HP 11i User's manual

HP 11i User's manual
ACC HDLC/LAP-D Protocol User’s Guide
Edition 4
HP 9000 EISA Computers
Manufacturing Part Number: Z7487-90006
E0400
© Copyright 2000 Hewlett-Packard Company
2
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3
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4
Preface
The HDLC/LAP-D Protocol Product is used in conjunction with HewlettPackard’s Advanced Communications Controller (ACC) product.
Specifically this protocol applies only to the E1/T1 4-port multiplexer
cards (Z7300A etc.)
This manual applies to the ACC Protocols for Application Developers
product.
This manual explains installing the HDLC/LAP-D protocol module and
configuring it into the ACC product.
5
Publishing History
The Printing History below identifies the edition of this manual and any
updates that are included. Periodically, update packages are distributed
which contain replacement pages to be merged into the manual,
including an updated copy of this printing history page. Also, the update
may contain write-in instructions.
Each reprinting of this manual will incorporate all past updates;
however, no new information will be added. Thus, the reprinted copy will
be identical in content to prior printings of the same edition with its
user-inserted update information. New editions of this manual will
contain new information, as well as all updates.
Manual updates may be issued between editions to correct errors or
document product changes. To ensure that you receive the updated or
new editions, you should subscribe to the appropriate product support
service. See your HP sales representative for details.
First Edition
January 1997.
Release B.02.30
Second Edition
June 1997
Release B.02.39 (HP-UX 10.10)
Release B.02.40 (HP-UX 10.20)
Third Edition
October 1998
Release B.03.01 (HP-UX 11.0)
Fourth Edition
April 2000
Release B.03.10 (HP-UX 11.0)
6
Organization
This manual contains the following chapters and appendices:
Chapter 1
Introduction - presents an overview of the features provided
by the HDLC/LAP-D Protocol product.
Chapter 2
Software Installation and Verification - describes
how to install the protocol module software. It describes how to
verify that the protocol software is correctly installed and is
functional.
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol - contains information
about using the HDLC/LAP-D protocol
Chapter 4
Protocol Specific Configuration - contains HDLC/
LAP-D specific configuration information.
Appendix A
Sample Configuration Files - contains a listing of
the sample configuration files provided with this
product.
7
Related Documentation
The documentation available for the Multiprotocol ACC family of
products includes the following hardware and software manuals:
Hardware Manuals
• 8 Channel HP-PB ACC Multiplexer Hardware Installation and
Reference Manual
• 8 Channel EISA ACC Multiplexer Hardware Installation and
Reference Manual
• 8 Channel PCI ACC Multiplexer Hardware Installation and Reference
Manual
• 2 Channel (HP-PB) ACC Multiplexer Hardware Installation and
Reference Manual
• 4-Chan. T1/E1 (HP-PB) ACC Multiplexer Hardware Installation and
Reference Manual
Software Manuals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8
ACC Installation and Configuration Guide
ACC Utilities Reference Guide
ACC Programmer’s Reference Guide
ACC Error Guide
HDLC Frame Protocol User’s Guide
ACC X.25 Protocol User’s Guide
ACC X.25/ISDN Data Analyzer User’s Guide
ACC HDLC/LAP-B (ABM) Protocol User’s Guide
ACC HDLC/LAP-D Protocol User’s Guide
HDLC-NRM (SDLC) Protocol User’s Guide
X.25/ACC Installation and Configuration Guide
X.25/ACC Update Guide
X.25/9000 User’s Guide
X.25/9000 Programmer’s Guide
Contents
1. Overview
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Product Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Supported Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
2. Software Installation and Verification
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Software Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Software Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Running Swinstall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Product Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Installation Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Using the HDLC/LAP-D Protocol Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Verification Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3. Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
General Protocol Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Application Message Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Unnumbered Information Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Timeout Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Request Specific Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Terminal Enable/Disable Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Terminal Activate/Deactivate Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Write (Transmit) Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Control Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
9
Contents
Received Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Status and Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Terminal Request Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsolicited Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write Completion Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control Write Completion Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Read Completion Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
32
33
36
36
37
4. Protocol Specific Configuration
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Interface-Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Port-Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Subchannel-Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Terminal-Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Predefined Configuration Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poll Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
First Option Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second Option Word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
47
48
49
50
A. Sample Configuration Files
Sample Network Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10
1
Overview
11
Overview
Introduction
Introduction
The HDLC/LAP-D Protocol product is the Data Link or Level 2 layer
used in conjunction with the Advanced Communications Controller
(ACC) product. This manual provides installation and configuration
information that is specific to the HDLC/LAP-D protocol.
NOTE
The ACC HDLC/LAP-D Protocol product currently runs only on the
4-channel E1/T1 Multiprotocol ACC card.
Product Features
The LAP-D (Link Access Procedure - D Channel) protocol is defined in
ITU-T Recommendation Q.921.
Supported Devices
Any device which conforms to the published HDLC/LAP-D standards
will be supported by this ZCOM HDLC/LAP-D implementation.
12
Chapter 1
Overview
References
References
For information on installing the ACC product and how to start up the
ACC Subsystem, refer to the ACC Installation and Configuration Guide.
For information on use of the ZCOM Programmatic Interface, refer to the
ACC Programmer’s Reference Guide.
For information on using the utilities related to the ACC products, refer
to the ACC Utilities Reference Guide.
For information on error messages related to the ACC products, refer to
the ACC Error Guide.
Chapter 1
13
Overview
References
14
Chapter 1
2
Software Installation and
Verification
15
Software Installation and Verification
Introduction
Introduction
The HDLC/LAP-D protocol is included in the ACC Developer Software
Suite product. This chapter describes how to install the product using
the swinstall utility. It also describes how to verify that the protocol has
been successfully installed and is functional.
