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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
Available online at www.ijiere.com
International Journal of Innovative and Emerging
Research in Engineering
e-ISSN: 2394 - 3343
p-ISSN: 2394 - 5494
REVIEW ON PERFORMANCE OF CI ENGINE BY
PREHEATING OF INLET AIR AND DIESEL BY WASTE
HEAT UTILIZATION
Mohit Raghuwanshi*, Dr. Aseem C Tiwari, Bikram Solanki
UIT RGPV Bhopal, Mechanical Engineering Department
ABSTRACT:
This study intends to show the effect of preheating of diesel and inlet air on the performance of diesel engine.
Preheating of the inlet air and diesel is done by recovery and utilization of waste heat which is expelled to environment
through exhaust. Some portion of heat which is generated by the combustion of fuel is converted into useful work
and rest is discharged to atmosphere as waste. In this study our emphasis is to review the utilization of waste heat for
preheating purpose to enhance the performance of the engine and control the emission level to some extent.
Increasing in the preheating temperature causes the enhancement of combustion efficiency and the overall
performance of the engine. The utilization of waste heat reduces the exhaust temperature thereby reduces the NOx
level. The effect of varying inlet temperature of air and fuel will be evaluated in terms of thermal efficiency, specific
fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen.
KEYWORDS: preheating inlet air & diesel, waste heat utilization, performance of diesel engine, emissions, NOx.
INTRODUCTION:
Experiencing the current trend, we are well known to the fact of energy crises. In this scenario of energy crises internal
combustion engine are the major consumer of fossil fuel but also from the past centuries internal combustion engines are the
primary source for power development. Heat is generated in the engine by the combustion of fuel but only 30% to 40% of the
total generated heat is converted into useful work and the rest is expelled to the environment in the form of exhaust gases [1],
resulting in the entropy rise and serious environmental pollution. So, it is of great concern to utilize this waste heat into useful
work by employing some techniques for development of waste heat recovery systems.
All over the world many researcher are putting their efforts to develop techniques for optimizing the performance of the engine
in order to decrease the demand of fossil fuels. Waste heat recovery is one of the best methods for conservation of fuel, as
waste heat recovery not only conserve fuel but also reduces the amount of green house gases dumped into the environment.
Diesel fuel is a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained by distillation of crude oil. The important properties which are used to
characterize diesel fuel include cetane number, fuel volatility, density, viscosity, cold behavior, and sulfur content [2].
Preheating plays a vital role in improving fuel properties.
This paper objectively presents the effect of preheating of air and fuel on performance of diesel engine. The inlet air and fuel
has been pre-heated with the help of waste heat recovered from the exhaust of the engine. Preheating ensures proper combustion
of the mixture; more the inlet air temperature caused the lower ignition delay. Preheating of fuel and air cause better evaporation
of fuel i.e. homogenous mixture is produced which leads to increase in combustion reaction and due to this efficiency, torque
and horse power of the engine is increased. Due to better evaporation and shorter ignition delay engine will produce low noise
and vibration [3].
Diesel exhaust has traditionally been of great concern, as it presents different health and environmental issues. The major
pollutants in diesel exhaust are NOx, HC, and CO. Temperature plays a vital role in emission characteristics. Intake air
preheating up to elevated temperature subsequently reduces CO and HC emissions [4]. Preheating not only ensures performance
enhancement and emission control but also improves the cold start condition.
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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
Fig. 1: Total heat distribution in IC engine [1].
1.
Effect of air preheating on performance and emissions of diesel engine:
Air preheating is a technique to increase the temperature of inlet air by utilizing the thermal energy of exhaust gas
with a prime objective of increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine. Air preheating not only improves overall
efficiency of the engine but also act as an emission control technique.
Fig. 2: Air pre-heater model sectional view [5]
R. Senthil Kumar et al, Taken experimental investigation on D. I. diesel engine fuelled by ethanol diesel blend with varying
inlet air temperature. Performance and emission characteristics of various concentration of ethanol diesel blended fuel at
different inlet air temperature is tested and compared with neat diesel fuel and following results were obtained. The Brake
thermal efficiency of ethanol diesel blend is lower without pre heating condition, but at 40ºC and 50ºC inlet air condition, for
10% ethanol diesel blends gives the much better BTE compare to the neat diesel fuel. CO and HC emission is higher for the
pre heated condition compare to without pre heating condition. Without pre heating condition produces less smoke compare
with the preheating conditions for ethanol diesel blends.
