HP LTO 4 FC User manual
HP LTO Ultrium tape drives
technical reference manual
LTO 4 FC, SCSI and SAS drives
volume 2: software integration
Edition 1, June 2007
HP restricted
Legal and notice information
© Copyright 1999–2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
Hewlett-Packard Company makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard shall not be liable for errors contained herein or
for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.
This document contains proprietary information, which is protected by copyright. No part of this document may be photocopied,
reproduced, or translated into another language without the prior written consent of Hewlett-Packard. The information is provided
“as is” without warranty of any kind and is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are
set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as
constituting an additional warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein.
Revision history
Version
Edition
Date
Changes
LTO 4
1
June 2007
LTO 4 full-height drives
This document is frequently revised and updated. To find out if there is a later version, please ask your HP OEM Representative.
HP LTO Ultrium 4 drives technical reference manual, volume 2: software integration
HP restricted
Contents
Related documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Documents specific to HP Ultrium drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Documentation map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Drives—general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Installation and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Maintenance and troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Dealing with errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
LTO Ultrium features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
General documents and standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1 Designing backup applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Optimizing performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large data transfer size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data compression control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-immediate commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing the use of tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information in Cartridge Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning tape heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring tape use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TapeAlert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnostic logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying drive information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drive tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design goals for LTO backup applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2 Configuration and initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Operating system drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inquiry string recovery . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support for additional LUN . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling additional LUN support . . . . .
Supporting additional LUNs . . . . . . . .
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3 Use of tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
LTO cartridge memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying tape cartridge types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape status and capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding the remaining capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interpreting Log Sense data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the SET CAPACITY command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HP LTO Ultrium 4 drives technical reference manual, volume 2: software integration
HP restricted
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WORM media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How WORM media works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes to SCSI commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Re-writing media labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allow overwrite of last filemarks before the EOD data set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using CM to check tape integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Behavior with a missing or inconsistent EOD value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unique media identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Barcode support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Responding to Cartridge Memory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RWW retry counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4 Factors affecting performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Ways of optimizing performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detecting the drive’s speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ensuring the recommended minimum transfer sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media type identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Cartridge Memory instead of tape headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Performance Log page for diagnosing problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time-out values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended support of log pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Factors affecting performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Host-related factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drive-related factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Format-related factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5 Supporting Ultrium features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation/Device Interface (ADI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Control Interface (ACI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modes of usage through ACI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACI command set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACI commands that affect drive streaming performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New features in ACI 4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supporting the ACI protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended ACI time-out values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment of reserved fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended power-up sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended load-unload configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended Get Drive Status polling frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACI protocol communications retry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading the drive firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling irregular cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequently asked questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling data compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other mode page information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Cartridge Memory without threading the tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buffer size at EW-EOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synchronize at EW-EOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write delay time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rewind on reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Partition size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6 Sense keys and codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Sense keys—actions to take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional sense codes—actions to take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0h—NO SENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1h—RECOVERED ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2h—NOT READY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3h—MEDIUM ERROR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4h—HW ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5h—ILLEGAL REQUEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6h—UNIT ATTENTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7h—DATA PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8h—BLANK CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bh—ABORTED COMMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dh—VOLUME OVERFLOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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67
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69
72
74
75
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7 Exception handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Typical escalation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring the condition of the drive and media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supporting TapeAlert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designing software to use the TapeAlert log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TapeAlert models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TapeAlert polling usage model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TapeAlert informational exception usage model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reading the TapeAlert log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supporting OBDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Responding to the ‘Clean’ LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Providing pass-through mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements for drivers and logical device managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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78
78
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89
89
89
90
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Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
HP LTO Ultrium 4 drives technical reference manual, volume 2: software integration
HP restricted
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6
HP restricted
Related documents
This is one of six volumes that document HP Ultrium drives. This volume provides background
information for driver and application developers. The following products are covered:
• HP LTO Ultrium 4 full-height SCSI tape drives
• HP LTO Ultrium 4 full-height SAS tape drives
• HP LTO Ultrium 4 full-height Fibre Channel tape drives
NOTE: Throughout this manual frequent reference is made to SCSI commands. For more
information on SCSI commands for HP Ultrium drives see volume 3, The SCSI Interface or The SAS
Interface, of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual set. Ordering details are given below.
Documents specific to HP Ultrium drives
• Hardware Integration Guide, volume 1 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• Host Interface Guide, volume 3 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• Specifications, volume 4 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• UNIX, Linux and OpenVMS Configuration Guide, volume 5 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical
Reference Manual
Please contact your HP supplier for copies.
• The features and benefits of HP Ultrium drives are discussed in the HP Ultrium Technology White
Paper.
• For a general background to LTO technology and licensing, go to
http://www.lto-technology.com.
Documentation map
The following will help you locate information in the Technical Reference Manual. A reference like
“1 HW Integration: ch. 7” means Volume 1, Hardware Integration Guide, of the HP LTO Ultrium
Technical Reference Manual, chapter 7.
Drives—general
FC Drives
SCSI Drives
SAS Drives
Connectors
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
1 HW Integration: ch. 7
Front panel LEDs
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
1 HW Integration: ch. 6
Specifications
4 Specifications
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Installation and configuration
FC Drives
Connectors
SCSI Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
SAS Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 7
Determining the configuration
2 SW Integration: ch. 2
External drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
n/a
In libraries
1 HW Integration: ch. 1
In servers
n/a
In tape arrays
n/a
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
Linux configuration
n/a
5 UNIX, Linux, OpenVMS Configuration
Modes of usage
1 HW Integration: ch. 8
n/a
OpenVMS configuration
n/a
5 UNIX, Linux, OpenVMS Configuration
Optimizing performance
1 HW Integration: ch. 8
n/a
n/a
2 SW Integration: ch. 4
UNIX configuration
5 UNIX, Linux, OpenVMS Configuration
Operation
FC Drives
External drives
SCSI Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
n/a
In libraries
SAS Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 1
In servers
n/a
In tape arrays
n/a
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
n/a
Cartridges
FC Drives
Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM)
Cartridges
SCSI Drives
SAS Drives
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
1 HW Integration: ch. 9
Managing the use of cartridges
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Use of cartridges
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
Interface
FC Drives
FC, SCSI and SAS host interface guide
8
SAS Drives
3 Host Interface
Commands
Error codes
SCSI Drives
3 Host Interface: ch. 5
1 HW Integration: ch. 6
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1 HW Integration: ch. 10
FC Drives
SCSI Drives
Implementation
SAS Drives
3 Host Interface: ch. 1
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
Interpreting sense data
Messages
3 Host Interface: ch. 2
Mode pages
—see the MODE SENSE command
3 Host Interface: ch. 5
Pre-execution checks
3 Host Interface: ch. 4
Responding to sense keys and ASC/Q
2 SW Integration: ch. 6
Sense keys and ASC/Q
—see REQUEST SENSE command
3 Host Interface: ch. 5
Task management functions
3 Host Interface: ch. 3
n/a
Maintenance and troubleshooting
FC Drives
Cleaning
SCSI Drives
SAS Drives
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
External drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
n/a
In libraries
1 HW Integration: ch. 1
In servers
n/a
In tape arrays)
n/a
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
Monitoring drive and tape condition
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
Software troubleshooting techniques
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
n/a
Dealing with errors
FC Drives
Error codes
SCSI Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 6
SAS Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 10
Handling errors
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
Logs—see the LOG SENSE command
3 Host Interface: ch. 4
Recovering from write and read errors
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
Software response to error correction
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
Software response to logs
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
TapeAlert log
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
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LTO Ultrium features
FC Drives
SCSI Drives
Autoload
1 HW Integration: ch. 2
Automation Control Interface (ACI)
1 HW Integration: ch. 2
Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM)
1 HW Integration: ch. 2
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
Data compression, managing
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
OBDR and CD-ROM emulation
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
Performance optimization
n/a
SAS Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 8
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Performance, factors affecting
2 SW Integration: ch. 4
Software design
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Supporting LTO Ultrium features
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
General documents and standardization
See http://www.t10.org/t10_main.htm for INCITS SCSI Primary Commands—3 (SPC-3), SCSI
Streaming Commands (SSC-3) and other specifications
Copies of documents of other standards bodies can be obtained from:
INCITS 11 West 42nd Street
New York,
NY 10036-8002
USA
ISO CP 56
CH-1211 Geneva 20
Switzerland
ECMA 114 Rue du Rhône
CH-1204 Geneva
Switzerland
Global Engineering 2805 McGaw
Documents Irvine, CA 92714
USA
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Tel: +41 22 849 6000
Web URL: http://www.ecma.ch
Tel: 800 854 7179 or 714 261 1455
1
Designing backup applications
In today’s computer market, software applications that use tape drives to copy the information from
a computer’s hard disk for safe keeping are readily available for many different operating systems.
Unfortunately, not all these applications take advantage of the advances made in tape technology
over the past few years. This section examines some of the characteristics that a good backup utility
should include.
Optimizing performance
There are some fundamental things that tape management applications should implement when
dealing with Ultrium drives:
• Use large data transfer sizes.
• Control and monitor data compression.
• Ensure directory information is safe and accurate.
• Maximize the use of the tape drive’s internal buffering capability.
Each of these is discussed below.
For more information on optimizing performance, see “Factors affecting performance” on page 27.
Large data transfer size
Applications should use large data transfer sizes to make better use of the Ultrium drive’s internal
buffers. A good goal to set is at least 128 KB each for read or write operation, with an ideal target
of 256 KB:
• For fixed-length block mode reads and writes, provided the block size multiplied by the number
of blocks to be transferred is at least 128 KB, drives will provide peak performance. Small block
sizes (512 bytes) are acceptable so long as they are written and read in fixed-length block
mode using large transfers.
• For variable-length block mode reads and writes, the transfer length should be at least 256 KB.
Data compression control
Ultrium drives have built-in hardware data compression. Backup applications should incorporate
features to report the actual compression ratio achieved during backup operations.
The typical compression ratio achieved during backup operations on PC and UNIX networks is 2:1,
but this can vary widely depending on the actual data being compressed.
For more information, see “Controlling data compression” on page 51.
Non-immediate commands
Performance can be improved by only using immediate mode WRITE FILEMARKS commands.
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NOTE: Using immediate mode with other commands does not improve performance and can
cause problems when writing a driver. The SCSI specification requires that if a command is issued
with the IMMEDIATE bit set to 0, the drive must flush its data buffer before it carries out the
operation. This takes time.
Managing the use of tapes
The Ultrium format enables applications to monitor the performance of tapes closely, to indicate
when tape heads need cleaning, and when a tape should be discarded.
See “Use of tapes” on page 19 for more information.
Information in Cartridge Memory
The LTO Cartridge Memory holds a number of pages of information that contain data about the
tape’s history, such as the amount of data written to and read from the tape, the number of times a
cartridge has been loaded and the tape threaded into a drive, and the number of read or write
errors that have been encountered by drives with this tape. This information can be used to warn
against backing up onto a tape of dubious quality, or one that is reaching the end of its life.
Cleaning tape heads
The ‘Clean’ LED on the front of HP Ultrium drives indicates when a cleaning cartridge should be
used. There are two ways for backup applications to determine when the tape heads need cleaning
and to prompt the user to clean the drive:
• Use TapeAlert—see “Monitoring the condition of the drive and media” on page 78 for details.
• Send a SCSI REQUEST SENSE command to look at the CLN bit in the sense data. If the bit is set,
the drive needs cleaning.
In an automation context, the tape drive tells the automation controller that a cleaning tape needs to
be used through two bits in the ACI Get Drive Status command.
• The Cleaning Needed bit signals deterioration in the write or read margin of the drive and
indicates that a cleaning cartridge should be used as soon as possible. Once the drive has been
cleaned successfully, the Cleaning Needed bit will be cleared.
• The Cleaning Required bit indicates that the drive is unable to read or write unless the drive is
first cleaned, so a cleaning cartridge should be used immediately. Following a successful clean,
the Cleaning Required bit will be cleared.
Monitoring tape use
Drives can report the actual amount of data that has been written to the tape, and the amount of
available space on the tape. From this information, applications for Ultrium drives can be designed
to calculate the percentage of tape used, and give the user feedback on the actual progress of the
backup operation. This is a significant improvement over other technologies, such as DC6000 QIC
products, that require the application to estimate what is going on.
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See “Tape Capacity Log Page” under the LOG SENSE command in Chapter 3 of The SCSI Interface,
Volume 3 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual for more information.
While the reliability of tape products and applications is getting better all the time, problems do still
occur. There are some very simple techniques that could be incorporated by application developers
to simplify the process that a user must go through to resolve problems.
For additional information, see “Exception handling” on page 77.
TapeAlert
The TapeAlert facility in HP Ultrium drives allows applications to help avoid trouble by prompting
the user to take remedial action, or in some cases, through the application automatically performing
remedial actions itself.
For example, if the drive is experiencing trouble writing, the software can prompt the user to clean
the heads, or, if there are several drives or an autoloader, automatically clean the heads without
involving the user.
See “Monitoring the condition of the drive and media” on page 78 for more details.
Diagnostic logs
SCSI tape drives report problems in response to a REQUEST SENSE command from the host. If the
backup application stores this information in a log file, it becomes significantly easier to
troubleshoot problems, because the data can be used to pinpoint what is wrong.
Displaying drive information
Troubleshooting can also be simplified by giving users the ability to look at the drive’s firmware
revision, and information about the host bus adapter. This information can be found by executing an
INQUIRY command, and can then be displayed, or stored in a log file.
Drive tests
A basic read/write test should be included in a backup application to check the integrity of the
hardware. This should also allow the user to scan the SCSI bus and to solve problems concerning
the device setup and configuration.
Design goals for LTO backup applications
• Use large SCSI read/write transfer sizes (256 KB is recommended).
• Incorporate data compression control and report the compression ratios achieved.
• Consider where to store directory information depending on the nature of the application.
• Only use immediate WRITE FILEMARK commands, but avoid using other commands in immediate
mode.
• Use Cartridge Memory information to measure tape quality before backing up starts.
• Use the TapeAlert log to prompt the user to take remedial action to avoid problems.
• Use “cleaning required” indicators in the software to either prompt the user or enable the library
to use a cleaning cartridge to clean the drive heads.
• Allow users to set custom cleaning schedules.
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• Use log files to store Inquiry and Sense Key/Error Code information about error conditions.
• Allow users to access drive firmware revision and HBA characteristic information
• Include the capability to download firmware.
• Incorporate simple diagnostic capabilities, such as Write/Read tests and SCSI device discovery.
• Incorporate online help.
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Configuration and initialization
This section covers the following topics:
• Operating System drivers
• Inquiry string recovery, finding information about the drive through the INQUIRY command
• Additional LUN support, for operation with an autochanger device
• Fibre Channel support
Operating system drivers
Windows
HP have a proprietary driver for Windows 2000 and Windows 2003. It is
intended that the driver is freely licensed to any software partner that requires it.
For the latest driver support for HP tape drives, please visit the following HP web
site: http://www.hp.com/support/ultrium
NetWare
HP has worked with Novell to provide driver support for HP’s Ultrium products.
UNIX
See the UNIX, Linux and OpenVMS Configuration Guide for details of how to
implement Ultrium support under the popular UNIX flavors.
Inquiry string recovery
HP Ultrium devices should not be recognized solely by the contents of their SCSI INQUIRY strings. In
the past, hard-coded recognition of Inquiry strings has meant that software support for follow-on
products from HP has been delayed when, to all intents and purposes, the new product was
practically identical to the previous generation. For Ultrium, it is recommended that software
applications ‘key off’ only the first eight bytes of the Product ID field—the text “Ultrium ”. The
only use for the remainder of the bytes in this field is that they will be visible on-screen during the
boot process of PC systems. As with HP’s DDS products, there will be very little difference between
the first Ultrium drives and succeeding generations in terms of their basic SCSI characteristics; they
will just store more data faster.
Standard INQUIRY Page Data
SCSI
SAS
“HP
Product ID (bytes 16–23)
“Ultrium ”
“Ultrium ”
“Ultrium ”
Product ID (bytes 24–31)
“4-SCSI ”
“4-SCSI ”
“4-SCSI ”
CRMV
CRMV
CRMV
Product Revision Level (bytes 32–35)
”
“HP
FC
Vendor ID (bytes 8–15)
”
“HP
”
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Product ID, first 8 bytes
“Ultrium ”
This will be the same for all HP Ultrium products, regardless of generation or model.
Product ID, last 8 bytes
1st byte:
2nd byte
3rd–6th bytes
Generation identifier:
“4”
LTO 4 (1600 GB at 2:1 compression)
“–”
Hyphen separator (ASCII 2Dh)
“SCSI” SCSI protocol, regardless of transport or interface type
Product Revision Level
1st byte
Product codename ID:
“A”
“B”
“H”
2nd byte
LTO 4 SAS full-height drive
LTO 4 SCSI full-height drive
LTO 4 FC full-height drive
Release type:
“0”, “1”
“2”
“3”, ...
Development
Formal release
Post-release
3rd byte
Minor release level: “0”–“9”, then “A” –”Z”
4th byte
Firmware variant:
“D”
“W”
Standard distribution firmware
Standard HP automation firmware
Example
If new drive families or variants support features that are not available in previous generation
products, you can detect the existence of these features through the SCSI MODE SENSE and LOG
SENSE commands. Exact details will become available as new products are defined. There is no
need to limit driver or application connectivity to a single HP Ultrium product type.
To determine the drive technology family:
Examine only the first eight bytes of the Product ID field (the text “Ultrium ”).
To determine the Ultrium format generation:
Use one of the following two methods, of which the second is preferred:
• Examine the character in byte 9. A “4” indicates format LTO 4 (1600 GB capacity at 2:1
compression) and so on.
• Preferred method: Use the SCSI REPORT DENSITY SUPPORT command.
For an LTO 4 product with LTO Ultrium 4 media, the following will be returned:
Primary Density Code:
Assigning Organization:
Density Name:
16
Configuration and initialization
46h
LTO-CVE Linear Tape Open Compliance and Verification Entity
U-416
16 track
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Since LTO 4 drives cannot write to Ultrium-2 media, the WRTOK bit will be clear for this media
type.
