HP 37718A User's manual

HP 37718A User's manual
User’s Guide
DSn/SONET
Operation
HP 37718A
OmniBER 718
 Copyright HewlettPackard Ltd.1998
All rights reserved.
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adaption, or
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allowed under the
copyright laws.
HP Part No.
37718-90022
Warranty
WARNING
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contained in this
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First edition, 09/98
Second Edition, 12/98
Printed in U.K.
Hewlett-Packard Limited
Telecommunications Networks Test Division
South Queensferry
West Lothian, Scotland EH30 9TG
The product is marked
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Calibration Manual.
User’s Guide DSn/SONET Operation
HP 37718A
OmniBER 718
About This Book
This book tells you how to select the features that you want to use for your test.
The selections available are presented in the following groups:
• Transmit and receive interfaces
• Test features, for example, the addition of errors and alarms to the test
signal
• Measurements including test timing
• Storing, logging and printing results with general printer information
• Using instrument and disk storage
• Using the “Other” features.
The selections available will depend on the options fitted to your
instrument. The examples given in this book cover all options and
therefore may include selections which are not available on your
instrument.
iv
Contents
1 Setting the Interfaces
Setting DSn Transmit Interface 2
Setting SONET Transmit Interface 4
Setting Jitter Transmit Interface 7
Setting Wander Transmit Interface 9
Setting SONET THRU Mode 11
Using Smart Test 13
Setting DSn Receive Interface 15
Setting SONET Receive Interface 17
Setting Jitter Receive Interface 18
Setting Extended Jitter Receive Interface 19
Setting Wander Receive Interface 20
2 Selecting Test Features
Using Transmit Overhead Setup 22
Using Receive Overhead Monitor 24
Setting Overhead Trace Messages 26
Generating Overhead Sequences 27
Using Receive Overhead Capture 29
Adding Frequency Offset to SONET Signal 31
Adding Frequency Offset to the DSn Signal 33
Setting up Signaling Bits 34
Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal 37
Setting Receive Structured Payload/Test Signal 39
Setting Transmit N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s
Structured Payload/Test Signal 40
Setting Receive N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s
Structured Payload/Test Signal 42
v
Contents
Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal 43
Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal 46
Adding Errors & Alarms at the SONET Interface 49
Adding Errors & Alarms to the DSn Interface/DSn Payload 50
Using FEAC Codes 51
Setting DSn Spare Bits 53
Adding Pointer Adjustments 54
Using Pointer Graph Test Function 61
Stressing Optical Clock Recovery Circuits 63
Generating Automatic Protection Switch Messages 64
Inserting & Dropping Data Communications Channel 65
3 Making Measurements
Using Overhead BER Test Function 68
Test Timing 69
Making SONET Analysis Measurements 70
Making DSn Analysis Measurements 71
Measuring Frequency 72
Measuring Optical Power 73
Measuring Round Trip Delay 74
Monitoring Signaling Bits 76
Measuring Service Disruption Time 77
Performing a SONET Tributary Scan 80
Performing an SONET Alarm Scan 82
Performing a DSn Alarm Scan 83
Measuring Jitter 84
Measuring Extended Jitter 86
Measuring Wander 87
Measuring Jitter Tolerance 89
vi
Contents
Measuring Jitter Transfer 92
4 Storing, Logging and Printing
Saving Graphics Results to Instrument Store 98
Recalling Stored Graph Results 99
Viewing the Bar Graph Display 101
Viewing the Graphics Error and Alarm Summaries 103
Logging Graph Displays 105
Logging Results 107
Logging on Demand 110
Logging Jitter Tolerance Results 112
Logging Jitter Transfer Results 114
Logging Results to Parallel (Centronics) Printer 116
Logging Results to HP-IB Printer 117
Logging Results to Internal Printer 118
Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer 119
Printing Results from Disk 120
Connecting an HP 850C DeskJet Printer to a Parallel Port 121
Changing Internal Printer Paper 122
Cleaning Internal Printer Print Head 125
5 Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Storing Configurations in Instrument Store 128
Titling Configuration in Instrument Store 129
Recalling Configurations from Instrument Store 130
Formatting a Disk 131
vii
Contents
Labeling a Disk 132
Managing Files and Directories on Disk 133
Saving Graphics Results to Disk 140
Saving Data Logging to Disk 142
Saving Configurations to Disk 143
Recalling Configuration from Disk 144
Recalling Graphics Results from Disk 145
Copying Configuration from Instrument Store to Disk 146
Copying Configuration from Disk to Instrument Store 148
Copying Graphics Results from Instrument Store to Disk 150
6 Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Coupling Transmit and Receive Settings 154
Setting Time & Date 155
Enabling Keyboard Lock 156
Enabling Beep on Received Error 157
Suspending Test on Signal Loss 158
Setting Error Threshold Indication 159
Setting Screen Brightness and Color 160
Dumping Display to Disk 161
Running Self Test 163
viii
Contents
7 STS-1 SPE Background Patterns
8 ETSI/ANSI Terminology
ETSI/ANSI Conversion and Equivalent Terms 170
ix
Contents
x
1
1
Setting the Interfaces
This chapter tells you how to set the instrument
interfaces to match the network being tested.
Setting the Interfaces
Setting DSn Transmit Interface
Description
DSn transmit interface settings should match network equipment
settings of Rate, Termination and Line Code and determine the Payload
to be tested.
TIP:
To set the Transmitter and Receiver to the same interface settings
choose OTHER SETTINGS CONTROL COUPLED .
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required SIGNAL rate.
Rates of DS1, DS3, 2 Mb/s and 34 Mb/s are available.
2 If you have chosen 2 Mb/s as the SIGNAL rate, choose the required
CLOCK SYNC source - internally generated or recovered from the
received DSn signal.
If Jitter, Option 204, 205 or 206, is fitted and SIGNAL 2 Mb/s is chosen
a 2M REF choice is added to the menu. This allows you to choose the
synchronization source for the 2 Mb/s reference. The synchronization
source is supplied from the SONET Clock module. It can be internally
generated, derived from an external clock or recovered from the
SONET received signal.
2
Setting the Interfaces
Setting DSn Transmit Interface
3 If DS1 or DS3 is chosen, choose the required OUTPUT LEVEL.
4 If you have chosen 2 Mb/s as the SIGNAL rate, choose the required
TERMINATION. (At all other signal rates the impedance is fixed).
5 If you have chosen 2 Mb/s or DS1 as the SIGNAL rate, choose the
required LINE CODE. (At 34 Mb/s and DS3 coding is fixed).
6 If required, choose the FREQUENCY OFFSET value.
See “Adding Frequency Offset to the DSn Signal” page 33.
7 Choose the required PAYLOAD TYPE.
If STRUCTURED is required FRAMED must be chosen.
If STRUCTURED is chosen the DSn test signal must be set up. See
“Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal” page 37.
If you have chosen 2 Mb/s, DS1 or DS3 as the DSn signal rate, the
Framed choice is expanded to provide a menu of framing types.
8 Choose the PATTERN type and the PRBS POLARITY.
3
Setting the Interfaces
Setting SONET Transmit Interface
Setting SONET Transmit Interface
Description
SONET transmit interface settings should match the network
equipment settings of Rate, Wavelength and Mapping, determine the
payload to be tested and set background conditions to prevent alarms
while testing.
TIP:
If you wish to set the HP 37718A transmitter and receiver to the same
interface settings choose OTHER SETTINGS CONTROL COUPLED .
HOW TO:
1 Make your choice of SIGNAL rate.
If Option 106, Dual Wavelength optical module, is fitted and an optical
rate is chosen, choose the required wavelength (1550) or (1310).
If STS-1 is chosen, choose the required interface level.
Choose INTERNAL unless THRU MODE is required. If THRU MODE is
chosen, see "Setting SONET THRU Mode " page 11.
2 Make your choice of CLOCK synchronization source. The RECEIVE
clock synchronization choice depends on the SONET Receive Interface
choice.
EXTERNAL allows a choice of MTS, BITS or 10 MHz clocks.
3 If required choose the FREQUENCY OFFSET value. See “Adding
Frequency Offset to SONET Signal” page 31.
4
Setting the Interfaces
Setting SONET Transmit Interface
4 Choose FOREGROUND F/G MAPPING , BACKGROUND
B/G MAPPING MAPPING and type of payload.
Mapping may be selected from a pictorial display by moving the cursor to
MAPPING and pressing SET .
Use
and
to move between STS Layer choice, VT Layer choice and
Payload Layer choice. Use
and
to choose the mapping.
Use SET to confirm your choice and return to the SONET
MAIN SETTINGS display.
5 If VT-6 mapping is chosen, VT CONCATENATION selection is
enabled, choose OFF or the tributary at which the concatenation
begins, VT6-2C through VT6-6C.
The BACKGROUND, PATTERN IN OTHER VT-6’s is fixed at
NUMBERED, that is, each VT-6 contains a unique number to allow
identification in case of routing problems.
6 If required, choose DS1/2M/34M/DS3 OFFSET value. See “Adding
Frequency Offset to SONET Signal” page 31
7 If FULL SPE, VT-6, VT-2 or VT-1.5 mapping is chosen, choose the test
tributary CHANNEL, including the STS-3 for an OC-12/OC-48 signal.
8 Choose the payload framing under PAYLOAD TYPE or VT PAYLOAD.
If STRUCTURED is required FRAMED must be chosen.
If STRUCTURED is chosen, the Payload test signal must be set up. See
“Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal” page 37.
If INSERT is chosen, see “Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test
Signal” page 43.
5
Setting the Interfaces
Setting SONET Transmit Interface
If you have chosen 2 Mb/s, DS1 or DS3 under Mapping, the Framed
choice is expanded to provide a menu of framing types.
9 Choose the PATTERN type and PRBS polarity.
10 Choose the mapping required in the background (non-test) STS’s.
11 If VT mapping is chosen for the test STS, choose the PATTERN IN
OTHER VT’s.
6
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Jitter Transmit Interface
Setting Jitter Transmit Interface
Description:
You can add jitter to the transmitted DSn or SONET signal at 2 Mb/s,
34 Mb/s, STS-3, OC-3, OC-12, and OC-48. You can source the jitter
modulation internally or from an external source.
HOW TO:
1 If you are adding jitter to the DSn signal, set up the DSn transmit
interface. See Chapter “Setting DSn Transmit Interface”.
2 If you are adding jitter to the SONET signal, set up the SONET
transmit interface. See “Setting SONET Transmit Interface” page 4.
3 Choose JITTER/WANDER JITTER .
If you wish to add wander to the DSn or SONET signal, See “Setting
Wander Transmit Interface” page 9.
4 Choose JITTER ON .
If you wish to perform a Jitter Tolerance measurement, choose
AUTO TOLERANCE . See “Measuring Jitter Tolerance” page 89.
If you wish to perform a Jitter Transfer measurement choose
TRANSFER FUNCTION . See “Measuring Jitter Transfer” page 92.
7
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Jitter Transmit Interface
5 Choose the modulation source.
If adding jitter to the DSn signal and EXTERNAL is chosen, connect
the external source to the MOD IN port of the DSn Jitter TX module.
Up to 10 UI of external jitter modulation can be added at the MOD IN
port.
If adding jitter to the SDH signal and EXTERNAL is chosen, connect
the external source to the MOD IN port of the SONET Clock module.
Up to 20 UI of external jitter modulation can be added at the MOD IN
port.
6 Choose the JITTER MASK setting required.
You can choose the jitter range, jitter modulating frequency and jitter
amplitude if OFF is chosen.
If you choose SWEPT , the HP 37718A will "sweep" through the ITU-T
jitter mask (G.823 for DSn, G.958, G.825 or G.253 for SONET)
adjusting the jitter amplitude according to the jitter frequency.
If you choose SPOT , you can choose the "spot" jitter frequency. The
jitter amplitude is adjusted and controlled according to your jitter
frequency choice.
TIP:
If, when using the SWEPT MASK capability, a problem occurs around a
certain frequency, this may require closer examination. Stop the sweep
at that point by choosing SPOT . You can then control the "spot" jitter
frequency to make closer examination of the problem.
8
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Wander Transmit Interface
Setting Wander Transmit Interface
Description:
You can add Wander to the 2 Mb/s DSn signal and the STS-3, OC-3,
OC-12 or OC-48 SONET signal.
HOW TO:
DSn Wander (2 Mb/s)
1 Connect REF OUT on the SONET Clock module to REF IN on the DSn
Jitter TX module (this provides the Wander Reference).
2 Set up the DSn transmit interface, choose CLOCK SYNC 2M REF and
select the SOURCE required from the menu. See “Setting DSn
Transmit Interface” page 2.
3 Choose JITTER/WANDER WANDER .
If you wish to add jitter to the DSn signal, See “Setting Jitter Transmit
Interface” page 7.
4 Choose WANDER ON .
5 Choose the modulation source.
If EXTERNAL is chosen, connect the external source to the MOD IN
port of the DSn Jitter TX module. Up to 10 UI of external wander
modulation can be added.
9
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Wander Transmit Interface
6 Choose the WANDER MASK setting required.
You can choose the wander modulating frequency and wander
amplitude if OFF is chosen.
If you choose SPOT , you can choose the "spot" wander frequency. The
wander amplitude is adjusted and controlled according to your wander
frequency choice.
SONET Wander (STS-3, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48)
7 Set up the SONET transmit interface. See “Setting SONET Transmit
Interface” page 4.
8 Choose JITTER/WANDER WANDER .
If you wish to add jitter to the SONET signal, see "Setting Jitter
Transmit Interface " page 7.
9 Choose WANDER ON .
10 Choose the WANDER MASK setting required.
You can choose the wander modulating frequency and wander
amplitude if OFF is chosen.
If you choose SPOT , you can choose the "spot" wander frequency. The
wander amplitude is adjusted and controlled according to your wander
frequency choice.
10
Setting the Interfaces
Setting SONET THRU Mode
Setting SONET THRU Mode
Description
THRU mode is used to non-intrusively monitor SONET lines where no
protected monitor points are available.
As THRU mode locks some user settings, you must set SIGNAL RATE,
STS rate, STS-1 SPE CHANNEL (if appropriate) before selecting THRU
mode.
The entire frame can be errorred at a user defined rate if PAYLOAD
OVERWRITE and TOH+POH CHANNEL OVERWRITE are both set to
OFF . If either overwrite is enabled the ENTIRE FRAME ERROR RATE
function is disabled.
OC-1/STS-1, OC-3/STS-3
You can substitute a new payload, Section and Line Overhead (TOH) and
Path overhead (POH) in the received OC-1/STS-1 or OC-3/STS-3 signal
for testing.
OC-12, OC-48
The overhead and payload may be overwritten for STS-3c SPE and AU3.
PAYLOAD OVERWRITE is not available for STS-12C or STS-48C.
TOH+POH CHANNEL overwrite is available for STS-12C and STS-48C.
HOW TO:
1 Make the required SIGNAL RATE, MAPPING and CHANNEL
choices on the SONET TRANSMIT and RECEIVE displays, See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4 and "Setting SONET
Receive Interface " page 17.
11
Setting the Interfaces
Setting SONET THRU Mode
2 Make the PAYLOAD OVERWRITE choice required.
If STS-3c SPE, STS-1 SPE, VT-6, VT-2 or VT-1.5 is chosen, the Section,
Line and Path CVs are recalculated before transmission and the
Mapping, Selected VT, VT Payload, Pattern, Tributary Offset and
Pattern in other VT’s settings are displayed. To choose the settings in
these, See "Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4, steps 4
through 10.
3 Make the TOH+POH CHANNEL OVERWRITE choice required.
You can only modify those overhead bytes available under TRANSMIT
SONET TEST FUNCTION SONET : Errors & Alarms, Sequences,
Overhead BER, APS Messages and DCC Insert.
The Section, Line and Path CVs are recalculated before transmission.
4 If you wish to add jitter to the STS-3, OC-3, OC-12 or OC-48 signal, See
“Setting Jitter Transmit Interface” page 7.
12
Setting the Interfaces
Using Smart Test
Using Smart Test
Description
The Smart Test function can help speed-up configuring the instrument in
two ways.
1 A Smartsetup feature that will attempt to configure the instrument
to receive the incoming signal.
2 A series of “links” that provide quick access to some of the most
frequently used features of the instrument. Note that these tests are
run with the instrument in its current configuration, no attempt is
made to set the instrument to the requirements of the test.
Smartsetup can help the user by attempting to identify the incoming
signal structure and detect mixed payload signal structures.
HOW TO USE
SMARTSETUP:
1 Connect the HP 37718A to the network and choose if necessary the
required SONET RECEIVE interface on the HP 37718A (Smartsetup
will select DSn or SONET/SDH, but can not select between SONET
and SDH).
2 Press SMART TEST .
The display will show the Smart Test menu above.
3 Press either SET or SELECT
.
13
Setting the Interfaces
Using Smart Test
4 In SONET mode the incoming signal will be identified on the top line
of the display, and under this the payload mappings, the J1 Trace and
C2 byte indicators are displayed on the bottom lines.
5 Use the
and
keys to display the J1 Trace information for each
STS SPE. When the STS SPE of interest has been identified choose
either VIEW PAYLOAD or PRBS SEARCH .
6 Choosing VIEW PAYLOAD will identify and display the payload
mapping of the TUG structured signal, as shown below.
Choose the required tributary using
and
.
7 There are four choices available at this point:
SETUP RX which sets the receiver to receive the selected tributary.
TROUBLE SCAN which sets the receiver to receive the selected
tributary, exits to the RESULTS TROUBLE SCAN display and starts
gating.
VIEW LABELS which displays the C2/V5/J1/J2 trace information for
the selected tributary.
TOP LEVEL which returns the display to the STS SPE selection
window.
8 Choosing PRBS SEARCH at Step 5 will prompt you for additional
information about patterns and which mapping to search. When the
required data has been entered press GO .
9 When the search is complete a tributary display appears, with any
tributaries containing the required PRBS indicated with a “P”. Choose
the required tributary using
and
.
14
Setting the Interfaces
Setting DSn Receive Interface
Setting DSn Receive Interface
Description
DSn Receive interface settings should match the network equipment
settings of Rate, Termination and Line Code and determine the Payload
to be tested.
TIP:
To set the transmitter and receiver to the same interface settings choose
OTHER SETTINGS CONTROL COUPLED .
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required SIGNAL rate.
2 If you have chosen 2 Mb/s as the SIGNAL rate, choose the required
TERMINATION. (At all other rates the impedance is fixed.)
3 If you have chosen 2 Mb/s or DS1 as the SIGNAL rate, choose the
required LINE CODE. (At 34Mb/s and DS3 coding is fixed.)
4 If you are measuring at the network equipment monitor point, set the
LEVEL field to MONITOR . In this case the received signal will be 20
to 30 dB below the normal level.
Choose the GAIN required to return the received signal to normal.
Choose EQUALIZATION ON to compensate for cable losses if
required.
15
Setting the Interfaces
Setting DSn Receive Interface
5 Choose the PAYLOAD TYPE.
If STRUCTURED is required FRAMED must be chosen.
