HP | Ultrium Tape Drive | User's Manual | HP Ultrium Tape Drive User's Manual

HP Ultrium tape drives
Technical reference manual
Generation 3 drives
Volume 5—Unix configuration guide
Part number: Q1538–90925 Volume 5
Edition 6.1, December 2004
<Bold Header>
Legal and notice information
© Copyright 2004—Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct,
indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this document.
This document contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. No part of this document may
be photocopied, reproduced or translated to another language without the prior written consent of Hewlett-Packard.
Revision history
Version
Date
Changes
Edition 6
September 2004
Generation 3 SCSI and FC drive version
Edition 6.1
December 2004
Reformatted and updated
This document is frequently revised and updated. To find out if there is a later version, please ask your HP OEM Representative.
<Bold Header>
The purpose of this manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documents specific to HP Ultrium drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General documents and standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8
1 Introduction
The Purpose of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Ultrium Drives in a Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Backup Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2 HP-UX Systems
HP Servers and Workstations—HP-UX 11.x
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the SCSI ID . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating the Device Files . . . . . . . . . .
What Next? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 HP Alpha UNIX
HP Alpha UNIX 5.x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
What Next? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4 IBM (AIX)
Determining the SCSI ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Configuring the Device Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5 Linux
Determining the SCSI ID (Linux) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring on Linux Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Seek and Tell Features of mt . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Next? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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23
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25
6 Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10
Determining the SCSI ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Configuring the Device Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
HP-Data Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Contents
3
Contents
Contents
7 Verifying the Installation
Verifying the Installation of the Drive (UNIX). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
To verify the installation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4
Contents
The purpose of this manual
This is one of six volumes that document HP Ultrium drives. This volume provides background
information for driver and application developers. The following products are covered.
Capacities are when the drive is using data compression with a compression ratio of 2:1,
where applicable:
• HP Ultrium Generation 3 Full-Height SCSI Internal Drive
• HP Ultrium Generation 3 Full-Height FC Internal Drive
NOTE: Throughout this manual frequent reference is made to SCSI commands. For more
information on SCSI commands for HP Ultrium drives see volume 3, The SCSI Interface, of the
HP Ultrium Technical Reference Manual set. Ordering details are given below.
Related documents
The following documents provide additional information:
Documents specific to HP Ultrium drives
• Hardware Integration Guide, volume 1 of the HP Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• Software Integration Guide, volume 2 of the HP Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• The SCSI Interface, volume 3 of the HP Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• Specifications, volume 4 of the HP Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
• Background to Ultrium Drives, volume 6 of the HP Ultrium Technical Reference Manual
Please contact your HP supplier for copies.
• The features and benefits of HP Ultrium drives are discussed in the HP Ultrium Technology
White Paper.
• For a general background to LTO technology and licensing, go to http://www.ltotechnology.com.
Documentation map
The following will help you locate information in the 6-volume Technical Reference Manual:
The purpose of this manual
5
Drives—general
SCSI Drives
Connectors
Controller architecture
Front Panel LEDs
Mechanism and hardware
FC Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 7 1 HW Integration: ch. 4
6 Background: ch. 4
1 HW Integration: ch. 6 1 HW Integration: ch. 3
6 Background: ch. 3
Specifications
4 Specs
Installation and configuration
SCSI Drives
FC Drives
Connectors
1 HW Integration: ch. 7 1 HW Integration: ch. 4
Determining the configuration
2 SW Integration: ch. 2 2 SW Integration: ch. 2
External drives (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
In Libraries
n/a
1 HW Integration: ch. 1
In Servers (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
n/a
In Tape Arrays (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
n/a
Modes of Usage (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 8
n/a
Optimizing performance (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 8
n/a
2 SW Integration: ch. 4
UNIX configuration
5 UNIX Config
Operation
External drives (SCSI only)
In Libraries
SCSI Drives
FC Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
n/a
1 HW Integration: ch. 1
In Servers (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
n/a
In Tape Arrays (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
n/a
SCSI Drives
FC Drives
Cartridges
Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM)
Cartridges
6
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
6 HW Integration: ch. 5
1 HW Integration: ch. 9 1 HW Integration: ch. 5
SCSI Drives
FC Drives
Features
6 HW Integration: ch. 5
Managing the use of cartridges
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Use of cartridges
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
Interface
SCSI Drives
FC Drives
SCSI Guide
3 SCSI
Commands
3 SCSI: ch. 4
Error codes
1 HW Integration: ch. 10 1 HW Integration: ch. 6
Implementation
3 SCSI: ch. 1
Interpreting sense data
