HP | 83236B | User's Manual | HP 83236B User's Manual

HP 83236B PCS Interface
CDMA/PCS Base Station Test Software, User’s Guide
Software Version A.02.01
HP Part No. 83236-90121
Printed in U. S. A.
March 1997
Revision A
1
Copyright © Hewlett-Packard Company 1996
RESTRICTED
RIGHTS
LEGEND
Use, duplication or disclosure by the U. S. Government is subject to restrictions as
set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software Clause in
DFARS 252.227-7013.
Hewlett-Packard Company
3000 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA 94304
U.S.A.
Rights for non-DOD U. S. Government Departments and Agencies are as set forth
in FAR 52.227-19 (c) (1, 2).
2
In this Book
This book documents the use of the CDMA/PCS Base Station Test Software supplied with the PCS Interface. It focuses specifically on the use of the PCS Interface in testing CDMA/PCS base station equipment.
Chapter 1, Getting Started
This chapter provides the steps for loading and running the CDMA/PCS base station test
software. Start here.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
After you have the software loaded and running, use this chapter to see each measurement’s
steps for CDMA transmitter and receiver testing.
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
General information on software use is found in this chapter.
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
This chapter offers reference material to be used if you encounter errors while using the
software.
Other Books
The following manuals offer more detailed information on the use of the PCS
Interface, Cell Site Test Set, and the CDMA Cellular Adapters:
•
•
•
HP 83236A or 83236B PCS Interface Operating Manual (p/n 83236-90101)
HP 8921A Cell Site Test Set User’s Guide (p/n 08921-90022)
HP 83203B CDMA Cellular Adapter (p/n 83203-90028) or HP 83205A
CDMA Cellular Adapter (p/n 83205-90008)
3
Conventions
Used in this
Book
The following terms are used throughout this book:
•
•
•
•
•
Test Set - the HP 8921A Cell Site Test Set.
Cellular Adapter - the HP 83203B or 83205A CDMA Cellular Adapter.
PCS Interface - the HP 83236A,B; used to translate PCS signals into the range of the
Test Set.
Software - the CDMA/PCS Base Station Test Software, described in this book.
Test System - the combination of a Test Set, a Cellular Adapter, and a PCS Interface.
The Test Set’s keys, softkeys, and selection choices in menu screens are shown as
follows:
•
•
•
4
A key on the Test Set’s front panel: TESTS
A User Key: Main Menu (k5)
A selection choice or setting on the CRT display: Equipment Type
Table of Contents
Contents
1 Getting Started
Introduction 12
Who should use the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software?
Product Description 12
Software Operation in Brief 12
Required Equipment 13
12
Step 1: Make Connections 14
Step 2: Load and Run the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software 15
Navigation of the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software
17
Step 3: Configure the Software 18
Step 4: Perform CDMA Tests 21
If You Had Problems
21
5
Contents
2 Making Measurements
Overview 25
Transmitter Measurements 25
Receiver Measurements 25
Other 25
Average Power 26
Overview 26
Requirements 26
Steps 27
Notes 27
Modulation Quality (Rho) 28
Overview 28
Requirements 28
Steps 29
Notes 29
Code Domain Power 30
Overview 30
Requirements 30
Steps 31
Notes 31
Code Domain Timing 32
Overview 32
Requirements 32
Steps 33
Notes 33
Code Domain Phase 34
Overview 34
Requirements 34
Steps 35
Notes 35
Transmit Spectrum 36
6
Contents
Overview 36
Requirements 36
Steps: Go to Spectrum Analyzer @ Present Chan 37
Steps: Go to Spectrum Analyzer & Enter Freq 38
Notes 39
Receiver Sensitivity 40
Overview 40
Requirements 40
Steps 41
Notes 41
Receiver Performance in Additive Noise 42
Overview 42
Requirements 42
Steps 43
Notes 43
Search for PN Offset 44
Overview 44
Requirements 44
Steps 45
Notes 45
Check Even-Second Clock 46
Overview 46
Requirements 46
Steps 47
Notes 47
7
Contents
3 Operating Overview
Overview 50
Configuration Information 50
Reference Information 50
Selecting a PCS Band 51
Steps 51
Notes 51
Compensating for TX and RX Measurement Path Loss 53
Requirements
Steps 53
Notes 53
53
Saving Configuration Information to Memory 54
Requirements
Steps 54
Notes 54
54
Loading Configuration Information from Memory 55
Requirements
Steps 55
Notes 55
55
Purging Configuration Information from Memory 56
Requirements
Steps 56
Notes 56
56
Using Autostart 57
Turning On the Autostart Feature 57
Turning Off the Autostart Feature 57
Notes 57
Viewing Instrument Connections 58
Steps 58
Notes 58
8
Contents
Setting the Test System “Beep” 59
Steps 59
Notes 59
An Alternative Test-System-to-Base-Station Timebase
Configuration 60
Steps 60
Notes 60
9
Contents
4 Troubleshooting
Overview 64
Errors When Loading and Running the Software 65
Memory Overflow Errors 65
Test System Configuration Errors at Runtime 66
Other Test System Configuration Errors 67
Configuration Information is Not Updated as Saved 67
Menu Screens in this Book do not Match the Screens that You See
Errors While Attempting Measurements 69
CDMA Measurement not Correlating 69
Frame Error Rate (Receiver Measurements)
71
Questionable Measurement Results 73
Overview 73
Average Power 73
Rho Measurements 74
Code Domain Measurements
Receiver Tests 74
Glossary 77
Index 83
10
74
68
1
Getting Started
Getting Started
Follow the steps in this chapter to load and run the CDMA/PCS BS Test
Software, to connect the test equipment, and to make initial settings to configure
your Test System.
11
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Introduction
Introduction
Who should use the If you are installing, commissioning, or maintaining Personal Communication
Services (PCS) sites using the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) standard,
CDMA/PCS BS
this Software will assist you in performing tests of transmitter and receiver
Test Software?
performance.
Product
Description
The HP 83236B CDMA/PCS BS Test Software is an Instrument BASIC
(IBASIC) application used to set up the PCS Interface for transmitter and receiver
measurements on CDMA base station equipment. The Software runs on the Test
Set’s internal IBASIC controller to allow you to manually control the PCS
Interface (which has no front-panel controls).
This latest revision of the Software provides support for the North American PCS
channel plans plus two proposed band definitions for use in international PCS
networks.
The CDMA/PCS BS Test Software is designed to run on the HP 8921A Cell Site
Test Set using the HP 83203B or HP 83205A Cellular Adapters (an equivalent
configuration is the HP 8921A Option 600, 601, 603). This combination of test
equipment plus the Software is hereafter referred to as the “Test System.”
Software Operation This Software does not perform automated measurements of a CDMA base
in Brief
station; it controls the Test System then allows you to make these measurements
manually using the CDMA test screens. The basic steps are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set up the base station and test equipment.
Load and run the Software.
Enter information about your base station.
The Software configures the Test System to test.
Exit the Software and go to the CDMA screens.
Make your CDMA measurement(s).
The first four steps are detailed in this chapter. The remaining steps are presented
in "Making Measurements" in chapter 2.
12
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Introduction
Required
Equipment
You must supply:
Supplied with the Test System:
Means to control
base station and
read FER.
HP 8921A Opt. 600,
601, 603 or an
HP 8921A with an
HP 83203B or 83205A
Cellular Adapter.
CDMA PCS
Base Station.
HP 83236A, B
PCS Interface
Cable Kit
HP 83236A, B
Cable Kit
(Supplied with the
HP 83236A,B)
CDMA PCS Base
Station Test Software
(Supplied with the
HP 83236A, B)
Cables to connect the base
station to the Test System.
(See table below.)
Label:
HP 83236B System
Utility Software
Item
Connector at System end Connections
1
N (m)
Connects base station’s transmitter test port to PCS Interface’s RF IN/OUT port.
2
N (m)
Connects PCS interface’s RF IN/OUT port to base station’s receiver test port.
3
BNC (m)
Connects Even-Second clock from BS to EVEN SEC/SYNC port on Cellular Adapter.
4
BNC (m)
Connects BS Timebase reference to timebase input on the Cellular Adapter.
Figure 1
13
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 1: Make Connections
Step 1: Make Connections
Make the connections between the elements of the Test System and the base
station as shown in figure 2.
NOTE:
This figure does not illustrate all rear-panel connections between the Cellular Adapter and
Test Set. Refer to the Cellular Adapter User’s Guide to verify these connections.
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
CDMA Base Station
Even-Second
Clock
19.6608 MHz Clk
(or other reference)
SYNTH REF IN
10 MHz OUT
Note:
This figure shows the
most common
timebase configuration.
See "An Alternative
Test-System-to-BaseStation Timebase
Configuration" on page
60.
HP - IB
10 MHz REF INPUT
10 MHz REF OUTPUT
REF IN
Figure 2
14
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 2: Load and Run the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software
Step 2: Load and Run the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software
The next step is to get the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software loaded into the Test Set
and running on the IBASIC controller. Locate the memory card supplied with the
PCS Interface and follow the steps of figure 3 and figure 4.
1
Press
POWER.
2
Wait for display to
appear
(approximately 20
seconds).
3
Press PRESET.
4
Insert the
System Utility
Software card.
Continued on the following page
Figure 3
15
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 2: Load and Run the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software
5
Press TESTS to display the
TESTS (Main Menu) screen.
6
Position the cursor at
Select Procedure Location: and select it.
7
Position the cursor at Card and select it.
8
Position the cursor at
Select Procedure Filename: and select it.
9
Position the cursor at Choices:
and select PCSCDMA.
10
PCSCDMA
XXXXXXXX
YYYYYYYY
Position the cursor at Run Test and
select it. The Software is now loading.
Loading Time:
First time:
approximately
one minute.
After first time:
approximately
15 seconds.
Figure 4
16
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 2: Load and Run the CDMA/PCS BS Test Software
Navigation of the
CDMA/PCS BS
Test Software
After the Software has loaded, you should see the CDMA/PCS BS Test
Software’s main menu screen on the display of the Test Set (see figure 5).
Important features of this screen are indicated in the figure with notes on their
use.
Main Selection and Cursor Control
Some menu selections open lower-level
menus, others allow entry of numeric
data. To select a menu item, rotate the
knob until the cursor is front of the
selection and press the knob.