If STRUCTURED is chosen, the DSn test signal must be set up. See
“Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal” page 37.
If you chose 2 Mb/s, DS1 or DS3 as the PDH/DSn SIGNAL rate, the
FRAMED choice is expanded to provide a menu of framing types.
6 Choose the PATTERN type and the PRBS POLARITY required.
16
Setting the Interfaces
Setting SONET Receive Interface
Setting SONET Receive Interface
Description
SONET Receive interface settings should match the network equipment
settings of Rate and Mapping, and determine the payload to be tested.
TIP:
If you wish to set the HP 37718A transmitter and receiver to the same
interface settings, choose OTHER SETTINGS CONTROL COUPLED .
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required SIGNAL source.
If STS-1 or STS-3 is chosen, choose the required LEVEL.
If the LEVEL chosen is MONITOR choose the required GAIN.
2 Choose mapping and type of payload.
3 If VT-6 mapping is chosen, and CONCATENATION is enabled, choose
the tributary at which the concatenation begins.
If VT-6, VT-2 or VT-1.5 mapping is chosen, choose the test tributary
under CHANNEL.
4 Choose the payload framing under PAYLOAD TYPE or VT PAYLOAD.
If STRUCTURED is required FRAMED must be chosen.
If STRUCTURED is chosen the Payload test signal must be set up. See
“Setting Receive Structured Payload/Test Signal” page 39.
If DROP is chosen, see “Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal”
page 46.
5 Choose the PATTERN type and PRBS polarity.
17
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Jitter Receive Interface
Setting Jitter Receive Interface
Description:
Jitter and error measurements are made simultaneously when a jitter
option is fitted. The measurements are made on the normal input to the
DSn or SONET receiver and the interface selections are the normal
Receiver selections. The jitter receive interface is selected with RECEIVE
PDH/DSn JITTER or RECEIVE SONET JITTER MEASUREMENT TYPE
JITTER
.
The choices made on the jitter receive interface determine the jitter
measurement range, the threshold level for determining a jitter hit and
which filters are used in the jitter measurement.
HOW TO:
1 Choose MEASUREMENT TYPE JITTER
.
2 Choose the RECEIVER RANGE - the jitter measurement range.
3 Choose the HIT THRESHOLD level - if the received jitter exceeds the
value chosen a jitter hit is recorded.
4 Choose the FILTER you wish to include in the peak to peak and RMS
jitter measurement.
18
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Extended Jitter Receive Interface
Setting Extended Jitter Receive
Interface
Description:
Extended Jitter measurements are made in a jitter bandwidth of 0.1 Hz
to 25 kHz. These measurements are made at the upper end of the
standard wander frequency range and the lower end of the standard
jitter frequency range. The extended jitter receive interface is selected
with RECEIVE PDH/DSn JITTER or RECEIVE SONET JITTER
MEASUREMENT TYPE EXTENDED .
The choices made on the jitter receive interface determine the threshold
level for determining a jitter hit. The measurement Range and the
Filters are not selectable.
HOW TO:
1 Choose MEASUREMENT TYPE EXTENDED
.
2 Choose the HIT THRESHOLD level - if the received jitter exceeds the
value chosen a jitter hit is recorded.
19
Setting the Interfaces
Setting Wander Receive Interface
Setting Wander Receive Interface
Description:
You can measure Wander at all DSn and SONET rates. An external
timing reference should be selected on the TRANSMIT PDH/DSn or
SONET MAIN SETTINGS display to ensure accurate Wander results.
HOW TO:
1 Choose an external timing reference on the TRANSMIT SONET
MAIN SETTINGS display. See, “Setting SONET Transmit Interface”
page 4.
2 If you intend to measure wander on a DSn signal, set up the DSn
receive interface. See, “Setting DSn Receive Interface” page 15.
3 If you intend to measure wander on a SONET signal, set up the
SONET receive interface. See, “Setting SONET Receive Interface”
page 17.
4 Choose MEASUREMENT TYPE WANDER
.
5 Choose the wander HIT THRESHOLD - if the received wander
exceeds the value chosen a wander hit is recorded.
20
2
2
Selecting Test Features
Selecting Test Features
Using Transmit Overhead Setup
Description
You can set an overhead byte to a known static state to aid
troubleshooting, for example to quickly check for "stuck bits" in path
overhead bytes. Transport Overhead, Path Overhead, Trace Messages
and Labels can be set using this feature.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
2 Choose the type of overhead to SETUP.
If OC-12 or OC-48 is chosen as the SONET interface, choose the STS3# and STS-1# you wish to set up.
If STS-3 is chosen as the SONET interface, choose the STS-1# you
wish to set up.
DEFAULT - Use to set all overhead bytes to the standard values
defined by ITU-T.
If a test function is active then the overhead byte value is determined
by the choices made in the Test Function. If APS Messages is chosen,
for example, K1K2 value is set by the APS Messages setup.
22
Selecting Test Features
Using Transmit Overhead Setup
If TOH (Transport Overhead) is chosen, choose the STS-1 to be
displayed. Many bytes in STS-1# 2 and STS-1#3 are unlabeled as the
other overhead functions have not yet been defined.
If STS-1# 1,2,3 is chosen, the hexadecimal value of all 81 bytes of the
STS-3 section & line overhead selected are displayed (all 324 bytes of
an OC-12 or 1,296 bytes of an OC-48 are displayed 81 bytes at a time
by selecting each STS-3 in turn). The value of the bytes can be set
using DECREASE DIGIT INCREASE DIGIT
.
If BYTE NAMES is chosen, the labels for the STS-1# 1,2,3 overhead
bytes are displayed.
3 If POH (Path Overhead) is chosen, choose the TYPE of overhead
within STS-1 under test to be setup.
J1 and J2 bytes can be set under Path Overhead or Trace Messages.
H4 byte has a choice of sequences for VT-2, VT-1.5 and VT-6 mapping:
Full Sequence - 48 byte binary sequence.
Reduced Sequence - Binary count sequence of 0 to 3 i.e. 111111(00
to 11).
COC1 Sequence - Binary count sequence of 0 to 3 i.e. 110000(00 to
11).
H4 byte is transmitted as all zero’s for 34 Mb/s and DS3.
4 If TRACE MESSAGES is chosen, see "Setting Overhead Trace
Messages " page 26.
NOTE
Any bit of an overhead byte which is displayed as x or s cannot be set at
any time. All other bits can be set to 0 or 1.
TIP:
You can set all overhead bytes to the default state by selecting SETUP
DEFAULT .
You can set all overhead bytes and test functions to the default state by
recalling Stored Settings [0] on the OTHER display.
23
Selecting Test Features
Using Receive Overhead Monitor
Using Receive Overhead Monitor
Description
When first connecting to a SONET network, a start up confidence check
can be made by viewing the behavior of all the overhead bytes. If the
SONET network shows alarm indications, some diagnosis of the problem
may be gained from viewing all the overhead bytes.The OVERHEAD
MONITOR display is updated once per second (once per 8000 frames)
approximately.
TIP:
A snapshot of the received overhead can be logged to the chosen logging
device. See "Logging on Demand " page 110.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the receive SONET interface and payload as required. See
“Setting SONET Receive Interface” page 17.
2 Choose the type of overhead to MONITOR.
3 If TOH (Transport Overhead) is chosen, choose the STS-3 # and
STS-1# to be displayed.
Many bytes in STS-1# 2 and STS-1#3 are unlabeled because the other
overhead functions have not yet been defined.
If STS-1# 1,2,3 is chosen, the hexadecimal value of all 81 bytes of
section overhead is displayed (all 324 bytes of an OC-12 or 1,296 bytes
of an OC-48 are displayed 81 bytes at a time by selecting each STS-3
in turn).The value of the bytes can be set using DECREASE DIGIT
INCREASE DIGIT
24
.
Selecting Test Features
Using Receive Overhead Monitor
If BYTE NAMES is chosen, the labels for the STS-1# 1,2,3 overhead
bytes are displayed.
4 If POH (Path Overhead) is chosen, choose the source of the overhead,
SPE or VTSPE.
J1 and J2 bytes can be monitored under Path Overhead or Trace
Messages
5 If TRACE MESSAGES is chosen, you can monitor a data message to
verify portions of the network.
If the 16 byte CRC7 message structure is detected, the 15 characters
within the message are displayed.
If the CRC7 structure is not detected in J1, the 64 byte message
format is assumed and displayed.
If the CRC7 structure is not detected for J0 or J2, all 16 bytes are
displayed.
6 If LABELS is chosen, the S1 sync status, STS path label (C2) and the
VT Path label (V5) are monitored.
7 If APS MESSAGES is chosen, choose the TOPOLOGY, LINEAR (GR253) or RING (GR-1230). The K1 and K2 bits are monitored.
TIP:
If any abnormal behavior is observed on a particular path or section
overhead byte, or an associated group of bytes (3XA1,3XA2; D1 - D3), the
RECEIVE TEST FUNCTION display of OVERHEAD CAPTURE can be
used to "Zoom" in on the suspect byte or bytes on a frame by frame basis.
See "Using Receive Overhead Capture " page 29.
25
Selecting Test Features
Setting Overhead Trace Messages
Setting Overhead Trace Messages
Description
You can insert a data message to verify portions of the network:
J0 verifies the section overhead.
J1 verifies the STS-1 SPE or STS-3c SPE path connection.
J2 verifies the VT SPE path connection.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the message for insertion in the chosen trace channel.
Choosing LABELS in TRACE MESSAGES allows the setting of the S1
SYNC STATUS, STS PATH LABEL (C2) and VT PATH LABEL (V5).
26
Selecting Test Features
Generating Overhead Sequences
Generating Overhead Sequences
Description
You may insert a pattern into a functional group of overhead bytes for
testing or troubleshooting purposes.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
“Setting SONET Transmit Interface” page 4.
2 Choose the type of sequence required.
SINGLE RUN - runs the sequence once and then stops.
REPEAT RUN - runs the sequence repeatedly until STOPPED is
chosen.
3 Choose the overhead type as required.
SOH- Section Overhead
LOH- Line Overhead
POH - Path Overhead
4 Choose the byte or bytes of overhead required.
5
Set up the required number of data patterns and the number of
frames in which each data pattern should appear.
Your sequence is derived from up to 5 blocks of hexadecimal data. Each
block can be transmitted in up to 64,000 frames.
The data and the number of frames are set using DECREASE DIGIT
INCREASE DIGIT
.
27
Selecting Test Features
Generating Overhead Sequences
6 Start the sequence by choosing START .
NOTE
When you start the sequence illustrated, one Out of Frame alarm and one
Loss of Frame alarm should occur every eight seconds.
28
Selecting Test Features
Using Receive Overhead Capture
Using Receive Overhead Capture
Description
Section, Line and Path overhead provide network support functions,
responding dynamically to network conditions and needs. It is therefore
useful to capture overhead activity on a frame by frame basis.
TIP:
The Overhead Capture display can be logged to the chosen logging
device. See "Logging on Demand " page 110.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the receive SONET interface and payload as required. See
“Setting SONET Receive Interface” page 17.
2 Choose the overhead type as required.
SOH- Section Overhead
LOH- Line Overhead
POH- Path Overhead
3 Choose the Byte or bytes of overhead to be captured.
Choose the TRIGGER to determine the start point of the capture.
OFF - starts immediately the capture is initiated. Can be used to
provide a frame by frame monitor of the chosen byte or bytes.
ON -captures activity after your specified overhead state has occurred.
Can be used for transient detection from a specified expected state.
29
Selecting Test Features
Using Receive Overhead Capture
ON NOT - captures activity after the first occurrence of a deviation from
your specified overhead state. Can be used for transient detection from a
specified expected state.
4 Up to 16 records of overhead state are provided. Each record will
represent between 1 and 64,000 frames. A capture is started by
pressing CAPTURE START and terminates when up to 16 records
have been captured. The capture can be terminated earlier by pressing
CAPTURE STOP .
30
Selecting Test Features
Adding Frequency Offset to SONET Signal
Adding Frequency Offset to SONET Signal
Description
Frequency offset can be added to the SONET interface rate signal and to
the payload signal.
HOW TO:
SONET Line Rate Offset
1 Choose the amount of frequency offset required.
You can set the Frequency Offset in the range -999 ppm to +999 ppm
in 1 ppm steps using DECREASE DIGIT INCREASE DIGIT
and
.
The amount of applied Frequency Offset can be varied while
measurements are taking place.
If the value of the SONET line rate offset chosen is sufficient to cause
the maximum stuff rate to be exceeded, the asynchronous payload is
offset to prevent bit errors occurring and the maximum stuff rate is
maintained. When Floating Byte 2 Mb/s is chosen, in conjunction with
SONET line rate offset, the chosen tributary will be offset as the line
rate is offset. (No pointer movements).
31
Selecting Test Features
Adding Frequency Offset to SONET Signal
Tributary Offset ±100 ppm
1 Choose the amount of tributary offset required.
You can set the Offset in the range -100 ppm to +100 ppm in 1 ppm
steps using DECREASE DIGIT INCREASE DIGIT
and
.
The amount of applied Frequency Offset can be varied while
measurements are taking place.
Tributary offset affects the stuff rate but does not cause pointer
movements and can be used to test mapping jitter. If the combined
value of SONET line rate offset and tributary offset chosen is sufficient
to cause the maximum stuff rate to be exceeded the payload is offset to
prevent bit errors occurring and the maximum stuff rate is
maintained.
32
Selecting Test Features
Adding Frequency Offset to the DSn Signal
Adding Frequency Offset to the DSn Signal
Description
You can add frequency offset to the interface DSn SIGNAL at all rates.
Frequency Offset can be added at preset ITU values or as User defined
values in the range ±100 ppm. The preset values change with the
SIGNAL rate chosen as shown:
DS-1 (1.544 Mb/s)
2 Mb/s (E1)
34 Mb/s (E3)
DS-3 (44.736 Mb/s)
HOW TO:
+ 32 ppm
+ 50 ppm
+ 20 ppm
+ 20 ppm
−32 ppm
−50 ppm
−20 ppm
−20 ppm
1 Choose the FREQUENCY OFFSET required.
2 If you choose USER OFFSET, you can set the frequency offset to be
between -100 ppm and +100 ppm in 1 ppm steps.
Select the field immediately below USER OFFSET and use
and
to set the
DECREASE DIGIT , INCREASE DIGIT ,
frequency offset. (The amount of frequency offset can be varied while
measurements are taking place.)
33
Selecting Test Features
Setting up Signaling Bits
Setting up Signaling Bits
Description
When transmitting 2.048 Mb/s signals with timeslot-16 CAS (PCM30 or
PCM30CRC) multiframing the state of A,B,C,D signaling bits can be set.
The signaling bits of all timeslots are set to the user-defined 4 bit value.
When transmitting a DS1 framed, structured signal the values of the
A,B signaling bits for D4 and SLC-96 payloads, and A,B,C,D signaling
bits for ESF payloads can be defined.
HOW TO
Transmit a 2 Mb/s signal with user-defined signaling bits
DSn Operation
1 Choose PDH/DSn on the TRANSMIT display.
2 Choose SIGNAL 2 Mb/s and PAYLOAD TYPE PCM30 or
PCM30CRC on the MAIN SETTINGS display.
3 If UNSTRUCTURED is chosen set the 2M CAS ABCD bits value on
the MAIN SETTINGS display.
If STRUCTURED is chosen set the 2M CAS ABCD bits value on the
STRUCTURED SETTINGS display.
34
Selecting Test Features
Setting up Signaling Bits
SONET Operation
1
Choose SONET on the TRANSMIT display
2 Choose MAPPING ASYNC 2Mb/s or FL BYTE 2Mb/s and VT
PAYLOAD PCM30 or PCM30CRC on the MAIN SETTINGS display.
3 If UNSTRUCTURED is chosen set the 2M CAS ABCD bits value on
the MAIN SETTINGS display.
If STRUCTURED is chosen set the 2M CAS ABCD bits value on the
STRUCTURED SETTINGS display.
HOW TO
Transmit a DS1 payload signal with user-defined signaling bits
DSn Operation
1 Choose PDH/DSn on the TRANSMIT display.
35
Selecting Test Features
Setting up Signaling Bits
2 Choose SIGNAL DS1 or DS3 , and PAYLOAD TYPE STRUCTURED
on the MAIN SETTINGS display
3 Choose TEST SIGNAL 56 kb/s or Nx56 kb/s on the STRUCTURED
SETTINGS display.
4 Set the A,B bits (for D4 and SLC-96) and A,B,C,D bits (for ESF) as
required.
SONET Operation
1 Choose SONET on the TRANSMIT display.
2 Choose MAPPING ASYNC DS1 or DS3 and VT PAYLOAD
STRUCTURED on the MAIN SETTINGS display
3 Choose TEST SIGNAL 56 kb/s or Nx56 kb/s on the STRUCTURED
SETTINGS display .
4 Set the A,B bits (for D4 and SLC-96) and A,B,C,D bits (for ESF) as
required.
36
Selecting Test Features
Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal
Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal
Description
Structured DSn Payload/Test Signal settings determine the SONET
payload or the DSn test signal to be tested and set any background (non
test) conditions to prevent alarms while testing.
TIP:
If you wish to set the HP 37718A transmitter and receiver to the same
Payload settings, choose OTHER SETTINGS CONTROL COUPLED .
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required TEST SIGNAL rate. If Nx64 kb/s or N X 56 kb/s
is chosen, see "Setting Transmit N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s Structured
Payload/Test Signal " page 40.
2 Choose the PAYLOAD framing pattern.
If TEST SIGNAL 2Mb/s is chosen INSERT 2 Mb/s is added to the
PAYLOAD menu. See "Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal
" page 43.
If TEST SIGNAL DS1 is chosen INSERT DS1 is added to the menu.
See "Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal " page 43.
3 Choose the test tributary in the structured payload, under 34Mb, 8Mb,
2Mb, 64 kb/s or DS2, DS1, 56 kb/s.
4 Choose the PATTERN type and PRBS POLARITY.
37
Selecting Test Features
Setting Transmit Structured Payload/Test Signal
5 Choose the B/G PATTERN.
The B/G PATTERN in the non test 56/64 kb/s timeslots is fixed as
NUMBERED, that is, each timeslot contains a unique number to allow
identification in case of routing problems.
Signaling
6 If a 2 Mb/s PAYLOAD with PCM30 or PCM30CRC framing, or 56 kb/s
or Nx56kb/s Test Signal is chosen. See, "Setting up Signaling Bits "
page 34.
38
Selecting Test Features
Setting Receive Structured Payload/Test Signal
Setting Receive Structured Payload/Test Signal
Description
Structured DSn Payload/Test Signal settings determine the SONET
payload or the DSn test signal to be tested.
TIP:
If you wish to set the HP 37718A transmitter and receiver to the same
Payload settings, choose OTHER STORED SETTINGS COUPLED .
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required Test Signal rate. If N x 64 kb/s or N x 56 kb/s is
chosen, see "Setting Receive N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s Structured
Payload/Test Signal " page 42.