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
Messages
3 SCSI: ch. 2
Mode pages
—see the MODE SENSE command
3 SCSI: ch. 4
Pre-execution checks
3 SCSI: ch. 3
Responding to Sense Keys and ASC/Q
2 SW Integration: ch. 6
Sense Keys and ASC/Q
—see REQUEST SENSE command
3 SCSI: ch. 4
Maintenance and troubleshooting
SCSI Drives
Cleaning
External drives (SCSI only)
In Libraries
FC Drives
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
1 HW Integration: ch. 5
n/a
1 HW Integration: ch. 1
In Servers (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 4
n/a
In Tape Arrays (SCSI only)
1 HW Integration: ch. 3
n/a
Monitoring drive and tape condition
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
Software troubleshooting techniques
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Dealing with errors
SCSI Drives
Error Codes
FC Drives
1 HW Integration: ch. 10 1 HW Integration: ch. 6
Related documents
7
SCSI Drives
Handling errors
How error correction works
FC Drives
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
6 Background: ch. 4
Logs—see the LOG SENSE command
3 SCSI: ch. 4
Recovering from write and read errors
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
Software response to error correction
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
Software response to logs
2 SW Integration: ch. 3
TapeAlert log
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
Ultrium features
SCSI Drives
Adaptive Tape Speed (ATS)
FC Drives
6 Background: ch. 1
Autoload
1 HW Integration: ch. 2
Automation Control Interface (ACI)
1 HW Integration: ch. 2
Cartridge Memory (LTO-CM)
1 HW Integration: ch. 2
6 Background: ch. 1
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
6 HW Integration: ch. 5
Data Compression, how it works
Data Compression, managing
Design principles
OBDR and CD-ROM emulation
Performance optimization
6 Background: ch. 5
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
6 Background: ch. 1
6 Background: ch. 1
2 SW Integration: ch. 7
1 HW Integration: ch. 8
n/a
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Performance, factors affecting
2 SW Integration: ch. 4
Software design
2 SW Integration: ch. 1
Supporting Ultrium features
2 SW Integration: ch. 5
Ultrium Format
6 Background: ch. 2
General documents and standardization
• Small Computer System Interface (SCSI-1), ANSI X3.131-1986. This is the ANSI authorized
standard for SCSI implementation, available through ANSI
• Enhanced Small Computer System Interface (SCSI-2), ANSI X3T9.2-1993 Rev. 10L,
available through ANSI
8
Copies of General Documents can be obtained from:
ANSI 11 West 42nd Street
New York, NY 10036-8002
USA
ISO CP 56
CH-1211 Geneva 20
Switzerland
ECMA 114 Rue du Rhône
CH-1204 Geneva
Switzerland
Global Engineering Documents 2805 McGaw
Irvine, CA 92714
USA
Tel: +41 22 849 6000
Web URL: http://www.ecma.ch
Tel: 800 854 7179 or 714 261 1455
Related documents
9
10
1 Introduction
The Purpose of this Manual
This manual provides basic information on configuring the drives with various operating
systems.
Please see the top-level release notes that accompany the drive for expected functionality and
features.
Ultrium drives are supported on the following platforms:
• HP UNIX systems (HP-UX) (Chapter 2)
Introduction
• HP Alpha UNIX (Chapter 3)
• IBM (AIX) (Chapter 4)
• Linux (Chapter 5)
• Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10 (Chapter 6)
For platforms not mentioned here, please contact HP because there may be new connectivity
details available that arrived after the release notes were published.
See Chapter 7 for details of how to verify the installation.
Ultrium Drives in a Library
Ultrium drives may also be used in a library. However, instructions about installing device
drivers for automatic robotics are not included in this manual.
Backup Applications
For optimum performance it is important to use a backup application that supports the drive’s
features within your system’s configuration. Please see the “Getting Started Guide” for more
information about usage models.
The following applications are suitable for use within an enterprise environment and have been
tested with Ultrium drives. They use the operating system’s standard, built-in device drivers, as
The Purpose of this Manual
11
described in this manual. For further information about optimizing performance and making
full use of the drive’s functions, please contact the software manufacturer or HP
HP-UX
AIX
Sun, Solaris
Linux
Omniback1
yes
yes
yes
yes
Legato Networker
yes
yes
yes
yes
Veritas NetBackup
yes
yes
yes
yes2
HP
1. Cell Manager is only available on HP-UX or Windows
2. Redhat Server only (not Caldera, Suse, and so on)
12
Introduction
2 HP-UX Systems
HP Servers and Workstations—HP-UX 11.x
NOTE:
HP-UX 10.x is only supported by Generation 1 Ultrium drives.
Introduction
Before you install your tape drive log on to the HP web site, www.hp.com, and download the
latest hardware enablement patch bundle for your operating system. This ensures that you will
have the correct device driver for your tape drive.
Determining the SCSI ID
Before you configure your system to support your new HP Ultrium drive, you need to determine
what SCSI ID to use. The SCSI ID must be unique for each device attached to the SCSI bus. To
list the existing devices, use the following command:
% /sbin/ioscan -f
Class
I H/W Path
Driver
S/W State H/W Type Description
=================================================================================
bc
0
root
CLAIMED BUS_NEXUS
bc
1 8
bc
CLAIMED BUS_NEXUS Psudo Bus Converter
ba
0 8/0
GSCtoPCI
CLAIMED BUS_NEXUS GSCtoPCI Bridge
ext_bus
1 8/0/2/0
c720
CLAIMED INTERFACE SCSI C895 Ultra2 Wide LVD
target
0 8/0/2/0.7
tgt
CLAIMED DEVICE
ctl
1 8/0/2/0.7.0 sctl
CLAIMED DEVICE
Initiator
lan
0 8/0/20/0
btlan3
CLAIMED INTERFACE PCI(10110019) -- Built-in #1
ba
1 8/16
bus_adapter CLAIMED BUS_NEXUS Core I/O Adapter
tty
0 8/16/4
asio0
CLAIMED INTERFACE Built-in RS-232C
ext_bus
2 8/16/5
c720
CLAIMED INTERFACE Built-in SCSI
target
1 8/16/5.5
tgt
CLAIMED DEVICE
disk
0 8/16/5.5.0 sdisk
CLAIMED DEVICE
SEAGATE ST34573N
target
2 8/16/5.7
tgt
CLAIMED DEVICE
ctl
2 8/16/5.7.0 sctl
CLAIMED DEVICE
Initiator
processor 0 62
processor
CLAIMED PROCESSOR Processor
memory
0 63
memory
CLAIMED MEMORY
Memory
After you have installed the new tape drive, you can check that it has been attached
successfully. From a shell window (hpterm/xterm), execute ioscan to display the list of
attached devices.