Entry Fields
Some main menu selections are entry fields. When these
are selected, a highlighted area appears and you may key
in a value with the DATA keys, or rotate the knob to
change the value in the field. When the desired value is
set, press the knob or the ENTER key.
Quit
Tuned Frequency
This area displays the frequency
settings for the CDMA analyzer
and signal generator.
Figure 5
USER Keys and their Fields
The USER Keys (k1 - k5) correspond
to fields 1-5 at the top right corner of
the test screen. They are used for
navigation through menus and for
making selections. In most lower-level
menus, a “Prev Menu” key is provided
to take you up one menu level.
Knob
The knob controls the
cursor position on the
display and is
sometimes used to
make numeric entries.
CDMA/PCS Test Software main menu features
17
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 3: Configure the Software
Step 3: Configure the Software
The first time you run the Software you must enter information about your setup
and the base station being tested. Use these steps:
1
From the CDMA PCS Main Menu, scroll to and
select Configuration Information Menu.
2
Configuration Information Menu
CDMA PCS Main Menu
Return to Main Menu
Base Station Channel . . . . . . . . . 220
Base Station PN Offset . . . . . . . . 16
Base Station Reference Freq. . . 19.6608 MHz
Base Station Reference To . . . . SYNTH REF IN
Base Station Power Out . . . . . . . 1.00000 Watt(s)
TX Measurement Path Loss . . . . . .5 dB
RX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 4.0 dB
Connection Drawing Menu
PCS Band = North American Band
Beep = Off
Save Info To Memory
Load Info From Memory
Purge Info From Memory
Quit
Configuration Information Menu
Base Station Channel . . . . . . . . . 220
Base Station PN Offset . . . . . . . . 16
Search for PN Offset
Go to Spectrum Analyzer @ Present Chan
Go to Spectrum Analyzer & Enter Freq
Go to Code Domain Analyzer Screen
Perform Average Power Measurements
Measure Rho Parameters
Set up CDMA Generator
Check Even Second Clock
3
Scroll to and select the clock frequency of the
timebase signal at the SYNTH REF IN port.
Select New Reference Frequency
1
1 . 2288
2
2 . 4576
4 . 9142
5
9 . 8304
10
15
19.6608
Typical reference
frequencies are
19.6608 MHz and
10 MHz.
Scroll to and select Base Station Reference
Freq.
4
Scroll to and select Base Station Power Out
and enter the level of your transmitted signal.
Configuration Information Menu
Return to Main Menu
Base Station Channel . . . . . . . . . 220
Base Station PN Offset . . . . . . . . 16
Base Station Reference Freq. . . 19.6608 MHz
Base Station Reference To . . . . SYNTH REF IN
Base Station Power Out . . . . . . . 1.00000 Watt(s)
TX Measurement Path Loss . . . . . .5 dB
RX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 4.0 dB
Connection Drawing Menu
PCS Band = North American Band May be
Beep = Off
approximate.
Save Info To Memory
Load Info From Memory
Continued on the following page
18
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 3: Configure the Software
5
Scroll to and select TX Measurement Path Loss. Enter the loss (through cables, couplers, and attenuators)
between your base station’s transmitter test port and the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface.
Configuration Information Menu
Return to Main Menu
Base Station Channel . . . . . . . . . 220
Base Station PN Offset . . . . . . . . 16
Base Station Reference Freq. . . 19.6608 MHz
Base Station Reference To . . . . SYNTH REF IN
Base Station Power Out . . . . . . . 1.00000 Watt(s)
TX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 0.5 dB
RX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 4.0 dB
Connection Drawing Menu
PCS Band = North American Band
Beep = Off
Save Info To Memory
Load Info From Memory
6
Enter the value into the highlighted
field. The Software will compensate for cable loss, improving
measurement accuracy.
Scroll to and select RX Measurement Path Loss. Enter the loss of the RF cable (include loss through splitters, and so forth) between your base station’s receiver test port and the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface.
Configuration Information Menu
Return to Main Menu
Base Station Channel . . . . . . . . . 220
Base Station PN Offset . . . . . . . . 16
Base Station Reference Freq. . . 19.6608 MHz
Base Station Reference To . . . . SYNTH REF IN
Base Station Power Out . . . . . . . 1.00000 Watt(s)
TX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 0.5 dB
RX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 4.0 dB
Connection Drawing Menu
PCS Band = North American Band
Beep = Off
Save Info To Memory
Load Info From Memory
7
Scroll to and select PCS Band.
Configuration Information Menu
Return to Main Menu
Base Station Channel . . . . . . . . . 220
Base Station PN Offset . . . . . . . . 16
Base Station Reference Freq. . . 19.6608 MHz
Base Station Reference To . . . . SYNTH REF IN
Base Station Power Out . . . . . . . 1.00000 Watt(s)
TX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 0.5 dB
RX Measurement Path Loss . . . . 4.0 dB
Connection Drawing Menu
PCS Band = North American Band
Beep = Off
Save Info To Memory
Load Info From Memory
Enter the value into the highlighted
field. The Software will compensate for cable loss, improving
measurement accuracy.
8
Scroll to and select your band of interest.
See "Selecting a PCS Band" on page 51.
PCS Band Selection Menu
North American Band
Korean Band Proposal 0
Korean Band Proposal 1
19
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 3: Configure the Software
9
This completes the required entries. You may now save your entries or press the Main Menu (k5) key to return
to the main menu. To save entries see, “Saving Configuration Information to Memory” in Chapter 3.
USER
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
20
User keys 1-5
correspond
to the fields
on the top
right corner of
the test set
screen.
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 4: Perform CDMA Tests
Step 4: Perform CDMA Tests
Now that you have successfully run the Software and entered your configuration
values, you can go on to making CDMA measurements. Refer to chapter 2,
"Making Measurements" to see detailed steps for performing CDMA
measurements.
If You Had
Problems
If you were unable to load and run the Software or make the required entries, refer
to chapter 4, "Troubleshooting" for help.
21
Chapter 1, Getting Started
Step 4: Perform CDMA Tests
22
2
Making Measurements
Making Measurements
This chapter contains descriptions of the most common receiver and transmitter
tests performed on CDMA base station equipment. For each test, requirements
are listed and the steps to perform the measurement are provided.
23
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
24
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Overview
Overview
This chapter presents measurement tasks most commonly performed when testing
CDMA/PCS base station equipment. The measurements are separated by type:
transmitter tests, followed by the receiver tests. For descriptions of general
Software use, refer to chapter 3, "Operating Overview".
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this chapter require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Transmitter
Measurements
•
•
•
•
•
•
"Average Power" on page 26
"Modulation Quality (Rho)" on page 28
"Code Domain Power" on page 30
"Code Domain Timing" on page 32
"Code Domain Phase" on page 34
"Transmit Spectrum" on page 36
Receiver
Measurements
•
•
"Receiver Sensitivity" on page 40
"Receiver Performance in Additive Noise" on page 42
Other
•
•
"Search for PN Offset" on page 44
"Check Even-Second Clock" on page 46
25
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Average Power
Average Power
Overview
Average power is a time-averaged broadband measurement of the transmitted
signal strength at the RF IN/OUT port on the front panel of the PCS Interface.
The average power measurement is “uncorrelated”; it does not require the
reference signals (Even-Second clock and 19.6608 MHz timebase) needed for
other tests.
Transmitter Port
RF IN/OUT
Figure 6
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
26
You should know the following about your base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
You must have a means of controlling the base station to turn on the transmitter, set the
channel number, and so forth.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Average Power
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 6.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
Set up the base station to transmit on the channel number entered in step 2.
From the main menu, choose Perform Average Power Measurements.
The resulting screen (see figure 7) will display average power (in Watts). The average
power displayed is corrected for the loss value entered in the Configuration
Information Menu under TX Measurement Path Loss.
You can change the measurement’s units to milliwatts or dBm using USER keys k3 and
k4, respectively.
USER key k1 will re-zero the power meter. It is not necessary to remove power from
the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface to zero the power meter.
If you want to measure average power at another frequency, return to step 2.
Press the Main Menu (k5) key to return to the main menu.
Zero Pow
Watts
mW
1.28
In this example, loss
through a 20 dB attenuator
was added to an additional
1 dB of cable loss.
dBm
Main Menu
Figure 7
Notes
To minimize measurement errors due to temperature drift, occasional zeroing of
the power meter is recommended. An initial zeroing is performed when you enter
the Average Power measurement screen. It is not necessary to remove the
signal from the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface for zeroing.
27
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Modulation Quality (Rho)
Modulation Quality (Rho)
Overview
In this measurement, the modulated signal is compared to an ideal, reference
waveform to determine the performance of the transmitter’s modulation circuitry.
Rho values are in the range of 0 to 1. A value of 1 indicates perfect correlation to
the reference (high modulation quality). CDMA base station standards require
that transmitters have rho performance of 0.912 or higher.
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
(Rear Panel)
H
Transmitter Port
SYNTH
REF IN
Even-Second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 8
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
•
28
Synchronization is required, so you must have an Even-Second Clock signal and a
reference timebase (typically 19.6608 MHz) from the base station.
You must have the ability to transmit the pilot channel only (Walsh 0).
You must know the following about the base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
❒ The PN Offset for the base-station-under-test. If you do not know the PN Offset,
determine it by selecting Search for PN Offset in the main menu.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Modulation Quality (Rho)
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
Also in the main menu, enter the Base Station PN Offset.
Set up the base station to transmit (pilot only) on the channel number entered in step 2.
Verify that the REF UNLOCK light on the front of the Cellular Adapter is not lit.
Scroll to and select Measure Rho Parameters screen (see figure 9).
Read the value under the Rho field.
Read the values after the Time offset, Freq error, and Carrier ft fields.
Press the Main Menu (k5) key to return to the main menu.
Figure 9
Notes
If the message CANNOT CORRELATE appears on the screen, see "CDMA
Measurement not Correlating" in chapter 4, "Troubleshooting, on page 69."
For an on-screen summary of the possible causes and solutions, press the
Diagnose (k4) key.
29
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Code Domain Power
Code Domain Power
Overview
The Code Domain Power measurement shows the relative power in each of the
Walsh channels of a transmitted signal. Signal strength of the Pilot, Paging, Sync,
and Traffic channels are displayed (in dB).
