HP 3586C User's manual

HP 3586C User's manual
aa
LC HEWLETT
PACKARD
OPERATING MANUAL
MODEL 3586A/B/C
SELECTIVE LEVEL METER
(Including Options 001, 002, 003, and 004)
This manual applies to instruments with serial
number prefixed 1927A, 1928A, and 1929A,
| WARNING |
To prevent potential fire or shock hazard, do not
expose equipment to rain or moisture.
Manual Part No. 63586-06611
Microfiche Part No. (03586-90061
©Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company 1979
P.O. Box 301, Loveland, Colorado, 80537 U.S.A.
Printed: October 1980
KZ} packano
CERTIFICATION
Hewlett-Packard Company certifies that this product met its published specifications at the time of shipment from the
factory. Hewlett-Packard further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States Na-
tional Bureau of Standards, to the extent allowed by the Bureau's calibration facility, and to the calibration facilities
of other International Standards Organization members.
WARRANTY
This Hewlett-Packard product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year
from date of shipment [except that in the case of certain components listed in Section I of this manual, the warranty
shall be for the specified period] . During the warranty period, Hewlett-Packard Company will, at its option, either
repair or replace products which prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility designated by -hp-. Buyer shall
prepay shipping charges to -hp- and -hp- shall pay shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer
shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to -hp- from another country.
Hewiett-Packard warrants that its software and firmware designated by -hp- for use with an instrument will execute its
programming instructions when properly installed on that instrument. Hewlett-Packard does not warrant that the
operation of the instrument, or software, or firmware will be uninterrupted or error free.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, a
Buyer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation outside of the environmental “J
specifications for the product, or improper site preparation or maintenance.
NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. HEWLETT-PACKARD SPECIFICALLY
DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. HEWLETT-
PACKARD SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSE-
QUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
ASSISTANCE
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available
Jor Hewlett-Packard products.
For any assistance, contact your nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office.
Addresses are provided at the back of this manual.
10/1/79
Cr HEWLETT
PACKARD
SAFETY SUMMARY
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this
instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in thís manual violates
safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Hewlett-Packard Company assumes ne
lighility for the customer's failure to comply with these requirements. This is a Safety Class 1 instrument.
GROUND THE INSTRUMENT
To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an elec-
trical ground. The instrument is equipped with a three-conductor ac power cable. The power
cable must either be plugged into an approved three-contact electrical outlet or used with a
three-contact to two-contact adapter with the grounding wire (green) firmly connected to an
electrical ground (safety ground} at the power outlet. The power jack and mating plug of the
power cable meet international Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) safety standards.
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or fumes. Operation of any
electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a definite safety hazard.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal
adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel, Do not replace components
with power cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may exist even with
the power cable removed. To avoid injuries, always disconnect power and discharge circuits
before touching them. |
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE
Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first
aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT
Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or per-
form any unauthorized modification to the instrument. Return the instrument to a Hewlett-
Packard Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure that safety features are main-
tained.
DANGEROUS PROCEDURE WARNINGS
Warnings, such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous procedures throughout
this manual. instructions contained in the warnings must be followed.
WARNING À
Dangerous voitages, capable of causing death, are present In this instrument. Use ex.
trems caution when handling, testing, and edjusting.
SAFETY SYMBOLS
General Definitions of Safety Symbols Used On Equipment or in Manuals.
ЧР
uE
NOTE:
Instruction manual symbol: the product will be marked with this
symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instruction
manual in order to protect against damage to the instrument.
Indicates dangerous voltage (terminals fed from the interior by
voltage exceeding 1000 volts must be so marked).
Protective conductor terminal. For protection against electrical
shock in case of a fault, Used with field wiring terminals to in-
dicate the terminal which must be connected to ground before
operating equipment.
Low-noise or noiseless, clean ground (earth) terminal. Used for a
signal common, as well as providing protection against electrical
shock in case of a fault. A terminal marked with this symbol must
be connected to ground in the manner described in the installation
(operating) manual, and before operating the equipment.
Frame or chassis terminal. A connection to the frame (chassis) of
the equipment which normally includes all exposed metal struc-
tures. |
Alternating current (power line).
Direct current (power line).
Alternating or direct current (power line).
The WARNING sign denotes a hazard. H calls attention to a pro-
cedure, practice, condition or the like, which, if not correctly per-
formed or adhered to, could result in injury or death to personnel.
The CAUTION sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an
operating procedure, practice, condition or the like, which,if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of part or all of the product.
The NOTE sign denotes important information. It calls attention
to procedure, practice, condition or the like, which is essential to
highlight.
SE
YIOCEL 3IJI004/ D/ VICHETL 11 MALÍ VI dIECELIÓEZ
SECTION |
GENERAL INFORMATION
1-1. INTRODUCTION.
1-2. This Operating and Service Manual contains information relative to the installation,
operation, performance testing, adjustment and maintenance of the Hewlett-Packard
Model 3586A/B/C Selective Level Meter. Figure 1-1 shows the Selective Level Meter and the
accessories supplied with the instrument.
ES
Er
— AA E AAA LARA LANA AL
1-3. Packaged with this instrument is an Operating Manual, This is simply a copy of the
first four sections of the Operating and Service Manual. This manual should be kept with
the instrument for use by the operator. Additional copies of the Operating Manual or the
Operating and Service Manual can be ordered through your nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service Office (a list of these offices is provided at the end of this manual). The part
numbers are listed on the title page of this manual.
1-4. Aiso listed on the title page of this manual following the Operating and Service Manual
and Operating Manual part numbers are Microfiche part numbers for these publications.
These numbers can be used to order 4 x 6 inch microfilm transparencies of these publica-
tions. The Microfiche package includes the latest Manual Changes supplement and all perti-
nent Service Notes.
1-5. The manual is divided into eight sections, each covering a particular topic for the
operating and service of the Selective Level Meter. The topics by section number are:
Section Topic
I General Information
Ц Installation
Ш Operation
IV Performance Tests
V Adjustments
VI Replacement Parts
УП Backdating
VIII Service
1-6. This section contains general information about the Model 3586A/B/C Selective Level
Meter. This information includes an instrument description, specifications, option and ac-
cessory information and instrument and manual identification.
1-7. DESCRIPTION 3586A/B/C.
1-8. The 3586A/B Selective Level Meter is designed for use in the design, manufacture, in-
stallation, and maintenance of Frequency Division Multiplex (FDM) systems and for general
purpose wave analysis and frequency synthesis. The 3586A is available to meet the needs of
C.C.I.T.T, requirements, while the 3586B meets North American (Bell) Standards. The
3586C is a general purpose instrument,
1-9. The 3586A/B provides the ability to make both carrier frequency measurements to
32.5MHz and voice channel measurements from 50Hz to 100kHz.
1-10. The Transmission Impairments Option 003 allows the user to quickly troubleshoot
voice channel problems with phase jitter, noise-with-tone, signal-to-noise-with-tone-ratio,
and single level impulse noise measurements, all with one instrument. The capability to
make all these transmission impairment measurements combined with both FDM voice
channel and carrier frequency measurements is available only on the 3586A/B. Standard
models include a 1740Hz psophometric or 2000Hz C-message equivalent noise filter, or
weighted noise measurements can be made directly with the 3100Hz channel filter and noise
weighting filter provided with the Transmission Impairments Option 003. Filter shape factor
of <1.2 provides 60dB carrier and 75dB adjacent channel rejection..
IVEDUCL J22005 7 B/W
STA
TT
я
нии
1-11. Synthesizer accuracy and resolution is made possible with a fractional-n synthesized
local oscillator. 0.1Hz resolution and + ! x 10-*/year stability (+2 x 10-7/year optional)
provides the 3586 A/B with high resolution tuning. The counter can be used to measure a fre-
quency precisely; then tuned to with one keystroke.
1-12. The 3586A SLM uses an 800Hz tone frequency for entry reference and for 800Hz tone
level measurements. A 1010+ 15Hz notch for noise with tone and impulse noise, and
1010 + 50Hz for phase jitter measurements is used when the Transmission Impairments Op-
tion 003 is included. The 3586B SLM uses 1004Hz for all tone and impairments
measurements.
I-13. RMS wideband power measurements from + 20 to —45dBm can be made from 20kHz
to IOMHz with + 1.0dB accuracy, and from 200Hz to 32.5MHz with +2.0dB accuracy.
1-14. The frequency of the 3336A/B companion synthesizer will automatically be set to the
frequency of the 3586A/B Selective Level Meter when in the tracking mode and with HP-IB
inputs connected together,
1-15. HP-IB control is standard, allowing automatic operation to be controlled by a desk
top calculator such as the -hp- Model 9825A, 983S5A, or by a mainframe computer such as
the -hp- 1000.
1-16. The 3586C Selective Level Meter is designed specifically for users needing precise fre-
quency selective measurements such as harmonic level and distortion analysis, line frequency
and non-harmonic spurious testing, and production testing of HF radio systems. The 3586C
is closely related to the A/B models, with 50, 75 and 600 ohm impedances and a 3100Hz
channel filter. The 3586C does not include the Transmission Impairments option, equivalent
noise filter or carrier/tone frequency reference entry, BNC connectors are standard except a
dual banana connector is used for the 600 ohm input.
1-17. SPECIFICATIONS.
1-18. Table 1-1 is a complete list of the Model 3586A/B/C critical specifications that are
controlled by tolerances. Specifications listed in this manual supersede all previous specifica-
tions for the Model 3586A/B/C.
1-19, ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED,
1-20. The following is a list of accessories supplied with the Model 3586A/B/C:
Part Number
Accessory Kit: 03586-84401
This kit consists of:
(2)Extender Boards 03586-66590
— (2)Extender Boards 03586-66591
LATA wil of ww SFL Rf ASS A” TF e LAA AAA RARA LENA ALA
1-3
HT AVR, wk Ll ow we IRALA EFS NA
“ый pr BSE Rh BEER WA EAA LA WAL
1-4
1-21. ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE.
1-22. The following is a list of -hp- accessories available for use with the Model 3586A/B/C:
Accessory -hp- Part No.
1240 Return Loss Coupler (3586B only) 5061-1136
124Q Return Loss Coupler (3586B with opt. 001 only) 5061-1137
1500 Return Loss Coupler (3586A only) 5061-1135
Service Spare Parts Kit Model No. 44486A
1-23. INSTRUMENT AND MANUAL IDENTIFICATION.
1-24. The instrument serial number is located on the rear panel. Hewlett-Packard uses a
two-section serial number consisting of a four-digit prefix and a five-digit suffix. A letter
between the prefix and suffix identifies the country in which the instrument was manufac-
tured (A = USA, G = West Germany, J = Japan, U = United Kingdom). All cor-
respondence with Hewlett-Packard concerning this instrument should include the complete
serial number,
1-25. If the serial number of your instrument is lower than the serial number on the title
page of this manual, you must modify your manual for agreement with your instrument.
Refer to Section VII, Backdating, for the information that will adapt this manual to your in-
strument.
1-26. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS.
1-27. The Selective Level Meter is a Safety Class I instrument and has been designed accor-
ding to international safety standards. To ensure safe operation and to retain the instrument
in a safe condition, the Operating and Service Manual contains information, cautions and
warnings which must be adhered to by the user.
1-28. The 3586A/B/C front panel contains a AA symbol which is an international symbol
meaning “refer to the Operating and Service Manual”. The symbol flags important
operating instructions located in Section III required to prevent damage to the instrument.
To ensure the safety of the operating and maintenance personnel and retain the operating
condition of the instrument, these instructions must be adhered to.
1-29. RECOMMENDED TEST EQUIPMENT.
1-30. Equipment required to maintain the Model 3586A/B/C is listed in Table 1-2. Other
equipment can be substituted if it meets or exceeds the critical specifications listed in the
table.
NOTE
Calibration sheets for -hp- 355D, -hp- 355C, and -hp- 11049A,
HOI are obtainable from Hewlett-Packard, Contact your nearest
Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office for information,
a
LY EVP NAN] af nd WIFE AF LAF er — A AL A AR ALU PE LENA FIL
A, 1-31. CONFIGURATIONS OF MODELS AND OPTIONS.
1-32. Table 1-3 contains the configurations of the 3586A/B/C depending on the model and
the options.
Table 1-1. 3586A/B/C Performance Specifications.
FREQUENCY
Frequency Range And Signal Inputs:
Signal Input 25664 35868 35860
750/500/10k02 Unbalanced
12402 Balanced
1350 Balanced
1500 Balanced 10kHz to 1MHz
6008/ Bridged | 50Hz to 100kHz
50Hz to 32.5MH 17
TOKHz to 1O0MHz
TA OkHz to 1MHz
Tus Ea E E E a e E
The 1242, 1350, 1500 and 600% inputs are usable over wider frequency ranges than specified.
Frequency Resolution:
0.1Hz
Center Frequency Accuracy:
£1x 10 %year, (+2x 10 7)/vear with option 004
ил Counter Accuracy:
o + 1.0Hz in addition to center frequency accuracy for signals within the 60d8 bandwidth of the IF filter
щий chosen or greater than — 100dBm, {largest signal measured).
Frequency Display:
9 digit LED
SELECTIVITY
3dB Bandwidth, +10%:
3586A (CCITT) 35888 (No. Americas) 35866 (General)
Standard Option 083 Standard Option0O3 Standard
20H 20Hz 20HZ 20Hz 20Hz
400Hz 400Hz 400Hz 400Hz 400Hz
1740Hz* 3100Hz 2000Hz** 3100Hz 3100Hz
- Psophemotric . C-Message
Noise Weighting Noise Weighting
Psophometric Fquivalent Noise Weighting Filter.
C-Message Equivalent Noise Weighting Filter.
+ #
Adjacent Channel Rejection:
75dB minimum at +2850Hz, 3100Hz BW; + 2500Hz, 2000Hz BW: + 2350Hz, 1740Hz BW.
Carrier Rejection:
Bandwidth | 60db Points (Max) AUCHz Bandwidth 50dB Rejection:
3100Hz + 1850Hz + 1100Hz
2000H + 1500H
Ш X 1 74Otiz +1 250Hz 20Hz Bandwidth Rejection:
|
30dB, + 45H7, BO0dB, + ЗОН?
AGI ELE ALLEN NIE ALELENIN7IL
LFA NAN 2525 LIU A7
Table 1-1. 3586AIBIC Performance Specifications (Cont'd).
Passhand Flatness:
AMPLITUDE
Measurement Range:
+20 to ~ 130dBm
Amplitude Resolution:
L1dB
Level Accuracy:
10dB auto range, low distortion mode, after calibration (For the 3586C; 750, 500, and 6000, inputs; below
~ 80QdBm; these specifications apply only when using the 20Hz and 400Hz bandwidths}.
input Level
input Level
Input Level
input Level
+20
— BOdBM
— 100dBm
+ 20dBm
— 80dBm
- 100dBm
+ 20dBm
— 80dBMm
- 100dBm
+ 20dBm
— 80dBm
- 100dBm
Bandwidth Flatness Range Fiatness
3100Hz + 1000HZ + 0. 3dB
2000Hz + 65GHz + 0. 3dB
1740Hz + 550Hz + 0.3dB
400Hz + BOHz + 0.3dB
20Hz | + ЗН: +0.3dB
750/500 Input {3588A/B/C}
+ 40d8 + .20d8 + 25dB
+ 95d8 + 75dB
50HZ 20ktiz 1 8MHZ 32.5MHz
1240 Input (35868)
+.50dB +.35dB +.50
+ 1,008 + .75dB + 1.0d5
TOKHz 50kHz 5MHz 10MHZ
1508 Input 13586A) or 1350 Input (35868)
+ 5O0dB
:.35d8
+
+ 1.048
7 5dB
+
10kHz
50kHz ? MHz
6008 Input (3586A/B/C)
E.3,d6
+.75dB
100HZ
108kHz
EF Nr
MIQUE] 35850A/ /C
Table 1-1. 3586A/BIC Performance Specifications (Cont'd).
Level Accuracy:
100dB Range {after calibration}: add correction to 10dB auto range accuracy for dB below full scale, {Not
required when in 10dB autorange.)
dB Below Full Scale t Accuracy Correction
O10 ~20dB . + .25dB
— 20 to — 4GdR + ‚БОВ
— 40 to — BOdR + 2.0 dB
DYNAMIC RANGE
Spurious Responses:
Image Rejection {100-132MHz}:
- ВОаВс
IF Rejection:
15625Hz, -- 80dBc; 5OMHZz, — 60dBc
Non-Harmonic Spurious Signals:
> 1500+H z offset; - BOdBc
300Hz to 1600Hz offset: — 75dBc
Residual Spurious Signals:
= 300Hz, — 115dBm !— 110dBm for a 3586C}
< 300Hz, — 100аВт {- 95dBm for a 35860)
Distortion;
Harmonic Distortion:
70dB below fuil scale (-- 75d8 for the 3586Ci, > 4kHz on 7592 and 6009 inputs, Low Distortion Mode.
Intermoduiation Distortion:
2nd and 3rd order, in band;
Separation 200Hz to 20kHz, or either tone = 10MHMz, 70dR below fuit scale
Separation 20kHz to 1MHz, and both tones < TOMHiz, 75dB below full scale (78d8 for the 3586C)
Wideband Power Accuracy:
After calibration, 100dB auto range, averaging on, —45 to + 20dBm;
+ 2.0dB + 1.0dB + 2.0d8 |
200H7 20KHZ 10MHz 32.5MHz
Noise Floor (Full Scale Setting -35 to -120d8m, AYE On Low Distortion Model:
Frequency input Bandwidth Noise Level
- 11 8dBm
1740Hz,2000Hz, or 3100H7 i- iT4dBm for a 3586)
1OCGkHz to 32.5MHz 750
409Hz or 20F iz — 120d8m
2kHz to TOOkHz 758,6000 AH — 105dBm
1740Hz, 2000Hz, or 3100Hz —116dBm
1 00kHz to 10MHZ 1240
430HZz or 20Hz — 120d8Bm
1740117, 2GOOHz, or 3100Hz -118dBm
i0OOkHz to 1MHz 1352, 1500
400HZ or 20Hz -— 120d8m
10kHz to 100kHz | 12491359 1500 AH — *O5d8m
The noise floor for full scale settings of ~ 30 to + 25dBm will be 80dB below full scale for > 100kHz, or 60dB
below full scale for < 100kHz, For the 3586C, these specifications do not appiy to the 500 input.
Generali Information
General
1-8
information
Table 1-1. 3586A/B/C Performance Specifications (Cont'd).
IYEOUECL S280A/ 18/0
SIGNAL INPUTS
Model impedance Freguency Mating Connector
3586A 75 ohms unbalanced 50Hz to 32.5MHz BNC
150 ohms balanced 10kHz to 1MH2
Siemens 3-prong 9 Rel-GAC
600 ohms balanced 50Hz to TOOkH
35868 75 ohms unbalanced 50Hz to 32.5MHZz WECO 439/4404
124 ohms balanced 10 kHz to 1OMHz WECO 443A
135 ohms balanced 10kHz 10 1MHz WECO 241A
800 ohms balanced 50Hz to 100kHz WECO 310
3586C 50/75 ohms unbalanced 50Hz to 32.5MHz BNC
600 ohms balanced 50riz to 100kHz Dual Banana Plug, 0.75 inch spacing
Return Loss:
… 30dB {500 ohms — 25d8B!
Balance:
input Freguency | Balance
1240 TOk+7 to 10MMz — 36dB
1350 or 1504 1OkHz to TMHz — 36d8
6000 50Hz to 108kHz —40d83
DEMODULATES AUDIO OUTPUT
Demodulates an erect (USB) or inverted (LSB) SSB telephone channel, provides speaker or headphone output
with volume control, Carrier is re-inserted at + 1850Hz to align channel filter precisely on a voice channel,
Output Level:
OdBm into 8000 at full scale, adiustabie
Output Connecter:
Front Panel, mates with WECO 347 or 1/4” phone plug
TRACKING GENERATOR:
Level Od8m at 10kHz, + .5d8
Flatness 50Hz to 32MHz, + .5dB
TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS OPTION 003
Adds transmission impairment measurement capability to standard instrument. Measures phase jitter, noise
with tone, singie level impulse noise and weighted noise at voice channel and carrier frequencies. 3100HMz
channel filter and C-message or psophometric weighted noise filter replaces the standard 2000Hz or 1 740Hz
equivalent noise filter.
Phase Jitter:
A phase jitter measurement can be made at any input signal frequency up to 32.5MHz that produces a
960-1060Hz tone in the demodulated output. Meets BSP 41009 and CCITT recommendation 0.91.
Demodulated Tone Frequency: Accuracy:
960 to 1060Hz +{10% + .5° р-р}
input Signal Level: Residual Phase Jitter:
= 30dB below full scale, — 65dBm minimum =.5° p-p {BOkHz to 32.5MHz)
Frequency Response:
20 to 300Hz
> E Tl TE eS a WA FL RS AFT Ten
o o TT ArT we moma ww нк сто =
Table 1-1. 3586A/B/C Performance Specifications (Cont'd).
Fowser
100/120/220/240V, +5%, — 10% 48 to 66Hz, 150VA
Weight:
23Kg (50 ibs} net; 30Kg(65 ibs) shipping
Dimensions:
177mm high x 425.5mm wide x 466. 7mm deep {7" high x 16.75" wide x 18.38" deep)
Table 1-2. Recommended Test Equipment.
Equipment
Critical Specifications
Application”
Recommsndod -hp- Model No.
Synthesizer/Level Generator
Synthesizer/Level Generator
Oscilioscope
Spectrum Analyzer
Digital Multimeter
RF Voitmeter
RF Amplifier
Signature Analyzer
100kHz Low Pass Filter
10MHz Low Pass Filter
Attenuator (Calibrated)
BO8Directional Bridge
758 Directional Bridge
1248 Return Loss Coupler
{35868 Standard}
1240 Return Loss Coupler
{35868 opt. 001)
1500 Return Loss Coupler
750 .5V Thermal Converter
200Hz-65MHz, +10d8m-
- BOdBm, CO.O1d8 level resolu
tion, frequency stability of less
than 1 x 107 7 year, calibrated at-
tenuator.
40H2-21MHz, +10d8Em—
— 45dBm, frequency stability of
less than 5 x 10%/year.
1GOMHz BW
1kHz—32.5MHz, 6GdB dynamic
range.
1dB/Div Vertical Scale
+0,1mVv AC accuracy at 0.45V
VRMS and Tk+z, + TOnV DC ac-
curacy at 6mV, + C.05f% accuracy
at 200.
+ 27dBm output, 15dB gain
.5MHZ to 32.5MHz,
= 485d85/0ctave RollLoff, 7510)
input and output.
= 48dB/Octave Roit-off, 750
Input and output.
+ 0.03db with Cal. Sheet
= 30dB Return Loss
= 40dB Directivity
= 30db Return Loss
= 40dB Directivity
Must include Calibration sheet
PAR
PAR
PAR
AR
PA, H
PA
3335A opt. 001
(special) K06
33254
180A/1808A/1821A
141T/85538/8552B
3585A
3455A opt. 001
411A
Q-Bit, OB-188-2-BNC with case
and supply. Available from:
O-Bit
Р.О. Вох 2208
Melbourne, Fiorida 32901
5O04A
Available from:
Allen Avionics
224E. 2nd St.
Mineoia, NY 11501
3555
8721A
8721A opt. 008
Part No. 5061-1136
Part No. 5061-1137
Part No. 5061-1135
11051A, HO7 opt. 002
Td WE AYE Hed RelA RF A RAAT LE he AE
1-10
Table 1-2. Recommended Test Equipment.
IVEY FOV
Equipment Critical Specifications Application” Recommended -hp- Made] Na.
500 1V Thermal Converter Must include Calibration sheet P 11050A, opt. 002
Frequency Doubler P 1051354
12: 5007/7529 Minimum Loss i50kz to 32.5MHz, 30dB return P 8547288
Pads loss.
750 to balanced 1240 matching Р
pad, consisting of:
108 Resistor 1% 0757-0346
200 Resistor 1% 0757-0384
1215 Resistor 1% 0757-0403
658.140 Resistor 1% 0757-0387
2090 Ten-Turn Potentiometer 2100-3315
2000 Ten- Turn Potentiometer 2100-3095
2k) Tern- Turn Potentiometer 2100-3109
1k2 Tern- Turn Potentiometer 2100-3154
Enclosure Three (F) BNC, grounded Pomona 3232
7580 to Balanced 1350 matching Р
pad, consisting of:
24.30 Resistor 1% 0757-0386
1210 Resistor 1% 0757-0403
750 Resistor 1% 0757-0398
5000 Ten-Turn Potentiometer 2100-3123
Zk2 Ten-Turn Potentiometer 2100-3109
1ki2 Ten-Turn Potentiometer 2100-3154
Enclosure Three {f} SNC, grounded Pomona 3232
750 to balanced 6000 matching Р
pad consisting of:
10% Resistor 1% 0757-0346
819% Resistor 1% 0757-0418
1104 Resistor 1% 0757-0402
100 Ter-Turn Potentiometer 2100-3164
10kf? Ten- Turn Potentiometer 2100-3103
5004 Ten-Turn Potentiometers 2100-3123
Enciosure Two {f} BNC, grounded Pomona 3230
750 to balanced 1500 matching
pad consisting of:
100 Resistor 1% 0757-0348
36.5% Resistor 1% 0757-0390
11608 Resistor 1% 0757-0402
82.58 Resistor 1% 0767-0398
100 Ten-Turn Potentiometer 2100-3164
5000 Ten-Turn Potentometer 2100-3123
(21 2k0 Ten- Turn Potentio- 2100-3109
meter
Enclosure Two (f} BNC, isolated Pomona 3239
Power Combiner Consisting of: | 758 P
{3) 250 Resistors 0.1% 0698-8011
Enclosure Three {f} BNC, grounded Pomona 3232
1249 Balance Testing Appara- Р
tus, consisting of;
{2} 108 Resistors 1% 0757-0346
(2) 621) Resistors 0.1% 0698-6800
Enclosure Three {f) BNC, one im} BNC, Pomona 2426
grounded
13517 Balance Testing Appara- P
tus consisting of:
12) 109 Resistors
121 67.30 Resistors
Enclosure
1%
0.25%
Three {f} BNC, one (m} BNC,
grounded
0757-0346
0698-8558
Pomona 2426
LFF ws
EX ANNE WE TSAI RS AE Ns
ALICE ДЕЛАЛ КОСА ЛЕД
Table 1-2, Recommended Test Equipment (Contd).
ter (35866)
Equipment Critical Specifications Application Recommended -hp- Model Ne.
6000 Balance Testing Appara-
tus consisting of:
{2} 100 Resistors 1% 0757-0346
{2} 3004 Resistors 0.1% 0698-6346
Enciosure Three {f) BNC, isolated Pomona 21072
1509 Balance Testing Appara- P
tus, consisting of:
12) 100 Resistors 1% 0757-0346
{2} 750 Resistors 0.1% 0698-7363
Enciosure Three {f} BNC, isolated Pomona 2102
Available from:
Pomona Electronics
Р.О. Вох 2767
Pomona, CA 91766
6009 Feedthrough, consisting
of:
6000 Resistor 0.1% 0698-7408
Connector BNC 1250-0052
Connector BNC 11048-27503
Connector BNC 1250-0083
Threaded Sleeve BNC 11048-27604
{3} 750 BNC Coaxial Cables 3 P 11652-60014
(2) 752 ENC Coaxial Cables 2 P 11652-60013
(3) 758 BNC Coaxial Cables 1° p 11652-60012
{3} 502 BNC Coaxiai Cables 1 Р 11170A
Siemens 3-prong to (гп) BNC PAR IW&G, k164
Cable {must be modified, see
Table 4-4; (3586A only)
‘Siemens 1.6/5.6mm to (fi BNC PAR |W8G s230
Adapter (3586A opt 001 only} Available from:
W 8 G Instruments Ing,
119 Naylon Ave.
Livingston, NU 07039
(2) im) BNC to single Banana
jack + Pomona 3430-0
adapter
(3) Mini-Weco to (f} BNC adapter P 1250-0556
(35868 standard}
{3} Large-Weco to if} BNC adap- Р 1250-0591
ter {36868 opt. 001)
(2) 1/47 Phone Plug to (f) BNC Р 1251-3759
adapter (35868)
Weco 310 plug to {f) BNC adap- Р 1251-3757
ter (3586B)
Dual Banana to {f) BNC adap- P 1251-2277
1-11
UECTSIdal HOLA
1-12
Table 1-2. Recommended Test Equipment (Cont'd),
WVIOUTL 2000 D/A
Equipment Critical Specifications Application Recommended -hp- Model No,
(2) BNC CT" P 12500781
im} BNC to {m} BNC adapter P 1250-0216
750 Resistor 0.1% Р 0698-7363
БО0 Resistor 0.1% Р 0698-0064
* P.Performance Tests; A-Adjustments; R-Repair.
Table 1-3, -hp- 3586A/B/C Selective Level Meter Cenfigurations.
3588A (CCITT)
35868 (North American;
3586C (General Purpose}
Impedance:
Connectors:
Bandwidth:
Option 001
Option 002
Option 003
Ontion 004
750 Unbalanced
1048 50pf
Bridged (6009)
15007 Balanced
8001 Balanced
750, 10k: BNC
15040, 6000 Bridged:
Accepts Siemens 3-prong 9 Ве!
20H
400Hz
1740Hz
(Psopho Equiv. Noise)
Siemens Connector
750, 10k8:
Accepts Siemens 1.6/5.6mm
No Option 002
impairment Functions include:
impulse noise, phase jitter,
Noise/Tone. Also includes:
3100Hz Bandwidth (replaces
1740Hz), and psophometric
weighting.
High Stability Frequency Refer-
ance
754 Unbalanced
10k2||50pf
Bridged (6008)
1240 Balanced
1350 Balanced
5000 Balanced
750, 10k0?: Accepts Weco 4394
or 440A
1240: Accepts Weco 443 at
12.7mm (0.5 in) Spacings
13502: Accepts Weco 241A,
16mm (L625 in} Spacings
6000, 6000 Bridged:
Accepts Weco 310 Plug
20Hz
400Mz
20004 z
{C-Message Equiv. Noise}
Weco Connectors
780, 10kQ: Accepts Weco 358A
1247: Accepts \Месо 372A at
18mm {L625 in) spacing
Bandwidth 1740Hz for psopho-
metric wtd. equivalent noise
{replaces 2000MHz).
Impairment Functions include:
impuise noise, phase jitter,
Noise/ Tone, Also includes:
3100Hz Bandwidth {replaces
2000Hz}, and C-Message
weighting.
High Stability Frequency Refer-
ence
509 Unbalanced
750 Unbalanced
1OK7 PON or 750:
Bridged (6000)
60090 Balanced
500, 759, 10k: BNC
600%, 6004 Bridged:
Banana
2042
400Hz
3100Hz
No Option 001
No Option 002
No Option 003
High Stability Fre-
quency Reference
ATE RS hd wf ow WFR RS BAR Си” A LAWFLW ALG EFL]
SECTION li
INSTALLATION
2-1. INTRODUCTION.
2-2. This section contains installation instructions for the Model 3586A/B/C Selective Level
Meter. These instructions consist of the following specific information:
— Initial Inspection Procedures
— Power and Grounding Requirements
— Environmental Requirements
—.Cabinet Mounting and Preparation for Bench Use
— Turn-On Procedures
— Ном to Mechanically Interface with the HP-IB*
— Repackaging for Shipment
*HP-1B is Hewlett Packard's implementation of IEEE Std, 488-1975, “Standard Digital Interface
for Programmable Instrumentation’.
2-3. INITIAL INSPECTION.
