HP | Waterskis E1312A | User's Manual | HP Waterskis E1312A User's Manual

Contents
HP E1312A/E1412A User’s Manual and SCPI Programming Guide
Edition 4
Warranty ....................................................................................................................... 9
Safety Symbols ........................................................................................................... 10
WARNINGS ............................................................................................................... 10
HP E1312A Declaration of Conformity ..................................................................... 11
HP E1412A Declaration of Conformity ..................................................................... 12
Reader Comment Sheet .............................................................................................. 13
Chapter 1
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup ......................................... 15
Using This Chapter ..................................................................................................... 15
General Information ............................................................................................ 15
Setting the Module Address Switch............................................................................ 16
Interrupt Priority ......................................................................................................... 17
Setting the Line Frequency Reference........................................................................ 17
Checking the Line Frequency Reference ............................................................ 17
Multimeter Functional Connections .................................................................... 19
Initial Operation .......................................................................................................... 22
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information ..................................... 25
Using This Chapter .................................................................................................... 25
Measurement Tutorial................................................................................................. 25
DC Voltage Measurements ......................................................................................... 25
Thermal EMF Errors ........................................................................................... 25
Loading Errors (dc volts) .................................................................................... 26
Leakage Current Errors ....................................................................................... 26
Rejecting Power Line Noise Voltages ................................................................ 27
Common Mode Rejection (CMR) ....................................................................... 27
Noise Caused by Magnetic Loops ....................................................................... 28
Noise Caused by Ground Loops .......................................................................... 28
Resistance Measurements ........................................................................................... 29
4-Wire Ohms Measurements ............................................................................... 29
Removing Field Wiring Resistance Errors in 2-Wire Ohms Measurements ...... 30
Power Dissipation Effects ................................................................................... 31
Settling Time Effects ........................................................................................... 31
Errors in High Resistance Measurements ........................................................... 31
Making High-Speed DC and Resistance Measurements ..................................... 31
DC Current Measurement Errors ................................................................................ 32
True RMS AC Measurements..................................................................................... 32
Crest Factor Errors (non-sinusoidal inputs) ........................................................ 33
Loading Errors (ac volts) ..................................................................................... 34
AC Measurements Below Full Scale .................................................................. 34
Function and Range Change Internal Offset Correction ..................................... 34
Low-Level Measurement Errors ......................................................................... 35
AC Turnover Errors ............................................................................................ 35
AC Current Measurement Errors ................................................................................ 36
Making High-Speed AC Voltage or Current Measurements...................................... 36
Contents
1
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information (continued)
Frequency and Period Measurement Errors................................................................ 36
Measurement Configuration ....................................................................................... 37
AC Signal Filter .................................................................................................. 37
DC Input Resistance ............................................................................................ 37
Resolution ............................................................................................................ 38
Integration Time .................................................................................................. 39
Autozero .............................................................................................................. 40
Ranging ............................................................................................................... 40
Math Operations (CALCulate Subsystem) ................................................................. 41
AVERage Function ............................................................................................. 41
NULL (Relative) Function .................................................................................. 41
dB Measurements ................................................................................................ 42
dBm Measurements ............................................................................................. 43
LIMit Function .................................................................................................... 44
Triggering the Multimeter .......................................................................................... 45
The Trigger Source .............................................................................................. 46
External Triggering ............................................................................................. 47
Internal Triggering .............................................................................................. 47
Bus Triggering ..................................................................................................... 48
The Wait-for-Trigger State .................................................................................. 48
The Trigger Count ............................................................................................... 48
Checking the Trigger Count ................................................................................ 49
Inserting a Trigger Delay .................................................................................... 49
Default Delays ..................................................................................................... 50
Querying the Delay Time .................................................................................... 51
The Sample Count ............................................................................................... 51
Checking the Sample Count ................................................................................ 51
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Application Examples .............................. 52
HP VTL Software (VISA) ................................................................................... 52
Example Programs .............................................................................................. 52
Making Multimeter Measurements ..................................................................... 53
Synchronizing the Multimeter With a Switch Module ....................................... 57
Multimeter Status System Examples ................................................................... 60
HP VEE Programming Example ......................................................................... 64
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference ............................................................................... 67
Using This Chapter ..................................................................................................... 67
Command Types ......................................................................................................... 67
Common Command Format ................................................................................ 67
SCPI Command Format ...................................................................................... 67
Linking Commands ............................................................................................. 69
Multimeter Range and Resolution Tables .................................................................. 70
SCPI Command Reference ......................................................................................... 71
ABORt ........................................................................................................................ 72
2
Contents
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference (continued)
CALCulate .................................................................................................................. 73
:AVERage:AVERage? ........................................................................................ 74
:AVERage:COUNt? ............................................................................................ 74
:AVERage:MAXimum? ...................................................................................... 74
:AVERage:MINimum? ....................................................................................... 74
:DB:REFerence ................................................................................................... 75
:DB:REFerence? .................................................................................................. 75
:DBM:REFerence ................................................................................................ 75
:DBM:REFerence? .............................................................................................. 75
:FUNCtion ........................................................................................................... 76
:FUNCtion? ......................................................................................................... 76
:LIMit:LOWer ..................................................................................................... 77
:LIMit:LOWer? ................................................................................................... 77
:LIMit:UPPer ....................................................................................................... 77
:LIMit:UPPer? ..................................................................................................... 77
:NULL:OFFSet .................................................................................................... 78
:NULL:OFFSet? .................................................................................................. 78
:STATe ................................................................................................................ 78
:STATe? .............................................................................................................. 78
CALibration ................................................................................................................ 79
:COUNt? .............................................................................................................. 79
:LFRequency ....................................................................................................... 79
:LFRequency? ..................................................................................................... 80
:SECure:CODE ................................................................................................... 80
:SECure:STATe .................................................................................................. 81
:SECure:STATe? ................................................................................................. 81
:STRing ............................................................................................................... 81
:STRing? .............................................................................................................. 82
:VALue ................................................................................................................ 82
:VALue? .............................................................................................................. 82
:ZERO:AUTO ..................................................................................................... 83
:ZERO:AUTO? ................................................................................................... 83
CALibration? .............................................................................................................. 84
CONFigure.................................................................................................................. 85
:CURRent:AC ..................................................................................................... 87
:CURRent[:DC] ................................................................................................... 88
:FREQuency ........................................................................................................ 89
:FRESistance ....................................................................................................... 90
:PERiod ............................................................................................................... 91
:RESistance ......................................................................................................... 92
:VOLTage:AC ..................................................................................................... 93
[:VOLTage[:DC]] ................................................................................................ 94
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio ................................................................................... 95
CONFigure?................................................................................................................ 96
DATA ......................................................................................................................... 97
:POINts? .............................................................................................................. 97
Contents
3
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference (continued)
FETCh? ....................................................................................................................... 98
INITiate....................................................................................................................... 99
[:IMMediate] ....................................................................................................... 99
INPut......................................................................................................................... 100
:IMPedance:AUTO ........................................................................................... 100
:IMPedance:AUTO? .......................................................................................... 100
MEASure .................................................................................................................. 101
:CURRent:AC? .................................................................................................. 102
:CURRent[:DC]? ............................................................................................... 103
:FREQuency? .................................................................................................... 104
:FRESistance? ................................................................................................... 105
:PERiod? ............................................................................................................ 106
:RESistance? ...................................................................................................... 107
:VOLTage:AC? ................................................................................................. 108
[:VOLTage[:DC]]? ............................................................................................ 109
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio? ................................................................................ 110
OUTPut..................................................................................................................... 111
:TTLTrg[:STATe] ............................................................................................. 111
:TTLTrg[:STATe]? ........................................................................................... 112
READ?...................................................................................................................... 113
SAMPle..................................................................................................................... 114
:COUNt ............................................................................................................. 114
:COUNt? ............................................................................................................ 115
[SENSe:] ................................................................................................................... 116
FUNCtion .......................................................................................................... 118
FUNCtion? ........................................................................................................ 118
CURRent:AC:RANGe ...................................................................................... 119
CURRent:AC:RANGe? .................................................................................... 119
CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO .......................................................................... 120
CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO? ........................................................................ 120
CURRent:AC:RESolution ................................................................................. 121
CURRent:AC:RESolution? ............................................................................... 121
CURRent[:DC]:APERture ................................................................................ 122
CURRent[:DC]:APERture? .............................................................................. 122
CURRent[:DC]:NPLC ...................................................................................... 123
CURRent[:DC]:NPLC? ..................................................................................... 123
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe .................................................................................... 124
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe? .................................................................................. 124
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO ....................................................................... 125
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO? ...................................................................... 125
CURRent[:DC]:RESolution .............................................................................. 126
CURRent[:DC]:RESolution? ............................................................................ 126
DETector:BANDwidth ...................................................................................... 127
DETector:BANDwidth? .................................................................................... 128
FREQuency:APERture ...................................................................................... 128
FREQuency:APERture? .................................................................................... 128
4
Contents
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference (continued)
[SENSe:] (continued)
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe ........................................................................ 129
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe? ...................................................................... 129
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO ........................................................... 130
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO? .......................................................... 130
FRESistance:APERture ..................................................................................... 131
FRESistance:APERture? ................................................................................... 131
FRESistance:NPLC ........................................................................................... 132
FRESistance:NPLC? ......................................................................................... 132
FRESistance:RANGe ........................................................................................ 133
FRESistance:RANGe? ...................................................................................... 133
FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO ............................................................................ 134
FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO? .......................................................................... 134
FRESistance:RESolution .................................................................................. 135
FRESistance:RESolution? ................................................................................. 135
PERiod:APERture ............................................................................................. 136
PERiod:APERture? ........................................................................................... 136
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe ............................................................................... 137
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe? ............................................................................. 137
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO ................................................................... 138
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO? ................................................................. 138
RESistance:APERture ....................................................................................... 139
RESistance:APERture? ..................................................................................... 139
RESistance:NPLC ............................................................................................. 140
RESistance:NPLC? ........................................................................................... 140
RESistance:RANGe .......................................................................................... 141
RESistance:RANGe? ........................................................................................ 141
RESistance:RANGe:AUTO .............................................................................. 142
RESistance:RANGe:AUTO? ............................................................................ 142
RESistance:RESolution ..................................................................................... 143
RESistance:RESolution? ................................................................................... 143
VOLTage:AC:RANGe ...................................................................................... 144
VOLTage:AC:RANGe? .................................................................................... 144
VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO .......................................................................... 145
VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO? ........................................................................ 145
VOLTage:AC:RESolution ................................................................................ 146
VOLTage:AC:RESolution? .............................................................................. 146
VOLTage[:DC]:APERture ................................................................................ 147
VOLTage[:DC]:APERture? .............................................................................. 147
VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC ...................................................................................... 148
VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC? .................................................................................... 148
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe ................................................................................... 149
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe? ................................................................................. 149
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO ....................................................................... 150
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO? ..................................................................... 150
VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution .............................................................................. 151
Contents
5
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference (continued)
[SENSe:] (continued)
VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution? ............................................................................ 151
ZERO:AUTO .................................................................................................... 152
ZERO:AUTO? .................................................................................................. 152
STATus ..................................................................................................................... 153
:PRESet ............................................................................................................. 153
:QUEStionable:CONDition? ............................................................................. 153
:QUEStionable:ENABle .................................................................................... 153
:QUEStionable:ENABle? .................................................................................. 154
:QUEStionable[:EVENt]? ................................................................................. 154
SYSTem.................................................................................................................... 155
:ERRor? ............................................................................................................. 155
:VERSion? ......................................................................................................... 155
TRIGger .................................................................................................................... 156
:COUNt ............................................................................................................. 156
:COUNt? ............................................................................................................ 157
:DELay .............................................................................................................. 157
:DELay? ............................................................................................................ 158
:DELay:AUTO .................................................................................................. 158
:DELay:AUTO? ................................................................................................ 159
:SOURce ............................................................................................................ 160
:SOURce? .......................................................................................................... 161
IEEE 488.2 Common Command Quick Reference .................................................. 162
*CLS .................................................................................................................. 163
*ESE and *ESE? ............................................................................................... 163
*ESR? ................................................................................................................ 164
*IDN? ................................................................................................................ 164
*OPC ................................................................................................................. 164
*OPC? ............................................................................................................... 165
*RST .................................................................................................................. 165
*SRE and *SRE? ............................................................................................... 165
*STB? ................................................................................................................ 166
*TST? ................................................................................................................ 166
*WAI ................................................................................................................. 166
SCPI Command Quick Reference ............................................................................ 167
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications ........................................ 171
DC Characteristics .................................................................................................... 171
AC Characteristics .................................................................................................... 174
Frequency and Period Characteristics....................................................................... 177
General Specifications .............................................................................................. 179
To Calculate Total Measurement Error .................................................................... 180
Interpreting Multimeter Specifications ..................................................................... 182
Configuring for High Accuracy Measurements........................................................ 184
6
Contents
Appendix B
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages .................................... 185
Execution Errors ....................................................................................................... 185
Self-Test Errors ................................................................................................. 189
Calibration Errors .............................................................................................. 190
Appendix C
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs ....................................................... 193
HP E1312A/E1412A Special Function and Range Commands (Non-SCPI ) .......... 193
Speed Advantage Using the Special Non-SCPI Commands
(F1-F4 and R1-R7) ...................................................................................... 194
HP E1312A/E1412A Resolution Using Special Functions and Ranges................... 195
Resolution Example .......................................................................................... 195
General Guidelines for Increasing Measurement Speed........................................... 196
Avoid Function Changes ................................................................................... 196
Avoid Aperture Changes ................................................................................... 196
Minimize the Number of Command/Response Sessions .................................. 196
Set Autozero to ONCE or OFF ......................................................................... 197
Turn Autorange OFF ......................................................................................... 197
Decrease Aperture Time or NPLCs .................................................................. 197
Store the Readings in Multimeter RAM Instead of Sending them Directly
to the Computer ........................................................................................... 198
Index .............................................................................................................................. 199
Contents
7
Notes:
8
Contents
Certification
Hewlett-Packard Company certifies that this product met its published specifications at the time of shipment from the factory. HewlettPackard further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards), to the extent allowed by that organization’s calibration facility, and to the
calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization members.
HEWLETT-PACKARD WARRANTY STATEMENT
HP PRODUCT: HP E1312A/E1412A
DURATION OF WARRANTY: 3 years
1. HP warrants HP hardware, accessories and supplies against defects in materials and workmanship for the period specified above. If
HP receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, HP will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be
defective. Replacement products may be either new or like-new.
2. HP warrants that HP software will not fail to execute its programming instructions, for the period specified above, due to defects in
material and workmanship when properly installed and used. If HP receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, HP will
replace software media which does not execute its programming instructions due to such defects.
3. HP does not warrant that the operation of HP products will be interrupted or error free. If HP is unable, within a reasonable time, to
repair or replace any product to a condition as warranted, customer will be entitled to a refund of the purchase price upon pro mpt return
of the product.
4. HP products may contain remanufactured parts equivalent to new in performance or may have been subject to incidental use.
5. The warranty period begins on the date of delivery or on the date of installation if installed by HP. If customer schedules or delays HP
installation more than 30 days after delivery, warranty begins on the 31st day from delivery.
6. Warranty does not apply to defects resulting from (a) improper or inadequate maintenance or calibration, (b) software, interfacing, parts
or supplies not supplied by HP, (c) unauthorized modification or misuse, (d) operation outside of the published environmental
specifications for the product, or (e) improper site preparation or maintenance.
7. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE ABOVE WARRANTIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND NO OTHER
WARRANTY OR CONDITION, WHETHER WRITTEN OR ORAL, IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED AND HP SPECIFICALLY
DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, AND
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
8. HP will be liable for damage to tangible property per incident up to the greater of $300,000 or the actual amount paid for t he product
that is the subject of the claim, and for damages for bodily injury or death, to the extent that all such damages are determined by a court
of competent jurisdiction to have been directly caused by a defective HP product.
9. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE REMEDIES IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT ARE CUSTOMER’S
SOLE AND EXLUSIVE REMEDIES. EXCEPT AS INDICATED ABOVE, IN NO EVENT WILL HP OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE
LIABLE FOR LOSS OF DATA OR FOR DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING LOST PROFIT OR
DATA), OR OTHER DAMAGE, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE.
FOR CONSUMER TRANSACTIONS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND: THE WARRANTY TERMS CONTAINED IN THIS
STATEMENT, EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT LAWFULLY PERMITTED, DO NOT EXCLUDE, RESTRICT OR MODIFY AND ARE
IN ADDITION TO THE MANDATORY STATUTORY RIGHTS APPLICABLE TO THE SALE OF THIS PRODUCT TO YOU.
U.S. Government Restricted Rights
The Software and Documentation have been developed entirely at private expense. They are delivered and licensed as "commercial
computer software" as defined in DFARS 252.227- 7013 (Oct 1988), DFARS 252.211-7015 (May 1991) or DFARS 252.227-7014 (Jun
1995), as a "commercial item" as defined in FAR 2.101(a), or as "Restricted computer software" as defined in FAR 52.227-19 (Jun
1987)(or any equivalent agency regulation or contract clause), whichever is applicable. You have only those rights provided for such
Software and Documentation by the applicable FAR or DFARS clause or the HP standard software agreement for the product involved.
HP E1312A/E1412A 6½-Digit Multimeter User's Manual
Edition 4
Copyright © 1997 Hewlett-Packard Company. All Rights Reserved.
9
Documentation History
All Editions and Updates of this manual and their creation date are listed below. The first Edition of the manual is Edition 1. The Edition
number increments by 1 whenever the manual is revised. Updates, which are issued between Editions, contain replacement pages to
correct or add additional information to the current Edition of the manual. Whenever a new Edition is created, it will contain all of the
Update information for the previous Edition. Each new Edition or Update also includes a revised copy of this documentation hist ory page.
Edition 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . August 1995
Edition 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 1996
Edition 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .June 1996
Edition 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . October 1997
Trademarks
Microsoft® is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation
Windows NT® is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation
Windows® and MS Windows® are U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation
Safety Symbols
Instruction manual symbol affixed to
product. Indicates that the user must refer to
the manual for specific WARNING or
CAUTION information to avoid personal
injury or damage to the product.
Alternating current (AC)
Direct current (DC).
Indicates hazardous voltages.
Indicates the field wiring terminal that must
be connected to earth ground before
operating the equipment—protects against
electrical shock in case of fault.
or
Frame or chassis ground terminal—typically
connects to the equipment's metal frame.
Calls attention to a procedure, practice, or
WARNING condition that could cause bodily injury or
death.
Calls attention to a procedure, practice, or
CAUTION condition that could possibly cause damage to
equipment or permanent loss of data.
WARNINGS
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this product. Failure to
comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and
intended use of the product. Hewlett-Packard Company assumes no liability for the customer's failure to comply with these requirements.
Ground the equipment: For Safety Class 1 equipment (equipment having a protective earth terminal), an uninterruptible safety earth
ground must be provided from the mains power source to the product input wiring terminals or supplied power cable.
DO NOT operate the product in an explosive atmosphere or in the presence of flammable gases or fumes.
For continued protection against fire, replace the line fuse(s) only with fuse(s) of the same voltage and current rating and type. DO NOT
use repaired fuses or short-circuited fuse holders.
Keep away from live circuits: Operating personnel must not remove equipment covers or shields. Procedures involving the removal of
covers or shields are for use by service-trained personnel only. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may exist even with the
equipment switched off. To avoid dangerous electrical shock, DO NOT perform procedures involving cover or shield removal unless you
are qualified to do so.
DO NOT operate damaged equipment: Whenever it is possible that the safety protection features built into this product have been
impaired, either through physical damage, excessive moisture, or any other reason, REMOVE POWER and do not use the product until
safe operation can be verified by service-trained personnel. If necessary, return the product to a Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office
for service and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained.
DO NOT service or adjust alone: Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first aid and
resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT substitute parts or modify equipment: Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts
or perform any unauthorized modification to the product. Return the product to a Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office for service
and repair to ensure that safety features are maintained.
10
HP E1312A Declaration of Conformity
according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN 45014
Manufacturer’s Name:
Hewlett-Packard Company
Loveland Manufacturing Center
Manufacturer’s Address:
815 14th Street S.W.
Loveland, Colorado 80537
declares, that the product:
Product Name:
VXI 6½-Digit Multimeter
Model Number:
HP E1312A
Product Options:
All
conforms to the following Product Specifications:
Safety:
IEC 1010-1 (1990) Incl. Amend 1 (1992)/EN61010-1 (1993)
CSA C22.2 #1010.1 (1992)
UL 3111
EMC:
CISPR 11:1990/EN55011 (1991): Group1 Class A
IEC 801-2:1991/EN50082-1 (1992): 4kVCD, 8kVAD
IEC 801-3:1984/EN50082-1 (1992): 3 V/m
IEC 801-4:1988/EN50082-1 (1992): 1kV Power Line
.5kV Signal Lines
Supplementary Information: The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive
73/23/EEC and the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC and carries the "CE" marking accordingly.
Tested in a typical configuration in an HP B-Size VXI mainframe.
May 8, 1996
Jim White, QA Manager
European contact: Your local Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office or Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Department HQ-TRE, Herrenberger Straße 130, D-71034 Böblingen, Germany (FAX +49-7031-14-3143)
11
HP E1412A Declaration of Conformity
according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN 45014
Manufacturer’s Name:
Hewlett-Packard Company
Loveland Manufacturing Center
Manufacturer’s Address:
815 14th Street S.W.
Loveland, Colorado 80537
declares, that the product:
Product Name:
VXI 6½-Digit Multimeter
Model Number:
HP E1412A
Product Options:
All
conforms to the following Product Specifications:
Safety:
IEC 1010-1 (1990) Incl. Amend 1 (1992)/EN61010-1 (1993)
CSA C22.2 #1010.1 (1992)
UL 3111-1
EMC:
CISPR 11:1990/EN55011 (1991): Group1 Class A
IEC 801-2:1991/EN50082-1 (1992): 4kVCD, 8kVAD
IEC 801-3:1984/EN50082-1 (1992): 3 V/m
IEC 801-4:1988/EN50082-1 (1992): 1kV Power Line
.5kV Signal Lines
Supplementary Information: The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive
73/23/EEC and the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC (inclusive 93/68/EEC) and carries the "CE" marking accordingly.
Tested in a typical configuration in an HP C-Size VXI mainframe.
July 31, 1995
Jim White, QA Manager
European contact: Your local Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office or Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Department HQ-TRE, Herrenberger Straße 130, D-71034 Böblingen, Germany (FAX +49-7031-14-3143)
12
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HP E1312A/E1412A 6½-Digit Multimeter User’s Manual and SCPI Programming Guide
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Chapter 1
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter
Module Setup
Using This Chapter
This chapter provides one page of general module information followed by
the tasks you must perform to set up your module and verify your
installation was successful. Chapter contents are:
• Setting the Module Address Switch
• Interrupt Priority
• Setting and Checking the Line Frequency Reference
• Input Terminals and Front Panel Indicators
• Multimeter Functional Connections
• Initial Operation
General Information
• The HP E1312A is not recommended for use in the HP E1300A or
HP E1301A B-size mainframe.
• The HP E1312A (VXI B-size) and HP E1412A (VXI C-size)
Multimeters are VXIbus message-based slave devices.
• Programming the multimeter can either be through a command module
using an HP-IB interface or an embedded controller. You use the
Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI; see
Chapter 3) with the Standard Instrument Control Language (SICL) or
VISA (Virtual Instrument Software Architecture).
• Maximum voltage is 300 Vrms or 300 Vdc.
• Maximum current is 3A ACrms or DC.
• Resolution is from 4½-digits for fast measurements to 6½-digits for
more accuracy. Resolution is set by specifying the integration time in
number of power line cycles (NPLCs) or corresponding aperture time.
Table 1-1 shows the correlation between NPLCs and resolution.
Table 1-1. Resolution of Power Line Cycles
Chapter 1
Power Line Cycles
Resolution
0.02
0.0001 x Full-Scale
0.2
0.00001 x Full-Scale
1
0.000003 x Full-Scale
10
0.000001 x Full-Scale
100
0.0000003 x Full-Scale
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
15
Setting the Module Address Switch
The logical address switch factory setting is 24. Valid addresses are from
1 to 254 for static configuration (the address you set on the switch) and
address 255 for dynamic configuration. The HP E1312A and HP E1412A
support dynamic configuration of the address. This means the address is set
programmatically by the resource manager when it encounters a module
with address 255 that supports dynamic configuration.
If you install more than one multimeter, each module must have a different
logical address. If you use a VXIbus command module, the logical address
must be a multiple of eight (e.g., 32, 40, 48, etc.) Each instrument must have
a unique secondary address which is the logical address divided by eight.
Note
When using an HP E1405A/B or HP E1406A as the VXIbus resource
manager with SCPI commands, the multimeter’s address switch value must
be a multiple of 8.
Figure 1-1. Setting the Logical Address
16
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
Chapter 1
Interrupt Priority
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeters are VXIbus interrupters.
However, there is no interrupt priority level setting to be made on the
module. Interrupt priority level, setup, and activation are configured on the
resource manager which is the interface to the VXIbus and contains any
instrument drivers required to communicate with a VXI module. Your
resource manager could be a VXI command module, embedded PC
controller, the PC-based VXLink Interface (ISA-to-VXI), the Series 700
workstation VXI-MXIbus interface or another VXI controller. To configure
the interrupt priority on the HP E1405B and HP E1406A Command
Modules, you would use the DIAGnostic:INTerrupt command subsystem.
Refer to your resource manager’s documentation for information on setting
the system’s interrupt priority.
Setting the Line Frequency Reference
You must set the line frequency reference to the line frequency of the power
source to your mainframe for maximum normal mode rejection (NMR).
NMR is the multimeter’s ability to reject power line frequency noise in a DC
voltage or ohms measurement. You should set the multimeter’s line
frequency reference to the exact power line frequency (50, 60 or 400Hz).
Failure to set the line frequency reference to that of your source will cause
reading errors.
You use the CALibration:LFRequency command to set the line frequency
reference. The default setting at power-on is 60Hz. If you use 50Hz or
400Hz you need to set the line frequency reference for maximum NMR.
Specifying 400Hz actually sets the line frequency reference to 50Hz since
50Hz is a sub harmonic of 400Hz. Executing a CALibration:LFRequency?
will return +50 after executing CAL:LFR 400 to set the line frequency
reference to 400Hz.
The line frequency reference setting is also useful when the device being
measured operates at a different frequency than the multimeter. For
example, if the multimeter has a power line frequency reference of 60Hz and
the device being measured has a power line frequency of 50Hz, maximum
NMR is achieved by setting the multimeter’s reference frequency to 50Hz
by executing:
CAL:LFR 50
Checking the Line
Frequency
Reference
Chapter 1
The CALibration:LFRequency? command returns the present setting of the
power line frequency reference. The command returns +50 or +60. For a
setting of 400Hz, +50 is returned since 50Hz is a sub harmonic of 400Hz.
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
17
Figure 1-2. Multimeter Measurement Terminals
18
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
Chapter 1
Multimeter Functional Connections
Figure 1-3. Switch Module Analog Bus Connections
Figure 1-4. Frequency or Period Measurement Connections
Chapter 1
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
19
Figure 1-5. Voltage Measurement Connections
Figure 1-6. Voltage Ratio (Vdc) Measurement Connections
20
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
Chapter 1
Figure 1-7. 2-Wire Ohms Measurement Connections
Figure 1-8. 4-Wire Ohms Measurement Connections
Chapter 1
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
21
Figure 1-9. Current Measurement Connections
Initial Operation
To program the Multimeter using SCPI, you must select the interface
address and SCPI commands to be used. General information about using
SCPI commands is presented at the beginning of Chapter 3. See the
HP 75000 Series C Installation and Getting Started Guide for interface
addressing.
Note
Programming the
Multimeter
This discussion applies only to SCPI (Standard Commands for
Programmable Instruments) programming. The program is written using
VISA (Virtual Instrument Software Architecture) function calls. VISA
allows you to execute on VXIplug&play system frameworks that have the
VISA I/O layer installed (visa.h include file).
Example: Perform a Self-Test of the Multimeter and Read the
Result.
Programming the multimeter using Standard Commands for Programmable
Instruments (SCPI) requires that you select the controller language (e.g., C,
C++, Basic, etc.), interface address and SCPI commands to be used. See the
HP 75000 Series C Installation and Getting Started Guide (or equivalent)
for interfacing, addressing and controller information.
The following C program verifies communication between the controller,
mainframe and multimeter. It resets the module (*RST), queries the identity
of the module (*IDN?) and initiates a self-test of the multimeter.
22
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
Chapter 1
#include <stdio.h>
#include <visa.h>
/*** FUNCTION PROTOTYPE ***/
void err_handler (ViSession vi, ViStatus x);
void main(void)
{
char buf[512] = {0};
#if defined(_BORLANDC_) && !defined(_WIN32_)
_InitEasyWin();
#endif
ViStatus err;
ViSession defaultRM;
ViSession dmm;
/* Open resource manager and multimeter sessions. */
viOpenDefaultRM (&defaultRM);
viOpen(defaultRM, "GPIB-VXI0::9::24", VI_NULL, VI_NULL, &dmm);
/* Set the timeout value to 10 seconds. */
viSetAttribute (dmm, VI_ATTR_TMO_VALUE, 10000);
/* Reset the module. */
err = viPrintf (dmm, "*RST/n");
if (err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
/* Query the module identification. */
err = viPrintf(dmm, "*IDN?/n");
if (err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
err = viScanf(dmm, "%t", buf);
if (err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
printf ("Module ID = %s/n/n", buf);
/* Perform a module self-test. */
err = viPrintf (dmm, "*TST?/n");
if(err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
err = viScanf (dmm, "%t", buf);
if (err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
printf ("Self-test response = %s/n/n", buf);
/* Check for system errors. */
err = viPrintf (dmm, "SYST:ERR?/n");
if (err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
err = viScanf (dmm, "%t", buf);
if (err<VI_SUCCESS) err_handler (dmm, err);
printf ("System error response = %s/n/n", buf);
}
/* end of main */
/*** Error handling function ***/
void err_handler (ViSession dmm, ViStatus err)
{
char buf[1024] = {0};
viStatusDesc (dmm, err, buf);
printf ("ERROR = %s/n", buf);
return;
}
Chapter 1
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
23
Notes:
24
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Module Setup
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application
Information
Using This Chapter
This chapter provides multimeter application information in five parts.
• Measurement Tutorial.
• Measurement Configuration.
• Math Operations.
• Triggering the Multimeter.
• HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Application Examples.
Measurement Tutorial
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A are capable of making highly accurate
measurements. In order to achieve the greatest accuracy, you must take the
necessary steps to eliminate potential measurement errors. This section
describes common errors found in measurements and gives suggestions to
help you avoid these errors.
DC Voltage Measurements
Thermal EMF
Errors
Chapter 2
Thermoelectric voltages are the most common source of error in low-level
dc voltage measurements. Thermoelectric voltages are generated when you
make circuit connections using dissimilar metals at different temperatures.
Each metal-to-metal junction forms a thermocouple, which generates a
voltage proportional to the junction temperature. You should take the
necessary precautions to minimize thermocouple voltages and temperature
variations in low-level voltage measurements. The best connections are
formed using copper-to-copper crimped connections. Table 2-1 shows
common thermoelectric voltages for connections between dissimilar metals.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
25
Table 2-1. Thermoelectric Voltages
Copper-to-…
Copper
<0.3
Gold
0.5
Silver
0.5
Brass
3
Beryllium Copper
5
Aluminum
5
Kovar or Alloy 42
40
Silicon
500
Copper-Oxide
1000
Cadmium-Tin Solder
Tin-Lead Solder
Loading Errors
(dc volts)
Approx. µV/°C
The HP E1312A
and HP E1412A
input terminals are
copper alloy.
0.2
5
Measurement loading errors occur when the resistance of the deviceunder-test (DUT) is an appreciable percentage of the multimeter’s own input
resistance. The diagram below shows this error source.
To reduce the effects of loading errors, and to minimize noise pickup, you
can set the multimeter’s input resistance to greater than 10GΩ for the
100mVdc, 1Vdc, and 10Vdc ranges. The input resistance is maintained at
10MΩ for the 100Vdc and 300Vdc ranges.
Leakage Current
Errors
26
The multimeter's input capacitance will “charge up” due to input bias
currents when the terminals are open-circuited (if the input resistance is
10GΩ). The multimeter's measuring circuitry exhibits approximately 30pA
of input bias current for ambient temperatures from 0°C to 30°C. Bias
current will double (×2) for every 8°C change in ambient temperature above
30°C. This current generates small voltage offsets dependent upon the
source resistance of the device-under-test. This effect becomes evident for a
source resistance of greater than 100kΩ, or when the multimeter's operating
temperature is significantly greater than 30°C.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Rejecting Power
Line Noise
Voltages
A desirable characteristic of integrating analog-to-digital (A/D) converters
is their ability to reject spurious signals. The integrating techniques reject
power-line related noise present with a dc signal on the input. This is called
normal mode rejection or NMR. Normal mode noise rejection is achieved
when the multimeter measures the average of the input by “integrating” it
over a fixed period. If you set the integration time to a whole number of
power line cycles (PLCs) these errors (and their harmonics) will average out
to approximately zero.
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A provide three A/D integration times (1, 10
and 100PLCs) to reject power line frequency noise (and power-line
frequency harmonics). Power line frequency defaults to 60Hz unless you
specifically set it to 50Hz with the CAL:LFR command. The multimeter
determines the proper integration time based on which power line frequency
is set. Table 2-2 shows the noise rejection achieved with various
configurations. Select a longer integration time for better resolution and
increased noise rejection.
Table 2-2. Noise Rejection
Integration Time
Power Line
Cycles (PLCs)
Common Mode
Rejection (CMR)
Chapter 2
60Hz
(50Hz)
NMR
0.02
400µs
(400µs)
NONE
0.2
3ms
(3ms)
NONE
1
16.7ms
(20ms)
60dB
10
167ms
(200ms)
60dB
100
1.67sec
(2sec)
60dB
Ideally, a multimeter is completely isolated from earth-referenced circuits.
However, there is finite resistance between the multimeter's input LO
terminal and earth ground as shown below. This can cause errors when
measuring small voltages which are floating relative to earth ground.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
27
Noise Caused by
Magnetic Loops
If you are making measurements near magnetic fields, you should take the
necessary precautions to avoid inducing voltages in the measurement
conductors. You should be especially careful when working near conductors
carrying large currents. Use twisted-pair connections to the multimeter to
reduce the noise pickup loop area, or dress the input cables as close together
as possible. Also, loose or vibrating input cables will induce error voltages.
Make sure your input cables are tied down securely when operating near
magnetic fields. Whenever possible, use magnetic shielding materials or
physical separation to reduce problem magnetic field sources.
Noise Caused by
Ground Loops
When measuring voltages in circuits where the multimeter and the deviceunder-test are both referenced to a common earth ground but at different
points, a “ground loop” is formed. As shown below, any voltage difference
between the two ground reference points (Vground) causes a current to flow
through the measurement leads. This causes errors such as noise and offset
voltage (usually power-line related), which are added to the measured
voltage.
The best way to eliminate ground loops is to maintain the multimeter's input
isolation from earth; do not connect the input terminals to ground. If the
multimeter must be earth-referenced, be sure to connect it, and the
device-under-test, to the same common ground point. This will reduce or
eliminate any voltage difference between the devices. Also make sure the
multimeter and device-under-test are connected to the same electrical outlet
whenever possible.
28
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Resistance Measurements
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A offer two methods for measuring
resistance: 2-wire and 4-wire ohms. For both methods, the test current flows
from the input HI terminal and then through the resistor being measured. For
2-wire ohms, the voltage drop across the resistor being measured is sensed
internal to the multimeter. Therefore, input cable resistance is also
measured. For 4-wire ohms, separate “sense” connections are required.
Since no current flows in the HI-LO “Sense” terminal cables, the resistances
in these cables do not give a measurement error.
The errors discussed previously for dc voltage measurements also apply to
resistance measurements. Additional error sources unique to resistance
measurements are discussed in the following sections.
4-Wire Ohms
Measurements
Chapter 2
The 4-wire ohms method provides the most accurate way to measure small
resistances. Errors due to test cable resistances and contact resistances are
reduced using this method. Four-wire ohms is often used in automated test
applications where long cable lengths, numerous connections, or switches
exist between the multimeter and the device-under-test. The recommended
connections for 4-wire ohms measurements are shown below.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
29
Removing Field
Wiring Resistance
Errors
in 2-Wire Ohms
Measurements
Field wiring can cause an offset error in 2-wire resistance measurements.
You can use the following procedure to minimize offset errors associated
with field wiring resistance in 2-wire ohms measurements. You short the
field wiring at the DUT location and measure the 2-wire lead resistance.
This value is subtracted from subsequent DUT 2-wire ohms measurements.
There are two ways to effectively null out the lead resistance. The first way
is to characterize your field lead resistance by shorting the leads at the DUT
location and measure and record the lead resistance. Then enable the math
operation and store the 2-wire lead measurement value using the
CALCulate:NULL:OFFSet <value> command (CALC:STATe must be ON to
do this).
The following program shows SCPI examples used to store a NULL value.
Set to 2-wire ohms function.
Short the lead resistance at the DUT location.
READ?
Measure the 2-wire ohms lead resistance.
Enter lead resistance value into computer.
CALCulate:FUNCtion NULL
Set math operation to NULL.
CALCulate:STATe ON
Turn math operation ON.
CALCulate:NULL:OFFSet <value>
Store the NULL offset value.
CONF:RES
Subsequent 2-wire ohms measurements will subtract the null offset value
from the measurement thereby removing the lead resistance from the
measurement.
The second way to store the 2-wire lead resistance as the NULL offset value
is to let the multimeter automatically do this with the first measurement. The
first measurement made after CALCulate function is set to NULL and the
STATe is set to ON stores the measured value as the null offset.
Set to 2-wire ohms function.
Short the lead resistance at the DUT location.
CALCulate:FUNCtion NULL
Set math operation to NULL.
CALCulate:STATe ON
Turn math operation ON.
READ?
Measure the 2-wire ohms lead resistance.
Enter lead resistance value into computer. The value is automatically
stored in the multimeter’s null offset register.
Remove the short from the lead resistance at the DUT location
and connect leads to your DUT.
READ?
Make a 2-wire ohms resistance measurement.
Enter lead resistance value into computer. The NULL value is
subtracted from the measurement to more accurately provide the
DUT resistance.