Support for additional LUN
Enabling additional LUN support
When enabled by an internally-connected autochanger device, an extra Logical Unit Number (LUN)
will be available at the target’s SCSI ID. This allows the attached autochanger device to be
addressed via the tape drive. See ”Automation interface” on page 35. For ADI Bridging usage, the
automation LUN will usually be LUN1.
No other LUNs are available on the drive, although HP is looking to provide new functionality
through the use of additional LUNs in future products.
Supporting additional LUNs
When working with a library vendor who is incorporating HP Ultrium drives in products, software
developers should liaise directly with the vendor about the functionality of the hardware available
through the ADI or ACI.
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3
Use of tapes
HP Ultrium user documentation and “Cartridges”, Chapter 9 of the Hardware Integration Guide,
Volume 1 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual, also contain information on
cartridges.
Timing considerations are discussed in “Time-out values” on page 28.
LTO cartridge memory
NOTE: “Cartridge Memory” is the Ultrium version of the more general term “Media Auxiliary
Memory” or MAM, covering all media types.
Cartridge Memory has been added to the LTO cartridge for the following reasons:
• It speeds up load and unload times by removing the need to read system areas.
• It speeds up movement around tape by storing the tape directory (physical to logical mapping).
• It increases tape reliability because fewer tape passes are needed.
• It stores diagnostic and log information for tracking purposes.
Most of these uses are invisible to applications and handled internally by the drive. There is
potential for applications to use the “Application Specific Data” area. This is being investigated.
For more details, see “Using Cartridge Memory” in “Using Special Features in Libraries”, Chapter 2
of the Hardware Integration Guide, Volume 1 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual.
Identifying tape cartridge types
Using Cartridge Memory attributes
To identify the type of cartridge in the drive, read the Medium Type attribute in Cartridge Memory:
Attribute ID 0408h
00h
01h
80h
Read/write (normal) data cartridge
Cleaning cartridge
WORM cartridge
Using MODE SENSE
Examine the Medium Type field in the Mode Parameter header of the MODE SENSE command (byte
1 in the 6-byte version, byte 2 in the 10-byte version):
Medium Type
00h
01h
80h
Read/write (normal) data cartridge
WORM cartridge
SCSI and SAS only: CD (the drive is in CD-ROM mode)
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Tape status and capacity
Following autoload or a LOAD command, the software can determine the state of the tape and its
capacity from the Cartridge Memory and the Tape Capacity Log pages retrieved through the LOG
SENSE command. The information can also be invoked as a console operation at any time to find
the status and condition of the media.
Tape capacity figures can be used for two purposes:
• To give an application or user an indication of whether the tape has enough capacity for a
proposed backup. When using data compression, however, this is of little value, since the
compression factor cannot be predicted accurately.
• Periodically during a backup to give an approximation of the amount of tape left.
CAUTION: An application should not use the capacity reported in the Tape Capacity log to fix the
backup size. This will result in permanent capacity truncation that could represent a significant
percentage of the available capacity.
Finding the remaining capacity
Examine the Tape Capacity Log to estimate the effective remaining capacity of the tape
(data-compression factors are not considered).
Interpreting Log Sense data
The following points affect the values returned in the data:
Units
Capacities are given in megabytes (1,048,576 bytes) of user data and assume no
compression.
General
• If data compression is used, the capacities are specified as though the drive is in
pass-through mode. The data compression factor is not considered.
• Regions of tape used by the system, such as EOD areas, are not included in
capacities specified. In other words, values are conservative.
• An allowance for read-after-write retries is made.
Maximum
Capacity
Maximum capacity values are only valid when the tape has completed a load
sequence. If an immediate mode LOAD is made, LOAD SENSE will not return valid
information until the tape has been successfully loaded and tape motion has ceased.
Remaining The remaining capacity value is the amount of tape remaining calculated from EOD.
Capacity
Remaining capacity values are only valid after the successful completion of the
following commands in non-immediate mode:
LOAD
LOCATE
MODE SELECT
READ
SPACE
VERIFY
WRITE
WRITE FILEMARKS
REWIND
The values after any subsequent command cannot be relied on unless the command
is a sense type that does not cause any tape motion.
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Capacity calculations are based on estimates; reported values can be subject to error in two ways:
• Random errors caused by tolerances in tape length, hub diameter, and so on.
• Systematic errors caused by ignoring system areas, and so on. They ensure the calculated
capacity is actually available to the user. It is usually possible to write considerably more data
than the calculated capacity.
Using the SET CAPACITY command
You can modify the capacity of a tape by changing the logical length of the tape through the SET
CAPACITY command. The primary use envisaged is for testing purposes, although it may also be
used in other circumstances where a shortened tape may be beneficial.
NOTE: All data currently on the tape will be lost following successful execution of this command.
The command is only accepted when the media is positioned at Beginning of Media (BOM).
With WORM cartridges, the command is only accepted and executed if the cartridge has not been
initialized, that is, it has never been written to. Otherwise the cartridge is rejected with CHECK
CONDITION, sense key of Data Protect and additional sense of 300Ch (WORM media—overwrite
attempted). TapeAlert flags 3Ch (WORM media—overwrite attempted) and 09h (write-protect) are
set.
Command descriptor block
7
6
5
4
3
0
Operation Code (0Bh)
1
Reserved (0)
1
0
Immed
Reserved (0)
2
3
2
(MSB)
4
5
Capacity Proportion Value
(LSB)
Control
CDB fields
Immed
0 Status will not be returned until the SET CAPACITY operation has completed.
1 Status will be returned as soon as the CDB has been parsed.
Capacity
The portion of the total volume capacity to be made available for use. The value
Proportion Value is the numerator of a fraction with a denominator of 65,535. The resulting
total volume capacity × capacity proportion value
available capacity will be -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .
65535
Note that the LTO-4 format enforces a minimum tape length. A value that would result in a tape
length below this minimum will be silently rounded up to the minimum permitted length.
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The following table gives the minimum acceptable Capacity Proportion Values and the approximate
capacity they will give:
Cartridge
Min. capacity proportion value
Resultant approx. min. capacity
Max. capacity
Ultrium 2
1605h
17.2 GB
200 GB
Ultrium 3
151Ah
33 GB
400 GB
Ultrium 4
1055h
51 GB
800 GB
NOTE: Capacities are approximate and can be affected by defects that reduce the actual capacity
of the tape. Other factors, such as compression and block packing, may also affect capacity.
WORM media
HP Ultrium-3 WORM (Write Once—Read Many) data cartridges are two-tone grey/yellow to
distinguish them from RW media. They have a unique Cartridge Type stored in the Cartridge
Memory, so that they will be rejected by non-WORM compatible drives. For automation
configurations with auto-eject disabled, the cartridge will not be physically ejected from the drive
but held at the “ready eject” position.
The write-protection tab behaves as on Read/Write (RW) cartridges.
How WORM media works
Drives use the EOPD (End of Protected Data) value to control the use of WORM tapes.
EOPD is a logical position on tape that is automatically calculated based on the End of Data (EOD)
value read from the Cartridge Memory (CM) when the cartridge is loaded into the drive. The EOD
value is an “intrinsic” code stored and protected in the Cartridge Memory of each WORM
cartridge, and updated after each write session. The EOPD indicates that data between BOM and
this position cannot be overwritten.
The EOPD value is held within the drive’s memory. It is updated automatically and continuously as
each block of data (typically 64 or 128 KB) is written to tape, so the EOPD value indicates a logical
position immediately after the last block of data written to tape.
When the cartridge is unloaded, the drive updates the EOD value in CM to reflect the end of
successfully written data on the cartridge, and clears the EOPD value stored within the drive. Any
future writes to the cartridge will occur after the location of the EOD, which will become the initial
location for EOPD during the next write operation.
Changes to SCSI commands
New additional sense codes and TapeAlert flags
ASC/Qs:
• 300Ch (WORM medium—overwrite attempted)
• 300Dh (WORM Medium—integrity check failed)
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TapeAlert flags:
• 3Bh (WORM medium—integrity check failed)
• 3Ch (WORM medium—overwrite attempted)
Error Usage page
For WORM cartridges, the Wrap Number fields in the Error Usage page are replaced by an Error
Code field. This contains the ASC/Q value reported to the host when the associated error was
detected.
Only appended writes accepted
If a WORM cartridge is placed in a WORM-compatible drive, the drive will accept write commands
(records, filemarks) only if the current logical position is beyond the position identified by the EOPD
value. If a write command is received by the drive when the logical position is before the EOPD
value, the command will be rejected and CHECK CONDITION returned with sense key of Data
Protect and additional sense of 300Ch (WORM medium—overwrite attempted). The TapeAlert
flags 3Ch (WORM medium—overwrite attempted) and 09h (write-protect) are set.
ERASE commands rejected
ERASE commands (short or long) to a drive containing a WORM cartridge will not overwrite or
erase user data on tape. Any ERASE command that would result in user data being over-written on
tape is rejected and CHECK CONDITION returned with sense key of Data Protect and additional
sense of 300Ch (WORM medium - overwrite attempted). The TapeAlert flags 3Ch (WORM
medium—overwrite attempted) and 09h (write-protect) are set.
SET CAPACITY command
The SET CAPACITY command will only be accepted and executed if the WORM cartridge has not
been initialized, that is, it has never been written to.
If a SET CAPACITY command is received by the drive when the cartridge has been initialized, it is
rejected and CHECK CONDITION returned with sense key of Data Protect and additional sense of
300Ch (WORM medium—overwrite attempted). The TapeAlert flags 3Ch (WORM
medium—overwrite attempted) and 09h (write-protect) are set.
Re-writing media labels
If there is no user data on the tape, the media label can be rewritten. The label contains software
application-related information such as a unique identification code and does not contain user
data.
Writing is allowed when the current logical position is at BOT and:
• there are only filemarks between this position and EOD, or
• there are only 1 or 2 sequential records followed by any number of filemarks, but no further
records, between this position and EOD.
Allow overwrite of last filemarks before the EOD data set
At the end of a backup or archive session, many software applications write two filemarks to tape
immediately before the EOD data set is written. These filemarks are logical markers that enable the
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application to locate the tape in preparation for subsequent writing or reading operations. At the
start of an appending archive or backup session, it is common for the application to locate the tape
to a logical position immediately preceding the second filemark and to overwrite the second
filemark during the data appending session.
Writes are allowed:
• when the current logical position is at EOD. This means that the drive must have read the EOD
from tape before attempting to overwrite it.
• when there are only filemarks between the current logical position and EOD, and at least one
filemark immediately before the current logical position.
Using CM to check tape integrity
Drives that support WORM cartridges check that the anti-tampering measures have not been
violated before and during media access operations. If a violation is detected, for example, if the
content of the CM does not match the content of the tape, the cartridge is treated as read-only, and
Tape Alert flag 3Bh (WORM medium—integrity check failed) is set.
HP strongly recommends that software applications check for the presence of TapeAlert flag 3Bh
after a tape load and periodically during operation. If the flag is set, the software should alert the
operator and log the incident for audit.
Hosts can use the WTRE bit on the Device Configuration mode page (bit 6, byte 15 of mode page
10h) to control the behavior of the drive when reading WORM media whose WORM integrity is in
doubt and which may have been tampered with. See details of the mode page in Chapter 4 in SCSI
Interface, volume 4 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual for more information.
Behavior with a missing or inconsistent EOD value
A missing EOD value or one in which the value on tape differs from that in CM can be caused by:
• CM corruption
• deliberate, malicious alteration of the EOD value in the CM
• an interruption of the drive power supply while writing data.
If the CM indicates that the EOD is not valid (for example, if the drive has powered down during a
write), TapeAlert flag 04h (Media) will be set on cartridge load.
The drive behaves as for a RW cartridge with no EOD data set, except that any attempt to overwrite
data will be rejected with CHECK CONDITION, a sense key of Data Protect and additional sense of
2700h (write-protected). Tape Alert flag 09h (Write-Protect) is set.
Unique media identifier
For added security, HP strongly recommends that applications read and track cartridge
manufacturer and serial number values from the Cartridge Memory using MAM access commands:
• Attribute ID 0x0400: Cartridge manufacturer ID
• Attribute ID 0x0401: Cartridge serial number
Both values should be read and concatenated to ensure that the number is unique.
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Barcode support
Ultrium barcode support is required for WORM media so that the application and tape library can
distinguish WORM media from normal RW media or cleaning cartridges.
HP recommends the use of the following barcode formats for Ultrium media:
123456L2
LTO Ultrium 2
123456L3
LTO Ultrium 3
123456L4
LTO Ultrium 4
:
:
123456LT
LTO Ultrium 3 – WORM
123456LU
LTO Ultrium 4 – WORM
:
:
Responding to Cartridge Memory data
NOTE: Software should use the TapeAlert log in preference to the Cartridge Memory to detect
conditions which require the user or host to take preventative action. See “Monitoring the condition
of the drive and media” on page 78.
These guidelines indicate how host applications should make use of the data contained in the
Cartridge Memory during normal operation (that is, when tapes are not permanently
write-protected, not constantly re-formatted).
The console messages triggered by these criteria should clearly indicate a course of action to the
end-user, such as the following:
1. Clean the tape heads using a cleaning cartridge.
2. Insert a new tape cartridge.
3. Archive the data.
Load count
NOTE:
This only applies when non-write-protected cartridges are used.
The load count is the number of times the cartridge has been loaded into a drive and accessed.
Hewlett-Packard recommends a maximum use for a tape of 20,000 passes over any particular area
of the tape. This conservative estimate is also influenced by the quality of the application and the
driver software in being able to maintain streaming, thereby preventing repositioning over the same
area of tape, without data being transferred.
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RWW retry counts
Data is read immediately after being written to tape to establish that it has been written correctly.
Increases in RWW retries can be due to four factors:
• Deterioration in the media
• Dirty heads
• Drive malfunction
• The operating environment
Corrective action
The recommended criteria for corrective action are as follows:
RWW Retries > 5% Total data sets written
When using tapes without write-protection, use the Total count.
The corrective action should be as follows:
1. Use another tape and, for a write operation, try repeating the write. For a read operation, try
reading data from the tape.
2. See whether the current RWW value is within the recommended limit.
3. If the values are now within the limit, you can assume that the original tape is nearing the end of
its useful life. Proceed as follows:
• For a write operation, discard the tape and use a new one.
• For a read operation, transfer the data to a new tape.
4. If the value is still outside the limit, clean the tape heads with a cleaning cartridge and try
repeating the operation with the original tape.
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4
Factors affecting performance
This chapter contains techniques and information to help you design software applications so that
they use the tape drive’s potential as efficiently as possible.
• Ways of optimizing performance:
• Ensuring the recommended minimum transfer sizes
• Identifying the media type
page 27
page 28
• Using Cartridge Memory instead of tape headers
page 28
• Using the Performance Log page to diagnose problems
page 28
• Time-out values to help you tune timings in backup applications
• Log pages—recommended support
page 28
page 29
• Factors affecting performance, relating separately to the host, drive and format
page 29
Ways of optimizing performance
HP’s Ultrium drives are high-performance products. Application software may require significant
enhancement in order to capitalize on this speed. There are a number of areas to look at and these
are discussed below.
Further details can also be found in the “How to optimize the performance of hp ultrium tape drives”
white paper.
Detecting the drive’s speed
Applications should not key off Inquiry strings in order to tell the difference between different speed
drives. It is better to use the Performance Log page see under the LOG SENSE command in Chapter
4, “Commands”, of SCSI Interface, Volume 3 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual.
In the Performance Log page (34h), parameter 04h (Native data rate) gives the native data rate of
the drive in units of 100 KB/s. LTO 4 drives give the value 04B0h, indicating 120 MB/s with
Ultrium 4 media or no cartridge loaded. If a previous generation cartridge is loaded, the value will
be lower.
Ensuring the recommended minimum transfer sizes
Use the Data Compression Log page. HP cannot diagnose performance issues without accurate
reporting of the current compression or the average compressibility over a backup session. Make
sure that you report the log page.
Regarding HP’s One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) feature (see “One-Button Disaster Recovery
(OBDR)” on page 89), it is important to note that in some situations the SCSI block size may have to
be fixed for a given tape for format reasons. This means that if the host writes 2 KB blocks to support
OBDR, it may have to continue to write 2 KB blocks for the rest of the tape; it depends on the format
compatibility required by the overall system. However as HP Ultrium drives are insensitive to
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absolute block size, performance should not suffer, but do ensure that the transfer size is at least
256 KB.
Maximum block size
The READ BLOCK LIMITS command indicates that block sizes and variable length transfer sizes are
supported for values between 1 byte and 16,777,215 bytes.
Media type identification
HP recommends that you use the REPORT DENSITY SUPPORT command (with the Media bit enabled)
to identify the type of media loaded in the drive.
Using Cartridge Memory instead of tape headers
For optimum performance, it is also important that the host writes application tape header
information to the Cartridge Memory (see “Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM)” on page 35) rather than
to the actual tape. This allows cartridges to load and unload quickly and prevents excessive media
wear at the beginning of the tape. As the access method to Cartridge Memory data is an open
standard, it also permits other software systems to identify alien media positively in shared storage
environments.
Using the Performance Log page for diagnosing problems
The Performance Log page (34h) contains data that should allow application software to monitor
the data-rate being sent to the drive dynamically. For details, see the LOG SENSE command in
Volume 3, SCSI Interface, of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual.
Time-out values
SCSI Command
Recommended Time-Out Value
Load
10 minutes
Unload
10 minutes
Rewind (full tape length)
10 minutes
Space/Locate/CD-ROM Read (10)
20 minutes
Erase (long)
5 hours
Erase (short)
5 minutes
Write/Write Filemarks
5 minutes
Read
20 minutes
Read/Write Attribute (MAM), with 1 KB of attribute data
1 minute
Non-tape movement (such as TEST UNIT READY, INQUIRY)
1 minute
Notes:
• These values are for a single SCSI command in non-Immediate mode. As most commands will
be sent in Immediate mode, status will be received by the host typically within 20 ms. In such
cases, the time-out given indicates when the drive will have completed the operation and be
ready for the next tape movement command.
