HP | EPM-442A | User's Manual | HP EPM-442A User's Manual

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User’s Guide
HP EPM E4419A
EPM-442A Power Meter
HP Part no. E4419-90000
April 23, 1997
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© Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company
All rights reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without prior
written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the copyright
laws.
Printed in the UK.
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Legal Information
Legal Information
Notice
Information contained in this document is subject to change without
notice. Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to
this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard
shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishings, performance,
or use of this material. No part of this document may be photocopied,
reproduced, or translated to another language without the prior written
consent of HP.
Certification
Hewlett-Packard Company certifies that this product met its published
specifications at the time of shipment from the factory. Hewlett-Packard
further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the
United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, to the
extent allowed by the Institute’s calibration facility, and to the calibration
facilities of other International Standards Organization members.
Warranty
This Hewlett-Packard instrument product is warranted against defects in
material and workmanship for a period of one year from date of shipment.
During the warranty period, Hewlett-Packard Company will at its option,
either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. For warranty
service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility
designated by HP. Buyer shall prepay shipping charges to HP and HP
shall pay shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to HP
from another country. HP warrants that its software and firmware
designated by HP for use with an instrument will execute its
programming instructions when properly installed on that instrument.
HP does not warrant that the operation of the instrument, or firmware
will be uninterrupted or error free.
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Legal Information
Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper
or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or
interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation outside of the
environmental specifications for the product, or improper site preparation
or maintenance. NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
HP SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Exclusive Remedies
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. HP SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY
OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
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Equipment Operation
Equipment Operation
Warnings and Cautions
This guide uses warnings and cautions to denote hazards.
WARNING
A warning calls attention to a procedure, practice or the
like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could
result in injury or the loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a
warning until the indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
Caution
A caution calls attention to a procedure, practice or the like which,
if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to
or the destruction of part or all of the equipment. Do not proceed
beyond a caution until the indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
Personal Safety Considerations
WARNING
This is a Safety Class I product (provided with a protective
earthing ground incorporated in the power cord). The
mains plug shall only be inserted in a socket outlet
provided with a protective earth contact. Any interruption
of the protective conductor, inside or outside the
instrument, is likely to make the instrument dangerous.
Intentional interruption is prohibited.
If this instrument is not used as specified, the protection
provided by the equipment could be impaired. This
instrument must be used in a normal condition (in which
all means of protection are intact) only.
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not
remove covers.
For continued protection against fire hazard, replace the
line fuse(s) only with fuses of the same type and rating (for
example, normal blow, time delay, etc.). The use of other
fuses or material is prohibited.
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General Safety Considerations
General Safety Considerations
WARNING
Before this instrument is switched on, make sure it has
been properly grounded through the protective conductor
of the ac power cable to a socket outlet provided with
protective earth contact.
Any interruption of the protective (grounding) conductor,
inside or outside the instrument, or disconnection of the
protective earth terminal can result in personal injury.
Caution
Any adjustments or service procedures that require operation of
the instrument with protective covers removed should be
performed only by trained service personnel.
Markings
The CE mark shows that the product complies with
all the relevant European legal Directives (if
accompanied by a year, it signifies when the design
was proven.
ISM
GROUP 1 This is the symbol of an Industrial Scientific and
CLASS A
Medical Group 1 Class A product.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the
Canadian Standards Association.
External Protective Earth Terminal.
While this is a Class I product, provided with a
protective earthing conductor in a power cord, an
external protective earthing terminal has also been
provided. This terminal is for use where the earthing
cannot be assured. At least an 18AWG earthing
conductor should be used in such an instance, to
ground the instrument to an assured earth terminal.
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General Safety Considerations
IEC 1010-1 Compliance
This instrument has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC
Publication 1010-1 +A1:1992 Safety Requirements for Electrical
Equipment for Measurement, Control and Laboratory Use and has been
supplied in a safe condition. The instruction documentation contains
information and warnings which must be followed by the user to ensure
safe operation and to maintain the instrument in a safe condition.
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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Regulatory Information
Regulatory Information
Sound Emission
Herstellerbescheinigung
Diese Information steht im Zusammenhang mit den Anforderungen der
Maschinenlarminformationsverordnung vom 18 Januar 1991.
•
•
•
•
Sound Pressure LpA < 70 dB.
Am Arbeitsplatz.
Normaler Betrieb.
Nach DIN 45635 T. 19 (Typprufung).
Manufacturers Declaration
This statement is provided to comply with the requirements of the
German Sound DIN 45635 T. 19 (Typprufung).
•
•
•
•
Sound Pressure LpA < 70 dB.
At operator position.
Normal operation.
According to ISO 7779 (Type Test).
Australian EMC Regulations
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the Spectrum Management
Agency of Australia. This signifies compliance with the Australian EMC
Framework Regulations under the terms of the Radiocommunications Act
of 1992.
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Declaration of Conformity
Declaration of Conformity
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN45014
Manufacturer’s Name:
Hewlett-Packard Limited.
Manufacturer’s Address:
Queensferry Microwave Division
South Queensferry,
West Lothian, EH30 9TG.
Scotland, United Kingdom.
Declares that the product:
Product Name:
Model Number(s):
Product Option(s):
Power Meter
HP EPM-441A and HP EPM-442A
All
Conforms to the following Product Specifications:
Safety :
EN61010-1:1993/IEC 1010-1:1990+A1/CSA C22.2
No. 1010-1:1993
EN60825-1:1994/IEC 825-1:1993 Class 1
EMC :
EN 55011:1991/CISPR11:1990, Group 1-Class A
EN 50082-1:1992
Supplementary Information:
The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 72/23/EEC and
the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC and carries the CE-marking accordingly.
South Queensferry, Scotland
December 1 1996
Location
Date
R.M. Evans/Quality Manager
European Contact:
Your local Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office or Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Department ZQ / Standards
Europe, Herrenberger Strasse 130, D-7030 Boeblingen, Germany (FAX +49-7031-143143)
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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List of Related Publications
List of Related Publications
The HP EPM-442A User’s Guide is also available in the following
languages:
•
•
•
•
•
•
English Language User’s Guide - Standard
German Language User’s Guide - Option ABD
Spanish Language User’s Guide - Option ABE
French Language User’s Guide - Option ABF
Italian Language User’s Guide - Option ABZ
Japanese Language User’s Guide - Option ABJ
HP EPM-441A/442A Programming Guide is shipped as standard.
HP EPM-441A/442A Service Guide is available by ordering Option 915.
HP EPM-441A/442A CLIPs (Component Location and Information Pack)
is available by ordering E4418-90007.
Useful information on SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable
Instruments) can be found in:
•
•
x
A Beginner’s Guide to SCPI, which is available by ordering
HP Part Number 5010-7166.
The SCPI reference manuals which are available from:
SCPI Consortium,
8380 Hercules Drive, Suite P3,
La Mesa, CA 91942, USA.
Telephone: 619-697-4301
Fax: 619-697-5955
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HP EPM-442A Options
HP EPM-442A Options
The HP EPM-442A power meters have the following options available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Option 002, supplies parallel rear panel sensor input(s). The
power reference oscillator output is on the front panel.
Option 003, supplies parallel rear panel sensor input(s). The
power reference oscillator output is also on the rear panel.
Option 004, deletes the HP 11730A sensor cable(s) provided.
Option 0BO, deletes manual set.
Option 908, provides rackmount kit for one instrument.
Option 909, provides rackmount kit for two instruments.
Option 915, provides the HP EPM-441A/442A Service Guide.
Option 916, provides an additional HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
and HP EPM-441A/442A Programming Guide.
Option 1BN, provides MIL-STD 45662A, ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994
Certificate of Calibration.
Option 1BP, provides MIL-STD-45662A, ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994
Certificate of Calibration and data.
Available Accessories
•
•
HP 34161A Accessory Pouch
The following HP power sensor cables are available:
■
HP 11730A 1.5 m (7.5 ft)
■
HP 11730B 3 m (10 ft)
■
HP 11730C 6.1 m (20 ft)
■
HP 11730D 15.2 m (50 ft)
■
HP 11730E 30.5 m (100 ft)
■
HP 11730F 61 m (200 ft)
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About this Guide
About this Guide
Chapter 1: Getting Started
This chapter prepares the power meter for use and helps you to get
familiar with a few of the front panel features.
Chapter 2: Power Meter Operation
This chapter gives a detailed description of the capabilities and operation
of the power meter. You will find this chapter useful when you are
operating the power meter from the front panel.
Chapter 3: Menu Map Reference
This chapter details diagrammatically the menu maps for the power
meter. It also gives a description of all the power meter’s keys.
Chapter 4: Error Messages
This chapter lists the error messages that may appear as you are working
with the power meter. Each description contains information to help you
diagnose and solve the problem.
Chapter 5: Specifications
This chapter lists the power meter’s specifications and describes how to
interpret these specifications.
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Table of Contents
Page
Legal Information ........................................................................ iii
Equipment Operation ................................................................... v
Personal Safety Considerations............................................. v
General Safety Considerations.................................................... vi
Markings ................................................................................ vi
IEC 1010-1 Compliance........................................................ vii
Regulatory Information ............................................................. viii
Sound Emission ................................................................... viii
Australian EMC Regulations.............................................. viii
Declaration of Conformity ........................................................... ix
List of Related Publications ......................................................... x
HP EPM-442A Options ................................................................ xi
Available Accessories ............................................................ xi
About this Guide ......................................................................... xii
Getting Started .................................................................................... 1-1
Introduction................................................................................... 1-2
Turning On the Power Meter ....................................................... 1-3
The Front Panel at a Glance ........................................................ 1-4
The Display Layout....................................................................... 1-7
Selecting Your Display Layout .............................................. 1-9
Display Tutorial...................................................................... 1-10
Window Symbols ........................................................................... 1-12
Warning Symbol ..................................................................... 1-12
Confirmation Window ............................................................ 1-12
Wait Symbol............................................................................ 1-12
1 of N Entry Window .............................................................. 1-13
Numeric or Alphanumeric Entry Window ............................ 1-13
The Rear Panel at a Glance ................................................... 1-14
Adjusting the Carrying Handle ............................................. 1-16
Rack Mounting the Power Meter........................................... 1-17
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Contents-1
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Power Meter Operation ..................................................................... 2-1
Introduction................................................................................... 2-2
Zeroing the Power Meter .............................................................. 2-3
Calibrating the Power Meter........................................................ 2-4
Calibration Procedure Using HP E-Series
Power Sensors......................................................................... 2-5
Calibration Procedure using HP 8480 Series
Power Sensors......................................................................... 2-5
Making Measurements with the HP E-Series
Power Sensors ............................................................................... 2-8
Procedure ................................................................................ 2-8
Making Measurements with the HP 8480 Series
Power Sensors ............................................................................... 2-10
Procedure ................................................................................ 2-10
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables........... 2-13
Selecting a Sensor Calibration Table .................................... 2-13
Making the Measurement...................................................... 2-14
Editing Sensor Calibration Tables ........................................ 2-15
Setting the Units of Measurement............................................... 2-22
Selecting Units of Measurement from the Softkeys ................... 2-23
Making Relative Measurements .................................................. 2-24
Procedure ................................................................................ 2-24
Setting the Resolution .................................................................. 2-25
Setting Offsets............................................................................... 2-26
Setting Channel Offsets ......................................................... 2-26
Setting Display Offsets .......................................................... 2-26
Setting Averaging ......................................................................... 2-28
Measuring Pulsed Signals ............................................................ 2-30
Setting Measurement Limits ....................................................... 2-32
Checking for Limit Failures................................................... 2-33
Channel Measurements................................................................ 2-35
Making Difference Measurements............................................... 2-36
Making Ratio Measurements ....................................................... 2-37
Selecting a Digital or Analog Display .......................................... 2-38
Setting the Range ......................................................................... 2-41
Configuring the Remote Interface................................................ 2-42
HP-IB Address ........................................................................ 2-42
Recorder Output............................................................................ 2-43
Leveling a Source Output ...................................................... 2-44
Saving and Recalling Power Meter Configurations .................... 2-45
How Measurements are Calculated............................................. 2-47
Presetting the Power Meter ......................................................... 2-48
Preset Conditions ................................................................... 2-48
Contents-2
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Self Test......................................................................................... 2-50
Power On Self Test ................................................................. 2-50
Front Panel Selection of Self Tests........................................ 2-51
HP-IB Testing......................................................................... 2-53
Test Descriptions .................................................................... 2-54
Operator Maintenance.................................................................. 2-56
Replacing the Power Line Fuse ............................................. 2-56
Contacting Hewlett-Packard ........................................................ 2-57
Before calling Hewlett-Packard............................................. 2-57
Check the Basics..................................................................... 2-58
Instrument serial numbers .................................................... 2-58
Sales and Service Offices ....................................................... 2-60
Returning Your Power Meter for Service.............................. 2-63
Menu Reference................................................................................... 3-1
Introduction................................................................................... 3-2
The Front Panel Menu Maps ....................................................... 3-3
dBm/W Menu .......................................................................... 3-3
Frequency/Cal Fac Menu ....................................................... 3-4
Meas Setup Menu ................................................................... 3-5
Rel/Offset Menu ...................................................................... 3-6
Save/Recall Menu ................................................................... 3-6
System Inputs Menu .............................................................. 3-7
System Inputs Menu Continued............................................ 3-8
Zero/Cal Menu ........................................................................ 3-9
Front Panel Menu Reference........................................................ 3-10
Diagrammatical Hardkeys..................................................... 3-27
Error Messages .................................................................................... 4-1
Introduction................................................................................... 4-2
Error Messages ............................................................................. 4-4
Specifications....................................................................................... 5-1
Introduction................................................................................... 5-2
Power Meter Specifications .......................................................... 5-3
Meter ....................................................................................... 5-3
Accuracy .................................................................................. 5-4
Power Reference ..................................................................... 5-5
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics................................ 5-6
Power Reference ..................................................................... 5-6
Measurement Speed ............................................................... 5-6
Zero Drift of Sensors............................................................... 5-7
Measurement Noise................................................................ 5-7
Settling Time .......................................................................... 5-9
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Contents-3
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Power Sensor Specifications .................................................. 5-12
General Characteristics................................................................ 5-13
Rear Panel Connectors........................................................... 5-13
Environmental Characteristics .................................................... 5-14
General Conditions................................................................. 5-14
Operating Environment ......................................................... 5-14
Storage Conditions ................................................................. 5-14
General .......................................................................................... 5-15
Dimensions ............................................................................. 5-15
Weight ..................................................................................... 5-15
Safety ...................................................................................... 5-15
Remote Programming ............................................................ 5-15
Non-Volatile Memory ............................................................. 5-15
Contents-4
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List of Figures
Page
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
4-1
“Sensor Tbls” Screen.................................................................. 2-14
“Edit Cal” Screen ....................................................................... 2-16
Effect of Offsets on a Channel Measurement........................... 2-27
Effect of Offsets on a Maths Measurement .............................. 2-27
Averaged Readings .................................................................... 2-29
Pulsed Signal ............................................................................. 2-30
Limits Checking Application..................................................... 2-32
Limits Checking Results ........................................................... 2-33
Pass/Fail Limit Indicators......................................................... 2-34
Digital Display ........................................................................... 2-38
Analog Display ........................................................................... 2-38
Digital and Analog Display ....................................................... 2-38
Test Setup for Recording Swept Measurements ...................... 2-43
“Save/Recall” Screen .................................................................. 2-46
How Measurements are Calculated.......................................... 2-47
Replacing the Fuse .................................................................... 2-56
Error Annunciator Position....................................................... 4-2
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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List of Tables
Page
2-1
2-2
3-1
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
Connecting the HP 8480 Series Power Sensors During
Calibration ................................................................................. 2-7
Measurement Units ................................................................... 2-22
.................................................................................................... 3-11
Zero Set Specifications .............................................................. 5-4
Noise Multiplier ......................................................................... 5-7
Power Sensor Specifications...................................................... 5-8
Settling Time ............................................................................. 5-9
Settling Time ............................................................................. 5-10
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Contents-7
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Contents-8
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HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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1
Getting Started
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Getting Started
Introduction
Introduction
One of the first things you will want to do with your power meter is to
switch it on and become acquainted with its front panel. The sections in
this chapter prepare the power meter for use and help you get familiar
with some of the front panel operations.
The front panel consists of both hardkeys and softkeys which allow you to
select various functions and operations. When some hardkeys are selected
the corresponding softkey labels are displayed on the power meter display.
If you are using the power meter remotely refer to the
HP EPM-441A/442A Programming Guide for remote operating details.
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Getting Started
Turning On the Power Meter
Turning On the Power Meter
The following steps show you how to turn on the power meter and verify
that it is operating correctly.
1. Connect the power cord and turn on the power meter.
The front panel display and the green power LED light up when
the power meter is switched on. The power meter performs it’s
power on self test. If the self test is not successful the error
annunciator turns on. If this occurs contact your Hewlett-Packard
Sales and Service office for instructions on returning the power
meter to Hewlett-Packard for service.
Caution
This instrument is designed for use in Installation Category II and
Pollution Degree 2 per IEC 1010 and 664 respectively.
Caution
This instrument has an autoranging line voltage input, be sure
the supply voltage is within the range of 85 to 264 Vac.
Note
If the power meter has been stored at extremely low temperatures
outwith the operating range of the power meter, the display may
take a few minutes to operate.
2. Set the display contrast if required.
The display contrast is adjusted by pressing
and
. If
these softkeys are not displayed press Prev repeatedly until they
appear.
3. Connect the power sensors.
Connect one end of each of the sensor cables to the power meter’s
channel inputs and the other ends to the power sensors.
4. Making a measurement.
A minimum warm up time of 30 minutes is recommended before
accurate measurements can be made.
Prior to making your first measurement you must zero and
calibrate the sensor and meter combination. Refer to Chapter 2 for
further information if you are not familiar with zeroing,
calibrating or making measurements with a power meter.
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Getting Started
The Front Panel at a Glance
The Front Panel at a Glance
12
11
10
9
7
8
1
2
3
4
1.
5
6
Preset
Local
This hardkey allows you to preset the power meter if you are
currently working in local mode (that is, front panel operation). In
local mode a confirmation pop up window is displayed prior to a
preset being carried out. However, if you are in remote mode (that
is, HP-IB operation), then pressing this hardkey places the power
meter in local mode provided local lock out (LLO) is not enabled.
2. Hardkeys relating to the display layout.
This hardkey allows you to select the upper or lower
measurement window on the power meter’s display. The window
which is selected is highlighted by a shadowed box. Any
measurement setup you create is implemented in the selected
window.
This hardkey allows you to choose either a one or a two
window display.
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Getting Started
The Front Panel at a Glance
3.
This hardkey switches the power meter between on and standby.
When the power meter is switched to standby (that is, when this
hardkey has not been selected but the line power is connected to
the instrument) the red LED is lit. When the power meter is
switched on the green LED is lit.