2 Choose the Framing pattern of the PAYLOAD.
If TEST SIGNAL 2 Mb/s is chosen, DROP 2 Mb/s is added to the
menu. See "Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal " page 46.
If TEST SIGNAL DS1 is chosen, DROP DS1 is added to the menu.
See "Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal " page 46.
3 Choose the test tributary within the structured payload, under 34Mb,
8Mb, 2Mb, 64 kb or DS2, DS1, 56 kb/s.
4 Choose the PATTERN type and PRBS polarity.
39
Selecting Test Features
Setting Transmit N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s Structured Payload/Test Signal
Setting Transmit N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s
Structured Payload/Test Signal
Description
Wideband services such as high speed data links and LAN
interconnection require a bandwidth greater than 56/64 kb/s but less
than DS1/2 Mb/s for example 112 kb/s or 336 kb/s. These wideband
signals are sent in a DS1/2 Mb/s frame by sharing the signal between
multiple timeslots.
N x 64kb/s/N x 56 kb/s structured payload allows a test pattern to be
inserted across a number of timeslots even if the chosen timeslots are
non-contiguous.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required Test Signal rate.
2 Choose the Framing pattern of the 2M or DS1 PAYLOAD.
3 Choose the test timeslots within the structured payload using
and
softkeys. As each
DESELECT ALL DESELECT SELECT
timeslot is selected, an * marks the chosen timeslot. In the example
above Timeslots 3, 5, 9, 21, 22, 23 are selected for test.
4 Choose the PATTERN type and PRBS polarity.
5 Choose the B/G PATTERN.
40
Selecting Test Features
Setting Transmit N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s Structured Payload/Test Signal
6 The B/G PATTERN in the non-test 56/64 kb/s timeslots is fixed as
NUMBERED, that is, each timeslot contains a unique identification
number.
Signaling
7 If a 2 Mb/s PAYLOAD with PCM30 or PCM30CRC framing, or 56 kb/s
or Nx56kb/s Test Signal is chosen. See, "Setting up Signaling Bits "
page 34.
41
Selecting Test Features
Setting Receive N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s Structured Payload/Test Signal
Setting Receive N x 64 kb/s/N x 56 kb/s
Structured Payload/Test Signal
Description
Wideband services such as high speed data links and LAN
interconnection require a bandwidth greater than 56/64 kb/s but less
than DS1/2 Mb/s e.g. 112 kb/s or 336 kb/s. These wideband signals are
sent in a DS1/2 Mb/s frame by sharing the signal between multiple
timeslots.
N x 64kb/s and N x 56 kb/s structured payload/test signal allows the test
Timeslots to be chosen for error measurement even when the Timeslots
are non contiguous.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the required Test Signal rate.
2 Choose the Framing pattern of the 2M or DS1 PAYLOAD.
3 Choose the test timeslots within the structured payload using
and
softkeys. As each
DESELECT ALL DESELECT SELECT
timeslot is chosen an * marks the chosen timeslot. In the example
above Timeslots 3, 5, 9, 21, 22, 23 are chosen for test.
4 Choose the PATTERN type and PRBS polarity.
42
Selecting Test Features
Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal
Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal
Description
You can insert a DSn signal from external equipment into the SONET
signal, or you can insert 2 Mb/s or DS1 into the structured DSn signal, as
shown in the table below. DS3 and 34 Mb/s can only be inserted if
SONET is chosen as the receive interface. 2 Mb/s or DS1 can be inserted
from a structured or non-structured SONET payload and from a
structured DSn signal.
RATE
HOW TO:
Availability
Option
DS3
SONET
011 Only
34Mb/s
SONET
010 and 011
2Mb/s
DSn & SONET
010 and 011
DS1
DSn & SONET
011 Only
Insert 34 Mb/s & DS3
1 Connect the external payload to the 75Ω IN port of the PDH/DSn
receive module.
2 Set up the required transmit SONET interface, and choose VT
PAYLOAD INSERT 34 Mb/s or INSERT DS3 as required.
43
Selecting Test Features
Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal
Insert 2 Mb/s or DS1 (Unstructured SONET Payload)
1 Connect the external payload to the MUX port of the PDH/DSn
Transmit module.
If 2 Mb/s connect to 75Ω MUX port. If DS1 connect to 100Ω MUX port.
2 Set up the required transmit SONET interface, and choose VT-2 or
VT-1.5 MAPPING and VT PAYLOAD INSERT 2 Mb/s or INSERT DS1 .
Insert 2 Mb/s or DS1 (Structured SONET Payload or Structured
DSn)
1 Connect the external payload to the MUX port of the DSn Transmit
module.
If 2 Mb/s connect to 75Ω MUX port. If DS1 connect to 100Ω MUX port.
44
Selecting Test Features
Inserting an External DSn Payload/Test Signal
Structured SONET Payload
2 Set up the required transmit SONET interface. See "Setting SONET
Transmit Interface " page 4.
3 Set up the SONET structured payload. See "Setting Transmit
Structured Payload/Test Signal " page 37.
4 Choose 2M PAYLOAD/DS1 PAYLOAD INSERT 2 Mb/s or
INSERT DS1 .
5 Choose the LINE CODE.
Structured DSn
6 Set up, the required transmit DSn interface, See "Setting DSn
Transmit Interface " page 2.
7 Set up the DSn Test Signal interface. See "Setting Transmit
Structured Payload/Test Signal " page 37
8 Choose 2M PAYLOAD/DS1 PAYLOAD INSERT 2 Mb/s or
INSERT DS1 .
9 Choose the LINE CODE.
45
Selecting Test Features
Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal
Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal
Description
You can drop a DSn signal from the received payload or drop 2 Mb/s or
DS1 from the structured DSn signal to external equipment as shown in
the table below. DS3 and 34 Mb/s can only be dropped if SONET is
chosen as the receive interface. 2 Mb/s or DS1 can be dropped from a
structured or non-structured SONET payload and from a structured DSn
signal.
RATE
HOW TO:
Availability
Option
DS3
SONET
011 Only
34Mb/s
SONET
010 and 011
2Mb/s
DSn & SONET
010 and 011
DS1
DSn & SONET
011 Only
Drop 34 Mb/s & DS3
1 Connect the 75Ω OUT port of the DSn Transmit module to the
external equipment.
2 Set up the receive SONET interface, and choose VT PAYLOAD ,
DROP 34 Mb/s or DROP DS3 .
If DROP DS3 is chosen, choose the DS3 output level.
46
Selecting Test Features
Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal
Drop 2 Mb/s /DS1 (Unstructured SONET Payload)
1
Connect the DEMUX port of the DSn module to the external
equipment.
2 Set up the required receive SONET interface, and choose VT-2 or
VT-1.5 MAPPING and VT PAYLOAD DROP 2 Mb/s or DROP DS1 .
3 Choose the required LINE CODE.
Drop 2 Mb/s/DS1 (Structured SONET Payload or Structured DSn
1 Connect the DEMUX port of the Receive DSn module to the external
equipment.
If 2 Mb/s connect to 75Ω DEMUX port. If DS1 connect to 100Ω
DEMUX port.
47
Selecting Test Features
Dropping an External Payload/Test Signal
Structured SONET Payload
2 Set up the required receive SONET interface. See "Setting SONET
Receive Interface " page 17.
3 Set up the SONET structured payload. See "Setting Receive
Structured Payload/Test Signal " page 39.
4 Choose 2M PAYLOAD DROP 2 Mb/s or DS1 PAYLOAD DROP DS1 .
5 Choose the LINE CODE.
Structured DSn
6 Set up, the required receive DSn interface, See "Setting DSn Receive
Interface " page 15.
7 Set up the DSn Test Signal interface. See "Setting Receive Structured
Payload/Test Signal " page 39
8 Choose 2M PAYLOAD DROP 2 Mb/s or DS1 PAYLOAD DROP DS1 .
9 Choose the LINE CODE.
48
Selecting Test Features
Adding Errors & Alarms at the SONET Interface
Adding Errors & Alarms at the SONET
Interface
Description
Errors and alarms can be added to the SONET interface signal during
testing.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
2 Choose the ERROR ADD TYPE and RATE required.
Errors can be added at preset rates and at USER programmable rate.
With the exception of ENTIRE FRAME and A1A2 FRAME, errors can
be added at ERROR ALL rate.
If CV-L errors are chosen errors can be added to trigger an APS
THRESHOLD. This takes the form of N errors in T time period. N and
T are both selectable.
3 Choose the ALARM TYPE
Errors and Alarms can be added at the same time.
49
Selecting Test Features
Adding Errors & Alarms to the DSn Interface/DSn Payload
Adding Errors & Alarms to the DSn Interface/
DSn Payload
Description
Errors and alarms can be added to the DSn interface/payload signal
during testing.
HOW TO:
1 If SONET interface is chosen, set up the SONET transmit interface
and payload required. See “Setting SONET Transmit Interface”
page 4.
If DSn interface is chosen, set up the DSn interface and payload
required. See “Setting DSn Transmit Interface” page 2.
2 Choose the ERROR ADD TYPE and RATE on the Transmitter
TEST FUNCTION display.
The RATE can be selected from a fixed value or is user programmable.
If you select USER PROGRAM you can select the error rate before
enabling the errors. This feature is useful for error threshold testing.
3 Choose the ALARM TYPE.
Errors and Alarms can be added at the same time.
50
Selecting Test Features
Using FEAC Codes
Using FEAC Codes
Description
The third C-Bit in subframe 1 is used as a FEAC channel, where alarm
or status information from the far-end terminal can be sent back to the
near-end terminal. The channel is also used to initiate DS3 and DS1 line
loopbacks at the far-end terminal from the near-end terminal.
The codes are six digits long and are embedded in a 16 bit code word; the
format is 0XXXXXX011111111.
There are two types of code, Loopback and Alarm Status.
Loopback provides a choice of two DS1 messages and two DS3 Messages.
The DS1 Messages can be sent in ALL DS1 channels or in a SINGLE
channel. The message can be repeated up to 15 times.
Alarm Status provides 13 preset codes and a USER programmable code
function. These codes can be transmitted continuously or in bursts.
The new code is transmitted by choosing BURST or ON
HOW TO:
.
Transmit an FEAC code
1 Choose SIGNAL DS3 and PAYLOAD TYPE CBIT on the TRANSMIT
MAIN SETTINGS display.
2 Choose TRANSMIT TEST FUNCTION and ALARM TYPE DS3 FEAC .
When a FEAC code is not being transmitted, an all ones pattern is
transmitted.
51
Selecting Test Features
Using FEAC Codes
3 Choose the FEAC CODE TYPE.
4 Choose the MESSAGE from the choices displayed.
If you chose a DS1 message an additional field to the right of the DS1
MESSAGE is displayed. Position the cursor on this field and choose
ALL or SINGLE CHANNEL .
If you choose SINGLE CHANNEL use the EDIT keys to select a channel
from 1 to 28. Press END EDIT when finished.
5 If LOOPBACK is chosen, choose the REPEAT (TIMES) LOOP and
MESS, in the range 1 to 15.
6 If ALARM/ STATUS is chosen, choose the BURST LENGTH (TIMES).
7 Choose TRANSMIT NEW CODE BURST or ON to transmit the
selected FEAC message.
TIP:
To View FEAC Messages
The received FEAC message can be viewed on the RESULTS display.
52
Selecting Test Features
Setting DSn Spare Bits
Setting DSn Spare Bits
Description
Certain Spare Bits will cause the occurrence of a minor alarm when
received as a logical "0".:
8 Mb/s & 34 Mb/s - FAS Bit 12
2 Mb/s - NFAS Timeslot (timeslot 0 of NFAS frame) Bit 0
HOW TO:
1 If SONET interface is chosen, set up the SONET transmit interface
and payload required. See "Setting SONET Transmit Interface "
page 4.
If DSn interface is chosen, set up the DSn transmit interface and
payload required. See "Setting DSn Transmit Interface " page 2.
2 Set the value of the spare bits required for testing.
If a BIT SEQUENCE is required, choose SEND SEQUENCE ON to
transmit the sequence.
53
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
Adding Pointer Adjustments
Description
The transmitted SPE or VT pointer value can be adjusted for testing
purposes.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
2 Choose the POINTER TYPE.
3 Choose the ADJUSTMENT TYPE required.
BURST - You determine the size of the burst by the number of
PLACES chosen. If, for example, you choose 5 PLACES the pointer
value will be stepped 5 times in unit steps e.g. 0 (start value), 1, 2, 3,
4, 5 (final value). The interval between steps is as follows:
For AU and TU-3, the minimum spacing between adjustments is
500 us. For VT the minimum spacing between adjustments is 2 ms.
Choose ADJUST POINTER [ON] to add the chosen burst.
NEW POINTER - You can choose a pointer value in the range 0 to 782
with or without a New Data Flag.
The current pointer value is displayed for information purposes.
Choose ADJUST POINTER [ON] to transmit the new pointer value.
54
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
OFFSET - You can frequency offset the line rate or the SPE/VT rate,
relative to each other, thus producing pointer movements. If you offset
the SPE pointer, an 87:3 sequence of pointer movements is generated.
The available configurations are listed in the following table.
If you are currently adding Frequency Offset to the SONET interface
or payload, pointer OFFSET is not available.
Pointer Type
Line Rate
SPE Rate
VT Rate
SPE
Constant
Offset
Tracks AU Payload
SPE
Offset
Constant
Constant
VT
Constant
Constant
Offset
VT
Offset
Tracks Line Rate
Constant
T1.105/GR-253 - Provides pointer movements according to T1.105 and
GR-253:
4 Choose the T1.105/GR-253 ADJUSTMENT TYPE.
5 Choose the POLARITY, INTERVAL and PATTERN (where applicable)
for the selected sequence.
6 Choose POINTER SEQUENCES START INIT to generate the selected
G.783 sequence and STOP INIT to stop the pointer sequences.
T1.105/GR-253 Pointer Sequences Explained
In addition to the BURST, NEW POINTER and OFFSET pointer
movements described, the HP 37718A can also generate pointer
sequences (pointer movements) according to T1.105.03 and GR-253.
Before running a pointer sequence you can elect to run an initialization
sequence, followed by a cool down period, and then run the chosen
sequence. This is selected using the START INIT softkey shown in the
display on the previous page. Initialized pointer sequences are made up
of three periods: the Initialization Period, the Cool Down Period, and the
Sequence (Measurement) Period, an example is given in the following
figure:
55
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
Non Periodic Sequence
Initialization Sequence
Periodic Sequence
No Pointer Activity
Sequence
Continuous Sequence
Time
Initialization
Cool Down
Measurement
Period
Note: SINGLE (A1), BURST (A2) and PHASE TRANSIENT(A3) are Non
Periodic Sequences.
Initialization Period
For SINGLE A1, BURST A2 and PHASE TRANSIENT A3 sequences the
initialization sequence consists of 60 seconds of pointer adjustments
applied at a rate of 2 adjustments per second and in the same direction
as the specified pointer sequence.
Cool Down Period
A period following the initialization period which for SINGLE e), BURST
f) and PHASE TRANSIENT sequences is 30 seconds long when no
pointer activity is present.
Sequence (Measurement) Period
The period following the Cool Down period where the specified pointer
sequence runs continuously.
Periodic Test Sequences
For periodic test sequences (for example PERIODIC ADD) both the 60
second initialization and 30 second cool down periods consist of the same
sequence as used for the subsequent measurement sequence. If the
product of the period T and the selected Optional background pattern
(87+3 or 26+1) exceeds 60 seconds then the longer period is used for the
initialization. For example, if T is set for 10 seconds then the
initialization period may be extended to 900 seconds.
The HP 37718A displays a message indicating which phase
(initialization, cool down or measurement) the transmitter is currently
generating.
56
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
NOTE
The following conditions apply for pointer sequence generation:
The sequences can only be applied to the SPE pointer when the SPE does
not contain a VT structure, otherwise it is applied to the VT pointer.
Pointer sequence generation is not available when a frequency offset is
being applied to the Line Rate.
The following figure gives an example of a T1.105/GR-253, 87-3 Pointer
Sequence.
T1.105 A4 and A5, 87-3 Pattern
No Pointer
Adjustment
Start of Next
87-3 Pattern
Pointer Adjustment
87
3
An Example of a Pointer Sequence
Pointer Sequence
Description
T1.105 A1 SINGLE
GR-253 5-29
Periodic Single adjustments, all of the same polarity which is
selectable. Separation between pointer adjustments is fixed at
approximately 30 seconds.
T1.105 A2 BURST OF 3
GR-253 5-30
Periodic bursts of 3 adjustments, all of the same polarity which is
selectable. The interval between bursts is fixed at approximately 30
seconds. The interval between adjustments within a burst is set to
the minimum.
57
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
Pointer Sequence
Description
T1.105 A3 PHASE
TRANSIENT
GR-253 5031
Phase transient pointer adjustment burst test sequence. All
adjustments are of the same polarity, which is selectable. The
interval between bursts is fixed at 30 seconds. Each burst consists
of 7 pointer movement. The first 3 in each burst are 0.25 s apart,
and the interval between the 3 and 4 movement, and each
remaining movement 0.5 seconds.
T1.105 A4 PERIODIC
NORMAL (87-3 Pattern)
GR-253 5-33(b)
An 87-3 pattern is selected. The sequence pattern is 87 pointer
movements followed by 3 missing pointer movements. Pointer
polarity is selectable and the time interval between pointer
adjustments settable.
T1.105 A4 PERIODIC
NORMAL (Continuous
Pattern) GR-253 5-34(b)
Provides a continuous sequence of pointer adjustments. The
polarity of the adjustments is selectable, and the time interval
between adjustments can be set (see Note 1).
GR-253 5-32(b)
This selection is only available if you have selected VT1.5 mapping.
PERIODIC NORMAL (26-1 The sequence pattern is 26 pointer movements followed by 1
Pattern)
missing pointer movement. Pointer polarity is selectable and the
time interval between pointer adjustments programmable to 200
ms, 500 ms, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s or 10 seconds.
T1.105 A5 PERIODIC ADD An 87-3 pattern is selected. The sequence pattern is 87 pointer
(87-3 Pattern)
movements followed by 3 missing pointer movements with an added
GR-253 5-33(c)
pointer movement after the 43rd pointer. The spacing between the
added adjustment and the previous adjustment is set to the
minimum. Pointer polarity is selectable. The time interval between
pointer adjustments can be set (see Note 1). Added adjustments
occur every 30 seconds or every repeat of the 87-3 pattern,
whichever is longer.
T1.105 A5 PERIODIC ADD Periodic Single adjustments, with selectable polarity and added
(Continuous Pattern)
adjustment (1 extra). The spacing between the added adjustment
GR-253 5-34(c)
and the previous adjustment is set to the minimum, (see Note 2).
The time interval between pointer adjustments can be set (see Note
1). Added adjustments occur every 30 seconds or every repeat of the
87-3 pattern, whichever is longer.
58
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
Pointer Sequence
Description
GR-253 5-32(c)
PERIODIC ADD (26-1
Pattern)
This selection is only available if you have selected VT1.5 mapping.
