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FILM* CONCERT
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STAGE SOUND
VIDEO
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$2.50
April 1982
Number
Volume 13
-
BROADCAST PRODUCTION
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Think of us
as your
mike expert.
The 635A - Perfect design from the start
The Electro -Voice 635A is probably the
most widely used broadcast microphone
currently available. Yet it was introduced
back in 1967! There are microphone
companies that havent been around as
long as the 635A! What makes a microphone continue to be the broadcasters'
favorite after 15 years in the field?
encased head capsule for reduced
handling noise and additional protection
from severe mechanical shock.
Despite all the technological advances in the broadcast. recording and
sound reinforcement industries. the
635A continues to be the audio man's
screwdriver.' a microphone tool that can
The 635A was designed to be used
be used anytime. anywhere, for almost
anywhere. Its screw- machined steel case anything. When a product is designed
right to start with. there's no need for it
and mechanically nested parts set stanto become obsolete. All Electro -Voice
dards for durability and ruggedness that
the competition still strives for. It was the professional microphones are designed
first omnidirectional microphone design- with the same goal in mind. That's why
ed to have a shaped. rather than flat. people think of Electro -Voice as their
microphone expert.
frequency response. A rolled off
bass response combined with a slightly rising high end make it perfect for vocal
reproduction. And it was the first microphone of its type to feature an elastomer
Ey Elecfrol/oice
600 Cecil Street. Buchanan. Michigan 49107
Canada
Electro-Voice Div of Gutton Industries (Canada) Ltd
345 Herbert St Gananoque Ontario K7G 2V1
In
\
For additional Information circle #2
I982 D 12-r/II5
CO/YING
- Contents -
ENGINEER PRODUCER
the magazine to exclusively serve the
4ECORDING STUDIO and CONCERT SOUND
rdustries
those whose work involves the
engineering and production of commercially
n arketable product for
Records and Tape
Film
Live Performance
Video and Broadcast
---
tie
magazine produced te relate recording
to recording SCIENCE .. to recording
ART
EQUIPMENT.
Volume 13
- April
1982
Number 2
-
Production Viewpoint
Maxus, Christopher Cross'
producer, arranger, musician
1981 Grammy Award Winner
.
.
... MICHAEL OMARTIAN
by Robert Carr
page 22
(Christopher Cross sessions described by Chet Himes
page 30)
.
Acoustic Design and Studio Construction
-
LION SHARE RECORDING STUDIOS
What the Proceeds from a Couple
of Decades of Hits can Buy!
Editor /Publisher
'Editor at Large
Feature Writer
MARTIN GALLAY
MEL LAMBERT
ROBERT CARR
Consulting Editors
ROMAN OLEARCZUK... Technical Operations
MARTIN POLON ... Video
DOUGLAS HOWLAND ... Broadcast
BRUCE M. MARR ... Programming
STEVEN BARNETT ... Film
HOLLY FERGUSON
Safe Illustrator
Advertising Service
Manager .... PATTY COLLINS- HARRIS
-
-
Circulation /Subscription
Manager
SANDY ST. CLAIRE
112
Studio Operations
ELECTRONICS, TROUBLESHOOTING
AND MAINTENANCE
Essentials of Digital Logic Circuits
by Ethan Wirier
page 48
Recording Techniques
MICROPHONE TECHNIQUES
FOR PREDICTABLE
TONAL BALANCE CONTROL
by Bruce Bartlett
RECORDING Engineer ,-Producer
(USPS 768 -840)
s published six times a year by GALLAY
COMMUNICATIONS. INC., 1850 Whitley
Avenue. Hollywood, California 90028. and is
sent to qualified recipients in the United Slates.
One year (six issues) subscriptions may be
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'Foreign subscriptions payable in U.S. funds
only by bank or money order.)
u
RECORDING Engineer/Producer is not
responsible for any claim by any person based
cn the publication by RECORDING Engineer/ Producer of material submitted for publication.
Material appearing in RECORDING
Engineer/Producer may not be reproduced
without the written consent of the publisher.
page 60
Concert Sound Reinforcement EARTH WIND & FIRE
AT THE LOS ANGELES FORUM
Sound System Design by Nova Research
by Robert Carr
-
-- Views
Audio /Video Recording - The Digital Standards
Production
page 12
Dilemma, by Martin Polon
Techniques
Janis Joplin's Sound a Generation
Later: Notes on the Signal Processing and Audio
Technology Used to Produce, Mix and Re -mix
Farewell Song, by David Gans page 18
-
Letters
- Departments -
6
Controlled Circulation Postage
paid at
Los Angeles. California
Postmaster: Send form 3579
Address correction to:
RECORDING Engineer/Producer
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, California 90028
(213) 467-1111
12-r/p-I0April
1982
-
9
News, including a Progress
Report on The Recording Community versus the
California (Taxi State Board of Equalization - page
10 New Products - page 820 Digital Update -page
94
Classified page 970 Studio Update -page 100
Advertiser's Index
page 106
CI
-
page
-
i
page 38
-
-
The Cover
Control Room interior of Lion Share Studio "A," Los
Angeles. A feature article describing the acoustic design,
construction, and equipment selection appears on page
38. Photography by Bill Miller.
page 70
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PROFESSIONALISM,
NOT JUST BELLS AND
WHISTLES.
I WANT
THAT'S WHY I
DEMAND MCI.
1
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Straightforward That's the kind of
person Donny Osmond is, and that's the
quality he demands in recordiig equipment. He gets it with his fully
equipped MCI recording studio located in
the audio/video Osrrond Ente-tainment
Center in Orem, Ptah. Sensib e design.
Clean sound. And the kind of versatility no
other recording equipment at any price
can beat.
MCI. Not always the most expensive,
but always the best.
1400 W C7mmercial Boulevard, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309 USA. Telephone: (305) 491-D825 Telex: 5-4362 MCI FTL.
For additional information circle #3
TWA6001 0006.81
!
..,c
,-
BROADCAST
Serviceability
Major electronic assemblies are
plug -in and easily accessible from
the front of the recorder, even
when rack mounted.
Quick Change Head Assembly
Converts from one to two to
four channels, or back quickly with no
mechanical re- alignment.
Three Speeds
with Variable Speed Operation
Machines are shipped with three speeds,
7' 2, 15 and 30 in /sec. Field convertible to
33/4, 71/2 and 15 in /sec.
Digital Tape Timer
with Single-Point Search -To-Cue
For accurate timing in hours, minutes
and seconds. Rehearse segments from
exactly the same cue point
at the touch of a button.
PRECISION
Introducing the Ampex ATR -800. More features
than ever before in a broadcast audio recorder.
Swttchable NAB /IEC Setup
flip of a switch, the recorder
converts between NAB and IEC
setup, including bias and levels as
well as equalization curves.
At the
-
Microprocessor Control
New tape transport design is under
the full control of the microprocessor system, ensuring sate,
gentle and foolproof tape
handling.
Designed For Editing
Head assembly is wide open for
unequaled accessibility. Optional
tape cutter and marker available.
Dump edit and hands-on -reel
editing modes included.
In a busy broadcast environmen-,
every minute counts. That's why
Ampex designed the ATR -800 with
saving time in mind. With more
standard features than any other
recorder in its class, the ATR -800 is
the perfect choice for the special
audio needs of the broadcast
professional. And recording studio
engineers? Take note.
The ATR -800 was designed for
tape editing. The wide open head
assembly gives you fast, accurate
tape access. Recessed head gale
and transport controls prevent
tape snag. And a continuously
variable shuffle, under control of
the microprocessor, regulates
tape speed and direction.
You'll find hands -on -reel and
tape dump edit
modes included for
convenience. The
standard cue
amplifier will allow
you choose.
But the features don't stop
there. You get a quick change
head assembly, a digital tape
timer with single -point search-tocue, three tape speeds with built in vari- speed, fader start for
remote control from a console,
simple service access from the
front of the recorder and much,
much more. All standard. And
with a switchable NAB/IEC setup,
the ATR -800 is a true international
recorder in every sense of the
word.
Look around, no other audio
recorder has the number of s'and ard features that meet the needs
of the broadcast professional like
the Ampex
ATR -800. It's
shipped
for rack mount
installation, and it's
available in console
and pedestal
versions as well. Look
into the ATR -800.
Call your Ampex
dealer or write
Ampex Corporation,
Audio-Video
monitoring of any
or all channels, right
at the machine
while it's being cued.
And with flexible
transport controls,
you can now mount
them either to the
left or to the right side
of the machine
-whichever way
Systems Division,
401 Broadway,
Redwood City, CA
94063 (415) 367 -2011.
Sales, spares
and
service worldwide.
AMPEX
TOOLS FOR TOMORROW
Ampex Corporation
For additional information cir le #4
One of The Signal Companies
rj
\Dril
1982
12¡e /h 7
DIGITAL OR ANALOG?
ITS YOUR CHOICE
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etler5 ne
The Pre -Distortion
Phenomenon Revisited
from: BOB KATZ,
Recording Engineer,
New York City
Re: "Is There Life After Digital," by Neil
Brody; December 1981 issue
an excellent
article. The machine manufacturers should
be required to read it.
Re: "The Pre- Distortion Phenomenon;"
December 1981 issue. Normally this series by
Ethan Winer contains both helpful and
extremely accurate information, but I differ
with him this time. The diode-based pre
distortion circuit he suggests building lowers
distortion only on sinswave test signals.
Unfortunately, with music and transient
signals, the distortion actually rises,
producing at times an annoying clipping
sound when the threshold of the diodes is
-
-
exceeded. Whenever I align an old Scully 280,
which contains this well -intentioned but
ineffective circuit, I turn the linearity controls
fully clockwise, thereby turning them Off.
Likewise, the 3M M56 and (I think) M79
contained this circuit, but the company
provides a simple switch to turn the linearizer
off.
In order to provide effective predistortion
for the record circuit of an analog tape
recorder, the circuit must be much more
complex than the simple two diodes
mentioned in the December article. For one
thing, small changes in bias change the
nature of the tape at saturation. I vaguely
recall a description of a predistortion circuit
either in an Audio magazine of several years
ago, or in the AES Journal. Unfortunately,
this circuit was only effective for tape
machines with cross -field bias; this making it
completely unusable with any professional
machine made today ... so, please don't build
a diode-based pre-distortion circuit because
it doesn't work.
reply from: Ethan Winer
The Recording Center
Norwalk, CT
I am inclined to agree that the distortion
characteristics of magnetic tape are more
complex than the correction afforded by a
resistor and a pair of diodes. But I still
maintain that below saturation there is at
least a "first- order" compensation, since in
each case the distortion is primarily third
harmonic. Bob is also correct though, in
pointing out that the diodes will hard -clip at
very high levels
probably worse than the
tape would by itself
although an attempt
has been made to minimize this effect by
keeping the resistors small with respect to
the diodes' impedance. But perhaps the most
important factor at this point is basic
recording philosophy.
Some engineers deliberately record at
elevated levels as a part of their sound, and I
admit that the linearizer is probably not for
them. Others (myself included) prefer a more
conservative approach, and would gladly
trade a little hiss to minimize any clipping.
- -
5
Personally, I record everything at around
-4VU on Ampex 456, and use dbx noise
reduction to eliminate the hiss. In fact, this is
probably the reason that some people have
trouble with any noise reduction system -you just can't hit the tape with high levels.
Without sufficient headroom, transients will
be lost due to tape saturation, causing the
decoder to operate improperly.
Anyway, even if some people don't like the
pre -distortion circuit, at least it will work as
well as the commercial versions; and it's so
simple to throw together, you won't have
wasted a lot of time if it turns out to be not to
your liking. Also, the linearizer was mainly
intended as a vehicle for the harmonic
distortion analyzer, the main construction
project. Of course, I am always interested in
hearing any comments on this series of
articles
pro or con.
-
And you might consider this:
An Otani Varispeed Modification
In the December issue of R-e p I showed a
modification to the Otani MX -5050B that
improved the distortion specs by eliminating
the output transformers ( "The Pre- Distortion Phenomenon," December 1981, page
96). Shortly after that article was completed, I
discovered another useful improvement that
will be of interest to Otani owners. This
modification allows the varispeed range to be
greatly increased beyond the normal ± 7%.
Actually, I would like to show two different
ways to do this: the first one I figured out and,
although it is not quite as simple as changing a
few resistors, it will allow a contirwous sweep
of the tape speed from around 1 to nearly 30
IPS. When I called Otani Corporation (just to
be sure there wasn't anything important
being overlooked), I spoke with Tom
DeFiglio, an applications engineer, who
described an even easier method, although
the range will only be increased to 20%.