CONF:RES
30
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Power Dissipation
Effects
When measuring resistors designed for temperature measurements (or other
resistive devices with large temperature coefficients), be aware that the
multimeter will dissipate some power in the device-under-test. If power
dissipation is a problem, you should select the multimeter’s next higher
measurement range to reduce the errors to acceptable levels. Table 2-3
shows several examples.
Table 2-3. DUT Power Dissipation
Range
Test Current
DUT
Power at Full Scale
100Ω
1mA
100µW
1kΩ
1mA
1mW
10kΩ
100µA
100µW
100kΩ
10µA
10µW
1MΩ
5µA
25µW
10MΩ
500nA
2.5µW
Settling Time
Effects
Both the HP E1312A and HP E1412A have the ability to insert automatic
measurement settling delays with the TRIG:DEL command. These delays are
adequate for resistance measurements with less than 200pF of combined
cable and device capacitance. This is particularly important if you are
measuring resistances above 100kΩ. Settling due to RC time constant
effects can be quite long. Some precision resistors and multi-function
calibrators use large parallel capacitors (1000pF to 0.1µF) with high resistor
values to filter out noise currents injected by their internal circuitry.
Non-ideal capacitances in cables and other devices may have much longer
settling times than expected just by RC time constants due to dielectric
absorption (soak) effects. Errors will be measured when settling after the
initial connection and after a range change.
Errors in High
Resistance
Measurements
When you are measuring large resistances, significant errors can occur due
to insulation resistance and surface cleanliness. You should take the
necessary precautions to maintain a “clean” high-resistance system. Test
cables and fixtures are susceptible to leakage due to moisture absorption in
insulating materials and “dirty” surface films. Nylon and PVC are relatively
poor insulators (109 ohms) when compared to PTFE Teflon insulators
(1013 ohms). Leakage from nylon or PVC insulators can easily contribute a
0.1% error when measuring a 1MΩ resistance in humid conditions.
Making High-Speed
DC and Resistance
Measurements
The multimeter incorporates an automatic zero measurement procedure
(autozero) to eliminate internal thermal EMF and bias current errors. Each
measurement actually consists of a measurement of the input terminals
followed by a measurement of the internal offset voltage. The internal offset
voltage error is subtracted from the measurement for improved accuracy.
This compensates for offset voltage changes due to temperature. For
maximum reading speed, turn autozero off. This will more than double your
reading speeds for dc voltage, resistance, and dc current functions. Autozero
does not apply to other measurement functions.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
31
DC Current Measurement Errors
When you connect the multimeter in series with a test circuit to measure
current, a measurement error is introduced. The error is caused by the
multimeter’s series burden voltage. A voltage is developed across the wiring
resistance and current shunt resistance of the multimeter as shown below.
True RMS AC Measurements
True RMS responding multimeters, like the HP E1312A and HP E1412A,
measure the “heating” potential of an applied signal. Unlike an “average
responding” measurement, a true RMS measurement can be used to
determine the power dissipated in a resistance, even by non-sinusoidal
signals. The power is proportional to the square of the measured true RMS
voltage, independent of waveshape. An average responding ac multimeter is
calibrated to read the same as a true RMS meter for sinewave inputs only. For
other waveform shapes, an average responding meter will exhibit substantial
errors as shown below.
The multimeter's ac voltage and ac current functions measure the ac-coupled
true RMS value. This is in contrast to the ac+dc true RMS value shown above.
Only the “heating value” of the ac components of the input waveform are
measured (dc is rejected). For non-offset sinewaves, triangle waves, and
square waves, the ac and ac+dc values are equal since these waveforms do
not contain a dc offset. Non-symmetrical waveforms, such as pulse trains,
contain dc voltages which are rejected by ac-coupled true RMS
measurements.
An ac-coupled true RMS measurement is desirable in situations where you
are measuring small ac signals in the presence of large dc offsets such as
when measuring ac ripple present on dc power supplies. There are situations,
however, where you might want to know the ac+dc true RMS value. You can
32
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
determine this value by combining results from dc and ac measurements as
shown below. You should perform the dc measurement using at least 10
power line cycles of integration (6 digit mode) for best ac rejection
RMS ( ac + dc )
=
ac
2
+ dc
2
Crest Factor Errors
(non-sinusoidal
inputs)
A common misconception is “if an ac multimeter is a true RMS instrument,
the multimeter's sinewave accuracy specifications apply to all waveforms.”
Actually, the shape of the input signal can dramatically affect measurement
accuracy. A common way to describe signal waveshapes is crest factor.
Crest factor of a waveform is the ratio of its peak value to its RMS value.
Common Crest Factors
The crest factor for a sine wave is 2 =1.414. For a triangular wave the crest
factor is 3 = 1.732. For a square wave with pulse width t and duty cycle T,
(see the graphic in the previous section), the crest factor is T
--- .
t
For a pulse train, the crest factor is approximately equal to the square root of
the inverse of the duty cycle. In general, the greater the crest factor, the
greater the energy contained in higher frequency harmonics. All multimeters
exhibit measurement errors that are crest factor dependent. HP E1312A and
HP E1412A crest factor errors are shown in the AC Characteristics
Accuracy Specifications listed in Appendix A with the exception that crest
factor errors are not specified for non sine wave input signals below 100Hz
when using the slow ac filter (3Hz filter).
You can estimate the measurement error for a non-sinusoidal input signal
shown below:
Total Error = Error (sine) + Error (crest factor) + Error (bandwidth)
Error (sine): error for sinewave as shown in Appendix A, Specifications.
Error (crest factor): crest factor additional error as shown in Appendix A.
Error (bandwidth): estimated bandwidth error as shown below.
ERROR (bandwidth)
2
-(C.F.) × f
= ------------------------ × 100%
4 π × BW
C.F. = signal's crest factor
f
= signal's fundamental frequency
BW = multimeter's -3dB bandwidth
(1MHz for the HP E1312A/E1412A)
Example
Calculate the approximate measurement error for a pulse train input with a
crest factor of 3 and a fundamental frequency of 20kHz. For this example,
assume the multimeter's 90-day accuracy specifications:
±(0.05% + 0.03%).
Total Error = 0.08% + 0.15% + 1.4% = 1.6%
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
33
Loading Errors
(ac volts)
In the ac voltage function, the input of the HP E1312A and HP E1412A
appears as a 1MΩ resistance in parallel with 100pF of capacitance. The
cabling that you use to connect signals to the multimeter will also add
additional capacitance and loading.
6
For low frequencies where (f × R s ) ≤ 15(10 )Ω • Hz: :
Error (%) =
-100 × R s
---------------------R + 1MΩ
s
For any frequency:
1
1MΩ
Error (%) = 100 x [ ---------------------------------------------------------------- ( -------------------- )-1]
(1MΩ)R s 2 1MΩ+R s
1 + (2 π f C ⋅ ------------------------- )
in 1MΩ+R
s
Rs = source resistance
f
= input frequency
Cin = input capacitance (100pF) plus cable capacitance
AC Measurements
Below Full Scale
You can make the most accurate ac measurements when the multimeter is at
full scale of the selected range. Autoranging occurs at ≤10% and ≥120% of
full scale. This enables you to measure some inputs at full scale on one range
and 10% of full scale on the next higher range (e.g., 10V on the 10V range
or 10V on the 100V range). The accuracy will be significantly different for
these two cases. For highest accuracy, you should specify the range to assure
the lowest range possible for the measurement (this turns autorange off).
Function and Range
Change Internal
Offset Correction
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A uses an ac measurement technique that
measures and removes internal offset voltages when you select a different
function or range. The next two sections discuss two ways these offset errors
can be generated and how the multimeter deals with them.
Temperature Coefficient
Errors
If you leave the multimeter in the same range for an extended period of time,
and the ambient temperature changes significantly (or if the multimeter is
not fully warmed up), the internal offsets may change. This temperature
coefficient is typically 0.002% of range per °C and is automatically removed
when you change functions or ranges.
Overload Errors
When you specify a new range in an overload condition, the internal offset
measurement may be degraded for the selected range. Typically, an
additional 0.01% of range error may be introduced. This additional error is
automatically removed when you remove the overload condition and change
function or range; the error remains if the function or range is not changed.
34
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Low-Level
Measurement
Errors
When measuring ac voltages less than 100mV, be aware that these
measurements are especially susceptible to errors introduced by extraneous
noise sources. Exposed (unshielded) cabling will act as an antenna and a
properly functioning multimeter will measure the signals received. The
entire measurement path, including the power line, acts as a loop antenna.
Circulating currents in the loop will create error voltages across any
impedances in series with the multimeter’s input. For this reason, you should
apply low-level ac voltages to the multimeter through shielded cables. You
should connect the shield to the input LO terminal.
Make sure the multimeter and the ac source are connected to the same
electrical outlet whenever possible. You should also minimize the area of
any ground loops that cannot be avoided. Measurements of high-impedance
sources are more susceptible to noise pickup than measurements of lowimpedance sources. You can reduce the noise pick-up by placing a capacitor
in parallel with the multimeter’s input terminals. You may have to
experiment to determine the correct capacitor value for your application
since this capacitance will contribute some loading error.
Most extraneous noise is not correlated with the input signal. You can
determine the error as shown below.
Voltage Measured =
2
Vin + Noise
2
Correlated noise, while rare, is especially detrimental because it will always
add directly to the input signal. Measuring a low-level signal with the same
frequency as the local power line is a common situation prone to this error.
AC Turnover Errors
Errors are generated when the multimeter’s input LO terminal is driven with
an ac voltage relative to earth. The most common situation where
unnecessary turnover errors are created is when the output of an ac calibrator
is connected to the multimeter “backwards.” Ideally, a multimeter reads the
same regardless of how the source is connected. Both source and multimeter
effects can degrade this ideal situation.
Because of the capacitance between the input LO terminal and earth
(approximately 200 pF for the HP E1312A and HP E1412A), the source will
experience different loading depending on how the input is applied. The
magnitude of the error is dependent upon the source's response to this
loading. The multimeter's measurement circuitry, while extensively
shielded, responds differently in the backward input case due to slight
differences in stray capacitance to earth. Because of this, the 100Vac and
300Vac ranges may latch up for high voltage, high frequency “backward”
inputs. Therefore, only drive the high terminal when measuring ac voltages.
You can use the grounding techniques described for dc common mode
problems to minimize ac common mode voltages (see Common Mode
Rejection (CMR) on page 27).
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
35
AC Current Measurement Errors
Burden voltage errors, which apply to dc current, also apply to ac current
measurements. However, the burden voltage for ac current is larger due to
the multimeter’s series inductance and your measurement connections. The
burden voltage increases as the input frequency increases. Some circuits
may oscillate when performing current measurements due to the
multimeter’s series inductance and your measurement connections.
Making High-Speed AC Voltage or Current Measurements
The multimeter’s ac voltage and ac current functions implement three
different low-frequency filters. These filters allow you to trade low
frequency accuracy for faster reading speed. The fast filter settles in
0.1 seconds, and is useful for frequencies above 200Hz. The medium filter
settles in 1 second, and is useful for measurements above 20Hz. The
slow filter settles in 7 seconds, and is useful for frequencies above 3Hz.
With a few precautions, you can perform ac measurements at speeds up to
50 readings per second. Use manual ranging to eliminate autoranging
delays. By setting the preprogrammed settling (trigger) delays to 0, each
filter will allow up to 50 readings per second. However, the measurement
might not be very accurate since the filter is not fully settled. In applications
where sample-to-sample levels vary widely, the medium filter (20Hz) will
settle adequately at almost 1 reading per second, and the fast filter (200Hz)
will settle adequately at almost 10 readings per second.
If the sample-to-sample levels are similar, little settling time is required for
each new reading. Under this specialized condition, the medium filter will
provide reduced accuracy results at 5 readings per second, and the fast filter
will provide reduced accuracy results at 50 readings per second. Additional
settling time may be required when the dc level varies from sample to sample.
DC Blocking Circuitry
The multimeter’s dc blocking circuitry has a settling time constant of
0.2 seconds. This time constant only affects measurement accuracy when dc
offset levels vary from sample to sample. If maximum measurement speed
is desired in a scanning system, you may want to add an external dc blocking
circuit to those channels with significant dc voltages present. This circuit can
be as simple as a resistor and a capacitor.
Frequency and Period Measurement Errors
The multimeter uses a reciprocal counting technique to measure frequency
and period. This method generates constant measurement resolution for any
input frequency. The multimeter’s ac voltage measurement section performs
input signal conditioning. All frequency counters are susceptible to errors
when measuring low-voltage, low-frequency signals. The effects of both
internal noise and external noise pickup are critical when measuring “slow”
signals. The error is inversely proportional to frequency. Measurement
errors will also occur if you attempt to measure the frequency (or period) of
an input following a dc offset voltage change. You must allow the
multimeter's input dc blocking capacitor to fully settle before making
frequency measurements.
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Measurement Configuration
This section contains information to help you configure the multimeter for
making measurements. The parameters discussed in this section give you
measurement flexibility when using the CONFigure command.
AC Signal Filter
The HP E1412A Multimeter has three different ac filters which enable you to
either optimize low frequency accuracy or achieve faster ac settling times for
ac voltage or ac current measurements. Only these functions use the ac filter.
Table 2-4. AC Signal Filters
AC Voltage or Current
Input Frequency
AC Filter
Selected
Max Reading Rate for
Adequate Settling
3 Hz to 300 kHz
Slow filter
1 reading/7 seconds
20 Hz to 300 kHz
Medium filter
1 reading/second
200 Hz to 300 kHz
Fast filter
10 readings/second
NOTE: These reading rates account for only the AC filters behavior.
See Page 36 for the effect of DC blocking circuitry.
• The ac filter selection is stored in volatile memory. Default
is the
medium filter (20Hz - 300kHz) at power-on or after a module reset.
• The CONFigure and MEASure:<function>? commands automatically
select the medium (20Hz) filter.
• Use the [SENSe:]DETector:BANDwidth
3 | 20 | 200 | MIN | MAX
command to change the ac filter selection following a CONFigure
command. The MIN parameter will select the 3Hz filter and the MAX
parameter will select the 200Hz filter.
DC Input
Resistance
The HP E1412 Multimeter’s input resistance is normally fixed at 10MΩ for
all dc voltage ranges to minimize noise pickup. You can set the input
resistance to greater than 10GΩ for the 100mVdc, 1Vdc and 10Vdc ranges
to reduce the effects of measurement loading errors. You select increased
input resistance using the INPut:IMPedance:AUTO ON command and this
applies to the dc voltage function only.
Table 2-5. DC Voltage Input Resistance
DC Input Resistance
100mV, 1V, 10V Ranges
DC Input Resistance
100V and 300V Ranges
INP:IMP:AUTO OFF
(DEFAULT)
10MΩ
10MΩ
INP:IMP:AUTO ON
>10GΩ
10MW
• The input resistance setting is stored in volatile memory.
INPut:IMPedance:AUTO OFF is set at power-on and after a module
reset.
• The CONFigure command and the MEASure:<function>? command
automatically turn AUTO OFF. Use INPut:IMPedance:AUTO ON
after a CONFigure command to set it ON.
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
37
Resolution
Resolution is expressed in terms of number of digits the multimeter can
measure. You can set the resolution to 4½, 5½ or 6½-digits by specifying
the integration time (PLCs or aperture time), which is the period the
multimeter's analog-to-digital (A/D) converter samples the input signal for
a measurement. To increase measurement accuracy and improve noise
rejection, specify more PLCs (longer integration time). To increase
measurement speed, specify fewer PLCs (shorter integration time).
This applies to all measurement functions.
The resolution for math operations is the same resolution for the
measurement function being measured. Table 2-6 illustrates the correlation
between Number of Power Line Cycles and Resolution. See the tables
beginning on page 70 for detailed cross-reference of function ranges to
resolution as a function of NPLCs or Aperture Time.
Table 2-6. Resolution of Power Line Cycles
Number of Power Line Cycles (NPLC)
Resolution
0.02
0.0001 X Full-Scale
0.2
0.00001 X Full-Scale
1
0.000003 X Full-Scale
10
0.000001 X Full-Scale
100
0.0000003 X Full-Scale
• Resolution is stored in volatile memory. The multimeter sets itself to
10 PLCs at power-on or after a module reset.
• DC voltage ratio measurements use both the HI-LO input terminals
(input signal) and the HI-LO “Ω 4W Sense” terminals (the reference
signal). The resolution specified applies to the input signal applied to
the HI-LO input terminals for ratio measurements and not the
reference signal applied to the “Sense” terminals.
• Set the resolution using the following commands:
CONFigure:<function> <range>|MIN|MAX,<resolution>|MIN|MAX
MEASure:<function>? <range>|MIN|MAX,<resolution>|MIN|MAX
[SENSe:]<function> <resolution>|MIN|MAX
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Integration Time
Integration time is the period during which the multimeter’s analog-to-digital
(A/D) converter samples the input signal for a measurement. Integration time
affects the measurement resolution (for better resolution, use a longer
integration time), and measurement speed (for faster measurement, use a
shorter integration time).
• Integration time applies to dc voltage, dc current, resistance and
four-wire resistance functions only. The integration time for the math
operations is the same as the integration time for the measurement
function in use.
• Except for FREQuency and PERiod functions, integration time is
usually specified in number of power line cycles (NPLC). The default
NPLC is 10. You can also specify an integration time in seconds for dc
voltage, dc current, resistance, four-wire resistance, frequency and
period using the aperture time command for each function. Aperture
time has a direct correlation to NPLC (except for the FREQuency and
PERiod functions which do not use NPLC) and is shown in the tables
beginning on page 70. See the [SENSe:]FREQ:APER and
[SENSe:]PER:APER commands for setting frequency and period
aperture time.
• The integration time is stored in volatile memory. The multimeter
selects 10 PLCs at power-on or after a module reset. See following
information for FREQuency and PERiod aperture time.
• Only integral numbers of power line cycles (1, 10 or 100 PLCs)
provide normal mode (line frequency noise) rejection.
• You cannot control the reading rate for ac measurements with
integration time because integration time is fixed at 10 PLCs for all ac
measurements. You must use a trigger delay to pace ac voltage and ac
current measurements.
• NPLCs are not applicable to the FREQuency and PERiod functions.
Frequency and period measurements set resolution by specifying
aperture time. The aperture time for the FREQuency and PERiod
functions default to 100mS. Specify an aperture time of 10mS for
4½-digits, 100mS for 5½-digits or 1 second for 6½-digits of
resolution.
• Set integration time using the following commands:
[SENSe:]<function>:NPLC <number>
(NPLCs are not applicable for the FREQ and PER functions)
[SENSe:]<function>:APER <seconds>
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
39
Autozero
Autozero applies to dc voltage, dc current and 2-wire resistance
measurements. The multimeter internally disconnects the input signal
following each measurement and takes a zero reading when autozero is
enabled. Autozero enabled is the default setting. It then subtracts the zero
reading from the preceding reading. This prevents offset voltages present on
the multimeter’s input circuitry from affecting measurement accuracy.
• When autozero is disabled (OFF), the multimeter takes one zero
reading and subtracts it from all subsequent measurements. It takes a
new zero reading each time you change function, range or integration
time. You can disable autozero on dc voltage, dc current and 2-wire
ohms measurements only (it is always disabled for ACV and ACI
functions). Autozero is always enabled when you select 4-wire ohms
or ratio measurements.
• The autozero mode is stored in volatile memory. The multimeter
automatically enables autozero at power-on and after a module reset.
• Use the following command to disable autozero or select the ONCE
parameter. The OFF and ONCE parameters have a similar effect.
Autozero OFF does not perform a new zero measurement. Autozero
ONCE performs an immediate zero measurement.
[SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO OFF|ONCE|ON
Ranging
You can let the multimeter automatically select the range using autoranging
or you can specify a range. If you specify an expected value for the signal
you are measuring, the multimeter selects the range to accommodate the
expected input signal and turns autoranging off. Specify a range for faster
measurements to eliminate the autoranging time.
• The multimeter has autorange mode enabled at power-on and after a
module reset.
• Autorange thresholds:
Down range at <10% of range.
Up range at >120% of range.
• The multimeter will provide an overload indication by returning
"9.90000000E+37" if the input signal is greater than the present
range can measure and autoranging is disabled or at the maximum range
setting.
• The multimeter uses one “range” for all inputs between 3Hz and
300kHz for the frequency and period functions. The multimeter
determines an internal resolution based on a 3Hz signal. If you query
the range, the multimeter will respond with "3Hz". Frequency and
period measurements return "0" with no input signal applied.
• The specified range applies to the signal connected to the Input
terminals for ratio measurements. Autoranging is automatically
selected for reference voltage measurements on the Sense terminals.
• You can set the range using any of the following commands:
CONFigure:<function> <range>|MIN|MAX|DEF,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF
MEASure:<function>? <range>|MIN|MAX|DEF,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF
[SENSe:]<function>:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
[SENSe:]<function>:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Math Operations (CALCulate Subsystem)
This sections provides more information about using the math functions in
the CALCulate command. The math operations and registers used to store
mathematical data are controlled using the CALCulate command subsystem.
See Chapter 3, “Multimeter Command Reference”. There are two steps to
initiating a math operation.
1. Select the desired math function:
CALCulate:FUNCtion AVERage|DB|DBM|LIMit|NULL
2. Enable the selected math function by turning the calculate state on:
CALCulate:STATe ON
AVERage Function
The AVERage function allows you to store the minimum and the maximum
reading from a group of measurements then calculate the average value of
all the readings. It also records the number of readings taken since the
average function was activated.
• The first reading that the multimeter takes is stored as both the minimum
and maximum value following activation of the average function. The
minimum value is replaced with any subsequent value that is less. The
maximum value is replaced with any subsequent value that is greater.
• The minimum, maximum, average and count are stored in volatile
memory. The multimeter clears the values when the average function
is turned on, when power is turned off or after the module is reset.
• You use the following commands to activate the average function and
query the results from the group of measurements made following
activation.
CALCulate:FUNCtion AVERage
CALCulate:STATe OFF|ON
Take measurements here.
CALCulate:AVERage:MINimum?
CALCulate:AVERage:MAXimum?
CALCulate:AVERage:AVERage?
CALCulate:AVERage:COUNt?
NULL (Relative)
Function
Selects the average function.
Activates the average function.
Read the minimum value.
Read the maximum value.
Read the average value.
Read the number of measurements.
A null measurement, also called relative, provides the difference between a
stored null value and the input signal. One possible application is in making
more accurate two-wire ohms measurements by nulling the test lead
resistance.
Result = reading - null value
• Does not apply to the DC-to-DC Ratio measurements.
• The null value is adjustable and you can set it to any value between
0 and ±120% of the highest range, for the present function.
• Clearing the NULL value. The null value is stored in volatile memory;
the value is cleared when power is removed, after resetting the
multimeter or after a function change.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
41
Two Ways to Store the
NULL Offset Value
• The null value is stored in the multimeter’s Null Register. You can
enter a specific number into the null register using the
CALCulate:NULL:OFFSet <value> command. Any previously stored
value is replaced with the new value. Use the following commands to
activate the NULL function and input a null value. The calculate state
must be enabled before you can store a value in the Null Register.
CONF:<function>
CALCulate:FUNCtion NULL
CALCulate:STATe ON
CALCulate:NULL:OFFSet <value>
Clears the null offset value.
Set math function to NULL.
Enable math operation.
Store a null offset value.
• Another way to enter the null value is to let the multimeter store the
first reading in the register. After you enable the NULL function with
the CALC:STATe ON command, the first measurement you obtain will
be zero (if you have not stored a value as described in the previous
bullet). The measured value is stored as the NULL offset value and
subtracted from itself to result in the zero reading. All subsequent
measurements will have the offset value subtracted from them. If you
previously stored a NULL offset value using
CALC:NULL:OFFS <value> as in the commands in the above bullet,
the first reading does not overwrite the stored offset value but returns
with the previous offset value subtracted.
CONF:<function>
Clears the null offset value.
CALCulate:FUNCtion NULL Set math function to NULL.
CALCulate:STATe ON
Enable math operation.
** Set up the system to generate the offset of concern (e.g., short
** input leads for 2-wire ohms measurements that will follow).
READ?
Measures and stores the offset value.
dB Measurements
Each dB measurement is the difference between the input signal and a stored
relative value, with both values converted to dBm.
dB = reading in dBm - relative value in dBm
• Applies to dc voltage and ac voltage measurements only.
• The relative value is adjustable and you can set it to any value between
0dBm and ±200.00dBm (well beyond the multimeter’s measurement
capabilities).
• Clearing the relative value. The relative value is stored in volatile
memory; the value is cleared when power is removed, after the module
is reset or after a function change.
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Chapter 2
Storing the dB
Reference Value
Do not confuse this operation with the dBm reference (DBM) function. See
the next section, “dBm Measurements”, and take note of the multimeter's
reference resistance setting (dB uses a reference level, dBm uses a reference
resistance).
• The dB reference value is stored in the multimeter’s dB Relative
Register. You can enter a specific number into the register using the
CALCulate:DB:REFerence <value> command. Any previously stored
value is replaced with the new value. Use the following commands to
activate the dBm function and input a reference value. The calculate
state must be enabled before you can store a value in the dB Relative
Register.
CALCulate:FUNCtion DB
Set math function to DB.
CALCulate:STATe ON
Enable math operation.
CALCulate:DB:REFerence <value> Store a dB reference value.
dBm Measurements
The dBm operation calculates the power delivered to a resistance referenced
to 1 milliwatt.
2
reading
(reference resistance) × (1 mW)
dBm = 10 × log10 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
• Applies to dc voltage and ac voltage measurements only.
• You can choose from 17 different reference resistance values. The
factory setting for the reference resistance is 600Ω. Set your desired
value with the CALC:DBM:REF <value> command.
The choices for <value> are: 50, 75, 93, 110, 124, 125, 135, 150, 250,
300, 500, 600, 800, 900, 1000, 1200, or 8000 ohms.
• The reference resistance is stored in nonvolatile memory, and does not
change when power is removed or after the multimeter is reset.
Storing the dBm
Reference Resistance
Value
Do not confuse this operation with the dB reference (DB) function. See the
previous section, “dB Measurements”, and take note of the multimeter's dB
reference setting (dB uses a reference level, dBm uses a reference resistance).
• Use the following commands to activate the dBm function and input a
reference resistance value. The calculate state must be enabled before
you can store a value in the Reference Resistance Register.
CALCulate:FUNCtion DBm
Set math function to DBm.
CALCulate:STATe ON
Enable math operation.
CALCulate:DBM:REFerence <value> Store a dBm reference.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
43
LIMit Function
The limit test operation enables you to perform pass/fail testing against
limits you specify using the CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer and LOWer
commands.
• Applies to all measurement functions.
• You can set the upper and lower limits to any value between 0 and
±120% of the highest range, for the present function. The upper limit
selected should always be a more positive number than the lower limit.
The default upper and lower limits are both “0”.
• The upper and lower limits are stored in volatile memory; the
multimeter sets both limits to 0 when power is removed from the
multimeter, after the multimeter is reset or after a function change.
• You can configure the multimeter to generate a request for service
(SRQ) on the first occurrence of a failed reading. See the Status
System Register Diagram in Figure 3-1 on page 154. Bits 11 and 12 of
the Questionable Data Register provide the high and low limit error
signals that can be enabled in the status byte to generate the request for
service.
• Use the following commands to activate the LIMit function and input
upper and lower limit values. The calculate state must be enabled before
you can store a value in the Upper Limit and Lower Limit Registers.
CALCulate:FUNCtion LIMit
CALCulate:STATe ON
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer <value>
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer <value>
• The STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition register will indicate when an
upper or lower limit has been exceeded failing either a HI or LO limit
test. Use the STAT:QUES[:EVEN]? command to query the status
questionable register and determine what failure occurred. Sending this
command also clears the questionable data register (or send a Clear
Status *CLS command to clear the register before testing begins).
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Triggering the Multimeter
This section discusses the multimeter’s trigger system and outlines the
different triggering configurations and programming methods used to
control the trigger system. Keep in mind that you do not have to program the
trigger system to make measurements. You can avoid having to learn the
information in this section by using the default trigger configuration set by
MEASure and CONFigure commands. However, you will need the
information in this section to take advantage of the flexibility of the
HP E1312A/E1412A trigger system when using the CONFigure command.
The multimeter’s trigger system synchronizes measurements with specified
internal or external events. These events include software trigger commands,
negative-going edges on the VXIbus trigger lines (TTLT0 - TTLT7), and
negative-going pulses on the multimeter's external trigger (“Trig”) BNC
connector. The trigger system also allows you to specify the number of
triggers that will be accepted, the number of readings per trigger (sample
count), and the delay between the trigger and each reading.
Figure 2-1 illustrates the multimeter's trigger system and the programming
commands that control the trigger system. The multimeter operates in one of
two trigger states. When you are configuring the multimeter for
measurements, the multimeter must be in the idle state. After configuring
the multimeter, the multimeter must be placed in the wait-for-trigger state.
Figure 2-1. Multimeter Triggering Flow Chart
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
45
Triggering the multimeter is a multi-step process that offers triggering
flexibility.
1. You must configure the multimeter for the measurement by selecting
the function, range, resolution, etc.
2. You must specify the source from which the multimeter will accept
the trigger. The multimeter will accept a BUS trigger from the
VXIbus, an external trigger from the front panel “Trig” BNC
connector or an immediate trigger from the multimeter's internal
trigger system.
3. You must make sure that the multimeter is ready to accept a trigger
from the specified trigger source (this is called the wait-for-trigger
state) by issuing a READ? or INIT command. A MEASure command
always uses an immediate trigger (see the flow chart in Figure 2-1 on
page 45).
The Trigger Source
The TRIGger:SOURce <source> command configures the multimeter's
trigger system to respond to the specified source. The following trigger
sources are available:
• BUS: Trigger source is the HP-IB Group Execute Trigger (GET) or
the *TRG common command. Within the HP 75000 Series C
mainframes, the instrument whose trigger source is “BUS” and was
the last instrument addressed to listen will respond to the HP-IB Group
Execute Trigger. The *TRG command differs from GET because it is
sent to a specific instrument not a group of instruments. NOTE: B-size
controllers do not support the BUS trigger (e.g., HP E1306A
command module, HP E1300/E1301A B-size mainframes).
• EXTernal: Trigger source is the multimeter’s external trigger BNC
connector (labeled “Trig” on the front panel). A falling (negative-going)
edge of the input signal triggers the multimeter. The external pulse
signal must be >1µs, +5V maximum to 0V (TTL levels).
• IMMediate: Internal trigger is always present. If the multimeter is in
the wait-for-trigger state (INITiate), TRIGger:SOURce IMMediate
sends the trigger. The MEASure and CONFigure commands
automatically set the trigger source to IMMediate.
• TTLTrg0 through TTLTrg7: Trigger source is the VXIbus TTL trigger
lines. The multimeter is triggered on the falling (negative- going) edge
of a TTL input signal. NOTE: B-size controllers do not support
VXIbus TTL triggers (e.g., HP E1306A Command Module,
HP E1300/E1301A B-Size Mainframes).
For example, the following program statement selects the external trigger
BNC connector as the trigger source.
TRIGger:SOURce EXTernal
You can change the trigger source only when the multimeter is in the idle
state. Attempting to change the trigger source while the multimeter is in the
wait-for-trigger state will generate the “Settings conflict” error.
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Chapter 2
Checking the
Trigger Source
Note
External Triggering
The TRIGger:SOURce? command returns “BUS”, “EXT”, “IMM”, or
“TTLTn” to show the present trigger source. The string is sent to the
output buffer.
Note that a CONFigure or MEASure? command automatically sets the
trigger source to IMMediate. You must follow the CONFigure command
with the TRIG:SOUR command to set the trigger source to BUS, EXTernal
or to TTLTrg<n>. The MEAS? command always uses TRIG:SOUR IMM.
Use TRIGger:SOURce EXTernal to set the trigger source to external.
• The trigger signal must be a low-true pulse with a pulse width greater
than 1µs. The trigger signal level accepted is TTL (+5V maximum
negative-going to 0V). See the following diagram for the “Trig” input
requirement. The diagram also shows the “VM Complete” output you
can use to synchronize with a switch module.
• The multimeter takes one reading (or the number specified by
SAMPle:COUNt) for each external trigger received on the front panel
“Trig” BNC connector.
Internal Triggering
The trigger signal is always present in the internal triggering mode. This
mode is selected with the TRIGger:SOURce IMMediate command.
• The multimeter takes one reading (or the number specified by
SAMPle:COUNt) immediately after a READ? or INITiate command.
The multimeter takes only one reading immediately following a
MEAS? command.
• See the triggering process diagram in Figure 2-1 on page 45.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
47
Bus Triggering
The multimeter is triggered from the VXIbus. This mode is selected with the
TRIGger:SOURce BUS command.
• Use the *TRG command from the HP-IB to trigger the multimeter
when TRIG:SOUR BUS is used. The *TRG command will not be
accepted unless the multimeter is in the wait-for-trigger state.
• You can also trigger the multimeter from the HP-IB interface by
sending the IEEE-488 Group Execute Trigger (GET) message. The
multimeter must be in the wait-for-trigger state. Send a GET from a
Hewlett-Packard controller with the following command:
TRIGGER 70903
Note
The Wait-for-Trigger
State
TRIG:SOUR BUS is not implemented on B-size resource managers, such
as the HP E1306A Command Module or the HP E1300A/E1301A B-size
Mainframes.
You must place the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state after you have
configured it and selected a trigger source. A trigger will not be accepted
until the multimeter is in this state. The measurement sequence begins when
the multimeter is in the wait-for-trigger state and it receives a trigger.
You can place the multimeter in the “wait-for-trigger” state by executing
one of the following commands:
READ?
INITiate
Note
The multimeter requires approximately 20ms of set up time after you send
a command to change to the “wait-for-trigger” state. Any triggers that
occur during this set up time are ignored.
The Trigger Count
The TRIGger:COUNt <number> command sets the number of triggers the
multimeter will accept in the wait-for-trigger state before returning to the
idle state. Use the number parameter to set the trigger count to a value
between 1 and 50,000. The MEASure and CONFigure commands set trigger
count to 1.
Substituting MIN for the number parameter sets the trigger count to 1.
Substituting MAX for the number parameter sets the trigger count to 50,000.
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HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Example: Setting the
Trigger Count
In the following example, one DC voltage measurement is made each time the
multimeter’s external trigger BNC connector is pulsed low. After 10 external
triggers are received, the multimeter returns to the idle state.
dimension array
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:COUN 10
READ?
timeout may occur
enter statement
Checking the
Trigger Count
Dimension computer array.
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is external BNC on multimeter front
panel.
Multimeter will accept 10 external triggers (one
measurement is taken per trigger).
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state; make
measurements when external trigger is received; send
readings to output buffer.
May require INIT, monitor the status byte for
completion (standard event bit 0), FETC? to transfer
readings to the output buffer (vs. READ?).
Enter readings into computer.
The TRIGger:COUNt? [MINimum|MAXimum] command returns one of the
following numbers to the output buffer:
• The present trigger count (1 through 50,000) if neither MIN nor MAX is
specified.
• The minimum trigger count available (1) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum trigger count available (50,000) if MAX is specified.
Inserting a
Trigger Delay
The TRIGger:DELay <seconds> command inserts a delay between the
trigger and each measurement. This includes a delay between the trigger and
the first measurement and again before each subsequent measurement when
sample count is greater than one. The <seconds> time parameter sets the
delay to a value between 0 and 3600 seconds (with 1 µs resolution).
Substituting MIN for the <seconds> time parameter sets the trigger delay to 0.
Substituting MAX for the <seconds> time parameter sets the trigger delay to
3600 seconds.
Example: Inserting a
Trigger Delay
In the following example, the multimeter will accept 5 triggers from the
external trigger BNC connector. Four measurements are taken per trigger
(sample count is set to 4) and the trigger delay is 2 seconds.
dimension array
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:COUN 5
SAMP:COUN 4
TRIG:DEL 2
READ?
timeout may occur
enter statement
Chapter 2
Dimension computer array.
Function: DC voltag.e
Trigger source is external BNC on multimeter front
panel.
Multimeter will accept 5 external triggers (one
measurement is taken per trigger).
Take 4 measurements for each trigger.
Wait 2 seconds between trigger and start of first
measurement and each subsequent measurement till
sample count reached.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state; make
measurements when external triggers are received;
send readings to output buffer.
May require INIT, monitor the status byte for
completion (standard event bit 0), FETC? to transfer
readings to the output buffer (vs. READ?).
Enter readings into computer.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
49
Default Delays
If you do not specify a trigger delay, the multimeter automatically
determines a delay time (default delay) based on the present measurement
function, range, resolution, integration time and AC filter bandwidth setting.
The delay time is actually the settling time required before measurements to
ensure measurement accuracy. The default delay time is automatically
updated whenever you change the function or range. Once you specify a
delay time value, however, the value does not change until you specify
another value, reset the multimeter or do a CONF or MEAS command. The
table below shows the default trigger delay times for all functions. This
delay will occur before each measurement (see the trigger system diagram
in Figure 2-1 on page 45).
NOTE: You can specify a shorter delay time than the default values shown.
However, the shorter settling time may not produce accurate measurements.
Table 2-7. Default Trigger Delays
Default Trigger Delays for DC Voltage and DC Current (all ranges):
Integration Time
Trigger Delay
NPLC ≥1
1.5ms
NPLC <1
1.0ms
Default Trigger Delays for 2-Wire and 4-Wire Resistance:
Range
Trigger Delay
(For NPLC ≥1)
Trigger Delay
(For NPLC <1)
100Ω
1.5ms
1.0ms
1kΩ
1.5ms
1.0ms
10kΩ
1.5ms
1.0ms
100kΩ
1.5ms
1.0ms
1MΩ
1.5ms
10ms
10MΩ
100ms
100ms
100MΩ
100ms
100ms
Default Trigger Delays for AC Voltage and AC Current (all ranges):
AC Filter
Trigger Delay
3Hz - 300kHz filter
7.0sec
20Hz - 300kHz filter
1.0sec
200Hz - 300kHz filter
600ms
Default Trigger Delay for Frequency and Period:
1.0s
50
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Querying the
Delay Time
The TRIGger:DELay? [MINimum|MAXimum] command returns one of the
following numbers to the output buffer:
• The present trigger delay (1µs through 3600 seconds) if MIN or MAX is
not specified.
• The minimum trigger delay available (1µs) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum trigger delay available (3600 seconds) if MAX is
specified.
The Sample Count
The SAMPle:COUNt <number> command designates the number of
readings per trigger. The number parameter sets the number of readings to
a value between 1 and 50,000.
Substituting MIN for the number parameter sets the number of readings per
trigger to 1. Substituting MAX for the number parameter sets the number of
readings per trigger to 50,000.