The sequence pattern is 26 pointer movements followed by 1
missing pointer movement. The added adjustment occurs 2 ms after
the 13th pointer adjustment. Pointer polarity is selectable and the
time interval between pointer adjustments programmable to 200
ms, 500 ms, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s or 10 s. Added adjustments occur every 30
seconds or every repeat of the 26-1 pattern, whichever is longer.
T1.105 A5 PERIODIC
CANCEL (87-3 pattern)
GR-253 5-33(d)
An 87-3 pattern is selected. The sequence pattern is 87 pointer
movements followed by 3 missing pointer movements with a
cancelled pointer movement at the 87th pointer. Pointer polarity is
selectable, and the time interval between pointer adjustments can
be set (see Note 1). Cancelled adjustments occur every 30 seconds or
every repeat of the 87-3 pattern, whichever is longer.
T1.105 A5 PERIODIC
CANCEL (Continuous
Pattern)
GR-253 5-34(d)
Periodic Single adjustments, with selectable polarity and cancelled
adjustment (1 less). The time interval between pointer adjustments
can be set (see Note 1). Cancelled adjustments occur every 30
seconds or every repeat of the 87-3 pattern, whichever is longer.
GR-253 5-32(d)
PERIODIC CANCEL (26-1
pattern)
This selection is only available if you have selected VT1.5 mapping.
The sequence pattern is 26 pointer movements followed by 1
missing pointer movement. The cancelled adjustment is the 26th
pointer adjustment, that is the one before the regular gap of 1.
Pointer polarity is selectable and the time interval between pointer
adjustments programmable to 200 ms, 500 ms, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s or 10s.
Cancelled adjustments occur every 30 seconds or every repeat of the
26-1 pattern, whichever is longer.
NOTE
For SPE pointers the sequence interval is selectable from 7.5 ms, 10, 20,
30, 34 ms; 40 to 100 ms in 10 ms steps, 100 to 1000 ms in 100 ms steps
1, 2, 5, 10 seconds.
For VT pointers the sequence interval is selectable from: 200 ms, 500 ms,
1, 2, 5 and 10 seconds.
For SPE pointers the minimum spacing between adjustments is 500 us.
For VT pointers the minimum spacing between adjustments is 2 ms.
59
Selecting Test Features
Adding Pointer Adjustments
Table 1
Pointer Sequences Available with Selected Mapping
MAPPING
POINTER SEQUENCE
SPE
VT6, VT2
VT1.5
A1 SINGLE
✓
✓
✓
A2 BURST OF 3
✓
✓
✓
A3 PHASE TRANSIENT
✓
✓
✓
A4 PERIODIC NORMAL(87-3)
✓
A4 PERIODIC NORMAL (Continuous)
✓
✓
✓
✓
PERIODIC NORMAL (26-1)
A5 PERIODIC ADD (87-3)
✓
A5 PERIODIC ADD (Continuous)
✓
✓
✓
PERIODIC ADD (26-1)
A5 PERIODIC CANCEL (g) 87-3
✓
A5 PERIODIC CANCEL (Continuous)
✓
PERIODIC CANCEL 26-1
60
✓
✓
✓
✓
Selecting Test Features
Using Pointer Graph Test Function
Using Pointer Graph Test Function
Pointer Graph shows the relative offset during the measurement period.
This allows the time relationship of SPE or VT pointer movements to be
observed. Up to 4 days of storage allows long term effects such as Wander
to be observed. If an alarm occurs during the measurement period, a new
graph starts at the centre of the display (offset zero) after recovery from
the alarm.
TIP:
The Pointer Graph display can be logged to the chosen logging device.
See "Logging on Demand " page 110.
TIP:
The graph can also be viewed on the RESULTS SONET RESULTS display
at the end of the measurement.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the receive SONET interface and payload as required. See
“Setting SONET Receive Interface” page 17.
2 Choose the CAPTURE INTERVAL required.
The capture interval determines the time between captures. Low
values of capture interval should be chosen when a high degree of
pointer movements is expected.
High values of capture interval should be chosen when a low degree of
pointer movements is expected, for example Wander over 1 day, use 5
MINS and Wander over 4 days, use 20 MINS.
61
Selecting Test Features
Using Pointer Graph Test Function
If, during a long term measurement (4 days), an event occurs at a
particular time each day, a short term measurement can be made at
the identified time to gain more detail of the event.
3 Choose the POINTER UNDER TEST type.
4 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
TIP:
If the event occurs outside normal working hours, a Timed Start
measurement can be made.
1 SEC - display window of approximately 5 minutes.
5 SECS - display window of approximately 25 minutes.
20 SECS - display window of approximately 1 hour 40 minutes.
1 MIN - display window of approximately 5 hours.
5 MIN - display window of approximately 1 day.
20 MIN - display window of approximately 4 days.
62
Selecting Test Features
Stressing Optical Clock Recovery Circuits
Stressing Optical Clock Recovery
Circuits
Description
Ideally clock recovery circuits in the network equipment optical
interfaces should recover the clock even in the presence of long strings of
0’s. You can check the performance of your optical clock recovery circuits
using the STRESS TEST test function.
The stress test is available at all optical rates.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
Choose the required STRESSING PATTERN.
The G.958 test pattern consists of 7 consecutive blocks of data as
follows:
the first row of section overhead bytes, ALL ONES, a PRBS, the first
row of section overhead bytes, ALL ZEROS, a PRBS and the first row
of section overhead bytes.
2
If you choose ALL ONES or ALL ZEROS as the stressing pattern,
choose the number of bytes in the BLOCK LENGTH.
63
Selecting Test Features
Generating Automatic Protection Switch Messages
Generating Automatic Protection
Switch Messages
Description
You can program the K1 and K2 bytes to exercise the APS functions for
Both LINEAR (ITU-T G.783) and RING (ITU-T G.841) topologies.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
2 Choose the ITU-T TOPOLOGY required.
3 Choose the message to be transmitted.
If LINEAR topology is chosen, choose the CHANNEL, the BRIDGED
CHANNEL NO., the ARCHITECTURE and the RESERVED bits you
require.
If RING topology is chosen, choose the DESTINATION NODE ID, the
SOURCE NODE ID, the type of PATH and the status code (K2 Bits 6>8)
The current TX and RX, K1 and K2, values are displayed for reference
only.
4 Choose DOWNLOAD to transmit the new K1/K2 values.
64
Selecting Test Features
Inserting & Dropping Data Communications Channel
Inserting & Dropping Data
Communications Channel
Description
The Data Communications Channel (DCC) of the regenerator and
multiplexer section overhead can be verified by protocol testing. The
Insert and Drop capability provides access to the DCC via the RS-449
connector on the front panel of the Multirate Analyser module.
DCC INSERT is available on the TRANSMIT , SONET , TEST FUNCTION
display.
DCC DROP is available on the RECEIVE SONET TEST FUNCTION
display.
HOW TO:
1 Connect the Protocol Analyzer to the DCC port on the Multirate
Analyzer module.
2 Choose the required DCC.
65
Selecting Test Features
Inserting & Dropping Data Communications Channel
66
3
3
Making Measurements
Making Measurements
Using Overhead BER Test Function
Using Overhead BER Test Function
Description
You can perform a Bit Error Rate test on chosen bytes of the section, line
and path overhead bytes.
You can access the transmit Overhead BER on the TRANSMIT
TEST FUNCTION display.
HOW TO:
SONET
1 Set up the SONET transmit interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
2 Set up the receive SONET interface and payload as required. See
"Setting SONET Receive Interface " page 17.
3 Choose the overhead byte to be tested on the RECEIVE
TEST FUNCTION display.
4 Choose the overhead byte to be tested on the TRANSMIT
TEST FUNCTION display.
5 Press RUN/STOP to start the test.
6 The PRBS pattern can be errored by pressing SINGLE .
68
SONET
SONET
Making Measurements
Test Timing
Test Timing
Description
There are two aspects to test timing:
• Error results may be displayed as short term or cumulative over the
measurement period.If short term error measurements are required,
the short term period may be selected.
• The period of the test may be defined or controlled manually.
HOW TO:
1 Choose TIMING CONTROL on the RESULTS display.
2 Choose the SHORT TERM PERIOD to the timing required for short
term results.
3 Choose the type of TEST TIMING required:
For manual control with RUN/STOP choose MANUAL .
For a single timed measurement period started with RUN/STOP ,
choose SINGLE and choose the Test duration.
For a timed period starting at a specified time, choose TIMED , choose
the Test duration and the test START date and time.
69
Making Measurements
Making SONET Analysis Measurements
Making SONET Analysis Measurements
Description
G.826, M.2101, M.2110 and M.2120 analysis results are provided for all
relevant SONET error sources.
In addition the following results are provided:
Cumulative error count and error ratio
Short Term error count and error ratio
Alarm Seconds
Frequency
Pointer Values
Pointer Graph
HOW TO:
1 Set up the receive SONET interface and payload required. See
"Setting SONET Receive Interface " page 17.
2 If required set up the SONET transmit interface and payload. See
"Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
3 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
4 You can view the analysis results on the RESULTS
ANALYSIS display.
TIP:
SONET
The measurement will not be affected if you switch between the different
results provided.
70
Making Measurements
Making DSn Analysis Measurements
Making DSn Analysis Measurements
Description
G.821, G.826, M.2100, M.2110 and M.2120 analysis results are provided
for all relevant DSn and DSn Payload error sources.
In addition the following results are provided:
Cumulative error count and error ratio
Short Term error count and error ratio
Alarm Seconds
SIG/BIT Monitor. See "Monitoring Signaling Bits " page 76.
HOW TO:
1 If SONET is chosen as the interface, set up the Receive Interface and
Payload required. See "Setting SONET Receive Interface " page 17. If
required set up the Transmit Interface and Payload. See "Setting
SONET Transmit Interface " page 4.
2 If DSn is chosen as the interface, set up the DSn receive interface. See
"Setting DSn Receive Interface " page 15. If required set up the DSn
transmit interface. See "Setting DSn Transmit Interface " page 2.
3 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
4 If SONET is chosen as the interface, you can view the analysis results
on the RESULTS DSn PAYLOAD ERROR ANALYSIS display
If DSn is chosen as the interface, you can view the analysis results on
the RESULTS DSn ERROR ANALYSIS display.
71
Making Measurements
Measuring Frequency
Measuring Frequency
Description
The signal frequency and the amount of offset from the standard rate can
be measured to give an indication of probability of errors.
HOW TO:
1 Connect the signal to be measured to the IN port of the DSN Receive
module or the IN port of the Multirate Analyzer module (SONET
electrical) or the IN port of the Optical Interface module (SONET
optical).
NOTE
Frequency measurement is always available even if test timing is off.
72
Making Measurements
Measuring Optical Power
Measuring Optical Power
Description
Optical power measurement can be performed on the SONET signal
connected to the Optical module IN port.
HOW TO:
1 Connect the SONET optical signal to the IN port of the Optical
Interface module.
2 Choose the received input signal rate on the RECEIVE
display.
NOTE
SONET
Optical power measurement is always available even if test timing is off.
73
Making Measurements
Measuring Round Trip Delay
Measuring Round Trip Delay
Description:
The time taken for voice traffic to pass through the network is very
important. Excessive delay can make speech difficult to understand.
The Round Trip Delay feature of the HP 37718A measures the delay in a
64 kb/s timeslot.
A test pattern is transmitted in the 64 kb/s timeslot and a timer is set
running. A loopback is applied to the network equipment to return the
test signal. The received pattern stops the timer and the Round Trip
Delay is calculated.
NOTE
You can only measure Round Trip Delay on a 64 kb/s test signal obtained
from a 34 Mb/s or 2 Mb/s DSn interface or DSn payload signal.
HOW TO:
1 If measuring on an SONET interface, set up the SONET transmit and
receive interfaces and payloads required. See "Setting SONET
Transmit Interface " page 4 and “Setting SONET Receive Interface”
page 17.
2 If measuring on a DSn interface, set up the DSn transmit and receive
interfaces and payloads required. See “Setting DSn Transmit
Interface” page 2 and “Setting DSn Receive Interface” page 15.
3 Connect a loopback to the network equipment.
74
Making Measurements
Measuring Round Trip Delay
4 Choose ACTION ON to start the measurement.
If measuring on an SONET interface, the results are available on the
RESULTS DSn PAYLOAD display.
If measuring on a DSn interface, the results are available on the
RESULTS DSn display.
The Round Trip delay measurement range is up to 2 seconds. The
resolution varies with the received interface signal rate:
2 Mb/s
1 microsecond
34 Mb/s
110 microseconds
STS-1,STS-3
0.5 milliseconds
OC-12, OC-48
0.5 milliseconds
75
Making Measurements
Monitoring Signaling Bits
Monitoring Signaling Bits
Description
The HP 37718A receiver can be used to monitor the state of signaling
bits in received 2 Mb/s signals with timeslot-16 CAS multiframing
(PCM30 or PCM30CRC) and DS1 structured signals.
2.048 Mb/s
Results
For 2 Mb/s signals with timeslot-16 CAS multiframing a table showing
the values of A,B,C,D signaling bits in all 30 channels is given.
DS1 Results
D4 and SLC-96 payloads
A table simultaneously showing the state of the A and B signaling bits in
the 6th and 12th frames of a superframe is given. Each frame contains
24 timeslots. In SLC-96 mode A and B choices are 0, 1 or alternating. If
you set bit A or B to alternate, the displayed bit changes to an A, to
indicate that the bit is alternating from 1 to 0. The same signaling is
transmitted in all channels.
ESF Payloads
A table simultaneously showing the state of the A, B, C and D signaling
bits in the 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th frames of a superframe is given.
Each frame contains 24 timeslots.
76
Making Measurements
Measuring Service Disruption Time
Measuring Service Disruption Time
Description:
Protection switching ensures that data integrity is maintained and
revenue protected when equipment failure occurs. The speed of operation
of the protection switch can be measured.
The sequence of events involved in measuring the switching time is:
• Pattern Synchronization (no errors) is achieved.
• The protection switch is invoked - Pattern Synchronization is lost.
• The standby line is in place - Pattern Synchronization is regained.
The time interval between pattern sync loss and pattern sync gain is a
measure of the disruption of service due to protection switching.
Service Disruption is chosen on the RESULTS page except for the
following configuration:
•
If you choose a DSn or SONET interface and an ANSI (DS1, DS3)
framed, unstructured payload you must select Service Disruption on
the Transmitter and Receiver TEST FUNCTION display.
77
Making Measurements
Measuring Service Disruption Time
NOTE
At DS1 and DS3 Service Disruption results are only available for
Unstructured payloads.
Error Burst Definition
Error bursts start and finish with an error. Bursts of less than 10 us are
ignored.
Bursts are assumed to have completed when >2000ms elapses without
any errors being received.
The longest burst detected is 2 seconds.
Accuracy
300 us for DS1, 2Mb/s and 34Mb/s signals.
60 us for DS3 signals.
HOW TO:
1 If interfacing at SONET set up the SONET transmit and receive
interfaces and payloads required. See "Setting SONET Transmit
Interface " page 4 and "Setting SONET Receive Interface " page 17.
2 If interfacing at DSn set up the DSn transmit and receive interfaces
and payloads as required. See "Setting DSn Transmit Interface "
page 2 and "Setting DSn Receive Interface " page 15.
3 If you choose a DS1 or DS3 framed unstructured payload, choose
SERVICE DISRUPT on the TRANSMIT and RECEIVE TEST FUNCTION
displays.
78
Making Measurements
Measuring Service Disruption Time
4 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
5 Invoke the protection switch.
6 View the results on the RESULTS
SRVC DISRUPT display.
Results Displayed
LONGEST - Longest burst of errors during measurement.
SHORTEST - Shortest burst of errors during measurement.
LAST - Length of last burst of errors detected during measurement.
79
Making Measurements
Performing a SONET Tributary Scan
Performing a SONET Tributary Scan
Description
Tributary Scan tests each tributary for error free operation and no
occurrence of Pattern Loss. A failure is indicated by highlighting the
tributary in which the failure occurred. The TRANSMIT SONET
MAIN SETTINGS , mapping setup determines the tributary structure.
The HP 37718A will configure the Transmitter to the Receiver and the
PATTERN is forced to the payload it will fill.
TIP:
The SONET Tributary Scan display can be logged to the chosen logging
device. See "Logging on Demand " page 110.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the transmit and receive SONET interfaces and payload as
required. See "Setting SONET Transmit Interface " page 4 and
"Setting SONET Receive Interface " page 17.
2 Choose the required BIT ERROR THRESHOLD.
This determines the error rate above which a failure is declared.
3 Choose the required TEST TIMING.
The value you choose is the test time for each individual tributary and
not the total test time.
For example, 28 VT-1.5 tributaries in an STS-1 SPE - the time taken
to complete the Tributary Scan will be 28 X TEST TIMING choice.
80
Making Measurements
Performing a SONET Tributary Scan
4 The Tributary Scan results can be viewed on the RESULTS
SONET TRIBSCAN display.
The Scan can be started on the TRANSMIT SONET TEST FUNCTION
display or the RESULTS display by choosing START.
If the Scan is started on the TRANSMIT SONET TEST FUNCTION
display, the HP 37718A changes to the RESULTS display.
If a single path, for example, MAPPING STS-3c SPE is chosen, then
Tributary Scan is disabled.
NOTE
The keyboard is locked during tributary scan.
81
Making Measurements
Performing an SONET Alarm Scan
Performing an SONET Alarm Scan
Description
SONET Alarm Scan tests each channel for alarm free operation and
identifies and indicates any Unequipped channels.
You can configure the Scan to check for the occurrence of any Path layer
CV errors above a chosen threshold.
The channel in which an alarm occurred is highlighted if any of the
following alarms occur:
STS SPE: LOP-P, RDI-P, AIS-P,
VT-1.5: LOP-P, AIS-P, RDI-P, H4 LOM, LOP-V, AIS-V, RDI-V
TIP:
The SONET Alarm Scan display can be logged to the chosen logging
device. See "Logging on Demand " page 110.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the receive SONET interface and payload as required. See
“Setting SONET Receive Interface” page 17.
2 Choose SONET ALM SCAN on the RESULTS display.
3 Choose AUTO or RX SETTINGS.
RX SETTINGS: The scan checks the structure set on the RECEIVE
SONET display.
AUTO: The scan checks the structure being received. This can be
particularly useful when receiving mixed payloads.
4 Choose the CV error threshold.
5 Choose START to start the Alarm Scan.
82
Making Measurements
Performing a DSn Alarm Scan
Performing a DSn Alarm Scan
Description
DSn Alarm Scan tests each channel for the following alarms:
Frame Loss
RAI
AIS
The channel in which an alarm occurs is highlighted.
HOW TO:
1 Set up the receive DSn interface as required. See “Setting DSn Receive
Interface” page 15.