HP Servers and Workstations—HP-UX 11.x
13
HP-UX Systems
The output of this should look similar to the following example:
For an HP Ultrium drive, execute the following:
% /sbin/ioscan -f | grep "Ultrium"
The new lines should look similar to the following, where the 4 in the I field represents the
instance of the SCSI tape driver, not the SCSI ID:
tape
4
2/0/1.5.0
stape
CLAIMED
DEVICE
HP
Ultrium 3-SCSI
NOTE: If you are installing the drive onto a Storage Area Network (SAN), the fibre channel/
SCSI bridge will also appear in the list of attached devices.
If you cannot find the Ultrium drive, this may be because the kernel does not contain the
correct driver. Use the System Administration Manager (sam) to add stape to the kernel:
To add stape to the kernel using sam:
1. % sam
2. Select the following:
Kernel Configuration
Drivers
3. Highlight the stape driver. If the driver has not been added to the kernel, both Current State
and Pending State will read “Out”.
4. Select the following:
Actions
Add Driver to Kernel
The Pending State will now read “In”.
5. To add the new driver to the kernel, select:
Actions
Create a New Kernel
6. The stape driver will now be added to the kernel and then the system will reboot.
Creating the Device Files
Once you have verified the tape drive connection, you will need to create the appropriate
device files for the drive. Normally, you would have rebooted your system after attaching the
tape drive, and this process runs insf. However, if you have not rebooted your system since
attaching the drive, you can create device files by one of two ways, either through the System
Administration Manager (sam), or by executing the mksf command.
To add device files using sam:
This is the recommended and simplest way to create device files.
14
HP-UX Systems
1. % sam
This will bring up the graphical user interface for the utility.
2. Select the following:
Peripheral Devices
Tape Drives
sam will then scan the system for any tape drives connected.
When an HP Ultrium Generation 3 drive is found, it will be displayed as:
Hardware Path
Driver
Description
===========================================================
8/0/2/0.3.0
stape
HP
Ultrium 3-SCSI
3. Highlight the Ultrium drive and select the following from the tool bar:
Actions
Create Device Files
Create Default Device Files
This will create default device files for the drive. To view the device files that have been
created, select:
Actions
Create Device Files
Show Device Files
where:
Device File
Description
<I>m
<I>mn
<I>mb
<I>mnb
HP-UX Systems
is the instance number of the drive:
<I>
AT&T encoding, rewind driver
AT&T encoding, non-rewind driver
Berkeley encoding, rewind driver
Berkeley encoding, rewind driver
is the card number,
is the target number,
is the LUN number:
<X>
<Y>
<Z>
cXtYbZBEST
cXtYbZBESTb
cXtYbZBESTn
cXtYbZBESTnb
Best
Best
Best
Best
compression
compression
compression
compression
driver,
driver,
driver,
driver,
AT&T encoding, with rewind
Berkeley encoding, with rewind
AT&T encoding, non-rewind
Berkeley encoding, non-rewind
4. When you have exited sam, run ioscan to see the tape drive:
%/sbin/ioscan -C tape -fn
HP Servers and Workstations—HP-UX 11.x
15
To create device files using mksf:
NOTE:
This method is not recommended.
1. Run insf as follows:
% /sbin/insf -C tape
2. Create the device files for the devices using the mksf command as follows:
% /sbin/mksf -d stape -I <instance> [-n] [-u] /dev/rmt/X<name>
where:
Argument
Description
-d stape
Specifies the SCSI tape driver
-I <instance>
Specifies the tape drive’s hardware address via the instance of the SCSI tape
driver. The first instance is 0, the second 1, and so on.
[-n]
Specifies no rewind; absence of this parameter indicates rewind mode
[-u]
Specifies Berkeley mode; absence of this parameter indicates AT&T mode.
Berkeley and AT&T modes differ in their read-only close behavior:
In Berkeley mode, the tape position will remain unchanged by a device
close operation.
• In AT&T mode, a device close operation will cause the tape to be
repositioned just after the next tape filemark (the start of the next file).
In most cases, Berkeley mode should be used.
•
/dev/rmt/X<name> Specifies the path of the device file, where:
X
Specifies the tape device identifier. Use the next available
identifier. You can examine the contents of /dev/rmt using the
ls command to determine which identifiers have already been
used.
<name> Specifies the short name (in HP-UX 9.x-style) of the device file:
mnb No rewind, compression disabled, Berkeley-mode device
hnb No rewind, compression disabled, Berkeley-mode device
mnb No rewind, compression disabled, Berkeley-mode device
hnb No rewind, compression enabled, Berkeley-mode device
See the man page (man 1m mksf) for other options of the mksf command. The stape section
covers the SCSI tape driver options. The man page man 7 mt describes the long filenames used
in HP-UX 10.x and later.
