HP | TV Converter Box 1660 | User's Manual | HP TV Converter Box 1660 User's Manual

Training Guide
Publication Number E2433-97034
First Edition, November 1997
For Safety information, Warranties, and Regulatory
information, see the pages behind the Index.
 Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company 1992–1997
Training Kit for
HP 1660/70 Series Logic
Analyzers
Ready, Set, Run:
Easy Steps to Logic Analysis
with the HP 1660/70 Series
Start Here
READY With the power off, connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the
Training Board. For the HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the
left-most position when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
For the HP 1670s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the right-most position
when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
1660 Series
1670 Series
SET Turn on the analyzer by pressing the power switch near the bottom
of the front panel.
The analyzer will take about 15 seconds to boot up.
ii
Introduction
RUN Press the Run key, near the upper right corner of the front panel. You
will see the output of an 8-bit ripple counter like this:
Output of the 8-bit Ripple Counter
Next
Please read the short introduction and chapter 1 before doing the exercises.
iii
Logic Analysis made easy:
a self-paced training guide
This training kit will quickly teach you how to use the HP 1660 and
HP 1670 Series Logic Analyzers to get your work done. The exercises
in this book will teach you how to perform basic timing and state
analysis measurements and how to make more complex
measurements, such as comparing two state listings, setting up
complex state triggers, and making state and timing measurements
simultaneously. You will also learn oscilloscope measurements if you
are using a logic analyzer that has a built-in oscilloscope. You will see
how easy it is to use the HP 1660 and HP 1670 Series Logic Analyzers,
and at the same time, learn basic digital measurement concepts.
The exercises in this training guide are designed to work with any of
the HP 1660 or HP 1670 Series analyzers with some exceptions: the
exercise in chapter 5, "Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing
Data," will not work with an HP 1663 or HP 1664. Also, you need an
analyzer with an internal oscilloscope for chapters 7 and 8. If your
analyzer has an oscilloscope, you will see a "CS" after the model
number. To do the exercises in chapter 9, you will need an analyzer
with an internal pattern generator. If your analzyer has a pattern
generator, you will see a "CP" after the model number.
Materials needed
You need the following materials to complete the exercises in this
training kit:
• One HP 1660 or HP 1670 Series Logic Analyzer
• This training kit (part number HP E2433-60012)
• Probe assembly (part number HP 01650-61608) or termination
adapter (part number HP 01650-63203)
• One HP 10461A TTL Data Pod
iv
Introduction
Using a Mouse
You can perform all of the exercises in this training kit using a mouse.
When an instruction tells you to highlight an item and press the Select
key, you can simply point to that item with the mouse pointer and
press the left mouse button. When you want to scroll up or down a
list, you can press and hold down the right mouse button and move
the mouse forward and backward. Remember, to scroll a field, the
field must be highlighted and have the knob icon at the top of the field.
With a mouse, some of the pop-up menus will have different
appearances from the figures in this guide. For example, when you
select a label and choose modify label from the pop-up menu, a
keypad pop-up appears. This allows you to enter text and numbers
using the mouse rather than the keypad on the front panel of the
analyzer.
Configuration Disk
This kit includes a disk containing configuration files for the analyzer.
The files for each chapter of the training guide set up the analyzer so
you can perform an exercise. This allows you to perform the
exercises in any order. You do not need to use the configuration files
to do the exercises if you are working straight through this training
guide, chapter by chapter.
Getting Unexpected Results
If you get lost or the results of an exercise seem to be different than
this guide indicates, the system may have a previously set
configuration that prevents the exercise steps from working properly.
To remedy this, you can cycle the power on the analyzer and restart
the exercise, or load the configuration files for the exercises you want
to do.
v
In This Book
This book will teach you how to set up and make measurements with the
HP 1660 Series and HP 1670 Series Logic Analyzers.
You can use this book in two ways: you can start at the beginning and
progress chapter by chapter in a building block approach, or you can
randomly access the exercises you want to do with minimum setup.
Chapter 1 contains an overview of how to use the analyzer and how to make a
measurement.
Chapters 2 through 9 contain measurement exercises designed to be
completed quickly and to teach you the skills you need to start making
successful measurements in your work environment.
Chapter 10 contains an introduction to inverse assembly.
Chapter 11 contains information about setting the jumpers on the training
board and loading the configuration files.
Chapter 12 is a reference chapter describing the training board. It includes a
schematic diagram of the training board circuitry.
If you need additional details on the operation of your logic analyzer, refer to
the User’s Guide supplied with your system.
vi
Contents
1 Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement
Process
Using the Analyzer 1–3
Understanding the Measurement Process 1–4
2 Introduction to Timing Analysis
Before You Begin 2–3
Put the Analyzer into Timing Mode 2–4
Change a Label Name 2–5
Modify Channel Assignments 2–6
Define a Term for the Timing Trigger 2–7
Set Up the Trigger Specification 2–8
Trigger on the Term and Examine the Waveform 2–9
3 Introduction to State Analysis
Before You Begin 3–3
Put the Analyzer into State Mode 3–4
Set Up the State Clock 3–5
Change a Label Name 3–6
Modify Channel Assignments 3–7
Define a Term for the State Trigger 3–8
Set Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification 3–9
Set Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification 3–10
Run the State Analyzer and View and Change the State Listing 3–11
Create Symbols to Display State Data 3–12
Create Additional Symbols 3–13
Select and View Symbols in the State Listing 3–14
4 Comparing State Traces
Before You Begin 4–3
Check the Configuration 4–4
Set Up the State Trigger Specification 4–5
Run the Analyzer and View the State Listing 4–6
Copy the State Listing to the Compare Reference Listing 4–7
vii
Contents
Change the Jumper to Acquire a Different State Listing 4–8
Run the Analyzer and Find the Errors 4–9
5 Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Before You Begin 5–3
Connect the Timing Analyzer 5–4
Put the Analyzer into State and Timing Modes 5–5
Change a Label Name and Modify Channel Assignments 5–6
Turn on the TCOUNT Label in the Waveform Menu 5–6
Clear the Timing Analyzer Trigger 5–7
Set Up the State Trigger Specification 5–7
Enable Time Correlation between the Timing and State Analyzers 5–8
Arm the Timing Analyzer with the State Analyzer 5–9
View the Mixed-Mode Display with Time-Correlated Markers 5–10
6 Advanced State Triggering
Before You Begin 6–3
Put the Analyzer into State Mode 6–4
Define State Trigger Terms "a" through "d" 6–5
Define State Trigger Term "e" and Range1 6–6
Add State Trigger Sequence Levels 6–7
Set Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification 6–8
Set Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification 6–9
Set Up Level 3 of the State Trigger Specification 6–10
Set Up Level 4 of the State Trigger Specification and Define a Combination
Trigger Term 6–11
Check the Trigger Specification 6–13
Run the State Analyzer and View the Data 6–14
7 Using the Oscilloscope
Before You Begin 7–3
Connect the Channel 1 Oscilloscope Probe 7–4
Get the Waveform on the Display 7–5
Delete Channel 2 from the Display 7–6
Zoom and Scroll Through the Clock Waveform 7–7
viii
Contents
Measure the Clock Period Manually 7–8
Measure the Clock Period with Auto Measure 7–9
Read Voltage with the Markers 7–10
8 Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Before You Begin 8–3
Set the Jumpers 8–4
Connect the Oscilloscope Probe 8–5
Get the Waveform on the Display 8–6
Change the Oscilloscope Trigger 8–7
Turn On the Timing Analyzer 8–8
Set Up the Timing Format Menu 8–9
Define the Timing Trigger Term "Edge 1" 8–10
Set Up the Timing Trigger Specification 8–11
Arm the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer 8–12
Add Oscilloscope Waveform to the Timing Waveforms 8–13
Capture the Glitch with the Timing Analyzer and Oscilloscope 8–14
Align the Glitch Displayed by the Oscilloscope and Analyzer 8–15
9 Using the Pattern Generator
Before You Begin 9–3
Connect the Pattern Generator 9–4
Turn On the Timing Analyzer 9–5
Change a Label Name 9–6
Modify Channel Assignments 9–7
Set Up the Timing Analyzer Trigger Term 9–8
Add a Pattern Generator Label to the Timing Waveform Display 9–9
Set Up the Pattern Generator Format Menu 9–10
Program the Pattern Generator Output 9–12
Add Program Lines 9–13
Start the Pattern Generator and View the Walking Ones Pattern 9–14
Stop the Pattern Generator 9–15
ix
Contents
10 Introduction to Inverse Assembly
Load the Inverse Assembler and Sample Listing 10–3
View the Address, Data, and Status Labels 10–4
View the Assembly Listing 10–5
Filter the Captured Data 10–6
11 Setting the Jumpers and Loading the Configurations
To Set the Jumpers 11–3
To Load a Configuration File 11–5
12 All About the Logic Analyzer Training Board
Power Source 12–2
Circuit Description 12–2
Jumpers 12–3
Schematic 12–4
x
1
Using the Analyzer and
Understanding the
Measurement Process
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the
Measurement Process
This chapter teaches you how to use the HP benchtop analyzer to
complete the exercises in this training kit. You will also learn the
general process of making a measurement.
You can refer back to this chapter whenever you have problems
moving around in the interface or following the measurement process.
In this chapter you will learn how to:
•
•
•
•
Highlight a field
Select a field
Scroll through lists and menus
Understand the measurement process
1–2
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement Process
Using the Analyzer
Using the Analyzer
Front Panel
To Highlight a Field
Use the movement keys (⇐, ⇑, ⇒, ⇓) to move the cursor within and between
fields on the display. When the cursor is in a field, the field becomes
highlighted.
To Select a Field
Use the the movement keys (⇐, ⇑, ⇒, ⇓) to highlight the field you want to
select, then press the Select key. The type of field highlighted will determine
what will happen when the Select key is pressed. If the field is an option
field, the Select key brings up an option menu, or if there are only two
possible values, the Select key toggles the value in the field. If the
highlighted field performs a function, the Select key starts the function. If
the highlighted field is a menu choice, the Select key selects the menu choice.
To Scroll Through Lists and Menus
Use the knob to change the value in a field, to scroll the display, and to move
the cursor in pop-up menus. If you are using a mouse, you can do the same
actions by holding down the right button of the mouse while dragging.
1–3
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement Process
Understanding the Measurement Process
Understanding the Measurement Process
Whenever you make a basic measurement, there is a sequence of events that
you will go through. Referring back to this measurement process will help
you to better understand the exercises as you complete them.
1 Map to target
Connect probes Connect probes from the target system to the logic
analyzer to physically map the target system to the channels in the logic
analyzer. Attach probes to a pod in a way that keeps logically-related
channels together. Remember to ground the pod. For the logic analysis
lessons you will connect pods 1 and 3, for the oscilloscope lessons you
will also connect an oscilloscope probe, and for the pattern generator
lesson you will connect a pattern generator pod and TTL Data Pod to the
training board.
Set type The analyzer has three modes: the timing analyzer mode, the
state analyzer mode, and the system performance (SPA) mode. The
exercises in this training kit will teach you about the first two modes,
timing and state. The timing mode uses the clock within the analyzer
and the state mode uses the clock supplied by the target system. When
the logic analyzer is turned on, Analyzer 1 is named Machine 1 and is set
to timing mode, and Analyzer 2 is off. To use state analysis, you must set
the analyzer mode to state. You can use state and timing modes
together, but you can’t set both analyzer modes to timing.
Assign pods In the Analyzer Configuration menu, assign the connected
pods to the analyzer you want to use. The number of pods on your logic
analyzer depends on the model. Pods are paired and are always assigned
as a pair to a particular analyzer.
1–4
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement Process
Understanding the Measurement Process
2 Set up analyzers
Set modes and clocks Set the state and timing analyzer modes using
the Analyzer Format menu. In general, these modes trade channel count
for speed or storage. If your state clock is set incorrectly, the data
gathered by the logic analyzer might indicate an error where none exists.
Group bits under labels The Analyzer Format menu indicates active
pod bits. You can create groups of bits across pods or subgroups within
pods and name the groups or subgroups using labels.
1–5
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement Process
Understanding the Measurement Process
3 Set up trigger
Define terms In the Analyzer Trigger menu, define trigger variables
called terms to match specific conditions in your target system. Terms
can match patterns, ranges, or edges across multiple labels.
Configure Arming Control Use Arming Control if:
• you want to correlate the triggers and data of both analyzers
• you want to use the analyzer to trigger an external instrument or the
built-in oscilloscope
• you want to use an external instrument or the built-in oscilloscope to
trigger the analyzer
Set up trigger sequence Create a sequence of steps that control what
the analyzer captures. For common tasks, you can use a trigger macro to
simplify the process or use the user-defined macros to loop and jump in
sequence.
1–6
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement Process
Understanding the Measurement Process
4 Run Measurement
Select single or repetitive From any Analyzer or Scope menu, select
the field labeled Run in the upper right corner to start the measurement,
or press the Run key. A "single" run will run once, until memory is full; a
"repetitive run" will run until you select Stop or until a stop measurement
condition is fulfilled, which you set in the markers menu.
1–7
Using the Analyzer and Understanding the Measurement Process
Understanding the Measurement Process
5 View data
Search for patterns In both the Waveform and Listing menus you can
use symbols and markers to search for patterns in your data. In the
Analyzer Waveform or Analyzer Listing menu, toggle the Markers field to
turn the pattern markers on and then specify the pattern. When you
switch views, the markers keep their settings.
Correlate data You can correlate data by setting Count Time in your
state analyzer’s Trigger menu and then using interleaving and mixed
display. Interleaving correlates the listings of two state analyzers. Mixed
display correlates a timing analyzer waveform and a state analyzer listing,
or a state analyzer and an oscilloscope waveform, or a state analyzer and
both timing and oscilloscope waveforms. To correlate oscilloscope data,
the oscilloscope arm mode must be set to Immediate. The System
Performance Analysis (SPA) Software does not save a record of actual
activity, so it cannot be correlated with either timing or state mode.
Make measurements The markers can count occurrences of events,
measure durations, and collect statistics, and SPA provides high-level
summaries to help you identify bottlenecks. To use the markers, select
the appropriate marker type in the display menu and specify the data
patterns for the marker. To use SPA, go to the SPA menu, select the
most appropriate mode, fill in the parameters, and press Run.