(Rear Panel)
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
H
Transmitter Port
SYNTH
REF IN
Even-Second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 10
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
•
30
You must have a means of turning on the base station transmitter and enabling various
Walsh channels (Pilot, Sync, Traffic, and Paging).
Synchronization is required, so you must have an Even-Second clock signal and a
reference timebase (typically 19.6608 MHz) from the base station.
You must know the following about the base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
❒ The PN Offset for the base-station-under-test. If you do not know the PN Offset,
determine it by selecting Search for PN Offset in the main menu.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Code Domain Power
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 10.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
Also in the main menu, enter the Base Station PN Offset.
Scroll to and select Go to Code Domain Analyzer Screen.
Verify that the Measurement field at the bottom of the display is set to Power. If it
is not, scroll down and set it to Power.
Turn on your base station transmitter.
If the signal is correlated, you should see a display similar to that of figure 11, showing
the pilot channel’s level (Walsh code 0) and any other Sync, Paging, or Traffic channels
that are active.
To return to the main menu press SHIFT, then k1, then ENTER.
Figure 11
Code domain power display with a number of traffic channels enabled.
Notes
The Tune Freq displayed at the bottom of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen
does not indicate the true tuned frequency of the Test System. The tuned
frequency is calculated from your entry for Base Station Channel and can be
viewed at the bottom of the main menu screen. Do not make changes to the Tune
Freq setting of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen.
If you are planning to test Code Domain Timing or Code Domain Phase, you can
use the Measurement field to activate them without having to return to the main
menu.
Refer to the HP 83203B or 83205A Cellular Adapter User’s Guide for more
details on the use of the Code Domain Power screen.
31
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Code Domain Timing
Code Domain Timing
Overview
Similar to the Code Domain Power test, this measurement shows the timing
relationship between the various Walsh channels and the Pilot channel.
(Rear Panel)
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
H
Transmitter Port
SYNTH
REF IN
Even-Second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 12
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
•
32
You must have a means of turning on the base station transmitter and enabling various
Walsh channels (such as Pilot, Sync, Traffic, and Paging).
Synchronization is required, so you must have an Even-Second clock signal and a
reference timebase (typically 19.6608 MHz) from the base station.
You must know the following about the base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
❒ The PN Offset for the base-station-under-test. If you do not know the PN Offset,
determine it by selecting Search for PN Offset in the main menu.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Code Domain Timing
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 12.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
Also in the main menu, enter the Base Station PN Offset.
Scroll to and select Go to Code Domain Analyzer Screen.
Scroll to the Measurement field at the bottom of the display and set to Timing (if
not already selected).
Turn on your base station transmitter with the Pilot, Sync, Traffic, and Paging channels
enabled.
You should now see a display of relative timing, as shown in figure 13.
If you need to re-scale the vertical resolution, select Controls:Marker and then
scroll to the Time/div field and select from settings of 1 to 50 ns.
To return to the main menu press SHIFT, then k1, then ENTER.
Figure 13
Notes
The Tune Freq displayed at the bottom of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen
does not indicate the true tuned frequency of the Test System. The tuned
frequency is calculated from your entry for Base Station Channel and can be
viewed at the bottom of the main menu screen. Do not make changes to the Tune
Freq setting of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen.
If you are planning to test Code Domain Power or Code Domain Phase, you can
use the Measurement field to activate them without having to return to the main
menu.
Refer to the HP 83203B or 83205A Cellular Adapter User’s Guide for more
details on the use of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen.
33
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Code Domain Phase
Code Domain Phase
Overview
Similar to the Code Domain Power measurement, this measurement shows the
relative phase relationship of the various Walsh channels referenced to the pilot
channel (Walsh 0).
(Rear Panel)
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
H
Transmitter Port
SYNTH
REF IN
Even-second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 14
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
•
34
You must have a means of turning on the base station transmitter and bringing up
various Walsh channels (such as Pilot, Sync, Traffic, and Paging).
Synchronization is required, so you must have an Even-Second clock signal and a
reference timebase (typically 19.6608 MHz) from the base station.
You must know the following about the base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
❒ The PN Offset for the base-station-under-test. If you do not know the PN Offset,
determine it by selecting Search for PN Offset in the main menu.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Code Domain Phase
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 14.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
Also in the main menu, enter the Base Station PN Offset.
Scroll to and select Go to Code Domain Analyzer Screen.
Scroll to the Measurement field at the bottom of the display and set to Phase (if not
already selected).
Turn on your base station transmitter with the Pilot, Sync, Traffic, and Paging channels
enabled.
You should now see a display of relative phase, as shown in figure 15.
If you need to re-scale the vertical resolution, select Controls:Marker and then
scroll to the Phase/div field and select from settings of 1 to 50 mRad (milliradians).
To return to the main menu press SHIFT, then k1, then ENTER.
Figure 15
Notes
The Tune Freq displayed at the bottom of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen
does not indicate the true tuned frequency of the Test System. The tuned
frequency is calculated from your entry for Base Station Channel and can be
viewed at the bottom of the main menu screen. Do not make changes to the Tune
Freq setting of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen.
If you are planning to test Code Domain Power or Code Domain Timing, you can
use the Measurement field to activate them without having to return to the main
menu.
Refer to the HP 83203B or 83205A Cellular Adapter User’s Guide for more
details on the use of the CODE DOMAIN ANALYZER screen.
35
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Transmit Spectrum
Transmit Spectrum
Overview
It is often useful to look at the transmitter signal with the spectrum analyzer to see
its overall symmetry and occupied bandwidth, and to identify potential sources of
interference. This section details two methods for accessing the spectrum
analyzer:
•
•
Go to the spectrum analyzer with the current channel as the center frequency, see
"Steps: Go to Spectrum Analyzer @ Present Chan" on page 37
Go to the spectrum analyzer after entering a new center frequency, see "Steps: Go to
Spectrum Analyzer & Enter Freq" on page 38
H
Transmitter Port
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 16
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
36
You must have a means of turning on the base station transmitter with modulation (if
looking at the transmitted signal).
You must know the following about the base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting (if looking at the transmitted signal).
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Transmit Spectrum
Steps: Go to
1 Connect the equipment as shown in figure 16.
Spectrum Analyzer 2 In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
@ Present Chan
3
4
5
6
Turn on your base station transmitter.
Scroll to and select Go to Spectrum Analyzer @ Present Chan. The
spectrum analyzer display will appear and the center frequency will be set to match the
channel number entered in step 2 (see figure 17).
Use the Controls area (set to Main) in the lower part of the spectrum analyzer
screen to make changes to the reference level and span settings as desired. Set the
Controls field to Marker to use marker functions.
To return to the main menu press SHIFT, then k1, then ENTER.
Note that the Marker
Frequency readout is
corrected to read the
actual PCS frequency.
Figure 17
37
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Transmit Spectrum
Steps: Go to
1 Connect the equipment as shown in figure 16.
Spectrum Analyzer 2 Turn on your base station transmitter.
3 In the main menu, scroll to and select Go to Spectrum Analyzer & Enter
& Enter Freq
4
NOTE:
Freq.
The PCS Interface analyzer attenuation setting will appear in the field labelled
HP83236 Input Attenuator. This value is optimized based on your entries for
base station power and cable losses. However, you can make changes to the value using
the HP83236 Input Attenuator field before going to the spectrum analyzer and
viewing the signal. For example, you may want to reduce the attenuation to improve
the signal strength relative to that of the spectrum analyzer noise floor. Make the
change now if you want a different attenuation value (range is 0 to 40 dB).
Your change to the attenuation value, if you make one, will only be effective while using
the spectrum analyzer screen. When you return to the main menu, the value will be re-set
to the computed optimum value.
5
6
7
8
9
Scroll to and select Spectrum Analyzer Freq.
Enter the frequency of interest using the DATA keys (the range is 1710 to 1990 MHz)
and press ENTER.
Scroll to and select Go to Spectrum Analyzer Screen to see the spectrum
analyzer display (see figure 18). The center frequency of the displayed signal matches
the frequency you entered in step 6.
Use the Controls area (set to Main) in the lower part of the spectrum analyzer
screen to make changes to the reference level and span settings as desired. Set the
Controls field to Marker to use marker functions.
To return to the main menu press SHIFT, then k1, then ENTER.
Note that the Marker
Frequency readout is
corrected to read the
actual PCS frequency.
Figure 18
38
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Transmit Spectrum
Notes
For either spectrum analyzer mode (Go To Spectrum Analyzer @ Present
Chan or Go To Spectrum Analyzer & Enter Freq), do not make changes
to RF port selections, tune frequency, or other “setup” fields. You may change
spectrum-analyzer-specific settings such as Ref level, Span, and Marker.
39
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver Sensitivity
Overview
In this test, the CDMA generator sends a calibrated signal to the base station’s
receiver. For a given RF level, the resulting Frame Error Rate (FER) is measured.
Standards specify an FER of 1.0% or less at an RF level of −119 dBm.
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
Receiver Port 1
(Rear Panel)
H
SYNTH
REF IN
Receiver Port 2
Even-second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 19
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
•
•
40
You will need a means of reading the Frame Error Rate (FER) from the base station.
The CDMA generator sends a random bit pattern which the base station decodes and
uses to calculate FER. Some means of reading the calculated value is required. Often
this is done via a laptop PC connected to the station equipment by serial or LAN port.
This test requires synchronization between the Test System’s CDMA signal generator
and the base-station-under-test. This is achieved using the Even-Second clock signal
from the base station.
The CDMA generator should be connected directly to the receiver’s input(s). This can
be achieved by connecting to only one input at a time or by using a splitter to connect
to both inputs at once (if there is more than one receiver test port).
You must know the following about your base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
❒ The Receiver PN Offset for the base-station-under-test (typically 0).
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Receiver Sensitivity
Steps
1
2
3
4
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 19.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number.
Scroll to and select Setup CDMA Generator.
Scroll to RF Level and enter the signal generator level for your sensitivity
measurement (in dBm).
5 Scroll to and set the Generator Mode to Data.
6 Scroll to and set the RX PN Offset, typically to 0.
7 Scroll to and set the Data Source to Random.
8 At this time, the CDMA generator is sending random data at the level you entered in
step 4.
9 You can now read the calculated FER from the PC or other means.
10 If desired, use the RF Level selection to change the signal strength and read the
resulting FER.
