfeed function to protect the upstream
source from battery faults
● B2000 or Cellwatch battery monitoring
● Second relay card with dry contacts, 2 inputs
and 6 outputs
● Communication cards:
- 2 dry contact and/or remote shutdown
contacts
- SNMP/Web Network Management card
- JBus/Modbus RS232 and RS485
- 6 relay contacts 250 V 2 A
- RS232
● Supervision and shutdown software:
- Enterprise Power Manager
- Network shutdown module
Fig. 4.24. Single UPS unit
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.19
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Electrical characteristics
Power rating Pn (KVA at PF= 0.8)
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Input (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
Voltage
Normal AC input
Frequency
Power factor
Bypass AC input
Utility
50% Pn
75 to 100% Pn
(2)
THDI
Max. upstream short-circuit power
40
60
80
100
120
32
48
64
80
96
3ph + N or 3ph (for operation without neutral)
(1)
Un = 400 V ± 15 % i.e. 340 to 470 V at Pn and 250 V à 470 V to 70 % Pn (except with
backfeed)
(1)
400 V ± 10 % or ± 15 % (option)
50 or 60 Hz ±10 % i.e. 45 to 65 Hz
0.999
0.992
0.999
0.998
< 3% at Pn, < 5% from 25 to 75% Pn
20 kA (input protected by 125 A
30 kA (protected by 125 A fuses)
fuses)
See the "input and output currents" table below
Currents
Output (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
3 + N or 3ph (for operation without neutral)
Voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1% 3-phase at 50 Hz
(rated rms output
380 / 400 ± 1% 3-phase at 60 Hz
value)
Fine adjustment possible via user-machine interface to Un ± 3%
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz
± 0.5 Hz (adjustable)
free running
± 0.25 Hz (adjustable from 0.25 to 2 Hz in 0.25 Hz steps)
Power factor
0.8 for inductive and resistive loads - 0.9 on capacitive loads
(3)
THDU
linear load
 1% ph/ph,  1.5% ph/N (RL loads at cos  = 0.8 and 0.9)
non-linear load
 2% ph/ph,  3.5% ph/N (RCD loads as per standard ENV 50091-3)
(4)
Short-circuit capacity of inverter
2.7 In peak for 150 ms
Overload capacity of inverter
125% for 10 min. - 150% for 1 min. - 220% for 1s
(4)
Overload capacity
Static switch
Ipeak / In for 20 ms
Single UPS unit
22
15
29
23
19
Parallel config.
58
39
38
30
25
Permissible crest factor
Up to 3 : 1
± 2% on 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% load step changes
Dynamic performance: voltage transients
recovery time (return to ± 1%) < 100 ms
during load step changes
Maximum frequency variation
1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (adjustable)
Efficiency
On-line mode
100%
Up to 94%
50%
Up to 92%
ECO mode
100%
Up to 97%
Conditions for transfer without interruption between normal and bypass lines
Bypass source voltage tolerances
Un ± 10% before bypass to normal transfer
Un - 20% to + 15% after bypass to normal transfer (load supplied by inverter)
Bypass source frequency tolerances
± 8% of 50 or 60 Hz as standard
adjustable to ± 0.5% ± 1%, ± 2%, ± 4%, ± 8%
Phase difference tolerances
3 degrees
Transfer with interruption
If any parameter is outside tolerances, transfer can be carried out with an adjustable
(bypass source outside tolerances)
interruption of 13 ms to 1 s, after authorisation by the user via the operator keypad
Battery
Type
Sealed lead-acid or optional vented lead-acid or nickel-cadmium
Service life
Up to 10 years or more
Backup time
5 - 10 - 15 (standard) or 1 - 2 - 4 - 8 hours (optional)
Built-in battery (max. avail. backup time)
5 min. for 80 kVA, 10 min. for 60 kVA, 15 min. for 40 kVA
Recharge time (hours) 5 minutes
10
9
10
9
9
for different backup
10 minutes
10
12
11
11
11
times (complete
15 minutes
12
12
12
13
13
discharge at Pn/2 and
recharge to 90%)
(1) Other voltages available on request
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion - I for current)
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion - U for voltage)
(4) In = rms output current (for PF = 0.8) i.e.
APC by Schneider Electric
In =
Pn
0,8Un 3
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.20
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Communication
Power rating Pn (KVA at PF= 0.8)
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
Standard
Communication
Standard
Options
Software
Standard
Options
40
60
80
100
120
32
48
64
80
96
Black and white graphical display
- quarter VGA (120 x 93 mm)
- high resolution (320 x 240 pixels)
Operating LEDs (load protected, minor fault, major fault)
On and Off buttons
Help key
Function keys
Menu key
Mimic panel with status LEDs
1 relay card with dry contacts, 2 inputs and 6 outputs, 250 V 2 A
A second relay card with dry contacts, 2 inputs and 6 outputs
Communication cards:
- SNMP/Web Network Management card
- JBus/ModBus RS232 or RS485
- SNMP / Ethernet
- SNMP/Web Network Management card
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote shutdown
Solution Pac
Enterprise Power Manager
Physical characteristics - dimensions and weight
Power rating Pn (KVA at PF= 0.8)
40
60
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
32
48
UPS cabinet with built-in battery
Width 1110 mm
H x W x D (mm)
1900 x 1110 x 850
Weight (kg)
Without battery
453
(depends on backup
5 minutes
738
888
time)
10 minutes
888
975
15 minutes
975
UPS cabinet without battery
Width 710 mm
H x W x D (mm)
1900 x 710 x 850
Weight (kg)
400
Battery and auxiliary cabinets
Width 710 mm
H x W x D (mm)
1900 x 710 x 850
Weight (kg)
135
Width 1000 mm
H x W x D (mm)
1900 x 1010 x 850
Weight (kg)
150
Combinations of battery cabinets for given backup times
Width and weight of
> 5 min W(mm)
cabinets with batteries
kg
depending on the
> 10 min W(mm)
backup time
kg
>15 min W(mm)
710
kg
885
> 30 min W(mm) 710
1010
kg
882
1307
Bypass enclosure or cubicle for parallel connection
150 kVA enclosure, H x W x D (mm) / kg
1000 x 800 x 303 / 71
Max. number of parallel UPS units
3
2
360 kVA cubicle, H x W x D (mm) / kg
1900 x 715 x 825 / 190
Max. number of parallel UPS units
6
6
600 kVA cubicle, H x W x D (mm) / kg
1900 x 1015 x 825 / 280
Max. number of parallel UPS units
6
6
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
80
100
120
64
80
96
1050
520
710
885
1010
1142
2x710
1764
710
885
1010
1142
1010
1307
710+1010
2439
710
985
1010
1307
2x710
1764
2x1010
2742
1
1
1
4
3
3
6
6
5
ch. 4 - p.21
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Physical characteristics - environment and standards
Power rating Pn (KVA at PF= 0.8)
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Environment
Colour of cabinets
Degree of protection (as per IEC 60529)
Noise level (dBA) ISO 3476
Heat losses (kW)
Single UPS
40
60
80
100
120
32
48
64
80
96
RAL 9023
IP20 and anti-dust filter are optional
65
3150
4350
4900
6150
7350
2700
3500
4000
4750
5550
2300
2700
3400
3700
3950
100% load
Single UPS
75% load
Single UPS
50% load
Fan throughput
Maximum altitude
3
m /h
without derating
with derating
Storage temperature without battery
range
with battery
Operating temperature inverter
range
battery
Relative humidity
Standards
Construction and safety
EMC
Harmonics
Design, manufacturing
Certification and marking
APC by Schneider Electric
1332
1332
2556
2556
2556
1000 m.
0.85 at 1500 m - 0.79 at 2000 m - 0.75 at 2300 m - 0.69 at 3000 - 0.59 at 4000 m
-25°C to +70°C dry heat
-10°C to +45°C
Full rated load, PF = 0.8: 0 to 40°C
20°C to 25°C recommended for optimum battery operation
tolerable: 0 to 40°C
optimum: +15°C to +25°C (service life cut in half for every 10°C increase above 25°C)
45% to 75% without condensation at ambient temperature
IEC 60950-1
IEC 62040-1
IEC 62040-3
EN 50091-2
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2
EMC directive 2004/108/EC
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2
IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4
IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
ISO 14001 / ISO 9001
TÜV / CE / LCIE
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.22
MGETM GalaxyTM 5000 UPSs (cont.)
Current and protection characteristics
Power rating Pn (KVA at PF= 0.8)
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Input currents
40
60
80
100
120
32
48
64
80
96
Currents and measurement conditions
● I1: current at normal AC input
N.B. Currents are measured at:
● full rated load, PF = 0.8
● rated voltage of normal AC source is
of 400 V
● battery float charging.
For normal AC-source rated voltages of
380 and 415 V, multiply the I1 and Iu
values by 1.05 and 0.96 respectively.
● Iu: load current
● Ibmax: maximum battery current
Fig 4.25. Input currents.
Max. input current I1 (A) for 5 to 10 minutes 53
78
of backup time, battery recharging
104
130
155
Load current Iu (A)
Max. current supplied by battery Ibmax (A)
116
240
145
300
174
360
APC by Schneider Electric
58
120
87
180
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.23
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs
Presentation
Protection of medium power computer rooms and
industrial and commercial sites
MGETM GalaxyTM PW
● 2 power ratings: 160 - 200 kVA
● Three-phase input and output
● Parallel connection of up to four UPS
units, i.e. up to 800 kVA
● On-line double conversion (VFI)
● Static switch and manual bypass
● Backup times from 8 minutes up to 8
hours
● Sealed/vented lead-acid batteries or
Ni/Cad batteries, with service lives of
10 years or more
TM
Fig. 4.25. MGE
GalaxyTM PW range.
Applications
MGETM GalaxyTM PW is designed to meet the high-availability needs of commercial
and industrial-process equipment (automation, instrumentation, medical equipment,
emergency lighting).
Colour
 Light grey RAL 9002.
For other colours, please consult us.
Main features
Flexibility
MGETM GalaxyTM PW can adapt to the environment and to its changes:
 Wide range of backup times, from 8 minutes to 8 hours.
 Upgradeable for more power or improved availability:
- parallel connection of up to four UPS units,
- hot-standby configurations,
- synchronisation of redundant UPS units is available using synchronisation modules,
thus enhancing availability ever further.
 Wide input-voltage range for improved compatibility and fewer transfers to
battery power.
 Back to the wall possible.
 Possibility of direct integration of an isolation transformer and harmonics filters;
 Possible connection through the top.
Fig. 4.26. Dimensions
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.24
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
Availability
Through its design, the priority for MGETM GalaxyTM PW is always to keep power
flowing to the application:
 On-line double-conversion technology (VFI as per IEC 62040-3/EN 62040-3),
that completely regenerates the power signal and the frequency, and guarantees
constant power quality whatever the conditions on the distribution system.
 Automatic bypass for no-break transfers of the load to the bypass AC input if an
internal anomaly occurs (fault tolerant).
 N+1 redundancy with up to four UPS units (3+1).
 Cold-start function for start-up of applications on battery power even during a
utility power outage.
Control of harmonics and energy savings
 Complete control of upstream harmonics by integrated harmonic filtering:
- Elimination of input-current harmonics (THDI < 4%),
- High power factor (0.95),
- Total compatibility with engine generator sets.
 Energy and equipment savings
The above characteristics produce savings:
- Lower energy bills
- Smaller size of installation equipment
- Smaller size of engine generator sets.
 High efficiency
Efficiency up to 97%, depending on the operating mode.
Simple and clear user interface
The MGETM GalaxyTM PW user interface is designed to ensure secure operations
and complete monitoring of information.
 Multi-lingual graphic display (15 languages including Chinese) providing clear
information on measurements, diagnostics and alarms,
 Animated mimic panel with LEDs,
 Parameter analysis: analysis of 150 different parameters.
 Time-stamping and logging of the last 500 events.
 Battery meter: indication of the battery backup time.
TM
TM
MGE Galaxy PW also offers extensive communication possibilities with the
electrical and computer environments:
 Media contact 11 communication port + 6 dry contacts 250 V 5 A.
 Three additional ports (optional) for the installation of communication cards.
- Network management card, SNMP/Web format
- JBus/ModBus RS232 and RS485
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote shutdown
- 6 relay contacts 250 V 2 A
- Modem for Teleservice
 Emergency power off (EPO) terminal block.
 LED remote-indications unit (optional).
 Compatible with management and supervision software for APC by Schneider
Electric devices:
- Enterprise Power Manager
- Network shutdown module
 Environment Sensor (optional) for the SNMP/Web card: monitoring of
temperature/humidity and status of two contacts via SNMP or the web. Initiates
equipment shutdown if necessary.
Voltage
Backup time
Current
Digibat
Percent
load
Calculation
Software
Temperature
Battery
shutdown
warning
Service life
Battery
parameters
Fig. 4.27. Graphic display.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Fig. 4.28. MGE
TM
TM
Digibat .
ch. 4 - p.25
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
MGETM DigiBatTM for advanced battery management
MGETM DigiBatTM Battery Monitoring optimises the battery service life and
continuously maintains a high degree of battery availability through the functions
listed below:
 Increased battery service life by taking into account the manufacturer
parameters, with adaptation of the charge voltage to ambient temperature changes.
 Precise measurement of the true backup time depending on the age of the
battery, the room temperature and the percent load on the UPS.
 Calculation of the remaining battery service life.
 Protection against deep battery discharge.
 Limitation of the charge current (0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10).
 Automatic tests at regular intervals.
 Backfeed protection (optional) to protect users from the flow of power upstream
toward the distribution system during operation on battery power.
 MGETM B2000 or MGETM Cellwatch battery-monitoring systems (option or part of
a maintenance contract) for battery monitoring, battery cell by battery cell.
Optimum voltage quality
MGETM GalaxyTM PW offers high performance to handle the increasing number of
non-linear loads:
 IGBT technology with free-running frequency, guaranteeing a level of harmonic
distortion in the output voltage under 3%.
 Voltage transients under 2% for 100% load step changes on battery power.
 Capacity to supply loads with crest factors up to 6.6 : 1.
 Capacity to operate under unbalanced load conditions (up to 100%).
Total compatibility with engine-generator sets
MGETM GalaxyTM PW offers total operating compatibility with engine generator sets.
 Elimination of upstream harmonics: complete range of passive and active
harmonics filters.
 Sequential start-up of parallel-connected UPS units to limit the inrush current.
 Limitation of the power drawn during operation on the engine generator set.
 Gradual start of UPS units when the engine generator set steps in to supply power
(6 to 10 second walk-in).
Fig. 4.29. Walk-in for UPS units when the engine generator set starts to supply power.
Installation
Installation back to the wall with connection through the top
● Back to the wall installation
No lost space.
● Possibility of connection through the top
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.26
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
Fig 4.30. Installation back to the wall
Parallel connection
Parallel connection of up to 4 UPS units with or without
redundancy
Up to 4 Galaxy PW UPSs can be connected in parallel for a maximum power rating
of 4 x 200 = 800 kVA.
Parallel configurations can include n+1 or n+2 redundancy, i.e. 1 or 2 redundant
UPS units.
For easy maintenance of parallel configurations, a manually operated mechanical
bypass is provided.
● Integrated in each UPS for configurations with 2 units in parallel
● Installed in a separate "maintenance bypass" cabinet for configurations with 3 or 4
units in parallel.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.27
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
Diagram and functions
MGETM GalaxyTM PW single UPS units offer the following equipment and functions:
Standard
● Three-phase rectifier/charger
● Three-phase inverter with PWM chopping
(free-running frequency)
● Automatic bypass (static switch)
● Manual maintenance bypass.
● Graphic display with 15 languages, timestamping and logging of events
● Media Contact 11 communication port.
● Three communication ports
● DigiBat Battery Monitoring, function with
precise measurement of the true backup time
● ECO mode
● Cold start on battery power
● Interruption of battery charge during
operation on engine generator set power
● UPS walk-in with time delay when an engine
generator set starts to supply power
Optional
● Active harmonics filter or passive filter (noncompensated with contactor or compensated)
● Backfeed function to protect the distribution
system from battery faults
● B2000 or Cellwatch battery-monitoring
system
● Communication cards:
- SNMP Network Management card
- JBus/ModBus RS232 and RS485
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote
shutdown
- 6 relay contacts 250 V 2 A
- RS232
- modem for Teleservice
● Software:
- Enterprise Power Manager
- Shutdown module
Fig. 4.31. Single UPS unit.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.28
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
Electrical characteristics and communication
Power rating (kVA at PF = 0.8)
160
200
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
128
160
Input (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
3+N
(1)
Voltage
Normal AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 10 % (adjustable ± 15 %) 3-phase
(1)
Bypass AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 10 % (adjustable ± 15 %) 3-phase
Frequency
50 or 60 Hz ± 10 %
Power factor
up to 0.95 with THM option
(2)
THDI
< 4 % with THM option, < 5 % with LC filter
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Output (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
3+N
Voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1 % (adjustable ± 15 %) (1)
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz
± 0.5 Hz (adjustable from 0.5 to 2 Hz in steps of 0.25 Hz)
free running
± 25 Hz (adjustable from 0.25 to 2 Hz in steps of 0.25 Hz)
Power factor
cos φ up to 0.9 leading
(3)
THDU
linear load
 2 % ph/N
reference non 2 % ph/ph,  3 % ph/N
linear load
(4)
Short-circuit capacity (without bypass) (A)
2.33 In - 1 s
(4)
Bypass short-circuit capacity
10 In - 20 ms
Overload capacity
125 % for 10 min. - 150 % for 1min.
Crest factor
Up to 3 :1
Voltage transients during
± 2 % on 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% load step changes
recovery time < 20 ms for linear loads and < 50 ms for non-linear loads
load step changes
Voltage and phase imbalance
1.5 % and 2 degrees for 50% current imbalance
Maximum frequency variation
1 Hz/s
Efficiency
Percent load
100 %
up to 93 %
50 %
up to 93 %
In ECO mode
100 %
up to 94 %
50 %
up to 96 %
Conditions for transfer to AC bypass
Acceptable difference in voltage
+ 10 %, - 12%
Synchronisation frequency range
± 0.5 Hz to ± 2 Hz adjustable in steps of 0.25 Hz
Maximum phase shift
3 degrees
Battery
Type
Sealed lead-acid (option: vented lead-acid or ni-cad)
Service life
Up to 10 years or more than 10 years
Backup time
8 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 30 min. (60 min. or more on request)
Communication
Standard
1 Media Contact 11 communication port
3 ports for communication cards
Options
Communication cards:
- SNMP Network Management card
- JBus/ModBus RS232 and RS485
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote shutdown
- 6 relay contacts 250 V 2 A
- RS232
- modem pour Teleservice
LED indication unit
(1) other voltages on request 208, 220, 480 V, 660 V…
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion - I for current)
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion - U for voltage)
Pn
(4) In = output current (for PF = 0.8), i.e. In 
0.8 Un 3
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.29
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
Physical characteristics, environment and standards
Power rating (kVA at PF = 0.8)
160
(rated apparent output power)
200
Active power (kW)
128
160
Dimensions and weight of UPS
Height (mm)
1900
Width (mm)
1215
Depth (mm)
825
Weight without option (kg)
1200
Dimensions and weight battery cabinet: height 1900 mm - depth 825 mm
Backup time
Width (mm)
1430
2030
10 min. - 5 yr
Wt. with batt. (kg)
2110
2785
Backup time
Width (mm)
1430
2030
30 min. - 5 yr
Wt. with batt. (kg)
4295
5670
Environment
Noise level (dBA)
< 65
Heat losses
Single UPS
10.7
14.3
at 100 % load
(kW)
(1)
Degree of protection (as per IEC 529)
IP205
Maximum altitude without derating
 1000 m
Temperature range
without battery
- 25°C to + 70°C dry heat
for storage
with battery
- 10°C to + 45°C
Temperature range
inverter
at full rated load, PF = 0.8: 0 to 40°C mean daily (40°C for 8 hours, 35°C for 24 hours),
for operation
20 to 25°C recommended, for overload conditions, PF = 0.8: 0 to 30°C
battery
possible: 0 to 40°C (40°C for 8 hours, 35°C for 24 hours)
optimum: + 15°C to + 25°C (service life is reduced by half for every 10° above 25°C)
Standards
Construction and safety
IEC 60950-1
IEC 62040-1
IEC 62040-3
EMC
EN 50091-2
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2
EMC directive 2004/108/EC
Harmonics
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2
IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4
IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
Design, manufacturing
ISO 14001 / ISO 9001
Certification and marking
TÜV / CE / LCIE
(1) Other IPs on request
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.30
MGETM GalaxyTM PW UPSs (cont.)
Currents and protection characteristics
Power rating (kVA at PF = 0.8)
(rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Input and output currents
160
200
128
160
Currents and measurement conditions
● I1 : input current on Normal AC input
Currents and measurement conditions
● Iu : load current
N.B. These currents are measured for:
- full rated load for PF = 0.8;
- a rated Normal AC input voltage
of 400 V;
- battery float charging.
For rated Normal AC input voltages of
380 V and 415 V, multiply the indicated I1
and Iu values by 1.05 and 0.96
respectively.
● Ibmax. maximum battery current
Fig. 4.32. Input and output currents.
Max. input current I1 (A) for 10 min. backup 288
time - batteries charging
Load current Iu (A)
243
Max. battery output current Ibmax (A)
410
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
357
303
512
ch. 4 - p.31
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS
Presentation
Protection for your mission-critical high-power
applications up to several MVA, in all distribution systems
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000
● 4 power ratings:
250 - 300 - 400 - 500 kVA
● Frequency converter versions
● 3-phase in (without N) and out (with N)
● On-line double conversion (VFI)
● Automatic and manual bypasses
● Wide input-voltage range from 250 V
(30% load) to 470 V (100% load) to
handle disturbed distribution systems
● Input-current limiting during genset
start (soft start)
● IGBT-based, PFC sinusoidal-current
input rectifier: THDI < 5% and PF > 0.99
starting at 50% load
● Phase-sequence check to ensure
power availability
● Separate charger so battery voltage
does not depend on the AC source
● Backup times from 5 minutes to 8
hours with a rapid charger (recharge < 6
hours for 10 minutes backup time)
● Cold start on battery power
● Output PF = 0.9
● Output voltage adjustable  3% to take
into account voltage drops in the cables
● High short-circuit capacity for good
discrimination up to 3 In
● Compatible with all loads: capacitive
computers, resistive, motors, etc.
● Efficiency of 94.5% in normal mode,
97% in ECO mode
● Power rating increased by 7.5% for
ambient temperatures below 20°C
● Power components have independent,
redundant ventilation with fault detection
● IP 20 and IP32 versions
● Backfeed option for IEC 62040-1-2
compliance
● Multi-standard communication cards
with Jbus/Modbus and Ethernet 10/100
Mbps + https pages for Web supervision,
NMS, NMTC card for Teleservice
● HMI with graphical interface, 19
languages, measurements, alarms,
● Eco-design and eco-manufacturing for statistics, 2500 time-stamped events
● Digital battery management by
sustainable development
DigiBatTM (calculation of real backup time
● Eco-design ISO 14040 and 14060
and remaining battery life) and block by
● Site and R&D certified ISO 14001
block monitoring
● Manufacture with over 91 % recyclable ● Parallel connection of up to 8 UPS
units i.e. 8 x 500 kVA = 4 MVA
materials
● Capacity to recover products at the end ● Possibility of external synchronisation
● Many architectures: integrated parallel,
of their service life and provide proof of
parallel with SSC, with STS, compliant
destruction by a certified organisation
with ANSI/NEMA 942 TIER IV
● Alarm signalling loss of redundancy
● Optimised maintenance with Life Cycle
Monitoring for predictive maintenance,
with front access to all assemblies
Fig. 33. MGE
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
TM
Galaxy
7000 range.
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.32
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Applications
Three-phase MGETM GalaxyTM 7000, 250 to 500 kVA (up to 4 MVA in
parallel configurations), includes cutting-edge technologies for
high-power applications.
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 offers optimised performance for data centers, infrastructure
and industrial processes. It increases the productivity of these applications by
providing continuity of service through secure supply solutions that are flexible,
TM
TM
adaptable and upgradeable. MGE Galaxy 7000 provides high-quality energy,
compatible with all loads, with a very high level of availability. The variety of
architectures meets the specific needs of each installation and allows easy
upgrading. The communication capabilities and proactive services provided by APC
by Schneider Electric, the most complete and available worldwide, make for highly
effective maintenance.
 Data Centers. The strategic and economic importance of data centers made it
necessary to set up the ANSI/TIA site typology (TIER I to IV). It presents the
necessary functions of the major components, including supply via UPSs, to ensure
consistency and obtain a high level of overall availability.
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000, through its design and many possibilities for parallel
connection, as well as its compatibility with STS (static transfer switch) systems,
meets TIER IV requirements for fault-tolerant sites offering the highest level of
availability (99.995%).
Combined with STS units, MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 can supply energy via two or three
different channels for dual or triple-attach applications and also offers supervision,
network administration and remote-control solutions.
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 is ideal for the large (over 500 square metre) data centers of
banks, insurance companies, internet and colocation services, telecoms, etc. where
24/365 operation is mandatory and preventive maintenance and upgrades must not
require system shutdown.
 Infrastructure and buildings. Service continuity is also required for infrastructure
(airports, ports, tunnels) as well as the operation and technical monitoring (via
SCADA and BMS systems) of shopping centres, hospitals, office buildings, etc.
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 is perfectly suited to the needs of these communicating,
frequently upgraded applications thanks to its power ratings, extension possibilities
and communication capabilities.
 Industrial processes. Operation in industrial environments requires equipment
capable of maintaining processes, without failure, under difficult conditions, including
dust, humidity, vibrations, major variations in temperature, etc. Due to its high
TM
TM
electrical and mechanical level of performance, MGE Galaxy 7000 meets these
specific needs.
Technical files are available for all the applications specified by design offices,
including Ni-Cad batteries for the chemical and petrochemical industries, high IP
values, heavy-duty reinforced cabinets, dust filters, marine configurations, rated
voltages up to 440 V, etc. The APC by Schneider Electric design office, in
conjunction with a specialised industrial organisation, can also handle uncommon
conditions, e.g. outdoor installations, anti-vibration bases for marine applications,
special paints with the corresponding labels, etc.
Fig. 34. Applications such as data centers, infrastructure and industrial processes.
Colour
 Light grey RAL 9023.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.33
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Strong points
An innovative range offering a high degree of power availability for
high-power installations and for all types of distribution systems
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 design combines the best technology (double conversion)
with the most recent innovations to supply high-quality power, available 24/365, to
high-power applications, whatever the situation in the distribution system.
 Double conversion technology (VFI as per IEC 62040-3/EN 62040-3).
This is the only technology that insulates the load from the upstream network and
completely regenerates the output voltage, thus providing high-quality, stable power.
 IGBT-based, PFC sinusoidal-current input rectifier. The rectifier draws
sinusoidal current, without any reactive power, thus avoiding disturbances upstream
by reducing harmonic reinjection.
- Very low current total harmonic distortion THDI, less than 5%.
- Input power factor (PF) greater than 0.99 from 50% load upwards.
These performance levels, combined with the three-phase input not requiring a
neutral, offer substantial savings in terms of cables and equipment.
DualPack
component
AC source
T
U1
i1
U2
i2
U3
i3
PFC input-rectifier
D
Vo
THDI < 5 %
PF > 0.998
Fig. 35. Three-phase, PFC sinusoidal-current rectifier, with DualPack IGBTs.
 Battery charger separated from the AC input. The chopper is supplied via the
rectifier output and is thus protected against fluctuations on the AC input. Battery
recharge is adjusted as a function of the temperature.
 A check on the phase sequence is run to protect the power system from the
effects of incorrect connections.
 Wide input-voltage (250 to 470 V) and frequency (45 to 65 Hz) range.
This is made possible by double-conversion technology and the PFC rectifier which
is compatible with all sources and with disturbed distribution systems (voltages as
low as 250 V for 30% load).
P/Pn
Load PF = 0.9
100%
30%
Normal
AC input
250 V
380 V
470 V
Fig. 36. Wide input-voltage range.
 Soft start. This system provides total compatibility with gensets through gradual
start of the rectifier, in addition to a PF of 0.99. It makes it possible:
- when AC power is absent, to progressively transfer the load from the battery to the
genset
- when the normal AC source returns to tolerances, to delay transfer from the battery
to the rectifier, thus avoiding excessive variations on the AC source.
- in a parallel system, to set up sequential start-up of the inverters.
I Rectifier/charger
In
alk
W
-in
t
Time delay
6 to 10 seconds
Fig. 37. Soft start walk-in ramp with time delay.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.34
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
 Cold start on battery power if the AC source is absent or disturbed, even in
parallel systems.
 High-quality output voltage (380, 400, 415 or440 V) for all types of loads with:
Overload ratio I/In
- THDU < 3%
- output PF = 09 for all types of load.
The range is suitable for the most recent non-linear and computer loads, called
capacitive loads, with a leading PF close to 0.9 and a high crest factor.
 Output voltage adjustable to  3% of the rated value (in 0.5 V steps) to take into
account voltage drops in long cables.
 Excellent response to load step changes, < 2% for 100 to 0% or 0 to 100% and
return to the  1% tolerances within 100 ms.
 High current-limiting capacity for inverter short-circuits (2.5 In, 150 ms) to
facilitate discrimination with downstream protective devices and accept high crest
factors, 2.4:1 up to 3:1, depending on the voltage and power levels.
 Intelligent thermal-overload capacity curve for better performance. The curve is
adjusted as a function of the ambient temperature, 1.5 In / 30 seconds, 1.25 In / 10
minutes.
Time in seconds
Fig. 38. Inverter thermal-overload capacity curve.
An energy-efficient range for energy savings
TM
TM
Through its innovations, MGE Galaxy 7000 also enhances efficient energy use.
 IGBT-based, PFC charger drawing sinusoidal current.
 Inverter without an output transformer, with a reconstituted neutral. This new
feature, made possible for high power levels by the progress in IGBTs and their drop
in price, has resulted in:
- reduced footprint
- reduced weight
- better efficiency
- output-voltage regulation based on free-frequency modulation, enabling better
adaptation to loads.
 Exceptional efficiency of 94.5%, virtually constant from 25 to 100% load, and
97% in ECO mode, resulting in significant savings on the energy bill and in sizing airconditioning and ventilation systems.
Efficiency (%)
94.5
100
94.5
94.5
Load (%)
0
25
50
75
100
Fig. 39. Efficiency of a 300 kVA UPS.
 Rapid battery recharging is standard (e.g. 6 hours for 10 minutes of backup
time), thus contributing to energy savings.
 Charger operation protects the battery because micro-outages up to 3 ms do
not call on battery power.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.35
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
 Power rating increased by 7.5% for ambient temperatures below 20°C. For
example, below 20°C, 322 kVA may be drawn from a 300 kVA
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000.
Power
uprating /
derating
coefficient
1.075
1.075 at 20°C
1.050
1.025
1 at 35°C
1.000
Slope
5% / 10°C
0.975
0.950
0.925
0.900
5
15
25
35
45
Ambient
temperature (°C)
Fig. 40. Power rating as a function of temperature.
 Effective, redundant and monitored ventilation
- Ventilation by axial fans optimises component operation.
- Each component is cooled by a redundant system of at least two fans. If one fails,
the component continues to operate normally.
- All fans are monitored (by a thermostat, sensor or NTC resistor) and an alarm is
issued if a fault is detected.
- Component life is calculated for an average temperature of 25°C. For temperatures
higher than 40°C (adjustable parameter), the Ambient-temperature fault message is
displayed.
Inverter
Chopper
PFC
Fig. 41. Redundant ventilation.
The best, upgradeable architectures for each need
There are many reasons to upgrade sites, including higher power needs, new types
of loads requiring protection, changes in the electrical-distribution system, etc.
Due to its very flexible modular design, MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 can handle each step
in upgrade procedures without interrupting operations.
 High-availability architectures with two parallel configurations, integrated or with
a centralised static-switch cabinet (SSC), to enhance availability and allow upgrades
in step with the evolution of the overall installation.
 Compatibility with STS systems facilitates operation (redundant sources,
redundant distribution lines) and enhances availability.
 Higher power rating through parallel connection of up to eight units
 Alarm signalling loss of redundancy, based on current for greater accuracy and
better reliability.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.36
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Advanced management to extend battery life
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 proposes backup times from 5 minutes to 2 hours with a
rapid charger (recharge < 6 hours for 10-minute backup time). Backup time remains
available due to digital battery management and the protection systems.
 The standard MGETM DigiBatTM system monitors the battery to forward
information and maximise performance. Based on a large number of parameters
(percent load, temperature, battery type and age), DigiBat controls the battery
charge voltage and continuously calculates:
- the real available backup time
- the remaining battery life (1).
DigiBat also offers:
- automatic entry of battery parameters
(1)
- test on battery status to preventively detect operating faults
- automatic battery discharge test at adjustable time intervals
- protection against deep discharge taking into account the discharge rate, with a
circuit breaker to isolate the battery. The breaker opens automatically after double
the specified backup time plus two hours (sleep mode to provide vital functions)
- limiting of the battery charge current (0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10)
- gradual alarm signalling the end of backup time
- numerous automatic tests.
(1)
Exclusive APC by Schneider Electric patents.
Voltage
Backup time
Current
DigiBat
Percent
load
TM
Calculation
software
Temperature
Battery
shutdown
warning
Service life
Battery
parameters
Fig. 42. MGE
TM
DigiBat
TM
 The B1000 battery monitoring or "Cellwatch" option monitors all battery strings
24/365 and displays a failure prediction for each block.
User-friendly interface for more dependable operation
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 has a control and display interface offering intuitive functions.
Based on graphs and pictograms, the interface can be set up in 19 languages
including Chinese, Korean, Thai, Indonesian, Turkish and Greek.
It includes a graphical display for time-stamped events and useful operating
statistics. For operating personnel, that is an essential aspect in facilitating decisions.
Simple and user-friendly, the interface enhances safety and comfort.
 Graphical display with HD, B&W touch screen (SVGA).
 Animated mimic panel.
 Menu keys and direct access to display functions.
 Buzzer.
 Remote supervision that can run under many BMS systems and network
supervisors via the communication cards.
 Time-stamping of last 2500 events.
 On-line help to assist with the displayed messages.
 Multi-mode for parallel units (integrated parallel UPSs, parallel UPSs with SSC,
frequency converters in parallel), i.e. it is possible to read the measurements of any
unit on any unit, or to read system data.
Operating LEDs (load protected, minor fault, major
fault)
Help key
Function keys
Menu key
Mimic panel
ON and OFF buttons
Fig. 43. HMI with display, LEDs, keys and mimic panel.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.37
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Advanced communication
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 is compatible with the APC by Schneider Electric range of
communication solutions designed to meet three essential needs.
 Inform on UPS operation and its environment, warn users, wherever they may
be, concerning any potential and existing problems.
 Protect server data by automatic, controlled shutdown of operating systems
 Actively supervise an entire set of UPSs.
These functions are carried out by hot-pluggable communication cards running under
different protocols, depending on the environment in which MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 is
installed.
 Standard relay card with programmable dry contacts (4 logic inputs and 6 logic
outputs).
 INMC (Industrial Network Management Card) communication card with two
ports:
- JBus/ModBus RS485/RS232 protocol for communication with a BMS
- Ethernet 10/100 Mbps protocol using the Https standard (secure connection) for
supervision via the web.
Each UPS then has its own IP address making it possible for the user to:
- supervise and control the UPS via a simple browser (HTTP)
- interface with an SNMP administration system (HP Openview, etc.)
- communicate with shutdown software installed on the protected servers
- set up external temperature and humidity monitoring (sensor environment)
- receive e-mail alarms.
 NMTC (Network Management Teleservice Card) communication card with three
ports:
- JBus/ModBus RS232/RS485
- Ethernet 10/100 Mbps using the Https protocol.
The functions are identical to the INMC card, with in addition:
- a modem connection may be used to connect the UPS to the Teleservice centre.
 Life Cycle Monitoring software for optimised maintenance.
Installation
Compact modular design with total access through the front
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 uses the latest technical and mechanical advances in terms
of electrical components and power electronics. The greatly reduced number of
components offers:
 An overall solution that is very compact, but high accessible for maintenance
 Integration of many functions in a single cabinet. The batteries, installed in a
separate cabinet, can be hot-swapped (with the UPS supplying the load).
Fig. 44. Compact modular design with total access through the front.
The UPS can be installed in both technical and computer rooms.
 The UPS can operate correctly back to the wall or back to back, but it is preferable
to leave some space (> 600 mm) for easier maintenance.
 Leave one meter of free space in front of the UPS for door opening.
 At least 500 mm of clearance above the UPS is required.
 Standard accessories for IP32 degree of protection.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.38
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)