1–8
2
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Timing analysis in its simplest form means acquiring and storing data
at equal time intervals. When doing timing analysis you must put the
logic analyzer into timing mode. An analyzer in timing mode is
referred to as a timing analyzer. The timing analyzer’s time interval is
controlled by a clock inside the analyzer, just like the clock in a
digitizing oscilloscope. However, there are key differences between a
timing analyzer and a digitizing oscilloscope. These key differences
are channel count and voltage resolution. A logic analyzer typically
has a large number of channels, and it displays signals at only two
voltage levels, a logic high or a logic low. A digitizing oscilloscope
typically has fewer channels, but it can display signals with much finer
voltage resolution.
To determine whether a given sample of data should be stored and
displayed as a logic high or a logic low, the timing analyzer compares
the data to a threshold voltage. The threshold voltage works just like
the threshold voltage in logic circuits. If the voltage level of the
sampled data is above the threshold, the analyzer stores a logic high
(a "1"). If the voltage level of the data is below the threshold, the
analyzer stores a logic low (a "0").
The exercises in this chapter step you through the process of making
a timing measurement.
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Put the analyzer into timing mode
Change a label name
Modify channel assignments
Define a term for the timing trigger
Set up the trigger specification
Trigger on the term and examine the waveform
2-2
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed "Ready, Set, Run", go to "Change a Label Name" on
page 2-5.
If you have not just completed "Ready, Set, Run" go to step 2.
2 Turn off the analyzer by pressing the power switch. Wait at least five
seconds, then press the power switch again to turn on the logic
analyzer.
Cycling the power defaults all system settings. This sets up the analyzer so
you can perform the remaining exercises.
3 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the HP 1660s
analyzer, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer. For the HP1670s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the
right-most position when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
4 Set the jumpers as shown below.
The jumper settings of J5 on the training board for this chapter are the same
as the default settings.
J1
Setting the Jumpers
See Also
"To Set the Jumpers" and "To Load a Configuration File" in chapter 11 for
more information.
2-3
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Put the Analyzer into Timing Mode
Put the Analyzer into Timing Mode
When you first turn on the analyzer, the Configuration Menu is displayed with
Analyzer 1 set to Timing mode. This is the mode the analyzer needs to be in
to do timing analysis. Timing analysis uses the clock inside the analyzer to
sample data at consistent time intervals.
Note
If the analyzer is in Timing mode, continue on to "Change a Label Name"
on the next page.
If the analyzer is not in timing mode, put it in timing mode now by following
the steps below.
1 If you are not already in the Configuration menu, press the Config MENU
key.
2 In the Analyzer 1 box, highlight the field to the right of Type, and press
the Select key.
3 Highlight Timing in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Unless your analyzer is an HP 1661 or an HP 1671, your Configuration Menu
will look different than the one shown below because your analyzer has a
different number of data pods.
The analyzer is in
Timing mode.
Pod A1 has arrows on
the lower eight channels
and the J-clock
channel, indicating that
transitions across the
threshold voltage are
occurring on these
channels.
Putting the Analyzer into Timing Mode
Result
The analyzer is in timing mode with activity showing on the lower eight
channels and the J-clock channel of pod A1.
2-4
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Change a Label Name
Change a Label Name
Labels group channels together. You can rename a label to make it more
meaningful. For example, you could use the label name DATA for all of the
channels that are connected to the data bus of a microprocessor.
In this exercise, you will change a label name to TCOUNT to represent the
timing count data captured from the 8-bit ripple counter on the training
board. The counter counts from 0 to 255 (0 to FF in hex) repetitively.
1 Press the Format MENU key.
2 Use the arrow keys (⇑ ⇓ ⇐ ⇒) to highlight Lab1.
3 Type TCOUNT using the keypad on the front panel of the analyzer.
You can use the knob or the left and right arrow keys to backspace the cursor
if you need to correct a typing error.
4 Press the Done key.
Changing a Label Name
Result
The label is now named TCOUNT, which represents timing count.
2-5
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Modify Channel Assignments
Modify Channel Assignments
In this exercise, you will assign the active bits of pod A1 to the label TCOUNT.
1 Using the arrow keys, highlight the field showing the 16 channels of
Pod A1, to the far right of the TCOUNT label. Press the Select key.
2 Press the Clear Entry key to clear the default bit assignments.
3 Use the knob to move the cursor to channel 7 in the pop-up menu.
4 Press the ⇑ (up-arrow) key to put asterisks in the lower eight channel
positions.
5 Press the Done key.
Pod A1 has 16
channels and is
connected to the
training board.
An asterisk (*) assigns
a channel to a label. In
this exercise, the lower
eight channels are
assigned to TCOUNT.
Modifying Channel Assignments
Result
The lower 8 channels of pod A1 are assigned to the label TCOUNT.
2-6
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Define a Term for the Timing Trigger
Define a Term for the Timing Trigger
1
2
3
4
For the analyzer to capture the data you want, you need to tell it what to
trigger on by defining a term. Trigger terms are variables that you can use to
tell the analyzer when to start recording data, what to store, and when to
stop.
In this exercise, you will set up the analyzer to trigger when the counter on
the training board reaches its maximum value of 255, or FF (hex). To do this,
you will assign the hex value FF to term "a" of TCOUNT.
Press the Trigger MENU key.
Highlight the base field under TCOUNT and press the Select key.
Highlight Hex in the pop-up menu, press the Select key.
Hex is the default setting. Notice the other display options other than hex.
Under TCOUNT, highlight the field to the right of term a, enter FF,
and press the Done key.
The base field specifies
the type of values
entered. In this
exercise you selected
Hex and entered the
hex value FF.
A term is a variable
that stores a value.
Defining a Term for the Timing Trigger
Result
TCOUNT’s term "a" is assigned the value FF. The "a" term is a variable that
the analyzer will trigger on once you set up the trigger specification in the
next exercise.
2-7
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Set Up the Trigger Specification
Set Up the Trigger Specification
1
2
3
4
Using the pattern term FF that you set in the previous exercise, you will now
set up the analyzer to record the data after FF occurs on the eight channel
bus.
Highlight the 1 field in the Timing Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Trigger On, and press the Select key.
Highlight term a and press the Done key.
Highlight the field to the right of >, and turn the knob to select 16 ns
for the pattern duration.
Setting the duration to 16 ns ensures that the analyzer will trigger when the
counter on the training board is in a stable state. A shorter duration might
cause the analyzer to trigger when the counter is transitioning.
5 Press the Done key to close the Timing Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
The trigger term "a"
has the hex value FF
that you assigned to it.
The pattern duration is
set to 16 ns. The value
FF must be present for
16 ns before triggering.
Setting Up the Trigger Specification
Result
Your trigger specification now shows: Level 1 - TRIGGER on "a" > 16 ns. The
analyzer triggers when the term "a" (FF) is detected for a minimum duration
of 16 ns.
2-8
Introduction to Timing Analysis
Trigger on the Term and Examine the Waveform
Trigger on the Term and Examine the Waveform
When you press the Run key, the analyzer triggers on the term you set up in
the previous exercise, captures the data, and then switches to the Waveform
menu where the data is displayed.
1 Press the Run key.
2 Use the table below to examine the waveform.
To Do This:
Do This:
To scale the waveform
Highlight the sec/Div field, then turn the knob clockwise
to zoom in and counter clockwise to zoom out. If you
zoom out enough you can view the entire acquisition
buffer.
To scroll through the waveform
Highlight the Delay field, then turn the knob in either
direction to scroll through the data.
To measure a time interval
Highlight the Markers Off field, then press the Select
key. Choose Time from the pop-up menu. Highlight the
Trig to X field, then turn the knob to move the X marker.
Hex value of waveform
at X-marker
As you move the X-marker
past transitions on the
waveform, the hex value to
the right of X-> changes,
showing you the value of
the TCOUNT label at the
current X-marker position.
Sec/Div (zoom)
Delay
Markers
Trig to X
Triggering on the Term and Examining the Waveform
3 Highlight the Markers Time field. Press the Select key, then select Off.
2-9
2-10
3
Introduction to State Analysis
Introduction to State Analysis
State analysis in its simplest form means acquiring data and storing it
when it is valid for a system under test. When doing state analysis,
you must put the analyzer into state mode. The differences between
state mode and timing mode are the source of the sample clock and
the way the data is displayed. In state analysis, the source of the
sample clock is the system under test, rather than the analyzer, and
the default display is a sequential listing of logical states, rather than a
waveform.
Each time the analyzer receives a state clock pulse, it samples and
stores the logic state of the system under test. Just as in the timing
analyzer, the state analyzer compares sampled data to a threshold
voltage to determine whether it should be stored and displayed as a
logic high or a logic low. The analyzer then displays the data as a
sequential listing of logical states.
What makes the analyzer more than just a data acquisition instrument
is its capability to acquire and store only the data that you specify.
This is called data qualification. Examples of storing qualified data
include storing only a certain subroutine in a program, storing all data
being sent to a specified address in a system, or storing only data
leading up to a system failure.
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Put the analyzer into state mode
Set up the state clock
Change a label name and modify channel assignments
Define a term for the state trigger
Set up the trigger specification
Run the analyzer and view and change the state listing
Create and view symbols
3-2
Introduction to State Analysis
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed the exercises in chapter 2, go to "Put the Analyzer
Into State Mode" on the next page. Otherwise, continue to step 2.
2 If you are using an HP 1660 series analyzer, load the Analyzer with the
configuration file, CH03_60._A. If you are using an HP 1670 series
analyzer, load the Analyzer with the configuration file, CH03_70._A.
For instructions on loading configuration files, see "To Load a Configuration
File" in chapter 11.
The file defaults all system settings and sets up the analyzer as if you had just
completed the exercises in chapter 2.
Unless you are using an HP 1661 or an HP 1671 analyzer, you may see an
advisory message when you load the files. This is not an error. The message
is displayed because these logic analyzers have a different number of data
pods from the HP 1661, which was used to create the files.
3 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer. For the HP 1670s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the
right-most position when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
4 Set the jumpers as shown below.
The jumper settings for this chapter are the same as the default settings.
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
J1
Setting the Jumpers
See Also
"To Set the Jumpers" and "To Load a Configuration File" in chapter 11 for
more information.
3-3
Introduction to State Analysis
Put the Analyzer into State Mode
Put the Analyzer into State Mode
To make a state measurement, you must set the analyzer to state mode. The
state mode uses the clock supplied by the system under test to control when
data is sampled.
1 Press the Config MENU key.
2 In the Analyzer 1 box, highlight the field to the right of Type, and press
the Select key.
3 Highlight State in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Unless you are using an HP 1661 or an HP 1671 analyzer, your Configuration
Menu will look different than the one shown below because your analyzer has
a different number of data pods than the HP 1661, which was used to create
the figure.
The analyzer is in state
mode.
Pod A1 has arrows on
the lower eight channels
and the J-clock channel,
indicating that
transitions across the
threshold voltage are
occurring on these
channels.
Putting the Analyzer into State Mode
Result
The analyzer is now in state mode showing activity on the lower eight
channels and the J-clock channel of pod A1.
3-4
Introduction to State Analysis
Set Up the State Clock
Set Up the State Clock
The state clock is a signal from the system under test that clocks the
analyzer, causing the analyzer to sample and store data.
1 Press the Format MENU key.
2 Highlight the Master Clock field in the upper center of the display.
Press the Select key.
Your display will look different from the one shown in the figure below if you
are using an HP 1662, 1663, 1664, or an HP 1672 analyzer. There are fewer
clock lines available on these analyzers than on an HP 1661, which was used
to create the figure.
3 Highlight the J field, and press the Select key. Highlight the ↓ (down
arrow) in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key. If you are using
an HP 1670 series analyzer, you also need to set the L field to OFF.
4 Press the Done key to close the Master Clock pop-up menu.
The down arrow
represents a negative
edge. The negative
edge of the clock is used
to get the best results
from the training board.
Setting Up the State Clock
Result
The analyzer will collect data on the falling edge of the J clock.
3-5
Introduction to State Analysis
Change a Label Name
Change a Label Name
Labels group channels together. You can rename a label to make it more
meaningful. For example, you could use the label name DATA for all of the
channels that are connected to the data bus of a microprocessor.
In this exercise, you will change Lab2 to SCOUNT to represent the state
count data. The label is named SCOUNT so that you can keep track of the
counter output acquired by the state analyzer.
1 Highlight the label Lab2 below the Labels field.
2 Type SCOUNT, then press the Done key.
3 Highlight the field labeled TCOUNT, and press the Select key.
Highlight Turn Label Off in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
If you have already performed the Introduction to Timing Analysis exercises
in chapter 2, this field will be the TCOUNT label, which represents timing
count. Turning the label off now saves it for later use.
Changing a Label Name
Result
The label TCOUNT is turned off and Lab 2 is now named SCOUNT, which
represents state count.
3-6
Introduction to State Analysis
Modify Channel Assignments
Modify Channel Assignments
In this exercise, you will assign the lower eight channels of pod A1 to the
label SCOUNT.
1 Highlight the field showing the 16 channels of Pod A1 to the far right
of the SCOUNT label. Press the Select key.
2 Using the knob, move the cursor to channel 7 in the pop-up menu.
Then, press the ⇑ (up-arrow) key to put asterisks in the lower eight
channel positions.
3 Press the Done key.
Pod A1 has 16
channels and is
connected to the
training board.
The asterisks (*)
assign the lower 8
channel positions to
the label SCOUNT.
Modify the Channel Assignments
Result
The lower eight channels of pod A1 are assigned to the label SCOUNT.
3-7
Introduction to State Analysis
Define a Term for the State Trigger
Define a Term for the State Trigger
For the state analyzer to capture the data you want, you need to tell it what
to trigger on by defining a term. Trigger terms are used in the trigger
specification to tell the analyzer when to start recording data, what to store,
and when to stop.
1 Press the Trigger MENU key.
2 Highlight the base field under SCOUNT, and press the Select key.
Highlight Hex in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Hex is the default setting. Notice that there are other display options other
than hex.
3 Under SCOUNT, highlight the field to the right of b, enter 00, and
press the Done key.
The "b" term is a variable to which you can assign a value.
The base field is used
to specify the type of
values entered.
A term is a variable that
stores a value. In this
exercise, you selected
Hex, and entered the
hex value 00 for the "b"
term.
Define a Term for the State Trigger
Result
SCOUNT’s "b" term is assigned the value 00 (hex). The "b" term is a variable
that the analyzer will trigger on once you set up the trigger specification in
the next exercise.