11 To return to the main menu, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
Figure 20
Notes
The cable loss (including losses through splitters, couplers, and so forth) entered
into the Configuration Information Menu screen is taken into account
when signal generator RF level settings are made. The level at the PCS Interface
RF IN/OUT port is increased by the loss amount so the displayed RF level
indicates the true level delivered to the base station’s receiver test port(s).
The field RX PN Offset is provided for you to change the offset for your
testing, if required. Normally, mobiles transmit on system time which
corresponds to an offset of 0 (the default value in the Software menu).
41
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Receiver Performance in Additive Noise
Receiver Performance in Additive Noise
Overview
In this test, the CDMA signal generator is used with the Additive White Gaussian
Noise (AWGN) source to simulate an uplink signal to the base stations’s receiver.
Various levels of signal-to-noise (Eb/No) can be used and the resulting Frame
Error Rate (FER) is measured at each Eb/No level.
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
Receiver Port 1
(Rear Panel)
H
SYNTH
REF IN
Receiver Port 2
Even-second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 21
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
•
•
42
You will need a means of reading the Frame Error Rate (FER) from the base station.
The CDMA generator sends a random bit pattern which the base station decodes and
uses to calculate FER. Some means of reading the calculated value is required. Often
this is done via a laptop PC connected to the station equipment by serial or LAN port.
This test requires synchronization between the Test System’s CDMA signal generator
and the base-station-under-test. This is achieved using the Even-Second clock signal
from the base station.
The CDMA generator should be connected directly to the receiver’s input(s). This can
be achieved by connecting to only one input at a time or by using a splitter to connect
to both inputs at once (if there is more than one receiver test port).
You must know the following about your base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
❒ The Receiver PN Offset for the base-station-under-test (typically 0).
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Receiver Performance in Additive Noise
Steps
1
2
3
4
Make the equipment connections as shown in figure 21.
On the main menu screen, enter the Base Station Channel number.
Scroll to and select Setup CDMA Generator.
Set the Generator Mode to Eb/No. Note that a new field appears called
Eb/No Level.
5 Set the Eb/No Level as called for in the test standard or in your base station test
procedures (for example, 5.5 dB).
6 Scroll to and set the RX PN Offset, typically to 0.
7 Scroll to and set the Data Source to Random.
8 Set the RF Level as called for in your test procedure.
9 At this point, the CDMA signal generator is transmitting with random data and noise.
Read the resulting Frame Error Rate from the base station.
10 If desired, change the Eb/No Level according your test procedure and read the
resulting FER value.
11 When finished, return to the main menu by pressing the Main Menu (k5) USER key.
Figure 22
Notes
The cable loss (including losses through splitters, couplers, and so forth) entered
into the Configuration Information Menu screen is taken into account
when signal generator RF level settings are made. The level at the PCS Interface
RF IN/OUT port is increased by the loss amount so the displayed RF level
indicates the true level delivered to the base station’s receiver test port(s).
The field RX PN Offset is provided for you to change the offset for your
testing, if required. Normally, mobiles transmit on system time which
corresponds to an offset of 0 (the default value in the Software menu).
43
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Search for PN Offset
Search for PN Offset
Overview
If you are unsure of the PN offset for the transmitter and channel you plan to test,
the Software provides this utility to search for and display the PN offset.
(Rear Panel)
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
H
Transmitter Port
SYNTH
REF IN
Even-second
Clock
Time Base
H
RF IN/OUT
Figure 23
CAUTION:
Before performing any transmitter measurements, make sure that the power level applied
to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface does not exceed the published limit. For
CDMA base station signals this is 1 Watt (+30 dBm). You may have to use an external
attenuator or directional coupler, depending on the power output for your transmitter.
Signal levels greater than the specified maximum can cause damage to the test equipment.
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
•
44
You must have a means of turning on the base station transmitter with modulation.
You must know the following about the base station and setup:
❒ The base station channel number setting.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Search for PN Offset
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
Connect the equipment as shown in figure 23.
In the main menu, enter the Base Station Channel number for the transmitter
being tested.
Turn on your base station transmitter (pilot channel must be on).
Scroll to and select Search for PN Offset and the Software will begin the
search. The Software will search for the PN offset in segments, displaying a message
on the screen to show which segment is being searched.
When the Software has found the PN Offset, you should see a display of the offset:
PN OFFSET = 24
NOTE:
When the Software finds the PN Offset, it will insert the value automatically into the Base
Station PN Offset field on the main menu screen.
Notes
During the search, the following error message will often appear:
Cannot correlate to input signal. Check setup.
This is normal for the Search for PN Offset.
If the Software is unable to find the PN Offset, it will display the message:
PN OFFSET NOT FOUND
If you decide to abort (stop) the PN offset search, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
There can be a delay of several seconds before you see the main menu display.
See the section on PN Offset in "CDMA Measurement not Correlating" in chapter
4, "Troubleshooting, on page 69.".
45
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Check Even-Second Clock
Check Even-Second Clock
Overview
Most CDMA transmitter tests require an Even-Second clock signal from the base
station in order to correlate the measurement. If you are receiving an error stating
Cannot correlate to input signal. Check setup. , you may have a
problem with your Even-Second clock signal. This Software utility allows you to
check for a valid clock signal from the base station.
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
(Rear Panel)
H
SYNTH
REF IN
Even-Second
Clock
Time Base
H
Figure 24
NOTE:
The test procedures outlined in this section require that you have already configured the
Test System as outlined in chapter 1, "Getting Started".
Requirements
•
NOTE:
Be sure to return the Even-Second clock signal to the EVEN SECOND / SYNC IN port of
the Cellular Adapter when finished. The Software will prompt you to make this change.
46
This test requires that you temporarily connect the Even-Second clock signal to the
TRIGGER / QUALIFIER IN port of the Cellular Adapter.
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Check Even-Second Clock
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
Notes
You can start with the connections shown in figure 24. You will get prompts from the
Software to change the Even-Second clock connection when needed.
In the main menu, scroll to and select Check Even Second Clock.
You will have to make a change to the connections, as shown on the display. Switch
the Even-Second clock signal from the EVEN SECOND/SYNC IN port to the
TRIGGER/QUALIFIER IN port on the Cellular Adapter. Once you have made the
connection, press the Continue (k2) key.
The Software will begin checking for a valid clock signal. This will take a few seconds.
When it has found a valid signal, you will see the message EVEN SECOND CLOCK
FOUND. If the Software finds no valid clock, you will see the message NO CLOCK
FOUND. In that case, see the documentation on your base station to verify that you are
connecting to the correct port and to see if any switches must be set to enable the clock
signal.
To go on, press the Continue (k2) key.
Reconnect the Even-Second clock signal connection to the EVEN SECOND/SYNC port
on the Cellular Adapter. After you have done this, press the Continue (k2) key to
return to the main menu.
See the section on the clock timing signal in "CDMA Measurement not
Correlating" in chapter 4, "Troubleshooting, on page 69."
47
Chapter 2, Making Measurements
Check Even-Second Clock
48
3
Operating Overview
Operating Overview
This chapter describes general operation of the Software.
49
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Overview
Overview
This chapter provides detail on Software operations not covered in chapter 1,
"Getting Started" or chapter 2, "Making Measurements".
Configuration
Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
"Selecting a PCS Band" on page 51
"Compensating for TX and RX Measurement Path Loss" on page 53
"Saving Configuration Information to Memory" on page 54
"Loading Configuration Information from Memory" on page 55
"Purging Configuration Information from Memory" on page 56
"Using Autostart" on page 57
"Viewing Instrument Connections" on page 58
"Setting the Test System “Beep”" on page 59
Reference
Information
•
"An Alternative Test-System-to-Base-Station Timebase Configuration" on page 60
50
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Selecting a PCS Band
Selecting a PCS Band
With the HP 83236B PCS Interface, the Software supports several “channel
plans” used in PCS systems internationally. By selecting the appropriate plan, you
can use channel numbers (rather than frequencies) to tune the signal generator and
analyzer for testing.
NOTE:
If you use the HP 83236A PCS Interface, only the North American Band is supported, and
the procedure described on this page does not apply.
The band choices in this revision of Software are:
•
•
•
Steps
To select a new PCS Band:
1
2
3
4
Notes
North American Band
Korean Band Proposal 0
Korean Band Proposal 1
From the main menu, scroll to and select Configuration Information Menu.
Scroll to and select PCS Band.
Choose one of the band choices by scrolling to it and pressing the knob. The choice will
then appear in the Configuration Information Menu.
To return to the main menu level, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
Once you’ve selected the appropriate channel plan, all you need to do to tune the
Test System is enter the channel number in the Base Station Channel field.
The Test System makes the conversion to a frequency and tunes the generator and
analyzer. If you would like to know the frequency settings for a given channel
number and PCS Band combination, refer to table 1 on page 52.
51
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Selecting a PCS Band
Table 1
Channel plans for PCS Band selections.
PCS Band
Channel Plan
To calculate the transmitter frequency:
North American Band
Channel range: 0 to 1199
Transmitter frequencies:
1930 to 1989.95 MHz
Offset: −80 MHz
Channel spacing: 50 kHz
TX freq = (channel × 0.05) + 1930 MHz
RX freq = (channel × 0.05) +1850 MHz
Korean Band Proposal 0
Channel range: 0 to 1300
Transmitter frequencies:
1805 to 1870 MHz
Offset: −90 MHz
Channel spacing: 50 kHz
TX freq = (channel × 0.05) + 1805 MHz
RX freq = (channel × 0.05) +1715 MHz
Korean Band Proposal 1
Channel range: 1 to 1300
Transmitter frequencies:
1805 to 1870 MHz
Offset: −90 MHz
Channel spacing: 50 kHz
Channels 1 to 600:
TX freq = (channel × 0.05) + 1840 MHz
RX freq = (channel × 0.05) +1750 MHz
Channels 601 to 1300:
TX = ((channel − 600) × 0.05) + 1805 MHz
RX = ((channel − 600) × 0.05) +1715 MHz
52
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Compensating for TX and RX Measurement Path Loss
Compensating for TX and RX Measurement Path Loss
The Software can compensate for losses (through cables, attenuators, couplers,
and so forth) between the Test System and the base station for the best accuracy in
average power and receiver measurements. The loss values are entered into the
Configuration Information Menu and are saved to memory if the Save
Info To Memory feature is used.