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• All of these values may be subject to change.
• There is no retension facility.
Recommended support of log pages
Some of the media-related data items on the log pages are duplicates of data that is available
through the READ ATTRIBUTES command using the Media Auxiliary Memory (MAM) access
specification. We recommend that you use MAM commands as the primary source for such data,
because this access method is portable to tape drives from other vendors, that is, the data is not in
a vendor-unique format.
In the long term, HP intends to expose all tape usage and drive hardware usage information via the
industry-standard MAM-format commands, so it is wise to start to implement this approach now.
For full details of the Ultrium log pages, see the LOG SENSE command in Chapter 4, “Commands”,
of SCSI Interface, Volume 3 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual.
Factors affecting performance
Further details on improving performance can be found in the “How to optimize the performance of
hp ultrium tape drives” white paper.
Host-related factors
Performance Factor
Detail
Host SCSI performance
The execution of each SCSI command involves a number of bus
phases, of which the data phase is only one.
The key phases are as follows:
• Intra-command bus-free time
• Arbitration and selection
• Message out
• Command
Host Burst Rate
During the data phase of each SCSI command, data is transferred to
or from the drive at the host’s burst rate. If the host’s burst rate is slow,
then it takes longer to transfer the data. Extra time during this phase is
simply added to the total command time, and so it can affect the
overall performance.
Even if the burst rate is much faster than that required to maintain
streaming, the total command time may prevent the commands from
being issued fast enough.
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Performance Factor
Detail
Example: SCSI: Consider an 8 KB transfer at burst rates of 8 MB/s and 1 MB/s.
The fast transfer takes 1 ms, while the slow transfer takes 8 ms. Since
the rest of the command may only take 4–5 ms, the difference of 7 ms
is very significant.
SAS and FC: The SAS link is capable of 3 Gb/s (300 MB/s) whereas
the performance of the FC drive depends on the negotiated link speed
of the host/HBA port, any intermediate switch ports and the drive port.
The ports will negotiate to the highest possible mutually supported
speed, ideally 4 Gb/s (400MB/s), then 2 Gb/s (200MB/s) or as low
as 1 Gb/s (100MB/s).
Disk Subsystem
Performance
The speed and configuration of the disks used will have a significant
impact on the backup speed of the whole system.
Recommendation: Using RAID can have a significant effect on the throughput of the
whole system, by the use of interleaved disk reads. Use more spindles
where possible or a reasonably sized RAID system. More disks means
more throughput.
Note that the Raid level makes a difference to performance. RAID5 will
be slower for writes (restores) than reads (backups). RAID0 and RAID1
are faster but expensive in terms of numbers of spindles required and
not so tolerant to disk failure (RAID0 is particularly intolerant).
File System Efficiency
Operating systems vary in the efficiency with which they retrieve files
sequentially for backup applications. Most operating system
development effort is put into speeding up access times within files
rather than file seek times.
Consider using staging technology to stage an image before writing to
tape, particularly with many small files, which will impact performance
due to file accession.
Hardware Configuration If the disk and tape drives are on separate buses, the effective
available bandwidth can be doubled.
Recommendation: Use one HBA for disks, and put the tape drive on a separate bus. It
makes sense to split heavily used FC cards across separate PCI busses
so that they do not contend for PCI bus bandwidth.The more PCI busses
the better.
Host CPU Speed
Faster hosts can typically transfer data quicker.
Recommendation: Use as fast a processor as possible for the backup system.
Network Transfer Time
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Factors affecting performance
If backup involves transferring data over the network, network
performance is often a major bottleneck.
HP restricted
Performance Factor
Detail
Recommendation: • Try not to put Ethernet in the way of data transfer unless staging
technology is being used; aggregation of multiple Ethernet clients
remains a good strategy to delivering on drive performance.
• Even with Gbit Ethernet, the effective throughput is less than that of
an LTO Ultrium 4 drive, so either use carefully designed topologies,
or stage an image first and use locally attached tape, otherwise the
Ethernet itself can become the bottleneck.
Gbit Ethernet can be used in a carefully designed topology.
Alternatively, stage an image first and then use locally attached tape
for the backup.
Write Commands
Do not interleave write commands with other commands, such as READ
POSITION and LOG SENSE. Do not, for example, attempt to read the
TapeAlert log page during a long write.
Drive-related factors
Performance Factor
Detail
Drive’s SCSI
Performance
In order to minimize SCSI bus loading, the drive must execute its SCSI
phases quickly. The phases are as follows:
• Selection
• Message-out identification
• Receipt of the command
• Disconnection
• Mid-command bus-free time
• Arbitration and reselection
• Message-in identification
Recommendation: The host must always ensure the following:
• Disconnects are enabled
• Synchronous negotiation is enabled and established between the
drive and the HBA
• The drive is in buffered mode
• When reading and verifying, always use the same block size as
that in which the tape is written, otherwise performance will be very
seriously affected.
Transfer Mode
The transfer mode can be fixed or variable, selectable through the
MODE SELECT command.
Fixed Mode: The transfer size is equal to the (block) size multiplied by
the number of records (blocks) in the transfer.
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Performance Factor
Detail
Recommendation: A good transfer size to aim at is 256 KB (128 KB minimum). For an
application that uses 512-byte records, each fixed-mode transfer
should transfer 512 records. Higher transfer sizes are also
recommended for higher compression ratios.
Variable Mode: Only one block is transferred at a time. The size of the
block determines the size of the transfer. Ideally the application should
aim to use 256 KB blocks.
Records (Block) Size
The size of the transfer impacts the performance, rather than the size of
the record (blocks) in the transfer.
Recommendation: As above, aim to use 256 KB transfers. Higher transfer sizes are also
recommended for higher compression ratios.
Transfer Size
Transfer size is the amount of data transferred for a single command,
whether the drive is in fixed or variable block mode.
In both fixed and variable modes, the drive works best if it receives a
large amount of data for each command, so a large transfer size for
write commands is recommended.
At small block size, the transfer rate is substantially degraded. This is
because the drive controller and the host spend too much time
handling SCSI overhead instead of writing data to tape, resulting in
stream-fails. The block size at which this happens varies between
drives, but generally the faster the drive, the larger the block size
needed to stream.
Recommendation: Use 256 KB transfers as a minimum. Higher transfer sizes are also
recommended for higher compression ratios.
Transfer Direction
There are some noticeable performance differences between reads
and writes, caused by the extra device CPU time needed by the drive
to read data sets from the media.
Recommendation: Use large transfer sizes; the drive is less likely to stream-read small
transfer sizes than it will when writing transfers of the same sizes.
Format-related factors
Performance Factor
Detail
Tapemarks
Tape marks (filemarks) have many different uses to give a logical
structure to data on a tape. The SCSI Standard specifies certain actions
that the drive must take when it is told to write a filemark.
If the drive is told to write a filemark when the Immediate bit is not set,
the standard insists that the drive must flush all data to tape. If used
unnecessarily this will adversely affect performance and waste tape
capacity.
Recommendation: Write filemarks as rarely as is reasonable for your application.
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5
Supporting Ultrium features
This section covers the following features of HP Ultrium drives:
• LTO Cartridge Memory
page 35
• Automation and drive interface (ACI and ADI)
• Cleaning
page 35
page 50
• Resetting drives
• Backup software
page 50
page 50
• Controlling data compression
• Other Mode page information
page 51
page 51
Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM)
LTO Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM) is EEPROM memory that is embedded in every LTO Ultrium tape
cartridge. It is non-volatile and is contactless in that it is read by RF coupling rather than electrical
contact.
Further information
• For general information about LTO-CM, see “LTO Cartridge Memory” in Chapter 5, “Cartridges”
in Background to Ultrium Drives, Volume 6 of the Ultrium Technical Reference Manual.
• For suggestions of how to make use of cartridge memory in libraries, see “Using Cartridge
Memory” in “Using Special Features in Libraries”, Chapter 2 of the Hardware Integration Guide,
Volume 1 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual.
Automation interface
The interface between the tape drive and the library will support both the open standard
Automation/Device Interface (ADI) and the proprietary Automation Control Interface (ACI). The tape
drive defaults to the ACI protocol and will only transition to ADI when the library initiates an ADT
login exchange.
NOTE: The same connector is used for both interfaces; for convenience, it is referred to as the ADI
Connector in this manual.
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Automation/Device Interface (ADI)
There are two elements to the Automation/Device Interface (ADI):
• ADI Transport Protocol (ADT)—a standard protocol for communication between a SCSI
automation device and a SCSI data transfer device, such as a tape drive.
The ADT protocol allows conforming ADI SCSI devices to inter-operate. The objectives of ADT
are:
• To provide a low-cost interconnect method between an automation device and the data
transfer devices that reside within the media changer.
• To standardize this interface so that different disk drives, tape drives, optical media drives,
and other SCSI devices may be added to conforming media changers without requiring
modifications to generic system hardware.
• To provide for the addition of special features and functions through the use of
vendor-specific options.
The interface protocol includes provision for the connection of two SCSI ports. One of these ports
is intended to be attached to a media changer device and may operate either as a SCSI initiator
port or a SCSI initiator/target port. The other port is intended to be attached to a data transport
type device (tape drive) and may operate as either a SCSI target port or SCSI initiator/target
port. No provision is made for connection of more than two ports.
• ADI Commands (ADC-2)—an extension to the SCSI command set for communication with
application clients through the ADI.
The objectives of ADC-2 are:
• To permit an application client to communicate over a SCSI service delivery subsystem, with
a logical unit that declares itself to be an ADI device in the Peripheral Device Type field of the
standard INQUIRY data.
• To define commands unique to the ADI device type.
• To define commands and parameters to manage the operation of the ADI device type and
the operation of logical units of other specific device types that are present in the same
device as the ADI logical unit.
For details of HP’s implementation of these standards, see the HP ADI Firmware Integration Guide.
The T10 standards referenced by this guide are as follows:
• ADT: ANSI INCITS 406-2005
• ADC-2: T10/1741-D revision 7d.
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Automation Control Interface (ACI)
The Automation Control Interface (ACI) protocol allows the activities of the drive to be coordinated
within a library. The protocol has been designed so that it can be made into a standard feature of
tape drives. It provides a rich and extensible functionality to allow automation manufactures to add
value in their application of it.
The interface is a serial bus with additional control lines, designed to connect the Ultrium tape drive
to an automation controller in a tape library. Each tape drive position has a separate ACI
connection allowing communication to the drive via its RS 422 serial port.
The ACI protocol provides the following fundamental functions:
• Coordinating the automation controller and the tape drive for Load and Unload operations
• Allowing the automation controller to retrieve information from the tape drive
• Setting tape drive configuration information
In addition, the following functions may be supported depending on the way that the tape library is
configured:
• Providing upload and download of firmware images
• Providing access to Cartridge Memory contents
• Providing a protocol for passing SCSI commands to the tape drive over the interface.
The ACI protocol allows for “packetized” SCSI commands to be sent from the attached controller
and submitted to the tape drive as if they have been received on the drive’s own SCSI bus. For
example, the ACI protocol allows the sending of load/unload commands from a specially defined
automation command set to cause drive action. This ability enables the attached controller to access
and control the drive in exactly the same way as it would over the SCSI bus.
NOTE:
Ultrium SCSI Parallel drives implement a limited subset of the SCSI commands, including
INQUIRY, LOG SENSE, LOG SELECT and MODE SENSE.
The following notes should be regarded as supplementing the ACI protocol specification rather than
replacing them. Please refer to the specification for further implementation details. These notes refer
to the “standard” automation drive variant. Different behavior may be exhibited in certain areas for
specific OEM variants as requested by OEMs.
Modes of usage through ACI
Slave to a library controller
The ACI can receive commands such as LOAD and UNLOAD from a specially defined automation
command set to control the action of the drive.
Most tape libraries need to have a means of communication between controller and tape drives, to
enable correct synchronization of mechanical operations between drive and picker arm. For
instance, in a soft load capable device such as an Ultrium drive, the picker must let go of the
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cartridge at the moment that the drive starts to pull it into the drive, if it is configured for that type of
operation.
This degree of control over synchronization cannot be achieved though the host’s backup software;
it must be controlled directly by the library controller. Most tape libraries work this way today. The
process is transparent to the backup software.
SCSI pass-through mode
The ACI protocol allows the transfer of “packetized” SCSI commands from an attached controller
and submit them to the tape drive as if they have been received on the drive’s own SCSI bus. This
enables the attached controller to access and control the drive in exactly the same way as it would
via the SCSI bus.
ACI command set
The following ACI commands are supported on HP Ultrium drives:
Mandatory Commands
Optional Commands
00h
Get Drive Info
40h
Send SCSI Command
01h
Load
42h
Send Firmware Image
02h
Unload
43h
Get Firmware Segment
03h
Get Drive Status
49h
Get Buffer Size
04h
Set Drive Configuration
4Ah Send Firmware Segment
05h
Get Drive Configuration
4Bh
Set Time
06h
Reset
4Ch
Get Time
07h
Set Baud Rate
08h
No Op
09h
Get Error Info
0Ah
Acknowledge Attention
ACI commands that affect drive streaming performance
Commands that alter the state of the drive in some way will affect the performance of the drive when
stream reading or writing. It is recommended that no command within the following set are sent to
the drive while the drive is writing or reading as it would affect the data throughput to or from the
drive:
• Load
• Unload
• Send Firmware Image
• Send Firmware Segment
• Reset
• Set Drive Configuration—if the host (SCSI or FC) is reconfigured
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• Send SCSI with the following opcodes:
Log Select
Mode Sense
Read Attribute
Mode Select
Request Sense
Write Attribute
New features in ACI 4.3
The following sections describe the differences between revision 4.2 of the ACI specification, used
in HP LTO Ultrium 3 drives, and revision 4.3, used in HP LTO Ultrium 4 tape drives.
The main additions to ACI 4.2 revision are:
• Improved backward compatibility
• Support for encryption
Backward compatibility
To provide backward compatibility with ACI 4.0, SCSI parallel drives initialize in ACI 4.0
compatibility mode. Similarly, Fibre Channel drives initialize in ACI 4.1 compatibility mode and
SAS drives initialize to ACI 4.2 compatibility mode. This means drives with ACI 4.0, ACI 4.1 or ACI
4.2 can be replaced with drives with ACI 4.3, without the need to replace or update the automation
controller firmware.
• In ACI 4.0 compatibility mode the drive will accept Set Drive Configuration CMD_DATA in ACI
4.0 format and will respond to Get Drive Status and Get Drive Configuration with ACI 4.0
RDATA.
• In ACI 4.1 compatibility mode the tape drive will accept Set Drive Configuration in ACI 4.1
format and will respond to Get Drive Status and Get Drive Configuration with ACI 4.1 RDATA.
• In ACI 4.2 compatibility mode the tape drive will accept Set Drive Configuration in ACI 4.2
format and will respond to Get Drive Status and Get Drive Configuration with ACI 4.2 RDATA.
An ACI compatibility mode does not restrict the use of ACI 4.3 commands or the use of new fields
to earlier ACI version commands and will respond with the appropriate ACI 4.3 RDATA in these
cases.
• A parallel SCSI tape drive will remain in ACI 4.0 compatibility mode until it receives a valid ACI
4.1 format Set Drive Configuration command or an ACI 4.2/4.3 format Set Drive Configuration
command with the ACI Major/Minor Version fields set to a new and valid ACI version (which is
42h). It will then respond with the appropriate ACI version RDATA. The drive will return to ACI
4.0 compatibility mode in the following circumstances:
• If the tape drive receives a valid ACI 4.0 format Set Drive Configuration command.
• An ACI 4.2 or ACI 4.3 format Set Drive Configuration command with the ACI Major/Minor
Version fields set to 40h.
• The tape drive is reset.
• A Fibre Channel tape drive will remain in ACI 4.1 compatibility mode until it receives a valid
ACI 4.2/4.3 format Set Drive Configuration command with the ACI Major/MinorVersion fields
set to a new and valid ACI version (which is 42h). It will then respond with the appropriate ACI
version RDATA. The drive will return to ACI 4.1 compatibility mode in the following
circumstances:
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• If the drive receives a valid ACI 4.1 format Set Drive Configuration command.
• An ACI 4.2 or ACI 4.3 format Set Drive Configuration command with the ACI Major/Minor
Version fields set to 41h.
• The tape drive is reset. Fibre Channel tape drives do not support ACI 4.0 compatibility
mode, so they will only accept ACI version 4.1 and later commands.
• An SAS tape drive will remain in ACI 4.2 compatibility mode until it receives a valid ACI
4.2/4.3 format Set Drive Configuration command with the ACI Major/Minor Version fields set
to a new and valid ACI version (which is 43h). It will then respond with the appropriate ACI
version RDATA. The drive will return to ACI 4.2 compatibility mode in the following
circumstances:
• If it receives an ACI 4.2 or ACI 4.3 format Set Drive Configuration command with the ACI
Major/Minor Version fields set to 42h.
• If the drive is reset. SAS tape drives do not support ACI 4.0 or ACI 4.1 compatibility mode,
so they will only accept ACI version 4.2 and later commands.
HP LTO tape drives support all ACI versions later than their default ACI compatibility mode version.
For example, Fibre Channel drives default to ACI 4.1 compatibility mode but also support ACI
version 4.2 and ACI 4.3, which can be selected using the appropriate format ACI Set Drive
Configuration command.
Notes
An HP LTO tape drive supports a two-step initialization sequence. The first step behaves as
described above; the drive goes through the first step of the initialization sequence and then begins
to send the <ENQ> character at 10-second intervals. The drive sends the <ENQ> character within
500 ms of the power-on, drive reset, ACI reset or completion of firmware upgrade.
Once the drive sends the first <ENQ> character, it will begin the second step of initialization. This
may take several minutes to complete as it includes rewinding the tape and, optionally, unthreading
it, if the drive contains a seated cartridge with threaded media.