3-8
Introduction to State Analysis
Set Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification
Set Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification
In the next two exercises, you will set up the sequence of events that you
want the logic analyzer to follow when triggering and storing data. In this
exercise you will set Level 1 to store all data occurring before the trigger
pattern is found.
1 Highlight the 1 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
2 Highlight the field to the right of Trigger on, and press the Select key.
Highlight b in the pop-up menu, and press the Done key.
3 Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
The b term holds
the value 00.
Setting Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification
Result
The state analyzer stores all samples, starting from the time you press run,
and continuing until the trigger pattern 00 is found.
3-9
Introduction to State Analysis
Set Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification
Set Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification
In sequence level 1 the analyzer stores data before the trigger point. For
sequence level 2, you will tell the analyzer to store any data once the trigger
pattern is found. This will fill the rest of the acquisition memory.
1 Highlight the 2 field in the State Sequence Levels box. Press the Select
key.
2 Highlight the field to the right of Store, and press the Select key.
Highlight anystate in the pop-up menu, and press the Done key.
3 Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 2 pop-up menu.
Once the trigger pattern
is found, the logic
analyzer will store any
data that it samples.
Setting Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification
Result
The State Trigger Specification is now:
Level 1 - While storing "anystate", TRIGGER on "b" 1 time
Level 2 - Store "anystate"
If your trigger specification does not match this one, repeat the exercises,
starting with "Modify Channel Assignments" on page 3–7.
3-10
Introduction to State Analysis
Run the State Analyzer and View and Change the State Listing
Run the State Analyzer and View and Change the State
Listing
1 Press the Run key.
2 Observe the State Listing.
The trigger pattern 00 is centered around the zero line number, which
corresponds to the trigger point you specified in the Trigger menu. The
negative line numbers indicate the states stored prior to the trigger point.
The line numbers
show the locations
of the data in the
logic analyzer’s
memory.
Trigger point 00
This is the state data
you acquired from the
ripple counter.
State Listing Menu
3 Use the table below to view and change the state listing.
To Do This:
Do This:
To change the state listing
display from hex to decimal
Highlight the Hex field directly below the SCOUNT label,
and press the Select key. Choose Decimal from the
pop-up menu.
To scroll through the state listing
On the left-center side of the display, highlight the line
number field, then turn the knob.
To page through the state listing
one screen at a time
Press the Page keys below the knob.
3-11
Introduction to State Analysis
Create Symbols to Display State Data
Create Symbols to Display State Data
1
2
3
4
Symbols are used to display state data in easily understandable terms, which
you define. This can make the state listing much easier to interpret. In the
following exercises, you will define and display some symbols.
Press the Format MENU key.
Highlight the Symbols field, and press the Select key.
Highlight the New Symbol field below Symbol. Type "ONE" using the
keypad. Press the Done key when you are finished typing.
Highlight the field below Pattern/Start. Enter 01 using the keypad.
Press the Done key when you are finished typing.
The Symbols field.
The symbol ONE will
appear in the state
listing when the state
analyzer records the
hex value 01.
Creating Symbols to Display State Data
Result
In the state listing, the analyzer will display ONE in place of the hex number
01 when the base field is set to Symbol.
3-12
Introduction to State Analysis
Create Additional Symbols
Create Additional Symbols
You can create as many symbols as you want. In this exercise, you will create
symbols TWO and THREE for the hex values 02 and 03.
1 If the Symbol Table pop-up menu is now displayed, go to step 2. If this
is not the case, highlight the Symbols field in the Format Menu, and
press the Select key.
2 Highlight the ONE field below Symbol, and press the Select key.
Highlight Add a Symbol in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Type TWO using the keypad. Press the Done key when you are
finished typing.
3 Highlight the field to the right of the TWO under Pattern/Start. Enter 02
using the keypad. Press the Done key when you are finished typing.
4 Highlight the TWO field. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to create a symbol,
THREE, with a pattern value of 03.
5 Press the Done key to close the Symbol Table pop-up menu.
The symbol TWO
represents the hex
value 02.
The symbol THREE
represents the hex
value 03.
Creating Additional Symbols
Result
In the state listing, the analyzer will display TWO in place of the hex number
02, and THREE in place of the hex number 03, when the base field is set to
Symbol.
3-13
Introduction to State Analysis
Select and View Symbols in the State Listing
Select and View Symbols in the State Listing
Symbols are helpful when viewing more complex state listings. For example,
you might monitor a microprocessor’s status lines which have specific
patterns for read and write cycles. You can define symbols for these
patterns. Then, wherever a read or write cycle occurs in the state listing, you
will see "READ" or "WRITE," instead of a numerical representation of the
patterns.
1 Press the List MENU key.
2 Highlight the base field under the SCOUNT label, and press the Select
key. Highlight Symbol in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
The symbols ONE, TWO, and THREE are displayed in the state listing
in place of the numeric counts 01, 02, and 03, respectively.
The base field is set to
display the data in
symbol form.
Symbols ONE, TWO, and
THREE represent data
01, 02, 03.
State Listing with Symbols
3 Select the Symbol field under SCOUNT label, and then choose Hex
from the pop-up menu.
Step 3 changes the base from decimal to hexadecimal for the rest of the
exercises.
3-14
4
Comparing State Traces
Comparing State Traces
The State Compare feature allows you to compare two state listings.
You can check if your system is executing correct states by acquiring
a state listing from the system under test and comparing it to a listing
that is known to be good. If there are differences between the two
listings, you can use the Difference Listing feature to see where the
differences occur.
In these exercises, you will run a test and store the state listing as the
reference listing. Next, you will change the jumper settings and run a
different test using the same trigger specification. You will then use
the Difference Listing to see the differences between the two listings.
These exercises will step you through the process of using the
Compare mode of the state analyzer. They are designed to use many
of the same exercises as the State Analyzer Exercises in the previous
chapter; therefore, the beginning exercises do not include figures or
explanations. If you need this additional information on any of these
common exercises, refer back to the same exercise in chapter 3,
"Introduction to State Analysis."
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Put the analyzer into state mode
Set up the state clock
Change a label name and modify channel assignments
Define a term for the state trigger
Set up the state trigger specification
Run the analyzer and view the state listing
Copy the state listing to the compare reference listing
Change the jumper to acquire a different state listing
Run the analyzer and find the errors
4-2
Comparing State Traces
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed the exercises in chapters 2 and 3, go to "Check the
Configuration" on the next page.
If you have not just completed the exercises in chapters 2 and 3, go to step 2.
2 Load the Analyzer with the configuration file, CH04._A.
The file defaults all system settings and sets up the analyzer as if you just
completed the exercises in chapters 2 and 3.
Unless you are using an HP 1661 or an HP 1671 analyzer, you may see an
advisory message when you load the files. This is not an error. The message
is displayed because these logic analyzers have a different number of data
pods from the HP 1661, which was used to create the files.
3 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer. For the HP 1670s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the
right-most position when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
4 Set the jumpers as shown below.
The jumper settings of J5 on the training board for this chapter are the same
as the default settings.
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
J1
Setting the Jumpers
See Also
"To Set the Jumpers" and "To Load a Configuration File" in chapter 11 for
more information.
4-3
Comparing State Traces
Check the Configuration
Check the Configuration
Either you have just completed chapter 3, "Introduction to State Analysis", or
you have loaded the configuration file CH_04.
1 If you are using an HP 1660 series analyzer go to step 2. If you are
using an HP 1670 series analyzer, put the analyzer into State Compare
mode before checking the configurations.
To do this, press the Config MENU key. In the Analyzer 1 box, highlight the
field to the right of Type, press the Select key, and then choose State Compare
from the pop-up menu.
2 Check the configuration.
• In the Config menu, Analyzer 1 is set to State mode for the HP 1660s and
State Compare for the HP 1670s.
• In the Format menu, the Master Clock field is displaying J ↓.
• In the Format menu, the SCOUNT label is turned on with the lower eight
channels of pod A1 assigned to it.
• In the Trigger menu SCOUNT’s term "a" is assigned the value FF (hex).
4-4
Comparing State Traces
Set Up the State Trigger Specification
Set Up the State Trigger Specification
When comparing two state listings, it is best to only sample the data you are
interested in comparing. This will ensure that the errors you find are errors in
the data you are interested in, rather than in the pretrigger data. Setting the
analyzer to store "no state" before the trigger, tells the analyzer to begin
capturing data after the trigger is found.
1 If the Trigger Menu is not already displayed, press the Trigger MENU
2
3
4
5
6
Result
key.
Highlight the 1 field in the State Sequence Levels box, and press the
Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of While storing, and press the Select key.
Highlight no state in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Trigger on, and press the Select key.
Highlight a in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key. Press the
Done key to close the Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
Highlight the 2 field in the State Sequence Levels box, and press the
Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Store, and press the Select key.
Highlight anystate in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key. Press
the Done key to close the Sequence Level 2 pop-up menu.
The trigger specification is now:
• Level 1 - While storing "no state", trigger on "a" 1 time
• Level 2 - Store "any state"
4-5
Comparing State Traces
Run the Analyzer and View the State Listing
Run the Analyzer and View the State Listing
1 Press the Run key.
2 Observe the listing.
The State Listing is now displaying the output of the ripple counter in
hexadecimal with FF (hex) at the top of the listing under the SCOUNT label.
FF is at the beginning of the listing and to the right of a field in which 0 is
displayed. The zero line number always displays the trigger point specified in
the Trigger menu. There are no negative line numbers preceding the trigger
point because the pretrigger specification was set to "While storing no state."
Trigger point (FF)
State Listing with no Pretrigger Data
Result
The state analyzer triggered on FF and began to store data, filling the
acquisition memory. The data is displayed in the State Listing.
4-6
Comparing State Traces
Copy the State Listing to the Compare Reference Listing
Copy the State Listing to the Compare Reference
Listing
In this exercise, you will copy the state listing you acquired in the previous
exercise to the reference listing so you can compare it with other listings.
This feature can be used in a test environment to check that your system is
executing correctly. You can acquire a state listing from the system under
test and compare it to a listing that is known to be good. Any differences
between the two listings can be seen using the Difference Listing feature.
1 Press the List MENU key, then choose Compare from the pop-up menu.
2 Highlight the Copy Listing to Reference field, and press the Select key.
3 Highlight Execute in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Compare allows you to
compare two state
acquisitions to find
differences.
Selecting this field and
choosing Execute copies
the listing.
Copying the State Listing to the Compare Reference Listing
Result
The state listing acquired in the previous exercise is now copied to the
reference listing.
4-7
Comparing State Traces
Change the Jumper to Acquire a Different State Listing
Change the Jumper to Acquire a Different State Listing
Changing the glitch jumper changes channel 7 of the counter so that some of
the acquired states will not match the original listing. After you change the
jumper, you will acquire the data again in the next exercise, then compare it
to the data you copied to the Reference Listing.
1 Pull the glitch jumper from the pins labeled GLITCH OFF.
2 Push the jumper onto the pins labeled GLITCH ON.
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
Result
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
The glitch jumper is changed to GLITCH ON. The next listing you acquire
will be different from the one you copied to the Compare Reference listing.
4-8
Comparing State Traces
Run the Analyzer and Find the Errors
Run the Analyzer and Find the Errors
Now that you have changed the jumper, you are ready to acquire a different
state listing and compare it to the previous listing. In this exercise, you will
switch to the Difference Listing, press the Run key to acquire the new state
listing, and use the knob to scroll through the differences between the two
listings.
1 Highlight the Reference Listing field, and press the Select key to switch
to the Difference Listing.
2 Press the Run key.
The listing now shows the data that you just acquired. The analyzer
compares this data to the data that you stored in the Reference Listing.
3 Highlight the Find Error field.
4 Use the knob to scroll through the listing. Observe the states where
one of the hex numbers is white.
The white color indicates states in the new listing that do not match the
reference listing. You can also type a number into the Find Error field. Find
Error will jump you to that error if it exists in the listing.
The Difference Listing
displays the listing you
want to compare.
The Find Error field is
used to scroll through
the differences between
the listings.
The incorrect bytes
are displayed in white
on your display. In
this graphic, the
white text is
represented by the
light black font.
Difference Listing
5 Return the Glitch Jumper on the training board to the OFF position.
6 Press the List MENU key. Choose Listing MACHINE 1 from the pop-up
menu.
Steps 5 and 6 reset the training board and the analyzer for the next exercises.
4-9
4-10
5
Mixed Mode - Correlation of
State and Timing Data
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and
Timing Data
Mixed mode allows you to analyze a system in both state and timing
modes simultaneously. A common example is using the state analyzer
to capture a problem that occurs infrequently and then using the
timing analyzer to analyze the problem in detail. The Mixed Mode
exercises will show you how to use the mixed mode capabilities of the
timing and state analyzers. These exercises are built on the timing
and state exercises in chapters 2 and 3.
If your logic analyzer is an HP 1663 or HP 1664, you will not be able to
perform these exercises. These analyzers have 32 data acquisition
channels on two pods. All 32 channels may be assigned to either state
or timing analysis, but they cannot be separated to perform mixed
mode measurements.
In this chapter you will:
•
•
•
•
Connect the timing analyzer
Enable time-correlation between the timing and state analyzers
Arm the timing analyzer with the state analyzer
Run the analyzers and view the mixed mode display with time
correlated markers
5-2
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
Note
If your logic analyzer is an HP 1663 or HP 1664 you cannot perform
these exercises. The HP 1663 and HP 1664 have 32 data acquisition
channels on two pods. All 32 channels may be assigned to either state
or timing analysis, but they cannot be separated to perform mixed-mode
measurements.
1 Set the jumpers as shown below.
The jumper settings of J5 on the training board for this chapter are the same
as the default settings.
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
2 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed all of the exercises in chapters 2 through 4, go to
"Connect the Timing Analyzer" on the next page.
If you have not just completed all of the exercises in chapters 2 through 4, go
to step 3.
3 Load the Analyzer with the configuration file, CH05._A.
The file will default all system settings and then set up the analyzer as if you
had just completed all of the exercises in chapters 2 through 4.
Unless you are using an HP 1661 or an HP 1671 analyzer, you may see an
advisory message when you load the files. This is not an error. The message
is displayed because these logic analyzers have a different number of data
pods from the HP 1661, which was used to create the files.