Requirements
You must know the following loss values:
•
•
The total loss (in dB) between the base station’s transmitter test port and the
RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface.
The total loss (in dB) between the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface and the base
station’s receiver test port.
These values should include losses through any cables, splitters, attenuators, and
directional couplers used in your test setup.
Steps
1
2
3
4
Notes
From the main menu, select Configuration Information Menu.
Scroll to and select TX Measurement Path Loss and enter the loss between the
transmitter’s test port and the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface. Once selected, you
can use the knob to scroll up and down in 1 dB increments or you may enter the value
directly using the DATA keys. Press ENTER or the knob when the correct value
appears in the inverse field.
Scroll to and select RX Measurement Path Loss and enter the total loss between
the PCS Interface’s RF IN/OUT port and the receiver’s test port.
To return to the main menu, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
The loss values you entered in the steps above will not be saved unless you use the
Save Info to Memory feature. See "Saving Configuration Information to
Memory" on page 54.
53
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Saving Configuration Information to Memory
Saving Configuration Information to Memory
The information about your setup and base station entered into the
Configuration Information Menu can be saved to memory. This saves
time when running the Software at a later date and helps to prevent entry errors.
The stored data is loaded automatically any time you re-run the Software. If you
make changes to the on-screen values and you want to return to your defaults, you
can also load the stored data manually.
Requirements
•
NOTE:
A “RAM disk” is a virtual memory location that uses a small portion of internal
non-volatile RAM of the Test Set. No memory card is required to save and load
configurations.
Steps
1
2
3
4
Notes
An initialized RAM disk. (The first time you run the Software it will set up and
initialize the RAM disk automatically.)
From the main menu, choose the Configuration Information Menu.
Check to make sure that the following entries in the Configuration
Information Menu are set with your desired values:
❒ Base Station Channel
❒ Base Station PN Offset
❒ Base Station Reference Freq
❒ Base Station Reference To
❒ Base Station Power Out
❒ TX Measurement Path Loss
❒ RX Measurement Path Loss
❒ PCS Band
❒ Beep
Scroll down to Save Info To Memory and press the knob. The screen will be
updated and the storage will be complete.
To return to the main menu level, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
See "Loading Configuration Information from Memory" on page 55 for a
description of how your saved values can be reloaded.
See "Purging Configuration Information from Memory" on page 56 for a
description of how to clear the saved values.
54
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Loading Configuration Information from Memory
Loading Configuration Information from Memory
The information about your setup and base station entered into the
Configuration Information Menu can be saved in memory. This data is
loaded automatically when you re-run the Software. You can also load the data
manually. This procedure describes steps for manually loading the data.
Requirements
•
Data previously saved to a RAM disk.
Steps
1
2
From the main menu, choose the Configuration Information Menu.
Scroll down to Load Info From Memory and press the knob. The loading process
takes only a fraction of a second. You should see your saved values in the
Configuration Information Menu.
To return to the main menu level, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
3
Notes
See "Saving Configuration Information to Memory" on page 54 for a description
of saving the settings to memory.
55
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Purging Configuration Information from Memory
Purging Configuration Information from Memory
The information about your setup and base station entered into the
Configuration Information Menu can be saved in memory. This data is
loaded automatically when you re-run the Software. In some instances however,
you might wish to use default data. If so, you must clear your saved values from
memory. This procedure describes steps for manually purging the memory.
Requirements
•
Data previously saved to a RAM disk.
Steps
1
2
From the main menu, choose the Configuration Information Menu.
Scroll down to Purge Info From Memory and press the knob. The purging
process takes only a fraction of a second. The next time the Software is run, the
Configuration Information Menu will be loaded with default values.
To return to the main menu level, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
3
Notes
The fact that configuration information has been purged from memory is shown
in the Configuration Information Menu whenever you purge the data
manually, using the steps outlined above.
See "Saving Configuration Information to Memory" on page 54 for a description
of saving the settings to memory.
56
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Using Autostart
Using Autostart
“Autostart” is a feature of the Test Set’s IBASIC controller and is used to
customize the instrument for a specific task. The autostart feature allows you to
“flip a switch” to configure the Test Set to automatically run whatever program is
currently stored in its non-volatile memory when the instrument is first turned on.
Turning On the
Autostart Feature
If you would like your Test System to “boot up” into the main menu of the
CDMA/PCS BS Test Software screen, follow these steps:
1
2
3
4
5
Scroll to and select Go to Spectrum Analyzer @ Present Chan. This is
done only to pause the Software in a known state.
Press the TESTS key.
Scroll to and select Execution Cond.
Scroll to the last field at the bottom of the screen and set Autostart Test
Procedure on Power-up to On.
To return to the Software’s main menu press SHIFT, then k1, then ENTER.
With this setting, whenever you apply power to the Test Set it will automatically
run the Software program loaded in non-volatile memory. This will configure the
Test Set to act as a “CDMA tester” (assuming that the CDMA/PCS Software is
loaded) and saves steps in testing.
If you power up the Test Set later and want to use other manual functions, simply
select Quit (k5) from the main menu and then select the other function.
Turning Off the
Autostart Feature
Turning the autostart feature off is done using the steps above, except you would
set the Autostart Test Procedure on Power-up mode to Off.
Notes
The autostart feature continues to work even if you load and run another program
on the Test Set. The new program will be automatically run the next time you turn
on the Test Set.
57
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Viewing Instrument Connections
Viewing Instrument Connections
In setting up your Test System, you may have questions about connections
between the Test Set, Cellular Adapter, and PCS Interface as well as the
connections to the CDMA/PCS base station. In the Configuration
Information Menu is a selection that displays connection diagrams for the
front and rear panels.
Steps
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Notes
From the main menu, select Configuration Information Menu.
Make sure that you have your desired entries in the fields of the Configuration
Information Menu (see Notes, below).
Scroll to and select Connection Drawing Menu.
For a diagram of front panel connections, scroll to and select Show Instrument
Front Panel Connections.
For rear panel connections, scroll to and select Show Instrument Rear Panel
Connections.
You can exit the connection diagram screen by pressing the Continue (k2) key.
Press the Prev Menu (k5) key to return to the Configuration Information
Menu.
Press the Main Menu (k5) key to return to the main menu level.
The connection diagrams change as a function of the entries into the
Configuration Information Menu. For this reason, make sure you have
entered your desired values before viewing the instrument connections.
Connection diagrams for each CDMA test are also shown in chapter 2, "Making
Measurements".
58
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
Setting the Test System “Beep”
Setting the Test System “Beep”
The Software can provide an audio tone (beep) to let you know when selections
are made in the menu screens. This beep sounds when you change menu screens,
choose an entry field, and when you complete an entry.
In its default mode, the beep function is set to a medium volume (Quiet). You can
customize the beep function as follows:
•
•
If you don’t want to hear the beep at all, you can turn it off.
For noisy environments, you can set the beep to a high volume (Loud).
Steps
1
2
3
4
From the main menu, select Configuration Information Menu.
Scroll to and select Beep.
Use the cursor to scroll and choose one of the three options (Off, Quiet, or Loud).
Press the Main Menu (k5) key to return to the main menu level.
Notes
The beep level you set will not be saved unless you use the Save Info to
Memory feature. See "Saving Configuration Information to Memory" on page 54 .
59
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
An Alternative Test-System-to-Base-Station Timebase Configuration
An Alternative Test-System-to-Base-Station Timebase Configuration
Chapter 1 describes the most common method of connecting timebases between
the Test System and the base-station-under-test. This section shows an alternative
way of connecting the timebases using the CDMA TIMEBASE IN port of the
CDMA Cellular Adapter (rather than the rear-panel SYNTH REF IN port).
Steps
1
NOTE:
This figure does not illustrate all rear-panel connections between the Cellular Adapter and
Test Set. Refer to the Cellular Adapter User’s Guide to verify these connections.
2
3
4
5
Notes
60
Connect the timebases as shown in figure 25. Note the connections from the BNC “tee”
on the Test Set’s 10 MHz REF OUTPUT to both the Cellular Adapter and the PCS
Interface.
From the main menu, select Configuration Information Menu.
Note the selection for the Base Station Reference To field. If it is set to
SYNTH REF IN, scroll down to the line and press the knob to change it to read
CDMA TB IN. Otherwise, you may skip this step.
Note the selection for Base Station Reference Freq. If it does not match the
timebase frequency supplied by the base station (typically 19.6608 MHz or
10 MHz), scroll to the line, press the knob, and select the appropriate value.
To return to the main menu, press the Main Menu (k5) key.
The timebase settings you made in the steps above will not be saved unless you
use the Save Info to Memory feature. See "Saving Configuration Information
to Memory" on page 54.
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
An Alternative Test-System-to-Base-Station Timebase Configuration
CDMA
TIMEBASE IN
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
8320 5A
H
C D MA CE L LU LA R A D A P T E R
RF IN /OUT
TO
RF IN/OUT TRIGGER/
MAX.PWR QUALIFIER
IN
DATA
IN
PWR REF
UNLOCK
EVEN SECOND/
SYNC IN
DIAGNOSTIC
MONIT OR
CDMA
TIMEBASE
1.2288 MHz
OUT
19.6608 MHz
OUT
16 X CHIP
CDMA Base Station
83 236B
H
P C S I N TE RF A C E
TEST SET
1.8-2.0 GHz UUT
POWER
F ROM DUPLEX OUT
OFF
T O ANT IN
RF IN/OUT
RF OUT only
ON
19.6608 MHz Clock
(or other reference)
SYNTH REF IN10 MHz OUT
CDMA CLOCK OUTPUTS
CONTROL I/O
114.3 MHz IF IN I BASEBAND OUT
AUX
CW
IQ
DSP IN 10 MHz
REF OUT
RF IN RF OUT
SERIAL PORT
Even-Second
Clock
OPTIONAL
MOD OUT
Q BASEBAND OUT
SYNTH REF IN
HP - IB
REF IN
10 MHz REF OUTPUT
(A BNC “tee” is required
to make these connections)
Figure 25
61
Chapter 3, Operating Overview
An Alternative Test-System-to-Base-Station Timebase Configuration
62
4
Troubleshooting
Use this chapter if you have encountered Software errors or if you are questioning
measurement results.
Troubleshooting
63
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Overview
Overview
Use table 2 to locate your problem or a received error message, then refer to the
page number shown.