Figure 1 shows the partial schematic for
the capstan motor amplifier circuit; while R7
and R8 (etc) are shown as only one resistor,
there' are actually two components on the
circuit board. Normally, the fixed speeds are
selected by applying a voltage to the
appropriate points marked H, M, and L, with
the varispeed pot connected between R14
SIERRA /EASTLAKE
DEVELOPMENTS
Pasadena
Honolulu
Munireux
Variable Studio Acoustics
As the digital age accelerates the technology of the recording science, we risk
depending too heavily on the gadgetry
available rather than emphasizing the
craft. The journals of the professional
audio industry keep us keenly aware of
technological advances as they occur. But
what about putting a good microphone in
the right place in a good room?
At SIERRA/EASTLAKE we invest much
time studying the science of acoustics as it
applies to the recording art. This continual
research has given us a new generation of
acoustic design providing the artist as
much sonic control and flexibility in the
studio itself, as was previously only possible in the control room.
Its called Variable Acoustics. And it
transforms the compartmentalized, inflexible studio layout of the past into a totally
variable sonic environment. where the
entire room, or individual segments, can
be acoustically "tuned" from dead to live,
or anywhere in- between. The key is not
only variability, but the capability to select
specific decay times by frequency.
The system is surprisingly simple. Added
to the familiar layout of absorptive acoustic
traps, is an array of continuously adjustable
wall and ceiling louvres, sliding mirror
panels and removable carpet sections. The
louvre panels can be controlled electrically
from the control room and are grouped in
sections which can be tuned individually.
The benefits of Variable Acoustic Design
are many. The studio itself can be designed
as an open area; free from the corners and
tiny booths which rob musicians of a
natural performing environment. The multiple adjustability of the room's acoustics
permits the area surrounding each instrument to be voiced individually for proper
decay times, while also providing the
necessary isolation between instruments.
And all without having to reach for EQ or
echo send busses! After all, isn't EQ introducing phase shift? Another advantage of a
large, open. tunable room is ease in recording large orchestras and big bands.
The SIERRA EASTLAKE Variable Acoustic Design is a most flexible and functional
approach to recording studio acoustics. It's
an important element of the industry's only
Acoustic Guarantee. in which you are assured, in front, of the exact cost, completion
date, and acoustic performance of your
custom design.
Call Vencil Wells or Kent Duncan at:
SIERRA HIDLEY DESIGN
293 So. Grand Avenue
Pasadena, California 91105
Telephone: (213) 793-1900
Telex: 182200 (K DUNCAN PSD)
\pril
IyRY
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-
continued ...
An Otani Varispeed Modification
and ground. When not in the varispeed
mode, a fixed 200 -ohm resistor is connected
in its place. It is interesting to note that
although only two fixed speeds are provided
on the front panel, a third speed is available
via an internal switch on the rear of the
control card.
For the Otani- designed modification, six
fixed resistors are changed, and the original
potentiometer is still used to vary the speed.
Tom DeFiglio of Otani wisely pointed out that
before you touch anything, you should
record a 10 kHz tone on tape at each speed,
which will be used as a reference later on to
recalibrate fixed -speed potentiometers URI,
UR2, and VR3. Other than that, simply
perform the resistor changes as listed, and
you will have increased the control range to
20%:
R7
R9
R10
R12
R13
R14
(Original)
18 kohm
39 kohm
2 kohm
0 kohm
1K8
1K8
(New)
to
to
to
to
to
to
20 kohm
33 kohm
12
12
kohm
kohm
fixed resistors; therefore, the trimpots will
not need to be recalibrated. You will have to
24V
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vs.
THE CALIFORNIA [TAX] BOARD OF EQUALIZATION
As detailed in the February issue of R -e, p, an increasing number of industry members
are now bracing themselves against a potential taxation threat from the California State
Board of Equalization (SBE), which has imposed a retroactive sales tax on all independent
producers, engineers, production companies, and studios.
The fundamental ideological difference separating the independents from the California
SBE centers around the legal definition of what exactly constitutes "taxable service." The
State Board of Equalization contends that the record industry in California mistakenly has
assumed that, since the State exempts from tax the sale of "intangible" personal services,
producers and engineers' services were not to be considered taxable.
The State Board also states that since 1976 all costs relating to the "fabrication" of a
master tape or record have been taxable, including hotel and travel expenses, meals, fees
for artists, producers and engineers, studio recording time, AFTRA scales, and all other
royalties except those paid to the performing artists. It also transpires that demo projects
are subject to the same sales tax
regardless of whether or not the projects were sold.
By contrast, the independent engineers and producers's interpretation of the situation
has been that they are selling their intangible personal services, rather than fabricating a
tangible product , i.e. the finished master tape. In essense, the State Board of Equalization is
suggesting that the independents have been collecting sales tax all along, but have failed to
report the income to the state.
In an attempt to present a united front to fight this new retroactive taxation threat, the
California Entertainment Organization (CEO), a non -profit California mutual benefit
corporation, recently held a series of meetings in both Los Angeles and San Francisco. The
most recent gathering
held on April 3 at The Complex in West LA, followed by a similar
meeting later the same day in San Francisco
provided a forum during which executives
from the CEO were on hand to discuss what recourse might be available for its members to
counter these tax statute interpretations of the State Board of Equalization.
"The situation is very real and very serious," a spokesperson for the CEO said. "The
CEO is fighting the state on behalf of the smallest part -time independent engineer, as well
as the major record companies. If we don't join toget her in earnest and fight, we're dead. It's
that simple." The CEO hopes to bring the issue of retroactive taxation to the public, and to
organize individuals in the record industry, as well as record companies and industry
associations such as RIAA, NARAS, AES, NARM and SPARS.
Many of those attending the Los Angeles meeting already had been summoned by the
SBE to appear for financial audits, and several have had personal liens placed against their
homes and/or personal property. The California sales tax charge is 6't., with 10% penalty
for failure to file, and a 1 per month interest charge
all of which are being applied
-
-
680
470
For the method I devised (shown in Figure
2), you will not have to change any of these
N
PROGRESS REPORTED: THE RECORDING COMMUNITY
b
do a bit of rewiring, however, and the original
500 -ohm potentiometer must be replaced
with a 10K linear type. I was not able to find a
new pot with the same kind of switch
attached, so instead I rewired the memory
rewind switch to turn the varispeed on and
off. (I hardly ever used that function anyway.)
Also, you will need to make a cut on the PC
board foil to route pin 11 of ICI out to the
switch. Be sure to use the same 200 -ohm
resistor that was wired to the old varispeed
pot, since that was in place when the original
speed alignment was performed.
-
-
retroactive to 1976.
Under California law, sellers who reside in the state have a legal obligation to collect sales
tax, even though the tax is later imposed on the buyer. Producers and engineers residing
out of California, but who have done business in the state since 1974, are also liable for sales
tax; as is the case when production on a project is done in California, but sold out of state.
The CEO has also raised the question regarding which engineers are eligble for "staff'
engineer status, and which are considered independent. Generally, if the recording studio
gives any direction to the engineer, such as scheduling session times, or paying the
engineer out of the artist's funds, then the engineer is considered to be staff. The amount of
sales tax
if applicable
to be paid on such engineer services is hence open to
interpretation.
The State Board of Equalization accumulates its information regarding the employment
of independent engineers and producers through audits of record companies. Anyone
whose name appears on such invoices, royalty statements and contracts is potentially
subject to an audit. The first contact an independent producer or engineer is likely to have
with the SBE is a notification in the mail to appear at the local office, and apply for a seller's
permit. Independent engineers and producers, as well as all other "sellers," are required by
law to have and display in each place of business a seller's permit; it is a misdemeanor to
collect sales tax without such a permit.
It has been reported that 'to date' Capitol Records, A &M, Columbia and Chrysalis
Records have all been visited by members of the SBE, and that the Board has placed its
representatives in New York, Chicago, Tennessee and Florida, to monitor potential
revenue from independents residing out of state, but doing work in California.
Once the seller's permit form has been submitted, an audit of prior years earnings will be
initiated, and he or she will be notified of amount of sales tax the SBE feels is owed.
However, the State Board requires that, prior to any litigation by the courts involving
settlement of the sales tax with an individual, the tax assessment first must be paid. If
remittance of the tax doesn't accompany the sales tax return, the Board may require a
security for the debt. Complete records of all business transactions, including sales
receipts, purchases and all other expenditures, must be made available at all times for
inspection by the representatives of the Board.
overleaf
-
-
continued
12 -c
/i)
III
:AIoil 1982
-
New England Digitalis
Synclavier Il
Two years ago, when the Synclavier° II was first introduced, we announced the end of synthesizers as you once
knew them. One year ago, with the addition of the Terminal Support Option for the Synclavier° Il, our synthesizer
continued as the worli's most advanced and best selling digital system. This year, with the release of two new
options, Sample-to-DikTM and Music Printing, New England Digital continues to pioneer the computer music
revolution with products destined permanently to change the world of music. . .
...
Virtually Unlimited Features
One Compact System
The Sdnclavier' Il has earned its reputation as the number
one digital system worldwide because New England Digital delivers features, not excuses. In order to accomplish this, the
basic Synclavier® II is designed around one of the most powerful
and upgradeable 16 -bit minicomputers in the industry. Complementing the computer is a flexible and efficient high -level structured software language, XPL. This powerful, unbeatable combination provided the vehicle for the rapid addition of new features to the Synclavier® II. Best of all, these new
features were simply mailed to our customers
on a floppy diskette.
To insure that these features produced outstanding musical results, New England Digital
designed the simplest, most intelligent musical
interfaces available, which provided the synthesis of sounds never before possible from any
system. Sounds so realistic that after hearing
the Synclavier° Il demo record, people called to
say they could not believe one instrument could
produce sounds so lifelike. This same method of
control can be mastered by anyone. By simply
pressing a button and turning the master control
knob, the user can adjust The parameters of the
Synclavier II instantly. For example, you can
have up to 32 separately controlled channels or
"voices" which consist of (1) 24 harmonics, (2)
six -stage volume envelope generator, (3) six -stage harmonic
envelope generator, (4) digital FM control, (5) extensive vibrato
control, (6) portamento control that can be logarithmic or linear,
aid (7) decay adjust, permitting longer decays on lower notes.
You can quickly recall fron 64 to 256 preset sounds available on
the Syn:lavier4, II at ari one time. Also, the possibility for
c-eating your own sounds from scratch is limited only by your
on skil and imagination To add more realism to timbres, the
Synclavier® II gives you extraordinary capability to change
sounds as you play then, accurately recreating many of the
subtle changes real instruments make during a live performance To top it off, the Synclavier® II comes with a 16 -track
digital memory recorder which is more sophisticated than any
other system recorder or sequencer on the market today. The
enormous power of the Synclavier® It's hardware and software
allows the user to record and mix complete multi -track recordings within the Synclavier® II, set independent loop points
for each of its 16 tracks, transpose and bounce tracks, and edit
or change the scale of a prerecorded piece of music from the
key of C to B minor. The compositional aspects
are staggering.
Terminal Support Option ...
The Musician's New Instrument
In addition, New England Digital integrated a
high-resolution graphics computer terminal for
use in conjunction with the Synclavier II's
keyboard (at left). This Terminal Support Option
has opened up new horizons previously unavailable from any system. This option provides a
Graphics Package which allows the user access
to a detailed graphic or numerical display of the
timbre being programmed. A sophisticated
music language titled SCRIPT 'permits the user
to take a performance played on the keyboard
or typed in on the terminal and edit or synchronize it to a film or video production. Plus,
precise polyrhythmic melodies can be developed which would be difficult or even impossible to play on a
keyboard.
For those interested, a more complex language, MAX;" a
superset of XPL, allows the user to write his own software arc grams to control New England Digital's special purpose harcware.
Even with these extensive features, New England Dicit3l has
only just begun to utilize the capability of the Synclavier° II. We
invite you to turn the page and examine another product of the
future, available today from New England Digital.
4101100a
now 'plaO digital
'4
2
.
OD
_.. MAY°
ncVnic+-
g 1982 Nev. England Digital
II
-.
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MON,
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onto
n ormatlon circle #6
OPINNIN.
vs. The
State [Tax] Board
... continued -
Should an independent producer, engineer or studio owner choose to challenge the
initial assessment made by the State Board, they have the right to request an informal
hearing held before a member of the SBE legal staff and members of the audit staff. If at this
hearing the Board decides the determination to be against the individual, he or she then has
20 days to petition for a redetermination or formal hearing. If at the formal hearing the ruling
goes against the producer, engineer or studio owner the only other alternative is to file suit
in Superior Court. In most cases the SBE will allow the individual to enter into a payment
schedule.