4 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer. For the HP 1670s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the
right-most position when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
See Also
"To Set the Jumpers" and "To Load a Configuration File" in chapter 11 for
more information.
5-3
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Connect the Timing Analyzer
Connect the Timing Analyzer
Note
If you have a termination adapter, HP part number 01650-63203, connect
the adapter between Pod 3 of the logic analyzer and J2 of the training
board, then go to the next page to put the analyzer into state and timing
modes.
1 Connect the Pod 3 connector to the probe assembly.
For the HP 1660s, Pod 3 is the top cable in the second connector from the
left, as you are facing the back of the logic analyzer. For the HP 1670s, Pod 3
is the top cable in the second connector from the right, as you are facing the
back of the logic analyzer.
Note
Leave Pod 1 connected to J1 of the training board. Pod 1 provides the
+5 V power for the training board.
2 Connect the probe leads 0 through 7 to the pins D0 through D7 of J2.
3 Connect the probe ground lead to any pin of J3.
Probe Assembly
Pod 3 Connector
Connecting the Pod 3 Cable to the Probe Assembly
5-4
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Put the Analyzer into State and Timing Modes
Put the Analyzer into State and Timing Modes
In this exercise you will use both the timing analyzer mode and the state
analyzer mode to correlate the state and timing measurements. Pod 1 will be
capturing the state measurement and Pod 3 will be capturing the timing
measurement. All other pods will be unassigned.
1 Press the Config MENU key.
2 In the Analyzer 2 box, highlight the field to the right of Type, and press
the Select key. Highlight Timing in the pop-up menu, and press the
Select key.
3 Highlight the Pod A3/A4 field, and press the Select key. Highlight
Machine 2 in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
4 If you have any other pod pair fields other than A1/A2 and A3/A4,
select each pair and choose Unassigned in the pop-up menu.
If you are using a 1660, 1661,
1670, or a 1671 set Pod A5/A6
to "Unassigned".
Analyzer 1 is in state
mode with the lower 8
bits of Pod A1 and the J
clock are showing
activity.
If you are using an HP 1660 or
an HP 1670, set Pod A7/A8 to
"Unassigned".
Analyzer 2 in timing
mode. The lower 8 bits
of Pod A3 and the L clock
are showing activity.
Putting the Analyzer into State and Timing Modes
Result
Analyzer 1 is in state mode with Pod 1 assigned to it. Analyzer 2 is in timing
mode with Pod 3 assigned to it. The remaining pods are unassigned.
5-5
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Change a Label Name and Modify Channel Assignments
Change a Label Name and Modify Channel
Assignments
1 Press the Format MENU key twice.
2 Highlight Format MACHINE 2 in the pop-up menu, and press the Select
3
4
4
5
Result
key.
Highlight the top field under Labels, then type TCOUNT using the
keypad. Press the Done key when you are finished typing.
Highlight the field showing the 16 channels of Pod A3, to the far right
of the TCOUNT label. Press the Select key.
If there are asterisks in the pop-up, press the Clear entry key.
Press the ⇑ (up-arrow) key to place asterisks in the lower eight
channel positions. Press the Done key.
The top label is now the TCOUNT label with the lower eight channels of Pod
A3 assigned to it.
Turn on the TCOUNT Label in the Waveform Menu
The timing data will be displayed in the waveform menu with the state data
listed above. Turning the TCOUNT label on in the waveform menu tells the
analyzer to display the timing data for TCOUNT.
1 Press the Waveform MENU key to display Waveform Machine2.
2 If the large vertical field on the left side of the display has TCOUNT 0
3
4
5
6
Result
through TCOUNT 7 displayed, go to "Clear the Timing Analyzer
Trigger" on the next page. Otherwise, continue to the next step.
Highlight the large vertical field on the left side of the display, and
press the Select key twice.
Highlight Insert in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Press the Select key to choose TCOUNT.
Choose Sequential from the next pop-up menu.
The waveform menu is now set to display the timing data for TCOUNT. The
sequential option inserted all channels of the label into the display.
5-6
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Clear the Timing Analyzer Trigger
Clear the Timing Analyzer Trigger
Clearing the timing analyzer trigger sets the specification to "don’t care". By
doing this, the timing analyzer will trigger as soon as it is armed by the state
analyzer.
1 Press the Trigger MENU key.
2 Highlight the Modify Trigger field on the right side of the screen, and
press the Select key.
3 Highlight the Clear Trigger field, press the Select key, and choose All
from the pop-up menu.
Result
The timing analyzer trigger specification is set to a "don’t care" state.
Set Up the State Trigger Specification
1 Press the Trigger MENU key. Highlight Trigger MACHINE 1 in the pop-up
menu, and press the Select key. The Trigger MACHINE 1 menu is
now displayed. If this is not the case, press the Trigger MENU key
again, then choose Trigger MACHINE 1 from the pop-up menu.
2 Highlight the 1 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
3 Highlight the field to the right of While storing, and press the Select key.
Highlight anystate in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
4 Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
Result
The state analyzer trigger specification is now:
Level 1 - While storing "anystate", TRIGGER on "a" 1 time
Level 2 - Store "anystate"
The trigger term "a" is assigned the hex value FF.
5-7
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Enable Time Correlation between the Timing and State Analyzers
Enable Time Correlation between the Timing and
State Analyzers
Setting the Count to Time causes the state analyzer to store a time value,
called a time stamp, for each data point that is stored in memory. When the
mixed display is selected, the time stamp information is used to display the
data in both the timing and state displays with the proper time relationship
(correlation).
1 Highlight the Count Off field, and press the Select key.
2 In the pop-up menu, highlight the field to the right of Count, and press
the Select key.
3 Highlight Time in the next pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Press the Done key to close the Count pop-up menu.
Data stored before triggering has negative time numbers, and data stored
after triggering has positive time numbers.
The Count field
accesses a selection
menu which indicates
whether acquisition
data is stamped with
a Time tag or a State
Count tag.
Count Time places time
tags on all displayed
data.
Enabling Time Correlation between the Timing and State Analyzers
Result
The state analyzer is set to store a time stamp for each state that is recorded.
A time stamp does not have to be set for the timing analyzer because the
timing analyzer automatically keeps track of time.
5-8
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
Arm the Timing Analyzer with the State Analyzer
Arm the Timing Analyzer with the State Analyzer
1
2
3
4
Arming control sets up the order of triggering for complicated measurements
that involve more than one mode, such as state and timing. Although state
and timing modes involve a single analyzer, they are often referred to as the
timing analyzer and the state analyzer. Arming the timing analyzer with the
state analyzer allows the two modes to run simultaneously so that the data
captured by both analyzers can be time-correlated.
Highlight the Arming Control field, and press the Select key.
If you are using an HP 1670 series logic analyzer, the Arming Control pop-up
menu will look different because these machines do not have an oscilloscope.
Highlight MACHINE 2 near the center of the screen, next to the Run
field. Press the Select key.
Highlight the field next to Run from, and press the Select key.
Highlight MACHINE 1 in the pop-up menu, and press the Select
key. Press the Done key to close the Machine 2 pop-up menu.
5 Press the Done key to return to the Trigger Menu.
Machine 1 is the
state analyzer.
The timing analyzer is
armed by the state
analyzer.
Machine 2 is the timing
analyzer.
Arming the Timing Analyzer with the State Analyzer
Result
When the state analyzer (Machine 1) arms the timing analyzer (Machine 2),
the timing analyzer begins to look for its own trigger condition.
5-9
Mixed Mode - Correlation of State and Timing Data
View the Mixed-Mode Display with Time-Correlated Markers
View the Mixed-Mode Display with Time-Correlated
Markers
When you press the Run key, the state analyzer triggers on the pattern FF
(when all eight lines are high) and arms the timing trigger. Mixed Display
displays trigger points for both the timing analyzer and the state analyzer
with the state data displayed in a state listing and the timing data displayed
in a timing waveform.
1 Press the Run key.
2 Press the List MENU key. Choose Mixed Display from the pop-up menu.
Notice the delay between the state trigger and the timing trigger, causing the
timing trigger marker to appear to the right of the FF state. This is due to
the time required for the state analyzer to arm the timing analyzer.
3 Highlight the Trig to X field and rotate the knob to observe that the X
markers move in both the state listing and the timing waveform
displays.
The state analyzer
trigger point (FF).
The X-marker.
The delay between the
state trigger and the timing
trigger. The FF state is
where all eight lines are
high.
The timing analyzer
trigger point to the right
of the FF state.
The X-marker.
Mixed Mode Display
4 Press the Trigger MENU key twice.
5 Highlight the Count Time field, and press the Select key twice. Highlight
Off in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key. Press the Done key.
Steps 4 and 5 turn off the Time Count function for the next exercise.
5-10
6
Advanced State Triggering
Advanced State Triggering
The power of the state analyzer is in its wide range of trigger
capabilities. These exercises step you through the process of using
the multi-level triggering capabilities of the state analyzer.
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Put the analyzer into state mode
Set up the state analyzer format
Define individual trigger terms
Define the range trigger term
Add state trigger sequence levels
Set up multiple state trigger levels
Define a combination trigger term
Check the trigger specification
Run the state analyzer and view the data
6-2
Advanced State Triggering
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed all of the exercises in Chapters 2 through 5, go to
"Put the Analyzer into State Mode" on the next page.
If you have not just completed all of the exercises in Chapters 2 through 5, go
to step 2.
2 Load the Analyzer with the configuration file, CH06._A.
The file defaults all system settings and sets up the analyzer as if you just
completed all of the exercises in Chapters 2 through 5.
Unless you are using an HP 1661 or an HP 1671 analyzer, you may see an
advisory message when you load the files. This is not an error. The message
is displayed because these logic analyzers have a different number of data
pods from the HP 1661, which was used to create the files.
3 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer. For the HP 1670s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the
right-most position when you are facing the rear of the logic analyzer.
4 Set the jumpers as shown below.
The jumper settings of J5 on the training board for this chapter are the same
as the default settings.
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
See Also
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
"To Set the Jumpers" and "To Load a Configuration File" in chapter 11 for
more information.
6-3
Advanced State Triggering
Put the Analyzer into State Mode
Put the Analyzer into State Mode
1 Press the Config MENU key.
2 In the Analyzer 2 box, highlight the field to the right of Type, and press
the Select key. Highlight Off in the pop-up menu, and press the Select
key.
3 In the Analyzer 1 box, highlight the field to the right of Type, and press
the Select key. Highlight State in the pop-up menu, and press the Select
key.
Result
The analyzer is now in state mode. The lower eight channels and the J-clock
channel of pod A1 are showing activity.
6-4
Advanced State Triggering
Define State Trigger Terms "a" through "d"
Define State Trigger Terms "a" through "d"
1
2
3
4
5
In the following exercises, you will set up the analyzer to check for and store
a complex sequence of states before it triggers. While the analyzer checks
for these states, it will store only selected states that you define. As in
chapter 3, you will define your trigger terms first, then use these terms to
define a sequence of events. In this case, the sequence will be made up of
states of the ripple counter on the training board. You can use this same
method to monitor any state sequence, such as subroutine calls or read and
write cycles of a microprocessor.
Press the Trigger MENU key.
Highlight the base field below SCOUNT, and press the Select key.
Highlight Decimal in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Under SCOUNT, highlight the field to the right of the a term.
Enter 011 and then press the Done key.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 to enter 022, 033, and 044 in terms b, c, and d,
respectively.
Defining State Trigger Terms "a" through "d"
Result
The trigger terms "a", "b", "c", and "d" are assigned the decimal values 011,
022, 033, and 044.
6-5
Advanced State Triggering
Define State Trigger Term "e" and Range1
Define State Trigger Term "e" and Range1
The trigger term "e" stores one value. The Range1 term, however, can store a
range of values. Storing a range of values is useful when you are looking to
store the data of a subroutine or procedure.
1 Turn the knob clockwise to display the e term in the bottom left
corner of the display. Under SCOUNT, highlight the field to the right
of e. Enter 059 using the keypad. Press the Done key.
2 Turn the knob until the Range1 term is displayed. Highlight the field
to the right of upper and enter 058 using the keypad. Press the Done
key.
3 Highlight the field to the right of lower and enter 050 using the
keypad. Press the Done key.
Defining State Trigger Terms "e" and Range1
Result
The trigger term "e" is assigned the decimal value 059, and Range1 is
assigned decimal values 050 through 058.
6-6
Advanced State Triggering
Add State Trigger Sequence Levels
Add State Trigger Sequence Levels
You tell the analyzer what data to capture by setting the sequence
specification. In this exercise, your sequence specification will have five
sequence levels.
1 Highlight the 1 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
2 Highlight the Insert Level field, and press the Select key. Highlight
Before in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
3 In the Trigger Macro Library, use the knob to highlight "1. User level custom combinations, loops," then press the Done key.
Custom triggering is set up by selecting the user level. In the Trigger Macro
library, trigger macros are also available for common trigger applications.
4 Repeat step 2 and 3 two more times. After inserting these two levels,
press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
Selecting "Before"
inserts a new
sequence level
before the sequence
level 1.
Adding State Trigger Sequence Levels
Result
You now have Sequence Levels 1 through 5. You can scroll through the
sequence levels by highlighting "State Sequence Levels" centered above
sequence level 1 and turning the knob.
6-7
Advanced State Triggering
Set Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification
Set Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification
1
2
3
4
The first term you will look for and store before triggering is term "a", which
stores the value 011. Because you are only interested in 011, you will set the
"While Storing" field to "no state" so that no other data is stored.
Highlight the 1 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
In the pop-up menu, highlight the field to the right of While storing, and
press the Select key. Highlight no state in the pop-up menu, and press
the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Find, and press the Select key.
Highlight a in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
The analyzer will not
store any data before
it finds term "a".
The "a" term holds
the decimal value
Setting Up Level 1 of the State Trigger Specification
Result
Sequence Level 1 is set to find and store only term "a" the first time it occurs.
6-8
Advanced State Triggering
Set Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification
Set Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification
1
2
3
4
The second term you will look for is the range of values 050 through 058,
which you defined as "In range1". While you are storing these values, you
also want to find and store term "e" with the value 059.
Highlight the 2 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of While storing, and press the Select key.
Highlight In_Range1 in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Then find, and press the Select key.
Highlight e in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 2 pop-up menu.
In_Range1 tells the
analyzer to store the
values 050 through 058.
While storing
In_Range1, the
analyzer looks for and
stores "e" one time.