Memory overflow errors
"Memory Overflow Errors" on page 65
Message: HP-IB Command not accepted. Option not
installed.
"Test System Configuration Errors at
Runtime" on page 66
"Other Test System Configuration
Errors" on page 67
Configuration Information is not updated
"Configuration Information is Not
Updated as Saved" on page 67
The menu screens you see do not match those in this book
"Menu Screens in this Book do not
Match the Screens that You See" on page
68
Measurements
Message: Verify PCS Interface is connected and on. Retry?
Message: Compensation not performed. Check DUPLEX
OUT cable. Retry?
Message: Cannot correlate to input signal. Check setup.
"CDMA Measurement not Correlating"
on page 69
Unable to read frame error rate (FER) or unexpectedly high
readings (receiver tests)
"Frame Error Rate (Receiver
Measurements)" on page 71
Average power
"Average Power" on page 73
Modulation quality (rho)
"Rho Measurements" on page 74
Code domain power, timing, or phase
"Code Domain Measurements" on page
74
Receiver tests
"Receiver Tests" on page 74
Table 2
64
Refer to:
Questionable Measurement Results
Loading and running the software
Problem or error message
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors When Loading and Running the Software
Errors When Loading and Running the Software
Memory Overflow
Errors
Problem:
The random access memory (RAM) space of the Test Set is shared by IBASIC
programs and the Save/Recall storage registers. If you have saved a large number
of registers in your Test Set, you may encounter a “memory overflow” error when
you first attempt to load the Software.
Solution:
You will need to clear up some RAM space by deleting some or all of your saved
registers. You can do this selectively (one register at a time) or you can clear all
storage registers at once (globally).
NOTE:
Clearing the registers, whether selectively or globally, is permanent. You cannot retrieve
the registers once deleted. You have an option to save registers to a RAM memory card, as
well. Consult the HP 8921 User’s Guide for instructions on this procedure.
To Clear a Single Register at a Time:
1
2
3
4
5
Press the RECALL key.
Scroll the cursor to the register to be deleted.
Press the ON/OFF key.
Press the YES key (same key) to confirm.
The register is cleared.
To Clear All Save Registers:
1
2
3
4
Press the RECALL key.
Scroll down to *Clr All* and press the knob.
Press the YES (ON/OFF) key to confirm.
All Save registers are now cleared.
65
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors When Loading and Running the Software
Test System
Configuration
Errors at Runtime
Problem:
When it is first run, the Software checks to see that all required elements of a
CDMA/PCS Test System are present. If it does not find a CDMA Cellular
Adapter or a PCS Interface, it will report the following errors:
HP-IB Command not accepted. Option not installed.:
This error will be reported if the Software cannot “find” the CDMA Cellular
Adapter as an installed option on the Test Set.
Solution:
1 Make sure that your are using either the HP 83203B or HP 83205A CDMA Cellular
Adapter in your Test System.
2 Verify that you have supplied the Cellular Adapter with AC power. The front-panel
PWR light should be illuminated.
3 If the unit is powered on and you still get this message, you will need to check the rearpanel connections between the Test Set and Cellular Adapter, especially the
CONTROL I/O cable between the two units. Refer to the Installation chapter of the
Cellular Adapter’s manual for connections.
Verify PCS Interface is connected and on. Retry?:
This error will be reported if the Software cannot “find” the HP 83236B PCS
Interface on the HP-IB bus.
Solution:
1 Verify that you have supplied the PCS Interface with AC power and that the POWER
switch is on. The front-panel POWER light should be illuminated.
2 If the unit is powered on and you still get this message, check the rear-panel HP-IB
connection between the Test Set and Cellular Adapter.
3 Confirm that the rear-panel HP-IB Address Selector switch is set to “HP-IB” (not
“Ser”). If the switch is in the wrong position, correct it and cycle power on the PCS
Interface.
66
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors When Loading and Running the Software
Other Test System
Configuration
Errors
Problem:
Additional errors can be reported when using the Software, depending on which
measurement modes are being used:
Compensation not performed. Check DUPLEX OUT cable. Retry?
This error can be reported if the cabling between the Test Set and PCS Interface is
not correct.
Solution:
1 Make sure there is a cable connecting the FROM DUPLEX PORT of the PCS Interface
to the DUPLEX OUT port of the Test Set.
2 If the error persists, try replacing the cable with a new one.
Configuration
Information is Not
Updated as Saved
Problem:
If you have used the Save Info to Memory feature of the Configuration
Information Menu, your configuration should be loaded when the Software is
first run. You can also load it at any later time in the Configuration
Information Menu. If you notice that the Configuration Information is not
being updated, it is most likely because the file is not being found.
Solution:
Make sure that the previously saved Configuration Information is in memory. If
the information is not in memory, you will have to repeat the save procedure. See
"Saving Configuration Information to Memory" in chapter 3, "Operating
Overview," on page 54.
67
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors When Loading and Running the Software
Menu Screens in
this Book do not
Match the Screens
that You See
Problem:
You may have loaded another software procedure from the utility software
memory card that is shipped with each PCS Interface. Procedures for Test System
Connectivity (SYS_CONN) and Manual Control (MANUAL) also reside on the
memory card and are loaded in the same manner as the CDMA/PCS BS test
software.
Solution:
1 Return to the main menu. If it does not read CDMA PCS Main Menu at the top of the
display, you most likely have another program loaded and running.
2 Pause the program by pressing the CANCEL key and press the TESTS key. In the
TESTS menu, the Procedure Filename should be PCSCDMA.
3 If not, follow the steps in "Getting Started" in chapter 1 to load and run the CDMA/PCS
BS test software.
68
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors While Attempting Measurements
Errors While Attempting Measurements
CDMA
Measurement not
Correlating
Problem:
If your Test System is not set up correctly for some of the tests, you may see the
following message posted at the top of the display:
Cannot correlate to input signal. Check setup.
The error message can appear while in many of the menus, but it will affect the
following main menu selections:
•
•
NOTE:
Go to Code Domain Analyzer Screen
Measure Rho Parameters
For an on-screen summary of the possible causes and solutions, press the Diagnose (k4)
key.
Possible causes and solutions:
1 Base Station Channel entry.
The Software tunes the Test System to the transmitter frequency based on your entry
for Base Station Channel. The entry must match the channel your base station
is set to transmit on. Verify the channel number entry in the Base Station
Channel field on the main menu screen. If you want to verify the frequency the Test
System is tuned to, see the TX Freq setting at the bottom of the main menu screen.
2
PN Offset entry.
For proper correlation, you must enter the PN Offset value that matches that of the
transmitter being tested. Check the entry in the main menu level. If you do not know
the PN offset, see "Search for PN Offset" on page 44
3
Missing an Even-Second clock timing signal.
You must have access to the Even-Second clock signal from the base station to
achieve proper correlation to the CDMA signal. Verify that the signal is accessible
and make sure that it is connected to the EVEN SECOND/SYNC IN port on front of
the Cellular Adapter. Check to be sure that any hardware switching needed to turn the
signal on has been done. To verify your Even-Second clock signal, see "Check EvenSecond Clock" on page 46.
69
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors While Attempting Measurements
4
Test System timebase reference not connected.
Verify that you have access to the base station’s reference timebase signal (typically
19.6608 MHz). The reference should be connected to the SYNTH REF IN port on the
rear of the Cellular Adapter. If configured correctly, the REF UNLOCK indicator on
the Cellular Adapter should not be on.
5
Transmitter not turned on.
You must have a means of controlling the cell site equipment, including the ability to
turn on a given transmitter. If your tool (typically a PC) shows the information, verify
that the transmitter is turned on and that it matches the channel entry in step 1.
70
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors While Attempting Measurements
Frame Error Rate
(Receiver
Measurements)
Problem:
If your Test System is not set up correctly for receiver tests, you may see
erroneous results (extremely high FER or the inability to return a measurement)
on the tool you use for displaying the Frame Error Rate calculated by the base
station.
The error can occur while using the following menu screen:
•
CDMA Generator Menu Selection
Possible causes and solutions:
1 Missing an Even-Second clock timing signal.
You must have access to the Even-Second clock signal from the base station to
achieve proper correlation to the CDMA signal. Verify that the signal is accessible
and make sure that it is connected to the EVEN SECOND/SYNC IN port on front of
the Cellular Adapter. To verify your Even-Second clock, see "Check Even-Second
Clock" on page 46.
2
Test System timebase reference not connected.
Verify that you have access to the base station’s reference timebase signal (typically
19.6608 MHz). The reference should be connected to the SYNTH REF IN port on the
rear of the Cellular Adapter. If configured correctly, the REF UNLOCK indicator on
the Cellular Adapter should not be on.
3
Missing or faulty connections from the PCS Interface output to the receiver inputs of
the base station.
Check to see that the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface is connected to the
receiver test port of the base station being tested.
4
Incorrect Base Station Channel entry.
The Software tunes the CDMA Generator to a receive frequency based on your entry
for Base Station Channel. The entry must match the channel your base station
is set to receive on. Verify the channel number entry in the Base Station
Channel field on the main menu screen. If you want to verify the frequency the
Generator is set to, see the Generator Frequency setting at the bottom of the
main menu screen.
71
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Errors While Attempting Measurements
5
RX PN Offset not set to zero.
For receiver testing, the CDMA Generator is simulating the reverse channel (uplink)
signal as it would be sent by a mobile phone. Mobiles transmit on system time, so the
PN Offset should be set to zero. Make sure that the field RX PN Offset has an
entry of 0.
6
CDMA Generator level delivered to the receiver test port of the base station is low.
Verify that the entry for RF Level in the CDMA Generator Menu Selection
matches the level intended for receiver (FER) tests. Also, you should check your entry
for RX Measurement Path Loss in the Configuration Information
Menu. If, in reality, you have much more loss than is indicated in the entry, the RF
level at the receiver test port will be much less than is indicated in the CDMA
Generator menu screen.
7
Incorrect setting for CDMA Generator Mode and/or Data Source.
In the CDMA Generator Menu Selection screen, the Generator Mode
should be set to Data and the Data Source should be Random.
72
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Questionable Measurement Results
Questionable Measurement Results
Overview
Refer to the topics in this section if you are seeing measurement results with no
indicated errors, but you are failing a test or you believe you’re getting erroneous
results. The following pages list some common sources of measurement errors for
each type of test.