Currently, there are two bills about to be presented to the California State Legislature.
aimed at resolving the sales tax issue. Bill AB 2871, initiated by Assemblywoman Gwen
Moore, 49th District, covers the taxation period from 1976 to the present, and was
scheduled to be heard before the Revenue and Taxation Committee, April 14. The second
bill, still being written, was initiated by Richard Alatorre, 55th District, and covers 1971 to
1976. Both bills are written from the position that the sales tax levies are fundamentally
unfair, and seek to change the law.
The CEO is urging the record industry "to immediately unite, or else the state will defeat
everyone individually." Some members have already had to irrevocably assign 50 of their
royalties to the state, and others have had liens placed on their personal property.
In some cases," claimed CEO Attorney Valerie Michael Ross at the recent meeting in
Los Angeles, "the Board is forcing persons to sign a waiver of the statute of limitations
under the threat of taking all the money due immediately, or working out a payment plan if
the person is willing to sign the waiver."
"Before CEO was organized individual members of the music industry fought their own
cases alone," she continued. "Not many [engineers and producers] knew that others were
being assessed in the same way, and each person went before the Board arguing many of
the same issues that others were arguing in different parts of the state. Which invariably led
to the same result
each one lost.
"We don't advocate that our members not pay their taxes. Rather, we recognize that the
State Board may be interpreting the Sales and Use Tax Law incorrectly, according to their
own regulations. Our purpose is to educate our members regarding the way the State is
applying the law, and to fight to change the attitude of the Board and perhaps change the
law," Ross emphasized.
There was an additional concern expressed at the Los Angeles meeting that the SBE was
not applying the law evenhandedly to those audited, and that much of what one taxpayer
-
...
continued overleaf
Aligned
S ta y Aligned
Gat
with
STL
precision magnetic
test tapes
These dependable tapes are used by broadcasters,
recording studios, equipment manufacturers,
governments and educators throughout the world.
STL offers the most accurate reference in the widest variety...
Alignment, Sweep, Pink Noise, Level Set, Azimuth and
Flutter/Speed. Available on reels, in broadcast carts, in home
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Write or phone for fast delivery or free catalog.
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STANDARD TAPE LABORATORY, INC.
12-e/p
120April
1982
-
vie
THE
DIGITAL STANDARDS
DILEMMA
by
Martin Polon
The dawn of 1982 has risen, leaving in its
wake a trend for the rest of the year. While
the recent European AES Show, held in late
March in Montreux, Switzerland, is not the
regular spring Audio Engineering Society
Convention (although with one less AES
convention, it may as well have been), it has
served to elevate audio user awareness of
digital audio to the same level felt by the
manufacturers, and even the professional
studio market. The dawn of the digital audio
disk and of affordable video -based PCM
(Pulse Code Modulation) audio recording
raises the question of digital standards for the
whole spectrum of the audio profession. The
digital media blitz has also raised consumer
awareness to what could be described as the
"point of no return."
On the professional audio front, the grumbling about digital standards has not ceased,
even with last November's AES Standards
Committee agreement, and the harmonious
March standards meeting and tentative interface agreement at Montreux. At one level,
some audio professionals still feel that the
agreed upon 48 kHz sampling rate is too low
to yield truly error- and distortion -free
recording and reproduction. Others are concerned with the difference between the 48
kHz professional rate, and the 44.1 kHz sample adopted as the standard for the Sony Philips DAD (Digital Audio Disk.) To some
observers the difference appears to be especially difficult if the original recordings will be
processed at 48 kHz until pressing to 44.1
kHz for consumer DAD.
At first glance, manufacturers of other
kinds of audio equipment are also faced with
the dilemma of having to select 44.1 kHz to
match the development of digital components (amplifiers, tuners, etc.) to the DAD
system, or to utilize 48 kHz for other cassette
and open -reel tape recorders, microphones,
monitor amps, etc. The semi -pro audio user
is an unwitting accomplice to all of this, since
in the past semi -pro and top -of -line hifi have
often been synonymous.
The main problem on the digital front, as is
so often the case, is the seeming lack of
standards. If taken to its ultimate, the standards dilemma takes the following form. First,
there are the European broadcasters via the
EBU (European Broadcasting Union), who
have settled on 32 kHz as the sampling rate of
choice for digital broadcast audio transmission. This is the only real International digital
audio standard, although in North America
the NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) and the Bell system have acquiesced
rather than participated in the setting of the
transmission standard.
Then we have the Sony -Philips Compact
Audio Disk with its 44.1 kHz sampling rate,
and a whole family of associated analog -todigital and digital -to- analog conversion chips
based on that system, from manufacturer's
such as Sony, Toshiba and Sanyo.
- continued overleaf
.
.
.
Synciavier IFs
Sample To -Disk Option
The Most Important Technological Advance for
Commercial Synthesis Since the Synthesizer Itself.
Using the Synclavier' II's new Sample- to-DisktMOption, you
can now digitally record real instruments or whole sections
of instruments into the Synclavier® II using a microphone or
any line -level source, and then perform them on the Synclavier® II's keyboard. Bu:, that's only the beginning. Using
sophisticated software techniques which are simple to operate,
you can then analyze the recorded instrument(s), and, if you
wish, completely reconstruct and alter the sound before performing it on the Synclavier® II's keyboard.
The Synclavier® II's Sample- to-DiskTMOption is the superior
approach to music sampling. Its audio fidelity and length of
sample time far surpass anything on the market today.
The Sample- to-Disk" Option can be added to any Synclavier® II music system. Analog signals can be recorded at a
sample rate up to 50KHz, onto a Winchester Disk (shown
below). You may select a wide range of sampling times from a
minimum of 100 seconds to a maximum of 54 minutes, depending on the size and number of disks your Synclavier® II
has. Also, to insure precise conversion of the recorded signal,
16 -bit state -of- the -art, digital -to-analog and analog- to-digital
converters are included.
Leading Edge Technology Made Useful to the Musician
The technological wizardry of New England Digital now
makes available a powerfui performance and research instrument to help you understand and use creatively one of the most
important components of music
sound. Though extremely
advanced, this system is simple to learn and easy to operate.
For example, to begin sampling any sound, all you do is type a
simple command on Synclavier® II's terminal. While you are
recording, the terminal draws a real -time Envelope Display
allowing you to see how many seconds of sound you are recording. By typing another command, the display on the terminal changes to a Signal Display, which plots the recorded
waveform of a violin, sax, human voice or whatever you have
recorded in the time domain. It graphs the amplitude of the
signal as it changed over time. At this point, using the cursor on
the display, you can label the beginning and ending points of
the signal, enabling you to play just that small segment of the
...
recording, again and again, on the Synclavier® II's keyboard or
extract that segment for a more detailed analysis.
If you are interested in the harmonic content of a sampled
timbre, typing another command draws a three dimensional
Spectral Display on the terminal. This display automatically
plots the strengths of individual harmonics present in the timbre, and displays how they differ over time. You can also examine non -harmonic sounds such as a cymbal crash (below).
This is an extremely useful feature in learning the timbral
characteristics of any musical instrument and will act as a
guide to synthesizing future timbres.
To modify or reconstruct a sound, two necessary software
techniques are supplied. The first is
Digital
Filtering
which permits you to
reduce noise or individually filter out
ce-tain harmonics
present
in the sound,
thereby changing
the timbral characteristics of the sound.
The second technique, Editing, allows
the user to examine two completely different waveforms
graphically, on the terminal, and extract segments from each
waveform to be spliced together for a totally new sound or
sound effects. To illustrate, you could attach the attack of a
snare drum to the sustain of a vibraphone.
Real Time Performance
Once satisfied with your timbre, you can transfer it to the
Synclavier® II's keyboard for real time performance. Complete
control over the decay and sustain of the timbre is possible,
plus musical effects such as pitch bend are available.
These features, advanced as they are, are only the beginning.
However, one thing is certain, the Synclavier® II's Sample -toDisk'Option is destined to change the
j
world of music synthesis forever.
(
now emplane! digital
For additional information circle
r+8
The Digital Dilemma (continued)
-
...
continued
vs. The State [Tax] Board
was told by a Board member often contradicted what they were told by other Board
members within the same and or other Board offices. It has been claimed that the Board
often seemed reluctant to clarify for the record exactly what its policy were regarding
specific issues, and tape recorders were prohibited from any of the meetings.
So far, the CEO has raised approximately $30,000 through its membership fees. The
Organization is currently seeking more money to pay for the costs of attorney's fees, and to
provide sufficient lobbying support in the California State Capitol, Sacramento.
CEO's Board of Directors are: studio owner, producer and engineer David Rubinson
(president); attorney Jane Wolf Eldridge (executive director): Hank Cicalo, producer and
engineer; Jerry Jacob, producer and studio owner; Ross Winet ski, producer, studio owner
and engineer; Phillip Miller, producer and engineer; George Massenburg, engineer and
studio owner; and Chris Stone, studio owner and president of SPARS. The attorney for the
CEO is Valerie Michael Ross.
Further information regarding inquiries, membership and financial support should be
addressed to: CEO, P.O. Box 512, Van Nuys, CA 91408. (213) 906 -2080.
In addition, there are numerous PCM
encoders designed to utilize video cassette
recorders as a recording medium with the
sampling at 44.1 kHz compatible with the
525 -line NTSC video standard of the analog
video recorder. Since these PCM /VCR
recording units are utilized in many studios,
44.1 kHz serves as a professional, semiprofessional and amateur standard. Unfortunately, lower -cost units also use a 14-bit
technology that is more restrictive as to
compatability with other computer hardware, as well as having the fidelity limitations
of a lower sampling rate.
A true 16 -bit technology embraces the 48
kHz sampling frequency standardized by
Sony -MCI, Studer, Ampex and migrated to
by the other digital audio manufacturers: 3M,
Mitsubishi (with Telefunken), and console
maker Neve (who also offers their new digital
console at 44.1 kHz). Considering the popularity of 16 -bit technology in the computer
and electronics world, 48 kHz can take
advantage of software and hardware developments from computer companies, such as
Hewlett- Packard and IBM. Certainly, the
establishment of a digital automated studio
would be much easier if all components were
standardized. Also, a 48 kHz standard converts to and from 32 kHz in a simple 2 -to -3
ratio. Unfortunately, the use of 48 kHz is not
directly compatable with 525 -line NTSC
analog video hardware. But, it is an ideal frequency for compatability with developing digital video systems.
Finally, there is the "old" professional digital audio sampling standard of 50A kHz,
which has been abandoned by digital
recorder anufacturers, even though its 7 -to -8
relationship to the 44.1 kHz sampling rate
offered some design conveniences for a dual
standard.
Nonetheless, the dual standard seems to
be emerging as the pattern of digital audio
compromise (albeit a painful and angry one in
some quarters). 44.1 kHz has been firmly
established for the Compact Digital Audio
disk, VCR /PCM compatible via BNC plugs
and a video -line signal, and used as an alternative professional standard. 48 kHz, on the
other hand, has been blessed by the AES
digital working group, both with a professional multitrack standard at 48 kHz and a
proposal for interconnection. It would seem
that a dual standard is a fact of life. The
presence of the first of what will undoubtedly
be many digital audio standards converters,
the PCM SFC16 was recently unveiled by
Studer. The architecture is in place for a digital audio matrix of technology.
What is more difficult about all of this is the
user's perception of what digital audio
means. At the studio level, digital audio is
nothing more than the latest buzz word
necessary to attract the business of recording, and to sell that recording to the fidelity
conscious record- buying public. Recording
studios are, after all, in the business of making money, and the potential increase in fidelity is less important than the potential
increase in business that digital audio can
provide. Not all studio operators are convinced that digital recording is an answer to
all of the problems in the record business.
But, many consider digital pressed to a quality analog disk as the best of both worlds; the
-
With an API totally modular console by Datatronix you
have unlimited flexibility in size and function Each console
each component individually
is custom designed
selected by you. After all, the choice
you design the console to fit
is yours
your needs today and tomorrow 1 For
example. you can choose
With an API
modular console
the choice is
yours
.
from five different, Interchangeable. plug-in EO
modules and an array of input and
auxiliary modules -all assembled into
a mainframe designed to your requirements As your needs change. so can the modular components.
Plus
each console may be prewired for expansion, so that
you can easily expand your capability at minimum cost'
._. The API console by Datatronix offers you the quality of
sound, performance, and flexibility you demand as a profesand remember
sional recording engineer. So call us today
the choice is yours.
Performance you can count on
tt
4
ATATRONIX INC
A
subsidiary of ATLANTIC
RESEARCH CORPORATION
(703) 620-5300
TWX 710 833 0365
2100 Reston Ave., Reston, VA 22091
R-e/p 160 April
1982
... continued overleaf
-
Synclavìer°I I'S
Music Printing Option
You Create!
Let Synclavierli Do the Work.