16
Chapter 2
Software Installation and Verification
Software Removal
Software Removal
If a previous version of the HDLC/LAP-D protocol product is already on
the HP-UX system, it should first be removed.
CAUTION
It is very important to follow the instructions provided with the software
that is currently installed in the system to shutdown and remove that
software. This procedure may change between major releases of the
product.
Step 1. Log in to the system as superuser.
Step 2. Terminate the ACC Mux Subsystem by typing:
% zmastrd kill
Step 3. Run swremove to remove the HDLC/LAP-D protocol product.
% swremove
NOTE
The swremove will fail if any ACC daemon is still active. Terminate any
active ACC daemon indicated in the log file and try again.
Any of the ACC related products can be removed by selecting them and
then marking them for removal. (Both the terminal interface and the
GUI interface for swremove behave the same; only the means for
selecting items differs.)
Step 4. Select the HDLC/LAP-D protocol product (and any other items to be
removed) in the “Software Selection Window” and mark for removal,
using the “Mark for Remove” function under the “Actions” menu. When
all items are marked, select the “Remove(analysis)” action.
Open “Logfile” to view running status of the removal process, and follow
any screen prompts until the removal process is done.
Chapter 2
17
Software Installation and Verification
Software Installation
Software Installation
Running Swinstall
The ACC software is read from the HP-UX Application CD-ROM, in
superuser mode, using the swinstall utility. The steps are shown below.
Step 1. Log in to the system as “root”.
Step 2. Place the media in a local or remote CD-ROM drive.
Step 3. Run swinstall, which behaves the same in the GUI interface as for the
terminal interface. When the “Specify Source” box opens, select “Source
Depot Type” to “Local CDROM”, or for a remote CD-ROM driver, select
for “Network Directory/CDROM” and set “Source Host Name...”. Select
“OK”.
Step 4. Select the ACC Developer Software Suite product and any other ACC
items to be installed, from the list of software bundles; open the “Actions”
menu and select “Mark for Install”.
Step 5. When all items have been marked, select “Install (analysis)”; select “OK”
and proceed.
The “Install (analysis)” window allows you to track summary progress of
the installation process. Use the “Logfile” feature to display a detailed
status, which is logged to /var/adm/sw/swagent.log.
18
Chapter 2
Software Installation and Verification
Product Identification
Product Identification
The what utility can be run on /opt/acc/<card-type>/lapd.zabs. to
show what version of the protocols is installed.
Chapter 2
19
Software Installation and Verification
Installation Verification
Installation Verification
A sample configuration file /opt/acc/cfg/lapd_4ch_sample.answ file is
provided with the ACC Developer Software Suite product. This sample
file can be used to verify that the HDLC/LAP-D protocol module has been
properly installed and is functional. Note that you need to customize this
file, to reflect the location of the mux card(s) and to reflect the mux ports
to be used. (The lapd_4ch_sample.answ file is shown in Appendix A ,
“Sample Configuration Files,”.)
The steps in the verification process are listed below. It is assumed that
the ACC Developer Software Suite product is installed on the system,
and that there is at least one ACC Multiplexer card installed with
cabling attached.
A loopback cable should be used to connect two of the ports on the
multiplexer. For the configuration file provided, it is assumed that the
first two ports of the mux card are connected with a loopback cable.
Using the HDLC/LAP-D Protocol Module
The ACC Installation and Configuration Guide contains the general
procedure for configuring the network configuration file, and starting up
the ACC subsystem with the new protocol and new configuration. Refer
to Chapter 4 , “Protocol Specific Configuration,” for HDLC/LAP-D
specific configuration requirements when building the network
configuration file.
Verification Procedure
The procedure described involves using the ttgen, zmntr, and zterm
utilities. These utilities are described in the ACC Utilities Reference
Guide.
Step 1. Modify the Mux definition statement in the
/opt/acc/cfg/lapd_4ch_sample.answ to reflect the location of the ACC
Mux cards if necessary. (Refer to Chapter 4 , “Protocol Specific
Configuration,” for information on how to modify this statement.)
Step 2. The sample file only configures the first two ports of one mux card. If
desired, expand the configuration file to include additional ports.
20
Chapter 2
Software Installation and Verification
Installation Verification
For the test described here, the ports that will be logically connected
together must have one port configured as DTE, and the other as DCE.
NOTE
Run ttgen on the .answ file.
% ttgen -o lapd_4ch_sample.answ lapd_4ch_sample.tmem
ttgen: END$ 0 Disasters, 0 Errors, 0 Warnings
%
Step 3. Bring up the ZCOM subsystem:
% zmasterd cold /opt/acc/cfg/lapd_4ch_sample.tmem
Step 4. Monitor the log file:
It is suggested that the appropriate /var/opt/acc/log/*.tlog file, e.g.
mon.tlog, tue.tlog, etc. be monitored to make sure the ZCOM subsystem
comes up. The following zmlog messages could be seen:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------Tue Jun 17 11:28:55 1998: zmlog: message logging resumed
--------------------------------------------------------------------------11:28:54
11:28:54
11:28:54
11:28:55
11:28:55
11:28:55
11:28:58
11:28:58
11:28:58
11:28:58
11:28:59
zmast
zmast
zmast
zmon
zmon
zmon
zmon
zmon
zmon
zmast
zcom
00101
00117
00101
00002
00003
00100
00110
00020
00004
00101
00165
Launched daemon zmlog, pid 1704.
Zmasterd daemon start running ...
Launched daemon zmon, pid 1705.