2-4. This instrument was carefully inspected both mechanically and electrically before ship-
ment. It should be free of mars or scratches and in perfect electrical order upon receipt. To
confirm this, carefully inspect the instrument for signs of physical damage incurred in tran-
sit, check for supplied accessories (Paragraph 1-19) and, after completing the installation,
test the electrical performance using the Performance Test procedures given in Section IV. If
there is physical damage, if the contents are incomplete or if thè instrument does not pass the
Performance Tests, notify the nearest -hp- Sales and Service Office. If the shipping con-
tainer is damaged or the cushioning material shows signs of stress, notify the carrier as well
as the Hewlett-Packard Office. Keep the shipping materials for the carrier’s inspection. A
list of -hp- Sales and Service Offices is given at the back of this manual.
WARNING |
To avoid the possibility of dangerous electrical shock, do not
apply ac line power to the -hp- 3586A/B/C if there are signs of
shipping damage to any portion of the outer enclosure,
2-5. POWER REQUIREMENTS.
ka
CAUTION 3
Before applying ac line power to the -hp- 3586A/B/C, be sure that
the VOLTAGE SELECTOR switch is set for the proper line
voltage and the correct line fuse is installed in the rear-panel line
FUSE holder (See Paragraphs 2-24 and 2-25).
2-1
Даа ЕСА ЛАД
2-2
2-6. The Model 3586A/B/C requires a single phase ac power source of
86 V to 127 V (48Hz to 66Hz)
or
189 V to 255 V (48Hz to 66Hz).
Maximum power consumption is less than 150 Watts and maximum line current is 2
amperes.
2-1. Power Cables.
2-8. Figure 2-1 illustrates the standard power-plug configurations that are used on -hp-
power cables. The -hp- part number directly below each drawing is the part number for a
power cable equipped with a power plug of that configuration. The type of power cable that
is shipped with each instrument is determined by the country of destination. If the ap-
propriate power cable is not included with your instrument, contact the nearest -hp- Sales
and Service Office and the proper cable will be provided. A list of -hp- Sales and Service Of-
fices is given at the back of this manual.
ATAU AE or) A FNLS
250 Y 250 Y 250 Y 250 м
OPERATION OPERATION OPERATION OPERATION
PLUG*: BEV 101 1.1858-24507
PLUG*: CEE7-V 1 PLUG: CEE22-V1 PLUG”; DHCR 107 TYPE 12
CABLE": HF 8120-1692 CABLE*: HP 8120-1860 CABLE": HP 6120-2956 CABLE“: HP 8120-2104
1275 V-6A°" #50 V 280 V 250 V- GA** 125 V-6AT"
OPERATION OPERATION
(> o
a ый a
и
PLUG": NEMA T-105FP PLUG*: N/SS 198/AS C112 PLUGY: BS 13683A PLUG: NEMA G-15P PLUG": NEMA 5-15F
CABLE": HP 81 20-0684 CABLE”: HP E120-0896 CABLE": HP 8120-1703 CABLE": HP B120-0658 ‚CABLE*: HP 8120-1621
STD-84195 Rev.) * The number shown for the plug is the industry identifier for the plug only.
The number shown for the cable is an HP? part number for a complete ceble including the plug.
* "UL listed for use in the United States of America
Figure 2-1. Power Cables.
2-9. GROUNDING REQUIREMENTS.
2-10. To protect operating personnel, the instrument’s panel and cabinet must be grounded.
The Model 3586A/B/C is equipped with a three-wire power cord which, when plugged into
an appropriate receptacle, grounds the instrument. The offset pin on the power plug is the
ground connection.
WARNING }
1. The power cable plug must be inserted into a socket outlet pro-
vided with a protective earth contact. The protection of the
e 4%
Cs
Prt
ñ
Ë :
Y 7
LN e
Y ERE 00 И Ка $. ELIDILCENECIOIJIL
| grounded instrument cabinet must not be negated by the use of an
(0 extension cord without a protective ground conductor.
2. If this instrument is to be energized via an auto-transformer to
reduce or increase the line voltage, make sure that the common ter-
minal is connected to the earthed pole of the power source.
2-11. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS.
WARNING |
To prevent potential electrical or fire hazard, do not expose equip-
ment to rain or moisture,
2-12. Operating Environment.
2-13. In order for the -hp-3586A/B/C to meet the specifications listed in Table 1-1, the
operating environment must be within the following limits:
Temperature ............... 0°Cto +55°C(+32°Fto + 131°F)
Relative Humidity 20er 4 a ea aa a aa a a a aa aa 0 0 < 95%
Altitude. ........ ee A < 4600 metres (15,000 ft)
Magnetic Field Strength ........... ci iii, < 0.1 gauss
2-14. Cooling System. The -hp-3586A/B/C uses a forced-air cooling system to maintain
| | В the proper internal operating temperature. The cooling fan is located on the rear panel. Air,
5 drawn through the rear-panel fan filter, is circulated through the instrument and exhausted
through holes in the left side panel. The instrument should be mounted to permit as much air
circulation as possible, with at least one inch of clearance at the rear and on each side. The
filter for the cooling fan should be removed and cleaned at least once every 30 days. To clean
the fan filter, simply flush it with soapy water, rinse and then air dry.
2-15. Thermal Cutout. The -hp-3586A/B/C has a thermal cutout switch mounted on a
bracket along with the power supply pass elements. The pass elements are normally the hot-
test components in the entire instrument. Whenever the temperature of the thermal cutout
switch reaches about + 100°C, the line voltage is internally disconnected from the instru-
ment. The switch resets automatically when the instrument cools. If a thermal cutout occurs,
check for fan stoppage, clogged fan ports and other conditions that could obstruct air flow
Or cause excessive heating.
2-16. Storage and Shipping Environment.
2-17. The -hp-3586A/B/C should be stored in a clean, dry environment. The following en-
vironmental limitations apply to both storage and shipment:
Temperature ............ —- 40% C to + 75%C(— 40% to + 158%
Relative Humidity .............e.e000a0 macaco eee e... < 95%
Altitude ............ civ... < 15,300 metres (50,000 ft.)
In high-humidity environments, the instrument must be protected from temperature varia-
tions that could cause internal condensation.
Flidtdilali li) AYLURGIC!E JJOUAN/ BD/%
2-18. PREPARATION FOR USE
2-19. Mounting
2-20. Bench Mounting The -hp- 3586A/B/C has plastic feet attached to the bottom panel.
The plastic feet are shaped to make full-width modular instruments self-align when they are
stacked. Foldaway tilt stands are built into the front feet for convenient bench use. The tilt
stand raises the front of the instrument for easier viewing of the control panel. A front han-
dle kit, -hp- Part No. 5061-0090 (Option 907), can be installed for ease of handling the in-
strument on the bench (see Figure 2-2). The kit is shipped with the instrument if Option 907
is ordered. It is also available separately by its -hp- part number. The instructions for install-
ing the front handles are included in the kit.
2-21, Rack Mounting. The -hp-3586A/B can be mounted in an EIA standard width cabinet
of 19 inches. A Rack Mount Flange Kit or a Rack Flange and Front Handle Combination
Kit (see Figure 2-2) extends the width of the instrument to 19 inches and provides holes so
that the instrument can be fastened to the cabinet. A Standard Slide Kit or Instrument Sup-
port Rails (see Figure 2-2) must be used in addition to the flanges to support the weight of
the instrument when it is rack mounted. The Standard Slide Kit permits the instrument to
slide in and out of the cabinet like a drawer once the holding screws are removed from the
flanges. A Standard Tilt Slide Kit is also available. In addition to the drawer-like action of
the standard kit, the tilt kit permits the instrument to be tilted 90° in either direction after it
is extended. A Slide Adapter Bracket is available to adapt the Standard Slide Kit for use in
non-HP rack system enclosures.
INSTRUMENT SUPPORT RAILS STANDARD SLIDE KIT
NDA FE
GN {Two Required) hp- Part No. Lo
-hp- Part No. 1494-0018 ча”
12679-20001
OPTION 908 _
/ “See CAUTION following paragraph 2-22.
PLASTIC TRIM + *
HANDLE KIT, BENCH OPERATION RACK MOUNT FLANGE KIT RACK MOUNT FLANGE/FRONT HANDLE KIT Jet,
-hp- Part No. -np- Part No. -hp- Part No. {
5061-0090 5061-0078 5061-0084 “и
Figure 2-2. Rack Mount Hardware and Handle Kits.
и
Я ;
“и
NIOCEL 375047 D/ 1
1HSIdlidtiOon
2-22. All of the information required to order any of the rack mounting hardware is sum-
marized in Table 2-1. The Rack Flange kit and the Rack Flange Front Handle Combination
Kit are shipped with the instrument when ordered by their option number at the same time
the instrument is ordered. The installation instructions for all rack mounting hardware are
supplied with each kit.
The weight of the -hp-3586A/B/C must be supported by Instru-
ment Support Rails or Slide Brackets when the instrument is
mounted in a rack. DO NOT, under any circumstances, attempt to
rack mount the -hp-3586A/B using only the front flanges.
Table 2-1. -hp- 3586A/B/C Rack Mounting Hardware.
Description Option -hp- Part Aumber
Rack Flange Kit 908 5061-0078
Rack Fiange
and Front
Handie Com-
bination Kit 908 5061-0084
Standard Slide
Kit — 1494-0018
Standard Tilt
Slide Kit es 1494-0025
Shde Adaptor
Bracket 1494-0073
instrument
Support Rails Accessory No, 126796
2-23. initial Instrument Turn On.
CAUTION
Before applying ac line power to the -hp-3586A/B/C, be sure that
the VOLTAGE SELECTOR switch is set for the proper line
voltage and the correct line fuse is installed in the rear panel line
FUSE holder (See paragraphs 2-24 and 2-25).
2-24. Line Voltage Selection Voltage selection switches on the rear panel are used to con-
figure the instrument to operate on one of four input line voltage ranges. The range of input
voltages for each configuration of the switches is illustrated in Figure 2-3. Set the switches to
conform with the line voltage to be used with this instrument. The switch positions for each
input voltage range are indicated on the rear panel and more explicitly in Figure 2-4.
160
Volts AC
PL 140
240
Figure 2-3. Input Range For Each Line Voltage Switch Selection.
LAStaliatlion
2-6
Model 3356A/5/C
Ш IOOV Ш В | 20V В a 220V N Ш °Й
Figure 2-4. Switch Positions For Line Voltage Selection.
2-25. Fuse Selection. Verify that the line fuse selection corresponds to the input voltage
range selection (see Table 2-2).
Table 2-2. Line Fuses.
Voltage Fuse
Selector Type -hp- Part No.
100 Vor 120 V 2 A, 250 V Fast BLO 2110-0002
220 V or 240 V 1 À, 250 V Fast BLO 2110-0001
2-26. Power Line Connection. With the front panel OFF/ON control OFF (out), connect
the ac power cord to the rear panel LINE connector. Plug the other end of the power cord
into a three terminal grounded power outlet.
To protect operating personnel, the -hp-3586A/B/C chassis and
cabinet must be grounded. The -hp-3586A/B/C is equipped with a
three-wire power cord which, when plugged into an appropriate
receptacle, grounds the instrument. The offset pin on the power
plug is the ground connection. To preserve this protection feature,
the power plug shall only be inserted in a three-terminal receptacle
having a protective earth ground contact. The protective action
must not be negated by the use of an extension cord or adapter
that does not have the required earth ground connection. Ground-
ing one conductor of a two-conductor outlet is not sufficient pro-
tection.
WARNING |
2-27. Reference Frequency Connection. An external frequency reference can be used to im-
prove the frequency accuracy and stability of the -hp-3586A/B/C tuning. The external fre-
quency reference must be 10 MHz or an integral submultiple of 10 MHz that is not less than
1 MHz (e.g. SMHz, 2MHz, 1MHz). The amplitude of the external frequency reference
signal must be at least — 10 dBm. Connect the reference signal to the EXT REF INPUT 10
MHz + N connector on the rear panel. If the reference signal source is an internal 10 MHz
Crystal Oven (Optional 004), the 10 MHz Oven output on the rear panel should be con-
nected to the EXT REF INPUT 10 MHZ + N input using the BNC to BNC adaptor packed
with the accessories (see Figure 1-1).
Valid measurements can be made while the -hp-3586A/B/C is
NOTE
unlocked from the external frequency reference. Only the ease of
tuning and the accuracy of the counted frequency display will be
affected.
ГУДС ООН Ка <
2-28. Turn On Conditions. The -hp-3586A/B/C can now be turned on. All annunciators
and displays will light and remain lit for approximately three seconds after turn on. At that
time, the Fregquency/ Entry display will change to 1 000 000 Hz and all annunciators, except
those indicated in Figure 2-5, will go out. Very soon after these changes, level readings will
begin to appear in the Amplitude/ Entry display. Check to be sure the fan, located on the
rear panel, is operating. If the turn on sequence is incorrect, if the fan is not operating or if
the initial operating conditions are different from those illustrated in Figure 2-5, turn off the
instrument and contact the nearest -hp- Sales and Service Office or a qualified service techni-
cian. A list of -hp- Sales and Service Offices is given at the back of this manual.
on 10dB Auto dBm CARRER
[ep ] 2685 E =! A
ре TT- PACK
¥ Т IME A SUREMENTS ENT RYT %
миа а eb * ph FSA
CEFSIF 48m 0 cana zo , | 1% ТЕН
и TREHED Pi E В ВВ oe © à STE CATA * à TAL
EE SCALE | F/COUNT REMETEE
rr LSO A A no OFFSET !
(5) Ars р or PET TY ©) |
MEASUREMENT MODE TTT Ня AAA NE ENTRY From = РНИИ TÜHE CANT
E YE CHANNEL wom: ЧЕ MA К WIDTH 1 AER
19 IST DEMO 1004H: CARRIER 25004: | J AUTO RHE STEP зон: O
FREQ i MET
ово Об ©
Cr 8 epson |
q #7 BRIDGED Boon, + соавт
О (8) бе) (4) (5) (6) (5 «на
| : кина
i ; Re HOHE TR
e ” 820005 : } || ==
; а 4 wT
TA a E
| о | =) Ce) C3 Ca) (5) ED (©) | ‘еже
— /
ЗОН д - КОННЫЕ A
7
LO DIST 3100Hz
Figure 2-5. Turn-On Conditions.
2-29. HP-IB CONNECTIONS”.
02-30. The HP-IB connector on the rear of the -hp-3586A/B/€C (Figure 2-6) is compatible
with any -hp-10631 HP-IB interconnecting cable (see Table 2-3). The HP-IB cables have
“niggyback”” connectors on both ends that are identical to the standard HP-IB connector on
the rear of the -hp-3586A/B/C. As a result of this design, several cables can be connected to
a single source without special adaptors or switch boxes. Up to fourteen devices (including
the controller) can be interconnected in a single system and the devices can be interconnected
in virtually any configuration desired. There must, of course, be a path from the calculator
(or other controller) to every device operating on the bus. As a practical matter, avoid stack-
ing more than three or four cables on any one connector. If the stack gets too long, the force
on the stack can produce sufficient leverage to damage the connector mounting. Be sure that
each connector is firmly screwed in place to keep it from working loose (see CAUTION in
Figure 2-6).
*Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus (HP-.3) is -hp-’s implementation of IEE Standard 488-1975,
“Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation”.
A112 IARI IE
2-7
INSTALEALION ¡YROUIEI 3200/47 B/C
2-31. Cable Length Restrictions. To achieve design performance with the HP-IB, proper
voltage levels and timing relationships must be maintained. If the system cables are too long,
the lines cannot be driven properly and, consequently, the system will fail to perform. When
interconnecting an HP-IB system, observe the following rules:
a. The total cable length for the system must be less than or equal to 20 metres (65 feet).
b. The total cable length for the system must be less than or equal to 2 metres (6 feet)
times the total number of devices connected to the bus.
Table 2-3. -hp- 10631 HP-18 Interconnecting Cables.
hp- 10631
HP-IB Cable Length
A 1 Metre {3.3 ft.)
B 2 Metres {8.6 ft.)
C 4 Metres (13.2 ft.)
D 0.5 Metres (1.6 ft.)
NÑ—
STO - 8 - 4090
PIN LINE ”" <
; oe The -hp-3586A/B/C contains metric threaded HP-IB cable
3 DIOS mounting studs as opposed to English threads, Metric
threaded -hp- TOG31A, B, C or D HP-IB cable fockscrews
4 D104 must be used to secure the cable to the instrument. Iden-
13 DIOS tification of the two types of mounting studs and
14 DI06 fockscrews is made by their color. English threaded
15 D107 fasteners are colored silver and metric threaded fasteners
16 [108 are colored black. DO NOT mate silver and black fasteners
5 ЕО! to each other or the threads of either or both will be
17 REN destroyed. Metric threaded HP-IB cable hardware illustra-
6 DAV tions and part numbers follow.
7 NRED LOCKSCREW LONG MOUNTING STUD SHORT MOUNTING STUD
3 NDAC 1390-0360 0380-0643 0380-0644
9 IFC
10 SRO
11 АТК
12 SHIELD-CHASSIS GROUND
18 P/0 TWISTED PAIR WITH PIN 8
19 P/O TWISTED PAIR WITH PIN 7
20 | P/OTWISTEDPAIR WITHPING | THESEFINS
21 P/O TWISTED PAIR WITHPINO INTERNALLY
22 P/O TWISTED PAJR WITH PIN 10 GROUNDED
23 P/O TWISTED PAIR WITH PIN 11 ee
24 ISOLATED DIGITAL GROUND г
“и
Figure 2-6. HP-IB Connector.
ATA Nd wd wf ow” WF FA AF г es ALLL ELLICILC AN FILA
_ 2-32. HP-IB Address Selection. The -hp-3586A/B/C is shipped from the factory with an
4 9 ASCII listen address of @ (zero) and a talk address of “P””, These addresses correspond to a
oe Select Code of sixteen. If another device with the same select code is used in the system,
either its select code or that of the -hp-3586A/B/C must be changed. Changing the select
code of the -hp-3586A/B/C is accomplished using the DIP switches on the rear panel (see
Figure 2-7).
NORM/TEST - Instrument should always be operated with this
switch in the NORM position. The instrument will not function pro-
perly in the TEST mode.
REM/TRK - in the REMOTE position, this switch enables the instru-
ment to be remotely controlled via th HP-IB. in the TRK position, the
instrument can control a separate tracking generator vía the HP-18.
ÓN |]
16 8 4 2 1
jm
U
Li
=
TRK
ASCIE Code
и Character Address Switches Bit
Listen Talk AL AA АЗ А? Al Decimal Code
08
01
07
03
04
05
06
07
08
59
OZECrx“-— LO TMOONUDPE
© © © бб бе © © © © © © © © ©
не A a A A OOO O CODO
i mk © © © © mm OOOO
AAA OA DORADO
a Da OA DA OIDO = ©
15 РАСТОВУ
7 ADDRESS
IN <XBELECNANLDO:
wh A A ARE E ld E al el
VA A
Figure 2-7. Address Selection.
2-9
ЖЕЛЕ Салла
2-10
2-33. REPACKAGING FOR SHIPMENT.
NOTE
If the instrument is to be returned to -hp- for service, attach a tag
indicating the type of service required. Include any symptoms or
details that may be of help to the service technician. Also include
your return address, the instrument’s model number and full serial
number. In any correspondence, identify the instrument by model
number and full serial number.
2-34. Original Packaging.
2-35. The instrument should be repackaged using the original shipping container and pack-
ing materials if they are available and in good condition. If they are not available or suitable
for reuse, it 1s best to use equivalent containers and packing materials which can be obtained
through -hp- Sales and Service Offices. A list of -hp- Sales and Service Offices is given at the
back of this manual. If the original shipping materials are used, repack the instrument in the
same manner it was packed when received. If other -hp- materials are used, be sure to allow
3 to 4 inches of packing material on all sides of the instrument and seal the container with
strong tape or metal bands. Also mark the container “FRAGILE” to insure careful handl-
ing.
2-36. Other Packaging.
2-37. The following general instructions should be used for repackaging with commerically-
available materials:
a. Wrap the instrument in heavy paper or plastic.
b. Use a strong shipping container. A doublewall carton made of 250-pound test material
is adequate.
c. Use enough shock-absorbing material (3-to-4 inch layer) around all sides of the instru-
ment to provide firm cushion and prevent movement inside the container. Protect the con-
trol panel with cardboard.
d. Seal the shipping container securely.
e. Mark the shipping container FRAGILE to assure careful handling.
A Ab/ 4
=
Y ;
SECTION III
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
3-0-1. INTRODUCTION.
3-0-2. This section contains complete operating and programming instructions for the
Hewlett-Packard Model 3586A/B/C Selective Level Meter.
3-0-3. The operating information in this section is divided into eleven chapters. Except for
Chapters One and Eleven, each chapter corresponds to a measurement mode or a group of
very similar measurement modes. Chapter One contains general operating information that
is applicable to every mode. The chapters describing individual measurement modes are
practically “mini” manuals. By following the information in these chapters sequentially, the
instrument can be configured to measure any signal it is capable of measuring. Chapter Two
describes the Selective Measurement modes. The Selective Measurement modes are used in
general purpose selective measurements. All variations of selective measurements possible
with this instrument are described exhaustively in this chapter. The other chapters describing
individual measurement modes present the information needed for typical measurements in
a particular mode. Most of these are telecommunications measurement modes and so the
signal being measured is well understood. Variations from typical measurements are
obtained through cross references to Chapter Two. Chapter Eleven describes how to operate
the instrument over the HP-IB. It is assumed in this chapter that the operator is familiar with
front panel operation of the instrument.
3-0-4. Contents.
Chapter
General Operating Information
Selective
Wideband
Carrier
Noise/Demod
1010Hz, Tone 800Hz, Tone
1004Hz, 2600Hz
¢ Jitter
Noise/ Tone
Impulse
Network Analysis
HP-IB
CA A a 3 PY a
PE
= © D со —3
3-0-5. Using This Section. Most operators use an operating manual only as a reference.
Few, if any, read it sequentially from cover to cover. With this thought in mind, this
operating section was designed so that specific information could be located quickly and
with a minimum of searching. Some of the characteristics that contribute to this feature are
1) separate chapters for each measurement mode, 2) an identical format for each chapter
where possible and 3) redundant information in the chapters to avoid frequent cross refer-
encing. The redundancy can be burdensome if you are trying to read the section sequen-
tially. Feel free to skip over those paragraphs that sound familiar.
3-1
_ Hr 5 A E AA
3-1-1. This chapter consists of general operating information, an Operators Check and
Operator’s Maintenance. The operating information consists of those aspects of the opera-
tion applicable to every measurement mode and the functional description of each control
given in the Front and Rear Panel pictorial (Figure 3-1-1). The following is an index of the
NN pez ALLELE ALAN FLAVELL ATLL
CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL OPERATING INFORMATION
primary topics covered in this chapter:
Paragraph
Front and Rear Panel Features. .................coc tt. 3-1-2
Turm Om. 0 RK ie ett i a 3-1-4
Error Messages..........comeorecveccaaceccavrccaarenm 3-1-6
Store/ Recall of Front Panel Configurations. .............. 3-1-9
Operator's Check... oot iii titania, 3-1-11
Tracking Generator Operation. ..........eoeeerececeoo. 3-1-15
AUTOmatic CALibration.........._eeeco._.eeseservorcores 3-1-17
Operators Maintenance........ _eoexccxorrocrrer:aoe e. 3-1-20
3-1-2. Front and Rear Panel Pictorials.
3-1-3. The functions of the front and rear panel controls, indicators and connectors are
described in Figure 3-1-1.
Figure 3-1-2 Figure 3-1-3
mi 25866 SÉ: E YE LEYEL METER
RIMILTT. PREKA
a
а стат (к IMÉ A SLÉE к. e FREQUENCY ENTRY fom 3
Power] fi O zona a = GEFSEY fl asm 5 CARR TOME Ц Й Es
= | a MAA ag TTI TILE ЛГ
a CHANNEL—-, COUNTER |
TEER ERE CET vw ||
| бе ее © e
но ormer ||
Am saw 8 TRY i
5168 PE 0 655 ©
AIT CAL $ e „RANGE cn FULL SCALE, avi om UNIT
MEASUREMENT MODE ZZ UM ENTE III FRE [hare Y ¡hare an
a EELECTI т E — ee pr — FRÉQUENCY TO RE A AMO:
TRE !
; tune - LOMST DEMOD ISO4H: CARRIER Z800HE | off AUTO FRES STES ;
; : [ Fre wha 1 py
: e e) on (9) (o) {© = | (+=) &- | \ E | e)fs 103 ©} Pol
! LJ ME ETT : re
or к Te М! RATIOS Ft Se SE Sn : "E Ma — RESOLU TON —?
IONS Eal 755 a 135 RINGER AOOCR Hy —— 8)
. FUER
ane ; = (4) (5) (59) 3)
a ! чл Г
e.
7 Figure 3-1-6 Figure 3-1-5
Figure 3-1-7 Figure 3-1-4
FERS Veh Wd PNL AS LBS NL
Figure 3-1-1. 3586 Front Panel.
YIOUEL 3300/47 D/A. MIEL AL UCI ALIAS ДАВНО ЕКВ:
I 3-1-8. Error Message Definitions. The format for all error messages, except calibration er-
DO ror messages, is |
Err N
or
E N.N
where N is a number that indicates the specific error message.
N = 1 The Full Scale level cannot be changed manually
while the instrument is in Automatic Full Scale.
№ 1.2 The 10dB Range cannot be used when the instrument
is in the Wideband or Impulse measurement modes.
N = 2.2 The ¢ Jitter cannot be measured because signal level
is 40dB or more below Full Scale.
N = 2.3 The ¢ Jitter cannot be measured because the 1kHz
test tone is not present.
N=29 The ¢ Jitter out of Range. This can also indicate an
instrument failure.
N = 5 The instrument is in Remote and therefore will not re-
) spond to front panel controls.
Or
The LOCAL control has been disabled by a local
Lockout message.
N = 6.1 Accurate Impulse Measurements are unlikely. The
threshold level is 60dB or more below full scale.
№ = 6.2 The threshold level is above the full scale. This is a
nonsensical instrument configuration.
N = 3.0 Instrument Failure. At least one of the phase locked
loops is unlocked.
N = 4.1 Instrument Failure. The impulse counter did not start
during CAL.
N = 42 Instrument Failure. The impulse counter did not stop
durmg CAL.
N = 7 Instrument Failure. The Analog to digital convertor
was unable to make a conversion within two seconds.
Calibration Error messages are always instrument failures. the format for calibration error
messages is:
Ceneral Uperating intormation
3-16
CE-N
where N is an alphanumeric character that indicates which step of the calibration seguence
failed.
3-1-9. STORE/RECALL OF INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATIONS.
3-1-10. Al} front panel control settings and entry parameter values comprising a particular
front panel configuration can be stored and then recalled for use at a later date. Up to nine
front panel configurations can be stored simultaneously. To store a configuration, press
and any digit key from 1 to 9. Similarly, to recall a configuration, press
and the digit selected when storing the configuration. Note that pressing
resets the instrument to its turn on state.
3-1-11. Tracking Generator Operation.
3-1-12. When configured to do so, the -hp- 3586 A/B/C can control the frequency of a syn-
thesizer connected via the HP-IB. Any HP-IB compatible synthesizer that uses ASC I codes
F or FF for the frequency entry preface function and H or HH for the hertz units termina-
tion can be controlled. Once the Tracking Generator operating mode has been implemented,
the frequency of the synthesizer will track the tuned frequency of the 3586A precisely. Each
time the 3586 tuned frequency is changed, the synthesizer is switched to remote, program-
med to the new frequency, and then switched back to local. To implement the Tracking
Generator operating mode, connect the synthesizer and the -hp- 3586 together using an HP-
IB cable. Do not connect anything else to the system. Move the Tracking Generator switch,
located on the rear panel, to the REM position (see Figure 2-7). Either lock the 3586 to the
frequency reference of the synthesizer or visa vice versa (see Paragraph 2-27). This insures
that the output frequency of the synthesizer and the tuned frequency of the synthesizer are
actually equal.
3-1-13. AUTOmatic CALibration.
3-1-14. Automatic calibration compensates for minor frequency and amplitude offsets that
are normally present in the instrument’s analog section. This eliminates the need for external
calibration adjustments. Auto Cal can be turned off and on using the AUTO CAL OFF/ON
control. When Auto Cal is off, the last calibration constants stored are used to correct the
measured level, Auto Cal should be left on in almost all applications. Turn it off only when
the sole purpose of the instrument is to demodulate the signal for monitoring (listening) or
for further testing with other instruments. Disabling Auto Cal eliminates the interruptions
caused by periodic calibrations.
3-1-15. Here is a potpourri of questions often asked about Auto Cal.
Question: When does an automatic calibration take place?
MOGEI 5350A/ 15/4
eet
IiYERFRLLT JNE LAF NW
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
Question:
Answer:
be себ pr wd AR LAA MALA LIE LEAL AN ELA
—During the turn on seguence.
—If Auto Cal is on, when the frequency 1s changed more than IMHz.
— If Auto Cal is on and the instrument is In local, approximately every three
minutes.
… When Auto Cal is turned on.
—If Auto Cal is on and Wideband is chosen.
How is a calibration indicated?
CAL appears in the Measurement/Entry display.
What happens if the instrument cannot calibrate successfully?
An error code appears in the Measurement/Entry display. The format of the
code 1s
СЕ - №
where N is number or letter that indicates to service trained personnel which
calibration step failed.
What should the operator do when a calibration error occurs?
Note the error code. This will be helpful to the service technician should the in-
strument need repair. Cycle the Auto Cal on and off several times. If the
calibration error appears to be a transient condition, continue using the instru-
ment, If the error reoccurs, even intermittently, the instrument should be
evaluated by service trained personnel.
What is the duration of a calibration cycle?
About three seconds.
What happens if controls are actuated during a calibration cycle?
The instrument will ignore entrys during the turn on calibration cycle. During
all other calibrations, it will accept the entrys and assume the new configuration
at the end of the calibration cycle.
When should Auto Cal be disabled?
Practically never! Disable automatic calibration only when monitoring a chan-
nel or using the -hp- 3586A/B/C to demodulate a channel for further testing
with a different instrument.
How does Auto Cal work?
During a calibration cycle, a very accurate amplitude signal is switched into the
signal path at precisely the center of the instruments bandwidth. The instru-
ment configuration is then cycled (not indicated by control annunciators) and
calibration constants for each of the input attenuator settings and for each
bandwidth are stored within the instrument. These calibration constants are
then used to correct subsequent measurement data before they are displayed.
3-17
UICHICL Al USPUITEI ALIAS M13 VL iG LIVEL AVANCE 200A 1/7
3-1-16. Operator's Maintenance. _
3-1-17, The operator’s maintenance consists of cleaning the air filter on the fan and replac-
ing blown fuses.
3-1-18. Cleaning The Air Filter. The air filter must be clean to insure proper cooling of the
instrument. Generally, cleaning the air filter once every thirty days of continuous operation
is adequate; however, if the operating environment is especially dusty, more frequent clean-
ing may be required. Use the following procedure to clean the air filter.
Unplug the -hp- 35386 А/В/С.
. Remove the air filter.
Wash the air filter with soapy water.
Rinse the air filter and let it dry.
Replace the air filter on the instrument,
© no gw
3-1-19. Fuse Replacement.
WARNING |
The principal purpose of a fuse is to prevent fires in the event of a
short circuit in the instrument. To a lesser degree, a fuse also
reduces shock hazard and damage to the instrument if an internal и
short does occur. If a fuse with a larger than recommended ampere ==
rating is used or if a fuse other than the recommended type is used,
some or all of the protection afforded by the fuse will be lost.
3-18
_—
7 te,
AVYLOULL J200UM%7 DJ
Toll Yer BK A, BAL Bel A Nr LAL E ЛА ХЛ FALL LENSE
®
®
© ©
©
Power Input Receptacle: Accepts power cord supplied
with the instrument {see Paragraph 2-5 and 2-7).
Fuse Holder: Contains the line fuse. Use a 2A 250V fast
blow fuse for 100 volts or 120 volt operation. For 220
volt or 240 volt operation, use a 1A 250 volt fast blow
fuse {see Paragraph 2-25).