New England Digital's computer music revolution continues
with Synclavier® II's sop-tisticated automatic Music Printing
Option. With this option, you can play any combination of notes
on Synclavier® II's keyboard and then easily transfer those
notes to Syncla-
vier® II's terminal for
editing. Once you
have finished editing, a simple touch
of a key on Synclavier® II's terminal
gives you a high
quality, hard copy
printout.
This amazing new
development eliminates the drudgery of translating
your musical ideas
to paper. Now you
can concentrate on
your creativity and
let Synclavier® II
take care of the paperwork. Again, like all of New England
Digital's products, it could not be easier to operate.
After playing a piece of music on Synclavier® II and storing it
in its 16 -track digital recorder, you may select which track or
tracks you wish to print. To insure rhythmic resolution while
playing, the system is adjustable to capture notes from 64th
notes to any greater value.
Following a simple software menu provided by New England
Digital, you can quickly edit the notes, change clefs, key
signatures and keys of the instruments, and even change the
resolution of the original rhythm.
Synclavier° II's Music Printing Option may be added to any
Synclavier® II. It can be used to print out lead shee:s (complete
with lyrics), piano music (shown below), orchestral scores, and
individual parts.
The Sample -to -Disk Option and the Music Printing Opticn
are, again, examples of New England Digital's extraordinary
ability to provide new enhancements and exciting options for
the Synclavier® II system.
When you purchase a Synclavier® II, you'll never be stuck
with today's technology tomorrow. Synclavier® II offers the
ability to be upgraded and expanded year after year and to remain state -of- the -art indefinitely.
Synclavier® II digital music systems start at $13,750.00.
Don't forget to inquire about our line of business software for
your studio and personal use.
11's Instruction Manual
Av3lable now Complete and descriptive text, with
diagrams, explaining, step by step, how to operate the
Synclavier' II real time system and terminal support
option. You owe it to yourself to keep pace with the
future of music. Send $50.00 (USA & Canada) or
$60.00 (elsewhere) to receive your postpaid copy.
Synclavlet«
30- minute, long playing demo records are ava fable for
$2.50 (USA & Canada) or $6.00 (elsewhere).
For more information, a personal demonstrwion, or the
name of your nearest representative, please call or write:
Department 39
New England Digital Corp.
Box 546
White River Jct., Vt. 05001
new england digital
802 - 295 -5800
LTh
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Ochsenmenuett
Joseph Haydn
Moderato maestoso
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JANIS JOPLIN's sound ... a generation later:
The Digital Dilemma (continued)
deficiencies of each format cancelling one
another out. But, whatever digital technological camp one is in, the financial ramifications
are extraordinary.
Studio owners, users and operators want
four things. Firstly, they want all of the digital
equipment to "talk to each other." In other
words, all equipment should be compatible in
connection and communication of digital
audio, data and commands. Secondly, they
would like to be able to take a tape from one
machine of the same manufacturer and play it
on another, anywhere in the world. Thirdly,
they would like to be able to interchange
tapes, machine -to- machine between different
manufacturers. Lastly, they would like to
keep maintenance and operation as simple as
it is with analog audio. Certainly, the first two
needs are being resolved as a logical
sequence of the dual standards. The third
may not happen unless individual manufacturers settle on head and tape formats, as
well as digital sampling standards. The days
of simple audio maintenance will have to
plus
pass, but plug-in boards and circuits
skills picked up with other digital units such
will ease the mainas audio delay devices
tenance impact of digital.
On the flip side, digital will allow computerized troubleshooting and systems testing. So,
like it or not, the audio industry from one end
to the other will soon be riding a crest of bits
and bytes that will improve (hopefully) profitability as well as audio reproduction.
-
-
E
Notes on the Signal Processing and Audio Technology Used to
Produce, Mix and Re -Mix
"IF dilEIEW GLnL ZO NG"
by David Gans
So much about Janis Joplin has been
mythologized during the years since her
death in October 1970. Biographies, histories
of rock, and the films Janis and The Rose
(which clearly intended to play on the Joplin
myth) have combined to paint a contusing
picture of this complex artist.
No matter what is said and thought about
Janis Joplin the person, the victim, the
character, the undeniable fact of her musical
power is captured in the grooves of the
various albums. Elliot Mazer co-produced
(with John Simon) Cheap Thrills, one of the
definitive albums of "The San Franciso
Sound," and the record that propelled Janis
Joplin into the world's fancy.
"Janis wanted to be a star above all," says
was very
Mazer of those early sessions.
to be loved, and to be at
important to her
the top of her profession. She worked harder
than anybody I've ever worked with; she was
the most 'into -it' artist I've ever seen, in terms
of always being there no matter how boring
or routine the event in the session might have
it
been.
"She was into learning about the system.
Every artist prospers greatly by understanding what you can and can't do in the studio.
Janis understood that it was very important
to make a good record; that it was essential
to do it well; and t hat it was someone else's
money being spent.'.
Mazer was called upon after Joplin's death
to compile an album of live recordings. He
went through hundreds of tapes, searching
for the best performances, and Joplin In
Concert was well received by critics and
record -buyers alike. While assembling that
record, Mazer was asked by Columbia
Records to compile tracks for a possible
"unheard Joplin" album.
What Mazer put together included some
powerful performances, but he found it
necessary to overcome some musical and
technical flaws.
"I decided to take some liberties with
overdubs and change some things around to
make it sound better," he says. "By 1973,
certainly our perception of a good quality
rock- and -roll record had changed."
Upon hearing a rough version of the
proposed album, representatives of the
Joplin estate asked that the project be
shelved.
"Whatever their reasons for aborting the
project, the Joplin family had the final say in
the matter,- Mazer offers, "and so that was
that." Then, in early 1981, Mazer received
word that the Joplin estate had reconsidered, and now felt that the record would be
appropriate.
Once the go-ahead was given, Mazer again
faced the problems of upgrading the tapes to
current standards, and bringing the many
different sounds and bands to some sonic
consistency. The songs selected for inclusion
on the 1974 version came from as far back as
January 1967, and as late as June 1970. They
included sessions with Big Brother and The
Holding Company, -1 -he Kozmic Blues Band,
LET 'EM KNOW YOUR DRUA01I1414 IS ALIVE
WITH EM-101 SERIES MIGROAHONES
The Full Tilt Boogie Band, and The Paul
Butterfield Blues Band, with tapes ranging
from mono to 16- track.
Most of the reworking of the new album,
Farewell Song, was done at CBS Studios in
New York, Mazer explains, because of the
tremendous bulk of tape involved. "A couple
hundred reels were needed to do the final
selection and, due to the value and condition
of the tapes, it just didn't make sense to try
and move it elsewhere," he says. "I also
needed a studio that had 2 -, 4 -, 8 -, 16-track
and mono machines." Some of the 1974
overdubs were done at His Master's Wheels,
Mazer's now -closed studio in San Francisco.
Basic Tracks and Overdubs
s
R-c/p 180April
1982
We'll take Farewell Song's source tapes
and overdubs cut by cut, and then tackle the
mixing process:
According to Mazer, the most challenging
cut was "Raise Your Hand," the only song
which wasn't included on the original version
of Farewell Song. It was recorded at a
television studio in Frankfurt, West
Germany, on April 12, 1969, with The
Kozmic Blues Band. The tape was a very
highly compressed, monaural television mix,
short on drums and heavy on bass.
...
continued
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L` I
Copyright 1981 by Audio & Design Recordin.: Inc.
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For additional Information circle #12
Audio +Design
THE HIT SOUND IN AUDIO SCIENCE
\IJril I982
12-r/Ii lll
vie
.
a
5
generation later
..
.
How They Did
Janis Joplin's
FAREWELL SONG ALBUM
"The rhythm guitar sounded really dead,"
says Mazer, "and. in the portion of the song
where there was supposed to be a
saxophone solo, there was nothing - just 32
bars of rhythm section vamping. But it was a
great vocal."
Mazer began by transferring the mono
tape to one track of an MCI JH -16 16- track.
Roy Markowitz, who played on the original
tape, came in and recut his drum track. Peter
Stroud was brought in to play the rhythm
guitar part, and add a few lead licks. Vinny de
la Rocca did a saxophone solo (the section
parts were intact on the original tape), and
Markowitz added a tambourine.
"The idea was to give the overdubs a live
feel," explains Mazer. "We used Columbia
Studio B, which is a relatively big room. We
used a few tight mikes
SM -57 on the snare,
RE -2U's on the toms and kick
and two
AKG C -12's for the overheads, which also
served as the room mikes for the guitar
track. I put the bass drum on one track, the
snare on another, and then the toms and
room mike on a pair of tracks. The idea was
to get the drums to sound as much like the
sound on stage as possible, so that we could
blend them with the original and get
something that sounded sensible."
"Re -doing the drums solved another
problem," notes Mazer. "There was nothing
ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR
"MISERY'N ". "CATCH ME DADDY ".
AND 'ONE NIGHT STAND OVERDUBS. 1974
VENUE HIS MASTER'S WHEELS. SAN FRANCISCO
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PRODUCER ELLIOT MAZER
ENGINEERS. LARRY KEYES AND
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1982
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194781
bright or 'tingly' about the original tape, and
since it was a song that uses cymbals well,
recutting the drums made the song sound
brighter, as well as punchier and fatter."
The guitar, a gold -top Gibson Les Paul
played through a Fender amp, was miked
with a Neumann U67 and the same C12
room mike that served for the drum overdub.
The saxophone was recorded with the same
C12 room mike and an RE -20 close up.
"Tell Mama," recorded in Toronto with
The Full Tilt Boogie Band on June 28, 1970,
came to Mazer as a highly saturated 8 -track
with Dolby -A, and a Fairchild sync tone on a
couple of tracks. (This 15.7 kHz tone was
used for film synchronization during the days
when movie sound didn't have much content
above 8 kHz.
The eight tracks comprised: mono drums,
guitar, bass, electric keyboard (organ),
piano, vocal, and maybe two tracks of crowd
sound.
"It was just terribly recorded," Mazer
winces. "They just squashed the heck out of
it, recording maybe 10 dB higher than normal
levels. Decoding the Dolby was a complete
guess: we adjusted the input to the Dolby
until it sounded right."
There were no overdubs on this song, but
Mazer had a tough problem to deal with
anyway: when he resumed the project in
1981, the original 8-track was nowhere to be
found, and he had to work from the two track he had roughmixedin 1974.
"Magic of Love," with Big Brother, was
recorded by Fred Catero, John Simon and
Mazer at the Grande Ballroom in Detroit on
March 1, 1968. The recording console used
was a CBS custom 12x4 remote board; the
decks were 3M M56 portable 4- tracks. Both
guitars (which Mazer believes were played
through Sunn amps) were miked with old
RCA lavaliers in front of the cabinets, and
blended on track #1; Janis and the men sang
into SM -57's, mixed together on track #2; the
four drum mikes were mixed to track #3; and
the bass was taken direct to track #4. House
mikes, SM -57's, were blended into the bass
and drum tracks.
"It's my favorite track on the record,"
Mazer comments. "It's
a
really good -
sounding recording, and a great performance." No new music was added to the
- continued on page 88 ..
.
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'1981-1982 Billboard MagazineBrand Usage Survey
For additional Information circle #14
April
1982
0 E2 -e /p 21
'81
Grammy Award winning producer ..
.
M.7zDllEalQD.
MfD.MffEmED.
... his production viewpoints
with analysis of the
and
sessions as described by
engineer
.............
by
Robert Carr
Photography by Kathy Cotter
ichael Omartian's contributions as
keyboard player on albums by Steely Dan,
Boz Scaggs, Dolly Parton, Manhattan Transfer,
Neil Diamond, and even Billy Joel helped establish
his credibility as a musician. And his Top 10 hit,
"Get Used To It," covered by Roger Voudouris,
proved Omartian's competence as a songwriter and
producer. But after he and Christopher Cross
walked away with an armful of Grammys in 1981,
Michael Omartian's name became practically a
househould word to every serious member of the
recording community.
During 1981, the Omartian /Cross combination
struck again with the theme for the movie Arthur,
and the first months of 1982 saw the completion of
R -e/ p 22
0 April
1982
his production effort with a new group; Maxus.
fter cordial introductions and an off-hand
compliment on the Maxus project, the focus of
this interview, conducted at Omartian's home
studio in Beverly Hills, quickly turned to the tight
play lists that prevail in most radio markets
throughout the country, and the difficulties that
new groups encounter when shooting for the all important "air- play" that can make or break a new
act. The conversation continued from there
touching candidly and sometimes emotionally, on
playing /producing sessions, the current LA music
scene, and the inevitable accoutrements of the everelusive state called "success."