During the second step of initialization, the drive will respond to all ACI commands, except Get
Drive Info, Get Error Info and some Send SCSI commands with BUSY status. The drive will respond
normally to the Get Error Info command. It will respond normally to the Get Drive Info command
except that every byte of the Manufacturing Data Code and Serial Number fields will contain the
value FFh. During initialization the drive supports SCSI commands as in the following table. It
responds with BUSY status to commands that are unsupported:
SCSI command
Supported during initialization
Yes
INQUIRY
40
LOG SELECT
No
LOG SENSE
Yes
MODE SELECT
No
MODE SENSE
No
READ ATTRIBUTE
No
RECEIVE DIAGNOSTIC REPORT
No
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SCSI command
Supported during initialization
REQUEST SENSE
Yes
REPORT DENSITY REPORT
No
REPORT LUNS
Yes
SEND DIAGNOSTIC
No
TEST UNIT READY
Yes
WRITE ATTRIBUTE
No
When the drive has completed the second step of initialization, it will respond normally to all
supported commands, and it will report the correct Manufacturing Date Code and Serial Number in
the corresponding fields of the Get Drive Info RDATA.
HP recommend that automation controllers use the Get Drive Status command to detect the
completion of the second step of tape drive initialization. After the drive sends the first <ENQ>
character and until it completes the second step of initialization, it will respond to a Get Drive Status
command with BUSY status. After the drive has completed the second step of initialization, it will
respond normally to the Get Drive Status command.
Encryption support
For parallel SCSI and SAS drives, the RDATA returned by the Get Drive Status command contains an
Encryption Status field:
7
0
5
4
Vendor Cartridge Prevent Media
Write Protect
Unique Present
Removal
Cartridge Type
1
2
6
Drive
Error
Media
Error
3
2
1
0
Ready
Eject
Ready
Access
Cartridge
Load
Ready
Load
Compression
Tape Activity
Rsvd
Clean
Clean
Clean
Cleaning
Expired
Required Needed
TapeAlert
Reserved
3–4
Reserved
5
Encryption Status
WORM
For FC drives, the RDATA returned is in the following format:
7
0
6
5
4
Vendor Cartridge Prevent Media
Write Protect
Unique Present
Removal
Cartridge Type
1
Media
Error
3
2
1
0
Ready
Eject
Ready
Access
Cartridge
Load
Ready
Load
Compression
Tape Activity
Reserved
Clean
Clean
Clean
Cleaning
Required Needed
Expired
2
Drive
Error
3
Port 0
Active
Port 0 Topology
Port 0 Speed
4
Port 1
Active
Port 1 Topology
Port 1 Speed
TapeAlert
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7
6
5
4
Reserved
5
3
2
1
Encryption Status
0
WORM
The Encryption Status bits indicate the current encryption/decryption status of the SSC device server:
Value
00b
01b
10b, 11b
Meaning
The device server is currently not performing encrypting or decrypting operations.
The device server is currently performing encrypting or decrypting operations.
Reserved.
Further details
For more information about ACI, see the ACI Specification supplied by HP.
Supporting the ACI protocol
Software vendors implementing support for attached library devices will need to work closely with
the library vendor concerned. See HP’s “Ultrium Automation Cookbook” for more details.
Recommended ACI time-out values
ACI commands fall into three broad classes:
• Commands that the drive executes immediately
• Commands that the drive queues but which it can execute concurrently with auto-mode reads
and writes (in other words, streaming operation)
• Commands that the drive queues but which interrupt streaming operation.
The response time to an ACI command will depend on the type of ACI command and the activity
status of the drive at the time the command is received.
Note that the drive does not support ACI command queuing. However, under exception conditions,
command queuing may occur, say if the automation controller had timed-out the tape drive’s
response to a command and either resent the command or sent another command. In these
circumstances, the drive will not ignore the overlapped commands but will respond to every
command package it had received.
An example of when this may occur if the host issued a long SCSI ERASE command to the drive and
the automation controller issued an UNLOAD command, then the drive would not respond to the
UNLOAD command until the long erase had completed. If the automation controller timed out the
drive’s response to the UNLOAD command and re-sends the command or sends another command,
then it needs to be able to handle the response to the original UNLOAD command as well as to the
subsequent commands.
The following tables list the recommended ACI command time-outs for queued and non-queued
commands.
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Table 1
Non-queued ACI commands
ACI Command
Recommended time-out value
Get Drive Info
5s
Get Drive Status
5s
Get Drive Configuration
5s
Get Error Info
5s
Get Buffer Size
5s
No Op
5s
Acknowledge Attention
5s
Table 2
Queued ACI commands
ACI Command
Recommended time-out value
ACI Load—immediate
ACI Load—non-immediate (drive idle, unloaded)
ACI Unload—immediate
5s
300s
5s
ACI Unload—non-immediate (tape loaded, at EOM,
drive idle)
300s or 9000s depending on
implementation strategy
Set Drive Configuration (tape loaded, at EOM, SCSI
unload)
300s or 9000s depending on
implementation strategy
ACI Reset—ACI bus
5s
ACI Reset—drive
5s
Set Baud Rate
5s
Treatment of reserved fields
To ensure forwards compatibility with future versions of the ACI, automation controller firmware
should set any command fields labelled as ‘Reserved’ to zero. Likewise, automation controller
firmware should mask off any response fields labelled as ‘Reserved’ during the processing of tape
drive responses. This will allow older versions of automation controller firmware to operate
successfully with newer versions of tape drive firmware.
Recommended power-up sequence
After power-up, HP recommends that the automation controller wait until it has received at least one
ASCII <ENQ> character from the tape drive before attempting a command-response transaction. HP
Ultrium tape drives use a two-step power-up sequence and the drive sends <ENQ> to signal the
transition between the steps. The drive sends the first <ENQ> within 500 milliseconds of exiting the
reset state after receiving power. Note that the default baud rate at power-up is 9600.
Consider sending Get Drive Info as the first command, either packetized or primitive. This retrieves a
variety of useful identifying information identifying the tape drive, including the version of the ACI
protocol that the tape drive supports.
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During the second step of the power-up sequence, the tape drive will respond with BUSY status to all
ACI commands except Get Drive Info and Get Error Info. The amount of time taken by this second
step will vary widely depending on three factors:
• The presence or absence of a cartridge in the tape drive
• The position of the media if a cartridge is present
• The ability of the tape drive to access the cartridge memory if a cartridge is present
HP recommends that the automation controller polls using the Get Drive Status command to monitor
the completion of the power-up sequence. When the tape drive returns GOOD status to a Get Drive
Status command, it has completed the power-up sequence.
If operating with a tape drive that supports ACI V4.1 and higher, HP recommends that the
automation controller synchronizes the tape drive’s time stamping clock to its own using the Set Time
command once the tape drive has completed the power-up sequence.
In some circumstances when responding to the first Get Drive Info command, the tape drive will fill
every byte in the Manufacturing Date Code and Serial Number fields with FFh. The tape drive
behaves this way when it receives the Get Drive Info command during the second step of the
power-up sequence because it cannot access the EEPROM that stores this information at that time.
The automation controller may retrieve the correct value for these fields with a second Get Drive Info
command sent after the power-up sequence completes.
Once the power-up sequence completes, the automation controller can configure the tape drive
using the Set Drive Configuration command. Each time a Set Drive Configuration command is sent,
it is recommended that a Get Drive Configuration command is sent to double-check that the drive is
configured correctly.
It is recommended that the Get Buffer Size command is sent to drive as part of the power-up
sequence to determine the maximum burst buffer size and maximum receive/transmit package
buffer sizes.
If a baud rate other than the default is to be used, then it is recommended that this is set during the
power-up sequence using the Set Baud Rate command.
Recommended load-unload configuration
The Set Drive Configuration command provides access to several features that alter the tape drive’s
behavior when loading or unloading cartridges. These give a large amount of flexibility in
designing an automation controller.
HP’s experience suggests that certain configurations result in significantly fewer difficulties when
integrating the HP Ultrium tape drive.
HP recommends configuration with the Auto-Eject feature disabled. If Auto-Eject is enabled, the drive
will eject a cartridge in a variety of cases not directly controlled by the automation controller. These
include receiving a SCSI LOAD/UNLOAD command with the Load bit set to 0, various load failures
(regardless of the method of instigating the load), completion of the image verification step when
upgrading the tape drive’s micro-code using a firmware upgrade cartridge, and completion of a
head-cleaning cycle when using a cleaning cartridge. These ejects can result in both the automation
controller and the tape drive losing track of the location of the cartridge.
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HP recommends configuration of the upgrade protect features to enabled. (the Upgrade Protect bit
of the Set Drive Configuration command is set to 1). This will ensure that if a firmware upgrade
cartridge is loaded inadvertently, the drive’s micro-code will not be upgraded unnecessarily.
If requested, HP will alter the default settings for Auto-Eject, Auto-Load, Auto-Thread, Clean Protect,
and Upgrade Protect features in your particular variant of the firmware.
Recommended Get Drive Status polling frequency
HP recommends that the polling frequency of a Get Drive Status command should be in the range
2–5s, particularly during cartridge loading and unloading. This frequency should be sufficient to
capture state changes in the drive while not adding significant processing overhead to the drive or
automation controller.
ACI protocol communications retry
The ACI protocol specifies a comprehensive packet retry mechanism. Under certain timing
conditions, especially for automation controllers that use a single microprocessor and multiplex the
ACI communications from one tape drive to another, the automation controller can receive a
response packet from the tape drive that it does not need. When this situation arises, the automation
controller should send a positive acknowledgement control character, <ACK>, to the tape drive and
discard the packet. Since the tape drive receives the <ACK>, it will not re-send the packet.
Upgrading the drive firmware
There are three methods of updating the firmware in the tape drive:
Firmware upgrade via tape
It is expected that firmware upgrades via tape will be done under the control of the library controller
and the Operator Control Panel and independently of the host interface.
If the Upgrade Protect bit is set to 1 in the Set Drive Configuration command (which is
recommended), the tape can be loaded into the drive in the usual manner, except that the ACI Load
command must be sent to the drive and the Upgrade bit and Thread bit in byte 1 of the Load
command must be set to 1.
If the Immediate Response bit in the ACI Load command is not set to 1 and the firmware upgrade
failed (say due to an invalid image on the tape), the ACI Load command will report a CHECK
CONDITION with appropriate sense key and additional sense.
If the Immediate Response bit is set to 1 and the firmware upgrade fails, the automation controller
can detect the failure by noting that the Tape Activity field in the Get Drive Status response returns to
Idle and the tape drive does not enter its ACI initialization procedure.
• While the drive is preparing to upgrade the firmware, it will report Tape Activity = “Code
Update in Progress”.
• While it is actually upgrading the firmware, the drive will not respond to ACI commands.
• After the firmware upgrade has completed the drive will reset and send out an ENQ byte over
ACI.
After performing a firmware upgrade via tape it is recommended that the library controller checks
that an ENQ byte is sent by the drive after it power-cycles at the end of the firmware upgrade
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process and that the normal power-up ACI command sequence is followed to ensure that the drive is
configured correctly and to verify the firmware version and ACI version.
Firmware upgrade via the primary host interface
The library controller will not have direct visibility if a firmware upgrade of the tape drive is initiated
via SCSI, hence it is recommended that the controller monitors for the that a firmware upgrade is
taking place or has taken place.
• While the firmware image is being sent to the drive via SCSI, the drive responds to ACI
commands with status BUSY.
• When the drive is actually upgrading the firmware, it will not respond to ACI commands.
• When the firmware download is complete, the drive will reset itself and send an ENQ control
character.
It is recommended that the same ACI command sequence be followed as if the drive had been
power-cycled to ensure that the drive is configured correctly and to verify the firmware version and
ACI protocol version.
Firmware upgrade via ACI
Two methods exist for updating firmware via ACI:
• Using the Send Firmware Image command. The automation controller sends the firmware image
in one data burst outside a normal packet.
• Using the Send Firmware Segment command. The automation controller sends the firmware
image in multiple packets.
HP intends to make the Send Firmware Image command obsolete in a future version of the ACI.
Please use the Send Firmware Segment command in all new development. See the ACI specification
for further details of both commands.
When the firmware download is complete, the drive will reset itself and send an ENQ control
character. It is recommended that the same ACI command sequence be followed as if the drive had
been power-cycled to ensure that the drive is configured correctly and to verify the firmware version
and ACI version.
Library firmware upgrade via tape
The ACI specification allows for upgrading the automation controller firmware via tape. This
functionality is not supported in current releases of drive firmware and will be added at a later date
subject to customer needs.
Handling irregular cartridges
The purpose of this section is to indicate what can be seen over the ACI protocol if the host issues a
MOVE MEDIUM command to the library when an irregular cartridge (such as a cleaning cartridge,
expired cleaning cartridge, Ultrium 4 cartridge, or defective data cartridge) is in the storage
element.
The following descriptions assume that the auto-eject bit in the Set Drive Configuration command
has been set to 0 so that the cartridge will not be ejected from the drive unless an ACI Unload
command is issued with the Eject bit set to 1.
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Cleaning cartridge (HP-configured or Universal)
When a valid cleaning cartridge (one that has not expired) is loaded, behavior depends on the
Clean Protect bit of the Set Drive Configuration command.
Clean Protect = 1
f the Clean Protect bit is set to 1, the drive will not thread the tape or clean the
drive until an ACI Load command with the Clean bit set to 1 is sent to the
drive. If the Load command is sent without the Clean bit set the drive will return
a CHECK CONDITION. Also, if the “cleaning cartridge” is not in fact a cleaning
cartridge, the Load command with the Clean bit set to 1 will produce a CHECK
CONDITION.
Clean Protect = 0
If the Clean Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command is set to 0, the
drive will thread the tape and clean the drive when a cleaning tape is loaded.
When the cleaning cartridge is seated in the drive, the ‘cartridge type’ field in
the Get Drive Status RDATA will be set to 06h (cleaning).
While the drive is cleaning, the Cleaning bit in the Get Drive Status RDATA will
be set to 1 and the Tape Activity field will be set to Ah (cleaning).
When cleaning has finished, if Auto-Eject is disabled, the cartridge will be in
the ready eject position with the Cartridge Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject,
and Ready Load bits set to 1, Cartridge Type = ‘Cleaning’, and
Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. The cartridge can now be unloaded from the drive.
Expired cleaning cartridge (HP-configured or Universal)
If an expired cleaning cartridge is loaded into the drive, the cartridge will be placed in the ready
eject position with the Cartridge Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error,
TapeAlert, and Clean Expired bits set to 1, Cartridge Type = ‘Cleaning’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’.
TapeAlert flag 22h will be set.
Non-HP Ultrium 1 cleaning cartridge
If a non-HP Ultrium 1 cleaning cartridge is loaded into the drive, the cartridge will not be
recognized as a supported cartridge. The cartridge will be placed in the ready eject position with
the Cartridge Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert bits set to
1, Cartridge Type = ‘Unknown’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. TapeAlert flag 17h will be set.
Unreadable data cartridge
If a data cartridge is loaded that cannot be read, the cartridge will be placed at the ready-to-eject
position with the Cartridge Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and
TapeAlert bits set to 1, Cartridge Type = ‘Unknown’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. TapeAlert flag 05h
will be set.
Ultrium 5 and later data cartridges
If an Ultrium 5 or later data cartridge is loaded into the drive, the drive will recognize the cartridge
as a non-supported cartridge. The cartridge will be placed at the ready-to-eject position with the
Cartridge Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert bits set to 1,
Cartridge Type = ‘Unknown’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. TapeAlert flag 0Ch will be set.
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Data cartridge with unreadable CM
If the Cartridge Memory cannot be read, the drive assumes that the cartridge is not supported. If the
cartridge is loaded into the drive, it will be placed at the ready-to-eject point with the Cartridge
Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert bits set to 1, Cartridge
Type = ‘Unknown’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. TapeAlert flag 0Fh will be set.
Cartridge fails to seat or load
If a cartridge fails to seat or load, it will be placed at the ready-to-eject position with the Cartridge
Present, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert bits set to 1, Tape Activity = ‘Idle’.
TapeAlert flag 04h will be set. If the cartridge type is recognized, this will be indicated in the
Cartridge Type field, otherwise the field will indicate Cartridge Type = ‘Unknown’.
Cartridge cannot be loaded
HP recommends that GOOD status is not returned to the host for the MOVE MEDIUM command until
the library controller has seen the Cartridge Load bit in the Get Drive Status RDATA set to 1. If the
library controller does not see this bit set, HP recommends invoking an appropriate load re-try
algorithm. After re-trying the load, if this bit is still not set to 1, assume that there is a problem with
the cartridge. HP recommends that the library controller responds to the MOVE MEDIUM command
with CHECK CONDITION, a sense key of Not Ready and additional sense of 5300 (media load or
eject failure), and then moves the cartridge back to the source element. If the Drive Error bit is set to
1 in the Get Drive Status RDATA, appropriate actions should be taken.
Valid firmware upgrade cartridge
If a firmware upgrade cartridge with a valid firmware image is loaded, and neither the library
controller nor the host knows that the cartridge is a firmware upgrade cartridge, what occurs
depends on the Upgrade Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command.
Upgrade Protect = 1 If the Upgrade Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command is set to 1,
it is assumed that the Upgrade bit in the Load command will be zero and no
firmware upgrade will be performed. The cartridge will be placed at the
ready-to-eject position with the Cartridge Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject,
Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert bits set to 1, Cartridge Type =
‘Firmware Upgrade’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. TapeAlert flag 10h will be set.
Upgrade Protect = 0 If the Upgrade Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command is 0, a
firmware upgrade will be performed on the drive. While the drive is
preparing to upgrade the firmware, it will report Tape Activity = “Code
Update in Progress”. When actually upgrading the firmware the drive will not
respond to ACI commands. After the firmware upgrade has completed the
drive will reset and send out an ENQ byte over ACI.
It is recommended that the library controller follows the normal power-up ACI
command sequence after receiving the ENQ byte to ensure that the drive is
configured correctly and to verify the firmware version and ACI version.
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Invalid firmware upgrade cartridge
If a firmware upgrade cartridge with an invalid firmware image is loaded, and neither the library
controller nor the host knows that the cartridge is a firmware upgrade cartridge, again what occurs
depends on the Upgrade Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command.