4. “System/Inputs” hardkey with softkey menu.
The System
hardkey allows access to softkey menus which affect
Inputs
the general power meter system setup, (for example the HP-IB
address) and also to softkey menus which effect the setup of the
channel inputs. Refer to Chapter 3 for further information about
this hardkey and it’s softkey menu.
5.
Save
Recall
This hardkey is the only one that is completely dedicated to the
control of the power meter as a system. The only other hardkey
which affects system parameters is the System
hardkey. Refer to
Inputs
Chapter 3 for further information about this hardkey and it’s
softkey menu.
6. Dedicated “Window” hardkeys with softkey menus.
Meas
Setup
,
Rel
Offset
,
dBm/W
These hardkeys allow access to softkey menus which affect the
setup of the measurement windows. Refer to Chapter 3 for further
information about these hardkeys and their softkey menus.
7. Dedicated “Channel” hardkeys with softkey menus.
Frequency
Cal Fac
,
Zero
Cal
These hardkeys allow access to softkey menus which affect the
measurement channel. Refer to Chapter 3 for further information
about these hardkeys and their softkey menus.
8. Channel Inputs.
The HP EPM-442A has two sensor inputs. Power meters
configured with options 002 or 003 have the sensor inputs on the
rear panel and the front panel.
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Getting Started
The Front Panel at a Glance
9. POWER REF Output.
The power reference output is a 50 Ω type N connector. The output
signal of 1 mW at 50 MHz is used for calibrating the sensor and
meter combination. Power meters configured with option 003 have
the power reference on the rear panel.
10. Arrow hardkeys.
,
,
and
hardkeys allow you to move the
position of the cursor, select fields for editing, and edit
alphanumeric characters. Refer to Chapter 3 for further
information.
11. Menu related hardkeys.
More This hardkey allows you to move through all pages of a
menu. The bottom right of the power meter display indicates the
number of pages in the menu. For example, if “1 of 2” is
displayed, pressing More moves you to “2 of 2”. Pressing More
again moves you back to “1 of 2”.
Prev
This hardkey allows you to move back one level in the
softkey menu. Repeatedly pressing Prev accesses a menu which
allows you to increase and decrease the display contrast.
12. Softkeys.
These four keys are used to make a selection from the menus.
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Getting Started
The Display Layout
The Display Layout
The following figure details the display layout when two measurement
windows are displayed, one analog and one digital. However it is possible
using the
key to display just one measurement window.
15
1
14
13
12 1110
9
2
3
4
5
8
6
7
1. The status reporting line displays five fields, three associated with
the HP-IB status and two associated with error and warning
conditions. The first field displays either “RMT” (remote, HP-IB
operation) or “LCL” (local, front panel operation). The second field
displays “TLK” if the power meter is addressed to talk or “LSN” if it
is addressed to listen. The third field indicates an “SRQ” (service
request). The fourth field indicates “ERR” for any error conditions.
The last field is used to report error and warning messages.
2. This field displays the channel setup being measured, either A, B,
A/B, B/A, A-B or B-A.
3. The measurement data is displayed in either one or two
rectangular windows depending on the setting of
. Pressing
allows you to toggle between a one or two window display.
When two windows are displayed and this hardkey is pressed the
single window then displayed is the one which was previously
highlighted with the shadowed box. On the two window display
the measurement setup menus work on the window which is
shadowed.
4. This is the measurement result field.
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Getting Started
The Display Layout
5. This field displays the units of measurement, either dBm, dB,
Watts or %.
6. This window is configured to show an analog meter which displays
the measurement result and the meter scaling.
7. This field displays the number of pages in the current softkey
menu. For example, “1 of 2” indicates that there are two pages of
softkeys and you are on the first page. Pressing More moves you
to page “2 of 2”.
8. Any softkeys available are displayed in these four fields.
9. This field displays the title of the menu. For example, when the
power meter is initially switched on the “Contrast” menu is
displayed, and, if you press Zero
“Zero/Cal” is displayed.
Cal
10. This field indicates if the measurement result is outwith the upper
or lower limits set. If the measurement is within the limits this
field is empty. If the measurement result is less than the minimum
limit set, “Undr Lmt” is displayed. If the measurement result is
more than the maximum limit set, “Over Lmt” is displayed. Refer
to “Setting Measurement Limits”, on page 2-32 for further
information.
11. This field displays “Rel” if relative mode is on. Refer to “Making
Relative Measurements”, on page 2-24 for further information.
12. This field displays “Ofs” if an offset is set. Refer to “Setting
Offsets”, on page 2-26 for further information.
13. This field displays “Rng Hld” if a range is selected. Refer to
“Setting the Range”, on page 2-41 for further information.
14. This field displays “Dty Cyc” if a duty cycle is set. This allows you
to measure the power of a pulsed signal. Refer to “Measuring
Pulsed Signals”, on page 2-30 for further information.
15. This field displays the currently selected frequency or calibration
factor.
1-8
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Getting Started
The Display Layout
Selecting Your Display Layout
Your power meter display is extremely flexible. It can be used to display a
variety of different measurements and windows depending on your needs.
The following diagram details the various options available to you.
Display
Select using
Two Windows
One Window
Select using
, Input Select
Select using
Meas
Setup
Meas
Setup
Digital
Display
Select using
, Input Select
Meas
Setup
Select using
, Display Format
Analog
Display
Lower
Window
Upper
Window
Measurement Type
A, B, A/B, B/A,
A-B, B-A
Measurement Type
A, B, A/B, B/A,
A-B, B-A
Meas
Setup
Digital
Display
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Measurement Type
A, B, A/B, B/A,
A-B, B-A
Select using
, Display Format
Analog
Display
Digital
Display
Analog
Display
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Getting Started
The Display Layout
Display Tutorial
If you wish to experiment with the display layout before you move on to
make measurements, the following procedure guides you through a few of
the display setups you can choose.
1.Press
Preset
Local
, Confirm .
Notice that the upper window is the
one which is highlighted by the dark
box.
2.Press
. The display remains the
same apart from the fact that it is now
the lower window that is highlighted
by the shadowed box.
Meas
3.Press Setup
, Display Format ,
Meter Dgtl Anlg (Anlg should be
highlighted). The display now shows
one analog and one digital window.
4.Press
. The display now only
shows one window. This is the analog
window which was selected in the
previous step.
5.Press
. The display now shows
only the digital window.
1-10
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Getting Started
The Display Layout
6. Press
. The display now shows
both an analog and digital window.
Meas
7. Press Setup
, Input Select , B/A .
Notice that the upper window is now
set up to make a channel B over
channel A ratio measurement.
8. Press
to select the lower window.
Press A/B . Notice that the lower
window is now set up to make a
channel A over channel B ratio
measurement.
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Getting Started
Window Symbols
Window Symbols
There are a number of different graphic symbols and pop up windows that
can occur on the power meter display. These can occur for a variety of
reasons such as when:
•
•
•
•
•
an error or warning occurs.
a confirmation is required.
you are required to wait while the power meter carries out a
procedure.
you are required to select an entry from a list.
you are required to enter an alphanumeric value.
Warning Symbol
The warning symbol is displayed either directly in the
measurement window or in a pop up window when such
an event occurs. A pop up window is displayed for
approximately two seconds. The text in the pop up
window gives details of the warning type. This symbol
may also appear on a measurement window, for example,
to indicate that a power sensor is not connected.
Confirmation Window
This pop up window is displayed when
you are required to press Confirm to
verify your previous selection. For
example, prior to a preset being
carried out.
Wait Symbol
The wait symbol is displayed when the power meter is carrying
out a procedure but no action is required from you. The symbol
may appear directly in the measurement window or in a pop up
window. It may appear, for example, during, zeroing or
calibration.
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Getting Started
Window Symbols
1 of N Entry Window
This pop up window is displayed when
you are required to select an entry using
and
from the list.
Numeric or Alphanumeric Entry
Window
This pop up window is displayed when
you are required to modify numeric or
alphanumeric data. The
and
keys move the position of the cursor.
The
and
keys increment and
decrement the alphanumeric digit on
which the cursor is currently
positioned.
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Getting Started
The Rear Panel at a Glance
The Rear Panel at a Glance
1
2
3
4
5
8
7
6
1. Channel A (Option 002 or 003 only)
2. Channel B (Option 002 or 003 only)
3. Power Ref (Option 003 only)
The power reference output is a 50 Ω type N connector. The output
signal is used for calibrating the sensor meter combination.
4. Recorder Output
This output produces a dc voltage that corresponds to the power
level of the selected channel input. Refer to “Recorder Output”, on
page 2-43 for further information.
5. Power socket
This power meter has an auto configuring power supply. This
allows it to operate over a range of voltages without manually
being set to a certain voltage.
6. Fuse
An F3.15AH fuse is installed for all voltage supplies.
7. HP-IB
The Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus allows the power meter to be
controlled remotely.
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Getting Started
The Rear Panel at a Glance
8. Serial Label
Each power meter has it’s own individual identification number.
Refer to “Instrument serial numbers”, on page 2-58 for further
information.
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Getting Started
Adjusting the Carrying Handle
Adjusting the Carrying Handle
To adjust the position, grasp the handle by the sides and pull outward.
Rotate the handle to the desired position.
Bench top viewing positions
1-16
Carrying position
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Getting Started
Rack Mounting the Power Meter
Rack Mounting the Power Meter
You can mount the power meter in a standard 19 inch rack cabinet using
one of three optional kits. Instructions and mounting hardware are
included with each rack mounting kit. Any HP System II instrument can
be rack mounted beside the HP EPM-442A power meter.
To rack mount the power meter:
1. Remove the handle by rotating it to the vertical position and
pulling the ends outward
2. Remove the rubber bumper by stretching a corner and sliding it
off.
Front
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Rear (bottom view)
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Getting Started
Rack Mounting the Power Meter
To rack mount a single instrument, order option 908, or adapter kit
5063-9239.
To rack mount two instruments side by side, order option 909, or lock-link
kit 5061-9694 and flange kit 5063-9212.
To install one or two instruments in a sliding support shelf, order shelf
5063-9255, and slide kit 1494-0015 (for a single instrument, also order
filler panel 5002-3999).
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2
Power Meter Operation
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Power Meter Operation
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter describes the parameters which configure the power meter to
make measurements and help you determine settings to optimize
performance. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2-2
“Zeroing the Power Meter”, on page 2-3.
“Calibrating the Power Meter”, on page 2-4.
“Making Measurements with the HP E-Series Power Sensors”, on
page 2-8.
“Making Measurements with the HP 8480 Series Power Sensors”,
on page 2-10.
“Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables”, on
page 2-13.
“Setting the Units of Measurement”, on page 2-22.
“Selecting Units of Measurement from the Softkeys”, on page 2-23.
“Making Relative Measurements”, on page 2-24.
“Setting the Resolution”, on page 2-25.
“Setting Offsets”, on page 2-26.
“Setting Averaging”, on page 2-28.
“Measuring Pulsed Signals”, on page 2-30.
“Setting Measurement Limits”, on page 2-32.
“Channel Measurements”, on page 2-35.
“Making Difference Measurements”, on page 2-36.
“Making Ratio Measurements”, on page 2-37.
“Selecting a Digital or Analog Display”, on page 2-38.
“Setting the Range”, on page 2-41.
“Configuring the Remote Interface”, on page 2-42.
“Recorder Output”, on page 2-43.
“Saving and Recalling Power Meter Configurations”, on page 2-45.
“How Measurements are Calculated”, on page 2-47
“Presetting the Power Meter”, on page 2-48.
“Self Test”, on page 2-50.
“Operator Maintenance”, on page 2-56.
“Contacting Hewlett-Packard”, on page 2-57.
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Power Meter Operation
Zeroing the Power Meter
Zeroing the Power Meter
This section describes how to zero the power meter.
Zeroing adjusts the power meter for a zero power reading with no power
applied to the power sensor. During zeroing, which takes approximately
10 seconds, the wait symbol is displayed.
To zero the power meter:
1. Press Zero
Cal .
2. To zero channel A or channel B use Zero A or Zero B
respectively. Alternatively, to zero both channel A and channel B
sequentially, use Zero Both . During zeroing the wait symbol is
displayed.
When to Zero?
Zeroing of the power meter is recommended:
•
•
•
•
when a 50C change in temperature occurs.
when you change the power sensor.
every 24 hours.
prior to measuring low level signals. For example, 10 dB above the
lowest specified power for your power sensor.
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Power Meter Operation
Calibrating the Power Meter
Calibrating the Power Meter
This section describes how to calibrate the power meter. You should
always zero the power meter prior to calibrating it.
Calibration sets the gain of the power meter using a 50 MHz 1 mW
calibrator as a traceable power reference. The power meter’s POWER REF
output or a suitable external reference is used as the signal source for
calibration. An essential part of calibrating is setting the correct reference
calibration factor for the power sensor you are using. The HP 8480 series
power sensors require you to set the reference calibration factor. The
HP E-series power sensors set the reference calibration factor
automatically. During calibration the wait symbol is displayed. Offset,
relative and duty cycle settings are ignored during calibration.
During calibration the power meter automatically switches the
power reference calibrator on (if it is not already on), then after
calibration it switches it to the state it was in prior to the
calibration.
Note
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Power Meter Operation
Calibrating the Power Meter
Calibration Procedure Using HP E-Series Power Sensors
The following procedure describes how you calibrate the power meter with
an HP E-series power sensor. Since the power meter automatically
downloads the HP E-series power sensor’s calibration table there is no
requirement to enter the reference calibration factor. The power meter
identifies that an HP E-series power sensor is connected and will not
allow you to select certain softkeys. The text on these softkeys appears
grayed out.
Note
The following procedure details the calibration for channel A. To
calibrate channel B use the same procedure using the equivalent
channel B softkeys.
1. Press Zero
Cal .
2. Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
3. Press Cal , Cal A to calibrate the power meter. During
calibration the wait symbol is displayed. (The power meter
automatically turns on the POWER REF output.)
Example
To calibrate both channels of the power meter with HP E-series power
sensors connected to both channels.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Press Zero
Cal , Cal .
Connect the channel A power sensor to the POWER REF output.
Press Cal A then wait till the calibration is completed.
Remove the channel A power sensor from the POWER REF
output.
Connect the channel B power sensor to the POWER REF output.
Press Cal B then wait till the calibration is completed.
Calibration Procedure using HP 8480 Series Power Sensors
The following procedure describes how you calibrate the power meter with
the HP 8480 series power sensors.
There are a variety of different methods to connect the power sensors to
the power meter depending on the model of power sensor you are using.
Refer to Table 2-1 on page 2-7 for details on connecting different power
sensor models.
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Power Meter Operation
Calibrating the Power Meter
The following procedure details the calibration for channel A. To
calibrate channel B use the same procedure using the equivalent
channel B softkeys. To calibrate both channels sequentially follow
this procedure for channel A then repeat step “2” through to step
“5” using the equivalent channel B softkeys.
Note
1. Press Zero
Cal , Cal .
2. Verify the reference calibration factor of your power sensor with
that displayed under A Ref CF . The value shown is obtained
from the sensor calibration table if one is selected, otherwise it is
the last value set or the default of 100%. If the value is not correct
press A Ref CF . The power meter displays the reference
calibration factor in a pop up window. Modify this reference
calibration factor (see below) as desired.
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
3. To confirm your choice press % .
4. Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
5. Press Cal A to calibrate the power meter. During calibration the
wait symbol is displayed. (The power meter automatically turns
on the POWER REF output.)
■
Example
To calibrate both channels of the power meter. The reference calibration
factors for the power sensors being 98.8% and 99.4% for channel A and
channel B respectively:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2-6
Press Zero
Cal , Cal .
A
Ref CF . Use the
Press
,
,
and
hardkeys to
enter 98.8. Press % .
Press B Ref CF . Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to
enter 99.4. Press % .
Connect the channel A power sensor to the POWER REF output.
Press Cal A .
Remove the channel A power sensor from the POWER REF
output.
Connect the channel B power sensor to the POWER REF output.
Press Cal B .
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Power Meter Operation
Calibrating the Power Meter
Table 2-1: Connecting the HP 8480 Series Power Sensors During Calibration
Sensor
Model
Connection Requirements
HP 8481A
HP 8481H
HP 8482A
HP 8482H
These power sensors connect directly to the reference calibrator.
HP 8481D
HP 8484A
Prior to the power meter being calibrated an HP 11708A 30 dB
reference attenuator should be connected between the power
sensor and the reference calibrator. This attenuator must be
removed from the power sensor input prior to making
measurements.
HP 8483A
This power sensor requires a 75 Ω (f) to 50 Ω (m) N-Type adapter
(1250-0597) to connect to the reference calibrator. This adapter
must be removed from the power sensor input prior to making
measurements.
HP R8486A
HP Q8486A
HP R8486D
HP Q8486D
HP W8486D
The waveguide power sensors have two connectors. The N-Type
connector is the one which is used to calibrate the power meter.
HP 8481B
HP 8482B
These power senors are configured with an attenuator. Prior to
the power meter being calibrated, this attenuator must be
removed. The attenuator must be reconnected prior to making
measurements.
HP 8485A
This power sensor requires an APC 3.5 (f) to 50 Ω (m) N-Type
adapter (08485-60005) to connect to the reference calibrator.
HP 8485D
Prior to the power meter being zeroed and calibrated an
HP 11708A 30 dB reference attenuator and an APC 3.5 (f) to
50 Ω (m) N-Type adapter (08485-60005) should be connected
between the power sensor and the reference calibrator. This
attenuator must be removed from the power sensor input prior to
making measurements.
HP 8487A
This power sensor requires an APC 2.4 (f) to 50 Ω (m) N-Type
adapter (08487-60001) to connect to the power meter.
HP 8487D
Prior to the power meter being zeroed and calibrated an
HP 11708A 30 dB reference attenuator and an APC 2.4 (f) to
50 Ω (m) N-Type adapter (08487-60001) should be connected
between the power sensor and the reference calibrator. This
attenuator must be removed from the power sensor input prior to
making measurements.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements with the HP E-Series Power Sensors
Making Measurements with the HP E-Series Power
Sensors
This section describes how to make continuous wave measurements using
the HP E-series power sensors. The HP E-series power sensors have their
sensor calibration tables stored in EEPROM. This allows the frequency
and calibration data to be downloaded to the power meter automatically.
To make measurements, perform the following steps:
1. Zero and calibrate the power meter.
2. Set the frequency for the signal you want to measure.
3. Take a reading.
Procedure
The following procedure details how to make a measurement on channel A
of the power meter. To make a measurement on channel B use the same
procedure using the equivalent channel B softkeys.
1. Ensure that no power is applied to the power sensor.
2. Press Zero
Cal .
3. Press Zero A . During zeroing, which takes approximately 10
seconds, the wait symbol is displayed.
4. Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
5. Press Cal , Cal A to calibrate the power meter. During
calibration the wait symbol is displayed. (The power meter
automatically turns on the POWER REF output.)