Voltage Selector Switches: Selects one of four line
voltage ranges. Nominal settings are 100V, 120V,
220V and 240V. Line voltage must be within — 13,3%
to +6% of the nominal line voltage setting (see
Paragraph 2-24}.
HP-IB Troubleshooting Test Switch: When set to TEST,
the HP-IB Assembly (AG 1} enters a troubleshooting test
mode.
Tracking Synthesizer Switch: Selects the Tracking
Generator Operating mode when set to TRACK. With
the instrument in this mode, the output frequency of
certain synthesizers will track the tuning of the instru-
ment (see Paragraph 3-1-15).
HP-13 Address Selection Switches: Binary weighted
switches that set the HP-I1B Device {talk and listen)
Adress of the instrument. The device address is set to
16 at the factory (see Paragraph 2-31).
HP-1B Connector: Input/Qutput port for HP-IB operation
of the instrument. Accepts all -hp- 10631 HP-IB Cables
equipped with METRIC threaded lockscrews. Metric
threaded lockscrews are black (see Paragraph 2-29).
10MHMz Oven Output {Option 004}: Provides an ac-
curate high long-term stability frequency reference for
the instrument. Normally, this ouput is coupled to the
EXT REF INPUT 10MHZ = N using the BNC to BNC
Adapter. The frequency of this output stabilizes in less
than 10 minutes after initial {instrument cold} turn on.
(14)
O
EXTernal REFerence Input 10MHz — N: Input for an ex-
ternal frequency reference. The reference frequency
must be an integral submultiple of 10MHz {ie., N = 1,
2, 3 - - -}, The level of the reference signal must be
greater than or equal to — 10dBm.
METER Output: Provides a DC voltage corresponding to
the amplitude displayed on the front panel. An output of
zero volts corresponds to a signal amplitude equal to the
Full Scale level. The sensitivity is 100mV/dB on the
10dB range and 10mV/dB on the 100dB range (see
Paragraph 3-1-41}.
AUDIO OUtput: Outputs the detected audio signal for
further testing {usually impairment measurements). the
level of the output varies with the Full Scale setting and
the signal level. When the signal level is at Full Scale,
the open circuit output leel is nominally 750mVp-p. The
output impedance is nominally 10k ohms {see
Paragraph 3-5-20).
¢ JITTER Output: Outputs the detected phase jitter for
further analysis. The sensitivity is nominaily 166mV per
degree of phase jitter. The output impedance is nomin-
ally 10k ohms {see Psaragraph 3-7-4).
Fo (0-32MHz) Output: Tracking signal source for net-
work analysis. The frequency of this output always
equals the frequency at the center of the instrument's
bandpass. The output level and output impedance are
nominally 0dBm and 50 ohms respectively,
TOMHz Output: Used to lock other instruments to the
frequency reference of the -hp- 3586A, The output
level and output impedance are nominally + 8dBm and
- 50o0hms respectively,
BNC to BNC Adapter: Used to couple the 10MHz Oven
output to the EX Ternal REFerence input TOMHz — №.
(Part Number 1250-1498)
Figure 3-1-8. 3586 Rear Panel.
3-19/3-20
res
AVERIA IIA па
CHAPTER TWO
SELECTIVE
3-2-1. The Selective Measurement modes are LOW DISTORTION and LOW NOISE. They
are normally used when measuring non-telecommunications signals.! With either selection,
the instrument measures the power level of the signal in a narrow band of frequencies
selected using the bandwidth and tuning controls.
3.2.2. Measurement Mode.
NOTE
When in doubt, use LOW DISTortion.
3-2-3. Low Distortion. This is the basic selective level measurement mode of the instru-
ment. It provides the best overall performance. Spurious signals on the local oscillator, ther-
mal noise and intermodulation distortion are all 80dB or more below Maximum Input
Power? in this mode. Use LOW DISTortion unless you need the special advantage of the
LOW NOISE measurement mode. Note that the instrument turns on in this mode.
3-2-4. Selecting Low Distortion. Press (no shift) LOW DISTortion.
3-2-5. Low Noise. The Low Noise Measurement Mode is most easily described by compar-
ing the instrument performance in this mode with that of the Low Distortion Mode. When
the total power is greater than — 35dBm, the thermal noise with the instrument in Low Noise
will be 5dB lower than when the instrument is in the Low Distortion Mode. Below input
powers of — 35dBm, the two measurement modes are identical. Reducing the thermal noise,
when the total input power is relatively high, is valuable for two reasons. First, low level
signals are more likely to be masked by thermal noise than by any other type of noise or in-
terference. Second, in the applications for which the -hp- 3586A/B/C was designed, it is not
uncommon for the input power to be much larger than the signal to be measured. As you
might imagine, this improvement in signal to thermal noise ratio cannot be obtained without
sacrificing some other performance parameter. Again, compared to Low Distortion, the in-
termodulation distortion products are increased from 80dB below Maximum Input Power
(MIP) to 70dB below MIP. Spurious signals remain unaffected at greater than 80dB below
MIP. With intermodulation distortion products fully 15dB higher than the thermal noise, a
question naturally arises, “What good does it do to reduce the thermal noise to 85dB below
MIP?” The answer to this question depends on the nature of the input signal. If the power
of the input signal is sufficiently dispersed and the individual components of the composite
signal are randomly related, the intermodulation distortion will very likely be much lower
than the specified 70dB below MIP. Even if the input power is not dispersed, this measure-
ment mode may still be useful since intermodulation distortion products do not fall evenly
throughout the frequency spectrum. LOW NOISE measurements of both types of input
signals are discussed in detail in the paragraphs that follow. À word of caution: this
measurement mode is advantageous only when measuring low level components of relatively
l'Telecommunications signals can be measured if desired; however, it is usually more convenient to use one of the SSB Channel
measurement modes for these signals.
Since the input of the -hp- 3586A/B/C is untuned, the Maximum Input power is the maximum broadband power that can be
applied to the input. Broadband power is the sum of the input power at all frequencies.
IE EL LIVE
3-21
САУС YIOUCE IIJ00/A/ EN
high level input signals. Furthermore, the intermodulation distortion specification is only
70dB below maximum input power. Obviously, there could be intermodulation distortion
products with an amplitude greater than or equal to the signal to be measured. You must
know how to evaluate the input signal in order to make reliable measurements in this mode.
- i
3-2-6. Selecting Low Noise. Turn the shift function on and press LOW NOISE.
3-2-7. LOW NOISE Measurements of Dispersed Signals. The 70dB below maximum input
power intermodulation distortion specification given for the low noise measurement mode is
a worst case figure. For certain types of input signals, the intermodulation distortion is
typically well below this level. The input signals for which this is true have two
characteristics:
a. The power of the input signal is sufficiently dispersed throughout a bandwidth much
wider than that of the instrument (the largest single frequency component of the input signal
is more than 5dB below the Maximum Input Power).
b. The frequencies of the significant individual components of the input signal are ran-
domly related.
White noise is one example of this kind of signal. Another example is a telecommunications
signal consisting of several hundred channels. The operator is required to know quite a lot
about the input signal when the characteristics described in a. and b. are used as criteria for
selecting the LOW NOISE measurement mode. In many applications, the composition of
the input signal is unknown. When this is the case, use the LOW DISTORTION measure-
ment mode or assume that the signal is not dispersed and treat it accordingly (Paragraph f о
3-2-9). The criteria for selecting LOW NOISE is simple when measuring telecommunications ve
signals. LOW NOISE should be used whenever a telecommunications input signal consists
of 60 or more message channels. In most telecommunications systems, the Super Group is
the lowest level signal in the Frequency Domain Multiplexing hierarchy that contains 60 or
more channels. Further insight into the use of this mode can be gained by understanding
why intermodulation distortion is low when the power of the input signal is dispersed.
3-2-8. When the power of the input signal is dispersed throughout a wide bandwidth, the in-
dividual component signals have a low amplitude compared to the total input power. The in-
strument cannot distinguish an input power level consisting of dispersed signals from an in-
put power level consisting of a few large tones. As a result, the instrument configures itself
(or is configured) to handle a few large signals near maximum input power without excessive
intermodulation distortion (IM). The 70dB below MIP intermodulation distortion specifica-
tion is really for signals of this kind. When the actual individual input signals have low
amplitude compared to the MIP, the resulting IM distortion is much less than that an-
ticipated. Basically, there are two mechanisms that reduce the IM distortion caused by
signals of this type. It is well known that the amplitude of a intermodulation product is pro-
portional to the amplitude of the originating signals. When the amplitudes of the originating
signals are lowered, the amplitude of the IM products also drop. In fact, most IM products
will drop either two or three times faster than the originating signals. In addition, the
operating range of the input mixer is not as large as expected. Reducing the mixer operating
range reduces the mixer non-linearity which, in turn, further reduces the amplitude of the
IM products. Note that if the frequencies of the individual input signal components are not —
randomly related, they will repetitiously add together causing peaks near the maximum in- и
put power level. This will at least partially eliminate the improvement in IM distortion per-
formance gained from having a dispersed input signal.
3-22
Model 35504/ 5/1
3-2-9. LOW Noise Measurements of Non-Dispersed Signals. Intermodulation distortion
products are not spread evenly throughout the frequency spectrum. They fall at a few
discrete frequencies determined by the frequencies of the originating signals and by the order
of the intermodulation distortion. Because of this, LOW NOISE can be used even when the
power of the input signal is not dispersed. As long as none of the intermodulation products
fall within the instrument bandpass, the measurement is perfectly valid. The difference be-
tween making LOW NOISE measurements of dispersed and non-dispersed signals is that the
operator must be especially careful when measuring non-dispersed signals. If one of the in-
termodulation products happens to fall within the instrument bandpass, the reading will
very likely be totally erroneous. It is fairly easy to detect the presence of an intermodulation
product in the instrument bandpass. When the instrument is switched from LOW DISTOR-
TION to LOW NOISE, the reading should drop. If the reading increases, there very
definitely is an intermodulation product in the bandpass of the instrument. An even more
conclusive test is to change the input signal level 1dB with the instrument in LOW NOISE. If
the displayed amplitude drops approximately 1dB, then there are no intermodulation pro-
ducts in the instrument bypass. If it changes more than 1dB, then the reading is being af-
fected by an intermodulation product. When this happens, it is sometimes possible to
eliminate the undesired signal by slightly mistuning the instrument. Some intermodulation
products change frequency very rapidly with respect to tuning changes. If the intermodula-
tion product cannot be eliminated, switch the instrument to LOW DISTORTION. It 1s not
possible to make LOW NOISE measurements of all signals.
3-2-10. INPUT/OUTPUT CONNECTIONS.
3-2-11. 75/50 Ohm input.
3-2-12. This is an unbalanced input which is calibrated to read asolute power levels refer-
enced to 75 ohms. An input level of .274V, which is Imw into 75 ohms, causes an amplitude
level reading of 0dBm. Either 10kQ||50pf or terminated measurements may be made using
this input (see Figure 3-2-1). When the 75 ohm impedance is furnished by the signal source
circuitry, the 10kQ||50pf measurement mode is selected. The terminated or 75 ohm input is
used whenever the signal source circuitry must be terminated in 75 chms. All of the various
connectors used on this input are illustrated and identified in Figure 3-2-2. If desired, an ac-
tive probe can be connected to this input. On the 3586C, the 50Q input operates identically to
the 759 input including the 10kQ||50pf capability.
3-2-13. Grounding. Although a special power supply and ground isolation technique is
used for the input circuitry of the -hp- 3586A, low level measurements can still be affected by
ground loops. Usually, these ground loops are caused by poor grounding. To minimize the
effect of ground loops, keep the cables as short as possible and in good repair. If possible,
plug the -hp- 3586A into the same power outlet used to power the equipment under test.
3.2.14. 75 Ohm Terminated Input. The 75 ohm input is used whenever the signal source
needs to be terminated in 75 ohms. When measuring telecommunications signals, the 73
ohm input usually terminates an attenuator pad placed between the operating circuits and
the test point for isolation. In other applications, the input impedance replaces some portion
of the system circuitry.
3-2-15. When making 75 ohm terminated measurements, the maximum input power is .5
watt. This limitation is determined by the 75 ohm terminating resistor. For AC signals this .5
> watt limitation corresponds to an input level of +27dBm. Ordinarily, the input signal will
ICY CT
3-23
САДУ С NIQUE! J20BDA/ 13/4
not have a DC component; however, if it does, the peak value of the composite waveform
(AC + DC) may not exceed 10V. >
| -hp-35864/8/C!
| [+0 32] |
| 1 OK |
| | |
| ior |
75 8 1 2e te УВЕ bm
| 75 0
NA А L TERMINATION
E las 17 >
SOURCE
A. BRIDGED MEASUREMENT
[oe an
; Thp-3586A/B/C |
758 | |
AAD Г? COEUR
752 | . |
SIGNAL [753 10KS = |
SOURCE | ` |
© pd |
Ea mas mo same mas cas un À
B. TERMINATED 75 MEASUREMENT
ZEEE 1.2}
Figure 3-2-1. 75 Ohm Input Measurements. Co
WECO TYPE 477B
BNC FEMALE ©
| [ACCEPTS WECD 358A)
|
POWER PLUG | (©) POWER PLUG
-hp- 3586A/C -hp—- 55865
OPTION 001
SIEMENS TYPE
WECO TYPE 560A SERIES 1.6/5.6 mm 75 OHM
o NN IACCEPTS WECO 439A OR 440A)
Ny
oo POWER PLUS
POWER PLUG
-hp- 3586A
-hp- 35868 OPTION 061
3586-3.2-2
Figure 3-2-2. Connectors For The 75 Ohm Input.
ke У
3-24
IVIQUE: 3200A/ D/C ICIECLIVE
3-2-16. 10kQ||50pf Termination. The 10kQ| 50pf termination is used whenever the im-
pedance level of the signal being measured is aiready 75 ohms. In this mode, the instrument
is a high input impedance (10k ohms shunted by 50 pf) voltmeter calibrated to read absolute
signal levels (power) in dBm, dBV or dBpw referenced to 75 ohms. Its relatively high input
impedance in this mode prevents the instrument from seriously loading a 75 ohm signal
source or altering a 75 ohm circuit impedance. For this reason measurements made directly
across functioning circuits are often bridged measurements.
NOTE
Measurements of telecommunications signals in operating systems
are almost always made using a terminated input. A pad isolates
the operating system from the system test point. The pad is design-
ed to have its indicated attenuation when properly terminated.
This practice of isolating the system test point from the operation
circuitry eliminates the chance that the signal will be disturbed by
instruments connected to the test point.
3-2-17. In the 10kQ||50pf measurement mode the absolute maximum safe AC input power is
+ 27dBm. Normally, there will not be a DC component to the input signal. However, if
—— there is a DC component, the power of the composite signal (AC + DC) must not exceed .5
watts.
Y 3-2-18. Measuring Other Impedances. Unterminated measurements can be made across im-
— pedances other than 75 ohms. When this is done, the displayed amplitude can be used direct-
ly for relative measurements, converted to volts or offset (recalibrated) to read absolute
amplitude levels across the new circuit impedance. Relative measurements are those in which
either a change in level or the difference between two levels is measured. For example,
measuring the gain of an amplifier.
3-2-19. Absolute Level Measurements Across Other Impedances. The display can be
calibrated to read absolute amplitude at different impedances by entering an offset. The re-
quired offset is found using the following equation:
Offset = 10 log (R1/75)
3-2-20. The procedure for entering offsets is given below. If more than one offset is to be
used, they must be combined first and entered as a single offset.
STEP 1: Press the OFFSET control located in the Entry group.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal as required,
MH | |
STEP 3: Press Or as appropriate.
} STEP 4: Press to resume measurement,
e С 0 N T
3-25
RARA LINE
3-26
NOTE
Do not change the Units selection after entering an offset. Offsets
are not referenced to any particular inpedance or level. Because of
this, the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the
Units are changed.
3-2-21. Converting To Volts. The displayed absolute amplitude levels are calculated from
the measured input voltage. The instrument simply assumes that the impedance is 75 ohms.
Because of this, these readings can easily be converted to voltage using the following equa-
tion:
Input Volts = (.075) 104/18 A is the displayed amplitude.
3-2-22. Probe Power Jack. The probe power jack, located just below the 75 ohm input, is
compatible with several -hp- Active Probes. À pin out of the power jack is given in Figure
3-2-2. Two probes recommended for use with this instrument are the -hp- 15580 and
-hp- 15578A. If a probe with an output impedance of 50 ohms is being used, enter an offset
of + 1.58dB to compensate for the mismatch. On the 3586C, simply select the 50Q input.
3.2.23. 124 Ohm Input (35868 Only).
3-2-24. This balanced input is used whenever the signal source circuitry needs to be ter-
minated in 124 ohms. An input of Imw causes an amplitude reading of OdBm. All of the
various connectors used on this input are illustrated and identified in Figure 3-2-3. À brief
description of balanced measurements can be found in Paragraph 3-2-31.
NOTE
Make no connections to the 135 Ohm Input while using the 124
Ohm Input. The two inputs share circuitry on the Input Multi-
plexer Board that causes them to interact. Signals on the 135 Ohm
Input will affect the amplitude reading of the 124 Ohm Input. Any
impedance connected across the 135 Ohm Input will alter the im-
pedance of the 124 Ohm Input.
3-2-25. The absolute maximum signal that can be applied to the 124 Ohm Input is + 27dBm.
Levels above this amplitude may damage the input circuitry. Absolutely no DC voltage can
be applied to this input. This is because one side of the input is practically shorted to ground
at very low frequencies.
Y LOLI „3 ОНЫЙ вру 4%
WECO TYPE 562A WECO TYPE 4778
(+) (ACCEPTS WECD 443A © (ACCEPTS 372A AT
AT 12. 7mm SPACING] 16 mm SPACING |
© ©)
OPTION 001
3586-3.273
Figure 3-2-3. Connectors For The 124 Ohm Input.
VOCE! 3II504/ D/. oCICCLIVE
The maximum amplitude AC signal on the 124 Ohm Input is
+27dBm. DO NOT APPLY DC VOLTAGE TO THE 124 OHM
INPUT.
3-2-2686. 135/150 Ohm input.
3.2-27. This input is either 135 or 150 ohms depending on the model selected. It is a
balanced input that is used whenever the signal source circuitry needs to be terminated in
either 135 or 150 ohms as appropriate. An input of Imw causes a level reading of 0dBm. All
of the various connectors used with this input are illustrated and identified in Figure 3-2-4. A
brief description of balanced measurements can be found in Paragraph 3-2-31).
O
= ©
O >)
150 OHM ONLY 135 OHM ONLY
(3586A) (358661
350t-3.2-4
Ss Figure 3-2-4. Connectors For The 135/150 Ohm Input.
NOTE
Make no connections to the 124 Ohm Input while using the 135
Ohm Input. The two inputs share circuitry on the Input Multi-
plexer Board that causes them to interact. Signals on the 124 Ohm
Input will affect the amplitude reading of the 135 Onm Input. Any
“impedance connected across the 124 Ohm Input will alter the im-
pedance of the 135 Ohm Input.
3-2-28. The absolute maximum amplitude that can be applied to this input is +27dBm
_ {.SW). This signal level is 8.22V for the 135 Ohm Input, and 8.66V for the 150 Ohm Input.
à Do not connect anything to the 124 Ohm Input while using this input.
3-2-29. 600 Ohm Input.
3-2-30. This is a balanced input which is calibrated to read absolute input levels across 600
ohms. One milliwatt into 6009 (which is .775V), causes an amplitude level reading of OdBm.
Either BRIDGED or terminated measurements may be made using this input (see Figure
>. 3-2-1). When the 600 ohm impedance level is furnished by the signal source circuitry, the
1) BRIDGED measurement mode is selected. The terminated or 600 ohm input is used
a whenever the signal source circuitry must be terminated in 600 ohms. All of the various con-
nectors used on this input are illustrated and identified in Figure 3-2-5.
3-27
SCIECtIVE MOdel 3>8004/B/C
МЕСО ТУРЕ 310 a
-hp- 3586B
SIEMENS TYPE 3 PRONG.
O 5 REL
-hp- 3586A
3586-3, 2-5
Figure 3-2-5. Connectors For The 600 Ohm Input.
3-2-31. Balanced Inputs. Balanced circuits are those with two outputs which are electrically
identical and symmetrical with respect to ground. The balanced inputs on the -hp- 3586A
permit the outputs of balanced signal sources to be measured without disturbing their rela-
tionship to ground. A balanced measurement is illustrated in Figure 3-2-6. Balanced
measurements are not nearly as susceptible to ground loop problems as are terminated
measurements. Ground loop voltages tend to be identical on both inputs, so they are cancel- i,
led by the common mode rejection characteristics of the instrument. ( J
3-2-32. Not only is the 600 Ohm Input balanced, but it is also floating. A transformer
isolates this input from the rest of the circuitry and, most important, from ground. As a
result, this input is especially free from ground loop problems.
3-2-33. 600 Ohm Terminated Input. The 600 Ohm Input is used whenever the signal source
circuitry needs to be terminated in 600 ohms.
3-2-34, Bridged Measurements. The bridged measurement mode is used whenever the im-
pedance of the signal being measured is already 600 ohms. In this mode, the -hp- 3586A is a
high input impedance (10kQ shunted by 50pf) voltmeter calibrated to read absolute signal
levels (power) in dBm, dBv or dBpw referenced to 600 ohms. Its input impedance is high
enough to prevent it from seriously loading a 600Q signal source or altering a 6002 circuit im-
pedance and causing reflections (echoes). For this reason, BRIDGED measurements can be
safely made on functioning circuits. This is not meant to imply that all measurements on
functioning circuits are made using the Bridged input. In telecommunications systems for in-
stance, pads are often placed between the operating system and the test point. The ter-
minated 600 Ohm Input of the instrument is used to terminate the attenuator pad.
3-2-35. While the input impedance is high enough to prevent the -hp- 3586A from disturb-
ing the circuit, it is also low enough to cause a significant measurement error, If the im-
pedance of the circuit under test 1s exactly 600 ohms, the error due to loading effect is >.
— 2567dB. If desired, the displayed amplitude level can be corrected by entering an offset of uu
— .26dB. Use the following procedure to enter the offset. If more than one offset is to be a
used, they must be combined first and entered as a single offset.
3-28
IVELIUEGCL TOWNS £37/ 4
STGNAL SOURCE /\ -hp-3586A
FF TT TT | 5 Y PT NT нетто тит Se — }
| R1 , L RY |
я A \ ; ‘(
| A Ny 7 Y 1 АА |
| + R3 | | : RS |
| | | |
| R4 | | RE |
| pe | | os |
| WA + DA |
A 35566-3-2-6
Figure 3-2-6. Balanced Measurement.
STEP 1: Turn OFFSET ON/OFF control ON.
STEP 2: Press
STEP 3: Enter the decimal and digits as required.
STEP 4: Press or ins | as appropriate.
MEAS
STEP 5: Press e
CONT |
a 3-2-36. In the BRIDGED measurement mode the maximum input power voltage is + 27dB.
A
\ Normally, there will not be a DC component to the input signal. However, if there is a DC
component, it must not exceed 42 volts either differential or common mode.
3-2-37. Bridging Other Impedances. Bridged measurements can be made across impedances
other than 75 ohms. When this is done, the displayed amplitude can be used directly for
relative measurements, converted to volts or offset (recalibrated) to read absolute amplitude
levels across the new circuit impedance. Relative measurements are those in which either a
change in level or the difference between two ievels is measured. For example, measuring the
gain of an amplifier.
3-2-38. Absolute Level Measurements Across Other Impedances. By entering an offset the
display can be calibrated to read absolute amplitude at difference levels. The required offset
is found using the following equation:
Offset = 10 log: (R1/75)
3-2-39. The procedure for entering offsets is given below. If more than one offset is to be
used, all offsets must be combined and entered as a single offset.
STEP 1: Press the OFFSET control located in the Entry group.
DCICCLIVE
3-29
Selective MOCEl 3I5S0A/ B/C
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal as required.
MH A , бе Ns
STEP 3: Press or as appropriate.
MEAS
STEP 4: Press e ; to resume measurement.
С
NOTE
Do not change the Units selection after entering an offset. Offsets
are not referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of
this, the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the
Units are changed.
3-2-40. Converting to Volts. The displayed absolute amplitude levels are calculated from
the measured input voltage. The instrument simply assumes that the impedance is 75 ohms.
Because of this, these readings can easily be converted to voltage. The equation for convert-
ing from dBm to volts is
Input Voits = (.075) 1064710)
3-2-41, Meter Qutput.
3-2-42. A DC voltage proportional to the input signal level is available from the METER Fo
output on the rear panel. Zero volts are output when the signal amplitude equals the fuil 5
scale level. The sensitivity is 100mv/dB on the 10dB range and 10mv/dB on the 100dB
Range.
3-2-43. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT IN THE SELECTIVE MEASUREMENT MODES.
3-2-44. When followed sequentially, the information presented in this subsection is a pro-
cedure for tuning the -hp- 3586A/B/C to any signal it is capable of measuring in the Selec-
tive Measurement Modes.
3-2-45. The -hp- 3586A/B/C can be fine tuned only to input signals that consist of voice
traffic or that contain a single frequency, dominant amplitude component. Input signals
consisting of voice traffic are fine tuned simple by adjusting for natural sound. All other in-
put signals must contain a single frequency dominant amplitude at the center frequency of
the signal to be measured because of the technique used to fine tune the instrument. Fine
Tuning begins once the input signal is within the instrument’s bandpass (coarsely tuned).
The operator activates the Counter and measures the frequency of the input signal. By press-
ing the Counter to Frequency control, the operator instructs the instrument to tune to the
frequency just measured. Since the input signal was just measured, the instrument is precise-
ly tuned to the input signal frequency. Note that a dominant single frequency signal must be
present in the input signal for the counter to count. Most commonly measured signals have
such a component naturally. If the input signal does not contain the required component,
one can be furnished temporarily for the purpose of fine tuning. When a signal is furnished
temporarily, its frequency must be at the center of the bandpass to be measured.
3-30
iY EFE: a TILA A
3-2-46. instrument Configuration For Tuning.
o
3-2-47. The optimum control settings for tuning the -hp- 3586A/B/C to the vast majority of
input signals are given below. The possible exceptions are very low amplitude input signals
and fluctuating input signals that cause the instrument to autorange constantly (see
Paragraph 3-2-71).
3-2-48. Channel. Select the channel in accord with the signal being received. If the instru-
ment is being tuned to a noncommunications signal, it makes no difference which Channel
selection is used.
Ps
— Configures the instrument to receive a lower sideband signal.
3-2-49. Bandwidth. Use the widest Bandwidth selection permitted by the composition of
the input signal. Recall that a single frequency dominant amplitude signal must be present in
the input signal for fine tuning. The instrument bandpass should discriminate against any
signal whose amplitude is larger than the signal to be counted. Avoid the temptation to
automatically use a narrow bandwidth. The tuning procedure is usually simpler when wider
bandwidths are used.
— Configures the instrument to receive an upper sideband signal.
| 3-2-50. Range. Use the 100dB Range for tuning the instrument to al! but very low
pes amplitude signals (i.e., minus 9dBm and above). Using the 100dB Range will make search-
uu ) ing for the input signal easier should it become necessary. Very low amplitude signals cause
only a slight indication on the analog tuning meter when the ¡00dB Range is used. In these
cases, the 10dB Range is used to increase meter sensitivity.
3-2-51. Full Scale - Use AUTOmatic Full Scale While Tuning. If a fluctuating input signal
level causes the instrument to autorange constantly, (see Paragraph 3-2-71). Entering a fixed
Full Scale level will eliminate the constant autoranging.
3-2-52. Entry Frequency. The Entry Frequency controls are not functional when the instru-
ment is in one of the Selective Measurement modes. An annunciator in the center of one of
the controls remains lit to indicate how the displayed frequency will be interpreted if the in-
strument is switched to one of the SSB Channel measurement modes.
3-2-53. Coarse Tuning.
3-2-54. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the dominant single frequency compo-
nent of the input signal is within the instrument bandpass. In most cases, coarse tuning is ob-
tained by simply entering the Entry Frequency. An additional step may be required
whenever a narrow bandwidth is used at high frequencies. Under these circumstances, it may
be necessary to search for the input signal even when the frequency of the signal is precisely
known. This is because errors in the tuned frequency of the instrument cause the Entry Fre-
quency to fall outside of the instrument bandpass.’ Other times, searching for the input
signal is necessary because of operator uncertainty about the frequency of the signal.
3When the ENTRY mode is selected, the AUTOmatic full scale level is retained until a different value is entered.
3-31
ha lr Ltr LLY Ar LYEN FRAN L TST ARS NW
3-2-5355. Entering The Entry Frequency. In the Selective operating modes, the Entry Fre-
quency is the Frequency at the center of the instrument bandpass. Use the following pro- вх
cedure to enter the Entry Frequency. -
STEP 1: Press
STEP 2: Enter the significant digits.
| H e MH
STEP 3: Press MIN , + de or
Notice that these keys permit any frequency to be entered three different ways.
3-2-56. Searching For The Input Signal.
NOTE
This step should not be necessary if the frequency of the input
signal is precisely known AND
1. The -hp- 3586A/B and the signal source are locked to the
same frequency reference.
OR
2. A high stability frequency reference is used in the instrument. —
OR
3. If the widest bandwidth is being used.
Searching for the input signal consists of varying the tuned frequency of the instrument until
the signal falls within the instrument bandpass. This is most easily done using the Frequency
Tune Control (Paragraph 3-2-58). As expected, it is often necessary to search for an input
signal when the input signal frequency is not precisely known. What may not be expected is
that it is sometimes necessary to search for the input signal even when its frequency IS
precisely known. Whenever the error in the instrument’s tuned frequency is nominally equal
to one-half of the bandwidth, the entered frequency (and therefore the input signal) will not
fall within the instrument bandpass. In other words, the instrument bandpass may not in-
clude the frequency displayed on the front panel. Exactly when this is likely to happen is a
function of the Entry Frequency, Bandwidth selection and frequency reference used in the
instrument. The combinations of these factors that require a search for the input signal are
summarized in Table 3-2-1. When any of these conditions exist, the operator must search for
the input signal or verify that the signal being received is the desired signal. Note that an in-
crease in the level indication does NOT mean that the instrument is properly tuned. The in-
strument may be tuned to the wrong signal! If you are certain there are no other signals in
the vicinity of the desired signal, it is safe to assume that an increase in indicated level is due
to the desired signal. Otherwise, it is necessary to scan the frequency spectrum (plus or minus
200Hz) to be certain that the instrument is properly tuned.
3-27-58. Frequency Tune Control. This control provides continuous Frequency Entry.
When either of the Resolution Controls is on, rotating the Frequency Tune Control will
3-32
IIYAMA 2J300U/747/ Ка
change the tuned frequency in increments or (decrements) determined by the Resolution
Controls. Clockwise rotation increases the frequency and counter clockwise rotation
decreases it.
Table 3-2-1. Frequencies At Which Signal Search May Be Required.
Bandwidth
Frequency Reference 400Hz 20H:
None Entry Entry
Frequency > 20MHz Frequency > 6MHz
, Entry
Option Frequency > 20MHZ
The tuning procedure is now complete. If a dominant amplitude single frequency signal has
been furnished for the purposes of tuning, it should now be removed.
3-2-59. AUTOmatic. When AUTOmatic resolution is selected, the frequency increments of
the Frequency Tune Control are determined by the Bandwidth selection. According to
Bandwidth selection, the frequency changes are: 100Hz for the widest Banwidth, 20Hz for
the 400Hz Bandwidth and 1Hz for the 20Hz Bandwidth.
3-2-60. FREquency STEP. The resolution of the Frequency Tune Control is equal to the
quantity stored in the frequency step register when FREQuency STEP resolution 18 selected.
At turn on, this value is 1Hz. Use the following procedure to enter a different Frequency
Step:
FREQ |
STEP 1: Press
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal as required.
. MHz | kHz Hz :
STEP 3: Press , or as appropriate,
STEP 4: Press Me
CONT
3-2-61. Fine Tuning.