Example: Setting the
Sample Count
In the following example, 10 DC voltage measurements are made when the
multimeter’s external trigger BNC connector is pulsed low. After the
10 readings are taken, the multimeter returns to the idle state.
dimension array
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
SAMP:COUN 10
READ?
timeout may occur
enter statement
Checking the
Sample Count
Dimension computer array.
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is external BNC on multimeter front
panel.
Specify 10 readings per trigger.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state; make
measurements when external trigger is received; send
readings to output buffer.
May require INIT, monitor the status byte for
completion (standard event bit 0), FETC? to transfer
readings to the output buffer (vs. READ?).
Enter readings into computer.
The SAMPle:COUNt? [MINimum|MAXimum] command returns one of the
following numbers to the output buffer:
• The present sample count (1 through 50,000) if neither MIN nor MAX
is specified.
• The minimum sample count available (1) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum sample count available (50,000) if MAX is specified.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
51
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Application Examples
This section contains example programs that demonstrate several applications
using the HP E1312A or HP E1412A Multimeter. The examples described in
this section list only the SCPI commands (see Chapter 3, “Multimeter
Command Reference”) required to perform the application. The programming
language is not included in print but C and Visual Basic programs are included
on the VXIplug&play driver media under the subdirectory “examples”.
HP VTL Software
(VISA)
Application example programs provided with the HP E1312A or HP E1412A
Multimeter are written using VTL 3.0 (VISA Transition Language). VISA
(Virtual Instrument Software Architecture) is an I/O library that can be used
to create instrument drivers and I/O applications. Application programs
written with VTL function calls can use VXIplug&play drivers (or SCPI
commands) in systems that have the VTL I/O layer. VTL allows you to use
software from different vendors together on the same platform. VTL can be
used for I/O application development on Microsoft® Windows 3.1, and is
supported on the VXI, GPIB-VXI, and GPIB interfaces. VISA 1.0 provides
more VISA functionality and is fully operational on Windows® 95 and
Windows NT®.
Example Programs
Example programs are provided on the VXIplug&play media. These
programs have been compiled and tested using Microsoft Visual C++
Version 1.51 for the C programs and Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0.
C Programs
All projects written in C programming language require the following
settings to work properly.
Project Type:
Project Files:
QuickWin application (.EXE)
<source code file name>.C
[drive:]\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\MSC\VISA.LIB (Microsoft compiler)
[drive:]\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\BC\VISA.LIB (Borland compiler)
Memory Model:
Options | Project | Compiler | Memory Model ⇒ Large
Directory Paths:
Options | Directories
Include File Paths: [drive:]\VXIPNP\WIN\INCLUDE
Library File Paths: [drive:]\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\MSC (Microsoft)
[drive:]\VXIPNP\WIN\LIB\BC (Borland)
Example Programs: [drive:]\DSCPI\e1412 (on driver CD)
[drive:]\DSCPI\e1312 (on driver CD)
Visual Basic Programs
All projects written in the Visual Basic programming language require the
following settings to work properly.
Project Files:
Note
52
<source code file name>.FRM
[drive:]\VXIPNP\WIN\INCLUDE\VISA.BAS
If using Windows 3.1, change “spc” to “cps” in the Memory I/O Operations
section of VISA.BAS
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Hardware Used
486 IBM compatible computer running Windows 3.1. The computer has an
HP 82341 HP-IB interface and HP SICL/Windows 3.1 and Windows NT
for HP-IB software. The VXI modules were loaded in a VXI C-size
mainframe using an HP E1406A or B-size mainframe with HP E1306A
Command Module as resource manager connected to the computer via the
HP 82341 HP-IB card.
Making Multimeter
Measurements
This section provides four programs that demonstrate different ways of
making measurements and retrieving the readings. SCPI command
sequences for each program are contained in the boxes. The four programs:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Use the MEASure command to make a single measurement.
Make several externally triggered measurements.
Maximize measurement speed on multiple measurements.
Maximize measurement accuracy on multiple measurements.
NOTE: Review the section titled “Triggering the Multimeter” beginning on
page 45 to fully understand the triggering system.
MEASure Command
The simplest measurement method is using the MEASure command which
configures the function to be measured, initiates the measurement(s) and
places the reading(s) directly into the output buffer. You then must provide
the I/O construct to retrieve the readings and enter them into the computer.
One MEASure command will initiate multiple measurements if the trigger
count or the sample count is greater than 1. The measurement process stops
when the output buffer fills if readings are not retrieved fast enough. The
measurement process restarts when there is again room to store readings in the
output buffer.
READ? Command
The READ? command requires that you configure the multimeter for the
function you want to measure prior to issuing the command. The command
initiates the measurement(s) and places the reading(s) directly into the output
buffer like the MEASure command. You then must provide the I/O construct
to retrieve the readings and enter them into the computer. One READ?
command will initiate multiple measurements if the trigger count or the
sample count is greater than 1. The measurement process stops when the
output buffer fills if readings are not retrieved fast enough. The measurement
process restarts when there is room to store readings in the output buffer.
INIT and FETC?
Commands
The READ? command is broken down into two operations with the INIT and
FETC? commands. The INIT and FETC? commands require that you
configure the multimeter for the function you want to measure prior to
issuing the commands. The INIT command initiates the measurement(s) and
places the reading(s) into the multimeter's RAM memory. This memory will
hold a maximum of 512 readings. You use the FETC? command to transfer
the readings from memory to the output buffer. You then must provide the
I/O construct to retrieve the readings and enter them into the computer. One
INIT command will initiate multiple measurements if the trigger count or the
sample count is greater than 1. If more than 512 measurements are made,
only the last 512 readings are stored. Use the READ? command for more
than 512 readings since readings are immediately put into the output buffer
and retrieved with an I/O construct you supply. The measurement process
stops when the output buffer fills if readings are not retrieved fast enough.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
53
The measurement process restarts when there is again room to store readings
in the output buffer.
Measurement Format
Readings in the output buffer have the following characteristics:
• Readings sent to the output buffer can consist of two different lengths
(bytes or characters) in Real ASCII format:
±1.23456E±12 LF or
±1.234567E±12 LF
• Each measurement is terminated with a Line Feed (LF). The HP-IB
End-or-Identify (EOI) signal is sent with the last byte transferred. If
multiple measurements are returned, the measurements are separated
by commas and EOI is sent only with the last byte. For example:
±1.23456E±12 LF,±1.234567E±12 LF,±1.23456E±12 LF EOI
• The multimeter’s internal memory stores 512 readings maximum.
MEASURE1
Source Code File
Use the MEAS Command to Make a Single Measurement
*RST
MEAS:VOLT:DC?
enter statement
Comments
Reset the multimeter.
Configure dc volts (default settings) and measure
retrieve the reading from the multimeter.
Enter reading into computer
• The MEASure command configures the multimeter for the function
specified and initiates the measurement. The reading is stored in the
output buffer and you must provide the I/O construct to retrieve the
reading and enter it into the computer.
MEASURE2
Source Code File
Making Externally Triggered Measurements (multiple triggers/samples)
*RST
CONF:VOLT:DC 18
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:COUN 3
SAMP:COUN 10
INIT
FETC?
enter statement
Comments
Reset the multimeter.
Configure for dc volts, expected input = 18V.
Set trigger source to external.
Set trigger count to 3.
Set sample count to 10 per trigger.
Puts multimeter in wait-for-trigger state. EXTernal
triggers occur here to initiate measurements.
Measurements are stored in multimeter internal
memory.
Transfer measurements from the multimeter internal
memory to the output buffer and retrieve them with
the computer.
Enter reading into computer.
• You must provide a TTL external trigger signal to the HP E1312A or
HP E1412A front panel “Trig” input BNC. Measurements are triggered
by low pulses of this signal. Each trigger results in 10 readings.
• The CONFigure command configures the multimeter for the function
specified. This CONFigure command specifies a range parameter of
18 (expected input is 18V; the multimeter sets a range to
accommodate that input which will be 100V). It does not initiate the
measurement.
54
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
• Trigger source (TRIG:SOUR) is set for an external trigger. A trigger
count (TRIG:COUN) of 3 is set; the multimeter will accept three
external triggers.
• The sample count (SAMP:COUN) is set for 10 samples per trigger.
• The INITiate command puts the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state.
The trigger source is an “EXTernal” hardware trigger. You provide this
trigger and input it on the “Ext Trig” BNC connector which initiates
the measurement process. This will cause the multimeter to make
30 measurements; 10 samples for each of three triggers.
• The FETCh? command causes the readings to be transferred to the
output buffer and you must provide the I/O construct to retrieve the
readings and enter them into the computer.
MEASURE3
Source Code File
Maximizing Measurement Speed (no trigger delay, short integration time)
*RST
Reset the multimeter.
CONF:VOLT:DC 18
Configure for dc volts, expected input = 18V.
CAL:ZERO:AUTO OFF Turn off autozero (makes faster measurements).
TRIG:SOUR IMM
Set the trigger source to immediate.
TRIG:COUN 3
Set trigger count to 3.
SAMP:COUN 10
Set sample count to 10.
INIT
INITiate command puts multimeter in
wait-for-trigger state; internal trigger immediately
occurs here and measurements are stored in the
multimeter’s internal memory.
FETC?
Transfer measurements from the multimeter’s
internal memory to the output buffer and retrieve
them with the computer.
enter statement
Enter reading into computer.
Comments
• The CONFigure command configures the multimeter for the function
specified. This CONFigure command specifies a range parameter of
18 (expected input is 18V; the multimeter sets a range to
accommodate that input which will be 100V). It does not initiate the
measurement.
• The autozero function is disabled to speed up the measurement
process. See the CALibrate:ZERO:AUTO command in the Command
Reference for more information.
• Trigger source (TRIG:SOUR) is set for immediate internal triggers.
A trigger count (TRIG:COUN) of 3 is set; the multimeter will accept
three triggers.
• The sample count (SAMP:COUN) is set for 10 samples per trigger.
• The INITiate command puts the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger
state. The trigger source is “IMMediate” which specifies the internal
trigger source. This trigger occurs immediately and causes the
measurement process to begin. This will cause the multimeter to make
30 measurements; 10 samples for each of three internal triggers.
• The FETCh? command causes the readings to be transferred to the
output buffer and you must provide the I/O construct to retrieve the
readings and enter them into the computer.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
55
MEASURE4
Source Code File
Maximizing Accuracy (most accurate resolution, longer integration time)
*RST
Reset the multimeter.
CONF:VOLT:DC AUTO,MIN Configure for dc volts, autorange, minimum
resolution (longest integration time).
TRIG:SOUR EXT
Set trigger source to external.
TRIG:COUN 2
Set trigger count to 2.
SAMP:COUN 10
Set sample count to 10.
READ?
Initiate measurements putting them directly
into output buffer; retrieve them with the
computer.
enter statement
Enter reading into computer.
Comments
• The CONFigure command configures the multimeter for the function
specified. This CONFigure command specifies autorange and
minimum resolution (the smallest resolution value which is the best
resolution). It does not initiate the measurement.
• Specifying a small value for resolution provides the most accurate
measurements. This will increase the integration time (NPLCs) and
therefore require more time for the measurements.
• Trigger source (TRIG:SOUR) is set for an external trigger. A trigger
count (TRIG:COUN) of 2 is set; the multimeter will accept two
external triggers.
• The sample count (SAMP:COUN) is set for 10 samples per external
trigger.
• The READ? command puts the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state.
When the first external trigger is received, the measurement process
begins. This will cause the multimeter to make 10 measurements for
the first external trigger, go to the wait-for-trigger state and take 10
measurements for the second external trigger when received.
• The readings are stored in the output buffer and you must provide the
I/O construct to retrieve the readings and enter them into the computer.
• This example uses the READ? command. Measurements are initiated
with the READ? command which puts the multimeter in the wait-fortrigger state. Measurement occurs when the trigger arrives and readings
are subsequently stored directly in the output buffer and must be
retrieved by the computer with an I/O construct you supply. An
alternative way of initiating measurements is to use the INITiate
command as done in the previous example. Measurements are made and
stored in the multimeter’s internal memory and must be retrieved using
the FETCh? command which transfers the readings to the output buffer.
You must be careful when using the INITiate and FETCh? commands.
Internal memory stores a maximum of 512 readings; the oldest readings
exceeding 512 are lost.
56
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Synchronizing the
Multimeter With a
Switch Module
This program example demonstrates how to synchronize the multimeter
with a switch module. For the HP E1412A it uses the TTL triggers from the
VXI backplane to trigger the multimeter and advance the channel scan list.
The example uses the HP E1476A 64-Channel Multiplexer Module but will
also work with any HP switch module as long as the channel list is specified
properly. Figure 2-2 illustrates the C-size set up. The switch module
(multiplexer) and multimeter use the VXI backplane to communicate the
trigger and VM Complete signals to each other to synchronize the scan.
Figure 2-2. HP E1412A Multimeter and Switch Module Synchronization
Figure 2-3 shows the HP E1312A set up using external triggering. B-size
command modules do not support VXIbus TTL triggers.
Figure 2-3. HP E1312A Multimeter and Switch Module Synchronization
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
57
This example monitors the switch module’s status system. The switch
module’s status system (HP E1476A) is shown in Figure 2-4. This example
program enables the switch's “Scan Complete” bit to allow it to set the OPR
bit in the switch's status byte when the scan is finished. The program
repeatedly reads the switch module's status byte until the OPR bit gets set
which returns a status byte value of 128. This indicates the switch module
has completed all closures in the scan list. The multimeter's FETC?
command causes the multimeter to transfer readings to the output buffer
after completing the last measurement. Readings are entered into the
computer using an I/O construct you provide.
NOTE: This is the HP E1476A Switch Module’s status system.
See Figure 2-5 for the HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter status system.
Figure 2-4. HP E1476A Switch Module Status System
58
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
HP E1412A SCAN
Source Code File
See SCAN1312 Example Program for HP E1312A Code
(The HP E1312A cannot use TTL triggers)
SCPI command sequences for the program are as follows.
**** Set up the Multimeter ****
*RST
*CLS
CONF:VOLT 12,MIN
TRIG:SOUR TTLT2
TRIG:COUN 8
TRIG:DEL 0.01
OUTP:TTLT1:STAT ON
CALC:FUNC AVER
CALC:STAT ON
*OPC?
INIT
Reset the multimeter.
Clear the multimeter’s status registers.
Configure for dc volts, 12V input, min res.
Let switch closure trigger multimeter.
Multimeter will accept 8 triggers.
Use a 10 ms delay before each measurement,
Output VM Complete to switch via TTLT1.
Select the math function AVERage.
Enable math operations.
Wait until above commands are processed. Read the
response to the *OPC? command from multimeter.
Puts multimeter in the "wait-for-trigger" state;
trigger source is TTLTrig2 line OUTPut by the
switch.
**** Now set up the switch module ****
*RST
*CLS
ABOR
STAT:OPER:ENAB 256
OUTP:TTLT2:STAT ON
TRIG:SOUR TTLT1
SCAN (@100:107)
*OPC?
INIT
Reset the switch module.
Clear the switch module’s status registers.
Abort any switch operation in progress.
Enable bit 8 of operation status register.
Enable switch closure to trigger multimeter.
Allow VM Complete to advance the scan.
Specify a switch module scan list.
Wait until above commands are processed. Read the
response to the *OPC? command from switch.
Starts scanning by closure of the first channel in the
scan list; sends output signal to multimeter via
TTLTrig2 to trigger a measurement; multimeter
sends TTLT1 (VM Complete) back to switch module
to advance scan to the next channel; measurements
are stored in multimeter internal memory.
*****************************************************
Read switch’s status byte until all channels are scanned and scan
complete (bit 8 in the operation status register) sets the OPR bit in the
status byte.
*****************************************************
Retrieve the readings from the multimeter.
FETC?
Transfer measurements from the multimeter internal
memory to the output buffer and retrieve them with
the computer.
Retrieve the AVERage math operation response from the
multimeter.
CALC:AVER:AVER?
CALC:AVER:MAX?
CALC:AVER:MIN?
Retrieve the average measurement value.
Retrieve the maximum measurement value.
Retrieve the minimum measurement value.
Check the multimeter for system errors.
SYST:ERR?
Chapter 2
Retrieve the system error response from the
multimeter.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
59
Multimeter Status
System Examples
There are two program examples that demonstrate how the HP E1312A and
HP E1412A Multimeter status system works. In both programs the status
byte is repeatedly read to identify when actions by the Multimeter set the
appropriate bit in the status byte. The computer can identify when readings
are available by monitoring the status byte and can retrieve readings when
they are available.
Figure 2-5 illustrates the HP E1312A and HP E1412A status system. A
Questionable Data Register, an Output Buffer and a Standard Event Register
each have a respective status bit in the Status Byte Register. The Output
Buffer sets the MAV bit when there is data available such as measurement
readings or a response to a SCPI query command. The Questionable Data
Register and Standard Event Register require you to “unmask” the bits you
want to be OR'd into a summary bit which sets the respective bit in the Status
Byte. You must also “unmask” the status bits you want OR'd into a summary
bit to set the Service Request bit (SRQ) if you want to generate an interrupt.
The B-size HP E1312A requires you unmask any bit with the *SRE
command that you want to read with a SPOLL (the HP E1412A does not
require this unmasking). The example programs illustrate this requirement.
Figure 2-5. HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Status System
60
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
SYNCHOPC
Source Code File
This program has the multimeter take 10 measurements. The Standard Event
bit (ESB) in the status byte (see Figure 2-5 on page 60) is monitored to detect
when the operation is complete. Readings are transferred to the output buffer
by a FETC? command and retrieved by the computer following the
indication that the operation has completed. The Multimeter then calculates
the average, minimum and maximum reading.
**** Set up the Multimeter ****
*RST
*CLS
*ESE 1
CONF:VOLT 15
VOLT:DC:NPLC 10
TRIG:COUN 10
TRIG:DEL .01
CALC:FUNC AVER
CALC:STAT ON
*SRE 32
INIT
*OPC
Reset the multimeter.
Clear the multimeter’s status registers.
Enables bit 0 of the multimeter’s standard event
register.
Configure for dc volts, expected input of 15V.
Set number of power line cycles to 10.
Multimeter will accept 10 triggers.
Use a 10ms delay before each measurement.
Select the math function AVERage.
Enable math operations.
Required for the E1312A to detect the bit in an
SPOLL.
Puts multimeter in wait-for-trigger state; trig source
is "IMM"; internal trigger occurs "immediately" and
measurements are stored in multimeter internal
memory.
Waits for all measurements to complete then sets bit
0 in the standard event register (the operation
complete bit)
Loop
SPOLL - read the multimeter’s status byte until bit 5 (ESB) goes high.
End Loop
FETC?
Transfer measurements from the multimeter internal
memory to the output buffer and retrieve them with
the computer.
Retrieve the AVERage math operation response from the multimeter.
CALC:AVER:AVER?
Retrieve the average measurement value.
CALC:AVER:MAX?
Retrieve the maximum measurement value.
CALC:AVER:MIN?
Retrieve the minimum measurement value.
Check the multimeter for system errors.
SYST:ERR?
Chapter 2
Retrieve the system error response from the
multimeter.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
61
SYNCHMAV
Source Code File
This program has the multimeter take 10 measurements just like SYNCHOPC.
Readings are transferred to the output buffer by a FETC? command. The
Message Available bit (MAV) in the status byte (see Figure 2-5 on page 60) is
monitored to detect when the measurements are complete and the Multimeter
has readings in the output buffer. Readings are retrieved by the computer when
the MAV bit in the status byte indicates the measurements are complete and
readings are available. The Multimeter then calculates the average, minimum
and maximum reading.
**** Set up the Multimeter ****
*RST
*CLS
CONF:VOLT 15
VOLT:DC:NPLC 10
TRIG:COUN 10
TRIG:DEL .01
CALC:FUNC AVER
CALC:STAT ON
*SRE 16
INIT
FETC?
Reset the multimeter.
Clear the multimeter’s status registers.
Configure for dc volts, expected input of 15V.
Set number of power line cycles to 10.
Multimeter will accept 10 triggers.
Use a 10ms delay before each measurement.
Select a math function.
Enable the math operations.
Required by the E1312A to detect MAV bit in SPOLL.
Puts multimeter in wait-for-trigger state; trigger
source is "IMM"; internal trigger occurs
"immediately" and measurements are stored in
multimeter internal memory.
Transfer measurements from the multimeter internal
memory to the output buffer and retrieve them with
the computer.
Loop
SPOLL - read the multimeter’s status byte until bit 4 (MAV) goes
high to indicate there is a message available in the output buffer.
End Loop
** NOTE: If TRIG:COUN is too big, FETC? can timeout before
measurements complete. FETC? expects a response before the timeout
interval specified in the program code. Using the previous program
detecting the OPC bit is recommended.
Retrieve the AVERage math operation response from the multimeter.
CALC:AVER:AVER?
Retrieve the average measurement value.
CALC:AVER:MAX?
Retrieve the maximum measurement value.
CALC:AVER:MIN?
Retrieve the minimum measurement value.
Check the multimeter for system errors.
SYST:ERR?
62
Retrieve the system error response from the
multimeter.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
LIMITTST
Source Code File
This program has the multimeter making measurements continuously until
an upper or lower limit is exceeded. The lower test limit is set to 2V; the
upper test limit is set to 8V. Questionable Data Register bits 11 and 12 are
unmasked to allow the LO and HI Limit Test Failures to set the QUE bit in
the status byte. An input less the 2V or greater than 8V will report a test
failure and halt the program.
**** Set up the Multimeter ****
*RST
Reset the multimeter.
*CLS
Clear the multimeter’s status registers.
CONF:VOLT 10
Configure for dc volts, 10V range.
CALC:STAT ON
Enable the math function.
CALC:LIM:LOW 2
Set lower limit to 2.
CALC:LIM:UPP 8
Set upper limit to 8.
CALC:FUNC LIM
Select a math function; set to LIMit.
STAT:QUES:ENAB 6144 Unmask the limit error bits.
*SRE 8
Required by the E1312A to detect QUE bit in SPOLL.
Loop
READ?
Trigger measurement and place response into the
output buffer.
Enter response into the computer.
SPOLL - read the multimeter’s status byte until bit 3 (QUE) goes
high to indicate there is a Limit Test Failure (HI or LO).
Wait 1 second.
End Loop
Check the multimeter for system errors.
SYST:ERR?
Chapter 2
Retrieve the system error response from the
multimeter.
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
63
HP VEE
Programming
Example
HP VEE is HP’s Visual Engineering Environment, a graphical programming
language for creating test systems and solving engineering problems. This
section provides an instrument control example using the “Direct I/O”
feature of HP VEE. Direct I/O allows you to directly specify messages to be
sent to an instrument and to directly read the information sent back by an
instrument. Direct I/O also offers the most efficient I/O performance in
HP VEE.
The example provided here synchronizes a measurement scan with a switch
module. This is the same example previously discussed in this chapter with
programs provided in the C and Visual Basic programming languages.
Device Configuration
You must configure your HP E1312A or HP E1412A Multimeter (and the
switch module) before you can communicate with them.
1. Select I/O ⇒ Instrument... from the menu bar. The Instrument
Select or Configure dialog box pops up.
2. Select the Direct I/O button from the Instrument Type choices. Then
select Add Instrument from the Instrument Configure choices. This
selection pops up the Device Configuration dialog box.
3. Fill in the Device Configuration Name, Interface, Address and
Timeout. Set Byte Ordering to MSB and Live Mode to ON. Then
select Direct I/O Config... The Direct I/O Configuration dialog box
pops up.
4. Verify Conformance is set to IEEE 488 (use default settings for all
others).
5. Select OK to close both the Direct I/O and Device Configuration
boxes.
6. Select the “name” you put in the name field of the device
configuration dialog box now appearing in the instrument list and
press the Get Instr button.
64
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Program Description
The instruments are programmed using Direct I/O objects connected as
required by the sequence of SCPI commands. Reading of the HP E1476A
status byte is performed using the I/O | Advanced I/O | Device Event object
SPOLL whose action is set to ANY SET and its mask set to #H80. This mask
allows reading only the OPR bit of the status byte (bit 7) which gets set by
bit 8 (Scan Complete) from the Operation Status Register when the switch
module completes the scan list. Following the detection of scan complete,
the readings are retrieved with the Multimeter’s FETCh? command and sent
in an array format to an HP VEE AlphaNumeric Display object titled
HP E1412A Measurements. The readings are also sent to a Strip Chart
Display object which gives a plot of the measurements.
Strip Chart Object
In parallel with the HP E1412A Measurements AlphaNumeric Display
object is a Strip Chart Display object that displays the readings of the eight
channels. The Strip Chart has an Auto Scale button to automatically scale
the horizontal and vertical axis to best display the measured data. Upper and
lower boundary traces could be added to the strip chart’s display.
Chapter 2
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
65
See your HP VEE documentation and on-line help for more detail on test
and measurement I/O control. If you are not using HP VEE and are curious
about HP’s graphical programming language, call your local HP sales office
listed in your telephone directory for more information. You can get a free
HP VEE Evaluation Kit containing detailed technical information and a
demo disk that walks you through many of HP VEE’s features and functions.
The following brochures provide additional information about HP VEE:
• HP VEE Visual Engineering Environment
• HP VEE The Most Productive Language for Test and Measurement
• HP VEE Visual Engineering Environment Technical Data
66
HP E1312A/E1412A Multimeter Application Information
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
Using This Chapter
This chapter describes the Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments
(SCPI) and IEEE 488.2 Common (*) Commands applicable to the HP E1312A and
HP E1412A 6½-Digit Multimeters.
Command Types
Commands are separated into two types: IEEE 488.2 Common Commands and SCPI
Commands.
Common
Command
Format
The IEEE 488.2 standard defines the Common commands that perform functions like
reset, self-test, status byte query, etc. Common commands are four or five characters
in length, always begin with the asterisk character (*), and may include one or more
parameters. The command keyword is separated from the first parameter by a space
character. Some examples of common commands are shown below:
*RST
SCPI
Command
Format
*ESR 32
*STB?
The SCPI commands perform functions such as making measurements, querying
instrument states, or retrieving data. The SCPI commands are grouped into command
“subsystem structures”. A command subsystem structure is a hierarchical structure
that usually consists of a top level (or root) command, one or more low-level
commands, and their parameters. The following example shows the root command
CALibration and its lower-level subsystem commands:
CALibration
:COUNt?
:LFRequency 50|60|MIN|MAX
:LFRequency? [MIN|MAX]
:SECure:CODE <new code>
:SECure:STATe OFF|ON, <code>
:SECure:STATe?
:STRing <quoted string>
:STRing?
:VALue <value>
:VALue?
:ZERO:AUTO ON|OFF
:ZERO:AUTO?
CALibration is the root command, COUNt?, LFRequency, LFRequency?, SECure,
STRing, STRing?, VALue and VALue? are second level commands, and CODE,
STATe and STATe? are third level commands.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
67
Command
Separator
A colon (:) always separates one command from the next lower level command as
shown below:
CALibration:SECure:STATe?
Colons separate the root command from the second level command
(CALibration:SECure) and the second level from the third level (SECure:STATe?).
Abbreviated
Commands
The command syntax shows most commands as a mixture of upper and lower case
letters. The upper case letters indicate the abbreviated spelling for the command. For
shorter program lines, send the abbreviated form. For better program readability, you
may send the entire command. The instrument will accept either the abbreviated
form or the entire command.
For example, if the command syntax shows MEASure, then MEAS and MEASURE
are both acceptable forms. Other forms of MEASure, such as MEASU or MEASUR
will generate an error. Additionally, SCPI commands are case insensitive. Therefore,
you may use upper or lower case letters and commands of the form MEASURE,
measure, and MeAsUrE are all acceptable.
Implied
Commands
Implied commands are those which appear in square brackets ([ ]) in the command
syntax. (Note that the brackets are not part of the command; do not send them to the
instrument.) Suppose you send a second level command but do not send the
preceding implied command. In this case, the instrument assumes you intend to use
the implied command and it responds as if you had sent it. Examine the partial
[SENSe:] subsystem shown below:
[SENSe:]
FUNCtion “<function>” (e.g., <function> = VOLT:AC)
FUNCtion?
RESistance
:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
The root command SENSe is an implied command. For example, to set the multimeter’s
function to AC volts, you can send either of the following command statements:
SENS:FUNC “VOLT:AC”
68
Multimeter Command Reference
or
FUNC “VOLT:AC”
Chapter 3
Parameters
Parameter Types. The following table contains explanations and examples of
parameter types you might see later in this chapter.
Parameter Type
Explanations and Examples
Numeric
Accepts all commonly used decimal representations of number
including optional signs, decimal points, and scientific notation.
123, 123E2, -123, -1.23E2, .123, 1.23E-2, 1.23000E-01.
Special cases include MINimum, MAXimum, and DEFault.
Boolean
Represents a single binary condition that is either true or false.
ON, OFF, 1, 0
Discrete
Selects from a finite number of values. These parameters use
mnemonics to represent each valid setting.
An example is the TRIGger:SOURce <source> command where
source can be BUS, EXT, or IMM.
Optional Parameters. Parameters shown within square brackets ([ ]) are optional
parameters. (Note that the brackets are not part of the command; do not send them
to the instrument.) If you do not specify a value for an optional parameter, the
instrument chooses a default value. For example, consider the
TRIGger:COUNt? [MIN|MAX] command. If you send the command without
specifying a MINimum or MAXimum parameter, the present TRIGger:COUNt value
is returned. If you send the MIN parameter, the command returns the minimum
trigger count allowable. If you send the MAX parameter, the command returns the
maximum trigger count allowable. Be sure to place a space between the command
and the parameter.
Linking
Commands
Linking IEEE 488.2 Common Commands with SCPI Commands. Use only a
semicolon between the commands. For example:
*RST;RES:NPLC 100
or
SAMP:COUNt 25;*WAI
Linking Multiple SCPI Commands From the Same Subsystem. Use only a
semicolon between commands within the same subsystem. For example, to set
trigger count, trigger delay and the trigger source which are all set using the TRIGger
subsystem, send the following SCPI string:
TRIG:COUNt 10;DELay .05;SOURce TTLT4
Linking Multiple SCPI Commands of Different Subsystems. Use both a
semicolon and a colon between commands of different subsystems. For example, a
SAMPle and OUTPut command can be sent in the same SCPI string linked with a
semicolon and colon (;:) as follows:
SAMP:COUNt 10;:OUTP:TTLT4 ON
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
69
Multimeter Range and Resolution Tables
The following tables list the voltage and resistance ranges available for the
multimeter. Also shown are the associated resolution values versus aperture time in
seconds or integration time in power line cycles (PLCs) for each range.
Table 3-1. DC Voltage Resolution versus Integration Time or Aperture Time
Integration Time in Power Line Cycles (PLCs)
Aperture Time for 60Hz Line Frequency (seconds)
Range
Maximum
Reading
100 PLCs
1.67s
10 PLCs
167ms
1 PLC
16.7ms
0.2 PLC
3.33ms
0.02 PLC
0.333ms
100mV
120mV
30nV
100nV
300nV
1µV
10µV
1V
1.2V
300nV
1µV
3µV
10µV
100µV
10V
12V
3µV
10µV
30µV
100µV
1mV
100V
120V
30µV
100µV
300µV
1mV
10mV
300V
300V
300µV
1mV
3mV
10mV
100mV
Table 3-2. DC Current Resolution versus Integration Time or Aperture Time
Integration Time in Power Line Cycles (PLCs)
Aperture Time for 60Hz Line Frequency (seconds)
70
Range
Maximum
Reading
100 PLCs
1.67s
10 PLCs
167ms
1 PLC
16.7ms
0.2 PLC
3.33ms
0.02 PLC
0.333ms
10mA
12mA
3nA
10nA
30nA
100nA
1µA
100mA
120mA
30nA
100nA
300nA
1µA
10µA
1A
1.2A
3nA
1µA
3µA
10µA
100µA
3A
3A
900nA
3µA
9µA
30µA
300µA
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
Table 3-3. 2-Wire and 4-Wire Resistance Resolution versus Integration Time or Aperture Time
Integration Time in Power Line Cycles (PLCs)
Aperture Time for 60Hz Line Frequency (seconds)
Range
Maximum
Reading
100 PLCs
1.67s
10 PLCs
167ms
1 PLC
16.7ms
0.2 PLC
3.33ms
0.02 PLC
0.333ms
100Ω
120Ω
30µΩ
100µΩ
300µΩ
1mΩ
10mΩ
1kΩ
1.2kΩ
300mΩ
1mΩ
3mΩ
10mΩ
100mΩ
10kΩ
12kΩ
3mΩ
10mΩ
30mΩ
100mΩ
1Ω
100kΩ
120kΩ
30mΩ
100mΩ
300mΩ
1Ω
10Ω
1MΩ
1.2MΩ
300mΩ
1Ω
3Ω
10Ω
100Ω
10MΩ
12MΩ
3Ω
10Ω
30Ω
100Ω
1kΩ
100MΩ
100MΩ
30Ω
100Ω
300Ω
1kΩ
10kΩ
Table 3-4. AC Voltage: Range versus Resolution
Resolution Choices versus Range
RANGE
100mV
1V
10V
100V
300V
MIN
100nV
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
power-on and
*RST setting
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
10mV
MAX
10µV
100µV
1mV
10mV
100 mV
Table 3-5. AC Current: Range versus Resolution
Resolution Choices versus Range
RANGE
1A
3A
MIN
1µA
3µA
power-on and
*RST setting
10µA
30µA
MAX
100µA
300µA
SCPI Command Reference
This section describes the Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments
(SCPI) for the HP E1312A and HP E1412A 6½-Digit Multimeters. Commands are
listed alphabetically by subsystem and also within each subsystem.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
71
ABORt
The ABORt command subsystem removes the multimeter from the wait-for-trigger
state and places it in the idle state. ABORt is only effective when the trigger source
is TRIGger:SOURce BUS.
Subsystem Syntax
Example
ABORt
Aborting a Measurement
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR BUS
INIT
ABOR
Comments
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is BUS trigger.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state.
Abort waiting for a trigger and place
multimeter in idle state.
• ABORt does not affect any other settings of the trigger system. When the
INITiate command is sent, the trigger system will respond as it did before
ABORt was executed.
• ABORt returns the multimeter to the idle state for TRIGger:SOURce
BUS. The
“Trigger ignored” error is generated when a Group Execute Trigger (GET) bus
command or *TRG common command is executed after an ABORt command
(which puts the multimeter into the idle state).
• Related Commands: INITiate, TRIGger
• *RST Condition: After a a *RST, the multimeter acts as though an ABORt has
occurred.
72
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
CALCulate
There are five math operations available (AVERage, DB, DBM, LIMit, and NULL), only
one can be enabled at a time. Each performs a mathematical operation on every reading
or stores data on a series of readings. The selected math operation remains in effect
until you disable it, change functions, turn off the power, or perform a remote interface
reset. The math operations use one or more internal registers. You can preset the values
in some of the registers, while others hold the results of the math operation.
The following table shows the math/measurement function combinations allowed.
Each “X” indicates an allowable combination. If you choose a math operation that is
not allowed with the present measurement function, math is turned off. If you select
a valid math operation and then change to one that is invalid, a “Settings conflict”
error is generated over the remote interface. For null and dB measurements, you
must turn on the math operation before writing to their math registers.
Valid Math/Measurement Function Combinations
Measurements
Subsystem Syntax
Chapter 3
DCV
ACV
DCI
ACI
Ω2W
Ω4W
Freq
Per
Ratio
AVERage
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
DB
X
X
DBM
X
X
LIMit
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
NULL
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
CALCulate
:AVERage:AVERage?
:AVERage:COUNt?
:AVERage:MAXimum?
:AVERage:MINimum?
:DB:REFerence <value> |MIN|MAX
:DB:REFerence? [MIN|MAX]
:DBM:REFerence <value> |MIN|MAX
:DBM:REFerence? [MIN|MAX]
:FUNCtion AVERage|DB|DBM| LIMit|NULL
:FUNCtion?
:LIMit:LOWer <value> |MIN|MAX
:LIMit:LOWer? [MIN|MAX]
:LIMit:UPPer <value> |MIN|MAX
:LIMit:UPPer? [MIN|MAX]
:NULL:OFFSet <value> |MIN|MAX
:NULL:OFFSet? [MIN|MAX]
:STATe OFF|ON
:STATe?
Multimeter Command Reference
73
:AVERage:AVERage?
CALCulate:AVERage:AVERage? reads the average of all readings taken since
AVERage was enabled (CALC:FUNC AVER and CALC:STAT ON commands). The
average value is cleared when AVERage is enabled, when power is removed, or after
the multimeter is reset. The average value is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Query the Average of All Readings Taken Since the AVERage Math Operation
was Enabled
CALC:AVER:AVER?
Query the average of all readings.
:AVERage:COUNt?
CALCulate:AVERage:COUNt? reads the number of readings taken since
AVERage was enabled (CALC:FUNC AVER and CALC:STAT ON commands). The
count value is cleared when AVERage is enabled by the CALC:FUNC AVER and
CALC:STAT ON commands, when power has been off, or after a remote interface
reset. The number of readings taken is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Query the Number of Readings Since the AVERage Math Operation was
Enabled
CALC:COUN?
Query number of readings.
:AVERage:MAXimum?
CALCulate:AVERage:MAXimum? reads the maximum value found from an
AVERage operation. The max value is cleared when AVERage is enabled
(CALC:FUNC AVER and CALC:STAT ON commands), when power is removed, or
after the multimeter is reset. The maximum value is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Query the Maximum Value Found During an AVERage Math Operation
CALC:AVER:MAX?
Query the max value.
:AVERage:MINimum?
CALCulate:AVERage:MINimum? reads the minimum value found from an
AVERage function operation. The min value is cleared when AVERage is enabled
(CALC:FUNC AVER and CALC:STAT ON commands), when power is removed, or
after the multimeter is reset. The minimum value is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Query the Minimum Value Found During an AVERage Math Operation
CALC:AVER:MIN?
74
Multimeter Command Reference
Query the min value.
Chapter 3
:DB:REFerence
CALCulate:DB:REFerence <value>|MIN|MAX stores a relative value in the dB
Relative Register. You must turn on the math operation e.g., execute
CALC:STAT ON before writing to the math register. You can set the relative value
to any number between ±200dBm (the MIN and MAX values). The dB reference is
stored in volatile memory.
Example
Set the DB Reference Value
CALC:STAT ON
CALC:DB:REF 60
CALC:FUNC DB
Turn on the math operation.
Sets DB reference to 60 dBm.
Select the DB math operation. You can select
the calculate function at any time before or
after enabling the calculate state.