Fig. 45. Installation and IP32 accessories.
Types of cabinets
Parallel connection
Rating
H x W x D (mm)
UPS cabinets
 250 kVA
1900 x 1412 x 855
 300 kVA
1900 x 1412 x 855
 400 kVA
1900 x 1412 x 855
 500 kVA
1900 x 1812 x 1812
External-bypass cabinets
 800 kVA
1900 x 1012 x 855
 1200 kVA
1900 x 1412 x 855
 2000 kVA
1900 x 1412 x 855
SSC cabinets
 800 kVA
1900 x 1012 x 855
 1200 kVA
1900 x 1412 x 855
 2000 kVA
1900 x 2424 x 855
Max. weight (kg)
Width
Battery / auxiliary cabinets
 400 mm
1900 x 412 x 855
 700 mm
1900 x 712 x 855
 1000 mm
1900 x 1012 x 855
 1400 mm
1900 x 1412 x 855
Max. weight empty (kg)
960
960
1110
1470
320
665
1700
425
720
2200
100
135
150
200
Integrated parallel and parallel UPSs
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 offers integrated parallel UPS units with internal automatic
and manual bypasses (figure 46a) and parallel UPS units without internal bypasses,
(figure 46b) that can be connected in parallel to increase available power and/or
provide redundancy.
Normal
AC input
Battery
Bypass
AC input
PFC rectifier
PFC rectifier
CB
Charger
Static switch
Maintenance
Bypass
CB
Charger
Inverter
Inverter
Load
Fig. 46a. Integrated parallel UPS unit
APC by Schneider Electric
Normal
AC input
Battery
05/2009 edition
Load
Fig. 46b. Parallel UPS unit
ch. 4 - p.39
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
 Parallel connection uses a CAN bus with a maximum length of 200 metres.
 ECO mode is not possible in a parallel configuration.
 When the parallel configuration includes a redundant unit, an alarm signals loss
of redundancy.
 Parallel connection must satisfy minimum cable lengths to avoid excessive
exchange currents in the UPS output capacitors.
For n integrated parallel UPS units (Fig. 46, 47 and 48), the cables connecting the
UPS outputs must have a total length of at least n x 6 m.
In addition, the cables connecting each bypass AC input to the upstream bypass
source should all be of the same length.
2 integrated parallel UPSs for redundancy
 Two integrated parallel units may be connected in parallel (without an external
bypass) for redundancy.
 The second unit may be added without interrupting operation.
 The UPS units share the load and each has a bypass. Given that this configuration
includes only 2 units, it is not necessary to have an external bypass.
 If one UPS unit stops, the other continues to supply the full load.
 Redundancy makes it possible to carry out maintenance on one of the units.
Battery
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
Battery
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
L1
L2
Load
Cable lengths L1 + L2  2 x 6 = 12 m
Fig. 47. 2 integrated parallel UPS units in parallel for redundancy.
Integrated parallel UPSs in parallel with an external bypass
 Up to eight integrated parallel units can be connected in parallel with an
external bypass for increased power and/or redundancy.
 Units may be added without interrupting operation.
 The external bypass serves for all units and is sized for the maximum load. The
internal bypasses of each integrated parallel unit are not used and are locked in
open position.
 With redundancy:
- if one UPS unit stops, the others continue to supply the full load
- it possible to carry out maintenance on one of the units.
 Without redundancy:
- if one UPS unit stops, all units go to the bypass AC inputs which share the load
- maintenance on a unit does not require installation shutdown. The unit in question
goes to downgraded mode after flipping the necessary switches.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.40
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Bypass
AC input
Battery
Normal
AC input
Battery
Normal
AC input
Battery
L2
L1
Normal
AC input
L3
External maintenance bypass
Load
 Cable lengths L1 + L2 + L3  3 x 6 = 18 m
Fig. 48. Integrated parallel UPSs in parallel with an external bypass.
Parallel UPSs with static switch cabinet (SSC)
 Up to eight parallel units (without internal bypasses) can be connected in parallel
with an SSC for increased power and/or redundancy
 Another unit may be added without interrupting operation.
 The SSC serves for all units. Its static switch and bypass are sized for the
maximum load.
 With redundancy:
- if one UPS unit stops, the others continue to supply the full load
- maintenance on all units is possible simply by transferring to the SSC
 Without redundancy:
- if one UPS unit stops, all units transfer to the SSC
- maintenance on one or all units is possible simply by transferring to the SSC.
 Maintenance on the SSC and its static switch is possible.
 Advantages of this configuration compared to the previous configurations:
- enhanced availability
- easier maintenance, due to the centralised bypass
- greater short-circuit withstand capability.
Battery
Nomal
AC input
L1
Normal
AC input
Battery
L2
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
L3
Centralised static-switch cabinet
Load
 Cable lengths L1 + L2 + L3  3 x 6 = 18 m
Fig. 49. Parallel UPSs with static switch cabinet (SSC).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.41
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Parallel connection of UPSs with STS units
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 can also be used in parallel UPS configurations with
synchronisation and STS (Static Transfer System) units.
Source 1
Normal
Source 2
Bypass
Normal
Bypass
ASI
ASI
Synchro
STS 1
Load 1
STS 2
Load 2
Fig. 50. Parallel connection with STS units.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.42
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Equipment and diagrams
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS units offer the following equipment and functions.
Standard
Normal
Bypass
● IGBT-based, PFC three-phase rectifier
AC input
AC input
● Phase-sequence check on input
● Chopper for battery charging, insulated from
Battery
AC input, charge adjusted for ambient
UPS
temperature
Q1
Q4S
● Static switch (except parallel UPS units)
Rectifier
● Manual bypass (except parallel UPS units)
QF1
● Three-phase IGBT inverter with freeCharger
Q3BP
frequency PWM chopping
●
Redundant ventilation for power components
SS
● HMI with graphical interface, 19 languages,
Inverter
menu, function and ON/OFF keys
● Mimic panel with status LEDs
● Time-stamping of last 2500 events
Q5N
● Battery protected against deep discharges by
a circuit breaker
● Cold start on battery power
● Soft start with walk-in ramp and sequential
Load
start in parallel configurations
Fig. 51. Single UPS.
● DigiBat digital battery monitoring and
calculation of real backup time
● Programmable relay card, 4 logic inputs, 6
logic outputs
Options
● Connection through the top
● Isolation/voltage matching transformer
● Synchronisation module
● B2000 or Cellwatch battery-monitoring system
for block by block management
● Lightning arrestor (built into the UPS cabinet)
● Backfeed protection
● Multi-standard communication cards:
- Jbus/Modbus + Ethernet 10/100
- Jbus/Modbus + Ethernet 10/100 + Modem
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote
shutdown
● Battery circuit breaker unit
● Supervision and shutdown software:
- Enterprise Power Manager
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 centralised static switch cabinets offer the following
equipment and functions.
Bypass
Standard
AC input
● Designed for parallel connection of up to 8
parallel UPS units
●
Centralised static switch cabinet sized for
Static
the
power of the installation
Switch
Q4S
Cabinet
● All the necessary switches for automatic and
maintenance bypass functions
Q3BP
● Connection possible from the bottom or the
top
● Centralised graphic display and monitoring
● Current-based alarm signalling loss of
redundancy
UPS
Q5N
Optional
● Synchronisation module
● Connection through the top
Load
Fig. 52. Static switch cabinet.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.43
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Electrical characteristics
Power rating Pn (kVA)
250
300
400
(rated output apparent power)
Active power for PF = 0.9 (kW)
225
270
360
Electrical input characteristics (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
3 ph
(1)
Voltage
Normal AC input
at Pn: 380 V / 400 V / 415 V ± 10% at 30% Pn: 250 V
(1)
Bypass AC input
380 V / 400 V / 415 V ± 10%
Frequency
Utility
50 or 60 Hz ± 10%, i.e. 45 to 65 Hz
Power factor
50 to 100% load
0.99
(2)
Current total harmonic distortion THDI
< 5%
Current
See table on input currents
Phase sequence
Device to check the phase sequence (correct connection)
Electrical output characteristics (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
3Ph + N
Rated voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1% three-phase at 50 Hz
(rated rms output
380 / 400 ± 1% three-phase at 60 Hz
Fine adjustment possible via human-machine interface to Un ± 3%
value)
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz
± 0.5 Hz (adjustable)
Free running
± 0.02 Hz
Power factor
0.9
Voltage distortion
Linear load
 2% ph/ph or ph/N
(3)
THDU
500
450
(4)
Inverter short-circuit capacity
2.5 to 3 x In for 150 ms
400 V : 3 In for 250 kVA, 2.5 In for 300 and 400 kVA , 2.75 In for 500 kVA
Inverter overload capacity
125% for 10 minutes - 135% for 1 minute - 150% for 30 seconds
(4)
Static-switch overload capacity
Ipeak / In for 20 ms – values below
Single or integrated Up to 25 In (16 In for 400 and 500 kVA - 21 In for 300 kVA, 25 In for 250 kVA)
parallel UPS unit
Crest factor at
Up to 3:1
380 / 400 / 415 V
Dynamic performance: voltage variation for ± 2% for load step changes from 0 to 100% and 100 to 0%
load step changes
Recovery time (return to ± 1% tolerance) < 100 ms
Voltage and phase imbalance
1.5% and 2 degrees for 50% current imbalance
Maximum frequency variation
1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (adjustable)
Efficiency
Double-conversion
50 to 100%
Up to 94.5% (97% in ECO mode)
mode
Conditions for transfer without interruption between normal and bypass lines (synchronisation with bypass source)
Bypass-source voltage tolerances
Un ± 10%
Bypass-source frequency tolerances
50 or 60 Hz ± 0.5 to 8% of rated frequency, adjustable to 0.5 - 1 - 2 - 4 - 8%
Phase-difference tolerances
3 degrees
Transfer with interruption
If any parameters are outside tolerances, transfer can be carried out with an adjustable
(bypass source outside tolerances)
interruption of 13 to 100 ms, after authorisation by the user via the operator keypad
Battery
Type
Sealed lead-acid or optional vented lead-acid or nickel-cadmium
Service life
Up to 10 years or more
Backup time
5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 30 minutes standard
(5)
Charge time
5 minutes
4 hours
4 hours
4 hours
4 hours
depending on backup 10 minutes
6 hours
5 hours
6 hours
6 hours
time
15 minutes
6 hours
7 hours
7 hours
7 hours
20 minutes
7 hours
7 hours
6 hours
7 hours
30 minutes
8 hours
8 hours
9 hours
9 hours
(1) Other voltages on request 208, 220, 480 V.
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion of current).
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion of voltage).
(4) In = rms output current (PF = 0.9), i.e. In 
Pn
0.9 Un
3
(5) Recharge following complete discharge at Pn, to 90 % of total charge and 80 % of total backup time.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.44
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Communication
Power rating Pn (kVA)
(rated output apparent power)
Active power for PF = 0.9 (kW)
HMI (Human-machine interface)
Standard
Communication
Standard
Options
Software
Standard
Options
250
300
400
500
225
270
360
450
Operating LEDs (load protected, minor fault, major fault)
N&B graphical display, SVGA (800 x 600 pixels), 32 cm
Help key
Function keys
Menu key
ON and OFF buttons
Mimic panel with status LEDs
Programmable relay card, dry contacts, 4 logic inputs, 6 logic outputs
Multi-standard communications card with two or three outputs:
- INMC with 2 outputs: JBus/Modbus/RS232/RS485 + Ethernet 100/100 bps
- NMTC with 3 outputs: JBus/Modbus/RS232/RS485 + Ethernet 100/100 bps + Modem
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote shutdown
Solution Pac (parameter setting by trained and qualified personnel)
Enterprise Power Manager V2
Physical characteristics - dimensions and weight
Power rating Pn (kVA)
(rated output apparent power)
Active power for PF = 0.9 (kW)
UPS cabinet without battery
250
300
400
500
225
270
360
450
H (mm)
1900
W (mm)
1412
D (mm
855
Weight (kg)
960
960
1110
External-bypass cabinet for parallel connection of up to eight units
Height H = 1900 mm Depth D = 855 mm
Rating
Width (mm) / Weight (kg)
800 kVA
1012 / 320
1200 kVA
1412 / 665
2000 kVA
1412 / 1700
Please consult us
3200 kVA
Please consult us
4800 kVA
Static-switch cabinet with automatic and manual bypass for parallel connection of up to eight units
Height H = 1900 mm Depth D = 855 mm
Rating
Width (mm) / Weight (kg)
800 kVA
412 / 425
1200 kVA
1412 / 720
2000 kVA
2424 / 2200
Please consult us
3200 kVA
Please consult us
4800 kVA
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
1812
1470
ch. 4 - p.45
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Physical characteristics - environment and standards
Power rating Pn (kVA)
(rated output apparent power)
Active power for PF = 0.9 (kW)
Environment
Colour of cabinets
Degree of protection (as per IEC 60529)
Noise level (dBA) ISO 3476
Heat losses (kW)
UPS
250
300
400
500
225
270
360
450
RAL 9023
IP20 and IP32 version
72
7
8.6
11.2
14.3
14.3
22.9
27.2
50% load
UPS
17.2
100% load
3
Fan throughput
Maximum altitude
m /h
Without derating
With derating
Storage temperature Without battery
range
With battery
Operating temperature Inverter
range
Battery
Humidity
Standards
Construction and safety
EMC
Harmonics
Design, manufacturing
Certification and marking
APC by Schneider Electric
6000
8300
1000 m
0.85 at 1500 m - 0.79 at 2000 m - 0.75 at 2300 m - 0.69 at 3000 - 0.59 at 4000 m
- 25°C to + 70°C dry heat
- 10°C to + 45°C
Steady-state conditions: 35°C
8 hours max.: 40°C
20°C to 25°C recommended for optimum battery operation
tolerable: 0 to 35°C (40°C for 8 hours)
optimum: + 15°C to + 25°C (service life cut in half for every 10°C increase above 25°C)
20% to 95% without condensation at ambient temperature
IEC 60950-1
IEC 62040-1
IEC 62040-3
EN 50091-2
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2
EMC directive 2004/108/EC
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2
IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4
IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
ISO 14001 / ISO 9001
TÜV / CE / LCIE
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.46
MGETM GalaxyTM 7000 UPS (cont.)
Current characteristics for selection of protection devices
Power rating Pn (kVA)
(rated output apparent power)
Active power for PF = 0.9 (kW)
Input currents
250
300
400
500
225
270
360
450
Currents and measurement conditions
● I1: current at normal AC input
Currents and measurement conditions
● Iu: load current
N.B. Currents are measured at:
● full rated load, PF = 0.9
● rated voltage 400 V of normal AC
source
● battery float charging.
For normal AC-source rated voltages of
380 and 415 V, multiply the I1 and Iu
values by 1.05 and 0.96 respectively.
● Ibmax: maximum battery current
Max. input current I1 (A)
Fig 53. Input currents.
351
420
558
700
Load current Iu (A)
Max. current supplied by battery Ibmax (A)
361
490
577
784
722
980
APC by Schneider Electric
433
588
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.47
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs
Presentation
Protection for your mission-critical high-power
applications up to several MVA
Fig. 4.54. MGE
TM
TM
Galaxy
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000
● Power ratings: 800 - 900 kVA
● Three-phase input and output
● Parallel connection of up to six UPS
units, e.g. 6 x 800 kVA = 4.8 MVA
● On-line double conversion (VFI)
● Automatic and manual bypasses
● Total control over upstream harmonics
by filtering (THDI < 4%)
● IGBT technology
● Backup times from 5 min. to 4 hours or
more with a rapid charger for more
secure operation (recharge < 11 hours)
● Wide input-voltage range from 323 to
456 V to handle disturbed distribution
systems
● High overload and discrimination
capacity
● Input-current limiting during genset
start
● Highest efficiency in its category with
94% in double-conversion mode, even at
low percent loads
● Graphic, colour UMI with "Vision"
option for supervision of all modules
● Digital battery management by
DigiBatTM (calculation of real backup time
and remaining battery life) and block by
block monitoring
● Low TCO due to an optimised
environment (cables, protection, genset
compatibility), small footprint, high
efficiency and monitoring of multiple UPS
units using Enterprise Power Manager
software.
9000 range.
Applications
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 is part of the high-power range of 3-phase UPSs from APC
by Schneider Electric, offering 800 to 900 kVA UPS units and parallel configurations
up to 5.4 MVA.
Based on the proven technological solutions of the Galaxy ranges (modular design,
double conversion, IGBTs), it combines power, high availability and upgradeability to
offer custom solutions ... as standard!
 Data centres - The possibility of flexible no-risk upgrading is essential for strategic
data centres. These installations generally represent a few hundred kVA initially, but
often grow to reach several MVA.
The different parallel-connection modes available for MGETM GalaxyTM 9000
perfectly match these needs. Combined with STS units, the UPS can supply energy
via two or three different channels for dual or triple-attach applications. It also offers
a number of solutions for supervision, network administration and remote control.
 Telecommunications - A telecom installation must operate 24/365. Operations
TM
must continue during preventive maintenance and installation upgrades. MGE
TM
Galaxy 9000 meets these needs through a high level of availability (redundant,
parallel configurations, high-power charger for fast recharging, etc.) and
communication for proactive maintenance (EPM supervision software for multiple
UPS units, built-in communication cards, connection to internet).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.48
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
 Industrial processes - Operation in industrial environments requires equipment
capable of maintaining processes, without failure, under difficult conditions, including
dust, humidity, vibrations, major variations in temperature, etc. Due to its wide
TM
TM
catalogue of options and functions, MGE Galaxy 9000 can adapt to all types of
environments. Technical files are available for all the applications specified by design
offices, including Ni-Cad batteries for the chemical and petrochemical industries,
high IP values, heavy-duty reinforced cabinets, dust filters, marine configurations,
rated voltages up to 440 V, etc. The APC by Schneider Electric design office, in
conjunction with a specialised industrial organisation, can also handle uncommon
conditions, e.g. outdoor installations, anti-vibration bases for marine applications,
special paints with the corresponding labels, etc.
Colour
 Light grey RAL 9023.
Main advantages
High-availability power solutions tailored to high-power missioncritical installations
APC by Schneider Electric has equipped the high-power MGETM GalaxyTM 9000
range with all the functions and options required to provide high-quality energy
24/365 in all environments and for all applications.
 Optimum reliability thanks to modular design, proven technology and a reduced
number of components.
 Double conversion (VFI as per IEC 62040-3/EN 62040-3), with built-in automatic
and manual bypass lines. This design completely regenerates the current and
provides the highest quality output voltage and frequency, with a THDU < 4% for all
types of loads.
 Discrimination due to high short-circuit capacity and a high permissible crest
factor.
 Backup time
remains available due to digital battery management:
TM
TM
- The MGE DigiBat system monitors the battery to forward information and
maximise performance. Based on a large number of parameters (percent load,
temperature, battery type and age), Digibat controls the battery charge voltage and
continuously calculates the real available backup time and the remaining service life
- MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 can be equipped with the B2000 or Cellwatch batterymonitoring systems that monitor each battery string around the clock and predict the
risk of failure block by block.
 High-availability architectures with two parallel configurations, integrated parallel
or parallel with a centralised static-switch cubicle, to enhance availability and make
possible upgrades in step with the overall installation.
 Possibility of synchronisation with all types of sources to supply downstream
STSs (static transfer switches) and ensure maximum availability for the protected
loads.
 Total compatibility with gensets due to the following special features:
- no harmonic currents drawn and high power factor using proven filtering solutions
- rectifier/charger walk-in to facilitate genset start
- battery charge-current limiting during operation on genset power
- sequential start of UPS units (parallel configuration).
Fig. 4.55. Walk-in ramp with time delay.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.49
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Continuity of service is the priority
There are many reasons to upgrade sites, including higher power needs, new types
of loads requiring protection, changes in the electrical-distribution system, etc.
Due to its very flexible modular design, MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 can handle each step
in upgrade procedures without interrupting operations.
 The number of available architectures facilitates operation (redundant sources,
redundant distribution lines) and enhances availability.
 Parallel connection can be used to multiply the available power by a factor of up
to six.
 Easy, safe maintenance on the electrical installation, due to the wide range of
configurations (modular, with common centralised bypass, etc.).
 Large selection of batteries (sealed or vented lead-acid, Ni/Cad) and backup
times.
 Coldstart function - the UPS can start on battery power.
A "clean" UPS
For single or parallel configurations, integrated filtering solutions eliminate upstream
harmonics problems and ensure trouble-free operation without disturbing the
upstream power system:
 THDI < 4% (total distortion of the input current)
 PF > 0.95 (input power factor)
Other upstream filtering solutions are available (LC compensated or noncompensated filters designed for installations supplied by generator sets).
For configurations with three or more UPS units in parallel, phase-shifting is the most
cost-effective solution, offering excellent performance and easy installation at a very
competitive price.
Optimum output voltage quality and outstanding efficiency
Galaxy UPSs use IGBT technology, reducing the number of components and
thereby improving reliability. The operation of the IGBTs has been optimised using
an exclusive free-frequency chopping mode combined with PWM type regulation to
offer unmatched performance:
 Output voltage quality:
 - Very low level of distortion,  3 % ph/ph,  4 % ph/N (RCD loads as per ENV
50091-3)
 Steady-state accuracy: ± 0.5% of rms values of phase-to-neutral and phase-tophase voltages.
 Settings: Via the UMI, the output voltage can be fine-tuned within the Un ± 3%
range, making it possible to take into account voltage drops due to long cables
downstream of the UPS.
 Transient performance: ± 5 % for load step changes from 100% to 0 and 0 to
100% (i.e. loads turned on or off).
The return to the ± 1% range (rms values) takes place in less than 20 ms.
 Outstanding efficiency of up to 94 %, virtually constant from 25% to 100% load.
This means significant savings on the energy bill and in sizing air-conditioning and
ventilation systems.
Free-frequency
switching
Quality
band with
variations
< 1%
Output voltage
curve
Up to 8 commutations
per millisecond
The regulation system continuously compares the output
voltage with a reference wave generated by an internal
processor.
Free-frequency switching accelerates (higher frequency)
during periods of major variations for better regulation.
Fig. 4.56. Free-frequency switching.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Fig. 4.57. Efficiency of a 800 kVA MGE
TM
Galaxy 9000 UPS unit.
TM
ch. 4 - p.50
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
User-friendly interface for more dependable operation
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 has the new "Vision" communication interface offering
intuitive functions. Entirely new, based on graphics and pictograms, "Vision" presents
a wide range of UPS operating status information, time-stamped events and valuable
statistics. For operating personnel, that is an essential aspect in facilitating decisions.
Simple and user-friendly, the interface enhances safety and comfort:
 wide touch screen, colour, high resolution (SVGA) with animated mimic panel
 remote supervision that can run under many BMS systems and network
supervisors
 time-stamping of last 3000 events.
Advanced communication
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 is compatible with the APC by Schneider Electric range of
communication solutions designed to meet three essential needs:
 Inform on UPS operation and its environment, with the possibility of warning
users wherever they may be of all potential and existing problems
 Protect server data by automatic, controlled shutdown of operating systems
 Actively supervise an entire set of UPSs.
These functions are carried out by hot pluggable communication cards using
different protocols, depending on the environment in which the UPS is installed.
 Standard relay card with programmable dry contacts (4 logic inputs and 6 logic
outputs).
 INMC (Industrial Network Management Card) communication card with two
ports:
- JBus/ModBus RS485/RS232 protocol for communication with a BMS
- Ethernet 10/100 Mbps protocol using the Https standard (secure connection) for
supervision via the web.
Each UPS then has its own IP address making it possible for the user to:
- supervise and control the UPS via a simple browser (HTTP)
- interface with an SNMP administration system (HP Openview, etc.)
- communicate with shutdown software installed on the protected servers
- set up external temperature and humidity monitoring (sensor environment)
- receive e-mail alarms.
 NMTC (Network Management Teleservice Card) communication card with
three ports:
- JBus/ModBus RS232/RS485
- Ethernet 10/100 Mbps using the Https protocol.
The functions are identical to the INMC card, with in addition:
- a modem connection may be used to connect the UPS to the Teleservice centre.
Fig. 4.58. Example of a MGE
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
TM
TM
Galaxy
9000 supervision screen
ch. 4 - p.51
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Reduction in costs (TCO)
The high level of availability protects against operating losses, but at a cost in terms
of protection-system investment and installation expenses as well as the operating
costs. TCO analysis attempts to determine the best return on the investment.
Two main criteria contribute to reducing MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 installation and
operating costs:
 compact size and installation with the back to the wall make for a small footprint
and definite savings in terms of square metres
 high efficiency (up to 94%) means savings on the energy bill and when sizing airconditioning and ventilation systems.
Installation
Parallel connection
The UPS can be installed in both technical and computer rooms.
 The UPS can operate correctly back to the wall or back to back, but it is preferable
to leave some space (> 600 mm) for easier maintenance.
 Leave one meter of free space in front of the UPS for door opening.
 At least 250 mm of clearance above the UPS is required.
The design of MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 enables parallel connection of units with
identical ratings in order to increase the available power or provide redundancy. It is
also possible to use a centralized bypass comprising the automatic bypass and the
manual bypass for all UPS units.
Parallel connection of two standard UPS units for active
redundancy
In this case, parallel connection of a second unit is intended to increase the
availability of energy. Two identical UPS units, each with its built-in manual bypass,
supply the load at the same time in parallel (hence the term active redundancy).
However, each unit can supply the load alone if the other is stopped. This type of
redundancy is called 1/2. The second unit can be connected in parallel without
interrupting the load. Connection is possible with separate or common normal and
bypass AC inputs.
Normal
AC input
Module 1
(a)
Bypass
AC input
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
Module 2
Module 1
Load
(b)
Bypass
AC input
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
Module 2
Load
Fig. 4.59. Active redundancy with parallel connection of two standard units, with separate (a) or
common (b) normal and bypass AC inputs.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.52
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Parallel connection of 3 to 6 UPS units for power and/or redundancy
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 also allows parallel connection of 3 to 6 UPS units.
 Parallel connection ofup to 4 integrated parallel UPS units.
Each integrated parallel unit includes a static bypass, with a common external
maintenance bypass unit sized for the maximum power. The UPS units share the
load to be supplied. Depending on the level of active redundancy, if one or more
UPS units stop, the others continue to supply the load.
Bypass
AC input
EXTERNAL BYPASS UNIT
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
UPS1
Normal
AC input
UPS2
P1(kVA)
UPS3
P1(kVA)
P1(kVA)
Load
Fig. 4.60. Three integrated parallel units with an external bypass unit.
 Parallel connection of up to 6 parallel UPS units without internal bypasses.
This configuration requires a common static switch cubicle (SSC) and a common
external maintenance bypass unit sized for the maximum power. The parallel UPS
units have no internal bypass and share the load to be supplied. Depending on the
level of active redundancy, if one or more UPS units stop, the others continue to
supply the load.
Compared to parallel configurations with automatic bypasses in each unit and a
common external bypass, this solution offers the following advantages:
- Enhanced availability
- Easier maintenance, due to the centralized bypass
- Greater short-circuit withstand capability.
Normal
AC input
Parallel
UPS unit 1
Normal
AC input
Parallel
UPS unit 2
Normal
AC input
Parallel
UPS unit 3
Static
Switch
Cubicle
(SSC)
Bypass
AC input
Load
Fig. 4.61. Parallel connection with a centralized bypass.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.53
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Parallel connection of UPSs with STS units
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 can also be used in parallel UPS configurations with
synchronisation and static transfer switches (STS).
Source 1
Normal
Source 2
Bypass
Normal
Bypass
Synchro
STS 1
Load 1
STS 2
Load 2
Fig. 4.62. Parallel connection with STS units.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.54
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Diagram and functions
APC by Schneider Electric
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 single-UPS units offer the following equipment and functions.
Standard
● Three-phase IGBT inverter with freefrequency PWM chopping
● Static switch
● Manual maintenance bypass
● Mimic panel with status LEDs.
● Time-stamping of last 3000 events
● Battery protected against deep discharges by
a circuit breaker
● Parallel configurations with integrated parallel
UPS units or centralised static switch cubicle
● EMC C3 monitored distribution
● Sequential start of UPS units (parallel
configurations).
● DigiBat Battery Monitoring, with calculation of
the true backup time
● Cold start on battery power
● Battery charging shutdown during operation
on genset
● Rectifier walk-in and current limiting to ensure
compatibility with gensets
● Battery charger adaptation to ambient
Fig. 4.63. Single-UPS unit
temperature of battery room
● Redundant ventilation for the static switch
Optional:
● Active harmonic filtering
● Passive filters (non-compensated, with
contactor or compensated) or phase shifting
filters
● Connections from the top
● Isolation/voltage matching transformer
● Synchronisation module
● 12" SVGA colour graphic display
● B2000 or Cellwatch battery-monitoring system
● Lightning arrestor (built into the UPS cabinet).
● Backfeed protection
● EMC C2 class A.
● Communication cards:
- JBus/ModBus RS232 or RS485
- SNMP / Ethernet
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote
shutdown
● Battery circuit breaker unit
● Supervision and shutdown software:
- Enterprise Power Manager V.2
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.55
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 centralised static switch cubicles offer the following
equipment and functions.
Standard
● Centralised static switch cubicle sized for
the power of the installation
● All the necessary switches for automatic and
maintenance bypass functions
● Connection possible from the bottom or the
top
● Centralised graphic display and monitoring
● Media Contact 9 communication port and
JBus/Modbus
● Designed for parallel connection of up to 6
UPS units
Optional
● Synchronisation module
● Connections from the top
Fig. 4.64. Centralized static switch cubicle
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.56
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Electrical characteristics
Power rating Pn
800/900
(rated output apparent power)
Active power (kW)
720/720
Electrical input characteristics (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
3
(1)
Voltage
Normal AC input
380 V -15% to 415 V + 10%
(1)
Bypass AC input
380 V / 400 V / 415 V ± 10%
Frequency
Utility
50 or 60 Hz ± 10%, i.e. 45 to 65 Hz
Power factor
75 to 100%
0.95 (with active filter)
(2)
Current total harmonic distortion THDI
< 4% (with active filter)
Current
See table on input currents
Electrical output characteristics (rated values and tolerances)
Number of phases
3Ph + N
Rated voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 0.5% three-phase at 50 Hz
(* rated rms output
380 / 400 ± 0.5% three-phase at 60 Hz
value)
Fine adjustment possible via user-machine interface to Un ± 3%
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz
± 0.5 Hz (adjustable)
Free running
± 1/2500 = 0.0004 Hz
Power factor
0.9 (for 800 kVA) / 0.8 (for 900 kVA)
Voltage total harmonic Linear load
 3% Ph/Ph,  4% Ph/N
(3)
distortion THDU
(4)
Short-circuit capacity of the inverter
2.33 In peak In for 1 s
Overload capacity of the inverter
125% for 10 minutes - 150% for 1 minute
(4)
Overload capacity of bypass (SS)
I peak / In for 20 ms - see values below
Single UPS
19 In peak (for 800 kVA) / 17 In peak (for 900 kVA)
Permissible crest factor
Up to 3 : 1
Dynamic performance: voltage transients
± 5% for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% load step changes
during load step changes
recovery time (return to ± 1%) < 20 ms
Voltage and phase imbalance
1.5% and 2 degrees for 50% current imbalance
Maximum frequency variation
1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (adjustable)
Efficiency
Double-conversion
50 to 100%
Up to 94%
mode
Conditions for transfer without interruption between normal and bypass lines (synchronisation with bypass source)
Bypass-source voltage tolerances
Un ± 10%
Bypass-source frequency tolerances
50 or 60 Hz ± 0.25 to 2 Hz, adjustable in 0.5 Hz steps
Phase-difference tolerances
3 degrees
Transfer with interruption
If any parameters are outside tolerances, transfer can be carried out with an adjustable
(bypass source outside tolerances)
interruption of 500 to 800 ms, after authorisation by the user via the operator keypad.
Battery
Type
Sealed lead-acid or optional vented lead-acid or nickel-cadmium
Service life
Up to 10 years or more
Backup time
5 - 10 - 15 - 30 minutes (standard)
(1) Other voltages on request.
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion for current).
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion for voltage).
(4) In = rms output current (PF = 0.8), i.e.
APC by Schneider Electric
In =
Pn
0.8 Un 3
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.57
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Communication
Power rating Pn
(rated output apparent power)
Active power (kW)
UMI (User-machine interface)
Standard
Options
Communication
Standard
Options
Software
Standard
Options
800/900
720/720
Operating LEDs (load protected, minor fault, major fault)
On and Off buttons
Help key
Function keys
Menu key
Mimic panel with status LEDs
Colour graphical display
- SVGA (800 x 600 pixels)
- 12’’ (32 cm)
1 relay card with dry contacts, 2 inputs and 6 outpus, 250V, 2A
Communication cards:
- RS232
- JBus/ModBus RS232 or RS485
- SNMP / Ethernet
- 2 ports with dry contacts and/or remote shutdown
Solution Pac (parameter setting by trained and qualified personnel)
Enterprise Power Manager V2
Physical characteristics - dimensions and weight
Power rating Pn
800/900
(rated output apparent power)
Active power (kW)
720/720
UPS cabinet without battery
H (mm)
2000
W (mm)
3600
D (mm)
840
Weight (kg)
4100
Combinations of battery cabinets for given backup times
Height H = 2000 mm Depth D = 840 mm For height and weight for a given backup time, please consult us.
External-bypass cabinet for parallel connection of up to four units
Height H = 2000 mm Depth D = 840 mm
Power
Width (mm) / Weight (kg)
1200 kVA
1200 / 450
Centralized static switch cubicle with automatic and manual bypasses for parallel connection of up to six units
Height H = 2000 mm Depth D = 840 mm
Power
Width (mm) / Weight (kg)
1200 kVA
1600 / 1000
2000 kVA
2450 / 1710
3200 kVA
Please consult us
4800 kVA
Please consult us
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.58
MGETM GalaxyTM 9000 UPSs (cont.)
Physical characteristics - environment and standards
Power rating Pn
(rated output apparent power)
Active power (kW)
Environment
Colour of cabinets
Degree of protection (as per IEC 60529)
Noise level (dBA) ISO 3476
Heat losses (kW)
Single UPS
800/900
720/720
RAL 9023
IP20
< 72
48 (for 800 kVA) / 44 (for 900 kVA)
100% load
Single UPS
33 (for 800 kVA) / 31 (for 900 kVA)
75% load
Single UPS
22 (for 800 kVA) / 20 (for 900 kVA)
50% load
3
Fan throughput
Maximum altitude
m /h
without derating
with derating
Storage temperature without battery
range
with battery
Operating temperature inverter
range
battery
Relative humidity
Standards
Construction and safety
EMC
Harmonics
Design and manufacture
Certification and marking
31000
1000 m
0.85 at 1500 m; 0.79 at 2000 m; 0.75 at 2300 m; 0.69 at 3000; 0.59 at 4000 m
- 25°C to + 70°C dry heat
- 10°C to + 45°C
Full rated load, PF = 0.8: 0 to 35°C
30°C mean daily, 40°C for 8 hours once per month
20°C to 25°C recommended for optimum battery operation
tolerable: 0 to 35°C (40°C for 8 hours)
optimum: + 15°C to + 25°C (service life cut in half for every 10°C increase above 25°C)
45% to 75% without condensation at ambient temperature
IEC 60950-1, IEC 62040-1, IEC 62040-3
EN 50091-2, IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2, EMC directive 2004/108/EC
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2, IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2,
IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4, IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
ISO14001 / ISO 9001
TüV / CE / LCIE
Current characteristics for selection of protective devices
Power rating Pn
(rated output apparent power)
Active power (kW)
Input currents
800/900
720/720
Currents and measurement conditions
● I1: current at normal AC input
Currents and measurement conditions
● Iu: load current
N.B. Currents are measured at:
● full rated load, PF = 0.8
● rated voltage of normal AC source
is 400 V
● battery float charging.
For normal AC-source rated voltages of
380 and 415 V, multiply the I1 and Iu
values by 1.05 and 0.96 respectively.
Max. input current I1 (A) for 15 minutes of
backup time, battery recharging
Load current Iu (A)
Max. current supplied by battery Ibmax (A)
APC by Schneider Electric
● Ibmax: maximum battery current
Fig. 4.65. Input currents.
1329
1155 (for 800 kVA) / 1299 (for 900 kVA)
2274
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.59
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs
Presentation
The right-sized scalable UPS for demanding businesscritical applications.
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX 160
● Hot-scalable from 16 - 48 kW (PX 48)
and 16-160 kW (PX 160)
● Three-phase input and output
● Fully modular design (power,
intelligence, batteries, bypass and
distribution)
● Hot scalable power, distribution &
backup time by trained user
● Hot swappable internal bypass static
switch
● High power density
● 95% efficiency down to 35% load
● Centralised management display
● On-line double conversion
● Input PF regulated to unity
● 1.0 output PF (kW=kVA)
● Dual AC inputs
● Extended life batteries (5 – 8 yrs) &
backup times
● Aesthetically matches data center
equipment
TM
Fig 4.66. Symmetra
PX 48 (top) and PX 160 (middle and bottom) ranges.
Applications
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX 160 UPSs offer modular protection with hot-scalable
power ratings, backup times and distribution for:
● Data centers
● Telecommunications
● Diagnostics and medical imaging
● High-density power zones
Colour
●
Black
Fig. 4.67. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
PX 48 and PX 160 applications
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.60
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Main features
True modular design
The SymmetraTM is a true modular system. Made up of dedicated and redundant
modules - power, intelligence, battery and bypass - all engineered into a design that
is easily and efficiently serviceable, this architecture can scale power and runtime as
demand grows or as higher levels of availability are required.
● SymmetraTM PX 48 features integrated all-in-one scalable design, with up to three
16 kW power modules (for 48 kW with N+0 or 32 kW with N+1 redundancy), four
high-performance battery modules (1 module = 1 row of 4 batteries), main and
backup intelligence modules, power distribution modules and a hot-swappable builtin static bypass switch, all in a single cabinet (figure 4.68).
Redundant Intelligence Module
Hot-Scalable Modular Power
Distribution
Back-up for the Main Intelligence
Module provides increased availability
Safely expand and service without
forced shutdowns
16kW Power Module
Provides the flexibility to scale power
capacity in an N+0 or N+1
configuration with fully rated inverters to
deliver more real power
Wrap Around System Bypass
Isolates UPS from critical load while
maintaining power to your loads
Hot Swappable
Built-in Static Bypass Switch
High Performance Batteries
More powerful batteries help reduce
overall system footprint while extended
battery life (5 – 8 years) reduces total
cost of ownership
Fig. 4.68. Symmetra
TM
Enables the UPS to transfer the load
to utility power, without interruption, in
case of heavy overload or faulty
conditions
No Rear Access
Space saving & more flexibility on
where you place the UPS
PX 48 true modular design.
●
For scalable ratings up to 160 kW, the SymmetraTM PX 160 offers the same
modular design with a power cabinet housing up to ten 16 kW power modules (for
160 kW with N+0 or 144 kW with N+1 redundancy), main and backup intelligence
modules and a hot-swappable built-in static bypass switch (figure 4.69). Integrated
modular power distribution and batteries can be included in a PDU-XR cabinet
(figures 4.69 and 4.70).
Integrated Power
Distribution & Battery
Cabinet (Distribution
front / Battery rear)
Redundant Intelligence
Module
Back-up for the Main
Intelligence Module provides
increased availability
Leaves more white space for
your IT racks & helps to
minimise the total size
necessary for your data center
16kW Power Module
Hot-Scalable Modular
Power Distribution
Provides the flexibility to scale
power capacity in an N+0 or
N+1 configuration with fully
rated inverters to deliver more
real power
Safely expand and service
without forced shutdowns
Wrap Around System
Bypass
Isolates UPS from critical load
while maintaining power to your
loads
Hot Swappable
Built-in Static Bypass
Switch
Subfeed breakers
Two 160A subfeeds allow
additional distribution elements
to be integrated into your data
center
Enables the UPS to transfer
the load to utility power, without
interruption, in case of heavy
overload or faulty conditions
TM
Fig. 4.69. Front view: Symmetra PX 160 power cabinet (left) and PDU-XR integrated power
distribution and battery cabinet (right).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.61
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Battery modules are located either in an integrated PDU-XR power distribution and
battery cabinet and/or in adjacent XR battery cabinets, both designed for up to 9
high-performance battery modules (1 module = 1 row of 4 batteries) (figures 4.70
and 4.71).
REAR VIEW
Premium Line-Up
and Match
Enclosures
Matches the look of other
IT equipment in your data
center
High Performance
Batteries
More powerful batteries
help reduce overall
system footprint while
extended battery life (5 –
8 years) reduces total cost
of ownership
Battery Module
Connected in parallel for
increased availability and
hot swappable for easy
replacement by a trained
user
TM
Fig. 4.70. Rear view: Symmetra PDU-XR integrated power
Fig. 4.71. XR battery
distribution and battery cabinet (left) beside PX 160 power cabinet cabinet.
(right).
Availability
●
●
Modular design enables fast recovery time.
The use of hot-swappable modules boosts availability while reducing operating,
maintenance and repair costs.
● Redundant design eliminates single points of failure.
● Standardised, self-diagnosing modules prevent human errors.
● Dual AC inputs increases availability by allowing the UPS to be connected to two
separate power sources.
● The possibility of N+1 redundant configurations offers higher availability by
providing one more power module than is necessary to support the connected load.
Agility
●
●
●
Rack-based modular form promotes quick installation and portability.
Multiple cable entry points enable flexible installation methods.
Scalable power capacity reduces UPS over-sizing costs today by allowing quick
upgrades later.
● Scalable batteries allows additional runtime to be quickly added as needed.
● Front-access servicing simplifies installation and maintenance while minimising
space requirements (PX 48 only).
● SmartSlot makes it possible to customise UPS communication capabilities with
management cards.
● Battery replacement without tools allows quick, easy battery replacement.
Total Cost of Ownership
●
●
●
●
●
APC by Schneider Electric
Scalable power capacity allows right-sizing of UPS to reduce capital outlay.
Fully rated inverter (kVA = kW) provides more real power.
Self-test and battery management decrease lifetime maintenance costs.
Manageable Extended Run Enclosures reduce the need for battery maintenance.
Power factor corrected input reduces upstream equipment costs.
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.62
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Unrivalled power density
●
●
●
48 kW of power protection, distribution & backup time in 0.64 m2.
96 kW of power protection, distribution & backup time in 1.28 m2.
160 kW of power protection, distribution & backup time in 1.92 m2.
Manageability
●
Multi-function status and control console (PowerView) with built-in LCD text or
graphic display (fig. 4.72).
● Audible alarms (and visible alarms on display).
● Battery runtime indicated on display.
● Web-enabled remote monitoring (option).
Full System Level Display
Easy recognition of functions
Offers a clear overview of alarms, status data,
instructional help and configuration items on UPS
and external batteries through a single display
The design is harmonized across product lines and
the layout resembles that of a computer keyboard
Help Key
Fault LED
Launches
context-sensitive
help that provides
short descriptions
of functions
When indicator
is red a faulty
condition
exists
Status Indicators
When green UPS is providing power to the load, the
two yellow indicators tell that UPS is on battery or
that power is being supplied through the static
switch (bypass)
Fig. 4.72. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
Navigation Keys
Up and Down for easy navigation through menus,
Enter key that opens menu items and input changes
to system parameters and Escape for returning to
previous screen
PX 160 PowerView console.
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.63
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Diagram and functions
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX 160 UPSs offer the following equipment and functions:
Standard
● Hot-scalable power modules
● Hot-scalable battery modules
● Hot-scalable modular power distribution (for
PX 48 and PX 160 with PDU-XR)
● Main and backup intelligence modules
● Hot-swappable built-in static bypass switch
● Multi-function status and control console
(PowerView) with built-in LCD text or graphic
display
● Wrap-around system bypass
Optional
● Additional modular distribution units
● External battery cabinets with slots for 9
battery modules (1 module = 1 row of 4
batteries)
Fig. 4.73. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
PX modular diagram
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.64
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Electrical characteristics and communication
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.5 to +0.5)
48 (PX 48)
160 (PX 160)
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Up to 48 (hot scalable with 16 kW modules)
Up to 160 (hot scalable with 16 kW modules)
Input (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
3+N
(1)
Voltage
Normal AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V 3-phase
Tolerances for 400V: 304 to 477 V at full load, 200 to 477 V at half load
Bypass AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V
Tolerances: ± 10%
Frequency
Normal AC input
40-70Hz with 10Hz/sec slewrate
Bypass AC input
50 or 60 Hz
± 0.1 Hz, ± 3 Hz, ± 10 Hz (user selectable)
Power factor
>0.99 at >50% load, >0.95 at > 15% load, >0.90 at > 10% load
(2)
THDI
<5% at full load
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Output (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
3+N
Voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1% (100% linear load) or ± 3% (100% non-linear load)
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz ± 3% (user adjustable to ± 1%)
free running
50 or 60 Hz ± 0.1%
Power factor
0.5 leading to 0.5 lagging without any derating
(3)
THDU
linear load
< 2% for 100% linear load,
non-linear load
< 6% for 100% non-linear load according to IEC/EN62040-3
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Short-circuit capacity (without bypass)
35kAIC
Bypass short-circuit capacity
35kAIC
Overload capacity
Normal operation
150% for 60 s, 125% for 10 min.
150% for 60 s, 125% for 10 min.
Battery operation
150% for 60 s
150% for 60 s
Crest factor
Unlimited
Voltage transients during
± 5% for 100% load step
load step changes
Maximum frequency variation
40Hz-60Hz or 50Hz to 70Hz depending on output frequency selected.
Selectable slew rate from 0.25 Hz/sec to 6 Hz/sec
Efficiency
At 35-100% load
Normal operation
≥95%
Battery operation
≥94%
Conditions for transfer to AC bypass
Acceptable difference in voltage
Selected voltage (380V, 400V, 415V) +/-10 %
Synchronisation frequency range
+/- 10 Hz, i.e. 40Hz to 60Hz or 50Hz to 70Hz depending on output frequency selected
Battery
Type
Sealed lead-acid
Service life
5-8 years
(4)
Backup time
Built-in
Depends on load and number of battery modules Depends on load and number of battery modules
(4 modules max.)
(9 modules max.)
XR battery cabinet Depends on load and number of battery modules Depends on load and number of battery modules
(9 modules max.)
(9 modules max.)
Communication
Standard
Multi-function status and control console (PowerView) with built-in LCD text or graphic display
Audible alarms (and visible alarms on display)
Emergency power off (EPO)
Battery runtime indicated on display
Web-enabled remote monitoring (monitoring service required)
Options
Network Management Card
Dry Contact Management
Environmental Monitor Card
Building Management System Card (MODBUS/JBUS)
(1) other voltages on request 208, 220, 480 V, 660 V…
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion - I for current)
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion - U for voltage)
(4) For runtimes for various loads and configurations, see http://www.apc.com/products/runtime_for_extendedruntime.cfm .
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.65
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Physical characteristics, environment and standards
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.5 to +0.5)
48 (PX 48)
160 (PX 160)
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Up to 48 (hot scalable with 16 kW modules)
Up to 160 (hot scalable with 16 kW modules)
Dimensions and weight of power frame
Height (mm)
2000
2000
Width (mm)
600
600
Depth (mm)
1070
1070
Weight (kg)
537 (16 kW)
666 (32 kW)
796 (48 kW)
578
Dimensions and weight of distribution/battery cabinet (PDU-XR) for PX 160
Height (mm)
n/a
2000
Width (mm)
n/a
600
Depth (mm)
n/a
1070
Weight fully loaded (kg)
n/a
1273
Dimensions and weight of additional battery cabinets (XR) (fully equipped with 9 battery modules)
Height (mm)
2000
2000
Width (mm)
600
600
Depth (mm)
1070
1070
Weight fully loaded (kg)
1270
1270
Environment
Noise level (dBA)
<61
< 63
Degree of protection (as per IEC 60529)
IP 20
IP 20
Maximum altitude without derating
 1000 m
 1000 m
Temperature range Without battery
-30°C to 70°C
for storage
With battery
-15°C to 40°C
Temperature range Inverter
-30°C to 70°C
for storage
Battery
possible: 0 to 40°C (40°C for 8 hours, 35°C for 24 hours)
optimum: + 15°C to + 25°C (service life is reduced by half for every 10° above 25°C)
Standards
Construction and safety
IEC 62040-1 / IEC 60950 / EN 62040-1
Performance and topology
IEC 62040-3 / EN 62040-3
EMC
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2 level B / EN 55011 and EN 55022 level B / FCC part 15
Harmonics
IEC 61003-2 / IEC 61003-4
Design and manufacture
ISO14001 / ISO 9001
Certification and marking
TÜV / CE
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.66
SymmetraTM PX 48 and PX160 UPSs (cont.)
Currents values for choice of protection characteristics
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.5 to +0.5)
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
Input and output currents
48 (PX 48)
160 (PX 160)
Up to 48 (hot scalable with 16 kW modules)
Up to 160 (hot scalable with 16 kW modules)
Currents and measurement conditions
● I1 : input current on Normal AC input
N.B. These currents are measured for:
- full rated load for PF = 0.8;
- a rated Normal AC input voltage
of 400 V;
- battery float charging.
For rated Normal AC input voltages of
380 V and 415 V, multiply the indicated I1
and Iu values by 1.05 and 0.96
respectively.
● Iu : load current
● Ibmax. maximum battery current
Fig. 4.74. Input and output currents.
Max. input current I1 (A) for 10 min. backup
time - batteries charging
(Given the high level of scalability of these products, please consult us for current values
corresponding to your installation)
Load current Iu (A)
Max. battery output current Ibmax (A)
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.67
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs
Presentation
Up to 2000 kW of high-efficiency power protection with
breakthrough scalability and advanced modularity.
SymmetraTM PX 250/500
● Hot-scalable in 25 kW increments up
to 250 kW (1 power frame) or 500 kW (2
power frames)
● 250 kW configuration expandable to
500 kW
● 2000 kW configurations by parallel
connection of up to 4 units
● Three-phase input and output
● Fully modular design (power,
250 kW configuration
batteries, intelligence and
communication)
● Hot scalable power & backup time
● Hot swappable internal bypass static
switch
● Side-mounted maintenance bypass
with distribution (option)
● High power density
● 96% efficiency down to 50% load
● Large touch-screen graphical user
interface
500 kW configuration
● On-line double conversion
● Input PF regulated to unity
● 1.0 output PF (kW=kVA)
● Dual mains
● Extended life batteries (5 – 8 yrs) &
backup times
● Aesthetically matches data center
equipment
TM
Fig 4.75. Symmetra
● No rear access required
PX 250/500 configurations
Applications
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs offer high-efficiency modular protection with hotscalable power ratings and backup times for:
● Medium to large data centers
● High-density power zones
TM
Fig 4.76. Symmetra
PX 250/500 applications
Colour
●
APC by Schneider Electric
Black
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.68
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs (cont.)
Main features
True modular design
The SymmetraTM is a true modular system (fig. 4.77). Made up of dedicated and
redundant modules--power, intelligence, battery and communications, all engineered
into a design that is easily and efficiently serviceable, this architecture can scale
power and runtime as demand grows or as higher levels of availability are required.
● For scalable ratings up to 500 kW, the SymmetraTM PX 250/500 includes one or
two power cabinets each housing up to ten 25 kW power modules (for up to 250 or
500 kW) and an input/output cabinet housing a built-in bypass static switch and
redundant intelligence modules. The battery modules are located in separate battery
cabinets.
● The use of hot-swappable modules boosts availability while reducing operating,
maintenance and repair costs.
Ultra-High Efficiency Power
Module
Dual Mains
Input/Output
Maintenance Bypass with
Distribution (MBwD)
Provides the flexibility to scale power
capacity in 25kW Increments and
adds N+1 capability as well as a fully
rated inverter for providing more real
power
Allows for connection to 2
separate power inputs for
increased availability – top
or bottom
Space saving design that provides
power distribution to your load and if
required isolation from the UPS
while maintaining power to your
critical loads
Long Life Battery
Module
Built-in Static Bypass
Switch
Connected in parallel
for increased
availability the 5-8yr
expected life reduces
systems lifetime costs
(TCO)
Hot swappable, the SSW
enables the UPS to
transfer the load to utility
power, without
interruption, in case of
heavy overload or faulty
conditions
Premium Line-Up/Remote
External Battery Enclosure
Redundant Intelligence
Module
A total of eight (8) enclosures
can be connected to the UPS
for extended runtimes and
availability
Back-up for the Main
Intelligence Module provides
increased availability
TM
Fig 4.77. Symmetra
No Rear Access
Space saving & More flexibility
on where you place the UPS
PX 250/500 true modular design.
Availability
●
●
●
●
Modular design enables fast recovery time
Redundant design eliminates single points of failure
Standardised, self-diagnosing modules prevent human errors
Dual mains input increases availability by allowing the UPS to be connected to
two separate power sources
● The possibility of N+1 redundant configurations offers higher availability by
providing one more power module than is necessary to support the connected load
● Maximum battery life and reliability through intelligent, precision charging
● Redundant intelligence modules provide higher availability to the UPS connected
loads by giving redundant communication paths to critical UPS functions
Agility
●
●
●
Rack-based modular form promotes quick installation and portability
Multiple cable entry points enable flexible installation methods
Scalable power capacity reduces UPS over-sizing costs today by allowing quick
upgrades later.
● Scalable batteries allows additional runtime to be quickly added as needed.
● Front-access servicing simplifies installation and maintenance while minimising
space requirements.
● SmartSlots make it possible to customise UPS capabilities with management
cards.
● Battery replacement without tools allows quick, easy replacement.
APC by Schneider Electric
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.69
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs (cont.)
Total Cost of Ownership
●
●
●
●
Scalable power capacity allows right-sizing of UPS to reduce capital outlay
Fully rated inverter (kVA = kW) provides more real power
Self-test and battery management decrease lifetime maintenance costs
Manageable external batteries reduces preventative maintenance service needs
by monitoring the health and status of the external batteries and their expected
runtime
● Power factor corrected input reduces upstream equipment costs
Unrivalled power density
●
●
250 kW of power protection in 3.3 m2 (including battery footprint)
500 kW of power protection in 5.7 m2 (including battery footprint)
Manageability
● Microprocessor-controlled user interface with 10.4" multicolour graphical display
and touch screen control (fig. 4.78)
● Audible alarms (and visible alarms on display)
● Emergency power off (EPO)
● Web-enabled remote monitoring (option)
Full Screen Menus
Easy to follow menus
provide step-by-step
start up, shut down and
system configuration
mitigating the risk of
error.
10” LCD Touch
Screen Display
Offers a clear
graphical / text based
overview of alarms,
status data,
instructional help that
minimize the risk of
operator errors
Summary Screens
Graphical Summary
screens provide clear
status information for
easier system
management
System Wide
Firmware
Updates
Diagnostic Screens
Quickly and Easily identify
component problems &
errors, reducing mean
time to repair
On-the-fly upgrades
via USB port on back
of display. Makes
firmware updates
easy and increases
system availability
TM
Fig 4.78. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
PX 250/500 user interface.
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.70
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs (cont.)
Diagram and functions
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs offer the following equipment and functions:
Standard
● Hot-scalable power modules
● Hot-scalable battery modules
● Hot-swappable built-in static bypass switch
● Main and backup intelligence modules
● Microprocessor-controlled user interface with
10.4" multicolour graphical display and touch
screen control
Optional
● Maintenance bypass cabinet with distribution
(MBwD)
● External battery cabinets
● Web-enabled remote monitoring
TM
Fig 4.79. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
PX modular diagram.
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.71
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs (cont.)
Electrical characteristics and communication
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.5 to +0.5)
250/500
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
1 power frame
Up to 250 (hot scalable with 25 kW modules in 1 power frame) or 225 with N+1 redundancy
2 power frames
Up to 500 (hot scalable with 25 kW modules in 2 power frames) or 475 witt N+1 redundancy
Parallel connection Up to 2000 with parallel connection of four 500 kW units
Input (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
3+N
(1)
Voltage
Normal AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V 3-phase
Tolerances: ± 15% for full performance
Bypass AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V
Tolerances: ± 10% (adjustable to ± 4 / 6 / 8 / 10%)
Frequency
Normal AC input
40-70Hz with 10Hz/sec slewrate
Bypass AC input
50 or 60 Hz ± 3 Hz
Tolerances (user selectable from ± 0.5% to ± 8% on front panel)
Power factor
>0.995 at 100% load
(2)
THDI
<5% at full load
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Output (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
3+N
Voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1% for 100% linear or non-linear load
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz ± 3% (user adjustable to ± 1%)
free running
50 or 60 Hz ± 0.1%
Power factor
0.5 leading to 0.5 lagging without any derating
(3)
THDU
linear load
< 2% for 100% linear load,
non-linear load
< 6% for 100% non-linear load according to IEC/EN62040-3
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Overload capacity
Normal operation
150% for 30 s, 125% for 10 min
Battery operation
125% for 30 s
Crest factor
Unlimited
Voltage transients during
± 5% for 0-100% or 100-0% load step
load step changes
Efficiency
At 50-100% load
Normal operation
≥96%
Battery operation
≥95%
Battery
Type
Sealed lead-acid
Service life
5-8 years
(5)
Backup time
Depends on load and number of battery modules installed (8 rows of 6 batteries per cabinet)
Communication
Standard
Microprocessor-controlled user interface with 10.4" multicolour graphical display and touch screen
control
Audible alarms (and visible alarms on display)
Emergency power off (EPO)
Battery runtime indicated on display
Options
Web-enabled remote monitoring
Relay interface board for dry contacts
(1) other voltages on request 208, 220, 480 V, 660 V…
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion - I for current)
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion - U for voltage)
(4) For runtimes for various loads and configurations, see http://www.apc.com/products/runtime_for_extendedruntime.cfm .
APC by Schneider Electric
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.72
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs (cont.)
Physical characteristics, environment and standards
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.5 to +0.5)
250/500
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
1 power frame
Up to 250 (hot scalable with 25 kW modules in 1 power frame) or 225 with N+1 redundancy
2 power frames
Up to 500 (hot scalable with 25 kW modules in 2 power frames) or 475 witt N+1 redundancy
Parallel connection Up to 2000 with parallel connection of four 500 kW units
Dimensions and weight of power frame
Height (mm)
2000
Width (mm)
600
Depth (mm)
1070
Dimensions and weight of battery cabinet (XR)
Height (mm)
2000
Width (mm)
600
Depth (mm)
1070
Weight fully loaded (kg)
1475
Dimensions of input/output cabinet
Height (mm)
2000
Depth (mm)
1070
Dimensions of MBwD cabinet
Height (mm)
2000
Depth (mm)
1070
Environment
Noise level (dBA)
54 dBA at 100% load, 45 dBA at 70% load
Maximum altitude without derating
 1000 m
Temperature range
Without battery
-30°C to 70°C
for storage
With battery
-15°C to 40°C
Temperature range
Inverter
0°C to 40°C
for operation
Battery
possible: 0 to 40°C (40°C for 8 hours, 35°C for 24 hours)
optimum: + 15°C to + 25°C (service life is reduced by half for every 10° above 25°C)
Standards
Construction and safety
IEC 62040-1 / IEC 60950 / EN 62040-1
Performance and topology
IEC 62040-3 / EN 62040-3
EMC
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2 level B / EN 55011 and EN 55022 level B / FCC part 15
Harmonics
IEC 61003-2 / IEC 61003-4
Design and manufacture
ISO14001 / ISO 9001
Certification and marking
TÜV / CE
APC by Schneider Electric
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.73
SymmetraTM PX 250/500 UPSs (cont.)
Currents and protection characteristics
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.5 to +0.5)
250/500
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
1 power frame
Up to 250 (hot scalable with 25 kW modules in 1 power frame) or 225 with N+1 redundancy
2 power frames
Up to 500 (hot scalable with 25 kW modules in 2 power frames) or 475 witt N+1 redundancy
Parallel connection Up to 2000 with parallel connection of four 500 kW units
Input and output currents
Currents and measurement conditions
●
N.B. These currents are measured for:
● full rated load for PF = 0.8;
● a rated Normal AC input voltage
of 400 V;
● battery float charging.
For rated Normal AC input voltages of
380 V and 415 V, multiply the indicated I1
and Iu values by 1.05 and 0.96
respectively.
I1 : input current on Normal AC input
●
Iu : load current
●
Ibmax. maximum battery current
Fig 4.80. Input and output currents.
Max. input current I1 (A) for 10 min. backup
time - batteries charging
(Given the high level of scalability of these products, please consult us for current values
corresponding to your installation)
Load current Iu (A)
Max. battery output current Ibmax (A)
APC by Schneider Electric
Edition - 05/2009
ch. 4 - p.74
SymmetraTM MW UPSs
Presentation
Ultra-high efficiency power protection for medium to large data
centers, buildings and facilities.
SymmetraTM MW
● 400 kW to 4000 kW
● Ultra-high efficiency for low TCO
● Modular design
● Fault tolerant
● Scalable power
● Parallel capable for capacity or
redundancy
● Robust platform design
● Universal battery support
● Network manageable
TM
Fig 4.81. Symmetra
MW
Applications
SymmetraTM MW offers 3-phase modular, scalable power protection with industry
leading efficiency, capacity and performance for:
● Medium to large data centers
● Buildings
● Facilities
Colour
●
Light grey
TM
Fig 4.82. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
MW applications
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.75
SymmetraTM MW UPSs
Main features
Modular design
●
Three sections: inverter section with 66.7 kW power modules in 200 kW frames,
control section and input.output section.
Control Section: LCD Touch-screen
Configurable touch-screen with network
interface offers easy access to all critical UPS
and ancillary equipment data.
High
Efficiency
Input/Output
Section
Spacious cable
section for ease
of installation.
Top or bottom,
left or right side
cable entry.
Up to 97%
efficiency at full
load provides
reduced heat
dissipation and
energy costs
Inverter Section
Control Section: Static Bypass Switch
Load-sharing 200 kW power modules
provide the flexibility to scale power
capacity and adds N+1 capability
The built-in static bypass switch (400 and 600kW
models) provides for safe transfer to an alternate
source without interrupting the supply to the load
TM
Fig 4.83. Symmetra
MW modular design.
Ultra-high efficiency
High efficiency means lower power cost per watt delivered to critical equipment. It
also means less heat rejection and lower cooling costs.
● > 97% efficiency at > 85% load
● > 96% efficiency at > 45% load
● > 94% efficiency at > 24% load
Line Voltage -15%
Line Voltage Nominal
-- Line Voltage +15%
TM
Fig 4.84. Symmetra
MW efficiency.
Scalable power capacity
●
Available power can be scaled to optimize loading or to allow expansion as
needed.
● Ratings can be scaled for redundancy or capacity
● Buy for the future, populate for current load
● Easy parallel connection of multiple units of mixed sizes
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.76
SymmetraTM MW UPSs
Fault tolerance and simplified maintenance
Modular inverters insure robust performance, easy maintenance, and rapid repairs
without jeopardizing the critical load.
● Power modules can be added or changed by one person
● Individual containment assures isolation of components.
● Standardized modular components simplify stocking spares.
Manageability
●
Advanced 10" touch screen LCD displays system status, power flow and
metering information
● Web/Network interface (Ethernet, SNMP)
● Audible and visual alarms prioritised by severity
● Self-diagnosing with surveillance of critical components
● Emergency power off (EPO)
● Connectivity with InfraStruXureTM Central monitoring system
InfraStruXureTM Central provides an efficient
way for organizations to monitor their companywide multi-vendor physical infrastructure: power,
cooling, security, and environment. Real-time
monitoring, user-defined reports and graphs, and
instant fault notification and escalation enable
quick assessment and resolution of critical
infrastucture events that can adversely affect IT
system availability. This centralized respository of
critical information can be accessed by multiple
users from anywhere on the network, creating a
consolidated view of the physical infrastructure.
Fig 4.85. InfraStruXure
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
Central monitoring system from APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.77
SymmetraTM MW UPSs
Diagram and functions
SymmetraTM MW UPSs offer the following equipment and functions:
Standard
● Inverter section with 66.7 kW power modules
in 200 kW frames
● Control section including static bypass
switch
● Input/output section
● Advanced 10" touch screen LCD displays
system status, power flow and metering
information
Web/Network interface (Ethernet, SNMP)
● Audible and visual alarms prioritised by
severity
● Self-diagnosing with surveillance of critical
components
● Emergency power off (EPO)
Matched to customer needs
● External battery cabinets
● Battery disconnect circuit-breaker cabinet
● Maintenance bypass cabinet
TM
Fig 4.86. Symmetra
APC by Schneider Electric
MW diagram.
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.78
SymmetraTM MW UPSs (cont.)
Electrical characteristics and communication
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.8 to +0.9)
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
1 power frame
Scalable from 400 to 1600 kW in 200 kW increments
Parallel connection Up to 4000 kW with parallel connection of multiple units
Input (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
4-wire 3-phase + PE
4-wire 3-phase + PEN
5-wire 3-phase + N + PE
(1)
Voltage
Normal AC input
380 / 400 / 415 / 3-phase
Tolerances: ± 15%
Bypass AC input
380 / 400 / 415 V
Tolerances: ± 10% (adjustable to ± 4 / 6 / 8 / 10%)
Frequency
Normal AC input
50 or 60 Hz (programmable ± 0.5 / 1/ 2 / 4 / 6 / 8%)
Bypass AC input
50 or 60 Hz
Power factor
~1
(2)
THDI
<5% at full load
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Output (rated values and tolerances where applicable)
Number of phases
4-wire 3-phase + PEN
5-wire 3-phase + N + PE
Voltage
380 / 400 / 415 V ± 1% for 100% balance linear load (± 3% for unbalanced linear load)
Frequency
AC power sync
50 or 60 Hz (programmable ± 0.5 / 1/ 2 / 4 / 6 / 8%)
free running
50 or 60 Hz ± 0.1%
Power factor
0.9 leading to 0.8 lagging without any derating
(3)
THDU
linear load
< 3% for 100% linear load,
non-linear load
< 5% for 100% non-linear load
Currents
See the "input and output currents" table below
Short-circuit capacity (without bypass)
100 kA (symmetrical amps)
Bypass short-circuit capacity
100 kA (symmetrical amps)
Overload capacity
200% for 60s, 125% for 10 min.
Crest factor
Unlimited
Voltage transients during
± 5% for 100% load step
± 3% for 50% load step
load step changes
Voltage and phase imbalance
± 1% for 100% balanced linear load, ± 1° for 50% current unbalance
± 3% for 100% unbalanced linear load, ± 3° for 100% current unbalance
Maximum frequency variation
± 0.5 to 8% (adjustable via display)
Efficiency
At 85 to100% load
Normal operation
≥97%
Battery operation
≥95%
Conditions for transfer to AC bypass
Acceptable difference in voltage
± 5% for operator requested transfers
Synchronisation frequency range
±0.1%
Battery
Type
No internal battery - uses external battery system
Service life
n/a
(4)
Backup time
Depends on load and type of external battery system used .
Communication
Standard
Advanced 10" touch screen LCD displays system status, power flow and metering information,
TM
supports InfraStruXure Central connectivity.
Web/Network interface (Ethernet, SNMP)
Audible and visual alarms prioritised by severity
Self-diagnosing with surveillance of critical components
Battery runtime indication on display
Emergency power off (EPO)
Options
(1) other voltages on request:
(2) THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion - I for current)
(3) THDU (Total Harmonic Distortion - U for voltage)
(4) For runtimes for various loads and configurations, contact your APC by Schneider Electric representative.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.79
SymmetraTM MW UPSs (cont.)
Physical characteristics, environment and standards
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.8 to +0.9)
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
1 power frame
Scalable from 400 to 1600 kW in 200 kW increments
Parallel connection Up to 4000 kW with parallel connection of multiple units
Dimensions and weight of inverter section
Height (mm)
2032
2032
2032
2032
2032
2032
Width (mm)
2111
1268
1690
2112
2x1268
1268+1690
Depth (mm)
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
Weight (kg)
2463
2430
3136
3990
4860
5566
Dimensions and weight of control section
Height (mm)
Combined
2032
2032
2032
2032
2032
Width (mm)
Combined
1268
1013
1013
2110
2110
Depth (mm)
Combined
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
Weight (kg)
Combined
938
610
610
1372
1372
Dimensions and weight of input/output section
Height (mm)
Combined
Combined
2032
2032
Combined
Combined
Width (mm)
Combined
Combined
1013
1013
Combined
Combined
Depth (mm)
Combined
Combined
1067
1067
Combined
Combined
Weight (kg)
Combined
Combined
480
480
Combined
Combined
Environment
Noise level (dBA)
<75 dBA
Degree of protection (as per IEC 60529)
IP 20
Maximum altitude without derating
 1000 m
Overload capacity
Normal operation
200% for 60 s, 125% for 10 min
Battery operation
150% for 30 s
Temperature range
Without battery
-15 to 40°C for extended storage; -50 to 55°C for short-time storage or transportation
for storage
With battery
-15°C to 40°C
Temperature range
Inverter
0 to 40°C (operating)
for operation
Battery
possible: 0 to 40°C (40°C for 8 hours, 35°C for 24 hours)
optimum: + 15°C to + 25°C (service life is reduced by half for every 10° above 25°C)
Standards
Construction and safety
IEC 60950 3rd. edition, EN50091-1-1, UL 1778 (CSA for Canada)
Performance and topology
IEC 62040-3 / EN 62040-3
EMC/EMI/RFI
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2 level B / EN 55011 and EN 55022 level B / FCC part 15
Harmonics
IEC 61003-2 / IEC 61003-4
Design and manufacture
ISO14001 / ISO 9001
Certification and marking
TÜV / CE, UL and Canadian UL
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
1600
2032
2x1690
1067
6272
2032
2110
1067
1372
Combined
Combined
Combined
Combined
ch. 4 - p.80
SymmetraTM MW UPSs (cont.)
Currents and protection characteristics
Power rating (kVA at PF = -0.8 to +0.9)
400
600
800
1000
(maximum rated apparent output power)
Active power (kW)
1 power frame
Scalable from 400 to 1600 kW in 200 kW increments
Parallel connection Up to 4000 kW with parallel connection of multiple units
Input and output currents
1200
1400
1600
● I1 : input current on Normal AC input
● Iu : load current
● Ibmax. maximum battery current
Max. input current I1 (A) for 10 min.
backup time - batteries charging, 10% of
UPS rating (optional 20% with UPS
derated 10%. i.e 1000kW ~ 900kW )
Load current Iu (A)
Max. battery output current Ibmax (A)
APC by Schneider Electric
Fig 4.87. Input and output currents.
679
1019
1358
738
577
638
1108
866
957
1477
1155
1277
05/2009 edition
1696
2108
2458
2809
1845
1443
1596
2293
1793
1917
2674
2091
1337
3055
2390
2556
ch. 4 - p.81
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioner
Presentation
The solution for harmonic disturbances of medium-power
infrastructure, commercial and industrial applications.
MGETM SineWaveTM
● 6 power ratings:
20 - 30 - 45 - 60 - 90 - 120 A
● Parallel connection of up to four units,
i.e. up to 480 A
● Real-time IGBT and DSP-based
harmonic compensation
● Three-phase for harmonic currents on
all three phases and the neutral
● Independent of the source
Fig. 4.88. MGE
TM
TM
SineWave .
Applications
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners eliminate upstream of their point of
installation the current harmonics caused by the downstream non-linear loads.
Digital design means the type of elimination may be selected:
 Overall elimination of all harmonic orders from H2 to H25.
 Selective elimination for specific orders.
They are also the means to limit the upstream voltage total harmonic distortion
THDU to a selected value (generally 5 to 8%), depending on what is acceptable for
sensitive equipment or for the public distribution systems.
MGETM SineWaveTM can be used in all types of distribution systems confronted with
harmonics, in view of:
 Solving problems in existing installations.
 Preventing problems in new installations.
MGETM SineWaveTM is compatible with all types of loads (e.g. single-phase computer
loads, three-phase variable speed drives or rectifiers, or a mix of single-phase and
three-phase loads). It is independent of the power source and effectively conditions
harmonics, even if the installation is subsequently modified. A number of
conditioners can be used at different points in the installation or parallel connected.
Colour
 Light grey RAL 9002.
For other colours, please consult us.
source
sinusoidal
source
current
I
+
IH
required
harmonic
currents
SineWave
SineWave
harmonic
currents
I + IH
measurement
of harmonic
currents
=
current
drawn
by loads
loads
The load current includes
harmonics that deform the
sinusoidal waveform of the
TM
source current. MGE
TM
SineWave , in real time:
● measures the various
harmonics using toroid
sensors,
● injects upstream of the load
the currents corresponding to
the harmonics (1).
These IH currents are added
to the source current to supply
the loads with the necessary
waveform.
The harmonics are supplied by
TM
TM
MGE SineWave and the
source current remains
sinusoidal.
(1) For each harmonic with an order k,
for which the rms current and phase, as
measured by the toroids, are Ik and φk,
SineWave injects a current waveform:
I = Ik 2 sin (2πkf t + φk)
Fig. 4.89. MGE
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
SineWave
TM
05/2009 edition
operating principle.
ch. 4 - p.82
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioner (cont.)
Main features
Overall or selective elimination of harmonic currents
MGETM SineWaveTM effectively reduces current harmonics (by a factor of 10 or 20)
over the entire harmonic spectrum from H2 to H25 or selected harmonic orders (user
set).
Improved cos 
MGETM SineWaveTM also improves:
 The displacement factor (cos ),
 The power factor ().
Easy integration throughout the installation
MGETM SineWaveTM can be set up very easily in all types of existing and new
installations due to a number of features.
 Compatibility with all types of loads. MGETM SineWaveTM automatically adapts
to different loads, whatever their harmonic spectrum.
 Independent from the power source. Operation does not depend on the source
and is therefore highly effective with different sources, including engine generator
sets.
 Easy to install. The system simply requires three-phase power (with or without a
neutral) and installation of the measurement sensor (split toroid) on the circuit
supplying the concerned load. Set-up with two current transformers, one on the
TM
TM
switchboard incomer and the other on the MGE SineWave incomer, facilitates
installation in switchboards with outgoers that are difficult to access.
 Small dimensions. Compact design means it can fit anywhere, even on existing
sites with little free space.
 Upgradeable. Parallel connection is possible to increase the conditioning capacity.
Exceptional operating dependability
MGETM SineWaveTM implements a conditioning technique termed "second
generation" that calls on the "in-the-field" experience gained by the first generation of
conditioners marketed by APC by Schneider Electric in 1994. The second generation
offers:
 IGBT technology with microprocessor control.
 A real-time digital micro-controller (DSP) for the harmonic currents.
Its design means it is totally protected from overloads. If the requested load current
exceeds its capacity, it simply continues to supply the rated amount of current.
User friendly
The easy human-machine interface (HMI) is seven languages can be used for:
 Help in system start-up and maintenance,
 Setting up the conditioning parameters (overall or selective),
 Easy operation (status conditions, measurements, alarms, orders).
TM
TM
MGE SineWave can also be fitted out with an optional JBus/RS485
communication interface.
Reduction in operating costs
MGETM SineWaveTM means substantial savings and a fast return on investment,
occasionally in less than two years. This is due to a number of factors.
 Reduction in energy bills. The elimination of harmonics and the improvement in
the cos  are the means, respectively, to reduce the kVA drawn and avoid fines from
power suppliers.
 Increase in the service life of the protected equipment. The reduction in the
rms current (due to the elimination of harmonics) contributes to extending the service
life of equipment by as much as 30%.
 Improved operating conditions and compliance with standards. By reducing
TM
TM
harmonic distortion on the upstream distribution system, MGE SineWave
eliminates the risks of malfunctions in sensitive applications connected to the same
source. It is also the means to comply with the contract conditions imposed by the
power supplier or by standards concerning harmonic current and voltage distortion
levels, thus avoiding fines.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.83
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioner (cont.)
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioners are small, compact units ready for
use. The measurement toroids must simply be placed on the circuit supplying the
load. MGETM SineWaveTM units offer the following equipment and functions.
Diagram and functions
Sinusoidal
source
current
Load current
containing
harmonics
IL
IF
Source
IH
Injection of
required
harmonics
Digital
measurement
for each order
Inverter
Regulation
and
monitoring
Non-linear
Load
Measurement
of harmonic
currents
Standard
● Microprocessor-controlled IGBT-based
system designed to supply harmonic currents
● Real-time digital micro-controller (DSP) for
the harmonic currents
● Toroid sensors (split)
● Diagnostics and maintenance system.
● Parallel connection of up to four units
● Alphanumeric display in seven languages
● Three operating LEDs
● Functions:
- overall harmonic conditioning from H2 to H25
- selective harmonic conditioning of one or
more harmonic orders
- improvement of the displacement factor
(cos )
- improvement of the power factor ()
- access to status conditions, measurements
and alarms
Optional
● A dry contact for remote indications.
● Remote display.
● RS485 JBus/Modbus communication
Active harmonic
conditioner
interface
Fig. 4.90. Simplified diagram.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.84
MGETM SineWaveTM active harmonic conditioner (cont.)
Characteristics
Rated current
20
30
45
60
90
120
Conditioning
capacity (A)
20
60
30
90
45
135
60
180
90
270
120
360
Voltage (source)
3 phases with or without neutral
(can operate with single-phase or unbalanced loads)
400 V -20% + 15% three-phase
(208 V, 220 V and 440 V on request)
50 or 60 Hz ± 8%
per phase (A)
(1)
in the neutral (A)
Electrical input characteristics
Number of phases
Frequency
Current transformers
CT upstream of the load
Technical characteristics
Conditioned harmonic currents
Harmonic attenuation
Displacement-factor correction (cos )
Displacement-factor correction ()
Response time
Overload
Inrush current
Losses (W)
Parallel connection
Communication
Standard
Optional
Dimensions, weight
Height (mm)
Width (mm)
Depth (mm)
Weight (kg)
Environment
Noise level (dBA) ISO 3746
Losses (W)
Degree of protection (as per IEC 529)
Storage temperature range
Operating temperature range
Maximum altitude without derating
Standards
Performance and topology
Safety
EMC
Emissions conducted, radiated
Immunity electrostatic discharges
radiated fields
low-energy pulses
surges
Design, manufacturing
(1)
(2)
Ratings of 300/1, 500/1, 600/1, 1000/1, 1500/1, 2000/1, 3000/1, 4000/1
Orders 2 to 25, total or selective conditioning (order by order)
(2)
THDI load / THDI system > 10 at rated capacity of the conditioner
Adjustable up to 0.94
Up to 1
40 ms
Limits to rated current, continuous operation while limiting is possible
< 2 x the rated peak current
1000
1300
2100
2600
4200
Up to four units
5200
Alphanumeric display in seven languages
3 indication LEDs for operation
3 dry contacts for remote indications
Remote display unit
RS485 JBus/ModBus card
680
540
280
65
780
590
325
110
< 55
< 55
< 60
1000
1300
2100
IP20
- 25°C to + 70°C dry heat
0 to 40°C daily average (< 25°C recommended)
 1000 metres
2 x 720 + 250
220
< 60
2600
< 65
4200
< 65
5200
IEC 62040-3 / EN 50091-3
IEC 60950 / EN 50091-1
IEC 61000-4-2 level 3 / EN 55011 class A
IEC 61000-4-2 level 3
IEC 61000-4-3 level 3
IEC 61000-4-4 level 3
IEC 61000-4-5 level 3
ISO14001 / ISO 9001
Maximum values for non-linear computer loads such as PCs.
THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion for current).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 - p.85
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switch
Presentation
High-availability redundant power
MGETM UpsilonTM STS
● 7 ratings: 30 - 60 - 100 - 160 - 250 400 - 630 A
● Power ratings from 20 to 1100 kVA
(at 400 V)
● 3 or 4 poles
● Automatic or manual transfer between
sources
● Static transfer technology
● Transfer with no transient crossconduction
● Maintenance bypass on each incomer
Fig. 4.91. MGE
TM
Upsilon
TM
STS.
Applications
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switches are the means to set up, secure and
optimise redundant power sources for data centers as well as for industrial and
commercial processes.
When combined with MGETM GalaxyTM 5000, 7000 or 9000 UPS units and
synchronisation modules, they constitute a redundant architecture (see fig. 4.92)
offering the exceptional reliability up to the six nines (99.9999%) required by certain
installations such as data centres.
Fig. 4.92. Example of a multi-source architecture with MGE
TM
Upsilon
TM
STS.
Colour
 Light grey RAL 9023. For other colours, please contact us.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 86
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switch (cont.)
Main features
Seamless static transfer
Using IGBT semiconductor technology, MGETM UpsilonTM STS transfers to the
second source in 5 milliseconds, i.e. two times faster than the requirements
stipulated by computer manufacturers (CBEMA requirements) and well within the
requirements of standard IEC 62040.
Permissible voltage limits (as a percentage of the rated voltage), depending on the number
of cycles (0.5 cycles corresponds to 10 ms) on a log scale.
TM
Fig. 4.93. CBEMA requirements and MGE
Upsilon
TM
STS operating curve.
Control over faults and installation safety
 Transfer with no transient cross-conduction
TM
TM
MGE Upsilon STS implements transfer with no transient cross-conduction. This
"no-overlap" technique ensures that the two sources are never connected in parallel
during the transfer, thus avoiding any risk of fault propagation between the sources.
 Individually controlled SCRs to avoid fault propagation
The MGETM UpsilonTM STS transfer system implements controlled SCRs and
monitors them continuously using a LEM current sensor to avoid any risk of fault
propagation. This system (see fig. 4.94) is the means to:
- Monitor status of each SCR.
- Know whether it is conducting or not.
- Detect faults (e.g. short-circuits).
- Determine the direction of current flow.
It is thus possible to control the SCRs and avoid exchange of current between the
two sources (and consequently any risk of fault propagation).
 Transfer disabled if a fault occurs on the SCRs of the active static-switch
Detection of a fault on the active static switch blocks transfer (see fig. 4.95).
- The load remains on the conducting SS and transfer is disabled.
- The opposite upstream switch is opened.
Fig. 4.94. Transfer with controlled SCRs.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 87
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switch (cont.)
Fig. 4.95. Conduction is maintained if a fault occurs on an SCR in the active SS.
Improved power availability
The availability of power in an installation depends essentially on:
 The availability of utility power;
 The autonomy and reliability of the sources (UPSs, engine-generator sets, etc.);
 The installation architecture and its level of redundancy.
MGETM UpsilonTM STS lies at the heart of redundant architectures and improves
availability through:
 Redundancy of sources of all types (UPSs, engine-generator sets,
transformers);
 Numerous supply channels for loads, in conjunction with PDU modules (see fig.
4.92). The probability of faults occurring simultaneously on all the supply channels is
virtually zero;
 Selection of the best source by monitoring eleven electrical parameters,
including voltage levels and phase displacement.
Simplified and secure maintenance
MGETM UpsilonTM STS makes for maintenance that is:
 Simplified: rapid servicing is possible without interrupting the loads by manually
transferring from one source to the other;
 Secure: a part of the installation can be totally isolated for servicing under deenergised conditions. It is also possible to carry out source operating tests using test
loads;
 Planned: maintenance by manufacturers on the various installation components
can be organised in advance.
All these factors enhance power availability by reducing the MTTR.
Reliability
MGETM UpsilonTM STS design includes:
 Redundancy of the essential functions:
- redundant power for the system control electronics;
- independent power supply for each board;
- double cooling system for the static switches (two heat sinks and two fans);
 Fault tolerance. This means that if an internal component fails, MGETM UpsilonTM
STS shifts to the operating mode (transfer initiated or blocked) that best ensures the
continuity of power to the load. An user alarm is issued.
Segmenting and possible upgrades of installation power
MGETM UpsilonTM STS is the means to segment the protected loads into zones that
can be isolated from the rest of the installation, thus making for easier operation.
This feature also makes it possible to increase installation power while continuing
normal operation of the loads.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 88
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switch (cont.)
Communication and easy operation
 The MGETM UpsilonTM STS communication interface is both user-friendly and
intuitive.
The names of the sources can be set by the user on the screen. An animated mimic
panel clearly displays the various status conditions of the sources and the loads. The
graphic, multi-lingual LCD display (16 languages: English, French, German, Dutch,
Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish, Finnish, Russian, Polish, Turkish, Greek,
Mandarin, Thai, Indonesian) provides easy, user-friendly access to the information
screens.
 MGETM UpsilonTM STS is equipped with the following standard equipment:
- 1 dry-contact communication card (6 relays 250 V, 2 A);
- 1 JBus/Modbus communication card (RS232 or RS285);
- 2 free slots for two additional cards.
Small footprint
MGETM UpsilonTM STS is available in two types of cabinets (high and low versions),
depending on the ratings, offering minimum footprints.
Footprint of 0.34 square metres (with
Footprint of 0.59 square metres.
clearances).
Upsilon STS 30 - 60 - 100 -160 - 250 A.
Upsilon STS 30 - 60 - 100 -160 - 250 - 400 - 630 A.
Fig. 4.96. Two cabinet sizes offering small footprints.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 89
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switch (cont.)
Diagram and functions
Components and functions in MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switches
Standard
● Two three-phase static switches
implementing IGBT technology
● Transfer with no transient cross-conduction
using controlled SCRs.
● Control electronics for:
- monitoring of all parameters (power sources,
loads, static switches)
- SCR control
● Three isolation switches
● Redundant power supplies
● Redundant cooling systems
● Triple detection system for overloads
(current, thermal, temperature)
● Oversized neutral conductor
● Mimic panel for control and indications
● Two communication cards:
- auxiliary relays
- RS232 or RS485 JBus/Modbus card
● Two available slots
● Functions:
- preferred source set by user
- automatic or manual transfer between
sources
- reverse transfers
- symmetrical operation
- continuous monitoring of sources
-selection of the best source based on user-set
parameters for transfer conditions
- access to measurements and alarms
Optional
● Two additional communication cards:
- relay card
- RS485 JBus/Modbus card
● PDU in the upper part of the cabinet
with 36 outgoing distribution circuit
breakers
Fig. 4.97. MGE
APC by Schneider Electric
TM
Upsilon
TM
05/2009 edition
STS operating diagram.
ch. 4 – p. 90
MGETM UpsilonTM STS static transfer switch (cont.)
MGETM UpsilonTM STS characteristics
Rated current (A)
30
60
Electrical input characteristics
Voltage (source)
Frequency
Number of phases
Type of connection
Max. upstream short-circuit power
Technical characteristics
Overload
Efficiency at In
Withstand capacity for non-linear loads
Transfer time
Losses (W) (standard RL load,
pf = 0.8, 100% rated load)
Configuration
Parameters
Communication
Standard
Optional
Dimensions, weights
Low cabinet
Height x width x depth (mm)
Weight (kg)
High cabinet
Height x width x depth (mm)
Weight (kg)
Environment
Noise level (dBA) as per ISO 3746
Degree of protection (as per IEC 529)
Air throughput (m3/h)
Storage temperature range
Operating temperature range
Altitude
Standards
Construction and safety
EMC
Harmonics
Design, manufacturing
Certification and marking
APC by Schneider Electric
100
160
250
400
630
380 V (± 35%) - 400 V - 415 V (± 20%), three phase
50 or 60 Hz ± 10%
3 phases interrupted (3-pole STS) or 3 ph + N interrupted (4-pole STS)
3 or 4 wires + earth
35 kA
105% continuous, 110% for 15 minutes, 120% for 10 minutes, 135% for 5 minutes, 150% for 2
minutes, 200% for 20 seconds, 600% for 1 second, 2000% for 20 milliseconds
 99%
Fc < 3.5
 5 ms
195
295
430
615
920
1420
2150
Phase displacement, overvoltage, undervoltage, overload, frequency, time for transfer back, powerbreak time
LCD graphic display (backlit, multi-lingual) with menu for access to transfers, alarms, measurements,
status conditions, history
Animated mimic panel with 13 LEDs and buzzer
1 dry-contact communication card
1 RS232 or RS485 JBus communication card
2 available slots
11 isolated, changeover dry contacts for remote control
RS485 JBus/Modbus link
6 remote controls
1400 x 610 x 560
193
no
211
1900 x 715 x 825
215
225
327
< 60
IP 215
350
1600
- 40° C to + 70° C dry heat
0 to 40° C continuous
≤ 1000 metres, derating required for higher altitudes
IEC 60950-1
IEC 62040-1
IEC 62040-3
EN 50091-2
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2
EMC directive 2004/108/EC
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2
IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4
IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
ISO 14001 / ISO 9001
TÜV / CE / LCIE
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 91
Source synchronisation module
Presentation
Source synchronisation upstream of an STS
Synchronisation module
● Synchronisation of two sources
upstream of an STS
● One of the sources must be
controllable (MGETM GalaxyTM PW,
5000 , 7000 , 9000).
Fig. 4.98. Synchronisation module.
Applications
A source synchronisation module maintains the voltages of two independent sources
in phase.
 At least one of the two sources must be controllable, i.e. it must be an APC by
Schneider Electric MGETM GalaxyTM PW, 5000, 7000 or 9000 UPS system (any type,
i.e. single-unit, integrated parallel configuration or parallel configuration with
centralised static switch cubicle)
 The second source may either be the utility, a UPS, a transformer or an enginegenerator set.
A source synchronisation module increases the availability of power downstream of
the STS (static transfer switch) units in that the synchronised upstream sources are
always available for transfer.
Configuration
The synchronisation modules are used in conjunction with a set of UPSs and STS
(static transfer switch) units to create high-availability configurations for internet
applications as well as industrial and commercial processes.
The modules ensure synchronisation of the output voltages for two or more
independent sources, generally made up of UPSs, whatever the operating
conditions, thus increasing the dependability of STS transfers.
Fig. 4.99. Example of a high-availability configuration with synchronisation modules.
Colour
 Light grey RAL 9002.
For other colours, please contact us.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 92
Source synchronisation module (cont.)
Suitable for different types of sources
Modules can ensure synchronisation of many different types of sources (UPSs from
other manufacturers, transformers, engine-generator sets, etc.) with a controllable
TM
TM
source (MGE Galaxy PW, 5000 , 7000 or 9000 UPS).
Main features
Dependable transfer of the STSs and reliable operation
Modules are very reliable, i.e. they can synchronise UPS voltages under all operating
conditions, thus increasing the dependability of STS transfers and, consequently, the
availability of power for loads.
Small size and easy installation
Their small size means that modules can be easily installed on a wall, near the UPS
units.
Components and functions in synchronisation modules
Components
Standard
● Synchronisation of two sources of which one
TM
TM
must be controllable (MGE Galaxy PW,
5000 , 7000 or 9000 UPS)
● LED display on the module providing
operating information
● Indication of module control provided on the
UPS
● Two selectable operating modes:
- "automatic source", preferable when both
sources are controllable
- "fixed source", when one of the sources
cannot be controlled or when more than two
sources must be synchronised
● Internal checks ensure high operating
reliability of modules
● Synchronisation goes to standby mode if an
internal fault occurs. An alarm is issued and
indicated on the display
● IP 215 enclosure with lockable door
Fig 4.100. Control panel.
Characteristics
Dimensions, weights
Height (mm)
Width (mm)
Depth (mm)
Weight (kg)
Environment
Degree of protection (as per IEC 529)
Storage temperature range
Operating temperature range
Altitude
Standards
Construction and safety
EMC
Harmonics
Design, manufacturing
Certification and marking
APC by Schneider Electric
500
400
200
IP 215
- 25° C to + 70° C dry heat
0 to 40° C continuous
 1000 metres, derating required for higher altitudes
IEC 60950-1
EN 50091-2
IEC 62040-2 / EN 62040-2
EMC directive 2004/108/EC
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
IEC 61000-3-2/ EN 61000-3-2
IEC 61000-3-4 EN 61000-3-4
IEC 61000-3-5 EN 61000-3-5
ISO 14001 / ISO 9001
TÜV / CE / LCIE
05/2009 edition
ch. 4 – p. 93
Chapter 5. Theoretical review
Contents
Supplying sensitive loads ..............................................5-2
Types of electrical disturbances ...........................................................5-2
Main disturbances in low-voltage electrical power................................5-3
UPSs.................................................................................5-4
The UPS solution .................................................................................5-4
UPS applications ..................................................................................5-5
Types of UPSs .................................................................5-7
Static or rotary UPS..............................................................................5-7
Types of static UPSs ............................................................................5-9
UPS components and operation....................................5-14
Components of a UPS..........................................................................5-14
Main characteristics of UPS components .............................................5-17
Summary diagram for main characteristics ..........................................5-22
UPS operating modes ..........................................................................5-23
UPS configurations...............................................................................5-24
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)............................5-26
Electromagnetic disturbances ..............................................................5-26
EMC standards and recommendations ................................................5-26
UPS standards.................................................................5-28
Scope and observance of standards ....................................................5-28
Main standards governing UPSs ..........................................................5-28
Energy storage ................................................................5-31
Possible technologies...........................................................................5-31
Batteries ...............................................................................................5-31
UPS / generator-set combination...................................5-35
Use of a generator................................................................................5-35
UPS / generator-set combination .........................................................5-35
Transient load conditions...............................................5-37
Review of inrush currents .....................................................................5-37
Harmonics........................................................................5-38
Harmonics ............................................................................................5-38
Characteristic harmonic values ............................................................5-40
Non-linear loads and PWM technology.........................5-43
Non-linear load performance of UPSs using PWM technology ............5-43
Comparison of different sources...........................................................5-46
Free-frequency chopping .....................................................................5-47
PFC rectifier.....................................................................5-49
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 1
Supplying sensitive loads
Types of electrical
disturbances
Power distribution systems, both public and private, theoretically supply electrical
equipment with a sinusoidal voltage of fixed amplitude and frequency (e.g. 400 volts
rms, 50 Hz, on low-voltage systems).
In real-life conditions however, utilities indicate the degree of fluctuation around the
rated values. Standard EN 50160 defines the normal fluctuations in the LV supply
voltage on European distribution systems as follows:
 Voltage +10% to -15% (average rms values over 10-minute intervals),
of which 95% must be in the +10% range each week.
 Frequency +4 to 6% over one year with 1% for 99.5% of the time (synchronous
connections in an interconnected system).
Practically speaking, however, in addition to the indicated fluctuations, the voltage
sine-wave is always distorted to some degree by various disturbances that occur on
the system.
 See White Paper WP 18 “The Seven Types of Power Problems”
See WP 18 
Origins of disturbances
Utility power
Utility power can be disturbed or even cut by the following phenomena:
 Atmospheric phenomena affecting overhead lines or buried cables:
- lightning which can produce a sudden voltage surge in the system,
- frost which can accumulate on overhead lines and cause them to break,
 Accidents:
- a branch falling on a line, which may produce a short-circuit or break the line,
- cutting of a cable, for example during trench digging or other construction work,
- a fault on the utility power system,
 Phase unbalance,
 Switching of protection or control devices in the utility power system, for load
shedding or maintenance purposes.
User equipment
Some equipment can disturb the utility power system, e.g.:
 Industrial equipment:
- motors, which can cause voltage drops due to inrush currents when starting,
- equipment such as arc furnaces and welding machines, which can cause voltage
drops and high-frequency interference,
 Power electronics equipment (switch-mode power supplies, variable speed drives,
electronic ballasts, etc.), which often cause harmonics,
 Building facilities such as lifts which provoke inrush currents or fluorescent lighting
which causes harmonics.
Types of disturbances
Disturbances that are due to the above causes are summed up in the following table,
according to the definitions contained in standards EN 50160 and ANSI 1100-1992.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 2
Supplying sensitive loads (cont.)
Disturbances
Power outages
Micro-outages
Outages
Voltage variations
Voltage sags
Overvoltage
Characteristics
Main causes
Main consequences
Total absence of voltage  10 ms.
Atmospheric conditions, switching,
faults, work on the utility.
Faulty operation and loss of data
(computer systems) or interrupted
production (continuous
processes).
Total absence of voltage for more
than one period:
- short outage:  3 minutes
(70% of outages last less than 1 s)
- long outage: > 3 minutes
Atmospheric conditions, switching,
faults, incidents, line breaks, work
on the utility.
Depending on the duration,
shutdown of machines and risks
for people (e.g. lifts), loss of data
(computer systems) or interrupted
production (continuous processes).
Reduction in the rms value of
voltage to less than 90% of the
rated value (but greater than 0%),
with return to a value greater than
90% within 10 ms to 1 minute.
Temporary increase to more than
10% over the rated voltage, for a
duration of 10 ms to a few
seconds.
Atmospheric phenomena, load
fluctuations, short-circuit on a
neighbouring circuit.
Shutdown of machines,
malfunctions, damage to
equipment and loss of data.
- Quality of utility generators and
transmission systems.
- Interaction between generators
and load fluctuations on the utility
power system.
- Switching on the utility power system.
- Stopping of high-power loads
(e.g. motors, capacitor banks).
Peak in consumption, when the
utility cannot meet demand and
must reduce its voltage to limit
power.
- For computer systems:
corruption of data, processing
errors, system shutdown, stress
on components.
- Temperature rise and premature
aging of equipment.
Undervoltage
Drop in voltage lasting from a few
minutes to days.
Voltage spike
Sudden, major jump in voltage
(e.g. 6 kV).
Close lightning strikes, static
discharges.
Processing errors, corruption of
data, system shutdown.
Damage to computers, electronic
boards.
Voltage unbalance
(in three-phase systems)
Condition where the rms value of
the phase voltages or the
unbalances between phases are
not equal.
- Induction furnaces.
- Unbalanced single-phase loads.
- Temperature rise.
- Disconnection of a phase.
Instability in the frequency.
Typically +5%, - 6% (average for
ten-second time intervals).
- Regulation of generators.
- Irregular operation of generators.
- Unstable frequency source.
Flicker in lighting systems due to a
drop in voltage and frequency
(< 35 Hz).
Welding machines, motors, arc
furnaces, X-ray machines, lasers,
capacitor banks.
These variations exceed the
tolerances of certain instruments
and computer hardware (often ±
1%) and can therefore result in the
loss or corruption of data.
Physiological disturbances.
Sudden, major and very short
jump in voltage.
Similar to a voltage spike.
Atmospheric phenomena
(lightning) and switching.
< 1 s
Amplitude < 1 to 2 kV at
frequencies of several tens of MHz.
> 1 s and  100 s
Peak value 8 to 10 times higher than
the rated value up to several MHz.
> 100 s
Peak value 5 to 6 times higher than
the rated value up to several
hundred MHz.
Distortion of the current and voltage
sine-waves due to the harmonic
currents drawn by non-linear loads.
The effect of harmonics above the
25th order is negligible.
Electromagnetic or electrostatic
conducted or radiated disturbances.
The goal is to ensure low emission
and high immunity levels.
Starting of small inductive loads,
repeated opening and closing of
low-voltage relays and contactors.
Faults (lightning) or high-voltage
switching transmitted to the lowvoltage by electromagnetic coupling.
Stopping of inductive loads or
high-voltage faults transmitted to
the low-voltage system by
electromagnetic coupling.
Electric machines with magnetic
cores (motors, off-load
transformers, etc.), switch-mode
power supplies, arc furnaces,
variable speed drives.
Switching of electronic components
(transistors, thyristors, diodes),
electrostatic discharges.
Frequency variations
Frequency fluctuations
Flicker
Other disturbances
HF transients
Short duration
Medium duration
Long duration
Harmonic distortion
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Shutdown of computer systems.
Corruption or loss of data.
Temperature rise.
Premature ageing of equipment.
Destruction of equipment,
accelerated aging, breakdown of
components or insulators.
Oversizing of equipment,
temperature rise, resonance
phenomena with capacitors,
destruction of equipment
(transformers).
Malfunctions of sensitive electronic
devices.
ch. 5 - p. 3
UPSs
The UPS solution
Modern economic activities are increasingly dependent on digital technologies which
are very sensitive to electrical disturbances.
As a result, many applications require a backed up supply of power to protect against
the risk of disturbances in utility power:
 Industrial processes and their control/monitoring systems - risks of production
losses,
 Airports and hospitals - risks for the safety of people,
 Information and communication technologies related to the internet - risks of
processing shutdowns with very high hourly downtime costs due to the interruption in
the exchange of vital data, required by global companies.
UPSs
A UPS (uninterruptible power system) is used to supply sensitive applications with
secure power.
A UPS is an electric device positioned between the utility and the sensitive loads that
supplies voltage offering:
 High quality: the output sine-wave is free of any and all disturbances in utility
power and within strict amplitude and frequency tolerances,
 High availability: the continuous supply of voltage, within the specified tolerances,
is ensured by a backup supply of power. The backup supply is generally a battery
that, if necessary, steps in without a break in the supply to replace utility power and
provide the backup time required by the application.
These characteristics make UPSs the ideal power supply for all sensitive
applications because they ensure power quality and availability, whatever the state
of utility power.
Components of a UPS
A UPS generally comprises the main components listed below.
Rectifier/charger
It draws utility power and produces a DC current to supply the inverter and charge or
recharge the battery.
Inverter
It completely regenerates a high-quality voltage output sine-wave:
 Free of all utility-power disturbances, notably micro-outages,
 Within tolerances compatible with the requirements of sensitive electronic devices
(e.g. tolerances in amplitude ± 0.5% and frequency ± 1%, compared to ± 10% and ±
5% in utility power systems, which correspond to improvement factors of 20 and 5,
respectively.
Note. The term inverter is sometimes used to designate a UPS, when in reality it is
only a part of the UPS.
Battery
The battery provides sufficient operating backup time (6 minutes to a number of
hours) by stepping in to replace utility power as needed.
Static bypass
The static bypass ensures no-break transfer of the load from the inverter to direct
utility power and back. No-break transfer is carried out by a device implementing
SCRs (sometimes called a static switch).
The static bypass makes it possible to continue supplying the load even if an internal
fault occurs or during maintenance on the rectifier/charger and inverter modules. It
can also serve for transfers to call on the full power available upstream in the event
of overloads (e.g. short circuits) exceeding UPS capacity.
During operation on the static bypass, the load is supplied directly by utility power
and is no longer protected (operation in downgraded mode).
Maintenance bypass
This bypass may be used to supply the load directly with utility power, without calling
on the inverter or the static switch. Transfer to the maintenance bypass is user
initiated with switches. By actuating the necessary switches, it is the means to isolate
the static bypass and the inverter for maintenance, while continuing to supply the
load in downgraded mode.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 4
UPSs (cont.)
HV system
HV/LV
transformer
Normal utility power
(disturbances and
system tolerances)
UPS
Non-sensitive loads
Rectifier/
charger
Battery
Inverter
Maintenance
bypass
Static
bypass
Reliable power
(no disturbances, within
strict tolerances
and available due to
battery backup power)
Sensitive loads
Fig. 5.1. The UPS solution.
UPS applications
APC by Schneider Electric
UPSs are used for a wide range of applications requiring electrical power that is
available at all times and not affected by disturbances on the utility power system.
The table below presents a number of applications.
For each, it indicates the sensitivity of the application to disturbances and the type of
UPS that is suitable for protection.
The applications requiring this type of installation are:
 Computer systems,
 Telecommunications,
 Industry and instruments,
 Other applications.
The required UPS typologies are presented on page 9, "Types of static UPSs".
They include static UPSs implementing the following typologies:
 Passive standby,
 Interaction with the distribution system,
 Double conversion.
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 5
UPSs (cont.)
UPS applications
Application
Computer systems
Data centres
Company networks
Small networks and
servers
Stand-alone computers
Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Protected devices
Protection required against
MicroOutages
Voltage
outages
variations
Frequency Other
variations
- Large bays for rack-mounted servers
- Internet data centres
- Sets of computers with terminals and
peripheral devices (tape storage units,
disk drives, etc.)
- Networks made up of PCs or
workstations, server networks (WAN,
LAN)
- PCs, workstations
- Peripheral devices: printers, plotters,
voice mail
*****
*****
*****
*****
*****
Double conversion
*****
*****
*****
*****
*****
Double conversion
****
****
***
***
**
Interaction with the
distribution system
**
**
*
*
**
Passive standby
- Digital PABXs
*****
*****
*****
*****
*****
Double conversion
***
*****
***
***
****
Double conversion
****
*****
****
****
***
Double conversion
***
****
***
***
***
Double conversion
**
****
***
***
**
Double conversion
Interaction with the
distribution system
****
****
****
*****
***
Double conversion
Industry and instruments
Industrial processes
- Process control
- PLCs
- Numerical control systems
- Control systems
- Robot control/monitoring systems
- Automatic machines
Medical and laboratories - Instrumentation
- Scanners (60 Hz)
Industrial equipment
- Machine-tools
- Welding robots
- Plastic-injection presses
- Precise regulation devices (textile,
paper, etc.)
- Heating equipment for manufacture of
semi-conductors, glass, pure materials
Lighting systems
- Public buildings (elevators, safety
equipment)
- Tunnels
- Runway lighting in airports
Other applications
Special frequencies
- Frequency conversion
- Power supplies for aircraft (400 Hz)
*
low sensitivity to disturbances.
*****
high sensitivity to disturbances.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
UPS type
(see p. 8)
ch. 5 - p. 6
Types of UPSs
Static or rotary UPS
See WP 92 
Static or rotary UPS solutions
There are two main types of UPSs (figure 5.2 and details in  White Paper WP 92 "Comparison of Static and Rotary UPS") which basically differ in the way the UPS
inverter function is implemented.
Static solution
These UPSs use only electronic components to perform the inverter function. A
"static-inverter function" is obtained.
Rotary solution
These UPSs use rotary machines to perform the inverter function.
A "rotary-inverter function" is obtained.
These UPSs in fact combine a motor and a generator with a highly simplified static
inverter.
The inverter filters out utility-power disturbances and regulates only the frequency of
its output voltage (generally in "square-wave" form) which supplies a regulated
motor/generator set that is sometimes combined with a flywheel.
The motor/generator set generates an output voltage sine-wave, taking the inverter
output frequency as the reference.
Fig. 5.2. Static and rotary UPSs.
Comparison
Rotary solution
The arguments often put forward in favour of this solution are as follows:
 High generator short-circuit current on the order of 10 In (ten times the rated
current) that makes setting of protection devices easier,
 150% overload capacity (of the rated current) over a longer period (two minutes
instead of one),
 Downstream installation galvanically isolated from upstream AC source due to the
motor/generator set,
 Internal impedance providing high tolerance to the non-linear loads frequently
encountered with the switch-mode power supplies used by computer systems.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 7
Types of UPSs (cont.)
Static solution
Compared to the advantages of rotary solutions
The static UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric offer the advantages listed below.
 Operation in current-limiting mode (e.g. up to 2.33 In for MGE Galaxy 5000) with
discrimination ensured for circuits rated up to In/2.
These features, which are more than sufficient in practice, prevent the disadvantages
of rotary systems:
- overheating of cables,
- the effects of an excessive short-circuit current and the corresponding voltage drop
on sensitive devices, during the time taken by protective devices to clear the fault.
 150% overload capacity (of the rated current) for one minute.
The two-minute overload capacity is of no practical use because most overloads are
very short (less than one second, e.g. in-rush currents of motors, transformers and
power electronics).
 Galvanic isolation, when required, by means of an isolating transformer.
 Double-conversion operation which completely isolates the load from utility power
and regenerates the output voltage with precise regulation of the voltage amplitude
and the frequency.
 Very low internal impedance for higher performance with non-linear loads due to
the use of power-transistor technologies.
Other advantages
 Static solutions provide many other advantages as well, due to power-transistor
technology combined with a PWM chopping technique.
 Simplified overall design, with a reduction in the number of parts and connections,
and in the number of possible causes of failure.
 Capacity to react instantaneously to utility-power amplitude and frequency
fluctuations by means of microprocessor-controlled switching regulation based on
digital sampling techniques. The voltage amplitude returns to regulated conditions (±
0.5% or ± 1% depending on the model) in less than 10 milliseconds for load step
changes up to 100%. Within the indicated time interval, such a load step change
produces a load voltage variation of less than for example ± 2% for MGE Galaxy PW
and Galaxy 5000.
 High, constant efficiency whatever the percent load, which is a major advantage
for redundant UPS units with low percent loads. A static UPS unit with a 50% load
maintains high efficiency (94%), whereas the efficiency of a rotary UPS drops to the
88-90% range (typical value), which directly impacts on operating costs.
 Redundant configurations providing high availability in the framework of ultrareliable supply systems (e.g. for data centres).
 Possible integration in redundant architectures with separate functions that
facilitate maintenance by isolating parts of the installation.
Rotary systems integrate the UPS, the backup power and the generator as a single
component, thus making it impossible to separate the functions.
 No single points of failure. Rotary systems incorporating flywheels depend on the
capacity of the motor to start quickly (typically in less than 12 seconds). This means
the motor must be in perfect condition and rigorously maintained. If it does not start,
there is no time to shut down the critical loads in an orderly manner.
 Consider also the following non-negligible advantages:
 reduced dimensions and weight,
 no wear on rotating parts, hence easier and faster maintenance. For example,
rotary systems require checks on the alignment of the rotating parts and the
replacement of the bearings after 2 to 6 years is a major operation (lifting equipment,
heating and cooling of the bearings during the replacement).
Conclusion
Given the advantages presented above, static UPSs are used in the vast majority of
cases, and for high-power applications in particular.
 In the following pages, the term uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is taken to
mean the static solution.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 8
Types of UPSs (cont.)
Types of static UPSs
Standards
UPSs
Due to the vast increase in the number of sensitive loads, the term "UPS" now
includes devices ranging from a few hundred VA for desktop computers up to several
MVA for data centres and telecommunications sites.
At the same time, different typologies have been developed and the names used for
the products on the market are not always clear (or even misleading) for end users.
That is why the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) established
standards governing the types of UPSs and the techniques used to measure their
performance levels, and those criteria were adopted by Cenelec (European
standardisation commission).
Standard IEC 62040-3 and its European equivalent EN 62040-3 define three
standard types (topologies) of UPS and their performance levels.
UPS technologies include:
● Passive standby,
● Line interactive,
● Double conversion.
AC input power
These definitions concern UPS operation with respect to the power source including
the distribution system upstream of the UPS.
The standards define the following terms:
 Primary power: power normally continuously available which is usually supplied
by an electrical utility company, but sometimes by the user's own generation,
 Standby power: power intended to replace the primary power in the event of
primary-power failure,
Practically speaking, a UPS has one or two inputs:
 Normal AC input (or Mains 1), supplied by primary power,
 Bypass AC input (or Mains 2), supplied by standby power (generally speaking via
a separate cable from the same main low-voltage switchboard (MLVS).
UPS operating in passive-standby mode
 The UPS is installed in parallel to the utility and backs it up. The battery is
charged by a charger that is separate from the inverter.
Operating principle
 Normal mode
- The inverter operates in passive standby mode.
- The load is supplied by utility power via a filter which eliminates certain
disturbances and provides some degree of voltage regulation.
- The standards do not mention this filter and speak simply of a "UPS switch". They
also indicate that "additional devices may be incorporated to provide power
conditioning, e.g. ferroresonant transformer or automatic tap-changing transformer".
 Battery backup mode
- When the AC input voltage is outside specified tolerances for the UPS or the utility
power fails, the inverter and the battery step in to ensure a continuous supply of
power to the load following a very short transfer time (generally less than 10 ms).
The standards do not stipulate a time, but do indicate that "the load [is] transferred to
the inverter directly or via the UPS switch (which may be electronic or
electromechanical)".
- The UPS continues to operate on battery power until the end of battery backup time
or utility power returns to normal, which provokes transfer of the load back to the AC
input (normal mode).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 9
Types of UPSs (cont.)
Fig. 5.3. UPS operating in passive-standby mode.
Advantages
 Simple diagram.
 Reduced cost.
Disadvantages
 No real isolation of the load with respect to the upstream distribution system.
 Transfer time. It operates without a real static switch, so a certain time is required
to transfer the load to the inverter. This time is acceptable for certain individual
applications, but incompatible with the performance required by more sophisticated,
sensitive systems (large computer centres, telephone exchanges, etc.).
 No regulation of the output frequency, which is simply that of the utility power.
Usage
This configuration is in fact a compromise between an acceptable level of protection
against disturbances and cost.
The mentioned disadvantages mean that, practically speaking, this type of UPS can
be used only for low power ratings (< 2 kVA) and cannot be used as a frequency
converter.
UPS operating in line-interactive mode
 The inverter is connected in parallel with the AC input in a standby
configuration, and also charges the battery. It thus interacts (reversible operation)
with the AC-input source.
Operating principle
 Normal mode
The load is supplied with conditioned power via a parallel connection of the AC input
and the inverter. As long as the utility power is within tolerances, the inverter
regulates fluctuations in the input voltage. Otherwise (reversible operation), it
charges the battery. The output frequency depends on the AC-input frequency.
 Battery backup mode
- When the AC input voltage is outside specified tolerances for the UPS or the utility
power fails, the inverter and the battery step in to ensure a continuous supply of
power to the load. The power switch (e.g. static switch) also disconnects the AC
input to prevent power from the inverter from flowing upstream.
- The UPS continues to operate on battery power until the end of battery backup time
or utility power returns to normal, which provokes transfer of the load back to the AC
input (normal mode).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 10
Types of UPSs (cont.)
 Bypass mode
This type of UPS may be equipped with a bypass. If one of the UPS functions fails,
the load can be transferred to the bypass AC input via the maintenance bypass.
Fig. 5.4. UPS operating in line-interactive mode.
Advantages
 The cost can be less than that for a double-conversion UPS with an equivalent
power rating because the inverter does not operate continuously.
Disadvantages
 No real isolation of the load with respect to the upstream distribution system, thus:
- sensitivity to variations in the utility voltage and frequent demands placed on the
inverter,
- influence of downstream non-linear loads on the upstream input voltage.
 No regulation of the output frequency, which is simply that of the utility power.
 Mediocre conditioning of the output voltage because the inverter is not installed in
series with the AC input. The standard speaks of "conditioned power" given the
parallel connection of the AC input and the inverter. Conditioning is, however, limited
by the sensitivity to upstream and downstream voltage fluctuations and the reversible
operating mode of the inverter.
 Efficiency depends on:
- the type of load. With non-linear loads, the current drawn comprises harmonics that
alter the fundamental. The harmonic currents are supplied by the reversible inverter
which regulates the voltage and efficiency is sharply reduced.
- the percent load. The power required to charge the battery becomes increasingly
significant as the percent load decreases.
 A single point of failure exists due to the absence of a static bypass, i.e. if a
malfunction occurs, the UPS shuts down.
Usage
This configuration is not well suited to regulation of sensitive loads in the medium to
high-power range because frequency regulation is not possible. For this reason, it
is rarely used other than for low power ratings.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 11
Types of UPSs (cont.)
Double-conversion UPSs
 The inverter is connected in series between the AC input and the application.
The power supplied to the load continuously flows through the inverter.
Operating principle
 Normal mode
During normal operation, all the power supplied to the load passes through the
rectifier/charger and inverter which together perform a double conversion (AC-DCAC), hence the name. The voltage is continuously regenerated and regulated.
 Battery backup mode
- When the AC-input voltage is outside specified tolerances for the UPS or the utility
power fails, the inverter and the battery step in to ensure a continuous supply of
power to the load.
- The UPS continues to operate on battery power until the end of battery backup time
or utility power returns to normal, which provokes transfer of the load back to the AC
input (normal mode).
 Bypass mode
This type of UPS comprises a static bypass (sometimes called a static switch) that
ensures no-break transfer of the load from the inverter to direct utility power and
back.
The load is transferred to the static bypass in the event of the following:
- UPS failure,
- load-current transients (inrush or fault currents),
- overloads,
- end of battery backup time.
The presence of a static bypass assumes that the input and output frequencies are
identical, which means it cannot be used as a frequency converter. If the voltage
levels are not the same, a bypass transformer is required.
The UPS is synchronised with the bypass AC input to ensure no-break transfers from
the inverter to the bypass line.
Note. Another bypass line, often called the maintenance bypass, is available for
maintenance purposes. It is closed by a manual switch.
Fig. 5.5. Double-conversion UPSs.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 12
Types of UPSs (cont.)
Advantages
 Complete regeneration of the output power, whether it comes from the utility or the
battery.
 Total isolation of the load from the distribution system and its disturbances.
 Very wide input-voltage range, yet precise regulation of the output voltage.
 Independence of the input and output frequencies, thus ensuring an output
frequency within strict tolerances. Capacity to operate as a frequency converter (if
planned as such), by disabling the static switch.
 Much higher performance levels under steady-state and transient conditions.
 Instantaneous shift to battery backup mode if utility power fails.
 No-break transfer to a bypass line (bypass mode).
 Manual bypass (generally standard) to facilitate maintenance.
Disadvantages
 Higher price, but compensated by the many advantages.
Usage
This configuration is the most complete in terms of load protection, regulation
possibilities and performance levels. It notably ensures independence of the output
voltage and frequency with respect to the input voltage and frequency.
Its many advantages mean that it is virtually the only configuration used for
medium and high power ratings (from 10 kVA upwards).
Conclusion
Double-conversion UPSs represent the vast majority of the medium to highpower systems sold (95% starting from a few kVA and 98% for 10 kVA and higher).
This is due to their numerous strong points in meeting the needs of sensitive loads
at these power ratings and is largely the result of the inverter positioned in series
with the AC input.
What is more, they have very few weak points except their high cost that is
required to offer a level of performance that is often indispensable given the critical
nature of the protected loads. A further weak point is slightly higher losses (a few
percent).
In the power ranges under consideration, the other technologies are marginal, in
spite of a significantly lower cost.
They have the disadvantages listed below.
 No voltage regulation for passive-standby UPSs.
 No frequency regulation for passive-standby UPSs and line-interactive UPSs.
 Mediocre isolation (often a surge arrestor) from the AC input due to the parallel
configuration of the inverter.
Conclusion
 For low power ratings (< 2 kVA), the three standardised technologies
coexist.
It is the cost effectiveness of the protection functions with respect to the
requirements of the loads and the risks run (for people, production, etc.) that
determines selection of one of the three typologies.
 Double-conversion UPSs are used almost exclusively for higher ratings.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 13
UPS components and operation
Components of a UPS
The information presented below concerns double-conversion UPSs, the
technology most commonly used by APC by Schneider Electric for power ratings
greater than 10 kVA.
General diagram of a UPS
The various items in the diagram below have been assigned numbers that
correspond to the sections on the following pages.
Fig. 5.6. Components of a UPS.
Power sources and UPS inputs
Practically speaking, a UPS has one or two inputs:
 Normal AC input (or Mains 1), supplied by primary power,
 Bypass AC input (or Mains 2), supplied by standby power (generally speaking via
a separate cable from the same main low-voltage switchboard (MLVS).
 AC sources, see Ch. 5 p. 9.
UPS connection to both the primary and standby-power sources (UPS inputs
supplied by two separate circuits from the MLVS) is recommended because overall
system reliability is increased. However, if two separate circuits from the MLVS are
not available, it is possible to have both AC inputs (normal and bypass) supplied by
primary power (second cable).
Management of transfers between the two input lines is organised as follows.
 The UPS synchronises the inverter output voltage with that of the bypass line as
long as the latter is within tolerances. It is thus possible, if necessary, for the static
switch to transfer the load to the bypass AC input, without a break (because the two
voltages are synchronised and in phase) or disturbances (because the standby
power is within tolerances) for the load.
 When standby power is not within tolerances, the inverter desynchronises and
transfer is disabled. It can, however, by carried out manually.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 14
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Components of a UPS
Rectifier/charger (1)
Transforms the AC power from the primary-power source into DC voltage and
current used to:
 Supply the inverter,
 Charge and float charge the battery.
Inverter (2)
Using the DC power supplied by the:
 Rectifier during normal operation,
 Battery during autonomous operation,
the inverter completely regenerates a sinusoidal output signal, within strict amplitude
and frequency tolerances.
Battery (3)
Makes the UPS autonomous with respect to the utility in the event of:
 A utility outage,
 Utility-power characteristics outside specified tolerances for the UPS.
Battery backup times range from 6 to 30 minutes as standard and can be extended
on request. Depending on the duration of the backup time, the battery is housed in
the UPS cabinet or in a separate cabinet.
Static bypass (4)
A static switch is used to transfer the load from the inverter to the bypass without any
interruption* in the supply of power to the load (no break because the transfer is
performed by electronic rather than mechanical components). The switch is possible
when the frequencies upstream and downstream of the UPS are identical.
Transfer takes place automatically for any of the following reasons:
 Voluntary shutdown of the UPS,
 An overload exceeding the limiting capacity of the inverter (this transfer can be
disabled),
 An internal fault.
It can also be carried out manually.
* No-break transfer is possible when the voltages at the inverter output and on the bypass AC
input are synchronised. The UPS maintains synchronisation as long as the standby power is
within tolerances.
Manual bypass (5)
A manual switch is used to transfer the load to the bypass for maintenance
purposes. The switch is possible when the frequencies upstream and downstream of
the UPS are identical.
The shift to manual-bypass mode is carried out using manual switches.
Manual switches (6, 7, 8)
These devices isolate the rectifier/charger and inverter modules and/or the bypass
line for servicing or maintenance.
Battery circuit breaker (9)
The battery circuit breaker protects the battery against excessive discharge, and the
rectifier/charger and inverter against a battery short-circuit.
Upstream isolating transformer (10)
(optional equipment)
Provides UPS input/output isolation when the downstream installation is supplied via
the bypass.
It is particularly useful when the upstream and downstream system earthing
arrangements are different. May be installed in the UPS cabinet in the MGE Galaxy
PW range.
Voltage-matching transformer (11)
(optional equipment)
Adapts the voltage to the desired value.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 15
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Filters (12)
(optional equipment)
 Upstream of the rectifier/charger, when it is of the thyristor-based Graetz bridge
type (the case for MGE Galaxy PW and 9000 UPSs), a harmonic filter (see ch. 1 p.
24) reduces the current harmonics resulting from the switching of the rectifier
thyristors. This reduces the voltage distortion on the upstream busbars resulting from
the flow of harmonic currents (the level required is generally <5%). What is more,
these UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric are equipped with an oversized neutral
conductor installed as standard to overcome the consequences of third-order
harmonics and their multiples which flow in the neutral conductor.
 All the other UPSs of the MGE Galaxy and Symmetra ranges are equipped with a
PFC-type rectifier that eliminates the need for a filter (see ch. 1 p. 24).
 Downstream, UPSs implementing new PWM-chopping techniques may be directly
connected to non-linear loads. This technique makes it possible for UPSs from APC
by Schneider Electric to maintain the THDU below 3%.
Built-in communication (13) (14)
In addition to the need for a user-friendly human/machine interface for effective
monitoring of UPS operation, it is today increasingly important for UPSs to
communicate with their electrical and computing environment (supervision systems,
building management systems (BMS), computer management systems, etc.).
UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric are designed with built-in capacity for total
communication and include:
 A user-friendly human/machine interface (HMI) with an advanced graphic display
and mimic panel. The interface is built up around self-monitoring and self-diagnostic
systems that continuously indicate the status of the various UPS components, in
particular the batteries.
For example, for the MGE Galaxy ranges:
- the Digibat system continuously monitors the status of the battery with full battery
management features,
- the B2000 or Cellwatch battery-monitoring system immediately detects and locates
battery faults and provides predictive monitoring.
For the Symmetra ranges:
- The rack-mountable (1U) APC battery management system, accessible via a web
browser, combines battery monitoring and testing with individual boost charging for
peak battery performance.
 A large selection of communication cards compatible with market standards:
- Network Management Card (Ethernet)
- Modbus – Jbus card (RS232 & RS485)
- Relay card (dry contacts) for indications
- Teleservice modem card
These cards can be used to implement supervision, notification, controlled shutdown
and Teleservice functions.
 Human-machine interface and Communication: see Ch. 1 p. 49.
Upstream and/or downstream distribution and protection devices (15) (16)
(optional equipment)
The UPS can be supplied with the following equipment:
 Upstream LV circuit-breakers for the AC inputs (normal and bypass),
 Upstream LV switchboard with circuit-breaker protection for the AC inputs (normal
and bypass),
 Downstream LV switchboard with circuit-breaker protection for the different
outgoing circuits.
APC by Schneider Electric can offer a selection of UPSs and protection devices that
are perfectly coordinated in terms of ratings and performance.
Complete solutions
APC by Schneider Electric can provide complete solutions comprising all the
components listed above, including air-conditioning solutions for data centers, in
conjunction with Schneider Electric. For users, the result is a single partner and an
installation that offers optimum performance and reliability.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 16
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Main characteristics of UPS
components
These characteristics are based on the main technical specifications presented in the
IEC 62040-3 / EN 62040-3 standards on UPS performance requirements.
Certain terms used here differ from the common jargon and a number of new
features have not yet been assimilated by manufacturers. New terms or
characteristics used by the standard are indicated between parentheses and
preceded by an asterisk.
For example, the title of a section "input current during battery float charging", a
commonly used term, is followed by (*rated input current), the term used in the
standard.
Note that a number of numerical values are indicated as examples.
They are, for the most part, drawn from the technical characteristics of the
corresponding UPSs, indicated in chapter 4, or indicated simply for the purposes of
the example.
AC input power
Number of phases and system earthing arrangement
The AC-input supply (primary power) is three-phase + neutral. Single-phase inputs
are not used for the power levels dealt with here.
The system earthing arrangement is generally imposed by standards (IT, TT, TNS or
TNC).
Normal AC input
The normal AC input is supplied with utility power for the rectifier/charger, within the
specified tolerances.
 Example: 400 V rms ± 15% at a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz ± 5%, three-phase.
Bypass AC input
The bypass AC input is supplied with standby power. Practically speaking, this a
cable connected to a utility feeder in the MLVS other than the one supplying the
normal AC input.
In general, it supplies voltage with the same characteristics as that of the primary
power.
 Example: 400 V rms ± 15% at a frequency of 50 or 60 Hz ± 5%, and a short-circuit
current Isc2 = 12.5 kA. The short-circuit current is important information for the
downstream protection devices in the event of operation via the static or
maintenance bypass.
Supply of separate primary and standby power is recommended because it
increases overall system reliability, but is not mandatory. However, if two separate
circuits from the MLVS are not available, it is possible to have both AC inputs
(normal and bypass) supplied by primary power (second cable).
Rectifier/charger
Floating voltage
This is the voltage supplied by the rectifier/charger which keeps the battery fully
charged.
It depends on the batteries used and the manufacturer's recommendations.
Input current during battery float charging (* rated input current)
This is the current, under normal operating conditions, required to supply the inverter
at its rated power while float charging the battery.
 Example: for a 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW with a battery backup time of 10
minutes, this current is I input float = 166 A while float charging the battery.
Input current during battery charging
This corresponds to the current required to supply the inverter at its rated power
while charging the battery. It is consequently higher than the previous current and is
used to size the charger input cables.
 Example: for the same UPS as above, the input current is I input float = 182 A, i.e.
higher than above because it is necessary to charge the battery.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 17
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Maximum input current
This is the input current with the UPS operating under worst-case conditions of
permitted overload, with the battery discharged. It is higher than the above input
current during battery charging (due to the overload current) but is limited in time (as
is the overload).
 Example: for the same UPS as above, the MGE Galaxy PW can accept a 25%
overload for ten minutes and a 50% overload for one minute. In the worst-case
situation with the battery charging, the input current can reach:
I input max. = 182 A x 1.25 = 227.5 A for ten minutes,
I input max. = 182 A x 1.5 = 273 A for one minute.
Beyond the above limits, the UPS initiates no-break transfer of the load to the bypass
line and automatically transfers back when the overload has ended or been cleared
by the corresponding protection devices.
Battery (* energy storage means)
Type
A battery is characterised by its type (vented or sealed lead acid, or nickel/cadmium)
and how it is installed. APC by Schneider Electric proposes sealed lead-acid
batteries mounted in cabinets.
Service life
This is defined as the operating period, under normal usage conditions, for which the
battery supplies at least 50% of the initial backup time.
 For example, MGE Galaxy PW is supplied as standard with sealed lead-acid
batteries with a service life of ten years or more. This type of battery, rated for 30
minutes of backup time, will contractually supply only 15 minutes at the end of the
specified service life.
It may supply more if it has been used under optimum conditions (notably concerning
the temperature). However, it is contractually guaranteed not to supply less, unless
used improperly.
Operating modes
The battery may be:
 Charging. It draws a charge current (I1 charge) supplied by the rectifier/charger.
 Float charging. The battery draws a low, so-called floating current (I1 floating),
supplied by the rectifier/charger, which maintains its charge by compensating for
open-circuit losses.
 Discharging. The battery supplies the inverter until its shutdown voltage is
reached.
When this voltage, set by the battery manufacturer, is reached, the battery is
automatically disconnected (UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric) to avoid damage
by deep discharge.
Rated voltage
This is the DC output voltage that the battery supplies to the inverter.
 Example: 450 V DC for the MGE Galaxy PW range.
Capacity
Battery capacity is expressed in ampere/hours.
 Example: for a 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW equipped with a battery offering ten
minutes of backup time and a service life of five years, the capacity is 85 A/h.
Number of cells
Number of single battery cells making up the entire battery string.
 Example: the battery of a 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW comprises, for a given type of
battery, 33 cells providing 13.6 V each, for a backup time of ten minutes.
Floating voltage
This is the DC voltage used to maintain the battery charge, supplied by the
rectifier/charger.
 Example: for a MGE Galaxy PW, the floating voltage is between 423 and 463 V
DC.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 18
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Backup time (* stored energy time)
This is the time, specified at the beginning of the battery service life, that the battery
can supply the inverter operating at full rated load, in the absence of the AC-input
supply.
 Example: MGE Galaxy PW offers as standard backup times of 8, 10, 15, 20, 30
and 60 minutes.
This time depends on the UPS percent load.
 For a UPS operating at full rated load (100% of rated power), the end of the battery
backup time is reached when the battery voltage drops to the shutdown voltage
specified by the manufacturer. This provokes automatic shutdown of UPSs from APC
by Schneider Electric.
 For a UPS operating at a lower percent load (e.g. 75%), the actual backup time
may be longer. However, it always ends when the battery shutdown voltage is
reached.
Recharge time (* rated restored energy time)
This is the time required by the battery to recover 80% of its backup time (90% of its
capacity), starting from the battery shutdown voltage. The rectifier/charger supplies
the power.
 Example: for a MGE Galaxy PW UPS, the recharge time is eight to ten hours,
depending on the battery and the backup time. Note that the probability of the battery
being called on to supply power twice within such a short period is low. This means
the indicated recharge time is representative of actual performance.
Maximum battery current (Ib)
When discharging, the battery supplies the inverter with a current Ib which reaches
its maximum value at the end of discharging. This value determines battery
protection and cable dimensions.
 Example: for a 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW, this current is Ib max = 257 A.
Inverter
Rated power (Sn)
(* rated output apparent power)
This is the maximum apparent power Sn (kVA) that the inverter can deliver to a
linear load at a power factor of 0.8, during normal operation under steady-state
conditions.
The standards also define this parameter for operation on battery power.
Theoretically speaking, it is the same if the battery is correctly sized.
 Example: a MGE Galaxy PW with a rated power (Sn) of 100 kVA.
Active output power (Pa)
(* rated output active power for linear or reference non-linear load)
This is the active power Pa (kW) corresponding to the apparent output power Sn
(kVA), under the measurement conditions mentioned above. This value may also be
indicated for a standardised reference non-linear load.
 Example: the previous UPS, a MGE Galaxy PW with a rated power of 100 kVA
supplies an active power of Pa = Sn x 0.8 = 80 kW.
Rated current (In)
This is the current corresponding to the rated power.
 Example: again for a 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW UPS and an output voltage of
400 V, this current is:
Sn
100000
In 
= 144.3 A
=
400 x 1732
,
Un 3
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 19
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Apparent load power (Su) and percent load
This is the apparent power Sn (kVA) actually supplied by the inverter to the load,
under the selected operating conditions.
This value is a fraction of the rated power, depending on the percent load.
.Su  Sn. and .Tc = Percent load (%) = Su / Sn..
 Example: for the UPS mentioned above, if the inverter supplies 3/4 of its rated
power (75% load), it delivers an apparent power of 75 kVA, which under standard
operating conditions (PF = 0.8) corresponds to an active load power of
Pa = Su x PF = 75 x 0.8 = 60 kW.
Load current (Iu)
This is the current corresponding to the load power, that is, to the percent load in
question. It is calculated from Pu as for the rated current, where the voltage is the
rated voltage Un (value regulated by the inverter).
 Example: for the UPS mentioned above (75% load)
75000
Su
Iu 
=
= 108.2 A
400 x 1732
,
Un 3
which is the same as:
.Iu = In x Tc. = 144.3 x 0.75 = 108.2 A
Efficiency ()
This is the ratio of active power Pu (kW) supplied by the UPS to the load to the
power Pin (kW) that it draws at its input, either by the rectifier or from the battery.
.= Pu / Pin.
For most UPSs, efficiency is optimum at full rated load and drops sharply with lower
percent loads. Due to their low output impedance and no-load losses, the efficiency
of MGE Galaxy UPSs is virtually stable for loads from 25 to 100%. The MGE Galaxy
PW range offers efficiency greater than 90% starting at 25% load, up to 93% at full
rated load, as well as an ECO mode which increases efficiency by 4%, i.e. up to
97%.
Practically speaking, for MGE Galaxy UPSs, an efficiency value of 0.93 can be used
for all input-power calculations for loads from 30 to 100%.
 Example: for a 100 kVA MGE Galaxy PW at 75% load, 0.93 efficiency
corresponds to a UPS active input power of
Pin = Pu /  = 60/0.93 = 64.5 kW.
Output voltage Un
Number of phases
The output can be three-phase (3ph-3ph UPS) or single-phase (3ph-1ph UPS),
depending on the situation. Note that the upstream and downstream system earthing
arrangements may be different.
Rated output voltage
In general, it is the same as that of the AC input. However, a voltage-matching
transformer may be installed.
Static characteristics
These are the tolerances (maximum permissible variations) for the amplitude and
frequency of the output voltage under steady-state conditions. Stricter than those
applying to utility power, they are measured for normal operation on AC-input power
and for operation in battery backup mode.
 Output voltage variation
The amplitude tolerance is expressed as a percentage of the nominal rms value and
may be adjustable.
 Example: for a MGE Galaxy PW, the voltage 400 V rms ± 1% may be adjusted to
± 3%.
The standards also stipulate a rated peak output voltage and the tolerance with
respect to the rated value.
 Output frequency variation
The tolerance is expressed as a percentage of the rated frequency.
 Example: for a MGE Galaxy PW, 50 or 60 Hz ± 0.1% during normal operation on
primary power and ± 0.5% in battery backup mode.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 20
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Frequency synchronisation with primary power
The inverter supplies an output voltage within the above tolerances, regardless of
the disturbances affecting the upstream power.
To that end, the UPS:
 Monitors the voltage parameters (amplitude, frequency, phase) for the primarypower source to determine whether they are within specified tolerances,
 Reacts to any drift in parameters so as to:
- readjust the inverter (phase and frequency) to the standby power, as long as the
drift remains within tolerances, in view of load transfer, if necessary,
- transfer the load to battery power as soon as the drift goes outside tolerances.
The new IGBT and PWM chopping technologies used in UPSs from APC by
Schneider Electric allow an excellent adaptation to these variations.
 Example: for MGE Galaxy PW UPSs, the maximum variation in frequency
corresponding to the tolerance is 50 Hz x 0.5% = 0.25 Hz.
Frequency synchronisation with bypass AC power is possible from 0.25 to 2 Hz, in
0.25 Hz steps. Practically speaking, this signifies that frequency variations may be
monitored at dF/dt = 0.25 Hz/s and readjustment carried out within 0.25 to 1 second.
Dynamic characteristics
These are the tolerances under transient load conditions.
MGE Galaxy PW UPSs are capable of withstanding the following conditions.
 Load unbalance
For unbalance in the load voltage (phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase) of:
- 30%, the output voltage variation is less than 0.1%,
- 100% (one phase at Pn and the others at 0), the output voltage does not vary more
than 0.2%.
 Load step changes (voltage transients)
For load steps from 0 to 100% or from 100 to 0% of the rated load, the voltage does
not vary more than:
± 2% on utility power;
+ 2% to -4 % on battery power.
Overload and short-circuit capacity
 Overloads
- 1.1 In for 2 hours,
- 1.5 In for 1 minute,
with no change in the output tolerances.
 Short-circuits
Beyond 1.65 In, MGE Galaxy PW inverters operate in current-limiting mode up to
2.33 In for 1 second, corresponding to:
I peak max. = 2 x 1.65 In = 2.33 In.
Beyond this value, the inverter transfers the load to standby power or performs a
static shutdown (self-protection feature).
Total output-voltage distortion
UPSs must guarantee performance levels for all types of loads, including non-linear
loads.
 Example: MGE Galaxy PW UPSs limit the voltage total harmonic distortion
(THDU) in output power to the following levels for:
 100% linear loads:
- THDU ph/ph < 1.5 %,
- THDU ph/N < 2%,
 100% non-linear loads:
- THDU ph/ph < 2 %,
- THDU ph/N < 3%.
MGE Galaxy PW UPSs operate in compliance with the specified characteristics for
all types of loads.
General note. The standard specifies certain of the previously mentioned
performance levels for output power during normal operation and operation on
battery power. In general, they are identical.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 21
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Summary diagram for main
characteristics
Fig. 5.7. Diagram showing the main characteristics (see the list below).
Normal AC input
● Voltage Un + 10% to - 15%
● Frequency f + 4% to - 6%
Bypass AC input
● Voltage Un + 10% to - 15%
● Frequency f + 4% to - 6%
● Short-circuit current Isc2 (withstand capacity of the static bypass)
Rectifier/charger
● Floating voltage
● Input currents
- rated (battery float charging)
- maximum (battery charging)
Battery
● Backup time: standard 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 minutes, longer times on request)
● Service life: 10 years or longer
● Maximum current Ib max.
Inverter
● Apparent output power:
- rated: Sn (kVA)
- load power: Su (kVA) = Sn x Tc%
● UPS percent load Tc% = Su / Sn
● Active output power:
- rated: Pn (kW) = Sn (kVA) x 0.8
- load power: Pu (kW) = Su (kVA) x PF = Sn x Tc% x PF = Un Iu PF
● Efficiency:  Pu / Pn = 93% (97% in ECO mode).
● Static characteristics (output-voltage tolerances under steady-state conditions)
- amplitude: Un ± 1% adjustable to ± 3%
- frequency: f ± 1% during normal operation, f ± 0.5% in battery backup mode
- inverter output voltage synchronised (frequency and phase) with that of the standby
power as long as the latter is within tolerances.
● Dynamic characteristics (tolerances under transient conditions)
- maximum voltage and frequency variations for load step changes from 0% to 100%
or 100% to 0%: Un ± 2%, f ± 0.5%
● Output voltage distortion
- 100% non-linear loads THDU < 2%
● Overload and short circuit capacity:
- overloads: 1.5 In for 1 minute
- short-circuits: current limiting to 2.33 In for 1 second
Load
● Load current (Iu)
● Power factor PF
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 22
UPS components and operation (cont.)
UPS operating modes
Normal mode (on utility power, see fig. 5.8 on left-hand side)
The UPS draws the AC utility power required to operate via the rectifier/charger
which provides DC current.
Part of the utility power drawn is used to charge or float charge the battery:
 I1 floating, if the battery is already fully charged,
 I1 charge if the battery is not fully charged (i.e. charging following a recent
discharge).
The remaining current is supplied to the inverter with generates an output-voltage
sine-wave within the specified amplitude and frequency tolerances.
Battery backup mode (on battery power, see fig. 5.8 on right-hand side)
The battery steps in to replace primary power and supplies the power required by the
inverter for the load, with the same tolerances as in normal mode.
This takes place through immediate transfer (the battery is parallel connected) in the
event of:
 Normal AC-input failure (utility-power outage),
 Normal AC input outside tolerances (degradation of utility-power voltage).
Normal mode.
Fig. 5.8. Normal mode and battery backup mode.
Battery backup mode.
Bypass mode (on static-bypass line, see fig. 5.9 on left-hand side)
A static switch (SS) ensures no-break transfer of the load to the bypass AC input for
direct supply of the load by standby power.
Transfer is automatic in the event of:
 An overload downstream of the UPS exceeding its overload capacity,
 An internal fault in the rectifier/charger and inverter modules.
Transfer always takes place for internal faults, but otherwise is possible only if the
voltage of the standby power is within tolerances and in phase with the inverter.
To that end:
 The UPS synchronises the inverter output voltage with that of the bypass line as
long as the latter is within tolerances. Transfer is then possible:
- without a break in the supply of power. Because the voltages are in phase, the
SCRs on the two channels of the static switch have zero voltage at the same time,
- without disturbing the load. The load is transferred to a bypass line that is within
tolerances.
 When standby power is not within tolerances, the inverter desynchronises and
operates autonomously with its own frequency. Transfer is disabled.
It can, however, by carried out manually.
Note 1. This function greatly increases reliability due to the very small probability of a
downstream overload and a standby-power failure occurring at the same time.
Note 2. To ensure correct operation of the bypass line, discrimination must be
ensured between the protection device upstream of the bypass AC input (on the
MLVS outgoer) and those on the UPS outgoing circuits (see information on
discrimination below).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 23
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Maintenance mode (on maintenance bypass, see fig. 5.9 right-hand side)
Maintenance is possible without interrupting load operation. The load is supplied with
standby power via the maintenance bypass. Transfer to the maintenance bypass is
carried out using manual switches.
The rectifier/charger, inverter and static switch are shut down and isolated from
power sources. The battery is isolated by its protection circuit breaker.
Bypass mode (static bypass).
Maintenance mode (maintenance bypass).
Fig. 5.9. Bypass mode and maintenance mode.
UPS configurations
Parallel UPS with redundancy
Chapter two is entirely devoted to a presentation of the various configurations. Below
is some additional information on parallel connection for redundancy.
It concerns MGETM GalaxyTM UPSs in particular. The modular SymmetraTM UPSs
also use parallel connection.
 Configurations, see ch. 2.
Types of parallel configurations
There are two types of parallel configurations.
 Integrated parallel UPS units
This upgradeable configuration can be started using a single UPS unit with an
integrated static bypass and manual maintenance bypass. For configurations with
more than two UPS units, a common maintenance bypass is housed in an external
cubicle (see fig. 5.10).
 Parallel UPS units with a centralised static-switch cubicle (SSC)
The static-switch cubicle comprises an automatic bypass and a maintenance bypass
that are common for a number of UPS units without a bypass (see fig. 5.11).
This configuration, less upgradeable than the previous due to the rating of the
bypass, offers greater reliability (SSC and UPS units are independent).
 Modular UPSs
UPSs of the SymmetraTM range are made up of dedicated and redundant modules
(power, intelligence, battery and bypass).
Modular design with plug-in power modules improves dependability, in particular
maintainability and availability, as well the upgradeability of the installation.
Redundancy
Redundancy in parallel configurations can be N+1, N+2, etc.
This means that N UPS units are required to supply the load, but N+1 or N+2 are
installed and they all share the load.
See the example below.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 24
UPS components and operation (cont.)
Example
 Consider a critical load with a 100 kVA rating.
 2+1 redundancy
- 2 UPS units must be capable of fully supplying the load if redundancy is lost.
- Each UPS unit must therefore have a 50 kVA rating.
- 3 UPS units normally share the 100 kVA load, i.e. each supplies 33.3 kVA.
- The 3 UPS units normally operate at a percent load of 33.3 / 50 = 66.6%.
- Integrated parallel UPS units are each equipped with a static bypass. Transfer is
managed such that the three UPS units transfer to the bypass simultaneously, if
necessary.
Fig. 5.10. Integrated parallel UPS units with common maintenance bypass and 2+1
redundancy. Operation with all units OK (redundancy available).
 Loss of redundancy
- One UPS unit shuts down, the two remaining units operate at 100%.
- The faulty UPS unit can be serviced due to the maintenance bypass.
Fig. 5.11. Integrated parallel UPS units with common maintenance bypass and 2+1
redundancy. Operation following loss of redundancy.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 25
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
Electromagnetic
disturbances
Electromagnetic disturbances
All electromagnetic disturbances involve three elements.
A source
A natural source (atmosphere, earth, sun, etc.) or, more often, an industrial source
(electrical and electronic devices).
The source generates disturbances through sudden (pulse) variations in electrical
values (voltage or current), defined by:
 A wave form,
 A wave amplitude (peak value),
 A spectrum of frequencies,
 A level of energy.
A coupling mode
Coupling enables transmission of disturbances and may be:
 Capacitive (or galvanic), for example via transformer windings,
 Inductive, by a radiating magnetic field,
 Conducted, by a common impedance, via an earthing connection.
A victim
This is any device likely to be disturbed, and which malfunctions due to the presence
of the disturbances.
Examples
Sources
In low-voltage installations, sources include suddenly varying currents resulting from:
 Faults or short-circuits,
 Electronic switching,
 High-order harmonics,
 Lightning or transformer breakdown.
Frequencies may be low (< 1 MHz) for power frequencies and their harmonics or
high (> 1 MHz) for lightning.
Coupling
 Capacitive: transmission of a lightning wave via a transformer.
 Inductive: radiation of a magnetic field created by one of the above currents.
Radiation creates an induced electromotive force, that is an induced disturbing
current, in the loops of conductors made up of the cables supplying devices and the
earthing conductors of the devices.
As in indication, a radiation of 0.7 A/m can disturb a video monitor.
That corresponds to the field created 2.2 m around a conductor carrying a current of
10 A.
 Conducted (common impedance): increase in the potential of an earthing
connection.
EMC standards and
recommendations
Disturbances
Emission, immunity, susceptibility
An electric device is installed in an environment that may be more or less disturbed
electromagnetically. It must be seen as both a source and possible victim of
electromagnetic disturbances.
Depending on the point of view, on may speak of:
 The emission level for a source,
 The compatibility level for an environment,
 The immunity and susceptibility levels for a victim.
These notions are discussed on the next page in the section on disturbance levels
defined by the standards.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 26
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) (cont.)
Disturbance levels
Standard IEC 6100-2-4 defines a number of disturbance levels for EMC:
 Level 0: no disturbance,
 Emission level: maximum level authorised for a user on a public utility or for a
device,
 Compatibility level: maximum disturbance level expected in a given environment,
 Immunity level: level of disturbance that a device can withstand,
 Susceptibility level: level starting at which a device or system malfunctions.
Consequently, for devices and equipment that are considered:
 Sources, limits (emission levels) must be set for disturbances emitted by devices
to avoid reaching compatibility levels,
 Victims, they must also withstand disturbance levels higher than the compatibility
levels, if they are exceeded, which is permissible on a transient basis. These higher
levels are the immunity levels.
EMC standards set these levels.
 List of EMC standards, see the section on page 34 on EMC standards.
Fig. 5.12. EMC disturbance levels for disturbing/disturbed devices.
Measured values
Devices are subjected to tests.
Five major values are measured:
 CE - conducted emissions,
 RE - radiated emissions,
 ESD - electrostatic discharges,
 CS - conducted susceptibility,
 RS - radiated susceptibility.
The tests require major resources, namely a Faraday cage for conducted emissions
and susceptibility and an anechoic chamber for radiated emissions.
APC by Schneider Electric has a certified anechoic test chambers.
Fig. 5.13. Five major measurement values.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 27
UPS standards
Scope and observance of
standards
Scope of standards
Standards cover the following aspects:
 UPS design,
 Safety of persons,
 Performance levels,
 Electrical environment (notably harmonic disturbances and EMC),
 Ecological environment.
Standards on UPSs have become much more precise, notably with the creation of
the European EN standards and their harmonisation with a part of the previously
existing IEC standards.
Observance of standards and certification
Observance of standards guarantees the reliability and the quality of a UPS, its
compatibility with the loads supplied as well as with the technical, human and natural
environment.
Statement by a manufacturer of conformity with standards is not, in itself, a sufficient
indication of quality. Only certification by recognised organisations is a true
guarantee of conformity.
To that end, performance levels of UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric with
respect to standards are certified by organisations such as TÜV and Veritas.
CE marking
CE marking was created by European legislation.
It is mandatory for free circulation of goods in the EU.
Its purpose is to guarantee, through respect of the corresponding European
directives:
 That the product is not dangerous (Low-voltage Directive),
 That it does not pollute (Environment Directive) and its electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC Directive).
Before placing the CE marking on a product, the manufacturer must run or have run
checks and tests which ensure conformity of the product with the requirements in the
applicable directive(s).
It is NOT a certification standard or mark of conformity.
It does not signify that the product complies with national or international standards.
It is not a certification as defined by French law (law dated 3 June 1994).
What is more, the CE marking is placed on a product under the exclusive
responsibility of the manufacturer or the importer. It does not imply inspection by a
certified external organisation.
 Not all labels carry the same implications for manufacturers.
Conformity with standards and specified levels of performance must be certifiable by
an organisation. This is not the case for CE marking which authorises selfcertification.
Main standards governing
UPSs
UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric comply (certified by TÜV and Veritas) with the
main applicable international standards.
Safety
 IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
 IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
 IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test and
performance requirements.
 IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
 LV directive: 2006/95/EC
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 28
UPS standards (cont.)
Electrical environment, harmonics and electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC)
Harmonics
 IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in
public low-voltage power supply systems.
(see Table 5-A on the next page)
 IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current  16 A/ph).
 IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
 IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
 EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
(see Table 5-B on the next page).
 IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power
systems.
EMC
 EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
 IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
requirements.
 EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
Quality
 Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality
organisation.
Ecological environment
 Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 29
UPS standards (cont.)
Acoustic noise
 ISO 3746
Sound power levels.
 ISO 7779 / EN 27779
Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
Tables on harmonic-compatibility levels
Table 5-A. Compatibility levels for individual harmonic voltages in low voltage networks as
indicated in standards IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2.
Odd harmonics non multiple Odd harmonics multiple of 3 Even harmonics
of 3
Harmonic
Harmonic
Harmonic
Harmonic
Harmonic
Harmonic
order n
voltage as a % order n
voltage as a % order n
voltage as a %
of fundamental
of fundamental
of fundamental
5
6
3
5
2
2
7
5
9
1.5
4
1
11
3.5
15
0.3
6
0.5
13
3
21
0.2
8
0.5
17
2
>21
0.2
10
0.5
19
1.5
12
0.5
23
1.5
>12
0.2
25
1.5
0.2
>25
0.2+0.5x25/n
Resulting THDU < 8% (for all harmonics encountered among those indicated).
Table 5-B. Compatibility levels for harmonic voltages according to the type of equipment as
indicated in standard EN 50160.
(1)
Order of the voltage
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
harmonic generated
(sensitive systems and (industrial and public (for connection of
equipment) % of
networks) % of
major polluters) % of
fundamental
fundamental
fundamental
2
2
2
3
3
3
5
6
4
1
1
1.5
5
3
6
8
6
0.5
0.5
1
7
3
5
7
8
0.5
0.5
1
9
1.5
1.5
2.5
10
0.5
0.5
1
11
3
3.5
5
12
0.2
0.2
1
13
3
3
4.5
TDHU
5%
8%
10%
(1)
Class 2 corresponds to the limits of Table A of standards IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 30
Energy storage
Possible technologies
Energy storage in UPSs
The energy-storage systems used by UPSs to backup the primary source must have
the following characteristics:
 Immediate availability of electrical power,
 Sufficient power rating to supply the load,
 Sufficient backup time and/or compatibility with systems providing long backup
times (e.g. an engine generator set or fuel cells).
Evaluation of the available technologies
See WP 65 
The technical watch established by APC by Schneider Electric resulted in in-depth
examination of the following technologies:
 Batteries,
 Supercapacitors (ultracapacitors),
 Flywheels,
 Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES).
 For more information, see WP 65 (White Paper 65: "Comparing Data Center
Batteries, Flywheels, and Ultracapacitors".
The battery solution is discussed below.
Batteries
The battery solution
Batteries are by far the most commonly employed solution today for energy storage
in UPSs. They are the dominant solution due to low cost, proven effectiveness and
storage capacity, but nonetheless have a number of disadvantages in terms of size,
maintenance and the environment. At the power ratings under consideration, they
offer backup times in the ten-minute range, enough to ride through long outages and
wait for start-up of an engine generator set for extended runtime.
For its SymmetraTM PX range, APC by Schneider Electric also offers extended
runtime solutions based on fuel cells, with the FCXR (Fuel Cell eXtended Run)
product range. This solution significantly reduces the environmental impact and
floorspace requirements with respect to solutions combining batteries and an engine
generator set.
 Electrochemical energy storage using batteries, where applicable backed up by a
thermal engine generator set, is the commonly used solution to protect critical loads
using UPSs.
Fig. 5.14. Energy storage using a battery and an engine generator set for long backup times.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 31
Energy storage (cont.)
Types of industrial batteries
Battery families
A battery is a set of interconnected cells.
Depending on the type of cell, there are two main families of batteries:
 Lead-acid batteries,
 Nickel cadmium batteries.
Cells may also be of the :
 Recombination type  sealed batteries
The gas recombination rate is at least 95% and they therefore do not require water to
be added during service life (hence the term "sealed"),
 Vented type  vented batteries
They are equipped with ports to:
- release to the atmosphere the oxygen and hydrogen produced during the different
chemical reactions,
- top off the electrolyte by adding distilled or demineralised water.
Batteries used in UPSs
The main types of batteries used in conjunction with UPSs are:
 Sealed lead-acid batteries, used 95% of the time because they are easy to
maintain and do not require a special room, these batteries can be installed in office
environments and in any position,
 Vented lead-acid batteries,
 Vented nickel-cadmium batteries.
Vented batteries impose greater constraints in terms of maintenance (checks on the
electrolyte level) and their position (only in the vertical position).
Lithium-polymer batteries are currently being studied for use in UPSs.
For use in conjunction with its UPS ranges, APC by Schneider Electric recommends
sealed lead-acid batteries, but nonetheless offers a wide selection of other types.
It offers all three types of battery for all the available service lives.
Capacity levels and backup times may be adapted to suit the user's needs.
The proposed batteries are also perfectly suited to UPS applications in that they are
the result of collaboration with leading battery manufacturers.
 Battery selection, see Ch. 1 p. 46.
Installation modes
Depending on the UPS range, the battery capacity and backup time, the battery is:
 Sealed type and housed in the UPS cabinet,
 Sealed type and housed in one to three cabinets,
 Vented or sealed type and rack-mounted.
Cabinet mounting
This installation method (see fig. 5.15) is suitable for sealed batteries. It is easy to
implement and offers maximum safety.
Batteries installed on racks
 On shelves (figure 5.16)
This installation method is possible for sealed batteries or maintenance-free vented
batteries which do not require topping up of their electrolyte.
 Tier mounting (figure 5.17)
This installation method is suitable for all types of batteries and for vented batteries
in particular, as level checking and filling are made easy.
Fig. 5.15. Cabinet mounting.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Fig. 5.16. Mounting on shelves. Fig. 5.17. Tier mounting.
ch. 5 - p. 32
Energy storage (cont.)
Constraints on batteries
Atmospheric constraints
The batteries supplied with UPSs from APC by Schneider Electric are designed to
operate under the following conditions:
 Optimum temperature range: 15°C to 25°C,
 Optimum relative humidity range: 5% to 95%,
 Atmospheric pressure: 700 to 1060 hPa (0.7 to 1.06 bars).
For other operating conditions, please consult us.
Access
Access must be provided for testing operations.
 Battery installed in UPS cabinet or other cabinet: comply with the clearances
indicated in the "Dimensions and weights" in chapter 4.
 Battery installed on racks: select an installation method suited to the type of
battery.
 Preliminary work: this aspect is important as it involves safety. It is discussed in
Ch. 1 p. 49.
Main battery parameters
Backup time
For a given battery, the backup time depends on:
 The power that must be supplied, a low value increases the available autonomy,
 The discharge conditions, a high discharge rate makes possible a lower shutdown
voltage and thus increases the backup time,
 Temperature, within the recommended operating limits, the backup time increases
with increasing temperature. Note, however, that a high temperature adversely
affects battery service life,
 Ageing, battery backup time decreases with the age of the battery.
APC by Schneider Electric offers a range of standard backup times (5, 6, 8, 10, 15 or
30 minutes and service lives (5 or 10 years or higher) and also caters to all specific
requirements.
Service life
A battery is considered to reach the end of its service life when its real backup time
has fallen to 50% of the specified backup time.
The service life of a battery is basically enhanced by:
 Providing protection against deep discharge,
 Correct charger settings, in particular the ripple factor of the charge or float current,
 An optimum operating temperature, maintained between 15°C and 25°C.
Recharge mode
The charge cycle takes place in two steps:
 Step 1, a constant current limited to 0.1 C10 (one tenth of the battery capacity for a
ten-hour discharge),
 Step 2, a constant voltage, at the maximum permissible value. The charge current
regularly decreases and reaches the floating value.
Fig. 5.18. Battery charge cycle.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 33
Energy storage (cont.)
Battery management for MGETM GalaxyTM ranges
DigibatTM
TM
TM
To manage the above parameters, all MGE Galaxy UPSs from APC by
TM
Schneider Electric come as standard with the microprocessor-based Digibat
TM
battery-monitoring system (dedicated DSP for real-time processing). Digibat , an
easy-to-use system, offers advanced and flexible functions as well as physical and
computer-aided protection for the battery. It provides a high level of safety, true
measurement of the backup time and optimises battery service life. For example, for
an MGE Galaxy 5000 UPS, the functions include:
 Automatic entry of battery parameters,
 Measurement of the real backup time remaining, taking into account the age of the
battery, the temperature and the load level,
 Estimate of remaining battery life (1),
 Battery test to preventively detect battery-function faults (1),
 Regulation of battery voltage with respect to the temperature to optimise battery
life,
 Automatic battery-discharge test at adjustable time intervals.
Protection includes:
 Protection against deep discharge (depending on the discharge rate) and battery
isolation using a circuit breaker which automatically opens when the backup time,
multiplied by two plus two hours, has elapsed,
 Limiting of the recharge current in the battery (0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10),
 Progressive audio alarm signalling the end of the backup time,
 Numerous automatic tests.
(1) APC by Schneider Electric exclusive patents.
Fig. 5.19. Digibat
TM
Temperature monitoring
TM
TM
MGE Galaxy UPSs can also be equipped with the Temperature Monitoring
module used to:
 Optimise the charger voltage depending on the temperature in the battery room,
 Warn the user if preset permissible temperature limits are exceeded,
 Refine the estimate on battery backup time carried out by the standard system $.
Natural ventilation of battery cabinets avoids battery temperature rise.
Environment Sensor is also a simple means to monitor temperature and humidity. It
can be used to launch shutdown when combined with software running the module.
Battery monitoring
APC by Schneider Electric also offers the B2000 and Cellwatch autonomous and
communicating battery-monitoring systems which immediately detect and locate all
battery faults. These systems monitor each battery block or cell and make possible
predictive maintenance.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 34
UPS / generator-set combination
Use of a generator
Long backup times
An engine generator set is made up of an internal-combustion engine driving a
generator that supplies the distribution system. The backup time of an engine
generator set depends on the quantity of fuel available.
In some installations, the required backup time in the event of a utility outage is such
that it is preferable to use an engine generator set to back up utility power (figure
5.20).
This solution avoids using large batteries with very long backup times.
Though there is no general rule in the matter, a generator is often used for backup
times exceeding 30 minutes. Critical installations requiring very high availability
levels and with high down-time costs (e.g. data centres) systematically combine
UPSs and engine generator sets.
The battery backup time of the UPS must be sufficient for generator start-up and
connection to the electrical installation. Connection is generally carried out on the
main LV switchboard using an automatic source-changeover system. The time
required for changeover depends on the specific characteristics of each installation,
notably the start-up sequence, load shedding, etc.
Fig. 5.20. UPS / generator-set combination.
UPS / generator-set
combination
UPS / generator-set compatibility
A number of factors must be taken into account when using an engine generator set
to provide long backup-time power to UPSs.
Load step changes
In the event of emergency conditions requiring connection of the installation to the
generator set, heavy loads can result in high inrush currents which can cause
serious generator-set operating problems. To avoid such phenomena, UPSs from
APC by Schneider Electric are equipped with a system ensuring gradual start-up of
the charger. The walk-in lasts approximately ten seconds. What is more, when utility
power returns, the charger may be stopped gradually via an auxiliary switch in order
to avoid disturbing the other loads.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 35
UPS / generator-set combination (cont.)
Fig. 5.21. Gradual start of the UPS rectifier during operation on generator power.
Capacitive currents
The generator can supply only relatively low capacitive currents (10 to 30 % of In).
When an LC filter is installed, the main difficulty lies in the gradual start-up of the
rectifier on generator power, when active power is equal to zero and the generator
supplies only the capacitive current for the filter. Consequently, the use of LC filters
must be correctly analysed to ensure that operation complies with manufacturer
specifications.
Use of compensated LC filters with a contactor solves this problem. For UPSs with a
PFC rectifier, compatibility is total.
 LC filters and generators, see Ch. 1 p. 26.
Respective UPS and generator power ratings
A UPS equipped with a PFC rectifier has a high input power factor (greater than 0.9).
The engine generator set can therefore be used to maximum effectiveness.
For LC filters, compensated filters with a contactor solve the problem concerning
capacitive currents.
 Compatibility of power ratings between modern UPSs and engine generator sets
avoids all problems of derating.
Stability of generator frequency
During operation on engine generator set power, fluctuation in the generator
frequency may occur due to variations in the speed of the thermal motor for which
the regulation functions are not instantaneous. These variations are due to changes
in the load. Examples are start-up of the engine generator set itself (until it reaches
its rated speed), start-up of other loads supplied by the engine generator set
(elevators, air-conditioning systems), or shedding of loads.
This may create problems with line-interactive UPSs whose output frequency is
identical to that of the input. Generator frequency variations may lead to multiple
transfers to battery power (frequency outside tolerances) and returns to utility power
(when the inverter has stabilised the frequency, but the generator itself has not yet
stabilised), resulting in "hunting" phenomena (instability around the frequency setpoint).
With double-conversion UPSs, the regulation of the output power by the inverter
avoids this problem.
 Double-conversion UPSs are totally compatible with the frequency fluctuations of
engine generator sets. This is not the case for line-interactive UPSs.
Harmonics
The subtransient reactance X"d of a generator is generally higher than the shortcircuit voltage Uscx of a transformer (two to four times higher). Any harmonic
currents drawn by the UPS rectifier may have greater impact on the voltage
harmonic distortion on the upstream busbars. With PFC rectifier technology, the
absence of upstream harmonics avoids this problem.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 36
UPS / generator-set combination (cont.)
Review of inrush currents
On start-up, a number of loads cause major inrush currents (switching surges, startup peaks), which last a certain time.
For the UPS, these currents represent an apparent load Sa (kVA) that is greater than
Sn (kVA), which can be supplied under steady-state conditions.
The value of Sa to be taken into account in sizing UPS power is calculated on the
basis of these inrush currents.
Below are indications on these currents caused by common load devices.
Motors
Motors are generally of the three-phase asynchronous type (95% of all motors). The
additional power requirement corresponds to the start-up current defined by (fig. 5.22):
 Id (5 to 8 In, rated rms value) for a time td (1 to 10 seconds),
 Imax = 8 to 12 In, for 20 to 30 milliseconds.
The power drawn that must be taken into account (neglecting the peak effect of
Imax) is:
Sa (kVA) = Un Id 3 during td.
LV/LV transformers
Transformer switching produces current peaks with amplitudes that are damped
according to an exponential decay with a time constant (see fig. 5.23).
 i = I1st peak exp -t/ where  is a few cycles (30 to 300 ms).
 I1st peak = k In (where k is given, generally 10 to 20).
Indications generally include the number of cycles the phenomenon lasts and the
value of the various peaks as a percentage of I1st peak.
The corresponding inrush current is generally calculated on the basis of (see
example):
 Sa (kVA) = Un I1st peak 3 , i.e. Sa (kVA) = k Un In 3 during the number of cycles.
 Example of an inrush current damped in four cycles with:
st
1 peak (100%): k In (k from 10 to 20),
nd
2 peak 30 %: 0.3 k In,
rd
3 peak 15 %: 0.15 k In.
The total of the rms values of the currents corresponding to the various peaks (Ipeak
(1)
/ 2 ) is:
k In (1  0,3  0,15 ) K In 1,45