Upgrade Protect = 1 If the Upgrade Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command is set to 1,
it is assumed that the Upgrade bit in the Load command will be zero and no
firmware upgrade will be performed on the drive. The cartridge will be
placed at the ready-to-eject position with the Cartridge Present, Write
Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert bits set to 1,
Cartridge Type = ‘Firmware Upgrade’, and Tape Activity = ‘Idle’. TapeAlert
flag 10h will be set.
Upgrade Protect = 0 If the Upgrade Protect bit in the Set Drive Configuration command is set to 0,
the firmware upgrade process will start and the drive will thread the tape
and read the image. During this time, the drive will report Tape Activity =
“Code Update in Progress”. When the image has been read the drive will
check whether the image is valid. As in this case the image is not valid, the
drive will place the drive at the ready-to-eject position with the Cartridge
Present, Write Protect, Ready Eject, Ready Load, Media Error, and TapeAlert
bits set to 1, Cartridge Type = ‘Firmware Upgrade’, and Tape Activity =
‘Idle’. TapeAlert flags 10h and 22h will be set. The drive will not send out an
ENQ byte and will not reset.
Frequently asked questions
ACI protocol allows activities of the drive to be co-ordinated within a library. It provides several
modes for operating HP Ultrium drives within tape libraries. In addition, the Cartridge Memory can,
at the very minimum, provide an ‘electronic barcode’ facility to allow media tracking. HP is working
with all the major tape library vendors to ensure that the full potential of these features are realized,
and recognizes that ISV software support is a key part of this process. In advance of the release of
the HP Ultrium Automation Cookbook, here are answers to some frequently asked questions:
Is there separate firmware for drives intended to go into libraries?
Specific variants of the firmware for automation drives enable the automation interface, which is not
enabled in standalone drives. Otherwise the code is similar. A variant can only be downloaded if it
matches the variant in the drive.
Cleaning
The tape drive tells the automation controller that a cleaning tape needs to be used through two bits
in the ACI Get Drive Status command. The Cleaning Needed bit indicates deterioration in the write
or read margin of the drive and hence it is recommended that a cleaning cartridge is inserted into
the drive at the earliest opportunity. Following a successful clean, the Cleaning Needed bit will be
cleared. The Cleaning Required bit indicates that the drive is unable to read or write unless the drive
is first cleaned with a cleaning tape. It is recommended that a cleaning cartridge is loaded into the
drive immediately. Following a successful clean, the Cleaning Required bit will be cleared.
Under normal circumstances, cleaning cartridges can be used for 50 cleanings.
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Resetting drives
The tape drive can be reset by the automation controller via the ACI Reset command or, in ACI
mode, by pulling the ACI_RST_L line low (see “Rear Panel and Connectors”, Chapter 7 of the
Hardware Integration Guide, Volume 1 of the HP LTO Ultrium Technical Reference Manual).
Resetting via the ACI Reset command
Two levels of reset via the Automation Interface are provided, namely ACI Reset and Drive Reset. The
former resets the Automation Interface port and all SCSI parallel/Fibre Channel ports. The latter is
equivalent to a power-on reset. Either reset method will interrupt the interface between the drive and
host, with the Drive Reset potentially resulting in no End of Data written to tape.
It is therefore strongly recommended that an ACI reset command is not sent unless all other recovery
methods have failed. Note that certain ACI commands (see Table 2 on page 43) can be queued
behind outstanding SCSI commands giving the impression that the drive has stopped responding
over the Automation Interface bus. (All command packages will be still be ack'ed even though the
command will be queued.)
A SCSI interface reset will not affect the Automation interface.
NOTE: Following an upgrade of the drive firmware via either tape or SCSI, the drive will be reset
as if it had been powered up.
The implementation details are beyond the scope of this document currently.
Resetting using the ACI_RST_L line
The behavior when the ACI-RST_L line is activated depends on whether the drive is in ACI or ADI
mode. In ACI mode activating this line will produce a power-on reset. Activating the ACI_RST_L in
ADI mode will simply logout the ADT port.
Further details
• For more information about ACI, see “Automation Control Interface (ACI)” in Chapter 1, “Ultrium
Features”, of Background to Ultrium Drives, Volume 6 of the HP Ultrium Technical Manual.
• For more details of hardware integration, see Chapter 5, “Automating Drives”, of Hardware
Integration, Volume 1 of the HP Ultrium Technical Manual.
Backup software
You need backup application software that supports your Ultrium drive and tape library. For the
latest list of appropriate backup packages, contact your tape library supplier.
Suitable backup applications include driver software that establishes the interface between the tape
drive and the software. Applications usually recognize tape drives by their manufacturers’ ID string
rather than their model number:
LTO 4 SCSI drive
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LTO 4 SAS drive
“HP Ultrium 4-SCSI” (“SCSI” is not a typo!)
LTO 4 FC drive
“HP Ultrium 4-SCSI” (“SCSI” is not a typo!)
Controlling data compression
The data compression hardware in HP Ultrium drives can detect whether incoming data is already
compressed and will not attempt to compress it again. The drive can switch dynamically and
automatically between compressing and non-compressing modes, thereby optimizing both
compression ratio performance and data rate. As this mode of behavior is embedded in the Ultrium
format, there is no need for host application software to switch the drive’s data compression on and
off and HP strongly recommends to leave data compression at its default of 1 (on). This is set in the
Select Data Compression Algorithm (SDCA) field of the Device Configuration mode page (page
10h).
Host applications may read the Data Compression mode page (0Fh) to determine that the drive is
capable of data compression; the DCC bit is set to indicate this. HP recommends that the host does
not attempt to modify either the Data Compression Enable (DCE) or Data Decompression Enable
(DDE) bits.
Interpreting the current compression ratio and reporting it through applications is desirable for
customers so that HP can accurately support customer installations. Without knowing the
compression ratios achieved, it is difficult for support to suggest whether performance achieved is
good or merely tolerable for customers’ data. HP recommends reporting compression and includes
example source code for interpreting this functionality.
Other mode page information
Accessing Cartridge Memory without threading the tape
You can configure Ultrium drives so that when a cartridge is loaded, the Cartridge Memory can be
accessed without threading the tape. This functionality is set with the Autoload field (byte 5, bits
0–2) in the Control mode page (0Ah). Zero (default) allows the cartridge to load in a conventional
way. 001b or 010b allows the media to be loaded but not threaded, so the drive can read the
Cartridge Memory contents. All other values for this field are reserved.
Buffer size at EW-EOM
The Buffer Size at EW-EOM field in the Device Configuration Mode page (10h) is set to zero.
HP Ultrium tape drives automatically allow sufficient space between EW-EOM and “physical” EOT
to satisfy backup applications.
Synchronize at EW-EOM
The SEW field (byte 10, bit3) on the Device Configuration mode page (10h) specifies how the drive
behaves when reaching EW-EOM.
The parameter is fully supported. Default 0: the drive continues to buffer data objects after passing
EW-EOM. If you require behavior compatible with earlier drive generations, send a MODE SELECT
command to set this bit to 1.
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Write delay time
The Write Delay Time field (bytes 6–7) on the Device Configuration mode page (10h) specifies the
inactivity delay before the drive will automatically flush its data buffer. A value of 0 is an infinite
delay; any other value is the delay in 100ms units.
This parameter is modifiable by a MODE SELECT command. The default value is 12Ch (300d) which
corresponds to 30s.
Rewind on reset
The Rewind on Reset field (byte 15, bits 3–4) on the Device Configuration mode page (10h) allows
the host control over the action taken in the event of a bus reset.
If the field is 00 (default) or 10b the logical position is unchanged following a reset. If the field is set
to 01b the media will be rewound to the logical beginning of media following a bus reset event.
Partition size
The Ultrium format only supports a single partition. The Medium Partition Mode page (11h) has no
changeable fields. In the Device Configuration Mode page (10h), the Active Partition field should
both be zero since multiple partitions are not supported.
NOTE: If the SET CAPACITY command is used to create logically shortened media, the partition size
is updated to reflect the new capacity.
In the Device Configuration mode page (10h) the Active Partition field must be 0 since multiple
partitions are not supported.
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6
Sense keys and codes
Sense keys—actions to take
Ultrium drives follow the ANSI definition of sense keys. The following table explains how the
drives interpret sense key descriptions.
As sense keys and additional sense codes are intended to be hierarchical errors, the table
recommends action for the host when a particular sense key is reported.
For more detailed recovery actions, see “Additional sense codes—actions to take” on
page 57.
Code Sense Key
0h NO SENSE
Interpretation
These are informational/positional codes. The additional sense
codes are not generally considered errors; they usually indicate
some condition (such as hitting a filemark). The tape positional
codes are mandatory for all sequential access devices. This use
complies with SCSI-2, so it is generic.
For additional sense codes, see “0h—NO SENSE” on page 58.
Action: The host will know what to do with this information, depending
upon the I/O operation at the time. Since the drive implements
Progress Indication, this sense key may be returned if the drive is
polled while an immediate operation is in progress.
If CHECK CONDITION occurs with this sense key, and the additional
sense code is not recognized by the host, the software should just
log the occurrence and continue. It will not be considered an error.
The I/O should have completed without an error.
1h RECOVERED ERROR These errors have been recovered by the drive. The drive may
report any type of recovered error additional sense code.
RECOVERED ERROR is returned is a MODE SELECT parameter is
truncated or if a TapeAlert event is being reported.
RECOVERED ERROR is the lowest priority sense key; it is only
reported when the I/O has completed with no other type of CHECK
CONDITION having occurred.
For additional sense codes, see “1h—RECOVERED ERROR” on
page 59.
Console Message: None
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Code Sense Key
Interpretation
This sense key generally means the host will have to wait for the
drive to become READY. Media access is not possible. See
“3h—MEDIUM ERROR” on page 62. Also see the Media Access
pre-execution check.
2h NOT READY
Action: The host needs to take one of the following actions:
• Wait until the drive becomes available.
• Issue some type of initializing command.
• Perhaps instruct the user to put the drive online.
• The handling of this sense key will depend upon the host’s
operating system and the additional sense code.
Console Message: Drive not ready - media access not possible
3h MEDIUM ERROR
This sense key indicates a failure that is probably due to a problem
with the tape. The I/O did not complete. The I/O may have been
partially attempted and data on the tape may have been altered.
The drive will have retried an optimal number of times before
reporting this sense key.
For additional sense codes, see “3h—MEDIUM ERROR” on
page 62.
Action: Recovery depends on the operating system or application. At the
very least, whatever the additional sense code, the software should
log the error, terminate I/O to the drive, and pass the appropriate
error to the calling application.
On read, the driver should discriminate between hard read failures
caused by the media, and those resulting from an inability to
decompress data.
Console Message: On write, ASQ 0C00h
Write to tape failure
On write attribute, ASQ 1112h Write to CM failure
On read, ASQ 70NNh
Decompression
exception
On read attribute, ASQ 1112h Reading CM failure
54
Sense keys and codes
On read (otherwise)
Read from tape failure
On space
Failed to locate
record on tape
HP restricted
Code Sense Key
Interpretation
This indicates that the current I/O operation has failed due to a
hardware failure.The FRU code in the sense data should indicate
which part of the hardware is bad. The drive should not be used
again until corrective action has been taken. Specific recovery
depends on the operating system and application.
4h HW ERROR
For additional sense codes, see “4h—HW ERROR” on page 67.
Action: Whatever the additional sense code, the software should log the
error, terminate the I/O, and report the appropriate error to the
calling application. Whether the drive requires any further
corrective action before it can be used again (such as a reset or
manual intervention) depends on the additional sense code.
Console Message: Tape drive hardware failure
5h
ILLEGAL REQUEST
The last command sent to the drive, or the data sent because of the
command, could not be accepted by the drive because it violated
conditions imposed by the drive.
For additional sense codes, see “5h—ILLEGAL REQUEST” on
page 68. Also see the Illegal Command, Illegal Field, Fixed Bit,
Reservation and Parameter List pre-execution checks.
Action: The software can retry the I/O, or else it can terminate the I/O and
report an error to the calling application, particularly if the I/O has
been retried a number of times and continues to fail with the same
sense key. The specific retry or recovery strategy depends on the
operating system.
Console Message: Illegal SCSI command requested
6h UNIT ATTENTION The operating conditions of the drive have been changed in some
manner that the host should be aware of. For example, the drive
may have gone online or been reset, the Mode parameters may
have been changed, a second host may have changed the drive’s
operating conditions, and so on.
For additional sense codes, see “6h—UNIT ATTENTION” on
page 69. Also see the Unit Attention pre-execution check.
Action: Recovery depends on the device class and the additional sense
code. In general, the software should assume that mode settings
and so on have been lost, and so should re-initialize the drive. The
failed command will not have been executed and should be
repeated.
Note that for parallel SCSI, the host driver may need to renegotiate
transfer parameters (for example, by using a PPR message) before
continuing.
Console Message: Tape drive operating conditions may have
changed
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Code Sense Key
Interpretation
7h DATA PROTECTION This is an error if the I/O operation is attempting to access the
media in some manner and failing because data on the media may
not be accessed at this time (for example, because the tape is
write-protected; or the drive is unable to decrypt data because the
key is incorrect).
For additional sense codes, see “7h—DATA PROTECTION” on
page 72.
Also see the Media Write pre-execution check.
Action: Depends on the operating system. If this sense key occurs with other
than an additional sense code of 2700h, the software should log
the error, terminate the I/O, and then send an error (operating
system specific) to the calling application. Data on the tape will not
have been altered.
Console Message: Media write-protected or encrypted
8h BLANK CHECK
An attempt was made to read unwritten media. Recovery from this
sense key depends on the operating system. It may be regarded as
an error because more data was expected by the host, or it may be
an expected condition.
For additional sense codes, see “8h—BLANK CHECK” on
page 74.
Console Message: End-of-Data encountered
Bh
ABORTED
COMMAND
The drive has terminated the command. This could be caused by a
problem related to the SCSI bus or Fibre Channel link. For example,
it is reported if a target or LUN receives a second command from
the same host before the previous command from that host has
completed.
For additional sense codes, see “Bh—ABORTED COMMAND” on
page 75.
Action: Recovery depends on the additional sense code and the operating
system. In some cases, the host may want to retry the current I/O. If
the additional sense code is 4E00h (overlapped commands
attempted), the host may not want to retry the current I/O because
the previous I/O will not have been completed.
Console Message: SCSI protocol problem
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Sense keys and codes
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Code Sense Key
Dh VOLUME
OVERFLOW
Interpretation
Data could not be written because of a lack of remaining space on
the tape. See the WRITE and WRITE FILEMARK commands. Recovery
from this depends on the device class and the operating system. It is
a “generic” sense key—the host should be able to recover from it
without knowing the additional sense code.
For additional sense codes, see “Dh—VOLUME OVERFLOW” on
page 76.
Console Message: Physical End-of-Tape reached, unable to fit
remaining information on tape
Additional sense codes—actions to take
These tables provide information about sense data, so that software can know which
additional sense codes can be reported under which sense keys. It is important that the
operating system makes all Request Sense data available to applications and, in interpreted
form, to the end-user.
Actions are suggested for software to use when determining the recovery action for different
sense keys and additional sense code and qualifying codes (ASC/ASCQ).
It is strongly recommended that the operating system and/or application use the entire
ASC/ASCQ data to determine the appropriate recovery action.
The tables are in numerical order, not order of priority. That is, they do not suggest which sense
keys should be checked first, nor do they recommend priorities for the devices to report errors.
NOTE: When the sense, additional sense code and qualifying sense keys are listed, the
software may look at all three keys to determine action. The drive should use that exact
combination to report that particular error.
For example, a drive will report that it is not ready when there is no cartridge present by setting
the sense key to NOT READY with additional sense of 0402h (LUN not ready, initializing
command required). No other combination of sense key and additional sense may be used to
report that particular condition.
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0h—NO SENSE
The following action applies to most additional sense codes in this group:
Action: For all additional sense codes except 82 82h, the action of the software depends on
the current I/O and what the operating system has been expecting. Recovery
depends on the operating system. As a minimum, the software should pass an error
to the calling application indicating the positional mark that has been encountered.
The I/O can be retried if desired.
Code Meaning
Comments
00 00 No additional sense
The drive has no additional sense information for the
host. The flags in the sense data indicate the reason for
failure.
Action: see above
00 01 Filemark detected
This indicates one of the following:
• A READ or SPACE command was terminated early
because a filemark was encountered.
• Unsolicited Positional Sense has been set to indicate
“at a filemark”.
The Mark bit in the sense data will always be set.
Action: see above
00 02 End of Tape detected
A command completed early because End of Tape or the
physical end of the tape was encountered.
The EOM flag in the sense data will be set.
Action: see above
00 04 Beginning of Tape detected BOT was encountered during a space command.
00 16
00 18
00 19
00 1A
Operation in progress
Erase operation in progress
Locate operation in
progress
Rewind operation in
progress
The command is in progress and has not yet completed.
This could be because another host initiated the
command; or the command was sent in immediate
mode. The Sense Key Specific Value field in the sense
data will give some indication of how far the operation
has progressed.
Action: Either wait for the command to complete, or poll again
to see how it is progressing.
82 82 Drive requires cleaning
The drive has detected that the heads need to be
cleaned to maintain good operation.
Action: Optionally, log the occurrence for information. It will not
be considered an error and the software will continue.
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Sense keys and codes
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1h—RECOVERED ERROR
NOTE:
Reporting of recovered errors defaults to OFF.
Action: In all cases, action depends on the device class and operating system.
Code
Meaning
Comments
37 00 Rounded parameter
The drive needs to round off the value of a parameter
sent by MODE SELECT because it cannot store it to the
degree of accuracy sent by the command.
5D 00 Failure prediction threshold Failure Prediction thresholds have been exceeded
exceeded
indicating that TapeAlert flags have been activated.
Action: Retrieve the TapeAlert log page to find out which flag
has been activated and advise the user accordingly.
5D FF Failure prediction threshold The Informational Exceptions Mode page has been sent
exceeded (false)
with the Test field set to 1 and the DExcpt field to 0,
causing the drive to generate a false informational
exception condition (a false device failure).
Action: Since the function of the Test field is simply to test that an
informational exception condition will produce a CHECK
CONDITION and that the exception will be reported to
the TapeAlert log, no action is necessary.