:DB:REFerence?
CALCulate:DB:REFerence? [MIN|MAX] queries dB reference value.
Example
Query the DB Reference Value Set for the DB Math Operation
CALC:DB:REF?
Query the DB reference value.
:DBM:REFerence
CALCulate:DBM:REFerence <value>|MIN|MAX selects the dBm reference value.
Choose from: 50, 75, 93, 110, 124, 125, 135, 150, 250, 300, 500, 600 (default), 800,
900, 1000, 1200, or 8000 ohms. MIN = 50Ω. MAX = 8000Ω. You must turn on the
math operation e.g., execute CALC:STAT ON before writing to the math register.
The dBm reference is stored in non-volatile memory.
Example
Set the DBM Reference Value
CALC:STAT ON
CALC:DBM:REF 135
CALC:FUNC DBM
Turn on the math operation.
Sets DBM reference value to 135.
Select the DBM math operation. You can select
the calculate function at any time before or
after enabling the calculate state.
:DBM:REFerence?
CALCulate:DBM:REFerence? [MIN|MAX] queries the dBm reference.
Example
Query the DBM Reference Value Set for the DBM Math Operation
CALC:DBM:REF?
Chapter 3
Query the DBM reference value.
Multimeter Command Reference
75
:FUNCtion
CALCulate:FUNCtion AVERage|DB|DBM|LIMit|NULL selects the math function
to be used. One function is enabled at a time with NULL the default. The selected
function MUST be enabled with CALC:STATe ON.
Parameter
Summary
• AVERage measurements store the minimum and maximum readings from a
number of measurements. The multimeter records the number of readings
taken since the average function was enabled then calculates the average of all
the readings. You read these values with CALC:AVER:MIN?; MAX?;
AVERage? and COUNt?.
• DB measurements are the difference between the input signal and a stored
relative value, with both values converted to dBm.
• DBM operations calculate the power delivered to a resistance referenced to
1 milliwatt.
• The LIMit parameter enables pass/fail testing on the upper and lower limits you
specify using the LIMit:UPPer and LIMit:LOWer commands.
• NULL measurements (also called relative measurements) provide a reading
which is the difference between a stored null value and the input signal.
• See the section titled “Math Operations” beginning on page 41, for more detail
on the CALCulate operations.
Example
Set the Calculate Math Function to Make Upper and Lower Limit Tests on
Each Measurement
CALC:FUNC LIM
CALC:LIM:LOWer
CALC:LIM:UPPer
CALC:STATe ON
Set calculate function to limit.
Set the lower limit to test against.
Set the upper limit to test against.
Enable the limit math operation.
:FUNCtion?
CALCulate:FUNCtion? queries the multimeter to determine the present math
function. Returns AVER, DB, DBM, LIM, or NULL.
Example
Query the Calculate Math Function
CALC:FUNC?
76
Multimeter Command Reference
Query the calculate function.
Chapter 3
:LIMit:LOWer
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer <value>|MIN|MAX sets the lower limit for limit testing.
You can set the value to any number between 0 and ±120% of the highest range, for
the present function. MIN = –120% of the highest range. MAX = 120% of the highest
range. You must turn on the math operation e.g., execute CALC:STAT ON before
writing to the math register. The lower limit is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Set the Lower Limit
CALC:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:LOW 1000
CALC:FUNC LIM
Turn on the math operation.
Set the lower limit.
Select the LIMit math operation. You can select
the calculate function at any time before or
after enabling the calculate state.
:LIMit:LOWer?
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer? [MIN|MAX] queries the lower limit.
Example
Query the Lower Limit Set for the LIMit Math Operation
CALC:LIM:LOW?
Query the lower limit.
:LIMit:UPPer
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer <value>|MIN|MAX sets the upper limit for limit testing.
You can set the value to any number between 0 and ±120% of the highest range, for
the present function. MIN = –120% of the highest range. MAX = 120% of the highest
range. You must turn on the math operation e.g., execute CALC:STAT ON before
writing to the math register. The upper limit is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Set the Upper Limit
CALC:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:UPP 3000
CALC:FUNC LIM
Turn on the math operation.
Set the upper limit.
Select the LIMit math operation. You can select
the calculate function at any time before or
after enabling the calculate state.
:LIMit:UPPer?
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer? [MIN|MAX] queries the upper limit.
Example
Query the Upper Limit Set for the LIMit Math Operation
CALC:LIM:UPP?
Chapter 3
Queries the upper limit.
Multimeter Command Reference
77
:NULL:OFFSet
CALCulate:NULL:OFFSet <value>|MIN|MAX stores a null value in the
multimeter’s Null Register. You must turn on the math operation e.g., execute
CALC:STAT ON before writing to the math register. You can set the null value to
any number between 0 and ±120% of the highest range, for the present function.
MIN = –120% of the highest range. MAX = 120% of the highest range. The null value
is stored in volatile memory. See the section titled “Math Operations - NULL
Function” beginning on page 41 for another way to store the offset value.
Example
Set the Null Offset Value
CALC:FUNC NULL
CALC:STAT ON
CALC:NULL:OFFS 500
Set math function to NULL. You may choose to
set the math function after setting STATe ON.
Turn on math operation.
Set null offset to 500.
:NULL:OFFSet?
CALCulate:NULL:OFFSet? [MIN|MAX] queries the null value.
Example
Query the Null Offset Value Set for the NULL Math Operation
CALC:NULL:OFFS?
Query the null offset value.
:STATe
CALCulate:STATe OFF|ON disables or enables the selected math function. The
state is stored in volatile memory.
Example
Enable the Currently Selected Calculate Math Function
CALC:STAT ON
The selected or default math function is
enabled.
:STATe?
CALCulate:STATe? queries the state of the math function. Returns “0” (OFF) or
“1” (ON).
Example
Query Whether a Math Function State is On or Off
CALC:STAT?
78
Multimeter Command Reference
Query the state.
Chapter 3
CALibration
The CALibration command subsystem allows you to enter a security code to prevent
accidental or unauthorized calibrations of the multimeter. When you first receive your
multimeter, it is secured. You must unsecure it by entering the correct security code
before you can calibrate the multimeter (see CALibration:SECure:STATe command).
Subsystem Syntax
CALibration
:COUNt?
:LFRequency 50|60|400
:LFRequency? [MIN|MAX]
:SECure:CODE <new code>
:SECure:STATe OFF|ON,<code>
:SECure:STATe?
:STRing <quoted string>
:STRing?
:VALue <cal_value>
:VALue?
:ZERO:AUTO ON|OFF
:ZERO:AUTO?
:COUNt?
CALibration:COUNt? queries the multimeter to determine the number of times a
point calibration has occurred. A complete calibration of the multimeter increases
the count by the number of points calibrated. It is not a record of complete
calibrations. The count is stored in non-volatile memory.
Comments
Example
• *RST does not change the calibration count stored in non-volatile memory.
Query the Number of Occurrences of Point Calibrations
CAL:COUN?
Query the calibration count.
:LFRequency
CALibration:LFRequency 50|60|400 sets the line frequency to either 50Hz or
60Hz.
Comments
• The wrong line frequency setting will cause reading errors to occur.
• You must execute the CAL:LFR command with a parameter of 50 or 400 to
change the line frequency setting to 50Hz. Specifying 400Hz sets line
frequency to 50Hz since 400 is an even multiple of 50.
• Default Setting: 60Hz
• *RST does not change the line frequency setting.
Example
Set the Line Frequency to 50Hz
CAL:LFR 50
Chapter 3
Change the line frequency.
Multimeter Command Reference
79
:LFRequency?
CALibration:LFRequency? queries the line frequency setting.
Comments
Example
This command returns +50 for line frequency set to 400 because 400 is an even
multiple of 50.
Query the Line Frequency Setting
CAL:LFR?
Query the line frequency.
:SECure:CODE
CALibration:SECure:CODE <new code> enters a new calibration security code.
To change the security code, first unsecure the multimeter using the old security code
with CAL:SEC:STAT OFF, <old code>. Then, enter the new code. The calibration
security code may contain up to 12 characters. The security code is stored in
non-volatile memory.
Comments
• The security code is set to “HP_E1412” for C-size (or “HP_E1312” for B-size)
when the multimeter is shipped from the factory. The security code is stored in
non-volatile memory, and does not change when power has been off or after a
remote interface reset.
• The security code <new code> can contain up to 12 alphanumeric characters.
The first character must be a letter. The remaining characters can be letters or
numbers or an underscore. You do not have to use all 12 characters but the first
character must be a letter.
• If you forget or lose the active security code, you can disable the security
feature by adding a jumper inside the multimeter (see Chapter 5 in the Service
Manual). You then enter a new code and remove the jumper.
Example
Enter a New Calibration Security Code
CAL:SEC:STAT OFF, HP_E1412
CAL:SEC:CODE the_new_code
80
Multimeter Command Reference
Unsecure with the old code.
Enter a new calibration code
(a maximum of 12 characters).
Chapter 3
:SECure:STATe
CALibration:SECure:STATe OFF|ON, <code> unsecures or secures the
multimeter for calibration. The calibration code must be the code set by the
CAL:SEC:CODE command. The state is stored in non-volatile memory.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
OFF|ON
boolean
OFF | 0 | ON | 1
none
<code>
discrete
up to 12 characters
set by CAL:SEC:CODE
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• The multimeter calibration is secured when shipped from the factory. The
security code is set to “HP_E1412” (or “HP_E1312” for B-size).
• *RST does not change the state.
Example
Set the Calibration State to Unsecured
CAL:SEC:STAT OFF, HP_E1412
Unsecure multimeter calibration.
:SECure:STATe?
CALibration:SECure:STATe? returns a “1” or “0” to show whether the calibration
security state is enabled (1) or disabled (0). The number is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Calibration Security State
CAL:SEC:STAT?
enter statement
Query multimeter calibration security state.
Enter value into computer.
:STRing
CALibration:STRing <quoted string> allows you to record calibration information
about your multimeter while CAL:SEC:STAT is OFF. For example, you can store
information such as the last calibration date and/or the next calibration due date. The
calibration message can contain up to 40 characters. Characters in excess of 40 are
truncated and no error is generated. The string is stored in non-volatile memory.
Parameters
Parameter Name
<quoted
Comments
string>
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
discrete
alphanumeric
none
• The calibration message can contain up to 40 characters.
• Calibration security state must be OFF to store a string.
• The calibration message is stored in non-volatile memory and does not change
when power has been off or after a remote interface reset.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
81
Example
Enter Calibration Information to Record the Next Calibration Date
CAL:STR ’Cal 4/4/YY, Due 10/4/YY’ Enter a calibration message to record the cal
date of April 4 and next cal due date as
October 4 (YY = year of due date).
:STRing?
CALibration:STRing? queries the calibration message and returns a quoted string
(or a null string “ ” if nothing is present).
Example
Query the Calibration Message
CAL:STR?
enter statement
Query the calibration message.
Enter value into computer.
:VALue
CALibration:VALue <cal_value> specifies the value of the known calibration
signal used by the calibration procedure. See the HP E1312A and HP E1412A
Service Manual, Chapter 5 “Adjustments”, for a more detailed description of the
multimeter's calibration/adjustment procedures.
Parameters
Comment
Example
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<cal_value>
numeric
See the service manual
none
• *RST does not affect the calibration value.
Enter the Known Value for the Calibration Source Signal
CAL:VAL 10.0
Enter calibration value.
:VALue?
CALibration:VALue? queries the present calibration value.
Example
Query the Calibration Value
CAL:VAL?
enter statement
82
Multimeter Command Reference
Query the calibration value.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
:ZERO:AUTO
CALibrate:ZERO:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autozero mode. Autozero
applies to dc voltage, dc current and 2-wire ohms measurements only. 4-wire ohms
and dc voltage ratio measurements automatically enable the autozero mode.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1|ONCE
none
• You can use “0” for OFF and “1” for ON in the mode parameter.
• The ON parameter enables autozero. This is the default parameter which
causes the multimeter to internally disconnect the input signal following each
measurement and make a zero measurement. The zero reading is subtracted
from the input signal reading to prevent offset voltages present on the
multimeter’s input circuitry from affecting measurement accuracy.
• The OFF parameter disables autozero. In this mode the multimeter takes one
zero measurement and subtracts it from all subsequent input signal
measurements prior to a change in function, range or integration time. A new
zero measurement is made following a change in function, range or integration
time. This mode increases measurement speed because a zero measurement is
not made for each input signal measurement.
• Autozero ONCE issues an immediate zero measurement and can be used to get
an update on the zero measurement for a specific input signal measurement.
This helps to increase measurement speed since you update the zero reading
without making zero measurements for every measurement.
• *RST Condition:
CALibrate:ZERO:AUTO ON (autozero enabled)
:ZERO:AUTO?
CALibrate:ZERO:AUTO? queries the autozero mode. Returns “0” (OFF or ONCE)
or “1” ON.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
83
CALibration?
CALibration? performs a calibration using the specified calibration value set by the
CALibration:VALue command and queries the calibration response to verify a
successful calibration.
Comments
• Execution of this command begins the electronic adjustment for the function
and range the multimeter is set to. The adjustment is performed based on the
value stated in the CAL:VAL command and the multimeter expects that value at
the input terminals.
• The command returns “0” to indicate there are no calibration errors and the
calibration was performed. A “1” is returned if a calibration error occurs and a
calibration is unable to be performed. The error message is reported to the
output buffer.
• You must set CALibration:SECure:STATe
OFF <code> to allow a calibration
to be performed. This requires that you know the calibration secure code. The
secure state enabled prevents unauthorized calibration of the multimeter.
Example
Calibrate the Active Function and Range Using the CAL:VALue
CAL?
Perform the calibration.
monitor the status byte to detect calibration operation complete
enter statement
Enter cal response into computer to verify the
calibration was successful.
84
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
CONFigure
The CONFigure command subsystem configures the multimeter to perform the
specified measurement with the given range and resolution. CONFigure does not
make the measurement after setting the configuration. Executing CONFigure is
equivalent to setting the multimeter configuration as follows:
Command
Setting
RANGe
As specified (or AUTO).
RESolution
As specified, or as a function of range, integration
time, or NPLCs.
AC filter
([SENSe:]DET:BAND)
20 Hz - 300 kHz (medium filter)
Autozero
([SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO)
OFF if resolution setting results in NPLC <1;
ON if resolution setting results in NPLC ≥1
Input resistance
([SENSe:]INP:IMP:AUTO)
Applies to dc voltage and is disabled for all other
functions. 10MΩ for all dc voltage ranges.
Samples per trigger
(SAMP:COUN)
Trigger count
(TRIG:COUN)
Trigger delay
(TRIG:DEL)
Trigger source
(TRIG:SOUR)
VM Complete routing
(OUTP:TTLT<n>:STAT)
1 sample
Math function
(CALCulate:STATe)
OFF
1 trigger
AUTO (Automatic delay)
IMM (trigger signal is always true)
OFF (all trigger lines; n = 0 - 7)
After configuring the multimeter, use the INITiate command to place the multimeter
in the wait-for-trigger state and store readings in the multimeter’s internal memory.
Or, use the READ? command to make the measurement and send the readings to the
output buffer when the trigger is received.
Subsystem Syntax
CONFigure
:CURRent:AC [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:CURRent[:DC] [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FREQuency [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FRESistance [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:PERiod [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:RESistance [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:VOLTage:AC [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]] [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
The CONFigure command RANGe and RESolution parameters are optional. You
will get the default range and resolution settings if you do not specify a range or
resolution in the command. You will get these default settings even if you set a range
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
85
or resolution different from the default value prior to executing the CONFigure
command. The following table lists the default settings you can expect from the
CONFigure command for each function.
Default Settings for CONFigure Command by Function
86
Multimeter Command Reference
FUNCTION
RANGE
RESOLUTION
CURR[:DC]
1A
1µA
CURR:AC
1A
10µA
FREQ
FREQ:RANG = 3Hz
VOLT:RANG = 10V
30µHz
FRES
1kΩ
1mΩ
PER
PER:RANG = 0.333sec
VOLT:RANG = 10V
3.33µseconds
RES
1kΩ
1mΩ
VOLT[:DC]
10V
10µV
VOLT[:DC]:RAT
10V
10µV
VOLT:AC
10V
100µV
Chapter 3
:CURRent:AC
CONFigure:CURRent:AC [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the AC current function and allows you to
specify the measurement range and resolution. See the range versus resolution table
at the beginning of this chapter for valid resolution choices for each ac current range.
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
1A|3A|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
A
<resolution>
numeric
resolution|
A
| MIN | MAX | DEF
Comments
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected current. The multimeter then selects the correct range that
will accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 1A; MAX = 3A
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range. See Table 3-5 on page 71 for resolution choices.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters (see next bullet comment). In the autorange
mode, the multimeter samples the input signal before each measurement and
selects the appropriate range.
• To specify the MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify the
AUTO or DEF parameter for range and specify MIN or MAX e.g.,
CONF:CURR:AC DEF,MIN or CONF:CURR:AC DEF,MAX or
CONF:CURR:AC AUTO,MIN or CONF:CURR:AC AUTO,MAX (you cannot
omit the range parameter DEF or AUTO). This prevents the MIN or MAX
resolution from being interpreted as a range setting.
Example
Making AC Current Measurements
CONF:CURR:AC 3,MAX
SAMP:COUN 3
READ?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Function: dc current; range selected: 3A;
MAX resolution: 0.3 mA.
Take 3 readings; trigger source is IMMediate
by default.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurements; send readings to output
buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
87
:CURRent[:DC]
CONFigure:CURRent[:DC] [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the DC current function and allows you to
specify the measurement range and resolution.
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
10mA|100mA|1 A|3 A|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
A
<resolution>
numeric
resolution|
A
MIN|MAX|DEF
Comments
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected current. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept that input.
• The AUTO option for the range parameter enables autorange and will not
accept a resolution parameter but will default the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The DEFault option for the range parameter will also enable autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 10 mA; MAX = 3A
For resolution: See Table 3-1 on page 70 for valid resolution choices for
each range.
• To select autorange, specify AUTO or DEF for range or do not specify a value
for the range and resolution parameters (see next bullet comment). In the
autorange mode, the multimeter samples the input signal before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• To specify the MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify the
AUTO or DEF parameter for range and specify MIN or MAX
e.g., CONF:CURR:DC DEF,MIN or CONF:CURR:DC DEF,MAX or
CONF:CURR AUTO,MIN or CONF:CURR AUTO,MAX (you cannot omit the
range parameter DEF or AUTO). This prevents the MIN or MAX resolution
from being interpreted as a range setting.
Example
Making DC Current Measurements
CONF:CURR 3,MAX
SAMP:COUN 3
READ?
enter statement
88
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: dc current; range selected: 3A;
MAX resolution: 0.3mA.
Take 3 readings; trigger source is IMMediate
by default.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurements; send readings to output
buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
:FREQuency
CONFigure:FREQuency [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the frequency function.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
3E+00
Hz
<resolution>
numeric
3E-04 | 3E-05 | 3E-06
Hz
• The frequency function uses one “range” for all inputs between 3Hz and
300kHz. A frequency measurement returns “0” if no input is applied.
• Range and resolution settings are listed below for the MIN, MAX, DEF and
AUTO parameters and the settings after a module reset (*RST).
PARAMETER
RANGE
RESOLUTION
MIN
3E+00
3E+06
MAX
3E+00
3E+04
3E+00
3E+05
and module
reset (*RST)
DEF|AUTO
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
89
:FRESistance
CONFigure:FRESistance [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the 4-wire ohms function and allows you to
specify the measurement range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100Ω|1kΩ|10kΩ|100kΩ|1MΩ
|10MΩ|100MΩ|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
ohms
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX|DEF
ohms
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected resistance. The multimeter then selects the correct range
that will accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange. The
DEFault option for resolution defaults the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100Ω; MAX =100MΩ
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must
specify the AUTO or DEFault parameter; CONF:FRES DEF,MIN or
CONF:FRES DEF,MAX or CONF:FRES AUTO,MIN or
CONF:FRES AUTO,MAX (you cannot omit the range parameter). This
prevents the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making 4-Wire Ohms Measurements
CONF:FRES 1500,MAX
SAMP:COUN 3
READ?
enter statement
90
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: 4-wire ohms; range selected: 10kΩ;
MAX resolution: 1Ω.
Take 3 readings; trigger source is IMMediate
by default.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurements; send readings to output
buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
:PERiod
CONFigure:PERiod [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the period function and allows you to specify
range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
3.33E-01
Sec
<resolution>
numeric
3.33E-05| 3.33E-06 | 3.33E-07
Sec
• The period function uses one “range” for all inputs between 0.33 seconds and
3.3µSec. A period measurement will return “0” if no input is applied.
• Range and resolution settings are listed below for the MIN, MAX, DEF and
AUTO parameters and the settings after a module reset (*RST).
PARAMETER
RANGE
RESOLUTION
MIN
3.33E-01
3.33E-07
MAX
3.33E-01
3.33E-05
3.33E-01
3.33E-06
and module
reset (*RST)
DEF|AUTO
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
91
:RESistance
CONFigure:RESistance [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the 2-wire ohms function and allows you to
specify the range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100Ω|1kΩ|10kΩ| 100kΩ|1MΩ|
10MΩ|100MΩ|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
ohms
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX|DEF
ohms
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected resistance. The multimeter then selects the correct range
that will accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange. The
DEFault option for resolution defaults the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100Ω; MAX =100MΩ
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
AUTO or DEFault for range; CONF:RES DEF,MIN or CONF:RES DEF,MAX
or CONF:RES AUTO,MIN or CONF:RES AUTO,MAX (you cannot omit the
range parameter). This prevents the MIN or MAX resolution from being
interpreted as a range setting.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making 2-Wire Ohms Measurements
CONF:RES 850,MAX
SAMP:COUN 3
INIT
FETC?
enter statement
92
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: 2-wire ohms; range selected: 1kΩ;
MAX resolution: 0.1Ω.
Take 3 readings.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state;
store readings in internal memory; trigger
source is IMMediate by default.
Place readings in output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
:VOLTage:AC
CONFigure:VOLTage:AC [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the AC-coupled RMS voltage function and
allows you to specify the range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
0.1V|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
volts
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range that
will accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange. The
DEFault option for resolution defaults the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range:
For range: MIN = 0.1V; MAX = 300V.
For resolution: See Table 3-4 on page 71 for valid resolution choices for
each range.
• To select autorange, specify AUTO or DEF for range or do not specify a value
for the range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
AUTO or DEFault for range; CONF:VOLT:AC DEF,MIN or
CONF:VOLT:AC DEF,MAX or CONF:VOLT:AC AUTO,MIN or
CONF:VOLT:AC AUTO,MAX (you cannot omit the range parameter). This
prevents the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting.
Example
Making AC Voltage Measurements
CONF:VOLT:AC 0.54,MAX
SAMP:COUN 3
READ?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Function: AC volts; range selected: 1A;
MAX resolution: 100 µA.
Take 3 readings; source is IMMediate by
default.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurements; send readings to output
buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
93
[:VOLTage[:DC]]
CONFigure[:VOLTage[:DC]] [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the DC voltage function and allows you to
specify the range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
volts
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange. The
DEFault option for resolution defaults the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum value for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100mV; MAX = 300V.
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range. See Table 3-1 on page 70 for valid resolution choices for
each range.
• To select autorange, specify DEFault for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
AUTO or DEFault for range; CONF:VOLT:DC DEF,MIN or
CONF:VOLT:DC DEF,MAX or CONF:VOLT:DC AUTO,MIN or
CONF:VOLT:DC AUTO,MAX (you cannot omit the range parameter). This
prevents the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making DC Voltage Measurements
CONF:VOLT 0.825,MAX
SAMP:COUN 3
INIT
FETC?
enter statement
94
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: DC voltage; range selected: 1A;
MAX resolution: 100 µA.
Take 3 readings.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state;
store readings in internal memory; trigger
source is IMMediate by default.
Place readings in output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio
CONFigure[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] configures the multimeter for dc:dc ratio
measurements with the specified range and resolution.
DC:DC RATIO =
dc signal voltage
Hi and LO input
------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------dc reference voltage Sense HI and LO input
The ratio is calculated from the voltage applied to the HI and LO input terminals
divided by the reference voltage applied to the “Sense” HI and LO terminals.
Autoranging is automatically selected for the reference voltage measurement on the
“Sense” HI and LO terminals. The specified range in the command applies to the
signal connected to the HI and LO input terminals.
Note
Autorange on the “Sense” terminals is from 100mV to 10V range only. Maximum
voltage you can apply to the “Sense” terminals is 10V.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
(HI-LO input)
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
volts
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange. The
DEFault option for resolution defaults the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100mV; MAX = 300V.
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
95
CONFigure?
The CONFigure? command queries the multimeter to return the configuration set by
the most recent CONFigure or MEASure command.
It returns a quoted string to the output buffer in the following format:
“<function> <parameter>,<parameter>”
Subsystem Syntax
Comments
CONFigure?
• When the multimeter is configured for current, voltage or resistance
measurements, CONFigure? returns the function followed by the selected
range and resolution. For example:
“CURR:AC +1.000000E+00,1.000000E-05”
“CURR +1.000000E+00,1.000000E-05”
“VOLT:AC +2.000000E+02,1.000000E-06”
“VOLT +3.000000E+02,1.000000E-06”
“FRES +100.0000E+03,1.000000E-05”
“RES +1.000000E+03,1.000000E-03”
“FREQ +3.000000+00,3.000000E-05”
“PER +3.333330E-01,3.333330E-06”
• If you specify DEF, MIN, or MAX for the range or resolution parameters in
CONFigure or MEASure, the CONFigure? command returns the selected
value.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, MEASure
Example
Querying the Multimeter Configuration
dimension string array
CONF:FRES 900,MAX
CONF?
enter statement
Dimension computer array to store string.
Function: 4-wire ohms; range selected: 1kΩ;
MAX resolution: 100mΩ.
Query configuration.
Enter string into computer.
String Returned:
“FRES +1.000000E+003,9.999999E-02”
96
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
DATA
The multimeter can store up to 512 readings in internal memory. The DATA
command allows you to determine how many readings are currently stored.
Subsystem Syntax
DATA
:POINts?
:POINts?
The INITiate command uses internal memory to store readings prior to a FETCh?
command e.g., when a measurement is initiated by the INITiate command. You can
query the number of stored readings in memory by sending the DATA:POINts?
command.
Comments
• INITiate command uses internal memory to store readings prior to using a
FETCh? command. You use the DATA:POINts? command to query the
number of readings stored in internal memory to determine the amount of data
space to allocate on your computer to receive the data.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
97
FETCh?
The FETCh? command retrieves measurements stored in the module’s internal
memory by the most recent INITiate command and places them in the output buffer.
This command is most commonly used with CONFigure.
Subsystem Syntax
FETCh?
Comments
Execute INITiate before sending the FETCh? command to place the multimeter in the
wait-for-trigger state. If the multimeter has not taken any data (i.e., if INITiate has
not been executed), or if settings have been altered since the last FETCh? (i.e.,
changing function or range), the “Data corrupt or stale” error will be generated.
Note
If you do not alter settings, you could “FETCh?” the same data over and over again
without error.
• Readings sent to the output buffer can consist of two different lengths
(bytes or characters) in Real ASCII format:
±1.23456E±12 LF or
±1.234567E±12 LF
• Each measurement is terminated with a Line Feed (LF). The HP-IB
End-or-Identify (EOI) signal is sent with the last byte transferred. If multiple
measurements are returned, the measurements are separated by commas and
EOI is sent only with the last byte. For example:
±1.23456E±12 LF,±1.234567E±12 LF,±1.23456E±12 LF EOI
• The Multimeter’s internal memory stores 512 readings maximum.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, INITiate, READ?
• *RST Condition: Executing FETCh? after a *RST generates error “Data
corrupt or stale” (*RST places the multimeter in the idle state).
Example
Transferring Stored Readings to Output Buffer
dimension array
CONF:VOLT:DC
SAMP:COUN 100
INIT
FETC?
enter statement
98
Multimeter Command Reference
Dimension computer array to store
100 readings.
Function: DC voltage.
100 readings per trigger.
Store readings in internal memory; trigger
source is IMMediate by default.
Place readings in output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
INITiate
The INITiate command subsystem places the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state.
This command is most commonly used with CONFigure. See the section titled
“Triggering the Multimeter” beginning on page 45 for a complete description of the
HP E1312A and HP E1412 trigger system which discusses the wait-for-trigger state.
Subsystem Syntax
INITiate
[:IMMediate]
[:IMMediate]
INITiate[:IMMediate] places the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state. When a
trigger is received, readings are placed in multimeter internal memory.
Comments
• After the trigger system is initiated using INITiate, use the TRIGger command
subsystem to control the behavior of the trigger system.
• If TRIGger:SOURce is IMMediate, the measurement starts and readings are
stored in internal memory as soon as INITiate is executed. Readings stored in
memory from previous commands are replaced by the new readings.
• To transfer readings from memory to the output buffer, use the FETCh?
command.
• If TRIGger:SOURce is not IMMediate, the measurement starts as soon as a
trigger is received either from the external BNC connector, the VXIbus
backplane (TTLT<n> trigger lines) or a BUS trigger.
• The READ? command executes INITiate implicitly. The MEASure command
executes READ? implicitly. Executing READ? outputs data directly to the
output buffer, bypassing the multimeter’s internal memory.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, FETCh?, READ?
• *RST Condition: *RST places the multimeter in the idle state.
Example
Placing Multimeter in Wait-For-Trigger State
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
INIT
FETC?
INIT
Chapter 3
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is the external BNC on the
multimeter.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state;
store readings in internal memory when ext
trigger is received.
Place readings in output buffer.
You must re-initiate the wait-for-trigger state
after each trigger cycle.
Multimeter Command Reference
99
INPut
The INPut command enables or disables the automatic input impedance mode for DC
voltage measurements.
Subsystem Syntax
INPut
:IMPedance:AUTO OFF|ON
:IMPedance:AUTO?
:IMPedance:AUTO
INPut:IMPedance:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the automatic input
impedance mode for DC voltage measurements. When disabled (AUTO OFF), the
multimeter maintains its input impedance of 10MΩ for all DC voltage ranges. This
is useful to prevent a change in input impedance, caused by changing ranges, from
affecting the measurements.
Parameters
Example
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
None
mode (Impedance)
AUTO OFF
(10MΩ)
AUTO ON (>10GΩ)
Range for
Impedance
all ranges
100mV, 1V and 10V
(other ranges are at 10MΩ)
Enable Automatic Input Impedance (use >10GΩ for 100mV, 1V and 10V ranges)
INP:IMP:AUTO ON
Comments
Enable automatic input impedance.
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• *RST Conditions: INP:IMP:AUTO OFF
:IMPedance:AUTO?
INPut:IMPedance:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the automatic input
impedance mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The number is sent
to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Input Impedance Mode
INP:IMP:AUTO ON
INP:IMP:AUTO?
enter statement
100
Multimeter Command Reference
Enable automatic input impedance.
Query multimeter to return input impedance
mode (“1”).
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
MEASure
The MEASure command subsystem configures the multimeter to perform the
specified measurement with the given range and resolution. When the multimeter is
triggered, MEASure makes the measurement and sends the readings to the output
buffer.
Executing MEASure is equivalent to configuring the multimeter with the low-level
commands shown in the following table.:
Command
Subsystem Syntax
Chapter 3
Setting
RANGe
As specified (or AUTO).
RESolution
As specified, or as a function of range, integration
time, or NPLCs.
AC filter
([SENSe:]DET:BAND)
20 Hz - 300 kHz (medium filter)
Autozero
([SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO)
OFF if resolution setting results in NPLC <1;
ON if resolution setting results in NPLC ≥1
Input resistance
([SENSe:]INP:IMP:AUTO)
Applies to dc voltage and is disabled for all other
functions. 10MΩ for all dc voltage ranges.
Samples per trigger
(SAMP:COUN)
Trigger count
(TRIG:COUN)
Trigger delay
(TRIG:DEL)
Trigger source
(TRIG:SOUR)
1 sample
Math function
(CALCulate:STATe)
OFF
1 trigger
AUTO (Automatic delay)
IMM (trigger signal is always true)
MEASure
:CURRent:AC? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:CURRent[:DC]? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FREQuency? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FRESistance? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:PERiod? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:RESistance? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:VOLTage:AC? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]]? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
Multimeter Command Reference
101
:CURRent:AC?
MEASure:CURRent:AC? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the AC current function and allows you to
specify the measurement range and resolution (see range versus resolution table at
start of chapter).
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
1A|3A|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
A
<resolution>
numeric
resolution|
A
| MIN | MAX | DEF
Comments
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected current. The multimeter then selects the correct range that
will accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 1A; MAX = 3A
For resolution: see Table 3-5 on page 71 for resolution choices.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
parameter. In the autorange mode, the multimeter samples the input signal
before each measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify the
AUTO or DEFault parameter for the range parameter as
MEAS:CURR:AC? DEF (you cannot omit the range parameter). This prevents
the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting and the
resulting command becomes MEAS:CURR:AC? DEF,MIN or
MEAS:CURR:AC? DEF,MAX (or use AUTO in place of DEF).
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making AC Current Measurements
MEAS:CURR:AC? 1,MAX
102
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: AC Current; range selected: 1A;
MAX resolution: 1.0E-04 A.
Chapter 3
:CURRent[:DC]?
MEASure:CURRent[:DC]? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the DC current function and allows you to
specify the measurement range and resolution.
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
10mA|100mA|1 A|3 A|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
A
<resolution>
numeric
resolution|
A
MIN|MAX|DEF
Comments
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected current. The multimeter then selects the correct range that
will accept the input.
• The AUTO option for the range parameter enables autorange. The DEF option
for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to 10 PLC.
• The DEFault option for the range parameter will also enable autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 10mA; MAX = 3A
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify the
AUTO or DEFault parameter for range as MEAS:CURR:DC? AUTO or
MEAS:CURR:DC? DEF (you cannot omit the range parameter). This prevents
the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting and the
resulting command becomes MEAS:CURR:DC? DEF,MIN or
MEAS:CURR:DC? DEF,MAX (or use AUTO in place of DEF).
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making DC Current Measurements
MEAS:CURR:DC? .1,MAX
Chapter 3
Function: DC current; range selected: 1A
MAX resolution: 1.0E-05A.
Multimeter Command Reference
103
:FREQuency?
MEASure:FREQuency? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the frequency function and uses one range
for all inputs between 3Hz and 300kHz.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
3E+00
Hz
<resolution>
numeric
3E-04 | 3E-05 | 3E-06
Hz
• The frequency function uses one “range” for all inputs between 3Hz and
300kHz. Querying the range will always return “3E+00”. A frequency
measurement returns “0” if no input is applied.
• Range and resolution settings are listed below for the MIN, MAX, DEF and
AUTO parameters and after a module reset (*RST).
PARAMETER
RANGE
RESOLUTION
MIN
3E+00
3E+06
MAX
3E+00
3E+04
3E+00
3E+05
and module
reset (*RST)
DEF|AUTO
104
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
:FRESistance?
MEASure:FRESistance? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the 4-wire ohms function and allows you to
specify the measurement range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100Ω|1kΩ|10kΩ|100kΩ|1MΩ
|10MΩ|100MΩ|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
ohms
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX|DEF
ohms
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected resistance. The multimeter then selects the correct range
that will accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100Ω; MAX =100MΩ
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
• To select autorange, specify AUTO or DEF for range or do not specify a value
for the range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
MEAS:FRES? DEF (you cannot omit the range parameter). This prevents the
MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting and the
resulting command becomes MEAS:FRES? DEF,MIN or
MEAS:FRES? DEF,MAX.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making 4-Wire Ohms Measurements
MEAS:FRES? 1500,MAX
Chapter 3
Function: 4-wire ohms; range selected: 10kW;
MAX resolution: 1Ω.
Multimeter Command Reference
105
:PERiod?
MEASure:PERiod? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the period function and allows you to specify
range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
3.33E-01
Sec
<resolution>
numeric
3.33E-05| 3.33E-06 | 3.33E-07
Sec
• The period function uses one “range” for all inputs between 0.33 seconds and
3.3µSec. A period measurement will return “0” if no input is applied.
• Range and resolution settings are listed below for the MIN, MAX, DEF and
AUTO parameters and after a module reset (*RST).
PARAMETER
RANGE
RESOLUTION
MIN
3.33E-01
3.33E-07
MAX
3.33E-01
3.33E-05
3.33E-01
3.33E-06
and module
reset (*RST)
DEF|AUTO
106
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
:RESistance?
MEASure:RESistance? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the 2-wire ohms function and allows you to
specify the range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100Ω|1kΩ|10kΩ| 100kΩ|1MΩ|
10MΩ|100MΩ|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
ohms
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX|DEF
ohms
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected resistance. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100Ω; MAX =100MΩ
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
AUTO or DEF for the range parameter as in MEAS:RES? DEF (you cannot
omit the range parameter). This prevents the MIN or MAX resolution from
being interpreted as a range setting and the resulting command becomes
MEAS:RES? DEF,MIN or MEAS:RES? DEF,MAX.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making 2-Wire Ohms Measurements
MEAS:RES? 1320,MAX
Chapter 3
Function: 2-wire ohms; range selected: 10kΩ;
MAX resolution: 1.0Ω.
Multimeter Command Reference
107
:VOLTage:AC?
MEASure:VOLTage:AC? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the AC-coupled RMS voltage function and
allows you to specify the range and resolution (see range versus resolution table at
start of chapter).
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
0.1V|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
volts
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range:
For range: MIN = 0.1V; MAX = 300V.
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range. See Table 3-4 on page 71 for valid resolution choices for
each range.
• To select autorange, specify DEF for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
MEAS:VOLT:AC? DEF (you cannot omit the range parameter). This prevents
the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting and the
resulting command becomes MEAS:VOLT:AC? DEF,MIN or
MEAS:VOLT:AC? DEF,MAX.
Example
Making AC Voltage Measurements
MEAS:VOLT:AC? 0.54,MAX
108
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: AC volts; range selected: 1V;
MAX resolution: 100µV.
Chapter 3
[:VOLTage[:DC]]?
MEASure[:VOLTage[:DC]]? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] selects the DC voltage function and allows you to
specify the range and resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
volts
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100mV; MAX = 300V.
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range. See Table 3-1 on page 70 for valid resolution choices for
each range.
• To select autorange, specify DEFault for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
MEAS:VOLT:DC? DEF (you cannot omit the range parameter). This prevents
the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting and the
resulting command becomes MEAS:VOLT:DC? DEF,MIN or
MEAS:VOLT:DC? DEF,MAX.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making DC Voltage Measurements
MEAS:VOLT:DC? 0.825,MAX
Chapter 3
Function: DC voltage; range selected: 1V;
MAX resolution: 100µV.