2 Choose ON to start the Alarm Scan.
83
Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter
Measuring Jitter
Description:
Jitter and error measurements are made simultaneously when a jitter
option is fitted. The measurements are made on the normal input to the
DSn or SONET receiver and the interface selections are the normal DSn
or SONET Receiver selections.
Cumulative and Short Term results of Jitter Amplitude and Jitter Hits
are provided on the RESULTS JITTER display.
Graph and Text results for Jitter Transfer and Jitter Tolerance are also
provided.
HOW TO:
1 If measuring Jitter on a DSn signal, set up the receive DSn interface
and the receive Jitter interface. See “Setting DSn Receive Interface”
page 15 and “Setting Jitter Receive Interface” page 18.
2 If measuring Jitter on an SONET signal, set up the receive SONET
interface and the receive Jitter interface. See “Setting SONET Receive
Interface” page 17 and “Setting Jitter Receive Interface” page 18.
84
Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter
3 If performing a Jitter Tolerance measurement, See “Measuring Jitter
Tolerance” page 89.
If performing a Jitter Transfer measurement, See “Measuring Jitter
Transfer” page 92.
4 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
5 You can view the Jitter hits and Amplitude results on the RESULTS
JITTER display.
85
Making Measurements
Measuring Extended Jitter
Measuring Extended Jitter
Description:
Extended jitter measurements are made in a jitter bandwidth of 0.1 Hz
to 25 kHz. These measurements are made at the upper end of the
standard wander frequency range and the lower end of the standard
jitter frequency range.
When EXTENDED is chosen Jitter results are provided. Cumulative and
Short Term results of Jitter Amplitude and Jitter Hits are provided on
the RESULTS JITTER display.
HOW TO:
1 If measuring Extended Jitter on a DSn signal, set up the receive DSn
interface and the receive Jitter interface. See “Setting DSn Receive
Interface” page 15 and "Setting Extended Jitter Receive Interface "
page 19.
2 If measuring Extended Jitter on an SONET signal, set up the receive
SONET interface and the receive Jitter interface. See “Setting SONET
Receive Interface” page 17 and "Setting Extended Jitter Receive
Interface " page 19.
3 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
86
Making Measurements
Measuring Wander
Measuring Wander
Description:
Accurate Wander measurements require a Wander reference derived
from the SONET Clock module. Wander results are displayed in UI and
nanoseconds and Jitter Amplitude and Jitter Hits results are available.
When wander is measured at 2 Mb/s, Estimated Bit and Frame slips are
calculated and a Bar Graph shows the cumulative Wander over the
measurement period.
HOW TO:
Make the Measurement
1 To obtain the Wander reference from the DSn transmitter connect
REF OUT on the SONET Clock module to REF IN on the DSn Jitter
TX module. Choose SIGNAL 2 Mb/s on the TRANSMIT PDH/DSn
MAIN SETTINGS display, choose CLOCK SYNC WANDER REF IN and
choose the SOURCE required from the menu. See “Setting DSn
Transmit Interface” page 2.
2 To obtain the Wander reference from the SONET transmitter choose
the required reference from the CLOCK menu on the TRANSMIT SONET
MAIN SETTINGS display. See, “Setting SONET Transmit Interface” page 4.
3 If measuring wander at a DSn rate set up the DSn receive interface.
See, “Setting DSn Receive Interface” page 15.
87
Making Measurements
Measuring Wander
4 If measuring wander at a SONET rate set up the SONET receive
interface. See, “Setting SONET Receive Interface” page 17.
5 Choose MEASUREMENT TYPE WANDER .
6 Choose the WANDER HIT THRESHOLD level - if the received wander
exceeds the value chosen a wander hit is recorded.
7 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement.
HOW TO:
View the Results
1 Choose WANDER on the RESULTS display and choose the display units
required:
TIME displays the wander results in nanoseconds.
UI displays the wander results in Unit Intervals
If you are measuring wander at 2 Mb/s Estimated Bit slips and
Estimated Frame slip results are provided and a GRAPH choice is
added to the menu.
If GRAPH is chosen the cumulative wander results are displayed in
graphical form. The Graphs are additive and in the example shown
above the Wander is -76.5 BITS.
NOTE
Estimated Bit Slips signify the slippage from the start of the
measurement.
One Estimated Frame Slip corresponds to 256 Bit Slips.
Implied Frequency Offset is calculated from the Wander results.
88
Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Tolerance
Measuring Jitter Tolerance
Description:
The jitter auto tolerance feature provides jitter tolerance measurements
within the relevant ITU-T mask, G.823 for DSn, G.958, G.825 and
Bellcore GR-253 for SONET.
Jitter is generated at a range of frequencies within the mask and an
error measurement is made. If no errors occur (PASS), the jitter
amplitude at that frequency point is increased until errors occur (FAIL)
or the maximum jitter amplitude is reached. The highest jitter
amplitude at which PASS occurs is plotted on the graph as the Jitter
Tolerance for that jitter frequency.
TIP:
The transmitter and receiver can be set to different rates to allow testing
across multiplexers, for example transmitter set to STS-3 with embedded
DS-3 and receiver set to DS-3.
HOW TO:
Make the Measurement
1 If you are performing jitter tolerance on the DSn signal, set up the DSn
transmit and receive interfaces. See “Setting DSn Transmit Interface”
page 2 and “Setting DSn Receive Interface” page 15.
89
Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Tolerance
2 If you are performing jitter tolerance on the SONET signal, set up the
SONET transmit and receive interfaces. See “Setting SONET
Transmit Interface” page 4 and “Setting SONET Receive Interface”
page 17.
3 If SONET is chosen as the interface, choose the SONET MASK.
TYPE A masks as per ITU-T G.958 have good jitter tolerance and the
mask corner points are modified to compensate.
TYPE B masks as per ITU-T G.958 have poorer jitter tolerance but a
narrower jitter transfer function and the mask corner points are
modified to compensate.
4 Choose the required test PATTERN.
5
Choose the NUMBER OF POINTS at which jitter is transmitted (3 to
55)
6 Choose the DWELL TIME - the time jitter is generated at each jitter
frequency point (1 to 99.9 seconds).
7 Choose the DELAY TIME - the time delay between the jitter
frequency/amplitude being applied and the error measurement being
made. This allows the network equipment to settle as jitter frequency
is changed. (0 to 99.9 seconds).
8 Choose the ERROR THRESHOLD.
If ANY ERRORS is chosen, any BIP or BIT error will result in a FAIL.
If BIT ERRORS is chosen, choose a value between 1 and 1,000,000 to
determine the bit error threshold for the jitter tolerance PASS/FAIL
decision.
BER>= shows the bit error ratio calculated from the bit error
threshold choice and the dwell time choice.
9 Press RUN/STOP to start the jitter auto tolerance measurement.
The measurements progress can be monitored on the TRANSMIT
display. At the end of the test the results can be viewed on the
TRANSMIT or RESULTS displays. The TRANSMIT display is cleared
when TRANSMIT is pressed but the results remain on the RESULTS
display until the next jitter tolerance measurement is made.
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Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Tolerance
HOW TO:
View the Results
1 Choose the results FORMAT.
If GRAPH is chosen, a plot of the jitter tolerance results against the
ITU-T mask is displayed.
If TEXT is chosen, the results from which the graph is constructed are
displayed, Point number, Frequency, Mask amplitude, Tolerance,
Result.
If applicable, results 13 through 55 can be viewed on pages 2 through
5.
If you wish to log the jitter tolerance results to a printer, See “Logging
Jitter Tolerance Results” page 112.
91
Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Transfer
Measuring Jitter Transfer
Description:
You can perform Jitter transfer measurements at each of the four DSn
rates, STS-3, OC-3, OC-12 and OC-48. The jitter generator provides the
stimulus for the jitter transfer measurement.
Narrow band filtering is used in the jitter receiver thus allowing
selection and measurement of the relevant jitter components to provide
accurate and repeatable results.
The jitter transfer results are presented in graphical and tabular form.
Graphical results are plotted as Gain V Frequency.
The relevant Pass Mask (ITU-T G.823 for DSn, ITU-T G.958 and Bellcore
GR-253 for SONET) is also displayed on the graph.
NOTE
1.The Transmitter and Receiver must be set to the same interface rate.
HOW TO:
Achieve the required accuracy:
1 The HP 37718A must be connected back to back in order to perform a
calibration cycle before making a Jitter Transfer measurement.
2 The HP 37718A must have been switched on for 1 hour before starting
a calibration cycle.
3 The climatic conditions must remain stable from switch-on to end of
measurement.
4 The Jitter Transfer measurement must be started within 10 minutes
of completion of the Calibration.
5 If maximum Delay time, maximum Dwell time and maximum number
of Points is selected, the accuracy specification cannot be guaranteed
as the time from start of calibration to end of measurement (test
period) will be approximately two hours. It is recommended that the
maximum test period does not exceed 90 minutes.
Test Period = Delay Time + Dwell Time + 5 Seconds X Number of
Points X 2 (Calibration + Measurement).
NOTE
For best results, a Dwell Time of 20 seconds and a Delay Time of 10
seconds, are recommended.
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Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Transfer
HOW TO:
Perform Jitter Transfer Calibration
NOTE
The CALIBRATION should always be carried out with LEVEL
TERMINATE selected on the RECEIVE JITTER display.
1 If DSn Jitter Transfer is required, set up the DSn transmit and receive
interfaces, the receive jitter interface and connect DSn IN to DSn OUT.
See “Setting DSn Transmit Interface” page 2, “Setting DSn Receive
Interface” page 15 and “Setting Jitter Receive Interface” page 18.
2 If OC-3, OC-12 or OC-48 Optical Jitter Transfer is required, set up the
SONET transmit and receive interfaces, the receive jitter interface
and connect the OUT port of the Optical module to the IN port of the
Optical module. See “Setting SONET Transmit Interface” page 4,
“Setting SONET Receive Interface” page 17 and “Setting Jitter
Receive Interface” page 18.
CAUTION
If OC-3/12/48 SONET Jitter Transfer is required, a 15 dB attenuator
must be connected between the IN and OUT ports of the Optical module.
3 If you wish to measure STS-3 electrical jitter transfer, connect IN port
to OUT port on the SONET module.
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Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Transfer
4 Choose JITTER TRANSFER FUNCTION on the TRANSMIT JITTER
display.
5 Choose the NUMBER OF POINTS at which jitter is transmitted (3 to
55)
6 Choose the DWELL TIME - the time jitter is generated at each jitter
frequency point (5 to 30 seconds).
7 Choose the DELAY TIME - the time delay between the jitter
frequency/amplitude being applied and the error measurement being
made. This allows the network equipment to settle as jitter frequency
is changed (5 to 30 seconds).
8 Choose the INPUT MASK.
If measuring SONET jitter transfer, the ITU-T G.958 mask can be
Type A or Type B and the Bellcore GR-253 mask can be High or Low.
TYPE A masks have good jitter tolerance and the mask corner points
are modified to compensate.
TYPE B masks have poorer jitter tolerance but a narrower jitter
transfer function and the mask corner points are modified to
compensate.
GR-253 Low mask covers the lower frequency band.
GR-253 High mask covers the upper frequency band.
If measuring 2 Mb/s jitter transfer, a Q Factor choice is provided. Your
Q Factor choice should match the network equipment regenerator Q
Factor.
LOW Q systems have good jitter tolerance and the mask corner points
are modified to compensate.
High Q systems have poorer jitter tolerance but a narrower jitter
transfer function and the mask corner points are modified to
compensate.
If G.823 (DSn) or G.958 (SONET) is chosen the mask frequencies
and amplitudes are displayed for information purposes.
If USER is chosen, choose the mask jitter frequencies, F1, F2, F3 and
F4, and mask jitter amplitudes A1 and A2.
9 Choose MODE CALIB and press RUN/STOP to start the calibration.
The Jitter Transfer display is replaced by an information display for
the duration of the Calibration.
A bar graph showing the progress of the calibration will appear on the
display.
When the Calibration is complete, the display will revert to the
TRANSMIT JITTER display.
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Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Transfer
HOW TO:
Start the Jitter Transfer Measurement
NOTE
The Jitter Transfer measurement must be started within 10 minutes of
the completion of calibration.
1 After the CALIBRATION is completed, remove the back to back
connection from the DSn or SONET or optical interfaces.
If the measurement is to be made at a network equipment monitor
point, choose MONITOR on the DSn or SONET RECEIVE display
before making the jitter transfer measurement.
2 Choose MODE MEASURE on the TRANSMIT JITTER display and
press RUN/STOP .
The measurement’s progress can be monitored on the TRANSMIT
display. At the end of the test the graph can be viewed on the RESULTS
JITTER display.
95
Making Measurements
Measuring Jitter Transfer
HOW TO:
View the Results
1 Choose the results FORMAT.
If GRAPH is chosen, a plot of the jitter transfer results against the
ITU-T mask is displayed.
If TEXT is chosen, the results from which the graph is constructed are
displayed: Point number, Frequency, Mask amplitude (dB), Jitter Gain
(dB), Result.
If applicable, results 13 through 55 can be viewed on pages 2 through
5.
2 If GRAPH is chosen, choose the SCALE required.
WIDE provides a vertical axis range of +5 to -60 dB and is
recommended for viewing the high frequency portion of the graph.
This allows a clearer view of the difference between the actual result
and the ITU-T pass mask.
NARROW provides a vertical axis range of +3 to -3 dB and is
recommended for viewing the low frequency portion of the graph. This
allows a clearer view of the difference between the actual result and
the ITU-T pass mask.
3 If you wish to log the jitter tolerance results to a printer, See “Logging
Jitter Transfer Results” page 114.
96
4
4
Storing, Logging and Printing
Storing, Logging and Printing
Saving Graphics Results to Instrument Store
Saving Graphics Results to Instrument
Store
Description
Graphical representation of measurement results is very useful
particularly during a long measurement period. It provides an overview
of the results and can be printed for record keeping.
Graphics results can be stored in instrument graph storage or on floppy
disk.
HOW TO:
1 Before starting your measurement, choose the GRAPH STORAGE
resolution and location.
The resolution chosen affects the ZOOM capability when viewing the
bar graphs. If 1 MIN is selected, 1 MIN/BAR, 15 MINS/BAR and 60
MINS/BAR are available. If 15 MINS is selected, 15 MINS/BAR and
60 MINS/BAR are available. If 1 HOUR is selected, 60 MINS/BAR is
available.
The graphics results can be stored in the instrument - INTERNAL or
stored on DISK. Storage to disk will use a default file name unless a
file name is specified on the OTHER FLOPPY DISK display. See
“Saving Graphics Results to Disk” page 140.
2 Press RUN/STOP to start the measurement. Graphical results will be
stored in the chosen location.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Recalling Stored Graph Results
Recalling Stored Graph Results
Description
Results stored from a previous measurement can be recalled to the
graphics displays for viewing and printing.
HOW TO:
1 If currently viewing the bar graph display, select TEXT RESULTS then
STORE STATUS . If currently viewing the error or alarm summary,
select STORE STATUS .
2 Using
and
, move the highlighted cursor to the store location
which contains the required results.
If the required results are stored on Disk, move the highlighted cursor
to DISK and choose RECALL GRAPHICS on the FLOPPY DISK
display. See “Recalling Graphics Results from Disk” page 145.
3 Choose GRAPH RESULTS if you wish to view the bar graphs.
The display will change to the bar graph display of the highlighted
results.
4 Choose TEXT RESULTS if you wish to view the error and alarm
Summaries.
The display will change to the text results display of the highlighted
results.
DELETE STORE deletes the results in the highlighted store.
If DELETE ALL is chosen, a CONFIRM DELETE ; ABORT DELETE
choice prevents accidental deletion of all the stored results.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Recalling Stored Graph Results
The top row of the display comprises five fields:
Store
Memory location in which the displayed bar graph data
is stored. Move the highlighted cursor, to the STORE
location desired, using
and
.
Start Date
The start date of the test, which produced the stored
results.
Start Time
The start time of the test, which produced the stored
results.
Test Duration The duration of the test, which produced the stored
results.
Store Use
100
The percentage (%) of the overall storage capacity
occupied by each set of stored results. The TOTAL
percentage used and the percentage still FREE is
provided at the bottom of the STORE USE column.
Storing, Logging and Printing
Viewing the Bar Graph Display
Viewing the Bar Graph Display
Description
All the graphic results obtained during the measurement are available
for viewing. Identify a period of interest and zoom in for more detailed
examination.
HOW TO:
1 To view the current bar graphs, press GRAPH and use
CHANGE UPPER and CHANGE LOWER to obtain the bar graphs
required.
2 To view previously stored graphs, see "Recalling Stored Graph
Results " page 99.
3 For more detailed inspection of the bar graph, position the cursor
centrally within the area of interest using
,
and select
ZOOM IN to reduce the time axis to 15 MINS/BAR. This is only
possible if the graphics results were stored with a STORAGE
resolution of 1 SEC,1 MINS or 15 MINS.
For further reduction of the time axis to 01 MINS/BAR or 01 SECS/
BAR, position the cursor centrally within the area of interest and
select ZOOM IN until the required time axis is obtained.
The top row of the display comprises three fields:
Store
Memory location in which the displayed bar graph data
is stored. Store can only be changed when the status of
stored results is displayed. See "Recalling Stored
Graph Results " page 99.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Viewing the Bar Graph Display
Zoom
The width, in minutes, of each "bar" in the bar graph,
controlled by ZOOM IN / ZOOM OUT .
Cursor
The cursor position in terms of time and date,
controlled by
and
. The cursor position changes
in steps of 1 second, 1 minute, 15 minutes or 60
minutes dependent upon the ZOOM setting. The cursor
is physically located between the two graphs.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Viewing the Graphics Error and Alarm Summaries
Viewing the Graphics Error and Alarm
Summaries
Description
The error and alarm summaries of the measurement chosen are
displayed on the TEXT RESULTS display. The error summary or alarm
summary can be viewed at any time.
HOW TO:
1 To view the error or alarm summary associated with the current bar
graphs, press GRAPH then TEXT RESULTS .
2 To view the error or alarm summary associated with previously stored
bar graphs, see "Recalling Stored Graph Results " page 99.
3 To view the Alarms which have occurred during the measurement,
select ALARM SUMMARY . Use NEXT SUMMARY to view the DSn/DSn;
and SONET Alarm Summaries in turn if applicable.
4 To view the Errors which have occurred during the measurement
select ERROR SUMMARY . Use NEXT SUMMARY to view the DSn/DSn;
and SONET Error Summaries in turn if applicable.
The top row of the display comprises three fields:
Store
Memory location in which the bar graphs, error
summary and alarm summary are stored.
Store can only be changed when the status of stored
results is displayed. See "Recalling Stored Graph
Results " page 99.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Viewing the Graphics Error and Alarm Summaries
Start
The start time and date of the test, that produced the
displayed results.
Stop
The stop time and date of the test, that produced the
displayed results.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Graph Displays
Logging Graph Displays
Description
The bar graphs and error and alarm summaries can be logged to the disk
for printing at a later date.