Example:
To create a device file with the following characteristics:
16
HP-UX Systems
• A hardware address specified by instance 5 (-I 5)
• No rewind (-n)
• Berkeley mode tape positioning on close (-u)
• A filename of 4mnb, where 4 is the tape device identifier (/dev/rmt/4mnb)
You would execute the following:
% /sbin/mksf -d stape -I 4 -n -u /dev/rmt/4mnb
You can check that the appropriate device file was created using the lssf command as
follows:
% /sbin/lssf /dev/rmt/4mnb
This should produce the following output to show that the device file now exists:
stape card instance 0 SCSI target 6 SCSI LUN 0 berkeley no rewind
BEST density at address 2/0/1.6.0 /dev/rmt/4mnb
To create a device file for Ultrium in uncompressed mode, you should use a command such as:
mksf -H -a -b U_18
and for compressed mode (default):
mksf -H -a -b U_18C
The hardware path can be found from previous ioscan output.
What Next?
What Next?
HP-UX Systems
Once the device files have been created, you should confirm that your new tape drive is
working properly. Chapter 7, “Verifying the Installation” provides instructions on backing up
and restoring a sample file to test your installation.
17
18
HP-UX Systems
3 HP Alpha UNIX
HP Alpha UNIX 5.x
x
1. Add the following entry to your /dev/ddr.dbase file:
SCSIDEVICE
Type = tape
Name = “HP” “Ultrium”
#
PARAMETERS:
TypeSubClass
= lto
# Linear Tape Open
BlockSize
= 262144
TagQueueDepth
= 0
MaxTransferSize
= 0xffffff
# 16Mb - 1
ReadyTimeSeconds
= 120
# Seconds
SyncTransfers
= enabled
WideTransfers
= enabled
InquiryLength
= 0x20
DENSITY:
DensityNumber
= 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
OneFileMarkOnClose = yes
DensityCode
= 0x44
Blocking
= 0
CompressionCode
= 1
Buffered
= 1
Speed
= 0
ModeSelectNumber
= 0
SavePage
= No
PageFormat
= scsi2
BlockDescriptor
= yes
TransferLength
= 16
HP Alpha UNIX
MODESELECT:
Hdr.Tape.BufferMode = 0x1
Hdr.MediumType
= 0
HP Alpha UNIX 5.x
19
Data.UBYTE[0]
= 0x3D # Vendor Unique Page Code 3D
Data.UBYTE[1]
= 0x02
Data.UBYTE[2]
= 0x01
Data.UBYTE[3]
= 0x00
2. Rebuild the kernel by running /sbin/ddr_config, then reboot the system with the tape
drive attached. The device files for the Ultrium drive will be generated in /dev/tape and /
dev/ntape when you reboot.
3. The names of the device files can be interpreted as follows:
Devices in the /dev/ntape directory are “no-rewind” devices. Those in /dev/tape will do
a rewind on close.
The device files then have the syntax: tapeX_dn
For example, /dev/ntape/tape66_d1 is a device file for device 66, no-rewind using
density number 1. Since all density numbers have the same parameters it does not matter
which density number file is used.
What Next?
Once the device files have been created, you should confirm that your new tape drive is working
properly. Chapter 7, “Verifying the Installation” provides instructions on backing up and restoring
a sample file to test your installation.
20
HP Alpha UNIX
Determining the SCSI ID
Before you configure your system to support your Ultrium drive, you need to determine which
SCSI ID to use. IDs must be unique for each device attached to the SCSI bus. To list the existing
devices, use the following command:
% lsdev -C |grep SCSI
This will produce output that looks similar to:
scsi0 Available 00-00-0S Standard SCSI I/O Controller
hdisk0 Available 10-60-00-0,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
rmt1 Defined 00-00-0S-2,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive
The SCSI ID is in the series 00-00-0S-X,0, where X is the SCSI ID. Review the list of existing
SCSI IDs and choose an available ID to assign to the new tape drive.
Configuring the Device Files
To install an HP Ultrium drive on an IBM workstation you will need to create the appropriate
device files for the drive.
NOTE: Do not choose the smit option of “4mm2gb” as the Tape Device Type. This is reserved
for Connor drives. If you use it with HP drives, you will get the error “Device to be
configured does not match the physical device at the specified connection
location”.
To change to variable block mode, use the following procedure:
1. If you are using a graphics terminal running X-Windows, then at a Windows terminal, type:
smit tape
If you are using a non-graphics terminal, at the command line type:
% smit -C tape
2. If no device has been configured at this address before, select “add a tape drive” to set
up the address. From the pop-up window, select “ost” or “Other SCSI tape drive” as the
tape drive you wish to change and choose connection addresses as appropriate.
Determining the SCSI ID
21
IBM (AIX)
4 IBM (AIX)
3. Select from the window: “change/show characteristics of a tape drive”
4. From the pop-up window, select “ost” or “Other SCSI tape drive” as the tape drive you
wish to change. Do not choose “4mm2gb”.
5. Change the block size field to 0, and click on the “DO” button or press [Enter] to apply the
change.
HP Ultrium drives will work with tar, cpio, backup, restore and dd. For systems other than the
43P, the drive is also boot-capable, provided a boot tape is generated using mkszfile and
mksysb.
Once the device files have been created, you should confirm that your new tape drive is
working properly. Chapter 7, “Verifying the Installation” provides instructions on backing up
and restoring a sample file to test your installation.
