Router Design and Optics

Router Design and Optics
Router Design
Nick Feamster
CS 7260
January 24, 2007
Today’s Lecture
• The design of big, fast routers
• Partridge et al., A 50 Gb/s IP Router
• Design constraints
– Speed
– Size
– Power consumption
• Components
• Algorithms
– Lookups and packet processing (classification, etc.)
– Packet queueing
– Switch arbitration
2
What’s In A Router
• Interfaces
– Input/output of packets
• Switching fabric
– Moving packets from input to output
• Software
–
–
–
–
Routing
Packet processing
Scheduling
Etc.
3
What a Router Chassis Looks Like
Cisco CRS-1
Juniper M320
19”
6ft
17”
Capacity: 1.2Tb/s
Power: 10.4kW
Weight: 0.5 Ton
Cost: $500k
3ft
2ft
Capacity: 320 Gb/s
Power: 3.1kW
2ft
4
What a Router Line Card Looks Like
1-Port OC48 (2.5 Gb/s)
(for Juniper M40)
4-Port 10 GigE
(for Cisco CRS-1)
10in
2in
Power: about 150 Watts
21in
5
Big, Fast Routers: Why Bother?
• Faster link bandwidths
• Increasing demands
• Larger network size (hosts, routers, users)
6
Summary of Routing Functionality
•
•
•
•
•
Router gets packet
Looks at packet header for destination
Looks up routing table for output interface
Modifies header (ttl, IP header checksum)
Passes packet to output interface
7
Generic Router Architecture
Header Processing
Data
Hdr
Lookup
Update
IP Address Header
IP Address
1M prefixes
Off-chip DRAM
Queue
Packet
Data
Hdr
Next Hop
Address
Table
Buffer
Memory
Question: What is the difference between this
architecture and that in today’s paper?
1M packets
Off-chip DRAM
8
Innovation #1: Each Line Card Has the
Routing Tables
• Prevents central table from becoming a
bottleneck at high speeds
• Complication: Must update forwarding tables
on the fly.
– How does the BBN router update tables without
slowing the forwarding engines?
9
Generic Router Architecture
Data
Hdr
Header Processing
Lookup
IP Address
Buffer
Manager
Update
Header
Hdr
Header Processing
Lookup
IP Address
Hdr
Interconnection
Fabric
Header Processing
Lookup
IP Address
Address
Table
Buffer
Manager
Update
Header
Address
Table
Data
Hdr
Data
Hdr
Buffer
Memory
Address
Table
Data
Data
Update
Header
Buffer
Data
MemoryHdr
Buffer
Manager
Buffer
Memory
10
First Generation Routers
Off-chip Buffer
Shared Bus
CPU
CP I Line
U nte
rfa
ce
M
em
or
y
Route
Table
Buffer
Memory
Line
Interface
Line
Interface
Line
Interface
MAC
MAC
MAC
Typically <0.5Gb/s aggregate capacity
11
Second Generation Routers
CPU
Route
Table
Buffer
Memory
Line
Card
Line
Card
Line
Card
Buffer
Memory
Buffer
Memory
Buffer
Memory
Fwding
Cache
Fwding
Cache
Fwding
Cache
MAC
MAC
MAC
Typically <5Gb/s aggregate capacity
12
Third Generation Routers
“Crossbar”: Switched Backplane
Li
I
CPnt ne
Uerf
ac
e
M
em
or
y
Line
Card
CPU
Card
Line
Card
Local
Buffer
Memory
Routing
Table
Local
Buffer
Memory
Fwding
Table
Fwding
Table
MAC
MAC
Typically <50Gb/s aggregate capacity
13
Innovation #2: Switched Backplane
• Every input port has a connection to every output port
• During each timeslot, each input connected to zero or one
outputs
• Advantage: Exploits parallelism
• Disadvantage: Need scheduling algorithm
14
Router Components and Functions
• Route processor
– Routing
– Installing forwarding tables
– Management
• Line cards
– Packet processing and classification
– Packet forwarding
• Switched bus (“Crossbar”)
– Scheduling
15
Crossbar Switching
• Conceptually: N inputs, N outputs
– Actually, inputs are also outputs
• In each timeslot, one-to-one mapping between
inputs and outputs.
