Safety and Comfort Guide
© Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard
Development Company, L.P.
The information contained herein is subject
to change without notice. The only
warranties for HP products and services are
set forth in the express warranty statements
accompanying such products and services.
Nothing herein should be construed as
constituting an additional warranty. HP shall
not be liable for technical or editorial errors
or omissions contained herein.
First Edition: July 2013
Document Part Number: 715023-001
Introduction
This guide describes proper workstation setup, posture, and health and work habits for computer
users at work, at home, at school, and on the go. In addition, this guide contains electrical and
mechanical safety information applicable to all HP products.
Also available at www.hp.com/ergo
WARNING! Avoid excessive heat build-up with your notebook.
To reduce the possibility of heat-related injuries or of overheating the notebook computer, do not
place the computer directly on your lap or obstruct the computer air vents. Use the computer only on
a hard, flat surface. Do not allow another hard surface, such as an adjoining optional printer, or a soft
surface, such as pillows or rugs or clothing, to block airflow. Also, do not allow the AC adapter to
contact the skin or a soft surface, such as pillows or rugs or clothing, during operation. The computer
and the AC adapter comply with the user-accessible surface temperature limits defined by the
International Standard for Safety of Information Technology Equipment (IEC 60950).
WARNING! Be aware of pain or discomfort.
Read and follow the recommendations in this Safety & Comfort Guide to minimize the risk of pain and
discomfort and to increase your comfort.
iii
iv
Introduction
Table of contents
1 Let comfort be your guide .............................................................................................................................. 1
Scan for awkwardness and adjust for comfort ..................................................................................... 1
Adopt healthy habits ............................................................................................................................. 2
Comfortable computing for children ..................................................................................................... 3
2 Adjusting your chair ....................................................................................................................................... 4
Let the comfort of your feet, legs, back and shoulders be your guide .................................................. 4
Move often ............................................................................................................................................ 6
3 Adjusting your work surface ......................................................................................................................... 7
Let the comfort of your shoulders, arms and hands be your guide ...................................................... 7
When typing, pointing and touching, scan your hands and fingers for tension .................................... 9
4 Adjusting your monitor ................................................................................................................................ 10
Scan your head, neck and torso for comfort ...................................................................................... 10
Adjusting dual monitors ...................................................................................................................... 14
5 Using touch technology ............................................................................................................................... 15
Using a touch-enabled monitor and all-in-one product ....................................................................... 15
Using a touch-enabled tablet .............................................................................................................. 17
6 Using a Notebook ......................................................................................................................................... 19
Listen to your body especially when using a notebook ...................................................................... 19
7 Carefully monitoring children using computers ........................................................................................ 21
A special note for parents and teachers ............................................................................................. 21
8 Monitoring your health habits and exercise ............................................................................................... 23
Monitoring personal tolerance levels and limits .................................................................................. 24
Cultivating your health and fitness ..................................................................................................... 24
v
9 Electrical and mechanical safety ................................................................................................................. 25
Product safety policy and general practice ......................................................................................... 26
Installation requirements .................................................................................................................... 26
General precautions for HP products ................................................................................................. 27
Damage requiring service .................................................................................................. 27
Servicing ............................................................................................................................ 27
Mounting accessories ........................................................................................................ 27
Ventilation .......................................................................................................................... 27
Water and moisture ........................................................................................................... 27
Grounded (earthed) products ............................................................................................ 27
Power sources ................................................................................................................... 28
Accessibility ....................................................................................................................... 28
Voltage select switch ......................................................................................................... 28
Internal battery ................................................................................................................... 28
Power cords ....................................................................................................................... 28
Protective attachment plug ................................................................................................ 28
Extension cord ................................................................................................................... 28
Overloading ....................................................................................................................... 29
Cleaning ............................................................................................................................. 29
Heat ................................................................................................................................... 29
Circulation and cooling ...................................................................................................... 29
Replacement parts ............................................................................................................. 29
Safety check ...................................................................................................................... 29
Options and upgrades ....................................................................................................... 29
Hot surfaces ....................................................................................................................... 29
Object entry ....................................................................................................................... 29
Precautions for portable computer products ...................................................................................... 30
Monitor support cover ........................................................................................................ 30
Rechargeable battery pack ................................................................................................ 30
Docking base ..................................................................................................................... 30
Precautions for server and network products ..................................................................................... 30
Safety interlocks and enclosures ....................................................................................... 30
Accessories and options .................................................................................................... 30
Products with casters ......................................................................................................... 31
Floor-standing products ..................................................................................................... 31
Rack-mountable products .................................................................................................. 31
Precautions for products with hot-pluggable power supplies ............................................................. 31
Precautions for products with external television antenna connectors ............................................... 32
Compatibility ...................................................................................................................... 32
External television antenna grounding ............................................................................... 32
Lightning protection ........................................................................................................... 32
vi
Power lines ........................................................................................................................ 32
Antenna grounding ............................................................................................................ 32
Precautions for products with modems, telecommunications, or local area network options ............ 33
Precautions for products with laser devices ....................................................................................... 33
Laser safety warnings ........................................................................................................ 34
Compliance with CDRH regulations .................................................................................. 34
Compliance with international regulations ......................................................................... 34
Laser product label ............................................................................................................ 34
Symbols on equipment ....................................................................................................................... 35
10 More information ......................................................................................................................................... 37
Index ................................................................................................................................................................... 39
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viii
1
Let comfort be your guide
Scan for awkwardness and adjust for comfort
Whenever you use a computer, you make decisions that can affect your comfort, health, safety, and
productivity. This is true whether you use a desktop keyboard and monitor in an office, a notebook
computer in a college dormitory, a tablet in the kitchen, or a handheld computer at the airport. In
every case, you choose your body’s position relative to the technology.