6. Press Frequency
. The current setting of the frequency is displayed
Cal Fac
under the A Freq softkey.
7. To change this setting press A Freq . The power meter displays
the frequency in a pop up window. Modify this frequency (see
below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
8. To confirm your choice press the appropriate frequency units.
9. Connect the power sensor to the signal to be measured.
10. You must set the display to the type of measurement you require.
This can either be a direct channel measurement, a ratio
2-8
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements with the HP E-Series Power Sensors
measurement of both channels, or a difference measurement
between both channels. Use the following key presses:
Meas
Press Setup
, Input Select . Select the appropriate softkey for
the measurement you require, either A , B , A/B , B/A , or More ,
then A-B , or B-A .
11. The measurement result is now displayed.
Example
To make a measurement on channel A using an HP E-series power sensor.
The frequency of the signal to be measured is 100 MHz.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disconnect the power sensor from any source.
Press Zero
Cal .
Press Zero A .
Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
Press Cal , Cal A .
Press Frequency
, A Freq . Use the
,
,
and
Cal Fac
hardkeys to enter 100. Press MHz .
Connect the power sensor to the signal to be measured.
The measurement result is now displayed.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements with the HP 8480 Series Power Sensors
Making Measurements with the HP 8480 Series
Power Sensors
This section applies to all HP 8480 series power sensors. It does not apply
to the HP E-series power sensors.
For the HP 8480 series power sensors there are two methods of providing
correction data to the power meter:
A
B
inputting the individual calibration factor for a frequency prior to
making the measurement, or
using sensor calibration tables.
This section describes how to make measurements without using sensor
calibration tables, that is, inputting the individual calibration factor for a
frequency prior to making the measurement. This method is
advantageous if you are only measuring at one frequency, as entering all
the calibration data in this instance is not required.
To make measurements without sensor calibration tables perform the
following steps:
1. Zero and calibrate the power meter. Before carrying out the
calibration you must set the reference calibration factor of the
power sensor.
2. Set the calibration factor value for the frequency of the signal you
want to measure.
3. Take a reading.
Procedure
The following procedure details how to make a measurement on
channel A. To make a measurement on channel B use the same procedure
using the equivalent channel B softkeys.
1. Ensure that no power is applied to the power sensor.
2. Press Zero
Cal .
3. Press Zero A . During zeroing, which takes approximately 10
seconds, the wait symbol is displayed.
4. Press Cal .
5. Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
2-10
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements with the HP 8480 Series Power Sensors
6. The current setting of the reference calibration factor is displayed
under the A Ref CF softkey. To change this setting press
A Ref CF . The power meter displays the reference calibration
factor in a pop up window. Modify this reference calibration factor
(see below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
7. To confirm your choice press % .
8. Press Cal , Cal A to calibrate the power meter. During
calibration the wait symbol is displayed. (The power meter
automatically turns on the POWER REF output.)
9. Press Frequency
. The current setting of the calibration factor is
Cal Fac
displayed under the A Cal Fac softkey. To change this setting
press A Cal Fac . The power meter displays the calibration
factor in a pop up window. Modify this calibration factor (see
below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
10. To confirm your choice press % .
11. Connect the power sensor to the signal to be measured.
12. You must set the display to the type of measurement you require.
This can either be a direct channel measurement, a ratio
measurement of both channels, or a difference measurement
between both channels. Use the following key presses:
Meas
Press Setup
, Input Select . Select the appropriate softkey for
the measurement you require, either A , B , A/B , B/A , or More ,
then A-B , or B-A .
13. The measurement result is now displayed.
Example
To make a measurement on channel A with a power sensor which has a
reference calibration factor of 99.8% and a calibration factor of 97.8% at
the measurement frequency.
•
•
•
•
Disconnect the power sensor from any source.
Press Zero
Cal .
Press Zero A .
Press Cal .
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements with the HP 8480 Series Power Sensors
•
•
•
•
•
•
2-12
Press A Ref CF . Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to
enter 99.8. Press % .
Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
Press Cal A .
Press Frequency
, A Cal Fac . Use the
,
,
and
Cal Fac
hardkeys to enter 97.8. Press % .
Connect the power sensor to the signal to be measured.
The measurement result is now displayed.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration
Tables
This section applies to all HP 8480 series power sensors. It does not apply
to the HP E-series power sensors.
For the HP 8480 series power sensors there are two methods of providing
correction data to the power meter:
A
B
inputting the individual calibration factor for a frequency prior to
making the measurement, or
using sensor calibration tables.
This section describes how to use sensor calibration tables. Sensor
calibration tables are used to store the measurement calibration factors,
supplied with each power sensor, in the power meter. These calibration
factors are used to correct measurement results.
Using sensor calibration tables provides you with a quick and convenient
method for making power measurements over a range of frequencies using
one or more power sensors. The power meter is capable of storing 20
sensor calibration tables of 80 frequency points each.
To use sensor calibration tables you:
1. Select the table to work on a channel. Refer to “Selecting a Sensor
Calibration Table”, on page 2-13 for further information. If you
require to edit the table refer to “Editing Sensor Calibration
Tables”, on page 2-15 for further information.
2. Zero and calibrate the power meter. The reference calibration
factor used during the calibration is automatically set by the
power meter from the sensor calibration table.
3. Specify the frequency of the signal you want to measure. The
calibration factor is automatically set by the power meter from the
sensor calibration table. Refer to “Making the Measurement”, on
page 2-14 for further information.
4. Make the measurement.
Selecting a Sensor Calibration Table
You can select a sensor calibration table for use by pressing System
,
Inputs
Sensor Cal Tables , A Table Off On or B Table Off On . The
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
“State” field indicates if any sensor calibration tables are currently
selected. The “Sensor Tbls” screen is displayed as shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1: “Sensor Tbls” Screen
Making the Measurement
To make the power measurement, you zero and calibrate the power meter,
then set it for the frequency of the signal you want to measure. The power
meter automatically selects the calibration factor from the sensor
calibration table.
Note
The following procedure details the calibration for channel A. To
calibrate channel B use the same procedure using the equivalent
channel B softkeys. To calibrate both channels, zero the power
meter using Zero Both in step “2”, then follow this procedure for
channel A then repeat step “3” through to step “9” using the
equivalent channel B softkeys.
1. Press Zero
Cal .
2. Press Zero A . During zeroing, which takes approximately 10
seconds, the wait symbol is displayed.
3. Press Cal . The setting of the reference calibration factor is
obtained from the sensor calibration table and displayed under the
A Ref CF softkey.
4. Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output.
5. Press Cal A to calibrate the power meter. During calibration the
wait symbol is displayed. (The power meter automatically turns
on the POWER REF output.)
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
6. Press Frequency
. The current setting of the frequency is displayed
Cal Fac
under the A Freq softkey.
7. To change this setting press A Freq . The power meter displays
the frequency in a pop up window. Modify this frequency (see
below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
8. To confirm your choice press the appropriate frequency unit.
9. Connect the power sensor to the signal to be measured.
10. You must set the display to the type of measurement you require.
This can either be a direct channel measurement, a ratio
measurement of both channels, or a difference measurement
between both channels. Use the following key presses:
Meas
Press Setup
, Input Select . Select the appropriate softkey for
the measurement you require, either A , B , A/B , B/A , or More ,
then A-B , or B-A .
11. The measurement result is now displayed.
Note
If the measurement frequency does not correspond directly to a
frequency in the sensor calibration table, the power meter
calculates the calibration factor using linear interpolation.
If you enter a frequency outside the frequency range defined in the
sensor calibration table, the power meter uses the highest or
lowest frequency point in the sensor calibration table to set the
calibration factor.
The value of the calibration factors being used by the power meter
to make a measurement is displayed under the A Cal Fac or
B Cal Fac softkeys.
Editing Sensor Calibration Tables
You can edit sensor calibration tables using the “Edit Cal” menu as shown
in Figure 2-2.
To view the sensor calibration tables currently stored in the power meter,
press System
, Sensor Cal Tables . The “Sensr Tabs” screen is
Inputs
displayed as shown in Figure 2-1.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
Figure 2-2: “Edit Cal” Screen
2-16
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
The power meter is shipped with a set of predefined sensor calibration
tables. The data in these tables is based on statistical averages for a range
of Hewlett-Packard power sensors.
These power sensors are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DEFAULT1
HP 8481A
HP 8482A2
HP 8483A
HP 8481D
HP 8485A
R8486A
Q8486A
R8486D
HP 8487A
There are also ten sensor calibration tables named CUSTOM_0 through
CUSTOM_9 which do not contain any data when the power meter is
shipped from the factory.
You cannot delete any of the 20 sensor calibration tables. Each sensor
calibration table can contain a maximum of 80 frequency points each. If
you want a new sensor calibration table you must edit an existing one.
To edit a table:
1. Select one using the
and
hardkeys to scroll through the
displayed tables. When the table you want to edit is highlighted
press Edit Cal Table . The “Edit Cal” screen is displayed as
shown in Figure 2-2 on page 2-16. In this screen you can modify,
add and remove frequency and calibration factors and also edit the
table name. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to move
between the table name and its frequency and calibration factors.
A frequency in the range of 0.1 MHz to 999.999 GHz can be
entered.
1. DEFAULT is a sensor calibration table in which the reference calibration
factor and calibration factors are 100%. This sensor calibration table can be
used during the performance testing of the power meter.
2. The HP 8482B and HP 8482H power sensors use the same data as the
HP 8482A.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
2.
3.
4.
5.
Note
A calibration factor in the range of 1% to 150% can be entered.
The following rules apply to naming sensor calibration tables:
■
The name must consist of no more than 12 characters.
■
All characters must be upper or lower case alphabetic
characters, or numeric (0-9), or an underscore (_).
■
No other characters are allowed.
■
No spaces are allowed in the name.
To edit the parameter you currently have selected press Change .
The power meter displays the data in a pop up window. Modify
this data (see below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the character on which the cursor
is currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other characters.
To confirm your choice press the appropriate softkey.
To add a new sensor calibration table entry press Insert . You are
prompted for the frequency and calibration factor. The entry is
sorted by frequency.
To remove a sensor calibration table entry use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to select the entry, press Delete . If you
delete the frequency the equivalent calibration factor is also
removed and vice versa.
You can only edit the table name you cannot delete it.
6. When you have completed editing the sensor calibration table
press Done to return to the “Sensor Tables” screen.
Note
Ensure that the frequency points you use cover the frequency
range of the signals you want to measure. If you measure a signal
with a frequency outside the frequency range defined in the sensor
calibration table, the power meter uses the highest or lowest
frequency point in the sensor calibration table to calculate the
calibration factor.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
The following lists detail the contents of the predefined sensor calibration
tables.
DEFAULT
RCF 100
0.1 MHz 100
110 GHz 100
HP 8481A
RCF 100
50 MHz 100
100 MHz 99.8
2 GHz 99
3 GHz 98.6
4 GHz 98
5 GHz 97.7
6 GHz 97.4
7 GHz 97.1
8 GHz 96.6
9 GHz 96.2
10 GHz 95.4
11 GHz 94.9
12.4 GHz 94.3
13 GHz 94.3
14 GHz 93.2
15 GHz 93
16 GHz 93
17 GHz 92.7
18 GHz 91.8
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
HP 8482A
RCF 98
0.1 MHz 98
0.3 MHz 99.5
1 MHz 99.3
3 MHz 98.5
10 MHz 98.5
30 MHz 98.1
100 MHz 97.6
300 MHz 97.5
1 GHz 97
2 GHz 95
3 GHz 93
4.2 GHz 91
HP 8483A
RCF 94.6
0.1 MHz 94
0.3 MHz 97.9
1 MHz 98.4
3 MHz 98.4
10 MHz 99.3
30 MHz 98.7
100 MHz 97.8
300 MHz 97.5
1 GHz 97.2
2 GHz 96.4
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
HP 8481D
RCF 99
50 MHz 99
500 MHz 99.5
1 GHz 99.4
2 GHz 99.5
3 GHz 98.6
4 GHz 98.6
5 GHz 98.5
6 GHz 98.5
7 GHz 98.6
8 GHz 98.7
9 GHz 99.5
10 GHz 98.6
11 GHz 98.7
12 GHz 99
12.4 GHz 99.1
13 GHz 98.9
14 GHz 99.4
15 GHz 98.9
16 GHz 99.1
17 GHz 98.4
18 GHz 100.1
R8486A
RCF 100
50 MHz 100
26.5 GHz 94.9
27 GHz 94.9
28 GHz 95.4
29 GHz 94.3
30 GHz 94.1
31 GHz 93.5
32 GHz 93.7
33 GHz 93.7
34 GHz 94.9
34.5 GHz 94.5
35 GHz 94.4
36 GHz 93.7
37 GHz 94.9
38 GHz 93.5
39 GHz 93.9
40 GHz 92.3
2-20
HP 8485A
RCF 100
50 MHz 100
2 GHz 99.5
4 GHz 98.9
6 GHz 98.5
8 GHz 98.3
10 GHz 98.1
11 GHz 97.8
12 GHz 97.6
12.4 GHz 97.6
14 GHz 97.4
16 GHz 97
17 GHz 96.7
18 GHz 96.6
19 GHz 96
20 GHz 96.1
21 GHz 96.2
22 GHz 95.3
23 GHz 94.9
24 GHz 94.3
25 GHz 92.4
26 GHz 92.2
26.5 GHz 92.1
R8486D
RCF 97.6
50 MHz 97.6
26.5 GHz 97.1
27 GHz 95.3
28 GHz 94.2
29 GHz 94.5
30 GHz 96.6
31 GHz 97.6
32 GHz 98
33 GHz 98.9
34 GHz 99.5
34.5 GHz 99
35 GHz 97.6
36 GHz 99
37 GHz 98.2
38 GHz 97.4
39 GHz 97.6
40 GHz 100
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Power Meter Operation
Making Measurements using Sensor Calibration Tables
HP 8487A
RCF 100
50 MHz 100
100 MHz 99.9
500 MHz 98.6
1 GHz 99.8
2 GHz 99.5
3 GHz 98.9
4 GHz 98.8
5 GHz 98.6
6 GHz 98.5
7 GHz 98.4
8 GHz 98.3
9 GHz 98.3
10 GHz 98.3
11 GHz 98.1
12 GHz 97.9
13 GHz 98
14 GHz 98.2
15 GHz 97.7
16 GHz 96.8
17 GHz 97
18 GHz 96.3
19 GHz 95.9
20 GHz 95.2
21 GHz 95.6
22 GHz 95.5
23 GHz 95.4
24 GHz 95
25 GHz 95.4
26 GHz 95.2
27 GHz 95.1
28 GHz 95
29 GHz 94.4
30 GHz 94
31 GHz 93.7
32 GHz 93.8
33 GHz 93
34 GHz 93.2
34.5 GHz 93.5
35 GHz 93.1
36 GHz 92
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
HP 8487A continued
37 GHz 92.4
38 GHz 90.9
39 GHz 91.3
40 GHz 91.4
41 GHz 90.6
42 GHz 89.9
43 GHz 89.1
44 GHz 88.1
45 GHz 86.9
46 GHz 85.8
47 GHz 85.4
48 GHz 83.2
49 GHz 81.6
50 GHz 80.2
Q8486A
RCF 100
50 MHz 100
33.5 GHz 91.3
34.5 GHz 92
35 GHz 91.7
36 GHz 91.5
37 GHz 92.1
38 GHz 91.7
39 GHz 91
40 GHz 90.7
41 GHz 90.3
42 GHz 89.5
43 GHz 88.5
44 GHz 88.7
45 GHz 88.2
46 GHz 87
47 GHz 86.4
48 GHz 85.3
49 GHz 84.7
50 GHz 82.9
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Power Meter Operation
Setting the Units of Measurement
Setting the Units of Measurement
The “dBm/W” menu is used to select the measurement units on the
currently selected window. These can either be logarithmic (dBm or dB) or
linear (Watt or %) units. Preset
sets the measurement units to dBm
Local
(logarithmic units). Table 2-2 shows which units are applicable to the
individual measurement modes.
Press dBm/W , then select the unit of measurement from dBm , W , dB or
% . Softkeys which cannot be selected in your particular mode of operation
appear with their text grayed out.
Note
When the unit of measurement is set to Watt, it is possible that
negative power measurements may be displayed when measuring
low power levels.
Table 2-2: Measurement Units
Measurement
Mode
Relative Mode Off
Relative Mode On1
Linear
Linear
Log
Log
Single Channel
Watt
dBm
%
dB
Ratio
%
dB
%
dB
Difference
Watt
dBm
%
dB
Rel
1. When relative mode is on (that is, Offset , Rel Off On is “On”), the
measurement is compared to a reference value.
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Power Meter Operation
Selecting Units of Measurement from the Softkeys
Selecting Units of Measurement from the Softkeys
In various softkey menu structures you are required to enter the units of
measurement for power. In some cases, due to the wide power range
available, the following menu is displayed:
mW
µW
nW
Cancel
W
Increment
Multiplier
More
Decrement
Multiplier
Cancel
Note
Some softkeys may be grayed out so that an invalid value cannot
be entered.
Pressing Increment Multiplier or Decrement Multiplier
increases or decreases the multiplier shown in front of W . Pressing W
after the correct multiplier has been selected confirms the entry.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Relative Measurements
Making Relative Measurements
Relative mode allows you to compare any measurement result to a
reference value. The relative reading can be displayed in either dB or % by
pressing dBm/W and selecting either dB or % . When the measurement
result is displayed in % a prefix multiplier may be shown.
Relative mode is window dependent and when enabled displays “Rel” in
the window to which it’s applied.
Relative measurements cannot be output via the rear panel Recorder
Output.
Procedure
To set a reference value on the currently selected window:
1. Press Rel
Offset .
2. Press Rel to use the current reading as the reference value. This
allows you to compare any measurement result in dB or
percentage (%).
3. Rel Off On is automatically set to “On” when Rel is pressed.
Successive measurements are now displayed relative to the reference
value. The relative mode can be disabled and re-enabled simply by
pressing Rel Off On .
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Power Meter Operation
Setting the Resolution
Setting the Resolution
The resolution of each of the power meter’s windows can be set to four
different levels (1, 2, 3 or 4).
These four levels represent:
•
•
1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 dB respectively if the measurement suffix is
dBm or dB.
1, 2, 3 or 4 significant digits respectively if the measurement suffix
is W or %.
The default value is 0.01 dB (3 digits).
To set the resolution on the currently selected window:
Meas
1. Press Setup
. The current setting of the resolution is highlighted
on the Resolution 1 2 3 4 softkey.
2. To change this setting press Resolution 1 2 3 4 until the
required resolution setting is highlighted.
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Offsets
Setting Offsets
Setting Channel Offsets
The power meter can be configured to compensate for a signal loss or gain
in your test setup (for example, to compensate for the loss of a 10 dB
attenuator). This gain or loss, referred to as a channel offset, is added to
the measured power before the result is displayed.