3-2-62. The instrument can be fine tuned to input signals consisting of voice traffic or input
signals that contain dominant amplitude single frequency components.
3-2-63. Fine Tuning To Signals Dominated By A Single Frequency Component. Basically,
the procedure for fine tuning the instrument to an input signal of this nature is to measure
the frequency of the signal and transfer the resuit to the Entry Frequency register. This pro-
cedure is presented in detail.
STEP 1: Coarsely tune the instrument (this is already done if you are following the pro-
cedure in this manual).
STEP 2: Turn the Counter OFF-ON control on.
LIVIN LEVE
3-33
DCICCÇIIVE EYENINANA A INIERZ ES ON
MEAS
STEP 3: Press . The frequency of the input signal will appear in the Frequency/
Entry display.
STEP 4: Press Ey . This transfers the counter reading to the frequency register.
The contents of the frequency register determine the tuned frequency of the in-
strument.
3-2-64. Fine Tuning To Voice Signals. The instrument is fine tuned to voice signals by ad-
justing for natural sound. This procedure is presented in detail.
STEP 1: Select FREQuency STEP for the resolution of the Frequency Tune Control.
STEP 2: Turn up the volume.
STEP 3: Adjust the Frequency Tune Control for natural sound.
3-2-65, INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATION FOR MEASUREMENTS.
3-2-66. Range/Full Scale.
3-2-67. The Range controls determine the range of the Measurement/Entry display (and the
Analog Tuning Meter) relative to the full scale level. The Full Scale controls select the E
method of determining and entering the full scale level. Even though they direct different in- Net
strument functions, these controls are very interdependent. In other words, the full scale en-
try mode selection affects the implementation of the Range selection and vice versa. Because
of this, you will probably not understand either control completely until you have read
about both. When selecting the Range and Full Scale settings, it is sometimes easiest to think
in terms of the combinations of Range and Full Scale selections. To aid the operator in his
selection, the relative advantages and disadvantages of ail four Range and Full Scale com-
binations are summarized in Table 3-2-2.
NOTE
When in doubt, choose 10dB/AUTO. This is the optimum com-
bination of Range and Full Scale for the vast majority of level
measurements. Even when it is not the optimum choice, the loss is
mainly in tuning convenience and speed rather than accuracy.
3-2-68. Range. The Range controls select the operating range of the instrument’s internal
true rms Detector/Logger. This in turn affects measurement accuracy and determines the
display range of both the Measurement/Entry Display and the Analog Tuning Meter. In
fact, the Range Controls are labeled in accord with the ranges on the Analog Tuning Meter.
3-2-69. 100dB. The entire 80dB range of the Detector/Logger is used when the 100dB
Range is selected. Any signal level between full scale and 80dB below full scale can be
measured. Note that there are no specifications for measurements of signals less than 80dB
below full scale; the 100dB label refers to the scale of the Analog Tuning Meter. When this et
Range is used, the resolution of the Measurement/Entry display is .1dB and the accuracy is
3-34
E UN,
Sy
AVAIL
a RIDE КРУ №
less than the accuracy of the 10dB Range. The reasons for this will become apparent from
the description of the 10dB Range.
3-2-70. 10dB. When the 10dB Range is selected, all signals are detected on the most linear
10dB portion of the Detector/Logger’s operating range. This reduces the error introduced
by the non-linearity of the Detector/Logger and gives the 10dB Range its superior accuracy.
Any signal level between full scale and 10dB below full scale can be measured with .01dB
resolution on this range. Precision variable gain IF amplifiers adjust the Full Scale level so
that all signals to be measured fall within this very linear 10dB region of the Detector/Log-
ger regardless of their initial amplitude. Amplifying the signal so that it always falls within
this most linear 10dB region is the alternative to using the entire 80dB Range of the Detec-
tor/Logger. Because of the precision resistor technology used in the IF amplifier gain con-
trol circuitry, the IF gain increments are very precise and introduce much less error than is
introduced by the non-linearity of the Detector/Logger in the 100dB Range. The 10dB
Range and the 100dB Range measurements are contrasted in Figure 3-2-7. Note that signals
from + 3dB above and — 17dB below full scale can be measured using the 100dB Range, but
not with the usual accuracy of the 10dB Range.
Table 3-2-2. Relative Advantages/Disadvantages Of Range/Full Scale Selections.
whl bl VG
Range Full | |
Scale Combination Relative Advantages Relative Disadvantages
10dB/AUTO — Highest accuracy Under some circumstances,
— Highest (.01) resolution — Tuning is somewhat easier
— Automatic selection of Ful and faster with other com-
Scale for best Signal to Noise binations
ratio obtainable without | —Under some circumstances,
overloading. the dynamic range of the
instrument can be extended
with other combinations.
100dB/AUTO | — Facilitates tuning — 100dB Range is less accu-
—Rapid tuning to individual rate than the 10dB Range
components of input signal. | —100dB Range has less re-
— Automatic selection of Full solution {.1dB} than 10dB
Scale for best Signal to Noise range
ratio obtainable without | — Under some circumstances
overloading. the dynamic range of the in-
strument can be extended
with other combinations.
100dB/ENTRY | —Fast tuning {usually useful | — Operator must determine and
only in automated production enter the Fuli Scale level
applications) — 10048 Range is less accu-
-— Dynamic Range of the instru- rate than 10dB Range
ment can be extended under | — 100dB Range has less re-
some circumstances. solution (.1dB) than 10dB
Range.
10dB/ENTRY —Fast tuning (usually useful | — Operator must determine and
only in automated production enter the Fuil Scale level
applications) — RARELY RESULTS IN BEST
— Dynamic range of the instru- SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO
ment can be extended under FOR MEASUREMENT.
some circumstances.
— Highest accuracy
— Highest (.01dB) resolution.
3-35
АЕ У LY
3-36
AF ELV Will FSI А AZ
dB
FROM 10
INPUT AMD 3005 Lam
AMPLIFIER DET/LUG CONVERTER
S0dB RANGE AT
EITHER POINT
10
i, оо 1088 A/D
INPUT |
с
AMPLIFIER DET/LOG CONVERTER
NY
0 TO 70385
3586-3-2-7
Figure 3-2-7. Comparison of 10dB and 100dB Ranges.
3-2-71, Full Scale. The Full Scale controls select the method of determining and entering
the full scale level. If AUTOmatic Full Scale is selected, the instrument automatically con-
figures itself for the best signal to noise ratio obtainable without overloading. If ENTRY
Full Scale is selected, the operator determines and enters a fixed full scale level,
NOTE
Explained as though instrument was in Low Distortion.
3-2-72, AUTOmatic. This is the principal Full Scale operating mode of the instrument. As
previously stated, when it is in this mode, the -hp- 3586A/B/C will configure itself for the
best signal to noise obtainable without overloading. The noise referred to in this statement is
not just thermal noise, but also includes intermodulation distortion products and spurious
signals produced by the local oscillator. The amplitude of the thermal noise and the inter-
modulation distortion vary oppositely with respect to the full scale level. For example,
reducing the full scale level with respect to a fixed input signal level effectively reduces the
thermal noise and increases the intermodulation distortion. This relationship is illustrated in
Figure 3-2-8. At a certain full scale level, the thermal noise and the intermodulation distor-
tion are equal. In this instrument both are more than 70dB below the maximum input power
when this happens. Note that the spurious signals caused by the local oscillator are even
lower and do not vary with full scale. This is the full scale level selected by the instrument
when it is in Automatic. It is the full scale level that gives the wide reliable dynamic range.
No matter what the tuned frequency and no matter what the composition of the input signal
when the instrument is in Automatic Full Scale, the operator can be certain that all noise is
more than 70dB below maximum input power. Because of this and since full scale informa-
tion is not needed when making measurements, the operator can generally ignore the full
scale level once he has selected AUTO. Use AUTOmatic full scale unless you need the
specific advantages of the Entry mode.
3-2-73. Entry. After Entry Full Scale is initially selected, the operator determines and enters
the full scale level. Entering a fixed full scale level can result in one of three advantages cor-
responding to three different and very specific circumstances. If the circumstances do not
exist or if the particular advantage of the Entry mode is not needed, use AUTOmatic Full
Scale. Once AUTOmatic is selected the operator can virtually forget the full scale function.
Each of the three conditions where entering a fixed Full Scale is an advantage is treated
separately as follows.
a. Entering a fixed full scale level eliminates the time required for the instrument to
autorange each time it is tuned to a different signal. This results in a significant time saving
IVAW LE JUV ES AA Ter hood e Л У
when many signals requiring the same full scale level are measured. Usually, these conditions
exist only in applications involving automated production. To set the Full Scale level, first
allow the instrument to determine the level while in AUTO and then switch to the Entry
mode. This assures the best possible signal to noise ratio without overloading.
сл
b. Constant autoranging caused by a fluctuating input signal can be eliminated by enter-
ing a fixed full scale level (use the 100dB range only for this purpose). Set the full scale level
just above the peak of the fluctuating signal.
с. With certain signals, it is possible to optimize the signal to noise ratio by overdriving
the instrument. The input is overdriven by entering a full scale level selected by the instru-
ment in AUTOmatic full scale. This application is more involved than the others and is ex-
plained in detail beginning with Paragraph 3-2-80.
3-2-74. The performance of the 100dB ENTRY Range and Full Scale combination is iden-
tial to the performance of the 100dB AUTO combination provided that the full scale levels
are equal. There are no performance disadvantages when using 100dB ENTRY as long as the
full scale level 1s carefully selected. The maximum input power is equal to the full scale level.
Any full scale level from +20dBm to —45dBm and in 5dB increments can be entered using
the procedure outlined in Paragraph 3-2-76. |
и EFFECTIVE
j LEVEL
we THERMAL NOISE
- 7008 — INTERMODULATICN
DISTORTION.
Jo
AUTO FS INCREASINE
SELECTION FULL SCALE 4586-3248
Figure 3-2-8. Relationship Between Thermal Noise, Intermodulation Distortion
and Full Scale Selection In The 3586A/B.
3-2-75. The 10dB/ENTRY combination of Range and Full Scale must be used cautiously.
Under the special circumstances described in Paragraph 3-2-81 it provides better perfor-
mance than any other combination of Range and Full Scale. However, in any other applica-
tions, it is quite possibly the worst combination. 10dB/ENTRY is quite different from
10dB/AUTO. It is very unlikely that the signal to noise ratio will be optimum with this com-
bination. It is useless to analyze the reasons for this reduction in noise performance since
they are too complicated and too dependent on the nature of the input signal to be used as
criteria for selecting the Range/Fuil Scale combination. It 1s much simpler to evaluate the
use of this combination by comparing it with the alternatives. Recall that the only reasons
for using 10dB/ENTRY are to optimize the signal to noise ratio and to speed tuning when
making repetitive measurements requiring the same full scale level. Optimizing the signal to
noise is described in Paragraph 3-2-81. When making repetitive measurements, compare
10dB ENTRY to 100dB ENTRY, The tuning speed is identical in both modes and it is likely
TA, that the noise reduction in 100dB/ENTRY will offset the additional linearity errors of the
Na? 100dB Range. This is especially true when the full scale level is near — 50dBm. If neither
mode provides satisfactory performance, 10dB AUTOmatice should be used. The Max-
imum Input Power corresponding to each full scale level is given in Table 3-2-3 for the
3-37
ko? Mae” L ger EE FE
AT EW We Laa IRA AES we
10dB/ENTRY mode. Any full scale level from +20dBm to — 120dBm and at 5dB in-
crements can be entered using the procedure given in Paragraph 3-2-76.
Table 3-2-3. Maximum Input Power For Full Scale ENTRY and 10d8 Range Combination.
Full Scale Maximum Input Power Full Scale Maximum input Power
20dBm 20dBm — 55dBm 15dBm
15d8m 20dBm — 60dBm 10dBm
10dBm 20dBm —65dBm 5dBm
5dBm 20dBm — 70dBm CdBm
ОаВт 20dBm - 75dBm - 5dBm
— SdBM 20dBm — 80dBm — 10dBm
- 10dBm 20dBm — 85dBm — 15dBm
— 15dBm 20dBM - 30dBm - 20dBm
- 20dBm 20dBm — 95dBM — 25dBm
— 25dBm 20dBm - 100dBm — 30dBm
— 30dBm 20dBm — 105dBm — 35dBm
— 35dBm 20d3m - 110dBm — 35dBm
— 40dBm 20dBm — 115dBm - 35dBm
— 45dBm 20dBm — 120dBm — 35dBm
— 50dBm 20dBm
3-2-76. Entering The Full Scale Level. Use the following procedure to enter the full scale
level. Legal entries are at five decibel intervals and between + 11dB and — 129dB for units of
dBV, between + 110dB and — 30dB for dBpw and between + 20dB and — 120dB for dBm
units. If an illegal entry is made, the full scale level will jump to the next highest permitted 0
value. на
ENTRY
STEP 1: Press
STEP 2: Press | HL
STEP 3: Enter the digits as required.
STEP 4: Press or as appropriate.
+5
ar
O a»
STEP 5: Press "a
CONT
3-2-77. Overioad/ Underload Indicators. The instrument 1s equipped with an input
overload detector and an Intermediate Frequency (IF) Ampiifier overload and underioad
detector.
3-2-78. Input Overload Indicator. An annunciator, located just to the left of the
Measurement/ Entry display, will flash “OY LD” whenever the drive to the first mixer in the
instrument is excessive. When this happens, either increase the full scale level or reduce the
level of the input signal. Measurements made while the input is overloaded may (Paragraph en
3-2-9) be affected by intermodulation distortion. In AUTOmatic Full Scale, the full scale (0
level is automatically adjusted to prevent overloading. As a result, when the instrument isin
this mode, the OVLD annunciator will flash only briefly during autoranging.
3-38
Model 3586A/B/C Selective
3-2-79. IF Overload/Underload. The IF underload/overload detector functions oniy when
the 10dB Range is used. When the signal level in the IF amplifier is too high, the letters
“OL’’ (Overload) will appear in the Measurement/Entry display. Either reduce the input
signal level or increase the full scale level when this happens. In AUTOmatic full scale, the
full scale level is automatically selected to prevent overloading. Therefore, when the instru-
ment is in AUTO, an overload indication will appear only momentarily during autoranging.
An underload condition exists when the signal in the IF amplifiers is below the operating
range of the Detector/Logger. The letters “UL” (Underload) appear in the
Measurement /Entry display when this happens. IF Underloads occur in only the ENTRY
Full Scale operating mode. Depending on the circumstances, one of three actions is in-
dicated: 1) reduce the full scale; 2) increase the input signal level or 3) switch to the 100dB
range.
3-2-80. Optimizing The Signal To Noise. The signal to thermal noise ratio can be improved
by overdriving the input of the instrument. This is done by entering a full scale level that is
lower than the one selected by the instrument when it is in AUTOmatic Full Scale. Overdriv-
ing the input also raises the amplitude of the intermodulation distortion. If the power of the
input signal is sufficiently dispersed throughout a wide bandwidth, even the increased inter-
modulation distortion will be negligible. Even when the input signal is not dispersed and the
intermodulation distortion is not negligible, overdriving the input can still be useful. Inter-
modulation distortion products fall at distinct frequencies that depend on the frequencies of
the originating signals and the order of the intermodulation distortion. Most of the fre-
quency spectrum remains undisturbed. As long as there are no intermodulation products
within the bandpass of the instrument, measurements are perfectly valid. Optimizing the
pes signal to noise by overdriving the input is really a manual procedure for implementing the
и Low Noise measurement mode. The advantage of this manual procedure is that the input
can be overdriven more than the fixed 5dB provided for by the Low Noise Measurement
Mode. Overdriving the 100dB Range is very straightforward. Using the procedure given in
Paragraph 3-2-82, the full scale level can be reduced to a minimum of —35dBm. Overdriving
the 10dB Range is only slightly more involved.
3-2-81. Overdriving On The 10dB Range. When the instrument is operated on the 10dB
Range, the thermal noise is affected only by full scale changes between —50dB and
— 105 dB. Because of this, the input cannot be overdriven when the full scale level selected
by the instrument in AUTO Full Scale is greater than -- SOdB, Likewise, it does no good to
reduce the full scale level below — 105dBm. Another restraint when trying to overdrive the
input on the 10dB Range is the manner in which the full scale is determined. A particular full
scale level may be dictated by the input overload detector or the IF overload detector. Over-
driving the input is possible only when the input overload detector is determining the full
scale. When it is determined by the IF overload detector, overdriving the input only causes
the letters “OL” (overload) to appear in the Measurement/ Entry dispiay. When this hap-
pens, a better measurement couid be made in 10dB/AUTO.
3-2-82. Use the following procedure to optimize the instrument's signal to noise ratio by
overdriving the input.
STEP 1: Select the LOW DISTortion Measurement mode.
Lou STEP 2: Select AUTOmatic Full Scale and the desired Range. The full scale level selected
by the instrument will be used as a starting point.
3-39
DCICCIIVE
3-40
STEP 3: Switch to ENTRY Full Scale. Display the full scale level (Press FULL SCALE).
Is the full scale level greater than - 35dB for the 100dB Range or between — 50
and — 105dB for the IOdB Range? If the full scale level is outside this range, then
overdriving the input is not possible.
STEP 4: Reduce the Full Scale level 5dB. The level reading in the Measurement/Entry
display should drop slightly.
STEP 5: Continue reducing the full scale level as long as the level reading continues to
drop. The “OYLD” annunciator will begin flashing after the first or second full
scale reduction. When the level reading begins to increase or if the letters OL ap-
pear in the Measurement/Entry display, switch back to the first prior full scale
level (i.e., the full scale level that caused the lowest level reading). The lowest
level reading occurs when the signal to noise ratio is highest.
3-2-83. Bandwidth.
3-2-84. The primary function of the Bandwidth controls is to select how much of the fre-
guency spectrum will be measured. Since the Bandwidth selections do not have the same
selectivity, a secondary effect of these controls is to determine the selectivity of the instru-
ment. The standard and optionally available bandwidths are described below.
3-2-85. 20Hz. The approximate selectivity curve of the 20Hz Bandwidth is illustrated in
Figure 3-2-9. This Bandwidth can be used at any frequency within the range of the instru-
ment (S50Hz to 32.5MHz).
3-2-86. 400Hz. The approximate selectivity curve of the 400Hz Bandwidth is illustrated in
Figure 3-2-10. When selected, local oscillator feedthrough limits the dynamic range of the in-
strument at Entry Frequencies of 1200Hz or less.
3-2-87. 2000Hz (-hp- 35868). The approximate selectivity curve of the 2000Hz Bandwidth
is illustrated in Figure 3-2-11, When selected, local oscillator feedthrough limits the dynamic
range at Entry Frequencies greater than SkHz. The 2000Hz Bandwidth is found on the Bell
version of the instrument (-hp- 3486B). Of special interest to operators making
measurements on telecommunications signals is the fact that 2000Hz is the noise bandwidth
equivalent of a C-Message weighted 3100Hz bandwidth. This means that, if the input signal
is white noise, an instrument equipped with this bandwidth will read the same level read by
an instrument equipped with a C-Message weighted 3100Hz bandwidth. The correlation bet-
ween the readings on the two instruments would vary with the similarity of the input signal
to white noise.
3-2-88. 1740Hz (3586A, 3586B Option 002). The approximate selectivity curve of the
1740Hz Bandwidth is illustrated in Figure 3-2-12. When selected, local oscillator feed-
through limits the dynamic range at Entry Frequencies greater than 5kHz. The 1740Hz
bandwidth is found on the CCITT version of the instrument (-hp- 3586A/B). Of special in-
terest to operators making measurements on telecommunications signals is the fact that
1740Hz is the noise bandwidth equivalent of a psophometric weighted 3100Hz bandwidth.
This means that, if the input signal is white noise, an instrument equipped with this band-
width will read the same level read by an instrument equipped with a psophometric weighted
3100Hz bandwidth. The correlation between the readings on the two instruments would vary
with the similarity of the input signal to white noise.
NILOCIEL 325047 15/1.
mr
DCICCIVE
Model 3IS0A/ 5/1
+/- 30 dB Р-Р
Sane
£ ~10Hz €, +10 Hz
-308
\ > + 3Hz
-60dB
——[]—
|
£, -1100Hz RL +1100Hz
€ -S0 Hz £ +90 Hz
3585-3-2-8 35H6-3-2-15-
Figure 3.2.9. Appreximate Selectivity
Curve For The 20Hz Bandwidth.
Figure 3-2-10. Approximate Selectivity
Curve For The 400Hz Bandwidth.
fe =1000Hz
+/-. 30d3 P-7
Те =1000Hz
if
\
fc-65G Hz
- Зав
- 6048
fe - 1500 Hz
fc +650 Hz
y
/
~3dB
- 5008
fe + 1500 Hz
3586-32-11
Figure 3-2-11. Approximate Selectivity
Curve For The 2000Hz Bandwidth.
То -870Hz fe +870Hz
+/— . 3008 Р-Р
i A
- 335 \ | -3d8
fe -550H2 fc +550Hz
„6048 fo -60d8B
fe-1350Hz fe +1350Hz
35865-3-2-12
fo-1550Hz fe +1550Hz
4/-. 35d8B Р-Р О.
7 A A
-хаВ | i - 348
fe-1000Hz fe +10060kz
-E0E8 fe «60:06
fe ~1850Hz fe +1550Hz
I586-3-2-13
Figure 3-2-12. Approximate Selectivity
Curve For The 1740Hz Bandwidth.
Figure 3-2-13. Approximate Selectivity
Curve For The 3100Hz Bandwidth.
DCUICCLIYE IYROUCI 29000/A/155/C
3-2-89. 3100Hz (Option 093). The approximate selectivity curve of the 3100Hz Bandwidth
is illustrated in Figure 3-2-13. When selected, local oscillator feedthrough limits the dynamic
range at Entry Frequencies greater than SkHz. The 3100Hz Bandwidth is used in both the
CCITT (-hp- 3586A) and Bell (-hp- 3586B) versions of the instrument. While this Bandwidth
is useful for general purpose applications, it is especially valuable when troubleshooting pro-
blems in telecommunications systems. The bandwidth of a message channel is 3100Hz.
Measurements of message channel signals at audio frequencies are usually made with wide-
band instruments. As a result, the frequency response is extremely flat across the 3100Hz
bandwidth of the message channel. Even though the measuring instruments have a wide
bandwidth, only the power in the 3100Hz message channel is measured since the line, carry-
ing the message channel, is somewhat selective. When a message channel is transiated to
some high level in the FDM hierarchy, it is difficult to measure its level precisely because of
the nearness of the adjacent channels. Most filters that are flat enough to pass all com-
ponents of the signal unattenuated cannot adequately discriminate against adjacent channel
signals. Likewise, filters with good adjacent channel rejection also discriminated against the
signals near the edges of the bandpass. The extremely flat and selective 3100Hz bandpass
filter in the -hp- 3586A/B is an exception (see Figure 3-7-13). Using this filter, very accurate
level measurements of message channel signals can be made. More important, ali
measurements (impairment as well as level) of message channels at high frequencies in the
FDM hierarchy will correspond to similar measurements made on the same signals at dif-
ferent locations where the message channel is at audio frequencies.
3-2-90. WTD 3100Hz (Weighted). The Weighted Bandwidth is used exclusively for noise
measurements on telephone message channels. When the WTD Bandwidth is selected, either
a psophometric (-hp- 3586 A/CCITT version) or a C-Message (-hp- 3586B/Bell version) filter
is placed in series with the 3100Hz Bandwidth filter. Both plots of these weighting curves are (
illustrated in Figure 3-2-14. Measurements of weighted noise signals correspond closely to
subjective evaluations of the unweighted noise level.
3-2-31, Units.
3-2-92. Units of dBm, dBpw, dB.775V or dBY (-hp- 3586C only) can be selected for the
amplitude level presented in the Measurement/Entry display by pressing the corresponding
UNITS control. The 0dBm reference level is one milliwatt dissipated in the impedance
selected from the TERMINATION control group. Similarly, the OdBpw reference level is
one picowatt dissipated in the impedance selected from the TERMINATION control group.
Note that units of dBpw are identical to the dBrn units used in some segments of the
Telecommunications Industry when making level measurements. The reference level of the
dB.775V units is .775 volt; the reference level of the dBV units is one voit. Annunciators
located next to the Amplitude Level Display lable the displayed amplitude with the selected
units.
3-2-93. Averaging.
3-2-94, Averaging reduces the range of the random variations in the measured level. To the
operator, variations in the measured level appear as racking of the Measurement/ Entry
display or as ripple on the rear panel METER output. These variations arise from two
sources. One source is noise - either the internal noise of the instrument or noise in the input
signal. The second source is somewhat obscure. When the input signal consists of two or (o
more constant amplitude signals, with nearly the same frequency, a beat note is created that Mal
appears as a level variation to the Detector/Logger in the instrument. As expected, another
3-42
AT ENT TdT dh he Be Wr Tat sh pf eo
performance parameter must be traded off to obtain the reduced racking provided by
7 AVEraging. Measurements occur at approximately one to two second intervals when
wr AVEraging is on, five times slower than the measurement speed during normal operation.
Five measurements are averaged, then displayed. The criteria for selecting the AVEraging
measurement mode is simple. Select AVEraging whenever the racking of the
Measurement /Entry display does not permit the desired measurement accuracy and/or
resolution.
Frequency Level Tolerance
(Hz) {dB} dB)
, 50 —63,0 + .85
я 100 — 41.0 + .85
cor A se 150 - 29.0 + .85
o Da N 200 | -21.0 + .85
2 \ 300 | - 10.6 + .85
z \ 400 = 8.3 + 85
2 ~20 500 = 3.6 + .85
© 600 - 2.0 + .85
5 + 800 OREF +05
1000 + 1,9 + .85
1200 0.0 + .85
-40 1500 — 1.3 + ‚85
2000 — 3.0 + .85
so 2500 = 4.2 + .85
100 200 300 400 660 800 10600 2000 — 3000 4000 5000 3000 —- 5.5 +1,5
FREQUENCY (Hz) 3500 - 8.5 + 1.5
4000 - 15,0 +1.5
5000 - 36.0 + 1.5
Frequency Levei Tolorance
ces, {Hz} {dB} {98)
cass” 60 —55.7 + .85
100 -42.5 + .85
À 200 -25.0 + .85
5 La 300 — 16.5 + .85
A 400 - 11,4 + .85
C-MESSAGE AC AN 500 - 7.8 + .85
10 > N 600 - 4,7 + ‚85
o 7 \ 700 | - 27 | + 85
Е no A 809 — 1,51 + ‚85
y 7 \ 900 - 0.6 + ‚85
5 / Y 1000 O REF + .50
& -% \ 1200 — 02 + .85
= 1300 — 0.5 + ‚85
7 1500 - 1.0 + .85
40 7 1800 = 1.3 + .85
2000 = 1.3 + ‚85
50 2500 Tee 1 4 + 85
1:00 200 MM) 400 600 BOO 1000 2000 3000 40005000 2300 — 1,9 + ‚8%
FREQUENCY (iz) 3090 — 2.5 +1.5
3300 = 5.2 +1,5
35009 — 7.6 +1.5
4000 ~ 14.5 + 1.5
4500 - 21.5 + 1.5
5000 — 28.5 +1.5
Figure 3-2-14. Weighting Curves Used For WTD 3100Hz Bandwidth Selection.
3.2-95. Averaging And Noise. An instrument can never measure just the signal. It always
measures the input signal plus the internal noise of the instrument. As a result, the average
_ | level reading will be slightly higher than the actual level being measured. Note the word
A average; the reason for it will become apparent later in the paragraph. How much the noise
offsets the measurement from its actual level depends on the signal to noise ratio to the in-
strument or of the incoming signal. As the signal level is increased, the difference between
3-43
hr AN Be A BF ‚ AYRLIRELE 24 UIUIE A7 BRS er
the measured and actual signal level diminishes. For example, if the input signal level is
— 80dBm and the RMS level of the noise 1s — 90dBm, the instrument will measure a level of ET
—77.61dBm. However, increasing the input signal level to — 10dBm, causes the instrument
to measure — 9.99913dBm. Obviously, this will be read as — 10dBm. If the noise were a sine
wave, or any other consistent waveshape for that matter, the offset level reading would at
least be consistent. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The amplitude of the noise varies ran-
domly with time. The random variation of the noise causes the level reading to fluctuate.
This is the reason for the word average noted earlier in the paragraph. It can only be said
that the average level reading will be slightly higher than the actual level being measured. In-
dividual readings may be quite lower or higher than the input signal level because of the in-
stantaneous value of the noise. To the operator measuring a signal, the level readings tend to
change randomiy or to “rack”. How much the readings rack is a function of the signal to
noise ratio in the instrument and the instrument design. Oftentime the signal to noise ratio is
so high that the variation in the level is much lower than the resolution of the instrument. In
those cases, the level appears constant.
3-2-96. The effect of AVEraging is to reduce the racking of level measurements (Le., the
range of the random level changes). As a result, most level measurements are closer to the
actual input signal plus RMS noise level. This not only increases the probability that a single
measurement will be accurate, but also makes it easier for an operator to interpolate the ac-
tual level when the display is racking. The effect of Averaging is illustrated in Figure 3-2-15.
The diagram emphasizes the two most important facts about the effect of averaging level
measurements: Averaging reduces the variation of the level measurements, but does not af-
fect the actual noise content. Note that the width of the curves in the diagram do not
necessarily imply a wide variation in level readings. For some input signal levels the entire
range of the horizontal axis could be less than .005dBm. (
|
PROBABILITY
THAT À
PARTICULAR
LEVEL WILL
HE MEASURED
AN
PLEYEL end
E MEASURED LEVEL
ACTUAL INPUT mn (INPUT LEVEL
LEVEL PLUS NOISE]
WITH THÉ AVE ON, THE STANDARD
DEVIATIGN IS REDUCED BY A
FACTOR GF ABOUT FIVE. I5B6-1-2.15
Figure 3-2-15. Effect Of Averaging On Level Measurements.
3-2-97. Averaging And Closely Spaced Input Signals. There is an inherent problem when
measuring the true RMS level of a composite waveform consisting of two or more constant
amplitude signals with closely spaced frequencies. The instantaneous voltage of such a
waveform varies at a frequency equal to the difference frequency of the originating signals.
When the difference frequency is low enough, the true RMS detector follows the composite
waveshape. This causes the Measurement/Entry display to fluct: te in a pseudo random
fashion and creates errors in the measured level. When AVEraging is on, the racking of the
display and the measurement errors are reduced by extending the frequency response of the
detector. A maximum of 0.5dB of error will be displayed when the two frequencies are
SL X OF
MOGEL S3250A/B/\. selective
greater than 100Hz apart with the AVE off. With the AVE on, a maximum of 0.5dB of error
( > will be displayed when the two frequencies are greater than 10Hz apart. The amount of rack-
5 ing and the measurement error both vary as a function of the difference frequency, relative
amplitude of the originating signals and the number of signals contributing to the problem.
Fortunately, the magnitude of the measurement error is well below the apparent racking of
the display. Because of this, objectionable display racking is sufficient criteria for selecting
the AVEraging mode.
3-2-38. Offsets.
3-2-99. When the OFFSET OFF/ON control is on, an offset stored within the instrument is
subtracted from the measured signal level. The result is then presented in the
Measurement/Entry Display. An “‘0”’ is appended to the unit's annunciator to indicate that
the displayed level is offset. Zero is subtracted from the measured signal level if no offset has
been entered. An offset can be entered by entering its magnitude directly or by transferring
an amplitude reading to the offset storage register. Entries can be made with the OFFSET
OFF/ON control either on or off. Offsets are retained until another value is entered or the
instrument is turned off. To display the Offset, press | . Press
resume measurement.
NOTE
Make the Units selection before entering the offset. Offsets are not
Ne referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of this,
“uu ) the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the Units
are changed,
3-2-100. Direct Offset Entry. Use the following procedure to directly enter the magnitude
of an offset. Any value from ~ 199.99dB to + 199.99dB can be entered.