Whether you are working, studying, or playing, staying in one position for long periods can cause
discomfort and fatigue in your muscles and joints. Rather than computing in a single seated posture,
move regularly through a range of seated and standing positions, finding your comfort zone in each of
them. Many people do not naturally incorporate a standing posture into the range of positions
because it is unfamiliar. With practice, however, they realize how much better they feel when they
move from sitting to standing throughout the day.
RIGHT Upright
RIGHT Reclined
RIGHT Standing
There is no one “right” position that fits all people and all tasks; no one set-up that is comfortable for
all body parts. Replace the “set it and forget it” mentality with “scan for awkwardness and adjust for
comfort.” Understand the connection between your body and the technology, and decide what to
move and when. Sometimes you need to change your posture; sometimes you need to adjust the
technology; sometimes you need to do both.
Scan your body regularly for non-movement, awkward posture, tension, clenching, and shallow
breathing. Be especially vigilant when working on difficult, intense tasks or under a tight deadline. Pay
Scan for awkwardness and adjust for comfort
1
particular attention to adjusting your posture in the afternoon when you may tend to get fatigued.
Avoid leaning into a posture resembling a turtle, with your neck in an awkward position, your head out
of alignment with your spine, and your back unsupported by the chair. Moving through standing and
seated postures and breathing deeply is good for your spine, joints, muscles, lungs, and circulatory
system. If you don’t have a sit-stand workstation, think about standing while talking on the phone or
having a walking meeting instead of sitting in a conference room. Bottom line: you can consciously
move to stay comfortable and productive, or without awareness, you can slip into an uncomfortable
and less productive posture.
Throughout the day, you decide.
STAY AWARE Scan for awkwardness and discomfort. Don’t slip into awkward, uncomfortable and
less productive postures like “The Turtle.”
Adopt healthy habits
Build positive relationships at work and at home and find healthy ways to reduce stress. Breathe
deeply and regularly. Every 20 minutes, take a brief break— stand up, move around, stretch, and shift
your gaze to a distant point. Partner with an “ergo buddy,” observing one another’s posture and
reminding each other to make adjustments and move.
The comfort and safety of working at the computer can be affected by your general state of health.
Studies have shown that a variety of health conditions may increase the risk of discomfort, muscle
and joint disorders, or injuries. (See Monitoring your health habits and exercise on page 23.)
Avoiding adverse health conditions and exercising regularly to improve and maintain your physical
fitness can improve your overall health and tolerance for sedentary work. Respect any medical
conditions or health factors you may have, and monitor your personal limits.
2
Chapter 1 Let comfort be your guide
Comfortable computing for children
The recommendations in this guide apply to computer users of all ages. Often adults have to
“unlearn” poor computer-using habits, but children—especially young children—won’t have old habits
to break if parents and teachers help them to learn good computer habits from the start. Parents and
teachers need to monitor and guide the children in their care. Start children early on a lifelong habit of
listening to their bodies, sensitizing themselves to awkwardness, and adjusting for comfort. (See
Carefully monitoring children using computers on page 21.)
Comfortable computing for children
3
2
Adjusting your chair
Let the comfort of your feet, legs, back and shoulders be
your guide
To learn how to move between upright and reclined positions, you need to fully familiarize yourself
with your chair adjustments. If you do not have a copy of the printed chair user guide, check the
manufacturer’s website. Surprisingly, many people have never learned to utilize the full range of their
chair adjustments. Taking the time to do so really pays off for your comfort and productivity.
1.
Sit all the way back in the chair and adjust the seat height so your feet rest firmly on the floor
and there is no pressure on the back of your thighs. Adjust the seat depth so that you have at
least two fingers of clearance between the back of your knees and the seat edge. If you do not
have a seat depth adjustment and you experience pressure on the backs of your legs, you may
need a chair that better fits your body.
RIGHT Adjust seat height so feet are planted and seat depth so knees are clear.
2.
4
Adjust the tilt tension to the point where you can easily maintain a reclined position. An angled
footrest may help you maintain this position.
Chapter 2 Adjusting your chair
RIGHT Adjust tension to recline and, if helpful, use an angled footrest to maintain position.
3.
Check to see if the chair has additional back support features that can be adjusted for comfort. If
so, adjust the chair back support to match the natural curve of your spine.
4.
You may find that supporting your forearms makes your shoulders more comfortable, but arm
supports should not cause you to shrug your shoulders, put excessive pressure on your elbows,
or “wing” your arms out to the sides.
RIGHT Forearm support may help you keep your shoulders more relaxed.
Let the comfort of your feet, legs, back and shoulders be your guide
5
Once you know how to use the chair adjustments, move between upright and reclined positions,
scanning your body for comfort. You decide which postures and seated adjustments are most
comfortable and productive.
Your posture choice within your comfort zone will likely vary with your task. For example, you may
find a reclined posture more comfortable for e-mail, and an upright posture more comfortable for
tasks requiring frequent reference to papers or books. If someone else has used your chair, be sure
to readjust to settings that are most comfortable and productive for you. Make sure you can move
your legs freely under the desk or table.
Move often
To increase your comfort and productivity, switch regularly between standing and seated positions.
Avoid staying in one position for extended periods, since this may create tension and discomfort in
your muscles and joints. Scan your body regularly and decide if you need to move. Sometimes you
need to change your posture; sometimes you need to adjust the equipment; sometimes you need to
do both.
6
Chapter 2 Adjusting your chair
3
Adjusting your work surface
Let the comfort of your shoulders, arms and hands be
your guide
When you’re moving between postures, you may need to adjust your work surface for the comfort of
your shoulders, arms, and hands. Your shoulders should be relaxed with your elbows hanging
comfortably at your sides. Your forearms, wrists, and hands should be aligned in a straight, neutral
position. The adjustment features of the work surface, keyboard, and pointing device affect your
comfort and productivity.
RIGHT Adjust your work surface so that your shoulders are relaxed
and your wrists and hands are in a straight, neutral position.