Offsets are entered in dB. The allowable range of values is -100 dB to
+100 dB. A positive value compensates for a loss, and a negative value
compensates for a gain.
If either a channel or a display offset is set then “Ofs” is displayed.
To enter a channel offset which compensates for a loss or gain:
1. Press System
.
Inputs
2. Press A Input Settings or B Input Settings depending on
the channel which you want to apply offsets to.
3. Press More , Offset . The power meter displays the offset value
in a pop up window. Modify this offset (see below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
4. To confirm your choice press dB .
5. Offset Off On is automatically set to “On” when a value is
entered using Offset .
Channel offsets can be disabled and re-enabled simply by pressing
Offset Off On .
Setting Display Offsets
The display offset function provides a method for entering display offset
values.
If either a channel or a display offset is set then “Ofs” is displayed.
To enter a display offset on the currently selected window:
1. Press
2-26
Rel
Offset
, Offset .
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Offsets
2. The power meter displays the offset value in a pop up window.
Modify this offset (see below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
3. To confirm your choice press dB .
4. Offset Off On is automatically set to “On” when a value is
entered using Offset.
Display offsets can be disabled and re-enabled simply by pressing
Offset Off On .
The display offset is a function of the window. That is, if you have selected
a two window display each can have its own offset.
Figure 2-3 and Figure 2-4 display the effects of the channel and display
offsets on the power meter’s displayed reading.
Figure 2-3: Effect of Offsets on a Channel Measurement
Ch Input
Ch
Offset
Ch Input with
Ch Offset
†
Display
Offset ††
Ch Input with Ch Offset and
Display Offset
READING
ON POWER
METER
DISPLAY
Figure 2-4: Effect of Offsets on a Maths Measurement
ChA Input
ChA
Offset †
ChA Input with Ch Offset
Math, A, B, A-B,
B-A, A/B, B/A,
ChB Input
Result
Display
Offset ††
Result with
Display Offset Applied
READING
ON POWER
METER
DISPLAY
ChB
Offset † ChB Input with Ch Offset
† Channel Offset entered using
B Input Settings ,
More
†† Display Offset entered using
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
System
Inputs
, A Input Settings or
, Offset .
Rel
Offset
, Offset .
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Averaging
Setting Averaging
The power meter uses a digital filter to average power readings. The
number of readings averaged can range from 1 to 1024 in binary
progression. This filter is used to reduce noise, obtain the desired
resolution and to reduce the jitter in the measurement results. Increasing
the value of the filter length reduces measurement noise. However, the
time to take the measurement is increased. You can select the filter length
or you can set the power meter to auto filter mode. The default is “AUTO”.
When the auto filter mode is enabled, the power meter automatically sets
the number of readings averaged together to satisfy the filtering
requirements for most power measurements. The number of readings
averaged together depends on the resolution and the power level currently
being measured. Figure 2-5 lists the number of readings averaged for each
range and resolution when the power meter is in auto filter mode and is
set to normal speed mode (refer to the HP EPM-441A/442A Programming
Guide for details of the readings averaged in the other speed modes).
Resolution is a window function and not a channel function. In the case
where a channel is set up in both the upper and lower window and the
resolution settings are different, the highest resolution setting is taken to
calculate the averaging number. For example, if the upper window has a
resolution setting of 2 and is measuring channel A - channel B and the
lower window has a resolution of 4 and is measuring channel A. In this
instance channel A averaging is calculated with a resolution of 4 and
channel B with a resolution of 2.
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Averaging
Figure 2-5: Averaged Readings
1
Resolution Setting
2
3
4
10 dB
1
8
128
128
10 dB
1
1
16
256
10 dB
1
1
2
32
10 dB
1
1
1
16
1
1
1
8
Number of Averages
Power Sensor
Dynamic Range
Minimum Sensor Power
Maximum Sensor Power
These four resolution levels represent:
•
•
Note
1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 dB respectively if the measurement suffix is
dBm or dB.
1, 2, 3 or 4 significant digits respectively if the measurement suffix
is W or %.
The following procedure details how to set the averaging for
channel A. To set the averaging on channel B use the same
procedure using the B Input Settings softkey.
To set averaging:
1. Press System
, A Input Settings . The current setting of
Inputs
averaging is displayed under the Filter softkey.
2. To change this setting press Filter . A pop up window appears.
Use
or
to select your filter choice.
3. To confirm your choice press Enter .
4. Filter Off On is automatically set to “On” when a value is
entered using Filter .
The filter can be disabled and re-enabled simply by pressing
Filter Off On .
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Power Meter Operation
Measuring Pulsed Signals
Measuring Pulsed Signals
The power meter can be used to measure the power of a pulsed signal. The
measurement result is a mathematical representation of the pulse power
rather than an actual measurement. The power meter measures the
average power of the pulsed input signal and then divides the
measurement result by the duty cycle value to obtain the pulse power
reading. The allowable range of values is 0.001 % to 100 %. The default
value is 1.000%.
If duty cycle is enabled then “Dty Cyc” is displayed.
Note
Pulse measurements are not recommended using HP ECP-series
power sensors.
An example of a pulsed signal is shown in Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6: Pulsed Signal
Power
B
Duty Cycle = A
B
Time
A
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Power Meter Operation
Measuring Pulsed Signals
To set the duty cycle:
1. Press System
, A Input Settings. The current setting of the
Inputs
duty cycle is displayed under the Duty Cycle softkey.
2. To change this setting press Duty Cycle . The power meter
displays the duty cycle in a pop up window. Modify this value (see
below) until the desired duty cycle is displayed.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
3. To confirm your choice press % .
4. Duty Cycle Off On is automatically set to “On” when a value is
entered using Duty Cycle .
Duty cycle can be disabled and re-enabled simply by pressing
Duty Cycle Off On .
Note
Pulse power averages out any aberrations in the pulse such as
overshooting or ringing. For this reason it is called pulse power
and not peak power or peak pulse power.
In order to ensure accurate pulse power readings, the input signal
must be pulsed with a rectangular pulse. Other pulse shapes (such
as triangle, chirp or Gaussian) will cause erroneous results.
The pulse power on/off ratio must be much greater than the duty
cycle ratio.
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Measurement Limits
Setting Measurement Limits
The power meter can be configured to verify the power being measured
against an upper and/or lower limit value. The range of values that can be
set for upper and lower limits is -150 dBm to 230 dBm. The default upper
limit is 90.00 dBm and the default lower limit is -90.00 dBm.
To set the limits:
1. Press System
, A Input Settings , More , Limits . The current
Inputs
setting of the maximum and minimum limits are displayed under
the Max and Min softkeys respectively.
2. To change either of these settings press the appropriate softkey.
The power meter displays the current value in a pop up window.
Modify this value (see below) until the desired value is displayed.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
3. To confirm your choice press the appropriate measurement units.
Limits can be disabled and re-enabled simply by pressing
Limits Off On .
A typical application for this feature is shown in Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7: Limits Checking Application
Power Meter
T
Swept Source
OUT
Device
Under Test
IN
OUT
CHANNEL A
INPUT
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Measurement Limits
Figure 2-8: Limits Checking Results
Amplitude
Fail
o
+10 dBm
o
o
o
o
o
+4 dBm
o
Fail
Frequency
In this application a swept frequency signal is applied to the input of the
Device Under Test. The power meter measures the output power. The
limits have been set at +4 dBm and +10 dBm. A fail occurs each time the
output power is outside these limits as shown in Figure 2-8.
Checking for Limit Failures
Limit failures are displayed in the appropriate field in the measurement
window on the power meter’s display as shown in Figure 2-9.
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Power Meter Operation
Setting Measurement Limits
Figure 2-9: Pass/Fail Limit Indicators
This
measurement has
passed which is
indicated by the
limit field being
empty.
This
measurement has
failed as the result
is less than the
minimum limit
level set of
-50 dBm. This is
indicated with the
text “Undr Lmt”.
This
measurement has
failed as the
result is more
than the
maximum limit
level set of
-60 dBm. This is
indicated with the
text “Over Lmt”.
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Power Meter Operation
Channel Measurements
Channel Measurements
Single channel measurements can be made on the currently selected
Meas
window by pressing Setup
, Input Select and selecting A or B .
Absolute power is displayed for the selected channel in either dBm or
Watts. The filter, range (where applicable), offset, duty cycle, calibration
factor and limits can be set for the selected channel.
Single channel measurements can be displayed relative to a stored
reference. In relative mode readings are displayed in either dB or %. Refer
to “Making Relative Measurements”, on page 2-24 for further information.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Difference Measurements
Making Difference Measurements
Dual channel difference measurements can be made on the currently
Meas
selected window by pressing Setup
, Input Select , More and selecting
A-B or B-A . The power meter always carries out “Maths” calculations in
Watts. The power meter displays the numerical difference of the power
values of both channels in dBm or Watts. The power value for each
channel includes offsets, calibration factors and duty cycle in addition to
measured power. The filter, range (where applicable), offset, duty cycle
and calibration factor are set individually for each channel.
Logarithmic units (dBm) can be used in A-B difference measurements
where the channel A power level is less than the channel B power level.
Likewise, logarithmic units can be used in B-A difference measurements
where the channel B power level is less than the channel A power level.
However, the negative sign is ignored and a log error is displayed on the
status line and in the error queue.
Difference measurements can be displayed relative to a stored reference.
In relative mode readings are displayed in either dB or %. Refer to
“Making Relative Measurements”, on page 2-24 for further information.
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Power Meter Operation
Making Ratio Measurements
Making Ratio Measurements
Dual channel ratio measurements can be made on the currently selected
Meas
window by pressing Setup
, Input Select and selecting A/B or B/A .
The power meter always carries out “Maths” calculations in Watts. The
power meter displays the ratio of the channels power values in either dB
or %. When the measurement result is displayed in % a prefix multiplier
may be shown. The power value of each channel includes offsets,
calibration factors and duty cycle in addition to measured power. The
filter, range, offset and calibration factor are set individually for each
channel.
Ratio measurements can be displayed relative to a stored reference. In
relative mode readings are displayed in either dB or %. Refer to “Making
Relative Measurements”, on page 2-24 for further information.
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Power Meter Operation
Selecting a Digital or Analog Display
Selecting a Digital or Analog Display
The measurement windows can display the result in either a digital or
analog format or both as shown in the following figures.
Figure 2-10: Digital Display
Figure 2-11: Analog Display
Figure 2-12: Digital and Analog Display
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Power Meter Operation
Selecting a Digital or Analog Display
To select the format of the display in the currently selected window:
Meas
1. Press Setup
, Display Format .
2. Press Meter Dgtl Anlg to highlight the type of format you
require. Pressing this key toggles between a digital and analog
display.
To select the range of the analog display in the currently selected window:
Meas
1. Press Setup
, Display Format , Anlg Mtr Scaling .
2. The current setting of the maximum and minimum values
displayed on the analog meter are displayed under the Max and
Min softkeys respectively.
3. To change either of these settings press the appropriate softkey.
The power meter displays the current value in a pop up window.
Modify this value (see below) until the desired value is displayed.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
4. To confirm your choice select the appropriate softkey. If the power
meter is in logarithmic mode press dB . If the power meter is in
linear mode select the appropriate softkeys from the following
menu:
%
Cancel
%
Increment
Multiplier
More
Decrement
Multiplier
Cancel
Pressing Increment Multiplier or
Decrement Multiplier increases or decreases the multiplier
shown in front of % . Pressing % after the correct multiplier has
been selected confirms the entry.
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Power Meter Operation
Selecting a Digital or Analog Display
To select both an analog and digital display press until
two windows
are displayed. Select the format of one window to analog and the other to
digital as previously described.
To indicate if the measurement reading is outwith the minimum or
maximum values set for the analog meter, a warning message is
displayed. The analog meter also displays a digital reading. This digital
reading allows you to easily set the appropriate minimum and maximum
values for the analog display.
Note
The analog display does not indicate as much measurement data
as the digital display. That is, it does not indicate when duty cycle,
range hold, offset or relative mode are enabled. In addition, it does
not indicate if the measurement is within the test limits if any are
set.
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Power Meter Operation
Setting the Range
Setting the Range
The power meter has no internal ranges which can be set. The only ranges
that can be set are those of the HP E-series power sensors. With an
HP E-series power sensor the range can be set either automatically or
manually. Use autoranging when you are not sure of the power level you
will be measuring. There are two manual settings either “LOWER” or
“UPPER”. The lower range is more sensitive than the higher range.
“LOWER” covers the range of -70 dBm to -13.5 dBm. “UPPER” covers the
range of -14.5 dBm to +20 dBm. The default is “AUTO”.
Note
The following procedure details how to set the range for channel
A. To set the range on channel B use the same procedure using the
B Input Settings softkey.
To set the range:
1. Press System
, A Input Settings , More . The current setting
Inputs
of the range is displayed under the Range softkey.
2. To change this setting press Range . A pop up window appears.
Use
or
to highlight your choice.
3. To confirm your choice press Enter .
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Power Meter Operation
Configuring the Remote Interface
Configuring the Remote Interface
This section gives a brief description on configuring the remote interface.
For further information on using the power meter remotely, refer to the
HP EPM-441A/442A Programming Guide.
HP-IB Address
Each device on the HP-IB (IEEE-488) interface must have a unique
address. You can set the power meter’s address to any value between 0
and 30. The address is set to 13 when the power meter is shipped from the
factory.
The address is stored in non-volatile memory, and does not change when
the power is switched off, or after a remote interface reset.
Your HP-IB bus controller has its own address. Avoid using the bus
controller’s address for any instrument on the interface bus.
Hewlett-Packard controllers generally use address 21.
To set the HP-IB address from the front panel:
1. Press System
, HP-IB . The current setting of the HP-IB address
Inputs
is displayed under the HP-IB Addr softkey.
2. To change this setting press HP-IB Addr . The power meter
displays the address in a pop up window. Modify this address (see
below) as desired.
■
Use
or
to modify the digit on which the cursor is
currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other digits.
3. To confirm your choice press Enter .
To set the HP-IB address from the remote interface use the:
•
2-42
SYSTem:COMMunicate:GPIB:ADDRess command.
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Power Meter Operation
Recorder Output
Recorder Output
The rear panel Recorder Output connector produces a dc voltage that
corresponds to the power level in Watts of the selected channel, depending
on the measurement mode. The Recorder Output is disabled (0 V) during
ratio, difference and relative measurements. This dc voltage ranges from 0
to +1 Vdc. The output impedance is typically 1 kΩ . Channel and display
offsets, and duty cycle have no effect on the Recorder Output.
For example, the Recorder Output can be used to;
•
•
•
record swept measurements on an X-Y recorder
level an output from a source using external leveling, or
monitor the output power on a strip chart recorder. A setup for
recording swept measurements is shown in Figure 2-13.
Figure 2-13: Test Setup for Recording Swept Measurements
Swept Source
SWEEP
OUT
RF OUT
Device
Under Test
IN
OUT
X-Y Recorder
X-AXIS (FREQUENCY)
RECORDER
OUTPUT
Power Meter
CHANNEL A
INPUT
Y-AXIS (POWER)
To access the “Recorder” menu press System
, More , Recorder Output .
Inputs
This menu allows you to switch the Recorder Output signal either on or
off. The Max Power and Min Power softkeys allow you to enter the
input power level that you want to represent the 1 Vdc maximum and
0 Vdc minimum output voltage of the Recorder Output. The Output A B
softkey allows you to select which channel is represented on the Recorder
Output.
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Power Meter Operation
Recorder Output
Leveling a Source Output
The Recorder output can be used to level an output from a source using
external leveling. The following procedure explains how to do this:
1. Select the channel to be represented on the Recorder Output by
pressing System
, More , Recorder Output , Output A B .
Inputs
2. The highest power you are going to measure is used to determine
the value which you should set for the Recorder Output maximum
setting. For example, if you are measuring a power less than 1 mW
and greater than 100 µW, then set the recorder maximum value to
1 mW.
50 dBm (100 W)
40 dBm (10 W)
30 dBm (1 W)
20 dBm (100 mW)
10 dBm (10 mW)
0 dBm (1 mW)
-10 dBm (100 µW)
-20 dBm (10 µW)
-30 dBm (1 µW)
-40 dBm (100 nW)
-50 dBm (10 nW)
-60 dBm (1 nW)
To set the maximum value press System
, More ,
Inputs
Recorder Output , Max Power and enter the appropriate
value.
3. Press Min Power and enter 0 W.
4. Press Output Off On to “On”.
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Power Meter Operation
Saving and Recalling Power Meter Configurations
Saving and Recalling Power Meter Configurations
To reduce repeated setup sequences, up to ten power meter configurations
can be stored in the power meter’s non-volatile memory. The HP-IB
address, the data stored in the sensor calibration tables and the zeroing
and calibration data are not stored by a preset. The calibration table
selected is not affected.
Power meter configurations are saved and recalled with the
hardkey.
Save
Recall
To save the current measurement setup:
1. Press Save
Recall .
2. Use the
and
hardkeys to scroll through the displayed
files. When the required file is highlighted press Save .
3. Press Confirm .
If you require to modify the name of a file:
1. Press Save
Recall .
2. Use the
and
hardkeys to scroll through the displayed
files. When the required file is highlighted press Edit Name . The
power meter displays the file name in a pop up window. Modify
this name (see below) until the desired name is displayed.
■
Use
or
to modify the character on which the cursor
is currently positioned.
■
Use
or
to move to other characters.
■
Use Insert Char and Delete Char as required.
3. To confirm your choice press Enter .
To recall a measurement setup:
1. Press Save
Recall .
2. Use the
and
hardkeys to scroll through the displayed
files. When the required file is highlighted press Recall .
3. Press Confirm .
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Power Meter Operation
Saving and Recalling Power Meter Configurations
Figure 2-14: “Save/Recall” Screen
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Power Meter Operation
How Measurements are Calculated
How Measurements are Calculated
Figure 2-15 details how measurements are calculated. It shows the
position in which the various power meter functions are implemented in
the measurement calculation.
Figure 2-15: How Measurements are Calculated
Channel Functions
Window Functions
Channel A
Averaging
Cal Factor
Channel
Offset
Duty
Cycle
Limits
Recorder
Output
Channel B
Averaging
Cal Factor
Channel
Offset
Duty
Cycle
Limits
Math,A,B,A/B
B/A,A-B,B-A
Display
Offset
Relative
Upper Window
Math,A,B,A/B
B/A,A-B,B-A
Display
Offset
Relative
Lower Window
Recorder
Output
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Power Meter Operation
Presetting the Power Meter
Presetting the Power Meter
This section details the power meter’s preset conditions.
The HP-IB address, the data stored in the sensor calibration tables and
the zeroing and calibration data are not affected by a preset. The
calibration table selected is not affected.
Preset Conditions
The number of windows displayed is two.
dBm/W
Measurement units used is set to dBm.