... continued overleaf
-
John Stronach started out as a classical
pianist and a rock 'n roll drummer. Today, he's a
producer /engineer. In fact, he's been a part of the
record business since he was sixteen years old.
His sixteen years of experience have included
work with Diana Ross, The Supremes, the Jackson
Five, Bobby Darin, Sammy Davis, Sarah Vaughn,
Canned Heat, Alvin Lee, Three Dog Night,
John MayaII, Rufus, Jo Jo Gunn, Dan Fogelberg,
Joe Walsh, REO Speedwagon and more.
ON BREAKING IN
As far as recording engineering schools,
those things are great for teaching you
fundamentals. but don't be spending a lot of
money on that.There are people who spend
thousands of collars learning how to be a
recording engineer, and they still start as a go -for,
which is the same way everybody starts. It's nice to
have that behind you, but don't know. don't know
that it does all that much good.The best way to
learn is by doing."
I
I
ON TAKING OVER
"The producer is there to help. It is not a
dictatorial thing. A lot of producers get into a
situation such as 'You are going to do it this way;
and it turns out to be the producer's album, not the
band's. And don't think that's fair to the band. Its
their music.The act must be able to retain their
identity and not just be a vehicle for the producer."
I
ON PLAYING AROUND
"In today's world, you have to be real
businesslike. It's not like the early 70's, where
everybody comes in and has a big party. You have
to work within budgets, and you have to show up
on time. bring that consistency, and try to bring
a stability to the bands, so they know that they can
be as creative as they want, but yet know that they
can get a lot of work done and relate with the
labels and management and just tie everything
together."
I
I
ON TAPE
ON REPETITION OF STYLE
"I've seen it ruin people's careers. You can't
use the same production style all the time. What
works for one group of songs won't necessarily
work for another. You have to remain flexible
enough to change your production techniques
as the music changes"
"I used another tape for a time and switched
to 3M, because would make twenty passes
and all of a sudden, you would be able to see
I
through the other stuff.They had a bad shedding
problem. just couldn't trust it any more.
"Here at the Record Plant, we give our clients
any brand they want. But recommend to people
that they use the 3M, and especially the 226.Their
consistency and quality is better. It just doesn't
get real good and then drop to bad. You just know
that it's going to be okay all the time. You don't have
to worry about it. Which is important when you're
out there and you're trying to get that magic take"
I
I
ON TECHNOLOGY
"A lot of producers and engineers are real
spoiled with all this technical gadgetry and
wizardry and all the things we can do now. They
forget about the music, and the music is the thing
we are here for. That's what you have to keep in
mind all the time.'
SCOTCH 226
WHEN YOU LISTEN FOR A LIVING.
JOHN
STIONACH
ON TAPE.
t.
Magnetic AN Products Division/3M
Scotche is a
registered trademark
3M
of 3M
For additional Information circle #
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Grammy Award Winning Producer
"I'll ne(er engineer
MICHAEL OMARTIAN
e p (Robert ('ari): Í' /re .Maxus album
had (I mire balance hrinv rn /he rat'.
d ll ar ni(energy''Ia11ere-p;Coup.andihe
R
subtle sophist ¡Ca lion of studio
e.t'periener. /lour (1111(1 (4. (I rolr did you
play in shaper;; the sound: in tempering;
MU: 1 es. till them all again. When
heard the original A &M tape, gut the
feeling that's as fa' as they could ever
see going with those tunes. Otherwise,
they would have kept going with them.
But the songs were very un:inished to
nit'. 'l'ut he very honest. I thought they
sounded like A demos. '/'here wasn't
enough imagination in what I heart/:
everything was strict and regimented.
'/'hey didn't seem to get into emotionally
building something at the cncl. It was
just more of the same all the way
through until fade out.
'that's not to say it was bad, however.
and I think
It's just that sometimes
this happens frequently with groups
in (order to appease everybody in the
group. one member ear another will
sometimes stand hack and not make a
comment. "I made the last comment
that they used su. therefore, I'm not
going to say this, because it's someone
else's turn... 'I'hat kind of atmosphere
leads to the point where pretty soon
t
t
1
Ilrl' "reran
Michael ()martian: It's hard to say in
situation like that because, basically.
all five of those guys have a lot nfstudiu
and road experience with other people.
a
think they came to me because they
expected arrangement ideas.
I
would say that there was a
considerable involvement, but not to
the point where it would tamper with
t Iat they. %sere all about. That's
basically what a producer is supposed
to do anyway. I never want to have a
situation where people say. "I can toll
every record this guy clues, because I
Call sec his stamp all over it.- I tonal to
want to keep the integrity of the band
intact.
In Maxus' case, all the songs. except
fur tine. were finished before I starter!
working with them. And for the one
sting that was left, I rewrote a (hunts for
them. l'II always he changing bass
lines, and drum parts here and there.
Sometimes bands get locked into a rut
where they keep a certain approach
happening all the time. It's just good to
have an (outside ear that comes in and
says, "Hey, it'd he nice to change this or
change that.- I felt I contributed quite a
bit of musical input, but it didn't change
anything drastically.
Caro: So they were hiring
primarily as an obje('III'e ear!
Michael ()mrtian: I think that, a lot
of times, that's what a producer's job is.
R -e p I h.'uber1
you
RHEMA
basic track:;,
string or horn (lutes, because I
don't (cant to /tae( to think ((bout
le(els, and the other side of
the glass too"
Ile should try. to have 101 overview of
what's going nn. listen to the lt) or 12
songs. and figure out whether they;are
making sense, ur doing: "Here's our
country song: here's our jazz song:
here's our 't his' song."
'/'here used to be a time when I saw
that happening a lot. People would put
out an album with all these different
types of music. It was like a "Showcase
of what I can do." And yet the album
never did anything. because there was
no market. The record company didn't
know where to place the stuff.
h' t' p I Roherl ('arrr: When you first look
uu the project with .Maxus. did .rou
grand design of hunt' you
wanted to work with them. and what
direction would he besl!
Michael ()martian: In a way. yeah.
The circumstances with Maxus were
quite a hit different than any other
situation I've been in. '/'hey had a cleat
with A& M Reelods,and had already cut
the album with someone else. In fact,
six of the songs were cut in final form ...
or what they thought was final form.
formulate
R -e p:
(I
Did you redo those tracks!
... Michael Omartian's Personal -Use Studio
Michael Omartian recently put the finishing touches on Rhema Studio, a 24track recording/mixing facility located in an area of his Beverly Hills home.
Rhema was designed and built for Omartian by Dennis Ezeland. Although used
only for his own projects, R-e /p compiled a list of studio components as a point
of reference:
Gain Brains and four Kepex; two dbx
Console: MCI 36-input JH -636 with
Model 165 limiters;
JH -50 Automation.
two UREI LA -4 limiters;
Recorders: MCI JH -24
an Eventide Harmon24 -track and JH -110B
izer with de- glitch card;
2-track with interchangeDeltaLab DL -4 digital
able '/- and '/ -inch
delay; and a Lexicon
heads.
:
Super Prime Time DDL.
Reverb: Lexicon Model
Keyboards: MiniMoog;
224 Digital Reverb
Sequential Circuits
system.
Prophet 5; Roland Jupiter 8; Rhodes
Echo Units: URSA Major digital reverb
for spring echo, and a Space Station
73; and a Linn Drum Machine.
Microphones: AKG C- 452's, two Cfor digital tape slap.
Effects: Audio & Design Scamprack,
414's; two Crown PZM's; a Neumann
U -87 (with another on order).
containing two SO -7 Octave Equalizers,
Monitors: Yamaha NS- 1000's with
two F -300 Noise Gates, two S0 -4 Parametric Equalizers, a De- esser, and
the ubiquitous Auratones on the
console.
Stereo Panners; four Valley People
I
!
.
-
-
everything becomes very "one
-
dimensional.R -e p:
Could
.N'uu
name the A &ell tunas
that had to he redone!
MO: They slid "'.'he Higher You Rise.''
"They )a need,.. "A /'art of Me," "Your
magi oat ion,- "Where Were You," and
.. I'd have to see the album for the last
one. They had about a 10-tune album
that I had a Cassette on, and listened to
it for a solid three weeks. Everywhere
I'd go that's all I'd listen to. and keep
asking myself, "What's the matter with
this tune: what's going wrong with
this.[
I didn't want to go into the studio and
cut four tunes to augment the tunes that
were already cut. As far as I was
concerned, the tunes had to he cut all
over ¡(gain. That was kind of a shock to
everybody. but they went with it.
The group also had a fixation about
"nobody but the group members should
play on the album. And
didn't
necessarily agree with that. When we
I
.
1
1
got together, we realized how much
someone else would really add to the
album, without taking away from the
fact that they are a band. '/'here's
nothing wrung with that. I think the
end result is very, very good.
in a way it's funny, that by not seeing
the kind of results you feel you deserve,
you can get frustrated into thinking,
"Hid we du something that's missing
the mark ?" It's unfortunate with the
the radio
way the music situation
incredibly
- either
immediately from
anyone in general. "Oh,
promotion
-
is set up.
good feedback
You can get
in the
we
company, or
love it. This is great. you're gonna do it."
people
April
1982
0 R -e /p 25
Then three weeks later, it's like they
didn't see the instant Number 1, so
therefore you get the feedback of "no
feedback." Suddenly there's silence
where there was once all this praise.
R -e/p: Like you didn't even do the
project.
MO: Yeah! And it becomes very frustrating. You start going, "Man, did we
do something lousy here ?" But every
time I put that record on, and review it, I
say, "No. That's a good album. I think
it's genuinely a good album."
I don't see what else we could have
done on a first album. You could try to
do 10 versions of "What a Fool
Believes," for example, just to try to cap-
italize on what everybody's capitalizing
on the feel, the same kind of changes.
But we really wanted to stay totally
away from that scene. So, we went in
and did what we did.
-
R-e /p: Are you assigned to a group by
the record company, or do you go out
looking for groups?
MO: Both ways. Well ... it's not even a
matter of assignment, either. In the case
of Warner Brothers, for me it's strictly,
"If you like it, do it. If you don't,
nobody's forcing you." Which is really
nice. It's like a family, and very little
pressure. In fact, the day I walked in, I
was greeted by Mo Ostin, the president
of the company. He came down to my
office, and said, "Look, if you find
nothing for the first year, or if you want
to relax, and just get an idea of what this
place is about, you don't have to do anything." I'm thinking, "I never heard
anything like this before ... and he said
a year! What in the world ... ?" It's an
atmosphere that's unbelievable.
R -e /p: What
attracts you to working
with a group?
MO: It's a reaction to being a studio
player for so many years. Something
happens between the members of a
group. They're writing songs together;
they're performing together; they've
had months of rehearsal doing the
tunes. All the parts are so worked out,
that I enjoy working with that kind of
freshness ... where it's not walking in
with the charts.
The session guys can sit down and do
some incredible things, but they haven't
lived with the tune for a while. The
date's got to happen fast. Even if it takes
two days to cut the tune, it still has to
happen quickly. Twelve hours in the
studio doing a song doesn't mean that
you've explored all the possibilities.
When I'm listening to the radio, I can
always tell which is the studio band,
and which isn't. Even without the group
names. There are so many little parts
that are worked out when you're doing a
group project, that would just go by in a
studio /session -player situation.
R -e /p: There seems to be an energy
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R-e/p 26 0 April
1982
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-a
that
comes out of a group, too
marriage
of the energies of the people involved.
MO: Exactly. And you realize that with
the group, that music is their life. Everything is at stake. For us who go from
studio to studio, it's just a 3 -hour or 6hour stint. So what if it doesn't work out.
You go on to the next one. But with a
group, it's that whole attitude of: "We
want this music to work the five of us,
the 10 of us" ... or whatever.
-
R -e/p: You seem to be
groups.
attracted to new
I enjoy new groups. I've been
offered quite a few established artists
and, to be honest with you, it's very hard
to say yes to some of them. They're so
locked into their ways. Usually what
they're calling me for is a case of: "Well,
I'm tired of the kind of thing I've been
into. I need a new producer to give me a
fresh sound or direction." And you realize that it's not going to be any different.
Everybody wants to stay where they
are, because it works for them.
They all act like they have a monkey
on their back called "themselves." So
many [band and artists] are so tired of
hearing themselves, but at the same
time they're realizing that is what's
making them appealing to the people
who buy their records. They've got this
dichotomy saying, "I don't like what I
am, because it's getting stale, so I need
to move on. But ... if I do move on, I ...
continued overleaf
MO:
-
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12-e
/p 27
level. I haven't worked that long at it.
Grammy Award Winning Producer
MICHAEL OMARTIAN
might lose some of my following." Then
cones, "Should I take the risk? I'd like
to take the risk
personally
but
dollars and cents says I better not."