 k In
2
2
This is roughly equivalent to the value of the first peak alone.
(1)
Considering the current peaks as sine waves; note that some manufacturers indicate an rms
value of Ipeak / 2.
Computer loads
Switch-mode power supplies are non-linear loads. The current for a single-phase
load has a wave form similar to that shown in figure 5.27. There can be a peak
during the first half wave of approximately 2 In. However, it is generally much lower
than this and can be neglected.
Fig. 5.22. Curve for direct on- Fig. 5.23. LV/LV transformer
line starting of a three-phase switching current.
asynchronous motor.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Fig. 5.24. Computer load
starting current.
ch. 5 - p. 37
Harmonics
Harmonics
Origin of harmonics
The increasing use of computing, telecommunications and power-electronics devices
have multiplied the number of non-linear loads connected to power systems.
These applications require switch-mode power supplies which transform the voltage
sine wave into periodic signals of different wave forms. All these periodic signals of
frequency f are the product of superimposed sinusoidal signals with frequencies that
are multiples of f, known as harmonics (see the section "Characteristic harmonic
values" dealing with the Fourier theorem below, on page 40). Figure 5.25 illustrates
this showing the initial current (the fundamental) and the third-order harmonic.
This figure shows what happens when a thirdorder harmonic (150/180 Hz) is superimposed
on the fundamental frequency (50/60 Hz). The
frequency of the resulting periodic signal is
that of the fundamental, but the waveform is
distorted.
Fig. 5.25. Example of harmonics.
The increased presence of harmonics is a phenomenon that concerns all electrical
installations, commercial and industrial, as well as residential. No modern electrical
environment is exempt from these disturbances caused by devices such as PCs,
servers, fluorescent tubes, air-conditioners, variable-speed drives, discharge lamps,
rectifiers, static power supplies, microwave ovens, televisions, halogen lamps, etc.
All these loads are termed "non-linear".
Consequences of harmonics
Harmonics disturb, increasingly severely, all sorts of activities, ranging from factories
producing electronic components and data-processing systems to pumping stations,
telecommunications systems, television studios, etc., because they represent a
significant part of the current drawn.
There are three types of negative consequences for users:
Impact on the electrical installation
Harmonics increase the value of the rms current with respect to that of the rated
sinusoidal current. The result is temperature rise (sometimes significant) in lines,
transformers, generators, capacitors, cables, etc. The hidden costs of accelerated
aging in such devices can be very high.
Impact on applications
Harmonic currents circulate in the source and line impedances, thus generating
voltage harmonics which lead to voltage distortion on the busbars upstream of the
non-linear loads (figure 5.26).
The distortion of the supply voltage (upstream THDU - Total harmonic distortion in
voltage) may disturb the operation of certain sensitive devices connected to the
these busbars.
What is more, for TNC systems where N and PE conductors are combined to form a
PEN conductor, the zero-sequence third-order harmonics cumulate in the neutral
conductor. This unbalance current in the neutral can disturb circuits interconnecting
low-current devices and may require oversizing of the neutral.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 38
Harmonics (cont.)
Fig. 5.26. Voltage distortion due to reinjection of harmonic currents by non-linear loads.
Impact on the available electrical power
Harmonics represent an outright loss of current (up to 30% more current consumed).
The user must pay more for less available power.
Precautions
General
There are a number of traditional solutions to limit harmonics:
 installation of tuned passive filters,
 installation in parallel of several cables with medium-sized cross sections,
 separation of non-linear loads and sensitive loads behind isolating transformers.
However, these solutions have two major disadvantages:
 limitation of harmonics is effective only in the existing installation (the addition or
removal of loads can render it ineffective),
 implementation is difficult in existing installations.
SineWave active harmonic conditioners (see chapter 3) avoid these disadvantages.
Much more effective than other solutions, they may be used with all types of loads
and can selectively eliminate harmonics ranging from the 2nd to the 25th order.
 Elimination of harmonics, see Ch. 3.
UPSs
 Due to the rectifier/charger, a UPS is a non-linear load for its power source. UPSs
from APC by Schneider Electric offer perfect control over upstream harmonics by
using "clean" PFC rectifiers or filters (MGE Galaxy PW and 9000).
Upstream of the UPS, the total voltage distortion remains within limits that are
acceptable for the other devices connected to the same busbars.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 39
Harmonics filters (cont.)
Characteristic harmonic
values
Current values
Harmonic expansion of a periodic current
The Fourier theorem indicates that any periodic function with a frequency f may be
represented as the sum of terms (series) composed of:
 a sinusoidal term with frequency f, called the fundamental frequency,
 sinusoidal terms with frequencies that are whole multiples of the fundamental
frequency, i.e. the harmonics,
 a DC component, where applicable.
Application of the Fourier theorem to the currents of non-linear loads indicates that a
periodic current I(t), of whatever form at frequency f (50 or 60 Hz), is the sum of
harmonic sinusoidal currents defined by:

I( t)  IH1 2 sin(t  1) 
 IHn
2 sin(nt  n)
n 2
where
 IH1 is the rms value of the fundamental current at frequency f (50 or 60 Hz),
  = 2  f is the angular frequency of the fundamental,
 1 is the phase displacement between the fundamental current and the voltage,
 IHn is the rms value of the nth harmonic, at frequency nf,
 n is the phase displacement between the nth harmonic current and the voltage.
It is important to evaluate the harmonics (n  2) with regards to the fundamental (n =
1) to determine to what degree the function differs from the fundamental.
To that end, the values below are taken into account.
Current individual harmonic content
This value expresses the ratio in percent between of the rms value of the given
harmonic and that of the fundamental.
IHn
Ihn %  100
IH1
All the harmonics present in a given current with the indication of their relative
importance (Ihn values) constitute the harmonic spectrum of the current. Generally
speaking, the influence of the orders above the 25th is negligible.
Current total harmonic distortion
This distortion is called THDI (Total Harmonic Distortion where I is for the current). It
expresses the ratio between the rms value of all harmonics (n  2) and that of the
fundamental. The THDI is also expressed in terms of the individual harmonics.