Frequency
Cal Fac
•
•
•
•
A
A
B
B
Freq is set to 50 MHz.
Cal Fac is set to 100%.
Freq is set to 50 MHz.
Cal Fac is set to 100%.
Meas
Setup
•
•
•
•
Input Select is set to Channel A in the upper window and
Channel B in the lower window.
Display Format is set to digital for both windows.
Anlg Mtr Scaling is set to 20.000 dBm ( Max ) and -70.000 dBm
( Min ).
Resolution 1 2 3 4 is set to “3”.
Rel
Offset
•
•
•
•
2-48
Rel Off/On is set to “Off”.
Rel is set to 0 dBm.
Offset Off/On is set to “Off”.
Offset is set to 0 dBm.
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Power Meter Operation
Presetting the Power Meter
System
Inputs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A Table Off/On is not affected.
B Table Off/On is not affected.
Filter Off/On is set to “On”.
Filter is set to “AUTO”.
Duty Cycle Off/On is set to “Off”.
Duty Cycle is set to 1.000%.
Offset Off/On is set to “Off”.
Offset is set to 0 dB.
Range is set to “AUTO”.
Limits is set to 20.000 dBm ( Max ) and -70.000 dBm ( Min ).
Limits Off/On is set to “Off”.
Power Ref Off/On is set to “Off”.
Recorder Output is set to 20.000 dBm ( Max Power ) and
-70.000 dBm ( Min Power ).
Output Off/On is set to “Off”.
Output A B is set to “A”.
Zero
Cal
•
•
A Ref CF is set to 100%.
B Ref CF is set to 100%.
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Power Meter Operation
Self Test
Self Test
The power meter has three distinct self test modes:
•
•
•
power on self test, which occurs automatically when you turn on
the power meter.
confidence check, which is accessed via the front panel and
requires your assistance in order to verify the POWER REF and
measurement path accuracy.
troubleshooting mode, which is accessed via the front panel or
remotely over the HP-IB. The front panel softkey menu allows you
to run individual tests, whereas the HP-IB command runs a
complete series of tests as listed in “HP-IB Testing”, on page 2-53.
Power On Self Test
The power on self test is performed automatically when the power meter
is turned on and takes approximately 10 seconds to complete. The power
on self test consists of the following tests:
•
•
•
Battery
Calibrator
Measurement Assemblies
Refer to “Test Descriptions”, on page 2-54 if you require a description of
each individual test.
As the power on self test takes place, the message “Testing...” appears
next to the name of the test which is being performed. When each test is
complete, the message “Testing...” is replaced by either the message
“Passed” or “Failed”. If a failure occurs the message “Power-up H/W
Err” appears. Any errors are also written to the HP-IB error queue and
can be examined in the “Errors” screen by pressing System
, More ,
Inputs
Error List .
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Power Meter Operation
Self Test
Front Panel Selection of Self Tests
Press System
, More , Service , Self Test to access a test menu which
Inputs
consists of the following tests:
•
•
•
Instrument Self Test
Confidence Check
Individual, which accesses a menu which consists of the following
tests:
■
ROM checksum
■
RAM
■
Battery
■
Measurement Assemblies
■
Calibrator
■
Keyboard
■
Display, which accesses a menu which consists of the following
tests:
◆
Display Assembly
◆
Display RAM
◆
Bitmap Displays
Each of these tests can be run individually. Information on the instrument
self test and confidence check are described on page 2-52. Refer to “Test
Descriptions”, on page 2-54 if you require a description of the other tests.
When an individual test is selected, the message “Testing...” appears
next to the name of the test. When the test is complete, the message
“Testing...” is replaced by either the message “Passed” or “Failed”.
This pass/fail indication excludes the keyboard test and the bitmap
display test, both of which rely on your interaction to detect a failure.
When the individual test is complete, the result is displayed until Done is
selected. If the self test failed, information about the failure is displayed
on the screen.
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Power Meter Operation
Self Test
Instrument Self Test
If Instrument Self Test is selected, the following tests are run, these
are the same tests which are run using the *TST? command.
•
•
•
•
•
•
ROM checksum
RAM
Battery
Display Assembly
Calibrator
Measurement Assemblies
As each test takes place, the name of the test is listed on the screen. While
a test is running, the message “Testing...” appears next to the name of
the test. As each stage of the test is completed, the message
“Testing...” is replaced by either the message “Passed” or “Failed”.
Confidence Check
The confidence check requires you to carry out the following procedure.
Instructions are also displayed on the screen. The confidence check can be
carried out on both channels using the appropriate softkeys.
1. Connect the power sensor to the POWER REF output (Refer to
Table 2-1 on page 2-7 for connection requirements for the HP 8480
series power sensors). The power reference signal is turned on
automatically after any key is pressed.
2. The power meter automatically makes a power measurement. If
the measured error is within the instrument accuracy
specification the confidence check has been successful.
While the test is running, the message “Testing...” appears. If
the correct power meter reading is made the message “Passed” is
displayed, otherwise “Failed” is displayed.
If the confidence check fails, the failure appears in the HP-IB error queue.
To examine the HP-IB error queue go to the “Errors” screen (refer to
Chapter 4).
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Power Meter Operation
Self Test
HP-IB Testing
To invoke the HP-IB self test, the IEEE 488.1 compliant standard
command, *TST? is used. This command runs a full self test and returns
one of the following codes:
•
•
0 - no tests failed
1 - one or more tests failed
The HP-IB self test consists of the following tests:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ROM checksum
RAM
Battery
Display Assembly
Calibrator
Measurement Assemblies
Communications Assembly (Implicit)
The communications assembly is tested implicitly, in that the command
will not be accepted or return a result unless the HP-IB interface is
functioning correctly.
Refer to “Test Descriptions”, on page 2-54 if you require a description of
each individual test.
When the *TST? command is executed, the screen is cleared. As each test
takes place, the name of the test is listed on the screen. While a test is
running, the message “Testing...” appears next to the name of the test.
As each stage of the test is completed, the message “Testing...” is
replaced by either the message “Passed” or “Failed”.
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Power Meter Operation
Self Test
Test Descriptions
This section specifies what is actually checked by each of the tests. Some
of the tests may only be applicable to one method of invocation (for
example, from the front panel). If this is the case, it is specified in the test
description. Most of the tests have an associated error message which is
added to the HP-IB error queue if the test fails. The exception to this is
the bitmap display test. Refer to Chapter 4, “Error Messages” for details
on these error messages.
ROM Checksum
This test calculates the checksum of the firmware and checks it against
the pre-defined checksum stored on the ROM. A pass or a fail result is
returned.
RAM
This test carries out a read and write test on the instrument RAM.
Battery
When the firmware is first downloaded, a known value is written into a
battery-backed memory location. This test verifies that the value is still
resident. It returns a pass if the value is still present, otherwise it returns
a fail.
Measurement Assemblies
A measurement assembly is requested to automatically run a self test.
This self test returns either a pass or a fail. A fail can either be produced
by the measurement assembly self test failing or by the measurement
assembly not responding.
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Power Meter Operation
Self Test
Calibrator
The reference calibrator is turned on (indicated by the POWER REF LED)
and measured internally. A pass or fail result is returned.
Keyboard (Front Panel only)
The power meter enters a mode where you are invited to press any key.
When a key is pressed, its name appears on the screen. You can check that
the power meter is displaying the expected name when the relevant key is
pressed. This is a check that the power meter is receiving the correct
keyboard signal. Pressing the same key twice sequentially exits this mode
and returns you to a display that lists all the keys that were not entered.
If the test is exited without all the keys being pressed a list is displayed
showing all the keys which were not selected.
Display
Three tests are available for the display: the display assembly, display
RAM and bitmap display.
A read/write is performed on the display RAM. If the value which is
written is read back correctly, a pass is recorded, otherwise a fail is
recorded.
The liquid crystal display/ light emitting diode (LCD/LED) control circuits
are tested by making separate voltage measurements via the multiplexer
and digital signal processor. If the expected voltages are measured, a pass
is recorded, otherwise a fail is recorded. The three circuits which are
tested are the LCD contrast control, the LED brightness control and the
display temperature sensing diode.
Bitmap Display (Front Panel only)
A series of bitmaps are displayed on the power meter showing: two
checkboards, vertical lines, horizontal lines, oblique lines, all pixels on and
all pixels off. Pressing More cycles you through these bitmaps. The Prev
key stops the display and returns you to the previous menu.
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Power Meter Operation
Operator Maintenance
Operator Maintenance
This section describes how to replace the power line fuse and clean the
power meter. If you need additional information about replacing parts or
repairing the power meter, refer to the HP EPM-441A/442A Service
Guide.
To clean the power meter, disconnect it’s supply power and wipe with a
damp cloth only.
The power line fuse is located within the power meter’s fuse holder
assembly on the rear panel. For all voltages the power meter uses a 250 V,
F3.15AH, 20mm fast blow fuse with high breaking capacity (HP part
number 2110-0957).
Note
The power meter also has an internal fuse. If you suspect that this
fuse needs replaced it must be done by trained service personnel.
Please refer to “Returning Your Power Meter for Service”, on
page 2-63.
Replacing the Power Line Fuse
1. Remove the power cord from the power meter.
2. Slide the fuse holder assembly from the rear panel as shown in
Figure 2-16.
3. Install the correct fuse in the “In line” position as shown in
Figure 2-16. (A spare fuse can be stored in the fuse holder
assembly.)
4. Replace the fuse holder assembly in the rear panel.
Figure 2-16: Replacing the Fuse
In line fuse
Spare fuse
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
This section details what to do if you have a problem with your power
meter.
If you have a problem with your power meter, first refer to the section
“Before calling Hewlett-Packard”, on page 2-57. This chapter contains a
checklist that will help identify some of the most common problems.
If you wish to contact Hewlett-Packard about any aspect of the power
meter, from service problems to ordering information, refer to “Sales and
Service Offices”, on page 2-60.
If you wish to return the power meter to Hewlett-Packard refer to
“Returning Your Power Meter for Service”, on page 2-63.
Before calling Hewlett-Packard
Before calling Hewlett-Packard or returning the power meter for service,
please make the checks listed in “Check the Basics”, on page 2-58. If you
still have a problem, please read the warranty printed at the front of this
guide. If your power meter is covered by a separate maintenance
agreement, please be familiar with the terms.
Hewlett-Packard offers several maintenance plans to service your power
meter after warranty expiration. Call your HP Sales and Service Center
for full details.
If the power meter becomes faulty and you wish to return the faulty
instrument, follow the description on how to return the faulty instrument
in the section “Sales and Service Offices”, on page 2-60.
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Check the Basics
Problems can be solved by repeating what was being performed when the
problem occurred. A few minutes spent in performing these simple checks
may eliminate time spent waiting for instrument repair. Before calling
Hewlett-Packard or returning the power meter for service, please make
the following checks:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check that the line socket has power.
Check that the power meter is plugged into the proper ac power
source.
Check that the power meter is switched on.
Check that the line fuse is in working condition.
Check that the other equipment, cables, and connectors are
connected properly and operating correctly.
Check the equipment settings in the procedure that was being
used when the problem occurred.
Check that the test being performed and the expected results are
within the specifications and capabilities of the power meter.
Check the power meter display for error messages. Refer to
Chapter 4 for further information.
Check operation by performing the self tests.
Check with a different power sensor.
Instrument serial numbers
Hewlett-Packard makes frequent improvements to its products to enhance
their performance, usability and reliability. Hewlett-Packard service
personnel have access to complete records of design changes for each
instrument, based on the instruments’ serial number and option
designation.
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Whenever you contact Hewlett-Packard about your power meter have a
complete serial number available. This will ensure that you obtain the
most complete and accurate service information. The serial number can be
obtained by:
•
•
•
interrogating the power meter over the HP-IB using the *IDN?
command.
from the front panel by selecting System
, More , Service ,
Inputs
Version .
from the serial number label.
The serial number label is attached to the rear of each Hewlett-Packard
instrument. This label has two instrument identification entries. The first
provides the instruments serial number and the second provides the
identification number for each option built into the instrument.
The serial number is divided into two parts: the prefix (two letters and the
first four numbers), and the suffix (the last four numbers).
•
•
The prefix letters indicate the country of manufacture. This code is
based on the ISO international country code standard, and is used
to designate the specific country of manufacture for the individual
product. The same product number could be manufactured in two
different countries. In this case the individual product serial
numbers would reflect different country of manufacture codes. The
prefix also consists of four numbers. This is a code identifying the
date of the last major design change.
The suffix indicates an alpha numeric code which is used to ensure
unique identification of each product throughout
Hewlett-Packard.
SERIAL NUMBER
SER UK12345678
OPT
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Sales and Service Offices
If you need technical assistance with a Hewlett-Packard test and
measurement product or application please contact the Hewlett-Packard
office or distributor in your country.
Asia Pacific:
Hong Kong: (852) 2599 7889
India: (91-11) 647 2311
Japan:
Hewlett-Packard Japan Ltd.
Measurement Assistance Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo 192, Japan
Tel: (81-426) 56-7832
Fax: (81-426) 56-7840
Korea: (82-2) 769 0800
Malaysia: (60-3) 291 0213
Philippines: (63-2) 894 1451
PRC: (86-10) 6505 0149
Singapore: (1800) 292 8100
Taiwan: (886-3) 492 9666
Thailand: (66-2) 661 3900
For countries in Asia Pacific not listed contact:
Hewlett-Packard Asia Pacific Ltd
17-21/F Shell Tower, Times Square,
1 Matheson Street, Causeway Bay,
Hong Kong
tel: (852) 2599 7070
fax: (852) 2506 9285
2-60
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Australia/New Zealand:
Hewlett-Packard Australia Ltd.
31-41 Joseph Street
Blackburn, Victoria 3130
Australia
1 800 629 485
Canada:
Hewlett-Packard Canada Ltd.
5150 Spectrum Way
Mississauga, Ontario
L4W 5G1
(905) 206 4725
In Europe, Africa and Middle East please call your local HP sales office or
representative:
Austria: (1) 25000-0
Belgium and Luxembourg: (02) 778 3417
Baltic Countries: (358) 08872 2100
Czech Republic: (0042) 2-4743111
Denmark: 45 99 10 00
Finland: (90) 88 721
France: (0) 1 69.29.41.14
Germany: (0180) 532 62-33
Greece: (1) 7264045
Hungary: (1) 252 4705
Ireland: (01) 284 4633
Israel: (03) 5380 333
Italy: 02 - 92 122 241
Netherlands: (020) 547 6669
Norway: (22) 73 56 50
Poland: (22) 608 7700
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Portugal: (11) 482 85 00
Russia: tel (7/095) 928 6885, fax (7/095) 916 9844
South Africa: (011) 806 1000
Spain: (34) 1 631 1323
Sweden: (08) 444 22 77
Switzerland: (01) 735 7111
Turkey: (212) 224 59 25
United Kingdom: (01344) 366 666
For countries in Europe/Middle East and Africa not listed, contact:
Hewlett-Packard
International Sales Europe
Geneva, Switzerland
Tel: +41-22-780-4111
Fax: +41-22-780-4770
Latin America:
Hewlett-Packard
Latin American Region Headquarters
5200 Blue Lagoon Drive
9th Floor
Miami, Florida 33126
USA
(305) 267 4245/4220
United States:
Hewlett-Packard Company
Test and Measurement Organization
5301 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Bldg. 51L-SC
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8059
1 800 452 4844
In any correspondence or telephone conversations, refer to the power
meter by its model number (which is on the front panel) and full serial
number (which is on the rear panel). With this information, the HP
representative can quickly determine whether your unit is still within its
warranty period.
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Power Meter Operation
Contacting Hewlett-Packard
Returning Your Power Meter for Service
Use the information in this section if you need to return your power meter
to Hewlett-Packard.
Package the Power Meter For Shipment
Use the following steps to package the power meter for shipment to
Hewlett-Packard for service:
1. Fill in a blue service tag (available at the end of this guide) and
attach it to the power meter. Please be as specific as possible about
the nature of the problem. Send a copy of any or all of the
following information:
■
Any error messages that appeared on the power meter display.
■
Any information on the performance of the power meter.
Caution
Power meter damage can result from using packaging materials
other than those specified. Never use styrene pellets in any shape
as packaging materials. They do not adequately cushion the power
meter or prevent it from shifting in the carton. Styrene pellets
cause power meter damage by generating static electricity and by
lodging in the rear panel.
2. Use the original packaging materials or a strong shipping
container that is made of double-walled, corrugated cardboard
with 159 kg (350 lb) bursting strength. The carton must be both
large enough and strong enough to accommodate the power meter
and allow at least 3 to 4 inches on all sides of the power meter for
packing material.
3. Surround the power meter with at least 3 to 4 inches of packing
material, or enough to prevent the power meter from moving in
the carton. If packing foam is not available, the best alternative is
SD-240 Air Cap TM from Sealed Air Corporation (Commerce, CA
90001). Air Cap looks like a plastic sheet covered with 1-1/4 inch
air filled bubbles. Use the pink Air Cap to reduce static electricity.
Wrap the power meter several times in the material to both
protect the power meter and prevent it from moving in the carton.
4. Seal the shipping container securely with strong nylon adhesive
tape.
5. Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE”
to ensure careful handling.
6. Retain copies of all shipping papers.
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Contacting Hewlett-Packard
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3
Menu Reference
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Menu Reference
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter is a reference to the softkey menu structure of the power
meter.
“The Front Panel Menu Maps” starting on page 3-3 details the menus
diagrammatically.
“Front Panel Menu Reference” starting on page 3-10 details the menus
descriptively.
3-2
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
The Front Panel Menu Maps
The following diagrams detail the structure of the softkey menus which
are accessed through the following seven hardkeys:
Note
•
dBm/W
•
Frequency
Cal Fac
•
Meas
Setup
•
Rel
Offset
•
Save
Recall
•
System
Inputs
•
Zero
Cal
On your power meter some softkey labels have numeric values
displayed under them. These values show the current setting of
that softkey. Since these values are variable they are shown in a
grayed out text on the following menu maps.
dBm/W Menu
dBm
W
dBm/W
dB
%
Note
Depending on the power meter’s setup you will be unable to select
certain softkeys. The text on these softkey labels appears grayed
out. Refer to the appropriate softkey descriptions for further
information.
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
Frequency/Cal Fac Menu
A Freq
50 .00MHz
Frequency
Cal Fac
A Cal Fac
100.0%
B Freq
50 .00MHz
B Cal Fac
100.0%
Depending on the power meter’s setup you will be unable to select
certain softkeys. The text on these softkey labels appears grayed
out. Refer to the appropriate softkey descriptions for further
information.