The one example I remember most of
all was Neil Diamond. He really went
through a big conflict. After he had his
first three or four albums that were
extremely successful, he said, "I don't
like the way I am. I've got to get away
for a while and emerge a different
person." He went underground for two
years, carne back, and there was
nothing different at all. The music was
the saine. And the media was hyping
that the "new" Neil Diamond is coming
out doing a "new" album. Then you
listen to it and find that it's just the
natural progression of the last four
albums.
Christopher Cross is experiencing a
lot of pressure at the moment, because
his first album was that big. We're
getting everything ready to go into the
studio on the first of April for the second
album, and I feel for the guy. I'm in an
easier position than he is. I can go from
one production to another, even though
I feel much more involved than that
statement may imply.
-
-
Cross album successfully.
The funniest situation was an agent
Then, of course, there's the discouragwho told me he'd call me back. A few ing warning that everyone encourages:
weeks later he did, and said, "Yeah, "Don't become friendly with your
man, I got this gig for you. Now ... they artists. Keep your distance." I always
want Christopher Cross to sing the think in my mind, "Gee, what would my
theme, and you'll do the record on it." I reaction be if the guy came up to me and
said [sarcastically], "Yeah, that's said, 'Look. I really don't want you to do
exactly what I was talking about."
my next album. I'd like someone else to
It's constantly that way. I'm getting do it.' " You have to deal with those
calls to do movies, but it's always: "We'd kinds of feelings fur whatever reasons
like you to produce the record that's all the time.
going to be in our movie that's going to
I know that I had valuable input on
be the hit."
that first album, and Chris knows that
too, so I'm secure in the fact that my
R-e p:... just like Arthur.
input was not token. But you commit
MO: Exactly. And it goes on and on. yourself to a relationship with
That's one of the reasons I built this somebody just like a marriage. What's it
studio in my house. I can come back going to be like after you expose
here and express myself the way I want, yourself, and they say, "Look, I want
and not worry about anything like that Quincy Jones, or Phil Ramone, to do my
kind of typecasting.
next album, 'cause l'm big -time now."
'l'hat's what's tough. You just have to
R -e p: Just re/erring to the /ucl that you
get them off your mind and firrget it.
got those Grammys. and you're talking
about ('hris Cross bring under all that R -c' p: You were talking about Chris
Cross's style. Did he pretty much have
his "sound" together before you met
him a How much input did you put in to
help develop that sound!
MO: I really acted, in Chris's case, as an
arranger. Sound -wise, he came with an
-
R e p: But at the same time you had a
big part in winning all those Grammy's
too. In a sense, you've established
yourself in that direction with a
particular style. I would think you'd get
lucked into that style, too. Maybe a case
of: "Well, we need that style, call
Michael. "
MO: Exactly. 'l'hat becomes a little
tough. Fortunately, there are other
outlets I use, or have, where I can do
whatever I feel like doing. That's a
luxury that is nice to have, even though
the projects I do on my own might not be
appreciated by the masses. It doesn't
really make a whole hill of beans of
difference to me, as long as l'm able to
exercise those options.
You're right about the "stylizing
trap" of the business, though. I'm not
ever going to make a claim that I could
walk into the studio with anybody, and
make a good record with them. There
are certain variables that are always
existing, but ... I do get tired of the fact
that people only see me as kind of a
"pop" producer. That's really not the
entirety of my ability at all.
R-e/ p: What else would you like to
expand into
MO: I'm into serious composition a lot
symphonic productions. I used to do
-that all the time in college and high
school. I'd write for symphony
orchestra; very serious things. But
when you try to get someone's
attention, and say, "I'd like to do a
movie score," I'm talking about
something serious, like John Williams,
though I don't even pretend to beat that
R -e /p 28 April 1982
engineer that had his trip together
Chet Himes. From what I heard on the
four -piece demos, i said, "Man, that guy
has got to engineer this stuff, because
he knows how to capture Chris's ideas
totally."
See, they had worked together for
many years in 'l'exas. Chris did session
work, and Chet owned the studio where
they always worked. Consequently, just
"I'm not ever going to make
a claim that I could walk
into the studio with anybody,
and make a good record with
them. There are certain
variables that always exist."
pressure, do you find that you're under a
similar kind of pressure? That is, you
have to go in the studio and come up
with a hit?
MO: In general, I felt like it enabled me
to relax for the first time in a long time,
as opposed to putting a lot of pressure on
me. The pressure that I'm feeling now is,
basically, because Chris is feeling
pressure. I'm kind of picking it up by
osmosis.
I'll tell you the pressure I feel more
than anything. Once I got the Grammy,
people want to make themselves feel
good by knocking you. It's just human
nature. The feeling I get is that, "Well,
he hit once, but that'll probably be the
last one he'll ever hit with. He might hit
with Christopher Cross again, but that
will be his only act. You watch."
It's unfortunate, but that's human
nature. People in this business really
don't wait to see the best for someone
else. I sit here and think, "Gosh, I'd love
Maxus to be a hit, so that people
wouldn't be able to walk around and
say, `He's just a one-act producer.' "
That's the kind of pressure I get under,
more than producing the next Chris
through the years, they had a
combination going, and it was
beautiful. 'l'here was no reason to
tamper with it.
I felt that the way I could fit into the
situation was to expand some very
simplistic songs, and give them a little
more "meat." I did the same thing with
Chris that I did with Maxus. Take the
bass player, fin. example. I'd say, "Look,
you're doing the saine thing at letter B
that you're doing at letter A. Let's
change the second and third beat of the
second and fourth bar, and do
something a little different to catch
their attention
to make it build and
build."
Consider, for example, the song "Ride
Like the Wind." The whole introduction
started in with the wind and the
synthesizer build -up. It sounded like a
-
movie score from a western or
something. I thought it would be neat to
put a tag out in front that would start
building, and get the momentum going.
"Sailing" had that slow groove on
Chris's demo, but he didn't want to cut it
that way for the album. I knew there
was no other way to record the song. We
even brought (studio drummer] Jeff
Porcaro in to try a different type of
approach, and it was awful. Not Jeff s
playing, but just what the change did to
the tune.
... continued overleaf
-
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April
1982
R-r/p
29
Grammy Award Winning Producer
MICHAEL OMARTIAN
The track was four pieces.
1
put the
strings on, the bicycle bells. and the
piano solo. The piano solo was the
biggest argument in the entire
recording ()I' the album. It was
unbeheuab/e. It got tu a point where I
felt there Ioin to he something else
The Long Road to Success
happening in the middle section. There
were just synthesizer pads doing
nothing, but playing the changes.
I told ('het
!times I, "Set up the piano
mikes. l'm going out and trying
something.'' It took me a couple of
takes, hut I got what's on the album
now. Then
saw Chris in the booth
scratching his heard, and I knew
something wasn't right. I walked in and
he said, "I don't know, man. I really
I
-
CHRISTOPHER CROSS SESSIONS
described by engineer Chet Himes ..
Christopher Cross' apparent overnight success was, in fact, a long
evolutional process. During more than a decade in Austin, Texas, Cross
did sessions with engineer Chet Himes, presently the owner of The
Studio, South; together they developed a style and sound that caught
the music world off -guard, and culminated in a sweep of the 1981
Grammy Awards.
The following conversations with
Chet Himes cover some of his techniques and approaches that were
perfected over that time period, and
how they were used to capture and
enhance the phenomenon that is
Cristopher Cross.
"All the dates for the Arthur and Christopher Cross albums," Himes recalled,
"were recorded at Warner Brothers' Amigo Studio in North Hollywood, with the
exception of the string parts for Chris' first album, which took place in Amigo A.
The Christopher Cross album was recorded on two 3M M79 24 -track machines
tied together via a pair of SMPTE time -code tracks and an EECO synchronizer.
Guitar & Bass
"On 'Sailing,' the bass is all direct with a flat EQ setting, and no rolloff; the
bass just runs all the way down. Andy [Salmon] has a modified Precision Bass
with an added pair of Jazz Bass pickups that are set back in a treble position, and
basically wired like a humbucker. With his pickups, there's really no need to roll
off the bottom, because all the sub -sonic stuff isn't there. The guitar was
recorded in various combinations of direct and live signals.
Drums
"The drum kit for the tune was mixed with a technique that I like very much.
All the drums were recorded individually on their own tracks, which is pretty
standard. But in the mixdown is where I did something a little different. I located
the basic tone or major harmonic of the drum, and keyed the signal to an
oscillator that followed the envelope of the drum sound. The drums up to this
point, were natural with no processing. All I did was support the fundamental
tone of each drum with the oscillator. I did that with the snare drum, too.
"It can be any oscillator, but the particular ones I used for 'Sailing,' because
they [Warners] didn't have enough, were Moog oscillators. Each drum activated
a noise gate that, in turn, triggered the oscillator on and off and produced the
drum's fundamental sinewave. That way we could adjust the amount of decay
and tone via the Moog. The two signals live and synthesized were mixed
together for the appropriate tone. Both were mixed to the two-track 3M digital
master during the mixdown process.
-
-
-
Strings
"In the last year, I've become very fond of AKG C414's, and that's how I miked
the strings on 'Sailing.' There were 22 string players, and I used a 414 for every
pair of players. The mikes were as close as I could get them to being equidistant
from each musician, and about 3 feet above them. In addition, we had a stereo
AKG C-24 mike over Michael's [Omartian] head as he was conducting. The
strings were cut live in stereo.
"I used some effects on the strings, but you'd be hard pressed to find them in
the final mix. There was a bit of slap- about 120 milliseconds from an URSA
Major Space Station to thicken the sound. I sent all the strings through that, and
blended that signal in with the live sound. I also used an MXR Pitch Transposer
to change the pitch about half a percent; it's not very much. The setting flickers
between 0.99 and 1.00. Among the pitch-shifting products I find the MXR is a
better sounding device than some of the others, and a little bit harder to detect.
... continued overleaf
-
-
t2-c/p 50
:1pn1
19}S2
heard it the other way.'' Su I said,
"Chris, it needs this kind of input. It
really does." It took three hours to
resolve that difference ol'opinion.'l'lFee
hours! I le walked out. Ile had to go off
by himself and think. I t was very
serious to hint.
was brought to Warner tuthers to
function in the capacity of bringing pup
music to 11'13.'l'heyve always been more
of an FM, album -oriented company.
And when I heard Claris for the first
time. the people at the company had
already heard him for three years. and
said "No way.'.
Chris sent a new tape. I don't
remember wyhat the new stings were. but
the tape also contained all the old stuff
Huey had heard before. A guy named
Michael t)stin, %yhu is one oli 1Varner'sI
A& R people, brought it to me and asked
.hat I thought. I said, "I I n'e this stuff.
seriously love it.''
1
I
I
p: It was radically different for that
(One!
NI(
When
:
we
finished
recording,
\\tìuh was the summer of '79, the New
Wave and Punk scene was coining in
heavily. We were supposed to release
he album in August, but the record
t
company didn't feel it was the right
time. I figured, "That's it. Kiss this one
good -bye. It'll never happen..'
When they finally put the album out
in .January 1198(11, the head of Warner
I;rothts promotion came to me and
said, "I don't know what happened, but
they ate this thing up like crazy.- The
stations played "Ride Like the Wind,
and it was a hit in three weeks.
li -e p: Was there a lot of promotion done
for it!
MO: '('hat's what amazed him. '('here
was such a glut of Punk and New Wave
stuff, that evidently the radio people
said. "'('his isn't what I want to hear,"
111c1 they put on Chris Cross. Both Chris
and I had gotten to the point where,
when you suddenly feel like the buzz
[good feedback is going down, you go,
"I give up. Something's wrong." My
temperament is not one of being a
promoter. I can't do it. So I'll be swayed
sometimes by what I hear to believe
hat maybe the music's not good.
With Maxus, I know it's good. With
('bris, because ut'that time period, and
insecurity of the type of music, I
thought that maybe I totally missed the
mark about what's supposed to be
happening.
t
t
If I remember correctly. it teas
rumored that you didn't scant to release
R -e p:
.'y0iling."
N10: I didn't. That shows you what I
know. We had another one in mind. Mo
Ostin W B presidents is actually the one
who said we should release "Sailing." It
I
was a good move.
I remember I was in Hawaii on
vacation. I spent two days on the phone
trying to figure out what everybody was
trying to do. Within two weeks, I was
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For additional information circle #21
on. The chord progressions are .just
tired, with the sauce ones being used
over and over again. So respect what
they're trying to do. But in an effort to
tirammy Award Winning Producer
MICHAEL OMARTIAN
1
they're becurung very
And the lyrics are just
of them.
new songwriters really
minimize the importance of lyrics. It's
too easy to push the buttons on a drum
machine, come up with a little groove.
and 0 melody line. put it together. and
attempt to make a hit record. And a lot
of them tire being made. lint you won't
rem em her t hem three years Ir, in now.