Setting Up Level 2 of the State Trigger Specification
Result
Sequence Level 2 is set to store the "In_Range1" values 050 through 058 and
then find and store the term "e" value 059.
6-9
Advanced State Triggering
Set Up Level 3 of the State Trigger Specification
Set Up Level 3 of the State Trigger Specification
1
2
3
4
The third term you want to find and store is term "b" with the value 022.
Because you only want to store this value, you set the "While Storing" field to
"no state".
Highlight the 3 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of While storing, and press the Select key.
Highlight no state from the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Then find, and press the Select key.
Highlight b from the pop-up menu, and press the Done key.
Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 3 pop-up menu.
No data will be stored
while the analyzer is
looking for term "b".
The analyzer looks for
and stores term "b"
with the value 022.
Setting Up Level 3 of the State Trigger Specification
Result
Sequence Level 3 is set to find and store only term "b" the first time it occurs.
6-10
Advanced State Triggering
Set Up Level 4 of the State Trigger Specification and Define a Combination Trigger Term
Set Up Level 4 of the State Trigger Specification and
Define a Combination Trigger Term
In Sequence Level 4 you will store a combination of values while looking for
the trigger term "e". A combination term, is a logical combination of other
terms, using boolean logic operators like AND and OR. In this exercise, you
will define the combination of terms "c" or "In_Range1" or "d". These three
terms are ORed together so that one, two, or all three of the terms could be
stored.
1 Turn the knob clockwise to display sequence levels 3, 4, and 5.
2 Highlight the 4 field in the State Sequence Levels box of the Trigger
menu. Press the Select key.
3 Highlight the field to the right of While storing, and press the Select key.
Highlight Combination in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
4 In the combination pop-up menu, highlight c, and press the Select key.
Highlight ON in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
5 Highlight In_Range1, and press the Select key. Highlight In in the
pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
6 Highlight d and press the Select key. Highlight ON in the pop-up menu,
and press the Select key.
Note the "Current Qualifier" display in the top right corner of the screen.
Your qualifier is now "c + in_range1 + d."
The "c" term is now
turned on. See the
connection from "c"
to one of the Or fields.
When you select
"in_range1", the logic
analyzer looks for
values that are
within the limits for
the term Range1.
The "d" term is now
turned on.
Defining a Combination Trigger Term
6-11
Advanced State Triggering
Set Up Level 4 of the State Trigger Specification and Define a Combination Trigger
Term
7 Press the Done key once to close the Combination Term pop-up menu.
8 Highlight the field to the right of the TRIGGER on field, and press the
Select key. Highlight e in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
9 Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 4 pop-up menu.
The analyzer stores
one, two, or all three
of these terms while
looking for term "e".
The analyzer looks for
and stores term "e"
with the value 059.
Setting Up Level 4 of the State Trigger Specification
Result
Sequence Level 4 is set to store the combination of values "c+In_Range1+d."
before finding and triggering on term "e".
6-12
Advanced State Triggering
Check the Trigger Specification
Check the Trigger Specification
Now you can check the trigger specification by scrolling through the five
sequence levels. You did not have to set up Level 5 because you want the
analyzer to trigger and store "anystate". The last level of a trigger
specification has this as the default.
1 Highlight the "State Sequence Levels" field centered above the
sequence specification.
2 Turn the knob clockwise to scroll down through the sequence levels.
Your trigger specification should look like the one below:
•
•
•
•
•
Level 1 - While storing "no state"; Find "a" 1 time
Level 2 - While storing "In_Range1"; Then find "e" 1 time
Level 3 - While storing "no state"; Then find "b" 1 time
Level 4 - While storing "c + In_Range1 + d" ; TRIGGER on "e" 1 time
Level 5 - Store "anystate"
If your trigger specification is not correct, repeat the appropriate exercises
on the previous pages to correct the sequence levels that do not match.
6-13
Advanced State Triggering
Run the State Analyzer and View the Data
Run the State Analyzer and View the Data
1 Press the Run key.
2 Highlight the base field below the SCOUNT label, and press the Select
key. Highlight Decimal in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
3 Highlight the line number field on the left side of the display. Scroll
the listing to the beginning by turning the knob counter clockwise.
Result
Your listing now matches the data under the SCOUNT label in the figure
below. The first state in your listing is decimal 011 which is term "a." You
then see the Range1 values (050 - 058), followed by terms "e," "b," and the
combination term "c + in_range1 + d". At line number 0, you see the trigger
term "e," followed by "anystate".
Term a
Range1 values
Term e
Term b
Combination term
c + in_range1 + d
Trigger term e
State Listing Showing Your Defined Terms
6-14
Advanced State Triggering
Run the State Analyzer and View the Data
Counter Output
Logic analyzer
storage sequence
Ripple Counter Output and Stored States
The figure above shows you the output of the ripple counter (the circle) and
the sequence of qualification and storage that the state analyzer performed.
The asterisks indicate when the state analyzer found and stored valid terms
in this example. All states were initially excluded, using the "no state" term.
First the "a" term was stored. Next, states that were within the specified
Range1 term (50 - 58) were stored, while the analyzer searched for an
occurrence of term "e." Once the remaining terms and range were found in
the specified sequence, the state analyzer stored everything (anystate) until
its acquisition memory was filled.
With multi-level state triggering, you specify the data to be stored by the
state analyzer. If you are debugging software, you can store or exclude
certain program lines or entire blocks of code, such as subroutines.
6-15
6-16
7
Using the Oscilloscope
Using the Oscilloscope
These exercises show you how to use the oscilloscope inside the
analyzer. If you are using an HP 1660CS, HP 1661CS, HP 1662CS, or
an HP 1663CS analyzer, you have a built in oscilloscope.
You will start by using the Autoscale feature to set up the
oscilloscope. You will also use the Auto Measure feature to measure
the period of the training board clock signal.
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Connect the channel 1 oscilloscope probe
Get the waveform on the display with Autoscale
Delete the unused channel from the display
Zoom and scroll through the clock waveform
Measure the clock period manually
Measure the clock period with Auto Measure
Read the pulse voltage with the markers
7-2
Using the Oscilloscope
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed the exercises in chapters 2 through 6, go to
"Connect the Channel 1 Oscilloscope Probe" on the next page.
If you have not just completed the exercises in chapters 2 through 6, go to
step 2.
2 Load the configuration files CH07._A and CH07._B.
When loading these files, you must set the analyzer to load All, because you
are loading two types of files for this exercise. Setting the analyzer to load
Analyzer like you did in previous exercises, will only load CH07._A properly.
The files will default all system and oscilloscope settings. If you need
instructions to load the configuration files, refer to chapter 11, "To Load a
Configuration File."
3 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer. Pod 1 must be connected in order to supply
the +5 V power for the training board.
4 Set the jumpers as shown below.
The jumper settings of J5 on the training board for this chapter are the same
as the default settings. For more information about setting the jumpers, refer
to chapter 11, "To Set the Jumpers."
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
7-3
Using the Oscilloscope
Connect the Channel 1 Oscilloscope Probe
Connect the Channel 1 Oscilloscope Probe
1 Connect the oscilloscope probe to channel 1 on the front panel of the
analyzer.
2 Connect the probe tip to the test point labeled "CLK 1" on the Logic
Analyzer Training Board.
3 Connect the probe ground lead to the test point labeled "GND" on the
Logic Analyzer Training Board.
Note
Connect pod 1 to J1 of the training board. Pod 1 must be connected to
supply the +5 V power for the training board.
J1 - Pod 1 of the
analyzer connects
here.
GND - Oscilloscope
ground connects here.
CLK1 - Oscilloscope
probe tip connects here.
J5 - Jumpers are set
here.
Connecting the Channel 1 Oscilloscope Probe
7-4
Using the Oscilloscope
Get the Waveform on the Display
Get the Waveform on the Display
The Autoscale feature automatically scales the vertical sensitivity and the
horizontal time base of the oscilloscope to provide a display of the waveform.
This simplifies the setup of the oscilloscope and is very helpful when the
amplitude and period of a signal are unknown.
1 Press the Config key.
2 Highlight the field in the top, left corner of the display and press the
Select key. Highlight Scope in the pop-up menu, and press the Select
key.
3 Highlight the Autoscale field and press the Select key. Highlight
Continue in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
The analyzer is in scope
mode.
This field initiates the
Autoscale feature.
Channel designator
Training board
clock signal
Getting the Waveform on the Display
Result
The training board clock signal is automatically scaled and is displayed in
channel C1.
7-5
Using the Oscilloscope
Delete Channel 2 from the Display
Delete Channel 2 from the Display
You can delete the unused channels to get more display space.
1 Highlight the bar on the left side of the waveform area.
2 Using the knob, place the cursor on the channel 2 designator (C2),
then press the Select key.
3 Select Delete from the pop-up menu.
This is channel 1 with the
waveform of the training
board clock signal
displayed.
This is channel 2, and it
does not contain data.
Therefore, this channel
can be deleted to allow
more display space for
channel 1.
Result
Deleting Channel 2 from the Display
The unused channel 2 is deleted from the display. The waveform for channel
1 occupies the entire display.
7-6
Using the Oscilloscope
Zoom and Scroll Through the Clock Waveform
Zoom and Scroll Through the Clock Waveform
You can use the s/Div field to set the time scale on the horizontal axis of the
display from 1 ns/div to 5 s/div, and you can use the Delay field to scroll
through the waveform.
1 Highlight the s/Div field.
2 Rotate the knob clockwise to expand the clock waveform. Rotate
the knob counter clockwise to compress the waveform.
3 Highlight the Delay field.
4 Rotate the knob in both directions to scroll the clock waveform.
This field zooms the
waveform in and out.
This field scrolls
through the waveform.
Expanding and Scanning the Clock Waveform
7-7
Using the Oscilloscope
Measure the Clock Period Manually
Measure the Clock Period Manually
Time and voltage measurements can be made manually by turning the
T Markers field on.
1 Press the Marker MENU key. Marker is printed in white on the MENU
key.
2 Highlight the T Markers Off field and press the Select key. Highlight On
in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
3 Highlight the Trig to X field. Using the knob, move the X Marker to the
lowest point on the negative pulse.
You may need to expand or compress the waveform, using the s/Div field to
see a complete period of the waveform on the display.
4 Highlight the Trig to O field. Using the knob move the O Marker to the
same point on the next negative edge after the X Marker.
5 Read the period of the clock in the Tx to To field.
Read the clock
period in this field.
Highlight this field
and select On.
Highlight this field and
position the X Marker.
Highlight this field and
position the O Marker.
Measuring the Clock Period Manually with the X and O Markers
7-8
Using the Oscilloscope
Measure the Clock Period with Auto Measure
Measure the Clock Period with Auto Measure
The Auto Measure function allows you to automatically measure many signal
parameters.
1 Press the Meas MENU key. Meas is printed in white on the MENU key.
2 Read the clock period in the box below the top row of fields.
The clock period is
displayed in this field.
Measuring the Clock Period with Auto Measure
7-9
Using the Oscilloscope
Read Voltage with the Markers
Read Voltage with the Markers
You can use the time and voltage markers to make time and voltage
measurements at specific points on the waveform.
1 Press the Marker MENU key.
2 Highlight the V Markers Off field, and press the Select key.
3 Highlight the Va Volts field. Rotate the knob and watch the Va marker
scroll up and down the screen across the displayed waveform.
Notice the changing voltage value in the Va Volts field.
Use this field to position
the Va Marker.
The Va Marker.
The Vb Marker.
Reading the Voltage at the Markers
7-10
8
Triggering the Oscilloscope
with the Timing Analyzer
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the
Timing Analyzer
You can use the oscilloscope and the timing analyzers together so that
the data and trigger points can be time-correlated. To perform these
exercises, you need an analyzer with an oscilloscope.
These exercises show you how to make the timing analyzer trigger the
oscilloscope inside the analyzer to find a glitch on the training board.
To do these exercises you need an HP 1660CS, HP 1661CS,
HP 1662CS, or an HP 1663CS analyzer. The CS models have the built
in oscilloscope.
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set the jumpers
Connect the oscilloscope probe
Get the waveform on the display
Change the oscilloscope trigger
Turn on the timing analyzer
Set up the timing format menu
Define the timing trigger term
Set up the timing trigger specification
Arm the oscilloscope with the timing analyzer
Add oscilloscope waveform to the timing waveforms
Capture the glitch with the timing analyzer and oscilloscope
Align the glitch displayed by the oscilloscope and analyzer
8-2
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Decide what to do next.
If you have just completed all of the exercises in Chapters 2 through 7, go to
the "Set the Jumpers" exercise, on the next page.
If you have not just completed all of the exercises in Chapters 2 through 7, go
to step 2.
2 Load the configuration files CH08._A, and CH08._B.
When loading these files, you must set the analyzer to load All, because you
are loading two types of files for this exercise. Setting the analyzer to load
Analyzer like you did in previous exercises, will only load CH07._A properly.
The files will default all system settings and then set up the analyzer and
oscilloscope as if you had just completed all of the exercises in Chapters 2
through 7. If you need instructions to load the configuration files, refer to
chapter 11, "To Load a Configuration File."
3 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer.
8-3
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Set the Jumpers
Set the Jumpers
You will create the glitch on bit 7 of the counter on the training board by
setting the glitch jumper to ON.
• Set the jumpers as shown below.
For more information about setting the jumpers, refer to chapter 11, "To Set
the Jumpers."
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
J1
Setting the Jumpers
Result
The glitch on bit 7 is turned on.
8-4
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Connect the Oscilloscope Probe
Connect the Oscilloscope Probe
1 Connect the oscilloscope probe to channel 1 on the front panel.
2 Connect the probe tip to the test point labeled "Glitch" on the Logic
Analyzer Training Board.
Note that this is a different test point than the "CLK 1" test point that was
used in Chapter 7.
3 Connect the probe ground lead to the test point labeled "Ground" on
the training board.
Note
Leave Pod 1 connected to J1. This provides +5 V for the training board.
If Pod 1 is not connected to J1, connect it now.
J1 - Pod 1 of the
analyzer connects
here.
GND - Oscilloscope
ground connects here.
GLITCH - Oscilloscope
probe tip connects here. Connecting the Oscilloscope Probe
8-5
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Get the Waveform on the Display
Get the Waveform on the Display
The first step when using an oscilloscope is to get the waveform on the
display. Autoscale is an algorithm that automatically optimizes the display of
one or more waveforms. The oscilloscope triggers at an arbitrary point until
you set up the trigger conditions.