Let the comfort of your shoulders, arms and hands be your guide
7
WRONG Do not rest your palms on the work surface or bend your
wrists markedly down.
WRONG Do not bend your wrists markedly inward.
Follow these work surface guidelines:
●
Place the keyboard directly in front of you to avoid twisting your neck and torso.
●
Adjust the height of the work surface for the comfort of your shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands.
Your shoulders should be relaxed and your elbows should hang comfortably at your sides. The
keyboard home row (the row that includes the letter “L”) should be at or near your elbow height.
Make sure the height of the work surface does not cause you to shrug your shoulders.
●
The work surface, as well as the keyboard and pointing device, may have tilt adjustments that
can be fine-tuned to help you keep your forearms and hands aligned and your wrists straight.
Avoid bending or angling your wrists while typing or using a pointing device.
TIP: If you find it difficult to type with a straight, neutral wrist position, you may find it more
comfortable to use a keyboard or pointing device with an alternative design.
●
If you use a full-width keyboard and the pointing device is on the right, stay particularly aware of
the comfort of your arm and shoulder. If you find yourself stretching to reach the pointing device,
drawing your elbow away from your body, you may want to consider a keyboard without a
numeric pad.
●
Position the pointing device immediately to the right, left, or just in front of the keyboard front
edge. If you use a keyboard support surface, make sure it is wide enough to accommodate the
pointing device.
●
Practice adjusting the height of the keyboard and pointing device support surface each time you
move. When standing, you may need to fine tune the height of the work surface based on the
height of your shoe heels or the thickness of your shoe soles. This is particularly important for
women who may wear a variety of shoe styles.
Scan your body throughout the day for awkwardness or discomfort, making adjustments to your body
and the workstation to increase your comfort and productivity.
8
Chapter 3 Adjusting your work surface
When typing, pointing and touching, scan your hands
and fingers for tension
When typing, pointing, and touching, scan your hands and fingers regularly for awkwardness, tension,
or discomfort as you type and use the pointing device or touch technology.
While typing, observe whether you have a heavy or light touch. Use the minimum force needed to
depress the keys. Avoid holding unnecessary tension in your thumbs and fingers. You may be
surprised to find tension in a thumb or finger that is not being used for typing, pointing or touching.
Hold the pointing device loosely. Use your whole arm and shoulder to move the pointing device, not
just your wrist. Keep your wrist straight and your hand relaxed and click the buttons using a light
touch. To give your pointing hand a break, you may periodically control the pointing device with the
opposite hand. Use the device software to switch the button assignments. Use the software control
panel to adjust the properties of the pointing device. For example, to reduce or eliminate mouselifting, try increasing the acceleration setting. When you are not using the pointing device, do not hold
on to it; let it go.
You may find that supports for your hands allow you to be more relaxed and comfortable. A palm rest
may be used to provide support during pauses, but keep your wrists free to move while typing or
using a pointing device.
When typing, pointing and touching, scan your hands and fingers for tension
9
4
Adjusting your monitor
Scan your head, neck and torso for comfort
There is no one monitor placement that can keep all body parts happy at all times. Throughout the
day, let the comfort of your eyes, neck, shoulders, and back help you determine what to move and
when. Placement, zoom, and lighting are all important factors that affect your comfort and
productivity. For example, if your eyes are getting dry, you may want to lower the monitor for a while
and blink regularly. If you are starting to experience eyestrain, try increasing the percentage of zoom
to enlarge the size of objects on the screen. You also may need to draw the monitor closer, eliminate
light sources that cause glare, and take frequent eye breaks. If you are looking downward and start to
feel neck discomfort, you may want to raise the monitor. Your head should rest comfortably over your
shoulders and your back should be fully supported by the chair.
RIGHT Keep your head balanced comfortably over your shoulders with
your back fully supported by your chair.
10
Chapter 4 Adjusting your monitor
Follow these guidelines for adjusting the monitor:
●
Place the monitor in a location where glare and bright reflections are eliminated. Try to avoid
bright light sources in your field of vision.
●
Place the monitor directly in front of you to avoid twisting your neck and torso.
●
To avoid craning your neck forward to view text that is too small, experiment with adjusting the
percentage of zoom to 125 percent or higher. For computer use, you may find character height
of three millimeters to four millimeters most productive for reading.
WRONG Do not crane your neck forward.
TIP: On some computers, the zoom setting can be adjusted up and down by holding down the
ctrl key and rolling the mouse scroll wheel or by using the zoom gesture on the touchpad.
Scan your head, neck and torso for comfort
11
RIGHT Adjust your viewing distance until you can read the text clearly.
●
To find your comfortable viewing distance, stretch your arm toward the monitor with a clenched
fist and place the monitor near the location of your knuckles. With your head resting comfortably
over your shoulders, move the monitor back and forth to fine-tune your viewing distance. You
should be able to clearly see the text on the monitor.
IMPORTANT: Research shows that many computer users, including young children, are
viewing blurred images on their monitors because they have uncorrected vision. Children who
cannot see clearly are more likely to experience impaired reading skills. All computer users
should have their eyes checked regularly by a vision care specialist; some may need to start
wearing glasses; others may need to update their prescriptions or have special glasses
prescribed for computer use.
●
12
Adjust the monitor height up and down until your head is balanced comfortably over your
shoulders. Your head should not come forward and your neck should not bend uncomfortably
forward or backward to any degree. Your eyes should look slightly downward when viewing the
middle of the screen. Although many find it comfortable to position the monitor so the top line of
text is just below eye height, you may find that raising the monitor slightly above this level is
more comfortable for your neck. On the other hand, if you begin experiencing eye dryness,
lowering the monitor below eye level may be best, since a larger portion of your eyelids will
cover the surface of your eyes with a lower display placement. To avoid tilting your head back,
some multifocal wearers choose to set their monitors very low so they can view content through
the lower portion of their lenses; some may also choose to have a second pair of glasses
designed specifically for computer use.