Chirtravelan. M et al, worked on design and fabrication of air pre-heater for diesel engine. The effect of preheated air on
standard diesel fuel engine indicated a good result on emission control. NOx and CO emissions at intake air temperature of
55°C were less when compared at intake air temperature of 32°C. Higher inlet air temperature causes lower ignition delay,
which is responsible for lower NOx formation. Uniform or better combustion is occurred due to pre-heating of inlet air, which
also causes lower engine noise. Easy vaporization and better mixing of air and fuel occur due to warm up of inlet air, which
causes lower CO emission. From the test it is clear that the fuel consumption reduces and brake thermal efficiency increase
with increase intake air temperature.
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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
A.Paykani et al, Analyze the effect of exhaust gas recirculation and intake pre-heating on performance and emission
characteristics of dual fuel engines at part loads. The use of EGR at high levels seems to be unable to improve the engine
performance at part loads. However, it is shown that EGR combined with pre-heating of inlet air can slightly increase thermal
efficiency, resulting in reduced levels of both unburned hydrocarbon and NOx emissions. CO and UHC emissions are also
reduced.
Mahabubul Alam et al, Worked on the effect of inlet air temperature on performance and emission of a direct injection diesel
engine operated with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. Air flow rate decreased and fuel flow rate increased with an increase in inlet
air temperature, which reduced the air-fuel ratio of the engine. Engine efficiency decreased and exhausts gas temperature
increased with an increase in inlet air temperature. NOx and CO emissions increased with an increase in inlet air temperature.
Wang Pan et al, Investigate the impact of intake air temperature on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel methanol
dual fuel engine. The experimental results show that there was a strong coupling between the intake air temperature and the
methanol fraction in the performance and emissions of the engine. At dual fuel operation mode, decreasing intake air
temperature reduced the indicated thermal efficiency and exhaust gas. Decreasing of intake air temperature also prolonged the
ignition delay, which caused a later combustion phasing and smaller peak cylinder pressure.
R.G. Papagiannakis et al, Investigate the study of air inlet preheating and EGR impacts for improving the operation of
compression ignition engine running under dual fuel mode. By comparing the investigation results, it is revealed that the
simultaneous increase of both parameters examined could be a promising solution to improving engine efficiency (increase up
to 5%) and reducing CO emissions (decrease up to 10%) from a pilot ignited dual fuel diesel engine, without imparting any
serious problem to engine operational lifetime.
2. Effect of fuel preheating on performance and emission of diesel engine:
Preheating of fuel improves the flow property of fuel such as viscosity and density of fuel. Also preheating increases the
combustion efficiency by reducing the ignition delay and prolongs the flame front propagation. The brake specific fuel
consumption decreases with increase in fuel inlet temperature.
Fig. 3: shows preheating chamber and supply line [17 & 25]
Fig. 4: shows the fuel pre-heater
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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
S. Bari et al, Analyzed the effects of preheating of crude palm oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emissions of a
diesel engine. In his study he found that at room temperature, CPO has a viscosity 10 times higher than that of diesel. So, to
lower the viscosity of CPO preheating technique was used. In his study Combustion analyses comparison between CPO and
diesel found that CPO produced a higher peak pressure of 6% and a shorter ignition delay of 2.6°. CPO combustion produced
average CO and NO emissions.
Nadir Yilmaz et al, Investigate the effects of preheating vegetable oils on performance and emission characteristics of two
diesel engines. In his paper, performance and emission characteristics of three vegetable oils and standard diesel fuel are
compared at elevated temperature. Use of vegetable oils reduced unburned HC emissions and the reduction was the highest at
no-load conditions for both engines. Vegetable oils also showed increase in NO emissions as compared diesel fuel.
M. Pugazhvadivu et al, Investigate on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using preheated waste frying
oil as fuel. In his experimental investigation, waste frying oil a non-edible vegetable oil was used as an alternative fuel for
diesel engine. The high viscosity of the waste frying oil was reduced by preheating. In general, using preheated WFO, the
BSEC and brake thermal efficiency were improved. The engine exhaust emissions such as CO and smoke were reduced
considerably. Significant improvement in engine performance and maximum reduction in CO and smoke emissions were
obtained using WFO (135 8C) compared to WFO (75 8C).
M. Nematullah Nasim et al, performed experimental investigation on compression ignition engine powered by preheated neat
jatropha oil. In his study, the high viscosity of the jatropha curcas oil was decreased by preheating. The effect of fuel inlet
temperature on performance of diesel engine is evaluated and the results shows The BSFC is decreased with increase in fuel
inlet temperature of Jatropha oil.
Priyabrata Pradhan et al, worked on combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using
waste heat from exhaust gas. Helical coil heat exchanger is used to utilize the heat of exhaust gases for preheating CJO which
reduces its density and viscosity. The BSFC and ignition delay period were decreased while BTE increased with increase in
engine load. The fuel properties were improved by preheating and it can be used in the diesel engines without any modification
as a substitute for diesel.