Device Filenames under AIX
Use device filenames as listed below for the combination of Rewind on Close, Retension on
Open, and Compression that you want:
Filename
Rewind on Close
Retension on Open
Compression
/dev/rmtn
Yes
No
enabled
/dev/rmtn.1
No
No
enabled
/dev/rmtn.2
Yes
Yes
enabled
/dev/rmtn.3
No
Yes
enabled
/dev/rmtn.4
Yes
No
disabled
/dev/rmtn.5
No
No
disabled
/dev/rmtn.6
Yes
Yes
disabled
/dev/rmtn.7
No
Yes
disabled
The n in the filename is the instance number assigned to the drive by the operating system,
where 0 is the first device, 1 is the second and so on.
Rewind on Close
Normally, the drive repositions the tape to BOT (Beginning of Tape) when
the device file is closed. Using the no rewind option is useful when creating
and reading tapes that contain multiple files.
Retension on Open Retensioning consists of winding to EOT (End of Tape) and then rewinding
to BOT, in order to reduce errors. If this option is selected, the tape is
positioned at BOT as part of the open process.
Compression
22
IBM (AIX)
Compression can be disabled or enabled.
5 Linux
Determining the SCSI ID (Linux)
Look at the output of dmesg to find out what SCSI channel number is used for each connection.
To find out the SCSI IDs in use on each channel, type:
cat /proc/scsi/scsi
This will produce output similar to the following for each device:
Attached Devices
Host: SCSI0 Channel: 00 Id:00 Lun:00
Vendor: HP Model ------------
Linux
Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI Revision 02
Look at the ID information to establish which IDs are in use.
Configuring on Linux Systems
No changes are needed to support Ultrium on Linux platforms, however you should ensure that
you have the relevant drivers loaded.
To see the device drivers loaded currently, execute an lsmod command, this will give output
like:
Module
Size
Used by
sgm
4376
1
ide-scsi
7200
0
lockd
30792
1
sunrpc
53316
1
st
24656
0
sym53c8xx
52096
1
aic7xxx
136184
2
The lines of interest here are:
st
This is the tape driver. Its presence in the output of the lsmod command shows
that the tape driver is loaded.
Determining the SCSI ID (Linux)
23
sym53c8xx This is a SCSI chipset driver for the LSI Logic family of HBAs (amongst others).
aic7xxx
This is a SCSI chipset driver for the Adaptec 7xxx chipset family (such as
Adaptec 29160LP).
Latest SCSI controller drivers for Linux will be available from the manufacturer’s web site.
In order to communicate with a tape device, the operating system needs to have drivers for the
tape and the underlying transport mechanism (the host bus adaptor) loaded. Ensure that both
are available as either loadable modules (for example, usable with insmod and visible with
lsmod) or are statically built into your kernel.
NOTE: In order to add drivers to the statically built kernel you need the Linux source code
available on disk and knowledge of how to use the kernel building tools that ship with various
Linux distributions. This should not be attempted by novice users.
In order to determine if the drive has been detected by the tape driver at module load time,
execute:
dmesg | grep "st"
This should find a number of lines. One should look like:
Detected SCSI tape st0 at scsi1, channel 0, id 5, lun 0
To load the tape driver module if it is not loaded as above, execute:
insmod st
to load it. This should happen naturally if your system is rebooted after attaching the drive.
When the ST driver module has been added, a list of tape device files will be created
automatically. They reside in the /dev/ directory and have the syntax:
/dev/stp or dev/nstp
where:
p
is the instance number of the device file. (If only one drive is connected to the system, this will
be 0.)
n
indicates that this is a no-rewind driver.
In order to enable large transfers under Linux (>64 KB per write), edit the file
/usr/src/linux/drivers/scsi/st_options.h and change the definition of
ST_BUFFER_BLOCKS.
24
Linux
If you want requests to space to end of data to be faster, you should also enable
ST_FAST_MTEOM in the same file. After changing this file, rebuild the modules and install the
new binary. At the very least, this requires:
make modules
make modules_install
from the /usr/src/linux directory. See your kernel documentation.
Using the Seek and Tell Features of mt
In order to use the seek and tell features of mt, you must tell the st driver that HP Ultrium drives
use logical block addressing.
You can do this by using the command:
mt -f <device file> stsetoptions scsi2logical
where /dev/stp is the device file.
Linux
Note however that this information is not preserved across reboots, so you need to execute this
command each time the system comes up. The stinit utility offers a convenient way of
handling this; see the relevant man page for more information. If you use this approach, set the
manufacturer parameter to HP and the model to “Ultrium 3-SCSI”.
What Next?
Once the device files have been created, you should confirm that your new tape drive is
working properly. Chapter 7, “Verifying the Installation” provides instructions on backing up
and restoring a sample file to test your installation.
What Next?
25
26
Linux
6 Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10
Determining the SCSI ID
Before you configure your system to support an HP Ultrium drive, you need to determine which
SCSI ID to use. IDs must be unique for each device on attached to the SCSI bus.
1. Use the modinfo command to identify SCSI controller drivers installed on the system:
% modinfo | grep "HBA Driver"
This will produce output similar to the following:
106 780a0000
102b3
50
1
glm (GLM SCSI HBA Driver)
110 780b4000
1272c
228
1
qus (isp10160 HBA Driver)
For the adapter to which the new tape drive is attached, you will need to determine what
SCSI IDs are already used.
Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10
2. Determine the SCSI IDs of the existing devices attached to the SCSI controller:
For all adapters:
% dmesg | egrep ".*xxx.*target" | sort | uniq
where xxx = the type of adapter (esp, glm, fas, qus or isp), as appropriate.