Multimeter Command Reference
109
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio?
MEASure[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]] configures the multimeter for dc:dc ratio
measurements with the specified range and resolution. For ratio measurements, the
specified range applies to the signal connected to the HI and LO input terminals.
Autoranging is automatically selected for reference voltage measurements on the
“Sense” HI and LO terminals with a maximum voltage of 10V.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
volts
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range to
accept the input.
• The AUTO or DEFault option for the range parameter enables autorange.
The DEF option for the resolution parameter defaults the integration time to
10 PLC.
• The MIN and MAX parameters select the minimum or maximum values for
range and resolution:
For range: MIN = 100mV; MAX = 300V.
For resolution: MIN selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the
selected range. MAX selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the
selected range.
• To select autorange, specify DEFault for range or do not specify a value for the
range and resolution parameters. In the autorange mode, the multimeter
samples the input signal before each measurement and selects the appropriate
range.
• To specify a MIN or MAX resolution while autoranging, you must specify
MEAS:VOLT:DC:RAT? DEF (you cannot omit the range parameter). This
prevents the MIN or MAX resolution from being interpreted as a range setting
and the resulting command becomes MEAS:VOLT:DC:RAT? DEF,MIN or
MEAS:VOLT:DC:RAT? DEF,MAX.
• Related Commands: FETCh?, INITiate, READ?
Example
Making DC Voltage Ratio Measurements
MEAS:VOLT:DC:RAT? 0.825,MAX
110
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: DC voltage; range selected: 1V;
MAX resolution: 100µV.
Chapter 3
OUTPut
The OUTPut command subsystem enables you to route the multimeter’s voltmeter
complete signal to the VXIbus TTL trigger lines.
Subsystem Syntax
OUTPut
:TTLTrg<n>[:STATe] <mode>
:TTLTrg<n>[:STATe]?
:TTLTrg[:STATe]
OUTPut:TTLTrg<n>[:STATe] <mode> enables or disables routing of the voltmeter
complete signal to the specified VXIbus trigger line (TTLTrg0 through TTLTrg7) on
the backplane P2 connector.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<n >
discrete
0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7
none
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• The voltmeter complete signal is always routed to the multimeter’s front panel
“VM Complete” BNC connector. When enabled (ON), the OUTPut command
also routes voltmeter complete to the specified trigger line on connector P2.
When disabled (OFF), voltmeter complete is routed only to the multimeter's
front panel connector.
• The multimeter generates the voltmeter complete signal after it has sampled
the input for each reading. The length of time this low-going TTL signal is true
(low) depends on the aperture time and on the autozero mode as shown below.
Aperture Time
Voltmeter Complete Low
Autozero ON
Autozero OFF
320ms (50Hz)
350ms
350µs
267ms (60Hz)
370µs
370µs
20ms (50Hz)
20.5ms
370µs
16.7ms (60Hz)
17.2ms
390µs
2.5ms (400Hz)
3.1ms
430µs
100µs
520µs
250µs
10µs
70µs
• The VXIbus trigger lines are open-collector TTL lines that remain in a
non-asserted (high) state until the voltmeter complete signal is sent.
• More than one TTL output trigger line can be enabled at one time.
• *RST Condition: OUTP:TTLTn OFF
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
111
Example
Route Voltmeter Complete to Trigger Line
OUTP:TTLT7 ON
Route signal to trigger line 7.
:TTLTrg[:STATe]?
OUTPut:TTLTrg<n>[:STATe]? returns a number to show whether VXIbus trigger
line routing of the voltmeter complete signal is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON,
“0” = OFF. The number is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query Voltmeter Complete Destination
OUTP:TTLT7 ON
OUTP:TTLT7?
enter statement
112
Multimeter Command Reference
Route signal to trigger line 7.
Query multimeter to return trigger line mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
READ?
The READ? command is most commonly used with CONFigure to:
• Place the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state (executes the INITiate
command).
• Transfer the readings directly to the output buffer when the trigger is received
(same action as FETCh? but the readings are not stored in internal memory as
with the FETCh? command).
Subsystem Syntax
Comments
READ?
• The READ? command is slower than the INITiate command since readings are
formatted and sent to the output buffer as they are taken. However, the sample
count and trigger count are not limited with READ? since memory is not used.
• This command causes the multimeter to start taking readings as soon as its
trigger requirements are met (same as the INIT command).
• Each reading sent to the output buffer is terminated with a Line Feed (LF).
The HP-IB End-or-Identify (EOI) signal is sent with the last byte transferred.
If multiple readings are returned, the readings are separated by commas and
EOI is sent only with the last byte.
• The output buffer capacity is 128 bytes. The multimeter remains “busy” with a
full buffer until you begin removing readings from it.
• Readings are placed directly in the output buffer and are not stored in internal
memory as with an INIT command. With INIT, a FETCh? command is required
to transfer readings from internal memory to the output buffer. You may want
to use the READ? mode of operation when readings need to be taken at a
continuous rate.
• The rate the controller removes the readings from the multimeter needs to
match the rate the multimeter puts them into the output buffer to keep from
filling the output buffer. The multimeter will quit making measurements until
you remove readings from the output buffer and make room in the output
buffer for more readings.
• Related Commands:
Example
Transfer Readings Directly to Output Buffer
dimension array
CONF:VOLT:DC
SAMP:COUN 100
READ?
enter statement
Chapter 3
CONFigure, FETCh?, INITiate
Dimension computer array to store 100
readings.
Function: DC voltage.
Specify 100 readings per trigger.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurements; send readings to output
buffer; trigger source is IMMediate by default.
Enter readings into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
113
SAMPle
The SAMPle command subsystem operates with the TRIGger command subsystem.
The SAMPle subsystem designates the number of readings (count) made for each
trigger signal received.
Subsystem Syntax
SAMPle
:COUNt <number>|MIN|MAX
:COUNt? [MIN|MAX]
:COUNt
SAMPle:COUNt <number>|MIN|MAX designates the number of readings per
trigger.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
1 through 50,000|MIN|MAX
none
• MINimum sets 1 reading per trigger. MAXimum sets 50,000 readings per
trigger.
• If MAX or 50,000 is specified for number, the command executes without
error. When an INIT is executed requiring readings to be stored in internal
memory, an “Insufficient memory” error is generated to show that the number
of readings exceeds the memory available. However, you can execute READ?
which returns the readings to the output buffer and does not use internal
memory.
• A number >50,000 returns Error -222, “Data out of range”.
• CONFigure and MEASure set the sample count to 1.
• *RST Condition: SAMP:COUN 1
Example
Set the Sample Count
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
SAMP:COUN 10
READ?
enter statement
114
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is external BNC on multimeter
front panel.
Specify 10 readings per trigger.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state;
make measurement when external trigger is
received; send readings to output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
:COUNt?
SAMPle:COUNt? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers to the output
buffer:
• The present sample count (1 through 50,000) if MINimum or MAXimum is not
specified.
• The minimum sample count (1) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum sample count (50,000) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Sample Count
SAMP:COUN 10
SAMP:COUN?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Specify 10 readings per trigger.
Query multimeter to return sample count.
Enter value into computer.
Enter readings into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
115
[SENSe:]
The [SENSe:] command subsystem is most commonly used with CONFigure to
change specific “low-level” measurement parameters. [SENSe:] enables you to
change the following measurement parameters, predefined by the CONFigure
command, without completely reconfiguring the multimeter.
-----
Subsystem Syntax
116
Function, Range and Resolution
Aperture Time and Number of Power Line Cycles
Bandwidth
Autozero
[SENSe:]
FUNCtion “CURRent:AC”
FUNCtion “CURRent[:DC]”
FUNCtion “FREQuency”
FUNCtion “FRESistance”
FUNCtion “PERiod”
FUNCtion “RESistance”
FUNCtion “VOLTage:AC”
FUNCtion “VOLTage[:DC]”
FUNCtion “VOLTage[:DC]:RATio”
FUNCtion?
CURRent
:AC:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:AC:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
:AC:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
:AC:RESolution <resolution> |MIN|MAX
:AC:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:NPLCycles .02|.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
[:DC]:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
DETector
:BANDwidth 3|20|200|MIN|MAX
:BANDwidth? [MIN|MAX]
FREQuency
:APERture 0.01|0.1|1|MIN|MAX
:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
:VOLTage:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:VOLTage:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
[SENSe:]
FRESistance
:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
:NPLCycles 0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
:RANGe:AUTO?
:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
PERiod
:APERture 0.01|0.1|1|MIN|MAX
:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
:VOLTage:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:VOLTage:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
RESistance
:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
:NPLCycles 0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
:RANGe:AUTO?
:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
VOLTage
:AC:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
:AC:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
:AC:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
:AC:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
:AC:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:NPLCycles 0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
[:DC]:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
[:DC]:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
ZERO
:AUTO OFF|ONCE|ON
:AUTO?
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
117
FUNCtion
[SENSe:]FUNCtion “<function>” selects the measurement function. You can
select the functions shown in the following table.
Parameters
Comments
Example
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
<function>
discrete
Range of Values
:CURRent:AC|
:CURRent[:DC]|
:FREQuency|
:FRESistance|
:PERiod|
:RESistance|
:VOLTage:AC|
:VOLTage[:DC]|
:VOLTage[:DC]:RATio
Default Units
none
*RST Condition: SENS:VOLT:DC
Change Measurement Function
CONF:VOLT
FUNC “FRES”
READ?
enter statement
Function: DC voltage.
Set function to 4-wire resistance.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurement; send reading to output
buffer.
Enter reading into computer.
FUNCtion?
[SENSe:]FUNCtion? returns one of the following quoted strings to the output
buffer:
“CURR:AC”
“CURR”
“FREQ”
“FRES”
“PER”
“RES”
“VOLT:AC”
“VOLT”
“VOLT:RAT”
Example
Query the Measurement Function
FUNC “FRES”
FUNC?
enter statement
118
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: 4-wire ohms.
Query multimeter to return selected function.
Enter quoted string into computer.
Chapter 3
CURRent:AC:RANGe
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RANGe <range> selects the range for AC current
measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
1A|3A|MIN|MAX
amps
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected current. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the CURRent:AC:RANGe
command: 1A. MAX selects the maximum range available: 3A.
• You must select a range using CURRent:AC:RANGe before specifying
resolution.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode set by the
CURR:AC:RANG:AUTO command.
• The CURR:AC:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure command on the same function.
• *RST Condition:
CURR:AC:RANG 1
CURRent:AC:RANGe?
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers
to the output buffer:
• The present current range selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only the
ranges available with the RANGe command are returned. For example, if
CONFigure sets the 3A range, 3A is the range returned.
• The minimum current range available (1A) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum current range available (3A) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the AC Current Measurement Range
CURR:AC:RANG 3
CURR:AC:RANG?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Select 3A range.
Query multimeter to return the present range.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
119
CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autorange
function for AC current measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using CURRent:AC:RANGe, autoranging is
turned OFF.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, :DC:RANGe, RESistance:RANGe
• *RST Condition: CURR:AC:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable AC Current Autoranging
CURR:AC:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the AC
current autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The number
is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the AC Current Autorange Mode
CURR:AC:RANG:AUTO OFF
CURR:AC:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
120
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
CURRent:AC:RESolution
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RESolution <resolution> selects the resolution for AC
current measurements. See Table 3-5 on page 71.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX
amps
• MINimum selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the selected range.
MAXimum selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the selected
range.
• You must select a range using CURRent:AC:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, only specify a resolution when making measurements on a
fixed range. Otherwise, the resolution will change to correspond with the range
selected during autoranging.
• Specify resolution in the same units as the measurement function.
• If autoranging is required, set the resolution using the MIN or MAX parameter.
CURRent:AC:RESolution?
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RESolution? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer:
• The present current resolution selected if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum current resolution available if MIN is specified.
• The maximum current resolution available if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the AC Current Measurement Range
CURR:AC:RES 1E-4
CURR:AC:RES?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Select 100 µA resolution
Query multimeter to return the present
resolution.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
121
CURRent[:DC]:APERture
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:APERture <number> sets the integration time in seconds
for dc current measurements. Values are rounded up to the nearest aperture time
shown in the following table.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
seconds
• MIN sets the aperture time to 0.333 ms. MAX sets the aperture time to
1.66667 seconds (60Hz) or 2 seconds (50Hz).
• Setting the aperture time also sets the integration time in power line cycles
(PLCs) and the resolution. For example, an aperture time of 16.7ms (60Hz line
frequency) sets an integration time of 1 PLC. The corresponding resolution
depends on the function and range you select.
• The CURR:DC:APER command overrides the results of previously executed
CURR:DC:NPLC and CURR:DC:RES commands. The last command executed
has priority.
• The greater the aperture time, the greater the normal mode rejection (and the
lower the reading rate).
• Related Commands: CALibration:LFRrequency
• *RST Condition: CURR:DC:APER 0.166667 seconds (60Hz) or
CURR:DC:APER 0.20000 (50Hz)
Example
Set an Aperture Time of 16.7ms
CURR:APER 16.7E-03
Aperture time is 16.7 ms.
CURRent[:DC]:APERture?
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:APERture? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present aperture time in seconds if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum aperture time available (.333 ms) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum aperture time available (1.67 s @ 60Hz; 2 s @ 50Hz) if MAX is
specified.
Example
Query the Aperture Time
CURR:APER 167E-03
CURR:APER?
enter statement
122
Multimeter Command Reference
Aperture time is 167ms.
Query multimeter to return aperture time.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
CURRent[:DC]:NPLC
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles <number> sets the integration time in power
line cycles (PLCs). Values are rounded up to the nearest number of PLCs shown in
the following table.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
PLCs
• MINimum selects 0.02 PLCs. MAXimum selects 100 PLCs. Setting the
integration time in power line cycles (PLCs) also sets the aperture time and the
resolution. For example, 10 PLCs sets an aperture time of 167ms (60Hz line
frequency) or 200ms (50Hz). The corresponding resolution depends on the
function and range you select.
• The CURR:DC:NPLC command overrides the results of previously executed
CURRent:APERture or CURRent:RESolution command.
• The greater the number of PLCs, the greater the normal mode rejection
(and the lower the reading rate).
• Only the 1 PLC, 10 PLC and 100 PLC settings provide normal mode rejection
of 50Hz or 60Hz power line related noise. Fractional PLC settings of 0.02 and
0.2 do not provide normal mode rejection of power line noise.
• *RST Condition:
Example
10 PLC
Set the DC Current Integration Time in PLCs
CURR:DC:NPLC 100
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
CURRent[:DC]:NPLC?
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer:
• The present integration time in PLCs if MINimum or MAXimum is not
specified.
• The minimum integration time available (0.02) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum integration time available (100) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the DC Current Integration Time
CURR:DC:NPLC 100
CURR:DC:NPLC?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
Query multimeter to return integration time.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
123
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe <range> selects the range for DC current
measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
0.01A|0.1A|1A|3A|MIN|MAX
amps
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected current. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the CURRent:DC:RANGe
command: 10mA. MAX selects the maximum range available: 3A.
• You must select a range using CURRent:DC:RANGe before specifying
resolution.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode set by the
CURR:DC:RANG:AUTO command.
• The CURR:DC:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure command on the same function.
• *RST Condition:
Example
CURR:DC:RANG 1
Set the DC Current Range to 3A
CURR:DC:RANG 3
DC Current range is 3A.
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe?
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer:
• The present current range selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only the
ranges available with the RANGe command are returned. For example, if
CONFigure selects the 100mA range, 100mA is the range returned.
• The minimum current range available (10mA) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum current range available (3A) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the DC Current Measurement Range
CURR:DC:RANG 3
CURR:DC:RANG?
enter statement
124
Multimeter Command Reference
Select 3A range.
Query multimeter to return the present range.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autorange
function for DC current measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using CURRent:DC:RANGe, autoranging is
turned OFF.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, :AC:RANGe, RESistance:RANGe
• *RST Condition: CURR:DC:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable DC Current Autoranging
CURR:DC:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the
DC current autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The
number is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the DC Current Autorange Mode
CURR:DC:RANG:AUTO OFF
CURR:DC:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
125
CURRent[:DC]:RESolution
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RESolution <resolution> selects the resolution for DC
current measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<resolution>
numeric
resolution| MIN|MAX
amps
• MINimum selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the selected range.
MAXimum selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the selected
range.
• You must select a range using CURRent:DC:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, only specify a resolution when making measurements on a
fixed range. Otherwise, the resolution will change to correspond with the range
selected during autoranging.
• If autoranging is required, set the resolution using the MIN or MAX parameters.
• Changing the resolution also changes the NPLC and APERture setting to the
values that correspond with the resolution specified.
CURRent[:DC]:RESolution?
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RESolution? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer:
• The present current resolution selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only
the resolutions available with the RESolution command are returned. For
example, if CONFigure selects 10mA resolution, 10mA is the resolution
returned.
• The minimum current resolution available (1µA) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum current resolution available (100µA) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the DC Current Measurement Range
CURR:DC:RES 3
CURR:DC:RES?
enter statement
126
Multimeter Command Reference
Select 3A resolution.
Query multimeter to return the present
resolution.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
DETector:BANDwidth
[SENSe:]DETector:BANDwidth <bw> selects the slow, medium or fast filter based
on the bandwidth you specify. The multimeter uses these three different filters which
enable you to either optimize low frequency accuracy or achieve faster ac settling
times on ac voltage or ac current measurements.
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<bw>
numeric
3|20|200|MIN|MAX
none
-- Specifying a parameter less than 200 but greater than 20 selects the 20Hz
filter.
-- Specifying a parameter less than 20 but greater than 3 selects the 3Hz filter.
-- Specifying a parameter greater than 200 but not greater than 300E+03
(300kHz) selects the 200Hz filter.
-- Any value greater than 300kHz will cause a “Data out of range” error. The
maximum range for all three filters is 300kHz. Specify the lowest frequency
expected in the input signal. The multimeter selects the appropriate filter
based on the table below.
Comments
• The following table lists the filter frequency range and the settling time for
making measurements.
AC Voltage or Current
Input Frequency
AC Filter
Selected
Max Reading Rate for
Adequate Settling
3Hz to 300kHz
Slow filter
1 reading/7 seconds
20Hz to 300kHz
Medium filter
(default)
1 reading/second
200Hz to 300kHz
Fast filter
10 readings/second
• The ac filter selection is stored in volatile memory and returns to the 20Hz
filter (medium) when power is removed or after a module reset. The upper
limit on all three filters is 300kHz.
• The slow filter is 3Hz, the medium filter is 20Hz and the fast filter is 200Hz.
• The CONFigure and MEASure commands select the 20Hz filter.
• *RST Condition: DET:BAND 20 (medium filter)
Example
Set the ac Signal Filter for Fast Measurements From 200Hz to 300kHz
DET:BAND 200
Chapter 3
Selects the fast filter.
Multimeter Command Reference
127
DETector:BANDwidth?
[SENSe:]DETector:BANDwidth? returns which ac filter has been selected. The
value returned is 3, 20 or 200. The value is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Detector Bandwidth
DET:BAND 200
DET:BAND?
Select 200Hz bandwidth (fast filter).
Query multimeter to return the detector
bandwidth setting.
FREQuency:APERture
[SENSe:]FREQuency:APERture <time> selects the aperture time (or gate time) for
frequency measurements.
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<time>
numeric
0.01|0.1|1|MIN|MAX
seconds
• Specify 0.01 (10ms) for 4½-digits, 0.1 (default, 100ms) for 5½-digits
or 1 second for 6½-digits.
• MIN = 0.01, MAX = 1.
• *RST Condition: 0.1 seconds
Example
Set a Frequency Aperture Time of 1 Second
FREQ:APER 1
Sets aperture time to 1 second.
FREQuency:APERture?
[SENSe:]FREQuency:APERture? [MIN|MAX] queries the aperture time for
frequency measurements. The MIN parameter returns the minimum aperture
value (0.01); the MAX parameter returns the maximum aperture value (1).
128
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe
[SENSe:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe <range> selects the voltage range for the
signal level of frequency measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the VOLTage :RANGe
command: 100mV. MAX selects the maximum range available: 300V.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode set by the
FREQ:VOLT:RANG:AUTO command.
• The FREQ:VOLT:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure:FREQuency command.
• *RST Condition:
Example
FREQ:VOLT:RANG 10
Set the Voltage Range for Frequency Measurements to 100V
FREQ:VOLT:RANG 100
Voltage range for frequency measurements is
100V.
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe?
[SENSe:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the
following numbers to the output buffer: 0.1, 1, 10, 100 or 300.
• The present voltage range selected if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum voltage range available (100mV) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum voltage range available (300V) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Measurement Range
FREQ:VOLT:RANG 10
FREQ:VOLT:RANG?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Select 10 V range.
Query the present range.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
129
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the
autorange function for the signal level of frequency measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using FREQuency:VOLT:RANGe, autoranging
is turned OFF.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, PERiod:VOLT:RANGe
• *RST Condition: FREQ:VOLT:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable Autoranging
FREQ:VOLT:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show
whether the autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The
number is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Autorange Mode
FREQ:VOLT:RANG:AUTO OFF
FREQ:VOLT:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
130
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
FRESistance:APERture
[SENSe:]FRESistance:APERture <number> sets the integration time in seconds
for 4-wire resistance measurements. Values are rounded up to the nearest aperture
time shown in the following table.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
seconds
• MIN sets the aperture time to 0.333ms. MAX sets the aperture time to
1.66667 seconds (60Hz) or 2 seconds (50Hz).
• Setting the aperture time also sets the integration time in power line cycles
(PLCs) and the resolution. For example, an aperture time of 16.7ms (60Hz line
frequency) sets an integration time of 1 PLC. The corresponding resolution
depends on the function and range you select.
• The FRES:APER command overrides the results of previously executed
FRES:NPLC and FRES:RES commands. The last command executed has
priority.
• The greater the aperture time, the greater the normal mode rejection (and the
lower the reading rate).
• Related Commands: CALibration:LFRrequency
• *RST Condition: FRES:APER 0.166667 seconds (60Hz) or
FRES:APER 0.20000 (50Hz)
Example
Set an Aperture Time of 16.7ms
FRES:APER 16.7E-03
Aperture time is 16.7ms.
FRESistance:APERture?
[SENSe:]FRESistance:APERture? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present aperture time in seconds if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum aperture time available (.333ms) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum aperture time available (1.67s @ 60Hz; 2s @ 50Hz) if MAX is
specified.
Example
Query the Aperture Time
FRES:APER 167E-03
FRES:APER?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Aperture time is 167ms.
Query multimeter to return aperture time.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
131
FRESistance:NPLC
[SENSe:]FRESistance:NPLCycles <number> sets the integration time in number
of power line cycles (NPLCs). The NPLC is set to a value from the range of values
that can accommodate the <number> you specify. For example, specifying 9 sets the
NPLC to 10; specifying 11 sets the NPLC to 100.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
PLCs
• MINimum selects 0.02 PLCs. MAXimum selects 100 PLCs. Setting the
integration time in power line cycles (PLCs) also sets the aperture time and the
resolution. For example, 10 PLCs sets an aperture time of 167ms (60Hz line
frequency) or 200ms (50Hz). The corresponding resolution depends on the
function and range you select.
• The FRES:NPLC command overrides the results of previously executed
FRESistance:APERture and FRESistance:RESolution commands (the last
command executed has priority).
• The greater the number of PLCs, the greater the normal mode rejection (and
the lower the reading rate).
• Only the 1 PLC, 10 PLC and 100 PLC settings provide normal mode rejection
of 50Hz or 60Hz power line related noise. The 0.02 and 0.2 fractional PLC
settings do not provide normal mode rejection of power line related noise.
• *RST Condition:
Example
10 PLC
Set the Integration Time in PLCs
FRES:NPLC 100
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
FRESistance:NPLC?
[SENSe:]FRESistance:NPLC? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers
to the output buffer:
• The present integration time in PLCs if MINimum or MAXimum is not
specified.
• The minimum integration time available (0.02) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum integration time available (100) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Integration Time
FRES:NPLC 100
FRES:NPLC?
enter statement
132
Multimeter Command Reference
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
Query multimeter to return integration time.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
FRESistance:RANGe
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RANGe <range> selects the range for 4-wire resistance
measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100Ω|1kΩ|10kΩ|100kΩ|1MΩ
|10MΩ|100MΩ|MIN|MAX
ohms
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected resistance. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the FRESistance:RANGe
command: 100Ω. MAX selects the maximum range available: 100ΜΩ.
• You must select a range using FRESistance:RANGe before specifying
resolution.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode set by the
FRES:RANG:AUTO command.
• The FRES:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure command on the same function. The multimeter uses the same
aperture time to set the resolution on the new range as was selected by
CONFigure.
• *RST Condition:
Example
FRES:RANG 1 kΩ (1E+03)
Set Four-Wire Resistance Range to 10MΩ
FRES:RANG 1E+07
4-wire resistance range is 10MΩ.
FRESistance:RANGe?
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers
to the output buffer:
• The present resistance range selected if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum resistance range available (100Ω) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum resistance range available (100MΩ) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Measurement Range
FRES:RANG 100
FRES:RANG?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Select 100Ω range.
Query multimeter to return the present range.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
133
FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autorange
function for 4-wire resistance measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using FRESistance:RANGe, autoranging is
turned OFF.
Example
Put 4-wire Resistance Measurements in the Autorange Mode
FRES:RANG:AUTO ON
Autorange is turned on for 4-wire ohms
measurements.
FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the
autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The number is sent to
the output buffer.
Example
Query the Autorange Mode
FRES:RANG:AUTO OFF
FRES:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
134
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
FRESistance:RESolution
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RESolution <resolution> selects the resolution for 4-wire
resistance measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX
ohms
• MINimum selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the selected range.
MAXimum selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the selected
range.
• You must select a range using FRESistance:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, only specify a resolution when making measurements on a
fixed range. Otherwise, the resolution will change to correspond with the range
selected during autoranging.
• Specify resolution in the same units as the measurement function.
• If autoranging is required, set the resolution using the MIN or MAX parameters
or select a specific integration time using FRESistance:NPLCycles.
• *RST Condition:
FRES:RES 1mΩ (1E-03)
FRESistance:RESolution?
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RESolution? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer:
• The present resolution selected if MIN or MAX are not specified. Only the
resolution values available on ranges set by the RANGe command are
returned.
• The resolution with the smallest value (i.e., the best resolution) for the selected
range if MIN is specified.
• The resolution with the largest value (i.e., the worst resolution) for the selected
range if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Resolution
FRES:RES 0.3E-03
FRES:RES?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Set resolution to 0.3mΩ.
Query multimeter to return the present
resolution.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
135
PERiod:APERture
[SENSe:]PERiod:APERture <time>|MIN|MAX sets the integration time in
seconds. Values for time are rounded up to the nearest aperture time shown in the
following table.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<time>
numeric
10ms|100ms|MIN|MAX
seconds
• MINimum sets the aperture time to 10ms. MAXimum sets the aperture time to
1 second.
• The fastest aperture time available when autoranging is 100ms. In order to
specify an aperture time of 10ms, you must select a fixed range.
• Setting the aperture time also sets the resolution. Aperture time of 0.01 sets
resolution at 4½-digits, 0.1 sets 5½-digits and 1 sets 6½-digits.
• *RST Condition:
Example
0.1 (100ms)
Set the Aperture Time
PER:APER 1E-2
Aperture time is 10 ms.
PERiod:APERture?
[SENSe:]PERiod:APERture? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers to
the output buffer:
• The present aperture time in seconds if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum aperture time available (10 ms) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum aperture time available (100 ms) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Aperture Time
PER:APER MIN
PER:APER?
enter statement
136
Multimeter Command Reference
Aperture time is 10ms.
Query multimeter to return aperture time.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe
[SENSe:]PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe <range> selects the voltage range for the
signal level of period measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe
command: 100mV. MAX selects the maximum range available: 300V.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode set by the
PER:VOLT:RANG:AUTO command.
• *RST Condition:
Example
PER:VOLT:RANG 10
Set the Voltage Range for Period Measurements to 100V
PER:VOLT:RANG 100
Voltage range is 100 V.
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe?
[SENSe:]PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer:
• 0.1, 1, 10, 100 or 300 corresponding to the range set.
• MIN returns 0.1.
• MAX returns 300.
Example
Query the Period Voltage Range
PER:VOLT:RANG?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Query the voltage range for period
measurements.
Enter response into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
137
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the
autorange function for the signal level of period measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using PERiod:VOLT:RANGe, autoranging is
turned OFF.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, FREQuency:VOLT:RANGe
• *RST Condition: PER:VOLT:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable Autoranging
PER:VOLT:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether
the autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The number is sent
to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Autorange Mode
PER:VOLT:RANG:AUTO OFF
PER:VOLT:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
138
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
RESistance:APERture
[SENSe:]RESistance:APERture <number> sets the integration time in seconds for
2-wire resistance measurements. Values are rounded up to the nearest aperture time
shown in the following table.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
seconds
• MIN sets the aperture time to 0.333ms. MAX sets the aperture time to
1.66667 seconds (60Hz) or 2 seconds (50Hz).
• Setting the aperture time also sets the integration time in power line cycles
(PLCs) and the resolution. For example, an aperture time of 16.7ms (60Hz line
frequency) sets an integration time of 1 PLC. The corresponding resolution
depends on the function and range you select.
• The RES:APER command overrides the results of previously executed
RES:NPLC and RESistance:RESolution commands. The last command
executed has priority.
• The greater the aperture time, the greater the normal mode rejection (and the
lower the reading rate).
• Related Commands: CALibration:LFRrequency
• *RST Condition: RES:APER 0.166667 seconds (60Hz) or
RES:APER 0.20000 (50Hz)
Example
Set an Aperture Time of 16.7ms
RES:APER 16.7E-03
Aperture time is 16.7ms.
RESistance:APERture?
[SENSe:]RESistance:APERture? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present aperture time in seconds if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum aperture time available (.333 ms) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum aperture time available (1.67s @ 60Hz; 2s @ 50Hz) if MAX is
specified.
Example
Query the Aperture Time
RES:APER 167E-03
RES:APER?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Aperture time is 167ms.
Query multimeter to return aperture time.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
139
RESistance:NPLC
[SENSe:]RESistance:NPLCycles <number> sets the integration time in power
line cycles (PLCs). The NPLC is set to a value from the range of values that can
accommodate the <number> you specify. For example, specifying 11 sets the NPLC
to 100.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
PLCs
• MINimum selects 0.02 PLCs. MAXimum selects 100 PLCs. Setting the
integration time in power line cycles (PLCs) also sets the integration time and
the resolution. For example, 10 PLCs sets an aperture time of 167ms (60Hz
line frequency) or 200ms (50Hz). The corresponding resolution depends on
the function and range you select.
• The RES:NPLC command overrides the results of a previously executed
RESistance:RESolution or RESistance:APERture command (the last
command executed has priority).
• The greater the number of PLCs, the greater the normal mode rejection (and
the lower the reading rate).
• Only the 1 PLC, 10 PLC and 100 PLC settings provide normal mode rejection
of 50Hz or 60Hz power line related noise.
• *RST Condition:
Example
10 PLC
Set the Integration Time in PLCs
RES:NPLC 100
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
RESistance:NPLC?
[SENSe:]RESistance:NPLC? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers to
the output buffer:
• The present integration time in PLCs if MINimum or MAXimum is not
specified.
• The minimum integration time available (0.02) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum integration time available (100) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Integration Time
RES:NPLC 100
RES:NPLC?
enter statement
140
Multimeter Command Reference
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
Query multimeter to return integration time.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
RESistance:RANGe
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe <range> selects the range for 2-wire resistance
measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100Ω|1kΩ|10kΩ|100kΩ|1MΩ
|10MΩ|100MΩ|MIN|MAX
ohms
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected resistance. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the RESistance:RANGe
command: 100Ω. MAX selects the maximum range available: 100MΩ.
• You must select a range using RESistance:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, in order to specify an aperture time of 10ms, you must select
a fixed range.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode set by the
RES:RANG:AUTO command.
• The RES:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure command on the same function. The multimeter uses the same
aperture time to set the resolution on the new range as was selected by
CONFigure.
• *RST Condition:
Example
RES:RANG 1k Ω
Change the Range
CONF:RES 1320,MAX
RES:RANG 220
READ?
enter statement
Function: 2-wire ohms;
range selected: 10kΩ; MAX resolution: 1 Ω.
Range selected: 1kΩ; MAX resolution: 0.1 Ω.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and
make measurements; send readings to output
buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
RESistance:RANGe?
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers
to the output buffer:
• The present resistance range selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only the
ranges available with the RANGe command are returned. For example, if
CONFigure selects the 900Ω range, 1kΩ is the range returned.
• The minimum resistance range available (100Ω) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum resistance range available (100MΩ) if MAX is specified.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
141
Example
Query the Measurement Range
RES:RANG 100
RES:RANG?
enter statement
Select 100Ω range.
Query multimeter to return the present range.
Enter value into computer.
RESistance:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autorange
function for resistance measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using RESistance:RANGe, autoranging is
turned OFF.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, RESistance:RANGe
• *RST Condition: RES:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable Autoranging
RES:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
RESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the
autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The number is sent to
the output buffer.
Example
Query the Autorange Mode
RES:RANG:AUTO OFF
RES:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
142
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
RESistance:RESolution
[SENSe:]RESistance:RESolution <resolution> selects the resolution for 2-wire
resistance measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX
ohms
• MINimum selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the selected range.
MAXimum selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the selected range.
• You must select a range using RESistance:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, only specify a resolution when making measurements on a
fixed range. Otherwise, the resolution will change to correspond with the range
selected during autoranging.
• If autoranging is required, set the resolution using the MIN or MAX parameters.
• If necessary to achieve the specified resolution, the multimeter will increase
the integration time as needed. This command overrides the results of
previously executed RESistance:NPLC or RESistance:APERture command
(the last command executed has priority).
• The RES:RESolution command overrides the resolution setting from a
previous CONFigure:RESistance command.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, RESistance:NPLC
• *RST Condition: Based on the *RST values for the RESistance:NPLC
command.
Example
Change the Resolution
CONF:RES 1560,MAX
RES:RES 10E-03
READ?
enter statement
Function: 2-wire ohms; range selected: 10kΩ;
MAX resolution: 1Ω.
Set resolution to 10mΩ.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and make
measurements; send readings to output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
RESistance:RESolution?
[SENSe:]RESistance:RESolution? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present resolution selected if MIN or MAX are not specified. Only the
resolution values available on ranges set by the RANGe command are
returned.
• The resolution with the smallest value (i.e., the best resolution) for the selected
range if MIN is specified.
• The resolution with the largest value (i.e., the worst resolution) for the selected
range if MAX is specified.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
143
Example
Query the Resolution
RES:RES 10E-03
RES:RES?
enter statement
Set resolution to 10 mΩ.
Query multimeter to return the present resolution.
Enter value into computer.
VOLTage:AC:RANGe
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe <range> selects the range for AC-coupled RMS
voltage measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the VOLTage:AC:RANGe
command: 100mV. MAX selects the maximum range available: 300V.
• You must select a range using VOLTage:AC:RANGe before specifying
resolution.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode setting
VOLT:AC:RANG:AUTO OFF.
• The VOLT:AC:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure command specifying the same function. With the new range, a
new resolution is also selected.
• *RST Condition:
Example
VOLT:AC:RANG 10V
Change the Range
CONF:VOLT:AC 01.05,MAX
VOLT:AC:RANG 1
READ?
enter statement
Function: AC volts; range selected: 10V.
Range selected: 1V.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and make
measurement; send readings to the output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
VOLTage:AC:RANGe?
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers
to the output buffer:
• The present voltage range selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only the
ranges available with the RANGe command are returned. For example, if
CONFigure selects the 10V range, 10V is the range returned.
• The minimum voltage range available with the VOLTage:AC:RANGe
command (100mV) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum voltage range available with the VOLTage:AC:RANGe
command (300V) if MAX is specified.
144
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
Example
Query the Measurement Range
VOLT:AC:RANG 10
VOLT:AC:RANG?
enter statement
Select 10V range.
Query multimeter to return the present range.
Enter value into computer.
VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autorange
function for AC voltage measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using VOLTage:AC:RANGe autoranging is
turned OFF.
• In order to specify an aperture time of 10µs, you must select a fixed range
(e.g., VOLT:RANG:AUTO OFF).
• Related Commands: CONFigure, VOLTage:RANGe
• *RST Condition: VOLT:AC:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable AC Voltage Autoranging
VOLT:AC:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the AC
voltage autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The value is
sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Autorange Mode
VOLT:AC:RANG:AUTO OFF
VOLT:AC:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
145
VOLTage:AC:RESolution
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RESolution <resolution> selects the resolution for AC
voltage measurements. See Table 3-4 on page 71 to avoid a settings conflict error
when specifying resolution.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX
volts
• MINimum selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the selected range.
MAXimum selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the selected range.
• You must select a range using VOLTage:AC:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, only specify a resolution when making measurements on a
fixed range. Otherwise, the resolution will change to correspond with the range
selected during autoranging.
• The VOLT:AC:RES command overrides the resolution setting from a previous
CONFigure:VOLT:AC:RES command.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, VOLTage:DC:RESolution
• *RST Condition: 1E-04
Example
Change the Resolution
CONF:VOLT:AC 6.25,MAX
VOLT:AC:RANG 0.95
VOLT:AC:RES 10E-06
READ?
Function: DC volts; range selected: 10V;
MAX resolution.
Range selected: 1.0V; MAX resolution: 100µV.
Set resolution to 10µV.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and make
measurements; send readings to output buffer.
VOLTage:AC:RESolution?
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RESolution? [MIN | MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present resolution selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only the resolution
values available on ranges set by the RESolution command are returned.
• The resolution with the smallest value (i.e., the best resolution) for the selected
range if MIN is specified.
• The resolution with the largest value (i.e., the worst resolution) for the selected
range if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Resolution
VOLT:AC:RANG 100E-03
VOLT:AC:RES 1.0E-07
VOLT:AC:RES?
enter statement
146
Multimeter Command Reference
Set range to 0.1 volts.
Set resolution to 0.1µV.
Query multimeter to return the present
resolution.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
VOLTage[:DC]:APERture
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:APERture <number> sets the integration time in seconds
for dc voltage measurements. Values are rounded up to the nearest aperture time
shown in the following table.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
seconds
• MIN sets the aperture time to 0.333ms. MAX sets the aperture time
to 1.66667 seconds (60Hz) or 2 seconds (50Hz).