 IH
n
n 2
THDI%  100
IH1
2

 100
 IHn 
  IH 
n 2

2

1
 Ih %
2
n
n 2
Note. Harmonic contents are sometimes expressed with respect to the complete signal Irms,
and not the fundamental (IEC documents). Here, we use the definition of the CIGREE, which
uses the fundamental.
For the low harmonic contents analysed in the following pages, the two definitions produce
virtually identical results.
Rms value of a current with harmonics
The rms value of an alternating current with a period T is:
Irms 
1
T

T
0
I t dt
2
After calculation and using harmonic representation, this can be expressed as:

Irms 
 IH
n
2
n 1
where IHn = rms value of the nth harmonic.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 40
Harmonics filters (cont.)
The rms value is also expressed as:

 IH
Irms  IH12 
n
2
or:
n 2

Ieff  IH1 1 

n2
 IHn 


 IH1 
2
hence:

Irms  IH1 1 
 Ih
n
2
 IH1 1  THDI2
n 2
 Ihn = Ihn% / 100 (individual level expressed as a value and not as a percentage).
 THDI = THDI% / 100 (distortion expressed as a value and not as a percentage).
The rms value of the current is that of the fundamental, multiplied by a coefficient
which is due to the harmonics and is a function of the distortion.
 One effect of harmonics is therefore to increase the rms value of the current,
which can lead to temperature rise and therefore require oversizing of conductors.
The lower the distortion, the less need for oversizing.
Example
Input current of a three-phase rectifier.
Harmonic distortion levels
Ih5 = 33%
Ih7 = 2.7%
Ih11 = 7.3%
Ih13 = 1.6%
Ih17 = 2.6%
Ih19 = 1.1%
Ih23 = 1.5%
Ih25 = 1.3%
THDI = 35%
Fig 5.27. Example of the spectrum of a harmonic current.

THDI% 
 Ih %
2
n
n 2
The value under the square root sign is:
332 + 2.72 + 7.32 + 1.62 +2.62 + 1.12 + 1.52 +1.32 = 1164
consequently THDI%  34% and THDI = 0.34.
Ieff  IH1 1 THDI2 = IH1 1  0.34 2 = 1.056 x I1
The rms value of this current is therefore 5.6% higher than the rms value of the
fundamental, i.e. than the rated current containing no harmonics, with a
corresponding temperature rise.
Voltage values
At the terminals of a non-linear load, through which a distorted periodic AC current
flows, the voltage is also periodic with a frequency f and it is also distorted with
respect to the theoretical sinusoidal wave. The relation between voltage and current
is no longer governed by Ohm's linear law, because it is applicable only for
sinusoidal voltage and current. It is possible, however, to use a Fourier expansion for
the voltage and to define, similar to the current and with the same results, the
following values:
Voltage individual harmonic content
UHn
Uhn %  100
UH1
The harmonic spectrum can also be calculated for the voltage.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 41
Harmonics filters (cont.)
Voltage total harmonic distortion

 UH
n
2
n 2
THDU%  100

 100
UH1
 UHn 


UH1 
n 2 


2

 Uh 
2
n
n 2
THDU for Total Harmonic Distortion, where U is for the voltage.
Rms value of a voltage with harmonics

Irms 
 IH
n
2
n 1
Which, similar to the current, can also be expressed as:

Urms  UH1 1
Uh
n
2
 IH1 1 THDU2
n2
 The rms value of the voltage is that of the fundamental, multiplied by a coefficient
which is due to the harmonics.
Power values
Power factor in the presence of harmonics
On the basis of the active power at the terminals of a non-linear load P (kW) and the
apparent power supplied S (kVA), the power factor is defined by:
P (kW )

S (kVA )
This power factor does not express the phase displacement between the voltage and
the current because they are not sinusoidal. However, it is possible to define the
displacement between the voltage fundamental and the current fundamental (both
sinusoidal), by:
P1(KW )
cos 1 
S1(kVA )
where P1 and S1 are the active and reactive power, respectively, corresponding to
the fundamentals.
Standard IEC 146-1 defines the distortion factor:


cos 1
When there are no harmonics, this factor is equal to 1 and the power factor is simply
the cos .
Power in the presence of harmonics
 Across the terminals of a balanced, three-phase linear load, supplied with a
phase-to-phase voltage u(t) and a current I(t), where the displacement between u
and i is , the apparent power in kVA, depending on the rms values U and I, is:
S  UI 3
The active power in kW is: P = S cos 
The reactive power in kvar is: Q = S sin 
Where:
S
P 2  Q2
 At the terminals of a non-linear load, the mathematical definition of P is much
more complex because U and I contain harmonics. It can however be expressed
simply as:
.P = S . ( = power factor)
If U1 and I1 are the fundamentals displaced by 1, it is possible to calculate the
corresponding apparent, active and reactive power by:
S1 U1 I1 3
P1 = S1 cos 1 and Q1 = S1 sin 1. The total apparent power is:
S  P12  Q12  D2
where D is the distortion power, due to the harmonics.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 42
Non-linear loads and PWM technology
Non-linear load
performance of UPSs using
PWM technology
Importance of the UPS output impedance
Equivalent diagram of an inverter output
With respect to the load, an inverter is a perfect source of sinusoidal voltage V0 in
series with an output impedance Zs. Figure 5.28 shows the equivalent diagram of the
inverter output when a load is present.
The inverter output is a perfect voltage source Vc = impedance across the load terminals.
V0 in series with an output impedance Zs. Vs = impedance at the inverter output.
ZL = line impedance.
Zc = load impedance.
Fig. 5.28. Equivalent diagram of an inverter output.
Effects of different load types
 For a linear load, the impedances Zs, ZL, Zc are considered at the angular
frequency  = 2  f corresponding to the distribution frequency (f = 50 or 60 Hz),
giving
V0 = (Zs + ZL + Zc) I
 For a non-linear load, the harmonic currents drawn by the load flow through the
impedances. For the fundamental and each individual harmonic, the rms values of
the current and the voltage are related similarly and can be expressed as:
- for the fundamental: U1 = (Zs + ZL + Zc) I1
- for each harmonic order k: UK = [Zs(kf) + ZL(kf) + Zc(kf)] IK
The impedance values are considered at the frequency kf of the given order.
Voltage distortion decreases with the individual levels of the voltage harmonics UK /
U1.
These levels are related to those of the harmonic currents IK/ I1 by the equation:
[Zs(kf) + ZL(kf) + Zc(kf)] / (Zs + ZL + Zc).
 Consequently, for a given load current spectrum, the individual voltage harmonic
levels and the total distortion (THDU) decrease with the impedance of the source
and the cables at the given frequencies.
Consequences of non-linear loads
To reduce the effects of the harmonic currents (THDU at B and C), it is necessary, to
the greatest extent possible, to:
 reduce the line impedance,
 ensure a low source impedance at the various harmonic frequencies.
 Good behaviour on the part of a UPS supplying non-linear loads requires a low
output impedance at the various harmonic frequencies.
Below is a presentation of the advantages of the PWM (pulse width modulation)
chopping technique in this respect.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 43
Non-linear loads and PWM technology (cont.)
UPS operating principle
Chopping of the DC voltage by the inverter with filtering
An inverter is made up of a converter that transforms the DC power supplied by the
rectifier/charger or the battery into AC power. For example, on a single-phase UPS,
there are two ways to convert the DC power, using either a half bridge (see fig. 5.29)
or a full bridge (see fig. 5.30).
The square-wave voltage obtained between A and B is then filtered to produce a
sinusoidal voltage with a low level of distortion at the output.
The switches represented here to illustrate the principle are controlled IGBTs.
Fig. 5.29. Half-bridge DC/AC converter.
Fig. 5.30. Full-bridge DC/AC converter.
Practically speaking, the switches shown in figures 5.29 and 5.30 are IGBTs for
which it is possible to control the relative on and off times.
By controlling the on and off times, it is possible to "distribute" the voltage over the
reference sinusoidal wave. This principle is known as PWM (pulse width modulation).
It is shown in a simplified manner, with five square-wave pulses, in figure 5.31. The
area of the voltage sinusoidal wave is equal to that of the square-wave pulses used
to generate it. These areas represent the power supplied by the inverter to the load
T
over a given time, i.e.
 VIdt
0
The higher the chopping frequency (the higher the number of square-wave pulses),
the better the regulation with respect to the reference wave. Chopping also reduces
the size of the internal filter required on the LC output (see fig. 5.32).
Fig. 5.31. DC/AC converter output voltage
with five square-wave pulses per half-wave.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Fig. 5.32. Inverter output filter.
ch. 5 - p. 44
Non-linear loads and PWM technology (cont.)
PWM inverters
PWM chopping
The PWM (pulse width modulation) chopping technique combines high-frequency
chopping (a few kHz) of the DC voltage by the inverter and regulation of the pulse
width for the inverter output, to comply with a reference sinusoidal wave.
This technique uses IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors) offering the
advantages of voltage control and very short commutation times. Due to the high
frequency, the regulation system can react quickly (e.g. 333 nanoseconds for a
frequency of 3 kHz) to modify the pulse widths within a given period.
 Comparison with the reference voltage wave makes it possible to maintain the
inverter output voltage within strict distortion tolerances, even for highly distorted
currents.
Functional diagram of a PWM inverter
Figure 5.33 shows the functional diagram of a PWM inverter.
The output voltage is continuously compared to the reference voltage Vref which is a
sinusoidal wave with a very low level of distortion (< 1%).
The difference in the voltage  is processed by a corrector, according to a transfer
function C(p), intended to ensure the performance and stability of control.
The voltage from the corrector is then amplified by the DC/AC converter and its
control system with a gain A. The Vm voltage supplied by the converter is filtered by
the LC filter to supply the output voltage Vs.
Practically speaking, it is necessary to take into account the impedance of the output
transformer when it exists, to obtain the total inductance L. Often, the inductance is
built into the transformer, which is why it is not included in diagrams.
Fig. 5.33. Functional diagram of a PWM inverter.
Output impedance of a PWM inverter
It is possible to represent the above DC/AC converter and filter as a series
impedance Z1 and a parallel impedance Z2 (see the left-hand side of fig. 5.34).
The diagram can be modified to display the output impedance Zs.
The equivalent diagram (right-hand side of fig. 42) shows:
Z2
 V'm = voltage measured under no-load conditions, i.e. V'm = Vm
Z1  Z 2
 Zs = impedance measured at the output with V'm short-circuited, i.e.:
Zs =
Z1 Z 2
Z1  Z 2
Fig. 5.34. Equivalent diagram of an inverter as seen from the output.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 45
Non-linear loads and PWM technology (cont.)
Z2
is the transfer function of the filter, noted H(p).
Z1  Z 2
To simplify, C(p) x A is replaced by (p) which represents the transfer function of the
correction and amplification.
It is thus possible to replace fig. 5.41 by the functional diagram in fig. 5.43.
The ratio
Fig. 5.35. Transformed functional diagram of a PWM-chopping inverter equipped with an
output-voltage regulation system with modulated chopping frequency.
It is possible to show that the inverter output impedance Zs in this case is equal to:
Z1
Z' s 
 (p)
(for further information, consult Schneider Electric Cahier Technique document no.
159).
This means that in the regulation pass band, the inverter output impedance is equal
to the filter series impedance divided by the correction and amplification gain.
Given the high gain in the regulation pass band, the output impedance is significantly
reduced compared to impedance Z1 of an inverter without this type of regulation.
Outside the regulation pass band, the inverter output impedance is equal to that of
the filter, but remains low because it corresponds to the impedance of a highfrequency capacitor.
Consequently, the output impedance is a function of the frequency (see fig. 5.36).
 The free-frequency PWM (pulse width modulation) technique considerably limits
the output impedance.
Comparison of different
sources
Output impedance of various sources
The curves in figure 5.36 show the output impedances for various sources with equal
output ratings as a function of the AC frequency. The impedances are plotted as a
percent of the load impedance Zc.
 Transformers and generators - the curve is a straight line corresponding to the
effect of the inductance L (the term which rapidly becomes dominant in the reactance
with respect to the resistance and which increases linearly as a function of the
frequency).
 Modern inverters implementing the PWM chopping technique with modulated
chopping frequency - at all harmonic frequencies, the Zs/Zc ratio is:
- less than that noted for other sources,
- low and virtually constant.
Conclusion
The PWM inverter is the source offering by far the lowest output impedance in the
presence of harmonics. It is clearly the best source on the market in terms of its
aptitude to minimise the voltage distortion caused by non-linear loads. It is five to six
times better than a transformer with an identical power rating.
 The new generation of UPSs implementing IGBTs and the PWM chopping
technique with frequency modulation are the best sources of sinusoidal voltage,
whatever the type of current drawn by the load.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 46
Non-linear loads and PWM technology (cont.)
Fig. 5.36. Output impedance of different sources depending on the frequency.
Free-frequency chopping
Free-frequency chopping
Free frequency is an improvement to the PWM technique.
PWM chopping can use either of two techniques (fig. 5.37).
Fixed-frequency chopping
The chopping fronts occur at fixed, regular intervals corresponding to the chopping
frequency over one period.
The width of the pulses (square-wave pulses) can be modulated to conform to the
reference within the fixed time interval.
The two sine waves shown in the diagram correspond to the tolerance (< 1%)
around the reference sine wave.
Free-frequency chopping
The chopping fronts do not necessarily occur at fixed intervals. Chopping adapts to
the requirements of the regulation, i.e. the rate of change of the reference. The width
of the commutation fronts decreases (the chopping frequency increases) as the rate
of change of the reference sine wave increases. Conversely, the width of the
commutation fronts increases (the chopping frequency decreases) as the rate of
change of the reference decreases. On the whole, the average chopping frequency
is the same as that for the fixed-frequency technique (approximately 3 kHz). But
regulation is better because the commutation accelerates in the zones where the
rate of change is high (see fig. 5.38).
It can reach eight commutations per millisecond, i.e. a regulation time as low as 125
nanoseconds (compared to 300 ns for the fixed-frequency technique).
 The free-frequency technique increases the precision of the voltage regulation in
PWM inverters compared to the fixed-frequency technique.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 47
Non-linear loads and PWM technology (cont.)
The chopping frequency is fixed.
Modulation takes place within fixed intervals,
whatever the rate of change of the reference
sine wave.
Fixed frequency.
The free chopping frequency increases where
the rate of change of the reference is high.
Modulation therefore takes place within
intervals that are shorter when the rate of
change of the reference sine wave increases.
Free frequency.
Fig. 5.37. PWM chopping with fixed-frequency and free-frequency regulation.
Free-frequency
switching
Quality
band with
variations
< 1%
Output voltage
curve
Up to 8 commutations
per millisecond
Fig. 5.38. Regulation employing free-frequency commutation.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 48
PFC Rectifiers
Standard and PFC rectifiers
UPS units draw power from the AC distribution system via a rectifier/charger. With
respect to the upstream system, the rectifier is a non-linear load drawing harmonics.
In terms of harmonics, there are two types of rectifiers.
Standard rectifiers
These are three-phase rectifiers incorporating SCRs and using a six-phase bridge
with standard chopping of the current.
This type of bridge draws harmonic currents with orders of n = 6 k  1 (where k is a
whole number), mainly H5 and H7, and to a lesser degree H11 and H13.
Harmonics are controlled by using a filter.
"Clean" PFC (Power Factor Correction) rectifier
This type of rectifier comprises built-in IGBTs and a regulation system that adjusts
the input voltage and current to a reference sine wave. This technique ensures an
input voltage and current that are:
 perfectly sinusoidal, i.e. free of harmonics,
 in phase, i.e. an input power factor close to 1.
With this type of rectifier, no filters are required.
PFC rectifiers
Operating principle
The principle behind PFC rectifiers consists in forcing the current drawn to remain
sinusoidal. To that end, they use the PWM technique presented above.
The principle is that of a "voltage source" converter (see fig. 5.39), whereas the
SineWave active harmonic conditioner uses a "current source" converter.
The converter acts as a back-electromotive force (a "sinusoidal voltage generator")
on the distribution system and the sinusoidal current is obtained by inserting an
inductor between the utility power and the voltage source.
Even if other non-linear loads increase the voltage distortion on the distribution
system, the regulation can adapt to draw a sinusoidal current.
The frequency of low residual harmonic currents is the frequency of the modulation
and of its multiples. Frequency depends on the possibilities of the semiconductors
used.
Fig. 5.39. Operating principle of a clean "voltage generator" converter.
Implementation
Single-phase rectifier
Figure 5.40 shows the operation of a single-phase rectifier.
Voltage modulation is obtained by a controller that forces the current to follow a
sinusoidal current reference.
Transistor T and diode D make up the voltage modulator. The voltage u thus
changes between 0 and Vs according to whether transistor T is in the on or off state.
When transistor T conducts, the current in inductor L can only increase as the
voltage is positive and u = 0.
Therefore:
di e
 >0
dt L
PC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 49
PFC Rectifiers (cont.)
When transistor T is off, the current in L decreases, provided that Vs is greater than
V, so that:
di e  Vs
>0