Average Power
Potential causes of measurement error in average power readings include:
Cable loss values are incorrect
Since the Software will compensate for the cable loss between your base station’s
transmitter test port and the Test System, it is very important that you have the
correct values entered into the Configuration Information Menu.
You can view the loss value in the Average power menu. If they do not match
your setup (do not forget to allow for losses through couplers, attenuators, and so
forth) go to the Configuration Information Menu and enter the correct
value under TX Measurement Path Loss.
Power meter not zeroed recently
Periodically, you should zero the power meter. This is done by pressing the
Zero Pow (k1) key while in the Average power menu.
Measurement units are incorrect
Verify that the measurement display is reporting in the units that you expect for
this test (choices are Watts, milliwatts, and dBm). The displayed units can be
changed in the Average power menu using USER keys k2, k3, and k4.
Input signal is outside the measurement range of the PCS Interface
The specified range for average power measurements with the PCS Interface is
−13 to +30 dBm (50 µW to 1 W) when testing CDMA base station transmitters.
Verify that the signal applied to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface falls
within this range before continuing with your tests. You can use the Go To
Spectrum Analyzer modes to view the transmitted signal.
Connections are missing or faulty
Make sure that you have connected your transmitter signal to the RF IN/OUT port
on the front panel of the PCS Interface.
73
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Questionable Measurement Results
Rho Measurements Sources of errors in rho measurement include the following:
Input signal is outside the measurement range of the PCS Interface
The specified range for rho measurements with the PCS Interface is
−13 to +30 dBm (50 µW to 1 W) when testing base station transmitters. Verify
that the signal applied to the RF IN/OUT port of the PCS Interface falls within
this range before continuing with your tests.
Channels other than the Pilot are on.
For modulation quality measurements on a CDMA signal, you must have only the
pilot channel active. If other channels (sync, paging, or traffic) are on, you will
get poor rho readings, if you get readings at all. Turn off any other code channels,
if they are on, before trying to re-measure rho.
Other sources of interference exist in the channel.
If other interference sources are present within the CDMA channel, you will see
degraded rho performance. The spectrum analyzer modes may be used to search
for other interference.
Code Domain
Measurements
Sources of errors in Code Domain measurements include the following:
Channels other than the Pilot are not turned up.
Unlike the rho measurements example, code domain measurements require other
code channels to be turned on. In most cases, in addition to the Pilot channel, you
will have a sync channel, a paging channel, and one or more traffic channels
enabled.
Receiver Tests
Sources of errors in receiver tests include the following:
Cable loss values are incorrect
Since the Software will compensate for cable loss between the Test System and
your base station’s receiver test port, it is very important that you have the correct
values entered into the Configuration Information Menu.
You can view the loss values in the Configuration Information Menu. If
they do not match your setup (do not forget to allow for losses through couplers,
attenuators, and so forth) go to RX Measurement Path Loss and enter the
correct value.
74
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Questionable Measurement Results
Sensitivity tests: random data not selected for signal source
For receiver sensitivity measurements, check to see that the CDMA Generator is
set to send random data. In the CDMA Generator Menu Selection screen, the
Generator Mode should be set to Data and the Data Source should be set to
Random.
Performance in additive noise: signal source not set for Eb/No
For this test, noise is added to the channel using the AWGN generator. Verify that
the Generator Mode is set to Eb/No and that the Eb/No Level is set to an
appropriate level.
75
Chapter 4, Troubleshooting
Questionable Measurement Results
76
Glossary
Glossary
Access Channel A reverse CDMA
channel used by mobile stations for
communicating to the base station. The
access channel is used for short signaling
message exchanges such as call
originations, responses to pages, and
registrations. The access channel is a slotted
random access channel.
Added White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)
A broadband noise source used in
conjunction with a CDMA signal source to
test receiver performance.
Autostart A feature of the Test Set’s
IBASIC controller that automatically runs
any program in non-volatile memory when
the power switch is set to ON.
Average Power A method of measuring
the signal level of a CDMA transmitter. The
sampled signal is quantified in terms of
average level. Multiple samples are then
time-averaged to display a final power
measurement.
Base Station (BS) A fixed-location
transceiver in a communications network.
The land station in a cellular or PCS
network carrying on a radio communication
with mobile units.
CDMA See Code Division Multiple
Access.
CDMA Channel The set of channels
transmitted from the base station and the
mobile stations on a given frequency. See
also forward CDMA channel and reverse
CDMA channel.
CDMA Frequency Assignment A
1.23 MHz segment of spectrum centered on
one of the 30 kHz channels of the existing
analog system.
CDMA Generator A functional block in
the CDMA Cellular Adapter that generates
pilot PN sequences with externally or
internally applied channel data. A noise
generator is also incorporated that is
capable of generating calibrated Eb/No
signals.
Cellular Adapter The HP 83203B or
83205A CDMA digital cellular "top box"
for the HP 8921A Cell Site Test Set.
Channel A transmission path between two
points. It is usually the smallest subdivision
of a particular transmission system by
means of which a single type of
communication service is provided.
Code Channel A subchannel of a forward
CDMA channel. A forward CDMA
channel contains 64 code channels. Code
channel zero is assigned to the pilot
channel. Code channels 1 through 7 may be
assigned to either the paging channels or the
traffic channels. Code channel 32 may be
assigned to either a sync channel or a traffic
channel. The remaining code channels may
be assigned to traffic channels.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
A technique for spread-spectrum, multipleaccess digital communications that creates
channels through the use of unique code
sequences.
77
Glossary
Code Domain Analyzer An instrument
that measures individual Walsh Channel
characteristics in a CDMA channel. The
Cellular Adapter can display all 64 Walsh
Channels in a received signal and display
their power, phase, and timing relationship.
Eb/N0 The ratio between the energy of
each information bit (Eb) and the noise
spectral density (N o). This ratio is usually
expressed in dB.
Code Domain Phase A measurement
mode that provides the relative phase
relationship between various Walsh
Channels and the Pilot Channel.
Even-Second Clock A clock that occurs
every two seconds.
Code Domain Power A measurement
mode that presents the signal strength of the
Walsh Channels in a CDMA signal. It
indicates the division of the total power in
the channel as shared by the Pilot, Sync,
Paging, and Traffic channels.
FIR Filter Finite Impulse Response filter.
A filter for which the output, in response to
an impulse input, totally dies away after a
finite time interval. The term is usually used
in reference to a digital filter.
Code Domain Timing A measurement
mode that indicates the relative timing
relationship between various Walsh
Channels and the Pilot Channel.
Data Block The sampled and quantized
record of a portion of the IF waveform at the
input to the DSP analyzer. The data block’s
length is determined by the Interval
field on the CDMA ANALYZER screen.
dBm/Hz A measure of power spectral
density. dBm/Hz is the power in one Hertz
of bandwidth, where power is expressed in
units of dBm.
dBW A measure of power expressed in
terms of its ratio (in dB) to one Watt.
Downconverter An RF network using a
local oscillator to translate an input signal to
a lower (intermediate) frequency.
Downlink See Forward Link.
78
Eb The energy in an information bit.
FER See Frame Error Rate.
Forward CDMA Channel A CDMA
channel from a base station to mobile
stations. The forward CDMA channel
contains one or more code channels that are
transmitted on a CDMA frequency
assignment using a particular pilot PN
offset. The code channels are associated
with the pilot channel, sync channel, paging
channels, and traffic channels. The forward
CDMA channel always carries a pilot
channel and may carry up to 1 sync channel,
up to 7 paging channels, and up to 63 traffic
channels, as long as the total number of
channels, including the pilot channel, is no
greater than 64.
Forward Link The link direction from the
base station to the mobile station. Also
referred to as the downlink.
Forward Traffic Channel A code
channel used to transport primary traffic,
secondary traffic, and signaling traffic from
the base station to the mobile station.
Glossary
Frame A basic timing interval in the
system. For the Access channel, paging
channel, and traffic channel, a frame is
20 ms long. For the sync channel, a frame is
26.666...ms long.
Frame Clocks A phase-locked loop in the
CDMA Cellular Adapter that provides the
following CDMA clocks for internal or
external (through the rear-panel, 9-pin
connector) use:
• 2 second
• 80 millisecond
• 27 millisecond
• 20 millisecond
Frame Delay Pulse An internal timing
pulse that initiates the Cellular Adapter’s
CDMA frame clocks. The frame delay
pulse occurs after the frame delay timer
expires.
Modulation Symbol The output of the
data modulator before spreading. On the
reverse traffic channel, 64-ary orthogonal
modulation is used and six code symbols
are associated with one modulation symbol.
On the forward traffic channel, each code
symbol (when the data rate is 9600 bps) or
each repeated code symbol (when the date
rate is less than 9600 bps) is one modulation
symbol.
No Noise spectral density. See Eb/No.
Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
(OQPSK) A form of modulation that
applies different data sequences to two
carriers separated by 90o. The two different
data sequences are staggered by half a
modulation symbol time. See Also
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.
Frame Delay Timer A timer that
determines the interval between the sync
pulse and the frame delay pulse.
Paging Channel A code channel on the
forward channel used for paging mobile
stations. Of the 64 Walsh functions used for
channelization on the forward link, one
through seven (inclusive) can be used for
paging channels.
Frame Error Rate (FER) A measure of
the performance of a digital receiver. For a
given data rate, the ratio of frames received
incorrectly to the total number of frames
sent. Also referred to as Frame Error Ratio.
PCS see Personal Communications
Services.
Intermediate Frequency (IF) The
frequency resulting from a downconversion
process.
PCS Interface. The HP 83236B. Used to
translate signals from the PCS band into the
range of the Test Set and to provide a
calibrated CDMA signal source.
Mcps Megachips per second (one million
chips per second).
Modulation Quality See Rho.
79
Glossary
Personal Communication Services
(PCS) Emerging wireless networks using
digital modulation formats and operating in
the frequency band between 1.8 and 2.4
GHz.
Pilot Channel An unmodulated, directsequence, spread-spectrum signal
transmitted continuously by each CDMA
base station. The Pilot channel allows a
mobile station to acquire the timing of the
forward CDMA channel, provides a phase
reference for coherent demodulation, and
provides a means for signal strength
comparisons between base stations for
determining when to hand off.