• Setting the aperture time also sets the integration time in power line cycles
(PLCs) and the resolution. For example, an aperture time of 16.7ms (60Hz line
frequency) sets an integration time of 1 PLC. The corresponding resolution
depends on the function and range you select.
• The VOLT:APER command overrides the results of previously executed
VOLT:NPLC and VOLT:RES commands. The last command executed has
priority.
• The greater the aperture time, the greater the normal mode rejection (and the
lower the reading rate).
• Related Commands: CALibration:LFRrequency
• *RST Condition: VOLT:APER 0.166667 seconds (60Hz) or
VOLT:APER 0.20000 (50Hz)
Example
Set an Aperture Time of 16.7ms
VOLT:APER 16.7E-03
Aperture time is 16.7ms.
VOLTage[:DC]:APERture?
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:APERture? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present aperture time in seconds if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum aperture time available (.333ms) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum aperture time available (1.67s @ 60Hz; 2 s @ 50Hz) if MAX is
specified.
Example
Query the Aperture Time
VOLT:APER 167E-03
VOLT:APER?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Aperture time is 167ms.
Query multimeter to return aperture time.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
147
VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC <number> sets the integration time in power line
cycles (PLCs). The NPLC is set to a value from the range of values that can
accommodate the <number> specified. 11 sets NPLC to 100.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
PLCs
• MIN selects 0.02 PLCs. MAX selects 100 PLCs. Setting the integration time in
PLCs also sets the aperture time and the resolution. For example, 10 PLCs sets
an aperture time of 167ms (60Hz line frequency) or 200ms (50Hz). The
corresponding resolution depends on the function and range you select.
• The VOLT:DC:NPLC command overrides the results of previously executed
VOLTage:DC:RESolution commands (the last command executed has
priority).
• The greater the number of PLCs, the greater the normal mode rejection (and
the lower the reading rate).
• Only the 1 PLC, 10 PLC and 100 PLC settings provide normal mode rejection
of 50Hz or 60Hz power line related noise.
• *RST Condition:
Example
10 PLC
Set the Integration Time in PLCs
VOLT:DC:NPLC 10
Integration time is 10 PLCs.
VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC?
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers
to the output buffer:
• The present integration time in PLCs if MIN or MAX is not specified.
• The minimum integration time available (0.02) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum integration time available (100) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Integration Time
VOLT:DC:NPLC 100
VOLT:DC:NPLC?
enter statement
148
Multimeter Command Reference
Integration time is 100 PLCs.
Query multimeter to return integration time.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe <range> selects the range for DC voltage
measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<range>
numeric
100mV|1V|10V|100V|300V|
MIN|MAX|DEF
volts
• To select a standard measurement range, specify range as the input signal’s
maximum expected voltage. The multimeter then selects the correct range.
• MIN selects the minimum range available with the VOLTage:DC:RANGe
command: 100mV. MAX selects the maximum DC voltage range available:
300V.
• You must select a range using VOLTage:DC:RANGe before specifying resolution.
• Specifying a fixed range disables the autorange mode by setting
VOLT:DC:RANG:AUTO OFF.
• The VOLT:DC:RANG command overrides the range setting from a previous
CONFigure command on the same function.
• *RST Condition:
Example
VOLT:DC:RANG 300V
Change the Range
CONF:VOLT:DC 0.85,MAX
VOLT:DC:RANG 9
READ?
enter statement
Function: DC volts; range selected: 1V; MAX
resolution.
Range selected 10V; MAX resolution.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and make
measurements; send readings to output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe?
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present voltage range selected if MIN or MAX are not specified. Only the
ranges available with the RANGe command are returned. For example, if
CONFigure selects the 1V range, 1.0V is the range returned.
• The minimum voltage range available with the VOLTage:DC:RANGe
command (100mV) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum voltage range available with the VOLTage:DC:RANGe
command (300V) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Measurement Range
VOLT:DC:RANG 1.0
VOLT:DC:RANG?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Select 1V range.
Query multimeter to return the present range.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
149
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autorange
function for DC voltage measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• When autoranging is ON, the multimeter samples the input before each
measurement and selects the appropriate range.
• If you explicitly select a range using VOLTage:DC:RANGe, autoranging is
turned OFF.
• In order to specify an aperture time of 10µs, you must select a fixed range
(e.g., VOLT:DC:RANG:AUTO OFF).
• Related Commands: CONFigure, VOLTage:RANGe
• *RST Condition: VOLT:DC:RANG:AUTO ON
Example
Disable Autoranging
VOLT:DC:RANG:AUTO OFF
Disable autorange.
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the
autorange mode is enabled or disabled: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The value is sent to
the output buffer.
Example
Query the Autorange Mode
VOLT:DC:RANG:AUTO OFF
VOLT:DC:RANG:AUTO?
enter statement
150
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable autorange.
Query multimeter to return autorange mode.
Enter value into computer.
Chapter 3
VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution <resolution> selects the resolution for DC
voltage measurements.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<resolution>
numeric
resolution |MIN|MAX
volts
• MINimum selects the best resolution (the smallest value) for the selected range.
MAXimum selects the worst resolution (the largest value) for the selected range.
• You must select a range using VOLTage:DC:RANGe before specifying
resolution. Also, only specify a resolution when making measurements on a
fixed range. Otherwise, the resolution will change to correspond with the range
selected during autoranging.
• If autoranging is required, set the resolution using the MIN or MAX parameters
or select a specific integration time using VOLTage:DC:NPLC.
• If necessary to achieve the specified resolution, the multimeter will increase
the integration time as needed. This command overrides the results of
previously executed VOLTage:DC:NPLC commands (the last command
executed has priority).
• The VOLT:DC:RES command overrides the resolution setting from a previous
CONFigure:VOLT:DC:RES command.
• Related Commands: CONFigure, VOLTage:AC:NPLC
• *RST Condition: Based on the *RST values for the VOLTage:NPLC command.
Example
Change the Resolution
CONF:VOLT:DC 6.25,MAX
VOLT:DC:RANG 0.95
VOLT:DC:RES 3E-07
READ?
enter statement
Function: DC volts; range selected: 10V;
MAX resolution.
Range selected: 1V; MAX resolution.
Set resolution to 0.3µV.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state and make
measurements; send readings to output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution?
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following
numbers to the output buffer.
• The present resolution selected if MIN or MAX is not specified. Only the
resolution values available on ranges set by the RANGe command are
returned.
• The resolution with the smallest value (i.e., the best resolution) for the selected
range if MIN is specified.
• The resolution with the largest value (i.e., the worst resolution) for the selected
range if MAX is specified.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
151
Example
Query the Resolution
VOLT:DC:RES 1E-03
VOLT:DC:RES?
enter statement
Set resolution to 1 mV.
Query multimeter to return the present resolution.
Enter value into computer.
ZERO:AUTO
[SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO <mode> enables or disables the autozero mode. Autozero
applies to dc voltage, dc current and 2-wire ohms measurements only. 4-wire ohms
and dc voltage ratio measurements automatically enable the autozero mode.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1|ONCE
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• The ON parameter enables autozero. This is the default parameter which
causes the multimeter to internally disconnect the input signal following each
measurement and make a zero measurement. The zero reading is subtracted
from the input signal reading to prevent offset voltages present on the
multimeter’s input circuitry from affecting measurement accuracy.
• The OFF parameter disables autozero. In this mode the multimeter takes one
zero measurement and subtracts it from all subsequent input signal
measurements prior to a change in function, range or integration time. A new
zero measurement is made following a change in function, range or integration
time. This mode increases measurement speed because a zero measurement is
not made for each input signal measurement.
• Autozero ONCE issues an immediate zero measurement and can be used to get
an update on the zero measurement for a specific input signal measurement.
This helps to increase measurement time since you update the zero reading
without making zero measurements for every measurement.
• *RST Condition:
Example
ZERO:AUTO ON (enables autozero mode)
Disable Autozero
ZERO:AUTO OFF
Autozero disabled.
ZERO:AUTO?
[SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO? queries the autozero mode. Returns one of the following
responses to the output buffer:
• “0” (OFF or ONCE) if autozero is disabled or set for one time.
• “1” ON if autozero is enabled.
Example
Query the Autozero Mode
ZERO:AUTO?
enter statement
152
Multimeter Command Reference
Queries the autozero mode.
Enter response into computer.
Chapter 3
STATus
The STATus subsystem reports the bit values of the Questionable Data/Signal
Register. It also allows you to unmask the bits you want reported from the Standard
Event Register and to read the summary bits from the Status Byte Register.
The Questionable Data/Signal Register group consists of a condition register, and
event register and an enable register. The commands in the STATus:QUEStionable
subsystem control and monitor these registers.
Subsystem Syntax
Comments
STATus
:PRESet
:QUEStionable
:CONDition?
:ENABle <unmask>
:ENABle?
[:EVENt]?
The STATus system contains seven registers, four of which are under IEEE 488.2
control: the Standard Event Status Register (*ESR?), the Standard Event Enable
Register (*ESE and *ESE?), the Status Byte Register (*STB?) and the Status Byte
Enable Register (*SRE and *SRE?). The Operational Status bit (OPR), Request
Service bit (RQS), Standard Event summary bit (ESB), Message Available bit (MAV)
and Questionable Data bit (QUE) in the Status Byte Register (bits 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3
respectively) can be queried with the *STB? command. Use the *ESE? command to
query the “unmask” value for the Standard Event Status Register (the bits you want
logically OR'd into the summary bit). Query using decimal weighted bit values.
:PRESet
STATus:PRESet command affects only the enable register by setting all enable
register bits to 0. It does not affect either the “status byte” or the “standard event
status”. PRESet does not clear any of the event registers.
:QUEStionable:CONDition?
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? returns a decimal-weighted number
representing the bits set in the Questionable Data condition register.
:QUEStionable:ENABle
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle <unmask> enables (unmasks) bits in the
Questionable Data/Signal Register's enable register to be reported to the summary bit
(setting Status Byte Register bit 3 true). The event register bits are not reported in the
Status Bytes Register unless specifically enabled.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
153
:QUEStionable:ENABle?
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle? returns a decimal-weighted number
representing the bits enabled in the Questionable Data/Signal Register’s enable
register signifying which bits will set QUE in the Status Byte.
:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?
STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]? returns a decimal-weighted number
representing the bits set in the Questionable Data/Signal Register’s event register.
This command clears all bits in the event register when executed.
Figure 3-1. HP E1312A/E1412A Status System Register Diagram
154
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
SYSTem
The SYSTem command subsystem returns error numbers and their associated
messages from the error queue. You can also query the SCPI version to which this
instrument complies.
Subsystem Syntax
SYSTem
:ERRor?
:VERSion?
:ERRor?
SYSTem:ERRor? returns the error numbers and corresponding error messages in
the error queue. See Appendix B in this manual for a listing of the error numbers,
messages and descriptions.
Comments
• When an error is generated by the multimeter, it stores an error number and
corresponding message in the error queue.
• One error is removed from the error queue each time the SYSTem:ERRor?
command is executed. The errors are cleared in a first-in, first-out order. This
means that if several errors are waiting in the queue, each SYSTem:ERRor?
query returns the oldest (not the most recent) error. That error is then removed
from the queue.
• When the error queue is empty, subsequent SYSTem:ERRor? queries return
+0,“No error”. To clear all errors from the queue, execute the *CLS command.
• The error queue has a maximum capacity of 20 errors. If the queue overflows,
the last error is replaced with -350,“Too many errors”. No additional errors are
accepted by the queue until space becomes available.
Example
Reading the Error Queue
SYST:ERR?
enter statement
Query the error queue.
Enter readings into computer.
:VERSion?
SYSTem:VERSion? returns the SCPI version number this instrument complies.
Comments
Chapter 3
The information returned is in the format “YYYY.R” where “YYYY” is the year and
“R” is the revision number within that year.
Multimeter Command Reference
155
TRIGger
The TRIGger command subsystem controls the behavior of the trigger system. The
subsystem can control:
• The number of triggers to occur before the multimeter returns to the idle state
(TRIGger:COUNt).
• The delay between trigger and measurement (TRIGger:DELay).
• The source of the trigger (TRIGger:SOURce).
Subsystem Syntax
TRIGger
:COUNt <number>|MIN|MAX|INFinite
:COUNt? [MIN|MAX]
:DELay <seconds>|MIN|MAX
:DELay? [MIN|MAX]
:DELay:AUTO OFF|ON
:DELay:AUTO?
:SOURce BUS|IMMediate|EXTernal|TTLTrg0-7
:SOURce?
:COUNt
TRIGger:COUNt <number> sets the number of triggers to be issued.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<number>
numeric
1 through 50,000|
MIN|MAX|INF
none
• MIN selects 1 trigger. MAX selects 50,000 triggers.
• If MAX or 50,000 is specified for the number parameter, the command will be
accepted. If you initiate measurements with an INITiate command, an
“Insufficient memory” error occurs to show that this generates too many
readings to store in memory. However, you can use the READ? command to
return the readings to the output buffer and retrieve them with your controller.
The READ? command is a combined INITiate and FETCh? command.
• CONFigure and MEASure set the trigger count to 1.
• *RST Condition: TRIG:COUN 1
Example
Set the Trigger Count
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:COUN 10
READ?
enter statement
156
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is “Trig” BNC on multimeter
front panel.
Multimeter will accept 10 external triggers
(one measurement is taken with each trigger).
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state;
make measurement when external trigger is
received; send readings to output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
:COUNt?
TRIGger:COUNt? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers to the output
buffer:
• The present trigger count (1 through 50,000) if MIN or MAX are not specified.
• The minimum trigger count available (1) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum trigger count available (50,000) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Trigger Count
TRIG:COUN 10
TRIG:COUN?
enter statement
Multimeter will accept 10 triggers.
Query multimeter to return trigger count.
Enter value into computer.
:DELay
TRIGger:DELay <seconds> sets the delay time between receipt of the trigger and
the start of the measurement. NOTE: This delay also occurs between each sample
when SAMP:COUN > 1. See page 45 for a triggering process diagram.
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<seconds>
numeric
0 through 3600|MIN|MAX
seconds
• MIN selects the minimum delay of 0 seconds for all functions. MAX selects the
maximum delay of 3600 seconds for all functions.
• The trigger delay is inserted between the trigger and each measurement.
• If a trigger delay is specified using the TRIG:DEL <period>,
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO is turned OFF.
• The multimeter selects an automatic delay if you do not specify a trigger delay
(see the TRIGger:DELay:AUTO command on page 158).
• *RST Condition:
Example
Set the Trigger Delay
TRIG:DEL .002
Chapter 3
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO ON
Wait 2ms between trigger and start of
measurement.
Multimeter Command Reference
157
:DELay?
TRIGger:DELay? [MIN|MAX] returns one of the following numbers to the output
buffer:
• The present trigger delay (0 through 3600 seconds) if MIN or MAX is not
specified.
• The minimum trigger delay available (0 seconds) if MIN is specified.
• The maximum trigger delay available (3600 seconds) if MAX is specified.
Example
Query the Trigger Delay
TRIG:DEL .002
Wait 2ms between trigger and start of
measurement.
Query multimeter to return trigger delay.
Enter value into computer.
TRIG:DEL?
enter statement
:DELay:AUTO
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO <mode> enables or disables a trigger delay automatically
determined by the present function, range, NPLC setting, AC filter setting and
integration time (see the table on the next page). The trigger delay specifies the
period between the trigger signal and the start of the measurement (and between each
sample when SAMPle:COUNt > 1).
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<mode>
boolean
OFF|0|ON|1
none
• You can substitute decimal values for the OFF (“0”) and ON (“1”) parameters.
• The trigger delay is inserted between the trigger and each measurement.
• If a trigger delay is specified using the TRIGger:DELay <period> command,
TRIG:DEL:AUTO is turned OFF.
• *RST Condition:
Example
TRIG:DEL:AUTO ON
Disable Automatic Trigger Delay
TRIG:DEL:AUTO OFF
158
Multimeter Command Reference
Disable automatic trigger delay.
Chapter 3
Default Trigger Delays for DC Voltage and DC Current (all ranges):
Integration Time
Trigger Delay
NPLC ≥1
1.5ms
NPLC <1
1.0ms
Default Trigger Delays for 2-Wire and 4-Wire Resistance:
Range
Trigger Delay
(For NPLC ≥1)
Trigger Delay
(For NPLC <1)
100Ω
1.5ms
1.0ms
1kΩ
1.5ms
1.0ms
10kΩ
1.5ms
1.0ms
100kΩ
1.5ms
1.0ms
1MΩ
1.5ms
10ms
10MΩ
100ms
100ms
100MΩ
100ms
100ms
Default Trigger Delays for AC Voltage and AC Current (all ranges):
AC Filter
Trigger Delay
3Hz - 300kHz filter (Slow)
7.0sec
20Hz - 300kHz filter (Medium)
1.0sec
200Hz - 300kHz filter (Fast)
600ms
Default Trigger Delay for Frequency and Period:
1.0s
:DELay:AUTO?
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO? returns a number to show whether the automatic trigger
delay mode is on or off: “1” = ON, “0” = OFF. The number is sent to the output
buffer.
Example
Query the Trigger Delay Mode
TRIG:DEL:AUTO OFF
TRIG:DEL:AUTO?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Disable automatic trigger delay.
Query multimeter to return trigger delay mode.
Enter value into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
159
:SOURce
TRIGger:SOURce <source> configures the trigger system to respond to the
specified source. The following sources are available:
• BUS:
Group Execute Trigger (GET) bus command or *TRG common
command.
• EXT:
The multimeter’s External Trigger BNC connector (triggers on the
negative or falling edge of the ±5V TTL input signal).
• IMMediate: The trigger system is always true.
• TTLTrg0 - TTLTrg7: Trigger source is VXIbus trigger line 0 through 7.
NOTE: B-size controllers do not support VXIbus TTL triggers (e.g.,
HP E1306A Command Module, HP E1300/E1301A B-Size Mainframes).
Parameters
Comments
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<source>
discrete
BUS|EXT|IMMediate|
TTLTrg0 through TTLTrg7
none
• The TRIGger:SOURce command only selects the trigger source. You must use
the INITiate command to place the multimeter in the wait-for-trigger state.
(The MEASure command automatically executes an INITiate command.)
• TRIGger:SOURce
EXT uses the multimeter's front panel “Trig” BNC
connector as the trigger source. The multimeter triggers on the falling
(negative-going) edge of a ±5V TTL input signal; (maximum input is +5V to
the front panel BNC connector).
• TRIGger:IMMediate causes a trigger to occur immediately provided the
multimeter is placed in the wait-for-trigger state using INITiate, READ? or
MEAS?.
• When a Group Execute Trigger (GET) bus command or *TRG common
command is executed and the multimeter is not in the wait-for-trigger state, the
“Trigger ignored” error is generated.
• The CONFigure and MEASure command subsystems automatically set the
trigger source to TRIG:SOUR IMM.
• The READ? command cannot be used if the trigger source is
TRIG:SOUR BUS.
• Related Commands: INITiate, READ?, MEAS?
• *RST Condition: TRIG:SOUR IMM
Example
Set the Sample Source
CONF:VOLT:DC
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:COUN 10
READ?
enter statement
160
Multimeter Command Reference
Function: DC voltage.
Trigger source is external BNC on multimeter
front panel.
Multimeter will accept 10 external triggers.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state;
make measurements when external trigger is
received; send readings to output buffer.
Enter readings into computer.
Chapter 3
:SOURce?
TRIGger:SOURce? returns “BUS”, “EXT”, “IMM” or “TTLTrg0 - 7” to show the
present trigger source. The quoted string is sent to the output buffer.
Example
Query the Trigger Source
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:SOUR?
enter statement
Chapter 3
Trigger source is external BNC on multimeter
front panel.
Query multimeter to return trigger source
setting.
Enter quoted string into computer.
Multimeter Command Reference
161
IEEE 488.2 Common Command Quick Reference
The table below lists, by functional group, the IEEE 488.2 Common (*) Commands
that can be executed by the HP E1312A B-size and HP E1412A C-size 6½-Digit
Multimeters. However, commands are listed alphabetically in the following
reference. Examples are shown in the reference when the command has parameters
or returns a non-trivial response; otherwise, the command string is as shown in the
table. For additional information, refer to IEEE Standard 488.2-1987.
Category
Command
Title
Description
System Data
*IDN?
Identification
Returns the identification string of the B- or C-size
multimeter which includes the latest inguard and
outguard firmware versions.
HEWLETT-PACKARD,E1312A,0,A.0x.0x-A.0x.0x
HEWLETT-PACKARD,E1412A,0,A.0x.0x-A.0x.0x
Internal
Operations
*RST
Reset
Resets the multimeter to:
FUNC:VOLT:DC,
VOLT:RANG 300V,
VOLT:RES 1 mV,
RANGE:AUTO ON,
NPLC 10,
ZERO:AUTO ON,
INP:IMP:AUTO OFF,
TRIG COUN 1,
TRIG:DELAY:AUTO ON,
TRIG:SOUR IMM,
SAMP:COUN 1.
OUTP:TTLT<n>:STAT OFF
Internal
Operations
*TST?
Self-Test
Returns “0” if self-test passes. Returns “1” if self-test
fails. Use SYST:ERR? to retrieve the error from the
multimeter. See “Self-Test Errors” beginning on
page 189 for a complete list of error numbers and their
description. Return multimeter to Hewlett-Packard for
repair if repair is required.
Synchronization
*OPC
*OPC?
*WAI
Operation Complete
Operation Complete Query
Wait to Complete
Operation Complete Command
Operation Complete Query
Wait-to-Continue Command
Status and Event *CLS
*ESE <unmask>
*ESE?
*ESR?
*SRE <unmask>
*SRE?
*STB?
Clear Status
Event Status Enable
Event Status Enable Query
Event Status Register Query
Service Request Enable
Service Request Enable Query
Read Status Byte Query
Clear Status Command
Standard Event Status Enable Command
Standard Event Status Enable Query
Standard Event Status Register Query
Service Request Enable Command
Service Request Enable Query
Read Status Byte Query
Bus Operation
Bus Trigger
When the multimeter is in the wait-for-trigger state and
the trigger source is TRIGger:SOURce BUS, use
*TRG to trigger the multimeter.
162
*TRG
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
*CLS
*CLS clears the Standard Event Status Register, the Operation Status Register, the
Questionable Signal Register, and the error queue. This clears the corresponding
summary bits (3, 5, and 7) in the Status Byte Register. *CLS does not affect the
enable unmasks of any of the Status Registers.
Comments
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• Related Commands: STATus:PRESet
• *RST Condition: none
*ESE and *ESE?
*ESE <unmask> enables (unmasks) one or more event bits of the Standard Event
Status Register to be reported in bit 5 (the Standard Event Status Summary Bit) of
the Status Byte Register. <unmask> is the sum of the decimal weights of the bits to
be enabled allowing these bits to pass through to the summary bit ESB (bit 5 in the
status byte).
*ESE? returns the current enable unmask value.
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<unmask>
numeric
0 through 255
none
A 1 in a bit position enables the corresponding event; a 0 disables it.
Comments
Example
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• Related Commands: *ESR?, *SRE, *STB?
• *RST Condition: unaffected
• Power-On Condition: no events are enabled
Enable All Error Events
*ESE 60
Chapter 3
Enable error events.
Multimeter Command Reference
163
*ESR?
*ESR? returns the value of the Standard Event Status Register. The register is then
cleared (all bits 0).
Comments
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• *RST Condition: none
• Power-On Condition: register is cleared
*IDN?
*IDN? returns identification information for the HP E1312A B-size or HP E1412A
C-size multimeter. The response consists of four fields:
HEWLETT-PACKARD,E1312A,0,A.0x.0x-A.0x.0x (B-size)
HEWLETT-PACKARD,E1412A,0,A.0x.0x-A.0x.0x (C-size)
The first two fields identify this instrument as model number HP E1312A (or
HP E1412A) manufactured by Hewlett-Packard. The third field is 0 since the serial
number of the multimeter is unknown to the firmware. The last field indicates the
revision level of the inguard-outguard firmware.
Note
Comments
The firmware revision field will change whenever the firmware is revised.
A.01.00-A.01.00 is the initial revision. The first two digits indicate the major
revision number and increment when functional changes are made. The last two
digits indicate the functional improvement level.
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• *RST Condition: none
• Power-On Condition: register is cleared
*OPC
*OPC causes the HP E1312A and HP E1412A to wait for all pending operations to
complete after which the Operation Complete bit (bit 0) in the Standard Event Status
Register is set. The *OPC suspends any other activity on the bus until the multimeter
completes all commands sent to it prior to the *OPC command.
Comments
164
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• Related Commands: *OPC?, *WAI
• *RST Condition: none
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
*OPC?
*OPC? causes the HP E1312A and HP E1412A to wait for all pending operations
to complete. A single ASCII “1” is then placed in the output queue.
Comments
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• Related Commands: *OPC, *WAI
• *RST Condition: none
*RST
*RST resets the HP E1312A and HP E1412A as follows:
-- Sets all commands to their *RST state.
-- Aborts all pending operations.
*RST does not affect:
-----
Comments
The output queue
The Service Request and Standard Event Status Enable Registers
The enable unmasks for the Questionable Signal Registers
Calibration data
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• *RST Condition: none
*SRE and *SRE?
*SRE <unmask> specifies which bits of the Status Byte Register are enabled
(unmasked) to generate a IEEE-488.1 service request. Event and summary bits are
always set and cleared in the Status Byte Register regardless of the unmask value.
<unmask> is the sum of the decimal weights of the bits to be enabled allowing these
bits to pass through to the summary bit RQS (bit 6 in the status byte).
*SRE? returns the current enable unmask value.
Parameters
Parameter Name
Parameter Type
Range of Values
Default Units
<unmask>
numeric
0 through 255
none
A 1 in a bit position enables service request generation when the corresponding
Status Byte Register bit is set; a 0 disables it.
Chapter 3
Multimeter Command Reference
165
Comments
Example
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• *RST Condition: unaffected
• Power-On Condition: no bits are enabled
Enable Service Request on Message Available Bit
*SRE 16
Enable request on MAV.
*STB?
*STB? returns the value of the Status Byte Register. The RQS bit (bit 6 in the status
byte having decimal weight 64) is set if a service request is pending.
Comments
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• Related Commands: *SRE
• *RST Condition: none
*TST?
*TST? causes the HP E1312A and HP E1412A to execute its internal self-test and
returns a value indicating the results of the test.
A zero response indicates that the self-test passed. Any non-zero response indicates
that the test failed. Use the SYST:ERR? command to read the error and description
from the error queue. Note the error number and description returned in the error
message. See Appendix B, “Error Messages”, for information on interpreting the
error number and description response(s).
The settings for all SCPI commands are unchanged by this command.
Comments
• Executable when Initiated: No
• Coupled Command: No
• *RST Condition: none
*WAI
*WAI causes the HP E1312A and HP E1412A to wait for all pending operations to
complete before executing any further commands.
Comments
166
• Executable when Initiated: Yes
• Coupled Command: No
• Related Commands: *OPC, *OPC?
• *RST Condition: none
Multimeter Command Reference
Chapter 3
SCPI Command Quick Reference
The following tables summarize SCPI commands for the HP E1312A B-size and
HP E1412A C-size 6½-Digit Multimeters.
Command
ABORt
Description
Place multimeter in idle state.
CALCulate
:AVERage:AVERage?
:AVERage:COUNt?
:AVERage:MAXimum?
:AVERage:MINimum?
:DB:REFerence <value> |MIN|MAX
:DB:REFerence? [MIN|MAX]
:DBM:REFerence <value> |MIN|MAX
:DBM:REFerence? [MIN|MAX]
:FUNCtion AVERage|DB|DBM| LIMit|NULL
:FUNCtion?
:LIMit:LOWer <value> |MIN|MAX
:LIMit:LOWer? [MIN|MAX]
:LIMit:UPPer <value> |MIN|MAX
:LIMit:UPPer? [MIN|MAX]
:NULL:OFFSet <value> |MIN|MAX
:NULL:OFFSet? [MIN|MAX]
:STATe OFF|ON
:STATe?
Query average value of the average.
Query average count
Query average maximum.
Query average minimum.
Set dB reference value
Query dB reference value.
Set dBm reference value.
Query dBm reference value.
Set math function to calculate.
Query math function set.
Set lower limit value.
Query lower limit value.
Set upper limit value.
Query upper limit value.
Set null offset value.
Query null offset value.
Enable/disable math function state.
Query math function state.
CALibration
:COUNt?
:LFRequency 50|60|400
:LFRequency? [MIN|MAX]
:SECure:CODE <new code>
:SECure:STATe OFF|ON,<code>
:SECure:STATe?
:STRing <quoted string>
:STRing?
:VALue <cal_value>
:VALue?
:ZERO:AUTO ON|OFF
:ZERO:AUTO?
Query number of cal operations.
Sets line reference frequency.
Query line reference frequency.
Enters a new security code.
Enables/disables the security code.
Queries the security state.
Lets you store info about your calibration.
Queries the cal string.
Sets the calibration value.
Queries the calibration value.
Enable/disable autozero mode.
Query autozero mode.
CALibration?
Chapter 3
Initiates the calibration process using the cal
value set by CAL:VALue. The command returns a
value to indicate the calibration was successful.
Multimeter Command Reference
167
Command
CONFigure
:CURRent:AC [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:CURRent[:DC] [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FREQuency [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FRESistance [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:PERiod [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:RESistance [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:VOLTage:AC [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]] [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]
CONFigure?
DATA
Description
Configure multimeter for AC current.
Configure multimeter for DC current.
Configure multimeter for frequency.
Configure multimeter for 4-wire ohms.
Configure multimeter for period.
Configure multimeter for 2-wire ohms.
Configure multimeter for AC voltage.
Configure multimeter for DC voltage.
Configure multimeter for DC voltage ratio.
Query multimeter configuration.
:POINts?
Query number of readings stored in the
multimeter’s memory.
INITiate
[:IMMediate]
Place multimeter in wait-for trigger state.
INPut
:IMPedance:AUTO 1|0|ON|OFF
:IMPedance:AUTO?
Enable/disable auto impedance mode.
Query impedance mode.
MEASure
:CURRent:AC? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:CURRent[:DC]? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FREQuency? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:FRESistance? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:PERiod? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:RESistance? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
:VOLTage:AC? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]]? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio? [<range>|MIN|MAX|DEF|AUTO
[,<resolution>|MIN|MAX|DEF]]
Make an AC current measurement.
:TTLTrg0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7[:STATe]1|0|ON|OFF
:TTLTrg0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7[:STATe]?
Send voltmeter complete to VXIbus trigger lines.
Query voltmeter complete destination.
FETCh?
OUTPut
Place stored readings in output buffer.
READ?
SAMPle
168
Make a DC current measurement.
Make a frequency measurement.
Make a 4-wire ohms measurement.
Make a period measurement.
Make a 2-wire ohms measurement.
Make an AC voltage measurement.
Make a DC voltage measurement.
Make a DC voltage ratio measurement.
Place multimeter in wait-for-trigger state; place
readings in output buffer.
:COUNt 1-50000|MIN|MAX
:COUNt? [MIN|MAX]
Multimeter Command Reference
Set number of readings per trigger.
Query number of readings per trigger.
Chapter 3
Command
[SENSe:]
Chapter 3
FUNCtion “function”
FUNCtion?
CURRent:AC:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
CURRent:AC:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
CURRent:AC:RESolution <resolution> |MIN|MAX
CURRent:AC:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
CURRent[:DC]:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
CURRent[:DC]:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles .02|.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
CURRent[:DC]:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
CURRent[:DC]:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
DETector:BANDwidth 3|20|200|MIN|MAX
DETector:BANDwidth? [MIN|MAX]
FREQuency:APERture 0.01|0.1|1|MIN|MAX
FREQuency:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
FRESistance:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
FRESistance:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
FRESistance:NPLCycles 0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
FRESistance:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
FRESistance:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
FRESistance:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
FRESistance:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
FRESistance:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
PERiod:APERture 0.01|0.1|1|MIN|MAX
PERiod:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
RESistance:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|167ms|
1.67s|MIN|MAX
RESistance:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
RESistance:NPLCycles 0.02|0.2|1|10|100|MIN|MAX
RESistance:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
RESistance:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
RESistance:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
RESistance:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
RESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
RESistance:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
RESistance:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
Description
Select measurement function.
Query measurement function.
Set range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Set resolution.
Query resolution.
Set the integration time in seconds.
Query integration time (seconds).
Set integration time in PLCs.
Query integration time (PLCs).
Set range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Set resolution.
Query resolution.
Set the AC filter.
Query AC filter.
Set integration time in seconds.
Query aperture (integration) time.
Select range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Set integration time in seconds.
Query integration time (seconds).
Set integration time in PLCs.
Query integration time (PLCs).
Select range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Specify resolution.
Query resolution.
Set integration time in seconds.
Query integration time (seconds).
Select range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Set integration time in seconds.
Query integration time (seconds).
Set integration time in PLCs.
Query integration time (PLCs).
Set range.
Query range.
Set autorange mode.
Query autorange mode.
Specify resolution.
Query resolution.
Multimeter Command Reference
169
Command
[SENSe:]
Description
VOLTage:AC:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
VOLTage:AC:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
VOLTage:AC:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
VOLTage:AC:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
VOLTage[:DC]:APERture .333ms|3.33ms|16.7ms|
167ms|1.67s|MIN|MAX
VOLTage[:DC]:APERture? [MIN|MAX]
VOLTage[:DC]:NPLCycles 0.02|0.2|1|10|100|
MIN|MAX
VOLTage[:DC]:NPLCycles? [MIN|MAX]
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe <range>|MIN|MAX
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe? [MIN|MAX]
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO OFF|ON
VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution <resolution>|MIN|MAX
VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution? [MIN|MAX]
ZERO:AUTO OFF|ONCE|ON
ZERO:AUTO?
Set range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Specify resolution.
Query resolution.
Set integration time in seconds.
STATus
:PRESet
:QUEStionable:CONDition?
:QUEStionable:ENABle <unmask>
:QUEStionable:ENABle?
:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?
Sets all bits of enable register to “0”.
Query the questionable condition register.
Sets conditions in enable register.
Query the questionable enable register.
Query the questionable event register.
SYSTem
:ERRor?
:VERSion?
Return error number/message from error queue.
Return the multimeter's SCPI version.
TRIGger
:COUNt <number>|MIN|MAX|INFinite
:COUNt? [MIN|MAX]
:DELay <seconds>|MIN|MAX
Set number of triggers or scans.
Query trigger count.
Set delay between trigger and start of
measurement.
Query trigger delay.
Enable/disable automatic trigger delay.
Query automatic trigger delay mode.
Specify trigger source.
Query trigger source.
:DELay? [MIN|MAX]
:DELay:AUTO OFF|ON
:DELay:AUTO?
:SOURce BUS|IMMediate|EXTernal|TTLTrg0-7
:SOURce?
170
Multimeter Command Reference
Query integration time (seconds).
Set integration time in PLCs.
Query integration time (PLCs).
Set range.
Query range.
Enable/disable autoranging.
Query autorange mode.
Specify resolution.
Query resolution.
Enable/disable autozero mode.
Query autozero mode.
Chapter 3
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
DC Characteristics
Accuracy Specifications ± (% of reading + % of range) [1]
Function
DC Voltage
Range [3]
Test Current
or Burden
Voltage
100.0000mV
1.000000V
10.00000V
100.0000V
300.0000V
24 Hour [2]
23°C ±1°C
90 Day
23°C ±5°C
1 Year
23°C ±5°C
Temperature
Coefficient
0°C - 18°C
28°C - 55°C
0.0030 + 0.0030
0.0020 + 0.0006
0.0015 + 0.0004
0.0020 + 0.0006
0.0020 + 0.0018
0.0040 + 0.0035
0.0030 + 0.0007
0.0020 + 0.0005
0.0035 + 0.0006
0.0035 + 0.0030
0.0050 + 0.0035
0.0040 + 0.0007
0.0035 + 0.0005
0.0045 + 0.0006
0.0045 + 0.0030
0.0005 + 0.0005
0.0005 + 0.0001
0.0005 + 0.0001
0.0005 + 0.0001
0.0005 + 0.0003
Resistance [4] 100.0000 Ω
1.000000kΩ
10.00000kΩ
100.0000kΩ
1.000000MΩ
10.00000MΩ
100.0000MΩ
1mA
1mA
100 µA
10 µA
5 µA
500nA
500nA || 10MΩ
0.0030 + 0.0030
0.0020 + 0.0005
0.0020 + 0.0005
0.0020 + 0.0005
0.0020 + 0.0010
0.0150 + 0.0010
0.3000 + 0.0100
0.0080 + 0.0040
0.0080 + 0.0010
0.0080 + 0.0010
0.0080 + 0.0010
0.0080 + 0.0010
0.0350 + 0.0010
0.8000 + 0.0100
0.0100 + 0.0040
0.0100 + 0.0010
0.0100 + 0.0010
0.0100 + 0.0010
0.0100 + 0.0010
0.0540 + 0.0010
0.8000 + 0.0100
0.0006 + 0.0005
0.0006 + 0.0001
0.0006 + 0.0001
0.0006 + 0.0001
0.0010 + 0.0002
0.0030 + 0.0004
0.1500 + 0.0002
DC Current
10.00000mA
100.0000mA
1.000000A
3.000000A
<0.1V
<0.7V
<1V
<2V
0.0050 + 0.0100
0.0100 + 0.0040
0.1000 + 0.0060
0.7000 + 0.0200
0.0500 + 0.0200
0.0500 + 0.0050
0.1300 + 0.0100
0.7200 + 0.0200
0.0700 + 0.0200
0.0700 + 0.0050
0.1500 + 0.0100
0.7200 + 0.0200
0.0050 + 0.0020
0.0060 + 0.0005
0.0060 + 0.0010
0.0060 + 0.0020
DC:DC Ratio
100mV to 300V
(Input Accuracy) + (Reference Accuracy)
Input Accuracy = accuracy specification for the HI-LO input signal.
Reference Accuracy = accuracy specification for HI-LO reference
input signal (Sense HI-LO input terminals).
NOTE:
Autorange is used for the reference signal regardless of the range set
for the HI-LO input signal. The 10V range is the highest range available
for the reference signal and the highest range the multimeter will
autorange to for measuring the reference signal.