Note
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
Meas Setup Menu
A
B
A/B
B/A
A-B
Input
Select
Meas
Setup
Display
Format
B-A
More
Resolution
1234
Meter
Dgtl Anlg
Anlg Mtr
Scaling
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Max
20.000 dBm
Min
-70.000 dBm
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
Rel/Offset Menu
Rel
Off On
Rel
Offset
Rel
Offset
Off On
Offset
0.000dB
Save/Recall Menu
Save
Enter
Save
Recall
Recall
Edit
Name
Done
Insert
Char
Delete
Char
Cancel
Depending on the power meter’s setup you will be unable to select
certain softkeys. The text on these softkey labels appears grayed
out. Refer to the appropriate softkey descriptions for further
information.
Note
3-6
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
System Inputs Menu
HP-IB Addr
13
Edit Cal
Table
A Table
Off On
Change
B Table
Off On
Delete
Done
Done
Insert
HP-IB
System
Inputs
Filter
Off On
Filter
AUTO
Sensor Cal
Tables
A Input
Settings
Duty Cycle
Off On
B Input
Settings
Duty Cycle
1.000%
More
Offset
Off On
Offset
0.000 dB
Range†
AUTO
Limits
Limits
Off On
Max
100 mW
Min
0.00 mW
†
Note
HP E-series power sensors only
continued on page 3-8
Depending on the power meter’s setup you will be unable to select
certain softkeys. The text on these softkey labels appears grayed
out. Refer to the appropriate softkey descriptions for further
information.
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
System Inputs Menu Continued
Clear
Errors
Next
Done
Power Ref
Off On
System
Inputs
More
Output
Off On
Error
List
Max Power
20.000 dBm
Recorder
Output
Min Power
-70.000 dBm
Service
Output
A B
Self Test
Display
Version
Instrument
Self Test
ROM
Checksum
Confidence
Check
RAM
Individual
Battery
Measure
Assemblies
Set Contrast
Set Brightness
3-8
Calibrator
Display
Assy
Keyboard
Display
RAM
Display
Bitmap
Displays
More
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Menu Reference
The Front Panel Menu Maps
Zero/Cal Menu
Zero A
Zero
Cal
Zero B
Cal A
Zero
Both
A Ref CF
100.0%
Cal
Cal B
B Ref CF
100.0%
Power Ref
On Off
More
Note
Depending on the power meter’s setup you will be unable to select
certain softkeys. The text on these softkey labels appears grayed
out. Refer to the appropriate softkey descriptions for further
information.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "dBm/W" Menu
Front Panel Menu Reference
This section describes all the hardkeys and softkeys on your power meter.
The hardkey descriptions are in alphabetical order. The softkey
descriptions are in the order they appear in the menus. Diagrammatical
hardkeys are described at the end of this section.
The hardkeys can be separated into three categories, those which affect:
•
•
•
the system setup, for example the HP-IB address.
the currently selected window setup, for example the
measurement units.
the channel setup, for example channel offsets.
dBm/W
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the currently selected
window. Press
to select the upper or lower measurement window on
the power meter’s display. The window which is selected is highlighted by
a shadowed box, and the set up you create is implemented in this window.
Press this hardkey to access the “dBm/Watts” menu which allows you to
select the measurement units. These can either be logarithmic (dBm or
dB) or linear (Watt or %). The default is logarithmic. The text on some
softkeys may appear grayed out. This indicates that they are not a
relevant unit of measurement in the currently selected window. Refer to
“Setting the Units of Measurement”, on page 2-22 for further information.
•
dBm
•
Press this softkey to display the measurement results in dBm.
W
•
Press this softkey to display the measurement results in Watts.
dB
•
Press this softkey to display the measurement results in dB.
%
Press this softkey to display the measurement results in %.
3-10
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Frequency/Cal Fac" Menu
Frequency
Cal Fac
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the channel setup.
Press this hardkey to access the “Frequency/Cal Fac” menu which allows
you to enter the frequency of the signal to be measured or the calibration
factor. Depending on the type of power sensor connected, and whether or
not a sensor calibration table is selected, the text on some softkeys may
appear grayed out. This indicates that they are not relevant in the power
meter’s current mode of operation. Table 3-1 details the relevant softkeys
in various modes of operation.
Table 3-1
Sensor Calibration Table
Selected
Sensor
Model
Sensor Calibration Table
Not Selected
Frequency
A Freq
B Freq
Cal Factor
A Cal Fac
B Cal Fac
HP 8480
series
power
sensors
Frequency can
be entered.
Default value
is 50 MHz.
The Cal Factor is
obtained from the
sensor calibration
table but can be
overridden by this
softkey.
Frequency
cannot be
entered.
The Cal Factor can
be entered. Default
value is 100%.
HP E-series
power
sensors
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Frequency can
be entered.
Default value
is 50 MHz.
The Cal Factor
cannot be entered, it
is obtained from the
EEPROM in the
power sensor.
•
Frequency
A Freq
B Freq
Cal Factor
A Cal Fac
B Cal Fac
A Freq
Press this softkey to enter the frequency of the signal to be
measured on channel A, in the range of 0.1 MHz to 999.999 GHz.
The default value is 50 MHz. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the frequency. To confirm your choice press the
appropriate frequency unit. Entering a frequency using this
softkey is only possible when you have a sensor calibration table
selected or you are using an HP E-series power sensor.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Frequency/Cal Fac" Menu
•
A Cal Fac
•
Press this softkey to enter the measurement calibration factor for
channel A in the range of 1% to 150%. The default value is 100%.
Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the
calibration factor. To confirm your choice press % . Entering a
calibration factor using this softkey is only possible when you are
using an HP 8480 series power sensor.
B Freq
•
Press this softkey to enter the frequency of the signal to be
measured on channel B, in the range of 0.1 MHz to 999.999 GHz.
The default value is 50 MHz. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the frequency. To confirm your choice press the
appropriate frequency unit. Entering a frequency using this
softkey is only possible when you have a sensor calibration table
selected or you are using an HP E-series power sensor.
B Cal Fac
Press this softkey to enter the measurement calibration factor for
channel B in the range of 1% to 150%. The default value is 100%.
Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the
calibration factor. To confirm your choice press % . Entering a
calibration factor using this softkey is only possible when you are
using an HP 8480 series power sensor.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Meas/Setup" Menu
Meas
Setup
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the currently selected
window. Press
to select the upper or lower measurement window on
the power meter’s display. The window which is selected is highlighted by
a shadowed box, and the set up you create is implemented in this window.
Press this hardkey to access the “Meas Setup” menu. This menu allows
you to set up a variety of conditions in the currently selected
measurement window, for example: an analog or digital display,
measurement limits, resolution and channel selection.
•
Input Select
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to select the
channel to be displayed.
A
■
■
Press this softkey to display channel A. Refer to “Channel
Measurements”, on page 2-35 for further information.
B
■
Press this softkey to display channel B. Refer to “Channel
Measurements”, on page 2-35 for further information.
A/B
■
Press this softkey to display the ratio of channel A power to
channel B power (A/B). Refer to “Making Ratio
Measurements”, on page 2-37 for further information.
B/A
■
Press this softkey to display the ratio of channel B power to
channel A power (B/A). Refer to “Making Ratio
Measurements”, on page 2-37 for further information.
A-B
■
Press this softkey to display the numerical difference between
channel A power and channel B power (A-B). Refer to “Making
Difference Measurements”, on page 2-36 for further
information.
B-A
Press this softkey to display the numerical difference between
channel B power and channel A power (B-A). Refer to “Making
Difference Measurements”, on page 2-36 for further
information.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Meas/Setup" Menu
•
Display Format
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to select
digital or analog displays, set the resolution and set the limits for
the analog display.
Meter Dgtl Anlg
■
Press this softkey to toggle between an analog and digital
display. Refer to “Selecting a Digital or Analog Display”, on
page 2-38 for further information.
◆
Anlg Mtr Scaling
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to enter
the maximum and minimum scale limits shown on the analog
display.
Max
◆
Press this softkey to enter the maximum scale value shown
on the analog display.
Min
■
•
Press this softkey to enter the minimum scale value shown
on the analog display.
Resolution 1 2 3 4
Press this softkey to choose from four levels of resolution. The
resolution can be specified in dB or digits depending on the
measurement suffix used. The suffix used is the one which is
selected in the dBm/W menu. These four levels (1, 2, 3, 4)
represent:
1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 dB respectively if the measurement suffix is
dBm or dB.
1, 2, 3 or 4 significant digits respectively if the measurement suffix
is W or %.
The default value is 3 (that is, 0.01 dB or 3 digits).
3-14
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "More", "Preset/Local", "Prev" Keys
More
Press this hardkey to move through all the softkeys available on a
particular level of a menu. The bottom right of the power meter display
indicates the number of pages in the menu. For example, if “1 of 2” is
displayed, pressing More moves you to “2 of 2”. Pressing More again
moves you back to “1 of 2”.
Preset
Local
Press this hardkey to preset the power meter if you are currently working
in local mode (that is, front panel operation). A confirmation pop up
window is displayed prior to a preset being carried out. Presetting the
power meter returns you to the “Contrast” menu. However, if you are in
remote mode (that is, HP-IB operation), then pressing this hardkey places
the power meter in local mode provided local lock out (LLO) is not enabled.
When reverting to local mode the power meter triggering is set to free run.
Prev
Press this hardkey to move back one level in the softkey menu structure.
Pressing this hardkey numerous times eventually returns you to the
“Contrast” menu which allows you to increase or decrease the display
contrast.
•
Press this softkey to increase the display contrast.
•
Press this softkey to decrease the display contrast.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Rel/Offset" Menu
Rel
Offset
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the currently selected
window.
Press this hardkey to access the “Rel/Offset” menu which allows you to;
compare any measurement result in dB or percentage (%) to a reference
value and set display offsets.
•
Rel Off On
•
Press this softkey to toggle the reference value on or off. The
default is “Off”. The reference value is set using Rel .
Rel
•
Press this softkey to use the current reading as the reference
value. This allows you to compare any measurement result in dB
or percentage (%). Rel Off On is automatically set to “On” when
Rel is pressed.
Offset Off On
•
Press this softkey to toggle the display offset value on or off. The
default is “Off”. The offset value is set using Offset .
Offset
Press this softkey to enter a display offset value. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the value. To confirm
your choice press dB . Offset Off On is automatically set to
“On” when a value is entered using Offset.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Save/Recall" Menu
Save
Recall
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the system setup.
Press this hardkey to access the “Save/Recall” menu and screen which
allows you to save and recall setups which you use frequently.
•
Save
•
Press this softkey to save the current setup of the power meter to
the highlighted file. First, use the
and
hardkeys to
scroll through the displayed files. When the required file is
highlighted press Save .
Recall
•
Press this softkey to recall a required power meter setup from the
highlighted file. First, use the
and
hardkeys to scroll
through the displayed files. When the required file is highlighted
press Recall .
Edit Name
Press this softkey to change a file name. First, use the
and
hardkeys to scroll between the displayed files. When the file
name you require to change is highlighted press Edit Name . A
pop up window appears on the screen. Use the
,
,
,
, Insert Char and Delete Char keys to change the file
name. To confirm your choice press Enter .
Enter
■
•
■
Press this softkey to accept your edited file name as a new
name.
Insert Char
■
Press this softkey to insert an additional character. The
character is inserted prior to the one which is currently
highlighted. A maximum of 12 characters can be used.
Delete Char
■
Press this softkey to delete the character which is currently
highlighted. The minimum number of characters allowed is 1.
Cancel
Press this softkey to revert back to the original file name,
ignoring your editing.
Done
Press this softkey to return to the measurement screen.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
System
Inputs
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the system setup and
the channel setup.
Press this hardkey to access the “System/Inputs” menu. This menu allows
you to set up a variety of conditions for your power meter, for example:
HP-IB address, sensor calibration tables, averaging, duty cycle, range,
offset, service. It also allows you to review errors.
•
HP-IB
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to set the
HP-IB address and select the HP-IB command set you want to
use.
HP-IB Addr
■
•
Press this softkey to set the HP-IB address of your power
meter between 0 and 30. The default value is 13. A pop up
window appears on the screen. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the value. To confirm your choice
press Enter . Refer to “HP-IB Address”, on page 2-42 for
further information.
Sensor Cal Tables
Press this softkey to access a menu and screen which allows you to
select and edit sensor calibration tables. Use the
and
hardkeys to scroll through the displayed sensor calibration tables.
Sensor calibration tables are only required for the HP 8480 series
power sensors.
Edit Cal Table
■
◆
Press this softkey to access a menu and screen which allows
you to modify, add and remove frequency and calibration
factors from the currently selected table and modify the table
name. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to move
between the name, frequency and calibration factors. Press
Change , Insert or Delete as follows:
Change
Press this softkey to modify the highlighted parameter,
which is either a frequency, calibration factor or table name.
A pop up window displays the parameter. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the parameter
value. To confirm your choice press Enter .
3-18
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
◆
•
Insert
◆
Press this softkey to insert a new sensor calibration table
entry. You are prompted to enter the frequency and
calibration factor. The entry is inserted in ascending
frequency order.
Delete
◆
Press this softkey to delete a sensor calibration table entry. If
you delete the frequency the corresponding calibration factor
is also removed and vice versa.
Done
■
Press this softkey to return to the measurement screen. The
softkeys from the first level of the “System/Inputs” menu are
displayed.
A Table Off On
■
Press this softkey to enable and disable the highlighted sensor
calibration table for channel A. “A” or “B” is displayed beside
each table to indicate it’s current state and use.
B Table Off On
■
Press this softkey to enable and disable the sensor calibration
table for channel B. “A” or “B” is displayed beside each table to
indicate it’s current state and use.
Done
Press this softkey to return to the measurement screen. The
softkeys from the first level of the “System/Inputs” menu are
displayed.
A Input Settings and B Input Settings
Press these softkeys to access a menu which allows you to modify
the settings of the averaging, duty cycle, range and offset of
channel A and channel B respectively.
■
Filter Off On
Press this softkey to toggle the filter value on or off. The
default is “On”. The filter value is set using Filter .
■
Filter
Press this softkey to enter the filter length. The filter is used
to reduce noise, obtain the desired resolution and to reduce
jitter in the measurement results. Use the
and
hardkeys to change the value. The default value is “AUTO”.
Filter Off On is automatically set to “On” when a value is
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
■
entered using Filter . Refer to “Setting Averaging”, on
page 2-28 for further information.
Duty Cycle Off On
■
Press this softkey to toggle the duty cycle value on or off. The
default is “Off”. The duty cycle value is set using
Duty Cycle .
Duty Cycle
■
Press this softkey to set the duty cycle for the pulse power
measurement feature of the power meter. A value in the range
of 0.001% to 100% can be entered. The default value is 1.000%.
Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the
value. To confirm your choice press % . Duty Cycle Off On
is automatically set to “On” when a value is entered using
Duty Cycle . Refer to “Measuring Pulsed Signals”, on
page 2-30 for further information.
Offset Off On
■
Press this softkey to toggle the channel offset value on or off.
The default is “Off”. The offset value is set using Offset .
Offset
■
■
Press this softkey to enter a channel offset in the range of
-100 dB to +100 dB. The default value is 0 dB. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the value. To confirm
your choice press dB . This offset can be used to compensate
for a loss or gain. The offset is applied to the measured power
before the result is displayed. Offset Off On is
automatically set to “On” when a value is entered using
Offset . Refer to “Setting Channel Offsets”, on page 2-26 for
further information.
Range (HP E-series power sensors only)
Press this softkey to set the range in which you require the
power meter to make the power measurement or set the power
meter to autoranging. Choose either “UPPER”, “LOWER” or
“AUTO” from the selection available using the
and
hardkeys. The default is “AUTO”. Refer to “Setting the Range”,
on page 2-41 for further information.
Limits
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to enter
the upper and lower measurement limits. Refer to “Setting
Measurement Limits”, on page 2-32 for further information.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
◆
•
Limits Off On
◆
Press this softkey to toggle between the test limits being on
or off. The default is “Off ”.
Max
◆
Press this softkey to enter the upper measurement limit in
the range -150 dBm to 230 dBm. The default value is
90.00 dBm. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to
change the value. To confirm your choice press the
appropriate measurement units. Max must be greater than
Min .
Min
Press this softkey to enter the lower measurement limit in
the range -150 dBm to 230 dBm. The default value is
-90.00 dBm. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to
change the value. To confirm your choice press the
appropriate measurement units. Min must be less than
Max .
Power Ref Off On
Press this softkey to switch the POWER REF output on or off. This
output is used as the signal source for calibration. This softkey is
commonly used for troubleshooting. The default is “Off”.
Note
During calibration the power meter automatically switches the
power reference oscillator on (if it is not already on), then after
calibration it switches it to the state it was in prior to the
calibration.
•
Error List
Press this softkey to display any power meter errors and access a
menu which allows you to clear and scroll through any power
meter errors. The errors are viewed in a first in first out (FIFO)
basis.
Clear Errors
■
■
Press this softkey to clear all the errors which are stored in
the power meter’s memory.
Next
Press this softkey to move to the next error in the error queue.
The displayed error message is individually cleared each time
Next is selected.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
Done
■
•
Press this softkey to return to the “System/Inputs” menu.
Recorder Output
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to modify the
setup of the recorder output. Refer to “Recorder Output”, on
page 2-43 for further information.
Output Off On
■
•
■
Press this softkey to switch the rear panel Recorder Output on
or off. The Recorder Output produces a dc voltage that
corresponds to the selected input channel power level in
Watts.
Max Power
■
Press this softkey to enter the input power level that you want
to represent the 1 Vdc maximum output voltage of the
Recorder Output.
Min Power
■
Press this softkey to enter the input power level that you want
to represent the 0 Vdc minimum output voltage of the
Recorder Output.
Output A B
Press this softkey to select which channel input signal appears
on the Recorder Output.
Service
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to test and
service your power meter.
Self Test
■
Press this softkey to access the power meter’s self test menu.
◆
Instrument Self Test
Press this softkey to run a series of tests on the power meter.
Refer to “Instrument Self Test”, on page 2-52 for further
information on the tests run.
Confidence Check
◆
Press this softkey to verify that the power meter makes an
accurate measurement of it’s 1 mW POWER REF output.
Individual
◆
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to
select individual self tests to be run.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
ROM Checksum
❖
❖
Press this softkey to perform a ROM checksum verification
test.
RAM
❖
Press this softkey to verify the memory and the correct
amount of RAM is present.
Battery
❖
Press this softkey to verify that the firmware checksum is
still resident in a battery-backed memory location.
Measure Assemblies
❖
Press this softkey to run a self test on the measurement
assemblies. Refer to “Measurement Assemblies”, on
page 2-54 for further information.
Calibrator
❖
Press this softkey to make internal voltage measurements
on the 50 MHz reference oscillator.
Keyboard
❖
Press this softkey to verify that the keys are functioning
correctly. Once you enter this test you are prompted to
press all the keys and verify the correct descriptions are
displayed on the screen.
Display
Press this softkey to access a menu of various front panel
display patterns.
Display Assy
❏
■
❏
Press this softkey to make internal measurements on the
display.