If Option 601, Remote Control, is fitted, the bar graphs and error and
alarm summary can be logged to an external HP DeskJet printer at the
end of the test period. If a printer is not immediately available, the
graphics results remain in memory and can be logged at a later time
when a printer becomes available.
HOW TO:
Log to an External Printer
1 Connect an external RS-232-C HP DeskJet printer to the HP 37718A
RS232 port. See "Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer " page 119 or
connect an external HP-IB HP DeskJet printer to the HP 37718A HPIB port. See "Logging Results to HP-IB Printer " page 117 or connect
a Parallel DeskJet printer to the HP 37718A Parallel port. See
"Logging Results to Parallel (Centronics) Printer " page 116.
2 Make the required selections on the OTHER LOGGING display:
LOGGING PORT [HPIB] or [RS232] or [PARALLEL] and LOGGING
[ON].
3 To log the Error and Alarm summaries, the displayed Bar graphs and
the Alarm graph to the printer, choose PRINT on the bar graph
display.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Graph Displays
4 Choose to confirm or abort the print.
To confirm the print and only print the portion of the graph displayed
and the summaries choose THIS SCREEN .
To confirm the print and print the graph for the whole measurement
period and the summaries choose CURSOR TO END .
To abort the print choose ABORT .
5 To log the selected Error and Alarm summaries to the printer, choose
PRINT on the Text Results display.
HOW TO:
Log to the Disk Drive
1 Insert a floppy disk in the disk drive.
2 Choose LOGGING PORT DISK on the OTHER LOGGING display.
Enter a filename on the OTHER FLOPPY DISK display. See "Saving
Data Logging to Disk " page 142.
3 To log the Error and Alarm summaries, the displayed Bar graphs and
the Alarm graph to the disk, choose PRINT on the bar graph display.
4 Choose to confirm or abort the print.
To confirm the print and only print the portion of the graph displayed
and the summaries choose THIS SCREEN .
To confirm the print and print the graph for the whole measurement
period and the summaries choose CURSOR TO END .
To abort the print choose ABORT .
5 To log the selected Error and Alarm summaries to the disk, choose
PRINT on the Text Results display.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results
Logging Results
Description
Test Period Logging
If degradations in system performance can be observed at an early stage,
then the appropriate remedial action can be taken to maximize circuit
availability and avoid system crashes. Test period logging allows you to
monitor the error performance of your circuit. At the end of the test
period the selected results are logged. Results can be logged at regular
intervals during the test period by selecting a LOGGING PERIOD of
shorter duration than the test period. An instant summary of the results
can be demanded by pressing PRINT NOW without affecting the test in
progress.
Error Event Logging
Manual tracing of intermittent faults is time consuming. Error event
logging allows you to carry out unattended long term monitoring of the
circuit. Each occurrence of the selected error event is logged.
The results obtained during the test are retained in memory until they
are overwritten by the next set of results. The results can be logged at
any time during the test period and at the end of the test period. The
results required are selected using OTHER LOGGING LOGGING
SETUP CONTROL .
Any Alarm occurrence results in a timed and dated message being
logged.
BER and Analysis results can be selected by the user.
Cumulative and Period versions of the results are calculated and can be
selected by the user.
Period
The results obtained over a set period of time during
the test. The Period is defined by the LOGGING
PERIOD selection.
Cumulative
The results obtained over the time elapsed since the
start of the test.
The results can be logged to the following devices, selectable using
OTHER LOGGING LOGGING SETUP DEVICE :
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results
• Optional Internal printer fitted into the instrument front cover
(Option 602)
• External HP-IB printer (option 601)
• External RS-232-C printer (option 601)
• External Parallel Port printer (option 601)
• Disk Drive
HOW TO:
1 Choose LOGGING [ON] - enables the logging of results and alarms.
2 Choose LOGGING PERIOD - determines how regularly the results
and alarms are logged.
USER PROGRAM provides a choice of 10 minutes to 99 hours.
3 Choose RESULT LOGGED - allows you to log all results to or choose
only those results you require.
4 Choose WHEN - allows you to choose to only log when the error count
for the logging period is greater than 0. If the error count is 0 then the
message NO BIT ERRORS is displayed.
5 Choose CONTENT - allows you a choice of error results to be logged.
Error Results, Analysis or Error and Analysis (ER & ANAL)
and
Period, Cumulative or Period and Cumulative (PER & CUMUL).
6 If LOG ERROR SECONDS [ON] is chosen a timed and dated message
is logged each time an error second occurs (excessive occurrences of
error seconds during the logging period will result in heavy use of
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results
printer paper).
7 Choose the logging DEVICE.
If RS232 is chosen, see "Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer "
page 119.
If HPIB is chosen, see "Logging Results to HP-IB Printer " page 117.
If PARALLEL is chosen, see "Logging Results to Parallel (Centronics)
Printer " page 116.
If DISK is chosen, see “Saving Data Logging to Disk” page 142.
If Option 602, Internal Printer, is fitted and INTERNAL is chosen, see
"Logging Results to Internal Printer " page 118.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging on Demand
Logging on Demand
Description
When PRINT NOW is pressed the chosen results are logged to the chosen
logging device. The choice of results for logging is:
RESULTS SNAPSHOT - last recorded measurement results
OVERHEAD SNAPSHOT - last recorded overhead values of the chosen STS-3
OVERHEAD CAPTURE - Overhead Capture display
SCREEN DUMP - allows logging of the chosen display
POINTER GRAPH - Pointer Graph display
SONET TRIBUTARY SCAN - SONET Tributary Scan display
SONET ALARM SCAN - SONET Alarm Scan display
SELTEST FAILS - Last recorded selftest failures
HOW TO:
1 Choose LOG ON DEMAND to determine results to be logged when
PRINT NOW is pressed.
SCREEN DUMP allows you to log the selected display when
PRINT NOW is pressed. (Logging or Disk displays cannot be logged
using this feature).
2 Choose the logging DEVICE.
If RS232 is chosen, see "Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer "
page 119.
If HPIB is chosen, see "Logging Results to HP-IB Printer " page 117.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging on Demand
If PARALLEL is chosen, see "Logging Results to Parallel (Centronics)
Printer " page 116.
If DISK is chosen, see “Saving Data Logging to Disk” page 142.
If Option 602, Internal Printer, is fitted and INTERNAL is chosen, see
"Logging Results to Internal Printer " page 118.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Jitter Tolerance Results
Logging Jitter Tolerance Results
Description
The jitter auto tolerance feature provides jitter tolerance measurements
within the relevant ITU-T mask, G.823 for DSn, G.958, G.825 and G.253
for SONET.
You can log the jitter auto tolerance results to a printer for record
keeping purposes. The GRAPH version or the TEXT version of the jitter
tolerance results can be logged to an external printer.
HOW TO:
1 If logging to a Parallel Port (Centronics) printer, connect the printer to
the PARALLEL port. See "Connecting an HP 850C DeskJet Printer to
a Parallel Port " page 121.
2 If a non-HP printer is connected choose ALT. PRINTER .
3 Choose 80 character column width ( NORMAL ) or 40 character column
width ( COMPRESS ) according to the capabilities of your printer.
4 If logging to an HP-IB printer, connect an HP-IB printer to the HPIB
port. See "Logging Results to HP-IB Printer " page 117.
5 If logging to an RS-232-C printer, connect an RS-232-C printer to the
RS232 port. See "Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer " page 119.
6 If a non HP printer is connected, choose ALT. PRINTER .
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Jitter Tolerance Results
7 Choose 80 character column width ( NORMAL ) or 40 character column
width ( COMPRESS ) according to the capabilities of your printer.
8 Choose the same baud SPEED as chosen on your printer.
9 Choose the PROTOCOL required for the transfer of logging data.
10 Choose LOGGING ON on the LOGGING SETUP CONTROL
display.
11 Choose GRAPH on the RESULTS AUTO TOLER display if you wish to
log the graph to the printer.
Choose TEXT and the PAGE number on the RESULTS AUTO TOLER
display if you wish to log the text results to the printer.
12 Press PRINT NOW to log the chosen results to the printer.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Jitter Transfer Results
Logging Jitter Transfer Results
Description
The jitter transfer feature provides jitter transfer measurements within
the relevant ITU-T mask, G.823 for DSn and G.958 for SONET.
You can log the jitter transfer results to a printer for record keeping
purposes. The GRAPH version or the TEXT version of the jitter transfer
results can be logged to an external printer.
HOW TO:
1 If logging to a Parallel Port (Centronics) printer, connect the printer to
the PARALLEL port. See "Connecting an HP 850C DeskJet Printer to
a Parallel Port " page 121.
2 If a non-HP printer is connected, choose ALT. PRINTER .
3 Choose 80 character column width ( NORMAL ) or 40 character column
width ( COMPRESS ) according to the capabilities of your printer.
4 If logging to an HP-IB printer, connect an HP-IB printer to the HPIB
port. See "Logging Results to HP-IB Printer " page 117.
5 If logging to an RS-232-C printer, connect an RS-232-C printer to the
RS232 port. See "Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer " page 119.
6 If a non HP printer is connected, choose ALT. PRINTER .
7 Choose 80 character column width ( NORMAL ) or 40 character column
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Jitter Transfer Results
width ( COMPRESS ) according to the capabilities of your printer.
8 Choose the same baud SPEED as chosen on your printer.
9 Choose the PROTOCOL required for the transfer of logging data.
10 Choose LOGGING ON on the LOGGING SETUP CONTROL
display.
11 Choose GRAPH and SCALE NARROW or WIDE on the RESULTS
JITTER TN FUNCTION display if you wish to log the graph to the
printer.
Choose TEXT and the PAGE number on the RESULTS JITTER
TN FUNCTION display if you wish to log the text results to the printer.
12 Press PRINT NOW to log the chosen results to the printer.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results to Parallel (Centronics) Printer
Logging Results to Parallel
(Centronics) Printer
Description
If Option 601, Remote Control Interface, is fitted, you can log the results
and alarms to an external Parallel printer connected to the PARALLEL
port. The Parallel port provides a standard IEEE 1284-A compatible
interface.
CAUTION
Damage to the instrument may result if a serial connection is made to this
port.
HOW TO:
1 Connect the Parallel printer to the PARALLEL port. See "Connecting
an HP 850C DeskJet Printer to a Parallel Port " page 121.
2 If a non HP printer is connected choose ALT PRINTER.
Choose NORMAL 80 character column width or COMPRESS 40
character column width according to the capabilities of your printer.
3 Choose LOGGING SETUP CONTROL and set up the display as
required. See "Logging Results " page 107 or "Logging on Demand "
page 110.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results to HP-IB Printer
Logging Results to HP-IB Printer
Description
If Option 601, Remote Control Interface, is fitted, you can log the results
and alarms to an external HP-IB printer connected to the HP-IB port.
HOW TO:
1 Connect an HP-IB printer to the HPIB port.
NOTE
Choosing HP-IB external printer for logging prevents the use of HP-IB
remote control.
2 Choose the LOGGING SETUP CONTROL and set up the display as
required. See "Logging Results " page 107 or "Logging on Demand "
page 110.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results to Internal Printer
Logging Results to Internal Printer
Description
If Option 602, Internal Printer is fitted, you can log the results and
alarms to the in-lid printer.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the LOGGING SETUP CONTROL and set up the display as
required. See "Logging Results " page 107.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer
Logging Results to RS-232-C Printer
Description
If Option 601, Remote Control Interface, is fitted, you can log the results
and alarms to an external RS-232-C printer connected to the RS232 port.
HOW TO:
1 Connect an RS-232-C printer to the RS232 port.
NOTE
Choosing RS232 external printer for logging prevents the use of
RS-232-C remote control.
2 If a non HP printer is connected choose ALT PRINTER.
Choose NORMAL 80 character column width or COMPRESS 40
character column width according to the capabilities of your printer.
3 Choose the LOGGING SETUP CONTROL and set up the display as
required. See "Logging Results " page 107 or "Logging on Demand "
page 110.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Printing Results from Disk
Printing Results from Disk
Description
The results and alarms you logged to Disk can be printed by removing
the Disk from the HP 37718A and inserting it into a personal computer
(PC).
HOW TO:
Print from DOS Prompt
copy/b a:\<filename> <printer name>
HOW TO:
Print from Windows
1 Choose the required file from Filemanager.
2 Choose FILE - COPY FILE TO
<printer name>
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Connecting an HP 850C DeskJet Printer to a Parallel Port
Connecting an HP 850C DeskJet
Printer to a Parallel Port
Description
If Remote Control Option, 601, is fitted, the HP 37718A has the
capability of interfacing with an HP 850C DeskJet printer or, an
alternative suppliers printer, via the PARALLEL port.
CAUTION
Do not connect a serial printer e.g. RS-232-C or HPIB to the HP 37718A
Parallel port as this will damage the interface.
HOW TO:
1 Connect the HP 37718A Parallel port to the HP 850C DeskJet Parallel
port using printer cable HP part number 24542D.
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Storing, Logging and Printing
Changing Internal Printer Paper
Changing Internal Printer Paper
Description
The printer accepts rolls of thermal paper with the following dimensions:
Width:
216 mm (8.5 in) or 210 mm (8.27 in) (A4)
tolerance +2.0 mm - 1.0 mm
Maximum Outside Diameter:
40 mm
Inside Core Diameter:
Between 12.5 mm and 13.2 mm
Suitable rolls of paper are available from Hewlett Packard, Part Number
9270-1360.
WARNING
The paper tear-off edge is SHARP. This edge is exposed when the
printer cover is raised. Note the ! CAUTION SHARP EDGE label
on the cover.
HOW TO:
1 Raise the two locking tabs on the sides of the printer cover and then
raise the cover.
2 Raise the printer mechanism front cover. This releases the paper
drive. Remove any remaining paper from the front (in the normal
direction of operation).
3 Lift out the spindle. Adjust the paper width adaptor to the width of the
paper being used.
122
Storing, Logging and Printing
Changing Internal Printer Paper
4 Put the paper roll on the spindle such that the sensitive side will be on
the underside of the print mechanism. Ensure that the relocation of
the spindle locks the blue width adaptor in position.
NOTE
The paper must be installed such that when it is in the print mechanism,
the sensitive side (slightly shiny) is the underside.
The illustrations here show the correct fitting for HP 9270-1360 paper
which has the sensitive side on the outside of the roll.
5 Feed the paper into the upper entry of the print mechanism. When the
front cover of the print mechanism is closed, the printer should
automatically feed the paper through until there is approximately 2.5
cm (1 in) clear at the front of the print mechanism.
Align paper with the leftmost edge of the printer
mechanism slot
INSERT PAPER
CAUTION
Do not close the outer cover until the automatic paper feed is complete.
123
Storing, Logging and Printing
Changing Internal Printer Paper
6 If the printer paper is incorrectly aligned, raise the printer mechanism
front cover to releases the paper drive and realign the paper.
LIFT TO ADJUST PAPER ALIGNMENT
124
Storing, Logging and Printing
Cleaning Internal Printer Print Head
Cleaning Internal Printer Print Head
Description
The print head should be cleaned when broken or light characters occur
in a vertical line on the page. To maintain a high quality print, clean the
print head after 200 to 300 prints.
The print head is cleaned with a special cleaning paper which is supplied
with the instrument.
WARNING
The paper tear-off edge is SHARP. This edge is exposed when the
printer cover is raised. Note the ! CAUTION SHARP EDGE label
on the cover.
HOW TO:
1 Open the printer as for changing the paper. See "Changing Internal
Printer Paper " page 122.
If printer paper is fitted, remove it from the printer.
2 Feed the cleaning paper into the top entry of the print mechanism with
the rough black side, which contains the cleaning material, towards
the rear of the printer.
3 When the automatic feed is complete and the paper stops moving use
the instrument front panel key PAPER FEED to move the cleaning
paper through the print mechanism.
4 Remove the cleaning paper and replace the normal printer paper. See
"Changing Internal Printer Paper " page 122.
NOTE
Retain the cleaning paper. It is designed to last for the life of the printer.
125
Storing, Logging and Printing
Cleaning Internal Printer Print Head
126
5
5
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Storing Configurations in Instrument Store
Storing Configurations in Instrument
Store
Description
You can store measurement settings which are used regularly and recall
them with a single operation.
One preset store is provided which cannot be overwritten, STORED
SETTING NUMBER [0]. This store is used to set the instrument to a
known state, the FACTORY DEFAULT SETTINGS.
HOW TO:
1 Set the HP 37718A to the configuration you wish to store.
2 Choose the STORED SETTING NUMBER to receive the
configuration.
3 Choose LOCK OFF .
4 Choose ACTION SAVE to store the configuration in the chosen store.
5 To add a descriptive title see "Titling Configuration in Instrument
Store " page 129.
128
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Titling Configuration in Instrument Store
Titling Configuration in Instrument
Store
Description
When storing configurations, you can give them an easily remembered
title for identification at a later date.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the STORED SETTING NUMBER which contains the stored
configuration.
2 Choose LOCK OFF .
3 Use JUMP ; NEXT CHAR ; PREVIOUS CHAR ;
settings.
and
to title the
129
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Recalling Configurations from Instrument Store
Recalling Configurations from
Instrument Store
Description
Having stored a configuration for future use, you must be able to recall
that configuration in the future.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the STORED SETTING NUMBER which contains the stored
configuration.
2 Choose ACTION RECALL to recall the stored configuration.
The recall operation can be verified by checking the relevant display
settings.
130
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Formatting a Disk
Formatting a Disk
Description
Only 1.44M, MS-DOS compatible disks can be used in the HP 37718A.
Any other format or capacity will result in a disk access error being
displayed.
NOTE
Disks can be formatted in an IBM compatible PC (1.44M, MS-DOS only)
but it is recommended that the disk is formatted in the HP 37718A as this
will ensure full compatibility with the Floppy Disk power fail recovery
included in the HP 37718A.
HOW TO:
1 Choose DISK OPERATION DISK FORMAT .
2 Insert the Disk into the Disk drive.
3 Choose OK to Format the disk.
A warning that this operation will erase all data is displayed and asks
“do you wish to continue”.
If YES is selected, all the data on the Disk will be erased and the disk
will be formatted.
If NO is selected, the operation is aborted. This allows you to view the
data on the Disk and verify that it is no longer needed.
131
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Labeling a Disk
Labeling a Disk
Description
You can label your disks for ease of identification.
MY DISK
HOW TO:
1 Choose DISK OPERATION DISK LABEL .
2 Label the Disk using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
SET and use the pop-up keypad.
or press
3 Choose OK to confirm the label is correct.
The label is displayed at the bottom of the display to confirm the
operation has taken place.
132
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Description
File and Directory structures can be important in speeding up the
transfer of data between the instrument and the disk drive.
It is recommended that you create a directory structure as an aid to
efficient file management particularly when the disk is moved to a PC.
Creating a Directory on Disk
HOW TO:
1 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE CREATE DIRECTORY on the OTHER
FLOPPY DISK display,
2 Enter the directory name using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or press SET and use the pop-up keypad.
The directory name can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
3 To create the directory choose OK .
This will create a sub directory of the directory displayed at the bottom
of the display. In this example A:\SONET will be created.