For example, for an ESP-based adapter:
% dmesg | egrep ".*esp.*target" | sort | uniq
This produces a list similar to:
sd0 at esp0: target 0 lun 0 sd6 at esp0: target 6 lun 0
This indicates that SCSI IDs 0 and 6 are used for existing devices. SCSI ID 7 is generally
used for the adapter itself. In this situation, you would use a SCSI ID from 1 to 5 for the new
tape drive.
Determining the SCSI ID
27
Configuring the Device Files
Determine the device file by typing:
% ls -l /dev/rmt/*m | grep "st@X"
where X is the SCSI ID. Identify the line for the tape drive. For example, if the drive was at SCSI
ID 2, look for the line containing “st@2,0”. This might be as follows (but on a single line):
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 63 Mar 1 00:00 /dev/rmt/0m
../../devices/sbus@1f,0/espdma@e,8400000/esp@e, 8800000/st@2,0:m
Here you could use /dev/rmt/0m (shown underlined above) as the device file.
Only if necessary, make the following file modifications to enhance performance:
1. In the file /kernel/drv/st.conf, after these lines:
########
# Copyright (c) 1992, by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
#ident
"@(#)st.conf
1.6
93/05/03 SMI"
add the following depending on which version of operating system you are installing (there
are 6 significant spaces between HP and Ultrium in line 2):
for Solaris 8 without st patch:
tape-config-list =
"HP
Ultrium 3","HP Ultrium LTO 3","HP_LTO_GEN_3";
HP_LTO_GEN_3
= 1,0x36,0,0xd639,4,0x44,0x44,0x44,0x44,3;
name="st" class="scsi"
target=X lun=0;
where X is the SCSI target address of the device you have attached.
for Solaris 9 and 10 (and 8 with st patch):
tape-config-list =
"HP
Ultrium 3","HP Ultrium LTO 3","HP_LTO_GEN_3";
HP_LTO_GEN_3 = 2,0x3B,0,0x18659,4,0x44,0x44,0x44,0x44,3,60,1200,
600,1200,600,600,18000;
name="st" class="scsi"
target=X lun=0;
where X is the SCSI target address of the device you have attached.
See “HP-Data Values” on page 29 below for the values of the parameters in these lines.
28
Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10
2. If you are replacing an existing tape device on the same SCSI ID, remove the contents of
the /dev/rmt directory as follows:
% cd /dev/rmt
% rm *
3. Do a reconfigure boot:
% cd /
% touch
/reconfigure
% sync;halt
4. When the system is down, reboot:
% boot -r
Make sure you include the -r switch, so that the device directory is reconfigured using the
new data.
5. You should now be able to use the drive.
— Use /dev/rmt/Xcb if you require a compression rewind device file, where X is the relevant
device address.
Once the device files have been created, you should confirm that your new tape drive is
working properly. Chapter 7, “Verifying the Installation” provides instructions on backing up
and restoring a sample file to test your installation.
HP-Data Values
The values for HP_LTO_GEN_n and name, which provide normal LTO mode, have the following
meanings:
The syntax for HP_LTO_GEN_n on Solaris 9 is:
<drive type> = <version>, <type>, <bsize>, <options>,
<no. of densities>, <density 0>, <density 1>,
<density 2>,<density 3>, <default density>,
<non-motion timeout>, <read/write timeout>,
<rewind timeout>, <space timeout>, <load timeout>,
<unload timeout>, <erase timeout>
where:
Parameter
Value
Meaning
<version>
1 or 2
Indicates the format of the following parameters.
<type>
0x36 or
0x3B
The value for an Ultrium drive in /usr/include/sys/mtio.h. For
Solaris 8, 0x36 indicates a type of MT_ISOTHER. Later versions of
Solaris support the value 0x3B which indicates a type of MT_LTO.
HP-Data Values
29
Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10
— Use /dev/rmt/Xcbn when you require a compression non-rewind device.
Parameter
Value
<bsize>
0
<options>
Meaning
Indicates variable block size.
0xd639 or This value is derived from constants provided in /usr/include/sys/
0x18659 scsi/targets/stdef.h. The value determines which operations the
driver can perform with the attached device by using a unique value for
each feature and then adding them together to form the options value.
Supported features will vary with OS revision, and may include the
following:
0x001
Device supports variable length records.
0x008
Device can backspace over files (as in the ‘mt bsf’ option).
0x010
Device supports backspace record (as in ‘mt bsr’).
0x020
Device requires a long time-out period for erase functions.
0x040
Device will automatically determine the tape density.
0x0200 Device knows when end of data has been reached.
0x0400 Device driver is unloadable.
0x1000 Time-outs five times longer than normal.
0x4000 Driver buffers write requests and pre-acknowledges success
to application.
0x8000 Variable record size not limited to 64 KB.
0x10000 Device determines which of the two mode pages the device
supports for selecting or deselecting compression.
So 0xd639 indicates variable record length, bsf and bsr enabled, long
timeouts for erase, EOD recognition, Unloadable device driver, 5 x
longer timeouts, buffer writes and pre-acknowledge sucess, variable
records not limited to 64 KB, auto-density over-ride and MODE SELECT
compression.
There are four densities following in the parameter list.
<no. of
densities>
4
<density n>
0x00
<density 3>
0x40,
0x42 or
0x44
<default
density>
3
Creates a device file with compression disabled.
The density code for data compression enabled by default.
Density 3 (0x44) is the default for Generation 3 drives.
All timeouts are in seconds
<X timeout>
Values for the parameters for name are as follows:
30
Parameter
Value
target
X
X specifies the SCSI ID (target) of the device.
lun
0
Specifies the LUN for the device.