They don't last: they don't even sell
records. They're ''turntabdt hits. -There
are some exceptions. like ii ie James or
different.
"unmusical."
stupid in a lot
I think the
hearing it on the radio. It was very
quick: "trailing" just took off.
p: flu you feel that you /race to
personally believe in the songs of the
artist that you're pro(lucingC
MO: Oh hoy, du I ever. I don't care what
kind of music it is. :f the songs aren't
there. forget it. There's no reason to go
in and record.
I see a problem with today's new
music. I like the fact that Some of these
,eople are at least trying to get out of t he
tonality and banality of what's going
I
The Long Road to Success
described by engineer Chet Himes ..
.
Vocals
"Recording the lead vocal was pretty straight ahead, except for a little echo
and slap, but again, there wasn't enough to be obviously noticeable. The main
point I had to keep in mind was that Chris' voice is kind of high, and has a
natural edge that makes it cut through the music. I have to select a mike that's
pretty smooth in terms of frequency response.
"Most microphones have got a presence peak in them about 5 or6 kHz. As soon
as I add a mike like a Neumann U87 to Chris' voice, the edge is accentuated too
much, and I have to start equalizing it out. Chris' vocals were cut with a
an old tube mike. Sometimes I'll use a 414, because that's
Neumann M49
pretty smooth through that region, too.
-
Drmns
6 -Foot
Taytur
I
Gobes
1
r p:.Mlaybe there's a lot ul foist rat ion
being expressed in Ihut lyPc of music
MO: We all feel it. I feel the frustration
of not being uIile to really understand
what's going on in the marketplace. or
what's causing the
in the world
tension? I don't plume them for what
they're doing, but it's very unmusicat
h'
-
li -e
p: You wrote the music ¡Or tme of the
tunes on the Maxus albiurr, -Don't Try
" I a'arrled ti, asl; you if
. \'ou
141 Slnp .11
art
Stereo
Cunanr
gura,
Chris
Cross
RE 20
RE-20
M49
®
Vocal
Christopher
Cross
Bass
Andy
Salmon
DI
E.1
Grand piano
Michael
Ontart ai
Stereo
DI
Jensen
ihert
tea..
.
something yuii related to in
the lyrics ... "growing up is Jast another
accident. that I can do without.-
In some ways. I have two kids, and
when I look att my son who is :, years
old. I see the honesty of that guy. and
how unblemished he is by anyt hing. Ile
tells it like it is. "''here's absolutely no
double meanings to he gotten. No
N1(1:
inhibitions; just this beautiful little
creature running around.
It's true. You get to the point where
you get so sophisticated in covering
yourself up. that you become totally
jaded, and you're not a human being
anymore. Maybe growing up. sometimes. can be an accident. because then
you really loose a lot of the qualities that
are very important.
p: And. being a musician. that
jaded facade has to be stripped away.
because it becomes very obvious in the
music. In order to be a good musician,
you can't hare those inhibitions there.
It has to be a clear flour coming out.
Skiding glass Anors
1
Electric piano
Bob Meurer
IJ VLNIIVIY
ROOM
Prince, but don't dig at all what they're
saying. They're out to lunch.
'
CHRISTOPHER CROSS SESSIONS
e,ass
working with that kind of freshness."
be
R -r
S,idrn
"Something happens between the
members of u group ... they're writing
songs and performing together ... I enjoy
CONTROL ROOM
ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR "SAILING" TRACKING DATE
ENGINEER CHET HIMES VENUE WARNER BROTHERS STUDIO "E"
LOS ANGELES. USING A PAIR OF SYNCHRONIZED 3M M79's.
MIXDOWN TO 3M DIGITAL MASTERING SYSTEM.
"As far as mixing for AM radio, that wasn't really much of a consideration:
I'm pretty much a purist. I mix for what I hear in the studio. I'll check the mix on
small speakers, and maybe make some adjustments. But, in general, if I feel
comfortable in a room, I'll make the track sound as good as I can in that room."
RECORDING ARTHUR
"The piano miking for the intro in Arthur," Chet Himes remembers, "was a
combination of a pair of C -414's and a pair of Crown PZM's. I put a 414 in the bow
of the piano, right about 11/2- to 2- inches above the strings, and two octaves above
middle C; not exactly over the hammers, but backed down the piano from that.
MO: \\'hen you start tapping into your
soul and your gut. you start dealing
with concepts that don't necessarily
catch the million -dollar ear. "''hat's
what really frustrates me. '''here was a
time when I really felt that artists
expressed themselves, and were
received, because people believed in
what they were doing.
p: It is//resulil and guts that sell the
records, and transcend just the chord
changes and the lyrics. There's that
energy that reaches out and touches the
listener so ihey say. -Hey. I dig that
it 11.11'. music.MO: Exactly. Just going around this
town Los Angeles' and seeing different
people. Fin convinced they're locking
themselves up inure and more. I don't
know why, or what's going on, but the
music business in LA is not as intimate
a fellowship as it used to be. There are
these little pockets of people running
very
around doing their number
competitive. Some of it's good; it's
motivating, and some of it is not.
k -e
I
-
K-e p:
What does it take to be a
April 1482 O R-e/p irï
Monetarily, there are a lot of
Grammy Award Winning Producer
successful producers, but I don't respect
them. They have nothing going for
them, other than the fact that they can
earn a lot of money.
MICHAEL OMARTIAN
"successful producer "! And ! mean
"successful" in the creative sense, not
necessarily monetarily successful.
MO: What's important for me is to be
very careful that I don't merely pick up
someone who is part of a trend, and try
to mold them into a radio band that
happens to sound like so many others.
I've been called to speak at writer's
seminars and other functions, and what
I harp on most is to try to avoid merely
emulating what's already there. That,
to me, is what makes for a successful
producer.
The Long Road to Success
R -e/ p: Well. the second half of my
question was going to he: If I changed
the word "success" to mean "monetary
success," would that change your
answer?
MO: Oh yeah. There are so many people
that I look at and say, "How?! How did
they ever get to that place?" And all I
know is that they do have an ability to
motivate or politic, or whatever you
want to call it to create such a "buzz"
on something that's just so "average."
- -
-
CHRISTOPHER CROSS SESSIONS
described by engineer Chet Himes ..
.
Another 414 was placed in the thinner part of the grand in the vicinity of where
the bass strings cross with the middle-register strings, and also 1 V2- to 2-inches
high. The PZM's were almost in the same place as the C414's, attached to the
underside of the lid, which was at half stick.
"I used the 414's in stero, and then blended the PZM's to the sound. One of the
problems I had with just the PZM's is that there's a drop-off in the lower register.
The 414's captured more of the bottom -end. What I got out of the PZM's was
improved stereo placement, and more lower-mid and middle frequencies.
STRING OVERDUBS FOR "ARTHUR".
ENGINEER: CHET HIMES. VENUE: WARNER BROTHERS STUDIO
LOS ANGELES. USING 3M DIGITAL MULTITRACK.
MIXED TO DIGITAL MASTER.
"E".
SIn ing glass doors
O
AKG
C
414
mounted
crown P2M
OFloor
o
C
24
Stereo
"I don't like to do much equalizing to the piano, because I start to hear the
overtones, and phase shift, and it sounds weird. I'll usually boost, at the most, 2
dB at 12 kHz, maybe 1 dB at 6 k, and pull out a little bit [1 of 2 dB] around 600 and
1 kHz. I roll off a little at the high -end, and at the bottom I might go down to 30
cycles and roll off 3 or 4 dB. I like to hear instruments the way they sound live. I
don't want to affect the sounds a whole lot, so I don't do much radical equalizing,
at all
"In addition to the grand, Michael doubled it with a Wurlitzer piano. He's
incredible at doubling; he does it better than anybody I've ever known. He'll play
a basic track, listen to it, write it out, and then play the same thing on another
instrument. The Wurlitzer was taken direct. I use the same EQ on most
keyboards.
"Incidentally, I believe that Arthur was the first number 1 single to be both cut
and remixed on the 3M Digital Mastering System."
OEM
R -c /p S4O April 1982
I really believe that you can elevate
the listener in what he wants to hear, by
doing what they do with the trash that's
being released now. It's the concept of
drive the music, or 'l'y shows, or
whatever, into their system until the
consumer starts to like it. I don't see it
any differently. You can do experimental material, have the radio people play
some intellectual piece of music over
and over, and pretty soon you get the
same acceptance as some stupid piece of
music that's on the radio now.
R -e p: Being an established arranger,
dots that ability make you a better
producer! Does a producer have to be a
good arranger!
MO: The way I look at the situation,
there are three different kinds of
producers. One is the executive
producer who has the ability to have
three or four arrangers at his fingertips,
"X" number of musicians, and a good
engineer with good ears. He also has
some song sense, or three or four
publishers that he's tapped into that
know he's going in to cut an artist, and
what tunes he needs. Usually a guy like
that will end up with someone who's not
necessarily a songwriter, artist, but a
"voice" that needs whatever.
Let's say the producer decides the
artist will be R &B. He gets his B&B
staff together, his R &B arrangement,
and so forth. He doesn't necessarily
have any creative input, but what he's
got going for him is that he's got an
administrative and political input.
That means he's got all the time in the
world to take the promotion people out
to dinner; get the marketing people
excited; and kibbitz with the president
of the record company.
Then there's the engineer-producer
who goes in with a rock and roll band
that has their act together. All he wants
to do is make sure that the effects and
all the latest technology are going to
happen on that record.
Finally, you have the musicianproducer who is usually always
connected with someone who needs or
wants that musical input more than
any other kind of input. For gratification reasons, I think it's best to be that
way. But who am I to say? I'm just
dealing from the way I feel. I think my
musical education or knowledge has
made all the difference in making this
something fun to do, instead of just a
job. The producers I respect the most are
all musicians with a few exceptions.
-
R -e/p: As a session musician doing a
great deal of playing, do you still rely on
the producer's ears and his feedback as
a musician? Since you've been a
successful producer yourself, does the
typical musician/ producer relationship
change once you've been on the other
side of the glass? Let's use the Al
Jarreau /Jay Graydon / "We're in this
Love Together" session as an example.
MO: Definitely! I still rely on the
objectivity of the producer. The only
difference is that when Jay comes over
and does something for me, I'll say,
"What do you think ?" And when I'm
over there, he asks, "What do you
think ?"
There's a community of friends that
I'm around. He'll call me like in the case
of "We're in this Love Together," and
say, "Man, there's something missing
from this tune. What do you think it is?"
And I'll say, "Well. the instrumental
goes nowhere, so let's change the
chords." Or, "The synthesizer line
should be (sings hook -line from song!. It
needs that." He says, "Well, go ahead
and do it!"
And it works the same way over here.
He'll tell me, "Yeah, I hear a guitar
line," and he does it. Because we've had
experience in this, we're able to help
each other. I feel no less willing to give
MO: I resented being hired and paid as
a piano player on a date, and then
having someone come in and ask me to
do all the charts right there on the spot.
1 didn't like that. I'd never put upon a
musician more than what they were
hired to do, unless I made sure that they
knew about it ahead of time, and they're
compensated for their work.
And I'm not saying I resented it
strictly because I didn't get paid for it. I
felt like I was being asked to do
out any ideas for whatever with
anybody else. I don't think it changes
the relationship at all.
It does change, however, if I end up
doing something that I really don't
want to do, but I'm doing it because I
like the person who asked me, and the
project turns out to be lame. Then I
really have to tight a bad attitude, and
keep my focus on the fact that I accepted
the gig, and I have to accept the
responsibility that goes along with it.
Don't make life miserable for the person
sitting there trying to put the thing
together.
R -e p: Before you
something that was less than fair. The
producer or artist knew I was going to
be there so, therefore, they knew they
wouldn't have to prepare any chord
charts. When I walked in, they carne up
and said, "Here's the tune. We got some
music paper for you, if you want to write
the changes down, and any bass lines,
or any guitar ideas, some drum ideas,
started producing.
was there one thing a producer did to
you or to people you were working with.
that you vowed you would never du if
you started producing?
/
Smoot:z operatior is crucial fcr
your studio's success, ari
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working behind a Soundcrafi
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supplied by .4 14 Systems. His credits include
Melissa Manchester's "Don't Cr.,. Out Lggei; "Air
Supply's "Eaery Wo-nan in the W'.rld,''and Dianc
Ross'it's My Turn."
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For additional information circle #22
April 1982 O Rte /p 35
Crummy Award Winning Producer
MICHAEL OMARTIAN
da -da, da -da, da -da. OK. Everybody else
take a break!- They'd come back a half -
bour later and I'd still he writing. I just
stoo11ed doing that. Then when
presented the fact that I should be paid,
suddenly I wasn't called back.