1 Press the Config key.
2 Highlight the field in the top, left corner of the display, and press the
Select key. Highlight Scope in the pop-up menu, and press the Select
key.
3 Highlight the Autoscale field and press the Select key. Highlight
Continue in the pop-up menu and press the Select key.
The arbitrary trigger
point happens to be on a
rising edge.
The glitch you will
capture with the timing
analyzer and the
oscilloscope.
Running the Oscilloscope with Autoscale
Result
The waveform is on the display with the trigger occurring on a rising edge.
8-6
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Change the Oscilloscope Trigger
Change the Oscilloscope Trigger
You will be using the timing analyzer to find the glitch and then the
oscilloscope to display it. This correlation of timing and scope is done by
arming the scope with the timing analyzer. To capture the glitch on the
scope, you want it to capture data immediately after the glitch is captured by
the timing analyzer.
1 Press the Trigger MENU key.
2 Highlight the Mode/Arm Edge field at the left side of the display, and
press the Select key.
3 Highlight Immediate in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Setting this field to
Immediate tells the
oscilloscope to trigger
immediately after the
timing analyzer triggers.
Changing the Oscilloscope Trigger
Result
The oscilloscope is set to capture data after the timing analyzer triggers on
the glitch.
8-7
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Turn On the Timing Analyzer
Turn On the Timing Analyzer
Now you will begin to set up the timing analyzer to capture the glitch.
1 Highlight the Scope field and press the Select key. Highlight Analyzer in
the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
2 Press the Config MENU key.
If the Configuration menu is already displayed when you press the Config key,
then a pop-up menu will appear. Choose Configuration from the pop-up menu.
3 Highlight the field to the right of Type in the Analyzer 1 box and
press the Select key. Highlight Timing in the pop-up menu, and press
the Select key.
Result
Analyzer 1 is set to timing mode.
8-8
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Set Up the Timing Format Menu
Set Up the Timing Format Menu
1
2
3
4
Because you will be making a timing measurement, you will use the TCOUNT
label that represents timing count. You will also set the timing acquisition
mode to capture the glitch.
Press the Format MENU key.
Highlight the SCOUNT label, and press the Select key. Highlight Turn
Label Off in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the TCOUNT label, and press the Select key. Highlight Turn
Label On in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the Timing Acquisition Mode, and press the Select key.
Highlight Glitch, Half Channel, 125 MHz in the pop-up menu, and press the
Select key.
The Timing Acquisition
Mode set to capture
the glitch.
The TCOUNT label that
represents timing count.
Setting Up the Timing Format Menu
Result
The label TCOUNT is turned on, and the timing analyzer acquisition mode is
set to glitch.
8-9
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Define the Timing Trigger Term "Edge 1"
Define the Timing Trigger Term "Edge 1"
1
2
3
The timing analyzer can be configured to trigger on edges, or a glitch. In this
exercise, you will set the trigger term to glitch on bit 7.
Press the Trigger MENU key.
Highlight the Modify Trigger field, and press the Select key. Highlight
Clear Trigger, press the Select key, then highlight All, and press the
Select key.
Highlight the base field below TCOUNT, and press the Select key.
Highlight Binary in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
Highlight the field to the right of Edge 1, and press the Select key.
4
5 Using the arrow key, move the cursor to highlight the asterisk in the
pop-up menu for bit 7. Press the Done key.
The asterisk tells the analyzer to look for a glitch on bit 7 of the counter.
Edge 1
Bit 7
Defining Timing Trigger Terms Edge 1
Result
The term "Edge 1" is defined as a glitch on bit 7.
8-10
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Set Up the Timing Trigger Specification
Set Up the Timing Trigger Specification
You will now tell the analyzer to trigger on the glitch the first time it occurs.
1 Highlight the 1 field in the Timing Sequence Levels box, and press the
Select key.
2 Highlight the ">" field, and press the Select key. Highlight Occurs in the
pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
3 Highlight the field next to Trigger on, and press the Select key.
Highlight Edge 1 in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
4 Highlight the field next to Else on, and press the Select key. Highlight
no state in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
5 Press the Done key to close the Sequence Level 1 pop-up menu.
The trigger term
"Edge1" is set for the
analyzer to look for
the glitch on bit 7.
Setting Up the Trigger Specification
Result
Your trigger specification now shows: Level 1 - TRIGGER on "Edge1" 1 time.
8-11
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Arm the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Arm the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
The timing analyzer and the oscilloscope can be configured so that the timing
analyzer’s glitch triggering capability will capture the glitch, and then arm the
oscilloscope so that it, too, captures the glitch.
1 Highlight the Arming Control field at the far right side of the screen, and
press the Select key.
2 Highlight the field under Scope Arm In, and press the Select key.
Highlight Analyzer in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
When you select the analyzer to arm the scope, the field under
Analyzer Arm In changes to Group Run.
3 Press the Done key to exit the Arming Control pop-up menu.
The timing analyzer
starts when Group
Run is initiated.
The oscilloscope is
armed by the Timing
Analyzer.
Arming the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Result
The timing analyzer will look for the glitch, trigger, and then arm the scope,
which allows the scope to capture the glitch.
8-12
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Add Oscilloscope Waveform to the Timing Waveforms
Add Oscilloscope Waveform to the Timing Waveforms
To see the correlation between the timing analyzer and the oscilloscope, you
must insert the scope display into the timing waveform display.
1 Press the Wform MENU key to display the Waveform Machine1 menu.
2 Highlight the large field at the left side of the display. The TCOUNT
label should be displayed in the large field.
If the TCOUNT label is not in the large field, then you need to add it. To add
the TCOUNT label, highlight the large field, then press the Select key twice.
Choose Insert, Analyzer, TCOUNT, then Sequential in the pop-up menus.
3 Using the knob, place the cursor on the TCOUNT 7 label.
4 Press the Select key.
5 Choose Insert, Scope, then C1 (oscilloscope channel 1) in the pop-up
menus.
The oscilloscope
waveform is added to the
analyzer display.
Adding Oscilloscope Waveform to the Timing Waveforms
Result
Both the timing waveform for TCOUNT and the oscilloscope waveform will be
displayed when you run the analyzer.
8-13
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Capture the Glitch with the Timing Analyzer and Oscilloscope
Capture the Glitch with the Timing Analyzer and
Oscilloscope
The timing analyzer runs, triggers, and then arms the oscilloscope. Notice
the slight delay between the glitch displayed by the timing analyzer and the
oscilloscope. This is caused by the intermodule bus when one instrument
arms another. In the following exercise, you will align the glitch in the two
displays.
1 Highlight the Group Run field, and press the Select key. Highlight Single
in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
2 Highlight the s/Div field, then rotate the knob to change the s/Div to
20 ns.
You will now see the glitch on both the oscilloscope waveform, and on
TCOUNT 7 in the timing analyzer section of the display.
The glitch captured by
the timing analyzer.
The glitch captured by
the oscilloscope.
Capturing the Glitch on the Oscilloscope
Result
The glitch is captured and displayed by the analyzer and oscilloscope.
8-14
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Align the Glitch Displayed by the Oscilloscope and Analyzer
Align the Glitch Displayed by the Oscilloscope and
Analyzer
You can align the glitch displayed by the analyzer and scope by measuring
the distance between the falling edge on the timing display with the falling
edge of the scope display. Then you use the skew feature to move the timing
waveform over so that the two displays are aligned.
1 Highlight the Markers Off field, and press the Select key. Highlight Time
in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
2 Highlight the Trig to O field, and use the knob to place the O marker on
the falling edge of the glitch shown by the scope.
3 Take note of the time delay in ns between the trigger point and the
O marker. This is the time delay you will use to realign the two
displays.
The time delay.
Measuring the Time Delay
8-15
Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing Analyzer
Align the Glitch Displayed by the Oscilloscope and Analyzer
Press the Trigger MENU key.
Highlight the Arming Control field and press the Select key.
With the Skew field highlighted, press the Select key.
With the Analyzer field highlighted, press the Select key.
Use the knob to change the units to ns, and type in the time delay you
measured with the Trig to O marker.
9 Press the Done key until you return to the Trigger Menu.
10 Highlight the Group Run field, and press the Select key. Highlight Single
in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
4
5
6
7
8
The timing waveform is
now lined up with the
oscilloscope waveform.
Aligning the Glitch Displayed by the Oscilloscope and Analyzer
Result
The analyzer display is time-aligned with the scope display.
8-16
9
Using the Pattern Generator
Using the Pattern Generator
The pattern generator provides programmable digital output that can
be used to stimulate and control a system under test. These exercises
will show you how to program the pattern generator so that it
provides a pattern of "walking ones." Because the pattern generator is
an output module, the timing analyzer will be used to view the pattern
generator’s output.
These exercises also show you a simple process that represents basic
stimulus/response testing. For example, if you are applying the
"walking ones" pattern from the pattern generator to a memory, you
can use the timing analyzer to see if the "walking ones" pattern is
being written to and read from memory properly.
In this chapter, you will:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Connect the pattern generator
Turn on the timing analyzer
Change a label name
Modify channel assignments
Set up the timing analyzer trigger
Add a pattern generator label to the timing waveform display
Set up the pattern generator format menu
Program the pattern generator output
Add program lines
Start the pattern generator and view the walking ones pattern
Stop the pattern generator
9-2
Using the Pattern Generator
Before You Begin
Before You Begin
1 Load the configuration file for chapter 3, CH03_60._A.
If you need instructions to load the configuration files, refer to chapter
11, "To Load a Configuration File."
2 Connect Pod 1.
Connect Pod 1 of the analyzer to J1 on the Training Board. For the
HP 1660s, Pod 1 is the top cable in the left-most position when you are facing
the rear of the logic analyzer.
3 Set the jumpers as shown below
The jumper setting of J5 on the training board for this chapter are the same
as the default settings. For more information about setting the jumpers, refer
to chapter 11, "To Set the Jumpers."
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
9-3
Using the Pattern Generator
Connect the Pattern Generator
Connect the Pattern Generator
• Connect the pattern generator output Pod 4 to the TTL Data Pod.
Then connect the TTL Data Pod to J4 (labeled PATTERN
GENERATOR) on the training board.
For more information about setting the jumpers, refer to chapter 11, "To Set
the Jumpers."
Note
Pod 1 of State/Timing is not only used to acquire the pattern generator’s
output pattern, it also provides the needed + 5V for the training board.
Pod 4 of the pattern
generator.
J4 - The TTL Data Pod,
with Pod 4 of the
pattern generator
attached, connects to
the training board here.
J1 - Pod 1 of the
analyzer connects
here.
Connecting the Pattern Generator
9-4
Using the Pattern Generator
Turn On the Timing Analyzer
Turn On the Timing Analyzer
1 Press the Config MENU key.
If the Configuration menu is already displayed when you press the Config key,
then a pop-up menu will appear. Choose Configuration from the pop-up menu.
2 Highlight the field to the right of Type in the Analyzer 1 box and
press the Select key. Highlight Timing in the pop-up menu, and press
the Select key.
Result
Analyzer 1 is set to timing mode.
9-5
Using the Pattern Generator
Change a Label Name
Change a Label Name
In this exercise, you will change a label name to PATGEN to represent the
pattern generator data captured by the timing analyzer.
1 Press the Format MENU key.
2 Highlight the label Lab2 and type PATGEN. Press the Done key.
3 Highlight the field labeled TCOUNT, and press the Select key.
Highlight Turn Label Off, and press the Select key.
Note
Turning the labels off rather than modifying them saves them for later
use.
Changing a Label Name
Result
Lab2 is now changed to PATGEN, and the label TCOUNT is turned off.
9-6
Using the Pattern Generator
Modify Channel Assignments
Modify Channel Assignments
In this exercise you will assign channels 8 through 11 to Pod A1, which is
attached to J1 of the training board. The analyzer will then use these
channels to capture the output of the pattern generator.
1 Highlight the field showing the 16 channels of Pod A1 to the far right
of the PATGEN label. Press the Select key.
2 Using the knob, move the cursor to channel 11 in the pop-up menu.
Then, press the ⇑ (up-arrow) key to put asterisks in channels
positions 11 through 8.
3 Press the Done key.
The asterisks (*) assign
bits 8 through 11 of Pod
A1 to the label PATGEN.
Modifying the Channel Assignments
Result
Channels 11 through 8 of Pod A1 are assigned to the label PATGEN.
9-7
Using the Pattern Generator
Set Up the Timing Analyzer Trigger Term
Set Up the Timing Analyzer Trigger Term
The trigger term ’a’ is set to 1 so that the analyzer will trigger on the "walking
ones" provided by the pattern generator.
1 Press the Trigger MENU key.
2 Highlight the field to the right of term "a", and type a 1 into the field.
3 Press the Done key.
4 Highlight the 1 field in the Timing Sequence Levels box, and press the
Select key.
5 Highlight the field to the right of >, and turn the knob to select 8 ns
for the pattern duration. Press the Done key.
The analyzer is set up to
trigger on the
occurrence of a 1.
The a term holds the
value 1.
Setting Up the Timing Analyzer Trigger Term
Result
The logic analyzer is set up to trigger on the occurrence of a 1.
9-8
Using the Pattern Generator
Add a Pattern Generator Label to the Timing Waveform Display
Add a Pattern Generator Label to the Timing
Waveform Display
The new label PATGEN must be added to the Waveform display for the
captured data to be displayed.
1 Press the Waveform menu key.
2 Highlight the field under Labels on the left side of the screen, and
press the Select key twice.
3 Press the Select key to select Insert.
4 Press the Select key to select PATGEN.
5 Choose Sequential from the pop-up menu.
The PATGEN label is
placed in the Waveform
display.
Adding a Pattern Generator Label to the Timing Waveform Display
Result
The Waveform display is set up to display the four bits of the label PATGEN.
9-9
Using the Pattern Generator
Set Up the Pattern Generator Format Menu
Set Up the Pattern Generator Format Menu
For the pattern generator to output the "walking ones" to the logic analyzer,
the lower four bits of Pod 4, which is connected to the training board through
the TTL Data Pod, must be assigned to PATGEN.
1 Highlight the Analyzer field in the top-left corner of the screen, and
press the Select key. Highlight Patt Gen, and press the Select key.
2 If the Format Menu of the Pattern Generator is now displayed, go to
step 4.