Sun Systems, Solaris 8, 9, 10
Meaning
7 Verifying the Installation
Verifying the Installation of the Drive (UNIX)
As part of the installation process, you will have installed the appropriate device driver for your
UNIX system, and created device files to communicate with the tape drive.
This section describes how you can verify that the installation has been performed correctly.
In outline, the procedure is as follows:
1. Check the tape drive responds to a rewind command.
2. Write test data to a tape.
3. Read the test data from the tape.
4. Compare the data read from the tape with the original data on disk.
To verify the installation:
1. Test the SCSI connection to the tape drive by doing a rewind operation:
a. If there is a tape cartridge already in the drive, remove it.
b. Insert a tape cartridge.
c. Rewind the tape using the command line:
% mt -f <device file> rewind
For example, on HP-UX:
% mt -f /dev/rmt/0mnb rewind
If the command completes successfully, there will be no feedback. If it fails, you will see an
error message on the console. The hardware installation may be faulty. Check the
troubleshooting section of the User’s Guide for help in identifying the problem.
Verifying the Installation
2. Write a sample file to tape, using ‘tar’:
% cd /
% tar cvf <device file> <file>
The options to tar have the following meanings:
c
Create a new archive (backup file) on the device.
v
Operate in verbose mode.
Verifying the Installation of the Drive (UNIX)
31
Specify the device file explicitly.
f
The arguments follow the cvf options in the command line. Their values depend on the
operating system; suggested values are given the appropriate operating system
chapter.The arguments are as follows:
<device file>
The name of the device file for the drive.
Example: /dev/rmt/0m
<file>
The name of the file to archive, prefixed with ‘./’.
Example: ./stand/vmunix
NOTE: Make sure you prefix the file name with ‘.’ when you back it up to tape. If you do not,
the restore operation in step 3 will overwrite the original copy on disk.
3. Read the file back from tape:
% cd /tmp
% tar xvf <device file>
The ‘x’ option to tar here means “extract from the archive”.
Use the same value for the <device file> argument as in step 2.
4. Compare the original with this retrieved file:
% cmp <original file> /tmp/<retrieved file>
This step compares the retrieved file and the original file byte by byte. If they are the same,
there should be no output, and this verifies that the installation is correct. The arguments are
as follows:
<original file>
The name of the original file, prefixed with ‘/’.
Example: /stand/vmunix
<retrieved file>
The name of the file retrieved from the archive.
Example: stand/vmunix
Example:
Suppose you are verifying the installation of an HP Ultrium tape drive on an HP-UX 11.X
system. The procedure would be as follows.:
1. Change directory to root:
% cd /
2. Back up /stand/vmunix to tape:
% tar cvf /dev/rmt/0m ./stand/vmunix
Note the prefix of ‘.’ to the filename.
32
Verifying the Installation
3. Change to the temporary directory:
% cd /tmp
4. Extract the file from the tape:
% tar xvf /dev/rmt/0m
5. Compare the original with the restored version:
% cmp /stand/vmunix /tmp/stand/vmunix
Verifying the Installation
Note that the original filename is not prefixed with ‘.’.
Verifying the Installation of the Drive (UNIX)
33
34
Verifying the Installation
AT&T mode
Berkeley and AT&T functional modes differ in “read-only” close functionality. In
AT&T mode, a device close operation will cause the tape to be repositioned just
after next filemark on the tape (the start of the next file).
Berkeley mode
Berkeley and AT&T functional modes differ in “read-only” close functionality. In
Berkeley mode the tape position will remain unchanged by a device close
operation.
BOT
Beginning Of Tape. The first point on the tape that can be accessed by the drive.
buffered mode
A mode of data transfer in write operations that facilitates tape streaming. It is
selected by setting the Buffered Mode Field to 1 in the SCSI MODE SELECT
Parameter List header.
compression
A procedure in which data is transformed by the removal of redundant information
in order to reduce the number of bits required to represent the data. This is
basically done by representing strings of bytes with codewords.
In Ultrium drives, the data is compressed using the LTO-DC compression format
which is based on ALDC (licensed from Stac/IBM) with two enhancements. One
limits the increase in size of data that cannot be compressed that ALDC produces.
The other is the use of embedded codewords.
data transfer phase On a SCSI bus, devices put in requests to be able to transfer information. Once a
device is granted its request, it and the target to which it wants to send information
can transfer the data using one of three protocols (assuming both devices support
them): asynchronous, synchronous, and wide.
In asynchronous transfers, the target controls the flow of data. The initiator can only
send data when the target has acknowledged receipt of the previous packet. All
SCSI devices must support asynchronous transfer.
In synchronous data transfer, the initiator and target work in synchronization,
allowing transmission of a packet of data to start before acknowledgment of the
previous transmission.
In wide (16-bit) data transfer, two bytes are transferred at the same time instead of
a single byte.
HP Ultrium drives support asynchronous, synchronous and narrow (8-bit) wide
transfers.
35
Glossary
Glossary
fibre channel
Fibre Channel provides an inexpensive yet expendable means of quickly
transferring data between workstations, mainframes, supercomputers, desktop
computers, storage devices, displays and other peripherals. Although it is called
Fibre Channel, its architecture represents neither a channel nor a real network
topology. It allows for an active intelligent interconnection scheme, called a fabric,
to connect devices. All a Fibre Channel port has to do is to manage a simple
point-to-point connection between itself and the fabric.