Rafidah Rahim et al, Worked on influence of fuel temperature on a diesel engine performance operating with biodiesel blended.
The effect of fuel temperatures on variation engine speed and their impact on the engine performance of a four cylinder diesel
engine has been investigated. In his result it can be found that the highest fuel temperature causes the highest injection pressure
thus resulting in shorter ignition delay. The shorter ignition delay attributed to the early start of combustion thus leads to the
higher in-cylinder pressure. The increasing of fuel temperature representing the highest energy content thus resulted in lower
BSFC as obviously desired.
Dinesha P et al, performed the experimental investigations on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine
using preheated pongamia methyl ester as fuel. Study has shown that to increase the fraction of biodiesel in blends, it is required
to reduce the viscosity by preheating. A significant improvement in performance and emission characteristics of preheated
B40 blend is obtained. B40 blend preheated to 110°C showed maximum 8.97% increase in brake thermal efficiency over B20
blend at 75% load. Also the highest reduction in UBHC emission and smoke opacity values were obtained. Thus preheating of
higher biodiesel blend at higher temperature improves the viscosity and other properties sharply and improves the performance
and emission.
Review on waste heat recovery and utilization:
Exhaust of the engine has the high potential of thermal energy. Major portion of the thermal energy which is generated by the
combustion of the fuel is expelled to the environment results in entropy rise. This waste heat in the exhaust gases has the
potential for significant recovery and can be utilize to convert it into useful form i.e. into electrical and mechanical energy.
Figure shows the use of waste energy for power generation.
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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
Fig. 5: shows thermoelectric generator using waste heat [22, 23]
Fig. 6: schematic view of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) on diesel engine and T-S Diagram [24]
Pertti Kauranen et al, Worked on Temperature optimization of a diesel engine using exhaust gas heat recovery and thermal
energy storage (diesel engine with thermal energy storage). In his study the focus is to overcome the problem of cold start of
diesel engine in subzero temperature. The problem is typically solved by adding a diesel fuelled additional engine heater which
is used for the preheating of the engine during cold start and additional heating of the engine if the coolant temperature falls
below a thermostat set point during the drive cycle. In his study the additional heater was replaced by a combination of exhaust
gas heat recovery system and latent heat accumulator for thermal energy storage.
M. Talbi et al, Worked on energy recovery from diesel engine exhaust gases for performance enhancement and air conditioning.
In his study the main aim is to reduce energy consumption with a combined cooling and a power station. The paper examines
the interfacing of the turbocharged diesel engine with an absorption refrigeration unit and estimates the performance
enhancement. It is demonstrated that a pre-inter cooled and inter-cooled turbocharger engine configuration cycle offers
considerable benefits in terms of SFC, efficiency and output for the diesel cycle performance.
Gao Wenzhi et al, Worked on performance evaluation and experiment system for waste heat recovery of diesel engine. In this
paper, a waste heat recovery system is proposed where a high speed turbocharged diesel engine acts as the topper of a combined
cycle with exhaust gases used for a bottoming Rankine cycle. The result shows that introducing heat recovery system can
increase the engine power output by 12%, when diesel engine operates at 80 kW/2590 rpm.
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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
Jian Song et al, Worked on thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste
heat recovery system for marine diesel Engines. Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are
creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve
such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or
electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This
paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the
waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The
maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal
system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating
medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system
performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system
is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive.
Conclusions:
This review reveals that the high potential thermal energy of exhaust gases can be recovered and utilized by preheating of fuel
& intake air in order to improve the performance of the engine and also act as a concept for conservation of fuel. In a nut shell
the advantages of preheating are listed below.
 Preheating of fuel decreases its kinematic viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension properties which dominantly
help in better injection of fuel.
 The BSFC is decreased with increase in fuel inlet temperature while BTE increases.
 Preheating reduces the ignition delay their by improving cold start of engine in cold conditions, also shorter ignition
delay leads to higher in-cylinder pressure.
 Rise in the inlet temperature will improve combustion reactions and due to this efficiency, torque and brake power of
the engine improves.
 Due to better evaporation and shorter ignition delay engine produces low noise and vibration.
 Preheating of fuel and air subsequently reduces the exhaust emissions. HC and CO emission will decrease with
increase in the inlet temperature while preheating has negative impact on NOx emissions as it increases with increase
in inlet temperature.
 Furthermore this paper highlights , main view point of utilizing the waste heat which will subsequently help for this
preheating purpose and no extra arrangement is needed and this waste heat is used for further power generation and
cooling purposes.
 Utilizing the waste heat reduces the amount of green house gases.
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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 7, 2016
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