2h—NOT READY
Code
Meaning
Comments
04 00 LUN not ready, no cause
to report
This is set if an unload is occurring with immediate report
on, or initiated through the front panel, or a different host
initiated the command. It is present for the duration of
the unload or eject, after which the additional sense
changes to 3A 00h (medium not present) or 0402h
(logical unit not ready, initializing command required).
Action: 1. Issue a message to the console stating that the tape is
currently being unloaded from the drive.
2. Poll the drive until the additional sense changes to
3A 00h or 04 02h.
3. Instruct the user what to do, based on the application
and the previous sequence of commands.
4. Depending on the application, the software may
terminate the current I/O.
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Code
Meaning
Comments
04 01 LUN in process of
becoming ready
A media access command has been received while a
load is occurring with immediate report on, or initiated
through the front panel, or a different host initiated the
command.
Action: 1. Effectively poll the drive by re-sending the command
until the media is loaded, when UNIT ATTENTION with
additional sense of 28 00h will be set if the tape was
inserted via the front panel. Otherwise poll the drive
(TUR) until GOOD status is reported. At this point the
command can be executed.
2. Report to the console that the drive is in the process
of loading tape.
04 02 LUN not ready, initializing A cartridge is present in the drive but is not logically
command required
loaded.
Action: 1. The software must issue a LOAD before media access
is permitted.
2. Issue a message to the console to request a
user-initiated load, or to indicate drive status, or both.
04 07 Command in progress
The tape drive is currently executing an immediate mode
command.
04 0C LUN not accessible, port in The command is not available on the specified logical
unavailable state
unit when sent to the drive through the specified port.
60
04 12 Logical unit offline
The command cannot be executed because the specified
logical unit has not yet been configured via the
appropriate port.
0B 01 Thermal limit exceeded
There has been a failure due to the drive temperature
being outside the acceptable range.
Sense keys and codes
HP restricted
Code
Meaning
Comments
30 03 Cleaning cartridge
installed.
A medium-access command has been sent to the drive
while a cleaning cartridge was loaded.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O, and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that a
cleaning cartridge is in the drive and a cleaning
cycle is being performed.
3. Prompt the user to wait for the cartridge to be
ejected. In a library, the cartridge will be ejected
when requested by the library or host. In an internal
or external single drive, the cartridge will be ejected
automatically.
4. Prompt the user to proceed with the next
application-specific activity.
5. Log the cleaning cycle in the system log.
3A 00 Medium not present
A medium-access command has been received when no
cartridge is in the drive.
Action: As a minimum, issue a message to the console
indicating that a drive is present but no tape is loaded.
3A 04 Medium not present,
Media Auxiliary Memory
accessible
A media access command has been received when the
tape has been loaded but not threaded. This will be
reported if the hold bit of the LOAD CDB was set or the
Autoload field in the Control mode page is non zero.
3E 00 Logical unit has not
self-configured yet
This is set during power-up when it is not possible to
send medium-access commands to the drive because
mechanism tests are being executed. When the tests are
complete, the additional sense changes to 3A 00h,
04 01h or 04 02h depending on whether a cartridge
was present at power-on.
Action: 1. Issue a message to the console indicating that the
drive is powering up.
2. Effectively poll the drive until the drive transitions to
another state, at which point either execute the
command or terminate the I/O.
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3h—MEDIUM ERROR
Code
Meaning
Comments
00 02 End of Tape detected
A READ, SPACE, WRITE or WRITE FILEMARKS command
found EOT unexpectedly. This typically occurs when a
drive cannot locate the target object on tape because the
block count is too great.The EOM flag will be set.
Action: 1. Recovery action depends on the initiating action. As a
minimum, tell the calling application that physical
EOP/M has been encountered. Also display this
information as a console message.
2. Send any residue information to the calling
application.
0C 00 Write error
The drive has failed to write data or filemarks to tape.
This is probably due to bad media, but may be
hardware-related. Residue information will normally be
supplied.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. The software should disable all further transactions to
the drive and mark the drive as ‘bad’.
3. The software should tell the user that a serious fault
has been detected with the drive and advise them to
call their technical support.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
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Sense keys and codes
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Code
Meaning
Comments
11 00 Unrecovered read error
A read from tape has failed. This is probably due to bad
media, but may be hardware-related.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a console message that an unrecovered error on
write has occurred.
3. Determine whether the error is deferred, and report
the last successful operation and the failed operation
to the calling application.
4. Log the error and all recovery actions in the system
log.
Recovery action is as follows:
1. Use Log Sense to find the age and state of the tape
and the drive. Based on this, ask the user to clean the
drive or replace the tape.
2. If the fault is drive-related, ask the user to retry the
operation after the drive has been cleaned.
3. If the fault is with the media, prompt the user to back
up the data to a new tape, restart the application and
discard the current tape.
11 12 Media Auxiliary Memory
read error
An error has occurred while attempting to write to MAM.
The cartridge should not be used for further backups but
should be able to be used for restoring data.
14 00 Recorded entity not found A SPACE or LOCATE command failed because of the drive
could not find the target of the operation because of a
format violation.
Action: 1. Terminate the I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that EOD
could not be found because the tape has a corrupt
format.
3. Prompt the user to back up the data to another tape
and discard the current one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
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Code
Meaning
Comments
14 03 End of data not found
A read-type operation failed because a format violation
related to a missing EOD data set, or there was an
attempt to read a brand new tape.
Action: 1. Terminate the I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that EOD
could not be found because the tape has a corrupt
format.
3. Prompt the user to back up the data to another tape
and discard the current one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
30 00 Incompatible medium
installed
A write-type operation could not be executed because it
is not supported on the tape type that is loaded.
Action: 1. Terminate the I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that writing
is not allowed on the type of tape that is currently
loaded.
3. Prompt the user to insert a different tape type.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
5. The calling application can retry the operation.
30 01 Cannot read media,
unknown format
A LOCATE or SPACE command has found the tape is in a
format not supported by the drive.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O, and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that the
tape is in a format not supported by the drive.
3. Prompt the user to eject the cartridge and insert a
valid one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
30 02 Cannot read media,
incompatible format
A READ command could not be completed because the
logical format is not correct.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O, and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that the
tape is wrongly formatted.
3. Prompt the user to eject the cartridge and insert a
valid one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
30 04 Cannot write medium
64
Sense keys and codes
The tape’s Cartridge Memory is bad so that the tape is
unusable.
HP restricted
Code
Meaning
30 07 Cleaning failure
Comments
A cleaning operation was attempted but could not be
completed for some reason.
Action: Use another cleaning cartridge because the current one
has expired.
30 0D WORM medium—integrity The drive has detected an inconsistency when performing
check failed
an integrity check on a WORM cartridge. The cartridge
may have been tampered with. Data can be read from
the cartridge by setting the WTRE bit in the Device
Configuration mode page. The event should be logged
for audit purposes.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O, and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that the
drive has detected an inconsistency in the WORM
cartridge that indicates it may have been tampered
with.
3. Alert the user that the cartridge may have been
tampered with.
4. Log the incident in the system log for audit purposes.
5. Initiate WTRE-controlled EOD with clear warnings to
the end-user that the data may have been tampered
with.
31 00 Medium format corrupted READ or SPACE has tried to read data that is in a format
that is recognized but which is not valid.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O, and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that there is
a problem with the format of the tape in the drive.
3. Prompt the user to eject the media and insert a valid
Ultrium tape.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
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Code
Meaning
Comments
3B 00 Sequential positioning
error
The drive has failed to read data off tape. There are two
possibilities:
• The current command (such as READ, SPACE, REWIND,
or WRITE) failed to complete successfully.
• The logical position has been lost.
Action: 1. Attempt to recover by executing a REWIND command
to return to a known position such as BOT.
2. Space to the position of the last known successful
command and retry the failing command.
3. If this is unsuccessful, terminate the current I/O, and
return the appropriate error.
4. Prompt the user to back up the data to a new
cartridge and discard the old one.
5. Log the incident in the system log.
50 00 Write append error
A write-type command failed because the point at which
to append data was unreadable. This was probably
caused by a powerfail, or SCSI bus or Fibre Channel link
reset, preventing the drive from completing a write
operation properly and appending an EOD.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Tell the user that the append point is unreadable
3. Advise the user to back up the data to new media and
reformat the failing tape.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
52 00 Cartridge fault
A command could not be completed because of a fault
with the tape cartridge.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Tell the user that a serious fault has been detected
with the tape cartridge.
3. Advise the user to discard this cartridge and select a
new one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
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Sense keys and codes
HP restricted
Code
Meaning
Comments
53 00 Media load or eject failed A load or eject has failed.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Inform the user that a serious fault has been detected
with the tape cartridge.
3. Advise the user to discard this cartridge and select a
new one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
53 04 Medium thread or
unthread failure
The threading or unthreading operation failed.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Inform the user that a serious fault has been detected
with the tape cartridge.
3. Advise the user to discard this cartridge and select a
new one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
4h—HW ERROR
The following actions apply to most additional sense codes for HW ERROR sense key:
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. The software should disable all further transactions to the drive and mark the
drive as ‘bad’.
3. The software should tell the user that a serious fault has been detected with the
drive and advise them to call their technical support.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
Code
Meaning
Comments
40 XX Diagnostic failure on
component XX
A self-test command has detected an error, or a
command is prohibited from execution due to failure of a
previous diagnostic. “XX” is a vendor-specific code
indicating the failing component.
Action: see above
44 00 Internal target failure
This code is used to report hardware and firmware
related hard errors that occur when the drive encounters
an “impossible” situation.
Action: see above
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Code
Meaning
Comments
53 01 Unload tape failure
The tape unload failed because it cannot be physically
completed at this point in time.
Action: see above
82 83 Bad microcode detected
The data transferred to the drive during a firmware
upgrade is corrupt or incompatible with the drive
hardware.
Action: see above
5h—ILLEGAL REQUEST
The following actions apply to all additional sense codes in this group:
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Log the incident in the system log.
3. Print out all the REQUEST SENSE data bytes and check bytes 15 through 17 to
identify the location of the offending bits or bytes.
4. Refer to the table of Drive Error Codes in Volume 3, SCSI Interface, of the
Ultrium Technical Reference Manual to understand why the current values were
rejected.
5. This is likely to be an application fault. Send a message to the console “Illegal
SCSI request to tape drive”.
Code
Meaning
1A 00 Parameter list length error
Comments
A MODE SELECT parameter list sent to the drive contains
one of the following:
• An incomplete Mode Parameter header (must be
4 bytes)
• An incomplete Mode Block Descriptor (must be 0 or
8 bytes)
• An incomplete Mode page
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20 00 Invalid command opcode
The drive does not recognize the opcode of the
command it has received.
24 00 Invalid field in CDB
The drive has detected an invalid field in a command
descriptor block.
25 00 LUN not supported
The command was addressed to a logical unit number
that does not exist.
26 00 Invalid field in parameter
list
The drive detected an invalid field among the command
parameters sent during the data phase.
26 01 Parameter not supported
A request for an invalid page number has been sent.
Sense keys and codes
HP restricted
Code
Meaning
Comments
26 04 Invalid release of persistent The Persistent Reservation holder has tried to release the
reservation
persistent reservation using the PERSISTENT RESERVE OUT
command, but the Scope or Type supplied was invalid.
2C 00 Command sequence
invalid
The sequence of SCSI commands is invalid.
Example 1: The use of the echo buffer was invalid. A
WRITE BUFFER command is necessary before a READ
BUFFER command.
Example 2: Another initiator has already started a
firmware download process.
2C 0B Not reserved
If the “Only If Reserved” bit is set in the Device
Configuration Mode page, and the drive does not hold a
(persistent) reservation, some commands will not be
allowed to execute. In other words, some commands can
only be executed if the drive is reserved.
3B 0C Position past BOM
A SET CAPACITY command was received when the
logical position was not BOT, a necessary condition for
this command.
53 02 Medium removal prevented An unload operation failed to eject the tape because
medium removal has been prevented.
55 03 Insufficient resources
A buffer has reached its full capacity.
55 04 Insufficient registration
resources
FC interface only: There is only space for requests from
32 initiators to register, using PERSISTENT RESERVE OUT
commands.
55 06 Media Auxiliary Memory
full
There is insufficient space in the Host Attribute area in
MAM to fit the attribute that need to be written.
Action: Check MAM attribute 0004h (MAM Space Remaining)
to identify how much space remains in MAM.
6h—UNIT ATTENTION
Code
Meaning
28 00 Not ready to ready
transition
Comments
A tape has been loaded successfully into the drive and is
now ready to be accessed.
Action: 1. The host should be polling, receiving a CHECK
CONDITION with sense key 2h (NOT READY) and
additional sense of 04 01h (LUN in process of
becoming ready), and expecting this transition.
2. Send the console message: “Tape drive in process of
becoming ready”.
3. After the transition, send the console message “Tape
loaded - media may have changed”.
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Code
Meaning
Comments
29 01 Power-on reset
The drive has powered on since the host last accessed it.
Action: 1. The action of the calling application depends on the
current I/O and what the operating system is
expecting.
2. For parallel SCSI, the host should renegotiate transfer
parameters, and reconfigure the drive with any
host-specific operating parameters (burst size, bus
activity limit, fixed or variable mode, and so on).
3. The host should then report to the console that the
drive has been reset.
4. The I/O can be retried if desired.
SCSI drives: The drive has received a SCSI reset signal
since the host last accessed it.
29 02 SCSI bus reset
FC drives: The drive has received its first process login.
The drive will be implicitly logged out after a Target
Reset so this ASCQ will be posted after the host has
performed port/process login.
Action: As for 29 01h
SCSI drives: The drive has received a SCSI bus device
reset message since the host last accessed it.
29 03 Bus device reset
FC drives: The drive has received a process login when it
was previously logged in for a particular host.
Action: As for 29 01h
29 04 Internal firmware reboot
The drive has reset itself.
Action: The host may renegotiate transfer parameters.
29 05 Transceivers to SE
SCSI drives only: The transceivers on the bus have been
reset to Single-Ended.
Action: As for 29 01h
29 06 Transceivers to LVD
SCSI drives only: The transceivers on the bus have been
reset to LVD.
Action: As for 29 01h
29 07 I_T nexus loss occurred
The drive has lost the connection with the initiator (host
server).
Action: The host may renegotiate transfer parameters.
2A 01 Mode parameters changed The Mode parameters for the drive have been changed
by a host other than the one issuing the command. UNIT
ATTENTION is set for all hosts following a MODE SELECT
command, apart from the host that issued the command.
This code will only be returned in a multi-host
environment.
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Sense keys and codes
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Code
Meaning
Comments
Action: When operating the drive in this type of environment, the
following actions should occur:
1. The calling application receiving this code should
issue a MODE SENSE command requesting the drive
to return all parameters.
2. The application should check those parameters over
which it has configuration control, to ensure that the
current configuration of the drive does not conflict
with what the application expects.
3. If it finds discrepancies, the application can either
reconfigure the drive to the original values, or halt
and report an error.
4. If an error is reported, a console message must be
displayed, and information logged to the system log.
2A 02 Log parameters changed
The Log parameters for the drive have been changed by
an initiator other than the one issuing the command.
2A 03 Reservations pre-empted
A PERSISTENT RESERVE OUT command with the Clear
service action removed all reservations and the persistent
reservation.
2A 04 Reservations released
A PERSISTENT RESERVE OUT command executed. The
original persistent reservation has been replaced with
another of a different type or removed completely.
2A 05 Registrations pre-empted
A PERSISTENT RESERVE OUT command was executed
which removed all registrations.
2A 11 Data encryption parameters The encryption parameters that this initiator was using
changed by another
have been modified by another initiator.
initiator
2A 12 Data encryption parameters The encryption parameters that this initiator was using
changed by vendor specific have been modified because of a vendor specific event
event
(such as tape unload or reservation released).
3F 01 Firmware upgraded
The firmware in the drive has just been changed by a
WRITE BUFFER or MAINTENANCE OUT command,
Firmware Update Cartridge, ADI or ACI.
3F 05 Device identifier changed
A SET DEVICE IDENTIFIER command has been successful.
3F 0E Reported LUNs data has
changed
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7h—DATA PROTECTION
Code Meaning
Comments
26 10 Data decryption key fail limit
reached
A SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command has failed because
an incorrect key has been sent to the drive followed by a
read, and this has happened ten times consecutively.
Action: Further SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT commands will not
succeed until one of these actions has been taken:
• Unload and reload the current tape.
• Power-cycle the drive.
Advise the user that they are using the wrong key, or that
there is a possible security attack.
27 00 Write-protected
This is set if a write operation (WRITE, WRITE FILEMARKS, or
ERASE) is requested for a write-protected cartridge.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that the drive
has been trying to write to a write-protected tape.
3. Subsequent action depends on the application.
2A 13 Data encryption Key Instance The drive received a WRITE command from an initiator that
Counter has changed
had locked its encryption parameters to a specific Key
Instance Counter, whose value has now changed.
Action: 1. Issue SECURITY PROTOCOL IN command to find out what
the current encryption parameters are.
2. Issue a SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command to set the
correct security parameters.
3. Notify the user of a possible system configuration issue,
since several initiators are trying to control encryption
parameters.
30 00 Incompatible medium
installed
A write-type operation could not be executed because it is
not supported on the tape type that is loaded.
Action: 1. Terminate the I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that writing
is not allowed on the type of tape that is currently
loaded.
3. Prompt the user to insert a different tape type.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
5. The calling application can retry the operation.
30 05 Cannot write medium,
incompatible format
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For example, the drive tried to write to a tape of an
incompatible generation.
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Code Meaning
Comments
30 0C WORM—overwrite attempted A write operation could not be executed because an
overwrite has been attempted on a WORM cartridge. This
may be because an overwrite backup was specified
instead of an appended backup.
Action: 1. Terminate the I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that an
attempt has been made to overwrite on a WORM
cartridge.
3. Prompt the user to either use a new cartridge or change
the operation to an appended backup.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
30 0D WORM—integrity check
failed
An attempt has been made to write to a WORM cartridge
when the drive has detected inconsistencies while checking
its integrity.
Action: 1. Terminate the I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that the drive
has detected an inconsistency with the WORM
cartridge that indicates that it may have been tampered
with.
3. Advise the user that the tape may have been tampered
with and they should use a different cartridge.