Several common ULPs (Upper Level Protocols) including IP and SCSI can run on
Fibre Channel, merging high-speed I/O and network functionality in a single
connectivity technology.
filemark
A mark written by the host to the tape that can be searched for, often using the
drive’s fast-search capability. It does not necessarily separate files. It is up to the
host to assign a meaning to the mark.
immediate mode
A mode of responding to SCSI commands where the drive or other peripheral
does not wait until the command has finished before returning status information
back to the host. For writing filemarks, Immediate mode can significantly improve
the performance of systems that do not set the Immediate bit when sending a SCSI
WRITE FILEMARKS command. On the other hand, data is not flushed to tape in
response to a filemark command.
infinite flush
By default, the buffer in the drive is flushed every 5 seconds. Infinite flush avoids
frequent starting and stopping of the mechanism when using a very slow
application. It also avoids losing capacity through the flushing of partly written
groups. On the other hand, infinite flush means that data can remain in the buffer
for very long periods of time, and could be lost in the event of a power failure.
LUN
Logical Unit Number. A unique number by which a device is identified on the SCSI
bus. A tape drive has a fixed LUN of 0. In an autoloader, the changer mechanism
is LUN1.
SAN
Storage Area Network. A dedicated, high-speed network that establishes a direct
connection between storage elements and servers. The hardware that connects
workstations and servers to storage devices in a SAN is referred to as a fabric. The
SAN fabric enables any-server-to-any-storage device connectivity through the use
of Fibre Channel switching technology.
SCSI
Small Computer System Interface—a standard command specification and
command set that enables computers and peripherals to communicate with each
other. HP’s Ultrium drives adhere to the SCSI-3 specification and support all
features required by that standard.
36
Glossary
Single-Ended and Low Voltage Differential SCSI
These terms define how the signals are transmitted along the cable.
With single-ended (SE) SCSI, each signal travels over a single wire and each
signal’s value is determined by comparing the signal to a paired ground wire.
Signal quality tends to decrease over longer cable lengths or at increased signal
speed.
With low voltage differential (LVD) signaling, signals travel along two wires and
the difference in voltage between the wire pairs determines the signal value. This
enables faster data rates and longer cabling with less susceptibility to noise than
SE signaling and reduced power consumption.
Narrow and Wide, Fast, Ultra and Ultra2 SCSI
Wide SCSI devices can transfer two bytes of data simultaneously (“16-bit SCSI”).
They usually have a single, 68-pin connection to the SCSI bus. (This physical
arrangement is part of the SCSI-3 specification.) They may support either SCSI-2 or
SCSI-3 protocols. Wide and narrow devices can simultaneously be connected to
the same bus without problem, provided certain rules are followed.
Fast SCSI can transfer data at up to 10 MB/sec, using a cable of up to 6 meters
total length.
Ultra SCSI can transfer data at up to 20 MB/sec, but the cable length cannot
exceed 3 meters (it is also known as “Fast20”).
Ultra2 SCSI can transfer data at up to 80 MB/sec, using a cable of up to 12
meters.
Ultra160 SCSI can transfer data at up to 160 MB/sec, using a cable of up to 12
meters.
Ultra320 SCSI can transfer data at up to 320 MB/sec, using a cable of up to 12
meters.
Ultra SCSI supports both SE and LVD interfaces. Although Ultra2 SCSI and above
can support SE devices, this is not recommended as the whole bus is slowed to
Ultra speeds; instead, use LVD devices only.
HP’s Ultrium drives are Ultra-320 compatible devices. They should be used only on
LVD host bus adapters for maximum performance.
37
Glossary
Narrow SCSI devices can transfer data one byte at-a-time (and are sometimes
called “8-bit SCSI” devices). They can conform to either the SCSI-2 or SCSI-3
protocols. They have a 50-pin connection to the SCSI bus.
sequential access
38
Glossary
Sequential access devices store data sequentially in the order in which it is
received. Tape devices are the most common sequential access devices. Devices
such as disk drives are direct access devices, where data is stored in blocks, not
necessarily sequentially. Direct access allows for speed of retrieval, but is
significantly more costly.
A
I
AIX 21
ANSI 5
asynchronous data transfer
35
AT&T mode 35
IBM (AIX) 21
determining SCSI ID 21
device files 21
immediate mode 36
infinite flush 36
installation, verifying 31
B
Berkeley mode 35
BOT 35
buffered mode 35
L
C
Linux 23
determining SCSI ID 23
LUN 36
LVD SCSI 37
compression 35
confirming installation 31
M
D
data transfer 35
device files
AIX 22
HP-UX 14
IBM (AIX) 21
Sun workstations 28
direct access 38
documents, related 5
F
fast SCSI 37
fibre channel 36
filemarks 36
filenames under AIX 22
H
HP Alpha 19
HP-UX systems 13
determining SCSI-ID 13
device files 14
synchronous data transfer
35
systems
HP-UX 13
Linux 23
U
ultra SCSI 37
V
verifying installation 31
W
wide data transfer 35
wide SCSI 37
mode
AT&T 35
Berkeley 35
immediate 36
N
narrow SCSI 37
P
PC-based UNIX - Linux 23
S
SCSI 5, 36
SCSI ID, determining
HP-UX 13
IBM (AIX) 21
Linux 23
Sun workstations 27
sequential access 38
single-ended SCSI 37
Sun workstations
data values 29
determining SCSI ID 27
device files 28
Index
39
Index
Index
40
Index
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