3 Press the Format MENU key.
4 Highlight Lab1 below Label, and press the Select key. Highlight Modify
Label in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
5 Type PATGEN, and Press the Done key.
6 Highlight the field showing the Pod B4 to the right of PATGEN, and
press the Select key.
The lower 4 bits of
Pod B4 are assigned to
output the "walking
ones" .
Setting Up the Pattern Generator Format Menu
9-10
Using the Pattern Generator
Set Up the Pattern Generator Format Menu
7 Using the knob, move the cursor to channel 3 in the pop-up menu.
8
8
9
10
11
Result
Then, press the ⇑ (up-arrow) key to put asterisks in channels
positions 0 through 3.
Press the Done key.
Highlight the field showing the Pod B3 to the left of the field you just
modified, and press the Select key.
Press the Clear Entry key. Press the Done key.
Highlight the field showing the Pod B1, and press the Select key.
Press the Clear Entry key. Press the Done key.
The lower four bits of Pod 4 is assigned to the label PATGEN.
9-11
Using the Pattern Generator
Program the Pattern Generator Output
Program the Pattern Generator Output
The Sequence window is used to program the pattern generator output. In
this exercise, you will change the base field to binary and program the first
"walking one."
1 Highlight the Pat Gen Format field, and press the Select key.
2 Highlight Pat Gen Sequence field in the pop-up menu, and press the
Select key.
3 Highlight the base field below the PATGEN field, and press the Select
key. Highlight Binary in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
4 Use the knob to scroll to the field under
***MAIN SEQUENCE START***.
5 Use the arrow keys to highlight the far-right field.
6 Press the Select key. Type 0001 and press the Done key.
Programming the Pattern Generator Output
Result
The base field is in binary with the first "walking one" of 0001 programmed.
9-12
Using the Pattern Generator
Add Program Lines
Add Program Lines
You will need four lines for the "walking ones" program. In this exercise, you
will insert two lines after 0001 and complete the walking ones program.
1 Highlight the Insert field, and press the Select key two times to add two
2
3
4
5
additional program lines to the listing.
Using the knob, scroll to the next program line for the next
"walking one."
Highlight the far-right, and press the Select key.
Type 0010 in the field, and press the Done key.
Repeat steps 2 through 4 for program lines 2 and 3 entering 0100,
then 1000, respectively.
The "walking ones"
program.
Adding Program Lines
Result
The "walking ones" program is complete. The pattern generator will output
0001, 0010, 0100, 1000 to the logic analyzer.
9-13
Using the Pattern Generator
Start the Pattern Generator and View the Walking Ones Pattern
Start the Pattern Generator and View the Walking
Ones Pattern
When you select Run and Repetitive, the Pattern Generator begins to run in
repetitive mode. The output is the repeating "walking ones" pattern. You will
not see this output until you switch to the timing analyzer waveform display.
The pattern generator will run independently until you stop it by pressing the
Stop key.
1 On the front panel of the logic analyzer, press the blue SHIFT key,
and then push the Run key to run the pattern generator repetitively.
2 Highlight the Patt Gen in the top-left corner of the screen, and press
the Select key. Choose Analyzer from the pop-up menu.
3 Highlight the the Run field, and press the Select key. Choose Single,
and press the Select key.
The Timing analyzer runs a single trace and automatically displays the
Waveform 1 menu in which you see the "walking ones" patter.
4 Highlight the s/Div field.
5 Turn the knob until the s/Div field displays 20 ns.
Starting the Pattern Generator and Viewing the Walking Ones Pattern
9-14
Using the Pattern Generator
Stop the Pattern Generator
Stop the Pattern Generator
1 Highlight the Analyzer field, and press the Select key. Highlight Patt Gen
in the pop-up menu, and press the Select key.
2 Highlight the Stop field, and press the Select key.
The pattern generator requires CPU time when it is running independently in the
repetitive mode. Stopping the pattern generator now will prevent other
exercises that do not use it from running slower than normal.
9-15
9-16
10
Introduction to Inverse
Assembly
Introduction to Inverse Assembly
An inverse assembler translates the captured data into
microprocessor instructions.
To perform inverse assembly, you must probe a microprocessor and
load the correct configuration and inverse assembler. The training
board does not have a microprocessor. Therefore, for these exercises
you will load a sample listing to simulate the captured microprocessor
instructions.
In this chapter you will:
•
•
•
•
Load the inverse assembler and sample listing
View the address, data, and status labels
View the assembly listing
Filter the captured data
10-2
Introduction to Inverse Assembly
Load the Inverse Assembler and Sample Listing
Load the Inverse Assembler and Sample Listing
In this exercise you will load a configuration file and the inverse assembler to
translate the binary data. You will not be making the measurement because
the training board does not have a microprocessor.
1 Place the flexible disk labeled "Logic Analyzer Training Kit
2
3
4
5
6
Configurations" in the disk drive.
Press the Config MENU key.
Highlight the field to the right of Type in the Analyzer 1 box. Press the
Select key and choose State in the pop-up menu.
Press the System MENU key.
Highlight the field to the right of System, press the Select key, and
choose Flexible Disk in the pop-up menu.
If you are using an HP 1660 series analyzer, load the Analyzer with
these files:
• IA386E (inverse assembler)
• TRC_386._A. (sample listing)
7 If you are using an HP 1670 series analyzer, load the Analyzer with
these files:
• ICPU32 (inverse assembler)
• TRC_32._A (sample listing)
Result
Both the inverse assembler and the listing are loaded onto the analyzer with
the necessary configurations.
See Also
"To Load a Configuration File" in chapter 11 for more information.
10-3
Introduction to Inverse Assembly
View the Address, Data, and Status Labels
View the Address, Data, and Status Labels
The labels, pods and bit assignments were configured when you loaded the
sample listing. Often, you will load a configuration file you built or one
supplied with the preprocessor.
There are three labels the inverse assembler needs to translate the binary
data correctly: ADDR (address bus), DATA (data bus), and STAT (status).
These labels must be capitalized to be recognized by the inverse assembler.
1 Press the Format MENU key.
2 Notice the required ADDR, DATA, and STAT labels.
The ADDR label collects the activity on the address bus. The DATA label
collects the data and is what the inverse assembler translates into
instructions. The STAT label records the type of instruction or bus
transaction.
3 Highlight the Pods field and turn the knob counter clockwise to scroll
through the pods.
Notice that the bits are already assigned to the pods of each label. If you are
using a 1670 series analyzer, your label and bit assignments will be different
than those in the graphic below. This is because you are using a different
sample listing and assembler.
The Pods field is used
to scroll through the
pods to see the bit
assignments.
The Labels field is
used to scroll
through the labels.
ADDR, DATA, and
STAT are used by the
inverse assembler.
Viewing the Address, Data, and Status Labels
10-4
Introduction to Inverse Assembly
View the Assembly Listing
View the Assembly Listing
You can view the captured data in the mnemonic form just as you can view
data in the Hex, Decimal, or Binary forms.
1 Press the List MENU key.
If you are using a 1670 series analyzer, your listing will be different than the
one in the graphic below. This is because you are using a different sample
listing and inverse assembler.
Viewing the Assembly Listing
2 Highlight the line number field on the left side of the display and use
the knob to scroll down through the listing.
If the inverse assembler gets out of sync with the captured data the code will
not be translated correctly. To realign the assembler and the data using an
HP 1660 series analyzer, place one of the OPCODE F lines at the top of the
screen. Then highlight the Invasm Options field, press the Select key, and
choose Align from the Inverse Assembly Options pop-up. If you are using an
HP 1670 series analyzer, highlight the Invasm field, and press the Select key.
10-5
Introduction to Inverse Assembly
Filter the Captured Data
Filter the Captured Data
Note
This exercise can only be done with the HP 1660C, HP 1660CS,
HP 1661C, or the HP 1661CS analyzer.
If the program you are running is large or you are not interested in looking at
all of the code, you can suppress the types of instructions you are not
interested in. In this exercise you will look at the general flow of the code by
showing only the jumps and suppressing all other types of instructions.
1 Highlight the Invasm Options field and press the Select key.
2 Suppress all of the instruction types, except "Jumps:", by highlighting
each field and pressing the Select key.
3 Press the Done key to close the Inverse Assembly Options pop-up.
4 Use the knob to scroll through the listing of jumps.
Filtering the Captured Data
Result
The captured data can be filtered in various ways. In this exercise, the
inverse assembly code is filtered so that only the jump instructions are
displayed.
10-6
11
Setting the Jumpers and
Loading the Configurations
Setting the Jumpers
The jumpers on J5 of the training board are used to control the source
of the state clock and to turn the glitch on or off. Before you start
each chapter, you should check the jumpers to make sure they are
properly set. The "To Set the Jumpers" exercise, on the next page,
gives you the information you need to change the jumpers. Table 1
shows you the jumper settings for the chapters .
Table 1
Jumper Settings
Jumper
Glitch
CLK1
CLK2
Chapter 4
(change during
exercises)
ON
OSC
P.G. (Pattern generator)
Chapter 8
ON
OSC
P.G
All Other
Chapters
(Default)
OFF
OSC
P.G.
11-2
Setting the Jumpers and Loading the Configurations
To Set the Jumpers
To Set the Jumpers
1 Pull the appropriate jumper off of the pins of J5.
2 Push the jumper onto the correct pins of J5. You only need to change
jumpers that differ from the settings in table 1.
Set the jumpers at their default settings for all chapters. Table 1 shows you
the default settings and the settings for each chapter. Chapter 4, "Comparing
State Traces," and chapter 8, "Triggering the Oscilloscope with the Timing
Analyzer," requires you to change the setting of the glitch jumper.
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
Glitch OFF
CLK2
CLK1
GLITCH
P. G.
OSC
P. G.
CLK2
OFF
ON
Glitch ON
J5 - Jumpers are set
here.
Setting the Jumpers
11-3
Loading the Configurations
If you are not performing the exercises in order, you may need to load
configuration files to set up your system so that you can complete the
exercises. The "To Load a Configuration File" exercise on the next
two pages gives you the information you need to load configuration
files. The flexible disk labeled "Logic Analyzer Training Kit
Configurations," which you received in this training kit, contains the
configuration files. The files are listed in Table 2, below.
If you are doing the exercises for the first time, we recommend you
follow the steps in each consecutive exercise, from chapter 1 through
chapter 5, without loading the configuration files. If you do not want
to do the exercises in order, you can load the files listed in the "Before
You Begin" section of a chapter, then do the exercises in that chapter.
Table 2
Configuration Files
Filename
CH03_60._A
CH03_70._A
CH04._A
CH05._A
CH06._A
CH07._A and CH07._B
CH08._A and CH08._B
CH03_60._A
TRC_386._A and IA386E
TRC_32._A and ICPU32
11-4
File description
State Exercises
State Exercises
Compare Exercises
Mixed Mode Exercises
Advanced State Exercises
Oscilloscope Exercises
Oscilloscope/Timing Exercises
Pattern Generator Exercises
Inverse Assembly for the HP 1660s
Inverse Assembly for the HP 1670s
Setting the Jumpers and Loading the Configurations
To Load a Configuration File
To Load a Configuration File
There are two configuration files you will be loading. One for the analyzer
CH0X._A, and one for the oscilloscope CH0X._B. For exercises that only use
the analyzer, you will only load the CH0X._A file. For exercises using the
scope, you will load both the CH0X._A and the CH0X._B files.
1 Place the flexible disk labeled "Logic Analyzer Training Kit
Configurations" in the disk drive.
2 Press the System MENU key.
3 Highlight the field to the right of System, then press the Select key.
Choose Flexible Disk in the pop-up menu, and press the Done key. The
Disk Menu is now displayed.
If the file directory has not been previously read by the logic analyzer, you
will see "reading directory . . ." before the directory listing is displayed.
4 Highlight the field below the System field, on the left side of the
screen, then press the Select key. Highlight Load in the pop-up menu,
then press the Done key.
See the figure on the next page if you need help.
5 Highlight the field to the right of Load, then press the Select key.
Highlight Analyzer in the pop-up menu, then press the Done key.
The procedure for loading a configuration file continues on the next page.
6 Using the knob, place the file name you want to load on the light gray
center line of the display.
11-5
Setting the Jumpers and Loading the Configurations
To Load a Configuration File
7 Highlight the Execute field, then press the Select key.
Note
If you are using a logic analyzer model other than an HP 1661, a message may
appear, telling you that some pod information has been changed or
truncated, or needs to be connected in a particular way. This is not an error.
The message appears because your logic analyzer has a different number of
data pods than an HP 1661, which was used to create the file you are loading.
8 Repeat steps 6 and 7 for any other files you want to load. When you
are finished loading files, highlight the System field, then press the
Select key. Choose Analyzer in the pop-up menu.
Setting this field to Load
tells the analyzer to load
the file selected.
Setting this field to
Analyzer tells the
system to load the
state and timing
analyzers.
The knob places the
name of the file you
want to load on this line.
Selecting this field
loads the file.
Loading a Configuration File
11-6
12
All About the Logic Analyzer
Training Board
All About the Logic Analyzer Training
Board
The training board helps you learn the basics of HP Logic Analyzers.
The following reference information is provided for those who want to
know more about how the training board works.
Power Source
The training board is powered by the +5 V supplied by the logic analyzer
pods, so a logic analyzer pod must be connected to either J1 or J2 of the
training board in order for the training board to work. If only J2 is connected,
it must be connected to the logic analyzer through a termination adapter (HP
part number 01650-63203).
CAUTION
If the termination adapter part number is HP 01650-63201 , the CLK2 jumper
must be set to P.G. to avoid connecting the output of the oscillator to +5 V
and eventually damaging the oscillator.
If J1 is connected, the termination adapter is not required because J1 is
terminated on the board by Z1 and Z2.
Circuit Description
The training board uses an 8-bit ripple counter running at 32 MHz to produce
transitions on the lower 8 bits of a logic analyzer pod. The upper eight bits
can be connected to the pattern generator through connector J4.
For state analysis, you can clock the state analyzer via the oscillator on the
training board (reference designator Y1) or via a pattern generator in an
HP 16500 system. The sources for clocks 1 and 2 are selected by the
positions of jumpers CLK1 and CLK2, respectively. When the CLK1 and
CLK2 jumpers are set to OSC (oscillator), the clock source for the state
analyzer is the oscillator on the training board (Y1). When the CLK1 and
CLK2 jumpers are set to P.G. (pattern generator), the clock source for the
state analyzer is bit D7 or strobe 2 of the pattern generator, depending on
which pattern generator pod is connected to J4.