Chapter 4 Adjusting your monitor
RIGHT Some multifocal wearers find that placing their
monitor low helps them to keep their head balanced
comfortably over their shoulders.
WRONG Your monitor is too high if it causes you to
bend your neck backward to any degree.
TIP: If you are not able to adjust the monitor high enough, consider using an adjustable arm or
monitor riser. If you cannot adjust the monitor low enough, consider using an adjustable monitor
arm.
IMPORTANT: Don’t forget to blink, especially if you experience eye discomfort. On the
average, people blink 22 times per minute. Without realizing it, when viewing a monitor, some
people slow their blink rate to as little as seven blinks per minute.
●
Adjust the tilt of the monitor so that it is perpendicular to your face. To check for correct monitor
tilt, hold a small mirror in the center of the viewing area. You should be able to see your eyes in
the mirror.
Repeat the above processes in each of your seated and standing positions and each time you move.
TIP: Whenever you use a document holder, place it at the same height as the monitor, and place
whatever you are viewing the most (the holder or the monitor) directly in front of you. Let the comfort
of your head, neck, and torso be your guide.
Scan your head, neck and torso for comfort
13
Adjusting dual monitors
There are several different placement options to consider when using dual monitors. You may want to
position one monitor directly in front of you and the other to the side. If you find you are rotating your
head and neck to view an application on a display placed to the side for an extended period, move
the application window to the display directly in front of you. Only applications needed for short
periods should be viewed on the monitor placed to the side.
If you use dual monitors equally, you may consider setting them up symmetrically, one slightly to your
left, and the other slightly to your right. Be aware that your head will always be rotated to one side or
the other with this configuration. If you experience any discomfort in your neck, shoulders, or back,
you may want to reposition the monitors so one is directly in front of you.
RIGHT When using two monitors, you may find placing one monitor
directly in front of you and the other to the side most comfortable for
your neck and torso.
14
Chapter 4 Adjusting your monitor
WRONG Do not rotate your head to one side for
extended periods.
5
Using touch technology
Using a touch-enabled monitor and all-in-one product
Touch technology is great when you want to interact directly with objects on the screen. When using
touch, you need to be especially attentive to the comfort of your neck, shoulders, and arms.
Remember, there is no one monitor placement that can keep all body parts happy at all times,
especially when using touch.
Follow these touchscreen guidelines:
●
For arm comfort, place the touchscreen closer than you would a non-touchscreen. It should be
much closer than arm’s length.
●
For shoulder and arm comfort, place the screen lower.
●
Use the tilt feature to align your forearms, wrists, and hands in a straight, neutral position. If you
begin to experience neck fatigue, raise the screen. Each time you adjust the screen height,
consider readjusting the tilt to keep your wrists in a neutral position.
Using a touch-enabled monitor and all-in-one product
15
RIGHT Bring your touchscreen closer than arm’s length and
adjust the tilt to keep your wrists neutrally aligned. When using
touch extensively, you may want to adjust the height of your
display throughout the day to maintain the comfort of your neck,
shoulders and arms.
WRONG Touching with an extended arm can quickly tire
the shoulder and arm.
For a given task, you may find yourself exclusively using touch as the method of input; in other
circumstances you may find yourself using only the keyboard and pointing device; and sometimes
you may choose a combination of both input methods. When using a combination of input methods
(for example, keyboard, mouse, and touch), you may find it comfortable to position the devices at
about the same distance, which would place the monitor immediately behind or directly above the
keyboard and mouse. This may be especially helpful for maintaining your comfort in a reclined,
seated position. When using touch as the exclusive method of input for an extended period, you may
want to place the monitor in front of the other input devices.
If you find yourself using the computer for an extended period without touching the screen, you may
find it more comfortable to adjust the monitor as described in Adjusting your monitor on page 10.
Remember to scan for awkwardness and adjust for comfort, understanding the connection between
your body and technology. Sometimes you need to change your posture; sometimes you need to
adjust the monitor; sometimes you need to do both.
If you use dual monitors and one of them is a touch-enabled display, you may find that placing them
at different distances and heights is most comfortable.
16
Chapter 5 Using touch technology
WRONG Do not hunch forward over your touchscreen, leaving your
back unsupported by your chair.
Using a touch-enabled tablet
It is especially important to scan for awkward head and neck posture when using touch-enabled
tablets. If you use this technology often and find you have discomfort in your neck, shoulders, and
back, you may be looking down at the screen for extended periods. Placing the tablet on a table,
changing the tilt of the tablet case, or using a tablet holder attached to a monitor arm may help you to
balance your head more comfortably over your neck and shoulders.
In the office, you may want to use both a tablet and a non-touch display at the same time. If this is the
case, you may want to consider a height-adjustable accessory for the tablet. Remember to scan for
awkwardness and adjust for comfort as you use a combination of touch and non-touch displays. For
arm comfort, you may want to bring the touch display closer than the non-touch display.
Using a touch-enabled tablet
17
RIGHT For neck comfort, you may want to try a height-adjustable
accessory for your tablet.
18
Chapter 5 Using touch technology
6
Using a Notebook
Listen to your body especially when using a notebook
Because notebook computers are mobile, they allow you to easily move from one place to another. At
home, you may move from the home office to the kitchen table and even stand for a while at the
kitchen counter. If you travel on business, you can easily move from the hotel room desk to the client
conference room, or to a remote field office.
If you are using a notebook exclusively, it is especially important to scan for awkwardness and
discomfort. If you find you are looking down at the notebook screen for extended periods and
experience discomfort in your neck, you may find it more comfortable to use a full-sized keyboard,
adjustable monitor or notebook stand, and external pointing device such as a mouse. These and
other accessories allow you to adjust throughout the day, giving you a wider range of viewing
distance and height options, which may be more comfortable for your wrists and hands. For
convenience and productivity, a docking station or port replicator can be used to access all the
desktop accessories with one easy connection. Mobile accessories, such as a travel mouse and
keyboard, give you a range of adjustments on the road.
STAY AWARE It is especially important to scan for awkwardness and
discomfort when using a notebook.
Listen to your body especially when using a notebook
19
Each time you move to a new work environment, scan your body position relative to the notebook.
When working in an environment where proper seating or support is unavailable or when working for
extended periods, change your body position often and take regular brief breaks.
When on the move, use a notebook carrying case with built-in wheels for neck and shoulder comfort.
20
Chapter 6 Using a Notebook
7
Carefully monitoring children using
computers
A special note for parents and teachers
It is important to encourage moderation in children’s computer use. Children use computers a lot;
they use them at school and at home for study and for play. Monitor and guide the children in your
care—start early, start now, and insist that they take breaks. Children’s bodies are still growing and
developing, and their habits while using the computer can affect their future health and fitness. Long
periods of computer use, especially without regular breaks, may contribute to discomfort and poor
fitness, and ultimately could lead to potentially serious health concerns.
Research shows that many children are viewing blurred images on the monitors because they have
uncorrected vision. Children who cannot see clearly are more likely to experience impaired reading
skills. Make sure children in your care have their eyes checked regularly by a vision care specialist.
As children work or play at their computers, it is important to monitor their posture carefully. Parents
and teachers should teach children how to adjust their work area and find their comfort zones from
the start when they use a computer. Adjustable furniture designed for computer use can help. Most
children are smaller than adults, often a lot smaller. When they use a computer area sized for adults,
the mismatch can result in a wide array of awkward postures, including dangling feet, slouched
shoulders, wrists resting on table edges, arms stretching to reach the keyboard or mouse, and eyes
looking up at the monitor.
WRONG A monitor placed too high and far away can cause young
children to slump forward into an awkward “Turtle” posture with the
neck craned forward and the back hunched and unsupported by the
chair.
RIGHT Place firm pillows beneath and behind
young children if the chair is too large. Use a small
mouse and keyboard without a numeric keypad
and lower the monitor height.
A special note for parents and teachers
21
TIP: When school systems fail to provide adjustable furniture designed for computer use, teachers
may consider having their students work in teams to find inventive solutions to improve their comfort
and productivity.
22
Chapter 7 Carefully monitoring children using computers
8
Monitoring your health habits and
exercise
The comfort and safety of working at the computer can be affected by your general state of health.
Studies have shown that a variety of health conditions may increase the risk of discomfort, muscle
and joint disorders, or injuries. If you have any of the health conditions or factors listed below, it is
particularly important to stop what you are doing on a regular basis and frequently scan your body for
awkwardness or discomfort.
These conditions include:
●
Hereditary factors
●
Arthritis and other connective tissue disorders
●
Diabetes and other endocrine disorders
●
Thyroid conditions
●
Vascular disorders
●
Generally poor physical condition and dietary habits
●
Prior injuries, traumas, and musculoskeletal disorders
●
Excessive weight
●
Stress
●
Smoking
●
Pregnancy, menopause, and other conditions affecting hormone levels and water retention
●
Advancing age
23
Monitoring personal tolerance levels and limits
Computer users have different tolerance levels for work intensity and sustained activity length.
Monitor your personal tolerance levels and avoid regularly exceeding them. If any of the listed health
conditions apply to you, it is particularly important to know and to monitor your personal limits.
Cultivating your health and fitness
Your overall health and tolerance for work typically can be improved by avoiding adverse health
conditions when possible and by exercising regularly to improve and maintain your physical fitness.
24
Chapter 8 Monitoring your health habits and exercise
9
Electrical and mechanical safety
HP products are designed to operate safely when installed and used according to the product
instructions and general safety practices. The guidelines included in this section explain the potential
risks associated with computer operation and provide important safety practices designed to minimize
these risks. By carefully following the information in this section and the specific instructions provided
with the product, you can protect yourself from hazards and create a safer computer work
environment.
HP products are designed and tested to meet IEC 60950, the Standard for the Safety of Information
Technology Equipment. This is the International Electrotechnical Commission's safety standard
covering the type of equipment that HP manufactures. This also covers the national implementation
of IEC60950 based safety standards around the world.
This section provides information on the following topics:
●
Product safety policy
●
Product installation requirements
●
General safety precautions for all HP products
If you have a serious concern regarding the safe use of the equipment that your service partner
cannot address, call HP Customer Support in your area.
25
Product safety policy and general practice
HP products operate safely when used according to their marked electrical ratings and product usage
instructions. They should always be used in accordance with the requirements of local and regional
building and wiring codes intended for the safe use of IT equipment.
The IEC 60950 standards provide general safety design requirements that reduce the risk of personal
injury to both the computer user and the service partner. These standards reduce the risk of injury
from the following hazards:
●
Electric shock
Hazardous voltage levels contained in parts of the product
●
Fire
Overloads, temperature, material flammability
●
Mechanical
Sharp edges, moving parts, instability
●
Energy
Circuits with high energy levels (240 volt amperes) or potential as burn hazards
●
Heat
Accessible parts of the product at high temperatures
●
Chemical
Chemical fumes and vapors
●
Radiation
Noise, ionizing, laser, ultrasonic waves
Installation requirements
HP products operate safely when used according to their marked electrical ratings and product usage
instructions. They should always be used in accordance with the requirements of local and regional
building and wiring codes intended for the safe use of IT equipment.
IMPORTANT: HP products are intended for use in dry or sheltered environments unless otherwise
stated in the product information. Do not use HP products in areas classified as hazardous locations.
Such areas include patient care areas of medical and dental facilities, oxygen-laden environments, or
industrial facilities. Contact the local electrical authority governing building construction, maintenance,
or safety for more information regarding the installation of any product.
For more information, please consult the information, manuals, and literature provided with the
product or contact the local sales representative.
26
Chapter 9 Electrical and mechanical safety
General precautions for HP products
Retain the safety and operating instructions provided with the product for future reference. Follow all
operating and usage instructions. Observe all warnings on the product and in the operating
instructions.
To reduce the risk of fire, bodily injury, and damage to the equipment, observe the following
precautions.
Damage requiring service
Unplug the product from the electrical outlet and take the product to a service partner under the
following conditions:
●
The power cord, extension cord, or plug is damaged.
●
Liquid has been spilled or an object has fallen into the product.
●
The product has been exposed to water.
●
The product has been dropped or damaged in any way.
●
There are noticeable signs of overheating.
●
The product does not operate normally when you follow the operating instructions.
Servicing
Except as explained elsewhere in the HP documentation, do not service any HP product yourself.
Opening or removing covers that are marked with warning symbols or labels may expose you to
electric shock. Service needed on components inside these compartments should be done by a
service partner.
Mounting accessories
Do not use the product on an unstable table, cart, stand, tripod, or bracket. The product may fall,
causing serious bodily injury and serious damage to the product. Use only with a table, cart, stand,
tripod, or bracket recommended by HP, or sold with the product.
Ventilation
Slots and openings in the product are provided for ventilation and should never be blocked or
covered, since these ensure reliable operation of the product and protect it from overheating. The
openings should never be blocked by placing the product on a bed, sofa, carpet, or other similar,
flexible surface. The product should not be placed in a built-in apparatus such as a bookcase or rack
unless the apparatus has been specifically designed to accommodate the product, proper ventilation
is provided for the product, and the product instructions have been followed.
Water and moisture
Do not use the product in a wet location.
Grounded (earthed) products
Some products are equipped with a three-wire electrical grounding-type plug that has a third pin for
grounding. This plug only fits into a grounded electrical outlet. This is a safety feature. Do not defeat
General precautions for HP products
27
the safety purpose of the grounding-type plug by trying to insert it into a non-grounded outlet. If you
cannot insert the plug into the outlet, contact an electrician to replace the obsolete outlet.
Power sources
The product should be operated only from the type of power source indicated on the product's
electrical ratings label. If you have questions about the type of power source to use, contact the
service partner or local power company. For a product that operates from battery power or other
power sources, the operating instructions are included with the product.
Accessibility
Be sure that the power outlet you plug the power cord into is easily accessible and located as close to
the equipment operator as possible. When you need to disconnect power to the equipment, be sure
to unplug the power cord from the electrical outlet.
Voltage select switch
Ensure that the voltage select switch, if provided on the product, is in the correct position for the type
of voltage in your country (115 VAC or 230 VAC).
Internal battery
The computer may contain an internal battery-powered real-time clock circuit. Do not attempt to
recharge the battery, disassemble it, immerse it in water, or dispose of it in fire. Replacement should
be done by a service partner using the HP replacement part for the computer.
Power cords
If you have not been provided with a power cord for the computer or for any AC-powered option
intended for use with the computer, you should purchase a power cord that is approved for use in
your country.
The power cord must be properly rated for the product and for the voltage and current marked on the
product's electrical ratings label. The voltage and current rating of the cord should be greater than the
voltage and current rating marked on the product. In addition, the diameter of the wire must be a
minimum of 0.75 mm2 /18AWG and the cord should be between 5 and 8 feet (1.5 and 2.5 meters)
long. If you have questions about the type of power cord to use, contact the service partner.
Protective attachment plug
In some countries, the product cord set may be equipped with a wall plug having overload protection.
This is a safety feature. If the plug needs to be replaced, be sure the service partner uses a
replacement plug specified by the manufacturer as having the same overload protection as the
original plug.
Extension cord
If an extension cord or power strip is used, make sure that the cord or strip is rated for the product
and that the total ampere ratings of all products plugged into the extension cord or power strip do not
exceed 80% of the extension cord or strip ampere rating limit.
28
Chapter 9 Electrical and mechanical safety
Overloading
Do not overload an electrical outlet, power strip, or convenience receptacle. The overall system load
must not exceed 80% of the branch circuit rating. If power strips are used, the load should not exceed
80% of the power strip input rating.
Cleaning
Unplug the product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Do not use liquid cleaners or aerosol
cleaners. Use a damp cloth for cleaning.
Heat
The product should be placed away from radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other pieces of
equipment (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
Circulation and cooling
Allow sufficient air circulation around the computer and the AC adapter during use and while charging
the battery to ensure adequate cooling of the device. Prevent direct exposure to radiant heat sources.
Replacement parts
When replacement parts are required, be sure the service partner uses replacement parts specified
by HP.
Safety check
Upon completion of any service or repairs to the product, have the service partner perform any safety
checks required by the repair procedure or by local codes to determine that the product is in proper
operating condition.
Options and upgrades
Use only the options and upgrades recommended by HP.
Hot surfaces
Allow the equipment's internal components and hot-pluggable drives to cool before touching them.
Object entry
Never push a foreign object through an opening in the product.
General precautions for HP products
29
Precautions for portable computer products
In addition to the general precautions described earlier, be sure to observe the following precautions
when operating a portable computer product. Failure to observe these precautions could result in fire,
bodily injury, and damage to the equipment.
WARNING! To reduce the possibility of heat-related injuries or of overheating the computer, do not
place the computer directly on your lap or obstruct the computer air vents. Use the computer only on
a hard, flat surface. Do not allow another hard surface, such as an adjoining optional printer, or a soft
surface, such as pillows or rugs or clothing, to block airflow. Also, do not allow the AC adapter to
contact the skin or a soft surface, such as pillows or rugs or clothing, during operation. The computer
and the AC adapter comply with the user-accessible surface temperature limits defined by the
International Standard for Safety of Information Technology Equipment (IEC 60950).
Monitor support cover
Do not place a monitor with an unstable base or a monitor heavier than the marked weight rating on
top of a monitor support cover or stand. Heavier monitors should be placed on a work surface next to
the docking base.
Rechargeable battery pack
Do not crush, puncture, or incinerate the battery pack or short the metal contacts. In addition, do not
attempt to open or service the battery pack.
Docking base
To avoid pinching your fingers, do not touch the rear of the computer when docking it into a base.
Precautions for server and network products
In addition to the general precautions described earlier, be sure to observe the following precautions
when operating server and network products. Failure to observe these precautions could result in fire,
bodily injury, and damage to the equipment.
Safety interlocks and enclosures
To prevent access to areas containing hazardous energy levels, some servers are provided with
safety interlocks that disable the power supply when the enclosure cover is removed. For servers
provided with safety interlocks, observe the following precautions:
●
Do not remove enclosure covers or attempt to defeat the safety interlocks.
●
Do not attempt to repair accessories and options inside interlocked areas of the system while
operating. Repair should be performed only by individuals who are qualified in servicing
computer equipment and trained to deal with products capable of producing hazardous energy
levels.
Accessories and options
Installation of accessories and options in safety interlocked areas should performed only by
individuals who are qualified in servicing computer equipment and trained to deal with products
capable of producing hazardous energy levels.
30
Chapter 9 Electrical and mechanical safety
Products with casters
Products provided with casters should be moved with care. Quick stops, excessive force, and uneven
surfaces may cause the product to overturn.
Floor-standing products
Be sure the bottom stabilizers on the equipment are installed and fully extended. Ensure that the
equipment is properly stabilized and supported before installing options and cards.
Rack-mountable products
Because the rack allows you to stack computer components vertically, you must take precautions to
provide for rack stability and safety:
●
Do not move large racks by yourself. Due to the height and weight of the rack, HP recommends
a minimum of two people to accomplish this task.
●
Re working on the rack, be sure the leveling jacks (feet) extend to the floor and that the full
weight of the rack rests on the floor. Also install stabilizing feet on a single rack or join multiple
racks together before starting work.
●
Always load the rack from the bottom up, and load the heaviest item in the rack first. This makes
the rack bottom-heavy and helps prevent the rack from becoming unstable.
●
Ensure that the rack is level and stable before extending a component from the rack.
●
Extend only one component at a time. The rack may become unstable if more than one
component is extended.
●
Use caution when pressing the component rail release latches and sliding a component into the
rack. The slide rails could pinch your fingers.
●
Do not extend the components from the rack too quickly as the moving weight may damage the
supporting rails.
●
Do not overload the AC supply branch circuit that provides power to the rack. The total rack load
should not exceed 80% of the branch circuit rating.
Precautions for products with hot-pluggable power
supplies
Observe the following guidelines when connecting and disconnecting power to the power supplies:
●
Install the power supply before connecting the power cord to the power supply.
●
Unplug the power cord before removing the power supply from the server.
●
If the system has multiple sources of power, disconnect power from the system by unplugging all
power cords from the power supplies.
Precautions for products with hot-pluggable power supplies
31
Precautions for products with external television antenna
connectors
In addition to the general precautions described earlier, be sure to observe the following precautions
when using external television antennas with your product. Failure to observe these precautions
could result in fire, bodily injury, and damage to the equipment.
Compatibility
HP television tuner cards with antenna connections should be used only with HP personal computers
that are intended for home use.
External television antenna grounding
If an outside antenna or cable system is connected to the product, be sure the antenna or cable
system is electrically grounded to protect against voltage surges and built-up static charges. Article
810 of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70, provides information about proper electrical
grounding of the mast and supporting structure, grounding of the lead-in wire to an antenna discharge
unit, size of grounding conductors, location of antenna-discharge unit, connection to grounding
electrodes, and requirements for the grounding electrode.
Lightning protection
To protect your HP product during a lightning storm or when it will be unattended and unused for long
periods of time, unplug the product from the electrical outlet and disconnect the antenna or cable
system. This prevents damage to the product due to lightning and power line surges.
Power lines
Do not place an outside antenna system in the vicinity of overhead power lines or other electric light
or power circuits, or where it can fall into power lines or circuits. When installing an outside antenna
system, take extreme care to avoid touching power lines or circuits, as contact with them could be
fatal.
Antenna grounding
This reminder is provided to call the CATV (cable television) system installer’s attention to Section
820-40 of the NEC (National Electrical Code), which provides guidelines for proper grounding and, in
particular, specifies that the cable ground shall be connected to the grounding system of the building,
as close to the point of cable entry as practical.
32
Chapter 9 Electrical and mechanical safety
1.
Electric Service Equipment
2.
Power Service Grounding Electrode System (NEC Art 250, Part H)
3.
Ground Clamps
4.
Grounding Conductors (NEC Section 810-21)
5.
Antenna Discharge Unit (NEC Section 810-20)
6.
Ground Clamp
7.
Antenna Lead-in Wire
Precautions for products with modems,
telecommunications, or local area network options
In addition to the general precautions described earlier, be sure to observe the following precautions
when operating telecommunications and network equipment. Failure to observe these precautions
could result in fire, bodily injury, and damage to the equipment.
●
Do not connect or use a modem, telephone (other than a cordless type), LAN product, or cable
during a lightning storm. There may be a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
●
Never connect or use a modem or telephone in a wet location.
●
Do not plug a modem or telephone cable into the Network Interface Card (NIC) receptacle.
●
Disconnect the modem cable before opening a product enclosure, touching or installing internal
components, or touching an uninsulated modem jack.
●
Do not use a telephone line to report a gas leak while you are in the vicinity of the leak.