STEP |: Press OFFSET) in the Entry control group. The current offset will appear in
the Measurement/Entry display.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal point as required.
STEP 3: Press o or
STEP 4: Press ces to resume measurement.
{ as appropriate.
The contents of the offset register can be changed in one dB step using the Increment and
Decrement keys. Press oreseT| + then press or |
3-2-101. Offset Entry By Transfer. This method of entering offsets is especially valuable
when measuring one signal level relative to another. Use the following procedure to transfer
и an amplitude reading to the offset storage register.
as desired.
Press Rone . The entered offset will appear in the Measurement/Entry display.
3-44a/b
РУЛЕТ 32008 D7 4
CHAPTER THREE
WIDEBAND
3-3-1. Wideband is a nonselective measurement mode used to measure the total power of
the input signal.
3-3-2. Measurement Mode,
3-3-3. The Wideband measurement mode is selected by pressing the WIDEBAND control.
Only the following controls or groups of controls are functional when the instrument is in
the Wideband mode: POWER, AUTOmatic CALibration, the MEASUREMENT/ENTRY
controls, the TERMINATION controls, the MEASUREMENT controls and the OFFSET
and FULL SCALE functions in the ENTRY control group.
3-3-4. Input Termination.
3-3-5. 10kQ||50pf (75 Ohm). Bridged input calibrated to read absolute power levels when
connected across 75 ohms. The maximum input power is + 27dBm. Up to 42VDC can be ap-
plied to this termination (see Paragraph 3-2-11).
3-3-6. 75 Ohm. Terminated 75 ohm input. The maximum input power equals + 27dBm. If
DC voltage is applied to this input, the DC power plus the AC power must not exceed 0.5
watts (see Paragraph 3-2-11).
3-3-7. 10kQ||50pf (50 Ohm). Bridged input calibrated to read absolute power levels when
connected across 30 ohms. The maximum input power is + 27dBm. Up to 42VDC can be ap-
plied to this input. This input is found oniy on the -hp- 3586C version of the instrument (see
Chapter 2).
3-3-8. 50 Ohms. Terminated 50 ohm input. The maximum input power is + 27dBm. If DC
is applied to this input, the DC power plus the AC power must not exceed .5 watts. This in-
put is found only on the -hp- 3586C version of the instrument (see Chapter 2).
3-3-9, 135 Ohms. Balanced input terminated in 135 ohms. The maximum input power is
+ 27dBm. A differential or common mode DC voltage of up to 42 volts can be applied to
this input. This input appears only on the -hp- 3586B.
3-3-10. 150 Ohms. Balanced input terminated in 150 ohms. The maximum input power is
+ 27dBm. This input appears only on the -hp- 3586A.
3-3-11. 124 Ohms. Balanced input terminated in 124 ohms. The maximum input power is
+27dBm. A differential or common mode DC voltage of up to 42 volts can be applied to
this termination. Do not connect anything to the 135 ohm input while using this input. This
input is found only on the -hp- 3586B.
3-3-12. Bridged. Bridged and balanced input calibrated to read absolute power levels across
600 ohms. The maximum input power is +27dBm. A differential or common mode voltage
of up to 42 volts DC can be applied to this termination. This input appears only on the -hp-
3586A and B (see Paragraph 3-2-29).
ТУ аа ualriul
3-45
wiacpana IVIQUECI JJOU// 13/7 V
3-3-13. 660 Ohms. Balanced input terminated in 600 ohms. The maximum input power is
+27dBm. A differential or common mode voltage of up to 42 VDC can be applied to this Fy
termination. Lo
3-3-14. Instrument Configuration For Wideband Measurements.
3.3-15. Full Scale. Use AUTOmatic Full Scale unless you need the special advantage of the
Entry mode. When AUTO full scale is used, the instrument automatically configures the in-
strument for the best signal to noise ratio obtainable without overloading. The entry mode is
useful when making repetitive measurements at the same signal level. In these applications,
using the Entry mode eliminates the time required for the instrument to autorange to gach
new input signal.
3-3-16. Averaging.
NOTE
Additional information on the Averaging function is given in
Chapter Two beginning with Paragraph 3-2-95.
3.3-17. Averaging reduces the range of the random variations in the measured level. To the
operator, variations in the measured level appear as racking of the Measurement/ Entry
display or as ripple on the rear panel METER output. These variations arise from two
sources. One source is noise - either the internal noise of the instrument or noise in the input
signal. The second source is somewhat obscure. When the input signal consists of two or
more constant amplitude signals, with nearly the same frequency, a beat note is created that и
appears as a level variation to the Detector/Logger in the instrument. As expected, another we’
performance parameter must be traded off to obtain the reduced racking provided by
AVFEraging. Measurements occur at approximately one second intervals when AVEraging is
on: four times slower than the measurement speed during normal operation. Four
measurements are averaged and displayed. The criteria for selecting the AVEraging
measurement mode is simple. Select AVEraging whenever the racking of the
Measurement/Entry display does not permit the desired measurement accuracy and/or
resolution.
3-3-18. Units.
3.3-19. Units of dBm, dBpw, dB.775V or dBV can be selected for the amplitude level
presented in the Measurement/Entry Display by pressing the corresponding UNITS control.
The OdBm reference level is one milliwatt dissipated in the impedance selected from the
TERMINATION control group. Note that units of dBpw are identical to the dBrn units us-
ed in some segments of the Telecommunications Industry when making level measurements.
The reference level of the dBV units is one volt. The reference level for dB.775V is .775 volts.
Annunciators located next to the Amplitude Level Display label the displayed amplitude
with the selected units.
3.3-20. AUTO-CALibration. AUTO CAL should be left on virtually all the time. A com-
plete discussion of AUTO CAL is given beginning with Paragraph 3-1-17.
3-3-21. Offsets. E
e
3.3-22. When the OFFSET OFF/ON control is on, an offset stored within the instrument is
3-46
Mode! 5350A/5B/C INOISE/ 1 OTIC
subtracted from the measured signal level. The result is then presented in the
Measurement/Entry Display. An “0” 1s appended to the unit’s annunciator to indicate that
the displayed level is offset. Zero is subtracted from the measured signal level if no offset has
been entered. An offset can be entered by entering its magnitude directly or by transferring
an amplitude reading to the offset storage register. Entries can be made with the OFFSET
GFF/ON control either on or off. Offsets are retained until another value is entered or the
instrument is turned off. To display the Offset, press . Press to
CONT
resume measurement.
NOTE
Make the Units selection befoe entering the offset. Offsets are not
referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of this,
the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the Units
are changed.
3-3-23. Direct Offset Entry. Use the following procedure to directly enter the magnitude of
an offset. Any value from — 199.99dB to + 199.99dB can be entered.
STEP 1: Press in the Entry control group. The current offset will appear in
the Measurement/ Entry Dispiay.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal point as required.
| —kH
STEP 3: Press мне or +8 as appropriate.
MEAS
STEP 4: Press e | to resume measurement.
CONT
The contents of the offset register can be changed in one dB step using the Increment and
Decrement keys. Press
OFFSET! , then press or [©] as desired.
3-3-24. Offset Entry By Transfer. This method of entering offsets is especially valuable
when measuring one signal level relative to another. Use the following procedure to transfer
an amplitude reading to the offset storage register.
STEP |: Press . The entered offset will appear in the Measurement/ Entry
Display.
3-47
carrier MOdel 3280A/ B/C
CHAPTER FOUR
CARRIER
3-4-1. CARRIER 1s the measurement mode used when measuring the level of carrier leak
signals or pilot tones.
3-4-2. MEASUREMENT MODE.
3-4-3. To select CARRIER, press (no shift) the CARRIER control. One other control is
automatically set when this mode is selected:
BANDWIDTH .................... 20Hz
The Bandwidth can be changed if desired.
3.44. INPUT TERMINATION. /T\ —
3-4-5. Select the input TERMINATION in accord with the test point to which the instru-
ment 1s being connected. The dominant consideration is the impedance. In the vast majority
of cases, a terminated input with a particular impedance 1s required. The maximum input
power of all inputs is + 27dBm (.5 watts). For ali inputs except the 50 ohm and 75 ohm in-
puts, the maximum DC voltage between any two terminal (including ground) is 42 volts. The
total power (composite due to AC and DC) input to the 50 ohm and 75 ohm terminated in-
puts must not exceed .5 watts.
3-4-6. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT IN THE CARRIER MEASUREMENT MODE.
NOTE
If the instrument was tuned to the desired message channel while
in another measurement mode, it will be properly tuned when Car-
rier is selected. The instrument automatically modifies its tuning
according to the measurement mode.
3-4-7. The procedure for tuning the instrument to Carrier signals consists of five steps: 1)
Select the Entry Frequency Mode; 2) Enter the Entry Frequency; 3) Search for the carrier re
signal or verify that the proper signal is being received; 4) count the signal and 5) transfer the Кой
count to the Entry Frequency register. The contents of the Entry Frequency register deter-
mine the tuned frequency of the instrument.
3-48
Model 3330A/B/C Carrier
_ 3-4-8. Instrument Configuration For Tuning.
3-4-9, Entry Frequency. Using the Entry Frequency Controls, the operator can
choose between entering either the Carrier frequency or the Tone frequency when
tuning the instrument to a message channel.! When TONE is selected, the RF frequency
of a 1kHz (3586B) or 800Hz (3586A) test tone on the message channel is entered and
displayed. Note that the tone need not be on the channel. Similarly, the Carrier frequency is
entered and displayed when CARRIER is selected. The operator can choose whichever mode
is most convenient regardless of the Measurement mode selection.
3-4-10. The Entry Fequency mode selection does not depend on the measurement mode
selection. Each measurement mode has a frequency or band of frequencies associated with it
that have a fixed relation to either of the Entry Frequencies. As long as the entered frequen-
cy is correct for the message channel and the Entry Frequency selection, the instrument will
automatically tune to the fequency or band of frequencies required by the measurement
mode. Since the purpose of these controls is to facilitate tuning when measuring signals in
telecommunications systems, they are functional only when one of the SSB CHANNEL
(i.e., telecommunications) measurement modes is selected. An annunciator in one of the
controls remains lit while the instrument is in the Selective measurement mode to indicate
how the displayed frequency will be interpreted if the instrument is switched to one of the
SSB Channel measurement modes.
3-4-11. Miscellaneous Control Settings. The optimum control settings for tuning the instru-
ment to Carrier signals are as follows:
3-4-12. Coarse Tuning.
3-4-13. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the carrier leak signal is within the instru-
ment bandpass. In most cases, coarse tuning is accomplished by simply entering the Entry
Frequency (carrier or tone frequency as appropriate). An additional step may be required
when carriers at high frequencies are measured. It may be necessary to search for the input
signal or verify that the proper signal is being received - even when the frequency of the car-
rier is precisely known. This is because errors in the tuned frequency of the instrument cause
the Entry Fequency to fall outside of the instrument bandpass.
3-4-14. Entering The Entry Frequency. Use the following procedure to enter either the car-
rier frequency or the RF test tone frequency in accord with the Entry Frequency mode selec-
tion.
STEP 1: Press
STEP 2: Enter the significant digits and decimal as required.
, Hz (4H: MHz
STEP 3: Press a or
I Message channels are usually designated by their position in the FDM heirarchy (for example - Master Group Number,
Supergroup Number, Group Number and Channel Number). Charts are available in the operating telephone offices that give
either the Carrier or Tone frequency for each of the channels. Therefore, regardless of the exact frequency component of the
message channel to be measured, if is easiest to tune the instrument using one of these two frequencies. The entry Frequency
controls allow the operator to use either frequency.
3-49
Carrier Model 3586A/B/C
3-4-15. Searching For The Input Signal. The instrument may not be precisely tuned to the
carrier signal after the Entry Frequency has been entered. Errors in the frequency reference É \
may cause the instrument bandpass to fall completely above or below the carrier signal fre- ce
quency (see Figure 3-4-1). When this happens, the operator must search for the input signal
or verify that the signal being received is the desired signal. Note that an increase in the level
indication does not guarantee that the instrument is properly tuned. The instrument may be
tuned to the wrong signal! Be especially cautious when tuning to carrier leak signals that are
next to a pilot tone. It is possible to mistake the pilot tone for an excessive carrier leak signal.
Since the tuning error caused by the frequency reference is proportional to frequency,
searching for the input signal will be necessary only when high frequency carriers are
measured. Also, the magnitude of the tuning error varies with the frequency reference used
in the instrument. If the high stability frequency reference is used in the instrument, it may
be necessary to search for the input signal only at the very highest frequencies. The approx-
imate Entry Frequencies above which search for and/or verify if the input signal will be
necessary are summarized in Table 3-4-1. A more comprehensive discussion of this step is
given in Paragraph 3-2-56.
-hp- 3586 TUNING
-EOHZ +2 00Hz
CARRIER LEAK SIGNAL TO
a WHICH THE INSTRUMENT IS
2386 -3-4-1 BEING TUNED,
Figure 3-4-1. Tuning Error Of The Twenty Hertz Bandwidth.
Table 3-4-1. Frequencies At Which Signal Search May Be Required.
Bandwidth
Frequency Reference 400H7 20H:
None Entry Entry
Frequency > ZOMHz Frequency > 6MHz
Option 004 Entry
Frequency > 20MHz
3-4-16. Use the following procedure to search for the carrier signal or to verify that the pro-
per signal is being received.
AUTO
STEP 1: Press in the Frequency Tune control group.
STEP 2: Using the Frequency Tune control, vary the tuned frequency above and below the —
Entry Frequency about 200Hz each way. Be sure that the signal to which the с)
instrument is finally tuned has the proper relationship to other signals in the
instrument bandpass.
3-50
Model 3586A/B/C Carrier
— STEP 3: Adjust the tuning for a peak response on the analog meter.
Ш 3-4-17. Fine Tuning.
3-4-18. The procedure given below is the most convenient method of fine tuning to Carrier
signals.
STEP 1: Turn the Counter on. The counted frequency of the carrier will appear in the Fre-
quency/Entry display.
[CNTR
STEP 2: Press (Counter to Frequency).
This causes the counter reading to modify the contents of the Entry Frequency
register. The new Entry Frequency will be displayed for a few seconds and the
display reverts back to the counted frequency. The Entry Frequency will be dif-
ferent from the counted frequency if the SSB TONE Entry Frequency mode is
used.
3-4-19. INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATION FOR CARRIER MEASUREMENTS.
3-4-20. The control settings given below are those typically chosen for Carrier Level
Measurements. Other selections can be made if the operator desires. comprehensive infor-
mation on each control is given in the paragraph referenced.
RANGE .............. (3-2-68) .......... 10dB
и FULL SCALE......... (3-2-71) .......... AUTO
No AVERAGE ........... (3-2-93) .......... OFF
CALIBRATION. ...... (3-1-17) 00000000000 ON
3-4-21. OFFSETS.
NOTE
The Offset feature is typically used for making amplitude
measurements relative to the Test Level Point when measuring
signals in telecommunications systems.
3-4-22. Amplitude measurement datas can be offset by a fixed amount if the operator
wishes. The offset is entered either directly or by transferring an amplitude reading to the
offset storage register. When the OFFSET ON/OFF control is on, the entered offset will be
subtracted from the measured signal level and the result presented in the Measurement/En-
try display. Zero is subtracted from the measured signal level if no offset has been entered.
Entries can be made with the OFFSET OFF/ON control either on or off. Offsets are re-
tained until another value is entered or the instrument is turned off. To display the Offset,
press OFFSET. Press MEAS CONT to resume measurement.
NOTE
Make the Units selection before entering the offset. Offsets are not
O referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of this,
> the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the Units
are changed.
3-51
Carrier
3-52
Model 3586A/B/C
3-4-23. Direct OFFSET ENTRY.
3-4-24. Use the following procedure to directly enter the magnitude of an offset. Any value
from ~ 199.99dB to + 199.99dB can be entered.
STEP 1: Press in the Entry control group. The current offset will appear in the
Measurement/Entry display.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal point as required.
STEP 3: Press or as appropriate.
MEAS
STEP 4: Press to resume measurement.
CONT
3-4-25. The contents of the offset register can be changed in one dB step using the Incre-
ment and Decrement keys. Press orrser| * the press or (o) as desired.
3-4-26, Offset Entry By Transfer.
3-4-27. This method of entering offsets is especially valuable when measuring one signal
level relative to another. Use the following procedure to transfer an amplitude reading to the
offset storage register.
R —_— . ,
STEP 1: Press . The entered offset will appear in the
Measurement/Entry display.
AUN
IVIQACE 3000 D/
CHAPTER FIVE
NOISE/DEMODulation
(-hp- 3586A/B)
3-5-1. The principal uses of the NOISE/DEMODulation measurement mode are: 1)
measurement of idle message channel noise and 2) to translate message channel signais down
to voice freguencies for monitoring or for output through the audio or headphone jacks.
3-5.2. Measurement Mode.
3-5-3. The NOISE/DEMODulation measurement mode is selected by pressing the (no shift)
NOISE/DEMOD control. One other control is automatically set when this mode is selected:
BANDWIDTH ................. WIDEST
The bandwidth can be changed if desired. However, the combination of
NOISE/DEMODulation and one of the narrower bandwidths produce a trivial operating
configuration.
3-5-4. Bandwidth. The widest bandwidth used on the instrument depends on the instru-
ment model and options. Even though the various wide bandwidths are not operator select-
able, they still should be understood. Each wide bandwidth selection has special
characteristics that effect the interpretation of noise measurements.
3-5-5. 1740 Hz/2000Hz. The 1740 Bandwidth is the noise bandwidth equivalent of a
nsophometric weighted 3100Hz bandwidth. Likewise, 2000Hz is the noise bandwidth
equivalent of a C-Message weighted 3100Hz bandwidth. This means that, if the input signal
is white noise, an instrument equipped with one of these bandwidths would read the same
level read by an instrument equipped with a 3100Hz bandwidth and the corresponding
weighting filter. The correlation between the readings on the two instruments would vary
with the similarity of the input signal to the white noise.
3-5-6. 3100Hz. The 3100 Bandwidth is especially valuable for troubleshooting subtle pro-
blems in telecommunications systems. All measurements (impairment as well as level) of
signals at high levels in the FDM! hierarchy will correspond to similar measurements made
on the same signals at different locations where the message channel signal is at audio fre-
quencies. This is possible because of the excellent selectivity (Shape Factor = 1.2) and
flatness (Bandpass Ripple < .25dB) of this filter. A more comprehensive description of this
Bandwidth selection is given in Paragraph 3-2-89.
3-5-7. Input Termination. /N
3-5-8. Select the input TERMINATION in accord with the test point to which the instru-
ment is being connected. The dominant consideration is the impedance. In the vast majority
of cases, a terminated input with a particular impedance is required. The maximum input
power of all input is +27dBm (.5 watts). For all inputs, except the 50 ohm and 75 ohm in-
puts, the maximum DC voltage between any two terminals (including ground) is 42 volts.
Ifrequency Domain Multiplexing.
ДМС LALIIVAN IE UILCELINILE (THI 250600 BJ}
3-53
INUISC/ LIT IVIVILIUIALIUILI (НН 92260VA7/ DJ WVIOGE| 53350A/ 15/2
The total power (composite due to AC and DC) input to the 50 ohm and 75 ohm terminated
inputs must not exceed .5 watts.
3-5-9. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT IN THE NOISE/DEMODULATION MEASUREMENT MODE.
NOTE
If, while in another measurement mode, the instrument was tuned
to the desired message channel, it will be properly tuned when
NOISE/DEMODulation is selected. The instrument automatically
modifies its tuning according to the measurement mode.
3-5-10. The procedure used to tune the instrument in the NOISE/DEMODulation measure-
ment mode depends on the type of signal in the channel. Normaliy, an input signal must
contain a dominant single frequency component if the instrument is to be fine tuned. Of
course, neither voice or noise signals contain such a component. When the message channel
is carrying voice traffic, this problem is easily overcome. The operator simply adjusts the
tuning for natural sound. Tuning is not so easy when the channel contains only noise. Noise
does not sound unnatural or significantly different when the instrument is mistuned. Fine
Tuning to such a signal is impossible. To overcome this deficiency, a 1kHz test tone is tem-
porarlily placed on the message channel for the purpose of fine tuning. Of course, once the
instrument is tuned, the 1kHz signal is removed. Note that if the instrument is equipped with
an Option 004 high stability oven, fine tuning to noise signals is not necessary. The pro-
cedures for tuning to the two types of signals share several steps. These common steps are
presented first. They are followed by the special steps required for each type of signal.
3-5-11. Instrument Configuration For Tuning. Si
3-5-12. Entry Frequency. Using the Entry Frequency Controls, the operator can choose
between entering either the Carrier frequency or the Tone frequency when tuning the instru-
ment to a message channel, When TONE is selected, the RF frequency of a 1004Hz (3586B)
or 800Hz (3586A) test tone on the message channel is entered and displayed. Note that the
tone need not be on the channel. Similarly, the Carrier frequency is entered and displayed
when CARRIER is selected. The operator can choose whichever mode 1s most convenient
regardless of the Measurement mode selection.
3-5-13. The Entry Frequency mode selection does not depend on the measurement mode
selection. Each measurement mode has a frequency or band of frequencies associated with it
that have a fixed relation to either of the Entry Frequencies. As long as the entered fre-
quency is correct for the message channel and the Entry Frequency selection, the instrument
will automatically tune to the frequency or band of frequencies required by the measurement
mode. Since the purpose of these controls is to facilitate tuning when measuring signals in
telecommunications systems, they are functional only when one of the SSB CHANNEL
(i.e., telecommunications) measurement modes is selected. An annunciator in one of the
controls remains lit while the instrument is in the Selective measurement mode to indicate
how the displayed frequency will be interpreted if the instrument is switched to one of the
SSB Channel measurement modes.
3-5-14. Channel, Select the channel in accord with the message channel signal being re-
ceived.
3-54
Model 3550A/B/U Noi1se/ UEMUDUJAaLNON (-hp- 3556A/B)
FUN Г.
м — Configures the instrument to receive a lower sideband signal.
A
[e )-Configures the instrument to receive an upper sideband signal.
3-5-15. Coarse Tuning.
3-6-16. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the input signal is within the instrument
bandpass. In the NOISE/DEMODulation measurement mode, the instrument is coarsely
tuned by simply entering the Entry Frequency (Carrier or Tone according to the Entry Fre-
quency selection).
3-5-17. Entering The Entry Frequency. Use the following procedure to enter either the car-
rier frequency or the RF test tone frequency in accord with the Entry Frequency mode selec-
tion.
STEP 1: Press
STEP 2: Enter the significant digits and decimal as required.
. Hz kHz MHz
J 3.5-18. Fine Tuning.
3-5-19. Fine Tuning To Noise Signals. The procedure given below is usually the most con-
venient method of tuning the instrument to noise signals.
STEP 1: Place a 1kHz test tone on the message channel.
COUNTER
STEP 2. Turn on the . The counted RF frequency of the 1kHz test tone
on the message channel will appear in the Frequency/Entry Display.
STEP 3. Press ces] (Counter to Frequency).
This causes the counter reading to modify the contents of the Entry Frequency
register. The new Entry Frequency will be displayed for a few seconds and then
the display reverts back to the counted frequency. The Entry Frequency may be
different from the counted frequency depending on the instrument model and
Entry Frequency mode.
STEP 4. Remove the 1kHz signal from the message channel. The instrument is now
precisely tuned to the message channel signal.
5 3-5-20, Fine Tuning The Instrument To Voice Signals. The instrument is easily fine tuned
when the message channel is carrying a voice signal. The operator simply adjusts the tuning
for natural sound. This procedure is given in greater detail as follows:
3-55
Noise/ DEMUDUEaton (-AP- 3350A/ 15) MOE 3I50A/ B/1L
STEP 1: Press
in the Entry Control Group. Verify that the Frequency Step 1s 1Hz or less. If it is
greater, enter 1Hz
| and nn in the Entry Control Group).
STEP 2: Press EB | in the Frequency Tune control group.
STEP 3: Tune the Volume down. Attach headphones if desired.
STEP 4: Tune the Volume up to a comfortable level.
| WARNING |
With the exception of the tuning instructions given in subsequent
steps, turn the Volume control fully counterclockwise when chang-
ing the instrument configuration. Changes, such as tuning and
range, can cause sudden increases in the audio level that could
damage hearing. This is especially true if the operator is using
headphones.
STEP 5: Adjust the Frequency Tune control for natural sound. a E
STEP 6: Turn the volume control fully counterclockwise.
The instrument is now precisely tuned to the message channel signal.
3-5-21. Instrument Configuration For Noise/Demodulation Measurements.
3-5-22. Averaging. An input signal consisting of noise will naturally cause the displayed
amplitude to rack. Use Averaging to reduce the range of variations in the measured level.
Random level variations are evidenced by an erratic level reading in the Measurement/Entry
display and by ripple in the rear panel meter output signal. The variations may be due to
noise in the input signal, internal instrument noise or low frequency beat notes caused by
two or more closely spaced frequencies in the input signal. (The beat frequency phenomenon
would usually not occur with the type of input signals normally measured in the
NOISE/DEMODulation mode.) The typical use of AVEraging in this mode is to reduce the
nominal range of the amplitude variations during noise measurements. Its effect is il-
lustrated in Figure 3-5-1. The outer curve describes the instrument with AVEraging and the
inner curve is for the instrument with Averaging. Both curves show the probability that a
single reading will fall within a particular range of level. On the average, the instrument will
read closer to the true RMS level of the noise when AVEraging is on. Note that the max-
imum range of signal variations is unchanged since a single noise measurement can
(theoretically) be infinite in both cases. The price paid for the reduced racking is an increase
in measurement time. The measurement rate is slowed from approximately four readings Ви
every second to approximately one per-second. Averaging is not normally used when the uu J
primary purpose is to monitor a message channel signal or to output the demodulated signal
through the headphone or audio jacks. It has no effect on any of these outputs.
3-56
|
PROBABILITY
THAT A
PARTICULAR
LEVEL WILL eps
Lu MEASURED LEVEL
ACTUAL INPUT. — (INPUT LEVEL
LEVEL PLUS NOISE)
WITH THE AVG ON, THE STANDARD
DEVIATION 15 REDUCED BY A
FACTOR OF ABOUT FIVE. 3586-3-2-15
Figure 3-5-1. Effect Of AVEraging On Level Measurements.
3-5-23. WTD (Weighted - Option 002). The Weighted Bandwidth is used exclusively Гог
noise measurements on telephone message channels. When the WTD Bandwidth is selected,
either a psophometric (-hp- 3586A/CCITT version) or a C-Message (-hp- 3586B/Bell ver-
sion) filter is placed in series with the 3100Hz Bandwidth filter. Both plots of these weighting
curves are illustrated in Figure 3-5-2. Measurements of weighted noise signals correspond
closely to subjective evaluations of the unweighted noise level.
3-5-24. Automatic Calibration. Turn the AUTO CAL off when the instrument is used
strictly for monitoring a channel or for outputting a demodulated channel signal through the
headphone or audio jacks. This will eliminate the interruption caused by the three minute
calibration.
3-5-25. Miscellaneous Control Settings. The control settings listed are those typically
chosen for noise level measurements or for monitoring message channel signals. Other selec-
tions can be made if the operator desires. Comprehensive information on each control is
given in the reference paragraph.
Range................ (3-268) .......... 10dB
Full Scale............. (3-2-71) .......... AUTO
Unit. ............ 0... (3-291) .......... ANY
Offset ................ (3-298) .......... EITHER
3-85-26. OFFSETS.
NOTE
The Offset feature is typically used for making amplitude
measurements relative to the Test Level Point when measuring
signals in telecommunications systems.
3-53-27. When the OFFSET OFF/ON control is on, an offset stored within the instrument is
subtracted from the measured signal level. The result is then presented in the
Measurement/Entry display. An “0” is appended to the unit’s annunciator to indicate that
the displayed level is offset. Zero is subtracted from the measured signal level if no offset has
LYARINANL JWI RS LF ON 1INVIST/ LIVIN 77121711 Стр оо ОЛА 13}
3-57
ARADO RALLY NI ALELLA LED JIQOUAA/ DJ ¿YARIS 17.) USE E 4%
been entered. An offset can be entered by entering its magnitude directly or by transferring
an amplitude reading to the offset storage register. Entries can be made with the OFFSET
OFF/ON control either on or off. Offsets are retained untii another value is entered or the ha
instrument is turned off. To display the Offset,
press OFFSET . Press
to resume measurement.
NOTE
Make the Units selection before entering the offset. Offsets are not
referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of this,
the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the Units
are changed.
Frequency Level Telerance
(Hz) dB} (dB)
50 - 63.0 + 85
100 _ 41.0 + .85
o — 150 —29.0 + .85
во 200 - 21.0 + BE
a a TN 300 | -106 + .85
a 7‘? 4 400 = 6,3 + Bb
z \ 500 - 3.6 + .85
E. N 600 - 2.0 + .85
я 800 OREF +0.5
& 1000 + 1.0 + 85
y 730 1200 0.0 + 85 и»
1500 - 1.3 + 85 (3
2600 - 3.0 + 885 o”
740 2500 | 4.2 + .B5
3000 - 55 +15
-50 3500 ~ 8.5 +1.5
FOR 200 300 400 800 800 1000 2000 IOC 4000 3000 4000 = 15.0 + 1.5
FREQUENCY (Hz) 5000 — 36.0 + 1.8
Frequency Level Toiorance
(Hz) (dB) (dB)
60 -55.7 + .85
100 - 42.5 + ‚85
200 ~ 25.0 + 85
300 -16.5 + .85
| 400 -11.4 + .85
o > 500 - 7,5 + ‚85
C-MESSAGE ” N 6C0 - 47 + -85
0 и 700 - 2.7 + 85
> al \ so |. 1.51 | + .85
z 900 — 06 + .85
= 720 и \ 1000 O REF + .50
: 7 \ 1200 - 0.2 + .85
8 e / \ 1300 - 0.5 + 85
= \ 1500 - 1.0 + .85
1800 - 1.3 + .85
40 2000 - 1.3 + 85
7 2500 - 14 + BE
x 2800 - 1.9 + 85
100 200 300 400 S00 AO 000 2000 3000 40005000 3000 5 2.5 + 1,9
FREQUENCY (H 3300 - 5.2 1.5
z}
3500 — 7.6 + 1.5
4000 - 14.5 + 1.5
4500 - 21.5 + 1.5 Tm
5000 — 28.5 + 1.5 Ra
3-58
Figure 3-5-2, Weighting Curves Used For WTD Bandwidth Selection.
AYIRINELE JOVEN AR Ne INVIDO/ E LiVAN 7 IUIALIVIL E-1P- 3IO00/A/ Dj
3-5-28. Direct OFFSET ENTRY.
3-5-29. Use the following procedure to directly enter the magnitude of an offset. Any value
from — 199.99dB to + 199.99dB can be entered.
STEP 1: Press in the Entry control group. The current offset will appear in
the Measurement/Entry display.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal point as required.
MHz kHz
STEP 3: Press dB or as appropriate.
MEAS
STEP 4: Press a to resume measurement.
CONT
The contents of the offset register can be changed in one dB step using the Increment and
Decrement keys.
Press OFFSET , then press [ ©) or as desired.
3-5-30, Offset Entry By Transfer.
nn 3-5-31. This method of entering offsets is especially valuable when measuring one signal
J level relative to another. Use the following procedure to transfer an amplitude reading to the
offset storage register.
STEP 1: Press RONG . The entered offset will appear in Measurement/Entry display.
i
3-59
10N€
3-60
IYIUUELI 2200/47/ D/ +%
CHAPTER SIX
1010Hz, TONE 800Hz (3586A);
ТОМЕ 1004Нг, 26008: (35868)
3-6-1. These measurement modes are grouped together in a single chapter because they are
implemented using practically the same procedure.
3-6-2. TONE 1004Hz is used to measure the level of 1004Hz signals on message channels.
1004Hz is the standard tone frequency in the Beli System.
3-6-3. 2600Hz is used to measure the level of 2600Hz inband signaling tones. The presence
of a 2600Hz tone on a channel indicates that it is idie.