Resource manager (Rev 1.32) for ZCOM 6.1.0.0
Cold start with: lapd_4ch_sample.tmem
Card 0 starting up ...
Card 0 startup successful, card READY
Cold start completed, ZCOM system ready
Waiting for ZMON requests ...
Launched daemon znode, pid 1726.
Node 123 is now UP
Step 5. The zmntr utility can be used to display the state of the HDLC/LAP-D
link:
% zmntr
ZMNTR> tt 600 601
ZLU# Mx p:sc Terminal Description....
0600 00 0:01 LAP-D DCE
0601 00 1:01 LAP-D DTE
**** ** ** Message totals
ZMNTR> ex
Chapter 2
Rx.Mes Tx.Mes Errors E.Rate
0
0
0 0.00%
0
0
0 0.00%
0
0
0 NaN %
State......
Disabled
Disabled
********
21
Software Installation and Verification
Installation Verification
Step 6. The link can now be enabled and brought up using the zterm utility:
% zterm
11:34:46 ZCOM Interactive command utility
11:34:46 Primary ZLU is 1001
ZTERM> rc 600 601
ZTERM> cn 600 601 en
ZTERM> cn 600 601 ac
ZTERM> ex
%
Step 7. The zmntr utility can be used to observe the state of the link:
% zmntr
ZMNTR> tt 600 601
ZLU# Mx p:sc Terminal Description...
0600 00 0:01 LAP-D DCE
0601 00 1:01 LAP-D DTE
**** ** ** Message totals
ZMNTR> ex
Rx.Mes Tx.Mes Errors E.Rate
0
0
0 0.00%
0
0
0 0.00%
0
0
0 NaN %
State.......
Up
Up
********
Step 8. With the zterm utility set as a receiver, test messages are sent from the
ZLUs:
% zterm
11:46:56 ZCOM Interactive command utility
11:46:56 Primary ZLU is 1001
ZTERM> rc 600 601
ZTERM> tx 600 50 0 2 2
11:47:14 TX test complete!!!
ZTERM>
NOTE
For this example two fifty-byte messages are transmitted from DCE to
DTE.
22
Chapter 2
Software Installation and Verification
Installation Verification
Step 9. The received data can now be displayed:
ZTERM> rx list
11:49:49 Msg from tmnl ZLU#00601(00123)
Lcn .00. .01. .02. .03. .04. .05. .06.
000 5A74 3031 3739 3800 206D 6573 7361
010 2030 3030 3031 206C 656E 6774 6820
020 6F70 7172 7374 7576 7758
len
50 No error detected
.07. .08. .09. ASCII.....ASCII.....
6765 206E 6F2E Zt01798 message no.
2020 2035 3024
00001 length
50$
opqrstuvwX
11:49:49 Msg from tmnl ZLU#00601(00123)
Lcn .00. .01. .02. .03. .04. .05. .06.
000 5A74 3031 3739 3800 206D 6573 7361
010 2030 3030 3032 206C 656E 6774 6820
020 6F70 7172 7374 7576 7758
len
50 No error detected
.07. .08. .09. ASCII.....ASCII.....
6765 206E 6F2E Zt01798 message no.
2020 2035 3024
00002 length
50$
opqrstuvwX
<CNTRL-C>
11:50:36
11:50:36
11:50:36
11:50:36
11:50:36
11:50:36
ZTERM>
Error on ZREAD: Interrupt occurs while waiting
Messages received
2,
Messages sent
Elapsed time secs
47,
Messages/sec
Data in KBytes
0,
Data rate (KB/s)
Sys CPU
0%, User CPU
0%,
Total CPU
0%
Mux
0 utilization
1%
Chapter 2
0
0
0
23
Software Installation and Verification
Installation Verification
24
Chapter 2
3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
25
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Introduction
Introduction
For a complete description of the communication formats the reader is
referred to the standards documents mentioned at the start of this
manual.
Each unit transmitted over an HDLC/LAP-D link is a “frame”. A frame
has a header and a trailing CRC, is preceded and followed by a flag byte
(binary 01111110), and may include an “I” (information) field as well.
Frames may be information transfer, supervisory or unnumbered. The
headers of information transfer and supervisory frames contain
frame-level sequence numbers.
The maximum length of the (received) I-field must be established and
agreed upon for any given HDLC/LAP-D link, so that buffering
requirements may be met and appropriate timer values set. The ACC
HDLC/LAP-D implementation will allow agreed maximum I-frame sizes
of up to 16,383 bytes. For further detail, see Chapter 4 , “Protocol Specific
Configuration.”
26
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
General Protocol Processing
General Protocol Processing
Application Message Headers
All application data is transmitted (or received) as the I-field of either an
information transfer frame or an unnumbered information frame. All
headers and/or trailers are supplied by the protocol for outgoing
messages and removed by the protocol for incoming messages. Only the
I-field data to be transferred is dealt with by the application program,
which need not even be aware that HDLC/LAP-D is being used for the
communications.
Unnumbered Information Frames
HDLC/LAP-D can transmit and receive I-fields within either numbered
information frames (I frames) or unnumbered information frames (UI
frames). To transmit and receive UI frames, a terminal must be defined
that has the UI bit set in the terminal’s Poll Word; see “Poll Word” on
page 47. All data sent to a UI terminal will be sent on the configured
SAPI/TEI as a UI frame. When a UI frame is received, and there is an
enabled UI terminal configured with a matching SAPI/TEI, the I-field of
the UI frame will be sent to that UI terminal.
To transmit and receive I frames, multiple frame acknowledged
operation must be established. Multiple frame acknowledged operation
is handled by terminals configured without the UI bit set. These
terminals handle all frames that are not associated with a configured
and enabled UI terminal.