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
A form of modulation that applies different
data sequences to two carriers separated by
90 ° .
Quadrature Spreading Frequency
spreading performed using pilot PN
sequences at a 1.2288 Mcps rate. Also
referred to as "short sequence spreading".
Pilot PN Sequence A pair of modified
maximal length PN sequences with period
215 used to spread the forward CDMA
channel and the reverse CDMA channel.
Different base stations are identified by
different pilot PN sequence offsets.
Reference Signal A replica of the ideal
CDMA waveform. The reference signal
resides on the Cellular Adapter’s DSP
analyzer and is correlated with a signalunder-test to determine waveform accuracy
and timing offset.
Pilot PN Sequence Offset Index The PN
offset in units of 64 PN chips of a pilot,
relative to the zero offset pilot PN sequence.
Reverse CDMA Channel The CDMA
channel from the mobile station to the base
station. From the base station’s perspective,
the reverse CDMA channel is the sum of all
mobile station transmissions on a CDMA
frequency assignment.
PN Chip The time duration of one binary
bit in the PN sequence, which is equal to the
reciprocal of the frequency at which the PN
sequence generator operates. For example,
if the PN generator operates at 1.2288 MHz,
then a PN chip is 813.802 ns.
PN Sequence Literally "pseudo-noise
sequence." A periodic binary sequence
(with 0 mapped to 1, and 1 mapped
to −1). Typically a PN sequence has good
autocorrelation which (when normalized)
equals 1 for zero shift between the two
sequences, and −1/N, where N is the period,
for all other shifts.
80
PN Sync Pulse A signal to the CDMA
Generator that initiates pilot PN sequence
generation. The start of each pilot PN
sequence is synchronized at the Test Set’s
RF IN/OUT port to the 27 millisecond
frame clock.
Reverse Link The link direction from the
mobile station to the base station. Also
referred to as the uplink.
Reverse Traffic Channel A reverse
CDMA channel used to transport primary
traffic, secondary traffic, and signaling
traffic from a single mobile station to one or
more base stations.
Glossary
Rho The measure of the waveform quality
of a modulated signal in a CDMA system.
A received signal is compared to an ideal,
reference, signal. A high correlation
between the received signal and the
reference represents a high waveform
quality factor.
Sync Channel A code channel in the
forward CDMA channel that synchronizes
the mobile station with the base station.
Sync Pulse A pulse that starts both the
frame delay timer and the PN sequence
delay timers. A sync pulse occurs when:
•
•
the Test Set is powered on, or
an external even-second clock is
received on the CDMA Cellular
Adapter's front-panel EVEN SECOND/
SYNC port.
Test System A test equipment station
consisting of a Test Set, Cellular Adapter,
and PCS Interface. Used for testing CDMA
base station equipment operating in the PCS
band.
System Time The time reference used by
the network. System time is synchronous to
Universal Coordinated Time (except for
leap seconds) and uses the same time origin
as Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) time.
All base stations use the same System Time
(within a small error). Mobile stations use
the same System Time, offset by the
propagation delay from the base station to
the mobile station. See also Universal
Coordinated Time.
Test Set The HP 8921A. Used for
installation and maintenance of AMPS,
TDMA, and CDMA cell site equipment.
Traffic Channel A communication path
between a mobile station and a base station,
used primarily for communicating serviceoption related traffic. The term traffic
channel implies a forward traffic channel
and reverse traffic channel pair. See also
forward traffic channel and reverse traffic
channel.
Trigger Event Trigger event describes the
operating state of the DSP analyzer at the
time a qualified trigger causes the DSP
analyzer to acquire and begin measuring the
digitized IF waveform from the CDMA
transmitter-under-test.
Universal Coordinated Time (UCT) An
internationally agreed-upon time scale that
has the same rate as atomic time. UCT is
corrected by step adjustments of exactly one
second as needed to remain within 0.9
seconds of astronomical time.
Uplink See Reverse Link.
Walsh Chip The shortest identifiable
component of a Walsh function. The are 2N
Walsh chips in one Walsh function where N
is the order of the Walsh function. On the
forward CDMA channel, one Walsh chip
equals 1/1.2288 MHz, or 813.802. . .ns. On
the reverse CDMA channel, one Walsh chip
equals 4/1.2288 MHz, or 3.255... us.
Walsh Cover A coding method that uses
Walsh functions to create a set of mutually
orthogonal CDMA signals. In the CDMA
system, a code channel is formed by a
Walsh cover.
81
Glossary
Walsh Function One of 2N timeorthogonal binary functions (note that the
functions are orthogonal after mapping 0 to
1, and 1 to −1).
Walsh Symbol The time necessary to
transmit one Walsh function on the reverse
CDMA channel.
Zero Offset Pilot PN Sequence A pilot
PN sequence aligned with System Time
such that the first chip on every evensecond mark is the "1" following the fifteen
consecutive "0"s.
82
Index
B
bad measurements, 73
base station
definition, 77
beep
setting volume level, 59
beginning use of the software, 11
C
cable losses
receiver path, 53
transmitter path, 53
CDMA
definition, 77
CDMA channel
definition, 77
CDMA frequency assignment
definition, 77
CDMA generator
definition, 77
CDMA measurement not correlating, 69
CDMA TIMEBASE IN port, 60
Cellular Adapter
definition, 77
channel
definition, 77
channel plans, 51
check even second clock
measurements
other, 46
clearing Save/Recall registers, 65
code channel
definition, 77
Code Division Multiple Access
definition, 77
Code Domain Analyzer
definition, 78
code domain measurements
code domain phase, 34
definition, 78
code domain power, 30
definition, 78
code domain timing, 32
definition, 78
questionable measurement results, 74
compensation not performed, 67
Configuration Information
errors, 67
loading, 55
purging, 56
saving, 54
configure the software, 18
connections
diagrams, viewing, 58
83
Index
A
access channel
definition, 77
Added White Gaussian Noise
definition, 77
added white gaussian noise, 42
Autostart, 57
definition, 77
turning off, 57
turning on, 57
average power, 26
definition, 77
suspect measurement results, 73
AWGN, 42
definition, 77
Index
front panel, 58
instruments, 14
rear panel, 58
timebases, 60
correlation, 69
correlation errors, 69
84
D
data block
definition, 78
description
product, 12
E
Eb
definition, 78
Eb/No, 42
definition, 78
equipment
required, 13
errors, 63
Configuration Information, 67
frame error rate (FER), 71
HP-IB, 66
measurement, 69, 73
measurement not correlating, 69
memory overflow, 65
menu screens don’t match, 68
PCS Interface, 66
runtime, 66
software, 65
system configuration, 66
Even-Second clock
definition, 78
Index
F
FER
definition, 78
finite inpulse response filter
definition, 78
FIR filter
definition, 78
forward CDMA channel
definition, 78
forward link
definition, 78
forward traffic channel
definition, 78
frame
definition, 79
frame clocks
definition, 79
frame delay pulse
definition, 79
frame delay timer
definition, 79
frame error rate, 42
definition, 79
frame error rate (FER), 40, 42
frame error rate measurement problems,
71
G
getting started, 11
H
hardware
required, 13
HP-IB command not accepted, 66
HP-IB errors, 66
85
Index
I
instrument connections, 14, 58
intermediate frequency
definition, 79
86
L
Loading Configuration Information, 55
loading the software, 15
M
main menu screen, 17
making connections, 14
making measurements, 23
Mcps
definition, 79
measurement errors, 69
measurement results
average power, 73
code domain measurements, 74
receiver tests, 74
rho, 74
measurements, 23
average power, 26
code domain phase, 34
code domain power, 30
code domain timing, 32
modulation quality (rho), 28
other, 44
questionable results, 73
receiver performance in additive noise,
42
receiver sensitivity, 40
transmit spectrum, 36
memory overflow errors, 65
menu screen errors, 68
modulation quality
definition, 79
modulation quality (rho), 28
modulation symbol
definition, 79
Index
N
navigation of software menus, 17
noise source, 42
Noise, Added White Gaussian
definition, 77
O
offset quadrature phase shift keying
definition, 79
OQPSK
definition, 79
P
paging channel
definition, 79
PCS
definition, 79
PCS Band
selection, 51
PCS frequencies, 51
PCS Interface
definition, 79
error messages, 66
Personal Communications Services
definition, 80
phase, code domain, 34
pilot channel
definition, 80
pilot PN sequence
definition, 80
pilot sequence offset index
definition, 80
PN chip
definition, 80
PN sequence
definition, 80
power
average, 26
code domain, 30
problems, 63
product description, 12
Purging Configuration Information, 56
87
Index
Q
QPSK
definition, 80
quadrature phase shift keying
definition, 80
quadrature spreading
definition, 80
questionable measurement results, 73
88
R
receiver performance in additive noise,
42
receiver sensitivity, 40
receiver tests
suspect measurement results, 74
reference signal
definition, 80
references
connections, 60
registers
clearing, 65
required equipment, 13
reverse CDMA channel
definition, 80
reverse link
definition, 80
reverse traffic channel
definition, 80
rho, 28
definition, 81
suspect measurement results, 74
running the software, 15
runtime errors, 66
RX Measurement Path Loss, 53
S
Saving Configuration Information, 54
search for PN offset, 44
selecting a PCS Band, 51
sensitivity, receiver, 40
setting up the software, 18
Show Instrument Front Panel Connections, 58
Show Instrument Rear Panel Connections, 58
software
configuring, 18
definition, 12
errors, 65
loading, 15, 65
navigation, 17
running, 15, 65
software definition, 12
spectrum analyzer, 36
starting to use the software, 11
sync channel
definition, 81
sync pulse
definition, 81
System
definition, 81
system configuration errors, 66, 67
system time
definition, 81
Index
T
Test Set
definition, 81
timebase
connections, 60
timing, code domain, 32
tone, audio, 59
traffic channel
definition, 81
transmit spectrum, 36
trigger event
definition, 81
troubleshooting, 63
TX Measurement Path Loss, 53
U
UCT
definition, 81
Universal Coordinated Time
definition, 81
uplink
definition, 81
V
viewing connect diagrams, 58
89
Index
W
Walsh chip
definition, 81
Walsh cover
definition, 81
Walsh function
definition, 82
Walsh symbol
definition, 82
90
Z
zero offset pilot
definition, 82
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