Display RAM
❏
Press this softkey to perform a display RAM read/write
test.
Bitmap Displays
Press this softkey to display test patterns. Instructions
appear on the screen detailing the use of More to cycle
through the various bitmaps and Prev to end the
displays.
Display
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to set the
defaults for contrast and brightness.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "System/Inputs" Menu
◆
Press this softkey to increase the display contrast.
◆
■
◆
Press this softkey to decrease the display contrast.
Set Contrast
◆
Press this softkey to set the default contrast to that currently
displayed. Note, this key changes the factory default setting.
Set Brightness
Press this softkey to set the brightness. Note, this key
changes the factory default setting.
Version
Press this softkey to display: the model number; option
structure; serial number; firmware, bootrom and DSP
revisions.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Zero/Cal" Menu
Zero
Cal
The softkey menu structured to this hardkey affects the channel setup.
Press this hardkey to access the “Zero/Cal” menu which allows you to zero
and calibrate the power meter. Refer to “Calibrating the Power Meter”, on
page 2-4 for further information.
•
Zero A
•
Press this softkey to adjust channel A for a zero power reading
with no power applied to the power sensor. Refer to “Zeroing the
Power Meter”, on page 2-3 for further information.
Zero B
•
Press this softkey to adjust channel B’s internal circuitry for a
zero power reading with no power applied to the power sensor.
Refer to “Zeroing the Power Meter”, on page 2-3 for further
information.
Zero Both
•
Press this softkey to adjust both channel A’s and channel B’s
internal circuitry for a zero power reading with no power supplied
to the power sensor. Refer to “Zeroing the Power Meter”, on
page 2-3 for further information.
Cal
Press this softkey to access a menu which allows you to calibrate
the power meter. Calibration sets the gain of the power meter
using a 50 MHz oscillator as a traceable power reference.
Cal A
■
■
Press this softkey to calibrate channel A with the connected
power sensor. The POWER REF output is used as the signal
source for calibration and is automatically switched on during
this procedure.
A Ref CF
Press this softkey to enter a reference calibration factor for
channel A. A value in the range of 1% to 150% can be entered.
The default value is obtained from the sensor calibration table
if one is selected, otherwise it is 100%. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the value. To confirm your
choice press % . This softkey cannot be selected when you are
using an HP E-series power sensor.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference "Zero/Cal" Menu
•
■
Cal B
■
Press this softkey to calibrate channel B with the connected
power sensor. The POWER REF output is used as the signal
source for calibration and is automatically switched on during
this procedure.
B Ref CF
Press this softkey to enter a reference calibration factor for
channel B. A value in the range of 1% to 150% can be entered.
The default value is obtained from the sensor calibration table
if one is selected, otherwise it is 100%. Use the
,
,
and
hardkeys to change the value. To confirm your
choice press % . This softkey cannot be selected when you are
using an HP E-series power sensor power sensor.
Power Ref Off On
Press this softkey to switch the POWER REF output on or off. This
output is used as the signal source for calibration. The default is
“Off”.
Note
During calibration the power meter automatically switches the
power reference oscillator on (if it is not already on), then after
calibration it switches it to the state it was in prior to the
calibration.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference Diagramatical Keys
Diagrammatical Hardkeys
Press this hardkey to:
•
•
assist in modifying alphanumeric data that is to be entered into
the power meter. This hardkey moves the position of the cursor to
the left on the currently selected parameter.
select fields for editing on the “Edit Table” screen.
Press this hardkey to:
•
•
assist in modifying alphanumeric data that is to be entered into
the power meter. This hardkey moves the position of the cursor to
the right on the currently selected parameter.
select fields for editing on the “Edit Table” screen.
Press this hardkey to:
•
•
•
•
decrement the alphanumeric digit on which the cursor is currently
positioned. That is, digits scroll 9 through 0, and characters
lowercase z through a, uppercase Z through A, then underscore.
select fields for editing on the “Edit Table” screen.
select a table in the “Sensor Cal Tables” screen.
select a file in the “Save” and “Recall” screens.
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Menu Reference
Front Panel Menu Reference Diagramatical Keys
Press this hardkey to:
•
•
•
•
increment the alphanumeric digit on which the cursor is currently
positioned. That is, digits scroll 0 through 9, and characters
lowercase a through z, uppercase A through Z, then underscore.
select fields for editing on the “Edit Table” screen.
select a table in the “Sensor Cal Tables” screen.
select a file in the “Save” and “Recall” screens.
Press this hardkey to select the upper or lower measurement window on
the power meter’s display. The window which is selected is highlighted by
a shadowed box. Any measurement setup you create using dBm/W ,
Meas
Rel
Setup and Offset is implemented in the selected window.
Press this hardkey to choose from a one or a two window display.
Press this hardkey to switch the power meter between on and standby.
When the power meter is switched to standby (that is, when this hardkey
is off but the power is connected to the instrument) the red LED is lit.
When the power meter is switched on the green LED is lit.
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4
Error Messages
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Error Messages
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter contains information about the power meter’s error
messages. It explains how to read the power meter’s error queue and lists
all of the power meter’s error messages and their probable causes.
When there is a hardware related problem, for example, a power sensor
overload, the error message is displayed on the status line at the top of the
display. In addition, the errors are also written to the error queue. If there
are any errors in the error queue the front panel error annunciator is
displayed as shown in Figure 4-1.
Other errors can also be generated when the power meter is being
operated over the remote interface. These errors also display the error
annunciator and are written to the error queue.
Figure 4-1: Error Annunciator Position
Error annunciator
To read the error queue from the front panel press:
•
System
Inputs
, More , Error List then use Next to scroll through
each error message.
To read the error queue from the remote interface use:
•
the SYSTem:ERRor? command.
Error queue messages have the following format:
Error
Number
,
“
Error
Description
;
Device
Dependent Info
”
For example, -330, “Self-test Failed;Battery Fault”.
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Error Messages
Introduction
Errors are retrieved in a first in first out (FIFO) order. If more than 30
errors occur, the error queue overflows and the last error in the queue is
replaced with error -350, “Queue Overflow”. Any time the queue
overflows the most recent error is discarded.
Once the errors are read they are removed from the error queue. This
opens a position at the end of the queue for a new error message, if one is
subsequently detected. When all errors have been read from the queue,
further error queries return +0, “No errors”.
To delete all the errors in the queue from the front panel press:
•
System
Inputs
,
More
, Error List then Clear Errors .
To delete all the errors in the queue remotely use:
•
the *CLS (clear status) command.
The error queue is also cleared when the instrument power has been
switched off.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
Error Messages
-101
Invalid character
An invalid character was found in the command string. You may have
inserted a character such as #, $, or % in the command header or within
a parameter.
For example, LIM:LOW O#.
-102
Syntax error
Invalid syntax was found in the command string.
For example, LIM:CLE:AUTO, 1 or LIM:CLE: AUTO 1.
-103
Invalid separator
An invalid separator was found in the command string. You may have
used a comma instead of a colon, semicolon, or blank space; or you may
have used a blank space instead of a comma.
For example, OUTP:ROSC,1.
-105
GET not allowed
A Group Execute Trigger (GET) is not allowed within a command string.
-108
Parameter not allowed
More parameters were received than expected for the command. You
may have entered an extra parameter, or added a parameter to a
command that does not accept a parameter.
For example, CAL 10.
-109
Missing parameter
Fewer parameters were received than expected for the command. You
omitted one or more parameters that are required for this command.
For example, AVER:COUN.
-112
Program mnemonic too long
A command header was received which contained more than the
maximum 12 characters allowed.
For example, SENSeAVERageCOUNt 8.
4-4
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-113
Undefined header
A command was received that is not valid for this power meter. You may
have misspelled the command or it may not be valid command. If you
are using the short form of the command, remember that it may contain
up to four letters.
For example, TRIGG:SOUR IMM.
-121
Invalid character in number
An invalid character was found in the number specified for a parameter
value.
For example, SENS:AVER:COUN 128#H.
-123
Exponent too large
A numeric parameter was found whose exponent was larger than
32,000.
For example, SENS:COUN 1E34000.
-124
Too many digits
A numeric parameter was found whose mantissa contained more than
255 digits, excluding leading zeros.
-128
Numeric data not allowed
A numeric value was received within a command which does not accept
a numeric value.
For example, MEM:CLE 24.
-131
Invalid suffix
A suffix was incorrectly specified for a numeric parameter. You may
have misspelled the suffix.
For example, SENS:FREQ 200KZ.
-134
Suffix too long
A suffix used contained more than 12 characters.
For example, SENS:FREQ 2MHZZZZZZZZZZZ.
-138
Suffix not allowed
A suffix was received following a numeric parameter which does not
accept a suffix.
For example, INIT:CONT 0Hz.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-148
Character data not allowed
A discrete parameter was received but a character string or a numeric
parameter was expected. Check the list of parameters to verify that you
have used a valid parameter type.
For example, MEM:CLE CUSTOM_1.
-151
Invalid string data
An invalid string was received. Check to see if you have enclosed the
character string in single or double quotes.
For example, MEM:CLE “CUSTOM_1.
-158
String data not allowed
A character string was received but is not allowed for the command.
Check the list of parameters to verify that you have used a valid
parameter type.
For example, LIM:STAT ‘ON’.
-161
Invalid block data
A block data element was expected but was invalid for some reason. For
example, *DDT #15FET. The 5 in the string indicates that 5 characters
should follow, whereas in this example there are only 3.
-168
Block data not allowed
A legal block data element was encountered but not allowed by the
power meter at this point.
For example SYST:LANG #15FETC?.
-178
Expression data not allowed
A legal expression data was encountered but not allowed by the power
meter at this point.
For example SYST:LANG (5+2).
-211
Trigger ignored
Indicates that <GET> or *TRG, or TRIG:IMM was received and
recognized by the device but was ignored because the power meter was
not in the wait for trigger state.
-213
Init ignored
Indicates that a request for a measurement initiation was ignored as
the power meter was already initiated.
For example, INIT:CONT ON
INIT.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-214
Trigger deadlock
TRIG:SOUR was set to HOLD or BUS and a READ? or MEASure? was
attempted, expecting TRIG:SOUR to be set to IMMediate.
-220
Parameter error;Frequency list must be in ascending order.
Indicates that the frequencies entered using the
MEMory:TABLe:FREQuency command are not in ascending order.
-221
Settings conflict
This command occurs under a variety of conflicting conditions. The
following list gives a few examples of where this error may occur:
•If the READ? parameters do not match the current settings.
•If you are in fast mode and attempting to switch on for example,
averaging, duty cycle or limits.
•Trying to clear a sensor calibration table when none is selected.
-222
Data out of range
A numeric parameter value is outside the valid range for the command.
For example, SENS:FREQ 2KHZ.
-224
Illegal parameter value
A discrete parameter was received which was not a valid choice for the
command. You may have used an invalid parameter choice.
For example, TRIG:SOUR EXT.
-226
Lists not same length
This occurs when SENSe:CORRection:CSET:STATe is set to ON and
the frequency and calibration lists do not correspond in length.
-230
Data corrupt or stale
This occurs when a FETC? is attempted and either a reset has been
received or the power meter state has changed such that the current
measurement is invalidated (for example, a change of frequency setting
or triggering conditions).
-231
Data questionable;CAL ERROR ChA
Power meter calibration failed on channel A. The most likely cause is
attempting to calibrate without applying a 1 mW power to the power
sensor.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-231
Data questionable;CAL ERROR ChB
Power meter calibration failed on channel B. The most likely cause is
attempting to calibrate without applying a 1 mW power to the power
sensor.
-231
Data questionable;Input Overload ChA
The power input to Channel A exceeds the power sensor’s maximum
range.
-231
Data questionable;Input Overload ChB
The power input to Channel B exceeds the power sensor’s maximum
range.
-231
Data questionable;Lower window log error
This indicates that a difference measurement in the lower window has
given a negative result when the units of measurement were
logarithmic.
-231
Data questionable;Upper window log error
This indicates that a difference measurement in the upper window has
given a negative result when the units of measurement were
logarithmic.
-231
Data questionable;ZERO ERROR ChA
Power meter zeroing failed on channel A. The most likely cause is
attempting to zero when some power signal is being applied to the
power sensor.
-231
Data questionable;ZERO ERROR ChB
Power meter zeroing failed on channel B. The most likely cause is
attempting to zero when some power signal is being applied to the
power sensor.
-241
Hardware missing
The power meter is unable to execute the command because either no
power sensor is connected or it expects an HP E-series power sensor
and one is not connected.
-310
System error;Ch A Dty Cyc may impair accuracy with ECP
sensor
This indicates that the sensor connected to channel A is for use with
CW signals only.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-310
System error;Ch B Dty Cyc may impair accuracy with ECP
sensor
This indicates that the sensor connected to channel B is for use with
CW signals only.
-310
System error;Detector EEPROM Read Failed - critical data not
found or unreadable
This indicates a failure with your HP E-series power sensor. Refer to
your power sensor manual for details on returning it for repair.
-310
System error;Detector EEPROM Read Completed OK but
optional data block(s) not found or unreadable
This indicates a failure with your HP E-series power sensor. Refer to
your power sensor manual for details on returning it for repair.
-310
System error;Detector EEPROM Read Failed - unknown
EEPROM table format
This indicates a failure with your HP E-series power sensor. Refer to
your power sensor manual for details on returning it for repair.
-310
System error;Detector EEPROM < > data not found or
unreadable
Where < > refers to the sensor data block covered, for example,
Linearity, Temp - Comp (temperature compensation).
This indicates a failure with your HP E-series power sensor. Refer to
your power sensor manual for details on returning it for repair.
-310
System error;Sensors connected to both front and rear inputs.
You cannot connect two power sensors to the one channel input. In this
instance the power meter detects power sensors connected to both it’s
front and rear channel inputs.
-321
Out of memory
The power meter required more memory than was available to run an
internal operation.
-330
Self-test Failed;
The -330, “Self-test Failed” errors indicate that you have a problem
with your power meter. Refer to “Contacting Hewlett-Packard”, on
page 2-57 for details of what to do with your faulty power meter.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-330
Self-test Failed;Measurement Channel A Fault
Refer to “Measurement Assemblies”, on page 2-54 if you require a
description of the Measurement Assembly test.
-330
Self-test Failed;Measurement Channel B Fault
Refer to “Measurement Assemblies”, on page 2-54 if you require a
description of the Measurement Assembly test.
-330
Self-test Failed;Battery Fault
Refer to “Battery”, on page 2-54 if you require a description of the
battery test.
-330
Self-test Failed;Calibrator Fault
Refer to “Calibrator”, on page 2-55 if you require a description of the
calibrator test.
-330
Self-test Failed;ROM Check Failed
Refer to “ROM Checksum”, on page 2-54 if you require a description of
the ROM Checksum test.
-330
Self-test Failed;RAM Check Failed
Refer to “RAM”, on page 2-54 if you require a description of the RAM
test.
-330
Self-test Failed;Display Assy. Fault
Refer to “Display”, on page 2-55 if you require a description of the
Display test.
-330
Self-test Failed;Confidence Check Fault ChA
Refer to “Confidence Check”, on page 2-52 if you require a description of
this test.
-330
Self-test Failed;Confidence Check Fault ChB
Refer to “Confidence Check”, on page 2-52 if you require a description of
this test.
-350
Queue overflow
The error queue is full and another error has occurred which could not
be recorded.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
-410
Query INTERRUPTED
A command was received which sends data to the output buffer, but the
output buffer contained data from a previous command (the previous
data is not overwritten). The output buffer is cleared when power has
been off, or after *RST (reset) command has been executed.
-420
Query UNTERMINATED
The power meter was addressed to talk (that is, to send data over the
interface) but a command has not been received which sends data to the
output buffer. For example you may have executed a CONFigure
command (which does not generate data) and then attempted to read
data from the remote interface.
-430
Query DEADLOCKED
A command was received which generates too much data to fit in the
output buffer and the input buffer is also full. Command execution
continues but data is lost.
-440
Query UNTERMINATED after indefinite response
The *IDN? command must be the last query command within a
command string.
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Error Messages
Error Messages
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HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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1 Wed Apr 23 15:29:05 1997
5
Specifications
HP4402.book : chapt5_2.fm
2 Wed Apr 23 15:29:05 1997
Specifications
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter details the power meter’s specifications and supplemental
characteristics.
Specifications describe the warranted performance and apply after a 30
minute warm-up. These specifications are valid over the power meter’s
operating and environmental range unless otherwise stated and after
performing a zero and calibration.
Supplemental characteristics, which are shown in italics, are intended to
provide information useful in applying the power meter by giving typical,
but nonwarranted performance parameters. These characteristics are
shown in italics or denoted as “typical”, “nominal” or “approximate”.
For information on measurement uncertainty calculations, refer to
HP Application Note 64-1A, “Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Power
Measurements”, Literature Number 5965-6630.
5-2
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Specifications
Power Meter Specifications
Power Meter Specifications
Meter
Frequency Range
100 kHz to 50 GHz and 75 GHz to 110 GHz, power sensor dependent
Power Range
-70 dBm to +44 dBm (100 pW to 25 W), power sensor dependent
Power Sensors
Compatible with all HP 8480 series power sensors and HP ECP-series
power sensors.
Single Sensor Dynamic Range
90 dB maximum (HP ECP-series power sensors)
50 dB maximum (HP 8480 series power sensors)
Display Units
Absolute: Watts or dBm
Relative: Percent or dB
Display Resolution
Selectable resolution of:
1.0, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dB in logarithmic mode, or
1, 2, 3 and 4 significant digits in linear mode
Default Resolution
0.01 dB in logarithmic mode
3 digits in linear mode
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Specifications
Power Meter Specifications
Accuracy
Instrumentation
Absolute: ±0.02 dB (Logarithmic) or ±0.5% (Linear). (Refer to the power
sensor linearity specification in your power sensor manual to assess
overall system accuracy.)
Relative: ±0.04 dB (Logarithmic) or ±1.0% (Linear). (Refer to the power
sensor linearity specification in your power sensor manual to assess
overall system accuracy.)
Zero Set (digital settability of zero): Power sensor dependent (refer to
Table 5-1). For HP ECP-series power sensors, this specification applies
when zeroing is performed with the sensor input disconnected from the
POWER REF.
Table 5-1: Zero Set Specifications
Power Sensor
5-4
Zero Set
HP 8481A
±50 nW
HP 8481B
±50 µW
HP 8481D
±20 pW
HP 8481H
±5 µW
HP 8482A
±50 nW
HP 8482B
±50 µW
HP 8482H
±5 µW
HP 8483A
±50 nW
HP 8485A
±50 nW
HP 8485D
±20 pW
HP R8486A
±50 nW
HP R8486D
±30 pW
HP Q8486A
±50 nW
HP Q8486D
±30 pW
HP W8486A
±200 nW
HP 8487A
±50 nW
HP 8487D
±20 pW
HP ECP-E18A
±50 pW
HP ECP-E26A
±50 pW
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Specifications
Power Meter Specifications
Power Reference
Power Output
1.00 mW (0.0 dBm). Factory set to ±0.7% traceable to the US National
Institute of Standards and Technology.