dt
L
For this condition to be fulfilled, voltage Vs must be greater than the peak voltage of
V, i.e. the rms value of the AC voltage multiplied by 2
If this condition is fulfilled, the current in L can be increased or decreased at any
time. The variation of the current in L with time can be forced by monitoring the
respective on and off times of transistor T. Figure 5.41 shows the evolution of current
IL with respect to a reference value.
From the source viewpoint, the converter must
act like a resistance, i.e. current i must be
sinusoidal and in phase with e (cos  = 1).
By controlling transistor T, the controller forces
IL to follow a sinusoidal current reference with
full-wave rectification. The shape of I is thus
necessarily sinusoidal and in phase with e.
What is more, to keep voltage Vs at its
nominal value at the output, the controller
adjusts the mean value of IL.
Fig. 5.40. Diagram of a clean, single-phase rectifier drawing a sinusoidal signal.
Fig. 5.41. Evolution of current IL with respect to the reference.
PC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 50
PFC Rectifiers (cont.)
Three-phase rectifier/charger
The basic circuit arrangement is shown in fig. 5.42. It is similar to that in fig. 5.40,
with the inductor placed upstream of the rectifiers; the operating principle is also the
same. The monitoring system controls each power leg and forces the current drawn
on each phase to follow the sinusoidal reference.
Fig. 5.42. Diagram of a clean, three-phase rectifier drawing a sinusoidal signal.
PC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 51
PFC Rectifiers (cont.)
PC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 5 - p. 52
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Part 1 GENERAL
1.1. SUMMARY
A.
This specification describes a three-phase, on-line, continuous operation, solid-state uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with the option to run in parallel with identical units. The UPS shall operate
as an active power control system, working in conjunction with the building electrical system to
provide power conditioning and on-line power protection for the critical loads.
1.2. DESCRIPTION
A.
The UPS shall consist of the following easy to repair rectifier/inverter sections and easy to install
internal and external battery units.
B.
The UPS shall be provided with separate feeds for rectifier/inverter section and the static bypass
switch.
C.
Modes of operation: The UPS shall operate as an on-line system in the following modes:
1.
Normal: The inverter and the rectifier shall operate in an on-line manner to continuously
regulate the power to the critical load. The rectifier shall derive power from the AC input
source and supply DC power to float charge the battery.
2.
Battery: Upon failure of the AC input source, the critical load shall continue being supplied
by the main inverter without any switching. The inverter shall obtain its power from the battery. There shall be no interruption in power to the critical load upon failure or restoration of
the AC input source.
3.
Recharge: Upon restoration of the AC input source, the UPS shall simultaneously recharge
the battery and regulate the power to the critical load.
4.
Static Bypass: The static bypass switch shall be used for transferring the critical load to input supply without interruption. Automatic re-transfer to normal operation shall also be accomplished with no interruption in power to the critical load. The static bypass switch shall
be fully rated and shall be capable of manual operation. The UPS shall be able to recharge
the batteries while supplying full power to the load via the static bypass switch.
5.
Internal maintenance bypass switch: The UPS shall be provided with an internal manual bypass switch for supplying the load directly from the mains supply, while the UPS is taken out
for maintenance. The switch should be removable when the individual UPS unit has to run
in parallel with other units.
6.
External Maintenance Bypass Panel (MBP): The external Maintenance Bypass Panel shall
be used for paralleling of multiple UPS units (optional for single UPS unit) to supply the load
directly from the mains supply, if the UPS system has to undergo maintenance or service.
An UPS input, output, common output and bypass breaker shall be housed in the same lowvoltage assembly. The manual bypass breaker must be monitored by each UPS via an auxiliary contact. The Maintenance Bypass Panel must be housed in a wall mounted lowvoltage assembly that complements the appearance of the UPS.
D.
The UPS shall be provided with RS-232 signalling and WEB/SNMP integration. This system must
provide a means for logging and alarming of all monitored points plus email notification.
E.
The UPS shall have nominal voltage of 3×400 (adjustable for 3×380, 3×415), 50Hz, L1, L2, L3, N,
PE.
F.
The UPS will be capable of paralleling up to max 4 like kVA and type UPS systems for capacity.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 1
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
G.
The UPS shall be compatible with all types of data centres, data rooms and facilities. Dedicated
service to one specific environment shall not be acceptable.
1.3. STANDARDS
A.
Safety:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B.
IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test and performance requirements.
IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
LV directive: 2006/95/EC
Harmonics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
C.
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.
IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A/ph).
IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.
EMC:
1.
2.
3.
D.
EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
Quality:
1.
E.
Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality organisation.
Ecological environment:
1.
F.
Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
Acoustic noise
1.
2.
APC by Schneider Electric
ISO 3746
Sound power levels.
ISO 7779 / EN 27779
Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 2
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
1.4. CLASSIFICATION
A.
Classification according to EN/IEC 62040-3: VFI-SS-112
1.5. SUBMITTALS
A.
Proposal Submittals
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Bid system bill of materials.
Product catalogue sheets or equipment brochures.
Product guide specifications.
System single-line operation diagram.
Floor layout.
Capacity data
Piping connection drawing.
Installation guide.
Drawings for requested optional accessories.
B. Delivery Submittals
1.
2.
3.
Installation manual, which includes instructions for storage, handling, examination, preparation, installation, and start-up of all systems.
User manual, which includes operating instructions.
As built equipment drawings.
1.6. QUALIFICATIONS
A.
Manufacturer experience: The manufacturer shall have a minimum of 20 years experience in the
design, manufacture, and testing of UPS and cooling systems.
B.
ISO 9001 Certification: The manufacturer shall be ISO 9001 & 14001 certified. Certification assures that the vendor’s quality control & environmental measures have been certified by an accredited registrar and meet internationally recognized standards.
1.7. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
APC by Schneider Electric
Storage ambient temperature:
Without abbtery: –25°C to 70°C dry heat
With battery: –10°C to 45°C
Operating ambient temperature: 0°C to 40°C. 15°C to 25°C is ideal for batteries (above the battery lifetime is reduced).
Relative humidity: 0 to 95%, non-condensing.
Storage elevation: 0 to 15000m.
Operating altitude with no de-rating: 0 to 1000m above sea level.
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 3
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Part 2 PRODUCT
2.1. STATIC UPS
A.
GENERAL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
B.
The UPS shall be housed in a free standing enclosure. The enclosure shall be designed to
blend into an IT environment. The cabinet shall be equipped for fork truck lifting. All service
and installation access shall be from the front and top
The UPS should be able to line up and match and bolt together with other similar kVA and
type UPS’ to have the appearance of one entity.
The UPS shall be in a self contained cabinet and comprise …[10kVA, 15kVA, 20kVA,
30kVA or 40kVA].. power section; Bypass Static Switch; Battery for standard run time and
interface LCD display all mounted in a separate cabinet. The UPS shall permit user installable and removable battery units.
The power section shall be of the Double Conversion On-Line topology with power factor
corrected input.
The UPS shall be sized for ______ kVA and ______ kW load at power factor 0.8.
The UPS battery shall be sized for ____ at a power factor of ____ for _____ minutes.
SYSTEM INPUT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
C.
Nominal Input voltage rating: 3×400 (adjustable for 3×380 or 3×415)
Input Voltage range: 304-477V
Earthing principle: [TN-S] [TT] or [IT].
Input frequency: 40-70 Hz (auto sensing)
Input power factor: 0.98 for load > 50%
Magnetizing inrush current: NONE, if optional input isolating transformer is installed then
500% of nominal input current for less than one cycle
Input current distortion with no additional filters.
< 5% THD at 100% load
Power walk-in/Soft-Start: Shall be linear from 0 to 100% of the load over a 15-second
period
SYSTEM OUTPUT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
APC by Schneider Electric
Nominal Output voltage rating: 3×400.
Earthing principle: [TN-S] [TT] or [IT].
Output voltage regulation for steady state and transient variations (at default parameter settings):
a. ± 1% steady state for a static 100% balanced load.
b. ± 1% steady state for a static 100% unbalanced load.
c. ± 5% for a 0 to 100% load step.
Max. Voltage transient recovery time: 100 ms milliseconds to nominal.
Output frequency regulation:
Synchronized to mains over the range of
a. 47-53Hz or 57-63Hz in normal operation.
b. 50 Hz ± 0.1 Hz in battery operation.
Output voltage harmonic distortion:
a. <2% THD maximum and 1% single harmonic for a 100% linear load
b. <5% THD maximum for a 100% non-linear load
Overload capability:
a. 150% for 1 minute in normal operation.
b. 125% for 10 minutes in normal operation.
c. 110% continuous in bypass operation.
d. 800% for 500 milliseconds in bypass operation
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 4
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
D.
Phase displacement:
a. 20 degrees ± 1 degree for balanced load.
b. 20 degrees ± 1 degree for 50% unbalanced load.
c. 20 degrees ± 3 degrees for 100% unbalanced load.
Output Power Factor Rating: For loads exhibiting a power factor of 0.5 leading to 0.5
lagging, no de-rating of the UPS shall be required.
Short circuit withstand: The UPS must withstand a bolted-fault short circuit on the output
without damage to the UPS unit.
System AC-to-AC efficiency >95.3% for loads greater than 100% of system load.
System AC-to-AC efficiency >94% for loads greater than 50% of system load.
Acoustical noise: dB(A) of noise, typically, measured at 1 meter from the operator surface:
a. < 52dBA - 10kVA – 20kVA
b. < 55dBA - 30kVA – 40kVA
COMPONENTS
1. Rectifier
a. Each UPS unit shall include an active power factor corrected rectifier.
b. DC bus voltage shall be ±192Vdc nominal.
c. The battery charging shall keep the DC bus float voltage of ±220v, ±1%
d. The DC buss voltage shall be compensated against temperature variations (Battery
Temperature Compensation) to always maintain optimal battery float charging voltage for temperature excursions above or below 25°C. Temperature compensation
rate shall be 320mV/°C for ambient temperatures > 2 0°C and 0mV/°C for ambient
temperatures < 20°C.
e. DC ripple voltage shall be less than ±1% of nominal with no battery connected.
f. Input power factor shall be 0.98 lagging at 100% load with out the use of passive filters. Rectifier shall employ electronic waveform control technology to maintain the
current sinusoidal.
g. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) current control shall be used. Digital Signal Processors (DSP) shall be used for all monitoring and control tasks. Analogue control is
not acceptable.
h. Reflected input current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) shall not exceed 5% at
100% load.
i. Input voltage window: 304-477V.
2. Batteries
a. Standard battery technology shall be Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA).
b. Batteries shall be housed in the same rack as the power section. Batteries shall be
modular on pull out shelves for quick replacement and servicing.
c. Battery voltage shall be Battery Temperature Compensated as outlined in the rectifier section above.
d. End of discharge: ±160Vdc.
e. For longer runtimes, external battery frames in the same design should be offered.
f. Battery Charge Current Limit: The UPS shall be capable of limiting the energy
sourced from the mains for purposes of battery charging. As a default setting, the
battery charge energy will be set to 100% of its nominal value. When signalled by a
dry contact, (such as from an emergency generator) the UPS shall be capable of
limiting the battery charge energy taken from the mains. This shall take place in
user selectable increments of 75%, 50%, 25%, 10% and 0% of the nominal charge
power. The selection shall be made from the UPS front panel display/control unit.
g. The battery charging circuit shall remain active when in Static Bypass and in Normal
Operation.
3. Inverter
a. The inverter shall consist of fast switching IGBT power module.
b. Inverter shall be PWM controlled using DSP logic. Analogue control shall not be acceptable.
c. The inverters shall be rated for an output power factor at 0.8.
d. Nominal output voltage shall be 3×400 and adjustable for 3×380 or 3×415, 50Hz,
L1,L2,L3,N,PE.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 5
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
e. Efficiency of each inverter at full load: Not less than
• 10kVA
94.5%
• 15kVA
95.8%
• 20kVA
95.5%
• 30kVA
95.8%
• 40kVA
95.6%
f. Output Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion at full load:
• Less than 2% for 100% resistive load.
• Less than 5% for computer load as defined by EN50091-3/IEC 62040-3.
g. Output voltage regulation
• Static: Less than 1% at full linear load.
• Dynamic: 5% at 100% step load.
h. Output frequency: 50Hz free running.
i. Crest factor: Unlimited but regulates it down to 2.7.
j. Remote Emergency Power Off (EPO) shall be standard (wall switch and wiring shall
be provided by the electrical contractor).
4. Static Bypass Switch
a. The static switch shall consist of fully rated Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs).
Part rated SCRs with a wrap around contactor are not acceptable.
b. The static bypass switch shall automatically transfer the critical load to bypass input
supply without interruption after the logic senses one of the following conditions:
• Inverter overload beyond rating.
• Battery runtime expired and bypass available.
• Inverter failure.
• Fatal error in control system.
c. The static bypass switch shall automatically retransfer from bypass to the inverter,
when one of the following conditions occurs:
• After an instantaneous overload-induced transfer has occurred and the load
current has returned to less than 100% of the system rating.
• The inverter is active (on).
d. The static bypass switch shall be equipped with a manual means of transferring the
load to bypass and back to inverter.
e. If more than 10 transfers from and to inverter occur in a 10 minutes period, the load
shall be locked on static bypass. An alarm communicating this condition shall be
annunciated.
E.
MECHANICAL
1. Design
a. The UPS power section, Static Bypass Switch, internal manual bypass switch and
the VRLA batteries shall be housed in a free standing enclosure having the following specifications:
• Caster fitted for mobility. Levelling feet shall be supplied as standard.
• Cable entry shall be from the bottom on the back of the UPS.
• The SUVT UPS enclosure shall meet an ingress level of min. IP20.
2. UPS unit dimensions: Height×Width×Depth
[Choose one, depending on UPS kVA and required backup time:]
10 to 20 kVA
30 to 40 kVA
APC by Schneider Electric
1500 x (352/523) x 838 mm
1500 x 523 x 838 mm
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 6
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
F.
DISPLAY, CONTROLS AND ALARMS
1. A microprocessor controlled display unit shall be located on the front of the system. The diplay
shall consist of an alphanumeric display with backlight, an alarm LED, and a keypad consist
ing of pushbutton switches.
2. The following metered data, shall be available on the alphanumeric display:
a. Year, Month, Day, Hour, Minute, Second of occurring events
b. Input AC Voltage
c. Output AC voltage
d. Output AC current
e. Input Frequency
f. Battery voltage
g. Highest Internal Battery temperature
3. The display unit shall allow the user to display an event log of all active alarms and of the 64
most recent status and alarm events.
The following minimum set of alarm conditions shall be available:
a. Static bypass switch on
b. EPO Active
c. Mechanical bypass activated
d. External bypass switch (Q3) activated
e. Battery discharged
f. Return from low battery
g. Low battery
h. Load not powered from UPS
i. UPS in bypass
j. Runtime calibration aborted
k. Runtime calibration started
l. Runtime calibration complete
m. Battery self test aborted
n. Battery self test started
o. Battery self test completed
p. Number of battery modules decreased
q. Number of battery modules increased
r. Fan fault
s. SBS fault
t. System not in sync.
u. Bypass not available, frequency/voltage out of range
v. Mains voltage/frequency out of range
w. Site wiring fault
x. Low battery voltage shut down
y. XR battery breaker or fuse open
z. Defective battery detected
aa. Runtime is below alarm threshold
bb. Load is above alarm threshold
cc. Battery over-voltage warning
dd. Battery over-temperature warning
ee. Emergency power supply fault
ff. Output overloaded
4. The following controls or programming functions shall be accomplished by use of the display
unit. Pushbutton membrane switches shall facilitate these operations.
a. Silence audible Alarm
b. Set the alphanumeric display language
c. Display or set the date and time
d. Enable or disable the automatic restart feature
e. Transfer critical load to and from static bypass
f. Test battery condition on demand
g. Set intervals for automatic battery tests
h. Adjust set points for different alarms
i. Program the parameters for remote shutdown.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 7
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
5. The following shall make up the UPS front panel user interface.
a. UPS output
• On Battery: When Yellow, this LED indicates the UPS is running from Battery
power
• Bypass:
When Yellow, this LED indicates the load is being supported by
static bypass/mechanical bypass
• Fault:
When Red, this LED indicates there is a fault condition present in
the UPS.
b. Push Button User Controls
• Up Arrow
• Down Arrow
• Help Key
• Escape Key
• Enter Key
6. Potential Free (Dry) Contacts
a. The following potential free contacts shall be available on an optional relay interface
board:
• Normal Operation
• Battery Operation
• Bypass Operation
• Common Fault
• Low Battery
• UPS Off
7. For purposes of remote communications with the UPS the following shall be available and
contained within the UPS on a removable, “hot swappable” “smart slot” interface card:
a. RJ-45 Interface port for remote communications with a network via web browser or
SNMP.
b. Environmental monitoring feature, capable of locally monitoring temperature and
humidity as well as one additional generic set of user determined dry contacts capable of taking an input signal from any on/off signal, such as water detection,
smoke detection, motion, or fire detection.
G.
BATTERY
1.
2.
APC by Schneider Electric
The UPS battery shall be of modular construction made up of user replaceable, hot swappable, fused, battery modules. Each battery module shall be monitored to determine the
highest battery unit temperature for use by the UPS battery diagnostic, and temperature
compensated charger circuitry.
The battery blocks housed within each removable battery module shall be of the Valve
Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) type.
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 8
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Part 3
ACCESSORIES
A.
EXTENDED RUNTIME (XR) OPTION
1.
2.
For purposes of extending the UPS battery runtime, external extended runtime options shall
be available. The extended runtime option shall be housed in “line up and match” type enclosures and shall contain necessary hardware and cables to connect to the UPS, or between XR enclosures. Each XR enclosure shall be equipped with removable, hot swappable,
battery units housed in draw-out cartridges.
The extended runtime system shall have a 250 VDC rated, thermal magnetic trip moulded
case circuit breaker (MCCB). Each circuit breaker shall be equipped with shunt trip mechanisms and 1 NO/NC auxiliary contacts. The circuit breakers are to be equipped as part of a
line-up-and-match type battery enclosure.
B. MAINTENANCE BYPASS PANEL (MBP)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A MBP should be offered as a standard option either for single unit or parallel configurations.
The maintenance bypass panel shall provide power to the critical load bus from the bypass
source, during times where maintenance or service of the UPS system is required. The
MBP shall provide a mechanical means of complete isolation of the UPS system from the
mains supply. The MBP shall be constructed in a free-standing or wall-mounted IP20 enclosure unless otherwise stated in this specification.
As a minimum, the MBP shall contain the following features and accessories:
Current limiting breakers of the appropriate size – limiting the short circuit level to max. Isc =
30 kA for the system.
Minimum 1 NO/NC auxiliary contact per unit in the parallel system for the purpose of relaying status information of the manual maintenance bypass switch to the UPS.
In the case of parallel operation sufficient CAN bus PCB’s to provide adequate communications of the MBP status to the UPS system parallel control system.
CE marked according to at least EN/IEC60439.
The MBP shall be made to Form 3b
The MBP shall be made to IP2XC
C. PARALLEL OPERATION
1.
2.
3.
For purposes of paralleling UPS units in the event of increased capacity or redundancy, the
UPS shall contain as a standard feature, the ability to parallel up to 4 units. In this mode of
operation the output voltage, output frequency, output phase angle, and output impedance
of each unit shall operate in uniformity to ensure correct load sharing. This control function
shall not require any additional footprint and shall be an integral function of each UPS.
Multi-drop Bus Network: Communication between units shall be connected in a multi-drop
bus network comprising two parallel redundant busses so that the removal of any single
cable shall not jeopardize the integrity of the parallel communication system.
Load Sharing: A load sharing circuit shall be incorporated into the parallel control circuits to
ensure that under no load conditions, no circulating current exists between units. This
feature also allows each UPS to share equal amounts of the total critical load bus. Load
sharing communications shall be galvanically isolated for purposes of fault tolerance
between UPS units. A UPS unit's influence over load sharing shall be inhibited in any mode
where the UPS inverter is not supporting its output bus.
D. SOFTWARE AND CONNECTIVITY
1.
2.
3.
APC by Schneider Electric
The Ethernet Web/SNMP Adaptor shall allow one or more network management systems
(NMS) to monitor and manage the UPS in TCP/IP network environments. The management
information base (MIB) shall be provided in DOS and UNIX "tar" formats. The SNMP interface adaptor shall be connected to the UPS via the RS232 serial port on the standard communication interface board.
Unattended Shutdown
The UPS, in conjunction with a network interface card, shall be capable of gracefully shutting down one or more operating systems during when the UPS is on reserve mode.
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 9
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
4.
E.
The UPS shall also be capable of using an RS232 port to communicate by means of serial
communications to gracefully shut down one or more operating systems during an on battery situation.
REMOTE UPS MONITORING
The following three methods of remote UPS monitoring shall be available:
1.
2.
3.
F.
Web Monitoring: Remote monitoring shall be available via a web browser such as Internet
Explorer.
RS232 Monitoring: Remote UPS monitoring shall be possible via either RS232 or contact
closure signals from the UPS.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): Remote UPS Monitoring shall be possible
through a standard MIB II compliant platform.
SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY
The UPS manufacturer shall have available software to support graceful shutdown and or remote
monitoring for the following systems:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
APC by Schneider Electric
Microsoft Windows 95/98/XP
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 SP6/2000
OS/2
Netware 3.2 – 5.1
MAC OS 9.04, 9.22, 10
Digital Unix/True 64
SGI 6.0-6.5
SCO UNIX
SVR4 2.3, 2.41
SCO Unix Ware 7.0 - 7.11
SUN Solaris 2.6-2.8
SUN OS 4.13, 4.14
IBM AIX 4.3x-4.33g, 5.1
HP-UX 9.x-11.i
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 10
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Part 4
EXECUTION
A.
FACTORY ASSISTED START-UP
If a factory assisted UPS start-up is requested, factory trained service personnel shall perform
the following inspections, test procedures, and on-site training:
1. Visual Inspection:
•
Inspect equipment for signs of damage.
•
Verify installation per manufacturer’s instructions.
•
Inspect cabinets for foreign objects.
•
Inspect Battery Units.
•
Inspect Power Module(s).
2. Mechanical Inspection:
•
Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass cabinet internal power wiring
connections.
•
Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass cabinet terminal screws, nuts,
and/or spade lugs for tightness.
3. Electrical Inspection:
•
Verify correct input and bypass voltage.
•
Verify correct phase rotation of all mains connections.
•
Verify correct UPS control wiring and terminations.
•
Verify voltage of all battery modules.
•
Verify neutral and ground conductors are properly landed.
•
Inspect external maintenance bypass switch for proper terminations and phasing.
4. Site Testing:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ensure proper system start-up.
Verify proper firmware control functions.
Verify proper firmware bypass operation.
Verify proper maintenance bypass switch operation.
Verify system set points.
Verify proper inverter operation and regulation circuits.
Simulate utility power failure.
Verify proper charger operation.
Document, sign, and date all test results.
5. On-Site Operational Training:
During the factory assisted start-up, operational training for site personnel shall include
•
key pad operation
•
LED indicators
•
start-up and shutdown procedures
•
Maintenance Bypass Panel operation
•
Battery breaker operation
•
Alarm information.
B.
MANUFACTURER FIELD SERVICE
1. Worldwide service: The UPS manufacturer shall have a worldwide service organization
available, consisting of factory trained field service personnel to perform start-up, prevent
tive maintenance, and service of the UPS system and power equipment. The service
organization shall offer 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year service support.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 11
Specification guide no. 1
Single/parallel UPS system, three-phase, 10 to 40/160 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
2. Replacement parts: Parts shall be available through the worldwide service organization 24
hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year. The worldwide service organization shall
be capable of shipping parts within 4 working hours or on the next available flight, so that
the parts may be delivered to the customer site within 24 hours.
C.
MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS
1. A complete offering of preventative and full service maintenance contracts for the UPS
sytem and the battery system shall be available. All contract work shall be performed by
factory trained service personnel.
D.
TRAINING
1. UPS service training workshop: A UPS service training workshop shall be available from the
UPS manufacturer. The service training workshop shall include a combination of lecture and
practical instruction with hands-on laboratory sessions. The service training workshop shall
include instruction about safety procedures, UPS operational theory, sub-assembly identify
cation and operation, system controls and adjustment, preventative maintenance, and trou
bleshooting.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec1 – p. 12
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA
Contents
1 - UPS definition ............................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 - Purpose .............................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 - Brief description .................................................................................................................. 2
2 - Operating principle ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 - Normal operation ................................................................................................................ 2
2.2 - Operation on battery power ................................................................................................ 2
2.3 - Battery recharge ................................................................................................................. 2
2.4 - Transfer to bypass AC source ............................................................................................ 3
2.5 - UPS maintenance ............................................................................................................... 3
2.6 - Battery maintenance ........................................................................................................... 3
2.7 - Cold start (AC power absent) .............................................................................................. 3
3 - Sizing and general characteristics ............................................................................................. 3
3.1 - Technology ......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 - Rating ................................................................................................................................. 3
3.3 - Battery backup time ............................................................................................................ 3
3.4 - Types of loads accepted ..................................................................................................... 3
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS ..................................................................... 4
3.6 - Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 4
3.7 - Noise level .......................................................................................................................... 4
4 - AC sources ................................................................................................................................... 4
4.1 - Normal AC source .............................................................................................................. 4
4.2 - Bypass AC source .............................................................................................................. 4
5 - Electrical characteristics ............................................................................................................. 4
5.1 - Rectifier and charger........................................................................................................... 4
5.2 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 5
5.3 - Inverter................................................................................................................................ 5
5.4 - Static bypass ...................................................................................................................... 6
5.5 - Discrimination and short circuit capacity ............................................................................. 6
5.6 - System earthing arrangement ............................................................................................. 6
6 - Mechanical characteristics .......................................................................................................... 7
6.1 - Mechanical structure ........................................................................................................... 7
6.2 - Scalable design .................................................................................................................. 7
6.3 - Dimensions ......................................................................................................................... 7
6.4 - Connections ........................................................................................................................ 7
6.5 - Safety.................................................................................................................................. 7
7 - Environment conditions .............................................................................................................. 7
7.1 - UPS (not including battery) ................................................................................................. 7
8 - Protection ..................................................................................................................................... 8
8.1 - UPS .................................................................................................................................... 8
8.2 - Rectifier/chargers ................................................................................................................ 8
8.3 - Inverters .............................................................................................................................. 8
8.4 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 8
9 - Battery management .................................................................................................................... 8
9.1 - Battery meter ...................................................................................................................... 8
9.2 - Digital battery management ................................................................................................ 9
9.1 - Block by block monitoring ................................................................................................... 9
10 - User interface and communication........................................................................................... 9
10.1 - User interface ................................................................................................................... 9
10.2 - Communication ................................................................................................................. 10
11 - Maintainability ............................................................................................................................ 11
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services ............................................. 11
12 - Standards and tests .................................................................................................................. 11
12.1 - Standards ......................................................................................................................... 11
12.2 - Certification of conformity ................................................................................................. 11
13 - Services ...................................................................................................................................... 12
13.1 - Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 12
13.2 - Technical competency ...................................................................................................... 12
13.3 - Functional components ..................................................................................................... 12
13.4 - System start-up ................................................................................................................. 12
13.5 - Replacement parts ............................................................................................................ 12
13.6 - Recycling and renovation.................................................................................................. 12
14 - Warranty...................................................................................................................................... 12
15 - Installation services ................................................................................................................... 13
16 - Electrical diagram ...................................................................................................................... 13
Appendix. Check list ......................................................................................................................... 14
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.1
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply (referred to as a UPS in the rest
of this document).
The UPS shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
For information purposes
MTBF in hours
Single-UPS unit with static bypass
475 000
Non availability
2.1x10-5
1.2 - Brief description
The UPS shall be a single-UPS unit, operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode); it shall be a
VFI-type UPS (as per standard IEC 62040-2), made up of the following components, described in detail in this
specification:
● PFC rectifier;
● battery charger;
● inverter;
● battery;
● static bypass (via a static switch);
● manual maintenance bypass;
● user and communications interface;
● battery management system;
● any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
The UPS shall ensure continuity of electric power to the load within the specified tolerances, without interruption
upon failure or deterioration of the normal AC source (utility power) for a maximum protection time determined by
the capacity of the backup batteries installed.
2 - Operating principle
The UPS shall operate in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode); it shall be a VFI-type UPS (as per
standard IEC 62040-2), made up of the following components, described in detail in this specification:
2.1 - Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier supplies the inverter with DC current while the charger simultaneously float charges the battery. The
load is continuously supplied with dependable electrical power by the inverter.
2.2 - Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load from
battery power without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the specified battery backup time.
2.3 - Battery recharge
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier shall again power the inverter, without interruption or
disturbance to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.2
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
2.4 - Transfer to bypass AC source
In the event of an overload exceeding system capabilities or UPS shutdown, the static bypass switch shall
instantaneously transfer the load to the bypass AC source without interruption, on the condition that bypass power
is available and within tolerances.
Transfer of the load back to the UPS-unit output, synchronised with the bypass AC source, shall be automatic or
manual. During transfer, the load shall not suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption if a major fault occurs on
the UPS system and if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been established.
2.5 - UPS maintenance
For maintenance purposes, the UPS shall include a mechanical maintenance bypass system with one-button
operation. For personnel safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the UPS while
continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. The UPS shall also include a device making it
possible to isolate the rectifiers and the chargers from the normal AC source.
All electronic components shall be accessible from the front of the UPS.
2.6 - Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance on the battery, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the battery from the
rectifier, the charger and the inverter. When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to
supply the load without interruption or disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.7 - Cold start (normal AC source absent)
The battery shall be capable of ensuring UPS start-up even if normal AC power is not available and continuing
operation within the specified back-up time (start on battery power shall be possible on the condition that the
system was already started with AC power present).
3 - Sizing and general characteristics
3.1 - Technology
The UPS shall be based on sixpack IGBT technology with built-in thermal monitoring and a free-frequency
chopping mode to dynamically optimise efficiency and power quality.
3.2 - Rating
The UPS shall be sized to continuously supply a load of…[ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120 ] kVA. The rated active power
must be constant for loads at a power factor (pf) of 0.8 lagging to 0.9 leading.
3.3 - Battery backup time
The battery backup time in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be _______ minutes, for a load power
factor of 0.8.
Battery service life shall be equal to at least …[ 5 / 10 ]…years. It shall be selected and sized correspondingly, for a
load power factor of 0.8.
3.4 - Types of loads accepted
The UPS shall accept high crest factors (3:1) without derating to ensure correct operation with computer loads.
The total harmonic voltage distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/ph and ph/N ≤ 2% for linear loads;
● THDU downstream ph/ph and ph/N ≤ 3 % for non-linear loads.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.3
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4.
As such, the UPS shall have a controlled IGBT input rectifier drawing sinusoidal current.
In particular, the UPS shall respect the following characteristics at the normal AC input:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier not exceeding:
- 3% at full rated load for an RCD (computer) load
- 5% from 30% to 100% of the full rated load.
● input power factor (pf) greater than or equal to 0.99.
3.6 - Efficiency
Overall efficiency shall be greater than or equal to:
● 92% at full rated load (In);
● 90% at half rated load (In/2);
● 85% at quarter rated load (In/4);
● 97% in ECO mode.
3.7 - Noise level
The noise level, measured as per standard ISO 3746, shall be less than:
● 63 dBA
4 - AC sources
The UPS shall be designed to receive power from the sources listed below.
4.1 - Normal AC source
(rectifier input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● rated voltage: 340 - 470 V at full rated load, 250 - 470 V at 70% load (or 340 - 470 V with backfeed option)
● number of phases: 3 ph + earth. The neutral is not necessary.
● frequency: 50 or 60 Hz ± 8%.
4.2 - Bypass AC source
(static-bypass input, if separate from rectifier input)
The bypass AC source shall continue to supply the load, without interruption, if its characteristics remain within
voltage tolerances (323 to 470 volts).
Outside these tolerances, it shall be possible to supply the load, but in downgraded mode.
5 - Electrical characteristics
5.1 - Rectifier and charger
5.1.1 - Supply
The rectifier and charger module shall be supplied via the normal AC input. It must be capable of operating without
a neutral (see section 4 "AC sources"). In order to protect the battery and maximise its service life, the charger shall
be separate from the rectifier and shall provide the battery with a voltage that is independent of the voltage
supplied to the inverter.
5.1.2 - Inrush current
A device shall be provided to limit inrush currents.
When AC power fails and during genset start, the rectifier shall limit the power drawn to 70% of its rating for ten
seconds. The remaining 30% shall be supplied by the battery.
5.1.3 - Input power factor
The required level of performance is indicated in section 3.5 "Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS".
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.4
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
5.1.4 - Operating mode
The standard charger shall be sized to recharge the battery rapidly:
a battery with a backup time of…[5 / 10 minutes in less than 11 hours] [15 minutes in less than 13 hours] (following
a discharge to Pn/2 to recover 90% of backup time).
5.1.5 - Battery-current limiting
For long battery life, an electronic device shall automatically limit the charging current to the maximum value
specified by the battery supplier (0.1 x C10 for a sealed lead-acid battery).
5.1.7 - Voltage regulation
Rectifier/charger regulation shall take into account the ambient temperature of the battery and shall ensure DC
output voltage fluctuations of less than 1% irrespective of load and AC input voltage variations (within the limits
specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC source”).
5.2 - Batteries
The battery shall be of the sealed lead-acid type, mounted and wired, with a service life of …[ 5 / 10 ]… years.
It must be sized to supply, in the event of the normal AC source failure, the rated power of the inverter at a power
factor PF of 0.8.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
( batteries in the UPS cabinet)
To facilitate installation and reduce the overall footprint, it must be possible to lodge the battery in the UPS cabinet.
Consequently, backup times of:
[ 5 ] minutes for the [ 40 / 60 / 80 ] kVA ratings
[ 10 ] minutes for the [ 40 / 60 ] kVA ratings
[ 15 ] minutes for the [ 40 ] kVA ratings
shall be ensured by batteries installed in the UPS cabinet.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
( batteries in a separate cabinet)
The battery shall be installed in a cabinet identical in appearance to that of the UPS.
The battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply of power to the inverter for at least [ 5 / 10 / 15 / 30 ]
minutes for the [ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120 ] kVA ratings.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 0° C and 40° C
The UPS shall include devices to ensure:
● effective battery protection (see section 8.4 "Protection - Battery");
● battery management (see section 9 "Battery management").
5.3 - Inverter
The inverter shall be sized to supply a rated load of …[ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120]… kVA at 0.8 pf and shall satisfy the
specifications listed below.
5.3.1 - Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[ 380 / 400 / 415 ]… volts rms, adjustable via the user interface (see section 10), within tolerances of +/- 3%.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
The variation in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 2% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated
power, irrespective of normal AC input and DC voltage levels, within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC
source” and 5.1.4 “Rectifier/charger - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels”.
● Voltage variations for load step changes
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 1% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads. In all
cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 100 milliseconds.
5.3.2 - Output frequency
● Rated frequency
- 50 or 60 Hz.
● Variations
- ± 0.5 Hz,
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.5
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
5.3.3 - Synchronisation with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions below in section 5.4 "Static-bypass"), the inverter output
voltage shall be synchronised with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal
operation, a synchronisation system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3
degrees, if the bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within adjustable tolerances of ± 0.5% to ± 8% with
respect to the rated frequency).
● Synchronisation with an external source
It shall be possible to synchronise with all types of external source.
For example, if the bypass source is a generator set, the synchronisation tolerances shall be approximately ± 8%
(adjustable) with respect to the rated frequency.
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronisation with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronisation, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0,1 %. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronise.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
To avoid transmitting to the inverter any excessive frequency variations on the bypass AC source when it is within
tolerances, inverter frequency variations per unit time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
5.3.4 - Overload capacity
The UPS shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 1 minutes a load representing 150% of the rated load;
● 1 second a load representing 210% of the rated load.
If necessary, the UPS shall operate as a generator (current limiting) with a peak capacity of 270% for 150
milliseconds, to allow highly disturbed transient operating states (high overloads, very high crest factors, etc.)
without transferring the load to the bypass.
5.4 - Static bypass
5.4.1 - Load transfer to the static bypass
The UPS shall be equipped with a static bypass comprising a static switch. Instantaneous transfer of the load from
the inverter to bypass power and back shall take place without a break or disturbance in the supply of power to the
load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage and frequency are within the tolerances specified in section
4.2 "Bypass AC source" and that the inverter is synchronised.
Transfer shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal inverter fault.
Manually initiated transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronised with the inverter, automatic transfer of
the load from the inverter to bypass power shall take place after a calibrated interruption adjustable from 13 to 1000
ms.
5.4.2 - Static-switch protection
The static switch shall be equipped with an RC filter for protection against switching overvoltages and lightning
strikes.
5.5 - Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.2 "Bypass AC source" section, the presence of
the static switch shall make it possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream
protection devices of the inverter.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated inverter current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the inverter on its own shall, for the same discrimination
requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of the type of
short-circuit.
5.6 - System earthing arrangement
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements:
● upstream source:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
● downstream installation:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream earthing arrangements are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the
static-bypass line.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.6
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
6 - Mechanical characteristics
6.1 - Mechanical structure
The UPS and batteries shall be installed in cabinet(s) with a degree of protection IP20 (standard IEC 60529).
Access to the subassemblies making up the system shall be exclusively through the front.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
6.2 - Scalable design
( Concerns only UPSs with the battery installed in a separate cabinet)
The UPS shall be designed to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of additional
UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system availability by introducing redundancy.
This transformation shall be possible directly on site, without returning the equipment to the factory and without
causing excessive system downtime.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
6.3 – Dimensions
The UPS shall require as little floor space as possible. To gain space, it shall be possible to install the UPS with the
back to the wall.
6.4 - Connection
To facilitate connections, all terminal blocks must be easily accessible from the front when the UPS is installed with
the back to the wall. Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be
possible through the bottom for a false floor.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12
"Standards and tests".
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 "Standards and tests" and be mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety".
6.5 - Safety
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical
bypass designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from
the bypass AC source.
It shall be possible to send to the UPS an external EPO order resulting in opening of the battery circuit breaker and
the upstream circuit breaker.
7 - Environment conditions
7.1 - UPS (not including battery)
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions
without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: 0° C to +40° C.
● recommended temperature range: +20° C to + 25° C;
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25° C;
● maximum altitude: 1000 meters.
7.1.2 - Storage
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.7
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
8 - Protection
8.1 - UPS
The UPS shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive external
or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2 - Rectifier and charger
The rectifier and charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified by
the battery manufacturer or if the temperature exceeds the limits specified above.
8.3 - Inverter
Inverters shall self-protect against overloads and short-circuits, irrespective of the operating mode (AC power or
battery power).
8.4 - Batteries
8.4.1 - Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a device designed to protect the battery against deep discharges, taking into account the
characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the battery by a circuit breaker.
8.4.2 - Independent regulation and monitoring systems
A regulation system shall regulate the battery voltage and the charge current.
A second system, independent of the regulation, shall monitor the battery voltage and the charge current.
Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system steps in to shut down the charger and avoid
overcharging.
8.4.3 - Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage to the ambient temperature.
This regulation system takes into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life.
The permissible temperature range is set in the personalisation parameters.
An alarm shall be issued for temperatures outside the permissible range.
8.4.4 - Self-test
Battery monitoring shall be carried out by an automatic device. Self-test intervals shall be set to one month by
default, but shall be adjustable.
This self-test system shall, where necessary, initiate indications via LEDs on the front panel or a message to a
remote monitoring system.
8.4.5 - Possibility of backfeed protection
If backfeed protection is necessary, it must be possible to install two independent systems on the normal and
bypass AC inputs.
8.4.6 - Possibility of battery circuit-breaker management
The UPS shall be capable of receiving and managing two battery circuit breakers. Battery availability is improved
by dividing it into two sections. If one section is disconnected for servicing or any other reason, the second shall
remain available and provide approximately half of the backup time.In such a case, the UPS shall regulate the
charge accordingly.
9 - Battery management
9.1 - Battery meter
A battery-meter function shall estimate the available backup time as a function of the battery charge and the
percent load. It shall be possible to set the battery meter so that it can take into account the exact battery
configuration installed with the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.8
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
9.2 - Digital battery monitoring
The UPS shall be equipped with a system for battery digital management.
Based on a number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery type and age), the system shall control the
battery charge voltage and continuously calculate:
● The true available backup time
● The remaining service life.
9.3 - Block by block monitoring
To further optimise battery availability and service life, it shall be possible to equip the UPS with an optional system
to continuously monitor all battery strings and display a block by block failure prediction.
The system shall include the functions listed below.
● Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
● Continuous measurement of the internal resistance.
● Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
● Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
● Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
10 - User interface and communication
10.1 - User interface
UPS operation shall be facilitated by a user interface comprising:
● a graphic display (at least quarter VGA and high resolution are preferable);
● controls;
● status indications with mimic panel.
10.1.1 - Graphic display
The graphic display shall facilitate operation by offering the functions listed below.
● operating language
It shall be possible to display in the _________________ language
all the operating information supplied on the screens.
● step by step operating help
The graphic display shall assist the user by providing step by step help in the user's language.
● animated colour mimic diagram
The mimic diagram shall enable display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and
indication of operator instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass).
● display of measurements
It shall be possible to display the following measurements:
- inverter output phase-to-phase voltages;
- inverter output currents;
- inverter output frequency;
- voltage across battery terminals;
- battery charge or discharge current;
- rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages;
- rectifier/charger input currents;
- crest factor;
- active and apparent power;
- power factor of the load;
- battery temperature.
● display of status conditions and events
It shall be possible to display the following indications:
- load on battery power;
- load on UPS;
- load on automatic bypass;
- general alarm;
- battery fault;
- remaining battery backup time;
- low battery warning;
- bypass AC source outside tolerances;
- battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating servicing of the system, as specified in section 11
“Maintainability”.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.9
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
● display of operating graphs
It shall be possible to graphically display the measurements mentioned above on the screen over significant
periods.
● log of time-stamped events
This function shall store in memory and make available, for automatic or manually initiated recall, time-stamped
logs of all important status changes, faults and malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of
troubleshooting procedures. It shall be possible to time stamp and store at least 2 000 events.
10.1.2 - Controls
The UPS shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off terminal block for complete system shutdown following
reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of UPS units;
- opening of the static switch on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker;
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
10.1.3 - Status indications with mimic panel
Indication of status conditions shall be distinct of the graphic display.
Three LEDs on the control panel indicate the following status conditions:
● load protected;
● minor fault;
● major fault.
The mimic panel shall represent the UPS and indicate the status of the load supply using five two-colour (red and
green) LEDs:
● load supplied (LED at UPS output on mimic panel),
● inverter on (inverter LED on mimic panel),
● operation on battery power (LED between battery and inverter on mimic panel),
● bypass activated (bypass LED on mimic panel),
● PFC rectifier on (rectifier LED on mimic panel).
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power.
10.2 - Communication
10.2.1 - Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements. To that end, the UPS shall
have as standard equipment:
● a programmable card for input/output information.
This card shall provide a total of eight dry contacts: six for incoming information and two for outgoing information.
● at least three communication ports for later addition, without interrupting operation, of communication cards
implementing different protocols, e.g. SNMP, JBus/ModBus, RS232, USB.
10.2.2 - Communications options
The UPS shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the following
types of cards:
● an SNMP communication card for connection to an Ethernet network, for connection to a computer-network
management system;
● an RS485 serial-link communication card capable of implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a
building management system (BMS);
● an RS232 serial-link communication card for communication with a modem and a remote-maintenance system;
● a USB communication card;
● an XML-Web communication card for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a
server, capable of supplying information via a standard web browser.
The UPS shall be detectable by supervision software for large UPS systems.
Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.10
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
11 - Maintainability
For optimum safety during servicing, a maintenance bypass shall be available to completely isolate the UPS.
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole each time it is
started. To that end, the supply control/monitoring electronics shall offer:
● auto-compensation of component drift;
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● overall readiness for remote supervision services provided by the manufacturer.
12 - Standards and tests
12.1 - Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
● IEC 6014A-4: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 62040-1 and EN 62040-1: UPS - Safety.
● IEC 62040-2 and EN 62040-2: UPS - Electromagnetic compatibility - [level C3 / C2 class A is optional].
● IEC 62040-3 and EN 62040-3: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 60950 / EN 60950: Safety of IT equipment, including electrical business equipment.
● IEC 61000-2-2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.
● IEC 61000-4: EMC - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity.
● IEC 439: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● IEC 60529: Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
● ISO 3746: Sound power levels.
● CE marking.
What is more, the equipment must comply with environmental-protection standards, with production taking place on
premises certified ISO 14001. The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well
as a dependability study to ensure maximum reliability.
12.2 - Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards. What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent
laboratories (e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.11
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
13 - Services
13.1 - Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
13.2 - Technical competency
● customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
13.3 - Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorised agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
13.4 - System start-up
● The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorised agent. The procedure shall
include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS
installation parameters.
13.5 - Replacement parts
● The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
13.6 Recycling and renovation/substitution
● At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
14 - Warranty
The rectifier/charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year
following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.12
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
15 - Installation services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements;
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site;
● connections between the battery and the UPS;
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger;
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input;
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
16 - Electrical diagram
Fig.: UPS electrical diagram.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.13
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.8
kVA
Manufacturer
Range of products
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
342 - 470 V
yes
no
250 - 470 V
yes
no
constant for loads with cos ϕ 0.8 lagging
to cos ϕ 0.9 leading
yes
no
Sixpack IGBT converter with built-in thermal monitoring
yes
no
Sinusoidal current drawn (PFC)
yes
no
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
double conversion
Continuous operation at 40 °C
Parallel connection ≤ 6 modules without interrupting
operation
kVA max.
Rectifiers
Three-phase input voltage at Pn
at 0.70 Pn
Rated active power
sinusoidal input current
THDI upstream ≤ 3%
yes
no
in phase with the voltage
PF > 0.99
yes
no
THDI, PF performance
constant from 30 to 100% of Pn
yes
no
45 - 65 Hz
yes
no
No inrush or start-up current
yes
no
Charger independent with respect to rectifier
yes
no
Frequency
Rapid battery charger
Backup time 10 minutes in t ≤ 11 hours,
4 hours in t ≤ 24 hours
yes
no
Voltage regulation
±1%
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Independent regulation/monitoring systems
Battery
Type
standard
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
Automatic entry of battery parameters
yes
no
Temperature correction
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Measurement of actual backup time,
depending on:
load, temperature, age
Cold start on battery power
Protection against deep discharge
APC by Schneider Electric
with circuit-breaker opening
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.14
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
yes
no
yes
no
Self-tests
yes
no
Battery meter
yes
no
Block by block monitoring
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Management of 2 battery circuit breakers
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on
battery)
Inverter
Sixpack IGBT inverter with built-in thermal monitoring
Volts
Three-phase output voltage with neutral
Compensation Adjustable line drop
0 to ± 5%
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 1%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 2% (load from 0 to 100 or 100 to 0 %)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU ph-N < 2% for linear loads
yes
no
THDU ph-N < 3% for non-linear loads
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Frequency synchronisation with an external ± 8 % of rated frequency
source
yes
no
Overload capacity
150% In for 1 minutes
yes
no
210% In for 1 second
yes
no
Current limiting
270% In for 150 milliseconds
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
yes
no
45 In at 20 kVA / 19 In at 120 kVA - 20 ms yes
no
yes
no
Hz
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
± 0.5 Hz
Static bypass
Static bypass
Short-circuit withstand of static bypass
Maintenance bypass
Efficiency
Normal mode
> 92% at Pn, > 90 % at Pn/2
yes
no
ECO mode
> 97% at Pn
yes
no
selection of operating language
yes
no
personalisation menu
with password
yes
no
display
measurements, status, events, graphs
yes
no
event log
Time-stamping
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications with mimic panel
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
User interface
Graphic display in 15 languages
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.15
Specification guide no. 2a
Single UPS, three-phase, 40 to 120 kVA (cont.)
Communication
Programmable relay card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
3 slots for communication cards
yes
no
Options
Ethernet SNMP card
yes
no
RS485 JBus/ModBus card
yes
no
RS232 U-Talk card
yes
no
XML-Web card
yes
no
Supervision software
yes
no
with shutdown management
yes
no
Certified standards and tests
See list in section 12.1
yes
no
Certification of performance
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
Level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
Remote
yes
no
Technical support
International
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Administration software
Certification
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Access to power components through front
Access to communication through front
hot-swap cards
Access to batteries through front
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
Around the world
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
Preventive
Predictive
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 2a – p.16
Specification guide no. 2b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Contents
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose .............................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 - Brief description .................................................................................................................. 2
2 - Operating principle ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 - Normal operation ................................................................................................................ 2
2.2 - Operation on battery power ................................................................................................ 2
2.3 - Battery recharge ................................................................................................................. 3
2.4 - Parallel operation and redundancy ..................................................................................... 3
2.5 - Transfer to bypass AC source ............................................................................................ 3
2.6 - Maintenance on UPS units ................................................................................................. 3
2.7 - Battery maintenance ........................................................................................................... 3
2.8 - Cold start (AC power absent) .............................................................................................. 3
3 - Sizing and general characteristics ............................................................................................. 4
3.1 - Technology ......................................................................................................................... 4
3.2 - Rating ................................................................................................................................. 4
3.3 - Battery backup time ............................................................................................................ 4
3.4 - Reliability and MTBF ........................................................................................................... 4
3.5 - Types of loads accepted ..................................................................................................... 4
3.6 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS ..................................................................... 4
3.7 - Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 4
3.8 - Noise level .......................................................................................................................... 4
4 - AC sources ................................................................................................................................... 5
4.1 - Normal AC source .............................................................................................................. 5
4.2 - Bypass AC source .............................................................................................................. 5
5 - Electrical characteristics ............................................................................................................. 5
5.1 - Rectifiers and chargers ....................................................................................................... 5
5.2 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 5
5.3 - Inverters .............................................................................................................................. 6
5.4 - Static-bypass function ......................................................................................................... 7
5.5 - Discrimination and short-circuit capacity ............................................................................. 7
5.6 - System earthing arrangement ............................................................................................. 7
6 - Mechanical characteristics .......................................................................................................... 8
6.1 - Mechanical structure ........................................................................................................... 8
6.2 - Scalable design .................................................................................................................. 8
6.3 - Dimensions ......................................................................................................................... 8
6.4 - Connections ........................................................................................................................ 8
6.5 - Safety.................................................................................................................................. 8
7 - Environment conditions .............................................................................................................. 8
7.1 - UPS (not including battery) ................................................................................................. 8
8 - Protection ..................................................................................................................................... 9
8.1 - UPS .................................................................................................................................... 9
8.2 - Rectifier/chargers ................................................................................................................ 9
8.3 - Inverters .............................................................................................................................. 9
8.4 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 9
9 - Battery management .................................................................................................................... 10
9.1 - Battery meter ...................................................................................................................... 10
9.2 - Digital battery management ................................................................................................ 10
9.3 - Block by block monitoring ................................................................................................... 10
10 - User interface and communication........................................................................................... 10
10.1 - User interface ................................................................................................................... 10
10.2 - Communication ................................................................................................................. 12
11 - Maintainability ............................................................................................................................ 12
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services ............................................. 12
12 - Standards, tests and quality assurance ................................................................................... 12
12.1 - Standards ......................................................................................................................... 12
12.2 - Certification of conformity ................................................................................................. 12
13 - Services ...................................................................................................................................... 13
13.1 - Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 13
13.2 - Technical competency ...................................................................................................... 13
13.3 - Functional components ..................................................................................................... 13
13.4 - System start-up ................................................................................................................. 13
13.5 - Replacement parts ............................................................................................................ 13
13.6 - Recycling and renovation.................................................................................................. 13
14 - Warranty...................................................................................................................................... 13
15 - Installation services ................................................................................................................... 14
16 - Electrical diagram ...................................................................................................................... 14
Appendix. Check list ......................................................................................................................... 15
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.1
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply system (referred to as a UPS in
the rest of this document). The UPS system shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
For information purposes
MTBF in
hours
Single-UPS unit with static bypass
Non
availability
475000
2.1x10-5
1.88x106
1.25x106
9.39x105
5.32x10-6
7.98x10-6
1.07x10-5
Active redundancy N+1
- 2 UPS units (1+1)
- 3 UPS units (2+1)
- 4 UPS units (3+1)
The total load supplied by the UPS system shall be equal to
.kVA, at a power factor pf = 0.8.
1.2 - Brief description
The UPS system shall be made up of …[ 2 / 3 / 4 /5 / 6 ]… identical parallel-connected single-UPS units (same
power rating), operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode); it shall be a VFI-type UPS (as per
standard IEC 62040-2).
Each UPS unit shall have a unit rating of …[ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120 ]… and shall comprise the following
components, described below in this specification:
● PFC rectifier;
● battery charger;
● inverter;
● battery;
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
( for a system with 2 UPSs in an active redundancy configuration)
● static bypass (via a static switch) for each UPS unit;
● manual maintenance bypass for each UPS unit
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
( for all other cases)
● an external bypass in an enclosure or cubicle.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
● user and communications interface;
● battery management system;
● any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
The UPS system shall ensure continuity of electric power to the load within the specified tolerances, without
interruption upon failure or deterioration of the normal AC source (utility power) for a maximum protection time
determined by the capacity of the backup batteries installed.
.
2 - Operating principle
Each single-UPS unit shall operate in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode); it shall be a VFI-type
UPS (as per standard IEC 62040-2), made up of the following components, described in detail in this specification
2.1 - Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier shall supply the corresponding inverter with DC current while the charger simultaneously float charges
its battery. The load is continuously supplied with dependable electrical power by the inverter.
2.2 - Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load with
power from its battery without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the specified battery backup
time.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.2
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
2.3 - Battery recharge
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier shall again power the corresponding inverter, without
interruption or disturbance to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
The UPS system shall ensure equal sharing of the total load between the various parallel-connected units.
2.4 - Parallel operation and redundancy
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
( without redundancy)
The system shall not be redundant. The …[ 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 ]… UPS units must operate in parallel to supply the load.
Shutdown of a UPS unit shall result in load transfer to the bypass AC source via the various static bypass switches.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( with redundancy)
The units shall operate in parallel with redundancy, with the load shared equally between the units.
Redundancy shall be of the "n+1" (or n+2) type, i.e. "1" (or 2) units shall be redundant in the total of
n units. If a major fault occurs on a unit, it shall automatically disconnect.
If the remaining unit(s) are sufficient to supply the load, it/they shall remain in operation.
If the total available power is insufficient, the load shall be automatically transferred, without interruption, to the
bypass AC source, if it is within tolerances.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2.5 - Transfer to bypass AC source
In the event of an overload exceeding system capabilities (short-circuits, heavy inrush currents, etc.) the load shall
be automatically transferred, instantaneously and without interruption, to the bypass AC source,
on the condition that bypass power is available and within tolerances.
To that end, synchronisation of each inverter in phase and frequency with the bypass source shall be automatic.
Transfer of the load back to the UPS-unit outputs shall be automatic or manual. During transfer, the load shall not
suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
To ensure transfer in complete safety, the system shall simultaneously control the static switches.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption if a major fault occurs on
the UPS system and if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been established.
2.6 - Maintenance on UPS units
For maintenance purposes, all electronic components shall be accessible from the front of the UPS.
In addition, a built-in manually-operated mechanical bypass system shall be:
- installed in each UPS unit; ( for a system with 2 UPS units with active redundancy)
- installed separately in an external bypass enclosure or cubicle ( other cases).
For personnel safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the UPS units while
continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. Transfer to the manual bypass mode and back
shall be possible without interruption to the load.
The UPS shall also include a device making it possible to isolate the rectifiers and the chargers from the normal AC
source.
2.7 - Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance on the battery of each UPS unit, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the
battery from the corresponding rectifier/charger and inverter.
When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to supply the load without interruption or
disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.8 - Cold start (normal AC source absent)
The battery of each UPS unit shall be capable of ensuring UPS start-up even if normal AC power is not available
and continuing operation within the specified back-up time (start on battery power shall be possible on the condition
that the system was already started with AC power present).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.3
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
3 - Sizing and general characteristics
3.1 - Technology
The UPS shall be based on sixpack IGBT technology with built-in thermal monitoring and a high free-frequency
chopping mode to dynamically optimise efficiency and power quality.
3.2 - Rating
The UPS system shall be sized to continuously supply a load of
kVA, at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
It shall be made up of ...[ 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 ]... UPS units, each with an identical rating of ...[ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120 ]...
kVA.
The total installed power rating shall thus be kVA. ...[Consequently, 1 (or 2) unit(s) may be redundant.]
3.3 - Battery backup time
The backup time of each battery in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be …[ 5 / 10 / 15 / 30 / 60…]…
minutes.
The service life of each battery shall be equal to at least …[5 / 10]… years.
Batteries shall be selected and sized accordingly.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3.4 - Reliability and MTBF
The active redundancy type architecture shall allow the installation to reach an MTBF of …
[1.88x106 / 1.25x106 / 9.39x105 hours] corresponding to an unavailability of [5.32x10-6 / 7.98x10-6 / 1.07x10-5 ]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
3.5 - Types of loads accepted
If all the connected loads are non-linear (100% non-linear loads), each UPS unit shall accept high crest factors
(3:1) without derating of output.
For both linear and non-linear loads, the voltage total harmonic distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall
respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/ph and ph/N ≤ 2% for linear loads;
● THDU downstream ph/ph and ph/N ≤ 3% for non-linear loads.
3.6 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS system
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4 (formerly IEC 1000 3-4).
In particular, the UPS shall respect the following characteristics at the normal AC input:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier not exceeding:
- 3% at full rated load for an RCD (computer) load, at Pn;
- 5% from 30% to 100% of the full rated load;
● input power factor (pf) greater than or equal to 0.99.
These performance levels, due to the "clean" input rectifier drawing sinusoidal current, limit upstream distortion and
avoid oversizing of upstream equipment (cables, circuit breakers, etc.), without requiring additional filters.
3.7 - Efficiency
Overall efficiency of each UPS unit shall be greater than or equal to:
● 92% at full rated load (In) in normal mode;
● 90% at 50% rated load (In/2) in normal mode;
● 85% at quarter rated load (In/4);
● 97% in ECO mode.
3.8 - Noise level
The noise level, measured as per standard ISO 3746, shall for each unit be less than:
● 63 dBA.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.4
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
4 - AC sources
The UPS system shall be designed to receive power from the sources presented below.
4.1 - Normal AC source
(rectifier input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● rated voltage: 340 - 470 V at full rated load, 250 - 470 V at 70% load
(or 340 - 470 V with backfeed option)
● number of phases: 3 ph + earth. The neutral is not necessary.
● frequency: 50 or 60 Hz ± 8%.
4.2 - Bypass AC source
(static-bypass input, if separate from rectifier input)
The bypass AC source shall continue to supply the load, without interruption, if its characteristics remain within
voltage tolerances (323 to 470 volts).
Outside these tolerances, it shall be possible to supply the load, but in downgraded mode.
5 - Electrical characteristics
5.1 – Rectifiers and chargers
5.1.1 - Supply
The rectifier and charger module shall be supplied via the normal AC input. It must be capable of operating without
a neutral (see section 4.1).
5.1.2 - Inrush current
A device shall be provided to limit inrush currents.
When AC power fails and during genset start, the rectifier shall limit the power drawn to 70% of its rating for ten
seconds. The remaining 30% shall be supplied by the battery.
5.1.3 - Battery-current limiting
For long battery life, an electronic device shall automatically limit the charging current to the maximum value
specified by the battery supplier (0.1 x C10 for a sealed lead-acid battery).
5.1.4 - Operating mode
The standard charger of each unit shall be sized to recharge the battery rapidly:
a battery with a backup time of…[5 / 10 minutes in less than 11 hours] [15 minutes in less than 13 hours]…
(following a discharge to Pn/2 to recover 90% of backup time).
5.1.5 - Input power factor
The required level of performance is indicated in section 3.5 "Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS".
5.1.6 - Voltage regulation
Rectifier/charger regulation on each unit shall take into account the ambient temperature of the battery and shall
ensure DC output voltage fluctuations of less than 1% irrespective of load and AC input voltage variations (within
the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC source”).
5.2 - Batteries
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with its own battery of the
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
( batteries in the UPS cabinet)
sealed lead-acid type, with a service life of …[ 5 / 10 ]… years, factory mounted and wired in the UPS cabinet.
Battery mounting in the UPS cabinet is intended to facilitate installation and reduce the overall footprint.
Consequently, backup times of:
[ 5 ] minutes for the [ 40 / 60 / 80 ] kVA ratings
[ 10 ] minutes for the [ 40 / 60 ] kVA ratings
[ 15 ] minutes for the [ 40 ] kVA ratings
shall be ensured by batteries installed in the UPS cabinet.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.5
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
( batteries in a separate cabinet)
…[sealed lead-acid type, factory mounted and wired in a cabinet identical to that of the UPS,] … [sealed lead-acid
type, mounted on shelves,]…[vented lead-acid type, mounted on a rack,]... with a service life of …[5 / 10]… years.
The battery shall be installed in a cabinet identical in appearance to that of the UPS.
The battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply to the inverter for at least [ 5 / 10 / 15 / 30 ] minutes for
a power rating of [ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120 ] kVA.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Each battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply of power to the corresponding inverter for at least
…[5 / 10 / 15 / 30 ]… minutes, in the event of a normal AC source failure, with the inverter operating at full rated
load, i.e.
kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 0° C and 40° C.
The UPS system shall include devices to ensure:
● effective battery protection (see section 8.4 "Protection - Battery");
● battery management (see section 9 "Battery management").
5.3 - Inverters
Each inverter shall be sized to supply a load rated
…[ 40 / 60 / 80 / 100 / 120 ]… kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8, taking into account the characteristics presented
below.
5.3.1 - Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[ 380 / 400 / 415 ]… volts rms, adjustable via the user interface (see section 10), within tolerances of +/- 3%.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
The variation in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 2% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated
power, irrespective of normal AC input and DC voltage levels, within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC
source”
● Voltage variations for load step changes
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 1% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads. In all
cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 100 milliseconds.
5.3.2 - Output frequency
● Rated frequency
- 50 or 60 Hz.
● Variations
- ± 0.5 Hz,
5.3.3 - Synchronisation with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions below in section 5.4 "Static-bypass"), the inverter output
voltage shall be synchronised with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal
operation, a synchronisation system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3
degrees, if the bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within adjustable tolerances of ± 0.5% to ± 8% with
respect to the rated frequency).
● Synchronisation with an external source
It shall be possible to synchronise with all types of external source.
For example, if the bypass source is a generator set, the synchronisation tolerances shall be approximately ± 8%
(adjustable) with respect to the rated frequency.
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronisation with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronisation, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0,1%. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronise.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
During the switch to free-running mode and the switch back to synchronised mode, frequency variations per unit
time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.6
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
5.3.4 - Overload capacity
The UPS shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 1 minute a load representing 150% of the rated load;
● 1 second a load representing 210% of the rated load.
If necessary, the UPS shall operate as a generator (current limiting) with a peak capacity of 270% for 150
milliseconds, to allow highly disturbed transient operating states (high overloads, very high crest factors, etc.)
without transferring the load to the bypass.
5.4 - Static-bypass
5.4.1 - Static bypass
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with a static bypass comprising a static switch. The static bypasses shall be
controlled simultaneously by a built-in system. Instantaneous transfer of the load from the inverters to bypass
power and back shall take place without a break or disturbance in the supply of power to the load, on the condition
that the bypass source voltage and frequency are within the tolerances specified in section 4.1 "Bypass AC source"
and that the inverters are synchronised.
Transfer shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal inverter fault.
Manually initiated transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronised with the inverter, automatic transfer of
the load from the inverter to bypass power shall take place after a calibrated interruption adjustable from 13 to 1000
ms.
5.4.2 - Static-switch protection
Each static switch shall be equipped with an RC filter for protection against switching overvoltages and lightning
strikes.
5.5 - Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.1 "Bypass AC source" , the presence of the static
switch shall make it possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream protection
devices of the common inverter output.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated UPS-system current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the UPS system on its own shall, for the same
discrimination requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of
the type of short-circuit.
Parallel connection of a number of UPS units significantly improves discrimination.
5.6 - System earthing arrangement
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements:
● upstream source:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
● downstream installation:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream earthing arrangements are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the
static-bypass line.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.7
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
6 - Mechanical characteristics
6.1 - Mechanical structure
The UPS and batteries shall be installed in cabinet(s) with a degree of protection IP20 (standard IEC 60529).
Access to the subassemblies making up the system shall be exclusively through the front.
6.2 - Scalable design
[Concerns only UPSs with the battery installed in a separate cabinet]
The UPS shall be designed to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of additional
UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system availability by introducing redundancy.
This transformation shall be possible directly on site, without returning the equipment to the factory and without
causing excessive system downtime.
6.3 – Dimensions
The UPS shall require as little floor space as possible. To gain space, it shall be possible to install the UPS with the
back to the wall.
6.4 - Connection
To facilitate connections, all terminal blocks must be easily accessible from the front when the UPS is installed with
the back to the wall. Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be
possible through the bottom for a false floor.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12
"Standards and tests".
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 "Standards and tests" and be mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety". The neutral conductor shall be oversized for any third-order
harmonic currents and their multiples (the size of the neutral shall be 1.5 times that of each phase).
6.5 - Safety
The equipment shall meet the requirements of degree of protection index IP21, in compliance with standard
IEC 60529.
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical
bypass designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from
the bypass AC source.
It shall be possible to send to the UPS an external EPO order resulting in opening of the battery circuit breaker and
the upstream circuit breaker.
7 - Environment conditions
7.1 - UPS (not including batteries)
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: 0° C to +40° C;
● recommended temperature range: +20° C to + 25° C;
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25° C;
● maximum altitude without derating: 1 000 meters.
7.1.2 - Storage
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.8
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
8 - Protection
8.1 - UPS
Each UPS unit shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive
external or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2 - Rectifier and charger
The rectifier and charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified by
the battery manufacturer or if the temperature exceeds the limits specified above.
8.3 - Inverter
Inverters shall self-protect against overloads and short-circuits, irrespective of the operating mode (AC power or
battery power).
8.4 - Batteries
8.4.1 - Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a device designed to protect the battery against deep discharges, taking into account the
characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the battery by a circuit breaker.
8.4.2 - Independent regulation and monitoring systems
A regulation system shall regulate the battery voltage and the charge current.
A second system, independent of the regulation, shall monitor the battery voltage and the charge current.
Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system steps in to shut down the charger and avoid
overcharging.
8.4.3 - Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage to the ambient temperature.
This regulation system takes into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life.
The permissible temperature range is set in the personalisation parameters.
An alarm shall be issued for temperatures outside the permissible range.
8.4.4 - Self-test
Battery monitoring shall be carried out by an automatic device. Self-test intervals shall be set to one month by
default, but shall be adjustable.
This self-test system shall, where necessary, initiate indications via LEDs on the front panel or a message to a
remote monitoring system.
8.4.5 - Possibility of backfeed protection
If backfeed protection is necessary, it must be possible to install two independent systems on the normal and
bypass AC inputs.
8.4.6 - Possibility of battery circuit-breaker management
Each UPS unit shall be capable of receiving and managing two battery circuit breakers. Battery availability is
improved by dividing it into two sections. If one section is faulty, the second shall remain available and provide
approximately half of the backup time.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.9
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
9 - Battery management
9.1 - Battery meter
The battery-meter function estimates the total available backup time of the UPS system as a function of the battery
charge and the percent load. It shall be possible to set the battery meter so that it can take into account the exact
battery configuration installed with the UPS
9.2 - Digital battery monitoring
The UPS shall be equipped with a system for battery digital management.
Based on a number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery type and age), the system shall control the
battery charge voltage and continuously calculate:
● The true available backup time
● The remaining service life.
9.3 - Block by block monitoring
To further optimise battery availability and service life, it shall be possible to equip the UPS with an optional system
to continuously monitor all battery strings and display a block by block failure prediction.
The system shall include the functions listed below.
● Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
● Continuous measurement of the internal resistance.
● Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
● Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
● Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
10 - User interface and communication
10.1 - User interface
UPS operation shall be facilitated by a user interface, on each UPS unit, comprising:
● a graphic display;
● controls;
● status indications with mimic panel.
The information and controls shall be centralised by a system (electronic board) built into one of the UPS units.
10.1.1 - Graphic display
The graphic display shall facilitate operation by offering the functions listed below.
● operating language
It shall be possible to display in the
language all the operating information supplied on the screens.
● animated colour mimic diagram
The mimic diagram shall enable display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and
indication of operator instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass).
● step by step operating help
The graphic display shall assist the user by providing step by step help in the user's language.
● display of measurements
It shall be possible to display the following measurements:
- inverter output phase-to-phase voltages;
- inverter output currents;
- inverter output frequency;
- voltage across battery terminals;
- battery charge or discharge current;
- rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages;
- rectifier/charger input currents;
- crest factor;
- active and apparent power;
- power factor of the load;
- battery temperature.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.10
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
● display of status conditions and events
It shall be possible to display the following indications:
- load on battery power;
- load on UPS;
- load on automatic bypass;
- general alarm;
- battery fault;
- remaining battery backup time;
- low battery warning;
- bypass AC source outside tolerances;
- battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating servicing of the system, as specified in section 11
“Maintainability”.
● display of operating graphs
It shall be possible to graphically display the measurements mentioned above on the screen over significant
periods.
● log of time-stamped events
This function shall store in memory and make available, for automatic or manually initiated recall, time-stamped
logs of all important status changes, faults and malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of
troubleshooting procedures. It shall be possible to time stamp and store at least 2 000 events.
10.1.2 - Controls
The UPS shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off terminal block for complete system shutdown following
reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of UPS units;
- opening of the static switch on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker;
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
10.1.3 - Status indications with mimic panel
Indication of status conditions shall be distinct of the graphic display.
Three LEDs on the control panel indicate the following status conditions:
● load protected;
● minor fault;
● major fault.
The mimic panel shall represent the UPS and indicate the status of the load supply using five two-colour (red and
green) LEDs:
● load supplied (LED at UPS output on mimic panel),
● inverter on (inverter LED on mimic panel),
● operation on battery power (LED between battery and inverter on mimic panel),
● bypass activated (bypass LED on mimic panel),
● PFC rectifier on (rectifier LED on mimic panel).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.11
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
10.2 - Communication
10.2.1 - Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements. To that end, each UPS unit
shall have as standard equipment:
● a programmable card for input/output information.
This card shall provide a total of eight dry contacts, six for incoming information and two for outgoing information.
● at least three communication ports for later addition, without interrupting operation, of communication cards
implementing different protocols, e.g. SNMP, JBus/ModBus, RS232, USB, XML.
10.2.2 - Communications options
The UPS system shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the
following types of cards:
● an SNMP communication card for connection to an Ethernet network, for connection to a computer-network
management system;
● an RS485 serial-link communication card capable of implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a
building management system (BMS);
● an RS232 serial-link communication card for communication with a modem and a remote-maintenance system;
● a USB communication card;
● an XML-Web communication card for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a
server, capable of supplying information via a standard web browser.
The UPS shall be detectable by supervision software for large UPS systems.
Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
11 - Maintainability
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
● The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole each time it is
started. To that end, the supply control/monitoring electronics shall offer:
● auto-compensation of component drift;
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● overall readiness for remote supervision services provided by the manufacturer.
12 - Standards, tests and quality assurance
12.1 - Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
● IEC 6014B-4: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 62040-1 and EN 62040-1: UPS - Safety.
● IEC 62040-2 level A: UPS - Electromagnetic compatibility [level C3 / C2 class A is optional].
● IEC 62040-3 and EN 62040-3: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 60950 / EN 60950: Safety of IT equipment, including electrical business equipment.
● IEC 61000-2-2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.
● IEC 61000-3-4: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-4: EMC - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity.
● EN 55011 and EN 55022: Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference characteristics of industrial,
scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency equipment - Level A conducted and radiated emissions.
● IEC 439: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● IEC 60529: Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
● ISO 3746: Sound power levels.
● CE marking.
What is more, the equipment must comply with environmental-protection standards, with production taking place on
premises certified ISO 14001. The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well
as a dependability study to ensure maximum reliability.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.12
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
12.2 - Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards.
What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent laboratories
(e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
13 - Services
13.1 - Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
13.2 - Technical competency
● customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
13.3 - Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorised agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
13.4 - System start-up
● The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorised agent. The procedure
shall include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS
installation parameters.
13.5 - Replacement parts
● The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the
date of delivery.
13.6 - Recycling and renovation/substitution
● At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
14 - Warranty
The rectifier/charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year
following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.13
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
15 - Services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements;
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site;
● connections between the battery and the UPS;
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger;
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input;
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
16 - Electrical diagram
Fig. Simplified diagram of active redundancy with two identical integrated parallel UPS units.
Fig. Simplified diagram for parallel connection, with or without active redundancy, of integrated
parallel UPS units, with an external bypass cubicle (all UPS units must have identical ratings).
The external bypass is sized to handle the total power of the three UPS units.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.14
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.8
kVA
Identical parallel-connected units
units rated
including redundant units
units
kVA each
kVA
and a manual maintenance bypass rated
Manufacturer
Range of products
yes
no
yes
no
342 - 470 V
yes
no
at 0.90 Pn
250 - 470 V
yes
no
at Pn
337-460 V or 352-480 V depending on
connection
yes
no
not requiring auxiliary cabinet
yes
no
THDI upstream ≤ 3%
yes
no
PF > 0.99
yes
no
constant from 30 to 100% of Pn
yes
no
45 - 65 Hz
yes
no
yes
no
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
double conversion
Continuous operation at 40 °C
Rectifiers
Three-phase input voltage at Pn
With auto-transformer
option
Sinusoidal current drawn (PFC)
sinusoidal input current
Input power factor
THDI, PF performance
Frequency
No inrush or start-up current
Rapid battery charger
Backup time10 minutes in t ≤ 11 hours,
4 hours in t ≤ 24 hours
yes
no
Voltage regulation
±1%
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Independent regulation/monitoring systems
Battery
Type
standard
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Automatic entry of battery parameters
yes
Temperature correction
yes
Measurement of actual backup time,
depending on:
load, temperature, age
yes
yes
Cold start on battery power
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
yes
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on the
battery)
yes
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.15
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
Self-tests
yes
no
Battery meter
yes
no
Block by block monitoring
yes
no
yes
no
Inverters
Volts
Three-phase output voltage with neutral
Compensation Adjustable line drop
0 to ± 5%
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 1%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 3% (load from 0 to 100 or 100 to 0 %)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU ph-N < 2% for linear loads
yes
no
THDU ph-N < 3% for non-linear loads
yes
no
yes
no
Frequency synchronisation with an external Adjustable up to ± 8% of rated frequency
source
yes
no
Overload capacity
150% In for 1 minute
yes
no
210% In for 1 second
yes
no
Current limiting
270% In for 150 milliseconds
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Hz
Output frequency
With neutral
Variation in output frequency
± 0.5 Hz
Static bypass
Static bypass
Short-circuit withstand of static bypass
45 In at 20 kVA / 19 In at 120 kVA – 20
ms
Maintenance bypass
Efficiency
Normal mode
> 92% at Pn, > 90% at Pn/2
yes
no
ECO mode
97% at Pn
yes
no
Centralised user interface on each UPS unit
selection of operating language
yes
no
Personalisation menu
with password
yes
no
Display
measurements, status, events, graphs
yes
no
Event log
time-stamping