3-6-4. 1010Hz is used to measure the level of 1010Hz tones on message channels.
3-6-5. TONE 800Hz is used to measure the frequency of 800Hz signals on message chan-
nels. 800Hz is the standard tone frequency in the CCITT system.
3-6-6. The SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO of a message channel can be measured easily by
using either 1004/ TONE or 1010 in conjunction with the Noise/Tone measurement mode
(see Chapter Eight). Measure the level of the tone in either 1004/TONE or 1010 measure-
ment mode. Transfer this reading to the offset register and turn the Offset ON. This
establishes the reference level for the signal to noise measurement. Switch the instrument to
Noise/Tone. The negative of the displayed reading is the Signal to Noise Ration.
3-6-7. MEASUREMENT MODE.
3-6-8. The individual measurement modes are selected by pressing the corresponding key
with the shift function (blue key) off. In each case, one other control is also selected:
BANDWIDTH.......... 20Hz
The bandwidth may be changed if desired. Using the widest bandwidth (1740, 2000 or 3100)
may result in an erroneous measurement.
3-6-9. INPUT TERMINATION.
3.6-10. Select the input TERMINATION in accord with the test point to which the instru-
ment is being connected. The dominant consideration is the impedance. In the vast majority
of cases, a terminated input with a particular impedance is required. The maximum input
power of all inputs is +27dBm (.5 watts). For all inputs except the 50 ohm and 75 ohm in-
puts, the maximum DC voltage between any two terminals (including ground) is 42 volts.
The total power (composite due to AC and DC) input to the 50 ohm and 75 chm terminated
inputs must not exceed .3 watts.
Model 35504/5/C
3-5-11. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT IN THE TONE 1004Hz, 2600Hz, 1010Hz AND TONE 800Hz
MEASUREMENT MODES.
NOTE
If the instrument was tuned to the desired message channel while
in another measurement mode, it will be properly tuned when any
of the above measurement modes are selected. The instrument
automatically modifies its tuning according to the measurement
mode.
3-6-12. The procedure for tuning the instrument to any of the signals listed in Paragraph
3-6-11 consists of five steps:
Select the Entry Frequency mode,
Enter the Entry Frequency,
Adjust the tuning until a peak is obtained on the analog meter,
Count the frequency of the signal and
Transfer the count to the Entry Frequency register.
RUN
The contents of the Entry Frequency register determine the tuned frequency of the instru-
ment.
3-6-13. Instrument Configuration For Tuning.
3-6-14. Entry Frequency. Using the Entry Frequency Controls, the operator can choose
between entering either the Carrier frequency or the Tone frequency when tuning the instru-
ment to a message channel.! When TONE is selected, the RF frequency of a 1004Hz (3586B)
or 800Hz (3586A) test tone on the message channel is entered and displayed. Note that the
tone need not be on the channel. Similarly, the Carrier frequency is entered and displayed
when CARRIER is selected. The operator can choose whichever mode is most convenient
regardless of the Measurement mode selection.
3-6-15. The Entry Frequency mode selection does not depend on the measurement mode
selection. Each measurement mode has a frequency or band of frequencies associated with it
that have a fixed relation to either of the Entry Frequencies. As long as the entered fre-
quency 1s correct for the message channel and the Entry Frequency selection, the instrument
will automatically tune to the frequency or band of frequencies required by the measurement
mode. Since the purpose of these controls is to facilitate tuning when measuring signals in
telecommunications systems, they are functional only when one of the SSB CHANNEL
(i.e., telecommunications) measurement modes is selected. An annunciator in one of the
controls remains lit while the instrument is in the Selective measurement mode to indicate
how the displayed frequency will be interpreted if the instrument is switched to one of the
SSB channel measurement modes.
3-6-16. Channel. Select the channel in accord with the message channel signal being re-
ceived.
| Message channels are usually designated by their position in the FDM hierarchy (for example - Master Group Number,
Supergroup Number Group Number and Channel Number). Charts are available in the operating telephone offices that give
either the Carrier or Tone frequency for each of the channels. Therefore, regardless of the exact frequency component of the
message channel to be measured, it is easiest to tune the instrument using one of these two frequencies. The Entry Frequency
controls allow the operator to use either frequency.
10RNC
3-61
‘Tone Model 3586A/B/C
Ps
—Configures the instrument to receive an inverted (lower) sideband signal.
ST
A
— Configures the instrument to receive an erect (upper) sideband signal.
3-6-17. Course Tuning.
3-6-18. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the RF signal generated by the tone in the
message channel is within the instrument bandpass. In most cases, coarse tuning is obtained
by simply entering the Entry Frequency (Carrier or Tone in accord with the Entry Frequency
mode). An additional step is sometimes required when the instrument is being tuned to high
frequency RF signals. With high frequency signals, it may be necessary to search for the RF
signal even when its frequency is precisely known. This is because errors in the tuned fre-
quency of the instrument cause the Entry Frequency to fall outside of the instrument band-
pass.
3-6-19. Entering The Entry Frequency. Use the following procedure to enter either the car-
rier frequency of the RF test tone frequency in accord with the Entry Frequency mode selec-
tion.
STEP 1: Press
STEP 2: Enter the significant digits and decimal as required. (>
TEP 3. Press Hz КН? y | MH:
> 3 | MIN | 7 | +de © —dB
3-6-20. Searching For The Message Channel Test Tone. Errors in the frequency reference
of the instrument might cause its actual tuned frequency to fail completely above or com-
pletely below the RF frequency of the tone in the channel. Use the brief procedure given
below to quickly locate the signal.
AUTO
STEP 1: Press
in the Frequency Tune Control group. This will activate the Frequency Tune
Control.
STEP 2: Using the Frequency Tune Control, vary the tuned frequency of the instrument
until a peak is obtained on the analog tuning meter.
3-68-21. Fine Tuning.
3-6-22. The procedure given below is usually the most convenient method of fine tuning the
instrument to a tone on a message channel.
COUNTER
STEP 1: Turn the on. (in
The counted RF frequency of the tone on the message channel will appear in
the Measurement/Entry display.
3-62
IYVIUUT! JJQOUA/ D/L 1 Oc
и STEP 2: Press (Counter to Frequency).
“а This causes the counter reading to modify the contents of the Entry Frequency
register. The new Entry Frequency will be displayed for a few seconds and then
the display reverts back to the counted frequency. The Entry Frequency may be
different from the counted frequency depending on the instrument mode and
the Entry Frequency mode.
3-5-23. INSTRUMENT CONFIGURATION FOR TONE 1004Hz, 2600Hz, 1010Hz AND TONE 800Hz
MEASUREMENTS.
3-6-24. The control settings listed below are those typically chosen for any of the measure-
ment modes listed in Paragraph 3-6-23. Other selections can be made if the operator desires.
Comprehensive information on each control is given in the referenced paragraph.
AUTOmatic CALibration.......... (3-1-7) ........... ON
RANGE ........... 0... ........ (3-2-68) .......... 10dB
FULL SCALE. ................... (3-2-71) .......... AUTO
AVErage......................... (3-2-93) .......... OFF
UNITS co, (3-791) .......... ANY
3-6-25. OFFSETS.
NOTE
и The Offset feature is typically used for making amplitude
Nu measurements relative to the Test Level Point when measuring
signals in telecommunications systems.
3-6-26. Amplitude measurement data can be offset by a fixed amount if the operator
wishes. The offset is enterd either directly or by transferring an amplitude reading to the off-
set storage register. When the OFFSET ON/OFF control is on, the entered offset will be
subtracted from the measured signal level and the result presented in the Measurement/En-
try display. Zero is subtracted from the measured signal level if no offset has been entered.
Entries can be made with the OFFSET OFF/ON control either on or off. Offsets are re-
tained until another value is entered or the instrument is turned off. To display the Offset,
press lorrser| . Press
to resume measurement.
NOTE
Make the Units selection before entering the offset. Offsets are not
referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of this,
the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the Units
are changed.
3-6-27. Direct OFFSET ENTRY.
о 3-6-28. Use the following procedure to directly enter the magnitude of an offset. Any value
from — 199.99dB to + 199.99dB can be entered.
3-63
onc Model 3555A/ B/C
¡ra
STEP 1: Press in the Entry contro! group. The current offset will appear in ( Ш
the Measurement/Entry display.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal point as required.
f MH kH .
STEP 3: Mn or as appropriate.
MEAS
STEP 4: Press ‘ 2, to resume measurement.
The contents of the offset register can be changed in one dB steps using the Increment and
Decrement keys.
Press orrser] , then press Or (©) as desired.
3-6-29. Offset Entry By Transfer.
3-6-30. This method of entering offsets is especially valuable when measuring one signal
level relative to another. Use the following procedure to transfer an amplitude reading to the
offset storage register.
RONG
STEP 1: Press
The entered offset will appear in the Measurement/Entry display. (
3-64
КАЛИЙ IIA LR me 4 аи
ZN
_ LS
CHAPTER SEVEN
¢ JITTER
3-7-1. The Phase Jitter measurement mode 1s used to measure the incidental phase modula-
tion of signals in telecommunications systems.! Signals typically measured are pilots, car-
riers and 1kHz tones on message channels. The amplitude of the phase jitter is presented in
the Measurement/Entry display in units of peak to peak degrees. In addition, the detected
phase jitter signal is available for further analysis from the à Jitter output on the rear panel.
3-7-2. Measurement Mode.
3-7-3. The Phase Jitter measurement mode is selected by pressing the (shift-blue key) ¢ Jit-
ter control. One other control is automatically set when this mode is selected:
BANDWIDTH.......... Widest
The Bandwidth can be changed if desired. However, the combination of the ¢ Jitter
Measurement Mode and one of the narrower bandwidths produces a trivial operating condi-
tion. |
3-7-4. à Jitter Output. The demodulated phase jitter signal is output through a BNC con-
pe nector located on the rear panel. The sensitivity of this output is 166 mv/degree of phase jit-
7 ter and the output impedance is 10k ohms. By analyzing this signal using an oscilloscope or a
spectrum analyzer, the operator can often determine the cause of the ¢ Jitter.
3-7-5. Error Messages. The following error messages may be encountered while making $
Jitter measurements.
Er 1.1 — Attempting to use the 10dB Range for Phase Jitter or Impulse measurements.
Er 2.2 — Signal level is too low for valid phase jitter tests.
Er 2.9 — Phase Jitter overrange. If this error continues to be displayed after pressing
several times, the phase jitter is greater than 25 degrees peak to peak.
3-7-6. INPUT TERMINATION.
3-7-7. Select the input TERMINATION in accord with the test point to which the instru-
ment is being connected. The dominant consideration is the impedance. In the vast majority
of cases, a terminated input with a particular impedance is required. The maximum input
power of all inputs is +27dBm (.5 watts). For all inputs except the 50 ohm and 75 ohm in-
puts, the maximum DC voltage between any two terminals (including ground) is 42 volts.
The total power (composite due to AC and DC) input to the 50 ohm and 75 ohm terminated
и inputs must not exceed .5 watts.
Ш
Special frequency weighting characteristics of the ¢ Jitter measurement mode, required for measurements of telecommunica-
tion signals, make it impracticai for other applications.
3-65
@ JUICY LYAVRICL J000/ D/C
3-7-8. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT IN THE ¢ JITTER MEASUREMENT MODE.
NOTE
If the instrument was tuned to the desired message channel while
in another measurement mode, it will be properly tuned when à
Jitter is selected. The instrument automatically modifies its tuning
according to the measurement mode.
3-7-9. The phase jitter measurement circuitry is designed to accept a 1004Hz tone on a
message channel once the instrument is tuned to the message channel. The procedure for
tuning to a message channel is basically:
I. Select the Entry Frequency mode (Carrier or Tone).
2. Depending on the previous selection, enter either the Carrier or Tone frequency of the
message channel carrying the 1004Hz test tone,
3. Count the RF frequency of the 1004Hz test tone.
4. Fine tune the instrument by using the counted frequency to modify the entered fre-
quency. |
This procedure is presented in detail in the following paragraphs. With slight modification,
also given in the detailed procedure, the instrument can be tuned to signals not associated
with message channels. fo
3-7-10. Instrument Configuration For Tuning.
3-7-11. Entry Frequency. Using the entry Frequency controls, the operator can choose be-
tween entering either the Carrier frequency or the Tone frequency when tuning the instru-
ment to a message channel.“ When Tone is selected, the RF frequency of a 1kHz (3586B) or
800Hz (3586A) test tone on the message channel is entered and displayed. Note that the tone
need not be on the channel. Similarly, the Carrier frequency is entered and displayed when
CARRIER is selected. The operator can choose whichever mode is most convenient
regardless of the Measurement mode selection.
3-7-12. The Entry Frequency selection does not depend on the measurement mode selection.
Each measurement mode has a frequency or band of frequencies associated with it that have
a fixed relation to either of the Entry Frequencies. As long as the entered frequency is cor-
rect for the message channel and the Entry Frequency selection, the instrument will
automatically tune to the frequency or band of frequencies required by the measurement
mode. Since the purpose of these controls is to facilitate tuning when measuring signals in
telecommunications systems, they are functional only when one of the SSB CHANNEL
(i.e., telecommunications) measurement modes is selected. An annunciator in one of the
controls remains lit while the instrument is in the Selective measurement mode to indicate
how the displayed frequency will be interpreted if the instrument is switched to one of the
SSB Channel measurement modes.
“Message channels are usually designated by their position in the FDM hierarchy (for example - Master Group Number, CN
Supergroup Number, Group Number and Channel Number). Charts are available in the operating telephone offices that give С С
either the Carrier or Tone Frequency for each of the channels. Therefore, regardless of the exact frequency component of the
message channel to be measured, it is easiest {0 tune the instrument using one of these two frequencies. The entry Frequency
controls allow the operator to use either frequency.
3-66
Model 3586A/B/C ¢ Jitter
3-7-13. Channel. Select the Channel in accord with the signal being received. If a signal not
associated with a message channel is being measured, it makes little difference which channel
is selected.
Ps
— Configures the instrument to receive an inverted message channel (lower sideband
signal).
A
® | Configures the instrument to receive an erect message channel (upper sideband
signal).
3-7-14, Coarse Tuning.
3-7-15. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the input signal is within the instrument
bandpass. In the Phase Jitter measurement mode, the instrument is coarsely tuned by simply
entering the Entry Frequency.
3-7-16. Entering The Entry Frequency. Use the following procedure to enter either the car-
rier frequency or the RF test tone frequency in accord with the Entry Frequency mode selec-
tion. If a signal not associated with a message channel is being measured (for example - the
output of a carrier generator), enter its frequency.
STEP 1: Press
pes STEP 2: Enter the significant digits and decimal as required.
STEP 3: Press , or as appropriate,
3-7-17. Fine Tuning The Instrument For ¢ Jitter Measurements. Basically, the procedure
for fine tuning is to count the frequency of the signal to be measured and then use the results
to modify the contents of the Entry Frequency register. The Entry Frequency register deter-
mines the tuned frequency of the instrument. This procedure is given as follows.
COUNTER
STEP 1: Turn the On
The counted frequency of the 1kHz test tone on the message channel will
appear in the Frequency/ Entry display.
STEP 2: Press (Counter to Frequency).
This causes the counter reading to modify the contents of the Entry Frequency
register. The new Entry Frequency will be displayed for a few seconds and then
the display reverts back to the counted frequency. The Entry Frequency may be
different from the counted frequency depending on the instrument model and
the Entry Frequency mode.
3-7-18. If a 3586A (CCITT version) is being used to measure the ¢ Jitter of a signal not
EN associated with a message channel, the Entry Frequency (press FREQ to obtain Entry Fre-
A quency) will be offset 200Hz from the counted frequency. However, both the instrument
tuning and the counted frequency are correct. Simply ignore the Entry Frequency by leaving
the counter on,
3-67
ф Jitter
3-68
Model 3586A/B/C
3.7.19. instrument Configuration For ¢ Jitter Measurements.
3-7-20. Full Scale. Use AUTOmatic Full Scale unless you need the special advantage of the
Entry Full Scale mode. AUTOmatic Full Scale offers two advantages over Entry Full Scale:
1} The dynamic range is wider {=75dB vs =45dB) and; 2) the instrument will configure
itself for the best signal to noise obtainable without overloading. The Entry mode is used
only as a last resort to eliminate constant autoranging or when making repetitive
measurements of signals with the same amplitude. Using the Entry mode when making
repetitive measurements eliminates the time required for the instrument to autorange. This
time savings is significant only during automated production testing.
3.7.21. If the system under test is lightly loaded,3 the total input power may fluctuate con-
siderably. This in turn may cause the instrument to autorange almost constantly making it
difficult to obtain a reading. If this occurs, turn the Averaging on. Among other things, the
Averaging function dampens the autorange detector thereby reducing the tendency for the
input circuitry to autorange on transient conditions. If the instrument still autoranges ex-
cessively, switch to the Entry full scale mode and enter a full scale level just above the peak
of the fluctuating signal.
NOTE
The dynamic range of the instrument while in the Entry Full Scale
mode is approximately 45dB. This is considerably less than the ap-
proximate 75dB dynamic range while in the AUTO Full Scale
mode. Use caution when using Entry Full Scale. The noise perfor-
mance of the instrument is degraded in this mode. If the ¢ Jitter
must be measured with the instruments specified accuracy,
measure the signal level in the 1004Hz measurement mode. The
level must be within 45dB of the entered full scale for the instru-
ment specifications to apply.
3-7-22. Range. When the instrument is in the AUTOmatic Full Scale mode, the 10dB and
100dB Range performance are practically identical. Use whichever range is most convenient.
Only the 100dB Range is permitted when the instrument is in Entry Full Scale.
3-7-23. Averaging. Use the Averaging function to reduce random variations in the phase
jitter amplitude display or to reduce the tendency for the instrument to autorange in
response to transient input conditions. Random variations in the displayed ¢ Jitter
amplitude are caused by the internal noise of the instrument or by noise in the input signal.
In either case, with Averaging on, the indicated reading will vary less around the actual ¢ Jit-
ter level. The effect of Averaging on noise is explained thoroughly in Paragraph 3-2-93. This
information applys to ¢ Jitter measurements with very little change. As mentioned in the
discussion of Full Scale (Paragraph 3-7-20), averaging reduces the tendency of the instru-
ment in autorange in response to transient changes in the input signal. If excessive autorang-
ing is interferring with the phase jitter measurement, turn Averaging on.
Lightly loaded: a small percentage of the total number of message channels are carrying traffic.
Model 3586 A/B/C Noise/ Tone
Ci CHAPTER EIGHT
NOISE/TONE
3-8-1. Noise/Tone is used to measure the noise on a message channel in the presence of a
1kHz test tone. The 1kHz test tone forces all companders in the signal path to operate as if
the channel contained voice traffic. This results in a more accurate indication of the noise
under actual operating conditions.
3-8-2. The signal to noise ratio of a message channel can be measured easily by using
Noise/ Tone in conjunction with the Tone 1004 (3586B) or 1010 (3586A) measurement mode
(see Chapter Six). Measure the level of the tone in the tone 1004 and 1010 measurement
mode. Transfer this reading to the offset register and turn the Offset ON. This establishes
the reference level for the signal to noise measurement. Switch the instrument to
Noise/ Tone. The negative of the displayed reading is the signal to noise ratio.
3-8-3. Measurement Mode.
3-8-4. The NOISE/TONE measurement mode is selected by pressing the (shift-blue key)
NOISE/TONE control. One other control is automatically set when this mode is selected:
BANDWIDTH.......... Widest
ed The bandwidth can be changed if desired. However, the combination of NOISE/TONE and
one of the narrower bandwidths produces a trivial operating configuration.
3-8-5. Bandwidth. The widest bandwidth used on the instrument depends on the instru-
ment model and options. Even though the various wide bandwidths are not operator selec-
table, they should still be understood. Each wide bandwidth selection has special
characteristics that effect the interpretation of noise measurements.
3-8-6. 1740Hz/2000Hz. The 1740Hz Bandwidth is the noise bandwidth equivalent of a
psophometric weighted 3100Hz bandwidth. Likewise, 2000Hz is the noise bandwidth
equivalent of a C-Message weighted 3100Hz bandwidth. This means that, if the input signal
is white noise, an instrument equipped with one of these bandwidths would read the same
level read by an instrument equipped with a 3100Hz bandwidth and the corresponding
weighting filter. The correlation between the readings on the two instruments would vary
with the similarity of the input signal to white noise.
3-8-7. 3100Hz. The 3100Hz Bandwidth is especially valuable for troubleshooting subtle
problems in telecommunications systems. All measurements (impairment as well as level) of
signals at high levels in the FDM! heirarchy will correspond to similar measurements made
on the same signals at different locations where the message channel signal is at audio fre-
quencies. This is possible because of the excellent selectivey (Shape Factor = 1.2) and
>. flatness (Bandpass Ripple < .25dB) of this filter. A more comprehensive description of this
+ Bandwidth selection is given in Paragraph 3-2-89.
au ied
Frequency Domain Multiplexing.
3-69
Noise/ Tone Model 3586A/B/C
3-8-8. input Termination. ист
3-8-9. Select the input TERMINATION in accord with the test point to which the instru-
ment is being connected. The dominant consideration is the impedance. In the vast majority
of cases, a terminated input with a particular impedance is required. the maximum input
power of all inputs is + 27dBm (.5 watts). For all inputs except the 50 ohm and 75 ohm in-
puts, the maximum DC voltage between any two terminals (including ground) is 42 volts. the
total power (composite due to AC and DC) input to the 50 and 75 ohm terminated inputs
must not exceed .5 watts.
3-8-10. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT IN THE NOISE/TONE MEASUREMENT MODE.
NOTE
If the instrument was tuned to the desired message channel while
in another measurement mode, it will be properly tuned when
NOISE/ TONE is selected. The instrument automatically modifies
its tuning according to the measurement mode.
3-8-11. The tuning procedure consists of entering the Entry Frequency, counting the input
signal frequency and transferring the count to the Entry Frequency register. The Entry Fre-
quency register determines the tuned frequency of the instrument.
3-8-12. instrument Configuration For Tuning.
3-8-13. Entry Frequency. Using the Entry Frequency Controls, the operator can choose С
between entering either the Carrier frequency or the Tone frequency when tuning the instru- Sy
ment to a message channel. When TONE is selected, the RF frequency of a 1kHz (3586B)
or 800Hz (3586A) test tone on the message channel is entered and displayed. Note that the
tone need not be on the channel. Similarly, the Carrier frequency is entered and displayed
when CARRIER is selected. The operator can choose whichever mode is most convenient
regardless of the Measurement mode selection.
3-8-14. The Entry Frequency mode selection does not depend on the measurement mode
selection. Each measurement mode has a frequency or band of frequencies associated with it
that have a fixed relation to either of the Entry Frequencies. As long as the entered fre-
quency is correct for the message channel and the Entry Frequency selection, the instrument
will automatically tune to the frequency or band of frequencies required by the measurement
mode. Since the purpose of these controls is to facilitate tuning when measuring signals in
telecommunications systems, they are functional only when one of the SSB CHANNEL (i.e.
telecommunications) measurement modes is selected. An annunciator in one of the controls
remains lit while the instrument is in the Selective measurement mode to indicate how the
displayed frequency will be interpreted if the instrument is switched to one of the SSB Chan-
nel measurement modes.
3-8-15. Channel. Select the channel in accord with the message channel signal being re-
ceived.
“Message channels are usually designated by their position in the FDM heirarchy (for example - Master Group Number, (O
Supergroup Number, Group Number and Channel Number}. Charts are available in the operating telephone offices that give TR
either the Carrier or Tone frequency for each of the channels. Therefore, regardiess of the exact frequency component of the
message channel to be measured, it is easiest to tune the instrument using one of these two frequencies. The Entry Frequency
controls allow the operator to use either frequency.
3-70
Model 3586A/B/C Noise/ Tone
NN
E -— Configures the instrument to receive a lower sideband signal.
A
— Configures the instrument to receive an upper sideband signal.
3-8-1 6. Coarse Tuning.
3-8-17. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the input signal is within the instrument
bandpass. In the NOISE/TONE measurement mode, the instrument is coarsely tuned by
simply entering the Entry Frequency.
3-8-18. Entering The Entry Frequency. Use the following procedure to enter either the car-
rier frequency or the RF test tone frequency in accord with the Entry Frequency mode selec-
tion.
STEP 1: — Press
STEP 2: Enter the significant digits and decimal as required.
Е OHIO kHz MHz
STEP 3: Press ra ‚ or
3-8-19. Fine Tuning.
5 3-8-20. Use the procedure given below to fine tune the instrument to the tone on the
message channel,
COUNTER
STEP 1: Turn the On
The counted RF frequency of the 1kHz test tone on the message channel will
appear in the Frequency/Entry display.
STEP 2: Press e (Counter to Frequency).
This causes the counter reading to modify the contents of the Entry Frequency
register, The new Entry Frequency will be displayed for a few seconds and then
the display reverts back to the counted frequency. The Entry Frequency may be
different from the counted frequency depending on the instrument model and
Entry Frequency mode.
3-8-21. Instrument Configuration For Noise/Tone.
3-8-22. Averaging. Averaging reduces the random variations in the measured level. Ran-
dom level variations are evidenced by an erratic level reading in the Measurement/ Entry
display and by ripple in the rear panel meter output signal. The variations may be due to
noise in the input signal, internal instrument noise or low frequency beat notes caused by
_ two or more closely spaced frequencies in the input signal. (The beat frequency phenomenon
Lo would usually not occur with the type of input signals normally measured in the
5 NOISE/DEMODulation mode.) The typical use of AVEraging in this mode is to reduce the
nominal range of the amplitude variations during noise measurements. Its effect is il-
3-71
Noise/ Tone Model 3586A/B/C
lustrated in Figure 3-8-1. The outer curve describes the instrument without AVEraging and
the inner curve is for the instrument with Averaging. Both curves show the probability that a С Ш
single reading will fall within a particular range of level. On the average, the instrument will CS
read closer to the true RMS level of the noise when AVEraging is on. Note that the max-
imum range of signal variations is unchanged since a single noise measurement can
(theoretically) be infinite in both cases. The price paid for the reduced racking is an increase
in measurement time. The measurement rate is slowed from approximately four readings
every second to approximately one per second. Averaging is not normally used when the
primary purpose is to monitor a message channel signal or to output the demodulated signal
through the headphone or audio jacks. If has no effect on any of these outputs.
PROBABILITY
THAT A
PARTICULAR
LEVEL WILL et
BE MEASURED ;
level ——
bs MEASURED LEVEL
ACTUAL INPUT ed [INPUT LEVEL
LEYEL PLUS NOISE}
WITH THE AVG ON, THE STANDARD
DEYIATIGN 15 REDUCED ВУ А
FACTOR OP ABOUT FIVE, 1586-34-18
Figure 3-8-1. Effect of AVEraging On Level Measurements. С )
3-8-23. WTD (Weighted). The Weighted Bandwidth is used exclusively for noise
measurements on telephone message channels. When the WTD Bandwidth is selected, either
a psophometric (-hp- 3586A/CCITT version) or a C-Message (-hp- 3586B/Bell version) filter
is placed in series with the 3100Hz Bandwidth filter. Both plots of these weighting curves are
illustrated in Figure 3-8-2. Measurements of weighted noise signals correspond closely to
subjective evaluations of the unweighted noise level.
3-8-24. Automatic Calibration. Turn the AUTO CAL off when the instrument is used
strictly for monitoring a channel or for outputting a demodulated channel signal through the
headphone or audio jacks. This will eliminate the interruption caused by the three minute
calibration.?
3-8-25. Miscellaneous Control Settings. The control settings listed below are those typically
chosen for noise level measurements or for monitoring message channel signals. Other selec-
tions can be made if the operator desires. Comprehensive information on each control is
given in the referenced paragraph.
Range.................. (3-2-68)................. 10dB
Full Scale............... (3-272) coe eee. AUTO
3The -hp- 3586A/B/C automatically calibrates approximately every three minutes when AUTO CAL is on. See Paragraph
3-1-17 for details,
3-72
Model 358504/15/C NoISe/ Lone
frequency Level Tolgrance
(Hz) {dB) {dB}
© ee 50 | 63.0 + .85
ря 100 —41.3 + .85
cerry ~~ TN 150 - 29.0 + .85
io va 200 -21.0 + .85
© N 300 — 10.6 + ‚85
Е м N 400 - 6.3 + .85
a 500 - 3.6 + .85
2 600 — 2.0 + .85
di 30 800 OREF +0.5
1000 + 1.0 + 85H
1200 0.0 + .85
-40 1500 = 1.3 + .85
2000 - 3.0 + .85
50 2500 — 4,2 + .85
100 200 300 460 600 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 3000 … 55 +15
FREQUENCY (HZ) 3500 - 8.5 + 1.5
4000 -15.0 +1.5
5000 — 36.0 1.5
Frequency Level Tolorance
(Hz) (dB) (dB)
60 — 55.7 + .85
100 -42.5 + .85
200 ¡| — 25.0 + .85
о — == 300 — 16.5 + .85
4 ~ 11, +.
ds | | N MEE
-10 > \ 600 — 4.7 + .85
@ vd \ 700 — 2,7 + .85
E 0 и 800 - 1.81 + .85
3 / \ 300 | - 06 + 85
$ A 1 1000 O REF + .50
—30 \ 1200 - 0.2 + .85
1300 = 0.5 + .85
40 7 1500 - 4,0 + .85
и 1800 - 4,3 + ‚85
2000 — 1.3 + .85
-50 2500 — 1.4 + .85
100 . 200 300 400 800 800000 2000 3000 40005000 2800 … 1.9 + 856
FREQUENCY (Hz) 3000 — 28 +15
3300 - 5.2 + 1.5
3500 — 7.6 +1.5
4000 — 14.5 + 1.5
4500 — 21,5 + 1.5
5000 - 28.5 +1.5
Figure 3-8-2. Weighting Curves Used For WTD Bandwidth Selection.
3.8.26. OFFSETS.
NOTE
The Offset feature is typically used for making amplitude
measurements relative fo the Test Level Point when measuring
signals in telecommunications systems.
3-8-27. Amplitude measurement data can be offset by a fixed amount if the operator
wishes. The offset is entered either directly or by transferring an amplitude reading to the
offset storage register. When the OFFSET ON/OFF control is on, the entered offset will be
subtracted from the measured signal level and the result presented in the Measurement/ En-
try display. Zero is subtracted from the measured signal level if no offset has been entered.
Entries can be made with the OFFSET OFF/ON control either on or off. Offsets are re-
tained until another value is entered or the instrument is turned off. To display the Offset,
Noise/ Tone Model 3586A/B/C
3-74
to resume measurement,
NOTE
Make the Units selection before entering the offset. Offsets are not
referenced to any particular impedance or level. Because of this,
the magnitude of an entered offset does not change when the Units
are changed.
3-8-28. Direct OFFSET ENTRY.
3-8-29. Use the following procedure to directly enter the magnitude of an offset. Any value
from — 199.99dB to + 199.99 can be entered.
STEP В Press in the Entry control group.
The current offset will appear in the Measurement/Entry display.
STEP 2: Enter the digits and decimal point as required.
рии
STEP 3: Press MHZ | or
¡De
—dB as appropriate.
(MEAS \
STEP 4: Press ® to resume measurement.
CONT
ний
The contents of the offset register can be changed in one dB steps using the Increment and
Decrement keys.
OFFSET] or as desired.
3-8-30. Offset Entry By Transter.
3-8-31. This method of entering offsets is especially valuable when measuring one signal
level relative to another. Use the following procedure to transfer an amplitude reading to the
offset storage register.
Press ‚ then press |
The entered offset will appear in Measurement/Entry display.
Model 3586A/B/C Impulse
CHAPTER NINE
IMPULSE
3-9-1. The Impulse measurement mode is used to measure the Impulse Noise on message
channels in telecommunications systems. Impulse noise consists of irregularly occurring
pulses of relatively high amplitude. The pulses originate from natural sources like lightening
and from man-made sources both in and out of the telephone office. Examples of man-
mace noise sources are auto ignition noise, power lines and, within the office, dialing and
switching signals. Impulse noise is undesirable principally because it interferes with data
transmission.