12-2
All About the Logic Analyzer Training Board
Jumpers
The glitch is generated using the delay between the falling edge of D4 and
rising edge of D5 of the ripple counter, and the delay using R2 with the input
capacitance of the 74F02N. The ripple counter is a 74HC393. A 74F02 is
used to generate the pulse (glitch) and combine it with D7 of the ripple
counter. Because the 74F02 is a fast CMOS gate, it boosts the amplitude of
the glitch it receives from the 74HC393 counter. This combination of logic
families produces a positive glitch that is about 6 ns wide and has an
amplitude of about 4 volts. The glitch is available on channel D7 of J1 and J2
when the GLITCH jumper is set to ON.
Jumpers
The jumpers are used to turn the glitch on and off and to select the sources
for state clocks 1 (CLK1) and 2 (CLK2).
Glitch
When the GLITCH jumper is set to OFF, the waveform on D7 of J1 and J2 is
the most significant bit of the counter. When this jumper is set to ON, a
glitch appears on D7 and the waveform no longer represents the most
significant bit of the counter. The glitch always appears on the test point
labeled GLITCH, regardless of the position of this jumper.
CLK1
The CLK1 jumper selects the source of state clock 1. If you choose OSC (the
default), the source of the clock will be the oscillator on the training board. If
you choose P.G., the source of the clock will be Strobe 2 or D7 of the pattern
generator, depending on which pattern generator pod you have connected to
the training board.
CLK2
The CLK2 jumper selects the source of state clock 2 for the HP 16540A used
in an HP 16500 system. If you choose OSC, the source of the clock will be
the oscillator on the training board. If you choose P.G. (the default), the
source of the clock will be Strobe 2 or D7 of the pattern generator, depending
on which pattern generator pod you have connected to the training board.
12-3
All About the Logic Analyzer Training Board
Schematic
Schematic
Logic Analyzer Training Board Schematic
12-4
Index
A
a thru j fields, 2-7, 3-8
activity indicators, 3-4
adding sequence levels, 6-7
adding symbols, 3-13
ADDR, DATA, STAT labels, 10-4
analysis
state, 3-2
timing, 2-2
analyzer mode
set, 1-4
arming control, 5-9
configuring, 1-6
oscilloscope, 8-12
arming the oscilloscope, 8-12
arming the timing analyzer, 5-9
arrow keys, 1-3
arrows
setting the state clock edge, 3-5
showing activity in the pods, 3-4
assembly code, 10-2
filter, 10-6
listing, 10-5
assigning channels
in the state analyzer, 3-7
in the timing analyzer, 2-6
Autoscale, 7-5
B
base field, 2-7, 3-8
Boolean
or function, 6-11 to 6-12
C
changing a label name, 2-5, 3-6
changing the jumper, 4-8
changing the oscilloscope trigger, 8-7
channel
unused, 7-6
circuit description, 12-2
Clear Entry key, 2-6
CLK1, 12-2
CLK2, 12-2
clock
edge, 3-5
J through P, 3-5
sample, 3-2
source, 12-2
state, 3-2
state, set the, 3-5
Clock field
setting the state clock, 3-5
combination term, 6-11 to 6-12
compare, 4-9
compare errors, 4-9
compare state listings, 4-2
complex sequence of states, 6-5
configuration
loading, 11-4
configuration file
to load a, 11-5 to 11-6
connecting the oscilloscope probe, 7-4
copying the state listing, 4-7
correlation of data, 5-2
count
time, 5-8
counter
ripple, 2-5
creating symbols, 3-12 to 3-13
D
defining a term, 2-7, 3-8
delay, 2-9
Delay field
scanning the waveform, 7-7
deleting channels, 7-6
difference listing, 4-2, 4-9
disk menu, 11-5
"don’t care", 5-7
down arrow, 3-5
E
errors
compare, 4-9
Find Error field, 4-9
exercises
inverse assembly, 10-2
mixed mode, 5-2
multilevel state triggering, 6-2
oscilloscope, 7-2
state analyzer, 3-2
state compare, 4-2
timing analyzer, 2-2
F
field
Autoscale, 7-5
Trig to O, 7-8
Trig to X, 7-8
front panel, 1-2
G
glitch
capture, 8-14
trigger, 8-11
glitch jumper, 4-8
Glitch/Edge term, 8-10
grouping bits, 1-5
H
highlighting a field, 1-3
I
immediate trigger mode, 8-7
indicators
activity, 3-4
instruction types
show, 10-6
suppress, 10-6
Invasm, 10-5
inverse assembler
loading, 10-3
J
J-clock, 3-4 to 3-5
jumpers
CLK1, 12-3
CLK2, 12-3
default settings, 11-2
glitch, 12-3
setting, 11-3
L
label name
changing, 2-5
labels, 2-5
ADDR, DATA, STAT, 10-4
listing
difference, 4-2, 4-9
reference, 4-7
logic high, 2-2, 3-2
logic low, 2-2, 3-2
Index-1
Index
S
s/Div field, 2-9
s/Dive field
expanding the waveform, 7-7
sample clock, 3-2
scrolling, 1-3
timing waveform, 2-9
selecting a field, 1-2 to 1-3
Sequence Level 1 pop-up
setting up state trigger, 3-9
sequence levels, 3-9
adding, 6-7
configuring, 6-8 to 6-12
timing analyzer, 8-11
setting up the state clock, 3-5
O
setting up the trigger specification, 2-8
O-Marker, 7-8
show instructions, 10-6
oscilloscope
state analysis, 3-2
connecting the probe, 7-2, 7-4
state analyzer, 3-2
exercises, 7-2
running, 3-11
state analyzer exercises, 3-2
P
state compare exercises, 4-2
page keys, 3-11
state listing, 3-11
pattern
viewing and changing, 3-11
duration, 2-8
state mode, 3-4
timing trigger, 2-7
state trigger terms
pattern generator, 9-2
defining, 6-5
pattern generator format menu, 9-10, 9-11
storage qualification, 3-2, 6-15
pod pair, 5-5
"store any state", 3-10
pods, 3-5, 5-5
stored states, 6-15
assign, 1-4
suppress instructions, 10-6
power source, 12-2
symbols, 3-12 to 3-13
Probe Assembly, 5-4
creating, 3-12 to 3-13
probe leads, 5-4
viewing, 3-14
probes
connect, 1-4
T
program, "walking ones", 9-14
programming the pattern generator, 9-12 term
combination, 6-11 to 6-12
define, 3-8
R
defining, 2-7
range term, 6-6
Glitch/Edge, 8-10
reading voltage, 7-10
range, 6-6
reference listing, 4-7
trigger, 2-7
ripple counter output, 6-15
termination adapter, 5-4
run, 2-9, 3-11
threshold, 2-2
single or repetitive, 1-7
threshold voltage, 3-2
running the state analyzer, 3-11
time
running the timing analyzer, 2-9
count, 5-8
M
marker placement
time-correlated, 5-10
markers, 2-9, 5-10
voltage, 7-10
measuring the clock period
Auto Measure, 7-9
manually, 7-8
mixed display, 5-10
mixed mode, 5-2
mixed mode exercises, 5-2
modifying channel assignments, 2-6, 3-7
multilevel state triggering, 6-2
Index-2
stamp, 5-8
time correlated, 8-2
time intervals, 2-2
time-correlated marker placement, 5-10
time-correlation, 5-8, 8-2
timing
analysis, 2-2
Timing Acquisition Mode, 8-9, 9-9
timing analyzer exercises, 2-2
timing mode, 2-4
Training Kit
materials needed, 2-iv
Trig to O field, 7-8
Trig to X field, 2-9, 7-8
trigger
define a term, 2-7
immediate, 8-7
timing, 2-8
trigger specification
state, 3-9
trigger term
range, 6-6
U
unused channel
deleting, 7-6
using the analyzer
interface, 1-2
making a measurement, 1-2
V
voltage markers, 7-10
voltage resolution, 2-2
W
waveform
adding oscilloscope to timing, 8-13
scrolling, 2-9
zooming, 2-9
"While storing no state", 4-5
X
X-Marker, 7-8
Z
zooming
timing waveform, 2-9
© Copyright HewlettPackard Company 1992-1997
All Rights Reserved.
Reproduction, adaptation, or
translation without prior
written permission is
prohibited, except as allowed
under the copyright laws.
Document Warranty
The information contained in
this document is subject to
change without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes
no warranty of any kind
with regard to this
material, including, but
not limited to, the implied
warranties of
merchantability or fitness
for a particular purpose.
Hewlett-Packard shall not be
liable for errors contained
herein or for damages in
connection with the
furnishing, performance, or
use of this material.
Safety
This apparatus has been
designed and tested in
accordance with IEC
Publication 348, Safety
Requirements for Measuring
Apparatus, and has been
supplied in a safe condition.
This is a Safety Class I
instrument (provided with
terminal for protective
earthing). Before applying
power, verify that the correct
safety precautions are taken
(see the following warnings).
In addition, note the external
markings on the instrument
that are described under
"Safety Symbols."
Warning
• Before turning on the
instrument, you must connect
the protective earth terminal
of the instrument to the
protective conductor of the
(mains) power cord. The
mains plug shall only be
inserted in a socket outlet
provided with a protective
earth contact. You must not
negate the protective action
by using an extension cord
(power cable) without a
protective conductor
(grounding). Grounding one
conductor of a two-conductor
outlet is not sufficient
protection.
• Only fuses with the
required rated current,
voltage, and specified type
(normal blow, time delay,
etc.) should be used. Do not
use repaired fuses or
short-circuited fuseholders.
To do so could cause a shock
of fire hazard.
Hewlett-Packard
P.O. Box 2197
1900 Garden of the Gods Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80901
• Service instructions are for
trained service personnel. To
avoid dangerous electric
shock, do not perform any
service unless qualified to do
so. Do not attempt internal
service or adjustment unless
another person, capable of
rendering first aid and
resuscitation, is present.
• If you energize this
instrument by an auto
transformer (for voltage
reduction), make sure the
common terminal is
connected to the earth
terminal of the power source.
• Whenever it is likely that
the ground protection is
impaired, you must make the
instrument inoperative and
secure it against any
unintended operation.
• Do not operate the
instrument in the presence of
flammable gasses or fumes.
Operation of any electrical
instrument in such an
environment constitutes a
definite safety hazard.
• Do not install substitute
parts or perform any
unauthorized modification to
the instrument.
• Capacitors inside the
instrument may retain a
charge even if the instrument
is disconnected from its
source of supply.
• Use caution when exposing
or handling the CRT.
Handling or replacing the
CRT shall be done only by
qualified maintenance
personnel.
Safety Symbols
Instruction manual symbol:
the product is marked with
this symbol when it is
necessary for you to refer to
the instruction manual in
order to protect against
damage to the product.
Hazardous voltage symbol.
Earth terminal symbol: Used
to indicate a circuit common
connected to grounded
chassis.
WARNING
The Warning sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure, practice, or the
like, which, if not correctly
performed or adhered to,
could result in personal
injury. Do not proceed
beyond a Warning sign until
the indicated conditions are
fully understood and met.
CA UTIO N
The Caution sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to
an operating procedure,
practice, or the like, which, if
not correctly performed or
adhered to, could result in
damage to or destruction of
part or all of the product. Do
not proceed beyond a
Caution symbol until the
indicated conditions are fully
understood or met.
Product Warranty
This Hewlett-Packard
product has a warranty
against defects in material
and workmanship for a period
of one year from date of
shipment. During the
warranty period,
Hewlett-Packard Company
will, at its option, either
repair or replace products
that prove to be defective.
For warranty service or
repair, this product must be
returned to a service facility
designated by
Hewlett-Packard.
For products returned to
Hewlett-Packard for warranty
service, the Buyer shall
prepay shipping charges to
Hewlett-Packard and
Hewlett-Packard shall pay
shipping charges to return
the product to the Buyer.
However, the Buyer shall pay
all shipping charges, duties,
and taxes for products
returned to Hewlett-Packard
from another country.
Hewlett-Packard warrants
that its software and firmware
designated by
Hewlett-Packard for use with
an instrument will execute its
programming instructions
when properly installed on
that instrument.
Hewlett-Packard does not
warrant that the operation of
the instrument software, or
firmware will be
uninterrupted or error free.
Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall
not apply to defects resulting
from improper or inadequate
maintenance by the Buyer,
Buyer-supplied software or
interfacing, unauthorized
modification or misuse,
operation outside of the
environmental specifications
for the product, or improper
site preparation or
maintenance.
No other warranty is
expressed or implied.
Hewlett-Packard
specifically disclaims the
implied warranties of
merchantability or fitness
for a particular purpose.
About this edition
This is the first edition of the
HP E2433-60012 Training
Kit for HP 1660/70 Series
Logic Analyzers Training
Guide.
Exclusive Remedies
The remedies provided herein
are the buyer’s sole and
exclusive remedies.
Hewlett-Packard shall not be
liable for any direct, indirect,
special, incidental, or
consequential damages,
whether based on contract,
tort, or any other legal theory.
Publication number
E2433-97034
Printed in USA.
Edition dates are as follows:
First edition, November 1997
Assistance
Product maintenance
agreements and other
customer assistance
agreements are available for
Hewlett-Packard products.
For any assistance, contact
your nearest Hewlett-Packard
Sales Office.
Certification
Hewlett-Packard Company
certifies that this product met
its published specifications at
the time of shipment from the
factory. Hewlett-Packard
further certifies that its
calibration measurements are
traceable to the United States
National Institute of
Standards and Technology, to
the extent allowed by the
Institute’s calibration facility,
and to the calibration
facilities of other
International Standards
Organization members.
New editions are complete
revisions of the manual.
Update packages, which are
issued between editions,
contain additional and
replacement pages to be
merged into the manual by
you. The dates on the title
page change only when a new
edition is published.
A software or firmware code
may be printed before the
date. This code indicates the
version level of the software
or firmware of this product at
the time the manual or
update was issued. Many
product updates do not
require manual changes; and,
conversely, manual
corrections may be done
without accompanying
product changes. Therefore,
do not expect a one-to-one
correspondence between
product updates and manual
updates.
The following list of pages
gives the date of the current
edition and of any changed
pages to that edition.
All pages original edition
Download PDF

advertising