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications with mimic panel
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Graphic display in 15 languages
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.16
Specification guide no. 6b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 40 to 720 kVA (cont.)
Communication
Programmable relay card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
3 slots for communication cards
yes
no
Options
Ethernet SNMP card
yes
no
RS485 JBus/Modbus card
yes
no
RS232 U-Talk card
yes
no
USB card
yes
no
XML-Web card
yes
no
Supervision software
yes
no
with shutdown management
yes
no
Certified standards and tests
see list in section 12.1
yes
no
Certification of performance
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
Level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
Remote
yes
no
Technical support
International
yes
no
yes
no
Administration software
Certification
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Access to power components through front
Access to communication through front
hot-swap cards
yes
no
Access to batteries through front
hot-swap batteries
yes
no
Around the world
yes
no
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
Preventive
Predictive
05/2009 edition
Ch.6 spec. 6b – p.17
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA
Contents
1 - UPS definition ............................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 - Purpose .............................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 - Brief description .................................................................................................................. 2
2 - Operating principle ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 - Normal operation ................................................................................................................ 2
2.2 - Operation on battery power ................................................................................................ 2
2.3 - Battery recharge ................................................................................................................. 2
2.4 - Static-bypass operation (static switch) ................................................................................ 2
2.5 - Operation of the manual maintenance bypass.................................................................... 3
2.6 - Operation without the battery .............................................................................................. 3
2.7 - Cold start (AC power absent) .............................................................................................. 3
3 - Sizing and general characteristics ............................................................................................. 3
3.1 - Technology ......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 - Rating ................................................................................................................................. 3
3.3 - Battery backup time ............................................................................................................ 3
3.4 - Types of loads accepted ..................................................................................................... 3
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS ..................................................................... 3
3.6 - Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 3
3.7 - Noise level .......................................................................................................................... 4
4 - AC sources ................................................................................................................................... 4
4.1 - Normal AC source .............................................................................................................. 4
4.2 - Bypass AC source .............................................................................................................. 4
5 - Electrical characteristics ............................................................................................................. 4
5.1 - Rectifier and charger........................................................................................................... 4
5.2 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 5
5.3 - Inverter................................................................................................................................ 5
5.4 - Static bypass ...................................................................................................................... 6
5.5 - Discrimination ..................................................................................................................... 7
5.6 - System earthing arrangement ............................................................................................. 7
6 - Mechanical characteristics .......................................................................................................... 7
6.1 - Scalable design .................................................................................................................. 7
6.2 - Dimensions ......................................................................................................................... 7
6.3 - Mechanical structure ........................................................................................................... 7
6.4 - Connections and busbars ................................................................................................... 8
6.5 - Ventilation ........................................................................................................................... 8
6.6 - Safety.................................................................................................................................. 8
7 - Environment conditions .............................................................................................................. 8
7.1 - UPS (not including battery) ................................................................................................. 8
7.2 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 8
8 - Protection ..................................................................................................................................... 9
8.1 - UPS .................................................................................................................................... 9
8.2 - Rectifier and charger........................................................................................................... 9
8.3 - Inverter................................................................................................................................ 9
8.4 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 9
9 - Battery management .................................................................................................................... 9
9.1 - Self-test............................................................................................................................... 9
9.2 - Temperature correction....................................................................................................... 9
9.3 - Measurement of actual backup time ................................................................................... 10
10 - User interface and communication........................................................................................... 10
11 - Maintainability ............................................................................................................................ 10
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services ............................................. 10
12 - Standards and tests .................................................................................................................. 11
12.1 - Standards ......................................................................................................................... 11
12.2 - Certification of conformity ................................................................................................. 11
13 - Test procedures and quality system ........................................................................................ 11
14 - Services ...................................................................................................................................... 12
14.1 - Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 12
14.2 - Technical competency ...................................................................................................... 12
14.3 - Functional components ..................................................................................................... 12
14.4 - System start-up ................................................................................................................. 12
14.5 - Replacement parts ............................................................................................................ 12
14.6 - Recycling and renovation.................................................................................................. 12
15 - Warranty...................................................................................................................................... 13
16 - Installation services ................................................................................................................... 14
17 - Electrical diagram ...................................................................................................................... 14
Appendix. Check list ......................................................................................................................... 15
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 1
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying and putting into operation an Uninterruptible Power Supply (referred to as a UPS in the rest of this
document).
The UPS shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
1.2 - Brief description
The UPS shall be a single-UPS unit, operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode), made up of the
following components, described in detail in this specification:
● rectifier/charger;
● inverter;
● battery;
● static bypass (via a static switch);
● manual maintenance bypass.
● user and communications interface.
● battery management system.
● any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
The UPS shall ensure continuity of electric power to the load within the specified tolerances, without interruption upon
failure or deterioration of the normal AC source (utility power) for a maximum protection time determined by the
capacity of the backup batteries installed.
2 - Operating principle
The UPS shall operate in double-conversion mode (VFI) as defined below.
2.1 - Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier supplies the inverter with DC current while the charger simultaneously float charges the battery. The load
is continuously supplied with dependable electrical power by the inverter.
A current-loop system shall ensure automatic distribution of the total load between the various parallel-connected
units.
2.2 - Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load from
battery power without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the specified battery backup time.
2.3 - Battery recharge
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier shall again power the inverter, without interruption or disturbance
to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
2.4 - Static-bypass operation (static switch)
In the event of an overload exceeding system capabilities (short-circuits, heavy inrush currents, etc.) or UPS
shutdown (user-initiated for maintenance or automatic for internal faults), the static bypass switch shall
instantaneously transfer the load to the bypass AC source without interruption, on the condition that bypass power is
available and within tolerances.
To that end, synchronization of the inverter in phase and frequency with the bypass source shall be automatic.
Transfer of the load back to the UPS-unit output, synchronized with the bypass AC source, shall be automatic or
manual. During transfer, the load shall not suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 2
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
2.5 - Operation of the manual maintenance bypass
The UPS shall include a manually-operated mechanical bypass system for maintenance purposes. For personnel
safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static
switch while continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. Transfer to the manual maintenance
bypass and back shall be possible without interruption to the load. The UPS shall also include a device making it
possible to isolate the rectifier and the charger from the normal AC source.
2.6 - Operation without the battery
For safe maintenance on the battery, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the battery from the rectifier,
the charger and the inverter. When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to supply the load
without interruption or disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.7 - Cold start (AC power absent)
The battery shall be capable of ensuring UPS start-up even if normal AC power is not available and continuing
operation within the specified back-up time.
3 - Sizing and general characteristics
3.1 - Technology
The UPS shall be based on IGBT technology and a free-frequency chopping mode to ensure optimum efficiency and
excellent voltage quality.
3.2 - Rating
The UPS shall be sized to continuously supply a load of …[160 / 200]… kVA, at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
3.3 - Battery backup time
The battery backup time in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be …[ 8 / 10 / 15 / 30 / 60…]… minutes, for
a load power factor of 0.8.
Battery service life shall be equal to at least …[ 5 / 10 ]…years. It shall be selected and sized correspondingly, for a
load power factor of 0.8.
3.4 - Types of loads accepted
The UPS shall accept high crest factors (3:1) without derating.
For both linear and non-linear loads, the total harmonic voltage distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall
respect the following limits:
● THDU aval ph/ph ≤ 2 %
● THDU aval ph/N ≤ 3 %.
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4 (formerly IEC 1000 3-4).
To that end, it shall be possible to equip the rectifier/charger input with a filter of the type…[compensated LC / noncompensated LC / with contactor / double bridge / THM / phase shifting]…
If necessary, it shall be possible to use an electronic active filtering system to obtain, at the normal AC input, the
following levels, constant from 50% to 100% load:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier not exceeding 4% at full rated load:
THDI upstream ≤ 4% at Pn;
● input power factor (pf) greater than or equal to 0.94: FP ≥ 0.94.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 3
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
3.6 - Efficiency
Overall efficiency shall be greater than or equal to:
● 93% down to half rated load (In/2).
● An optional economic operating mode (see section 5.4.2) shall be available to increase the efficiency up to a value
of 97%.
3.7 - Noise level
The noise level, measured as per standard ISO 3746, shall be less than:
● 68 dBA
4 - AC sources
The UPS shall be designed to receive power from the sources listed below.
4.1 - Normal AC source
(rectifier/charger input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following characteristics:
● rated voltage: 380 - 400 or 415 volts rms at full rated load Pn;
● voltage:
volts, ± 15%;
● number of phases: 3 + N + earth;
● frequency: Hz ± 10%
4.2 - Bypass AC source
(static-bypass input, if separate from rectifier input)
The bypass power supplying the UPS in the event of an inverter shutdown (maintenance, failure) or an overload
(short-circuit, heavy inrush currents, etc.) shall have the following characteristics:
● voltage:
/ volts, ± 10%;
● number of phases: 3 + N + earth; (a non-distributed neutral is possible)
● frequency: Hz ± 5%
5 - Electrical characteristics
5.1 - Rectifier and charger
5.1.1 - Supply
The rectifier and charger module shall be supplied via the normal AC input (see section 4 "AC sources").
5.1.2 - Inrush current
A walk-in circuit shall eliminate overcurrents during starting by imposing a gradual increase of the rectifier/charger
input current until nominal conditions are reached.
This walk-in period shall last approximately 10 seconds.
5.1.3 - Battery-current limiting
For long battery life, an electronic device shall automatically limit the charging current to the maximum value specified
by the battery supplier (0.1 x C10 for a sealed lead-acid battery). A second device shall limit the total current drawn by
the rectifier/charger to avoid overloading the power supply line.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 4
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
5.1.4 - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels
To substantially extend battery life without lowering its performance, the rectifier/charger shall provide four operating
modes:
● Float-charging mode
The battery-charger output voltage shall be set to the value specified by the battery supplier, i.e.
volts/cell.
● Automatic charging mode
In the event of a normal AC source outage lasting longer than a user-defined time, a battery charging cycle shall be
automatically initiated upon restoration of the normal source.
For fast recharging without lowering battery performance, this cycle shall include two charging phases, the first at
constant current and the second at constant voltage.
The constant voltage for the second phase shall be that specified by the battery supplier, i.e.
volts/cell. Upon completion, the DC voltage shall return to the float charging value.
● Manual-charging mode
The UPS shall also include a manually initiated 24-hour charge cycle.
Upon completion, the DC voltage shall return to the float charging value.
● Initial or equalising charge mode
For initial charging of a dry-fit battery or equalising of an installed battery showing a significant cell to cell voltage
volts/cell.
differential, the UPS shall allow charging at the voltage specified by the battery supplier, i.e.
This operation shall be carried out with the inverter turned off.
5.1.5 - Input power factor
The UPS shall present an input power factor greater than or equal to 0.98 for the normal AC source rated voltage and
frequency and the inverter operating at full rated load.
5.1.6 - Voltage regulation
Rectifier/charger regulation shall ensure DC output voltage fluctuations of less than 1% irrespective of load and AC
input voltage variations (within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC source”).
5.2 - Batteries
The battery shall be of the …[ sealed lead-acid type, factory mounted and wired in a cabinet identical to that of the
UPS, ]…[sealed lead-acid type, mounted on shelves,]…[vented lead-acid type, mounted on a rack, ]... with a service
life of …[ 5 / 10 ]… years.
The battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply of power to the inverter for at least …[ 8 / 10 / 15 / 30 /
60…]… minutes, in the event of a normal AC source failure, with the inverter operating at full rated load, i.e.…[160 /
200]… kVA at a power factor pf = 0.8. Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 15° C and
25° C
The UPS shall include devices to ensure:
● effective battery protection (see section 8.4 "Protection - Battery");
● battery management (see section 9 "Battery management").
5.3 - Inverter
The inverter shall be sized to supply a rated load of …[160 / 200]… kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8 and shall satisfy
the specifications listed below.
5.3.1 - Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[ 380 / 400 / 415 ]… volts rms, adjustable within a range of ± 3%.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
The variation in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 1% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated power,
irrespective of normal AC input and DC voltage levels, within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC source”
and 5.1.4 “Rectifier/charger - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels”.
● Voltage transients (transient conditions)
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 5% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads.
In all cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 20 milliseconds.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 5
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
● Unbalanced load conditions
For a > 30% unbalanced load, the voltage unbalance shall be less than 2% for the phase-to-neutral amplitude and 3
degrees for the phase angle deviation.
● Phase-to-phase harmonic distortion (voltage wave form)
The UPS shall limit distortion of the phase-to-phase output voltages to less than:
- 1.5% for each harmonic;
- 3% overall;
irrespective of the type of load, as indicated in section 3.4 "Types of loads accepted".
5.3.2 - Output frequency
● Rated frequency
Hz.
● Variations
- ± 0.5 Hz,
- adjustable from ± 0.25 Hz up to ± 2 Hz.
5.3.3 - Synchronization with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions below in section 5.4 "Static-bypass"), the inverter output voltage
shall be synchronized with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal operation, a
synchronization system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3 degrees, if the bypass
source frequency is sufficiently stable (within ± 1% of its rated value).
● Synchronization with an external source
If the bypass source is a generator set, the synchronization tolerances shall be approximately
± 2 Hz (adjustable).
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronization with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running mode
with internal synchronization, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0.1%. When bypass power returns to within
tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronize.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
During the switch to free-running mode and the switch back to synchronised mode, frequency variations per unit time
(dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
5.3.4 - Overload capacity
The UPS shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 10 minutes a load representing 125 % of the rated load;
● 1 minute a load representing 150% of the rated load.
If necessary, the UPS shall operate as a generator (current limiting) with a peak capacity of 233% for 1 second, to
allow highly disturbed transient operating states (high overloads, very high crest factors, etc.) without transferring the
load to the bypass.
5.4 - Static bypass
5.4.1 - Static-bypass function
Instantaneous transfer of the load from the inverter to bypass power and back shall take place without a break or
disturbance in the supply of power to the load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage and frequency are
within the tolerances specified in section 4.2 "Bypass AC source" and that the inverter is synchronized.
Transfer shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal inverter fault. Manually initiated
transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronized with the inverter, automatic transfer of
the load from the inverter to bypass power shall take place after a calibrated interruption of 500 to 800 milliseconds.
Manual initiation of this transfer as well as transfer back to the inverter shall also be possible.
5.4.2 - Option for optimized output - ECO mode
The static switch associated with a microprocessor controlling the bypass shall provide an operating mode that
increases the efficiency of the UPS up to 97% during periods when the bypass source is stable and within tolerances.
It shall be possible for the operator to enable or disable this operating mode at any time.
The time required to transfer the load to and from the bypass shall not exceed 15 milliseconds.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 6
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
5.5 - Discrimination
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.1 "Bypass AC source" , the presence of the static
switch shall make it possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream protection
devices of the inverter.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated inverter current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the inverter on its own shall, for the same discrimination
requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of the type of shortcircuit.
5.6 - System earthing arrangement
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements:
● upstream source:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
● downstream installation:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream earthing arrangements are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided.
6 - Mechanical characteristics
6.1 - Scalable design
The UPS shall be of scalable design so as to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of
additional UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system reliability by introducing
redundancy. It shall be possible to adapt a single UPS unit for connection with parallel UPS units directly on site,
without returning the equipment to the factory and without causing excessive system downtime.
Similarly, the UPS output frequency shall be readily adaptable on site from 50 to 60 Hz or vice-versa to meet possible
changes in load requirements.
6.2 - Dimensions
The UPS shall require as little floorspace as possible.
To facilitate installation, UPS height shall not exceed 1 900 mm and passage through an 800 mm wide door shall be
possible (with panels and/or doors removed, as necessary).
To save considerable space, it shall be possible to install the UPS with its back right against a wall.
6.3 - Mechanical structure
The mechanical structure of the UPS shall be sufficiently strong and rigid to withstand handling and installation
operations without risk.
Access to UPS subassemblies shall be through front doors. The sheet-metal elements in the structure shall be
protected against corrosion by a suitable treatment, such as zinc electroplating, bichromating, epoxy paint or an
equivalent.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 7
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
6.4 - Connections and busbars
Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be possible at the bottom of
the UPS or through the bottom for a false floor.
Installation shall be facilitated by clear marking of connection terminals.
Connections shall be made through the front of the UPS cabinets. All connections shall be directly accessible, without
undoing any other connections.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12
"Standards and tests".
Any busbars shall be made of rectangular cross-section electrolytic copper or aluminium bars and mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety".
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 "Standards and tests" and be mounted in compliance
with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety". The neutral conductor shall be oversized for any third-order harmonic
currents and their multiples (the size of the neutral shall be 1.5 times that of each phase).
6.5 - Ventilation
The UPS shall be provided with forced-air cooling.
To avoid UPS shutdown in the event of a fan failure, redundant fans shall be provided on the UPS and fan failure shall
initiate an alarm.
6.6 - Safety
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical bypass
designed to isolate the rectifier/charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from the bypass
AC source. Control circuits shall be galvanically isolated from power circuits. Live parts that could be touched during
normal operation or maintenance shall be protected by insulated barriers.
Backfeed type protection shall be available as an option to mechanically disconnect the bypass source when
operating on battery power or when bypass power is absent to avoid the backfeed of battery voltage into the bypass
source.
It shall also be possible to send to the UPS an external EPO order resulting in opening of the battery circuit breaker
and the upstream circuit breaker.
7 - Environment conditions
7.1 - UPS (not including battery)
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions without
loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: -5° C to +40° C.
● recommended temperature range: +15° C to + 25° C ;
● maximum average temperature: 35° C for 24 hours
● maximum temperature: 40° C for 8 hours;
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25° C;
● maximum altitude: 1000 meters.
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
7.2 - Batteries
7.2.1 - Operation
The battery shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: 0° C to +40° C.
● recommended temperature range: +15° C to + 25° C ;
● maximum relative humidity: 95%;
● maximum altitude: 1000 meters.
7.2.2 - Storage
The battery shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 8
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
8 - Protection
8.1 - UPS
The UPS shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive external or
internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2 - Rectifier and charger
The rectifier/charger shall be equipped to receive an external order to automatically shut down under the following
circumstances:
● emergency off; in this case, the shutdown will be accompanied by opening of the battery circuit breaker;
● battery room ventilation fault.
The rectifier and the charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified by
the battery manufacturer.
8.3 - Inverter
The load shall be protected against any overvoltages that could result from voltage regulation failure at the inverter
output.
The inverter (and the rectifier/charger module) shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the minimum
value specified by the battery manufacturer.
The inverter shall be equipped with an automatic shutdown system to protect its power circuits against overloads
exceeding its overload capacity when bypass power is not available. In particular, a short-circuit on the load shall
initiate a static shutdown of the inverter, without blowing a fuse.
8.4 - Batteries
8.4.1 - Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a battery-protection device against deep discharges, taking into account the discharge
cycles, with a circuit breaker to isolate the battery.
In particular, a safety device for the battery shall limit the discharge time to three times the backup time at full rated
load to avoid excessive discharge at less than the rated output.
A second device shall avoid self-discharge of the battery into the UPS control circuits during an extended shutdown of
the UPS (over two hours). It shall be possible to disable this device as necessary.
8.4.2 - Self-test
The battery-monitoring system shall include the following automatic features:
● check on the battery circuit every 12 hours;
● open-circuit battery test every month;
● partial-discharge test every three months.
This self-test system shall, where necessary, initiate indications via LEDs on the front panel or a message to a remote
monitoring system.
8.4.3 – Charge-current limiting
The UPS shall comprise a device to limit the charge current for the battery (0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10).
9 - Battery management
As the life of a battery is very sensitive to operating conditions, the battery shall be managed in an optimum manner.
In addition to the devices indicated in "Protection - Battery" above, battery management features shall include the
following:
9.1 - Self-test
The battery shall include a self-test system initiated in two manners:
● as necessary by a manual command;
● automatically at user-defined intervals.
This self-test system shall update the battery parameters and detect any abnormal deterioration to facilitate preventive
maintenance.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 9
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
9.2 - Temperature correction
The battery management system shall automatically adapt the battery voltage to the ambient temperature in order to
optimize battery service life.
9.3 - Measurement of actual backup time
The battery function shall be combined with a system that continuously monitors the actual backup time available (AC
source present) or remaining (AC source absent), according to the actual load on the UPS, the battery temperature
and the age of the battery.
10 - User interface and communication
10.1 - User interface
10.1.1 - Operating and start-up assistance
The UPS shall be equipped with an operating and start-up assistance, a system providing start-up and operating
assistance including:
● display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and indication of operator instructions
for switching operations (e.g. bypass);
● time-stamped logging and automatic or manually initiated recall of all important status changes, faults and
malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of troubleshooting procedures.
10.1.2 - Controls
The UPS shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● keypad
A keypad shall be provided to carry out the following operations:
- forced transfer or forced shutdown of inverter when the bypass AC source is outside specified load tolerances;
- equipment self-test and battery charge cycle.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off terminal block for complete system shutdown following
reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of the UPS;
- opening of the static switch on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker;
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the first,
the buzzer sounds again.
● self-test button
● battery charge-cycle control button
10.1.3 - Indications
The following status information shall be monitored by indicating lights on the UPS front panel:
● rectifier/charger on;
● load on UPS;
● load on bypass;
● general alarm.
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power. This system shall be equipped with
an alarm reset button (see section 10.1.2).
10.1.4 - Display of parameters
A display unit shall indicate at least the following parameters in the
language:
● remaining battery backup time;
● internal fan fault;
● low battery warning;
● position of switching devices;
● bypass AC source outside tolerances;
● battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating servicing of the system, as specified in the
“Maintenance” section.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 10
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
10.1.5 - Display of measurements
The display unit shall also indicate the following measurements:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
inverter output phase-to-phase voltages;
inverter output currents;
inverter output frequency,
voltage across battery terminals;
battery charge or discharge current;
rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages;
rectifier/charger input currents;
crest factor;
active and apparent power;
power factor of the load.
10.2 - Communication
10.2.1 - Standard communication
● a remote control and indication unit, for which the UPS shall be provided as standard with dry contacts for
incoming and outgoing signals;
10.2.2 - Communications options
The UPS shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the following
types of cards:
● an SNMP communication card for connection to an Ethernet network, for connection to a computer-network
management system;
● an RS485 serial-link communication card capable of implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a
building management system (BMS);
● an RS232 serial-link communication card for communication with a modem and a remote-maintenance system;
● USB communication card;
● an XML-Web (HTTP) communication card for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a
server, capable of supplying information via a standard web browser.
In addition, it shall be possible to extend communication to other UPS units for simultaneous shutdown of a number of
servers.
Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
11. - Maintainability
● All power subassemblies shall be accessible from the front.
● UPS design shall provide maximum mean time between failure (MTBF) and minimum mean time to repair (MTTR).
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole. The electronic UPS
control and monitoring assembly shall therefore be fully micro-processor based, thus doing away with all
potentiometer settings and making possible:
● auto-compensation of component drift;
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote).
System components shall be ready for customer type (level 2) or manufacturer type (level 4) electronic mediation of
services and/or monitoring.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 11
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
12 - Standards and tests
12.1 - Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
● IEC 60146-4: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 62040-1 and EN 62040-1: UPS - Safety.
● IEC 62040-2 and EN 62040-2: UPS - Electromagnetic compatibility.
● IEC 62040-3 and EN 62040-3: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 60950 / EN 60950: Safety of IT equipment, including electrical business equipment.
● IEC 61000-2-2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage
power supply systems.
● IEC 61000-3-4: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-4: EMC - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity.
● EN 55011 and EN 55022: Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference characteristics of industrial,
scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency equipment - Level B conducted and radiated emissions.
● IEC 439: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● IEC 60529: Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
● ISO 3746: Sound power levels.
● CE marking.
What is more, the equipment must comply with environmental-protection standards, with production taking place on
premises certified ISO 14001.
12.2 - Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards.
What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent laboratories
(e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
13 - Test procedures and quality system
13.1 - Test procedures
The UPS manufacturer shall provide proof of a stringent Quality Assurance programme.
In particular, the main equipment manufacturing stages shall be sanctioned by appropriate tests such as:
● incoming components inspection, discrete subassembly testing;
● complete functional checks on the final product.
Equipment shall undergo on-load burn-in before leaving the factory.
Final inspection and adjustments shall be documented in a report drawn up by the supplier’s Quality Inspection
department.
ISO 9001 or 9002 certification of the production site is compulsory.
13.2 - Quality system
The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well as a dependability study to ensure
maximum reliability.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 12
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
14 - Services
14.1 - Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk. These
operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
14.2 - Technical competency
● Customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● Service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
14.3 - Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorized agent shall ensure reasonable access times to the
customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a contract
limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
14.4 - System start-up
● The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorized agent. The procedure shall
include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS installation
parameters.
14.5 - Replacement parts
● The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
14.6 - Recycling and renovation/substitution
● At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
15 - Warranty
The rectifier/charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year following
the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 13
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
16 - Installation services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements;
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site;
● connections between the battery and the UPS;
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger;
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input;
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
17 - Electrical diagram
Fig. UPS electrical diagram.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 14
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.8
kVA
Manufacturer
Range of products
double conversion
yes
no
Three-phase input voltage at Pn
380 or 440 or 415 V ± 15%
yes
no
Input frequency
50 or 60 Hz ± 10%
yes
no
Input-current distortion
THDI upstream ≤ 4% with THM filter
yes
no
Input power factor
PF > 0.94
yes
no
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
yes
no
yes
no
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
Rectifiers
Battery
Type
standard
other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Temperature correction
Measurement of actual backup time,
depending on:
load, temperature, age
Cold start on battery power
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
Protection against self-discharge
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on the
battery)
Self-tests
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 15
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
Inverter
Volts
yes
no
± 3%
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 1%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 5 % (load from 0 to 100 or 100 to 0 %)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU ph-N < 3%
yes
no
Hz
yes
no
± 0.5 Hz
yes
no
± 0.25 Hz to 2 Hz
yes
no
Frequency synchronization with an
external source
± 8 % of rated frequency source
yes
no
Overload capacity
125 % In for 10 minutes
yes
no
150 % In for 1 minute
yes
no
Current limiting
233 % In for 1 second
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
> 93% at Pn/2
yes
no
Display
measurements, status, events
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Programmable relay card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
3 slots for communication cards
yes
no
Options
Ethernet SNMP card
yes
no
RS485 JBus/Modbus card
yes
no
RS232 U-Talk card
yes
no
USB card
yes
no
XML-Web card
yes
no
Supervision software
yes
no
yes
no
Three-phase output voltage with neutral
adjustable to
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
adjustable from
Static bypass
Standard function
Short-circuit withstand of static bypass
10 In – 20 milliseconds
Maintenance bypass
Efficiency
Normal mode
User interface
Communication
Administration software
APC by Schneider Electric
with shutdown management
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 16
Standard specification no. 3a
Single UPS, three-phase, 160 to 200 kVA (cont.)
Certification
Certified standards and tests
see list in section 12.1
yes
no
Certification of performance
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
Level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
Remote
yes
no
Technical support
International
yes
no
Access to power components through
yes
no
Back-to-wall installation for units > 160
yes
no
yes
no
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
Around the world
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substituion programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
Preventive
Predictive
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3a - p. 17
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Contents
1 - UPS definition ............................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 - Purpose .............................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 - Brief description .................................................................................................................. 2
2 - Operating principle ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 - Normal operation ................................................................................................................ 2
2.2 - Operation on battery power ................................................................................................ 2
2.3 - Battery recharge ................................................................................................................. 3
2.4 - Redundancy ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.5 - Transfer to bypass AC source ............................................................................................ 3
2.6 - Maintenance on UPS units ................................................................................................. 3
2.7 - Battery maintenance ........................................................................................................... 3
2.7 - Cold start (AC power absent) .............................................................................................. 3
3 - Sizing and general characteristics ............................................................................................. 3
3.1 - Technology ......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 - Rating ................................................................................................................................. 4
3.3 - Battery backup time ............................................................................................................ 4
3.4 - Reliability and MTBF ........................................................................................................... 4
3.5 - Types of loads accepted ..................................................................................................... 4
3.6 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS ..................................................................... 4
3.7 - Efficiency ............................................................................................................................ 4
3.8 - Noise level .......................................................................................................................... 4
4 - AC sources ................................................................................................................................... 5
4.1 - Normal AC source .............................................................................................................. 5
4.2 - Bypass AC source .............................................................................................................. 5
5 - Electrical characteristics ............................................................................................................. 5
5.1 - Rectifier/chargers ................................................................................................................ 5
5.2 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 6
5.3 - Inverters .............................................................................................................................. 6
5.4 - Static-bypass ...................................................................................................................... 7
5.5 - Discrimination ..................................................................................................................... 7
5.6 - System earthing arrangement ............................................................................................. 7
6 - Mechanical characteristics .......................................................................................................... 8
6.1 - Scalable design .................................................................................................................. 8
6.2 - Dimensions ......................................................................................................................... 8
6.3 - Mechanical structure ........................................................................................................... 8
6.4 - Connections and busbars ................................................................................................... 8
6.5 - Safety.................................................................................................................................. 8
7 - Environment conditions .............................................................................................................. 9
7.1 - UPS (not including battery) ................................................................................................. 9
7.2 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 9
8 - Protection ..................................................................................................................................... 9
8.1 - UPS .................................................................................................................................... 9
8.2 - Rectifier/chargers ................................................................................................................ 9
8.3 - Inverters .............................................................................................................................. 9
8.4 - Batteries.............................................................................................................................. 10
9 - Battery management .................................................................................................................... 10
9.1 - Automatic entry of parameters ............................................................................................ 10
9.2 - Temperature correction....................................................................................................... 10
9.3 - Measurement of actual backup time ................................................................................... 10
10 - User interface and communication........................................................................................... 10
10.1 - User interface ................................................................................................................... 10
10.2 - Communication ................................................................................................................. 11
11 - Maintenance................................................................................................................................ 12
12 - Standards and tests .................................................................................................................. 12
13 - Test procedures and quality system ........................................................................................ 13
14 - Services ...................................................................................................................................... 13
14.1 - Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 13
14.2 - Technical competency ...................................................................................................... 13
14.3 - Functional components ..................................................................................................... 13
14.4 - System start-up ................................................................................................................. 13
14.5 - Replacement parts ............................................................................................................ 14
14.6 - Recycling and renovation.................................................................................................. 14
15 - Warranty...................................................................................................................................... 14
16 - Installation services ................................................................................................................... 14
17 - Electrical diagram ...................................................................................................................... 15
Appendix. Check list ......................................................................................................................... 16
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 1
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply system (referred to as a UPS in
the rest of this document). The UPS system shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
For information purposes
MTBF in
hours
475000
Single-UPS unit with static bypass
Non availability
2.1x10
-5
Active redundancy N+1 with
1.88x106
1.25x106
9.39x105
-2 UPS units
-3 UPS units
-4 UPS units
The total load supplied by the UPS system shall be equal to
pf = 0.8.
5.32x10-6
7.98x10-6
1.07x10-5
kVA, at a power factor
1.2 - Brief description
The UPS system shall be made up of …[ 2 / 3 / 4 ]… identical parallel-connected single-UPS units (same power
rating), operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode).
Each UPS unit shall have a unit rating of …[ 160 / 200 ]… kVA and shall comprise the following components,
described below in this specification:
● rectifier/charger;
● Inverter;
● Battery;
● Static bypass (via a static switch) for each UPS unit;
● anual maintenance bypass for each UPS unit ( only for systems with two redundant UPS units)
or a "maintenance bypass" cabinet ( for other systems)
● User and communications interface;
● Battery management system;
● Any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
The UPS system shall ensure continuity of electric power to the load within the specified tolerances, without
interruption upon failure or deterioration of the normal AC source (utility power) for a maximum protection time
determined by the capacity of the backup batteries installed.
2 - Operating principle
Each double-conversion UPS unit shall operate as defined below.
2.1 - Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier/charger supplies the corresponding inverter with DC current while simultaneously float charging its
battery. The load is continuously supplied with dependable electrical power by the inverter.
A current-loop system shall ensure automatic distribution of the total load between the various parallel-connected
units.
2.2 - Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load with
power from its battery without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the specified battery backup
time.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 2
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
2.3 - Battery recharge
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier/charger shall again power the corresponding inverter, without
interruption or disturbance to the load, while automatically recharging its battery.
2.4 - Redundancy
The units shall operate in parallel and redundantly, with the load shared equally between the units.
Redundancy shall be of the "n+1" (or n+2) type, i.e. "1" (or 2) units shall be redundant in the total of n units. If a
major fault occurs on a unit, it shall automatically disconnect.
If the remaining unit(s) are sufficient to supply the load, it/they shall remain in operation.
If the total available power is insufficient, the load shall be automatically transferred, without interruption, to the
bypass AC source, if it is within tolerances.
2.5 - Transfer to bypass AC source
In the event of an overload exceeding system capabilities (short-circuits, heavy inrush currents, etc.) the load shall
be automatically transferred, instantaneously and without interruption, to the bypass AC source,
on the condition that bypass power is available and within tolerances.
To that end, synchronization of each inverter in phase and frequency with the bypass source shall be automatic.
Transfer of the load back to the UPS-unit outputs shall be automatic or manual. During transfer, the load shall not
suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption if a major fault occurs on
the UPS system and if synchronization with the bypass source has not been established.
2.6 - Maintenance on UPS units
For maintenance purposes, a built-in manually-operated mechanical bypass system shall be:
- installed in each UPS unit; ( only for a system with two redundant UPS units)
- installed separately in a "maintenance bypass" cabinet. ( for other systems)
For personnel safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the UPS units while
continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. Transfer to the manual bypass mode and back
shall be possible without interruption to the load.
The UPS shall also include a device making it possible to isolate the rectifier/chargers from the normal AC source.
( for a "maintenance bypass" cabinet). Remote information on the status of the external manual-bypass switch on
the UPS units shall be available to avoid any risk of parallel connection of the normal and bypass AC inputs.
2.7 - Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance on the battery of each UPS unit, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the
battery from the corresponding rectifier/charger and inverter.
When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to supply the load without interruption or
disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.8 - Coldstart (AC power absent)
The battery of each UPS unit shall be capable of ensuring UPS start-up even if normal AC power is not available
and continuing operation within the specified back-up time.
3 - Sizing and general characteristics
3.1 - Technology
The UPS shall be based on IGBT technology and a free-frequency chopping mode to ensure optimum efficiency
and excellent voltage quality.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 3
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
3.2 - Rating
The UPS system shall be sized to continuously supply a load of
kVA, at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
It shall be made up of ...[2 / 3 / 4 ]... UPS units, each with an identical rating of…[ 160 / 200 / ]… kVA.
The total installed power rating shall thus be kVA. ...[Consequently, 1 (or 2) unit(s) may be redundant.]
3.3 - Battery backup time
The backup time of each battery in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be
…[ 8 / 10 / 15 / 30 / 60…]…minutes.
The service life of each battery shall be equal to at least …[5 / 10]… years.
Batteries shall be selected and sized accordingly.
3.4 - Reliability and MTBF
6
6
5
The active redundancy architecture shall provide an installation MTBF of …[1.88x10 / 1.25x10 / 9.39x10 hours ]
corresponding to an availability of [5.32x10-6 / 7.98x10-6 / 1.07x10-5 ]
3.5 - Types of loads accepted
If all the connected loads are non-linear (100% non-linear loads), each UPS unit shall accept high crest factors
(3:1) without derating of output, for enhanced support of computer loads.
For both linear and non-linear loads, the voltage total harmonic distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall
respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/N ≤ 2.5%;
● THDU downstream ph/ph ≤ 3%.
3.6 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of standard IEC 61000-3-4 (formerly IEC 1000 3-4).
To that end, it shall be possible to equip each rectifier/charger input with a filter of the type …[compensated LC /
non-compensated LC / with contactor / double-bridge / phase shifting]...
If necessary, it shall be possible to use an electronic active filtering system to obtain, at the normal AC input, the
following levels, constant from 50% to 100% load:
● Total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier/charger not exceeding 4%;
● Input power factor (pf) greater than 0.94.
3.7 - Efficiency
Overall efficiency of each UPS unit shall be greater than or equal to:
● 92% at full rated load (In);
● 91% a half rated load (In/2);
3.8 - Noise level
The noise level, measured as per standard ISO 3746, shall for each unit be less than:
● 68 dBA.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 4
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
4 - AC sources
The UPS system shall be designed to receive power from the sources presented below.
4.1 - Normal AC source
(rectifier/charger inputs)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● Rated voltage: 380 - 400 or 415 volts rms at full rated load Pn;
volts, ± 15%;
● Voltage:
● Number of phases: 3 + N + earth;
● Frequency:
Hz ± 10%
4.2 - Bypass AC source
(static-bypass inputs, if separate from rectifier input)
The bypass power supplying the UPS in the event of an inverter shutdown (maintenance, failure) or an overload
(short-circuit, heavy inrush currents, etc.) shall have the following characteristics:
volts, ± 10%;
● Voltage:
/
● Number of phases: 3 + N + earth;
● Frequency:
Hz ± 5%
5 - Electrical characteristics
5.1 - Rectifier/chargers
5.1.1 - Supply
Each rectifier/charger shall be supplied via the normal AC input (see section 4, "AC sources") and shall have the
characteristics presented below.
5.1.2 - Inrush current
A walk-in circuit shall eliminate overcurrents during starting by imposing a gradual increase of the rectifier/charger
input current until nominal conditions are reached.
This walk-in period shall last approximately 10 seconds.
5.1.3 - Battery-current limiting
For long battery life, an electronic device shall automatically limit the charging current to the maximum value
specified by the battery supplier (0.1 x C10 for a sealed lead-acid battery). A second device shall limit the total
current drawn by the rectifier/charger to avoid overloading the power supply line.
5.1.4 - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels
To substantially extend battery life without lowering its performance, the rectifier/charger shall provide four
operating modes:
● Float-charging mode
The battery-charger output voltage shall be set to the value specified by the battery supplier, i.e.
volts/cell.
● Automatic charging mode
In the event of a normal AC source outage lasting longer than a user-defined time, a battery charging cycle shall be
automatically initiated upon restoration of the normal source.
For fast recharging without lowering battery performance, this cycle shall include two charging phases, the first at
constant current and the second at constant voltage.
The constant voltage for the second phase shall be that specified by the battery supplier, i.e.
volts/cell. Upon completion, the DC voltage shall return to the float charging value.
● anual-charging mode
The UPS shall also include a manually initiated 24-hour charge cycle.
Upon completion, the DC voltage shall return to the float charging value.
● Initial or equalising charge mode
For initial charging of a dry-fit battery or equalising of an installed battery showing a significant cell to cell voltage
differential, the UPS shall allow charging at the voltage specified by the battery supplier, i.e.
volts/cell.
This operation shall be carried out with the inverter turned off.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 5
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
5.1.5 - Input power factor
The rectifier/charger shall present an input power factor greater than or equal to 0.8 for the normal AC source rated
voltage and frequency and the inverter operating at full rated load.
5.1.6 - Voltage regulation
Rectifier/charger regulation shall ensure DC output voltage fluctuations of less than 0.5% irrespective of load and
AC input voltage variations (within the limits specified in the “Normal AC source” section).
5.2 - Batteries
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with its own battery of the …[sealed lead-acid type, factory mounted and wired in
a cabinet identical to that of the UPS,] … [sealed lead-acid type, mounted on shelves,]…[vented lead-acid type,
mounted on a rack,]...
with a service life equal to at least …[5 / 10]… years.
Each battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply of power to the corresponding inverter for at least
…[8 / 10 / 15 / 30 / 60…]… minutes, in the event of a normal AC source failure, with the inverter operating at full
rated load, i.e.
kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 15° C and 25° C.
Protection devices shall be incorporated in each cabinet. The battery shall be protected against deep discharge.
5.3 - Inverters
Each inverter shall be sized to supply a load rated
of …[ 160 / 200 ]… kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8, taking into account the characteristics presented below.
5.3.1 - Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[ 380 / 400 / 415 ]… volts rms, adjustable within a range of ± 3%.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
The variation in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 1% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated
power, irrespective of normal AC input and DC voltage levels, within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC
source” and 5.1.4 “Rectifier/charger - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels”.
● Voltage transients (transient conditions)
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 5% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads.
In all cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 20 milliseconds.
● Unbalanced load conditions
For a load unbalance greater than 30%, the voltage unbalance shall be less than 2% for the phase-to-neutral
amplitude and 3 degrees for the phase angle deviation.
● Phase-to-phase harmonic distortion (voltage wave form)
The UPS system shall be provided with a system limiting total harmonic distortion of the phase-to-phase output
voltage to 3% and individual harmonic distortion to 1.5%, irrespective of the type of load, as indicated in section
3.5 "Types of loads accepted".
5.3.2 - Output frequency
● Rated frequency
- Hz.
● Variations
- ± 0.5 Hz,
- adjustable from ± 0.25 Hz up to ± 2 Hz.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 6
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
5.3.3 - Synchronization with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions below in section 5.4 "Static-bypass"), the inverter output
voltage shall be synchronized with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal
operation, a synchronization system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3
degrees, if the bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within ± 0.5 Hz of its rated value).
● Synchronization with an external source
If the bypass source is a generator set, the synchronization tolerances shall be approximately
± 2 Hz (adjustable).
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronization with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronization, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0.04%. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronize.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
During the switch to free-running mode and the switch back to synchronised mode, frequency variations per unit
time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s.
5.3.4 - Overload capacity
Each inverter in the UPS system shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 10 minutes a load representing 125% of the rated load;
● 1 minute a load representing 150% of the rated load.
If the bypass AC source is outside tolerances, the UPS shall operate as a generator (current limiting) with a peak
capacity of 233% for 1 second, to allow highly disturbed transient operating states (high overloads, very high crest
factors, etc.).
5.4 - Static-bypass
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with a static bypass. The static bypasses shall be controlled simultaneously by a
built-in system. Instantaneous transfer of the load from the inverters to bypass power and back shall take place
without a break or disturbance in the supply of power to the load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage
and frequency are within the tolerances specified in section 4.1 "Bypass AC source" and that the inverters are
synchronized.
5.5 - Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.1 "Bypass AC source" , the presence of the static
switch shall make it possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream protection
devices of the common inverter output.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated UPS-system current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the UPS system on its own shall, for the same
discrimination requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of
the type of short-circuit.
Parallel connection of a number of UPS units shall significantly improve discrimination.
5.6 - System earthing arrangement
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements:
● upstream source:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
● downstream installation:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream earthing arrangements are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the
static-bypass line.
(Except when the switch is from TNC to TNS, in which case the galvanic isolation is not required.)
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 7
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
6 - Mechanical characteristics
6.1 - Scalable design
The UPS system shall be designed to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of
additional UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system reliability by introducing
redundancy.
This transformation shall be possible directly on site, without returning the equipment to the factory and without
causing excessive system downtime.
Similarly, the UPS output frequency shall be readily adaptable on site from 50 to 60 Hz or vice-versa to meet
possible changes in load requirements.
6.2 - Dimensions
Each UPS unit shall require as little floor space as possible.
To facilitate installation, UPS height shall not exceed 1 900 mm and passage through an 800 mm wide door shall
be possible (with panels and/or doors removed, as necessary).
To save considerable space, it shall be possible to install the UPS units back to a wall.
6.3 - Mechanical structure
The mechanical structure of each UPS unit shall be sufficiently strong and rigid to withstand handling and
installation operations without risk.
Access to UPS subassemblies shall be through front doors equipped with locking facilities.
Rear panels shall be removable. The sheet-metal elements in the structure shall be protected against corrosion by
a suitable treatment, such as zinc electroplating, bichromating, epoxy paint or an equivalent.
6.4 - Connections and busbars
Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be possible at the bottom of
the UPS or through the bottom for a false floor.
Installation shall be facilitated by clear marking of connection terminals.
Connections shall be made through the front of the UPS cabinets. All connections shall be directly accessible,
without undoing any other connections.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12
"Standards and tests".
Any busbars shall be made of rectangular cross-section electrolytic copper or aluminium bars and mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety".
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 "Standards and tests" and be mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety". The neutral conductor shall be oversized for any third-order
harmonic currents and their multiples (the size of the neutral shall be 1.5 times that of each phase).
6.5 - Safety
The equipment shall meet the requirements of degree of protection index IP21, in compliance with standard
IEC 60529.
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical
bypass designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from
the bypass AC source.
Control circuits shall be galvanically isolated from power circuits.
Live parts that could be touched during normal operation or maintenance shall be protected by insulated barriers.
It shall be possible to send to the UPS an external EPO order resulting in opening of the battery circuit breaker and
the upstream circuit breaker.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 8
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
7 - Environment conditions
7.1 - UPS (not including battery)
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions
without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: -5° C to +40° C.
● maximum temperature: 40° C for 8 hours;
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25° C;
● maximum altitude: 1000 meters.
7.1.2 - Storage
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
7.2 - Batteries
7.2.1 - Operation
The battery shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: 0° C to +40° C.
● recommended temperature range: +15° C to + 25° C;
● maximum relative humidity: 95%;
● maximum altitude: 1000 meters.
7.2.2 - Storage
The battery shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
8 - Protection
8.1 - UPS
Each UPS unit shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive
external or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2 - Rectifier and charger
Each rectifier/charger shall be equipped to receive an external order to automatically shut down under the following
circumstances:
● emergency off; in this case, the shutdown will be accompanied by opening of the battery circuit breaker;
● battery room ventilation fault.
The rectifier and the charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified
by the battery manufacturer.
8.3 - Inverter
The load shall be protected against any overvoltages that could result from voltage regulation failure at the output
of the inverters.
The inverter (and the corresponding rectifier/charger) shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the
minimum value specified by the battery manufacturer.
Each inverter shall be equipped with an automatic shutdown system to protect its power circuits against overloads
exceeding UPS-system overload capacity when bypass power is not available. In particular, a short-circuit on the
load shall initiate a static shutdown of each inverter, without blowing a fuse.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 9
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
8.4 - Batteries
8.4.1 - Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a device designed to protect the battery against deep discharges, taking into account the
characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the battery by a circuit breaker.
In particular, a safety device on each battery shall limit the discharge time to three times the backup time at full
rated load to avoid excessive discharge at less than the rated output.
A second device shall avoid self-discharge of the battery into the UPS control circuits during an extended shutdown
of the UPS (over two hours). It shall be possible to disable this device as necessary.
8.4.2 - Self-test
The battery-monitoring system shall include automatic test devices for the battery in each unit for:
● check on the battery circuit every 12 hours;
● open-circuit battery test every month;
● partial-discharge test every three months.
This self-test system shall, where necessary, initiate indications via LEDs on the front panel or a message to a
remote monitoring system.
8.4.3 - Charge-current limiting
The UPS shall comprise a device to limit the charge current for each battery (0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10).
9 - Battery management
As the life of the batteries is very sensitive to operating conditions, the battery shall be managed in an optimum
manner.
In addition to the devices indicated in section 8.4 "Batteries", the battery-management system shall include the
features listed below.
9.1 - Self-test
The battery-monitoring system shall include an automatic test device for partial discharge. It shall be possible to
adjust the frequency of the test. This self-test system shall, where necessary, initiate indications via LEDs on the
front panel or a message to a remote monitoring system.
9.2 - Temperature correction
The battery management system shall automatically adapt the battery voltage to the ambient temperature in order
to optimize battery service life.
9.3 - Measurement of actual backup time
The battery function shall be combined with a system that continuously monitors the actual backup time available
(AC source present) or remaining (AC source absent), according to the actual load on the UPS, the battery
temperature and the age of the battery.
10 - User interface and communication
10.1 - User interface
10.1.1 - Operating and start-up assistance
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with a system providing start-up and operating assistance including:
● display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and indication of operator
instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass);
● time-stamped logging and automatic or manually initiated recall of all important status changes, faults and
malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of troubleshooting procedures.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 10
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
10.1.2 - Controls
Each UPS unit shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of each UPS unit, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● keypad
A keypad shall be provided to carry out the following operations:
- forced transfer or forced shutdown of inverter when the bypass AC source is outside specified load tolerances;
- equipment self-test and battery charge cycle.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off terminal block for complete system shutdown following
reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of each UPS unit;
- it shall also be possible simultaneously to open the static switch of each UPS unit and the circuit breaker of each
battery.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
● battery charge-cycle control button on each UPS unit.
10.1.3 - Indications
The following status information shall be monitored by indicating lights on the front panel of each UPS unit:
● rectifier/charger on;
● load on UPS;
● load on bypass;
● general alarm.
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power. This system shall be equipped
with an alarm reset button (see section 10.1.2).
10.1.4 - Display of parameters
A display unit on each UPS unit shall indicate at least the following parameters in the
language:
● remaining battery backup time;
● internal faults;
● low battery warning;
● position of switching devices;
● bypass AC source outside tolerances;
● battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating servicing of the system, as specified in the
“Maintainability” section.
10.1.5 - Display of measurements
The display unit shall also indicate the following measurements:
● inverter output phase-to-phase voltages;
● inverter output currents;
● inverter output frequency,
● voltage across battery terminals;
● battery charge or discharge current;
● rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages;
● rectifier/charger input currents;
● crest factor;
● active and apparent power;
● power factor of the load.
10.2 - Communication
10.2.1 - Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements to:
● a remote control and indication unit, for which the UPS shall be provided as standard with dry contacts for
incoming and outgoing signals;
● a microcomputer equipped with interface software, for use in a supervision system, for which the UPS shall be
provided on option with a serial-link communication card;
● a remote maintenance and service center, for which an optional modem shall be available for the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 11
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
10.2.2 - Communications options
The UPS shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the following
types of cards:
● an SNMP communication card for connection to an Ethernet network, for connection to a computer-network
management system;
● an RS485 serial-link communication card capable of implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a
building management system (BMS);
● an RS232 serial-link communication card for communication with a modem and a remote-maintenance system;
● a USB communication card,
● an XML-Web (HTTP) communication card for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to
a server, capable of supplying information via a standard web browser.
Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
11. - Maintainability
● All power components shall be accessible from the front.
● UPS design shall provide maximum mean time between failure (MTBF) and minimum mean time to repair
(MTTR).
● For optimum safety during servicing, an external maintenance bypass ( systems with more than 2 UPS units)
shall be available to completely isolate the UPS.
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
● The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole. The electronic
UPS control and monitoring assembly shall therefore be fully micro-processor based, t●hus doing away with all
potentiometer settings and making possible:
● auto-compensation of component drift;
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● system components shall be ready for customer type (level 2) or manufacturer type (level 4) electronic mediation
of services and/or monitoring.
12 - Standards and tests
12.1 - Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
● IEC 60146-4: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 62040-1 and EN 62040-1: UPS - Safety.
● IEC 62040-2 and EN 62040-2 level B: UPS - Electromagnetic compatibility.
● IEC 62040-3 and EN 62040-3: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 60950 / EN 60950: Safety of IT equipment, including electrical business equipment.
● IEC 61000-2-2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage
power supply systems.
● IEC 61000-3-4: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-4: EMC - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity.
● EN 55011 and EN 55022: Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference characteristics of industrial,
scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency equipment - Level B conducted and radiated emissions.
● IEC 439: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● IEC 60529: Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
● ISO 3746: Sound power levels.
● CE marking.
What is more, the equipment must comply with environmental-protection standards, with production taking place on
premises certified ISO 14001.
12.2 - Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards.
What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent laboratories
(e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 12
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
13 - Test procedures and quality system
13.1 - Test procedures
The UPS manufacturer shall provide proof of a stringent Quality Assurance programme.
In particular, the main equipment manufacturing stages shall be sanctioned by appropriate tests such as:
● incoming components inspection, discrete subassembly testing;
● complete functional checks on the final product.
Equipment shall undergo on-load burn-in before leaving the factory.
Final inspection and adjustments shall be documented in a report drawn up by the supplier’s Quality Inspection
department.
ISO 9001 or 9002 certification of the production site is compulsory.
13.2 - Quality system
The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well as a dependability study to
ensure maximum reliability.
14 - Services
14.1 - Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
Predictive-maintenance operations on consumable subassemblies / components.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
14.2 - Technical competency
● customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
14.3 - Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorized agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
● The supplier shall offer a remote technical-support service based on a network of experts and a system capable
of handling emergencies 24/365 around the world.
14.4 - System start-up
● The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorized agent. The procedure shall
include on-site acceptance during which checks will be carried out on the characteristics of the upstream and
downstream protection devices and on the UPS installation parameters.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 13
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
14.5 - Replacement parts
● The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
14.6 Recycling and renovation/substitution
● At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
15 - Warranty
The rectifier/charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year
following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
16 - Installation services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements;
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site;
● connections between the battery and the UPS;
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger;
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input;
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 14
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
17 - Electrical diagram
Fig. N+1 redundancy with two identical integrated parallel UPS units.
Fig. N+1 redundancy with mulitple integrated parallel UPS units (all identical) and an external
maintenance bypass cabinet.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 15
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
kVA
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.8
Identical parallel-connected units
units rated
including redundant units
units
kVA each
kVA
and one maintenance bypass cabinet
APC by Schneider Electric
Manufacturer
Range of products
double conversion
yes
no
380 or 440 or 415 V ± 15%
yes
no
Input frequency
50 or 60 Hz ± 10%
yes
no
Input-current distortion
THDI upstream ≤ 4%
yes
no
Input power factor
PF > 0.94
yes
no
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
yes
no
yes
no
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
Rectifiers
Three-phase input
voltage
at Pn
Battery
Type
Standard
Other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Temperature correction
Measurement of actual backup time,
depending on:
load, temperature, age
Cold start on battery power
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
Protection against self-discharge
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on the
battery)
Self-tests
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 16
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
Inverters
Volts
yes
no
± 3%
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 1%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 5% (load from 0 to 100 or 100 to 0%)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU ph-N < 5%
yes
no
Hz
yes
no
± 0.5 Hz
yes
no
± 0.25 Hz to 2 Hz
yes
no
Frequency synchronization with an
external source
± 8% of rated frequency
yes
no
Overload capacity
125% In for 10 minutes
yes
no
150% In for 1 minute
yes
no
Current limiting
233% In for 1 second
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
Static bypass
yes
no
Short-circuit withstand of static bypass 10 In - 20 milliseconds
yes
no
Maintenance bypass
yes
no
> 93.5% at Pn and > 92,5% at Pn/2
yes
no
Display
measurements, status, events
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications
Communication
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Programmable relay card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
3 slots for communication cards
yes
no
Ethernet SNMP card
yes
no
RS485 JBus/Modbus card
yes
no
RS232 U-Talk card
yes
no
XML-Web card
yes
no
Supervision software
yes
no
yes
no
Three-phase output voltage with neutral
Adjustable to
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
adjustable from
Static switches
Efficiency
Normal mode
User interface
Options
Administration software
APC by Schneider Electric
With shutdown management
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 17
Specification guide no. 3b
Parallel, three-phase UPS system, 160 to 800 kVA (cont.)
Certification
Certified standards and tests
see list in section 12.1
yes
no
Certification of performance
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
Level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
Remote
yes
no
Technical support
International
yes
no
Access to power components through
front
yes
no
Installable against wall
yes
no
yes
no
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
Around the world
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
Eco-design and manufacturing
APC by Schneider Electric
Preventive
ISO 14001 site
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 3b - p. 18
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA
1. UPS definition ............................................................................................................................... 2
1.1. Purpose................................................................................................................................ 2
1.2. Brief description ................................................................................................................... 2
2. Operating principles ..................................................................................................................... 2
2.1. Normal operation ................................................................................................................. 2
2.2. Operation on battery power .................................................................................................. 2
2.3. Battery recharging ................................................................................................................ 2
2.4. Transfer to bypass AC source.............................................................................................. 2
2.5. UPS maintenance ................................................................................................................ 2
2.6. Battery maintenance ............................................................................................................ 3
2.7. Cold start (normal AC source absent) .................................................................................. 3
3. Sizing and general characteristics .............................................................................................. 3
3.1. Technology .......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2. Rating................................................................................................................................... 3
3.3. Battery backup time ............................................................................................................. 3
3.4. Types of loads accepted ...................................................................................................... 3
3.5. PFC sinusoidal-current input rectifier ................................................................................... 3
3.6. Output without a transformer................................................................................................ 3
3.6. Efficiency.............................................................................................................................. 3
3.7. Noise level ........................................................................................................................... 3
4. AC sources ................................................................................................................................... 4
4.1. Normal AC source................................................................................................................ 4
4.2. Bypass AC source ............................................................................................................... 4
5. Electrical characteristics .............................................................................................................. 4
5.1. Rectifier and charger ............................................................................................................ 4
5.2. Battery.................................................................................................................................. 4
5.3. Inverter ................................................................................................................................. 5
5.4. Automatic bypass ................................................................................................................. 5
5.5. Discrimination ...................................................................................................................... 6
5.6. System earthing arrangements (SEA).................................................................................. 6
6. Mechanical characteristics .......................................................................................................... 7
6.1. Mechanical structure ............................................................................................................ 6
6.2. Dimensions .......................................................................................................................... 6
6.3. Connection ........................................................................................................................... 6
6.4. Ventilation ............................................................................................................................ 6
6.5. Safety ................................................................................................................................... 7
7. Environment conditions ............................................................................................................... 7
7.1. UPS (not including battery) .................................................................................................. 7
8. Protection....................................................................................................................................... 7
8.1. UPS...................................................................................................................................... 7
8.2. Rectifier and charger ............................................................................................................ 7
8.3. Inverter ................................................................................................................................. 7
8.4. Battery.................................................................................................................................. 7
9. Battery management ..................................................................................................................... 8
9.1. Self-tests .............................................................................................................................. 8
9.2. Measurement of actual backup time .................................................................................... 8
9.3. Battery digital management ................................................................................................. 8
9.4. Block by block monitoring .................................................................................................... 8
10. User interface and communication ............................................................................................ 8
10.1. User interface ..................................................................................................................... 8
10.2. Communication .................................................................................................................. 9
11. Maintainability.............................................................................................................................. 10
12. Standards and tests .................................................................................................................... 10
12.1. Standards........................................................................................................................... 10
12.2. Certification of conformity................................................................................................... 11
13. Quality system and test procedures .......................................................................................... 11
14. Services ........................................................................................................................................ 11
14.1. Maintenance ...................................................................................................................... 11
14.2. Technical competency ....................................................................................................... 11
14.3. Functional components - organisation of supplier services ................................................ 12
14.4. System start-up .................................................................................................................. 12
14.5. Replacement parts ............................................................................................................. 12
14.6. Recycling and renovation ................................................................................................... 12
15. Warranty ....................................................................................................................................... 12
16. Further services........................................................................................................................... 12
17. Electrical diagram........................................................................................................................ 13
Appendix. Check list ......................................................................................................................... 14
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 1
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
1. UPS definition
1.1. Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply (referred to as a UPS
hereinafter).
The UPS shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
1.2. Brief description
The UPS shall be a single UPS, operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode); it shall be a VFItype UPS (as per standard IEC 62040-2), made up of the following components, described in detail in this
specification:
● rectifier
● battery charger
● inverter
● battery
● automatic bypass (via a static switch)
● manual bypass (for maintenance)
● user and communications interface
● battery management system
● any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
2. Operating principles
The UPS shall operate in double-conversion mode as indicated below.
2.1. Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier shall supply the inverter and the charger with DC current. The inverter shall continuously supply the
load with backed up electrical energy and the charger shall float charge the battery.
2.2. Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load from
battery power without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the battery backup time.
2.3. Battery recharging
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier shall again power the inverter, without interruption or
disturbance to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
2.4. Transfer to bypass AC source
In case of a major overload or if the UPS shuts down, the static switch shall instantaneously transfer the load,
without a break in the supply of power, to the bypass AC source if it is available and within tolerances.
Transfer of the load back to the UPS output, synchronised with the bypass AC source, shall be automatic or
manual. During transfer, the load shall not suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption (adjustable from 15 to
1000 ms) if a major fault occurs on the UPS system and if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been
established.
2.5. UPS maintenance
For maintenance purposes, the UPS shall include a mechanical manual bypass system with one-button operation.
For personnel safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the UPS while continuing
to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. The UPS shall also include a device making it possible to
isolate the rectifier and the charger from the normal AC source.
All power and control electronics shall be accessible from the front of the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 2
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
2.6. Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance on the battery, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the battery from the
rectifier, the charger and the inverter. When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to
supply the load without interruption or disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.7. Cold start (normal AC source absent)
The battery shall be capable of starting the UPS if the normal AC source is absent and continue supplying power to
the load within the specified backup time. Cold start on battery power shall be possible on the condition that the
system shall have started at least once on normal AC power.
3. Sizing and general characteristics
3.1. Technology
UPS technology shall be based on IGBT transistors for all the power converters (rectifier, charger and inverter with
variable chopping frequency).
3.2. Rating
The UPS shall be sized to continuously supply a load of…[250 / 300 / 400 / 500] kVA at a power factor of 0.9.
3.3. Battery backup time
The battery backup time in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be _______ minutes, for a load power
factor of 0.9.
The battery shall be designed for a service life of …[ 10 / 12 ]…years. It shall be selected and sized
correspondingly, for a load power factor of 0.9.
3.4. Types of loads accepted
The UPS shall accept high crest factors (3:1) without derating (kW) to ensure correct operation with computer loads
and loads where the leading power factor can reach 0.9.
The total harmonic voltage distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/ph ≤ 3% for non-linear loads.
3.5. PFC sinusoidal-current input rectifier
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4.
The PFC input rectifier using sinusoidal-current IGBTs shall have the following performance levels:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier not exceeding 5%,
● input power factor (PF) greater than 0.99 from 50% load upwards.
3.6. Output without a transformer
To reduce losses, dimensions and weight, the UPS output shall be of the transformerless type and the neutral shall
be recreated electronically.
3.7. Efficiency
Overall efficiency (between the rectifier input and the UPS output) shall be greater than or equal to:
● 94.5% from 50% load to full rated load (In).
The UPS shall be capable of operating on the bypass AC source if it is within tolerance (ECO mode) with a
minimum efficiency of:
● 97% in ECO mode.
It shall be possible to set the shift to operation in ECO mode to automatic or manual. If the bypass AC source is not
longer within tolerances, transfer without a break to normal mode shall be automatic.
3.8. Noise level
The noise level, measured as per standard ISO3746, shall be less than …[70 dBA (for 250, 300, 400 kVA)]
[72 dB (for 500 kVA)].
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 3
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
4. AC sources
4.1. Normal AC source
(rectifier input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● rated voltage: 380 - 400 or 415 Volts rms at full rated load Pn
● input voltage range: 250 V (at 30% load) to 470 V
●number of phases: 3, a neutral is not required
●frequency:
Hz ± 10%
4.2. Bypass AC source
(automatic-bypass input)
The characteristics of the bypass AC source supplying the UPS in the event of an inverter shutdown (maintenance,
failure) or an overload (short-circuit, very high inrush current) shall be the following:
● voltage:
/
volts, ± 10%
● number of phases: 3 ph + N + earth (a non-distributed neutral is possible)
● frequency:
Hz ± 8% (adjustable up to ± 2 Hz)
Outside these tolerances, it shall be possible to supply the load, but in downgraded mode.
5. Electrical characteristics
5.1. Rectifier and charger
5.1.1. Power supply
The PFC rectifier, drawing sinusoidal current, shall be supplied by the normal AC source, without a neutral. It shall
provide power for the load as well as charge or float charge the battery. The battery charger shall be supplied by
the rectifier to avoid transmitting any AC fluctuations to the battery.
5.1.2. Inrush current
A device shall be provided to limit inrush currents.
When AC power fails and during genset start, the rectifier shall limit the power drawn by implementing a walk-in for
ten seconds.
5.1.3. Phase sequence
A device shall check that the phase sequence is correct to protect the power system from the effects of incorrect
connections. The device shall also check the bypass AC input.
5.1.4. Operating mode
The standard charger shall be sufficient to charge the battery rapidly. For a backup time of …[5 / 10 / 15 / 20 / 30]
… minutes, battery recharging shall take less than …[4 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 hours]… (values after discharge to Pn/2 and
recovery of 90% of total battery charge for a recent battery).
5.1.5. Input power factor
The performance level shall be that mentioned in section 3.5, i.e. PF > 0.99.
5.1.6. Charger regulation and monitoring
The battery recharge system shall include independent regulation and monitoring devices to ensure conformity with
standard NFC 58311.
The battery recharge voltage shall be a function of the ambient temperature in the battery room.
5.2. Battery
The UPS shall be equipped with a battery of the …[sealed lead-acid type, mounted and wired in a cabinet identical
in aspect to that of the UPS]…[sealed lead-acid type, mounted on shelves] …[vented lead-acid type mounted on
racks]… and shall have a service life of …[10 / 12]… years.
The battery shall be sized to ensure a continuous supply to the inverter for at least …[5 / 10 / 15 / 20 / 30…]…
minutes, in the event the normal AC source fails, given that the inverter is at full rated load, i.e.
kVA
for a power factor PF = 0.9.
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 0°C and 35°C.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 4
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
5.3. Inverter
The inverter shall be sized to supply a rated load of …[250 / 300 / 400 / 500]… kVA at 0.9 PF and shall satisfy the
specifications listed below.
5.3.1. Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[380 / 400 / 415 / 440]… volts rms, adjustable via the user interface (see section 10), within tolerances of +/- 3%
in order to take into account voltage drops in the cables.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
Variations in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 2% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated load,
whatever the voltage level on the normal AC source and the DC voltage level, within the limits defined in sections
4.1 and 5.1.4.
● Voltage variations for load step changes
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 1% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads. In all
cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 100 milliseconds.
● Unbalanced conditions
For a load unbalance between phases, the variation in the output voltage shall be less than 1%.
5.3.2. Output frequency
● Rated frequency
-50 or 60 Hz.
● Variations in the free-running frequency
- ± 0.5 Hz.
5.3.3. Synchronisation with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions in section 5.4), the inverter output voltage shall be
synchronised with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal operation, a
synchronisation system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3 degrees, if the
bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within adjustable tolerances of 0.5% to 8% with respect to the rated
frequency).
● Synchronisation with an external source
It shall be possible to synchronise with all types of external source.
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronisation with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronisation, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0.02 Hz. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronise.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
To avoid transmitting to the inverter any excessive frequency variations on the bypass AC source when it is within
tolerances, inverter frequency variations per unit time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
5.3.4. Overload and short-circuit capacity
The UPS shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 10 minutes a load representing 125% of the rated load
● 1 minutes a load representing 135 % of the rated load
● 30 second a load representing 150% of the rated load.
● For the specified power rating of …[ 250 / 300 / 400 / 500 ]… kVA, the inverter shall be capable of current limiting
to a peak capacity of ... [300% / 250% / 250% / 275%] ... for 150 ms to allow highly disturbed transient operating
states without transferring the load to the bypass.
● The overload capacity shall be capable of taking into account temperature conditions for more than ten minutes,
by allowing a continuous, 10% overload when the temperature is less than or equal to 20°C.
5.3.5. Higher power ratings for lower temperatures
It shall be possible to increase the power rating when the temperature is less than 35°C. The rating c an be raised
by +3% for 30°C, +5% for 25°C and +8% for 20°C.
5.4. Automatic bypass
5.4.1. Load transfer to the automatic bypass
The UPS shall be equipped with an automatic bypass comprising a static switch. Instantaneous transfer of the load
from the inverter to bypass power and back shall take place without a break or disturbance in the supply of power
to the load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage and frequency are within the tolerances specified in
section 4.2 and that the inverter is synchronised.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 5
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
Transfer shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal inverter fault. Manually
initiated transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronised with the inverter, automatic transfer of
the load from the inverter to bypass power shall be disabled or shall take place after a calibrated interruption
adjustable from 15 to 1000 ms.
5.4.2. Static-switch protection
The static switch shall be equipped with an RC filter for protection against switching overvoltages and lightning
strikes.
5.4.3. Static-switch withstand
For the specified power rating of …[ 500 / 400 / 300 / 250 ]… kVA, the static switch shall be capable of handling an
overcurrent of …[ 16 / 16 / 21 / 25 ]…. times the rated current of the UPS to facilitate discrimination within the
electrical installation.
5.5. Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.2, the presence of the static switch shall make it
possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream protection devices of the
inverter.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated inverter current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the inverter on its own shall, for the same discrimination
requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of the type of
short-circuit.
5.6. System earthing arrangements (SEA)
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements (SEA):
●upstream source SEA: …[TT/ IT / TNS / TNC]…
●downstream installation SEA: …[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream SEAs are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the normal and bypass
lines.
6. Mechanical characteristics
6.1. Mechanical structure
The UPS and batteries shall be installed in cabinet(s) with an [ IP 20 / IP 32 ] degree of protection (standard IEC
60529). Access to the subassemblies making up the system shall be exclusively through the front.
6.2. Dimensions
The UPS shall require as little floor space as possible. To gain space, it shall be possible to install the UPS with the
back to the wall or back to back with another UPS unit.
6.3. Connections
To facilitate connections, all terminal blocks must be easily accessible from the front when the UPS is installed with
the back to the wall. Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be
possible through the bottom without requiring a false floor.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12.
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 and be mounted in compliance with the safety
stipulations in section 6.6.
6.4. Ventilation
System cooling shall be by forced-air ventilation. To facilitate layout of cabinets (particularly when installed back to
the wall), air input shall be through the front and bottom, exit through the top.
All power electronics shall be equipped with a redundant ventilation system including fault detection.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 6
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
6.5. Safety
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical
bypass designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from
the bypass AC source.
The UPS shall be equipped with a terminal block for reception of an external EPO order resulting in opening of the