Accuracy
±1.2% worst case (±0.9% rss) for one year.
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5-5
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Power Reference
Frequency
50 MHz nominal
SWR
1.05 maximum
Connector
Type N (f), 50 Ω
Measurement Speed
Over the HP-IB, three measurement speed modes are available as shown,
along with the typical maximum measurement speed for each mode:
•
•
•
Normal: 20 readings/second
x2: 40 readings/second
Fast: 200 readings/second, for HP ECP-series power sensors only
Maximum measurement speed is obtained using binary output in free run
trigger mode.
5-6
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Zero Drift of Sensors
Power sensor dependent (refer to Table 5-3).
Measurement Noise
Power sensor dependent (refer to Table 5-2 and Table 5-3).
Averaging effects on measurement noise. Averaging over 1 to 1024
readings is available for reducing noise. Table 5-3 provides the
measurement noise for a particular power sensor with the number of
averages set to 16 for normal mode and 32 for x2 mode. Use the “Noise
Multiplier” for the appropriate mode (normal or x2) and number of
averages to determine the total measurement noise value.
For example, for an HP 8481D power sensor in normal mode with the
number of averages set to 4, the measurement noise is equal to:
(<45 pW x 2.75) = <124 pW
Table 5-2: Noise Multiplier
Number of
Averages
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
Noise Multiplier
(Normal Mode)
5.5
3.89
2.75
1.94
1.0
0.85
0.61
0.49
0.34
0.24
0.17
Noise Multiplier
(x2 mode)
6.5
4.6
3.25
2.3
1.18
1.0
0.72
0.57
0.41
0.29
0.2
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Table 5-3: Power Sensor Specifications
Power Sensor
Zero Drift1
Measurement Noise2
HP 8481A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP 8481B
<±10 µW
<110 µW
HP 8481D
<±4 pW
<45 pW
HP 8481H
<±1 µW
<10 µW
HP 8482A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP 8482B
<±10 µW
<110 µW
HP 8482H
<±1 µW
<10 µW
HP 8483A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP 8485A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP 8485D
<±4 pW
<45 pW
HP R8486A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP R8486D
<±6 pW
<65 pW
HP Q8486A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP Q8486D
<±6 pW
<65 pW
HP W8486A
<±40 nW
<450 nW
HP 8487A
<±10 nW
<110 nW
HP 8487D
<±4 pW
<45 pW
HP ECP-E18A
<± 15 pW
<70 pW
HP ECP-E26A
<± 15 pW
<70 pW
1. Within 1 hour after zero set, at a constant temperature, after a 24
hour warm-up of the power meter.
2. The number of averages at 16 (for normal mode) and 32 (for x2 mode),
at a constant temperature, measured over a 1 minute interval and 2
standard deviations. For HP ECP-series power sensors the
measurement noise is measured within the low range. Refer to the
relevant power sensor manual for further information.
5-8
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Settling Time
0 to 99% settled readings over the HP-IB.
For HP 8480 series power sensors
Manual filter, 10 dB decreasing power step:
Table 5-4: Settling Time
Number of
Averages
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
Settling Time (s)
(Normal Mode)
0.15
0.2
0.3
0.5
1.1
1.9
3.4
6.6
13
27
57
Response Time (s)
(x2 mode)
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.35
0.55
1.1
1.9
3.5
6.9
14.5
33
Auto filter, default resolution, 10 dB decreasing power step,
normal and x2 speed modes:
Typical
Settling
Times
Normal Mode
x2 Mode
Maximum dBm
Maximum dBm
150 ms
150 ms
20 dB
200 ms
10 dB
500 ms
6.6 s
Power
Sensor
Dynamic
Range
Typical
Settling
Times
20 dB
180 ms
10 dB
10 dB
350 ms
10 dB
10 dB
3.5 s
10 dB
Minimum dBm
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Power
Sensor
Dynamic
Range
Minimum dBm
5-9
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
For HP ECP-series power sensors
In FAST mode, within the range -50 dBm to +17 dBm, for a 10 dB
decreasing power step, the settling time is 20 ms1.
1
When a decreasing power step crosses the power sensor’s auto-range switch
point, add 25 ms. Refer to the relevant power sensor manual for further
information.
For HP ECP-series power sensors in normal and x2 speed modes, manual
filter, 10 dB decreasing power step:
Table 5-5: Settling Time
Number of
Averages
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
Settling Time (s)
(Normal Mode)
0.07
0.12
0.21
0.4
1
1.8
3.3
6.5
13
27
57
Response Time (s)
(x2 mode)
0.04
0.07
0.12
0.21
0.4
1
1.8
3.4
6.8
14.2
32
5-10
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Auto filter, default resolution, 10 dB decreasing power step,
normal and x2 speed modes:
Normal Mode
x2 Mode
Maximum dBm
Maximum dBm
70 ms
40 ms
60 dB
Power
Sensor
Dynamic
Range
Typical
Settling
Times
60 dB
Power
Sensor
Dynamic
Range
Typical
Settling
Times
120 ms
10 dB
70 ms
10 dB
400 ms
10 dB
210 ms
10 dB
6.5 s
10 dB
3.4 s
10 dB
Minimum dBm
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
Minimum dBm
5-11
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Specifications
Power Meter Supplemental Characteristics
Power Sensor Specifications
Definitions
Zero Set
In any power measurement, the power meter must initially be set to zero
with no power applied to the power sensor. Zero setting is accomplished
within the power meter by digitally correcting for residual offsets.
Zero Drift
This parameter is also called long term stability and is the change in the
power meter indication over a long time (usually one hour) for a constant
input power at a constant temperature, after a defined warm-up interval.
Measurement Noise
This parameter is also known as short term stability and is specified as
the change in the power meter indication over a short time interval
(usually one minute) for a constant input power at a constant
temperature.
5-12
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Specifications
General Characteristics
General Characteristics
Rear Panel Connectors
Recorder Output
Analog 0-1 Volt, 1 kΩ output impedance, BNC connector
HP-IB
Allows communication with an external controller.
Ground
Binding post, accepts 4 mm plug or bare-wire connection
Line Power
•
•
•
Input Voltage Range: 85 to 264 Vac, automatic selection
Input Frequency Range: 47 to 63 Hz
Power Requirement: approximately 50 VA (14 Watts)
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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Specifications
Environmental Characteristics
Environmental Characteristics
General Conditions
Complies with the requirements of the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC. This
includes Generic Immunity Standard EN 50082-1: 1992 and Radiated
Interference Standard EN 55011:1991/CISPR11:1990, Group 1 - Class A.
Operating Environment
Temperature
0ºC to 55ºC
Maximum Humidity
95% at 40ºC (non-condensing)
Minimum Humidity
15% at 40ºC (non-condensing)
Maximum Altitude
3,000 meters (9,840 feet)
Location
For use indoors.
Storage Conditions
Storage Temperature
-20ºC to +70ºC
Non-Operating Maximum Humidity
90% at 65ºC (non-condensing)
Non-Operating Maximum Altitude
15,240 meters (50,000 feet)
5-14
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Specifications
General
General
Dimensions
The following dimensions exclude front and rear panel protrusions:
212.6 mm W x 88.5 mm H x 348.3 mm D (8.5 in x 3.5 in x 13.7 in)
Weight
Net
4.1 Kg (9.0 lb)
Shipping
8.0 Kg (17.6 lb)
Safety
Conforms to the following Product Specifications:
•
•
•
EN61010-1: 1993/IEC 1010-1:1990+A1/CSA C22.2 No.
1010-1:1993
EN60825-1: 1994/IEC 825-1: 1993 Class 1
Low Voltage Directive 72/23/EEC
Remote Programming
Interface
HP-IB interface operates to IEEE 488.2.
Command Language
SCPI standard interface commands.
Non-Volatile Memory
Battery
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5-15
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Specifications
General
Lithium Polycarbon Monoflouride, approximate lifetime 5 years at 25ºC.
5-16
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Index
Symbols
"%" key description 3-10
A
"A Cal Fac" key description 3-12
"A Freq" key description 3-11
"A Input Settings" key description 3-19
"A" key description 3-13
"A Ref CF" key description 3-25
"A Table Off On" key description 3-19
"A/B" key description 3-13
"A-B" key description 3-13
absolute accuracy, specification 5-4
accessories xi
accuracy, of power reference 5-5
address
of Hewlett-Packard 2-60
of HP-IB 2-42
alphanumeric data
entry window 1-13
modify 3-27
altitude characteristic 5-14
analog display 2-38
"Anlg Mtr Scaling" key description 3-14
arrow keys 1-6, 3-27
averaging 2-28
B
"B Cal Fac" key description 3-12
"B Freq" key description 3-12
"B" key description 3-13
"B Ref CF" key description 3-26
"B Table Off On" key description 3-19
"B/A" key description 3-13
"B-A" key descripition 3-13
basic errors, 2-58
battery self-test 2-54
bit map display self-test 2-55
"Bitmap Displays" key description 3-23
block data not allowed, error message 4-6
bus, HP-IB
setting of address 2-42
C
cabinet installation 1-17
cables xi
"Cal A" key description 3-25
"Cal B" key description 3-26
"Cal" key description 3-25
calibrate 2-4
HP 8480 series sensors 2-5
HP E-series sensors 2-5
calibration data 2-8
calibration factors 2-8
calibration table 2-13
editing 2-15
selection of 2-13
"Calibrator" key description 3-23
calibrator self-test 2-55
calling Hewlett-Packard, 2-57
"Cancel" key description 3-17
carry handle, adjusting 1-16
caution v
"Change" key description 3-18
channel connectors (option 002 or 003) 1-14
channel measurements 2-35
channel offset 2-26
character data not allowed, error message 4-6
characteristics 5-2
"Clear Errors" key description 3-21
common errors, 2-58
compensation 2-26
confidence check 2-52
"Confidence Check" key description 3-22
connector, Recorder Output 5-13
connectors
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Channel A (option 002 or 003) 1-14
Channel B (option 002 or 003) 1-14
channel inputs 1-5
HP-IB 1-14, 5-13
POWER REF 1-14
POWER REF (option 003) 1-14
POWER REF output 1-6
Recorder Output 1-14, 2-43
contacting Hewlett-Packard 2-57
copyright ii
correction data 2-8
cursor positioning 3-27
D
danger v
data corrupt or stale, error message 4-7
data out of range, error message 4-7
data table
editing 2-15
selection of 2-13
"dB" key description 3-10
dB, selecting units 2-22
"dBm" key description 3-10
dBm, selecting units 2-22
"dBm/W"
key description 3-10
menu map 3-3
declaration of conformity ix
decrement digits 3-27
"Delete Char" key description 3-17
"Delete" key description 3-19
diagramatical key descriptions 3-27
difference measurements 2-36
digital display 2-38
dimensions of instrument 5-15
display 1-4
analog or digital 2-38
offset 2-26
one or two windows 1-7
resolution, specification 5-3
self-test 2-55
units, specification 5-3
"Display Assy" key description 3-23
"Display Format" key description 3-14
"Display" key description 3-23
Index-2
"Display RAM" key description 3-23
documents x
"Done" key description 3-17, 3-19, 3-22
duty cycle 1-8
"Duty Cycle" key description 3-20
"Duty Cycle Off On" key description 3-20
E
"Edit Cal Table" key description 3-18
"Edit Name" key description 3-17
"Enter" key description 3-17
environmental characteristics 5-14
"Error List" key description 3-21
error window 1-12
errors 2-57, 4-2
exponent too large, error message 4-5
expression data not allowed, error message 4-6
F
failures 2-33
fail indicator 1-8
fail limits 2-32
field selection 3-27
filter 2-28
"Filter" key description 3-19
"Filter Off On" key description 3-19
frequency range 5-13
specification 5-3
frequency, characteristic of power reference 5-6
"Frequency/Cal Fac"
key description 3-11
"Frequency/Cal Fac" menu map 3-4
fuse 1-14
replacing 2-56
G
gain 2-26
GET not allowed, error message 4-4
getting started 1-1
H
handle, adjusting 1-16
hardkeys 1-4, 1-6, 3-3
hardware missing, error message 4-8
Hewlett-Packard
contacting 2-57
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offices 2-60
HP-IB 1-14
connector characteristic 5-13
setting of address 2-42
"HP-IB Addr" key description 3-18
"HP-IB" key description 3-18
humidity characteristic 5-14
I
illegal parameter value, error message 4-7
increment digits 3-28
"Individual" key description 3-22
init ignored, error message 4-6
"Input Select" key description 3-13
"Insert Char" key description 3-17
"Insert" key description 3-19
installing in cabinet 1-17
instrument
self-test 2-52
serial numbers 1-15, 2-58
"Instrument Self Test" key description 3-22
interface bus
setting of address 2-42
invalid
block data, error message 4-6
character in number, error message 4-5
character, error message 4-4
separator, error message 4-4
string data, error message 4-6
suffix, error message 4-5
K
"Keyboard" key description 3-23
keyboard self-test 2-55
keys 3-3
L
LED 3-28
legal information iii
limit setting 1-8, 2-32
"Limits" key description 3-20
"Limits Off On" key description 3-21
line power characteristic 5-13
"Lithium Battery" key description 3-23
logarithmic units 2-22
loss 2-26
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
lower limit 2-32
M
maintenance 2-56
maps 3-3
"Max" key description 3-14, 3-21
"Max Power" key description 3-22
"Meas Setup"
key description 3-13
menu map 3-5
"Measure Assemblies" key description 3-23
measurement
assembly self-test 2-54
difference 2-36
limits 2-32
noise characteristic 5-7
noise definition 5-12
pulsed signals 2-30
ratio 2-37
relative 2-24
single channel 2-35
speed 5-6
units 2-22
using calibration tables 2-13
with HP E-series sensors 2-8
memory 5-15
save and recall 2-45
menu maps 3-3
menu title 1-8
"Meter Dgtl Anlg" key description 3-14
"Min" key description 3-14, 3-21
"Min Power" key description 3-22
missing parameter, error message 4-4
"More" key description 3-15
N
negative readings 2-22
"Next" key description 3-21
noise, characteristic 5-7
non-volatile memory 5-15
numeric data not allowed, error message 4-5
numeric entry window 1-13
O
"Offset" key description 3-16, 3-20
Index-3
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"Offset Off On" key description 3-16, 3-20
offsets 2-26
operating environment 5-14
operating voltage 1-14
options xi
out of memory, error message 4-9
"Output A B" key description 3-22
"Output Off On" key description 3-22
overlooked errors, 2-58
overview xii
P
packaging for service 2-63
parameter error, error message 4-7
parameter not allowed, error message 4-4
pass
indicator 1-8
limits 2-32
power
sensor cables xi
sensors 5-3
socket 1-14
power characteristic 5-13
power on 1-2, 1-3
key description 3-28
self-test 2-50
power output, specification 5-5
power range, specification 5-3
POWER REF connector (option 003) 1-14
"Power Ref Off On" key description 3-21, 3-26
POWER REF output 1-6
power reference
characteristics 5-6
specification 5-5
prepare for use 1-2
preset conditions 2-48
"Preset/Local" key description 3-15
"Prev" key description 3-15
problems 2-57, 4-2
program mnemonic too long, error message 4-4
pulsed signals, measuring 2-30
Q
query deadlocked, error message 4-11
query interrupted, error message 4-11
query unterminated after indefinite response, er-
Index-4
ror message 4-11
query unterminated, error message 4-11
queue overflow, error message 4-10
R
rack mount 1-17
"RAM" key description 3-23
RAM self-test 2-54
"Range" key description 3-20
range,setting of 2-41
ratio measurement 2-37
rear panel 1-14
recall 2-45
"Recall" key description 3-17
Recorder Output connector 1-14, 2-43
characteristic 5-13
"Recorder Output" key description 3-22
reference 2-4
setting of 2-24
regulatory information viii
"Rel" key description 3-16
"Rel Off On" key description 3-16
"Rel/Offset"
key description 3-16
menu map 3-6
relative accuracy, specification 5-4
relative measurements 2-24
remote interface
connector 1-14
setting of address 2-42
"Resolution 1 2 3 4" key description 3-14
resolution of display 2-25
returning for service 2-63
"ROM Checksum" key description 3-23
ROM checksum self-test 2-54
S
safety v, 5-15
sales and service offices 2-60
save 2-45
"Save" key description 3-17
"Save/Recall"
key description 3-17
menu map 3-6
screen 1-4
layout 1-7
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selecting
a field 3-27
a window 3-28
"Self Test" key description 3-22
self-test 2-50
bitmap display 2-55
calibrator 2-55
display 2-55
front panel selection of 2-51
HP-IB testing 2-53
keyboard 2-55
lithium battery 2-54
measurement assembly 2-54
RAM 2-54
ROM checksum 2-54
self-test failed, error messages 4-9
sensor cables xi
"Sensor Cal Tables" key description 3-18
sensor calibration table
editing 2-15
selection of 2-13
using 2-13
serial label 1-15, 2-58
serial number identifiers, 2-58
service
packaging for 2-63
returning for 2-63
"Service" key description 3-22
service offices 2-60
settings conflict, error message 4-7
settling time, characteristic 5-9
single channel measurements 2-35
single sensor dynamic range, specification 5-3
size of instrument 5-15
softkeys 1-5, 1-8, 3-3
sound emission viii
specifications 5-2
speed of measurement 5-6
status reporting line 1-7
store 2-45
string data not allowed, error message 4-6
suffix not allowed, error message 4-5
suffix too long, error message 4-5
switch on 1-3
SWR, characteristic of power reference 5-6
symbols 1-12
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
syntax error, error message 4-4
system error, error messages 4-8, 4-9
"System Inputs" menu map 3-7
"System/Inputs"
key description 3-18
menu map 3-6
T
telephone numbers of Hewlett-Packard 2-60
temperature characteristic 5-14
test. See self-test
title 1-8
too many digits, error message 4-5
trigger deadlock, error message 4-7
trigger ignored, error message 4-6
turn on 1-3
U
undefined header, error message 4-5
units 2-22
upper limit 2-32
V
"Version" key description 3-24
voltage 1-14, 5-13
W
"W" key description 3-10
wait window 1-12
warm-up 5-2
warning v
warning window 1-12
warranty iii
watt, selecting units 2-22
weight of instrument 5-15
window
selection 1-7, 3-28
Z
zero 2-3
drift definition 5-12
drift of sensors, characteristic 5-7
"Zero A" key description 3-25
"Zero B" key description 3-25
"Zero Both" key description 3-25
zero set
Index-5
HP4402.book : HP4402IX.doc
6 Wed Apr 23 15:29:05 1997
definition 5-12
specification 5-4
"Zero/Cal"
key description 3-25
menu map 3-9
Index-6
HP EPM-442A User’s Guide
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