3-9-2. Measurement Mode.
3-9-3. The Impulse measurement mode is selected by pressing the (shift-blue key) IM-
PULSE control. The IMPULSE control is also used to terminate an Impulse measurement
prematurely. Two other controls are automatically set when this mode is selected:
BANDWIDTH 1112141414 44 44 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 4 a 0 ia a 00 0 Widest
FULL SCALE. «oss ss eee eta mon AUTO
The Full Scale and Bandwidth can be changed if desired. Note that the combination of the
| Impulse measurement mode and one of the narrower bandwidths produces a trivial
Nw operating condition.
3.9.4. Data Display. The amplitude of the signal being tested, the time duration of the cur-
rent test and the number of impulses counted are displayed during Impulse noise
measurements. The Format for the data display is:
Measure/Entry Frequency/Entry
AMPLITUDE TIME COUNT
3-9-5. Error Messages. The error messages presented below are those most likely to be en-
counted while measuring Impulse Noise.
Er 4.1 — Impulse counter did not start (instrument failure).
Er 4-2 — Impulse counter did not stop (instrument failure).
Er 6-1 — Threshold level more than 60dB below full scale.
Er 1.2 — Only the 100dB Range is permitted during Impulse measurements.
3-9-6. Input Termination.
3-9-7. Select the input TERMINATION in accord with the test point to which the instru-
ment is being connected. The dominant consideration is the impedance. In the vast majority
of cases, a terminated input with a particular impedance is required. The maximum input
т power of all inputs is + 27dBm (.5 watts). For all inputs except the 50 ohm and 75 ohm in-
E puts, the maximum DC voltage between any two terminals (including ground) is 42 volts.
According to Bell Publication 41009 (May 19735), Impulse noise consists of all noise spikes 12dB or higher above the rms noise
level.
3-75
Impulse Model 3586A/B/C
The total power (composite due to AC and DC) input to the 50 ohm and 75 ohm terminated re
inputs must notexceed .3 watts. o
3-9-8. TUNING THE INSTRUMENT FOR IMPULSE MEASUREMENTS.
NOTE
If the instrument was tuned fo the desired message channel while
in another measurement mode, it will be properly tuned when Im-
pulse is selected. The instrument automatically modifies its tuning
according to the measurement mode.
3-9-9. The exact procedure for tuning the instrument to make Impulse measurements
depends on whether or not the message channel being tested is carrying a 1kHz signal, If the
channel is idle, tuning consists of only the following two steps:
1. Select the most convenient Entry Frequency mode.
2. Enter the Entry Frequency in accord with the above selection.
Fine tuning is not required when measuring the Impulse noise on an idle channel. Note the
Counter-to-Frequency control is not functional when the instrument 15 in the Impulse
Measurement mode. When the message channel is carrying a 1kHz signal,? the instrument
must be fine tuned. Fine tuning aligns a narrow bandwidth 1kHz notch filter with the 1kHz
signal on the message channel. The 1kHz signal must be removed from the composite signal
before Impulse noise can be measured. Because of the fine tuning requirement, four E
te,
ADDITIONAL steps are added to the tuning procedure: os?
3. Switch to the Noise Tone measurement mode.
4. Count the RF frequency of the kHz tone on the message channel.
5. Modify the contents of the Entry frequency register with the frequency count.
6. Switch back to the Impulse measurement mode.
A detailed procedure is given in the following paragraphs.
3-9-10. Instrument Configuration For Tuning.
3-9-11. Entry Frequency. Using the Entry Frequency Controls, the operator can choose
between entering either the Carrier frequency or the Tone frequency when tuning the instru-
ment to a message channel. When TONE is selected, the RF frequency of a 1kHz (3586B)
or 800Hz (3586A) test tone on the message channel is entered and displayed. Note that the
tone need not be on the channel. Similarly, the Carrier frequency is entered and displayed
when CARRIER is selected. The operator can choose whichever mode is most convenient
regardiess of the Measurement mode selection.
2A 1kHz tone is often placed on à channel to cause companders to operate normally during the Impuise noise tests. This causes
the measurement conditions to simulate the operating conditions.
3Message channels are usually designated by their position in the FIDM hierarchy (i.e., Master Group Number, Supergroup Са
Number, Group Number and Channel Number). Charts are available in the operating telephone offices that give either the Na
Carrier or Tone frequency for each of the channels. Therefore, regardless of the exact frequency component of the message
channel to be measured, it is easiest to tune the instrument using one of these two frequencies. The Entry Frequency controls
allow the operator to choose either frequency.
3-76
Model 3586A/8B/C | Impulse
3-9-12. The Entry Frequency mode selection does not depend on the measurement mode
selection. Each measurement mode has a frequency or band of frequencies associated with it
that have a fixed relation to either of the Entry Frequencies. As long as the entered fre-
quency is correct for the message channel and the Entry Frequency selection, the instrument
will automatically tune to the frequency or band of frequencies required by the measurement
mode. Since the purpose of these controls is to facilitate tuning when measuring signals in
telecommunications systems, they are functional only when one of the SSB CHANNEL
(1.e., telecommunications) measurement modes is selected. An annunciator in one of the
controis remains lit while the instrument is in the Selective measurement mode to indicate
how the displayed frequency will be interpreted if the instrument is switched to one of the
SSH Channel measurement modes.
3-9-13. Channel. Select the channel in accord with the message channel signal being re-
ceived.
| — Configures the instrument to receive a lower sideband signal.
| — Configures the instrument to receive an upper sideband signal.
3-38-14. Coarse Tuning.
3-9-15. The instrument is coarsely tuned whenever the input signal is within the instrument
bandpass. In the Impulse measurement mode, the instrument is coarsely tuned by simply
entering the Entry Frequency.
3-9-16. Entering The Entry Frequency. Use the following procedure to enter either the car-
rier frequency or the RF test tone frequency in accord with the Entry Frequency mode selec-
tion.
STEP 1: Press |
STEP 2: Enter the significant digits and decimal as required.
STEP 3: Press | as appropriate.
STEP 4: If there 1s a 1kHz test tone on the message channel, switch to the Noise/ Tone
measurement mode and complete the tuning procedure beginning with
Paragraph 3-8-19. Return to the Impulse measurement mode and this pro-
cedure when you are finished.
3-9-17, Instrument Configuration For Impulse Measurements.
3-9-18. Time. Time refers to the time duration of an Impulse measurement. Any interval up
to 99 minutes 59 seconds can be entered with 1 second resolution. Alternatively, the instru-
ment can be set for continuous counting by entering a time greater than the maximum. The
format for both entry and display of time is
Minutes (decimal point) Seconds.
3-77
Impulse
3-78
Model 3586A/B/C
Use the following procedure to enter time.
STEP 1: Press
The current time entry will appear in the Frequency/Entry display (Con is con-
tinuous).
STEP 2: Enter the minutes, press the decimal key; then enter the seconds.
STEP 3: Press
3.6.19. Threshold. The threshold level is the minimum amplitude of a counted noise spike.
Noise spikes below the threshold level will not be counted. Use the following procedure to
enter the threshold level. Any level from — 119dBm to +25dBm may be entered for the
3586A. Any level from — 116dBm to + 28dBm may be entered for the 3586B.
STEP 1: Determine the threshoid level to be entered in accord with the units selection.
| THSHLD
The current threshold level will appear in the Measurement/Entry display.
STEP 2: Press (Threshoid).
STEP 3: Enter the digits and decimal as required.
STEP 4: Press va
verre tr
[MEAS
©
| CONT
as appropriate.
STEP 5: Press
NOTE
Do not change the units selection after entering the Threshold
level, The Threshold and Offset entry parameters do not change
magnitude as a function of units selection.
3-9.20. Full Scale. Use AUTOmatic Full Scale. When AUTO is used, the instrument
automatically configures itself for the best signal to noise ratio obtainable without
overloading. It is possible to use the Entry mode during Impulse measurements. Note,
however, that the dynamic range with the instrument in Entry is less than it is with the instru-
ment in AUTO. Furthermore, there is no particular advantage to using the Entry mode.
3-9-21. Units, Averaging and Offset. These controls have no effect on the Impulse Noise
measurement. However, they do affect the input signal amplitude data that is presented in
the Measurement/Entry display during the Impulse measurement. The effects of these con-
trols are described in the paragraphs referenced below.
UNITS oi a cia eas 3-2-91
AVERAGING 112240400084 ie eas 3-2-93
OSTERN 3-2-98
Mr NT PF TT Y $ AL - ела 7 LTE hl
AFARFRIi RINES DF Ns
À CHAPTER TEN
NETWORK ANALYSIS
3-10-1. The insertion loss of signa! processing networkscan be measured on the -hp- 3586A.
Insertion loss is the effect of inserting a device between a specific source impedance and a
specific termination. À tracking Generator output on the rear panel of the instrument is the
source for the measurement. The frequency of the Tracking Generator Output tracks the
tuning of the instrument precisely. Its output level and output impedance are OdBm and 75
ohms respectively. In the simplest application, the Tracking Generator stimulates the device
under test and the level at the output of the device is measured with the selective level
measurement portion of the instrument. Since the level of the source is OdBm into 75 ohms,
the insertion loss of the device is simply the level displayed on the instrument. In other ap-
plications, the measurement may be more complicated because of changes in the impedance
of the source or termination. A typical insertion loss measurement is illustrated in Figure
3-10-1.
3-10-2. IMPEDANCE MODIFICATION.
3-10-3. Oftentimes, the source impedance and/or the impedance of the termination must be
modified to meet test requirements. The source impedance is increased by placing resistance
es in series with the output and reduced by placing the resistance in parallel with the output.
Altering the impedance of the termination is especially simple. Select the Bridged 75 ohm in-
put (Ri,= 10kQ |! SOpf) and terminate the device with the desired impedance. If the termina-
tion impedance is large, it will be necessary to include the effects of the 10k ohm input im-
pedance when selecting the terminating resistor.
LEVEL: LEVEL:
SOURCE IMPEDANCE | 738 DEVICE x.
EQUALS 50 OHMS +—0— UNDER pO
>
759 TEST
TRACKING 4 и РЗ m e BRIDGED 1500 500
ALA Му - - 75 OHM TERMINATION
SENERATOR INPUT
QUIPUT 804 500
N TERMINATION
IMPEDANCE
MODIFICATION
INSERTION LOSS EQUALS ~63. 1dB
3586-3-1b-1
Figure 3-10-1. Typical Insertion Loss Measurement.
3-79
L 195 TT SL ESP À KRANK FL? AVIVA L JOAN 137 4
3-10-4. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE.
3-10-53. Use the following procedure to precisely measure the insertion loss of a device. (Ac-
curacy nominally equal to + .25dB.)
STEP 1: Modify the impedance of the Tracking Generator.
STEP 2: Select the terminated 75 ohm input or select the Bridged 75 ohm input and ter-
minate the device as desired.
STEP 3: Connect all cables so that the only apparent remaining step is to connect the
device under test.
STEP 4: Configure the instrument as follows:
—Enter the frequency of the insertion loss measurement.
AUTO
Press Full Scale.
®
© 10dB
— Press Range
20Hz
—Press Bandwidth e 7
— Any units can be selected; dBm is assumed in this presentation.
STEP 5: Connect the source and termination cables together and read the level. Transfer
the reading into offset storage.
(Press ). Turn the Offset OFF-ON control ON.
MEAS
Press . The Measurement/Entry Display should now read 0dBm 0.
CONT |
This offset compensates for errors in the output level of the Tracking Generator and for out-
put level shifts due to unequal source and termination impedances.
STEP 6: Disconnect the source and termination cables and insert the device to be tested.
STEP 7: The level displayed is the insertion loss of the device for the conditions of the
test configuration.
3-80
VIVULL JJOVUMY ая TRI “113 plain
CHAPTER ELEVEN
HP-IB OPERATION
NOTE
It is advisable to lock the -hp- 3586A/B/C to the frequency
reference of the signal source during HP-IB operation (see
Paragraph 2-27). If this cannot be done, see Paragraph 3-11-10 for
an explanation of the difficulties that may arise and some alternate
solutions.
3-11-1. This chapter contains the instrument dependent information required to operate the
-hp- 3586A/B/C over the HP-IB. Directions for mechanically interfacing the instrument
with the HP-IB are given in Section II (see Paragraph 2-29). The operator should be familiar
with the manual operation of the instrument before attempting to operate it over the HP-1B.
3-11-2. THE HP-IB.
3-11-3. The Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus (HP-IB)! is a means of transferring messages in
digital form between two or more HP-IB compatible devices. An HP-IB compatible device
is an instrument, calculator, computer or peripheral device that is designed to be interfaced
using the HP-IB. All data on the HP-IB serve one of four purposes. They either program in-
strument functions, transfer measurement data, coordinate instrument operation or manage
the system. The ability to communicate these messages creates several new and powerful
capabilities:
— Instrument operation can be automated.
— Two or more instruments can be integrated to form a system. The system will include all
of the individual instrument capabilties plus new capabilities created by the coordinated
operation of the instruments. |
— Data can be manipulated and stored by a calculator or computer.
— Controller peripherals such as plotters and printers provide a permanent record of data in
a variety of formats.
It is not unusal to see all of these advantages realized in a single application of the HP-IB. A
typical HP-IB system is illustrated in Figure 3-11-1a. An abridged description of the HP-IB
is contained in Figure 3-11-1b.
3-11-4. Introductory Programming Guide.
3-11-5. The quickest and easiest way to get started with the HP-IB is to use an Introductory
Programming Guide. The guide contains descriptions and exercises that illustrate all of the
-hp- 3586 A/B/C HP-1B operations and enough of the controlier I/O operations to allow the
| HP-IB is Hewlett-Packard Company's implementation of TEEF Standard 488-1975, “Standard Digital Interface for Pro-
grammabie Instrumentation’.
3-81
HE-115 Uperauon
3-82
operator to write practical programs, It may take as little as 40 minutes for an inexperienced
operator to complete all of the exercises in the guide.
3-11-6. The Introductory Programming Guide available for the -hp- 3586A/B/C is the
3586/9825 HP-IB Introductory Programming Guide. Copies of the Introductory Program-
ming Guide will be available. Contact your nearest -hp- Sales and Service office for more in-
formation.
3-11-7. Quick Reference Guide.
3-11-8. À comprehensive, but very succinct, description of the 3586A/B/C HP-IB opera-
tion will be available for those operators who are already experienced with the HP-IB. Con-
tact your nearest -hp- Sales and Service office for more information.
3-11-3, Operating The -hp- 3586A/B/C Over The HP-IB.
3-11-10, Frequency Stability Considerations. If possible, lock the instrument to the fre-
quency reference of the signal source. This will simplify the tuning routine in the controller
program. A selective level meter does not require good frequency accuracy to make highly
accurate level measurements. (A good frequency reference only makes the instrument easier
to tune.) In an -hp- 3586 not equipped with Option 004, tuning errors of 200Hz are not un-
common at higher frequencies. When the 20Hz Bandwidth in one of these instruments is
used, it is possible that the Bandpass of the instrument will not include the Entry Frequency.
This is not really a problem when the instrument is operated in a local mode. The operator
can quickly search for the signal and/or verify that the instrument is tuned to the proper
signal using the Frequency controls. Unfortunately, a routine in a program that does the
same thing can be very complicated depending on the frequency spectrum in the vicinity of
the desired signal. Of course, if the spectrum is uncomplicated, the tuning routine may be
quite simple. The operator must evaluate each application. Locking the -hp- 3586A/B/C to
the frequency reference of the signal source eliminates the need for a search and verify
routine in the controller program. When this is done, the tuning procedure is reduced to
simply programming the Entry Frequency. If it is impossible to lock the signal source and
the -hp-3586A/B/C together, use a high accuracy frequency reference. This will reduce the
frequency error which, in turn, usually simplifies the required search and verify routine in
the controller program.
3-11-11. Calibration. The instrument automatically calibrates itself approximately every
three minutes when it is in the local mode and AUTOmatic CALibration is on. During
remote operation, the three minute calibration is disabled. This is done because pseudo ran-
dom calibrations would make the execution time of the program statements unpredictable,
If the instrument specifications are to be maintained, every three minutes, the controller
must direct the instrument to calibrate itself. Done this way, the calibration is predictable
and cannot interrupt other programming statements. The automatic calibration function is
activated using an instrument programming code (explained in subsequent paragraphs). If
your system controller has clock functions and statements, the instruction to calibrate can be
sent on the basis of time (i.e. - every three minutes). If the controller has no clock functions,
the calibration cycle must be based on some other criteria e.g. every 100 measurements.
NOTE
If the instrument is to meet its specifications, it must be forced to
calibrate at least once every three minutes.
МОСС! ЗОО А ГУ К.
CS
Model 3580A/ 8/0
-hp- 9871A
PRINTER
€
т
ÉL.
J
-hp-3335A -hp- S823A
су CALCULATOR
SYNTHESIZER CONTROLLER
{43
Ë
co
x
-hp- 3586A
UNIT UNDER TEST
e.q., SWITCHED
ACCESS
MEASUREMENT
SYSTEM
Figure 3-11-1a. Typical HP-IB System.
3-11-12. HP-1B Operating Principle.
3-11-13. Controller. The HP-IB Input/Output ports of all devices on the bus are connected
to the same data lines. The devices share the data lines as desired by the active controller.
The active controller designates which device will send data and which device or devices will
receive data. The system controller, which is usually a calculator or computer, is the active
controller most of the time. (The active controller 15 the device directing data transfers at any
given time.) However, it may allow another device to be the active controlier.
3-11-14, Talkers. Any device that can send data over the bus is a ““talker”. The -hp-
3586A/B/C is a talker since it can output measurement data and the values of all entered
parameters such as frequency and time. All calculators and computers are talkers. Only one
talker may be active at a time. The active talker is the talker that is currently directed to send
data.
3-11-15. Listeners. Any device that can receive data over the bus is a ““listener”*, The -hp-
3586A/B/C is a listener since it can receive codes that activate various mstrument functions.
Virtually all calculators and computers are listeners. Obviously, it is possible for a device to
be a talker part of the time and a listener at other times since the -hp-3586A/B/C, all
calculators and all computers are both talkers and listeners. Up to fourteen active listeners
can be on the bus at the same time. An active listener is a listener that is currently directed to
receive data.
3.11-16. Addressing. The active controller must send commands to specific instruments in
order to direct information transfer. For example, only one device should be directed to talk
during a data transfer. Also, the message being sent may be intended for only certain devices
on the bus. Each HP-IB compatible device has at least one unique ‘“address’’. This address
is used by the controller to specify that particular device. When a device, for example the
-hp- 3586A/B/C, is both a talker and a listener, it has separate addresses for each mode.
HP-i3 Operation
3-83
HP-1B Uperation Model 3586A/ B/C
Therefore, when a controller addresses a device, it also specifies whether the device is to talk
or listen. The factory preset talk and listen addresses for the -hp- 3586A/B/C are:
Talk P
Listen 8 (zero)
BUS STRUCTURE
TO OTHER DEVICES
4
ff
DEVICE À
TALKS, LISTENS Enid
AN CONTROLS
(TR TET OUTPUT
je.g, calculator! (8 signal fines]
DEVICE E
TALKS AND =
LISTENS HANDSHAKE
to.g.. digital voltmeter) AT LL {Data Transfer}
“LE | {3 signal lines)
DEVICE € =]
LISTENS ORLY
BUS
eg, signal generator) (| ih Е МАМАСЕМЕМТ
JL : (9 signaf lines:
DEVICE D Filey
TALKS ONLY
Lace | DIO1.. 8
{e.g., tape reader}
[ЗАЛ
неее ARFD
mmr NAC
„EC
AT
SR
— НЕМ
FEO
The Hewlett Packard Interface Bus (HP-IB) consists of sixteen active signal lines that are used to interconnect up
to fifteen devices {e.g.-instruments}. The sixteen signal lines are categorized according to function. The
categories are DATA, HANDSHAKE and GENERAL INTERFACE MANAGEMENT fines. The structure of the НР-1В
is illustrated above.
DATA LINES — Eight DATA lines are used to carry instrument addresses, instrument contro! instructions,
measurement results and instrument status information in bit parallel, byte serial form. Ordinarily, a seven bit
ASCII] code represents each byte of DATA. The eighth bit is available for parity checking, Data is sent over the
DATA tines in both directions.
HANDSHAKE (DAV, NRFD, NDAC} — Data is transferred between devices using an interlocked “handshake””
technique. This method causes the data to be moved at a rate determined by the siowest device involved in the
transfer. The HANDSHAKE LINES coordinate the asynchronous data transfer by communicating the status of
the transfer to the device sending the data (Talker), the device receiving the data (Listener) and the device con-
trolling the transfer {Controiier),
GENERAL INTERFACE MANAGEMENT LINES — These five lines operate independently and in conjunction to
send Bus Management Messages to the devices connected to the HP-iB. Each line has a precise definition that is
either sent or not sent depending on the truth state of the line. The lines are defined as foilows:
Attention (ATN) — Identifies ASCII characters on the DATA lines as a command (command mode)
or as data to be transferred (data mode}.
Remote Enable {REN} — in conjunction with the ATN Line, places the instrument in the Remote
mode,
Ender Identify (EOI) — Indicates the last character of a multibyte data message. Also used with At-
tention Line to conduct a parallel poll.
Service Request {SRQ) — À device on the bus uses this line to request service from the controller.
Interface Clear (IFC) — Halts all bus activity,
Figure 3-11-1b. Abridged Description Of The HP-IB.
3-84
Model 3D80A/ B/C HP-IB Operation
Some Hewlett-Packard controllers (and possibly others) required a coded form of the above
addresses called a Device Address. The factory selected Device Address for the -hp-
3586A/B/C is (16) sixteen. The talk and listen addresses, and therefore the Device Address,
can be changed if desired (see Appendix C, Address Selection). Actually, there is no reason
to change these addresses unless another device with the same address, such as an additional
-hp- 3586A/B/C, is added to the system.
3-11-17. Synthesizing Controller Statements For instrument Operation.
3-11-18. The interface between the operator and the instrument 15 changed drastically when
an instrument is operated over the HP-IB. During non-HP-IB operation, the operator ac-
tuates front panel controls that are labeled according to function. Often, only a single con-
trol is used to activate an instrument function. Outputting measurement data consists simply
of looking at the front panel display! In contrast, during HP-IB operation, the operator
typically faces a keyboard of alpha-numeric characters. Neither the key functions nor their
labels correspond to the instrument operation. The natural question 1s: “What instructions
must be entered on the controller to cause a particular action in the instrument?” This
subsection explains how to answer that question.
3-11-19. An ideal HP-IB operating section in an instrument manual would give specific in-
structions such as:
“To initiate a measurement in the -hp- 3586A/B/C, enter trg 716 on the controller.”
This instruction is very specific and leaves little room for error. Unfortunately, it is not
possible to give such specific instructions. Each HP-IB compatible device (e.g., the
-hp- 3586A/B/C) can be used in systems equipped with various Hewlett-Packard controllers
as well as controllers produced by other manufacturers. Likewise, many different in-
struments are used with each controller. As a result of this diversity, it is impossible to know
which instruments and controllers will be used together in a system. Since it is not known
which controller will be used in a system, the operating instructions for an instrument can
only describe the interface of that particular instrument with the HP-IB. An analogous
situation exists for the controller operating instructions. Almost all statements sent over the
HP-IB to operate an instrument contain a portion that depends on the individual instrument
and a portion that depends on the controller used in the system. It is the operator who must
synthesize the required statement from information found partially ın the instrument
documentation and partially in the controller documentation. The concept of Bus Messages,
presented in the next paragraph, 1s a significant aid to this process.
3-11-20. Bus Messages. When all of the bus operations are carefully analyzed according to
how they are physically implemented on the HP-IB, twelve unique BUS MESSAGES are
found.
The Data Message implements the primary purpose of the HP-IB. It is used to send the
codes that activate instrument functions and for transferring measurement data from one
device to another. This message is subdivided into Data Send and Data Receive for operator
convenience. Technically, (i.e., according to physical implementation) there is no difference
between Data Messages used to send and receive information to and from the instrument.
The Trigger Message causes simultaneous action in two or more devices on the bus. The ac-
tion in a particular device depends on the design of that instrument. In the
-hp- 3586A/B/C, it causes an immediate measurement. Actually, this message can be used
3-85
HP-1B Operation Model 3336A/85/C
to cause an action in a single device, but that capability is incidental to its real purpose. The
remaining ten Bus Messages are used to manage the system. Their only purpose 1s to
facilitate the implementation of the Data and Trigger Messages.
— DATA
Data Send (to -hp- 3586A/B/C)
Data Receive (from -hp- 3586A/B/C)
— TRIGGER
| —REMOTE
System — LOCAL
Management _ | LOCAL LOCKOUT
Messages —CLEAR LOCKOUT/RETURN TO LOCAL
CLEAR
— REQUIRE SERVICE
—STATUS BYTE
—PASS CONTROL
~~ ABORT
—STATUS BIT
i—
3-11-21. Implementing Bus Messages. Recall that the objective is to answer the question:
“What instructions must be entered on the controller to cause a particular action in the in-
strument?”” This question is answered by converting the Bus Messages into controller
statements that cause the desired action in the instrument when executed on the controiler.
Since these twelve messages describe every possible HP-IB Operation, converting them to
controller statements will enable the operator to implement every possible HP-1B operation.
A procedure for converting the Bus Messages to controller statements is given in the follow-
ing paragraphs.
NOTE
If the controller used in your system is an -hp- 9825A Calculator,
substitute the HPL Bus Message Implementation Table C-1 in Ap-
pendix C for the worksheet following Paragraph 3-11-25. The
9825A controller statements that implement each bus message are
given in this table. If you do make this substitution, be sure to
study the descriptions of the Bus Messages thoroughly (see Index,
Table 3-11-1). The information in these descriptions is not
restricted to that which is required to convert the Bus Messages.
3-11-22. Step One. Choose one of the Bus Messages for conversion. Begin with the System
Management Messages since they are usually more easily converted to controller statements
than either the Trigger or Data Messages. Locate the description of the Bus Message in this
manual. An index for the Bus Messages is presented in Table 3-11-1. The description of each
message contains the following information as applicable:
— The response of the -hp- 3586A/B/C to the message.
—The device dependent information required for the controller statement.
— Any prerequisite operations.
—Suggestions for optimizing the use of the message.
The device dependent information required for the controller statement is always found
under the heading Implementation.
3-86
VIOUEL 3325047 5/1 7-15 UpEration
Table 3-11-1. Bus Message Index
(0
= Bus Message Paragraph
SYSTEM MANAGEMENT MESSAGES
Remote 3-11-28
Loca? 3-11-30
Local Lockout 3-11-32
Clear Lockout/Set Local 3-11-34
Clear 3-11-36
Require Service 3-11-38
Status Byte 3-11-40
Status Bit 3-11-44
Pass Control 3-11-45
Abort 3-11-46
TRIGGER 3-11-47
DATA
Data Send (to -hp- 3586A/8/C} 3-11-51
Data Receive {from -hp- 3586A/8/C} 3-11-64
NOTE
1, The Require Service Message originates at the instrument
rather than at the controller. Consequently, there is no controller
message that implements this message. This does not diminish the
importance of this message to the operator. Study it carefully in
turn,
e > 2. The Status Bit, Pass Control and Abort Messages cannot be
ces implemented because the -hp- 3586A/B/C does not have the
capacity or the need to respond to them.
3-11-23. Step Two. Find the description of the selected Bus Message in the controller
documentation. This description will usually consist of the following information:
One or more controller statements that implement the message.
—Mnemonics for the controller statements.
—Syntax of the controller statements.
— Any prerequisite operations.
When searching for a message in the controller documentation, it is usually best to start with
the Table of Contents. If the message is not referenced there, look in the index. In order for
the twelve Bus Messages to be useful, the controller documentation must organize the In-
put/Output Operation programming statements according to the definitions of the twelve
messages. It would be unusual for any manufacturer of controllers to do otherwise since the
definitions of the bus messages organize all bus operations according to how they are
physically implemented. However, the exact nomenclature used to describe the Bus
Messages may vary from one manufacturer to another. It is worthwhile to become familiar
with the HP-1B section of the controller documentation before attempting to implement any
Bus Messages. This is especially true 1f the controller was not manufactured by Hewlett-
Packard. |
й NOTE
с If your controller documentation does not contain a programming
statement for a particular Bus Message, it may be that the con-
troller is not capable of implementing the message.
3-87
HP-1B uperauon
3-88
Model 3580A/B/C
3-11-24. Step Three. Integrate the device dependent information, found in STEP ONE,
with the controller dependent information found in STEP TWO. The syntax of the con-
troller statement explains how this should be done.
3-11-25. Step Four, The operator only needs to translate the twelve Bus Messages into con-
troller statements once. Record the statements that implement each bus message in the
worksheet following this paragraph as they are found. In the future, this table can be used as
a quick reference when writing programs. The following example will clarify this procedure
and illustrate the kinds of problems you may encounter,
EXAMPLE:
Step |
Step 2
The objective of this example is to find a specific controller
statement that wili implement the Remote Message. The con-
troller will be the -hp- 9825A Calculator.
The location of the Remote Message is found in the Bus
Message Index given in Table 3-11-1. It is described in
Paragraph 3-2-28. According to the description, the instru-
ment will switch to the remote operating mode when a Remote
Message is received. Also, the listen address, which is 9 (zero)
for the -hp- 3586A/B/C will be required for the controller
statement. Note that the names of most Bus Messages suggest
their action.
The HP-IB operations of the -hp- 9825A Calculator are ex-
plained in the General 1/O and Extended 1/O Programming
Manuals. (General 1/0 Programming Manual Part No. is
09825-90024. Extended I/O Programming Manual Part No. is
09825-90025.) Pages 14 and 22 are referenced in the index of
the Extended 1/0 Manual under the heading Remote. a com-
plete description of how to implement the Remote Message
and an example is presented on page 22. The required program
statement 1s:
rem Select Code (Device Address)
but what is a Select Code or a Device Address? There is little in
the Extended 1/0 Manual to answer this question. However,
checking the index of the General 1/0 Manual, under the
heading Addressing, produces results. Descriptions of the
Select Code and the Device Address are found on pages 4 and
47 respectively. The Select Code is quickly determined to be
seven (7). The Device Address is not quite so easy. On page 38
of the General I/O Programming Manual, it states that the
Device Address is the decimal equivalent of the five least
significant bits of the binary code for the instrument’s talker
and/or listen addresses. The listen address of the -hp-
3586A/B/C is given under the heading Implementation in the
description of the Remote Message.
MSA LSB
ras RS
LISTEN 0 (zero) 00110000
16
MOCEl SIS0A/ 5/1
Step 3
The binary equivalent of these ASCII characters is found us-
ing the ASCII Character Code Table in an Appendix of the
General 1/0 Manual. the decimal equivalent of the five least
significant bits is sixteen (16).
The complete -hp- 9825A Calculator statement that im-
plements the Remote Message is:
rem 716
Note that the Device Address of the -hp- 3586A/B/C was
given in Paragraph 3-11-16 along with the talk and listen ad-
dresses. The procedure for finding the Device Address was in-
cluded for the sake of an example.
The Select Code is the address of the Input/Output card that
plugs into the 9825. It is usually seven (7) for the HP-IB opera-
tions.
HP-1B Operafion
3-89
HP-1B Operation Model 3586A/B/C
DATA (send to 3586A/B/C) A
Defined in ae
Paragraph 3-11-51.
bas CPE /
DATA {receive)
Defined in
Paragraph 3-11-64,
©
Program Statements That Implement Bus Messages For Controller
3-90
VIQUEL 3JODA/ M/U HiP-15 Operation
и TRIGGER
NA Defined in
Paragraph 3-1 1-47,
REMOTE
Defined in
Paragraph 3-11-28.
LOCAL
Defined in
Paragraph 3-11-30.