battery circuit breaker and shutdown of all converters.
7. Environment conditions
7.1. UPS (not including battery)
7.1.1. Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions
without loss of performance:
● temperature range during continuous operation: 0°C to 35°C
● maximum temperature: 40°C for eight hours
● recommended temperature range: + 20°C to + 25°C
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25°C
● maximum altitude without derating: 1000 m.
7.1.2. Storage
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: - 10°C to + 45°C.
8. Protection
8.1. UPS
The UPS shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive external
or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2. Rectifier and charger
The rectifier shall automatically shutdown if the temperature exceeds the limits specified in section 7.1.1.
The charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified by the battery
manufacturer or if the temperature exceeds the limits specified in section 7.1.1.
8.3. Inverter
Inverters shall self-protect against overloads and short-circuits, irrespective of the operating mode (AC power or
battery power).
8.4. Battery
8.4.1. Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a device designed to protect the battery against deep discharges, taking into account the
characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the battery by a circuit breaker.
8.4.2. Independent regulation and monitoring systems
A regulation system shall regulate the battery voltage and the charge current.
A second system, independent of the regulation, shall monitor the battery voltage and the charge current.
Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system steps in to shut down the charger and avoid
overcharging.
8.4.3. Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage to the ambient temperature.
This regulation system takes into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life.
The permissible temperature range is set in the personalisation parameters.
An alarm shall be issued for temperatures outside the permissible range.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 7
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
9. Battery management
Batteries are components whose service life is sensitive to operating conditions, i.e. particular care is required for
their management. In addition to the protective systems indicated in section 8.4, battery management shall
included the systems listed below.
9.1. Self-test
The battery shall be equipped with a self-test that can be run:
● on request via a manual control
● automatically according to user-set time intervals.
The self-test shall enable updating of battery parameters and detection of all abnormal conditions in view of
preventive maintenance.
9.2. Measurement of actual backup time
The battery function shall be equipped with the means to know at all times the real backup time available (AC
power available) or remaining (AC power not available), taking into account the true load on the inverter, the
battery temperature and battery ageing.
9.3. Digital battery monitoring
The UPS shall be equipped with a system for battery digital management.
Based on a number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery type and age), the system shall control the
battery charge voltage and continuously calculate:
● the true available backup time (section 9.2)
● the remaining service life.
9.4. Block by block monitoring
To further optimise battery availability and service life, it shall be possible to equip the UPS with an optional system
to continuously monitor all battery strings and display a block by block failure prediction. The system shall include
the functions listed below.
● Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
● Continuous measurement of the internal resistance.
● Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
● Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
● Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
10. User interface and communication
10.1. User interface
UPS operation shall be facilitated by a user interface comprising:
●a B&W graphical display
●ON and OFF control buttons (independent of the display)
●status indications with mimic panel.
10.1.1. Graphical display
The mimic diagram shall enable display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and
indication of operator instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass). It shall be capable of supervising a single
UPS or a parallel system of up to eight UPS units with their SSC (static-switch cabinet).
● display of measurements
It shall be possible to display the following measurements:
- inverter output phase-to-phase voltages
- inverter output currents
- inverter output frequency
- voltage across battery terminals
- battery charge or discharge current
- rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages
- rectifier/charger input currents
- crest factor
- active and apparent power
- power factor of the load
- battery temperature
- battery percent charge
- available backup time
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 8
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
- the remaining battery service life.
● display of status conditions and events
It shall be possible to display the following indications:
- load on battery power
- load on UPS
- load on automatic bypass
- general alarm
- battery fault
- remaining battery backup time
- low battery warning
- bypass AC source outside tolerances
- battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating system servicing, as specified in section 11.
● display of operating graphs
It shall be possible to display bargraphs of the measurements mentioned above on the screen over significant
periods.
● statistics
Number of overloads, number of transfers to battery power, cumulative time on battery power, maximum power
levels, demand power levels.
● log of time-stamped events
This function shall store in memory and make available, for automatic or manually initiated recall, time-stamped
logs of all important status changes, faults and malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of
troubleshooting procedures. It shall be possible to time stamp and store at least 2500 events.
10.1.2. Controls
The UPS shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off (EPO) terminal block for complete system shutdown
following reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of UPS units
- opening of the static switches on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
10.1.3. Status indications with mimic panel
Indication of status conditions shall be distinct of the graphic display.
Three LEDs on the control panel indicate the following status conditions:
● load protected
● minor fault
● major fault.
The mimic panel shall represent the UPS and indicate the status of the load supply using five two-colour (red and
green) LEDs:
● load supplied (LED at UPS output on mimic panel)
● inverter on (inverter LED on mimic panel)
● operation on battery power (LED between battery and inverter on mimic panel)
● bypass activated (bypass LED on mimic panel)
● PFC rectifier on (rectifier LED on mimic panel).
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power.
10.2. Communication
10.2.1. Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements. To that end, the UPS shall
have as standard equipment:
● a programmable card with four inputs and six outputs.
10.2.2. Communications options
The UPS shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the following
types of cards:
● multi-standard communications card with two outputs:
- an RS485 serial-link implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a building management system
(BMS)
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p. 9
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
- Ethernet 10/100 Mbps using one of the protocols below:
XML-Web for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a server, capable of supplying
information via a standard web browser
SNMP for connection to a computer-network management system
● multi-standard communications card with three outputs:
- the two outputs listed above
- plus a modem output for communication with a tele-maintenance system.
● The UPS shall be detectable by supervision software for large UPS systems.
● Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
11. Maintainability
A manual bypass shall be available to completely isolate the UPS for maintenance purposes.
11.1. Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole each time it is
started. To that end, the supply control/monitoring electronics shall offer:
● auto-compensation of component drift
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● overall readiness for remote supervision services provided by the manufacturer.
12. Standards and tests
12.1. Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
A. Safety:
● IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
● IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
● IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test and performance requirements.
● IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● LV directive: 2006/95/EC
B. Harmonics:
● IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply
systems.
● IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
● EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
● IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.
C. EMC:
● EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
● IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
● EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.10
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
D. Quality:
● Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality organisation.
E. Ecological environment:
● Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
F. Acoustic noise
● ISO 3746 : Sound power levels.
● ISO 7779 / EN 27779 : Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
What is more, the equipment shall comply with eco-design and eco-manufacturing criteria in view of sustainable
development and to that end, the manufacturer shall be able to demonstrate:
● R&D and production on an ISO 14001 certified site
● manufacture with over 90% recyclable materials
● capacity to recover products at the end of their service life and provide proof of destruction by a certified
organisation
● the environmental profile of the product, which shall be supplied with the sales offer.
12.2. Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards. What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent
laboratories (e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
13. Quality system and test procedures
13.1. Test procedures
The manufacturer shall provide proof of a quality-assurance system. In particular, the main manufacturing steps
must be subject to suitable tests such as:
● inspection of incoming components, tests on discrete subassemblies
● complete functional checks on termination of manufacture.
The equipment shall be subject to burn-in under load conditions prior to shipping.
Final checks and adjustments shall be recorded in a report drafted by the quality-inspection department of the
supplier.
Certification of the industrial facilities in compliance with ISO 9001 or 9002 shall be required.
13.2. Quality system
The UPS must be designed using an ISO 9001 quality system and a dependability study to ensure maximum
reliability.
14. Services
14.1. Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
14.2. Technical competency
● Customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● Service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.11
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
14.3. Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorised agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
14.4. System start-up
The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorised agent. The procedure shall
include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS
installation parameters.
14.5. Replacement parts
The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
14.6. Recycling and renovation/substitution
At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
15. Warranty
The rectifier, charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year
following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
16. Further services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site
● connections between the battery and the UPS
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
17. Electrical diagram
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.12
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
Battery
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
UPS
Load
Fig. UPS electrical diagram.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.13
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.9
kVA
kW
Manufacturer
Range of products
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
double conversion
Operation as frequency converter
yes
no
yes
no
Rectifier
Input voltage range:
250 V to 470 V
yes
no
3-phase input
without neutral
yes
no
Phase sequence
Check on phase sequence
yes
no
Sinusoidal input current
THDI upstream ≤ 5% with PFC rectifier
yes
no
Input power factor
PF > 0.99 with IGBT rectifier
(from 50% load)
yes
no
yes
no
No inrush or start-up current
Rapid battery recharging
Typical 10-min. backup time recharged in
six hours or less
yes
no
Voltage regulation
± 1%
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Independent regulation/monitoring systems
for the charger
Battery
Type
standard
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
Recharge as a function of the temperature
yes
no
Measurement of actual backup time, depending on load, temperature, age
yes
no
Cold start on battery power
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
yes
no
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on
battery
yes
no
Self-tests
yes
no
Measurement of real backup time
yes
no
Block by block monitoring
yes
no
Prediction on end of service life
yes
no
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.14
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
Inverter
Volts
yes
no
± 3%
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 1%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 5% (load from 0 to 100% or 100 to 0%)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU < 3%
yes
no
Unbalanced conditions
Voltage variation < 1%
yes
no
yes
no
± 0.5 Hz
yes
no
- 0.25 Hz to + 2 Hz
yes
no
Frequency synchronisation with an external
source
± 0.5% to ± 8% of rated frequency
yes
no
Overload capacity
125% In for 10 minutes
yes
no
165% In for 1 minute
yes
no
Current limiting
yes
250% to 300% In for 150 milliseconds
(e.g. 300% for 250 kVA and 250% for 300
kVA)
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
Automatic bypass
With static switch
yes
no
Short-circuit withstand of static switch
16 to 25 In for 20 ms, depending on rating yes
(e.g. 25 In for 250 kVA / 16 In for 500
kVA)
no
Built-in manual bypass
Mechanical (for maintenance)
yes
no
Normal mode
> 94.5% from 50% load
yes
no
ECO mode
> 97 %
yes
no
selection of operating language from 19
yes
no
personalisation menu
with password
yes
no
display
measurements, status, events, graphs
yes
no
event log
2500 time-stamped events
yes
no
bargraphs
power levels, backup time
yes
no
statistics
% time on battery power, number of
transfers to battery power, average
percent load, etc.
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications with mimic panel
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Three-phase output voltage
adjustable within limits
Hz
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
adjustable from
Bypass functions
Efficiency
User interface
Graphical display
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.15
Specification guide no. 4a
Single UPS, three-phase, 250 to 500 kVA (cont.)
Communication
Programmable relay card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
Card with two outputs
JBus/ModBus RS485 + Ethernet 10/100
yes
no
Card with three outputs
Same as 2-output card + modem +NMTC
yes
no
yes
no
with shutdown management
yes
no
Certified standards and tests
See list in section 12.1
yes
no
Performance certification
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
remote
yes
no
Technical support
international
yes
no
yes
no
hot-swap cards
yes
no
around the world
yes
no
Options
Supervision software
Administration software
Certification
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Access to power components through front
Access to communication through front
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
preventive
predictive
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4a - p.16
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS system with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA*
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
Contents
1. UPS definition ............................................................................................................................... 2
1.1. Purpose................................................................................................................................ 2
1.2. Brief description ................................................................................................................... 2
2. Operating principles ..................................................................................................................... 2
2.1. Normal operation ................................................................................................................. 2
2.2. Operation on battery power .................................................................................................. 2
2.3. Battery recharging ................................................................................................................ 2
2.4. Transfer to bypass AC source.............................................................................................. 2
2.5. UPS maintenance ................................................................................................................ 2
2.6. Battery maintenance ............................................................................................................ 3
2.7. Cold start (normal AC source absent) .................................................................................. 3
3. Sizing and general characteristics .............................................................................................. 3
3.1. Technology .......................................................................................................................... 3
3.2. Rating................................................................................................................................... 3
3.3. Battery backup time ............................................................................................................. 3
3.4. Types of loads accepted ...................................................................................................... 3
3.5. PFC sinusoidal-current input rectifier ................................................................................... 3
3.6. Output without a transformer................................................................................................ 3
3.6. Efficiency.............................................................................................................................. 3
3.7. Noise level ........................................................................................................................... 3
4. AC sources ................................................................................................................................... 4
4.1. Normal AC source................................................................................................................ 4
4.2. Bypass AC source ............................................................................................................... 4
5. Electrical characteristics .............................................................................................................. 5
5.1. Rectifier and charger ............................................................................................................ 5
5.2. Battery.................................................................................................................................. 5
5.3. Inverter ................................................................................................................................. 5
5.4. Automatic bypass ................................................................................................................. 6
5.5. External bypass ................................................................................................................... 7
5.6. Discrimination ...................................................................................................................... 7
5.7. System earthing arrangements (SEA).................................................................................. 7
6. Mechanical characteristics .......................................................................................................... 7
6.1. Mechanical structure ............................................................................................................ 7
6.2. Modular design .................................................................................................................... 7
6.3. Dimensions .......................................................................................................................... 7
6.4. Connection ........................................................................................................................... 7
6.5. Ventilation ............................................................................................................................ 7
7. Environment conditions ............................................................................................................... 8
8. Protection....................................................................................................................................... 8
8.1. Modular UPS units ............................................................................................................... 8
8.2. Rectifier and charger ............................................................................................................ 8
8.3. Inverter ................................................................................................................................. 8
8.4. Battery.................................................................................................................................. 8
9. Battery management ..................................................................................................................... 9
9.1. Self-tests .............................................................................................................................. 9
9.2. Measurement of actual backup time .................................................................................... 9
9.3. Battery digital management ................................................................................................. 9
9.4. Block by block monitoring .................................................................................................... 9
10. User interface and communication ............................................................................................ 9
10.1. User interface ..................................................................................................................... 9
10.2. Communication .................................................................................................................. 10
11. Maintainability.............................................................................................................................. 11
12. Standards and tests .................................................................................................................... 11
12.1. Standards........................................................................................................................... 11
12.2. Certification of conformity................................................................................................... 12
13. Quality system and test procedures .......................................................................................... 12
14. Services ........................................................................................................................................ 12
14.1. Maintenance ...................................................................................................................... 12
14.2. Technical competency ....................................................................................................... 12
14.3. Functional components - organisation of supplier services ................................................ 13
14.4. System start-up .................................................................................................................. 13
14.5. Replacement parts ............................................................................................................. 13
14.6. Recycling and renovation ................................................................................................... 13
15. Warranty ....................................................................................................................................... 13
16. Further services........................................................................................................................... 13
17. Electrical diagram........................................................................................................................ 14
Appendix. Check list ......................................................................................................................... 15
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 1
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA*
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
1. UPS definition
1.1. Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply system (referred to as a UPS
system hereinafter).
The UPS system shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
1.2. Brief description
The UPS system shall be made up of …[2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8]… identical, parallel-connected modular UPS units,
all having the same power rating. Each modular UPS unit shall operate in double-conversion mode and shall be of
the VFI-type as per standard IEC 62040-2. The system shall … [ not provide redundancy ] …[ include 1 / 2 / 3
redundant modular UPS units among the total ].
Each modular UPS unit shall have a rating of …[250 / 300 / 400 / 500]… kVA and shall be made up of the following
components, described in detail in this specification:
● rectifier
● battery charger
● inverter
● battery
● automatic bypass (via a static switch)
● user and communications interface
● battery management system.
What is more, the UPS system shall include:
● a common external bypass for all the modular UPS units, that shall be installed in a cabinet
● any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
2. Operating principles
The UPS system shall operate in double-conversion mode as indicated below.
2.1. Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier of each modular UPS unit shall supply its inverter and charger. Each modular UPS unit shall
continuously contribute, in parallel with the other modular UPS units via a common bus, to supplying the load with
backed up electrical energy and the charger shall float charge the battery.
2.2. Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter of each modular UPS unit shall
continue to supply the load from battery power without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the
battery backup time.
2.3. Battery recharging
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier of each modular UPS unit shall again power its inverter,
without interruption or disturbance to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 2
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
2.4. Transfer to bypass AC source
( system without redundancy)
The system does not provide redundancy. The inverters of the [2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8] modular UPS units shall
operate in parallel to supply the load. The automatic bypasses of each modular UPS unit shall be connected to the
same bypass AC source.
Voluntary shutdown or a major fault on a modular UPS unit shall result in automatic transfer, without interruption, of
the load to the bypass AC source via the bypass of each modular UPS unit, including the unit shut down, if the AC
bypass is within tolerances and synchronised with the inverter outputs.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption (adjustable from 15 to
1000 ms) if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been established, to enable operation in downgraded
mode and enhance supply of power to the load.
In all cases, to ensure load transfer in complete safety, the system shall simultaneously control all the static
switches.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( system with redundancy)
The modular UPS units shall operate in parallel, providing redundancy and sharing the load.
Redundancy shall be of the ….[n+1] [n+2] [n+3]… type, i.e. …[1] [2] [3]… modular UPS units will be redundant out
of the total of …[2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8]… modular UPS units. The automatic bypasses of each modular UPS unit
shall be connected to the same bypass AC source.
● If a major fault occurs on a modular UPS unit, it shall automatically disconnect and its inverter shall no longer
supply the load. Given that the system is redundant, the remaining modular UPS units shall continue to supply the
load.
However the initial level of redundancy shall be reduced by one unit, falling from …[n+1 to non-redundant
operation] [n+2 to n+1] [n+3 to n+2].
● If another modular UPS unit shuts down, the resulting level of redundancy shall determine whether inverter
operation is still possible.
● Loss of redundancy is in all cases signalled by an alarm.
● If redundancy has been lost, shutdown of another modular UPS unit shall result in automatic transfer, without
interruption, of the load to the bypass AC source via the bypass of each modular UPS unit, including the units shut
down, if the AC bypass is within tolerances and synchronised with the inverter outputs.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption (adjustable from 15 to
1000 ms) if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been established, to enable operation in downgraded
mode and enhance supply of power to the load.
In all cases, to ensure load transfer in complete safety, the system shall simultaneously control all the static
switches.
2.5. UPS-system maintenance
All power and control electronics of the modular UPS units making up the UPS system shall be accessible from the
front of the UPS.
For maintenance purposes, the UPS system shall include an external, mechanical, manual bypass system with
one-button operation, common to all modular UPS units.
For personnel safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the UPS system while
continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. The UPS shall also include a device making it
possible to isolate the rectifier and the charger of each modular UPS unit from the normal AC source.
( system with redundancy)
In a redundant system, with the above device, it shall be possible to shut down a modular UPS unit and isolate its
charger and inverter for maintenance, with the other inverters in the UPS system continuing to supply the load.
2.6. Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance, the battery of each modular UPS unit shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the battery
from the rectifier, the charger and the inverter. When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall
continue to supply the load without interruption or disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.7. Cold start (normal AC source absent)
The battery of each modular UPS unit shall be capable of starting the UPS if the normal AC source is absent and
continue supplying power to the load within the specified backup time. Cold start on battery power shall be possible
on the condition that the system shall have started at least once on normal AC power.
3. Sizing and general characteristics
3.1. Technology
The UPS system technology shall be based on IGBT transistors for all the power converters (rectifier, charger and
inverter with variable chopping frequency).
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 3
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
3.2. Rating
The UPS system shall be sized to continuously supply a load of
kVA at a power factor of 0.9.
The UPS system shall be made up of …[2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7 / 8]… identical, parallel-connected modular UPS units,
each having a power rating of …[250 / 300 / 400 / 500]… kVA.
The total installed power rating shall be
kVA. It shall be possible to use …[1] [2] [3]… modular
UPS units for redundancy.
3.3. Battery backup time
The battery backup time in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be _______ minutes, for a load power
factor of 0.9.
The battery of each modular UPS unit shall be designed for a service life of …[10 / 12]… years. It shall be selected
and sized correspondingly, for a load power factor of 0.9.
3.4. Types of loads accepted
The UPS system shall accept high crest factors (3:1) without derating (kW) to ensure correct operation with
computer loads and loads where the leading power factor can reach 0.9.
The total harmonic voltage distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/ph ≤ 3% for non-linear loads.
3.5. PFC sinusoidal-current input rectifiers
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4.
The PFC input rectifiers of the modular UPS units, using sinusoidal-current IGBTs, shall have the following
performance levels:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier not exceeding 5%
● input power factor (PF) greater than 0.99 from 50% load upwards.
3.6. Outputs without a transformer
To reduce losses, dimensions and weight, the output of each UPS unit shall be of the transformerless type and the
neutral shall be recreated electronically.
3.7. Efficiency
Overall efficiency (between the rectifier inputs and the UPS output) shall be greater than or equal to:
● 94.5% from 50% load to full rated load (In).
3.8. Noise level
The noise level, measured as per standard ISO3746, shall be less than …[70 dBA (for 250, 300, 400 kVA)]
[72 dB (for 500 kVA)].
4. AC sources
4.1. Normal AC source
(rectifier input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS system shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● rated voltage: 380 - 400 or 415 Volts rms at full rated load Pn
● input voltage range: 250 V (at 30% load) to 470 V
● number of phases: 3, a neutral is not required
● frequency:
Hz ± 10%
4.2. Bypass AC source
(automatic-bypass input)
The characteristics of the bypass AC source supplying the UPS system in the event of an inverter shutdown
(maintenance, failure) or an overload (short-circuit, very high inrush current) shall be the following:
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 4
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
● voltage:
/
volts, ± 10%
● number of phases: 3 ph + N + earth (a non-distributed neutral is possible)
● frequency:
Hz ± 8% (adjustable up to ± 2 Hz)
Outside these tolerances, it shall be possible to supply the load, but in downgraded mode.
5. Electrical characteristics
5.1. Rectifier and charger
5.1.1. Power supply
The PFC rectifier of each modular UPS unit, drawing sinusoidal current, shall be supplied by the normal AC source,
without a neutral. It shall provide power for the load as well as charge or float charge the battery. The battery
charger shall be supplied by the rectifier to avoid transmitting any AC fluctuations to the battery. Each unit is
independent in terms of its input module, i.e. one unit can operate on battery power, the others on AC power.
5.1.2. Inrush current
A device shall be provided to limit the inrush currents of each charger. When AC power fails and during genset
start, the rectifier shall limit the power drawn by implementing a walk-in for ten seconds.
5.1.3. Sequential start
An adjustable device shall make it possible to stagger start-up of the PFC rectifiers when the normal AC source
returns to within tolerances (transfer from battery power to normal AC power). By ensuring sequential start, this
device shall avoid overloading a genset picking up the supply to all the rectifiers.
5.1.4. Phase sequence
A device shall check that the phase sequence is correct to protect the power system from the effects of incorrect
connections.
5.1.5. Operating mode
The standard charger of each modular UPS unit shall be sufficient to charge the battery rapidly. For a backup time
of …[5 / 10 / 15 / 20 / 30] … minutes, battery recharging shall take less than …[4 / 6 / 7 / 8 / 9 hours]… (values
after discharge to Pn/2 and recovery of 90% of total battery charge for a recent battery).
5.1.6. Input power factor
The performance level shall be that mentioned in section 3.5, i.e. PF > 0.99.
5.1.7. Charger regulation and monitoring
The battery recharge system shall include independent regulation and monitoring devices to ensure conformity with
standard NFC 58311.
The battery recharge voltage shall be a function of the ambient temperature in the battery room.
5.2. Battery
Each modular UPS unit shall be equipped with its own battery of the …[sealed lead-acid type, mounted and wired
in a cabinet identical in aspect to that of the UPS]…[sealed lead-acid type, mounted on shelves] …[vented leadacid type mounted on racks]… and shall have a service life of …[10 / 12]… years.
The battery shall be sized to ensure a continuous supply to the inverter for at least …[5 / 10 / 15 / 20 / 30…]…
minutes, in the event the normal AC source fails, given that the inverter is at full rated load, i.e.
kVA
for a power factor PF = 0.9.
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 0°C and 35°C.
5.3. Inverter
Each inverter shall be sized to supply a rated load of …[250 / 300 / 400 / 500]… kVA at 0.9 PF and shall satisfy the
specifications listed below.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 5
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
5.3.1. Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[380 / 400 / 415 / 440]… volts rms, adjustable via the user interface (see section 10), within tolerances of +/- 3%
in order to take into account voltage drops in the cables.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
Variations in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 2% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated load,
whatever the voltage level on the normal AC source and the DC voltage level, within the limits defined in sections
4.1 and 5.1.5.
● Voltage variations for load step changes
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 1% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads. In all
cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 100 milliseconds.
● Unbalanced conditions
For a load unbalance between phases, the variation in the output voltage shall be less than 1%.
5.3.2. Output frequency
● Rated frequency
-50 or 60 Hz.
● Variations in the free-running frequency
- ± 0.5 Hz.
5.3.3. Synchronisation with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions in section 5.4), the inverter output voltage shall be
synchronised with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal operation, a
synchronisation system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3 degrees, if the
bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within adjustable tolerances of 0.5% to 8% with respect to the rated
frequency).
● Synchronisation with an external source
It shall be possible to synchronise with all types of external source.
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronisation with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronisation, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0.02 Hz. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronise.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
To avoid transmitting to the inverter any excessive frequency variations on the bypass AC source when it is within
tolerances, inverter frequency variations per unit time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
5.3.4. Overload and short-circuit capacity
The UPS system shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 10 minutes a load representing 125% of the rated load
● 1 minutes a load representing 135 % of the rated load
● 30 second a load representing 150% of the rated load.
● For the specified power rating of …[ 250 / 300 / 400 / 500 ]… kVA, the inverter shall be capable of current limiting
to a peak capacity of ... [300% / 250% / 250% / 275%] ... for 150 ms to allow highly disturbed transient operating
states without transferring the load to the bypass.
● The overload capacity shall be capable of taking into account temperature conditions for more than ten minutes,
by allowing a continuous, 10% overload when the temperature is less than or equal to 20°C.
5.3.5. Higher power ratings for lower temperatures
It shall be possible to increase the power rating when the temperature is less than 35°C. The rating c an be raised
by +3% for 30°C, +5% for 25°C and +8% for 20°C.
5.4. Automatic bypass
5.4.1. Load transfer to the automatic bypass
Each modular UPS unit in the UPS system shall be equipped with an automatic bypass comprising a static switch.
The automatic bypasses of each modular UPS unit shall be connected to the same bypass AC source.
Instantaneous transfer of the load from the inverter to bypass power and back shall take place without a break or
disturbance in the supply of power to the load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage and frequency are
within the tolerances specified in section 4.2 and that the inverter is synchronised.
Transfer shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal inverter fault. Manually
initiated transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronised with the inverter, automatic transfer of
the load from the inverter to bypass power shall take place after a calibrated interruption adjustable from 15 to
1 000 milliseconds.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 6
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
5.4.2. Static-switch protection
The static switch shall be equipped with an RC filter for protection against switching overvoltages and lightning
strikes.
5.4.3. Automatic-bypass withstand
For the specified power rating of …[ 500 / 400 / 300 / 250 ]… kVA for each modular UPS units, each static switch
shall be capable of handling an overcurrent of …[ 16 / 16 / 21 / 25 ]…. times the rated current of the modular UPS
unit to facilitate discrimination within the electrical installation.
5.5. External manual bypass (for maintenance)
The UPS system shall include an external, mechanical, manual bypass system with one-button operation, common
to all modular UPS units. This system shall be designed to isolate the UPS system while continuing to supply
power to the load from the bypass AC source and shall be sized to supply the full load.
5.6. Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.2, the static switches shall make it possible to use
the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream protection devices of the inverter.
Each static switch shall be sized to handle the overcurrent corresponding to the short-circuit power divided by the
number of modular UPS units in parallel and any redundant units.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the total available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with
high ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated inverter current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, all the inverters in operation shall, for the same
discrimination requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of
the type of short-circuit.
5.7. System earthing arrangements (SEA)
The UPS system shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements (SEA):
● upstream source SEA: …[TT/ IT / TNS / TNC]…
● downstream installation SEA: …[TT/ IT / TNS / TNC]…
If the upstream and downstream SEAs are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the normal and bypass
lines.
6. Mechanical characteristics
6.1. Mechanical structure
The inverter and batteries of each modular UPS unit shall be installed in cabinet(s) with an [ IP 20 / IP 32 ] degree
of protection (standard IEC 60529). Access to the subassemblies making up the system shall be exclusively
through the front.
6.2. Modular design
The UPS system shall be designed to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of
additional modular UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system availability by
introducing or increasing redundancy. This transformation shall be possible directly on site, without returning the
equipment to the factory and without causing excessive system downtime.
6.3. Dimensions
The UPS system shall require as little floor space as possible. To gain space, it shall be possible to install the
modular UPS units with the back to the wall or back to back.
6.4. Connections
To facilitate connections, all terminal blocks must be easily accessible from the front when the modular UPS units
are installed with the back to the wall. Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary
cables, shall be possible through the bottom without requiring a false floor.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12.
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 and be mounted in compliance with the safety
stipulations in section 6.6.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 7
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
6.5. Ventilation
Cooling of each modular UPS unit shall be by forced-air ventilation. To facilitate layout of the modular UPS units
(particularly when installed back to the wall), air input shall be through the front and bottom, exit through the top.
All power electronics shall be equipped with a redundant ventilation system including fault detection.
7. Environment conditions
UPS (not including batteries)
7.1. Operation
The UPS, not including the batteries, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions
without loss of performance:
● temperature range during continuous operation: 0°C to 35°C
● maximum temperature: 40°C for eight hours
● recommended temperature range: + 20°C to + 25°C
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25°C
● maximum altitude without derating: 1000 m.
7.1. Storage
The UPS, not including the batteries, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: - 10°C to + 45°C.
8. Protection
8.1. Modular UPS units
Each modular UPS unit in the UPS system shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per
standard IEC 60146), excessive external or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2. Rectifiers and chargers
Each rectifier and the corresponding battery charger shall accept external orders provoking automatic shutdown in
the following cases:
● EPO (emergency power off), in which the battery circuit breaker also opens
● if the temperature exceeds the limits specified in section 7.1.1.
The rectifier shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified by the battery
manufacturer or if the temperature exceeds the limits specified in section 7.1.1.
8.3. Inverter
The load shall be protected against overvoltages resulting from a loss of voltage regulation at the output of the
inverters.
Each inverter (and the corresponding rectifier and charger) shall shut down automatically when the DC voltage
reaches the minimum voltage specified by the battery manufacturer.
In the event of an overload exceeding system capacity (AC bypass absent), each inverter shall be equipped with
an automatic shutdown system to protect its power circuits. A load short-circuit shall provoke the static shutdown of
each inverter without fuse destruction.
8.4. Battery
8.4.1. Protection against deep discharge
The UPS system shall comprise a device designed to protect each battery against deep discharges, taking into
account the characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the batteries by a circuit breaker.
8.4.2. Independent regulation and monitoring systems
A regulation system shall regulate the battery voltage and the charge current of each modular UPS unit.
A second system, independent of the regulation, shall monitor the battery voltage and the charge current.
Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system steps in to shut down the charger and avoid
overcharging.
8.4.3. Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage of each charger to the ambient temperature. This regulation
system takes into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life. The permissible temperature
range is set in the personalisation parameters.
An alarm shall be issued for operation of the given rectifier outside the permissible range.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 8
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
9. Battery management
Batteries are components whose service life is sensitive to operating conditions, i.e. particular care is required for
their management. In addition to the protective systems indicated in section 8.4, battery management shall
included the systems listed below.
9.1. Self-test
The battery shall be equipped with a self-test that can be run:
● on request via a manual control
● automatically according to user-set time intervals.
The self-test shall enable updating of battery parameters and detection of all abnormal conditions in view of
preventive maintenance.
9.2. Measurement of actual backup time
The battery function of each modular UPS unit shall be equipped with the means to know at all times the real
backup time available (AC power available) or remaining (AC power not available) for the battery of the unit, taking
into account the true load on the inverter, the battery temperature and battery ageing.
9.3. Digital battery monitoring
Each modular UPS unit shall be equipped with a system for battery digital management.
Based on a number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery type and age), the system shall control the
battery charge voltage and continuously calculate:
● the true available backup time (section 9.2)
● the remaining service life.
9.4. Block by block monitoring
To further optimise availability and service life of the batteries, it shall be possible to equip the UPS system with an
optional system to continuously monitor all battery strings and display a block by block failure prediction. The
system shall include the functions listed below.
● Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
● Continuous measurement of the internal resistance.
● Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
● Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
● Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
10. User interface and communication
10.1. User interface
UPS-system operation shall be facilitated by a user interface on each of the modular UPS units, comprising:
● a B&W graphical display
● ON and OFF control buttons (independent of the display)
● status indications with mimic panel.
10.1.1. Graphical display
The mimic diagram shall enable display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and
indication of operator instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass). It shall be capable of supervising a given
modular UPS unit or a parallel system (up to eight UPS units with the external bypass).
● display of measurements
It shall be possible to display the following measurements for any one of the modular UPS units or for the entire
system:
- inverter output phase-to-phase voltages
- inverter output currents
- inverter output frequency
- voltage across battery terminals
- battery charge or discharge current
- rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages
- rectifier/charger input currents
- crest factor
- active and apparent power
- power factor of the load
- battery temperature
- battery percent charge
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p. 9
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
- available backup time
- the remaining battery service life.
● display of status conditions and events
It shall be possible to display the following indications:
- load on battery power
- load on UPS
- load on automatic bypass
- general alarm
- battery fault
- remaining battery backup time
- low battery warning
- bypass AC source outside tolerances
- battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating system servicing, as specified in section 11.
● display of operating graphs
It shall be possible to display bargraphs of the measurements mentioned above on the screen over significant
periods.
● statistics
Number of overloads, number of transfers to battery power, cumulative time on battery power, maximum power
levels, demand power levels.
● log of time-stamped events
This function shall store in memory and make available, for automatic or manually initiated recall, time-stamped
logs of all important status changes, faults and malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of
troubleshooting procedures. It shall be possible to time stamp and store at least 2500 events.
10.1.2. Controls
Each modular UPS unit shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off (EPO) terminal block for complete system shutdown
following reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of UPS units
- opening of the static switches on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
10.1.3. Status indications with mimic panel
Indication of status conditions shall be distinct of the graphic display.
Three LEDs on the control panel on each modular UPS unit indicate the following status conditions:
● load protected by the modular UPS unit
● minor fault
● major fault.
The mimic panel shall represent the modular UPS unit and indicate the status of the load supply using five twocolour (red and green) LEDs:
● load supplied (LED at UPS output on mimic panel)
● inverter on (inverter LED on mimic panel)
● operation on battery power (LED between battery and inverter on mimic panel)
● bypass activated (bypass LED on mimic panel)
● PFC rectifier on (rectifier LED on mimic panel).
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power.
10.2. Communication
10.2.1. Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements. To that end, each modular
UPS unit in the UPS system shall have as standard equipment:
● a programmable card with four inputs and six outputs.
10.2.2. Communications options
The UPS system shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the
following types of cards that may be installed on each modular UPS unit:
● multi-standard communications card with two outputs:
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.10
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
- an RS485 serial-link implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a building management system
(BMS)
- Ethernet 10/100 Mbps using one of the protocols below:
XML-Web for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a server, capable of supplying
information via a standard web browser
SNMP for connection to a computer-network management system
● multi-standard communications card with three outputs:
- the two outputs listed above
- plus a modem output for communication with a tele-maintenance system.
● The UPS shall be detectable by supervision software for large UPS systems.
● Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
11. Maintainability
A common external bypass shall be available to completely isolate the UPS.
11.1. Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole each time it is
started. To that end, the supply control/monitoring electronics shall offer:
● auto-compensation of component drift
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● overall readiness for remote supervision services provided by the manufacturer.
12. Standards and tests
12.1. Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
A. Safety:
● IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
● IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
● IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test and performance requirements.
● IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● LV directive: 2006/95/EC
B. Harmonics:
● IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage power supply
systems.
● IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
● IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
● EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
● IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.
C. EMC:
● EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
● IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
● EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.11
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
D. Quality:
● Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality organisation.
E. Ecological environment:
● Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
F. Acoustic noise
● ISO 3746 : Sound power levels.
● ISO 7779 / EN 27779 : Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
What is more, the equipment shall comply with eco-design and eco-manufacturing criteria in view of sustainable
development and to that end, the manufacturer shall be able to demonstrate:
● R&D and production on an ISO 14001 certified site
● manufacture with over 90% recyclable materials
● capacity to recover products at the end of their service life and provide proof of destruction by a certified
organisation
● the environmental profile of the product, which shall be supplied with the sales offer.
12.2. Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards. What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent
laboratories (e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
13. Quality system and test procedures
13.1. Test procedures
The manufacturer shall provide proof of a quality-assurance system. In particular, the main manufacturing steps
must be subject to suitable tests such as:
● inspection of incoming components, tests on discrete subassemblies
● complete functional checks on termination of manufacture.
The equipment shall be subject to burn-in under load conditions prior to shipping.
Final checks and adjustments shall be recorded in a report drafted by the quality-inspection department of the
supplier.
Certification of the industrial facilities in compliance with ISO 9001 or 9002 shall be required.
13.2. Quality system
The UPS must be designed using an ISO 9001 quality system and a dependability study to ensure maximum
reliability.
14. Services
14.1. Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
14.2. Technical competency
● Customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● Service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.12
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
14.3. Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorised agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
14.4. System start-up
The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorised agent. The procedure shall
include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS
installation parameters.
14.5. Replacement parts
The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
14.6. Recycling and renovation/substitution
At the end of UPS-system service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
15. Warranty
The components making up each modular UPS unit (rectifier, charger and inverter subassemblies) shall be
guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
16. Further services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site
● connections between the batteries and the modular UPS units in the UPS system
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifiers
● connection of the normal AC source to the AC bypass
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.13
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
17. Electrical diagram
Bypass
AC input
Battery
Normal
AC input
Battery
Normal
AC input
Battery
Normal
AC input
External maintenance bypass
Load
Fig. Electrical diagram of the UPS system with three modular UPS units and an external
manual bypass.
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.14
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
Appendix. Check list
Type of modular UPS unit making up the parallel UPS system
Rated power (kVA) at PF 0.9
kVA
kW
Manufacturer
Range of products
yes
no
yes
no
Up to three redundant units (n+3)
yes
no
Alarm signalling loss of redundancy within the UPS system
yes
no
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
double conversion
KVA max
Parallel connection of up to 8 modular UPS units
Rectifier
Input voltage range:
250 V to 470 V
yes
no
3-phase input
without neutral
yes
no
Phase sequence
Check on phase sequence
yes
no
Sinusoidal input current
THDI upstream ≤ 5% with PFC rectifier
yes
no
Input power factor
PF > 0.99 with IGBT rectifier
(from 50% load)
yes
no
yes
no
No inrush or start-up current
Rapid battery recharging
Typical 10-min. backup time in ≤ 6 hours
yes
no
Voltage regulation
± 1%
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Independent regulation/monitoring systems
for the charger
Battery
Type
standard
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
Recharge as a function of the temperature
yes
no
Measurement of actual backup time, depending on: load, temperature, age
yes
no
Cold start on battery power
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
yes
no
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 depending on battery yes
no
Self-tests
yes
no
Measurement of real backup time
yes
no
Block by block monitoring
yes
no
Prediction on end of service life
yes
no
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.15
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
Inverter
Volts
yes
no
± 3%
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 1%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 5% (load from 0 to 100% or 100 to 0%)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU < 3%
yes
no
Unbalanced conditions
Voltage variation < 1%
yes
no
yes
no
± 0.5 Hz
yes
no
- 0.25 Hz to + 2 Hz
yes
no
Frequency synchronisation with an external
source
± 0.5% to ± 8% of rated frequency
yes
no
Overload capacity
125% In for 10 minutes
yes
no
165% In for 1 minute
yes
no
Current limiting
300% In for 150 milliseconds
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
Automatic bypass of each UPS
With static switch
yes
no
Short-circuit withstand of static switch
10 to 25 In for 20 ms, depending on rating yes
(e.g. 25 In at 250 kVA / 16 In at 500 kVA)
no
Manual bypass
Via shared external bypass
(for maintenance)
yes
no
> 94.5% from 50% load
yes
no
selection of operating language from 19
yes
no
personalisation menu
with password
yes
no
display
measurements, status, events, graphs
yes
no
event log
2 500 time-stamped events
yes
no
bargraphs
power levels, backup time
yes
no
statistics
% time on battery power, number of
transfers to battery power, average
percent load, etc.
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications with mimic panel
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Three-phase output voltage
adjustable within limits
Hz
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
adjustable from
Bypass functions
Efficiency
Overall efficiency of UPS system
User interface
Graphical display
APC by Schneider Electric
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.16
Specification guide no. 4b
Modular UPS with external bypass, 250 to 4000 kVA* (cont.)
* Maximum power rating for eight 500 kVA UPS units
Communication
Programmable relay card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
Card with two outputs
JBus/ModBus RS485 + Ethernet 10/100
yes
no
Card with three outputs
Same as the two-output card + a modem
yes
no
yes
no
with shutdown management
yes
no
Certified standards and tests
See list in section 12.1
yes
no
Performance certification
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
remote
yes
no
Technical support
international
yes
no
yes
no
hot-swap cards
yes
no
around the world
yes
no
Options
Supervision software
Administration software
Certification
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Access to power components through front
Access to communication through front
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
preventive
predictive
02/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 4b - p.17
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA
Contents
1 - UPS definition ................................................................................................................................. 2
1.1 - Purpose ................................................................................................................................ 2
1.2 - Brief description .................................................................................................................... 2
2 - Operating principle ......................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 - Normal operation .................................................................................................................. 2
2.2 - Operation on battery power................................................................................................... 2
2.3 - Battery recharge ................................................................................................................... 2
2.4 - Transfer to bypass AC source............................................................................................... 3
2.5 - UPS maintenance ................................................................................................................. 3
2.6 - Battery maintenance ............................................................................................................. 3
2.7 - Cold start (AC power absent) ................................................................................................ 3
3 - Sizing and general characteristics ................................................................................................ 3
3.1 - Technology ........................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 - Rating ................................................................................................................................... 3
3.3 - Battery backup time .............................................................................................................. 3
3.4 - Types of loads accepted ....................................................................................................... 3
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS ....................................................................... 4
3.6 - Efficiency .............................................................................................................................. 4
3.7 - Noise level ............................................................................................................................ 4
4 - AC sources...................................................................................................................................... 4
4.1 - Normal AC source................................................................................................................. 4
4.2 - Bypass AC source ................................................................................................................ 4
5 - Electrical characteristics................................................................................................................ 4
5.1 - Rectifier and charger ............................................................................................................. 4
5.2 - Batteries................................................................................................................................ 5
5.3 - Inverter ................................................................................................................................. 5
5.4 - Static bypass ........................................................................................................................ 6
5.5 - Discrimination and short circuit capacity ............................................................................... 6
5.6 - System earthing arrangement ............................................................................................... 6
6 - Mechanical characteristics ............................................................................................................ 7
6.1 - Mechanical structure ............................................................................................................. 7
6.2 - Scalable design .................................................................................................................... 7
6.3 - Dimensions ........................................................................................................................... 7
6.4 - Connections .......................................................................................................................... 7
6.5 - Ventilation ............................................................................................................................. 7
6.6 - Safety ................................................................................................................................... 7
7 - Environment conditions ................................................................................................................. 7
7.1 - UPS (not including battery) ................................................................................................... 7
8 - Protection ........................................................................................................................................ 8
8.1 - UPS ...................................................................................................................................... 8
8.2 - Rectifier/chargers .................................................................................................................. 8
8.3 - Inverters ................................................................................................................................ 8
8.4 - Batteries................................................................................................................................ 8
9 - Battery management ...................................................................................................................... 8
9.1 – Self-test ................................................................................................................................ 8
9.2 - Measurement of actual backup time ..................................................................................... 8
9.3 - Digital battery management .................................................................................................. 8
9.4 - Block by block monitoring ..................................................................................................... 9
10 - User interface and communication ............................................................................................. 9
10.1 - User interface ..................................................................................................................... 9
10.2 - Communication ................................................................................................................... 10
11 - Maintainability..................................................................................................................................... 11
12 - Standards and tests .......................................................................................................................... 11
12.1 - Standards ................................................................................................................................. 11
12.2 - Certification of conformity ......................................................................................................... 11
13 - Test procedures and quality system ................................................................................................ 11
14 - Services ............................................................................................................................................... 12
14.1 - Maintenance ............................................................................................................................. 12
14.2 - Technical competency .............................................................................................................. 12
14.3 - Functional components ............................................................................................................. 12
14.4 - System start-up......................................................................................................................... 12
14.5 - Replacement parts .................................................................................................................... 12
14.6 - Recycling and renovation .......................................................................................................... 12
15 - Warranty .............................................................................................................................................. 12
16 - Installation services ........................................................................................................................... 13
17 - Electrical diagram ............................................................................................................................... 13
Appendix. Check list.................................................................................................................................. 14
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.1
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply (referred to as a UPS in the rest
of this document).
The UPS shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
For information purposes
MTBF in hours
Single-UPS unit with static bypass
475 000
Non availability
2.1x10-5
1.2 - Brief description
The UPS shall be a single-UPS unit, operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode); it shall be a
VFI-type UPS (as per standard IEC 62040-2), made up of the following components, described in detail in this
specification:
● rectifier;
● battery charger;
● inverter;
● battery;
● static bypass (via a static switch);
● manual maintenance bypass;
● user and communications interface;
● battery management system;
● any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance, including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
The UPS shall ensure continuity of electric power to the load within the specified tolerances, without interruption
upon failure or deterioration of the normal AC source (utility power) for a maximum protection time determined by
the capacity of the backup batteries installed.
2 - Operating principle
The double-conversion UPS (also called on-line) shall operate as defined below.
2.1 - Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier supplies the inverter with DC current while the charger simultaneously float charges the battery. The
load is continuously supplied with dependable electrical power by the inverter.
2.2 - Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load from
battery power without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the specified battery backup time.
2.3 - Battery recharge
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier shall again power the inverter, without interruption or
disturbance to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.2
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
2.4 - Transfer to bypass AC source
In the event of an overload exceeding system capabilities or UPS shutdown, the static bypass switch shall
instantaneously transfer the load to the bypass AC source without interruption, on the condition that bypass power
is available and within tolerances.
Transfer of the load back to the UPS-unit output, synchronised with the bypass AC source, shall be automatic or
manual. During transfer, the load shall not suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption if a major fault occurs on
the UPS system and if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been established. It shall be possible to set
the duration of this micro-interruption.
2.5 - UPS maintenance
For maintenance purposes, the UPS shall include a mechanical maintenance bypass system with one-button
operation. For personnel safety during servicing or testing, this system shall be designed to isolate the UPS while
continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC source. The UPS shall also include a device making it
possible to isolate the rectifiers and the chargers from the normal AC source.
Furthermore, all electronic components shall be accessible from the front of the UPS.
2.6 - Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance on the battery, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the battery from the
rectifier, the charger and the inverter. When the battery is isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to
supply the load without interruption or disturbance, except in the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.7 - Cold start (normal AC source absent)
The battery shall be capable of ensuring UPS start-up even if normal AC power is not available and continuing
operation within the specified back-up time (start on battery power shall be possible on the condition that the
system was already started with AC power present).
3 - Sizing and general characteristics
3.1 - Technology
The UPS shall be based on IGBT technology with built-in thermal monitoring and a free-frequency chopping mode
to dynamically optimise efficiency and power quality.
3.2 - Rating
The UPS shall be sized to continuously supply a load of …[800 / 900]… kVA.
3.3 - Battery backup time
The battery backup time in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be _______ minutes, for a load power
factor of 0.8.
Battery service life shall be equal to at least …[ 10 / 12 ]…years. It shall be selected and sized correspondingly, for
a load power factor of 0.8.
3.4 - Types of loads accepted
The UPS shall accept high crest factors (3:1) without derating to ensure correct operation with computer loads.
The total harmonic voltage distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/ph ≤ 3 % and ph/N ≤ 4% for linear loads.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.3
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4.
To that end, it shall be possible to equip each rectifier/charger input with a filter of the type …[compensated LC /
non-compensated LC / with contactor / double-bridge / phase shifting]…capable of limiting the total harmonic
distortion of the current (THDI) upstream to < 7%.
If necessary, it shall be possible to use an electronic active filtering system to obtain, at the normal AC input, the
following levels, constant from 50% to 100% load:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier/charger not exceeding 4%;
● input power factor (pf) greater than 0.95.
3.6 - Efficiency
Overall efficiency shall be greater than or equal to 94% at full rated load (In).
3.7 - Noise level
The noise level for each unit, measured as per standard ISO 3746, shall be less than 72 dBA.
4 - AC sources
The UPS shall be designed to receive power from the sources listed below.
4.1 - Normal AC source
(rectifier input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● rated voltage: 380, 400 or 415 volts rms at full rated load Pn;
● number of phases: 3;
● frequency:
Hz ± 10%.
4.2 - Bypass AC source
(static-bypass input, if separate from rectifier input)
The bypass power supplying the UPS in the event of an inverter shutdown (maintenance, failure) or an overload
(short-circuit, heavy inrush currents, etc.) shall have the following characteristics:
● voltage:
/
volts, ± 10%;
● number of phases: 3 + N + earth; (a non-distributed neutral is possible);
Hz ± 5% (adjustable up to ± 2 Hz).
● frequency:
Outside these tolerances, it shall be possible to supply the load, but in downgraded mode.
5 - Electrical characteristics
5.1 - Rectifier and charger
5.1.1 - Supply
The rectifier and charger module shall be supplied via the normal AC input. It must be capable of operating without
a neutral (see section 4 "AC sources").
5.1.2 - Inrush current
A device shall be provided to limit inrush currents.
When AC power fails and during genset start, the rectifier shall gradually limit the power it draws over a 10-second
walk-in ramp.
5.1.3 - Battery-current limiting
For long battery life, an electronic device shall automatically limit the charging current to the maximum value
specified by the battery supplier (0.1 x C10 for a sealed lead-acid battery).
5.1.4 - Operating mode
The standard charger shall be sized to recharge the battery rapidly:
a battery with a backup time of…[5 / 10 minutes in less than 11 hours]… (following a discharge to Pn/2 to recover
90% of backup time).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.4
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
5.1.6 - Input power factor
The required level of performance is indicated in section 3.5 "Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS".
5.1.7 - Voltage regulation
Rectifier/charger regulation shall take into account the ambient temperature of the battery and shall ensure DC
output voltage fluctuations of less than 1% irrespective of load and AC input voltage variations (within the limits
specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC source”).
5.2 - Batteries
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with its own battery of the …[sealed lead-acid type, factory mounted and wired in
a cabinet identical to that of the UPS,] … [sealed lead-acid type, mounted on shelves,]…[vented lead-acid type,
mounted on a rack,]... with a service life equal to at least …[10 / 12]… years .
Each battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply of power to the corresponding inverter for at least
…[8 / 10 / 15 / 30 …]… minutes, in the event of a normal AC source failure, with the inverter operating at full rated
load, i.e.
kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 0° C and 35° C
The UPS shall include devices to ensure:
● effective battery protection (see section 8.4 "Protection - Battery");
● battery management (see section 9 "Battery management").
5.3 - Inverter
The inverter shall be sized to supply a rated load of …[ 800 / 900 ]… kVA at [ 0.8 / 0.9 ] pf and shall satisfy the
specifications listed below.
5.3.1 - Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[ 380 / 400 / 415 ]… volts rms, adjustable via the user interface (see section 10), within tolerances of +/- 0.5%.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
The variation in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 2% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated
power, irrespective of normal AC input and DC voltage levels, within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC
source” and 5.1.4 “Rectifier/charger - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels”.
● Voltage variations for load step changes
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 0.5% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads. In all
cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 100 milliseconds.
● Unbalanced load conditions
For a load unbalance between phases, the output voltage variation shall be less than 1.5%.
5.3.2 - Output frequency
● Rated frequency
- 50 or 60 Hz.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.5
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
5.3.3 - Synchronisation with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions below in section 5.4 "Static-bypass"), the inverter output
voltage shall be synchronised with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal
operation, a synchronisation system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3
degrees, if the bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within adjustable tolerances of ± 0.5 Hz with respect
to the rated frequency).
● Synchronisation with an external source
It shall be possible to synchronise with all types of external source.
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronisation with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronisation, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0.02 Hz. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronise.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
To avoid transmitting to the inverter any excessive frequency variations on the bypass AC source when it is within
tolerances, inverter frequency variations per unit time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
5.3.4 - Overload capacity
The UPS shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 1 minute a load representing 150% of the rated load.
If necessary, the UPS shall operate as a generator (current limiting) with a peak capacity of 212% for 150
milliseconds, to allow highly disturbed transient operating states (high overloads, very high crest factors, etc.)
without transferring the load to the bypass.
5.4 - Static bypass
5.4.1 - Load transfer to the static bypass
The UPS shall be equipped with a static bypass comprising a static switch. Instantaneous transfer of the load from
the inverter to bypass power and back shall take place without a break or disturbance in the supply of power to the
load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage and frequency are within the tolerances specified in section
4.2 "Bypass AC source" and that the inverter is synchronised.
Transfer shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal inverter fault.
Manually initiated transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronised with the inverter, automatic transfer of
the load from the inverter to bypass power shall take place after a calibrated interruption of approximately 500 to
800 milliseconds.
5.4.2 - Static-switch protection
The static switch shall be equipped with an RC filter for protection against switching overvoltages and lightning
strikes.
5.5 - Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.2 "Bypass AC source" section, the presence of
the static switch shall make it possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream
protection devices of the inverter.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated inverter current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the inverter on its own shall, for the same discrimination
requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of the type of
short-circuit.
5.6 - System earthing arrangement
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements:
● upstream source:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
● downstream installation:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream earthing arrangements are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the
static-bypass line.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.6
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
6 - Mechanical characteristics
6.1 - Mechanical structure
The UPS and batteries shall be installed in cabinet(s) with a degree of protection IP20 (standard IEC 60529).
Access to the subassemblies making up the system shall be exclusively through the front.
6.2 - Scalable design
The UPS shall be designed to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of additional
UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system availability by introducing redundancy.
This transformation shall be possible directly on site, without returning the equipment to the factory and without
causing excessive system downtime.
6.3 – Dimensions
The UPS shall require as little floor space as possible. To gain space, it shall be possible to install the UPS with the
back to the wall or back-to-back with another UPS.
6.4 - Connection
To facilitate connections, all terminal blocks must be easily accessible from the front when the UPS is installed with
the back to the wall. Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be
possible through the bottom for a false floor.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 12
"Standards and tests".
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 "Standards and tests" and be mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety". The neutral conductor shall be oversized for any third-order
harmonic currents and their multiples (the size of the neutral shall be 1.5 times that of each phase).
6.5 - Ventilation
The UPS units shall be provided with forced-air cooling.
To facilitate positioning of UPS units (back to the wall), ventilation shall take place through the top with an air intake
on the front.
6.6 - Safety
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical
bypass designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from
the bypass AC source.
It shall be possible to send to the UPS an external EPO order resulting in opening of the battery circuit breaker and
the upstream circuit breaker.
7 - Environment conditions
7.1 - UPS (not including battery)
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions
without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: 0° C to +40° C.
● recommended temperature range: +20° C to + 25° C;
● maximum temperatures: 40 °C for 8 hours
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25° C;
● maximum altitude without power derating: 1000 meters.
7.1.2 - Storage
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.7
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
8 - Protection
8.1 - UPS
The UPS shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive external
or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2 - Rectifier and charger
The rectifier and charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified by
the battery manufacturer or if the temperature exceeds the limits specified above.
8.3 - Inverter
Inverters shall self-protect against overloads and short-circuits, irrespective of the operating mode (AC power or
battery power).
8.4 - Batteries
8.4.1 - Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a device designed to protect the battery against deep discharges, taking into account the
characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the battery by a circuit breaker.
8.4.2 - Independent regulation and monitoring systems
A regulation system shall regulate the battery voltage and the charge current.
A second system, independent of the regulation, shall monitor the battery voltage and the charge current.
Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system steps in to shut down the charger and avoid
overcharging.
8.4.3 - Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage to the ambient temperature.
This regulation system takes into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life.
The permissible temperature range is set in the personalisation parameters.
An alarm shall be issued for temperatures outside the permissible range.
9 - Battery management
As the life of the batteries is very sensitive to operating conditions, the battery shall be managed in an optimum
manner.
In addition to the devices indicated in section 8.4 "Batteries", the battery-management system shall include the
features listed below.
9.1 - Self-test
The battery shall include a self-test system initiated in two manners:
● as necessary by a manual command;
● automatically at user-defined intervals.
This self-test system shall update the battery parameters and detect any abnormal deterioration to facilitate
preventive maintenance.
9.2 - Measurement of actual backup time
The battery function shall be combined with a system that continuously monitors the actual backup time available
(AC source present) or remaining (AC source absent), according to the actual load on the UPS, the battery
temperature and the age of the battery.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.8
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
9.3 - Digital battery monitoring
The UPS shall be equipped with a system for battery digital management.
Based on a number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery type and age), the system shall control the
battery charge voltage and continuously calculate:
● The true available backup time
● The remaining service life.
9.4 - Block by block monitoring
To further optimise battery availability and service life, it shall be possible to equip the UPS with an optional system
to continuously monitor all battery strings and display a block by block failure prediction.
The system shall include the functions listed below.
● Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
● Continuous measurement of the internal resistance.
● Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
● Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
● Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
10 - User interface and communication
10.1 - User interface
UPS operation shall be facilitated by a user interface comprising:
● a colour graphic display (touch screen);
● controls;
● status indications with mimic panel.
10.1.1 - Graphic display
The graphic display shall facilitate operation by offering the functions listed below.
● animated colour mimic diagram
The mimic diagram shall enable display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and
indication of operator instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass). It can be used to supervise either a single
UPS unit or a configuration with up to 6 UPS units connected in parallel and a centralized-bypass cabinet.
● display of measurements
It shall be possible to display the following measurements:
- inverter output phase-to-phase voltages;
- inverter output currents;
- inverter output frequency;
- voltage across battery terminals;
- battery charge or discharge current;
- rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages;
- rectifier/charger input currents;
- crest factor;
- active and apparent power;
- power factor of the load;
- battery temperature.
● display of status conditions and events
It shall be possible to display the following indications:
- load on battery power;
- load on UPS;
- load on automatic bypass;
- general alarm;
- battery fault;
- remaining battery backup time;
- low battery warning;
- bypass AC source outside tolerances;
- battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating servicing of the system, as specified in section 11
“Maintainability”.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.9
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
● display of operating graphs
It shall be possible to display curves and bargraphs over significant periods for the measurements mentioned
above.
● display of statistics: number of overloads, number of transfers to battery power, cumulative time on battery
power, maximum power, demand power.
● log of time-stamped events
This function shall store in memory and make available, for automatic or manually initiated recall, time-stamped
logs of all important status changes, faults and malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of
troubleshooting procedures. It shall be possible to time stamp and store at least 3 000 events.
10.1.2 - Controls
The UPS shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off terminal block for complete system shutdown following
reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of UPS units;
- opening of the static switch on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker;
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
10.1.3 - Status indications with mimic panel
Indication of status conditions shall be distinct of the graphic display.
Three LEDs on the control panel indicate the following status conditions:
● load protected;
● minor fault;
● major fault.
The mimic panel shall represent the UPS and indicate the status of the load supply using five two-colour (red and
green) LEDs:
● load supplied (LED at UPS output on mimic panel),
● inverter on (LED on inverter on mimic panel),
● operation on battery power (LED between battery and inverter on mimic panel),
● bypass activated (LED on bypass on mimic panel),
● PFC rectifier on (LED on rectifier on mimic panel).
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power.
10.2 - Communication
10.2.1 - Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements. To that end, the UPS shall
have as standard equipment:
● a dry contact card
10.2.2 - Communications options
The UPS shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the following
types of cards:
● an SNMP communication card for connection to an Ethernet network, for connection to a computer-network
management system;
● an RS485 serial-link communication card capable of implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a
building management system (BMS);
● an RS232 serial-link communication card for communication with a modem and a remote-maintenance system;
● an XML-Web communication card for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a
server, capable of supplying information via a standard web browser.
The UPS shall be detectable by supervision software for large UPS systems.
Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.10
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
11 - Maintainability
For optimum safety during servicing, a maintenance bypass shall be available to completely isolate the UPS.
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
● The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole each time it is
started. To that end, the supply control/monitoring electronics shall offer:
● auto-compensation of component drift;
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● overall readiness for remote supervision services provided by the manufacturer.
12 - Standards and tests
12.1 - Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
● IEC 6014A-4: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 62040-1 and EN 62040-1: UPS - Safety.
● IEC 62040-2 and EN 62040-2: UPS - Electromagnetic compatibility - [level C3 / C2 class A is optional].
● IEC 62040-3 and EN 62040-3: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 60950 / EN 60950: Safety of IT equipment, including electrical business equipment.
● IEC 61000-2-2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage
power supply systems.
● IEC 61000-4: EMC - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity.
● IEC 439: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● IEC 60529: Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
● ISO 3746: Sound power levels.
● CE marking.
What is more, the equipment must comply with environmental-protection standards, with production taking place on
premises certified ISO 14001. The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well
as a dependability study to ensure maximum reliability.
12.2 - Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards. What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent
laboratories (e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
13 - Test procedures and quality system
13.1 - Test procedures
The UPS manufacturer shall provide proof of a stringent Quality Assurance programme.
In particular, the main equipment manufacturing stages shall be sanctioned by appropriate tests such as:
● incoming components inspection, discrete subassembly testing;
● complete functional checks on the final product.
Equipment shall undergo on-load burn-in before leaving the factory.
Final inspection and adjustments shall be documented in a report drawn up by the supplier’s Quality Inspection
department.
ISO 9001 or 9002 certification of the production site is compulsory.
13.2 - Quality system
The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well as a dependability study to
ensure maximum reliability.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.11
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
14 - Services
14.1 - Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
14.2 - Technical competency
● customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
14.3 - Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorised agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
14.4 - System start-up
● The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorised agent. The procedure shall
include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS
installation parameters.
14.5 - Replacement parts
● The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
14.6 Recycling and renovation/substitution
● At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
15 - Warranty
The rectifier/charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year
following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.12
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
16 - Installation services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements;
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site;
● connections between the battery and the UPS;
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger;
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input;
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
17 - Electrical diagram
Fig.: UPS electrical diagram.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.13
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.8
kVA
Manufacturer
Range of products
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
double conversion
Parallel connection ≤ 4 integrated parallel units or 6
parallel units with SSC
kVA max.
yes
no
yes
no
Rectifiers
Three-phase input voltage at Pn
380 or 400 or 415 V ± 10 %
yes
no
Frequency
50 or 60 Hz ± 10 %
yes
no
Sinusoidal input current
THDI upstream ≤ 4 % with active filter
yes
no
Input power factor
PF > 0.95 with active filter
yes
no
yes
no
No inrush or start-up current
Rapid battery charger
Backup time 10 minutes in t ≤ 11 hours,
45 minutes in t ≤ 24 hours
yes
no
Voltage regulation
±1%
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Independent regulation/monitoring systems
Battery
Type
standard
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Temperature correction
Measurement of actual backup time,
depending on:
load, temperature, age
Cold start on battery power
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
yes
no
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on the
battery)
yes
no
Self-tests
yes
no
Calculation of real backup time
yes
no
Block by block monitoring
yes
no
Management of 2 independent circuit breakers
yes
no
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.14
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
Inverter
Volts
yes
no
± 0.5 %
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 2%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 5% (load from 0 to 100 or 100 to 0 %)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU < 3%
yes
no
Unbalanced load conditions
Voltage variations < 1.5 %
yes
no
yes
no
± 0.5 Hz
yes
no
± 0.25 Hz to 2 Hz
yes
non
Frequency synchronisation with an external ± 8 % of rated frequency
source
yes
no
Overload capacity
125% In for 10 minutes
yes
no
150% In for 1 minute
yes
no
Current limiting
212% In for 150 milliseconds
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
> 94% at Pn
yes
no
selection of operating language
yes
no
personalisation menu
with password
yes
no
display
measurements, status, events, graphs
yes
no
event log
Time-stamping 3000 events
yes
no
trend curves
Power, voltage, currents and battery
backup time values
yes
no
statistics
% time on batteries, number of transfers
to batteries, average percent load
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications with mimic panel
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Three-phase output voltage with neutral
adjustable
Hz
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
adjustable
Static bypass
Static bypass
Short-circuit withstand of static bypass
depending on power
Built-in maintenance bypass
Efficiency
Normal mode
User interface
Graphic display
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.15
Specification guide no. 5a
Single UPS, three-phase, 800 to 900 kVA (cont.)
Communication
Dry contacts card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
Options
Ethernet SNMP card
yes
no
RS485 JBus/ModBus card
yes
no
RS232 U-Talk card
yes
no
XML-Web card
yes
no
Supervision software
yes
no
with shutdown management
yes
no
Certified standards and tests
See list in section 12.1
yes
no
Certification of performance
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
Level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
Remote
yes
no
Technical support
International
yes
no
yes
no
Administration software
Certification
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Access to power components through front
Access to communication through front
hot-swap cards
yes
no
Access to batteries through front
hot-swap batteries
yes
no
Around the world
yes
no
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
Preventive
Predictive
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5a – p.16
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA*
* Maximum power rating without redundancy
Contents
1 - UPS definition ....................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 - Purpose ...................................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 - Brief description .......................................................................................................................... 2
2 - Operating principle ............................................................................................................................... 3
2.1 - Normal operation ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.2 - Operation on battery power ........................................................................................................ 3
2.3 - Battery recharge ......................................................................................................................... 3
2.4 - Parallel operation with redundancy ............................................................................................. 3
2.4 - Transfer to bypass AC source..................................................................................................... 3
2.5 - UPS maintenance ....................................................................................................................... 3
2.6 - Battery maintenance ................................................................................................................... 4
2.7 - Cold start (AC power absent) ...................................................................................................... 4
3 - Sizing and general characteristics ...................................................................................................... 4
3.1 - Technology ................................................................................................................................. 4
3.2 - Rating ......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.3 - Battery backup time .................................................................................................................... 4
3.4 - Types of loads accepted ............................................................................................................. 4
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS ............................................................................. 5
3.6 - Efficiency .................................................................................................................................... 5
3.7 - Noise level .................................................................................................................................. 5
4 - AC sources............................................................................................................................................ 5
4.1 - Normal AC source ...................................................................................................................... 5
4.2 - Bypass AC source ...................................................................................................................... 5
5 - Electrical characteristics...................................................................................................................... 5
5.1 - Rectifier and charger................................................................................................................... 5
5.2 - Batteries ..................................................................................................................................... 6
5.3 - Inverter ....................................................................................................................................... 6
5.4 - Static bypass .............................................................................................................................. 7
5.5 - Discrimination and short circuit capacity ..................................................................................... 7
5.6 - System earthing arrangement ..................................................................................................... 7
6 - Mechanical characteristics .................................................................................................................. 8
6.1 - Mechanical structure ................................................................................................................... 8
6.2 - Scalable design .......................................................................................................................... 8
6.3 - Dimensions ................................................................................................................................. 8
6.4 - Connections ................................................................................................................................ 8
6.5 - Ventilation ................................................................................................................................... 8
6.6 - Safety ......................................................................................................................................... 8
7 - Environment conditions ....................................................................................................................... 9
7.1 - UPS (not including battery) ......................................................................................................... 9
8 - Protection .............................................................................................................................................. 9
8.1 - UPS ............................................................................................................................................ 9
8.2 - Rectifier/chargers ........................................................................................................................ 9
8.3 - Inverters ...................................................................................................................................... 9
8.4 - Batteries ..................................................................................................................................... 9
9 - Battery management ............................................................................................................................ 10
9.1 – Self-test...................................................................................................................................... 10
9.2 - Measurement of actual backup time ........................................................................................... 10
9.3 - Digital battery management ........................................................................................................ 10
9.4 - Block by block monitoring ........................................................................................................... 10
10 - User interface and communication ................................................................................................... 10
10.1 - User interface ........................................................................................................................... 10
10.2 - Communication ......................................................................................................................... 11
11 - Maintainability..................................................................................................................................... 12
12 - Standards and tests .......................................................................................................................... 13
13 - Test procedures and quality system ................................................................................................ 13
14 - Services ............................................................................................................................................... 14
14.1 - Maintenance ............................................................................................................................. 14