133
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Accessing Directories and Files
1 Choose DISK OPERATION SAVE .
2 Choose FILE TYPE you wish to view.
This acts as a filter on the filename extension:
CONFIGURATION - .CNF filter, GRAPHICS - .SMG filter,
DATA LOGGING - .PRN filter, SCREEN DUMP - .BMP filter.
3 Move the highlighted cursor to the NAME field and press SET .
NOTE
.
<DIR> - Current Directory.
..
<DIR> - Parent directory. Move highlighted cursor to this line and
press SET to move to parent directory.
4 Move the highlighted cursor to
..
<DIR> and press SET to move to parent directory.
5 Move the highlighted cursor to the directory required and press SET
to move to that directory. (The directory name will appear on the
display).
Only the files with the file extension chosen in FILE TYPE will be
displayed.
6 Move the highlighted cursor up and down the display using
.
134
and
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
NOTE
Title Bar - File types displayed and current directory. (cannot be
highlighted).
.
<DIR> - Current Directory.
..
<DIR> - Parent directory. Move highlighted cursor to this line and
press SET to move to parent directory.
SONET1.PRN - File (with named extension) in current directory. Move
highlighted cursor to this line and press SET to select the file. The display
will return to the SAVE display and the selected file name will appear in
the FILE NAME field.
NEXT - Move highlighted cursor to this line and press SET to access the
next page of file names.
PREV - Move highlighted cursor to this line and press SET to access the
previous page of file names.
7
NEW. - Allows entry of new file name using pop-up keypad. Press
SET to obtain the pop-up keypad display. Enter the new filename,
Choose END and press SET to return to the file manager display.
8 Press CANCEL to return to the SAVE display.
The filename entered via the keypad appears on the SAVE display.
The file extension is added automatically.
The Directory name and the disk Label appear at the bottom of the
display.
135
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Renaming a File on Disk
Description
Files can be renamed as an aid to efficient file management.
HOW TO:
1 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE RENAME .
2 Enter the FROM filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or
Choose the directory which contains the file to be renamed. See
"Accessing Directories and Files " page 134. Move the highlighted
cursor to the file to be renamed and press SET to return to the FILE
RENAME display.
The filename, with extension, can contain up to 12 alphanumeric
characters.
3 Choose the directory in which to locate the renamed file (it will appear
on the display). See "Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
4 Enter the TO filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or press SET twice and use the pop-up keypad.
The filename can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The file extension is fixed to the FROM filename extension.
5 To rename the file choose OK .
If you have entered a filename which already exists, a warning "File
exists - are you sure" you wish to continue is displayed.
If YES is selected, the data in the file will be overwritten. If NO is
selected, the operation is aborted.
This allows you the opportunity to verify before renaming.
136
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Deleting a File on Disk
Description
Obsolete files can be deleted as an aid to efficient file management.
HOW TO:
1
Choose DISK OPERATION FILE DELETE DELETE FILE .
2 Choose the directory containing the file to be deleted. See "Accessing
Directories and Files " page 134.
3 Enter the filename to be deleted using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or press SET , highlight the file to be deleted on the file
manager display, and press SET .
The file name can contain up to 12 alphanumeric characters, including
the filename extension.
4 To delete the file choose OK .
A warning "Are you sure you wish to continue" is displayed.
If YES is selected, the file is deleted.
If NO is selected, the operation is aborted.
This prevents accidental deletion of a wanted file.
137
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Deleting a Directory on Disk
Description
Obsolete Directories should be deleted as an aid to efficient file
management.
NOTE
A directory cannot be deleted until all the files within the directory have
been deleted. See "Deleting a File on Disk " page 137.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory you wish to delete (it will appear on the display).
See "Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE DELETE DELETE DIRECTORY .
3 To delete the directory choose OK .
A warning "Are you sure you wish to continue" is displayed.
If YES is selected, the directory is deleted.
If NO is selected, the operation is aborted.
This prevents accidental deletion of a wanted directory.
If the directory is not empty the messages "delete directory failed"
"directory is not empty" are displayed.
4 If files need to be deleted to prepare the directory for deletion. See
"Deleting a File on Disk " page 137.
138
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Managing Files and Directories on Disk
Adding Descriptors to Disk Files
Description
When storing configurations or graphics on disk, you can give them an
easily remembered descriptor for identification at a later date.
Descriptors can be added to .CNF and .SMG files.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory containing the file you wish to add the descriptor
to. See "Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
1 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE PROPERTIES and DISPLAY
OPTION FILE DESCRIPTOR .
2 Move the highlighted cursor to the FILE NAME DESCRIPTOR field.
Enter the file descriptor using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or press SET , highlight the file required on the file manager display,
and press SET .
3 Move the highlighted cursor to Select OK to perform operation and
choose OK.
The File List will show the descriptor instead of the TIME and DATE
information as long as FILE DESCRIPTOR is selected.
NOTE
This slows down the updating of the display.
139
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Saving Graphics Results to Disk
Saving Graphics Results to Disk
Description
HOW TO:
Graphics results can be saved to a file on disk. Two methods of naming
the file, which is created when the measurement is started, are available:
Automatic
A filename in the form meas001 is created
automatically without any action from you.
Your Choice
You can input a filename of your choice which will
override the automatically generated filename. This
must be entered before the measurement is started. If
the filename you enter already exists, graphics results
will be saved to the automatically generated filename.
This prevents existing files from being overwritten
each time the measurement is started.
1 Choose GRAPH STORAGE DISK and the Graph Storage resolution
required on the RESULTS display. See “Saving Graphics Results to
Instrument Store” page 98.
If you wish to use the automatically generated filename no further
action is required and the graphics results will be saved on Disk when
the measurement is completed.
140
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Saving Graphics Results to Disk
2 Choose the directory in which to save the graphics results. See
"Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
3 If you wish to enter your own choice of filename, choose DISK
OPERATION SAVE FILE TYPE GRAPHICS .
4 Move the highlighted cursor to NAME and enter the filename using
or press SET twice and use
PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
the pop-up keypad.
The filename can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .SMG.
The graphics results will be saved on Disk at the end of the
measurement.
141
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Saving Data Logging to Disk
Saving Data Logging to Disk
Description
Data Logging can be saved to a file on disk. The disk can be transferred
to a personal computer (PC) and the logging investigated at a later date.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory in which to save the logging results. See
"Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION SAVE FILE TYPE DATA LOGGING and
enter your choice of filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or press SET twice and use the pop-up keypad.
The filename can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .PRN.
3 If you wish to add the data logging to a file which already exists, choose
APPEND TO FILE. The data logging is added to the named file on
Disk in the available free space.
If you wish to overwrite the contents of the named file with the data
logging, choose OVERWRITE.
4 Set up the OTHER LOGGING display. See “Logging Results”
page 107.
When the named file is opened, data logging is saved on the disk:
• As each logging output occurs during the measurement or
•
142
PRINT NOW is pressed.
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Saving Configurations to Disk
Saving Configurations to Disk
Description
You can store a large number of measurement settings which are used
regularly and recall them when required.
Configurations can be stored to a file on the floppy disk. The floppy disk
can be used in other instruments which have the same option structure.
HOW TO:
1 Set the HP 37718A to the configuration you wish to store.
1 Choose the directory in which you wish to save the HP 37718A
configuration. See "Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION SAVE , FILE TYPE CONFIGURATION and
enter the filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or
press SET twice and use the pop-up keypad.
The filename extension is fixed as .CNF.
The filename can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
3 Choose OK to save the current configuration to disk.
If you have entered a filename which already exists, a warning "File
exists - are you sure you wish to continue" is displayed.
If YES is selected, the configuration will be saved.
To cancel, change OK to OFF and enter new filename. See "Accessing
Directories and Files " page 134.
143
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Recalling Configuration from Disk
Recalling Configuration from Disk
Description
If a configuration has been stored on disk, you will need to recall it at
some time in the future to configure the instrument.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory that contains the configuration file to be recalled.
See "Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION RECALL FILE TYPE CONFIGURATION
and enter your choice of filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
.
The filename can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .CNF.
3 To recall the configuration from disk to instrument, choose OK .
The recall operation can be verified by checking the relevant display
settings.
144
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Recalling Graphics Results from Disk
Recalling Graphics Results from Disk
Description
If graphic results have been stored on disk, you will need to recall them
in able to view the results on the GRAPH . display.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory that contains the graphics file to be recalled. See
"Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION RECALL FILE TYPE GRAPHICS and
enter your choice of filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
The filename can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .SMG.
3 To recall the graphics results from disk to instrument, choose OK
.
4 To view the graphics results, see “Recalling Stored Graph Results”
page 99.
145
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Configuration from Instrument Store to Disk
Copying Configuration from
Instrument Store to Disk
Description
If you have a configuration stored in the instrument store that you wish
to use on another instrument, you can copy it to disk. The configuration
can then be downloaded from the disk in to another HP 37718A with the
same options as the original instrument.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory to receive the configuration file. See "Accessing
Directories and Files " page 134.
1 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE COPY CONFIGURATION and enter
the Instrument Store number using DECREASE DIGIT and
INCREASE DIGIT or press SET and use the pop-up keypad.
The Stored Settings description appears alongside the store number.
If required the description can be modified using JUMP NEXT CHAR
or press SET and use the pop-up keypad.
PREVIOUS CHAR
The description can contain up to 24 alphanumeric characters.
2 Enter the chosen filename using PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
or press SET twice and use the pop-up keypad.
The file name can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .CNF.
146
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Configuration from Instrument Store to Disk
3 To copy the configuration from instrument to Disk choose OK .
If you have entered a filename which already exists, a warning "File
exists - are you sure you wish to continue" is displayed.
If YES is selected, the data on the Disk will be overwritten.
If NO is selected, the operation is aborted.
147
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Configuration from Disk to Instrument Store
Copying Configuration from Disk to
Instrument Store
Description
If you have a configuration stored in the instrument store that you wish
to use on another instrument, you can copy it to Disk. The configuration
can then be downloaded from the disk in another HP 37718A with the
same options as the original instrument.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory containing the configuration file. See "Accessing
Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE COPY CONFIGURATION and enter
the Instrument Store number using DECREASE DIGIT and
INCREASE DIGIT or press SET and use the pop-up keypad.
Enter a description of the configuration using PREVIOUS CHAR
or press SET and use the pop-up keypad.
NEXT CHAR
The description can contain up to 24 alphanumeric characters.
3 Enter the filename the configuration is to be copied from using
or press SET , highlight the
PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
file to be copied on the file manager display and press SET .
The file name can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .CNF.
148
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Configuration from Disk to Instrument Store
4 To copy the configuration from Disk to instrument, choose OK .
If you have entered a instrument store number which already contains
a configuration, a warning "Are you sure you wish to continue" is
displayed.
If YES is selected, the data in the instrument store will be overwritten.
If NO is selected, the operation is aborted.
149
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Graphics Results from Instrument Store to Disk
Copying Graphics Results from
Instrument Store to Disk
Description
You can copy Graphics Results from the instrument store to the Disk.
This is useful under the following conditions:
• If you have graphics results stored in the instrument that you wish to
prevent from being overwritten by a future measurement (only 10
store locations in the instrument)
• If you wish to retrieve the graphics results for viewing via a
spreadsheet.
HOW TO:
1 Choose the directory to receive the graphics file. See "Accessing
Directories and Files " page 134.
2 Choose DISK OPERATION FILE COPY GRAPHICS and enter the
Instrument Store number using DECREASE DIGIT and
INCREASE DIGIT or press SET and use the pop-up keypad.
3 Enter the filename the graphic results are to be copied to using
or press SET twice and use
PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
the pop-up keypad.
The file name can contain up to 8 alphanumeric characters.
The filename extension is fixed as .SMG.
150
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Graphics Results from Instrument Store to Disk
4 If you wish to view the graphic results at a later date via a
spreadsheet, choose FORMAT CSV . CSV is Comma Separated
Variable.
If you wish to view the graphic results at a later date on an HP
37718A, choose FORMAT NORMAL .
5 To copy the configuration from instrument to Disk, choose OK .
If you have entered a filename which already exists, a warning "File
exists - are you sure you wish to continue" is displayed.
If YES is selected, the data on the Disk will be overwritten.
If NO is selected, the operation is aborted.
This allows you the opportunity to view the data on the Disk and verify
that it is no longer needed.
151
Using Instrument and Disk Storage
Copying Graphics Results from Instrument Store to Disk
152
6
6
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Coupling Transmit and Receive Settings
Coupling Transmit and Receive Settings
Description
When generating and measuring at the same interface level, you can
have the transmit and receive settings coupled together. Any settings
change made on the transmit display will automatically occur on the
receive display. Any settings change made on the receive display will
automatically occur on the transmit display.
This function is available on the OTHER SETTINGS CONTROL display.
HOW TO:
1 Choose TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER COUPLED
154
.
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Setting Time & Date
Setting Time & Date
Description
When making Bit error measurements and recording results you can
have certain events timed chronologically, for example, Alarms; Error
Seconds.
The capability to set the Time and Date is provided on the OTHER
TIME & DATE display.
HOW TO:
1 Choose CLOCK MODE SETUP and set the Time and Date using
;
;
; INCREASE DIGIT and DECREASE DIGIT .
;
2 Choose CLOCK MODE RUN to complete the setting of Time and
Date.
155
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Enabling Keyboard Lock
Enabling Keyboard Lock
Description
You can protect the measurement settings from interference during a
test.
This function is provided in the HP 37718A on the OTHER
MISCELLANEOUS display.
The following keys are not affected by Keyboard Lock:
• Display keys TRANSMIT ; RECEIVE ; RESULTS ; GRAPH ; OTHER
• cursor keys
•
SHOW
PAPER FEED
and
LOCAL
SMART TEST
The following display functions are not affected by Keyboard Lock:
• RESULTS type on the RESULTS display
• KEYBOARD LOCK on the OTHER display
HOW TO:
1 Choose KEYBOARD LOCK ON
156
.
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Enabling Beep on Received Error
Enabling Beep on Received Error
Description
You can have an audible indication of an error which is particularly
useful when the display on the test set is hidden from view.
This function is provided in the HP 37718A on the OTHER
MISCELLANEOUS display.
HOW TO:
1 Choose BEEP ON RECEIVED ERROR ON
.
157
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Suspending Test on Signal Loss
Suspending Test on Signal Loss
When running a test, you can choose to suspend the test during periods
of signal loss.
This function is available on the OTHER MISCELLANEOUS display.
HOW TO:
1 Choose SUSPEND TEST ON SIGNAL LOSS ON .
158
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Setting Error Threshold Indication
Setting Error Threshold Indication
Description
When making error measurements, you can have an indication of when
an error count or error ratio threshold has been exceeded. You can set the
HP 37718A to indicate this by a color change, from yellow to red, of the
bar on the GRAPH display and the result on the RESULTS display. You
can choose the thresholds at which the color change occurs.
The Count and Ratio selections are independent.
This function is available on the OTHER COLOR CONTROL
HOW TO:
display.
1 Choose COLOR ENHANCE RESULTS ON .
2 Choose the COUNT THRESHOLD and RATIO THRESHOLD.
159
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Setting Screen Brightness and Color
Setting Screen Brightness and Color
Description
The HP 37718A screen can be set to single or two color using the COLOR
PALETTE selection on the OTHER , COLOR CONTROL display.
The screen brightness can be set to full or half brightness.
The half brightness setting is used when the room brightness is such
that half brightness is desirable and will also prolong the life of the
screen.
If the brightness is set to FULL and there have been no key presses in
the last hour, then the screen automatically dims to the half brightness
level and the status message “Display set to half brightness” is shown.
Any key press will return the screen to full brightness.
This function is available on the OTHER COLOR CONTROL
HOW TO:
1 Choose the DISPLAY BRIGHTNESS to suit the operating
environment.
160
display.
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Dumping Display to Disk
Dumping Display to Disk
Description
The chosen display may be stored on disk in bitmap format using the
Screen Dump feature of the HP37718A. Logging and Floppy Disk must
be set up for screen dump. The current display is stored on disk when
PRINT NOW . is pressed.
HOW TO:
1 Choose LOGGING SETUP DEVICE and LOGGING PORT DISK on
the OTHER , LOGGING display.
2
Choose LOGGING SETUP CONTROL LOG ON DEMAND
SCREEN DUMP on the OTHER , LOGGING display.
3 If compression is required to save disk space, select BITMAP
COMPRESSION (RLE) ON .
161
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Dumping Display to Disk
4 Choose the directory in which to save the Screen Dump. See
"Accessing Directories and Files " page 134.
5 If you wish to enter your own choice of filename, choose DISK
OPERATION SAVE FILE TYPE SCREEN DUMP .
NOTE
You have the option of an auto generated filename or entering your chosen
filname.
The file name can have a maximum of 8 characters.
The file extension is fixed as .BMP.
The file name must satisfy DOS requirements, that is, there must be no
spaces or other illegal characters.
6 Move the highlighted cursor to NAME and enter the filename using
or press SET twice and use
PREVIOUS CHAR NEXT CHAR
the pop-up keypad.
7 Choose the display you want to store on disk and press PRINT NOW .
After a few second the message "SAVING SCREEN DUMP . . . (XX%
COMPLETE)" is displayed.
162
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Running Self Test
Running Self Test
Description
Before using the HP 37718A to make measurements, you can run Self
Test ALL TESTS to ascertain the integrity of the HP 37718A. These
tests take between at least 1 hour to complete depending on the options
fitted.
Alternatively you can run Confidence Tests which only takes 2 to 3
minutes to complete. This is not a full verification but performs BER
measurements with internal and external loopbacks fitted.
HOW TO:
Run ALL TESTS
1 Choose TEST TYPE ALL TESTS on the OTHER SELF TEST display.
2 Insert a formatted disk into the instrument disk drive.
3 Make the loopback connections listed below:
Connect Transmit module 75Ω OUT to Receive module 75Ω IN
Connect Transmit module 100/120Ω OUT to Receive module 100/
120Ω IN
Connect Transmit module 75Ω MUX to Receive module 75Ω DEMUX
Connect Transmit module 100/120Ω MUX to Receive module 100/
120Ω DEMUX
Connect Multirate Analyser IN to OUT
Connect Optical OUT to Optical IN via a 15 dB attenuator.
163
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Running Self Test
NOTE
If any or all of these connections are not made the HP 37718A will FAIL
Self Test.
4 Press RUN/STOP to activate the Self Test. TEST STATUS RUNNING
will be displayed.
The information pertaining to TEST TYPE, TEST NUMBER and
SUBTEST NUMBER will change as the Self Test progresses.
If the HP 37718A is functioning correctly, after a time of at least 1
hour, TEST STATUS PASSED is displayed.
If TEST STATUS [FAIL nnn] is displayed, the HP 37718A should be
returned to a service office for repair.
HOW TO:
Run Confidence TESTS
1 Choose TEST TYPE CONF. TESTS on the OTHER SELF TEST
display.