• Goal: Maximal matching
Traffic Demands
Bipartite Match
T
S * (n) = arg max( L (n) ⋅ S (n))
S (n)
L11(n)
Maximum
Weight Match
LN1(n)
16
Early Crossbar Scheduling Algorithm
• Wavefront algorithm
Problems: Fairness, speed, …
17
Alternatives to the Wavefront Scheduler
• PIM: Parallel Iterative Matching
– Request: Each input sends requests to all outputs for which it
has packets
– Grant: Output selects an input at random and grants
– Accept: Input selects from its received grants
• Problem: Matching may not be maximal
• Solution: Run several times
• Problem: Matching may not be “fair”
• Solution: Grant/accept in round robin instead of random
18
Scheduling and Fairness
• What is an appropriate definition of fairness?
– One notion: Max-min fairness
– Disadvantage: Compromises throughput
• Max-min fairness gives priority to low data
rates/small values
• Is it guaranteed to exist?
• Is it unique?
19
Max-Min Fairness
• A flow rate x is max-min fair if any rate x cannot be
increased without decreasing some y which is smaller
than or equal to x.
• How to share equally with different resource demands
– small users will get all they want
– large users will evenly split the rest
• More formally, perform this procedure:
– resource allocated to customers in order of increasing demand
– no customer receives more than requested
– customers with unsatisfied demands split the remaining resource
20
Example
• Demands: 2, 2.6, 4, 5; capacity: 10
– 10/4 = 2.5
– Problem: 1st user needs only 2; excess of 0.5,
• Distribute among 3, so 0.5/3=0.167
– now we have allocs of [2, 2.67, 2.67, 2.67],
– leaving an excess of 0.07 for cust #2
– divide that in two, gets [2, 2.6, 2.7, 2.7]
• Maximizes the minimum share to each customer whose
demand is not fully serviced
21
How to Achieve Max-Min Fairness
• Take 1: Round-Robin
– Problem: Packets may have different sizes
• Take 2: Bit-by-Bit Round Robin
– Problem: Feasibility
• Take 3: Fair Queuing
– Service packets according to soonest “finishing time”
Adding QoS: Add weights to the queues…
22
Why QoS?
• Internet currently provides one single class of
“best-effort” service
– No assurances about delivery
• Existing applications are elastic
– Tolerate delays and losses
– Can adapt to congestion
• Future “real-time” applications may be inelastic
23
Other Goal: Utilization
• “100% Throughput”: no packets experience
head-of-line blocking
• Does the previous scheme achieve 100%
throughput?
• What if the crossbar could have a “speedup”?
Key result: Given a crossbar with 2x speedup, any
maximal matching can achieve 100% throughput.
24
Head-of-Line Blocking
Problem: The packet at the front of the queue experiences
contention for the output queue, blocking all packets behind it.
Input 1
Output 1
Input 2
Output 2
Input 3
Output 3
Maximum throughput in such a switch: 2 – sqrt(2)
25
Combined Input-Output Queueing
• Advantages
– Easy to build
• 100% can be achieved
with limited speedup
input interfaces
output interfaces
Crossbar
• Disadvantages
– Harder to design algorithms
• Two congestion points
• Flow control at
destination
26
Solution: Virtual Output Queues
• Maintain N virtual queues at each input
– one per output
Input 1
Input 2
Output 1
Output 2
Output 3
Input 3
27
Processing: Fast Path vs. Slow Path
• Optimize for common case
– BBN router: 85 instructions for fast-path code
– Fits entirely in L1 cache
• Non-common cases handled on slow path
–
–
–
–
–
Route cache misses
Errors (e.g., ICMP time exceeded)
IP options
Fragmented packets
Mullticast packets
28
Recent Trends: Programmability
•
NetFPGA: 4-port interface
card, plugs into PCI bus
(Stanford)
– Customizable forwarding
– Appearance of many
virtual interfaces (with
VLAN tags)
•
Programmability with
Network processors
(Washington U.)
PEs
Switch
Line
Cards
29
IP Address Lookup
Challenges:
1. Longest-prefix match (not exact).
2. Tables are large and growing.
3. Lookups must be fast.
30
IP Lookups find Longest Prefixes
128.9.176.0/24
128.9.16.0/21 128.9.172.0/21
65.0.0.0/8
0
128.9.0.0/16
128.9.16.14
142.12.0.0/19
232-1
Routing lookup: Find the longest matching prefix
(aka the most specific route) among all prefixes
that match the destination address.