14.2 - Technical competency .............................................................................................................. 14
14.3 - Functional components ............................................................................................................. 14
14.4 - System start-up......................................................................................................................... 14
14.5 - Replacement parts .................................................................................................................... 14
14.6 - Recycling and renovation .......................................................................................................... 14
15 - Warranty .............................................................................................................................................. 14
16 - Installation services ........................................................................................................................... 15
17 - Electrical diagram ............................................................................................................................... 15
Appendix. Check list.................................................................................................................................. 17
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.1
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
1 - UPS definition
1.1 - Purpose
The purpose of this specification is to define the design, manufacture and testing characteristics required in view of
supplying, putting into operation and maintaining an Uninterruptible Power Supply (referred to as a UPS in the rest
of this document).
The UPS shall be designed to supply dependable electric power to:
For information purposes
Single-UPS unit with static bypass
For n+1 redundancy with centralized bypass
2 UPS units
3 UPS units
4 UPS units
5 UPS units
6 UPS units
MTBF in
hours
475000
3.11x106
2.42x106
1.97 x106
1.67x106
1.44x106
Non availability
2.1x10-5
3.22x10-6
4.14x10-6
5.07 x10-6
6 x10-6
6.95 x10-6
1.2 - Brief description
The UPS system shall be made up of …[ 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 ]…identical parallel-connected UPS units with the same
power rating, operating in double-conversion mode (also called on-line mode) in accordance with the VFI category
described in standard IEC 62040-2.
Each UPS unit shall have a unit rating of …[ 800 / 900 ]… kVA, made up of the following components, described in
this specification:
● rectifier;
● battery charger;
● inverter;
● battery;
● a battery-management system.
In addition, the UPS shall be equipped with:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( for parallel connection of two single UPS units, with redundancy)
● static bypass (via a static switch) on each unit;
● manual maintenance bypass on each unit;
● user and communications interface on each unit.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( for parallel connection with an external maintenance-bypass cabinet, up to four units)
● static bypass (via a static switch) on each unit;
● common, external, maintenance bypass for all units, installed in a cabinet;
● user and communications interface on each unit.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( for parallel connection with a centralized-bypass cabinet, up to six units)
● a centralized bypass shall be made up of the following components:
- static bypass (via a static switch);
- manual maintenance bypass.
The centralized bypass shall be sized to support the entire load.
● a user and communications interface for the entire UPS system.
The UPS system shall also comprise any and all other devices required for safe operation and maintenance,
including circuit breakers, switches, etc.
The UPS system shall ensure continuity of electric power to the load within the specified tolerances, without
interruption upon failure or deterioration of the normal AC source (utility power) for a maximum protection time
determined by the capacity of the backup batteries installed.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.2
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
2 - Operating principle
The double-conversion UPS (also called on-line) shall operate as defined below.
2.1 - Normal operation
(normal AC source available)
The rectifier supplies the inverter with DC current while the charger simultaneously float charges the battery. The
load is continuously supplied with dependable electrical power by the inverter.
( for parallel connection with a centralized bypass cabinet, up to six units)
A current-loop system shall ensure automatic distribution of the total load between the various parallel-connected
units.
2.2 - Operation on battery power
(normal AC source not available or outside tolerances)
Upon failure or excessive deterioration of the normal AC source, the inverter shall continue to supply the load from
battery power without interruption or disturbance, within the limits imposed by the specified battery backup time.
2.3 - Battery recharge
(normal AC source restored)
When the normal AC source is restored, the rectifier shall again power the inverter, without interruption or
disturbance to the load, while the charger automatically recharges the battery.
2.4 - Parallel operation with redundancy
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
( without redundancy)
The system shall not be redundant. The …[ 2 / 3 /4 / 5 / 6 ]… UPS units must operate in parallel to supply the load.
Shutdown of one unit shall result in transfer to
…[ the various static bypasses, connected to the same bypass AC source ]
…[ the centralized bypass ]
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( with redundancy)
The units shall operate in parallel and redundantly, with the load shared equally between the units.
Redundancy shall be of the "n+1" (or n+2) type, i.e. "1" (or 2) units shall be redundant in the total of n units. If a
major fault occurs on a unit, it shall automatically disconnect.
If the remaining unit(s) are sufficient to supply the load, it/they shall remain in operation.
If the total available power is insufficient, the load shall be automatically transferred, without interruption, to the
bypass AC source, if it is within tolerances.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2.5 - Transfer to bypass AC source
In the event of an overload exceeding system capabilities or UPS shutdown, the static bypass switch shall
instantaneously transfer the load to the bypass AC source without interruption, on the condition that bypass power
is available and within tolerances.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( for parallel connection with an external maintenance-bypass cabinet, up to four units)
During transfer, the system shall simultaneously switch the static switches.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( for parallel connection with a centralized-bypass cabinet, up to six units)
Transfer shall be carried out by the common static bypass in the centralized-bypass cabinet, with simultaneous
orders to the UPS units.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Transfer of the load back to the UPS-unit output, synchronised with the bypass AC source, shall be automatic or
manual. During transfer, the load shall not suffer an outage or disturbance in the supply of power.
On request, the UPS system may automatically transfer the load with a micro-interruption if a major fault occurs on
the UPS system and if synchronisation with the bypass source has not been established.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.3
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
2.6 - UPS maintenance
For maintenance purposes, all electronic components shall be accessible from the front of the UPS.
In addition, a manually operated mechanical bypass system shall be:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( for a two-UPS system with active redundancy)
- Built into each UPS unit
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( with external maintenance-bypass cabinet)
- Installed separately in the external maintenance bypass cabinet
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
( with centralized-bypass cabinet
- Installed separately in the centralized bypass.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
This system shall be designed to isolate the UPS while continuing to supply power to the load from the bypass AC
source. The UPS shall also include a device making it possible to isolate the rectifiers and the chargers from the
normal AC source.
2.7 - Battery maintenance
For safe maintenance on the battery, the system shall include a circuit breaker to isolate the battery of each
parallel-connected UPS unit from the rectifier, the corresponding charger and the inverter. When the battery is
isolated from the system, the UPS shall continue to supply the load without interruption or disturbance, except in
the event of a normal AC source outage.
2.8 - Cold start (normal AC source absent)
The battery of each unit shall be capable of ensuring UPS start-up even if normal AC power is not available and
continuing operation within the specified back-up time (start on battery power shall be possible on the condition that
the system was already started with AC power present).
3 - Sizing and general characteristics
3.1 - Technology
Each unit in the UPS system shall be based on IGBT technology with built-in thermal monitoring and a freefrequency chopping mode to dynamically optimise efficiency and power quality.
3.2 - Rating
The UPS system shall be sized to continuously supply a load of
kVA, at a power factor (pf) of [ 0.8 / 0.9
].
It shall be made up of ...[2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6]... UPS units, each with an identical rating of ...[ 800 / 900]... kVA.
The total installed power rating shall thus be
kVA. ...[Consequently, 1 (or 2) unit(s) may be redundant.]
3.3 - Battery backup time
The battery backup time in the event of a normal AC source outage shall be _______ minutes, for a load power
factor of 0.8.
Battery service life shall be equal to at least …[ 10 / 12 ]…years. It shall be selected and sized correspondingly,
for a load power factor of 0.8.
3.4 - Types of loads accepted
The UPS shall accept high crest factors (3:1) without derating to ensure correct operation with computer loads.
The total harmonic voltage distortion at UPS output (THDU downstream) shall respect the following limits:
● THDU downstream ph/ph ≤ 3 % and ph/N ≤ 4% for linear loads.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.4
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
3.5 - Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS
The UPS system shall not draw a level of harmonic currents that could disturb the upstream AC system, i.e. it shall
comply with the stipulations of guide IEC 61000-3-4.
To that end, it shall be possible to equip each rectifier/charger input with a filter of the type …[compensated LC /
non-compensated LC / with contactor / double-bridge / phase shifting]... capable of limiting the total harmonic
distortion of the current (THDI) upstream to < 7%.
If necessary, it shall be possible to use an electronic active filtering system to obtain, at the normal AC input, the
following levels, constant from 50% to 100% load:
● total harmonic current distortion (THDI) upstream of the rectifier/charger not exceeding 4%;
● input power factor (pf) greater than 0.95.
3.6 - Efficiency
Overall efficiency shall be greater than or equal to:
● 93% at full rated load (In);
● 94% at half rated load (In/2).
3.7 - Noise level
The noise level for each unit, measured as per standard ISO 3746, shall be less than 72 dBA.
4 - AC sources
The UPS shall be designed to receive power from the sources listed below.
4.1 - Normal AC source
(rectifier input)
The normal AC source supplying the UPS shall, under normal operating conditions, have the following
characteristics:
● rated voltage: 380 - 400 or 415 volts rms at full rated load Pn;
● number of phases: 3 ;
● frequency:
Hz ± 10%.
4.2 - Bypass AC source
(static-bypass input, if separate from rectifier input)
The bypass power supplying the UPS in the event of an inverter shutdown (maintenance, failure) or an overload
(short-circuit, heavy inrush currents, etc.) shall have the following characteristics:
● voltage:
/
volts, ± 10%;
● number of phases: 3 + N + earth; (a non-distributed neutral is possible);
● frequency:
Hz ± 5% (adjustable up to ± 2 Hz).
Outside these tolerances, it shall be possible to supply the load, but in downgraded mode.
5 - Electrical characteristics
5.1 - Rectifier and charger
5.1.1 - Supply
Each rectifier and charger module shall be supplied via the normal AC input (see § 4. AC sources) and shall have
the characteristics presented below.
5.1.2 - Inrush current
A device shall be provided to limit inrush currents.
When AC power fails and during genset start, the rectifier shall gradually limit the power it draws over a 10-second
walk-in ramp.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.5
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
5.1.3 - Battery-current limiting
For long battery life, an electronic device shall automatically limit the charging current to the maximum value
specified by the battery supplier (0.1 x C10 for a sealed lead-acid battery).
5.1.4 - Operating mode
The charger of each UPS unit shall be sized to recharge the battery rapidly:
a battery with a backup time of…[5 / 10 ]… minutes in less than 11 hours] (following a discharge to Pn/2 to recover
90% of backup time).
5.1.5 - Input power factor
The required level of performance is indicated in section 3.5 "Limitation of harmonics upstream of the UPS".
5.1.6 - Voltage regulation
Rectifier/charger regulation shall take into account the ambient temperature of the battery and shall ensure DC
output voltage fluctuations of less than 1% irrespective of load and AC input voltage variations (within the limits
specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC source”).
5.2 - Batteries
Each UPS unit shall be equipped with its own battery of the …[sealed lead-acid type, factory mounted and wired in
a cabinet identical to that of the UPS,] … [sealed lead-acid type, mounted on shelves,]…[vented lead-acid type,
mounted on a rack,]... with a service life equal to at least …[10 / 12]… years.
Each battery shall be sized to ensure continuity in the supply of power to the corresponding inverter for at least
…[8 / 10 / 15 / 30 …]… minutes, in the event of a normal AC source failure, with the inverter operating at full rated
load, i.e.
kVA at a power factor (pf) of 0.8.
Sizing calculations shall assume an ambient temperature between 0° C and 35° C
The UPS shall include devices to ensure:
● effective battery protection (see section 8.4 "Protection - Battery");
● battery management (see section 9 "Battery management").
5.3 - Inverter
Each inverter shall be sized to supply a rated load of …[ 800 / 900 ]… kVA at [ 0.8 / 0.9 ] pf and shall satisfy the
specifications listed below.
5.3.1 - Output voltage
● Rated voltage
…[ 380 / 400 / 415 ]… volts rms, adjustable via the user interface (see section 10), within tolerances of +/- 0.5%.
● Number of phases
3 phases + neutral + earth.
● Steady-state conditions
The variation in the rated voltage shall be limited to ± 2% for a balanced load between 0 and 100% of the rated
power, irrespective of normal AC input and DC voltage levels, within the limits specified in section 4.1 “Normal AC
source” and 5.1.4 “Rectifier/charger - Operating modes and DC-voltage levels”.
● Voltage variations for load step changes
Output voltage transients shall not exceed ± 0.5% of rated voltage for 0 to 100% or 100 to 0% step loads. In all
cases, the voltage shall return to within steady-state tolerances in less than 100 milliseconds.
● Unbalanced load conditions
For a load unbalance between phases, the output voltage variation shall be less than 1.5%.
5.3.2 - Output frequency
● Rated frequency
- 50 or 60 Hz.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.6
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
5.3.3 - Synchronisation with bypass power
● When bypass power is within tolerances
To enable transfer to bypass power (see conditions below in section 5.4 "Static-bypass"), the inverter output
voltage shall be synchronised with the bypass source voltage whenever possible. To that end, during normal
operation, a synchronisation system shall automatically limit the phase deviation between the voltages to 3
degrees, if the bypass source frequency is sufficiently stable (within adjustable tolerances of ± 0.5 Hz with respect
to the rated frequency).
● Synchronisation with an external source
It shall be possible to synchronise with all types of external source.
● Autonomous operation following loss of synchronisation with bypass power
When the bypass source frequency deviates beyond these limits, the inverter shall switch over to free-running
mode with internal synchronisation, regulating its own frequency to within ± 0.02 Hz. When bypass power returns to
within tolerances, the inverter shall automatically resynchronise.
● Variation in frequency per unit time
To avoid transmitting to the inverter any excessive frequency variations on the bypass AC source when it is within
tolerances, inverter frequency variations per unit time (dF/dt) shall be limited to 1 Hz/s or 2 Hz/s (user defined).
5.3.4 - Overload capacity
The UPS shall be capable of supplying for at least:
● 1 minutes a load representing 150% of the rated load.
If necessary, the UPS shall operate as a generator (current limiting) with a peak capacity of 212% for 150
milliseconds, to allow highly disturbed transient operating states (high overloads, very high crest factors, etc.)
without transferring the load to the bypass.
5.4 - Static bypass
5.4.1 - Load transfer to the static bypass
Instantaneous transfer of the load from the inverters to bypass power and back shall take place without a break or
disturbance in the supply of power to the load, on the condition that the bypass source voltage and frequency are
within the tolerances specified in section 4.1 "Bypass AC source" and that the inverters are synchronized. Transfer
shall take place automatically in the event of a major overload or an internal UPS-system fault. Manually initiated
transfer shall also be possible.
If the bypass power is outside the specified tolerances or is not synchronized with the inverters, automatic transfer
of the load from the inverters to bypass power shall be inhibited or shall take place after a calibrated interruption of
500 to 800 milliseconds.
Manual initiation of this transfer as well as transfer back to the inverters shall also be possible.
5.4.2 - Static-switch protection
The static switch
.....................................................................................................................................................................
( with centralized-bypass cabinet)
common centralized-bypass
.....................................................................................................................................................................
( other cases)
in each UPS unit
.....................................................................................................................................................................
shall be equipped with an RC filter for protection against switching overvoltages and lightning strikes.
5.5 - Discrimination and short-circuit capacity
If the bypass power is within the tolerances specified in section 4.2 "Bypass AC source" section, the presence of
the static switch
.....................................................................................................................................................................
( with centralized-bypass cabinet)
common centralized-bypass
.....................................................................................................................................................................
( other cases)
in each UPS unit, supplied by the same bypass AC source
.....................................................................................................................................................................
shall make it possible to use the short-circuit power of the bypass source to trip the downstream protection devices
of the inverter.
To ensure tripping in a selective manner, the available power shall be sufficient to trip protection devices with high
ratings (circuit breaker rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, where In is the rated inverter current).
If the bypass source is outside the specified tolerances, the inverter on its own shall, for the same discrimination
requirements, be capable of tripping circuit breakers rated In/2 or UR fuses rated In/4, irrespective of the type of
short-circuit.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.7
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
5.6 - System earthing arrangement
The UPS shall be compatible with the following system earthing arrangements:
● upstream source:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
● downstream installation:
…[ TT/ IT / TNS / TNC ]…
If the upstream and downstream earthing arrangements are different, galvanic isolation shall be provided on the
static-bypass line.
6 - Mechanical characteristics
6.1 - Mechanical structure
UPSs and batteries shall be installed in cabinet(s) with a degree of protection IP20 (standard IEC 60529). Access
to the subassemblies making up the system shall be exclusively through the front.
6.2 - Scalable design
The UPS system shall be designed to allow the installed power to be easily increased on site by connection of
additional UPS units, either to meet new load requirements or to enhance system availability by introducing
redundancy.
This transformation shall be possible directly on site, without returning the equipment to the factory and without
causing excessive system downtime.
6.3 – Dimensions
The UPS shall require as little floor space as possible. To gain space, it shall be possible to install the UPS with the
back to the wall or back-to-back with another UPS.
6.4 - Connection
To facilitate connections, all terminal blocks must be easily accessible from the front when the UPS is installed with
the back to the wall. Entry of upstream and downstream power cables, as well as any auxiliary cables, shall be
possible through the bottom for a false floor.
The UPS shall be equipped with an earth-circuit connector, in compliance with the standards listed in section 13
"Standards and tests".
The cables shall comply with the standards listed in section 12 "Standards and tests" and be mounted in
compliance with the stipulations in section 6.6 "Safety". The neutral conductor shall be oversized for any third-order
harmonic currents and their multiples (the size of the neutral shall be 1.5 times that of each phase).
6.5 - Ventilation
The UPS units shall be provided with forced-air cooling.
To facilitate positioning of UPS units (back to the wall), ventilation shall take place through the top with an air intake
on the front.
6.6 - Safety
For the safety of maintenance personnel, the cabinet shall be provided with a manually operated mechanical
bypass designed to isolate the rectifier, charger, inverter and static switch while continuing to supply the load from
the bypass AC source.
It shall be possible to send to the UPS an external EPO order resulting in opening of the battery circuit breaker and
the upstream circuit breaker.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.8
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
7 - Environment conditions
7.1 - UPS (not including battery)
7.1.1 - Operation
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be capable of operating under the following environmental conditions
without loss of performance:
● ambient temperature range: 0° C to +40° C.
● recommended temperature range: +20° C to + 25° C;
● maximum temperatures: 40 °C for 8 hours
● maximum relative humidity: 95% at 25° C;
● maximum altitude without power derating: 1000 meters.
7.1.2 - Storage
The UPS, not including the battery, shall be designed for storage under the following conditions:
● ambient temperature range: -10° C to +45° C.
8 - Protection
8.1 - UPS
Each UPS unit shall include protection against AC-source overvoltages (as per standard IEC 60146), excessive
external or internal temperature rise and vibrations and impacts during transport.
8.2 - Rectifier and charger
Each rectifier/charger shall be equipped to receive an external order to automatically shut down under the following
circumstances:
● emergency off; in this case, the shutdown will be accompanied by opening of the battery circuit breaker;
● battery room ventilation fault.
The rectifier and the charger shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the maximum value specified
by the battery manufacturer.
8.3 - Inverter
The load shall be protected against any overvoltages that could result from voltage regulation failure at the output
of the inverters.
The inverter (and the corresponding rectifier/charger) shall automatically shut down if the DC voltage reaches the
minimum value specified by the battery manufacturer.
Each inverter shall be equipped with an automatic shutdown system to protect its power circuits against overloads
exceeding UPS-system overload capacity when bypass power is not available. In particular, a short-circuit on the
load shall initiate a static shutdown of each inverter, without blowing a fuse.
8.4 - Batteries
8.4.1 - Protection against deep discharge and self-discharge
The UPS shall comprise a device designed to protect the battery against deep discharges, taking into account the
characteristics of the discharge cycles, with isolation of the battery by a circuit breaker.
8.4.2 - Independent regulation and monitoring systems
A regulation system shall regulate the battery voltage and the charge current.
A second system, independent of the regulation, shall monitor the battery voltage and the charge current.
Consequently, if the regulation system fails, the monitoring system steps in to shut down the charger and avoid
overcharging.
8.4.3 - Regulation of the battery voltage depending on the ambient temperature
A temperature sensor adapts the charge voltage to the ambient temperature.
This regulation system takes into account the chemical reaction and prolongs the battery service life.
The permissible temperature range is set in the personalisation parameters.
An alarm shall be issued for temperatures outside the permissible range.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.9
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
9 - Battery management
As the life of the batteries is very sensitive to operating conditions, the battery shall be managed in an optimum
manner.
In addition to the devices indicated in section 8.4 "Batteries", the battery-management system shall include the
features listed below.
9.1 - Self-test
The battery shall include a self-test system initiated in two manners:
● as necessary by a manual command;
● automatically at user-defined intervals.
This self-test system shall update the battery parameters and detect any abnormal deterioration to facilitate
preventive maintenance.
9.2 - Measurement of actual backup time
The battery function shall be combined with a system that continuously monitors the actual backup time available
(AC source present) or remaining (AC source absent), according to the actual load on the UPS, the battery
temperature and the age of the battery.
9.3 - Digital battery monitoring
Each UPS shall be equipped with a system for battery digital management.
Based on a number of parameters (percent load, temperature, battery type and age), the system shall control the
battery charge voltage and continuously calculate:
● The true available backup time
● The remaining service life.
9.4 - Block by block monitoring
To further optimise battery availability and service life, it shall be possible to equip each UPS with an optional
system to continuously monitor all battery strings and display a block by block failure prediction.
The system shall include the functions listed below.
● Continuous measurement of the voltage of each block.
● Continuous measurement of the internal resistance.
● Identification of faulty blocks (trend curves).
● Possibility of replacing individual blocks.
● Remoting of all information via Ethernet, dry contacts or JBus.
10 - User interface and communication
10.1 - User interface
UPS operation shall be facilitated by a user interface comprising:
● a colour graphic display (touch screen);
● controls;
● status indications with mimic panel.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.10
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
10.1.1 - Graphic display
The graphic display shall facilitate operation by offering the functions listed below.
● animated colour mimic diagram
The mimic diagram shall enable display of installation parameters, configuration, operating status and alarms and
indication of operator instructions for switching operations (e.g. bypass). It can be used to supervise either a single
UPS unit or a configuration with up to 6 UPS units connected in parallel and a centralized-bypass cabinet.
● display of measurements
It shall be possible to display the following measurements:
- inverter output phase-to-phase voltages;
- inverter output currents;
- inverter output frequency;
- voltage across battery terminals;
- battery charge or discharge current;
- rectifier/charger input phase-to-phase voltages;
- rectifier/charger input currents;
- crest factor;
- active and apparent power;
- power factor of the load;
- battery temperature.
● display of status conditions and events
It shall be possible to display the following indications:
- load on battery power;
- load on UPS;
- load on automatic bypass;
- general alarm;
- battery fault;
- remaining battery backup time;
- low battery warning;
- bypass AC source outside tolerances;
- battery temperature.
Additional information shall be provided in view of accelerating servicing of the system, as specified in section 11
“Maintainability”.
● display of operating graphs
It shall be possible to display on the screen curves and bargraphs over significant periods for the measurements
mentioned above.
● display of statistics: number of overloads, number of transfers to battery power, cumulative time on battery
power, maximum power, demand power.
● log of time-stamped events
This function shall store in memory and make available, for automatic or manually initiated recall, time-stamped
logs of all important status changes, faults and malfunctions, complete with an analysis and display of
troubleshooting procedures. It shall be possible to time stamp and store at least 3 000 events.
10.1.2 - Controls
The UPS shall comprise the following controls:
● two ON and OFF buttons
Located on the front panel of the UPS, they shall control UPS-unit ON/OFF status.
It shall be possible to turn OFF the UPS externally via an isolated dry contact.
● EPO terminal block
The UPS shall be equipped with an emergency power off terminal block for complete system shutdown following
reception of an external control signal. The EPO command shall result in:
- shutdown of UPS units;
- opening of the static switch on the bypass line and of the battery circuit breaker;
- opening of an isolated dry contact on the programmable card.
● alarm reset button
This button shall turn off audio alarms (buzzer) (see section 10.1.3). If a new alarm is detected after clearing the
first, the buzzer sounds again.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.11
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
10.1.3 - Status indications with mimic panel
Indication of status conditions shall be distinct of the graphic display.
Three LEDs on the control panel indicate the following status conditions:
● load protected;
● minor fault;
● major fault.
The mimic panel shall represent the UPS and indicate the status of the load supply using five two-colour (red and
green) LEDs:
● load supplied (LED at UPS output on mimic panel),
● inverter on (LED on inverter on mimic panel),
● operation on battery power (LED between battery and inverter on mimic panel),
● bypass activated (LED on bypass on mimic panel),
● PFC rectifier on (LED on rectifier on mimic panel).
A buzzer shall warn the user of faults, malfunctions or operation on battery power.
10.2 - Communication
10.2.1 - Standard communication
It shall be possible to remote the following controls, indications and measurements. To that end, each UPS shall
have as standard equipment:
● a dry contacts card
10.2.2 - Communications options
Each UPS shall be designed to enable the extension of communications, without system shutdown, to the following
types of cards:
● an SNMP communication card for connection to an Ethernet network, for connection to a computer-network
management system;
● an RS485 serial-link communication card capable of implementing the JBus/ModBus protocol for connection to a
building management system (BMS);
● an RS232 serial-link communication card for communication with a modem and a remote-maintenance system;
● an USB communication card;
● an XML-Web communication card for direct UPS connection to an intranet network, without connection to a
server, capable of supplying information via a standard web browser.
The UPS shall be detectable by supervision software for large UPS systems.
Shutdown and administration software shall be available in addition to the communication cards.
11 - Maintainability
For optimum safety during servicing, a maintenance bypass shall be available to completely isolate the UPS.
11.1 - Local and remote diagnostics and monitoring - E. Services
The UPS shall be equipped with a self-test system to check operation of the system as a whole each time it is
started. To that end, the supply control/monitoring electronics shall offer:
● auto-compensation of component drift;
● acquisition of information vital for computer-aided diagnostics or monitoring (local or remote);
● overall readiness for remote supervision services provided by the manufacturer.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.12
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
12 - Standards and tests
12.1 - Standards
All equipment shall be designed and built in accordance with accepted engineering practice and applicable
international standards, in particular the standards listed below.
● IEC 6014A-4: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 62040-1 and EN 62040-1: UPS - Safety.
● IEC 62040-2 and EN 62040-2: UPS - Electromagnetic compatibility - [level C3 / C2 class A is optional].
● IEC 62040-3 and EN 62040-3: UPS - Performance.
● IEC 60950 / EN 60950: Safety of IT equipment, including electrical business equipment.
● IEC 61000-2-2: Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage
power supply systems.
● IEC 61000-4: EMC - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity.
● IEC 439: Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
● IEC 60529: Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code).
● ISO 3746: Sound power levels.
● CE marking.
What is more, the equipment must comply with environmental-protection standards, with production taking place on
premises certified ISO 14001. The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well
as a dependability study to ensure maximum reliability.
12.2 - Certification of conformity
The manufacturer shall provide, on request, a complete qualification file demonstrating compliance with the above
standards. What is more, the indicated levels of performance shall be confirmed by certification from independent
laboratories (e.g. TÜV or Veritas).
13 - Test procedures and quality system
13.1 - Test procedures
The UPS manufacturer shall provide proof of a stringent Quality Assurance programme.
In particular, the main equipment manufacturing stages shall be sanctioned by appropriate tests such as:
● incoming components inspection, discrete subassembly testing;
● complete functional checks on the final product.
Equipment shall undergo on-load burn-in before leaving the factory.
Final inspection and adjustments shall be documented in a report drawn up by the supplier’s Quality Inspection
department.
ISO 9001 or 9002 certification of the production site is compulsory.
13.2 - Quality system
The UPS design procedure shall be covered by an ISO 9001 quality system as well as a dependability study to
ensure maximum reliability.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.13
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
14 - Services
14.1 - Maintenance
The supplier shall propose contracts covering four levels of maintenance.
● Level one: simple checks and settings, procedures accessible without any dismounting and involving no risk.
● Level two: preventive maintenance, checks not inhibiting continuous operation of the system and preparing
operators for Manufacturer services.
● Level three: trouble-shooting. Repairs by standard exchange of subassemblies and functional power and control
components. Preventive-maintenance operations, both systematic and when indicated by qualified diagnosis.
● Level four: major preventive and corrective maintenance operations or technical upgrades during start-up,
operation or renovation of the UPS installation and recycling of equipment or components representing a risk.
These operations require the use of devices and means that have been calibrated by certified organisations.
14.2 - Technical competency
● customer operators: the supplier shall offer a level 2 training program.
● service personnel: the supplier shall ensure that service personnel are qualified for level 4.
14.3 - Functional components - organisation of supplier services
● Sufficient geographical proximity of the supplier or an authorised agent shall ensure reasonable access times to
the customer site in view of reducing the mean time to repair (MTTR). The supplier shall be in a position to offer a
contract limiting the response time to four hours.
● The supplier's logistics system and the availability 24 hours a day of original replacement parts shall similarly
contribute to reducing to the greatest extent possible the mean time to repair (MTTR).
14.4 - System start-up
● The system and equipment shall be started up on site by the supplier or its authorised agent. The procedure shall
include checks on the characteristics of the upstream and downstream protection devices and on the UPS
installation parameters.
14.5 - Replacement parts
● The suppler shall undertake to provide certified original replacement parts for at least ten years following the date
of delivery.
14.6 Recycling and renovation/substitution
● At the end of the UPS service life, the supplier shall guarantee the continuity of service of the customer's
installations if necessary, including dismantling of equipment and replacement of equipment, in compliance with
applicable standards on environmental protection.
15 - Warranty
The rectifier/charger and inverter subassemblies shall be guaranteed (parts and labour on site) for one year
following the start-up date.
The sealed lead-acid battery shall be covered by the same warranty as the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.14
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
16 - Installation services
Required services include:
● supply of the UPS and any accessory parts or elements;
● carriage-paid UPS transportation and delivery to the site.
Options:
● UPS handling and installation on the site;
● connections between the battery and the UPS;
● connection of the normal AC source to the rectifier/charger;
● connection of the bypass AC source to the input transformer or bypass input;
● connection of the load circuits to the UPS output.
17 - Electrical diagram
Fig. Two parallel-connected UPS units, with or without redundancy.
Bypass
AC input
External bypass cabinet
Normal
AC input
UPS1
P1 (kVA)
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
UPS2
UPS3
P1 (kVA)
P1 (kVA)
Load
Fig. UPS system with common, external bypass (up to four units).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.15
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
Normal
AC input
Bypass
AC input
Centralized bypass
Load
Fig. UPS system with centralized bypass (up to six units).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.16
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
Appendix. Check list
Type of UPS
Total rated power (kVA) at PF 0.8
kVA
Manufacturer
Range of products
Operating mode (IEC 62040-2)
double conversion
Parallel connection ≤ 4 integrated parallel units or 6
parallel units with SSC
kVA max.
yes
no
yes
no
Rectifiers
Three-phase input voltage at Pn
380 or 400 or 415 V ± 10 %
yes
no
Frequency
50 or 60 Hz ± 10 %
yes
no
Sinusoidal input current
THDI upstream ≤ 4 % with active filter
yes
no
Input power factor
PF > 0.95 with active filter
yes
no
yes
no
No inrush or start-up current
Rapid battery charger
Backup time 10 minutes in t ≤ 11 hours,
45 minutes in t ≤ 24 hours
yes
no
Voltage regulation
±1%
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Independent regulation/monitoring systems
Battery
Type
standard
sealed lead acid in a cabinet
other
Service life
years
yes
no
Backup time
minutes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
Battery management and protection
Temperature correction
Measurement of actual backup time,
depending on:
load, temperature, age
Cold start on battery power
Protection against deep discharge
with circuit-breaker opening
yes
no
Charge-current limiting
0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10 (depending on the
battery)
yes
no
Self-tests
yes
no
Calculation of real backup time
yes
no
Block by block monitoring
yes
no
Management of 2 independent circuit breakers
yes
no
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.17
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
Inverter
Volts
yes
no
± 0.5 %
yes
no
Steady-state conditions
± 2%
yes
no
Voltage transients
± 5% (load from 0 to 100 or 100 to 0 %)
yes
no
Output voltage distortion at Pn
THDU < 3%
yes
no
Unbalanced load conditions
Voltage variations < 1.5 %
yes
no
yes
no
± 0.5 Hz
yes
no
± 0.25 Hz to 2 Hz
yes
non
Frequency synchronisation with an external ± 8 % of rated frequency
source
yes
no
Overload capacity
125% In for 10 minutes
yes
no
150% In for 1 minute
yes
no
Current limiting
212% In for 150 milliseconds
yes
no
Crest factor
up to 3:1
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
> 94% at Pn
yes
no
selection of operating language
yes
no
personalisation menu
with password
yes
no
display
measurements, status, events, graphs
yes
no
event log
Time-stamping 3000 events
yes
no
trend curves
Power, voltage, currents and battery
backup time values
yes
no
statistics
% time on batteries, number of transfers
o batteries, average percent load
yes
no
Controls
ON, OFF, EPO terminal block
yes
no
Status indications with mimic panel
Audio alarm, LEDs
yes
no
Three-phase output voltage with neutral
adjustable
Hz
Output frequency
Variation in output frequency
adjustable
Static bypass
Static bypass
Short-circuit withstand of static bypass
depending on power
Built-in maintenance bypass
Efficiency
Normal mode
User interface
Graphic display
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.18
Specification guide no. 5b
Parallel UPS, three-phase, 800/900 to 4800/5400 kVA (cont.)
Communication
Dry contacts card
yes
no
EPO terminal block
yes
no
Options
Ethernet SNMP card
yes
no
RS485 JBus/ModBus card
yes
no
RS232 U-Talk card
yes
no
XML-Web card
yes
no
Supervision software
yes
no
with shutdown management
yes
no
Certified standards and tests
See list in section 12.1
yes
no
Certification of performance
TÜV
yes
no
Quality certification
ISO 9001 / 9002
yes
no
Eco-design and manufacturing
ISO 14001 site
yes
no
Technical competency of supplier
Level 4 NFX 060-010
yes
no
Diagnostics and monitoring
Remote
yes
no
Technical support
International
yes
no
yes
no
Administration software
Certification
Services
Operation, Maintainability
Access to power components through front
Access to communication through front
hot-swap cards
yes
no
Access to batteries through front
hot-swap batteries
yes
no
Around the world
yes
no
Availability
Availability of original replacement parts
t < 4h 4<t<8 8<t<24 t>24 h
Response time of Service teams
yes
yes
no
no
Emergency services
yes
no
Renovation / substitution programmes
yes
no
Maintenance programmes
APC by Schneider Electric
Preventive
Predictive
05/2009 edition
ch.6 - spec. 5b – p.19
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1
1.2
SUMMARY
A.
This specification describes the operation and functionality of a continuous duty, three-phase, solidstate, static Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) hereafter referred to as the UPS. The UPS shall
utilize a rack-mounted redundant, scalable array architecture. The system power train shall be
comprised of hot swappable / user replaceable 16kVA/16kW power modules, which shall operate in
parallel. Each 16kVA/16kW power module contains a full rated input rectifier / boost converter
(hereafter referred to as Input Converter), full rated output inverter, and battery charging circuit. The
system shall also comprise of a user-replaceable continuous duty hot swappable bypass static
switch module, hot swappable / user replaceable battery modules, redundant control modules,
redundant logic power supplies, and LCD interface display. All of the above system components
are housed in a standard, 600mm wide, 1070mm deep, 2000mm high equipment rack.
B.
In addition, this specification describes the performance, functionality, and design of the
Maintenance Bypass, Power Distribution, Battery System, and connectivity solutions.
C.
The UPS and associated equipment shall operate in conjunction with a primary power supply and
an output distribution system to provide quality uninterrupted power for mission critical, electronic
equipment load.
D.
All programming and miscellaneous components for a fully operational system as described in this
specification shall be available as part of the UPS.
STANDARDS
A.
Safety:
1. IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
2. IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
3. IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test and performance
requirements.
4. IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
5. LV directive: 2006/95/EC
B.
Harmonics:
1. IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.
2. IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A/ph).
3. IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
4. IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
5. EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
6. IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.
C.
EMC:
1. EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 1
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
2. IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
3. EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
1.3
1.4
D.
Quality:
1. Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality organisation.
E.
Ecological environment:
1. Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
F.
Acoustic noise
1. ISO 3746
Sound power levels.
2. ISO 7779 / EN 27779
Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
MODES OF OPERATION
A.
Normal: The input converter and output inverter shall operate in an on-line manner to continuously
regulate power to the critical load. The input and output converters shall be capable of full battery
recharge while simultaneously providing regulated power to the load for all line and load conditions
within the range of the UPS specifications.
B.
Battery: Upon failure of the AC input source, the critical load shall continue being supplied by the
output inverter, which shall derive its power from the battery system. There shall be no interruption
in power to the critical load during both transfers to battery operation and retransfers from battery to
normal operation.
C.
Recharge: Upon restoration of the AC input source, the input converter and output inverter shall
simultaneously recharge the battery and provide regulated power to the critical load.
D.
Static Bypass: The static bypass shall be used to provide transfer of critical load from the Inverter
output to the bypass source. This transfer, along with its retransfer, shall take place with no power
interruption to the critical load. In the event of an emergency, this transfer shall be an automatic
function.
E.
Maintenance Bypass: The system shall be equipped with an external make-before-break
Maintenance Bypass to electrically isolate the UPS during routine maintenance and service of the
UPS. The Maintenance Bypass shall completely isolate both the UPS input and output connections.
SUBMITTALS
A.
Proposal Submittals:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
As bid system bill of materials.
Product catalog sheets or equipment brochures.
Product guide specifications.
System single-line operation diagram.
Installation information, including weights and dimensions.
Information about terminal locations for power and control connections.
Drawings for requested optional accessories.
Delivery Submittals:
1. Installation manual, which includes instructions for storage, handling, examination, preparation,
installation, and start-up of UPS.
2. User manual, which includes operating instructions.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 2
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 2 – PRODUCT
2.1
2.2
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A.
The UPS shall be sized for _____ kVA and _____ kW load.
B.
The UPS battery shall be sized for _____ at a Power Factor of_____ for _____ minutes.
SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
A.
System Capacity: The system shall be rated for full kW output in the following frame sizes
1.
B.
[48 / 160 ] kVA/kW - Can be configured with up to[ three / ten ]16kW power modules for N+0
Input:
1. AC Input Nominal Voltage: 380V, 400V or 415V with 3 Phase 4 wire, with ground 50/60Hz
2. AC Input Voltage Window: 200V - 477 V
(If 100% load: 340V-477V providing charging to the battery system, depending on load system can be recharge from as low as 200V)
3. Short Circuit Withstand Rating: 30,000 Symmetrical Amperes with gG fuse in front of system
4. Maximum Frequency Range: 40-70Hz
5. Input Power Factor:
a. > .99 at greater than 25% load
6. Input Current Distortion with no additional filters:
a. < 5% at 100% load
7. Soft-Start: Shall be linear from 0-100% input current and shall not exhibit inrush. This shall take
place over a 15 second time period
C.
UPS Output:
1. AC Output Nominal Output: 380V/400V/415V, 3 Phase 4 wire with ground, 50/60 Hz.
+
/- 1% For 100 % linear load
2. AC Output Voltage Regulation:
+
/- 3% for 100% non-linear load
3. Voltage Transient Response: +/- 5% maximum for 100% load step
4. Voltage Transient Recovery within <50 milliseconds
5. Output Voltage Harmonic Distortion:
a. <2% THD maximum for a 100% linear load
b. <6% THD maximum for a 100% non-linear load
6.
Overload Rating:
a. Normal Operation:
1) 150% for 60 seconds in normal operation
2) 125% for 10 minutes in normal operation
3) 150% for 60 seconds in battery operation
b. Bypass Operation:
1) 150% for 60 seconds
2) 1000% for 100 milliseconds
7. System AC-AC Efficiency: >95% at 35 - 100% load
8. Output Power Factor Rating: For loads exhibiting a power factor of .5 leading to .5 lagging no
derating of the UPS shall be required.
2.3
ENVIRONMENTAL
A.
Storage Ambient Temperature: -15°C to 40°C.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 3
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
B.
Operating Ambient Temperature: 0°C to 40°C. (25°C is ideal for most battery types).
C.
Relative Humidity: 0 to 95% Non-condensing
Altitude: Maximum installation with no derating of the UPS output shall be 1000m above sea level.
1.
1500m – 95% load
2.
2000m – 91% load
3.
2500m – 86% load
4.
3000m – 82% load
2.4
INPUT POWER CONVERTER
A.
The input power converters of the system are housed within the parallel connected, removable
power modules, and shall constantly control the power imported from the mains input of the system,
to provide the necessary UPS power for precise regulation of the DC bus voltage, battery charging,
and Main Inverter regulated output power.
B.
Input Current Total Harmonic Distortion: The input current THDI shall be held to 5% or less at full
system, while providing conditioned power to the critical load bus, and charging the batteries under
steady-state operating conditions. This shall be true while supporting loads of both a linear or nonlinear type. This shall be accomplished with no additional filters, magnetic devices, or other
components.
C.
Soft-Start Operation: As a standard feature, the UPS shall contain soft-start functionality, capable of
limiting the input current from 0-100% of the nominal input over a default 15 second period, when
returning to the AC utility source from battery operation. The change in current over the change in
time shall take place in a linear manner throughout the entire operation. (di/dt= constant)
D.
Magnetization Inrush Current: The UPS shall exhibit 0 inrush current as a standard product. If
provided with an optional isolation transformer, inrush shall be limited to 6 times the nominal input
current of the transformer.
E.
Input Current Limit:
1. The input converter shall control and limit the input current draw from utility to 150% of the UPS
output. During conditions where input current limit is active, the UPS shall be able to support
100% load, charge batteries, and provide voltage regulation.
2. In cases where the source voltage to the UPS is nominal and the applied UPS load is equal to
or less than 100% of UPS capacity, input current shall not exceed 125% of UPS output current,
while importing necessary power for system losses.
F.
Charging:
1. The battery charging shall keep the DC bus float voltage of +/- 218v, +/-1%
2. The battery charging circuit shall contain a temperature compensation circuit, which will regulate
the battery charging to optimize battery life.
3. The battery charging circuit shall remain active when in requested Static Bypass and in Normal
Operation.
G.
2.5
Back-feed Protection: The above-mentioned logic controlled contactor also provides the back-feed
protection.
OUTPUT INVERTER
A.
The UPS output inverter shall constantly recreate the UPS output voltage waveform by converting
the DC bus voltage to AC voltage through a set of IGBT driven bi-directional power converters. In
both normal operation and battery operation, the output inverters shall create an output voltage
independent of the mains input voltage. Input voltage anomalies such as brown-outs, spikes,
surges, sags, and outages shall not affect the amplitude or sinusoidal nature of the recreated output
voltage sine wave of the output inverters.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 4
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
2.6
2.7
B.
Overload Capability: The output power converters shall be capable of 1000% for short-circuit
clearing. Steady-state overload conditions, of up to 150% of system capacity, shall be sustained by
the inverter for 60 seconds in normal and battery operation. Should overloads persist past the
outlined time limitation, the critical load will be switched to the automatic static bypass output of the
UPS.
C.
Output Contactor: The output inverter shall be provided with an output mechanical contactor to
provide physical isolation of the inverter from the critical bus. With this feature a failed inverter shall
be removed from the critical bus.
H.
Battery Protection: The inverter shall be provided with monitoring and control circuits to limit the
level of discharge on the battery system.
I.
Redundancy: The UPS shall be configured with redundant output inverters, each with semiconductor fusing, and logic controlled contactors to remove a failed component from the critical bus.
STATIC BYPASS
A.
As part of the UPS, a system static bypass switch shall be provided. The system static bypass shall
provide no break transfer of the critical load from the Inverter output to the static bypass input
source during times where maintenance is required, or the inverter can not support the critical bus.
Such times may be due to prolonged or severe overloads, or UPS failure. The UPS and static
bypass switch shall constantly monitor the auxiliary contacts of their respective circuit breakers, as
well as the bypass source voltage, and inhibit potentially unsuccessful transfers to static bypass
from taking place.
B.
The design of the static switch power path shall consist of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) with a
continuous duty rating of 125% of the UPS output rating.
C.
Automatic Transfers: An automatic transfer of load to static bypass shall take place whenever the
load on the critical bus exceeds the overload rating of the UPS. Automatic transfers of the critical
load from static bypass back to normal operation shall take place when the overload condition is
removed from the critical bus output of the system. Automatic transfers of load to static bypass shall
also take place if for any reason the UPS cannot support the critical bus.
D.
Manual Transfers: Manually initiated transfers to and from static bypass shall be initiated through
the UPS display interface.
E.
Overloads: The static bypass shall be rated and capable of handling overloads equal to or less than
125% of the rated system output continuously. For instantaneous overloads caused by inrush
current from magnetic devices, or short circuit conditions, the static bypass shall be capable of
sustaining overloads of 1000% of system capacity for periods of up to 100 milliseconds.
F.
Modular: The static bypass switch shall be of a modular design.
G.
System Protection: As a requirement, back-feed protection in the static bypass circuit shall also be
incorporated in the system design. To achieve back-feed protection, a mechanical contactor in
series with the bypass SCR(s) shall be controlled by the UPS/static switch, to open immediately
upon sensing a condition where back-feeding of the static switch by any source connected to the
critical output bus of the system is occurring. One such condition could be a result of a shorted SCR.
DISPLAY AND CONTROLS
A.
Control Logic: The UPS shall be controlled by two fully redundant, user-replaceable / hotswappable control modules. These modules shall have separate, optically isolated, communication
paths to the power and static switch modules. Logic power for the control modules shall be derived
from redundant power supplies, each having a separate AC and DC input and output. The
communication of the control modules shall be of Controller Area Network (CAN Bus).
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 5
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
B.
Display Unit: A microprocessor controlled display unit shall be located on a hinged door in the front
of the system. The display shall consist of an alphanumeric display with backlight, four LEDs for
quick status overview, and a keypad consisting of pushbutton switches.
C.
Metered Data: The following metered data, shall be available on the alphanumeric display:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
D.
Year, Month, Day, Hour, Minute, Second of occurring events
Source Input Voltage
Output AC voltage
Output AC current
Input Frequency
Battery voltage
Event log: The display unit shall allow the user to display a time and date stamped log of the most
recent status and alarm events.
E. Alarms: The display unit shall allow the user to display a log of all active alarms. The following
minimum set of alarm conditions shall be available:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
APC by Schneider Electric
Input Frequency outside configured range
AC adequate for UPS but not for Bypass
Low/No AC input, startup on battery
Intelligence Module inserted
Intelligence Module removed
Redundant Intelligence Module inserted
Redundant Intelligence Module removed
Number of Batteries changed since last ON
Number of Power Modules changed since last ON
Number of Batteries increased
Number of Batteries decreased
Number of Power Modules increased
Number of Power Modules decreased
Number of External Battery Cabinets increased
Number of External Battery Cabinets decreased
Redundancy Restored
Need Battery Replacement
The Redundant Intelligence Module is in control
On Battery
Shutdown or unable to transfer to battery due to overload
Load Shutdown from Bypass. Input Frequency Volts outside limits
Fault, Internal Temp exceeded system normal limits
Input Circuit Breaker Open
System level fan failed
Bad Battery Module
Bad Power Module
Intelligence Module is installed and failed
Redundant Intelligence Module is installed and failed
Redundancy has been lost
Redundancy is below alarm threshold
Runtime is below alarm threshold
Load is above alarm threshold
Load is no longer above alarm Threshold
Minimum Runtime restored
Bypass is not in range (either frequency or voltage)
Backfeed contactor stuck in OFF position
Backfeed contactor stuck in ON position
UPS in Bypass due to Internal Fault
UPS in Bypass due to overload
System in Forced Bypass
Fault, Bypass Relay Malfunction
High DC Warning
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 6
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
43. High DC Shutdown
44. Low Battery Shutdown
45. Low Battery Warning
F. Controls: The following controls or programming functions shall be accomplished by use of the display
unit. Pushbutton membrane switches shall facilitate these operations.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
G.
Silence audible Alarm
Display or set the date and time
Enable or disable the automatic restart feature
Transfer critical load to and from static bypass
Test battery condition on demand
Set intervals for automatic battery tests
Adjust set points for different alarms
Program the parameters for remote shutdown.
Potential Free (Dry) Contacts
1. The following potential free contacts shall be available on an optional relay
interface board:
a. Normal Operation
b. Battery Operation
c. Bypass Operation
d. Common Fault
e. Low Battery
f. UPS Off
H.
Communication Interface Board: A communication interface board shall provide the
following communication ports which can be used simultaneously:
1. RS232 Serial Port #1
2.8 BATTERY
A.
The UPS battery shall be of modular construction made up of user replaceable, hot swappable,
fused, battery modules. Each battery module shall be monitored for voltage and temperature for
use by the UPS battery diagnostic, and temperature compensated charger circuitry.
B.
The battery jars housed within each removable battery module shall be of the Valve Regulated Lead
Acid (VRLA) type.
C.
The UPS shall incorporate a battery management system to continuously monitor the health of each
removable battery module. This system shall notify the user in the event that a failed or weak
battery module is found.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 7
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 3 - ACCESSORIES
3.1 BATTERY DISCONNECT BREAKER
A.
Each UPS system shall have a 320A 500VDC rated, thermal magnetic trip molded case circuit
breaker. Each circuit breaker shall be equipped shunt trip mechanisms and 1A/1B auxiliary
contacts. The circuit breakers are to be located within the UPS enclosure or as part of a line-up-andmatch type battery cabinet.
3.2 MAINTENANCE BYPASS
A.
A maintenance bypass shall provide power to the critical load bus from the bypass source, during
times where maintenance or service of the UPS is required.
A 315A GL fuse must be in front of the Mains input and if dual mains a 250 A gL fuse on the bypass
input must be installed.
3.3 SOFTWARE AND CONNECTIVITY
A.
Network Adaptor: The Ethernet Web/SNMP Adaptor shall allow one or more network management
systems (NMS) to monitor and manage the UPS in TCP/IP network environments. The
management information base (MIB) shall be provided in DOS and UNIX "tar" formats.
B.
Unattended Shutdown
1. The UPS, in conjunction with the network adaptor, shall be capable of gracefully shutting down
one or more operating systems.
2. The UPS shall also be capable of using an RS232 port to communicate by means of serial
communications to gracefully shut down one or more operating systems during an on battery
situation.
3.4
REMOTE UPS MONITORING
A.
The following three methods of remote UPS monitoring shall be available:
1.
Web Monitoring: Remote monitoring shall be available via a web browser such as
Internet Explorer.
2. RS232 Monitoring: Remote UPS monitoring shall be possible via either RS232
closure signals from the UPS.
or contact
3. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): Remote UPS Monitoring shall be possible
through a standard MIB II compliant platform.
3.5
SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY
A:
The UPS manufacturer shall have available software to support graceful shutdown and remote
monitoring for the following systems:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
APC by Schneider Electric
Microsoft Windows 95/98/XP
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 SP6/2000
OS/2
Netware 3.2 – 5.1
MAC OS 9.04, 9.22, 10
Digital Unix/True 64
SGI 6.0-6.5
SCO UNIX
SVR4 2.3, 2.41
SCO Unix Ware 7.0 - 7.11
SUN Solaris 2.6-2.8
SUN OS 4.13, 4.14
IBM AIX 4.3x-4.33g, 5.1
HP-UX 9.x-11.i
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 8
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
Part 4 - EXECUTION
4.1 FACTORY ASSISTED START-UP
If a factory assisted UPS start-up is requested, factory trained service personnel shall
following inspections, test procedures, and on-site training:
A.
Visual Inspection:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B.
perform the
Inspect equipment for signs of damage.
Verify installation per manufacturer s instructions.
Inspect cabinets for foreign objects.
Inspect Battery Units.
Inspect Power Modules.
Mechanical Inspection:
1. Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass internal control wiring connections.
2. Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass internal power wiring connections.
3. Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass terminal screws, nuts, and/or spade lugs for
tightness.
C.
Electrical Inspection:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
D.
Site Testing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
E.
Verify correct input and bypass voltage.
Verify correct phase rotation of all mains connections.
Verify correct UPS control wiring and terminations
Verify voltage of all battery modules.
Verify neutral and ground conductors are properly landed.
Inspect external maintenance bypass switch for proper terminations and phasing.
Ensure proper system start-up.
Verify proper firmware control functions.
Verify proper firmware bypass operation.
Verify proper maintenance bypass switch operation.
Verify system set points.
Verify proper inverter operation and regulation circuits.
Simulate utility power failure.
Verify proper charger operation.
Document, sign, and date all test results.
On-Site Operational Training: During the factory assisted start-up, operational training
for site
personnel shall include key pad operation, LED indicators, start-up and shutdown procedures,
maintenance bypass and AC disconnect operation, and alarm information.
4.2 MANUFACTURER FIELD SERVICE
4.3
A.
Worldwide service: The UPS manufacturer shall have a worldwide service organization
Available, consisting of factory trained field service personnel to perform start-up, preventative
maintenance, and service of the UPS system and power equipment. The service organization shall
offer 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year service support.
B.
Replacement parts: Parts shall be available through the worldwide service organization 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. The worldwide service organization shall be capable of
shipping parts within 4 working hours or on the next available flight, so that the parts may be
delivered to the customer site within 24 hours.
MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 9
Specification guide no. 6
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 16 to 48/160 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
A complete offering of preventative and full service maintenance contracts for the UPS system and the
battery system shall be available. All contract work shall be performed by factory trained service personnel.
4.4
TRAINING
UPS service training workshop: A UPS service training workshop shall be available
from the UPS
manufacturer. The service training workshop shall include a combination of lecture and practical instruction
with hands-on laboratory sessions. The service training workshop shall include instruction about safety
procedures, UPS operational theory, sub-assembly identification and operation, system controls and
adjustment, preventative maintenance, and troubleshooting.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec6 – p. 10
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1 SUMMARY
A. This specification describes the operation and functionality of a continuous duty, three-phase, solid-state,
on-line double conversion static Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) hereafter referred to as the UPS. The
UPS shall utilize a rack-mounted N+1 redundant, scalable array architecture. The system power train shall
be comprised of 25kVA/25kW power modules and be capable of being configured for N+X redundant
operation at the rated system load. In systems operating at a load where the system is N+1 or greater, the
UPS shall facilitate the replacement of power modules while the system remains in normal operation,
without the requirement to transfer to bypass (hot swappable).
B. Each 25kVA/25kW power module contains a fully rated, power factor corrected input rectifier / boost
converter hereafter referred to as the PFC input stage, a fully rated output inverter, and battery charging
circuit. The system shall also be comprised of a hot swappable continuous duty bypass static switch module,
redundant control modules, redundant logic power supplies, and touch screen user interface/display. Hot
swappable / user replaceable battery modules shall be available as an option. All of the above system
components are housed in a standard 600mm (W) x 1070mm(D) x 2000mm(H) equipment rack.
C. In addition, this specification describes the performance, functionality, and design of the UPS Maintenance
Bypass Cabinet with output distribution, hereafter referred to as the MBwD and the Battery System.
D. The UPS and associated equipment shall operate in conjunction with a primary power supply and an output
distribution system to provide quality uninterrupted power for mission critical, electronic equipment load.
E. D. All programming and miscellaneous components for a fully operational system as described in this
specification shall be available as part of the UPS.
1.2 STANDARDS
A.
Safety:
1.
IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
2.
IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
3.
IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test and performance requirements.
4.
IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
5.
LV directive: 2006/95/EC
B.
Harmonics:
1.
IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-voltage
power supply systems.
2.
IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A/ph).
3.
IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
4.
IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
5.
EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
6.
IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 1
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
C.
EMC:
1.
EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
2.
IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
3.
EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
D.
Quality:
1.
Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality organisation.
E.
Ecological environment:
1.
Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
F.
Acoustic noise
1.
ISO 3746
Sound power levels.
2.
ISO 7779 / EN 27779
Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
1.3 MODES OF OPERATION
A.
Normal: The PFC Input stage and output inverter shall operate in an on-line manner to continuously
regulate power to the critical load. The input and output converters shall be capable of full battery recharge
while simultaneously providing regulated power to the load for all line and load conditions within the range
of the UPS specifications.
B.
Battery: Upon failure of the AC input source, the critical load shall continue being supplied by the output
inverter, which shall derive its power from the battery system. There shall be no interruption in power to
the critical load during both transfers to battery operation and retransfers from battery to normal operation.
Upon restoration of utility power to the UPS input, the UPS shall recharge the battery
C.
Static Bypass: The static bypass shall be used to provide controller transfer of critical load from the
inverter output to the bypass source. This transfer, along with its retransfer, shall take place with no power
interruption to the critical load. In the event of a UPS output fault or significant output overload emergency,
this transfer shall be an automatic function. Manual transfer to Static Bypass (called “Requested bypass”)
shall be available in order to facilitate a controlled transfer to Maintenance Bypass.
E.
Maintenance Bypass: The system can be equipped with an optional integrated, bus connected external
make-before-break Maintenance Bypass Cabinet (MBwD) to electrically isolate the UPS during routine
maintenance and service of the UPS. The MBwD shall allow for the completely electrical isolation of the
UPS. An option for an external make-before-break external maintenance bypass panel shall be available
1.4 SUBMITTALS
A. Proposal Submittals:
1. As bid system bill of materials.
2. Product catalog sheets or equipment brochures.
3. Product guide specifications.
4. System single-line operation diagram.
5. Installation information, including weights and dimensions.
6. Information about terminal locations for power and control connections.
7. Drawings for requested optional accessories.
B. Delivery Submittals:
1. Installation manual, which includes instructions for storage, handling, examination, preparation,
installation, and start-up of UPS.
2. User manual, which includes operating instructions.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 2
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 2 – PRODUCT
2.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A. The UPS shall be sized for _____ kVA and _____ kW load.
B. The UPS battery shall be sized for _____kW at a Power Factor of_____ for _____ minutes.
2.2 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
A. System Capacity: The system shall be rated for full kW output in the following frame sizes:
1. 250 kVA/kW- Can be configured with up to ten, 25kW power modules for 250 kW or 225 kW N+1
2. 500 kVA/kW - Can be configured with up to twenty, 25 kW modules for 500kW or 475 kW N+1
B. Input:
The system input shall be configurable as either single or dual mains derived from a three phase Wye
source. Standard cable entry is through the top. Bottom cable entry can also be facilitated. Depending on
the specific configuration, the use of the optional Bottom Feed Enclosure may be required.
An option shall be available to facilitate the connection of NEMA 2 compression lugs for main input, bypass
input, DC input and output cable connections
1. AC Input Nominal Voltage:
System voltage shall be selectable at the front panel by service personnel with the following options:
380V , 400V and 415V
2. AC Input Voltage Window:
+/-15% for full performance
-20% with reduced charge power
-50% for reduced load
3. Short Circuit Withstand Rating: 65,000 Symmetrical Amperes
4. Maximum Frequency Range: 40-70Hz
Frequency is synchronized to bypass input when available over the standard range of 50 or 60 Hz +/- 3 Hz.
Optional frequency tolerance range is configurable from 0.5% to 8% from front panel.
5. Input Power Factor:
Greater than 0.995 with load at 100%
Greater than 0.99 with loads above 50%
Greater than 0.97 with loads above 25%
6. Input current in Normal operation shall be limited to a maximum of 137% of the system capacity
7. Input current Distortion with no additional filters:
Less than 5%
8. Soft-Start: Shall be linear from 0-100% input current and shall not exhibit inrush. This shall take place
over a user selectable 1-60 second time period with a factory default of 10 seconds.
C. UPS Output:
1. AC Input Nominal Voltage:
System voltage shall be selectable at the front panel by service personnel with the following options:
380V , 400V and 415V
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 3
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
2. AC Output Voltage Distortion: Less than. 2% @ 100% Linear Load. Less than 6% for SMPS load as
defined by EN50091-3/IEC 62040-3
3. AC Output Voltage Regulation: +/- 1% For 100 % Linear or Nonlinear Load
4. Voltage Transient Response: +/-5% maximum RMS change in a half cycle at load step 0% to 100% or
100% to 0%.
5. Voltage Transient Recovery within <50 milliseconds
6. Output Voltage Harmonic Distortion:
a. <2% THD maximum and 1% single harmonic for a 100% linear load
7. Phase Angle Displacement:
a. 120 degrees +/-1 degree for balanced load
b. 120 degrees +/-1 degrees for 50% imbalanced load
c. 120 degrees +/-3 degrees for 100% imbalanced load
8. Overload Rating:
a. Normal Operation:
1) 150% for 30 seconds before transfer to Bypass
or
2) 125% for 10 minutes before transfer to bypass
b. Battery operation
1) 125% for 30 seconds
c. Bypass Operation:
1) 125% continuous at 480V
2) 1000% for 100 milliseconds
9. System AC-AC Efficiency:
Normal operation > 96% at 40% - 100% load
Battery operation > 95% at 40% to 100% load
10. Output Power Factor Rating:
0.5 leading to 0.5 lagging without any derating
2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL
A. Storage Ambient Temperature: -15 to 40°C (-30 to 70°C without batteries)
B. Storage relative Humidity: 0-95%
C. Operating Ambient Temperature: 0°C to 40°C. (25° C is ideal for most battery types).
D. Operating Relative Humidity: 0 to 95% Non-condensing
E. Altitude: Maximum installation with no derating of the UPS output shall be 3,000 feet
(1000m) above sea level. The UPS capacity shall be derated for altitude as follows:
1500 m 95% Load
2000 m91% Load
2500 m 86% Load
3000 m 82% Load
F. Audible Noise (as measured three feet from surface)
54 dBA at 100% load
45 dBA at 70% load
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 4
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
2.4 PFC INPUT STAGE
A. The PFC Input stage converters of the system are housed within the removable power modules, and
shall constantly control the power imported from the mains input of the system, to provide the necessary
UPS power for precise regulation of the DC bus voltage, battery charging, and Main Inverter regulated
output power. These power modules are connected in parallel within the UPS frame.
B. Input Current Total Harmonic Distortion: The input current THDI shall be held to less than 5% at system
load greater than 50% while providing conditioned power to the critical load bus, and charging the
batteries under steady-state operating conditions. This shall be true while supporting both a linear or
non-linear loads. This shall be accomplished without the requirement for additional or optional filters,
magnetic devices, or other components.
C. Soft-Start Operation: As a standard feature, the UPS shall contain soft-start functionality, capable of
limiting the input current from 0-100% of the nominal input over a default 10 second period, when
returning to the AC utility source from battery operation. The change in current over the change in time
shall take place in a linear manner throughout the entire operation.
D. Magnetization Inrush Current: The UPS shall exhibit zero (0) inrush current.
E. Input Current Limit:
1. The PFC Input stage shall control and limit the input current draw from utility to 137% of the UPS
output. During conditions where input current limit is active, the UPS shall be able to support 100%
load, charge batteries at 10% of the UPS output rating, and provide voltage regulation with mains
deviation -15%
2. In cases where the source voltage to the UPS is nominal and the applied UPS load is equal to or
less than 100% of UPS capacity, input current shall not exceed 116% of UPS output current, while
providing full battery recharge power and importing necessary power to account for system losses.
F. Redundancy: The UPS shall be capable of being configured with redundant PFC Input stages, each with
semiconductor fusing, and logic controlled contactors to isolate a failed module from the input bus.
G. Charging:
1. The battery charging shall keep the DC bus float voltage of +/- 327v, +/-1% 2. The battery charging
circuit shall contain a temperature compensation circuit, which will regulate the battery charging to
optimize battery life.
3. The battery charging circuit shall remain active when in Static Bypass and in Normal Operation.
4. The UPS shall be capable of reducing the battery charging current under low input voltage
conditions
5. Battery charge shall be limited to 10% of the system capacity by default. The UPS shall be capable
of recharging the battery at a capacity up to 20% of the system power capacity at reduced loads
6. The UPS shall be capable being programmed to reduce battery charging current in normal operation
by 10% or 20% by service personnel
H. Back-feed Protection: The above-mentioned logic controlled contactor also provides back-feed protection.
2.5 OUTPUT INVERTER
A. The UPS output inverter shall constantly develop the UPS output voltage waveform by converting the
DC bus voltage to AC voltage through a set of IGBT driven bi-directional power converters. In both
normal operation and battery operation, the output inverters shall create an output voltage independent
of the mains input voltage. Input voltage anomalies such as brown-outs, spikes, surges, sags, and
outages shall not affect the amplitude or sinusoidal nature of the output voltage sine wave of the
inverters.
B. Overload Capability: The output power converters shall be capable of 230% for short circuit clearing.
Steady-state overload conditions, of up to 150% of system capacity shall be sustained by the inverter for
30 seconds in normal operation. Overloads persisting past the outlined time limitation the critical load
will be switched to the automatic static bypass output of the UPS.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 5
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
C. Output Contactor: The output inverter shall be provided with an output mechanical contactor to provide
physical isolation of the inverter from the critical bus. With this feature a failed inverter shall be isolated
from the critical bus.
D. Battery Protection: The inverter shall be provided with monitoring and control circuits to limit the level of
discharge on the battery system.
E. Redundancy: The UPS shall be capable of being configured with redundant output inverters, each with
semiconductor fusing, and logic controlled contactors to remove a failed component from the input, DC
and output critical bus.
2.6 STATIC BYPASS
A. As part of the UPS, a system static bypass switch shall be provided. The system static bypass shall
provide no break transfer of the critical load from the Inverter output to the static bypass input source
during times where maintenance is required, or the inverter can not support the critical bus. Such times
may be due to prolonged or severe overloads, or UPS failure. The UPS and static bypass switch shall
constantly monitor the auxiliary contacts of their respective circuit breakers, as well as the bypass
source voltage, and inhibit potentially unsuccessful transfers to static bypass from taking place.
B. The design of the static switch power path shall consist of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) with a
continuous duty rating of 125% at 480V of the UPS output rating.
C. Automatic Transfers: An automatic transfer of load to static bypass shall take place whenever the load
on the critical bus exceeds the overload rating of the UPS. Automatic transfers of the critical load from
static bypass back to normal operation shall take place when the overload condition is removed from the
critical bus output of the system. Automatic transfers of load to static bypass shall also take place if for
any reason the UPS cannot support the critical bus.
D. Manual Transfers: Manually initiated transfers to and from static bypass shall be initiated through the
UPS graphical user interface.
E. Overloads: The static bypass shall be rated and capable of handling overloads equal to or less than
125% at 480V of the rated system output continuously. For instantaneous overloads caused by inrush
current from magnetic devices, or short circuit conditions, the static bypass shall be capable of
sustaining overloads of 1000% of system capacity for periods of up to 100 milliseconds.
F. Modular: The static bypass switch shall be of a modular design.
G. System Protection:
Back-feed protection in the static bypass circuit shall also be incorporated in the system design. To
achieve back-feed protection, a mechanical contactor in series with the bypass SCR(s) shall be
controlled by the UPS/static switch, to open immediately upon sensing a condition where back-feeding
of the static switch by any source connected to the critical output bus of the system is occurring. One
such condition could be a result of a shorted SCR.
2.7 DISPLAY AND CONTROLS
A.
Control Logic: The UPS shall be controlled by two fully redundant, user-replaceable / hot-swappable
Intelligence modules (IM). These modules shall have separate, optically isolated, communication paths
to the power and static switch modules. Logic power for the control modules shall be derived from
redundant power supplies, each having a separate AC and DC input and output. The communication of
the control modules shall be of Controller Area Network (CAN Bus) and EIA485.
B.
Graphical User Interface: A microprocessor controlled user interface/display unit shall be located on the
front of the system. The display shall consist of a 10.4 inch multicolor graphical display with 800x600
resolution.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 6
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
C.
Metered Data: the following data shall be available on the Graphical User Interface/display:
Input\Output Voltages, Currents, Frequencies
Breaker & Switch Status
Battery Status
Event Log
D.
Event log: The display unit shall allow the user to display a time and date stamped log.
E.
Alarms: The display unit shall allow the user to display a log of all active alarms. The following minimum
set of alarm conditions shall be available:
1.
Input Frequency outside configured range
2.
AC adequate for UPS but not for Bypass
3.
Low/No AC input, startup on battery
4.
Intelligence Module inserted
5.
Intelligence Module removed
6.
Redundant Intelligence Module inserted
7.
Redundant Intelligence Module removed
8.
Number of Batteries changed since last ON
9.
Number of Power Modules changed since last ON
10. Number of Batteries increased
11. Number of Batteries decreased
12. Number of Power Modules increased
13. Number of Power Modules decreased
14. Number of External Battery Cabinets increased
15. Number of External Battery Cabinets decreased
16. Redundancy Restored
17. Need Battery Replacement
18. The Redundant Intelligence Module is in control
19. UPS Fault
20. On Battery
21. Shutdown or unable to transfer to battery due to overload
22. Load Shutdown from Bypass. Input Frequency Volts outside limits
23. Fault, Internal Temp exceeded system normal limits
24. Input Circuit Breaker Open
25. System level fan failed
26. Bad Battery Module
27. Bad Power Module
28. Intelligence Module is installed and failed
29. Redundant Intelligence Module is installed and failed
30. Redundancy has been lost
31. Redundancy is below alarm threshold
32. Runtime is below alarm threshold
33. Load is above alarm threshold
34. Load is no longer above alarm Threshold
35. Minimum Runtime restored
36. Bypass is not in range (either frequency or voltage)
37. Backfeed contactor stuck in OFF position
38. Backfeed contactor stuck in ON position
39. UPS in Bypass due to Internal Fault
40. UPS in Bypass due to overload
41. System in Forced Bypass
42. Fault, Bypass Relay Malfunction
43. Q001 open/closed
44. Q002 open/closed
45. Q003 open/closed
46
Q005 open/closed
47. High DC Warning
48. High DC Shutdown
49. Low Battery Shutdown
50. Low Battery Warning
51. MBwD door open
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 7
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
F. Controls: The following controls or programming functions shall be accomplished by the use of the user
interface/display unit. The touch screen display shall facilitate these operations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
G.
Silence audible Alarm
Display or set the date and time
Enable or disable the automatic restart feature
Transfer critical load to and from static bypass
Test battery condition on demand
Set intervals for automatic battery tests
Adjust set points for different alarms
Potential Free (Dry) Contacts
The following potential free contacts shall be available on an optional relay interface board:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Normal Operation
Battery Operation
Bypass Operation
Common Fault
Low Battery
UPS Off
H. Communication Interface Board: A communication interface board shall provide the following
communication ports which can be used simultaneously:
1. Ethernet
2. Ethernet Interface port for a Remote Display
3. MODBUS
2.8 BATTERY
A. The UPS battery shall support an optional battery plant of modular construction made up of user
replaceable, hot swappable, fused, battery modules. Each battery module shall be monitored for voltage
and temperature for use by the UPS battery diagnostic. Battery charging current shall be temperature
compensated.
B. The battery jars housed within each removable battery module shall be of the Valve Regulated Lead
Acid (VRLA) type.
C. The UPS shall incorporate a battery management system to continuously monitor the status of each
removable battery module. This system shall notify the user in the event a failed or weak battery module
is found.
D. The Batteries shall be long life batteries (5-8 year) and the battery casing shall be flame retardant type.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 8
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 3 – ACCESSORIES
3.1 BATTERY BREAKER CABINET
A. To facilitate third party battery configuration, a battery breaker cabinet in a line up netshelter enclosure
shall be available. Each cabinet will monitor breaker status and battery temperature. Each circuit breaker
shall be equipped shunt trip mechanisms and 1A/1B auxiliary contacts. The Battery Breaker Cabinet shall
accommodate top or bottom entry for cables.
3.2 MAINTENANCE BYPASS CABINET (MBwD)
A. The maintenance bypass cabinet shall provide power to the critical load bus from the bypass source,
during times where maintenance or service of the UPS is required. The MBwD shall provide a mechanical
means of complete isolation of the UPS from the electrical wiring of the installation and will be mounted to
the systems I/O frame.
B. As a minimum, the MBwD shall contain the following features and accessories:
1. Circuit breakers of the appropriate size, withstand rating (50kAIC rating), and trip rating for the
system.
2. Minimum 1A/1B auxiliary contacts for the purpose of relaying status information of each circuit
breaker / switch actuator to the UPS and static bypass.
3. Plated copper bus bar (where applicable), braced for the appropriate withstand rating (50 kAIC
rating) of the system.
C. The following minimum options shall also be available for the MBC:
1. Mimic label with light indications for power flow.
3.3 REMOTE BATTERIES
The modular batteries shall have the capability to be located remote to the UPS. In such installations, an
optional side car shall be used to connect the batteries by cables to the UPS. The battery side car shall
accommodate top or bottom cable entry. The side car will have over current fuses to protect the cables. The
fuse status shall be monitored by the UPS.
3.4 BOTTOM FEED ENCLOSURE
For installations greater than 250kW, a bottom feed enclosure shall provide the mechanical means
necessary to support bottom feeds for specific system configurations.
3.5 RELAY BOARD
A relay boards shall be provided for customer connections to external alarms or to activate external
customer circuits.
3.6 SOFTWARE AND CONNECTIVITY
A. Network Adaptor: The Ethernet Web/SNMP Adaptor shall allow one or more network management
systems (NMS) to monitor and manage the UPS in TCP/IP network environments. The management
information base (MIB) shall be provided in DOS and UNIX "tar" formats. The SNMP interface adaptor shall
be connected to the UPS via the RS232 serial port on the standard communication interface board.
B. Unattended Shutdown
1. The UPS, in conjunction with a network interface card, shall be capable of gracefully
shutting down one or more operating systems during when the UPS is operation from the
battery.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 9
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
3.7 REMOTE UPS MONITORING
A. The following three methods of remote UPS monitoring shall be available:
1. Web Monitoring: Remote monitoring shall be available via a web browser such as Internet
Explorer.
2. Remote UPS monitoring shall be possible via MODBUS
3. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): Remote UPS Monitoring shall be possible
through a standard MIB II compliant platform
.
3.8 SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY
A. The UPS manufacturer shall have available software to support remote monitoring and initiate the
graceful shutdown for the following systems:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
APC by Schneider Electric
Microsoft Windows 95/98/XP
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 SP6/2000
OS/2
Netware 3.2 – 5.1
MAC OS 9.04, 9.22, 10
Digital Unix/True 64
SGI 6.0-6.5
SCO UNIX
SVR4 2.3, 2.41
SCO Unix Ware 7.0 - 7.11
SUN Solaris 2.6-2.8
SUN OS 4.13, 4.14
IBM AIX 4.3x-4.33g, 5.1
HP-UX 9.x-11.i
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 10
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
Part 4 - EXECUTION
4.1 FACTORY ASSISTED START-UP
Factory startup shall be included, factory trained service personnel shall perform the following inspections, test
procedures, and on-site training:
A. Visual Inspection:
1. Inspect equipment for signs of damage.
2. Verify installation per manufacturer s instructions.
3. Inspect cabinets for foreign objects.
4. Inspect Battery Units.
5. Inspect Power Modules.
B. Mechanical Inspection:
1. Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass cabinet internal control wiring connections.
2. Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass cabinet internal power wiring connections.
3. Check all UPS and external maintenance bypass cabinet terminal screws, nuts, and/or spade
lugs for tightness.
C. Electrical Inspection:
1. Verify correct input and bypass voltage.
2. Verify correct phase rotation of all mains connections.
3. Verify correct UPS control wiring and terminations.
4. Verify voltage of all battery modules.
5. Verify neutral and ground conductors are properly landed.
6. Inspect external maintenance bypass switch for proper terminations and phasing.
D. Site Testing:
1. Ensure proper system start-up.
2. Verify proper firmware control functions.
3. Verify proper firmware bypass operation.
4. Verify proper maintenance bypass switch operation.
5. Verify system set points.
6. Verify proper inverter operation and regulation circuits.
7. Simulate utility power failure.
8. Verify proper charger operation.
9. Document, sign, and date all test results.
E. On-Site Operational Training: During the factory assisted start-up, operational training for site personnel
shall include touch screen operation, LED indicators, start-up and shutdown procedures, maintenance
bypass and AC disconnect operation, and alarm information.
4.2 MANUFACTURER’S FIELD SERVICE
A.
Worldwide service: The UPS manufacturer shall have a worldwide service organization Available,
consisting of factory trained field service personnel to perform start-up, preventive maintenance, and
service of the UPS system and power equipment. The service organization shall offer 24 hours a day,
7 days a week, 365 days a year service support.
B.
Replacement parts: Parts shall be available through the worldwide service organization 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. The worldwide service organization shall be capable of
shipping parts within 4 working hours or on the next available flight, so that the parts may be
delivered to the customer site within 24 hours.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 11
Specification guide no. 7
Modular UPS system, three-phase, 25 to 500 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
4.3 MAINTENANCE CONTRACTS
A complete offering of preventative and full service maintenance contracts for the UPS system and the
battery system shall be available. All contract work shall be performed by factory trained service personnel.
4.4 TRAINING
UPS service training workshop: A UPS service training workshop shall be available from the UPS
manufacturer. The service training workshop shall include a combination of lecture and practical instruction
with hands-on laboratory sessions. The service training workshop shall include instruction about safety
procedures, UPS operational theory, sub-assembly identification and operation, system controls and
adjustment, preventive maintenance, and troubleshooting and trainer user level repair.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 7 – p. 12
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1 SUMMARY
A. This specification describes the operation and functionality of a continuous duty, three-phase, solidstate, static Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) hereafter referred to as the UPS. The UPS control
logic shall incorporate state of the art Digital Signal Processing. The Inverters shall utilize high speed
pulse-width-modulation and be constructed of IGBT’s. The UPS shall be part of a multi-module
system, and function as described in this specification.
B. In addition, this specification describes the performance, functionality, and design of the UPS
Maintenance Bypass Cabinet, hereafter referred to as the MBC, the Battery System, UPS paralleling
gear, External Bypass Static Switch (EBS), and other such electrical distribution as described in this
specification.
C. The UPS and associated equipment shall operate in conjunction with a primary power supply (utility
and/or on-site generation) and an output distribution system to provide quality uninterrupted power for
mission critical, electronic equipment load.
D. All owner/engineer selected accessories programming and miscellaneous components for a fully
operational system as described in this specification shall be supplied as part of the UPS at no
additional cost.
1.2 STANDARDS
A.
Safety:
1. IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1
Information technology equipment - Safety - Part: General requirements
2. IEC 62040-1/ EN 62040-1
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - General and safety requirements for UPS.
3. IEC 62040-3 / EN 1000-3 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Method of specifying the test
and performance requirements.
4. IEC 60439
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
5. LV directive: 2006/95/EC
B.
Harmonics:
1. IEC 61000-2-2 / EN 61000-2-2
Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public lowvoltage power supply systems.
2. IEC 61000-3-2 / EN 61000-3-2
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current ≤ 16 A/ph).
3. IEC 61000-3-4 / EN 61000-3-4
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current > 16 A/ph).
4. IEC 61000-3-5 / EN 61000-3-5
Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker.
5. EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of public networks.
6. IEEE 519
Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 8 – p. 1
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
C.
EMC:
1. EN 50091-2
UPS - EMC.
2. IEC 62040-2/ EN 62040-2
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
3. EMC Directive 2004/108/EC
For equipment liable to cause or be affected by electromagnetic disturbances.
D.
Quality:
1. Design , production and servicing in compliance with standard ISO 9001 - quality organisation.
E.
Ecological environment:
1. Manufacturing in compliance with standard ISO 14001.
F.
Acoustic noise
1. ISO 3746
Sound power levels.
2. ISO 7779 / EN 27779
Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment.
1.3 MODES OF OPERATION
A.
Normal:
1.
The Main Inverter and Delta Inverter shall operate in an on-line manner to continuously regulate
and supply power to the critical load. The input power converter and output inverter shall be
capable of full battery recharge while simultaneously providing 100% regulated power to the
load bus for all line and load conditions within the range of the UPS specifications.
2.
Recharge: Upon restoration of the Utility or on-site electrical generation AC input source, the
input power converter and output inverter shall simultaneously recharge the battery and
continue to provide 100% regulated power to the critical load bus.
3. Auto Restart: The UPS shall have an Auto Restart function which, when enabled, will allow the
UPS to be automatically restarted and placed on-line upon the restoration of input power.
Should the input power fail to return within four hours, the UPS shall automatically open the
battery disconnects to prevent excessive battery discharge.
B.
Battery: Upon utility or on site electrical generation input failure or any out of tolerance condition as
defined by this specification of the electrical AC input source, the critical load bus shall continue
being supplied by the main inverter, which shall derive its power from the battery system. There
shall be no interruption of power to the critical load bus during both transitions to battery operation
and from battery to normal operation.
C.
Static Bypass: The static bypass shall be used to provide a seamless transfer of the critical load bus
from the Inverter output to the bypass source. This transfer, along with its retransfer, shall take place
with no power interruption to the critical load bus. In the event of an extreme overload condition,
inverter output voltage out of tolerance condition or if commanded by the operator. This transfer
shall be an automatic function with the exception of an operator initiated transfer. The UPS shall
automatically return to normal operation when the overload or out of tolerance condition is cleared
D.
Maintenance Bypass: The UPS system shall be equipped with an external Maintenance Bypass
Cabinet (MBC) to electrically isolate the UPS during routine maintenance and service of the UPS.
The MBC shall completely isolate both the UPS(s) input and output connections.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 8 – p. 2
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
1.4 SUBMITTALS
A.
Proposal Submittals:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
As bid system bill of materials.
Product catalog sheets or equipment brochures.
Product guide specifications.
System single-line operation diagram.
Installation information, including weights and dimensions.
Information about terminal locations for power and control connections.
Drawings for requested optional accessories.
Delivery Submittals:
1. Installation manual, which includes instructions for storage, handling, examination, preparation
and installation of UPS.
2. User manual, which includes operating instructions.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 8 – p. 3
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
PART 2 – PRODUCT
2.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
A.
The UPS system shall be sized for a total load capacity of ________ kW. Each frame shall be rated
for __________ kW with ________ redundant UPS modules
B.
Each UPS module shall be sized for a load capacity of _______ kW load and quantity of ______
200 kW redundant UPS section(s).
C.
The UPS battery shall be sized for an output of _____ kW ____ at a Power Factor of ________ for
________ minutes.
2.2 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
A.
Multi-Module UPS Capacity: The system shall be rated for full kW output in the
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
following sizes:
400kVA/400kW
600kVA/600kW
800kVA/800kW
1000kVA/1000 kW
1200kVA/1200 kW
1400kVA/1400kW
1600kVA/1600kW
It shall be possible to connect multiple units in parallel to provide an output of 4000 kW.
B.
Electrical Input:
1. AC Input Nominal Voltage: 380 / 400 / 415 V, 3 Phase, 3 wire, 50 or 60 Hz.
+
2. AC Input Voltage Window: /- 15% of nominal (while providing nominal charging to the battery
system).
3. Short Circuit Withstand Rating: 200,000 Symmetrical Amperes (200 kA)
+
4. Maximum Frequency Range: /- .5%- 8% of nominal
5. Input Power Factor: Approximately ~1at 100% load and shall not be less than 0.99 at loads
greater than 25% of system rating with no additional filters.
6. Input Current Distortion: Maximum 5% with no requirement for optional additional filters
7. Soft-Start: Input current shall be linear from 0-100% input. This shall take place over a 10
second default time and values from 1-40 seconds shall be programmable. The UPS shall
exhibit no magnetizing inrush current.
C.
UPS Electrical Output:
1. AC Output Nominal Output: 380 / 400 / 415 V, 3 Phase, 3 wire, 50 or 60 Hz.
2. AC Output Voltage Distortion: Max. 3% @ 100% Linear Load.
3. AC Output Voltage Regulation:
a.
b.
+
+
/- 1% For 100 % Balanced Linear Load
/- 3% For 100% Unbalanced Linear Load
4. Voltage Transient Response:
a.
b.
+
+
/- 3% maximum for 50% load step
/- 5% maximum for 100% load step
5. Voltage Transient Recovery within 50 milliseconds
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 8 – p. 4
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
6. Output Voltage Harmonic Distortion:
a. 3% THD maximum and 1% single harmonic for a 100% linear load
b. 5% THD maximum for a 100% non-linear load
c. UPS shall be able to support Unlimited Crest Factor
7. Phase Angle Displacement:
a. 120 degrees +/- 1 degree for balanced load
+
b. 120 degrees /- 1 degrees for 50% imbalanced load
+
c. 120 degrees /- 3 degrees for 100% imbalanced load
8. Overload Rating:
a. Normal Operation:
1) 200% for 60 seconds
2) 125% for 10 minutes
b. Battery Operation: 150% for 30 seconds
c. Bypass Operation:
1) 125% continuous
2) 1000% for 100 milliseconds
9. UPS Efficiency: With nominal voltage and resistive load.
The UPS AC-AC efficiency shall be as follows:
At 100% load
At 75% Load
At 50% Load
At 25% Load
97%
97%
96%
94%
The UPS DC-AC efficiency shall be as follows:
At 100% load
At 75% Load
At 50% Load
At 25% Load
96%
97%
97%
96%
10. Output Power Factor Rating: The UPS output shall not require derating for purely resistive
loads (PF of 1). The kW and kVA ratings of the UPS output shall be equal. For loads exhibiting a
power factor of .9 leading to .8 lagging no derating of the UPS shall be required. For loads
exhibiting power factors outside this range, the following derating shall apply:
a.
b.
c.
d.
D.
5% derating of the UPS shall apply for 0.7 PF lagging
10% derating of the UPS shall apply for 0.6 PF lagging
15% derating of the UPS shall apply for 0.5 PF lagging
20% derating of the UPS shall apply for a range of 0.4 - 0.1 PF lagging.
Design and Construction
1. Printed Circuit Boards: All card edge connected printed circuit boards shall have mechanical
interlocks to prohibit a board from being plugged into the wrong place.
2. Electromagnetic Interference: Radiated and conducted EMI generated within the system shall
be suppressed to prevent excessive interference with associated nearby electronic equipment.
Radio frequency generating equipment external to the system, such as hand held portable
radios and other electronic devices, shall not cause a malfunction of the system components
when all enclosures are shut. Compliance shall conform to FCC47 part 15 subpart A. 10-1-98
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 8 – p. 5
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
3. Finish and Painting:
a. All external welds shall be ground smooth and all sharp corners eliminated.
b. All surfaces shall be clean and smooth and cleared of all blemishes before application of
the finish.
c. Steel enclosures shall have a finish coat of durable baked enamel. The equipment shall be
painted in accordance with Manufacturer's standard procedure.
d. Primers for steel surfaces shall be suitable for the service and operating temperatures to be
encountered during the life of the equipment.
e. Upon Request a can of touch-up paint in each color shall be provided.
4.
The UPS assemblies shall be constructed in NEMA Type-1 metal enclosures. Enclosures
shall have provisions for forklift handling. The individual enclosures shall be free standing,
capable of side-by-side or back-to-back installation with front access requirements only.
2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL
A. Storage Ambient Temperature: -50°C to 55°C.
B. Operating Ambient Temperature: 0°C to 40°C. (25°C is ideal for most battery types).
C. Relative Humidity: 0 to 95% Non-condensing
D. Altitude: Maximum installation altitude with no derating of the UPS output shall be 1000m above sea
level. At higher altitudes the following derating shall apply:
1. 1500 m derating factor of 0.95
2. 2000 m derating factor of 0.91
3. 2500 m derating factor of 0.86
E.
Access Requirements:
1. The UPS shall require front access only for installation and field assembly. Servicing of the UPS
shall only require front access for all commonly serviced components, such as fuses, power
modules, control circuits, contactors, and all active components. No top, side, or back access is
required for servicing said components of the UPS.
2. At user discretion, for UPS’s 1,000 kW and below, power cabling for both the UPS AC and DC
shall be top or bottom entry as standard product and shall be terminated in a designated
input/output section of the UPS.
3. Replacement of air filters shall not require the system to be placed into maintenance bypass,
nor shall it require personnel to be subjected to live voltage potential.
2.4 MODULARITY OF DESIGN
A.
The UPS shall be of modular design and construction consisting of independent 200kW power
converter sections configured from 400 to 1600 kW. Each power section shall consist of three 67kW
independent modules. Each power module shall allow easy frontal draw-out accessibility for
maintenance or system growth. Each module shall exhibit independent fault tolerance to other
modules and shall allow for continuous system operation.
B.
Redundant Configuration: The UPS internal design shall allow for the selection of one to seven
redundant 200kW power module sections for owner selected redundancy level.
C.
The UPS mechanical and electrical design shall combine to form a fault protection design base. In
the unlikely event of an inverter module fault, each module shall be electrically and mechanically
protected from the faulted unit and that the faulted unit shall not influence other modules or system
operations. Each 200 kW power converter section shall incorporate independent time coordinated
fusing with mechanical contactors to facilitate the rapid isolation of a failed section from the input,
output, and DC buses, without sacrificing the critical load output bus.
APC by Schneider Electric
05/2009 edition
ch. 6 – spec. 8 – p. 6
Specification guide no. 8
Scalable UPS system, three-phase, 400 to 1600/4000 kW*
* maximum power rating without redundancy
2.5
D.
Redundant Power Supply: Each of the three redundant 67kW power converter module shall contain
a DC power supply to power the logic and control circuits of each respective 200kW section. Loss of
one DC power supply per 200kW section shall not influence the performance of its respective
200kW section. Redundant Power Supplies shall be monitored by the UPS’s internal and optional
external monitoring system.
E.
Redundant UPS Control Power: Two main redundant power supplies shall also be provided for main
logic circuits and interface signals of the UPS. These power supplies shall have multiple channels,
each with their own overcurrent protection to provide fault containment. Each channel shall have
tripped indicators to allow for rapid diagnostics and repair by onsite service personnel. UPS Control
Power shall be monitored by the UPS’s internal and optional external monitoring system.
F.
Redundant Fans: Each 67 kW power module shall contain redundant cooling fans to take in ambient
air through filtered inlets on the front of the UPS. The loss of fans in any or all of the 67kW power
modules shall not cause a derating of the ambient operating temperature of the UPS. Each 200kW
section shall contain four cooling fans and shall operate normally with the failure of any two section
fans. All fans shall be monitored by the UPS’s internal and optional external monitoring system for
operation and speed.
G.
Scalability: The UPS shall be designed to allow the 200kW power module sections to be added to
accommodate future increases in load requirements to the maximum UPS frame size.
H.
Proportional Load Sharing: Based upon the modular construction of the system, it shall be possible
to parallel UPS’s of different siz