4. Log the incident in the system log for audit purposes.
74 00 Security error
Generic security (encryption/decryption) error. For
example, the Decryption mode is set to RAW and the drive
has been asked to read, but the hardware does not allow
this Decryption mode on the current block.
74 01 Unable to decrypt data
The drive encountered encrypted data while reading, but
decryption mode is not enabled.
Action: Send a SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command with
Decryption Mode set to Decrypt or Mixed, and the Key
field specifying the correct decryption key.
74 02 Unencrypted data
The decryption mode is enabled but the drive encountered
encountered while decrypting non-encrypted data while reading.
Action: Send a SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command with
Decryption Mode set to Disable; alternatively with
Decryption Mode set to Mixed and the Key field specifying
the correct decryption key.
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Code Meaning
Comments
74 03 Incorrect data encryption key The drive read into a block of data which could not be
decrypted with the current decryption key.
Action: 1. Send a SECURITY PROTOCOL IN with the page set to
Next Block Encryption Status to obtain information
about the next block on tape.
2. Send a SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command with
Decryption Mode set to Decrypt or Mixed, and the Key
field specifying the correct decryption key
74 04 Cryptographic integrity
validation failed
The next block failed the integrity validation process while
the drive was attempting to read it.
Action: Data may have been compromised, so the tape should not
be trusted. Log the incident in the system log and notify the
user.
74 05 Key-associated data
descriptors changed
The Key-associated data descriptor values have changed
compared to the values in the last recorded read.
Action: None. The application may continue reading but it is
advisable to send a SECURITY PROTOCOL IN command with
the page set to Next Block Encryption Status to find out
information about the next block on tape. The application
may decide to change its own security parameters.
8h—BLANK CHECK
Code Meaning
Comments
00 05 End of Data (EOD)
detected
A READ or SPACE command terminated early because it
encountered EOD.
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error to the calling application indicating that EOD
has been encountered.
2. Send a console message saying that EOD has been
encountered.
3. Recovery depends on the calling application and
what was expected.
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Code Meaning
Comments
14 03 End of Data not found
A read-type operation failed because a format violation
related to a missing EOD data set. The most likely cause
is a tape with corrupt format (perhaps from a powerfail
when the tape was being written).
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate
error.
2. Send a message to the console indicating that EOD
could not be found because the tape has corrupt
format.
3. Prompt the user to back up the data to another tape
and discard the current one.
4. Log the incident in the system log.
Bh—ABORTED COMMAND
The following action applies to all codes in this group:
Action: 1. Terminate the current I/O and return the appropriate error.
2. Log the incident in the system log.
3. Send the console message “SCSI command aborted - low-level failure on SCSI
bus” or for a Fibre Channel drive, “SCSI command aborted - low-level failure on
Fibre Channel link”.
Code
Meaning
Comments
3F 0F Echo buffer overwritten
A READ BUFFER command has been received with Echo
Buffer mode set, and the echo buffer has been
overwritten by a different host from that which issued the
READ BUFFER command.
47 00 SCSI parity error
The drive has detected a parity error, for example during
Message phase or Data phase.
47 01 Data phase CRC error
detected
For parallel SCSI only in non-Information Units mode, the
drive has detected a CRC error during the data out
phase.
47 03 Information Unit CRC error For parallel SCSI only in Information Units mode, the
detected
drive has detected a CRC error during the command IU
or data out phase.
48 00 Initiator Detected Error
message received
An Initiator Detected Error message has been received,
and the previous phase (the phase in which ATN was
asserted) was invalid.
4B 00 Data phase error
ACI received more raw data than expected.
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Code
Meaning
4E 00 Overlapped commands
attempted
Comments
A host has selected the drive even though it already has
a command outstanding.
74 08 Digital signature validation The SCSI command used to download the new firmware
failure
image failed because the firmware image digital
signature could not be correctly validated.
Dh—VOLUME OVERFLOW
Code Meaning
Comments
00 02 End of Tape detected
A WRITE or WRITE FILEMARKS command has encountered
EOT or the physical end of tape. The EOM flag will be
set.
NOTE: When the sense, additional sense and qualifying sense keys are listed, the software may
look at all three keys to determine action. The drive should use that exact combination to report that
particular error.
For example, a drive will report that it is not ready when there is no cartridge present by setting
sense key = NOT READY with additional/qualifying sense keys = 04 02. No other combination of
additional/qualifying sense keys may be used to report that particular condition.
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7
Exception handling
These pages cover methods of dealing with certain error conditions and exceptional circumstances.
They include the following:
• A suggested Escalation Procedure to follow when exceptions occur
• How to make the most of the TapeAlert facility, see “Supporting TapeAlert” on page 78
• How to respond to the ‘Clean’ LED (lit on the front panel when there are an excessive number of
retries or error corrections)
• The need for a pass-through mode, which can return information or commands specific to a
vendor’s product
• How drives recover from read and write errors
• How to use the drive’s ability to read through media errors, so that as much data can be
retrieved from a badly damaged tape as possible
Typical escalation procedure
For exception handling, there needs to be a well defined escalation path, through which the calling
application, user, operator or System Supervisor may take increasingly drastic action to clear any
product-related faults.
An escalation procedure is important to allow local recovery where possible, and to avoid the
unnecessary replacement of peripheral devices.
A typical escalation procedure is as follows:
1. Retrieve fault information.
You can run HP’s Library and Tape Tools (L&TT) and obtain a ticket, or you can retrieve specific
fault information from the following sources:
• INQUIRY data, such as firmware revisions
• REQUEST SENSE data, such as Additional Sense Codes and Drive Error Codes
• MODE SENSE data, such as data on the current configuration
• LOG SENSE data, stored in the drive’s logs
2. Inform the user.
The system gives the user helpful advice by attempting to decode the returned information, and
also allows the user access to the raw data.
3. Allow the user to try recovery.
For any fault, the system allows the user to use simple recovery commands such as REWIND or
LOAD/UNLOAD.
4. Allow the user to reset devices.
If these actions fail, including repeated attempts to retry the operation, the user should be able to
reset devices on the SCSI bus selectively, through the use of a LOGICAL UNIT RESET Task
Management function. This function is specific only to the device to which it is addressed and
will not disturb other devices on the SCSI bus.
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5. Parallel SCSI only: Allow the System Supervisor or support person to perform a controlled hard
SCSI Bus Reset.
If the LOGICAL UNIT RESET Task Management function fails to clear the problem, the System
Supervisor or technical support person should be able to perform a controlled hard SCSI Bus
Reset as follows:
• Lock other users out cleanly.
• Go to a minimal-system single-user mode.
• Close all applications.
• Execute a hard SCSI Bus Reset.
The process should not require a complete shutdown and reboot of the system.
Monitoring the condition of the drive and media
Through TapeAlert, an HP LTO Ultrium tape drive constantly monitors the condition of the
mechanism and media, and presents the results in a form that host software can readily use and
users can easily understand.
You can find a general description of TapeAlert in the diagnostics section of the User Guide.
Supporting TapeAlert
HP has refined the TapeAlert standard to include the Predictive Failure flag. If the drive sets this flag,
the host should display a message that the drive is “about to fail and should be replaced”. There
should be no impact on ISV software if the TapeAlert standard is already fully supported.
NOTE:
Reading the TapeAlert log clears all the flags, as defined in the TapeAlert specification.
The TapeAlert Log page consists of 64 flags that indicate potential problems with the drive, and that
allow host software to suggest appropriate corrective action to the user. For example, if Flag 20
(“Clean Now”) is set, the software should advise the user to clean the tape heads.
The drive maintains both SSC and ADC TapeAlert flags because the two standards state different
clearing conditions.
• The drive maintains separate copies of the SSC TapeAlert flags for each port. These are only
cleared when a port retrieves its TapeAlert flags with a LOG SENSE command with page code
2Eh, provided the TAPLSD (TapeAlert Prevent LOG SENSE Deactivation) mode parameter is zero
in the Device Configuration Extension mode page.
• The drive also maintains a set of ADC TapeAlert flags, which are shared by each port. The ADC
TapeAlert flags are not cleared when a port retrieves them with a LOG SENSE command with
page code 12h.
See Chapter 4 of Volume 3, SCSI Interface, of the HP Ultrium Technical Reference Guide for details
of the TapeAlert log page.
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Flags
The following table lists the flags that could potentially be supported in tape drives. Of these, flags
3,4,5,6,20,22 and 31 are mandatory for drives such as Ultrium drives that support cleaning
cartridges.
The flags are grouped into the following sections:
• Flags 1 to 19: For tape drive write/read management
• Flags 20 to 25: For cleaning management
• Flags 26 to 39: For tape drive hardware errors
• Flags 50 to 60: For additional tape drive errors
For each flag, the message that the host software should display to the user is given, together with
the cause of the flag being set. The Type column classifies the flags by seriousness into the following
three groups:
I
Information
A suggestion to the user.
W Warning
The user is advised to take action. Performance or data
may be at risk otherwise.
C Critical!
Take action immediately.
The Set column indicates if the flag can be set by LTO 4 drives. The other flags are supported but
never set.
Flag
Type Set Recommended Host Message
Cause
Flags for Tape Drive Write/Read Management
1 Read warning
W
2 Write warning
W
3 Hard error
W
The drive is having severe
reading data. No data has been lost, trouble reading.
but there has been a reduction in the
capacity of the tape.
The tape drive is having problems
The drive is having severe
The tape drive is having problems
writing data. No data has been lost, trouble writing.
but there has been a reduction in the
capacity of the tape.
The operation has stopped because This flag is set for any
an error has occurred while reading unrecoverable
read/write/positioning
or writing data which the drive
error, and is cleared
cannot correct.
internally when the tape is
ejected. The flag is set as an
explanation of the error in
conjunction with one of the
recovery action flags 4, 5,
or 6.
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Flag
4 Media
Type Set Recommended Host Message
C
Your data is at risk:
1. Copy any data you require from
this tape.
2. Do not use this tape again.
3. Restart the operation with a
different tape.
5 Read failure
6 Write failure
C
C
The tape is damaged or the drive is
faulty. Call the tape supplier’s
helpline.
Cause
Media performance is
severely degraded or the
tape can no longer be
written or read.
This flag is set for any
unrecoverable
read/write/positioning error
caused by faulty media. It is
cleared internally when the
media is ejected.
The drive can no longer
read data from the tape.
The flag is set for any
unrecoverable read error
where the diagnosis is
uncertain and could either
be a faulty tape or faulty
drive hardware. It is cleared
internally when the tape is
ejected.
The tape is from a faulty batch or the The drive can no longer
tape drive is faulty:
write data to the tape.
1. Use a good tape to test the drive. The flag is set for any
unrecoverable
2. If the problem persists, call the
write/positioning error
tape drive supplier’s helpline.
where the diagnosis is
uncertain and could either
be a faulty tape or faulty
drive hardware. It is cleared
internally when the tape is
ejected.
7 Media life
W
The tape cartridge has reached the
end of its calculated useful life:
The media has exceeded its
specified life.
1. Copy any data you need to
another tape.
2. Discard the old tape.
8 Not data grade
W
9 Write-protect
C
Not relevant to Ultrium drives.
You are trying to write to a
write-protected cartridge.
Remove the write-protection or use
another tape.
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A write command was
attempted to a
write-protected tape.
Flag
Type Set Recommended Host Message
10 No removal
I
You cannot eject the cartridge
because the tape drive is in use.
Wait until the operation is complete
before ejecting the cartridge.
Cause
A manual or software
unload was attempted when
Prevent Medium Removal
was in force.
11 Cleaning media
I
The tape in the drive is a cleaning
12 Unsupported
format
I
You have tried to load a cartridge of Attempted load of an
13 Recoverable
mechanical
cartridge failure
C
The operation has failed because the The tape has snapped or
cartridge.
a type that is not supported by this
drive.
tape in the drive has experienced a
mechanical failure:
1. Discard the old tape.
2. Restart the operation with a
different tape.
14 Unrecoverable
mechanical
cartridge failure
C
A cleaning cartridge is
loaded in the drive.
unsupported tape format.
suffered some other
mechanical failure in the
drive, but the tape can still
be ejected.
The operation has failed because the The tape has snapped or
tape in the drive has experienced a suffered some other
mechanical failure in the
mechanical failure:
drive and the tape cannot
1. Do not attempt to extract the tape
be ejected.
cartridge.
2. Call the tape drive supplier’s
helpline.
15 Memory chip in
cartridge failure
W
The memory in the tape cartridge has The LTO-CM chip has failed
16 Forced eject
C
The operation has failed because the A manual or forced eject
17 Read-only
format
C
18 Tape directory
corrupted on
load
W
failed, which reduces performance.
Do not use the cartridge for further
write operations.
in cartridge.
occurred while the drive was
tape cartridge was manually
de-mounted while the tape drive was writing or reading.
actively writing or reading.
You have loaded a cartridge of a
type that is read-only in this drive.
The cartridge will appear as
write-protected.
The tape directory on the cartridge
has been corrupted. File search
performance will be degraded. The
tape directory can be rebuilt by
reading all the data on the cartridge.
A write command has been
attempted to a tape whose
format is read-only in this
drive.
The drive was powered
down with a tape loaded, or
a permanent error prevented
the tape directory being
updated.
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Flag
19 Nearing media
life
Type Set Recommended Host Message
I
Cause
The tape cartridge is nearing the end The tape may have
of its calculated life. It is
recommended that you:
exceeded its specified
number of passes.
1. Use another tape cartridge for
your next backup.
2. Store this tape cartridge in a safe
place in case you need to restore
data from it.
Flags for Cleaning Management
20 Clean now
C
The tape drive needs cleaning:
The tape drive has detected
that it needs cleaning. The
If the operation has stopped, eject
flag is cleared internally
the tape and clean the drive.
when the drive is cleaned
• If the operation has not stopped, successfully.
wait for it to finish and then clean
the drive.
• Check the tape drive user’s
manual for cleaning instructions.
21 Clean periodic
W
The tape drive is due for routine
cleaning:
The drive is ready for a
periodic cleaning.
1. Wait for the current operation to
finish.
2. Use a cleaning cartridge.
3. Check the tape drive user’s
manual for cleaning instructions.
22 Expired
cleaning media
C
The last cleaning cartridge used in
the tape drive has worn out:
1. Discard the worn-out cleaning
cartridge.
2. Wait for the current operation to
finish.
3. Use a new cleaning cartridge.
23 Invalid cleaning
cartridge
C
The last cleaning cartridge used in
the tape drive was an invalid type:
1. Do not use this cleaning cartridge
in this drive.
2. Wait for the current operation to
finish.
3. Use a valid cleaning cartridge.
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The cleaning tape has
expired.
The flag is set when the tape
drive detects a cleaning
cycle was attempted but was
not successful. It is cleared
internally when the next
cleaning cycle is attempted.
An invalid cleaning tape
type was used.
Flag
Type Set Recommended Host Message
Cause
24 Retension
requested
W
The tape drive has requested a
retension operation.
The drive is having trouble
reading or writing that will
be resolved by a retension
cycle.
25 Dual-port
interface error
W
A redundant interface port on the
tape drive has failed.
One of the interface ports in
a dual-port configuration (in
other words, Fibre Channel)
has failed.
Flags for Tape Drive Hardware Errors
26 Cooling fan
failure
W
A tape drive cooling fan has failed.
A fan inside the drive
mechanism or enclosure has
failed.
27 Power supply
failure
W
A redundant power supply has failed A redundant PSU has failed
inside the tape drive
inside the tape drive enclosure.
enclosure or rack subsystem.
Check the enclosure user’s manual
for instructions on replacing the
failed power supply.
28 Power
consumption
W
The tape drive power consumption is The tape drive power
outside the specified range.
consumption is outside the
specified range.
29 Drive
maintenance
W
Preventive maintenance of the tape
drive is required.
The drive requires preventive
maintenance (not cleaning).
Check the tape drive user’s manual
for preventive maintenance tasks or
call the tape drive supplier’s helpline.
30 Hardware A
C
The tape drive has a hardware fault: The drive has a hardware
1. Eject the tape or magazine.
2. Reset the drive.
fault from which it can
recover through a reset.
3. Restart the operation.
31 Hardware B
C
The tape drive has a hardware fault: The drive has a hardware
1. Turn the tape drive off and then
on again.
2. Restart the operation.
3. If the problem persists, call the
tape drive supplier’s helpline.
fault that is not read/write
related or that it can recover
from through a power cycle.
The flag is set when the tape
drive fails its internal
power-on self-tests. It is not
cleared internally until the
drive is powered off.
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Flag
32 Interface
Type Set Recommended Host Message
W
The tape drive has a problem with
the application client interface:
Cause
The drive has identified an
interface fault.
1. Check the cables and cable
connections.
2. Restart the operation.
33 Eject media
C
The operation has failed:
Error recovery action.
1. Eject the tape or magazine.
2. Insert the tape or magazine
again.
3. Restart the operation.
34 Download fail
W
The firmware download has failed
because you have tried to use the
incorrect firmware for this tape drive.
Firmware download failed.
Obtain the correct firmware and try
again.
35 Drive humidity
W
Environmental conditions inside the
tape drive are outside the specified
humidity range.
36 Drive
temperature
W
Environmental conditions inside the
37 Drive voltage
W
The voltage supply to the tape drive
is outside the specified range.
Drive voltage limits have
been exceeded.
38 Predictive failure
C
A hardware failure of the drive is
predicted. Call the tape drive
supplier ‘s helpline.
Failure of the drive’s
hardware is predicted.
39 Diagnostics
required
W
The tape drive may have a hardware The drive may have a
hardware fault that may be
fault. Run extended diagnostics to
identified by extended
verify and diagnose the problem.
diagnostics (using a SEND
Check the tape drive user’s manual
DIAGNOSTIC command).
for instructions on running extended
diagnostic tests.
tape drive are outside the specified
temperature range.
The drive’s humidity limits
have been exceeded.
The drive is experiencing a
cooling problem.
Flags for Additional Tape Drive Errors
Flags 40–49 are not currently used.
50 Lost statistics
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Media statistics have been lost at
some time in the past.
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The drive or library has been
powered on with a tape
loaded.