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
171
DC Characteristics (continued)
Measuring Characteristics
DC Voltage
Measurement Method:
A/D Linearity:
Input Resistance:
Input Bias Current:
Input Terminals:
Input Protection:
Resistance
Measurement Method:
Max. Lead Resistance:
(4-wire ohms)
Input Protection:
DC Current
Shunt Resistor:
Input Protection:
DC:DC Ratio
Measurement Method:
Input HI-LO
Reference HI-LO
Input to Reference
Continuously integrating, multi-slope III A/D converter.
0.0002% of reading + 0.0001% of range
0.1V, 1V, 10V ranges
Selectable 10MΩ or >10GΩ
100V, 300V ranges
10MΩ ± 1%
<30pA at 25 °C
Copper alloy
300V on all ranges
Selectable 4-wire or 2-wire ohms. Current source referenced to LO input.
10% of range per lead for 100 Ω and 1kΩ ranges. 1kΩ per lead on all other ranges.
300V on all ranges
0.1 Ω for 1A and 3A. 5 Ω for 10mA and 100mA
Externally accessible 3.15A, 250V, Class H fuse (see note at the bottom of the
AC Measuring Characteristics page describing class H fuses)
Input HI-LO/Reference HI-LO (Reference = Ω4W Sense terminals)
100mV to 300V ranges
100mV to 10V ranges (autoranged)
Reference LO to Input LO voltage <2V
Reference HI to Input LO voltage <12V
Measurement Noise Rejection
DC CMRR: 140 dB [5]
Normal Mode Rejection [6]
Integration Time
60 Hz (50 Hz)
100 PLC, 1.67s (2s)
60dB [7]
10 PLC, 167ms (200ms)
60dB [7]
1 PLC, 16.7ms (20ms)
60dB [7]
<1 PLC
0dB
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Specifications are for 1-hour warm-up at an integration time of 100 PLCs.
Relative to calibration standards.
20% overrange on all ranges, except 300Vdc and 3A range which have 1% overrange.
Specifications are for 4-wire ohms function, or 2-wire ohms using Math Null.
Without Math Null, add 0.2 Ω additional error in 2-wire ohms function.
172
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Appendix A
DC Characteristics (continued)
Operating Characteristics [8]
Function
DCV, DCI and
Resistance
PLCs
Digits
Readings/sec
Additional Noise
Error
100
6.5
0.6 (0.5) [8]
0% of range
10
6.5
6 (5) [8]
0% of range
1
5.5
60 (50) [8]
0.001% of range [9]
0.2
5.5
300
0.001% of range [9]
0.02
4.5
1000
0.01% of range [9]
System Speeds [10]
Function Change:
30/sec
Range Change:
65/sec
Autorange Time:
<30 ms
Max. Internal Trigger Rate:
1000/sec
Max. External Trigger Rate to Memory: 1000/sec
Additional Error with Autozero OFF
Following instrument warm-up at calibration temperature ± 1°C and <10 minutes:
100mV - 100V ranges: add (0.0002% range additional error +5 µV). 300V range: add 0.0006% range.
Settling Considerations
Reading settling times are affected by source impedance, cable dielectric characteristics and input signal
changes.
Measurement Considerations
HP recommends the use of Teflon or other high-impedance, low-dielectric absorption wire insulation for these
measurements.
For 1kΩ unbalance in LO lead.
For power-line frequency ± 0.1%.
For power-line frequency ± 1%, subtract 20dB; for ± 3%, subtract 30dB.
Readings speeds for 60Hz and (50Hz) operation, Autozero OFF.
For 300V and 3A ranges: use 0.003% range for 5.5 digits and 0.030% range for 4.5 digits;
For all ranges: add 20 µV for DC volts, 4 µA for DC current or 20mΩ for resistance.
[10] Speeds are for 0.02 PLC integration time, Delay 0 and Autozero OFF. Includes measurement and data
transfer over the VXI backplane.
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
173
AC Characteristics
Accuracy Specifications ± (% of reading + % of range) [1]
Function
True RMS AC
Voltage [4]
Range [3]
Frequency
24 Hour [2]
23°C ± 1°C
90 Day
23°C ± 5°C
1 Year
23°C ± 5°C
Temperature
Coefficient
0°C - 18°C
28°C - 55°C
100.0000 mV
3 Hz-5 Hz
5 Hz-10 Hz
10 Hz-20 kHz
20 kHz-50 kHz
50 kHz-100 kHz
100 kHz-300 kHz
1.00 + 0.03
0.35 + 0.03
0.04 + 0.03
0.10 + 0.05
0.55 + 0.08
5.00 + 0.50
1.00 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.04
0.05 + 0.04
0.11 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
5.00 + 0.50
1.00 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.04
0.06 + 0.04
0.12 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
5.00 + 0.50
0.100 + 0.004
0.035 + 0.004
0.005 + 0.004
0.011 + 0.005
0.060 + 0.008
0.200 + 0.020
1.000000 V
to
100.000V
[12]
3 Hz-5 Hz
5 Hz-10 Hz
10 Hz-20 kHz
20 kHz-50 kHz
50 kHz-100 kHz
100 kHz-300 kHz
1.00 + 0.02
0.35 + 0.02
0.04 + 0.02
0.10 + 0.04
0.55 + 0.08
5.00 + 0.50
1.00 + 0.03
0.35 + 0.03
0.05 + 0.03
0.11 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
5.00 + 0.50
1.00 + 0.03
0.35 + 0.03
0.06 + 0.03
0.12 + 0.05
0.60 + 0.08
5.00 + 0.50
0.100 + 0.003
0.035 + 0.003
0.005 + 0.003
0.011 + 0.005
0.060 + 0.008
0.200 + 0.020
3 Hz-5 Hz
5 Hz-10 Hz
10 Hz-20 kHz
20 kHz-50 kHz
50 kHz-100 kHz [5]
100 kHz-300 kHz [5]
1.00 + 0.06
0.35 + 0.06
0.04 + 0.06
0.10 + 0.12
0.55 + 0.24
5.00 + 1.50
1.00 + 0.09
0.35 + 0.09
0.05 + 0.09
0.11 + 0.15
0.60 + 0.24
5.00 + 1.50
1.00 + 0.09
0.35 + 0.09
0.06 + 0.09
0.12 + 0.15
0.60 + 0.24
5.00 + 1.50
0.100 + 0.009
0.035 + 0.009
0.005 + 0.009
0.011 + 0.015
0.060 + 0.024
0.200 + 0.060
1.000000 A
3 Hz-5 Hz
5 Hz-10 Hz
10 Hz-1 kHz
1 kHz-5 kHz
1.05 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.04
0.15 + 0.04
0.40 + 0.04
1.05 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.04
0.15 + 0.04
0.40 + 0.04
1.05 + 0.04
0.35 + 0.04
0.15 + 0.04
0.40 + 0.04
0.100 + 0.006
0.035 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
3.00000 A
3 Hz-5 Hz
5 Hz-10 Hz
10 Hz-1 kHz
1 kHz-5kHz
1.70 + 0.06
0.95 + 0.06
0.75 + 0.06
1.00 + 0.06
1.70 + 0.06
0.95 + 0.06
0.75 + 0.06
1.00 + 0.06
1.70 + 0.06
0.95 + 0.06
0.75 + 0.06
1.00 + 0.06
0.100 + 0.006
0.035 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
0.015 + 0.006
300.000V
[12]
True RMS AC
Current [4]
Additional Low Frequency Errors
(% of reading)
Frequency
10Hz-20Hz
20Hz-40Hz
40Hz-100Hz
100Hz-200Hz
200Hz-1kHz
>1kHz
174
3 Hz
0
0
0
0
0
0
AC Filter
20 Hz 200 Hz
0.74
-0.22
-0.06
0.73
0.01
0.22
0
0.18
0
0
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Additional Crest Factor Errors (non-sinewave)
[6]
Crest Factor
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-5
Error (% or reading)
0.05%
0.15%
0.30%
0.40%
NOTE: Crest Factor is not specified for
non sinewave inputs <100Hz using the
slow (3Hz) AC filter. See note [6].
Appendix A
AC Characteristics (continued)
Measuring Characteristics
Measurement Noise Rejection [7]
AC CMRR
70 dB
True RMS AC Voltage
Measurement Method: AC-coupled True RMS - measures the ac component of the input with up to
300Vdc of bias on any range (max AC + DC = 300Vrms).
Crest Factor:
Maximum 5:1 at full scale
AC Filter Bandwidths:
3Hz-300kHz (Slow filter)
20Hz-300kHz (Medium filter)
200Hz-300kHz (Fast filter)
Input Impedance:
1MΩ ± 2%, in parallel with 100pF
Input Protection:
300Vrms all ranges
True RMS AC Current
Measurement Method: Direct coupled to the fuse and shunt. AC-coupled True RMS measurement
(measures the ac component only).
Shunt Resistor:
0.1 Ω for 1A and 3A ranges
Burden Voltage:
1A range: <1Vrms
3A range: < 2Vrms
Input Protection:
Externally accessible 3.15A, 250V, Class H fuse
Class H fuses are fuses with a high interrupt rating which defines a fuse’s ability
to safely interrupt and clear short circuits. Replace the fuse with HP part number
2110-0957, (3.15A, 250V, 5.0 mm diameter, 20.0 mm long) or use Cooper Industries
Inc. fuse part number GDA-3.15.
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
175
AC Characteristics (continued)
Operating Characteristics
Function
Digits
6 1/2
ACV and ACI
Readings/sec
AC Filter
1
Slow (3Hz)
(per 7 seconds) [8] (7 sec settling time)
6 1/2
1
[8]
Medium (20Hz)
6 1/2
1.6
[8],[9]
Fast (200Hz)
6 1/2
50
[10]
Fast (200Hz)
System Speeds [10], [11]
Function or Range Change:
5/sec
Autorange Time:
<0.8 sec
ASCII readings to HP-IB:
50/sec
Max. Internal Trigger Rate:
50/sec
Max. External Trigger Rate to Memory: 50/sec
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
Specifications are for 1-hour warm-up at 100 PLC integration time, 3 Hz (Slow) ac filter, sinewave input.
Relative to calibration standards.
20% overrange on all AC ranges, except 300V and 3A ranges which have 1% overrange.
Values in the AC Characteristics Accuracy Specifications table are for sinewave inputs >5% of range
(>15% of range for 300 VAC). For smaller inputs, add an additional error to the value in the table as follows:
Additional Error Specifications to % Range Table Value for Sinewave Inputs:
1% to 5% of range
Function
Range
100mV to 100V
True RMS
AC Voltage
True RMS
AC Current
<50kHz
>50kHz
add 0.1 to
% of range
add 0.13 to
% of range
300V
1A and 3A
3% to 15% of range
<50kHz
>50kHz
add 0.3 to
% of range
add 0.4 to
% of range
add 0.1 to
% of range
300Vac range limited to 50kHz. For frequencies >50 kHz, signals must be <1.5 x 107 Volt-Hz.
For frequencies below 100Hz, 3Hz (Slow) AC filter specified for sinewave input only.
For 1kΩ unbalance in LO lead.
Maximum reading rates for 0.01% of ac step additional error. Additional settling delay required
when input dc level varies.
[9] For External Trigger or remote operation using default settling delay (Delay Auto).
[10] Maximum useful limit with default settling delays defeated.
[11] Speeds are for 0.02 PLC integration time, Delay 0, and 200Hz (Fast) ac filter.
[12] 100Vac and 300Vac ranges may latch up the module or system mainframe if you drive the LO terminal
with a high voltage, high frequency input. Only drive the HI terminal when measuring ac voltages.
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
176
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Appendix A
Frequency and Period Characteristics
Accuracy Specifications ±(% of reading) [1] [4]
Function
Range [3]
Frequency
24 Hour [2]
23°C ± 1°C
90 Day
23°C ± 5°C
1 Year
23°C ± 5°C
Temperature
Coefficient
0°C - 18°C
28°C - 55°C
Frequency,
Period
100mV
to
300V
3Hz - 5Hz
5Hz - 10Hz
10Hz - 40Hz
40Hz - 300kHz
0.10
0.05
0.03
0.006
0.10
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.10
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.005
0.005
0.001
0.001
Additional Low-Frequency Errors (% of reading) [4]
Integration Time (number PLCs)
Frequency
100 & 10 1 & 0.2
0.02
3Hz-5Hz
0
0.12
0.12
5Hz-10Hz
0
0.17
0.17
10Hz-40Hz
0
0.2
0.2
40Hz-100Hz
0
0.06
0.21
100Hz-300Hz
0
0.03
0.21
300Hz-1kHz
0
0.01
0.07
>1kHz
0
0
0.02
Measuring Characteristics
Frequency and Period
Measurement Method: Reciprocal-counting technique. AC-coupled input using the ac voltage
measurement function.
Voltage Ranges:
100 mV rms full scale to 300V rms. Auto or manual ranges.
Gate Time:
10 ms, 100 ms or 1 second.
Settling Considerations
Errors will occur when attempting to measure the frequency or period of an input following a dc offset voltage
change. The input blocking RC time constant must be allowed to adequately settle (up to 1 second) before the
most accurate measurements are possible.
Measurement Considerations
All frequency counters are susceptible to error when measuring low-voltage, low-frequency signals. Shielding
inputs from external noise pickup is critical for minimizing measurement errors.
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
177
Frequency and Period Characteristics (continued)
Operating Characteristics [5]
Function
Integration Time
Readings/second
100
1
1
9.8
0.02
80
Frequency,
Period
System Speeds [5]
Configuration Rates:
14/sec
Autorange Time:
<0.6 sec
Max. Internal Trigger Rate:
80/sec
Max. External Trigger Rate to Memory: 80/sec
[1] Specifications are for 1-hour warm-up at 100 PLC integration time.
[2] Relative to calibration standards.
[3] 20% overrange on all ranges, except 300Vac range which has 1% overrange.
[4] Input >100mV. For 10 mV input, multiply % of reading error x10.
[5] Speeds are for 0.02 PLC integration time, Delay 0 and 200Hz (Fast) ac filter.
178
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Appendix A
General Specifications
Overvoltage Category 1 (1500V peak max impulse)
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Available Power (Amps):
+5V:
Ipm (maximum peak current):
0.20A
Idm (maximum dynamic current): 0.10A
+12V: Ipm (maximum peak current):
0.70A
Idm (maximum dynamic current): 0.06A
Cooling /Slot: Average Watts/Slot:
deltaP mm H2O:
Air Flow liters/s:
9.40
0.05
0.80
Operating Environment:
0°C to 55°C
65% Relative Humidity to 40°C
NOTE: Recalibration may be required after exposure to humidity levels >65%.
Storage Environment:
-40°C to 70°C
State Storage Memory:
Power-off state automatically saved
Warm-up Time:
1 hour
Programming Language:
SCPI-1993, IEEE-488.2
The HP E1312A is not recommended for use in the HP E1300A or HP E1301A B-size Mainframe.
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
179
To Calculate Total Measurement Error
Each specification includes correction factors which account for errors present due to operational limitations of
the multimeter. This section explains these errors and shows how to apply them to your measurements. Refer to
the section titled “Interpreting Multimeter Specifications” beginning on page 182 to get a better understanding
of the terminology used and to help you interpret the multimeter's specifications.
The multimeter's accuracy specifications are expressed in the form: ( % of reading + % of range ). In addition
to the reading error and range error, you may need to add additional errors for certain operating conditions. Check
the list below to make sure you include all measurement errors for a given function. Also, make sure you apply
the conditions as described in the footnotes on the specification pages.
• If you are operating the multimeter outside the 23°C±5°C temperature range specified, apply an additional
temperature coefficient error.
• For dc voltage, dc current, and resistance measurements, you may need to apply an additional reading
speed error or autozero OFF error.
• For ac voltage and ac current measurements, you may need to apply an additional low frequency error or
crest factor error.
Understanding the “% of reading” Error
The reading error compensates for inaccuracies that result from the function and range you select, as well as the
input signal level. The reading error varies according to the input level on the selected range. This error is
expressed in percent of reading. The following table shows the reading error applied to the multimeter’s 24-hour
dc voltage specification.
Range
Input Level
Range Error
(% of range)
Range Error
Voltage
10Vdc
10Vdc
0.0015
≤150 µV
10Vdc
1Vdc
0.0015
≤15 µV
10Vdc
0.1Vdc
0.0015
≤1.5 µV
Understanding the “% of range” Error
The range error compensates for inaccuracies that result from the function and range you select. The range error
contributes a constant error, expressed as a percent of range, independent of the input signal level. The following
table shows the range error applied to the multimeter’s 24-hour dc voltage specification.
180
Range
Input Level
Range Error
(% of range)
Range Error
Voltage
10Vdc
10Vdc
0.0004
≤40 µV
10Vdc
1Vdc
0.0004
≤40 µV
10Vdc
0.1Vdc
0.0004
≤40 µV
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Appendix A
Total Measurement Error
To compute the total measurement error, add the reading error and range error. You can then convert the total
measurement error to a “percent of input” error or a “ppm (part-per- million) of input” error as shown below.
% of input error
Total Measurement Error
= -------------------------------------------------------------- X 100
Input Signal Level
Total Measurement Error
ppm of input error = -------------------------------------------------------------- X 1, 000, 000
Input Signal Level
Error Example
Assume that a 5Vdc signal is input to the multimeter on the 10 Vdc range. Compute the total measurement error
using the 90-day accuracy specifications: ±(0.0020% of reading + 0.0005% of range).
Reading error = 0.0020% x 5Vdc
= 100 µV
Range error
= 0.0005% x 10Vdc
= 50 µV
Total error
= 100 µV + 50 µV
= ± 150 µV
= ± 0.0030% of 5Vdc
= ± 30 ppm of 5Vdc
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
181
Interpreting Multimeter Specifications
This section is provided to give you a better understanding of the terminology used and will help you interpret
the multimeter’s specifications.
Number of Digits and Overrange
The “number of digits” specification is the most fundamental, and sometimes, the most confusing characteristic
of a multimeter. The number of digits is equal to the maximum number of “9's” the multimeter can measure or
display. This indicates the number of full digits. Most multimeters have the ability to overrange and add a partial
or “½” digit.
For example, the HP E1412A can measure 9.99999Vdc on the 10V range. This represents six full digits of
resolution. The multimeter can also overrange on the 10V range and measure up to a maximum of 12.00000Vdc.
This corresponds to a 6½-digit measurement with 20% overrange capability.
Sensitivity
Sensitivity is the minimum level that the multimeter can detect for a given measurement. Sensitivity defines the
ability of the multimeter to respond to small changes in the input level. For example, suppose you are monitoring
a 1mVdc signal and you want to adjust the level to within ± 1mV. To be able to respond to an adjustment this
small, this measurement would require a multimeter with a sensitivity of at least 1 µV. You could use a 6½-digit
multimeter if it has a 1Vdc or smaller range. You could also use a 4½-digit multimeter with a 10mVdc range.
Note that the smallest value that can be measured is different from the sensitivity for ac voltage and ac current
measurements. For the HP E1412A, these functions are specified to measure down to 1% of the selected range.
For example, the multimeter can measure down to 1 mVac on the 100 mVac range.
Resolution
Resolution is the numeric ratio of the maximum measurable value divided by the minimum measurable value on
a selected range. Resolution is often expressed in percent, parts-per-million (ppm), counts, or bits. For example,
a 6½-digit multimeter with 20% overrange capability can make a measurement with up to 1,200,000 counts of
resolution. This corresponds to about 0.0001% (1 ppm) of full scale, or 21 bits including the sign bit. All four
specifications are equivalent.
182
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Appendix A
Accuracy
Accuracy is a measure of the “exactness” to which the multimeter's measurement uncertainty can be determined
relative to the calibration reference used. Absolute accuracy includes the multimeter's relative accuracy
specification plus the known error of the calibration reference relative to national standards (such as the U.S.
National Institute of Standards and Technology). To be meaningful, the accuracy specifications must be
accompanied with the conditions under which they are valid. These conditions should include temperature,
humidity, and time.
There is no standard convention among multimeter manufacturers for the confidence limits at which
specifications are set. The table below shows the probability of non-conformance for each specification with the
given assumptions.
Specification Criteria
Probability of Failure
Mean ±2 sigma
4.5%
Mean ±3 sigma
0.3%
Mean ±4 sigma
0.006%
Variations in performance from reading to reading, and instrument to instrument, decrease for increasing number
of sigma for a given specification. This means that you can achieve greater actual measurement precision for a
specific accuracy specification number. The HP E1412A is designed and tested to meet performance better than
mean ±4 sigma of the published accuracy specifications.
Transfer Accuracy
Transfer accuracy refers to the error introduced by the multimeter due to noise and short-term drift. This error
becomes apparent when comparing two nearly-equal signals for the purpose of “transferring” the known
accuracy of one device to the other.
24-Hour Accuracy
The 24-hour accuracy specification indicates the multimeter's relative accuracy over its full measurement range
for short time intervals and within a stable environment. Short-term accuracy is usually specified for a 24-hour
period and for a ±1°C temperature range.
90-Day and 1-Year Accuracy
These long-term accuracy specifications are valid for a 23°C ± 5°C temperature range. These specifications
include the initial calibration errors plus the multimeter's long-term drift errors.
Temperature Coefficients
Accuracy is usually specified for a 23°C ± 5°C temperature range. This is a common temperature range for many
operating environments. You must add additional temperature coefficient errors to the accuracy specification if
you are operating the multimeter outside a 23°C ± 5°C temperature range.
Appendix A
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
183
Configuring for High Accuracy Measurements
The measurement configurations shown below assume that the multimeter is in its power-on or reset state. It is
also assumed that manual ranging is enabled to ensure proper full scale range selection.
DC Voltage, DC Current, and Resistance Measurements:
• Set the resolution to 6 digits Fast (integration time of 10 PLC). You can use the 6 digits slow mode
(integration time of 100 PLC) for further noise reduction.
• Set the input resistance to greater than 10GΩ (for the 100mV, 1V, and 10V ranges) for the best dc voltage
accuracy.
• Use 4-wire ohms for the best resistance accuracy.
• Use Math Null to null the test cable resistance for 2-wire ohms, and to remove interconnection offset for
dc voltage measurements.
AC Voltage and AC Current Measurements:
• Set the resolution to 6 digits (integration time of 100 PLC).
• Select the slow ac filter (3Hz to 300kHz).
Frequency and Period Measurements:
• Set the resolution to 6 digits (aperture time of 1 second).
184
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Specifications
Appendix A
Appendix B
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter
Error Messages
The following sections describe the types of errors the HP E1312A and
HP E1412A report; Execution Errors, Self-Test Errors and Calibration
Errors. The error code is given (e.g., -101) followed by the associated error
message and a description of what the error message means.
Execution Errors
Appendix B
-101
Invalid character
An invalid character was found in the command string. You may have
inserted a character such as #, $, or % in the command header or within a
parameter. Example: CONF:VOLT#DC
-102
Syntax error
Invalid syntax was found in the command string. You may have inserted a
blank space before or after a colon in the command header, or before a
comma. Example: SAMP:COUN ,1
-103
Invalid separator
An invalid separator was found in the command string. You may have used
a comma instead of a colon, semicolon, or blank space – or you may have
used a blank space instead of a comma. Example: TRIG:COUN,1
or CONF:FREQ 1000 0.1
-104
Data type error
The wrong parameter type was found in the command string. You may have
specified a number where a string was expected, or vice versa.
Example: TRIG:COUN ’150’ or TRIG:COUN A
-105
GET not allowed
A Group Execute Trigger (GET) is not allowed within a command string.
-108
Parameter not allowed
More parameters were received than expected for the command. You may
have entered an extra parameter, or you added a parameter to a command
that does not accept a parameter. Example: READ? 10
-109
Missing parameter
Fewer parameters were received than expected for the command. You
omitted one or more parameters that are required for this command.
Example: SAMP:COUN
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
185
186
-112
Program mnemonic too long
A command header was received which contained more than the maximum
12 characters allowed. Example: CONFIGURATION:VOLT:DC
A <code> string contains more than the maximum 12 characters allowed in
the CALibration:SECure:CODE command.
-113
Undefined header
A command was received that is not valid for this multimeter. You may have
misspelled the command or it may not be a valid command. If you are using
the short form of the command, remember that it may contain up to four
letters. Example: TRIGG:COUN 3
-121
Invalid character in number
An invalid character was found in the number specified for a parameter
value. Example: STAT:QUES:ENAB #B01010102
-123
Numeric overflow
A numeric parameter was found whose exponent was larger than 32,000.
Example: TRIG:COUN 1E34000
-124
Too many digits
A numeric parameter was found whose mantissa contained more than
255 digits, excluding leading zeros.
-128
Numeric data not allowed
A numeric parameter was found but a character string was expected. Check
the list of parameters to verify you have used a correct parameter type.
Example: TRIG:SOUR 1
-131
Invalid suffix
A suffix was incorrectly specified for a numeric parameter. You may have
misspelled the suffix. Example: TRIG:DEL 0.5 SECS
-138
Suffix not allowed
A suffix was received following a numeric parameter which does not accept
a suffix. Example: SAMP:COUN 1 SEC (SEC is not a valid suffix).
-148
Character data not allowed
A character string was received but a numeric parameter was expected.
Check the list of parameters to verify that you have used a valid parameter
type. Example: CAL:LFR XYZ
-151
Invalid string data
An invalid character string was received. Check to see if you have enclosed
the character string in single or double quotes. Example: CAL:STR ’NEXT
(the ending quote is missing).
CAL DUE 10/4/1996
-158
String data not allowed
A character string was received but is not allowed for the command. Check
the list of parameters to verify that you have used a valid parameter type.
Example: CALC:STAT ’ON’
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
Appendix B
-160 to -168
Block data errors
The multimeter does not accept block data.
-170 to -178
Expression errors
The multimeter does not accept mathematical expressions.
-211
Trigger ignored
A Group Execute Trigger (GET) or *TRG was received but the trigger was
ignored. Make sure the multimeter is in the “wait-for-trigger” state before
issuing a trigger, and make sure the correct trigger source is selected.
-213
Init ignored
An INITiate command was received but could not be executed because a
measurement was already in progress. Send a device clear to halt a
measurement in progress and place the multimeter in the “idle” state.
-214
Trigger deadlock
A trigger deadlock occurs when the trigger source is BUS and a READ?
command is received.
-221
Settings conflict
This error can be generated in one of the following situations:
You sent a CONFigure or MEASure command with autorange enabled and
with a fixed resolution. Example: CONF:VOLT:DC DEF,0.1
You turned math on (CALC:STAT ON) and then changed to a math operation
that was not valid with the present measurement function. For example, dB
measurements are not allowed with 2-wire ohms. The math state is turned
off as a result of this condition.
Appendix B
-222
Data out of range
A numeric parameter value is outside the valid range for the command.
Example: TRIG:COUN -3
-223
Too much data
A character string was received but could not be executed because the string
length was more than 12 characters. This error can be generated by the
CALibration:STRing and DISPlay:TEXT commands.
-224
Illegal parameter value
A discrete parameter was received which was not a valid choice for the
command. You may have used an invalid parameter choice.
Examples: CALC:FUNC SCALE (SCALE is not a valid choice) or
SAMP:COUN ON (ON is not a valid choice).
-230
Data stale
A FETCh? command was received but internal reading memory was empty.
The reading retrieved may be invalid or settings have changed since the data
was taken.
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
187
188
-330
Self-test failed
The multimeter’s complete self-test failed from the remote interface (*TST?
command). In addition to this error, more specific self-test errors are also
reported. See also “Self-Test Errors,” following this section.
-350
Too many errors
The error queue is full because more than 20 errors have occurred. No
additional errors are stored until you remove errors from the queue. The
error queue is cleared when power has been off, or after a *CLS (clear status)
command has been executed.
-410
Query INTERRUPTED
A command was received which sends data to the output buffer, but the
output buffer contained data from a previous command (the previous data is
not overwritten). The output buffer is cleared when power has been off, or
after a *RST (reset) command has been executed.
-420
Query UNTERMINATED
The multimeter was addressed to talk (i.e., to send data over the interface)
but a command has not been received which sends data to the output buffer.
For example, you may have executed a CONFigure command (which does
not generate data) and then attempted an ENTER statement to read data from
the remote interface.
-430
Query DEADLOCKED
A command was received which generates too much data to fit in the output
buffer and the input buffer is also full. Command execution continues but all
data is lost.
-440
Query UNTERMINATED after indefinite response
The *IDN? command must be the last query command within a command
string. Example: *IDN?;:SYST:VERS?
501
Isolator UART framing error
502
Isolator UART overrun error
511
Unexpected reset occurred
The outguard circuit recognized the inguard circuit reset (probably due to an
abnormal input condition). This error causes the instrument to go to the
power-on setting and the previous setting is lost.
521
Input buffer overflow
522
Output buffer overflow
531
Insufficient memory
There is not enough memory to store the requested number of readings in
internal memory using the INITiate command. The product of the sample
count (SAMPle:COUNt) and the trigger count (TRIGger:COUNt) must not
exceed 512 readings.
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
Appendix B
532
Cannot achieve requested resolution
The multimeter cannot achieve the requested measurement resolution. You
may have specified an invalid resolution in the CONFigure or MEASure
command.
540
Cannot use overload as math reference
The multimeter cannot store an overload reading (9.90000000E+37) as the
math reference for null or dB measurements. The math state is turned off as
a result of this condition.
Self-Test Errors
Appendix B
The following errors indicate failures that may occur during a self-test.
The error message provides a description of the failure. Refer to the
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Service Manual for more information.
602
RAM read/write failed
603
A/D sync stuck
604
A/D slope convergence failed
605
Cannot calibrate rundown gain
606
Rundown gain out of range
607
Rundown too noisy
609
DC gain x1 failed
610
DC gain x10 failed
611
DC gain x100 failed
612
Ohms 500nA source failed
613
Ohms 5µA source failed
614
DC 300V zero failed
615
Ohms 10µA source failed
616
DC current sense failed
617
Ohms 100µA source failed
618
DC high voltage attenuator failed
619
Ohms 1mA source failed
620
AC rms zero failed
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
189
621
AC rms full scale failed
622
Frequency counter failed
623
Cannot calibrate precharge
625
I/O processor does not respond
626
I/O processor failed self-test
Calibration Errors
The following errors indicate failures that may occur during a calibration.
The most common errors have descriptions here. Refer to the HP E1312A
and HP E1412A Service Manual for more information on the other errors.
701
Cal security disabled by jumper
The calibration security feature has been disabled with a jumper inside the
multimeter. When applicable, this error will occur at power-on to warn you
that the multimeter is unsecured.
702
Cal secured
The multimeter is secured against calibration.
703
Invalid secure code
An invalid calibration security code was received when attempting to
unsecure or secure the multimeter. You must use the same security code to
unsecure the multimeter as was used to secure it, and vice versa. The
security code may contain up to 12 alphanumeric characters. The first
character must be a letter.
704
Secure code too long
A security code was received which contained more than 12 characters.
705
Cal aborted
A calibration in progress is aborted when you send a device clear to the
multimeter.
706
Cal value out of range
The specified calibration value ( CAL:VALue) is invalid for the present
function and range.
707
Cal signal measurement out of range
The specified calibration value (CAL:VALue) does not match the signal
applied to the multimeter.
708
Cal signal frequency out of range
The input signal frequency for an ac calibration does not match the required
input frequency for calibration.
190
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
Appendix B
Appendix B
709
No cal for this function or range
You cannot perform calibrations for ac current, period, continuity, diode,
ratio, or on the 100MΩ range.
710
Full scale correction out of range
720
Cal DCV offset out of range
721
Cal DCI offset out of range
722
Cal RES offset out of range
723
Cal FRES offset out of range
724
Extended resistance self cal failed
725
500V DC correction out of range
730
Precharge DAC convergence failed
731
A/D turnover correction out of range
732
AC flatness DAC convergence failed
733
AC low frequency convergence failed
734
AC low frequency correction out of range
735
AC rms converter noise correction out of range
736
AC rms 100th scale linearity correction out of range
740
Cal checksum failed, secure state
741
Cal checksum failed, string data
742
Cal checksum failed, DCV corrections
743
Cal checksum failed, DCI corrections
744
Cal checksum failed, RES corrections
745
Cal checksum failed, FRES corrections
746
Cal checksum failed, AC corrections
747
Cal checksum failed, HP-IB address
748
Cal checksum failed, internal data
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
191
Notes:
192
HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter Error Messages
Appendix B
Appendix C
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeters were designed so the default
mode of operation will deliver high accuracy readings with a minimum of
programming effort. However, many applications require high-speed
measurements. This appendix discusses two topics:
1. special non-SCPI function (F1, F2, F3 and F4) and range (R1, R2, R3,
R4, R5, R6 and R7) commands used to speed up measurement setup
and
2. how to increase measurement speed where reduced reading accuracy
is acceptable.
HP E1312A/E1412A Special Function and Range
Commands (Non-SCPI )
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter have special function and
range commands for DCV, DCI, 2-wire resistance (RES) and four-wire
resistance (FRES) shown in the following table. ACV, ACI, frequency or
period functions are not supported with these special commands.
Special Function and Range Commands
RANGE
FUNCTION
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
F1 (DCV)
0.1V
1V
10V
100V
300V
F2 (DCI)
0.01A
0.1A
1A
3A
F3 (RES)
100Ω
1KΩ
10KΩ
100KΩ
1MΩ
10MΩ
100MΩ
F4 (FRES)
100Ω
1KΩ
10KΩ
100KΩ
1MΩ
10MΩ
100MΩ
INVALID RANGES
WILL RETURN “Out of range” ERROR
These special commands act like a [SENSe:] command to change a function
or range. The range command acts only on the current function. For
example, if the current function is DCV and its range is 10V, sending the
range command R2 changes the DCV range to 1V but does not affect the
DCI, RES or FRES ranges. To also change the 2-wire resistance range to the
R2 setting, you must send the commands F3 and R2. First F3 changes the
current function from DCV to RES then R2 sets the range to 1KΩ. Sending
F1 returns the function to DCV and to the range and state it was last set prior
to the F3 command.
The table on the following page shows equivalent [SENSe:] commands for
the special commands.
Appendix C
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
193
Speed Advantage
Using the Special
Non-SCPI
Commands
(F1-F4 and R1-R7)
You can save approximately three (3) milliseconds by using an F1 - F4
special function command instead of changing function with the equivalent
SCPI [SENSe:] function command. You can save approximately five (5)
milliseconds by using an R1 - R7 special range command instead of
changing the range with the equivalent SCPI [SENSe:] range command.
Special Commands and Their Equivalent [SENSe:] Command
Speed
Advantage
Special
Command
approximate
3 mS advantage with special command
Equivalent [SENSe:] SCPI command
F1
[SENSe:]FUNC "VOLT[:DC]"
F2
[SENSe:]FUNC "CURR[:DC]"
F3
[SENSe:]FUNC "RES"
F4
[SENSe:]FUNC "FRES"
The special range command affects the currently configured function.
approximate
5 mS advantage with special command
194
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
R1
[SENSe:]VOLT[:DC]:RANG 0.1
[SENSe:]CURR[:DC]:RANG 0.01
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 100
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 100
R2
[SENSe:]VOLT[:DC]:RANG 1
[SENSe:]CURR[:DC]:RANG 0.1
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 1000
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 1000
R3
[SENSe:]VOLT[:DC]:RANG 10
[SENSe:]CURR[:DC]:RANG 1
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 10000
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 10000
R4
[SENSe:]VOLT[:DC]:RANG 100
[SENSe:]CURR[:DC]:RANG 3
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 1E5
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 1E5
R5
[SENSe:]VOLT[:DC]:RANG 300
CURR[:DC] DOES NOT APPLY
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 1E6
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 1E6
R6
VOLT[:DC] DOES NOT APPLY
CURR[:DC] DOES NOT APPLY
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 10E6
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 10E6
R7
VOLT[:DC] DOES NOT APPLY
CURR[:DC] DOES NOT APPLY
[SENSe:]RES:RANG 100E6
[SENSe:]FRES:RANG 100E6
Appendix C
HP E1312A/E1412A Resolution Using Special Functions
and Ranges
Resolution remains a function of the NPLC parameter set at the time a
special function or range is used. The NPLC setting is fixed throughout use
of the special functions and ranges unless you change the setting with the
[SENSe:]<function>:NPLC command or configure the multimeter with the
CONFigure command using a resolution that changes the NPLC setting. The
resolution will track the NPLC setting as shown in Tables 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3
beginning on page 70.
The following table shows range and NPLC settings for power-on and after
a module reset. Changing a range within one function does not place other
functions at that range setting. Each function operates independently.
Special Function
Note
Resolution Example
HP E1312A/E1412
Power-on State
HP E1312A/E1412
*RST State
F1
10V (R3), NPLC = 10
300V (R5), NPLC = 10
F2
1A (R3), NPLC = 10
1A (R3), NPLC = 10
F3
1kΩ (R2), NPLC = 10
1kΩ (R2), NPLC = 10
F4
1kΩ (R2), NPLC = 10
1kΩ (R2), NPLC = 10
Refer to Tables 3-1, 3-2 and 3-3 in Chapter 3, to determine what resolution
will result following a special function or special range change. The NPLC
setting remains fixed for each function during execution of the special
function and range commands (e.g., may differ from function to function).
Assume the power-on state where the multimeter function is DC Voltage,
10V range, with an NPLC setting of 10 PLCs providing 10µV resolution
(see Table 3-1 on page 70). Use the special range command R5 to change
the DC Voltage range to 300V. The NPLC setting remains at 10 PLCs
providing a resolution of 1mV (see Table 3-1 on page 70).
Use the special function command F3 to change the function to 2-Wire
Resistance. The range goes to the resistance power-on state (1kΩ for 2-Wire
Resistance, NPLC = 10); it does not change with the previous DCV R5
command. NPLC remains at 10 PLCs providing resolution of 1mΩ.
The special range commands do not affect other functions except in the F3
(RES) and F4 (FRES) function changes. Range changes on F3 cause the
same range change on F4 and vice versa.
Appendix C
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
195
General Guidelines for Increasing Measurement Speed
The following guidelines show how to increase measurement speed, which
in some cases, will reduce the accuracy of the measurement. Some of the
guidelines will not affect accuracy but simply make taking measurements
more efficient. Be aware that these guidelines also increase the complexity
of the program.
1. Avoid function changes.
2. Avoid aperture changes when making frequency or period
measurements.
3. Minimize the number of command/response sessions.
4. Set autozero to ONCE or OFF.
5. Turn autorange OFF.
6. Decrease the NPLC setting for DCV, DCI, 2-wire and 4-wire
resistance measurements.
7. Store the readings in the HP E1312A or HP E1412A internal memory
instead of sending them directly to the computer.
Note
Only items 4, 5 and 6 may reduce the accuracy of a measurement. The rest
of the guidelines involve additional work by the system programmers.