The UI and non-UI terminals are capable of coexisting with each other
on a given SAPI/TEI as well as being able to independently exist. In
other words, there may be no terminals, just a UI terminal, just a non-UI
terminal or both a UI and non-UI terminal configured on a single
SAPI/TEI.
Chapter 3
27
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
General Protocol Processing
Timeout Processing
Frame timeouts are set in the Select configuration word. The T200 timer
defines the period within which a response to a Command frame must be
received across the HDLC/LAP-D link. Should this timer expire before
the expected response is received, then the Command frame will be
re-transmitted up to a pre-determined maximum number of times. The
maximum number of re-transmissions (N200) is also set by the Select
configuration word. If the timer expires on that number of successive
occasions, then the LAP-D link will be reset.
An additional timer, known as T203 is used to control the maximum
amount of time that can pass without any frames being exchanged. It is
configured in the first Option word and defaults to being
T200*N200*100/16.
28
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Request Specific Processing
Request Specific Processing
Terminal Enable/Disable Requests
Enabling a non-UI terminal causes the protocol to attempt to enter
multiple frame acknowledged operation (the state that allows
Information frames to be exchanged). Disabling a terminal causes the
non-UI terminal to exit multiple frame acknowledged operation. A newly
created terminal is initially disabled. Enabling/disabling UI terminals
simply allows/disallows the transmission and reception of UI frames.
These requests cause unsolicited status messages to be sent by the
protocol. For details regarding status codes and messages, see “Status
and Error Messages”, later in this chapter.
Terminal Activate/Deactivate Requests
Activating a non-UI terminal allows the terminal to receive data (the
protocol sends Receive Ready frames to indicate it is ready to receive
Information frames). Deactivating the terminal prevents the terminal
from receiving data (the protocol send Receive Not Ready frames). A
newly created terminal is initially deactivated. For UI terminals, these
requests only toggle the terminal activated flag; they do not affect the
reception of data.
Write (Transmit) Requests
The data sent to the protocol via a write request becomes the information
field within an I-frame or UI-frame.
The terminal must be enabled before any write requests may be sent to
the terminal. In addition, for an Information frame to be sent, multiple
frame acknowledged operation must have been established.
Chapter 3
29
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Request Specific Processing
Control Requests
All control writes to this protocol share a common format. The first four
bytes are defined as a header:
15
14
13
12
Control Code
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Control Length
Packet Length
Control Code
Defines the action to be taken by this request.
Control Length
The length of the data for this control request. This data
immediately follows the header.
Packet Length
Some protocols allow packet data (data to be transmitted
over the wire) to be passed to a control write following the
control request data. For this protocol, these two bytes
must be zero because the protocol does not allow packet
data within a control write.
This protocol allows the following Control Codes:
5
CW_STATS
Send ST25L2STAT status message
This control write triggers the protocol to send a
ST25L2STAT status message. For the format of this
message, see the section on “Status and Error Messages”.
Control length must be zero.
6
CW_REVCODE
Send ST25REVCD status message
This control write triggers the protocol to send a
ST25REVCD status message. For the format of this
message, see the section on “Status and Error Messages”.
Control length must be zero.
30
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Request Specific Processing
7
CW_TIMERS
Set timers
This request is only allowed for non-UI terminals. The
protocol’s timers may be changed from their configured
values using this control write. This request should be
used with caution because the values configured with this
request will not be restored if the card is reset by ZCOM.
The control request data consists of three pairs of bytes.
Each pair of bytes consists of a Resolution and a Value.
The legal values for Resolution are as follows: 0 = don’t
set, 1 = 10msec, 2 = 100msec, 3 = 1sec, 4 = 10sec.
Note that these values are different from the values used
for the resolutions when configuring a terminal. The
Values are used directly. A zero Value will disable the
timer if the resolution is non-zero.
The first pair of bytes applies to T200, the second pair is
ignored (should be set to zero) and the third pair apply to
T203:
15
14
13
12
T200 Resolution (0-4)
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
T200 Value (0-255)
0
T203 Resolution (0-4)
T203 Value (0-255)
Received Data
When I-frames or UI-frames are received, the information field is sent to
the associated ZLU.
Chapter 3
31
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
Status and Error Messages
HDLC/LAP-D produces a range of buffer status codes and unsolicited
status messages, apart from the standard communications statuses
described elsewhere in the ACC documentation. In the following
descriptions, the statuses marked with a dagger (†) are not generated by
UI terminals. The defines for these status codes are located in
/usr/include/zcom/zcomstatus.h and /usr/include/zcom/zx25status.h.
Terminal Request Status Codes
The following statuses are returned in response to a request to create,
destroy, enable, disable, activate or deactivate a terminal. Although
these are a part of the standard status set, they are not used by all
protocols, and have a particular significance within HDLC/LAP-D.
0
TM_OK
No error detected
The request was successfully processed. In the case of
enabling or disabling the terminal, this does not mean
that the link has been established or disconnected. The
link status is reported via unsolicited status messages.
1
TM_MUST_DSBL
Terminal must be disabled
This status code is returned in response to a terminal
delete request. Before deleting a terminal, it must be
disabled and the ST25DSBL unsolicited status message
must have been received.
12
TM_PROT_REJ
Protocol detected error
TM_PROT_REJ is returned in response to a terminal
enable request when the configuration specified by the
poll, select and option words is invalid. In addition to
returning TM_PROT_REJ, the protocol generates a
ST25ENF unsolicited status message. For configuration
information, Chapter 4 , “Protocol Specific
Configuration.” Another possible, although unlikely,
cause for TM_PROT_REJ is that an error occurred when
the protocol attempted to setup a group of LAP-D
terminals. In this case, the ST25ENF unsolicited status
message will not be generated.
32
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
14
TM_TABLE_SIZE
Protocol table sizes too small
The configured terminal table size is too small to allow
LAP-D to run. This status is returned in response to a
terminal creation request.
Unsolicited Status Messages
This section describe the unsolicited status messages which may be
received on the ZLU which is set as the receiver for a terminal using this
protocol. The status codes received may or may not have bit 7 set. Bit 7 is
the down bit (masked by IO_DOWN_MASK). The down bit is used as an
indicator of the link status. When an error occurs on the link or the link
is enabled after being disabled, the protocol attempts to enter multiple
frame acknowledged operation. Until the attempt succeeds or fails, the
down bit is clear (i.e. the terminal is considered to be up until proven
otherwise). If the attempt subsequently fails, the down bit is set;
otherwise the down bit left cleared. The following status messages are
generated in response to terminal enable and disable requests:
0
IO_OK
No error detected
This status message is generated in response to a
terminal enable request after multiple frame
acknowledged operation is established. Note that the
down bit will always be clear.
41
IO_ALRDY_ENBL
Terminal already enabled
This status message is generated in response to a
terminal enable request when the terminal is already
enabled and the protocol is not currently trying to
establish multiple frame acknowledged operation. If
the protocol is currently trying to establish multiple
frame acknowledged operation, this status message
will not be sent. Instead, either a ST25ENBL with the
down bit set or an IO_OK status message will be sent.
42
IO_ALRDY_DSBL
Terminal already disabled
This status message is generated in response to a
terminal disable request when the terminal is already
disabled. The down bit will always be set.
Chapter 3
33
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
64
ST25ENBL†
Link NOT established on ENABLE
This status message is generated in response to a
terminal enable request after it is determined that
multiple frame acknowledged operation can not be
established. The down bit will always be set.
65
ST25DSBL
Link disconnected on DISABLE
This status message is generated in response to a
terminal disable request after multiple frame
acknowledged operation has terminated. The down bit
will always be set.
77
ST25ENF
ENABLE failed - bad config
This status message is generated in response to a
terminal enable request when the terminal’s
configuration is invalid. The down bit will always be
set.
The following status messages are sent after an error occurs when the
link is in multiple frame acknowledged operation. The error conditions
include cable faults, inability to receive acknowledgment of transmitted
frames or receiving frames that are inconsistent with multiple frame
acknowledged operation. When one of these error conditions occur, the
protocol attempts to reestablish multiple frame acknowledged operation.
After the attempt has either succeeded or failed, the unsolicited status
message that reflects the original error condition is sent. If the attempt
fails, the link is considered disconnected and the down bit will be set in
the status; otherwise the link has only been reset and the down bit will
be clear.
66
ST25XDCD
Link disc. on loss of carrier
The card is no longer receiving the required
communications signals. This can be caused by incorrect
port configuration or disconnected/faulty cabling.
68
ST25RTRY†
Exceeded retransmit limit
A frame was transmitted N200 times without receiving
an acknowledgment from the remote.
34
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
69
ST25TXFR†
Reset/Disc. due to transmitted FRMR
An unrecognized frame was received by the protocol; this
causes LAP-D to reset the link by sending a SABME. For
consistent error handling between LAP-D and LAP-B
(which sends a FRMR instead of a SABME), the protocol
sends this status message. The data buffer contains the
information field of the FRMR that LAP-B would send.
70
ST25RXFR†
Reset/Disc. due to received FRMR
A frame reject response was received. A copy of the
received FRMR’s information field is in the data buffer of
the unsolicited status message.
71
ST25RXDM†
Reset/Disc. due to received DM
The protocol received a Disconnected Mode response.
72
ST25RXSA†
Reset/Disc. due to recvd SABM/SABME
A Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended command
was received by the protocol.
73
ST25RXDI†
Reset/Disc. due to received DISC
The protocol received a DISConnect command.
74
ST25RXUA†
Reset/Disc. due to received UA
An Unnumbered Acknowledgment response was
received by the protocol when the protocol had not
solicited a UA.
75
ST25RUFR†
Reset/Disc. due to unsol final resp
The protocol received a response that had the Final bit set
even though the last command sent by the protocol did
not have the Poll bit set.
The following status messages are used by the protocol to return data in
response to a control write:
88
ST25L2STAT
Statistics upload
This message is sent in response to a CW_STATS control
write. The data buffer contains a x25l2stat_type
structure (defined in zcomx25.h).
Chapter 3
35
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
89
ST25REVCD
Revision code upload
This message is sent in response to a CW_REVCODE
control write. The data buffer contains a single byte
which is the current protocol version. Currently, this is
11.
Write Completion Status Codes
The following statuses are returned in response to write requests.
Although these are a part of the standard status set, they are not used by
all protocols, and have a particular significance within this protocol.
0
IO_OK
No error detected
The request was successfully transmitted and
acknowledged by the remote side.
1
IO_DSBL
Terminal disabled
The terminal must be enabled before it will accept write
or control write requests.
22
IO_LNK_DSC
Link disconnected
An unrecoverable error occurred while this request was
waiting to be sent or to be acknowledged by the remote
side. The transmit request has been flushed.
23
IO_LNK_RST†
Link reset
A recoverable error occurred while this request was
waiting to be acknowledged by the remote side. The
transmit request has been flushed.
Control Write Completion Status Codes
The following statuses are returned in response to control write requests.
Although these are a part of the standard status set, they are not used by
all protocols, and have a particular significance within this protocol.
0
IO_OK
No error detected
The request was successfully transmitted and
acknowledged by the remote side.
36
Chapter 3
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
1
IO_DSBL
Terminal disabled
The terminal must be enabled before it will accept
write or control write requests.
11
IO_LONG_MSG
Message too long
Indicates one of the following errors:
•
•
•
12
IO_SHRT_MSG
The packet length in the header is not zero.
The control length in the header is not zero for a
CW_STATS or CW_REVCODE request.
The control length in the header is greater than six
for a CW_TIMERS request.
Message too short
Indicates one of the following errors:
•
•
24
IO_BAD_CTL
The request length is less than four (too short to
contain the control write header).
The control length in the header is less than six for
a CW_TIMERS request.
Bad control function or format
Indicates one of the following errors:
•
•
•
The control length in the header does not equal the
request length plus four.
The control code in the header contains a value
other than CW_STATS, CW_REVCODE or
CW_TIMERS.
The value specified for a timer resolution in a
CW_TIMERS request is outside of the range zero to
four.
Read Completion Status Codes
All receive completion messages will have the status IO_OK. Received
messages that have errors are not returned by the protocol.
Chapter 3
37
Using HDLC/LAP-D Protocol
Status and Error Messages
38
Chapter 3
4
Protocol Specific Configuration
39
Protocol Specific Configuration
Introduction
Introduction
This section provides specific information on preparing the network
configuration file when HDLC/LAP-D is to be used.The parts of the
network configuration answer file relevant to HDLC/LAP-D are:
• Interface-Definition
• Port-Definition
• Subchannel-Definition
• Terminal-Definition
Interface-Definition
An ACC Interface-Definition line appears in the configuration file for
each ACC card that will have LAP-D connections configured on it.
A sample Interface-Definition is as follows:
Z7300A 00
Z7300A 01
0:8
0:16
/opt/acc/z7300a/lapd.zabs
/opt/acc/z7300a/lapd.zabs
Port-Definition
The ports used must be defined. The definition is dependent upon the
ACC card and interface that is being used.
A sample Port-Definition for the 4-channel T1/E1 card using the E1
interface with BNC connectors is as follows:
Port 01:4 E1BNC
Int DF HDB3
Refer to the ACC Utilities Reference Guide section on ttgen for details.
40
Chapter 4
Protocol Specific Configuration
Subchannel-Definition
Subchannel-Definition
This field is for cards that support subchannels.
A sample Subchannel-Definition for the 4-channel T1/E1 card using
eight timeslots is as follows:
Subch 01:4:01 HDLC INV=off ITBS=2 ts:01:FFh ts:02:FFh ~
ts:03:FFh ts:04:FFh ts:05:FFh ts:06:FFh ts:07:FFh ts:08:FFh
Refer to the ACC Utilities Reference Guide section on ttgen for details.
Chapter 4
41
Protocol Specific Configuration
Terminal-Definition
Terminal-Definition
Each HDLC/LAP-D Mux channel requires one (and only one)
Terminal-Definition for the HDLC/LAP-D point-to-point link. The LAP-D
terminal is defined by a Terminal-Definition line in the ZCOM network
answer file (-.answ).
Some sample HDLC/LAP-D Terminal-Definition lines for the Z7300A
card follow:
Term 120
Option 0000h
Term 120
Option 0000h
1:6:3 LAPD.DLE
0008h
1:6:3 LAPD.DLE
0008h
HDLC_DTE_400MS
1030 0 0 0 0 “HDLC link 1”
8080H 146AH
1030 0 0 0 0 “HDLC link 1”
The first example above is a Terminal-Definition that defines an
HDLC/LAP-D terminal with ZLU 120 on card 1 port 6 subchannel 3. It is
configured as a DTE (user side) with frame time-out value of 400
milliseconds. The first OPTION word configures the idle line timer to the
default value. The second OPTION word defines the SAPI and TEI. The
second definition is the same as the first except that it uses the POLL
and SELECT words to define the mode of operation. When the POLL and
SELECT values are used they are specified as two 16 bit hex values.
This is “non-standard” hexadecimal notation.
NOTE
The descriptions of the fields within these values are described below
under Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values.
The Terminal-Definition takes the following format:
Term
zlu
mux:port:subc dtype poll select
appl_no inst_no brch_no wkst_no area_no name <option>
More specific information on the parameters in the HDLC/LAP-D
Terminal-Definition follows.
ZLU
42
This number (120 in the example) assigns a unique reference
number for this terminal.
Chapter 4
Protocol Specific Configuration
Terminal-Definition
mux:port:subc
The port assigned must be configured as above and the ACC
card must have the appropriate HDLC/LAP-D firmware
configured. You must also have defined the subchannel number
in the Subchannel definition section.
dtype
The device type of the HDLC/LAP-D terminal must be
LAPD.DLE.
poll/select
This supplies the “POLL” and “SELECT” parameters
for the ZCOM Terminal-Definition. These are used to
specify:
• whether the HDLC/LAP-D terminal acts as a DTE
(user side) or DCE (network side),
• the frame re-transmission time-out value,
• the re-transmission count limit,
• the outstanding frame window size to be used, and
• the maximum frame size allowed.
In most cases a pre-configured keyword will suffice. For
the list of currently predefined keywords, see
“Predefined Configuration Values” section of this
chapter. If a different set of values is required, then
different values for the “POLL” and “SELECT” codes
may be entered here in the standard poll and select
format in hexadecimal. For the format of these words,
see “Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values” on page
46.
appl_no
Application number (Application dependent - has no effect on
protocol).
inst_no
Institution number (Application dependent - has no effect on
protocol).
brch_no
Branch number (Application dependent - has no effect on
protocol).
wkst_no
Workstation number (Application dependent - has no effect on
protocol).
area_no
Area number (Application dependent - has no effect on
protocol).
The five parameters above are for the use of the
Chapter 4
43
Protocol Specific Configuration
Terminal-Definition
application and can be set to any value desired. They
can be accessed by the application from the Logical
Terminal Table using ZINFO().
name
Choose a meaningful description of the LAP-D link, preferably
including a reference to the location of the remote end of the
link. This field will be used in some ZMNTR displays. It may
also be accessed programmatically using the ZINFO call.
options
This configuration keyword supplies the “OPTION”
parameters for the ZCOM Terminal-Definition. These
are used to specify:
• the idle line time-out value,
• outstanding frame window sizes larger than seven,
and
• the SAPI and TEI.
44
Chapter 4
Protocol Specific Configuration
Predefined Configuration Values
Predefined Configuration Values
The following configuration values are currently defined for use in
HDLC/LAP-D configuration as a replacement for the POLL and SELECT
address fields. These values are used (for example HDLC_DTE_3.0) as a
symbolic way of configuring the associated two 16-bit hexadecimal
values.
If a particular desired configuration value is not provided by these
values, then two hexadecimal values can be used instead (as for normal
poll and select specification).
HDLC_DTE_400MS
and
HDLC_DCE_400MS
N201 = 0128 bytes
T200 = 400ms
K = 3
Equivalent parameters
HDLC_DTE_400MS - 8080h 146Ah
HDLC_DCE_400MS - 0080h 146Ah
HDLC_DTE_3.0
and
HDLC_DCE_3.0
N201 = 1024 bytes
T200 = 3.0sec
K = 3,
N200 = 10
N200 = 10
Equivalent parameters
HDLC_DTE_3.0
- 8400h 4F6Ah
HDLC_DCE_3.0
- 0400h 4F6Ah
Note that specific user defined configurations may be added to the ttgen
configuration file. These should use the #define statement and be placed
at the beginning of the file. Refer to the examples in the file
/opt/acc/cfg/ttgendefine.
CAUTION
DO NOT make changes to the /opt/acc/cfg/ttgendefine file itself, since
this is part of the ACC Base product software, and may be overwritten
when updates to the product are applied.
Chapter 4
45
Protocol Specific Configuration
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values
The following parameters for configurable for HDLC/LAP-D links:
SAPI
The Service Access Point Identifier
TEI
The Terminal Endpoint Identifier
U/N
Operating mode - User or Network side
K
Number of outstanding I frames
N200
Number of retransmissions allowed
N201
Largest I-field allowed (in bytes)
T200
Acknowledgment Timer
T203
Idle line Timer
UI
Unnumbered Information terminal
T200 and T203 are configured by selecting a value (Val) and a resolution
(Res). Val can range from 1 to 31 and Res selects either 10 msec, 100
msec, 1 sec or 10 sec resolution. For a given Val and Res, the configured
value is (2*Val Res). The actual timeout period however, may occur up to
one Res before the configured value. The following table shows the
minimum and maximum timeouts for various combinations of Res and
Val.
46
Chapter 4
Protocol Specific Configuration
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values
Val
Res
Minimum
Timeout
Maximum
Timeout
1
2
31
1
4
31
1
8
31
1
16
31
10 msec
10 msec
10 msec
100 msec
100 msec
100 msec
1 sec
1 sec
1 sec
10 sec
10 sec
10 sec
10 msec
30 msec
610 msec
100 msec
300 msec
6100 msec
1 sec
15 sec
61 sec
10 sec
310 sec
610 sec
20 msec
40 msec
620 msec
200 msec
400 msec
6200 msec
2 sec
16 sec
62 sec
20 sec
320 sec
620 sec
When choosing values for timers, it is preferable to choose the resolution
that has the longest interval but is still suitable for your application.
Poll Word
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
U/N
UI
N201 (1-16383 bytes) See note below
4
3
2
1
U/N
Configure port as user or network side:
0 = Port to act as network side
1 = Port to act as user side
UI
Configure terminal as a UI (Unnumbered Information) terminal:
0 = Terminal is not a UI terminal
1 = Terminal is a UI terminal
N201
Maximum number of bytes in the largest acceptable I field. Values
from 1 to 16,383.
Chapter 4
0
47
Protocol Specific Configuration
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values
Select Word
15
14
T200 Res
13
12
11
10
T200 Val (I-63)
9
8
7
6
K (0-7)
5
4
3
2
1
0
N200 (1-31)
T200 Val
This is the value of the T200 Acknowledgment timer divided by
two. The valid range for this field is 1 to 63 which translates to
T200 timer values of 2 to 126. 0 is not allowed and is an error. The
units of this timer are given by the T200 Res (resolution) field (see
below). Before configuring T200, you should read the description
of timer configuration at the beginning of this section.
T200 Res
Resolution of T200 Val above. The values correspond as follows:
0 = 10 milliseconds
1 = 100 milliseconds
2 = 1 second
3 = 10 seconds
K
Level 2 window size, values 1 to 7. Note that if 0 supplied, the
LargeK value in the first option word is used. It is an error if both K
and LargeK are 0.
N200
Number of retransmissions, values 1 to 31. Note that 0 is not
allowed and is an error.
48
Chapter 4
Protocol Specific Configuration
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values
First Option Word
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
T203 Res T203/2 Val (0-63)
8
7
6
5
4
3
IUF
LargeK (0-127)
2
1
0
T203 Val
This is the value of the T203 Idle line timer divided by two.
Setting this field from 1 to 63 translates to T203 timer values of
2 to 126. The units of this timer are given by the T203 Res
(resolution) field (see below). If a value of zero is given for both
this field and T203 Res, a default value of approximately
T200*N200*100/16 will be used for a user-side terminal. (The
default for a network-side terminal is T203 disabled.) If T203
Res is non-zero but this field is zero, T203 will be disabled.
Before configuring T200, you should read the description of
timer configuration at the beginning of this section.
T203 Res
Resolution of T203 Val above. The values correspond as
follows:
0 = 10 milliseconds
1 = 100 milliseconds
2 = 1 second
3 = 10 second
IUF
Error handling, normal when 0. This means normal error
handling (level 2 link reset) on receipt of unsolicited response
frame with F=1. 1 means Ignore F=1 (treat as F=0) in any
unsolicited response frames.
LargeK
Level 2 window size, values 1 to 127. LargeK is only used if K
in the Select Word is 0. It is an error if both K and LargeK are 0.
Chapter 4
49
Protocol Specific Configuration
Poll/Select/Option Configuration Values
Second Option Word
15
0
14
13
SAPI
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
0
TEI
5
4
3
2
1
0
Unused - should always be zero.
SAPI
The Service Access Point Identifier.
TEI
This value is used as the Terminal Endpoint Identifier.
50
0
Chapter 4
A
Sample Configuration Files
51
Sample Configuration Files
Sample Network Configuration File
Sample Network Configuration File
The file shown below is the sample network configuration file that is
provided with the HDLC/LAP-D protocol product.
#include ”/opt/acc/cfg/ttgendefine”
ttgen
Configuration
system-name
”ACC LAPD protocol ttgen input file”
program-zlu
100
terminal-zlu
1000
logical-term
800
physical-term
800
buffer-pool
3000000
logical-size
252
queue-Limit
9999
transmit-limit
100
unack-limit
5000
port-limit
20000
E1T1-Port-Limit
100000
node-entry
1
Interface-Definition
z7300a
0
10:16:16
/opt/acc/z7300a/lapd.zabs
Port-Definition
Port
Port
Port
Port
0:0
0:1
0:2
0:3
E1RJ45
E1RJ45
E1RJ45
E1RJ45
Int
Ext
Int
Ext
CRCMF
CRCMF
CRCMF
CRCMF
HDB3
HDB3
HDB3
HDB3
Subchannel-Definition
*
Mux 0, port 0, subchan 01, timeslot 1
Subch 0:0:01 HDLC INV=off ITBS=2 ~
ts:01:FFh
*
Mux 0, port 0, subchan 02, timeslot 2 to 7
Subch 0:0:02 HDLC INV=off ITBS=12 ~
ts:02:FFh ts:03:FFh ts:04:FFh ts:05:FFh ts:06:FFh ts:07:FFh
*
Mux 0, port 0, subchan 03, timeslot 8 to 31
Subch 0:0:03 HDLC INV=off ITBS=48 ~
ts:08:FFh ts:09:FFh ts:10:FFh ts:11:FFh ts:12:FFh ~
ts:13:FFh ts:14:FFh ts:15:FFh ts:16:FFh ts:17:FFh ~
52
Appendix A
Sample Configuration Files
Sample Network Configuration File
ts:18:FFh ts:19:FFh ts:20:FFh ts:21:FFh ts:22:FFh ~
ts:23:FFh ts:24:FFh ts:25:FFh ts:26:FFh ts:27:FFh ~
ts:28:FFh ts:29:FFh ts:30:FFh ts:31:FFh
*
Mux 0, port 1, subchan 01, timeslot 1
Subch 0:1:01 HDLC INV=off ITBS=2 ~
ts:01:FFh
*
Mux 0, port 1, subchan 02, timeslot 2 to 7
Subch 0:1:02 HDLC INV=off ITBS=12 ~
ts:02:FFh ts:03:FFh ts:04:FFh ts:05:FFh ts:06:FFh
ts:07:FFh
*
Mux 0, port 1, subchan 03, timeslot 8 to 31
Subch 0:1:03 HDLC INV=off ITBS=48 ~
ts:08:FFh ts:09:FFh ts:10:FFh ts:11:FFh ts:12:FFh
ts:13:FFh ts:14:FFh ts:15:FFh ts:16:FFh ts:17:FFh
ts:18:FFh ts:19:FFh ts:20:FFh ts:21:FFh ts:22:FFh
ts:23:FFh ts:24:FFh ts:25:FFh ts:26:FFh ts:27:FFh
ts:28:FFh ts:29:FFh ts:30:FFh ts:31:FFh
~
~
~
~
Terminal-Definition
Term 600 0:0:01 LAPD.DLE 1000h
option 0086h 0001h
Term 601 0:1:01 LAPD.DLE 9000h
option 0086h 0001h
Term 602 0:0:02 LAPD.DLE 1000h
option 0086h 0001h
Term 603 0:1:02 LAPD.DLE 9000h
option 0086h 0001h
Term 604 0:0:03 LAPD.DLE 1000h
option 0086h 0001h
Term 605 0:1:03 LAPD.DLE 9000h
option 0086h 0001h
Node-Definition
Local-Node
123
46EAh 90 601 1 0 0 "LAP-D DCE"
46EAh 90 600 2 0 0 "LAP-D DTE"
46EAh 90 603 1 0 0 "LAP-D DCE"
46EAh 90 602 2 0 0 "LAP-D DTE"
46EAh 90 605 1 0 0 "LAP-D DCE"
46EAh 90 604 2 0 0 "LAP-D DTE"
End$
Appendix A
53
Sample Configuration Files
Sample Network Configuration File
54
Appendix A
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