Flag
Type Set Recommended Host Message
51 Tape directory
invalid at
unload
W
52 Tape system
area write
failure
C
Cause
The tape directory on the tape
An error has occurred
preventing the tape directory
cartridge just unloaded has been
corrupted. File search performance being updated on unload.
will be degraded. The tape directory
can be rebuilt by reading all the
data.
The tape just unloaded could not
write its system area successfully:
1. Copy the data to another tape
cartridge.
Write errors occurred while
writing the system area on
unload.
2. Discard the old cartridge.
53 Tape system
area read
failure
C
54 No start of data
C
The tape system area could not be
read successfully at load time.
Copy the data to another tape
cartridge.
Read errors occurred while
reading the system area on
load.
The start of data could not be found The tape has been
damaged, bulk erased, or is
on the tape:
of an incorrect format.
1. Check that you are using the
correct format tape.
2. Discard the tape or return the
tape to your supplier.
55 Loading failure
C
The operation has failed because the The drive is unable to load
media cannot be loaded and
threaded.
the cassette and thread the
tape.
1. Remove the cartridge, inspect it
as specified in the product
manual, and retry the operation.
2. If the problem persists, call the
tape drive supplier’s help line.
56 Unrecoverable
load failure
C
The operation has failed because the The drive is unable to
tape cannot be unloaded:
unload the tape.
1. Do not attempt to extract the tape
cartridge.
2. Call the tape driver supplier’s
help line.
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Flag
57 Automation
interface failure
Type Set Recommended Host Message
C
The tape drive has a problem with
the automation interface:
1. Check the power to the
automation system.
Cause
The drive has identified a
fault in the automation
interface.
2. Check the cables and cable
connections.
3. Call the supplier’s helpline if the
problem persists.
58 Firmware failure W
The tape drive has reset itself due to There is a firmware bug.
59 WORM
medium—integr
ity check failed
W
The tape drive has detected an
Someone has tampered with
the WORM tape.
60 WORM
medium—
overwrite
attempted
W
An attempt has been made to
The application software
does not recognize the tape
as WORM.
a detected firmware fault. If the
problem persists, call the supplier’s
helpline.
inconsistency while checking the
WORM tape for integrity. Someone
may have tampered with the
cartridge.
overwrite user data on a WORM
tape:
1. If you used a WORM tape
inadvertently, replace it with a
normal data tape.
2. If you used a WORM tape
intentionally, check that:
• the software application is
compatible with the WORM tape
format you are using.
• the cartridge is bar-coded
correctly for WORM.
Flags 61–64 are not currently used
Note that often messages will not appear in isolation. For example, message 01h (“The tape
drive is having problems reading data.”) is likely to appear with a message
suggesting remedial action, such as message 04h (“You are advised to copy any
data...”) or message 14h (Clean Now).
Each flag is cleared to zero in the following circumstances:
• At power-on.
• When specified corrective action has been taken, such as using a cleaning cartridge.
• When the TapeAlert Log page is read.
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NOTE: Once cleared, a flag cannot be set again until the specified clearing conditions are met.
So, for example, if the cartridge in the drive is not of data grade, once flag 8 has been cleared, it
cannot be set again until the cartridge has been removed.
Designing software to use the TapeAlert log
When writing software to take advantage of the ability of a drive to predict problems and actions
that a user should take, it is important not to exclude drives that do not support this feature. For this
reason, the application should first check whether the TapeAlert Log page is supported by the drive
and then use one of two methods to access the information:
• Use the MODE SELECT Informational Exceptions mode page to enable “Check Condition” mode.
This means that the tape drive reports CHECK CONDITION on the next SCSI command after one
or more TapeAlert flags are set. When CHECK CONDITION is received, the host software should
behave as follows:
a. It issues a REQUEST SENSE command. Additional sense of 5D00h indicates that the CHECK
CONDITION was caused by TapeAlert. This enables the software to distinguish CHECK
CONDITIONs caused by actual errors and those resulting from a TapeAlert flag being set.
b. The software reads the TapeAlert log page to discover which flags are set (even for CHECK
CONDITIONs caused by actual errors).
Note that when CHECK CONDITION results from TapeAlert, the command that reported the
CHECK CONDITION is not in error and will have completed successfully. It follows that the
software should not repeat the command.
• Read the TapeAlert log page using LOG SENSE at the following times:
• Immediately after a SCSI CHECK CONDITION/REQUEST SENSE cycle.
• At the end of each tape where a backup or restore spans multiple tapes. The host must read
the TapeAlert log page before a tape is ejected.
• At the end of a backup or restore.
It is also advisable to poll the TapeAlert log page every 60 seconds while the tape drive is idle.
Using “Check Condition” mode is recommended over polling because it guarantees that the
software will be aware of any TapeAlert flag being set. It is theoretically possible that TapeAlert
information could be missed when polling, though the higher the frequency of polling, the smaller
the chance is.
TapeAlert models
SSC-3rev02 specifies three optional methods for an application to monitor activation of TapeAlert
flags. LTO 4 drives support two of those models:
• Polling the TapeAlert log page (2Eh) or the TapeAlert Response log page (12h);
• Configuring the device server to establish an Informational Exception condition (via mode page
1Ch) upon activation of one or more TapeAlert flags.
These are described in more detail below.
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In addition, the application can determine which TapeAlert flags are supported by the device server
through the TapeAlert supported flags VPD page (B2h).
TapeAlert polling usage model
In this model, the application configures the device server by setting the TASER bit in the Device
Configuration Extension mode page (10h) to one.
The device server does not notify the application that a TapeAlert flag has changed. The application
can read the TapeAlert log page or the TapeAlert Response log page at any time (for example,
polling every x seconds) or upon certain relevant operations:
• Before loading a tape
• Immediately after detecting an unrecoverable error
• Before unloading a tape
• At the end of a data transfer
TapeAlert informational exception usage model
In this model, the application configures the device server by setting the TASER bit in the Device
Configuration Extension mode page (10h) to zero, and in the Informational Exceptions mode page,
by setting the DExcpt bit to zero and the TEST bit to zero.
The device server notifies the application that a TapeAlert flag has been activated by reporting and
informational exception condition on the next SCSI command, with additional sense of 5D00h
(failure prediction threshold exceeded). If the device server has been configured to return descriptor
format sense data, the current state of all TapeAlert flags appears in the Information sense data
descriptor. If not, the drive returns fixed format sense data and the application should read one of
the TapeAlert log pages to retrieve the state of the TapeAlert flags.
For more information see SSC-3 rev 02, section 4.2.15.
Reading the TapeAlert log
Each time the TapeAlert log page is read, the application should follow this procedure:
1. Read all 64 flags to discover which are set (there may be more than one).
There may also be data associated with a set flag in the remainder of the flag byte, which
should also be read.
2. For each flag that is set, log the associated error message.
3. Notify the user through the normal methods (such as broadcast, E-Mail, SNMP) by displaying
the error message suggested in the table. Include the following:
• Details to identify which drive the message refers to.
• The software label of the tape cartridge when relevant.
• The severity of the message (Information, Warning or Critical, with Critical the most severe).
Where there are several flags set, list the messages in ascending order of severity.
4. Apply any error message filters in the software to the TapeAlert errors. If several TapeAlert flags
are set, they should if possible be presented to the user as a single event. For example, the error
messages could be displayed together in a single message box.
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5. Optionally, automate the recommended recovery actions if there are multiple tape drives or
autoloaders present.
For example, the application could perform a cleaning cycle in response to flags 20 (Clean
Now) and 21 (Clean Periodic). It could perform a tape copy for flags 4 (Media performance
degraded) and 7 (Media life expired), and then retire the suspect tape cartridge.
This provides an opportunity for applications to add value to the TapeAlert capability of the
drives.
NOTE: An application must not fail a backup job as a result of TapeAlert information. It should use
the information as a preventative measure, taking action to avoid failure, or encouraging the user to
take action. It should also retain the log information to help in diagnosis if a job does eventually fail.
One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR)
NOTE:
FC drives and drives in libraries do not support OBDR.
All HP Ultrium parallel-SCSI products support HP’s One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR)
technology. This provides the fastest possible, one-step approach to regenerating a single server
without using additional floppy disks or CD-ROMs.
For a general overview, see “OBDR and CD-ROM Emulation” in Chapter 1, “Ultrium Features”, of
Background to Ultrium Drives, Volume 6 of the HP Ultrium Technical Manual. For details of the SCSI
implementation, see “CD-ROM Emulation” in Chapter 1, “Interface Implementation”, of SCSI
Interface, Volume 3 of the HP Ultrium Technical Manual.
For details of how to use OBDR see the appropriate User’s Guide.
To identify whether the firmware supports OBDR, look for the string “$DR-10” in bytes 43–48 of
the Inquiry data.
Supporting OBDR
The OBDR implementation in HP Ultrium drives is functionally identical to that in DAT/DDS, so no
additional design or coding should be required in order to support it. The only effort needed should
be in software testing.
Responding to the ‘Clean’ LED
NOTE: HP recommends that software applications use the TapeAlert log, which should mean that
potential tape or cleaning problems are flagged and corrected before the drive ever reaches the
point of displaying the ‘Clean’ LED.
If during normal operation, the drive detects an excessive number of RWW retries, the ‘Clean’ LED
is lit. If this happens, a user should follow this procedure:
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1. Clean the heads and try the operation again.
2. If the ‘Clean’ LED is lit again, repeat the operation with another tape cartridge. If this clears the
‘Clean’ LED, it indicates that the original cartridge is at fault. Copy the data from the cartridge
onto a new one and discard the old cartridge.
The ‘Clean’ LED is cleared by a cleaning cycle.
Providing pass-through mode
It is important for Drivers and Logical Device Managers to provide a pass-through mode that can
return information or commands specific to a vendor’s product. The need for this is two-fold:
• Systems must support a great variety of new devices.
• All tape drives are similar to a degree; Drivers and Logical Device Managers tend to provide
connectivity based on the assumption that 80% of all SCSI tape drives behave identically.
Pass-through mode offers the following advantages:
• Peripheral manufacturer can provide value-added diagnostics and support applications over
and above those that may be shipped with a system or application.
• System supervisors and operators can take advantage of specific product features otherwise
excluded because the driver or manager only caters for 80% of SCSI drives.
• Technical support people have access to low-level device-specific information likely to be
unavailable otherwise.
Requirements for drivers and logical device managers
Drivers and Logical Device Managers must allow the user to do the following:
1. Create either a 6-byte, 10-byte, 12-byte or 16-byte SCSI Command Descriptor Block.
2. Allocate a write buffer or file for any data associated with the SCSI command that will be sent to
the drive.
or
Allocate a read buffer or file for any data associated with the SCSI command that will be
returned by the drive.
3. Link the command and data buffers.
4. Launch the command.
5. The driver should use its standard CHECK CONDITION and REQUEST SENSE routines to report
whether the command completed successfully or not. The caller must have access to the raw
REQUEST SENSE data.
6. View any returned data.
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Glossary
ANSI
American National Standards Institute, which sets standards for, amongst other things,
SCSI and the safety of electrical devices.
BOM
Beginning Of Media. The first point on the tape that can be accessed by the drive.
buffered mode
A mode of data transfer in write operations that facilitates tape streaming. It is selected
by setting the Buffered Mode Field to 1 or 2 in the SCSI MODE SELECT Parameter List
header.
compression
A procedure in which data is transformed by the removal of redundant information in
order to reduce the number of bits required to represent the data.
compression ratio
A measure of how much compression has occurred, defined as the ratio of the amount
of uncompressed data to the amount of compressed data into which it is transformed.
The LTO-DC algorithm can typically achieve a compression ratio of between 2:1 and
4:1 depending on the nature of the data.
decompression
A procedure in which the original data is generated from compressed data.
ECMA
European Computer Manufacturers Association. The European equivalent of ANSI.
EOD
End Of Data. An area that signifies the end of the valid data. If new data is written
over a larger quantity of old data, it is possible for data to exist after EOD, but
because it is after EOD, this old data is no longer valid.
EOM
End Of Media format. The last usable point on the tape.
EW-EOM
Early Warning End Of Media. A physical mark or a device-computed position on the
tape that tells the drive that it is approaching EOM.
filemark
A mark written by the host. It does not necessarily separate files; it is up to the host to
assign a meaning to the mark.
FRU
Field Replaceable Unit, an assembly or group of components that is replaced in its
entirety by Service Engineers when it contains a fault.
hard error
An uncorrectable data error.
host
The host computer system acting as controller for the drive.
load
The process in which the drive takes in an inserted cartridge and goes online.
LUN
Logical Unit Number, by which different devices at a particular SCSI ID can be
addressed individually. The drive has a fixed LUN of 0.
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offline
The drive is offline if the tape is currently unloaded or not in the drive. The host has
limited access, and cannot perform any commands that would cause tape motion. The
host can, however, load a tape, if one is inserted, and can execute any diagnostic tests
that do not require tape motion.
online
The drive is online when a tape is loaded. The host has access to all command
operations, including those that access the tape, set configurations and run diagnostic
tests.
RWW
see ”read-while-write”
read-while-write
RWW improves data integrity by reading data immediately after it is written and
writing the data again if an error is found.
TapeAlert
A set of 64 flags is held in the TapeAlert log that indicate faults or predicted faults with
the drive or the media. By reading this log, host software can inform the user of
existing or impending conditions, and can, for example, advise the user to change the
tape.
WORM
Write Once, Read Many
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Index
A
ACI 17, 35, 37
cleaning 49
command set 38
commands that affect streaming 38
firmware upgrade 46
protocol communications retry 45
reserved fields 43
resetting drives 50
supporting 42
ACI 4.3, new features 39
additional sense codes 57
ADI 35
ANSI 10, 91
autochangers 17
Automation Control Interface see ACI
B
backup applications 11
backward compatibility 39
barcode support, WORM 25
block mode
fixed-length 11
variable-length 11
block size, maximum 28
BOM 91
buffer
maximizing use 11
size at EW-EOM 51
buffered mode 91
C
capacity
of tape 20
remaining 20
using SET CAPACITY 21
Cartridge Memory 12, 20
responding to tape data 25
cartridge memory 19, 35
unreadable 48
using instead of headers 28
cartridges
identifying types 19
irregular 46
unreadable 47
WORM 22
Clean LED 89
cleaning 49, 58, 90
cleaning cartridges 47, 61
cleaning tape heads 12
commands, ACI 38
commands, non-immediate 11
compression 91
controlling 51
ratio 91
configuration 15
D
data compression 91
controlling 11, 51
data transfer size 11
decompression 91
design goals 13
Diagnostic logs 13
diagnostics, failure 67
displaying drive information 13
documents, related 7
drive
checking integrity 13
detecting speed 27
displaying information 13
initialization 15
drive technology family 16
drivers 15
E
ECMA 10, 91
eject, failed 67
encryption support 41
EOD 91
detected 74
not found 64, 75
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EOM 58, 62, 91
EOPD 22
EOT 76
errors
hard 91
parity 75
read 63
write 62, 66
escalation procedure 77
EW-EOM 91
exception handling 77
F
faults, predicting 13, 78
filemarks 91
detected 58
use of 32
firmware revision 13
firmware upgrade 45, 48
loading an invalid cartridge 49
fixed-length block mode 11
flags, TapeAlert 79
format, corrupt 65
front panel LEDs 89
FRU 91
G
generation, finding 16
H
hard error 91
host 91
I
identifying tape cartridge types 19
INCITS 10
initialization 15
INQUIRY command 13
inquiry string recovery 15
integrity of WORM media 24
irregular cartridges 46
ISO 10
L
LEDs, Clean 89
LEDs, Use Cleaning Tape 89
94
libraries 49
library controller, slave 37
load
count 25
failed 67
loading 91
load-unload configuration 44
LOG SENSE data 20
logs
Diagnostic 13
performance 28
supporting 29
Tape Capacity 20
TapeAlert 13, 25, 78, 92
LTO-CM 19, 35
using instead of headers 28
LUNs 91
not ready 59
support for additional 17
M
MAM
full 69
write error 63
media labels 23
memory, cartridge 19
mode
fixed-length block 11
pass-through 90
variable-length block 11
mode parameters 70
monitoring condition 13, 78
monitoring tape use 12
N
NetWare drivers 15
new features in ACI 4.3 39
non-immediate commands 11
O
OBDR 89
offline 92
one-button disaster recovery 89
online 92
operating system drivers 15
optimizing performance 11, 27
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P
T
parity error 75
partition size 52
pass-through mode 38, 90
performance factors 27
drive-related 31
format-related 32
host-related 29
performance log 28
polling frequency, Get Drive Status 45
power-up sequence 43
problems, predicting 13, 78
product ID 15
product revision level 15, 16
Tape Capacity log 20
tape heads, cleaning 12
tape integrity 24
TapeAlert
informational exception usage model 88
polling usage model 88
TapeAlert log 13, 25, 78, 92
reading 88
using 87
tapemarks, use of 32
tapes
capacity 20
cleaning cartridge 61
faulty 66
identifying 28
identifying types 19
monitoring use 12
status 20
use of 12
using 19
WORM 22
tests, read/write 13
time-out values 28
transfer size 11, 27
effect on performance 32
troubleshooting 13
R
read errors 63
reading the TapeAlert log 88
remaining capacity 20
reserved fields 43
reset 50
revision level 15, 16
RWW 92
retries 89
retry counts 26
S
SCSI pass-through mode 38
sense keys
ABORTED COMMAND 56, 75
BLANK CHECK 56, 74
DATA PROTECTION 56, 72
HW ERROR 55, 67
ILLEGAL REQUEST 55, 68
MEDIUM ERROR 54, 62
NO SENSE 53, 58
NOT READY 54, 59
RECOVERED ERROR 53, 59
UNIT ATTENTION 55, 69
VOLUME OVERFLOW 57, 76
SET CAPACITY command 21
slave to a library controller 37
speed, detecting 27
status of tape 20
support for additional LUNs 17
U
Ultrium
finding the format generation 16
supporting features 35
UNIX drivers 15
upgrading firmware 45
Use Cleaning Tape LED 89
V
variable-length block mode 11
vendor ID 15
W
Windows drivers 15
WORM 92
WORM media 22
write errors 62, 66
write-protect 72
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