Avoid Function
Changes
The HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter takes time to switch between
the various functions because the hardware must be re-configured for the
new function. Organize your program so all measurements on a function are
done at the same time.
Avoid Aperture
Changes
Changing aperture times for frequency or period measurements takes a
significant amount of time. The easiest way to avoid aperture changes is to
directly specify the aperture time. This requires that you not use the
MEASure command and that you not specify the optional <resolution>
parameter in a CONFigure command.
Minimize the
Number of
Command/
Response Sessions
Minimizing the number of command/response sessions involves
programming the multimeter to pace itself, rather than the computer pacing
the multimeter. Use the external trigger mode when measuring signals
routed to the multimeter from a switch module.
196
The EXTernal TRIGger input can be used to start a scan from an external
signal. The HP E1406 Command Module “Clk out” is a convenient source
for an external signal. A potential problem exists whereby an external trigger
arrives before the multimeter is ready to start a new scan causing the trigger
to be missed and no error message generated. Send a *OPC? command to the
multimeter after setting up the multimeter and prior to initiating the switch
module to eliminate this problem.
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
Appendix C
Set Autozero to
ONCE or OFF
Autozero causes the A/D to alternately measure its internal zero and the
external signal. Autozero improves reading accuracy; however, it reduces
reading speed by ½.
----The zero will be measured before each
measurement.
CAL:ZERO:AUTO OFF ----No new zero readings will be made.
CAL:ZERO:AUTO ONCE----Does one Autozero operation when the
command is received and also sets the mode
to autozero OFF.
CAL:ZERO:AUTO ON
The zero may vary over time, especially as the room temperature varies.
Noticeable changes can be expected over many minutes or hours. However,
over a few seconds the changes should be very small.
Turn Autorange
OFF
Turning autorange OFF makes the HP E1312A and HP E1412A take all
measurements on a fixed range which results in fast and predictable
measurement times.
Autorange is turned OFF when a numeric value or MIN | MAX is specified for
the <range> parameter of the CONFigure, MEASure,
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe, [SENSe:]VOLTage:RANGe, or
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe command. Autorange is directly controlled
by the [SENSe:]VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO ON|OFF,
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO ON|OFF, or
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO ON|OFF command.
You can query the HP E1312A or HP E1412A autorange status for a
particular function by the following commands:
[SENSe:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO?
[SENSe:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO?
Decrease Aperture
Time or NPLCs
The aperture time or NPLCs (number of power line cycles) is the amount of
time that the input signal is integrated. The smaller the aperture time or
NPLCs, the faster the readings are taken.
A disadvantage to faster aperture times or smaller NPLC settings is
increased noise will be present in the measured values. The most common
source of noise is from AC power sources.
The magnitude of noise from AC power sources in most cases is many
millivolts. If the signal being measured is large enough, then the noise may
not be significant. However, noise becomes a factor if the signal being
measured is in the microvolt range.
Appendix C
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
197
Setting the Resolution
Store the Readings in
Multimeter RAM
Instead of Sending
them Directly to the
Computer
INIT;:FETCH?
The aperture time or NPLC is set as a result of specifying the <resolution>
parameter in the MEASure or CONFigure command, or by directly setting it
with the [SENSe:]FREQuency:APERture or [SENSe:]PERiod:APERture
command or [SENSe:]function:NPLC commands.
There is a major difference between INIT;:FETCh? and READ? after a
CONFigure command.
When the INITiate command is sent to the HP E1312A or HP E1412A, the
multimeter will store up to 512 readings in Multimeter RAM. For example:
CONF:VOLT:DC
SAMP:COUN 200
INIT
! Stores 200 readings in RAM
FETC?
! Transfers readings to output buffer
The HP E1312A or HP E1412A then takes the readings as soon as its trigger
conditions have been satisfied and stores them in internal memory (RAM).
For example, if the trigger source is IMMediate, the readings are started once
INITiate is executed. If the trigger source is EXT, then the readings are
started when an external trigger is received.
The FETCh? command causes the readings that have been stored in the
multimeter RAM to be placed in the multimeter’s output buffer so they can be
retrieved and sent over the HP-IB bus (or other I/O interface such as VXLink).
No readings are output until all readings have been taken and stored in internal
memory (RAM). This results in a burst-then-transfer mode of operation. The
multimeter can store a maximum of 512 readings in its internal memory.
READ?
The READ? command does not store readings in internal memory (RAM)
like the INITiate command does. For example:
CONF:VOLT:DC
SAMP:COUN 200
READ?
! Takes 200 readings and puts them in the output buffer
The READ? command causes the HP E1312A and HP E1412A Multimeter to
start taking readings as soon as the trigger requirements have been met. For
example, if the trigger source is IMMediate, the readings are started
immediately. If the trigger source is EXT, then the readings are started when
an external trigger is received. The multimeter immediately places those
readings in the multimeter’s output buffer so they can be retrieved via the
HP-IB bus (or other I/O interface such as VXLink) by the controller. If the
controller cannot take the readings from the output buffer fast enough, the
multimeter will suspend taking measurements until there is room to place the
readings in the output buffer. You can have a variable reading rate if your
controller is busy doing other tasks instead of emptying the output buffer to
make room for more readings.
198
Measurement Speed and Accuracy Trade-offs
Appendix C
Index
HP E1312A/E1412A User’s Manual and SCPI Programming Guide
Numerics
2-Wire Ohms Measurement
aperture time, 139
connections, 21, 30
integration time, 139
range, 141
range/resolution, 92, 107
resolution, 143
4-Wire Ohms Measurement
connections, 21, 29
integration time, 131
range, 133–134
range/resolution, 90, 105
resolution, 135
A
Abbreviated Commands, 68
ABORt Subsystem, 72
AC Current
high speed measurements, 36
measurement
errors, 36
range, 87, 119–120
range/resolution, 87, 102
resolution, 121
range vs. resolution, 71
signal filters, 36–37, 127–128
specifications, 174–176
true RMS measurements, 32–35
AC Voltage
high speed measurements, 36
loading errors, 34
measurements
below full scale, 34
loading errors (ac volts), 34
range, 144–145
range/resolution, 93, 108
resolution, 146
range vs. resolution, 71
signal filters, 36–37, 127–128
specifications, 174–176
true RMS measurements, 32–35
turnover errors, 35
Accuracy, 183
and speed tradeoffs, 193–198
high accuracy configuration, 184
specifications, 183
ac characteristics, 174–176
dc characteristics, 171
frequency characteristics, 177
period characteristics, 177
temperature coefficients, 183
transfer accuracy, 183
Address
dynamic addressing, 16
switch, setting, 16
Analog Bus Connections, 19
Aperture, 147
increasing measurement speed, 196
Aperture Time
2-wire resistance, 139
4-wire resistance, 131
changing, 196
decreasing, 197
frequency measurements, 128
querying, 122, 128, 131, 136, 139, 147
setting, 122, 131, 136, 139, 147, 197
vs. dc current resolution, 70
vs. dc voltage resolution, 70
Application Examples, 52
Automatic Input Impedance, 100
Autorange, 40
enabling/disabling
2-wire ohms function, 92, 107
4-wire ohms function, 105, 134
ac current function, 87, 102, 120
ac voltage measurements, 145
ac-coupled RMS voltage, 93, 108
dc current function, 88, 103, 125
dc ratio measurements, 95, 110
dc voltage function, 94, 109
dc voltage measurements, 150
frequency measurements, 130
period measurements, 138
resistance measurements, 142
increasing measurement speed, 197
Index
199
A (continued)
Autorange (continued)
querying
4-wire resistance, 134
4-wire resistance measurements, 134
ac current measurements, 120
ac voltage measurements, 145
dc current measurements, 125
dc voltage measurements, 150
frequency measurements, 130
period measurements, 138
resistance measurements, 142
setting, 197
Autozero, 31, 40, 83, 152
disabling, 197
enabling, 197
increasing measurement speed, 197
querying, 83, 152
B
Backplane Trigger Lines, 46
Bandwidth
ac signal filters, 37, 127–128
setting, 127–128
Bits
message available bit (MAV), 60, 62
operation status bit (OPR), 58
questionable data register bit (QUE), 63
service request bit (SRQ), 60
standard event bit (ESB), 61
summary bit, 60
Boolean Parameters, 69
Burden Voltage, 32
errors, 36
BUS Trigger Source, 46, 48, 160
C
C Programming Language, 52
CALCulate Subsystem, 73–78
AVERage function, 41, 74, 76
CALC:AVERage:AVERage?, 74
CALC:AVERage:COUNt?, 74
CALC:AVERage:MAXimum?, 74
CALC:AVERage:MINimum?, 74
CALC:DB:REFerence, 75
CALC:DB:REFerence?, 75
CALC:DBM:REFerence, 75
CALC:DBM:REFerence?, 75
CALC:FUNCtion, 76
CALC:FUNCtion?, 76
200
Index
CALCulate Subsystem (continued)
CALC:LIMit:LOWer, 77
CALC:LIMit:LOWer?, 77
CALC:LIMit:UPPer, 77
CALC:LIMit:UPPer?, 77
CALC:NULL:OFFSet, 78
CALC:NULL:OFFSet?, 78
CALC:STATe, 78
CALC:STATe?, 78
dB measurements, 42–43, 75–76
dBm measurements, 43, 75–76
LIMit function, 44, 76–77
math operations, 41–44
NULL (relative) function, 41–42, 76, 78
Calculate Total Measurement Error, 180–181
Calibration
errors, 190–191
security code, 81
changing, 80
enabling/disabling, 81
querying, 81
setting, 80
value of signal, 82
CALibration Subsystem, 79–83
CAL:COUNt?, 79
CAL:LFRequency, 79
CAL:LFRequency?, 80
CAL:SECure:CODE, 80
CAL:SECure:STATe, 81
CAL:SECure:STATe?, 81
CAL:STRing, 81
CAL:STRing?, 82
CAL:VALue, 82
CAL:VALue?, 82
CAL:ZERO:AUTO, 83
CAL:ZERO:AUTO?, 83
CALibration? command, 84
Checking
error queue, 155
line frequency reference, 17
sample count, 115
trigger count, 49, 157
*CLS, 155, 163
Command Reference
ABORt subsystem, 72
CALCulate subsystem, 73–78
CALibration subsystem, 79–83
CALibration? command, 84
common (*) commands, 162–167
CONFigure subsystem, 85–95
CONFigure? command, 96
C (continued)
Command Reference (continued)
DATA subsystem, 97
FETCh? command, 98
INITiate subsystem, 99
INPut subsystem, 100
MEASure subsystem, 101–110
OUTPut subsystem, 111–112
READ? command, 113
SAMPle subsystem, 114–115
SCPI commands, 71–161
quick reference, 167–170
[SENSe:] subsystem, 116–152
STATus subsystem, 153–154
SYSTem subsystem, 155
TRIGger subsystem, 156–161
Commands
*CLS, 155, 163
*ESE, 163
*ESE?, 163
*ESR?, 164
*IDN?, 164
*OPC, 164
*OPC?, 165
*RST, 165
*SRE, 60, 165
*SRE?, 165
*STB?, 166
*TRG, 46, 48, 160
*TST?, 166
*WAI, 166
abbreviated, 68
common (*), 162–167
common command format, 67
implied, 68
linking, 69
low-level, 101
non-SCPI function, 193–198
non-SCPI range, 193–198
parameters, 69
SCPI command format, 67
separator, 68
types of, 67
upper case vs. lower case, 68
Common (*) Commands
*CLS, 155, 163
*ESE, 163
*ESE?, 163
*ESR?, 164
*IDN?, 164
*OPC, 164
Common (*) Commands (continued)
*OPC?, 165
*RST, 165
*SRE, 60, 165
*SRE?, 165
*STB?, 166
*TRG, 46, 48, 160
*TST?, 166
*WAI, 166
format, 67
quick reference, 162, 167
Common Mode
errors, 35
rejection (CMR), 27
CONFigure Subsystem, 85–95
CONF:CURRent:AC, 87
CONF:CURRent[:DC], 88
CONF:FREQuency, 89
CONF:FRESistance, 90
CONF:PERiod, 91
CONF:RESistance, 92
CONF:VOLTage:AC, 93
CONF[:VOLTage[:DC]], 94
CONF[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio, 95
CONFigure? Command, 96
Configuring for Highest Accuracy
Measurements, 184
Connections
2-wire ohms measurement, 21, 30
4-wire ohms measurement, 21, 29
analog bus, 19
best type, 25
current measurement, 22
frequency measurement, 19
functional multimeter, 19–22
period measurement, 19
twisted-pair, 28
voltage measurement, 20
voltage ratio (Vdc) measurement, 20
Count
point calibrations, 79
readings, 74, 114–115
samples, 51, 114–115
trigger, 48–49, 156–157
Crest Factor Error, 33, 180
Current
ac
high speed measurements, 36
measurement errors, 36
range, 87, 119–120
range vs. resolution, 71
Index
201
C (continued)
Current (continued)
ac (continued)
range/resolution, 87, 102
resolution, 121
specifications, 174–176
true RMS measurements, 32–35
dc
aperture time, 122
integration time, 122–123
measurement errors, 32
range, 124–125
range/resolution, 88, 103
resolution, 126
resolution vs. integration time, 70
specifications, 171–173
leakage errors, 26
maximum, 15
measurement, connections, 22
D
Data Points, 97
DATA Subsystem, 97
DATA:POINts?, 97
dB Measurements, 42–43
dBm Measurements, 43
DC Current
aperture time, 122
integration time, 122–123
measurement errors, 32
measurement range, 124–125
measurement range/resolution, 88, 103
measurement resolution, 126
resolution vs. integration time, 70
specifications, 171–173
DC Voltage
aperture time, 147
blocking circuitry, 36
common mode rejection (CMR), 27
ground loops noise, 28
high speed measurements, 31
input impedance, 100
input resistance, 37
integration time, 147
leakage current errors, 26
loading errors, 26
magnetic loops noise, 28
measurements, 25–28
common mode rejection (CMR), 27
ground loops noise, 28
high speed, 31
202
Index
DC Voltage (continued)
measurements (continued)
leakage current errors, 26
loading errors (dc volts), 26
magnetic loops noise, 28
range, 149–150
range/resolution, 94, 109
ratio range/resolution, 95, 110
rejecting power line noise voltages, 27
resolution, 151
thermal EMF errors, 25
rejecting power line noise voltages, 27
resolution vs. integration time, 70
specifications, 171–173
Declaration of Conformity, 11–12
Delays
settling time, 31
trigger
defaults, 50, 159
querying, 51, 158–159
setting, 49–50, 157–159
Description of Modules, 15
Dielectric Absorption, 31
Digits, number of, 15, 38, 182
Disabling
automatic input impedance, 100
autorange
2-wire ohms function, 92, 107
4-wire ohms function, 105, 134
ac current function, 87, 102, 120
ac voltage measurements, 145
ac-coupled RMS voltage, 93, 108
dc current function, 88, 103, 125
dc ratio measurements, 95, 110
dc voltage function, 94, 109
dc voltage measurements, 150
frequency measurements, 130
period measurements, 138
resistance measurements, 142
autozero, 83, 152, 197
math function, 78
Discrete Parameters, 69
Documentation History, 10
DUT Power Dissipation, 31
Dynamic Addressing, 16
E
Enabling
automatic input impedance, 100
autorange
2-wire ohms function, 92, 107
4-wire ohms function, 105, 134
ac current function, 87, 102, 120
ac voltage measurements, 145
ac-coupled RMS voltage, 93, 108
dc current function, 88, 103, 125
dc ratio measurements, 95, 110
dc voltage function, 94, 109
dc voltage measurements, 150
frequency measurements, 130
period measurements, 138
resistance measurements, 142
autozero, 83, 152, 197
math function, 78
Errors
ac current measurement, 36
ac turnover, 35
burden voltage, 36
calculate total measurement, 180–181
calibration errors, 190–191
common mode, 35
crest factor, 33, 180
dc measurement, 32
execution errors, 185–188
field wiring resistance, 30
frequency measurement, 36
high resistance measurements, 31
leakage current, 26
loading (ac volts), 34
loading (dc volts), 26
low-level measurement, 35
messages, 185–191
noise, 28
offset voltage, 28
overload, 34
period measurement, 36
queue, 155
range error, 180
reading error, 180
self-test errors, 189
temperature coefficient, 34, 180
thermal EMF, 25
*ESE, 163
*ESE?, 163
*ESR?, 164
Example Programs
C programming language, 52
hardware used, 53
HP VEE programming example, 64
making a single measurement, 54
making external trigger measurements, 54
maximizing accuracy, 56
maximizing measurement speed, 55
monitoring for limit test failure, 63
monitoring for message available (MAV bit), 62
monitoring for operation complete (OPC bit), 61
multimeter self-test, 22–23
setting sample count, 51
setting trigger count, 49
setting trigger delay, 49
status system example, 60–63
synchronizing with switch module, 57–59
using math operations, 59
Visual Basic programming language, 52
visual engineering environment (VEE), 64
VXIplug&play
See online help
Execution Errors, 185–188
External Trigger
measurements, 54
source, 46–47, 160
trig input requirement, 47
VM Complete output signal, 47
F
FETCh? Command, 98, 198
Field Wiring Resistance, 30
Filters, ac signal, 36–37, 127–128
Frequency
aperture time, 128
characteristics, 177–178
function, 89, 104
gate time, 128
measurement connections, 19
measurement errors, 36
voltage range, 129–130
Front Panel Indicators, 18
Function Changes
increasing measurement speed, 193–198
Function Commands, special, 193–198
Function Reference (VXIplug&play)
See online help
Functional Connections
2-wire ohms measurement, 21, 30
4-wire ohms measurement, 21, 29
analog bus, 19
Index
203
F (continued)
Functional Connections (continued)
current measurement, 22
frequency measurement, 19
measurement, 19–22
period measurement, 19
voltage measurement, 20
voltage ratio (Vdc) measurement, 20
G
Gate Time, 128
General Information, 15
General Specifications, 179
Ground Loops Noise, 28
Group Execute Trigger, 46, 48, 160
Initial Operation, 22
INITiate Subsystem, 99
INITiate[:IMMediate], 99
Input
bias current, 26
dc input resistance, 37
impedance, 100
terminals, 18
INPut Subsystem, 100
INPut:IMPedance:AUTO, 100
INPut:IMPedance:AUTO?, 100
Integration Time, 27, 39
2-wire resistance, 139
4-wire resistance, 131
NPLC, 123, 132, 140, 148
querying, 122–123, 131–132, 136, 139–140,
147–148
H
High Speed
ac current measurements, 36
ac voltage measurements, 36
resistance measurements, 31
HP VEE Programming Example, 64
HP-IB
end-or-identify (EOI) signal, 98
group execute trigger, 46, 48, 160
I
Idle State (trigger system), 45
*IDN?, 164
IEEE 488.2 Common (*) Commands
*CLS, 163
*ESE, 163
*ESE?, 163
*ESR?, 164
*IDN?, 164
*OPC, 164
*OPC?, 165
*RST, 165
*SRE, 165
*SRE?, 165
*STB?, 166
*TST?, 166
*WAI, 166
command reference, 162–167
IMMediate Trigger Source, 46–47, 160
Impedance Input, 100
Implied Commands, 68
Increasing Measurement Speed, 193–198
Indicators, front panel, 18
Induced Voltages, 28
204
Index
setting, 122–123, 131–132, 136, 139–140,
147–148
versus resolution, 70–71
vs. dc current resolution, 70
vs. dc voltage resolution, 70
Internal
memory, 97–98
triggering, 46–47, 160
Interpreting Multimeter Specifications, 182–183
Interrupt Priority, 17
L
Leakage Current Errors, 26
LIMit function, 77
Line Frequency, 79–80
Line Frequency Reference
checking, 17
setting, 17
Linking Commands, 69
Loading Errors
ac voltage, 34
dc voltage, 26
Logical Address Switch, 16
Low-Level
commands, 101
measurement errors, 35
M
Magnetic Loops Noise, 28
Making Multimeter Measurements, 53–56
externally triggered measurements, 54
maximizing accuracy, 56
maximizing speed, 55
measurement format, 54
single measurements, 54
using FETCh? command, 53
using INITiate commands, 53
using MEASure commands, 53
using READ? command, 53
Math Operations, 41–44
AVERage function, 41, 74, 76
dB measurements, 42–43, 75–76
dBm measurements, 43, 75–76
LIMit function, 44, 76–77
NULL (relative) function, 41–42, 76, 78
query function, 76
Maximum
accuracy, 56
average operation value, 74
current, 15
measurement speed, 55
voltage, 15
MEASure Subsystem, 101–110
MEAS:CURRent:AC?, 102
MEAS:CURRent:DC?, 103
MEAS:FREQuency?, 104
MEAS:FRESistance?, 105
MEAS:PERiod?, 106
MEAS:RESistance?, 107
MEAS:VOLTage:AC?, 108
MEAS[:VOLTage[:DC]]?, 109
MEAS[:VOLTage[:DC]]:RATio?, 110
Measurements
2-wire ohms connections, 21, 30
4-wire ohms connections, 21, 29
ac below full scale, 34
ac current
characteristics, 175
high speed, 36
ac voltage
characteristics, 175
high speed, 36
loading errors (ac volts), 34
configuration, 37–40
ac signal filter, 37, 127–128
autozero, 40
integration time, 39
ranging, 40
Measurements (continued)
configuration (continued)
resolution, 38
current connections, 22
dB, 42–43, 75
dBm, 43, 75
dc current
characteristics, 172
errors, 32
dc voltage, 25–28
characteristics, 172
common mode rejection (CMR), 27
ground loops noise, 28
high speed, 31
leakage current errors, 26
loading errors (dc volts), 26
magnetic loops noise, 28
ratio, 95, 110
rejecting power line noise voltages, 27
thermal EMF errors, 25
error, 180–181
frequency characteristics, 177
frequency connections, 19
functional connections, 19–22
high accuracy, 184
making, 53–56
externally triggered measurements, 54
maximizing accuracy, 56, 193–198
maximizing speed, 55, 193–198
measurement format, 54
single measurements, 54
using FETCh? command, 53, 98, 198
using INITiate commands, 53
using MEASure commands, 53
using READ? command, 53
period characteristics, 177
period connections, 19
resistance, 29–31
2-wire ohms, 30
4-wire ohms, 29
high resistance measurement errors, 31
high speed measurements, 31
power dissipation effects, 31
settling time effects, 31
retrieving from memory, 98
speed and accuracy tradeoffs, 193–198
temperature measurement resistors, 31
true RMS ac, 32–35
tutorial, 25
voltage connections, 20
voltage ratio (Vdc) connections, 20
Index
205
M (continued)
Memory
query readings stored, 97
retrieving measurements stored, 98
Message Available Bit (MAV), 60, 62
monitoring, 62
Minimum Average Operation Value, 74
Modules
description, 15
logical address switch, 16
Multimeter, 60–63
application examples, 52
error messages, 185–191
error queue, 155
functional connections, 19–22
general information, 15
measurements
externally triggered measurements, 54
making, 53–56
maximizing accuracy, 56
maximizing speed, 55
measurement format, 54
single measurements, 54
using FETCh? command, 53, 98, 198
using INITiate commands, 53
using MEASure commands, 53
using READ? command, 53
programming the, 15, 22–23
range and resolution tables, 70–71
setup, 15–23
specifications, 171–184
status system, 58, 60–63
synchronizing with switch module, 57–59, 64
triggering, 45–51, 156–161
N
Noise
errors, 28
ground loops, 28
magnetic loops, 28
pickup, minimizing, 26
power line voltage, 27
rejection, 27
Normal Mode Rejection (NMR), 27, 39
NPLC
increasing measurement speed, 197
integration time, 123, 132, 140, 148
querying, 123, 132, 140, 148
resolution, 15, 38
setting, 197
NULL Offset Value, 78
206
Index
Number
of digits, 15, 38, 182
specifying, 38
versus PLC, 15
of power line cycles
versus resolution, 38
power line cycles (NPLC), 15, 38
Numeric Parameters, 69
O
Offset Voltage, 28
measuring/removing, 34
*OPC, 164
*OPC?, 165
Operating Characteristics
ac current, 176
ac voltage, 176
dc current, 173
dc voltage, 173
frequency characteristics, 178
period characteristics, 178
Operation Status Bit (OPR), 58
Optional Parameters, 69
Output Buffer, 60
transfer readings to, 98, 113
OUTPut Subsystem, 111–112
OUTPut:TTLTrg[:STATe], 111
OUTPut:TTLTrg[:STATe]?, 112
Overload
errors, 34
indication, 40
Overrange, 182
P
Parameters, 69
Parts-Per-Million (PPM), 182
Period
characteristics, 177–178
measurements
aperture time, 136
autorange, 138
connections, 19
errors, 36
integration time, 136
range, 137
range/resolution, 91, 106
Plug&Play
See online help
Power Dissipation Effects, 31
P (continued)
Power Line
cycles, 27, 38, 123, 132, 140, 148
noise, rejecting voltages, 27
Programming the Multimeter, 15, 22–23
Q
Querying
ac filter selection, 128
aperture time, 122, 128, 131, 136, 139, 147
automatic input impedance, 100
autorange
4-wire ohms function, 134
4-wire resistance measurements, 134
ac current measurements, 120
ac voltage measurements, 145
dc current measurements, 125
dc voltage measurements, 150
frequency measurements, 130
period measurements, 138
resistance measurements, 142
autozero, 83, 152
calibration message, 82
calibration security code, 81
calibration value, 82
configuration, 96
dB reference value, 75
dBm reference value, 75
error queue, 155
integration time, 122–123, 131–132, 136,
139–140, 147–148
line frequency, 80
lower limit, 77
math function, 76
math function state, 78
measurement function, 118
NPLC, 123, 132, 140, 148
null offset value, 78
point calibrations, 79
range
2-wire resistance, 141
4-wire resistance, 133
ac current, 119
ac voltage measurements, 144
dc current, 124
dc voltage measurements, 149
frequency measurements, 129
period measurements, 137
readings stored in memory, 97
Querying (continued)
resolution
2-wire resistance, 143
4-wire resistance, 135
ac current, 121
ac voltage measurements, 146
dc current, 126
dc voltage measurements, 151
sample count, 51, 115
SCPI version number, 155
trigger
count, 49, 157
delay time, 51, 158–159
source, 47, 161
upper limit, 77
voltmeter complete destination, 112
Questionable Data Register, 60
bits (QUE), 63
Quick Reference
common (*) commands, 162, 167
SCPI commands, 167–170
R
Range, 40
2-wire ohms, 92, 107, 141
2-wire resistance, 141
4-wire ohms, 90, 105, 133–134
4-wire resistance, 133–134
ac current, 87, 102, 120
ac current vs. resolution, 71
ac voltage, 93, 108, 144–145
ac voltage vs. resolution, 71
and resolution tables, 70–71
commands, non-SCPI, 193–198
dc current, 88, 103, 124–125
dc ratio voltage, 95, 110
dc voltage, 94, 109, 149–150
error, 180
frequency function, 89, 104, 129–130
increasing measurement speed, 193–198
period function, 91, 106, 137–138
querying
2-wire resistance, 141
4-wire resistance, 133
ac current, 119
ac voltage measurements, 144
dc current, 124
dc voltage measurements, 149
frequency measurements, 129
period measurements, 137
Ranging, 40
Index
207
R (continued)
READ? Command, 113, 198
Readings
average, 74
error, 180
queue, 155
per trigger, 51, 114–115
stored in memory, 97–98, 198
transfer to output buffer, 98, 113
Reciprocal Counting Technique, 36
Registers
questionable data register, 60
bits (QUE), 63
standard event register, 60
status byte register, 60
Rejecting Power Line Noise Voltages, 27
Removing Field Wiring Resistance Errors, 30
Resistance
dc input, 37
measurements, 29–31
2-wire ohms, 30, 139, 141, 143
4-wire ohms, 29, 90, 131, 133–135
high resistance measurement errors, 31
high speed measurements, 31
power dissipation effects, 31
settling time effects, 31
Resolution, 182
2-wire ohms, 92, 107, 143
2-wire resistance, 143
4-wire ohms, 90, 105, 135
4-wire resistance, 135
ac current, 87, 102, 121
ac current range vs., 71
ac voltage, 93, 108, 146
ac voltage range vs., 71
and range tables, 70–71
dc current, 88, 103, 126
dc current vs. integration time, 70
dc ratio voltage, 95, 110
dc voltage, 94, 109, 151
dc voltage vs. integration time, 70
frequency function, 89, 104
NPLC, 15, 38
number of digits, 38
period function, 91, 106
power line cycles, 15, 38
querying
2-wire resistance, 143
4-wire resistance, 135
ac current, 121
ac voltage measurements, 146
208
Index
Resolution (continued)
querying (continued)
dc current, 126
dc voltage measurements, 151
setting, 15, 38, 198
using special non-SCPI commands, 195
versus integration time, 70–71
*RST, 165
S
Sample Count, 51, 114–115
querying, 51, 115
setting, 51, 114
SAMPle Subsystem, 114–115
SAMPle:COUNt, 51, 114
SAMPle:COUNt?, 51, 115
SCPI Commands
abbreviated, 68
ABORt subsystem, 72
CALCulate subsystem, 73–78
CALibration subsystem, 79–83
CALibration? command, 84
command format, 67
command quick reference, 167–170
command reference, 71–161
CONFigure subsystem, 85–95
CONFigure? command, 96
DATA subsystem, 97
FETCh? command, 98, 198
implied, 68
INITiate subsystem, 99
INPut subsystem, 100
linking, 69
MEASure subsystem, 101–110
OUTPut subsystem, 111–112
parameters, 69
quick reference, 167–170
READ? command, 113, 198
SAMPle subsystem, 114–115
[SENSe:] subsystem, 116–152
separator, 68
specifying, 22
STATus subsystem, 153–154
SYSTem subsystem, 155
TRIGger subsystem, 156–161
Security Code, 80–81
Self-Test, 22–23
errors, 189
S (continued)
[SENSe:] Subsystem, 116–152
[SENS:]FUNCtion, 118
[SENS:]FUNCtion?, 118
[SENS:]CURRent:AC:RANGe, 119
[SENS:]CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO, 120
[SENS:]CURRent:AC:RANGe:AUTO?, 120
[SENS:]CURRent:AC:RANGe?, 119
[SENS:]CURRent:AC:RESolution, 121
[SENS:]CURRent:AC:RESolution?, 121
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:APERture, 122
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:APERture?, 122
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles, 123
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles?, 123
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe, 124
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO, 125
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?, 125
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:RANGe?, 124
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:RESolution, 126
[SENS:]CURRent[:DC]:RESolution?, 126
[SENS:]DETector:BANDwidth, 127
[SENS:]DETector:BANDwidth?, 128
[SENS:]FREQuency:APERture, 128
[SENS:]FREQuency:APERture?, 128
[SENS:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe, 129
[SENS:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO,
130
[SENS:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?,
130
[SENS:]FREQuency:VOLTage:RANGe?, 129
[SENS:]FRESistance:APERture, 131
[SENS:]FRESistance:APERture?, 131
[SENS:]FRESistance:NPLC, 132
[SENS:]FRESistance:NPLC?, 132
[SENS:]FRESistance:RANGe, 133
[SENS:]FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO, 134
[SENS:]FRESistance:RANGe:AUTO?, 134
[SENS:]FRESistance:RANGe?, 133
[SENS:]FRESistance:RESolution, 135
[SENS:]FRESistance:RESolution?, 135
[SENS:]FUNCtion, 118
[SENS:]PERiod:APERture, 136
[SENS:]PERiod:VOLTage:RANGe, 136
[SENS:]RESistance:APERture, 139
[SENS:]RESistance:APERture?, 139
[SENS:]RESistance:NPLC, 140
[SENS:]RESistance:NPLC?, 140
[SENS:]RESistance:RANGe, 141
[SENS:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO, 142
[SENS:]RESistance:RANGe:AUTO?, 142
[SENS:]RESistance:RANGe?, 141
[SENSe:] Subsystem (continued)
[SENS:]RESistance:RESolution, 143
[SENS:]RESistance:RESolution?, 143
[SENS:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe, 144
[SENS:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO, 145
[SENS:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe:AUTO?, 145
[SENS:]VOLTage:AC:RANGe?, 144
[SENS:]VOLTage:AC:RESolution, 146
[SENS:]VOLTage:AC:RESolution?, 146
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:APERture, 147
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:APERture?, 147
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC, 148
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:NPLC?, 148
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe, 149
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO, 150
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO?, 150
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe?, 149
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution, 151
[SENS:]VOLTage[:DC]:RESolution?, 151
[SENS:]VOLTage:RANGe, 137
[SENS:]VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO, 138
[SENS:]VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO?, 138
[SENS:]VOLTage:RANGe?, 137
[SENS:]ZERO:AUTO, 152
[SENS:]ZERO:AUTO?, 152
Sensitivity, 182
Service Request Bit (SRQ), 60
Setting
aperture time, 122, 131, 136, 139, 147, 197
autorange, 120, 125, 134, 138, 142, 145, 150,
197
calibration security code, 80
integration time, 122–123, 131–132, 136,
139–140, 147–148
interrupt priority, 17
line frequency, 79
line frequency reference, 17
logical address switch, 16
NPLCs, 197
null offset value, 78
range
2-wire ohms, 92, 107, 141
4-wire ohms, 90, 105, 133–134
ac current, 87, 102
ac voltage, 93, 108, 144–145
dc current, 88, 103, 124–125
dc voltage, 94, 109, 149–150
dc voltage ratio, 95, 110
frequency, 89, 104
frequency measurements, 129–130
period function, 91, 106, 137–138
Index
209
S (continued)
Setting (continued)
resolution, 15, 38, 198
2-wire ohms, 92, 107, 143
4-wire ohms, 90, 105, 135
ac current, 87, 102, 121
ac voltage, 93, 108, 146
dc current, 88, 103, 126
dc voltage, 94, 109, 151
dc voltage ratio, 95, 110
frequency, 89, 104
period function, 91, 106
sample count, 51, 114
trigger
count, 49, 156
delays, 49–50, 157–159
upper/lower limits, 44, 77
Settling Time
ac signal filters, 37, 127–128
automatic insertion, 31
dc blocking circuitry, 36
delays, 31
effects, 31
SICL, 15
Signal Filters, 36–37, 127–128
querying, 128
setting, 127
Soft Front Panel (VXIplug&play)
See online help
Specifications, 171–184
ac characteristics, 174–176
calculate total measurement error, 180–181
dc characteristics, 171–173
frequency characteristics, 177–178
general, 179
high accuracy measurements, 184
interpreting, 182–183
period characteristics, 177–178
Speed and Accuracy Tradeoffs, 193–198
*SRE, 60, 165
*SRE?, 165
SRQ (Service Request Bit), 60
Standard Commands for Programmable
Instruments, 67
Standard Event
bit (ESB), 61
register, 60
Standard Instrument Control Language, 15
Status Byte
message available bit (MAV), 60, 62
operation status bit (OPR), 58
210
Index
Status Byte (continued)
questionable data register bit (QUE), 63
register, 60
STATus Subsystem, 153–154
STATus:PRESet, 153
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?, 153
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle, 153
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle?, 154
STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?, 154
Status System, 58, 60–63
examples, 60–63
multimeter, 60–63
switch module, 58
*STB?, 166
Storing
dB reference value, 43
dBm reference resistance value, 43
NULL offset value, 42
Summary Bit, 60
Switch Module, 58
synchronizing multimeter with, 57–59, 64
Synchronizing with Switch Module, 57–59, 64
SYSTem Subsystem, 155
SYSTem:ERRor?, 155
SYSTem:VERSion?, 155
T
Temperature Coefficient
accuracy, 183
errors, 34, 180
power dissipation effects, 31
Terminals, input, 18
Thermal EMF Errors, 25
Thermoelectric Voltages, 25–26
Transfer
accuracy, 183
readings to output buffer, 98, 113
*TRG, 46, 48, 160
Trigger Count, 48–49, 156–157
querying, 49, 157
selecting, 48–49, 156
Trigger Delay, 49–51, 157–159
defaults, 50, 159
querying, 51, 158–159
selecting, 49–50, 157–159
Trigger Lines (TTLTrg0-TTLTrg7), 46, 111–112,
160
Trigger Source, 46–48, 160–161
BUS, 46, 48, 160
EXTernal, 46–47, 160
T (continued)
Trigger Source (continued)
IMMediate, 46–47, 160
querying, 47, 161
selecting, 46–48, 160
TTL VXIbus triggers (TTLTrg0-TTLTrg7), 46,
160
TRIGger Subsystem, 156–161
TRIGger:COUNt, 48–49, 156
TRIGger:COUNt?, 49, 157
TRIGger:DELay, 49–50, 157
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO, 158
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO?, 159
TRIGger:DELay?, 51, 158
TRIGger:SOURce, 46–48, 160
TRIGger:SOURce?, 47, 161
Trigger System
diagram, 45
idle state, 45
readings per trigger, 51, 114–115
trig input requirement, 47
VM Complete output signal, 47
wait-for-trigger state, 45, 48, 99
Triggering the Multimeter, 45–51, 156–161
True RMS AC Measurements, 32–35
below full scale, 34
*TST?, 166
TTLTrg, 46, 160
Twisted-Pair Connections, 28
V
VEE, Visual Engineering Environment, 64
Virtual Instrument Software Architecture, 15
VISA, 15
VISA software, 52
Visual Basic Programming Language, 52
VM Complete Output Signal, 47
Voltage
ac
high speed measurements, 36
measurements below full scale, 34
range, 144–145
range/resolution, 93, 108
resolution, 146
specifications, 174–176
true RMS measurements, 32–35
turnover errors, 35
burden voltage, 32
Voltage (continued)
dc
aperture time, 147
input impedance, 100
integration time, 147
range, 149–150
range/resolution, 94, 109
ratio range/resolution, 95, 110
resolution, 151
specifications, 171–173
frequency measurements range, 129–130
induced, 28
maximum, 15
measurement
ac, 32–36
ac below full scale, 34
connections, 20
dc, 25–28
offset, 28
measuring/removing, 34
period measurement range, 137–138
ratio (Vdc) measurement, connections, 20
thermoelectric, 25–26
VXIbus Trigger Lines (TTLTrg0-TTLTrg7), 46, 160
VXIplug&play
See online help
W
*WAI, 166
Wait-for Trigger State, 45, 48
Wait-for-Trigger State, 99
Warnings, 10
Z
ZERO (autozero)
CALibration:ZERO:AUTO, 83
CALibration:ZERO:AUTO?, 83
[SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO, 152
[SENSe:]ZERO:AUTO?, 152
Index
211
Notes:
212
Index
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