31
IP Address Lookup
Challenges:
1. Longest-prefix match (not exact).
2. Tables are large and growing.
3. Lookups must be fast.
32
Address Tables are Large
33
IP Address Lookup
Challenges:
1. Longest-prefix match (not exact).
2. Tables are large and growing.
3. Lookups must be fast.
34
Lookups Must be Fast
Year
Line
40B
packets
(Mpkt/s)
1997
622Mb/s
1.94
OC-12
1999
2.5Gb/s
7.81
OC-48
2001
10Gb/s
31.25
OC-192
2003
40Gb/s
125
OC-768
Cisco CRS-1 1-Port OC-768C
(Line rate: 42.1 Gb/s)
Still pretty rare outside of
research networks
35
IP Address Lookup: Binary Tries
0
1
f
d
e
g
h
i
abc
Example Prefixes:
a) 00001
b) 00010
c) 00011
d) 001
e) 0101
f) 011
g) 100
h) 1010
i) 1100
j) 11110000
j
36
IP Address Lookup: Patricia Trie
0
f
d
e
abc
1
g
h
i
Example Prefixes
a) 00001
b) 00010
c) 00011
d) 001
e) 0101
j
f) 011
Skip 5
g) 100
1000
h) 1010
i) 1100
j) 11110000
Problem: Lots of (slow) memory lookups
37
Address Lookup: Direct Trie
0000……0000
24 bits
0
1111……1111
224-1
8 bits
0
28-1
• When pipelined, one lookup per memory access
• Inefficient use of memory
38
Faster LPM: Alternatives
• Content addressable memory (CAM)
– Hardware-based route lookup
– Input = tag, output = value
– Requires exact match with tag
• Multiple cycles (1 per prefix) with single CAM
• Multiple CAMs (1 per prefix) searched in parallel
– Ternary CAM
• (0,1,don’t care) values in tag match
• Priority (i.e., longest prefix) by order of entries
Historically, this approach has not been very economical.
39
Faster Lookup: Alternatives
• Caching
– Packet trains exhibit temporal locality
– Many packets to same destination
• Cisco Express Forwarding
40
IP Address Lookup: Summary
• Lookup limited by memory bandwidth.
• Lookup uses high-degree trie.
• State of the art: 10Gb/s line rate.
• Scales to: 40Gb/s line rate.
41
Fourth-Generation: Collapse the POP
High Reliability and Scalability enable “vertical”
POP simplification
DSLAM
L3/4
Switch
CMTS
Direct
Connects
DSLAM
L3/4
Switch
CMTS
Direct
Connects
DSLAM
L3/4
Switch
CMTS
Direct
Connects
Reduces CapEx, Operational cost
Increases network stability
42
Fourth-Generation Routers
Switch
Limit today ~2.5Tb/s
 Electronics
 Scheduler scales <2x every 18 months
 Opto-electronicLinecards
conversion
43
Multi-rack routers
Linecard
WAN
Switch fabric
In
Out
WAN
In
Out
44
Future: 100Tb/s Optical Router
Optical
Switch
Ele
ctr
ic
L
n
i
ne onic
o
1
r
t
#
car
c
d
e
l
r
d#
E
16
ca
e
0
0
625
•L
32
6
s
Lin
1
/
i
0G • ne
on ing Gb
i
ter
b/s IP
t
0
na cess 32
p
i
•P
ack mina
rm ro
a
t
te t p
ng
i
e
r
e
n
e
i
k
• L pac buff
•/sIP cket
b • Pa
G
Request
0
6
Arbitration
1
io
cke et p
roc n
tb
uff
e
eri ssin
g
ng
Grant
40Gb/s
40Gb/s
40Gb/s
40Gb/s
(100Tb/s = 625 * 160Gb/s)
McKeown et al., Scaling Internet Routers Using Optics, ACM SIGCOMM 2003
45
Challenges with Optical Switching
•
•
•
•
Missequenced packets
Pathological traffic patterns
Rapidly configuring switch fabric
Failing components
46
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