2 Insert a formatted disk into the instrument disk drive.
3 Make the loopback connections listed below:
Connect Transmit module 75Ω OUT to Receive module 75Ω IN
Connect Transmit module 100/120Ω OUT to Receive module 100/
120Ω IN
Connect Transmit module 75Ω MUX to Receive module 75Ω DEMUX
Connect Transmit module 100/120Ω MUX to Receive module 100/
120Ω DEMUX
Connect Multirate Analyser IN to OUT
Connect Optical OUT to Optical IN via a 15 dB attenuator.
164
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Running Self Test
4 Press RUN/STOP to activate the Self Test. TEST STATUS RUNNING
will be displayed.
The information pertaining to TEST TYPE, TEST NUMBER and
SUBTEST NUMBER will change as the Self Test progresses.
If the HP 37718A is functioning correctly, after a time of 2 to 3minutes,
TEST STATUS PASSED is displayed.
If TEST STATUS [FAIL nnn] is displayed, the HP 37718A should be
returned to a service office for repair.
NOTE
Each individual self test requires unique loopback connections. To obtain
a list of the connections required move the highlighted cursor to
CABLING INFO and press SET . The Loopbacks list will appear on the
display.
165
Selecting and Using "Other" Features
Running Self Test
166
Appendix A
7
STS-1 SPE Background
Patterns
The following tables list the background patterns available when selecting specific
foregrounds.
STS-1 SPE Background Patterns
Table 2
STS-1 SPE Background Patterns
Foreground
Background choice in
Foreground TUG-3
Background choice in other
AU-3
STS-1 SPE
---------
VT-1.5, VT-2 Mapping or SPE
Word (8 bit user programmable
word).
VT-6
Pattern in other VT-6s is numbered. They
contain the word 11NNNNNx, where NNNNN is
the binary number of the TU.
VT-1.5, VT-2 Mapping or SPE
Word (8 bit user programmable
word).
VT-2 structure, unframed with 2E15-1, 2E9-1
PRBS or 1100 word pattern in all information
bits.
VT-2, VT-1.5 Mapping or SPE
Word (8 bit user programmable
word).
VT-2 (2 Mb/s) Framed VT-2 structure, framed with 2E15-1, 2E9-1
PRBS, NUMBERED or 1100 word pattern. In
Numbered mode, each timeslot contains the
pattern 0NNNNNNX where NNNNNN is the
binary number of the TU. The least significant
digit (X) is alternated between 0 and 1 in
successive frames.
VT-2, VT-1.5 Mapping or SPE
Word (8 bit user programmable
word).
VT-2 (2 Mb/s)
Unframed
VT-1.5 (DS1)
Unframed
VT-1.5 (DS1) Framed
168
VT-1.5 structure, D4 framed with 2E15-1, 2E9-1
PRBS or 1100 Word pattern in other TU-11s.
VT-2, VT-1.5 Mapping or SPE
Word (8 bit user programmable
word).
VT-1.5 structure, DS1, D4 framed with 2E15-1,
2E9-1 PRBS, NUMBERED or 1100 word pattern
in other TU-11s.
In Numbered mode, each timeslot contains the
pattern 1NNNNNN1 where NNNNNN is the
binary number of the TU. Framing type will be
the same as the foreground except when SLC96
is selected. In this case, D4 framing is inserted in
the background
VT-2, VT-1.5 Mapping or SPE
Word (8 bit user programmable
word).
Appendix B
8
ETSI/ANSI Terminology
A table of ETSI terms with their ANSI equivalents.
ETSI/ANSI Terminology
ETSI/ANSI Conversion and Equivalent Terms
ETSI/ANSI Conversion and Equivalent Terms
Introduction
The terminology used on the instrument display can be ETSI (SDH) or
ANSI (SONET) terminology. Refer to the table given in this appendix for
an explanation of equivalent SDH/SONET terms.
ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute.
Table 3
ETSI / ANSI Terminology
ETSI Term
170
ANSI Term
AU-3
STS-1 SPE + H1, H2, H3
AU-4
STS-3c SPE + H1, H2, H3
BIP (Bit Interleaved parity)
CV (Code Violation)
High Order Path (HP / HO)
STS Path
I-n Intra Office, (n=STM-n level)
Intermediate Reach (IR)
L-n.1 or L-n.2 long haul
LR long reach
Low Order Path (LP / LO)
VT Path
LP-REI
REI-V
M.S.P
A.P.S
Multiplexer Section (MS)
Line
Multiplexer Section Protection
Automatic Protection Switching
MS-AIS
Line AIS / AIS-L
MS-BIP
Line CV / CV-L
MS-DCC
Line DCC / DCC-L
MS-REI
Line FEBE / REI-L
ETSI/ANSI Terminology
ETSI/ANSI Conversion and Equivalent Terms
Table 3
ETSI / ANSI Terminology , continued
ETSI Term
ANSI Term
MS-RDI
Line FERF / RDI-L
Multiplexer Section Overhead
Line Overhead
Network Node Interface
Line Interface
OOF
SEF (severely errored frame defect)
Path AIS / AU-AIS
AIS-P
Path REI / HP REI
REI-P
Path FERF / HP RDI
RDI-P
Path IEC / AU-IEC
IEC-P
Path Overhead
Path Overhead
Regenerator
Repeater
Regenerator Section (RS)
Section
Regenerator Section Overhead
Section Overhead
Remote Alarm Indicator
RAI
RS-DCC
Section DCC (DCC-S)
Section Overhead (SOH)
Transport Overhead (TOH)
S-n.1 or S-n.2 short haul
Short Reach (SR)
SOH
TOH
STM-m
OC-n / STS-n (where m= n÷ 3 for m ≥ 1
STM-0
STS-1
STM-1
OC3c / STS-3c
STM-4
OC-12 / STS-12
STM-16
OC-48 / STS-48
Tributary Unit (TU)
Virtual Tributary (VT)
171
ETSI/ANSI Terminology
ETSI/ANSI Conversion and Equivalent Terms
Table 3
ETSI / ANSI Terminology , continued
ETSI Term
ANSI Term
TU
VT
TU-11
VT 1.5
TU-12
VT 2
TU-2
VT 6
TU-3
NONE
TU BIP
VT BIP (CV-V)
TU RDI / LP-RDI
RDI-V
TUG
VT Group
TUG2
VT Group (12 columns)
TUG3
VT Group (86 columns)
TU multiframe
VT superframe
TU PATH AIS
VT AIS (AIS-V)
VC
SPE
VC4
STS3C SPE
Virtual Container (VC)
Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE)
NOTE: VC is an ETSI abbreviation for Virtual Container and an ETSI /
ANSI abbreviation for (ATM) Virtual Channel. The context of VC must
therefore be taken into account when converting between standards.
172
Index
A
Alarm scan
DSn, 83
SONET, 82
Alarms & errors
DSn add, 50
DSn payload add, 50
SONET add, 49
Analysis measurement
DSn, 71
DSn payload, 71
SONET, 70
APS messages
generation, 64
monitoring, 25
test function, 64
Automatic protection switch
message generation, 64
Autotolerance, 89
B
B/G mapping selection SONET, 5
Background mapping selection SONET, 5
Background Patterns, 168
Beep on received error, 157
C
Capture overhead, 29
Centronics printer, 116
Color control for error threshold indication, 159
Confidence tests, 164
Configuration
copy from disk to instrument, 148
copy from instrument to disk, 146
recall from disk, 144
recall from instrument, 130
store in instrument, 128
store on disk, 143
Copy configuration
from disk to instrument, 148
from instrument to disk, 146
Coupling, 154
Create directory, 133
D
Date & time, 155
DCC
drop, 65
insert, 65
DCC Insert test function, 65
Delay time, jitter tolerance, 90
Delete
directory, 138
file, 137
Directory
create, 133
delete, 138
management, 133
Disk
accessing a directory, 134
accessing files, 134
adding descriptors to files, 139
copy configuration from instrument, 146
copy configuration to instrument, 148
copy graphics results from instrument,
150
create directory, 133
delete directory, 138
delete file, 137
format a disk, 131
label a disk, 132
managing directories, 133
managing files, 133
recall configuration, 144
recall graphics results, 145
rename a file, 136
save data logging, 142
save graphics results, 140
Drop
DCC, 65
external payload/test signal, 46
DSn
alarm scan, 83
analysis measurement, 71
errors & alarms, 50
external test signal drop, 46
external test signal insert, 43
frequency measurement, 72
frequency offset, 33
N X 64 kb/s payload transmit, 40
N X 64 kb/s test signal receive, 42
N X 64 kb/s test signal transmit, 40
payload, receive, 16
payload, transmit, 3
receive interface, 15
spare bits, 53
structured test signal receive, 39
structured test signal transmit, 37
transmit interface, 2
Dumping display to disk, 161
Dwell time, jitter tolerance, 90
E
Error Burst Definition
Service Disruption, 78
Error Indication
Audio setting, 157
Error threshold indication
setting, 159
Error threshold, jitter tolerance, 90
Errors & alarms
DSn add, 50
DSn payload add, 50
SONET add, 49
Errors and alarms DSn test function, 50
Errors and alarms SONET test function, 49
Extended jitter
measurement, 86
receive interface, 19
External
payload/test signal drop, 46
payload/test signal insert, 43
External printer
connecting to parallel port, 121
F
F/G mapping selection SONET, 5
File
accessing, 134
delete, 137
descriptors, 139
management, 133
rename, 136
Foreground mapping selection SONET, 5
Format a disk, 131
Frequency measurement, 72
Frequency offset
DSn, 33
SONET, 31
SONET line rate, 31
SONET tributary, 32
173
Index
G
G.821 analysis measurement, 71
G.826 analysis measurement, 71
Graphics
copy results from instrument to disk, 150
logging displays, 105
recall results from disk, 145
recall stored results, 99
saving results to disk, 140
saving to instrument, 98
storage resolution, 98
viewing error & alarm summaries, 103
viewing the bar graphs, 101
H
H4 byte
sequence setting, 23
HP path label monitoring, 25
HP-IB printer, 117
I
Insert
DCC, 65
external payload/test signal, 43
Internal printer
change paper, 122
logging, 118
print head cleaning, 125
J
J1, J2 bytes
setting, 23
Jitter
measurement, 84, 86
receive interface, 18, 19
transmit interface, 7
Jitter tolerance
delay time, 90
dwell time, 90
error threshold, 90
graph result, 91
logging results, 112
measurement, 89
number of points, 90
text result, 91
Jitter transfer
accuracy, 92
calibration, 93
delay time, 94
dwell time, 94
graph results, 96
input mask, 94
logging results, 114
measurement, 92
number of points, 94
Q factor, 94
K
Keyboard lock, 156
L
Labeling a disk, 132
Labels, overhead monitoring, 25
Line overhead
insertion, 27
Lock keyboard, 156
Logging
content, 108
control, 108
device, 109, 110
error event, 107
graph displays, 105
jitter tolerance results, 112
jitter transfer results, 114
on Demand, 110
Overhead Capture, 110
overhead snapshot, 110
Pointer Graph, 110
result logged, 108
results, 107
results snapshot, 110
selftest failures, 110
SONET Tributary Scan, 110
test period, 107
to Centronics printer, 116
to disk, 142
to HP-IB printer, 117
to internal printer, 118
to RS-232-C printer, 119
when, 108
LOH
insertion, 27
M
M2100 analysis measurement, 71
M2110 analysis measurement, 71
174
M2120 analysis measurement, 71
Managing
disk directories, 133
disk files, 133
Measuring
DSn analysis, 71
extended jitter, 86
frequency, 72
jitter, 84
jitter tolerance, 89
jitter transfer, 92
optical power, 73
overhead BER, 68
round trip delay, 74
service disruption, 77
SONET analysis, 70
wander, 87
Monitor
equalizer, 15
indicator, 15
receive overhead, 24
MSP messages
generation, 64
monitoring, 25
test function, 64
O
Optical
clock stress, 63
power measurement, 73
Overhead
all labels, 23
APS messages monitoring, 25
BER test, 68
capture, 29
default transmit, 22
H4 byte sequences, 23
Labels monitoring, 25
monitor receive, 24
path monitor, 25
path transmit, 23
sequence generation, 27
TOH transmit, 23
trace messages, 26
transmit, 22
Overhead capture
trigger, 29
Overhead capture test function, 29
Index
Overhead sequence
repeat run, 27
single run, 27
P
Paper change
internal printer, 122
Parallel port
connecting Centronics printer, 121
Path overhead
capture and display, 29
insertion, 27
Payload
analysis measurement, 71
DSn receive, 16
DSn transmit, 3
errors & alarms, 50
framing SONET transmit, 5
framing, SONET receive, 17
insert external, 43
N X 64 kb/s receive, 42
N X 64 kb/s transmit, 40
SONET receive, 17, 39
SONET transmit, 5, 37
spare bits, 53
POH
capture and display, 29
insertion, 27
monitor, 25
setting, 23
Pointer adjustments
burst, 54
new pointer, 54
offset, 55
Pointer adjustments test function, 54
Pointer graph, 61
Pointer graph test function, 61
Print head cleaning, 125
Printer
Centronics, 116
Centronics, connecting to parallel port,
121
Centronics, logging to, 116
HP-IB, logging to, 117
internal, changing paper, 122
internal, cleaning print head, 125
internal, logging to, 118
RS-232-C, logging to, 119
Printing results from disk, 120
R
Recall
configuration from disk, 144
configuration from instrument, 130
graphics results from disk, 145
stored graph results, 99
Receive interface
DSn, 15
extended jitter, 19
jitter, 18, 19
SONET, 17
wander, 20
Receive settings
Coupled to transmit, 154
Rename a file, 136
Round trip delay, 74
RS-232-C
logging to printer, 119
S
S1 sync status monitoring, 25
Save
configuration to disk, 143
data logging to disk, 142
graphics results to disk, 140
graphics results to instrument, 98
Screen dump to disk, 161
Self Test
confidence tests, 164
Self test, 163
Sequence generation test function, 27
Sequences
Overhead generation, 27
service disruption
DS1 and DS3, 78
Service disruption measurement, 77
Setting up Signaling Bits, 34
Short term period selection, 69
Signal Loss
suspending test on, 158
Signaling Bits
D4 and SLC-96 payloads, 76
ESF Payload, 76
Monitoring, 76
Signaling bits
setting up, 34
SONET
alarm scan, 82
analysis measurement, 70
APS messages, 64
DCC insert, 65
errors & alarms add, 49
external payload drop, 46
frequency measurement, 72
frequency offset, 31
line rate offset, 31
Mapping selection, 5
MSP messages, 64
N X 64 kb/s payload receive, 42
optical clock stress, 63
optical power measurement, 73
overhead BER test, 68
overhead capture, 29
overhead monitor, 24
overhead sequences, 27
overhead trace messages, 26
overhead transmit, 22
payload, receive, 17
payload, transmit, 5
pointer adjustments, 54
pointer graph, 61
receive interface, 17
service disruption measurement, 77
structured payload receive, 39
structured payload transmit, 37
thru mode, 11
transmit interface, 4
tributary rate offset, 32
tributary scan, 80
Spare bits, 53
Spare bits test function, 53
Store
configuration in instrument, 128
configuration on disk, 143
Stress test test function, 63
STS-1 SPE Background Patterns, 168
Suspending Test on Signal Loss, 158
Suspending test on signal loss, 158
Synchronization source
DSn, 2
SONET, 4
T
Test function
175
Index
APS messages, 64
DCC insert, 65
errors & alarms DSn, 50
errors & alarms SONET, 49
MSP messages, 64
overhead BER test, 68
overhead capture, 29
pointer adjustments, 54
pointer graph, 61
sequence generation, 27
spare bits, 53
stress test, 63
tributary scan, 80
Test period selection, 69
Test signal
drop external, 46
insert external, 43
N X 64kb/s receive, 42
N X 64kb/s transmit, 40
Test Timing, 69
Threshold indication setting, 159
Thru mode SONET, 11
Time & date, 155
TOH
Setting, 23
Trace messages, 26
Transmit interface
DSn, 2
jitter, 7
SONET, 4
wander, 9
Transmit settings
Coupled to Receive, 154
Tributary scan, 80
V
Viewing
bar graphs, 101
graphics error & alarm summaries, 103
Voice channel
round trip delay, 74
W
Wander
bar graph, 88
measurement, 87
receive interface, 20
transmit interface, 9
176
Wander reference
DSn, 2
SONET, 4
Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Offices
If you need technical assistance with a
Hewlett-Packard test and measurement
product or application please contact the
Hewlett-Packard office or distributor in
your country.
Asia Pacific:
Hong Kong:
Tel: (852) 2599 7889
India:
Tel: (91-11) 682-6000
Japan:
Hewlett-Packard Japan Ltd.
Measurement Assistance Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
Tokyo 192-8510, Japan
Tel: (81) 426-56-7832
Fax: (81) 426-56-7840
Korea:
Tel: (82-2) 769 0800
For countries in Asia Pacific not listed,
contact:
Hewlett-Packard Asia Pacific Ltd
17-21/F Shell Tower, Times Square,
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Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 2599 7777
Fax: (852) 2506 9285
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Tel: 1 800 629 485
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Tel: (905) 206 4725
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Tel: (60-3) 291 0213
Europe, Africa and Middle East:
Philippines:
Tel: (63-2) 894 1451
Austria:
Tel: (0)1 25000-0
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Tel: (86-10) 6505 0149
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Tel: (1800) 292 8100
Taiwan:
Tel: (886-3) 492 9666
Thailand:
Tel: (66-2) 661 3900
Belgium and Luxembourg:
Tel: (02) 778 3417
Baltic Countries:
Tel: (358) 08872 2100
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Tel: 420-2-4743111
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Tel: 45 99 10 00
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Tel: (90) 88 721
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Tel: 30-1-7264045
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Tel: 36-1-4618219
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Tel: (01) 284 4633
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Tel: 972-3-5380333
Italy:
Tel: 02 - 92 122 241
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Tel: (020) 547 6669
Norway:
Tel: (22) 73 57 50
Poland:
Tel: 48-22-6087700
Portugal:
Tel: (11) 482 85 00
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Tel: (7/095) 928 6885
Fax: (7/095) 916 9844
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Tel: 27-22-8061000
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Tel: (34) 1 631 1323
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Tel: (08) 444 22 77
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For countries in Europe/Middle East
and Africa not listed, contact:
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Tel: (305) 267-4245
Tel: (305) 267-4220
Fax: (305) 267-4288
United States:
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Test and Measurement Organization
5301 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Bldg. 51L-SC
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Tel: 1 800 452 4844
About This Edition
This is the 2nd edition of
the DSn/SONET Users
Guide. It documents the
product as of December
1998. Edition dates are as
follows:
1st Edition, Sept. 1998
2nd Edition, Dec. 1998
 Copyright HewlettPackard Ltd. 1998. All
rights reserved.
Reproduction, adaption, or
translation without prior
written permission is
prohibited, except as
allowed under the
copyright laws.
In This Book
This book tells you how to select and use
the various instrument functions available.
Printed in U.K. 12/98
37718-90022
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