7 LOCAL LOCKOUT
“ни Defined in
Paragraph 3-11-32.
CLEAR LOCKOUT AND SET LOCAL
Defined in
Paragraph 3-1 1-34.
CLEAR
Defined in
Paragraph 3-11-36.
STATUS BYTE
Defined in
FA Paragraph 3-11-40,
Program Statements That implement Bus Messages For Controller. (Cont'd).
3-91
HP-1B Uperation
3-92
3-11-26. System Management Messages.
3-11-27. The purpose of these ten Bus Messages is to manage the system so that Data and
Trigger Messages can be sent as desired.
3-11-28. Remote. When it is first turned on, the -hp- 3586A/B/C 1s in the LOCAL mode
and under front-panel control. In order to be operated over the HP-IB, it must be switched
to the Remote mode. The Remote Message switches the instrument to the Remote Mode. In
this mode, the oniy operational front-panel controls are Volume, Line Switch and usually
Local unless it has been disabled (see Local Lockout Message Paragraph 3-11-32). All other
instrument functions are activated over the HP-IB through the system controller, The initial
configuration of the instrument, when it is switched to Remote, is determined by the settings
of the front panel controls at the time it was switched.
3-11-29. Implementation. The syntax and mnemonics for the program statement(s) that im-
plements the Remote Message are found in the controlier documentation. Only the listen ad-
dress, which is 8 (Zero) for the -hp- 3586A/B/C, must come from the instrument documen-
tation. A technical description of the implementation of the Remote Message 1s presented in
Figure A-4 of Appendix A. |
3-11-30. Local. The Local Message switches the -hp- 3586A/B/C from Remote to Local
operation. The instrument is operated using front panel controls while in the Local mode.
Another way of switching the instrument to the Local mode is to actuate the front-panel
LOCAL control, providing it has not been disabled (see Local Lockout Message Paragraph
3-11-32).
3-11-31. Implementation. The syntax and mnemonics for the program statement that im-
plements the Local Message are found in the controller documentation. Only the listen ad-
dress, which is 9 (zero) for the -hp- 3586A/B/C, is taken from the instrument documenta-
tion. An instrument must be addressed to listen in order for it to enter the Local mode. A
technical description of the Local Message implementation is presented in Figure A-5 of Ap-
pendix A.
3-11-32. Local Lockout. The Local Lockout Message disables the LOCAL control on the
front panel of the instrument. This prevents the casual passer-by from interfering with
system operation by pressing buttons. The instrument can still be switched to Local by send-
ing a Local Message over the HP-1B. If the LOCAL control is locked out and the instrument
is switched to Local using the Local Message, the LOCAL control will remain disabled.
When the instrument is again switched to Remote, the front panel LOCAL control will still
be locked out. Since Local Lockout is a universal message, all devices on the HP-IB with
Local Lockout capability will respond when this message 1s sent.
3-11-33. Implementation. The entire program statement that implements the Local
Lockout Message is found in the controller documentation. No part of the program state-
ment depends on the individual instrument. A technical description of the Local Lockout
Message implementation is presented in Figure A-6 of Appendix A.
3-11-34. Clear Lockout And Return To Local. This is a universal message that switches ali
instruments on the HP-IB to the Local mode and ciears all Local Lockout conditions. Other
methods of accomplishing the same thing are to disconnect the HP-IB cable, turn the con-
trolier off or turn off the individual devices in the system.
MOCdel 3580A/B/C
A
1
n
{IYELAGLI 9250157747 D/ +
3-11-35. Implementation. The entire progam statement that implements the Clear Lockout
and Set Local Message is found in the controller documentation. No part of the program
statement depends on the individual instrument. A technical description of the Clear
Lockout and Set Local Message implementation is presented in Figure A-7 of Appendix A.
3-22-36. Clear. The Clear Message resets instruments to a predefined state. The predefined
state of the -hp- 3586A/B/C is identical to the conditions at turn-on except that all stored
front panel configurations are retained. The Clear Message can be a universal instruction for
all devices on the bus capable of responding or it can be sent to addressed devices only.
3-11-37. Implementation. When the Clear Message is a universal instruction, the entire pro-
gram statement that implements it is found in the controller documentation. When it is an
addressed instruction, the syntax and mnemonics of the program statement that implement
it are found in the controller documentation. Only the instrument listen address, which is €
(zero) for the -hp- 3586A/B/C, is taken from the instrument documentation. A technical
description of the Clear Message implementation is presented in Figure A-10 of Appendix A.
3-11-38. Require Service. The Require Service Message is a request for service which is sent
from a device on the HP-IB to the active controller. Any of the following conditions in the
-hp- 3586A/B/C will generate a Require Service Message:
— Received an unrecognizable string.
— Unable to calibrate.
—Local oscillator not locked.
— Tone not present for S/N or Phase Jitter Measurements.
—Attempt to enter Full Scale level while in AUTOrange.
The Require Service Message is completely independent of all other bus activity, It is sent on
a single line (wire) called the SRQ Line, whose state is either true or false. This line is shared
by all devices on the HP-IB. When a Require Service Message is received, the controller
must determine which device or devices are requesting service. It does this by conducting a
Serial Poll. Each polied device responds by sending a Status Byte which indicates, among
other things, whether or not the instrument requested service. Serial Polling and Status Byte
Messages are explained fully in the discussion of the Status Byte Message (see Paragraph
3-11-40}. The Require Service Message will be cleared when the device sending it is polled or
if the condition causing it disappears. In some applications, the controller is programmed to
interrupt its main routine and respond to a Require Service Message immediately. Alter-
natively, it may periodically check the status of the Service Request line and respond when a
request 1s discovered. Considering the problems that generate a Require Service Message in
the -hp- 3586A/B/C, interrupting the main routine and servicing the request immediately
seems advisable,
3-11-39. Implementation. The Require Service Message originates in the devices on the bus.
A technical description of its implementation is presented in Figure A-8 of Appendix A.
3-11-40. Status Byte. A Status Byte Message is sent by a device on the bus to the active con-
troller. The individual bits of the Status Byte indicate the status of various device
(instrument) functions and whether or not the instrument requested service (see Paragraph
3-11-41). The definition of each bit in the -hp- 3586A/B/C Status Byte Message is presented
in Table 3-11-2. Once the Status Byte of an instrument is in the controller, the status of the
instrument functions assigned to the bits can be determined by examining the truth state of
each bit. The controller then takes appropriate action. For example, if bit 3 of the -hp-
3586A/B/C Status Byte is true, the controller might print a message advising the operator
that a tone is required during S/N and Phase Jitter Measurements.
FF ~1D VUCLALIVIL
3-93
Fil -12 PCE atu
3-94
Table 3-11-2. True State Definitions Of The Bits in The -hp- 3586A/B/C Status Byte.
True Stato Definition
Te
=
Received unrecognizable string of ASCH characters.
Unable to calibrate.
Local oscillator uniocked.
Tone not present for S/N or Phase Jitter measurements.
Attempt to enter Full Scale level while in AUTOrange.
Reference not locked to external standard.
This instrument requested service.
Not used.
1 DH EJ RY es СО
3-11-41. Status Bytes are requested by the controller. The controller requests Status Bytes
from instruments by conducting a Serial Poll (see Paragraph 3-11-42). Usually, a Serial Poll
is conducted in response to a Require Service Message sent by an instrument on the HP-IB.
Occasionally, a Serial Poll is conducted even though a Require Service Message was not
received by the controller. The programmer may wish to check the status of an instrument
function that is encoded in the Status Byte but does not generate a Service Request. There is
only one such function in the -hp- 3586A/B/C. The true state of bit 5 is defined as: The
reference is not locked to an external frequency standard. Since this is a normal operating
mode, it will not cause a Service Request. When the system uses an external frequency stan-
dard, a programmer might routinely check this instrument function at the beginning of each
program.
3-11-42. Serial Polling. A Serial Poll is a routine in the program that sequentially requests a
Status Byte from some or all devices on the HP-IB. The structure of the routine depends on
the way in which the controller implements a Serial Poll and the purpose of the Poll. À flow
chart of a Serial Poll that would be conducted in response to a Require Service Message is
presented in Figure 3-11-2. In this example, the controller uses separate Serial Poll enable
and Serial Poll disable program statements. Some controliers have a single program state-
ment that enables a Serial Poll, polls the addressed device and then disables the Serial Poli.
In these cases, a Serial Poll of the system consists of a series of individual Serial Polls on
each device. The controller may interrupt the main routine and call up a Serial Poll
subroutine immediately whenever a Require Service Message is received or, alternatively, the
need for service may be detected by periodic checks in the program. Recall that Serial Polls
are sometimes conducted on a single device to learn the status of an instrument function that
is encoded in the Status Byte but does not generate a Require Service Message.
3-11-43. Implementation. The syntax and mnemonics for the controller statements that im-
plement a Serial Poll are found in the controller documentation. The structure of the Serial
Poll routine is developed by the programmer in accord with the total system. Only the listen
addresses of the devices to be polled and the definitions of the lists in the Status Byte are
taken from the instrument documentation. The listen address of the -hp- 3586A/B/C is 9
(zero). À technical description of the Status Byte Message implementation is presented in
Figure A-9 of Appendix À.
3-11-44. Status Bit. The Status Bit message is sent from a device on the bus to the active
controller. It communicates the status of the device to the active controller. Since it is a
single bit message, it can only report the truth state of one predefined statement. The
predefined statement may describe a single instrument function or the entire instrument.
Status Bit messages are sent in response to a Parallel Poll. The advantage of Parallel Polling
is that up to eight instruments can be checked at one time. In other words, eight Status Bit
messages can be received by the controller at one time. The -hp- 3586A/B/C does not res-
pond to a parallel poll. See either the controller documentation or the documentation of an
instrument that does respond to a parallel poll for more information on the Status Bit
message.
АТА J2J00A 5/1
PLVUUL JIOUA/ D/X 112 TIE Asp Glin
3-11-45. Pass Control. The Pass Control message transfers the management of the bus
п from the system controller to another device in the system. The -hp- 3586A/B/C does not
Co? have controller capabilities. See either the system controller documentation or the documen-
tation of a device that does have controller capabilities for more information on this
message.
3-11-46. Abort. The Abort message is used by the system controller to regain control of the
HP-IB from an active controller. When received, the instrument stops talking or listening.
See the system controller documentation for more information on this message.
Serial Poll Enable.
Poll Device A.
Did YES
Device A
Request |
и Service?
Lu Evaluate Status Byte.
Ро! Device В Corrective Action {eg
-Print Message To
Operator}.
|
Did YES
Device B
Request
Service? |
NO Evaluate Status Byte.
Serial Poll Disable. Corrective Action (eg
-Print Message To
Operator}.
EN
Figure 3-11-2. Flow Chart For Typical Serial Poll.
3-95
BALE “ALI NINE ALINIAS
3-96
3-11-47. Simuitaneous Device Action On The HP-IB (The Trigger Message).
3-11-48. The Trigger Message causes a predefined response in each device receiving it. In the
-hp- 3586A/B/C, the predefined response is an immediate measurement. When the Trigger
Message is sent to more than one device, the predefined response in all devices occurs
simultaneously.
3-11-49. Whenever the -hp- 3586A/B/C is remotely tuned to a new signal or whenever the
input signal level is changed, time must be provided for the IF amplifiers in the instrument to
adjust to the new signal conditions. If a measurement is taken immediately after any change
that affects the signal level in the IF amplifiers, the instrument accuracy is reduced. There
are two ASCII instructions that trigger a measurement in the -hp- 3586A/B/C. One of the
instructions is the group Trigger Message just described. It is used to trigger a measurement
in concert with other device-dependent actions on the bus. When this trigger message is
used, settling time must be provided between the instructions that set the test conditions and
the trigger message. The amount of time required varies with the Bandwidth selection and
the accuracy desired. Settling time requirements for each Bandwidth selection and normal
instrument accuracy are given in Table 3-11-3. The other trigger command is the programm-
ing code TR. It is sent only to the -hp- 3586 A/B/C and does not cause a group action. Settl-
ing time for the Bandwidth selection is automatically allotted when this trigger message is
received. The programming code TR should be used to trigger measurements whenever
simultaneous instrument action is not required.
Table 3-11-3. -hp- 3586A Settling Time Requirements.
Bandwidth Minimam
tin Hz) Settling Time (mSec)
3100 150
WTD 150
2000 150
1740 150
400 150
20 250
3-11-50. Implementation. The syntax and mnemonics for the program statement that im-
plement the Trigger Message are found in the contfrolier documentation. Only the instru-
ment listen address, which is В (zero) for the -hp- 3586 A/B/C, must come from the instru-
ment documentation. A technical description of the Trigger Message implementation is pre-
sent in Figure A-3 in Appendix A.
3-11-51. Remote Operation Of The -hp- 3586A/B/C.
3-11-52. Data Message. All of the functions of the -hp- 3586A/B/C can be activated
remotely by sending Instrument Programming Codes over the HP-IB, Generally, these in-
strument functions are activated by front panel controls when non-HP-IB operation is used.
The Instrument Programming Codes are sent using the Data Message.
3-11-53. Implementation. Usually, there are several controller statements that will imple-
ment the Data Message. Each statement will have some unique advantage. Thoroughly
research this Bus Message in the controller documentation to be certain you are using the op-
timum statement for your application. The syntax and mnemonics for the controller
statements that implement the Data Message are found in the controller documentation. The
instrument listen address, which is 9 (zero) for the -hp- 3586 A/B/C, and the instrument pro-
gramming codes must come from the instrument documentation, The instrument program-
ming codes and their format are presented in the paragraphs that foliow.
YI IU EI es
Model 3586A/B/C
3-11-54. Instrument Programming Codes. All of the -hp- 3586A/B/C programming codes
and their binary, octal, decimal and heaxadecimal values are presented in Table 3-11-4. Each
programming code is an instruction to the instrument. In most cases, sending these instruc-
tions corresponds to pressing front panel controls during local operation. For instance,
receiving the ASCII characters CH1 during Remote operation has the same effect as press-
ing during local operation, There are exceptions to this one-to-one relationship. All
of the “on/off” controls, the dB and Volume controls, all controls in the Frequency Tune
group and instrument functions not controllable from the front panel. Each of these excep-
tions is explained separately in the paragraphs that follow.
3-11-35. On/Off Controls. There are separate ASCII Instructions for the On and Off states
of the CALibration, OFFSET, COUNTER and Volume Controls. The Calibration On pro-
gramming codes does more than just turn the Calibration on. Once the Calibration is
already on, it is used to trigger an immediate calibration in the instrument.
3-11-56. dB Instruction. When operating in the Remote mode, the suffix for Full Scale and
Offset entries is always the (positive) dB instruction. In effect, sending this code is like press-
ing KHz during local operation. There is no instrument programming code corres-
ponding to the May control. To enter negative Offset or Full Scale Levels, a negative
number is entered before the (positive) dB instruction.
3-11-57. Volume On/Off. The volume ON and Volume OFF instructions switch the audio
signal on and off. When the audio signal is switched on, the level is controlled by the front
panel volume control even though the instrument is in the Remote mode. This instrument
function is not controllable from the front panel.
3-11-38. Frequency Tune Controls. None of the controls in this group can be actuated over
the HP-IB. The Frequency Tune Control is inherently a manual control. During Remote
operation, continuous tuning is achieved by programming the Frequency Step for the desire
resolution and using the and (©) instructions to change the frequency.
3-11-59. Display Calibration Constant. This instruction causes the calibration constant,
used by the instrument to correct level readings to be displayed in the Amplitude/Entry
display. This information is usually of interest to calibration and repair technicians. There is
no front panel control corresponding to this instruction.
3-11-60. Fast Calibration. When a Fast Calibration is executed, the instrument is only
calibrated on its current range and in the widest bandwidth. This Calibration mode can be
used in any of the Selective Measurement Modes. It was designed for use during automated
surveillance of telecommunications systems. In this application, the instrument sequentially
checks the level of hundreds of individual message channels.
HP-1B Operation
3-97
HP-1B Operation
3-98
Table 3-11-4. Instrument Programming Codes.
Model 3>80A/ 3/C
ASCII Binary Octai Decimal Hexadecimal
instruction Characters Code Code Code Code
MEASUREMENT
Wideband WwW 01010111 127 87
B 01000010 102 66 42
Selective
LOw DiSTortion M 01001101 115 77 40
1 00110001 61 49 31
LOw NOISE (3586C, see M2} M 01001101 135 77 4D
6 00110110 66 54 36
588 Channet
NOISE/DEMODulation М 01001101 115 77 45
{Low Noise, 3586C only) 2 00110010 62 50 32
1010Hz, TONE 1004 Hz M 01001101 115 77 40
3 00710011 63 51 33
CARRIER M 01001101 115 77 40
4 00110100 64 52 34
TONE 800Hz, 2600Hz M 01001101 115 77 45
5 00110101 65 53 35
db JITTER M 01001101 115 77 40
7 00117101711 67 55 37
NOISE/ TONE M 01001101 115 77 4D
8 00111000 70 56 38
IMPULSE M 01001101 116 77 AD
9 00111001 71 57 39
Impulse START 5 OTO10011 123 83 53
| 01001001 111 73 49
MEASUREMENT/ENTRY
Range
10d8 R 01010010 122 82 52
1 001 10001 61 49 31
* COdB A 01010010 122 82 52
2 00110010 62 50 32
Full Scale
AUTOmatic F 01000110 106 70 46
1 00% 10001 61 49 31
ENTRY F 01000110 106 70 46
2 00110010 62 50 32
AVErage Off A 01000001 101 65 41
В 00110000 60 48 30
AVErage On A 01000001 101 65 41
1 00110001 61 49 31
UNIT
dBm U 01010101 125 85 55
1 00110001 61 49 31
dBpw (dBv 1V, 3586C} U 01010101 125 85 55
2 00110010 62 50 32
¡VIOUEL 335047 13/1.
Table 3-11-4. Instrument Programming Codes (Cont'd).
Or-1n Uperatnon
ASCII Binary {etal Decimal Hexadecimal
Instruction Characters Code Code Code Code
dB .775v U 01010101 125 85 55
3 00110011 63 51 33
OFFSET Off O 01001111 117 79 45
S 01010011 123 83
9 00110000 60 48 30
OFFSET On O 01001111 117 73 4F
S 01010011 123 83 53
1 00110001 61 49 31
TERMINATION
A B с
10kH5OptH750; | 10k|;5Op#7 50} 500 T 01010100 124 84 54
1 00110001 61 49 31
759 759 750 T 01010100 124 84 54
2 00110010 82 50 32
1500 1240 10k|j5Opf(5OR! T 01010100 124 84 54
3 00110011 63 51 33
1359 10k} {SOpH 75 T 01010100 124 84 54
4 00119100 64 52 34
Bridged-6000 Sridged-6001 Bridged-6000 T 01010100 124 84 54
5 00110101 65 53 35
6000 65009 6000 T 01010100 124 84 54
8 00110110 66 54 36
FREQUENCY/ENTRY
Entry Frequency
SSB CARRIER E 01000101 105 69 45
1 00110001 61 49 31
558 ТОМЕ E 01000101 105 69 45
2 00110010 62 50 32
Channei
с 01000011 103 67 43
(LSB) H 01001000 110 72 48
1 00110001 61 49 31
С 01000011 103 67 43
{USB} H 01001000 110 72 48
2 00110010 62 50 32
COUNTER Off с 01600011 103 67 43
М 010011170 116 78 4E
0 00110000 60 48 30
COUNTER On С 01000011 103 67 43
N 01001110 116 78 «Е
1 00110001 61 49 31
ENTRY
FREQuency F 01000110 106 70 46
R 01010010 122 82 52
FREQuency STEP 5 01010011 123 83 53
Р 01010000 120 80 50
FULL SCALE F 01000110 106 70 46
S 01010011 123 83 53
3-99
Hi-is Uperation
3-100
Table 3-11-4. Instrument Programming Codes (Cont'd).
IMQOUEI 3350/72/74
ASCII Binary Geotal Decimal Hexadecimal
Instruction Characters Code Code Code Code
OFFSET O 01001111 117 79 4F
F 01000110 106 70 46
STORE $ 01010011 123 83 53
T 01010100 124 84 БА
RECALL R 1010019 122 82 5
C 1000011 103 67 43
THRESH {Threshold} T 010101700 124 84 54
м 01001000 110 72 48
TIME T 01010106 124 84 54
М 01001101 115 77 41)
0 0 00110009 60 48 30
1 1 00110001 61 49 31
2 2 00110010 62 50 32
3 3 00110011 63 51 33
4 4 00110100 64 52 34
5 5 00110101 65 53 35
6 6 00110110 56 54 36
7 7 00110111 67 65 37
8 8 001711000 70 56 38
g g 00111001 71 57 39
. {decimal} 00111100 74 60 3C
} U 01010101 125 85 55
Р 91010000 120 80 56
| D 01000100 104 68 44
NM 01001110 116 78 GE
Mz = 01001600 110 72 48
7 01011010 132 a0 BA
kHz k 01001011 113 75 45
4 01001000 110 72 43
or
К 01001011 113 65 48
2 01011010 132 30 BA
MHz M 01001101 115 77 40
H 01001000 110 72 48
Or
M 01001101 115 77 45
zZ 0101311010 132 90 5A
de D 01000100 104 58 44
B 01000010 102 66 G2
MINUTES vi 010011013 135 77 40
М 01001110 116 78 AE
MEASure CONTInue M 01001101 115 77 AD
С 01000011 103 67 43
RDNG— OFFSET R 1010010 122 82 52
(Reading — Offset) 0 010011113 117 79 4F
CNTR- FREQuency C 81000011 103 67 43
(Counter— Frequency) F 01000110 106 70 46
Model 3386A/B/C
Table 3-11-4. Instrument Programming Codes (Cont'd).
ASCH Binary Octai Decimal Hexadecimal
instruction Characters Code Code Code Code
BANDWIDTH
20Hz B 01000010 102 66 42
1 00110001 61 49 31
400Hz В 07000010 102 66 42
2 00110010 62 50 32
2000Hz B 01000010 102 66 42
1740Hz 3 00110011 63 51 33
3100HZ
WTD (Weighted) В 01000010 102 66 42
4 00110100 64 52 34
MISCELLANEOUS
interrogate | 01001001 171 73 49
N 01001110 116 78 4k
CALibrate Off C 01000011 103 67 43
A 01000001 101 65 41
0 00110000 60 48 30
CALibrate On C 01000011 103 67 43
A 01000001 101 65 41
1 00110001 61 49 31
Fast Calibrate C 0700001? 103 67 43
L 017001717100 114 76 40
3-11-61. Interrogate. The interrogate instruction is explained fully in Paragraph 3-11-76.
3-11-62. Formats for Instrument Programming Codes. The format for instrument pro-
gramming codes depends on the sophistication of the instrument function being controlled.
A unique two or three ASCII character code is sent to the instrument to activate functions
controlled by momentary contact switches in Local mode. For example, the instruction El
programs the BW CENTER tuning mode. The characters must be received by the instru-
ment in the order shown. While the characters comprising each code must be sent in a cer-
tain order, the codes themselves can be sent in any order within a group, Sending E2, CH2
selects SSB TONE tuning, and the upper sideband CHANNEL in that order. Sending CH2,
E2 will set the same instrument functions in reverse order. Note that the -hp- 3586A/B/C ig-
nores commas. They are included in the data string examples for clarity.
3-11-63. When the -hp- 3586A/B/C 1s In the Local mode, certain instrument functions are
set using several front panel controls. For instance, to enter the Entry Frequency, the FREQ
control is pressed, the appropriate digits are entered and the Hz MIN, kHz + dB or MHz
— dB is pressed. This method is used because the Entry Frequency can assume so many dif-
ferent values that individual switches for each value are impractical. Obviously the order in
which the controls are actuated is important. When operating in the Remote mode, almost
the same method is used to set the Entry Frequency except that ASCII characters are sent
over the HP-IB to activate the instrument functions instead of pressing front panel controls.
The ASCII character group “FR” actuates the function controlled by FREQ, ASCII digits
correspond to the digit controls and the functions controlled by Hz MIN, kHz +dB and
MHz — dB are actuated by the ASCII character groups “Hz”, “KZ”? and “MZ” respec-
TIF-AD UDEration
3-101
Hr-ipg Operation
3-102
tively, For example, to enter an Entry Frequency of 250kHz, the ASCII character group
“FR,250,KZ”'” is sent. As before, the order within the group is important; however, this
ASCII character group can be placed anywhere in a larger group of instrument instructions.
Observe that the groups E1,FR250KZ,T1 and FR250KZ,E1,T! and TI,E!,FR250KZ all
result in the same instrument settings. Other functions of the -hp- 3586A/B/C set by this
method are Frequency Step, Full Scale, Offset, Threshold and Time.
3-11-64. Qutputting Data From The -hp- 3586A/B/C.
3-11-65. Data Message. The Data Message is used to transfer the results of measurements
or the value of any entered parameter from the -hp- 3586A/B/€C to another device on the
HP-IB. Usually, the device receiving the data is the controller. Entered parameters are those
instrument functions, such as Frequency and Threshold, that are set by entering numerical
values. The instructions sent to the instrument before it is instructed to send data determine
which type of data will be transferred. If a measure instruction is sent, measurement data
will be transferred. Likewise, if an interrogate instruction is sent, the value of the entry
parameter designated in the instruction will be sent.
3-11-66. Implementation. The syntax and mnemonics for the program statement used to
implement the Data Message are found in the controller documentation. Usually, there is
more than one program statement that will implement this Message. Bach statement will
have some unique advantage that makes it preferable for certain applications. Be sure to
research this Bus Message thoroughly in the controller documentation. The talk address,
which is P for the -hp- 3586A/B/C, and the formats of the data strings being transferred are
found in the instrument documentation. The formats for measurement result are presented
in Paragraph 3-11-72 and the formats for entered parameters in Paragraph 3-11-77.
3-11-67. Measure Instructions. The results of each measurement can be transferred from
the -hp- 3586 A/B/C only once. A measure instruction must be sent to the instrument before
each measurement data transfer to make new data available. There are two instructions that
will trigger a measurement in the -hp- 35386 A/B/C. One is the Trigger Message, It should be
used only when simultaneous response from the -hp- 3586A/B/C and another device on the
bus is required (see Paragraph 3-11-47). The other measure instruction is the programming
code TR. This instruction actually directs the instrument to wait and then measure. The
duration of the time delay depends on the bandwidth selection. The delay is inserted to allow
time for the IF amplifiers in the instrument to adjust to any new signal conditions that might
have been programmed. The ASCII instruction is sent to the -hp- 3586A/B/C using the
Data Message just like other instructions actuating instrument functions. It can be included
in a group of instructions as long as it is the last instruction in the group. it must be the last
instruction so that all of the instrument functions can stabilize during the time delay.
3-11-68. Overload, Underload and Fast Cal. If the signal being measured is not within the
dynamic range of both the Input Amplifier and the IF Amplifiers, the measurement data will
not have the normal instrument accuracy. Likewise, the frequency measurement is invalid
when the counter is not locked to the input signal. When any of these conditions occur, it is
indicated in the measurement data output string.
3-11-69. Input Amplifier Overload/Underioad. À code is sent at the beginning of each
measurement data string to indicate the status of the Input Amplifier. The code is O for
overload, N for normal and U for underioad.
Modei 3386A/53/C
Model 3586A/B/C Mi-15 Uperation
; 3-11-70. IF Amplifier Overload/Underload. The instrument will output a level reading of
Co) +9XX.XX when the IF Amplifiers are overloaded. If they are underloaded, the level
a reading output will be —9XX.XX. The X’s can be any digit.
3-11-71. Fast Cal. When using Fast Cal (HP-IB only) the following items should be con-
sidered:
1. When the processor receives a Fast Cal code, the instruments Full Scale and tuned fre-
quency do not change. A Calibration is performed using the widest bandwidth on this Full
Scale and frequency only; a Calibration is not performed on any other full scale or frequen-
cy. When the Calibration is complete, the processor returns the instrument to the state it was
in before the Fast Cal code was received.
2. If, while the processor is performing a calibration, the Full Scale changes (this case on-
ly applies when the instrument is in Auto Range and the input signal level has changed), then
the processor will use the previously stored cal constant. This could create a problem at fre-
quencies above 1MHz. As much as a 2dB difference between Full Scales could exist
(although unlikely) if the previously stored cal constant had been calculated for a different
frequency,
3. Ideally, Fast Cal should be used when the instrument is in the Entry 10dB or the Entry
100dB mode.
у 3-11-72. Measurement Data Formats. The format of the data string sent by the -hp-
мой 3586A/B/C depends on the measurement mode. Descriptions of the formats of each
measurement mode are presented in the following paragraphs. The symbols used in the for-
mat descriptions are defined as follows:
S is the sign of the number (+ or —).
D stands for digit (0 to 9).
CR stands for carriage return.
LF stands for line feed.
All other characters are sent exactly as they appear.
3-11-73. Low Distortion, Low Noise, 1010Hz, Tone 1004Hz, Noise/Demodulation, Car-
rier, 2600Hz, Tone 800Hz, $ Jitter and Noise/ Tone. With the counter off, the format of
the data string sent by the -hp-3586A/B/C to output this group of measurements is:
O
N S DDD.DDD CR LF (spaces added for clarity)
U
When the counter is on, the frequency is also sent. In this case, the format is:
O
N S DDD.DDD,FDDDDDDDD.D CR LF (spaces added for clarity)
FT U
3-103
Hrir-15 Uperaiuion
3-104
3-11-74. Impulse. The signal level, time expired and number of counts are all sent when Im-
pulse Noise measurement data is transferred from the -hp- 3586A/B/C. The format of the
resulting data string is:
O
NS DDD.DDD, TDD.DD, CDDD CR LF (spaces added for clarity)
U
3-11-75. Wideband. The format of the data string sent by the instrument to output a wide-
band measurement is:
O
N S DDD.DDD CR LF (spaces added for clarity)
U
3-11-76. Interrogate. The value of any Entry parameter can be output over the HP-IB. This
is useful whenever a routine in the program does a search that involves an entry parameter.
For example, consider a routine that finds the threshold level that permits ten impulse
desired level is found. Once the desired level is found, the threshold 1s read using the inter-
rogate instruction. Normally, the -hp- 3586A/B/C will output measurement data when it is
addressed to talk. If Entry parameters are to be output, the instrument must be instructed to
send the value of the selected parameter in place of the measurement data. This is done by
sending an “interrogate” instruction to the instrument. An interrogate instruction consists
of the ASCII characters IN followed by the ASCII instruction for the prefix of the selected
parameter. For example, to interrogate the Frequency Step, the ASCII character group IN-
SP is sent. The interrogate instruction is sent using the Data message like all other program-
ming instructions. It can be sent in a group of instructions as long as a measure instruction
does not follow it in the group. If a measure instruction follows an interrogate instruction,
the interrogate instruction is negated. Once the parameter has been interrogated, its value
will appear in the appropriate display until it is output. The selected Entry parameter will be
output when the instrument is addressed to talk.
counts per minute. The threshold is varied using the | functions until the
3-11-77. Entry Parameter Formats. The symbols that are used in these descriptions are
defined as follows:
D stands for “Digit” (0 to 9)
CR stands for carriage return
LF stands for line feed
All other characters are sent exactly as they appear.
3-11-78. Frequency and Frequency Step. The Frequency and Frequency Step are output in
units of Hz. The format for these Entry parameters is:
I DD DDD DDD.D CR LF (space added for clarity)
3-11-79. Full Scale, Offset and Threshold. The Full Scale, Offset and Threshold are output
in units of decibels. The format for these entry parameters is:
IS DDD.DDD CR LF (spaces added for clarity)
МОЧЕ ЗОО ДИ В ©.
Ме! 32007 ГУ ©. FIF-165 UPCIALIOA
3-11-80. Time, The format for the Entry parameter Time is:
1 DD.DD CR LF (spaces added for clarity)
The units for the digits on the left of the decimal are minutes. On the right of the decimal,
the units are seconds.
3-105/106
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement