Home energy tips
Home
energy tips
Safe electricity at home
Is your home electrically safe? Using electricity is safe, provided
that you remember the ground rules and don’t take any unnecessary risks. Accidents with electricity are rare, but nevertheless lives
are lost by electric shock every year. Electricity can also cause fires.
Most of these accidents are a result of damaged or incorrectly
repaired electrical devices. This guide contains instructions on the
steps you need to take to make sure that the electrics in your home
are safe.
Contents:
Is your home electrically safe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Ground rules for electrical safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Identification of different types of socket indoors. . . . . . . . . . 5
Electrical safety outdoors and in ‘wet’ rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
How to avoid electrical fires at home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
What to do if an electrical device catches fire . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Use a professional for electrical work at home . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
These jobs you can do yourself. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Things to remember before starting electrical work!. . . . . . . . 8
Sensible energy use
By using energy sensibly, you can avoid unnecessary energy
consumption, save money, your household appliances and the
environment, as well as energy. Here are a few tips on the use and
care of various household appliances.
Use energy sensibly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Residents and economical energy use at home. . . . . . . . . . . . 9
What consumes energy at home?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Heating uses a lot of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Big potential savings in lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Sorting and recycling
electrical devices and light bulbs
Correct sorting of discarded electrical equipment and light bulbs
is good for the environment. Equipment and bulbs that are still
in working order should be passed on for further use. This guide
contains information on recycling electrical equipment and light
bulbs, as well as where you can find further information.
Control the consumption of entertainment electronics. . . . . 14
Sensible refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Cook’s energy-saving tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Save energy in dishwashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Tips for taking care of your clothes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Curb stand-by consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Choose energy-efficient appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Electricity consumption of electrical equipment . . . . . . . . . . 22
Sort and recycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Sort correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Where should you take electrical and electronic waste? . . . . 24
Sorting light bulbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Passing on working electrical equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Electricity quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Energy Advisory Centre – contact details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Useful websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2
3
Is your home electrically safe?
Electricity is safe, provided that you stick to a few basic rules and
don’t take unnecessary risks. Accidents with electricity are rare in
homes, but nevertheless people are killed by electric shock every
year. Electricity can also cause fires. Most of these accidents result
from faulty, incorrectly repaired equipment or incorrect use, such as
drying laundry in the sauna.
Identification of different
types of sockets indoors
There may be two types of sockets in homes: unearthed and joined
to earth. In new buildings, all sockets are earthed.
The earthing protects the user from electric shock if an earthed
piece of equipment develops an electrical fault. Earthed sockets are
usually safety sockets.
Plastic safety plugs are available for unearthed sockets.
Ground rules for
electrical safety
• Use electrical devices
correctly and only in
places where they are
intended to be used.
Remember!
• Have damaged electrical
appliances and
installations repaired.
• If the plug of a device
won’t fit in the socket,
the device is in a wrong
place.
• Remember to be careful
with electricity outdoors
and in ‘wet’ rooms.
• Check the condition
of the cords of your
electrical appliances.
Earthed socket
• If the cord is brittle,
broken or otherwise
damaged, have it
replaced.
• Don’t try to repair electrical devices yourself.
Let professionals do it.
• In the event of faults or
accidents, remove the
plug of the device from
the socket or turn off the
power from the main
switch on the fuse box.
4
Unearthed socket
5
Electrical safety outdoors
and in ‘wet’ rooms
Only waterproof electrical equipment should be used outdoors and
in ‘wet’ rooms. An outdoor socket has a cover.
An additional precaution outdoors or in damp areas is a fault current
breaker, which is usually installed in the fuse box of the house or as a
separate device connected to the outdoor socket. The fault current
breaker supplements the protection afforded by the fuse and functions in the same way, by cutting off the power in fault situations.
How to avoid electrical fires at home
• Look after your electrical appliances, and have
faulty items repaired.
• Position the electrical
appliance correctly, do
not block its air vents.
• Do not leave your
cooker, television set,
washing machine or
dishwasher switched
on without supervision.
What to do if an
electrical device
catches fire
• Remove the plug from
the socket or turn off the
power using the main
switch of the fuse box.
• Do not leave a hot
iron, toaster or grill
unsupervised.
• Always follow the instructions of the device.
Covered socket with a fault current breaker
Remember!
• Do not store electrical
equipment outdoors or
in damp spaces.
• Remove people from
immediate danger.
Toxic smoke is very
dangerous.
• Keep an eye on the
condition of your electrical installations, and
have them checked if
necessary.
• Use initial firefighting
equipment to put out
the fire (hand fire extinguisher, fire blanket).
• Electrical equipment kept in
sheds, garages etc. may be
damaged by frost.
• Leave the site rapidly
and close the door
behind you.
• Always use an outdoor
socket to plug in a device
to be used outside.
• Call the fire service
(112) from a safe
distance.
• Direct the fire service
to the fire
Socket with a fault current breaker
6
7
Use a professional for electrical
work at home
Actual electrical work and installations can only be
carried out by qualified electricians. Always use a
registered and competent contractor. Always draw up a
written agreement detailing the work you have ordered.
Use energy sensibly
Residents and economical
energy use at home
These jobs you can do yourself
The residents are an important part
of energy economy at home, as
The consumer can do the following jobs at home himself:
replace a fuse, socket cover, light switch cover and the cord switch
of a lamp, and a damaged plug and a cord of
an electrical appliance.
• real energy efficiency at home always
depends on the residents’ actions and
habits.
With the help of appropriate instructions,
you may also:
• make and repair a single-phase
Always remember
extension cord
before starting
• connect a lamp to a
electrical work!
‘sugar cube’ connector
• Use a professional if you
• attach a plug to a lamp
are not sure of your skills.
• by placing, using and looking after
home appliances sensibly they last
longer and save energy.
• Cut off the power from
the appliance with the
main switch or by
removing the fuses.
• Make sure that nobody
can connect the power
to the appliance during
electrical work.
• When repairing an electrical appliance, first remove
the plug from the socket.
Further information on electrical safety: www.tukes.fi
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9
What consumes energy at home?
DISHWASHING
4%
LIGHTS ETC.
30 %
LAUNDRY
4%
HVAC
EQUIPMENT
ENTERTAINMENT
14 %
HEATING
THE CAR
4%
10
HOME
APPLIANCES
ALTOGETHER
100 %
11
HOT
WATER
Heating uses a lot of energy
Big potential savings in lighting
Two-thirds of household energy consumption goes to heating and
hot water, the remaining one-third to home appliances.
• Make sure windows and doors are draughtproofed, as they have
a significant effect on thermal energy consumption.
• Set the room temperature to suit the purpose of the room.
A drop of one degree in room temperature is equivalent to about
five per cent saving in annual energy consumption. The recommended room temperature is 20 - 22°C.
• A cross-draught is the most efficient method of airing a room.
Don’t leave ventilation windows open during the heating season.
• Take showers in preference to baths. Don’t run hot water unnecessarily, but turn off the shower tap while lathering.
• AboutLight
a fifth
of domestic electricity
is used in lighting.
bulb type
Light colour Kelvin (K)
• The average
number
homes is more than 20.
Incandescent
bulbof lamps in
2,700
Compact
bulb
2,700-4,000
• Remember
to fluorescent
turn off the
lights
when you leave a room.
Fluorescent
• The lumen
(lm) tube
value describes2,700-6,500
the volume of light given off by
Halogen bulb
3,000
a bulb.
When
Led
bulb selecting a new bulb,
3,000-check
6,500 the lumen value on
the package
Daylight so that you get a bulb
5,500that gives off sufficient light
Colour temperatures of light bulbs
candlelight
daylight
night sky
1,800 4,000 5,500 8,000 12,000 16,000
Luminous flux of light bulbs
Incandescent bulb
Compact fluorescent bulb
Power (W) Luminous flux (lm) Power (W) Luminous flux (lm)
Electrical appliances 30 %
Heating 50 %
100
75
60
40
25
15
1,380
960
730
430
230
120
23
20
15
11
7
5
1,150-1,500
800-1,300
750-950
530-700
260-400
150-250
Information on sensible energy use: Helen.fi and Energianeuvoja.fi
Colour temperatures of light bulbs
Hot water 20 %
Light bulb type
Incandescent bulb
Compact fluorescent bulb
Fluorescent tube
Halogen bulb
Led bulb
Daylight
candlelight
Light colour Kelvin (K)
2,700
2,700-4,000
2,700-6,500
3,000
3,000- 6,500
5,500
daylight
night sky
1,800 4,000 5,500 8,000 12,000 16,000
12
13
Luminous flux of light bulbs
Control the consumption of
entertainment electronics
Homes contain more and more entertainment electronics, such
as computers, TV sets, digital equipment and games consoles.
The share of entertainment electronics in household electricity
consumption is about 10 - 35%, depending on the size of the
household and the quantity of entertainment electronics.
• Turn on the device only when you need to use it. Turn off the
device when you are no longer using it.
• Apply the power-saving features in a computer. A screensaver
does not save electricity.
• When buying a new device, compare the power and energy
consumption.
• A laptop computer uses considerably less electricity than
a desktop one.
• The consumption of an LCD television during use is lower
than that of a equal sized tube television set. The consumption
of a plasma screen set is higher whereas the bigger the screen,
the higher the electricity consumption.
Sensible refrigeration
• Refrigeration equipment uses on average 10% of household electricity. Their energy efficiency is substantially affected by the way
they are used.
• Place the refridgerator and freezer in a dry place indoors. Pay
attention to the air circulation space required, to be found in
the installation manual. Remember also that a fridge or freezer
should not be placed next to a heat-generating device.
• Set the correct storage temperatures: fridge +5°C and freezer
–18°C. Temperature drop by one degree increases electricity
consumption by about 5%.
• Overfilling the fridge and constant opening of the door can
increase electricity consumption by up to 50%.
• Do not put hot food in the fridge or freezer.
• Close packages, use lids and cling film to protect products.
• Remember to clean the surfaces and seals of the refrigeration
equipment regularly and to defrost the freezer at the
latest when the ice layer is a centimetre thick.
There are dedicated energy efficiency standards for
consumption during use
and at stand-by mode for
entertainment electronics
and office equipment.
14
15
Cook’s energy-saving tips
Save energy in dishwashing
Cooker/Stove
• Set the maximum temperature for initial heating, but reduce the
setting in good time.
• Use cooking pots and pans with thick bottoms and lids.
• Use a small amount of water and heat only the quantity required
at the time.
• Make use of pre-heating and residual heat. Many dishes can be
placed in a cold oven, so that the initial heating energy is utilised.
• Use the oven to cook larger amounts at the same time, as heating
up the oven expends more energy than keeping it hot. In a convection oven, you can bake two baking sheets full at the same time.
• Wash full loads in the dishwasher and select the program
according to the degree of soiling.
• There is no need to rinse dishes before putting them in the
dishwasher. Use a scraper to remove food scraps off the plates.
• When washing dishes by hand, don’t leave the tap running.
Wash and rinse the dishes in the sink.
• Do not leave the dishwasher unsupervised.
• Clean the dishwasher filters regularly and wipe
the door seals and outer edges.
Microwave oven
• Use the microwave oven for cooking and heating up small
portions of food. For reheating a ready meal, the microwave
is quicker and more energy-efficient than the cooker.
• Stir the food during heating and use a microwave cover. This way,
the defrosting/reheating of the food is quicker and more even.
The plastic cover also protects the oven from getting dirty.
• Use power settings suitable for the purpose.
• Defrost frozen foods on the defrost setting of the microwave.
16
Cleaning the dishwasher
Remove the lime scale regularly using citric acid available
from the pharmacy: Measure 2-3 tbsp of citric acid in
the detergent dispenser, and run the 65-degree wash
cycle on the empty machine. Stop the program before
the drying stage, as drying may rebake any remaining
residue on the machine walls. Finally rinse the machine
using the rinse program.
17
Tips for taking care of your clothes
Washing instructions on labels
When washing and drying clothes and other textiles, energy saving is
based on the economic use of machines and their regular care.
DRYING
Tumble dry, gentle
(lower temperature)
WASHABLE
• Wash full loads.
• Select the washing temperature and program according to
the care instructions on the textiles and the degree of soiling.
• Measure the detergent according to the directions.
• Keep the washing machine clean. Clean the fluff filter and wipe
the seals regularly.
• The most economical alternative for drying laundry is hanging
them out to dry.
• Effective spinning reduces the drying time and energy consumption.
95
Normal program
95 degrees
95
Delicates program
95 degrees
60
Normal program
60 degrees
60
Delicates program
60 degrees
May be spun
40
Normal program
40 degrees
Do not spin
40
Delicates program
40 degrees
Dry flat
30
Delicates program
30 degrees
30
Very gentle program
30 degrees
Drip-dry
Hand
wash only
Dry in the shade. Drying outdoors may cause the colours to
change. This instruction may
be found in e.g. silk garments.
Tumble dry,
normal
Do not
tumble dry
Line dry. Line dry,
reshape while damp
Do not wash
Cleaning the
washing machine
Residues collected in the
washing machine should
be removed at least a
couple of times a year:
Buy some citric acid from
the pharmacy and measure 100 grams into the
detergent dispenser. Clean
the empty machine by
running the high-temperature (90°- 95°) program.
18
After washing, wring gently by
hand or short spin in the washing
machine to remove excess water
before drying.
Lines below the symbol mean
extra care. They may be below
or alongside each other.
CAN BE IRONED
Do not iron
Max. ironing temperature 110 °C
Max. ironing temperature 150 °C
Max. ironing temperature 200 °C
Do not wring
DRY-CLEAN ONLY
CAN BE BLEACHED
Dry-clean only
Can be
bleached
Do not
dry-clean
Oxygen
bleaching only
The dry-clean symbol
may contain a letter,
e.g. P, F or W.
19
Do not
bleach
Curb stand-by consumption
As well as during use, almost all electrical
appliances use electricity also on stand-by mode.
• Of household electricity consumption, 5-10% is estimated to
result from using stand-by.
• Remember to turn off the device from the main switch when not
in use.
• An extension cord equipped with a switch allows several devices
to be turned off at the same time.
There are dedicated energy efficiency standards for consumption
during use and on stand-by for entertainment electronics and office
equipment.
The ENERGY STAR labelling and TCO quality and environmental
labelling help to sort out the energy-efficient solutions
in information technology.
ENERGY STAR
Choose energy-efficient appliances
Energy labelling helps in selecting an energy-efficient appliance.
Common EU energy labelling
In the EU countries, a standard system of energy labelling creates an
image of reliability and provides comparable information on the energy consumption of domestic appliances. The information is based
on the results of manufacturers’ measurements under the standard.
The energy labelling covers refrigeration appliances, washing
machines, washer-dryers, tumble dryers, dishwashers,
ovens, light bulbs and air-conditioning units.
In the future, the labelling obligations may be extended to
other product groups.
The international ENERGY
STAR label sets the standards
for the energy consumption
of office equipment. All large
computer manufacturers have
models complying with the
requirements of the label.
TCO
The TCO label sets the standards on the energy efficiency,
environmental friendliness and
ergonomics of items such as
monitors and computers.
In Finland, the authority monitoring the maintenance and
compliance with regulations of
energy labelling is the Safety
Technology Authority Tukes.
20
21
Electricity consumption of electrical appliances
1 kWh = 10c
Electricity
consumtion
kWh
Dishwasher
kWh / use
Times used
0.5 - 1.6
Refrigeration
5 / wk
130 - 416
€ / year
13 - 42
kWh / 24hours
110 - 694
11 - 69
kWh / 24 hours
- 2 persons/household
0.5
7 / wk
182
18
- 4 persons/household
1.0
7 / wk
365
37
- heating oven to
200 degrees
- keeping oven at
200 degrees/hour
Laundry, washing
and drying
0.5
3 / wk
78
8
0.7
3 / wk
109
11
kWh / use
- washing machine
0.6 - 1.7
5 / wk
156 - 442
16 - 44
- tumble dryer
1.9 - 5.5
5 / wk
494 - 1430
49 - 143
4
5 / wk
1040
104
- drying cabinet
Iron
kWh / hour
1
Sauna (1.5 h)
1 h / wk
Vacuum cleaner
2 / wk
5
832
Electricity
consumtion
kWh
Times used
kWh /
year approx.
Computer
kWh / hour
- computer
0.14 - 0.50
8 h / day
409 - 1460
41 - 146
0.04
8 h / day
117
12
- 3 m²
540 - 1980
54 - 198
- 6 m²
1080 - 3960
108 - 396
2200
220
- 2 rooms plus kitchen
1080
108
- 4 rooms plus kitchen
1800
180
Underfloor heating
Additional heater
1000 W
Individual ventilation
(apartment)
kWh / 10 min.
Coffee maker
0.1
Kettle
0.2
Microwave oven
0.2
Toaster
0.1
Calculating electricity consumption
1 h / wk
78
8
kWh / hour
1 kW = 1000 W
Output of device (kW) x time used (h) = consumption of device (kWh)
Multiply the power (kW) of an appliance with the time (h) of use and you get the
electricity consumption in kWh (kilowatthours). When the consumption (kWh) is
multiplied with the electricity price, the cost of use is solved.
- picture tube
0.10
5 h / day
183
18
40’’- 42” LCD
0.07 - 0.15
5 h / day
128 - 274
13 - 27
42” - 50” plasma
0.17 - 0.40
5 h / day
310 - 730
31 - 73
- digibox
49
5
A more extensive list of current prices can be found at www.helen.fi
- recordable digibox
100
10
Helsingin Energia lends consumption meters to its clients.
Example: The electricity consumption of a compact fluorescent bulb
(the power output 15 W) during eight hours is 0.015 kW x 8 h = 0.12 kWh,
which costs 0.12 kWh x 10 c = 1.2 c.
Correct answers to the electricity quiz : 1, 1, X, X, 2, 1, X, X, X, X
22
€ / year
83
kWh / hour
1.5
Television
52
kWh / use
8
1 kWh = 10c
- laptop computer
0.3 - 1.9
Electric cooker
kWh /
year approx.
23
Sort and recycle
Sorting of waste saves natural resources and reduces the problems
caused by landfill sites. Unsorted mixed waste is a drain on the
purse and the environment. Sorting hazardous waste prevents
toxic substances from ending up in landfills or in nature.
Circulation of usable goods and equipment for reuse has clear
environmental benefits.
Sort correctly
Home appliances, lamps and LED bulbs are electrical and
electronics waste which must not be put in mixed waste or
left in the refuse area of the property.
There are detailed sorting instructions on the Helsinki Region
Environmental Services Authority (HSY) website. Its guidelines
include, for example, what you may put in the biowaste container,
and what constitutes hazardous waste. The site also contains
sorting guidelines for house-builders and renovators.
Where should you take electrical and electronic waste?
Electrical and electronic waste (SER) comprises all discarded
devices that require an electric current or electromagnetic field
to work. They can be taken to e.g. HSY’s SER collection point.
Items that belong in the SER collection:
• Large and small domestic appliances: fridges, freezers, washing
machines, electric cookers, microwave ovens, vacuum cleaners,
coffee makers, irons and toasters
• Information and telecoms technology devices: computers,
printers, photocopiers, calculators, telephones, answering
machines and fax machines
• Consumer electronic devices: radios, television sets, video
cameras and recorders, and sound reproduction equipment
• Lamps, LED bulbs
• Electrical and electronic tools: drills, saws, sewing machines
and welding equipment
• Toys, sport and leisure equipment: electric train sets, racing
24
tracks, video games, and sports equipment containing electrical
and electronic components
• Observation and monitoring equipment: fire alarms, heating
control devices and thermostats
These items do not belong in the SER collection:
• Fuses
• Electric wiring
• Cables
• Combustion engines
Sorting
light bulbs
Further information on sorting
waste and the local refuse
collection points in the Helsinki
area at www.hsy.fi
• Incandescent and
halogen bulbs are
mixed waste.
Waste management companies in
other parts of Finland have websites
with information on the waste
disposal arrangements in the area.
• Compact fluorescent
bulbs and tubes are
hazardous waste.
• LED bulbs belong in
the SER collection.
Passing on working electrical appliances
Electrical appliances that are in working order can be taken to
the outlets of Helsinki Metropolitan Area Reuse Centre Ltd. There
are four in the Helsinki area: one in Vantaa and Espoo and two in
Helsinki.
These outlets sell economical and usable goods, as well as provide
information on user habits that burden the environment less.
More information on recycling and reuse
also at www.kierratyskeskus.fi
The Finnish Solid Waste Association
has its own national recycling points:
www.kierratys.info
25
Electricity quiz
My answers
My notes
1. The service voltage in Finland is:
1 230 V (volts)
X 110 V
2 660 V
2. Of Helsingin Energia’s power plants, the biggest producer of electricity and
district heat is:
1 Vuosaari
X Hanasaari
2 Salmisaari
3. The colour of the symbol and the bottom plate of a 10 A (ampere) fuse is:
1 green
X red
2 grey
4. The maximum load (W) that can be placed on a 10 A fuse is:
1 1,380 W (watt)
X 2,300 W
2 3,680 W
5. An grounded plug is found in:
1 a TV set
X a shaver
2 a washing machine
6. A grounded socket with a lid must always be installed:
1 on the balcony
X in the hall
2 in the living room
7. If the power of domestic appliances in the stand-by mode is 100 W,
the electricity consumption is:
1 0.24 kWh / 24 hours
X 2.4 kWh / 24 hours
2 24 kWh / 24 hours
8. The consumption of domestic appliances on stand-by mode is:
1 non-existent
X 5-10% of the total annual consumption
2 half of total electricity consumption
9. If the price of electricity is 10 c/kWh, the cost of half an hour’s
cleaning with a 1,000 W vacuum cleaner is:
1 10 c (cent)
X 5c
2 2c
10. It is sensible and energy-efficient:
1 to keep the computer on all the time, so it can be used quickly
X to turn off the computer whenever it is not in use
2 to turn off the computer for an hour in every 24 hours, to prevent
overheating
26
27
Energy Advisory Centre
Advice on energy use
We provide guidance in home energy matters. We offer information
on the selection, positioning and care of electric household appliances.
We also provide information on the energy efficiency of lighting and
entertainment electronics. We lend meters to our customers for
measuring the electricity usage of appliances. Our services
are free of charge. Telephone (09) 617 2726
Advice on heating
We provide advice on selecting a heating method and supplementary
heating solutions. Telephone (09) 617 4010
Contracts and bills
We provide guidance on matters related to contracts and bills.
Telephone 010 802 802
Street address:
Kampinkuja 2, Malminrinne 6, 3rd Floor
Open: Mon-Fri 8.30 - 16.00
[email protected]fi
Useful websites
www.helen.fi
www.energianeuvoja.fi
www.ilmastoinfo.fi
www.tukes.fi
www.motiva.fi
www.hsy.fi
www.kierratyskeskus.fi
www.kierratys.info
www.ymparistomerkki.fi
www.eu-energystar.org/fi
www.ekosuunnittelu.fi
www.keittiotieto.fi
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