●
If this product was not provided with a telephone line cord, use only No. 26 AWG or larger
telecommunication line cord in order to reduce the risk of fire.
Precautions for products with laser devices
All HP systems equipped with a laser device comply with safety standards, including International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60825 and its relevant national implementations. With specific
regard to the laser, the equipment complies with laser product performance standards set by
government agencies for a Class 1 laser product. The product does not emit hazardous light; the
beam is totally enclosed during all modes of customer operation.
Precautions for products with modems, telecommunications, or local area network options
33
Laser safety warnings
In addition to the general precautions described earlier, be sure to observe the following warnings
when operating a product equipped with a laser device. Failure to observe these warnings could
result in fire, bodily injury, and damage to the equipment.
WARNING! Do not operate controls, make adjustments, or perform procedures to a laser device
other than those specified in the operators manual or in the laser device installation guide.
Allow only service partners to repair the laser equipment.
Compliance with CDRH regulations
The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
implemented regulations for laser products on August 2, 1976. These regulations apply to laser
products manufactured from August 1, 1976. Compliance is mandatory for products marketed in the
United States.
Compliance with international regulations
All HP systems equipped with a laser device comply with appropriate safety standards including IEC
60825 and IEC 60950.
Laser product label
The following label or equivalent is located on the surface of your laser device. This label indicates
that the product is classified as a CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT.
34
Chapter 9 Electrical and mechanical safety
Symbols on equipment
The following table contains safety icons that may appear on HP equipment. Refer to this table for an
explanation of the icons, and heed the warnings that accompany them.
This symbol, when used alone or in conjunction with any of
the following icons, indicates the need to consult the
operating instructions provided with the product.
WARNING: A potential risk exists if the operating
instructions are not followed.
This symbol indicates the presence of electric shock
hazards. Enclosures marked with these symbols should only
be opened by a service partner.
WARNING: To avoid risk of injury from electric shock, do not
open this enclosure.
An RJ-45 receptacle marked with this symbol indicates a
Network Interface Connection (NIC).
WARNING: To avoid risk of electric shock, fire, or damage to
the equipment, do not plug telephone or telecommunications
connectors into this receptacle.
This symbol indicates the presence of a hot surface or
component. Touching this surface could result in bodily
injury.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of injury from a hot
component, allow the surface to cool before touching.
These symbols indicate that the equipment is supplied by
multiple sources of power.
WARNING: To avoid risk of injury from electric shock,
remove all power cords to completely disconnect power from
the system.
Any product or assembly marked with these symbols
indicates that the component exceeds the recommended
weight for one individual to handle safely.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of personal injury or damage
to the equipment, observe local occupational health and
safety requirements and guidelines for manual material
handling.
This symbol indicates the presence of a sharp edge or object
that can cause cuts or other bodily injury.
WARNING: To prevent cuts or other bodily injury, do not
contact sharp edge or object.
Symbols on equipment
35
These symbols indicate the presence of mechanical parts
that can result in pinching, crushing or other bodily injury.
WARNING: To avoid risk of bodily injury, keep away from
moving parts.
This symbol indicates the presence of moving parts that can
result in bodily injury.
WARNING! Hazardous moving parts. To avoid risk of
bodily injury, keep away from moving fan blades.
This symbol indicates the presence of a potential tip over
hazard that can result in bodily injury.
WARNING: To avoid risk of bodily injury, follow all
instructions for maintaining stability of the equipment during
transport, installation and maintenance.
36
Chapter 9 Electrical and mechanical safety
10 More information
If you want more information about arrangement of work space and equipment or safety standards,
refer to the following organizations:
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
11 West 42nd St.
New York, NY 10036
http://www.ansi.org
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES)
P.O. Box 1369
Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369
http://www.hfes.org
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
Central Secretariat
3, rue de Varembé
P.O. Box 131
CH1211 GENEVA 20, Switzerland
http://www.iec.ch
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Central Secretariat
1, rue de Varembé, Case postale 56
CH-1211 GENEVA 20, Switzerland
http://www.iso.ch
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
NIOSH Publications
4676 Columbia Pkwy, MS C13
Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh
37
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Publications Office
U.S. Department of Labor
200 Constitution Ave. NW, Room N3101
Washington, DC 20210
http://www.osha.gov
TCO Development
Linnégatan 14
SE-114 94 Stockholm, Sweden
http://www.tcodevelopment.com
38
Chapter 10 More information
Index
A
accessories 30
antenna grounding
local area network (LAN)
32
B
battery pack 30
M
mechanical safety 26
modem 33
monitor
adjusting guidelines 11
placement 10, 12, 14
support cover 30
C
casters 31
chair height 4
chemical safety 26
children 3, 21
N
neck 2, 11, 19
D
docking base 30
dual monitors 14
O
options 30
overheating warning
E
electric shock 26
electrical safety 25
energy safety 26
P
parent monitoring 21
pointing 9
positions 6
reclined 1
seated 1
standing 1
power cord 28
power lines 32
power supply 31
power surge 32
F
fingers 9
fire 26
footrest 4
forearm support 5
G
ground clamp 33
H
hands 7, 9
health monitoring 23
heat 26
L
laser devices 33
laser safety 34
lightning 32
33
iii, 30
seated position 1
server enclosure 30
server rack 31
shoulders 7
standing position 1
symbols on equipment 35, 36
T
tablet 17
teacher monitoring 21
telecommunications 33
television antenna 32
touch-enabled
monitor 15
tablet 17
touching 9, 15, 17
turtle posture 2
typing 9
W
warning
laser safety 34
overheating iii, 30
safety symbols 35
work space organizations 37
work surface guidelines 8
wrists 7, 8
R
rack-mountable products 31
radiation 26
rechargeable battery pack 30
reclined position 1
S
safety interlocks 30
safety standards organizations
37
safety symbols 35
Index
39
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