R -e p: Uu you feel you're pretty
technically oriented tchen it contes to
working in the studio!
MO: l'in just starting to get the
technical sicle clown. Jay (,taydon's
been over here Ito my home studio(
showing me stuff. It's not as difficult as
I
expected.
/lo you think you'd eventually
get to the stage where you'd engineer
and produce your sessions!
R -e p:
MO: No. I'll never engineer basic
tracks, string dates or horn dates,
because I don't want to have to be
thinking about V levels and the other
side of the glass, too. But for synthesizer
overdubs, vocals, its very simple.
laughing at the ocean of buttons on
his MCI Ji1 -(i36 console(. People seem to
be getting so concerned with the
technology of putting a record together,
that they're really losing sight of the
musical end of the process. At our
(Warner Brothers( A &R meetings we
get so many records coming through
that sound so good, man
great echo
effects, delay systems, great synth
sounds. But the songs are junk, and
they'll //cure be a hit.
do
I
-
R -e p: When you're recording a song.
uv,uld you normally go for the whole
song at une time. or would you build up
the song through overdubs!
MO: I don't particularly like the idea on
not hearing the chordal elements along
with the rhythmic elements. I know
some people do (work that way(
in
fact the way I built the tracks that I did
here, I started with the chum machine
and built from that. For certain
applications I think it works, but most
material really needs hearing the piano,
-
bass, and drums together.
Last fall, I was doing Donald ISteely
R -e p: Dr , yorrhareauengineerthat you
awl; with frequently!
MO: usually don't work with the same
engineer all the time, and there are a
couple of reasons why. What I've
become very aware of is that engineers
have as different ears as musicians
have styles. What one guy hears for
drum sounds could be perfectly suitable
for one project, but not fro. another. Plus,
i don't %want to have an "Omartian
Stamp" on all the albums I produce.
CI1RIyTOPI1ER
CROyy
1
That happens much too easily,
especially if the artist asks me to play
keyboards. That instrument become a
very controlling force on the record. I
try to reduce those elements that would
make people notice my influence to as
few as possible. One way to do that is to
have three engineers that I really enjoy
using. I think they're all very good.
approach a mix!
Would you watch the engineer do it, do it
yourself. or come in later and make a
R -e p: How would you
couple of changes!
MO: I would do the mix the way I
thought it should be, and then have a
guy come in and tell me what I was
doing wrong. "Well, your bass drum
needs to be rolled off at such and such a
frequency." "Peru need a little boost
here." Or, "It doesn't sound quite
'whatever.'
During the years I've been in the
studio as a musician, I've heard the
different ways that other people mix
drums, and I've made mental notes that
"That's right!," or "That's not right."
Your ears get trained. I just play with
the sounds and relationships until I get
everything sounding right. That's
basically all there is to it ... and don't
overload your tape by getting your
levels in the red. Then you're OK.
It's pretty simple. You just have to
figure out what all these little buttons
R -e /p 36 April 1982
Dan] Fagen's new solo album. All he
had for the to hear was a Roland drum
machine that wasn't even a complete
rhythm section. Maybe just a high -hat
and bass drum. 'Then he'd throw this
eight -page chart in front of me and say,
"I just want your right hand first, and
then I want your left hand." To try to
tap into some kind of feel, and get some
kind of idea .. there were no vocals; I
never knew what was going on. But
that's the way they wanted it.
I don't like doing things that way.
They're the only people I know that can
really get away with that kind of
approach. One of the reasons is that the
musicians dig doing the dates so much,
they'll do just about anything. So I sat
there going, "What is this'?" Then you
hear it when it's done, and you can't
believe it. It's a credit to them.
.
had the chance to do
much digital recording!
MO: We mixed Chris's album to digital
13M four- track]. Also the Tommy
Johnston album. The Maxus album we
R -e, p: Have you
went to 30 IPS, non -Dolby half-inch
tape. I've got a half-inch tape head kit
coining for my MCI J11-110) two -track,
because I want to start doing all half
inch, non -Dolby.
Digital recording enters its own
sound; its not an objective component
at all. Digital has its own characteristics that are very noticeable, and one of
them is that the top end really does cut
off. As the recent article in R -e. p
pointed out I'"l'he Analog Disk
Is
there Life after Digital," by Neil Brody;
December 1981 issue
that might
be right, and the analog might 1w
wrong. But I do know that i like the
sound of analog a lot better than I do
digital. At 3(1 IPS, non -Dolby to halfinch, I like the bass response a lot, even
though I do think the digital has a nice
I
-
-
-MI
bottom -end response.
\Vhat really drove the crazy though,
was that sometimes the digital decoded
the signal strangely. On 'Pommy
Johnston's album, we had to recut the
master at least five or six times, because
the master tape was entering funny
sounds. 'l'he trouble might have been
with the machine we were using, going
a little bit left.
Another aspect I don't like about
digital is service. If my 24-track should
give me a problem during a session, I
can call someone and have them here
within an hour or two. if I have a
problem with a digital machine, I could
wait a week before it is actually back
together again. And I don't like the fact
that nothing is interchangeable. I know
that Chris really wants to do the next
album digitally, but I don't think we're
going to do it.
R-e p: Before we finish, /'d like to refer
hack to your last year Having won
three Grammy awards. do you see a new
value or significance to recrir.ing them!
MO: In some ways, yes, and in some
ways, no. I think if you opened up the
Grammys to represent not only the
peers within the music community, but
also the public, it would be more valid.
It's very easy for me to open up the
nominees and see that my buddy has
produced an album, and not weighing it
on its own musical merits. I'll vote for
my friend sometimes, instead of what
might be a better record.
i know that if it were in the hands of
critics, it would be a very different
situation; ILA. Punk band( "X" would
be up there getting a Grammy for album
of the year.
After the fact, winning has some
value, but not a whole lot. It's short
lived
at least until the next year. I
know that after I won those three, I
suddenly had a lot of calls. Then you see
in the trades that the record companies
make the most out of their Grammy
winners by running ads, and hyping
the living daylights out of them. And 40
years from now you'll see, "Rick
Springfield; Grammy Winner." They'll
always refer to "Grammy Winner,"
even though it happened 40 years ago.
-
But, yeah, it feels good. It's nice to be
recognized that way.
MME
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Fcr additional information circle #23
The construction of Lion Share
Studio A is perhaps one of the
few positive indicators in new
studio construction to have taken place
in recent times. This technically
advanced facility was the result of a
ca;culated plan of veterans in the
recording business, with a commitment
to the industry that is sadly lacking in
the towers that determine our ultimate
destiny. The success of the new
recording facility already has proven
that the pursuit of excellence will not go
unrewarded.
What is now known as "Lion Share
Recording Studios" was originally
owned and operated by ABC Records
until March 1979, when the label and its
holdings were purchased by MCA
Records. Since MCA already had its
own studios, the location remained
vacant until October, when l)r. Scott
from Colorado purchased the studio. He
renamed it the Scott -Sunstorm
Recording Center.
With the addition of video sweetening
facilities in July 1980, the name was
changed once again to the Concorde
Recording Center. Kenny Rogers
recorded his single "Lady" at Concorde,
and it was while he was midway
through recording his Share Your Lott.
album at Concorde that he purchased
the facility in May 1981.
Sharing a 16-year working relationship dating back to the First Edition,
Kenny Rogers chose Terry Williams as
the studio manager for Lion Share. In
acoustic design and studio construction ..
.
What the Proceeds from
Decades of
`LION a Couple ofHits
can Buy!
SHARE
RECORDING
STUDIOS
addition to his musical ability, Rogers
placed great trust in William's
production and engineering background. Jay Antista, with 12 years
experience in recording engineering at
Walt Disney, ABC, Scott -Sunstorm,
and Concorde Studios, was retained as
chief maintenance engineer.
'l'he Decision to Rebuild
As a result of Kenny's mandate to
"make the studio better than any in
town," Terry Williams decided that one
of the rooms should be rebuilt and
equipped with the very latest equipment
available. Studio A was selected for a
number of reasons. Studio C was a well
established room, used frequently by
Kenny and Lionel Ritchie, with a
certain mystique for creating hits.
Studio B, the smallest of the existing
three rooms, was popular with many
rock and R&B artists and producers.
Therefore, Studio A, having a few
electronic and acoustical problems, and
being the least used room, was the
obvious choice for the refurbishment.
At the May 1981 AES convention,
even before the purchase of Lion Share
was finalized, Jay Antista "bumped
into" Lakeside Associates' principals
Carl Yanchar and Steve Fouce, and
indicated that something was about to
happen. On June 3, with the purchase
finalized, Lakeside was called in to look
at the site, assess the possibilities for
renovation, and develop the acoustical,
electronic, and architectural specifications for the new Lion Share Studio.
Terry Williams, Jay Antista, and Carl
Yanchar met and shared design ideas
that ultimately would be manifested in
the final working blueprints.
Lakeside at once went to work
preparing conceptual drawings for
three possible control room and studio
configurations, with accompanying
construction and interface budgets. On
Sunday evening, June 7, the drawings
were delivered to the studio. The
following 'Tuesday moring the decision
had been made on which layout would
be used, and the console and tape
machine complement was finalized. In
fact, the proposed equipment for the
refurbished control room actually
played a large part in the reaching of
this decision.
To accommodate the width of the 56input Neve 8108 console chosen, the
control room shell size would have to be
increased in width. Just outside the
existing control room was a stairway
that served as the main entrance from
the first -floor lobby to the second -floor
studios. To increase the width of the
control room, this stairway would have
to be abandoned. The closing of a main
exit, the stairway, created more than
one problem. A new exit had to be
provided in order to comply with the
City of Los Angeles Fire and Building
Codes. Also, critical structural
engineering had to be performed so the
stairway could carry the weight load of
the proposed studio above. Working in
I -e /p 380
April 1982
.
.
continued on page 42
-
Even the thunder
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R-e/p 5sl
What the McLeyvier does, and why.
But why should you buy?
The McLeyvier is a deceptive miracle.
While it is very easy to use, packed inside its
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The specification sheets will give you all the details.
But simply put, the McLeyvier has a computer,
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What's in it for you?
A prodigious memory- longer than all of
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Each of these qualities on their own would place
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But it is their coming together that makes this
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Because the McLeyvier easily passes the toughest
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The McLeyvier is created
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Hazelcom Industries Ltd.
39 Hazelton Avenue
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Telephone: (416) 961 -7090
1. Worldwide
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2. Fully modular (all active
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One year warranty
4. Easily updateable software (free for 1 year)
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Quality construction
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Complete on line and hard copy users' manual
expense paid seminars in Toronto on functionality and future enhancements including
tours of our research, recording and manufacturing facilities. This will also include a free
demo tape of your first performance with the
McLeyvier as recorded at Hazelcoms' Nimbus 9
recording complex.
10. All
Send for the specs, call for a demo.
No self-respecting work of art comes without
reams of specs. Ours would fill this entire magazine,
but they can be yours just by calling the numbers
below.
As for a demonstration, just call the same people
and they'll tell you when the McLeyvier comes to
your comer of the universe.
Brian Cornfield
Everything Audio
16055 Ventura Blvd.
Suite 1001
Encino, California 91436
Phone 213 -995 -4175
Dave Wilson
218-04 40th Ave.
Bayside, New York 11361
Phone 212-224 -6660
Bob Todrank
Valley People Inc.
P.O. Box 40306
2820 Erica Place
Nashville, Tenn. 37204
Phone 615- 383 -4737
Paul Hoffert
Hoffert Music Corp.
73 Brookview Drive
Toronto, Ont. M6A 2K5
Phone 416 -781-4191
How it arranges what it scores.
al l.grc
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-
The McLeyvier performs a vast (and growing) range of special tasks
that can translate what's in 'our head to what's on the keyboard
to the video screen, and finally onto paper.
120 )
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Copyright
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7
1981
By
David McLQy
QW1cLeyvier
Aowyou know.
April
I982 D 12-r/p
41
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\LION
renovating the facade and office areas
of the complex. the structural and exil
.
acoustic design
and
studio construction
requirement problems were soon
HAKE
conjunction with the auchitectUral firn)
of ('annell- Heumann and Associates,
who were charged )gill) the task of
resolved and building permits obtained.
On August 15, 1981, the Lakeside
crew, tinder the supervision of Steve
h ace, began the demolition of the
existing studio. The demolition work
proceeded just as planned. The next
step was to open the new exit and ch
SELI'r:C'TIN(;THE RECORDING EQUIPMENT FOR LION SHARE
By Terry Williams. Studio Manager
Kenny and I
have been together for 16
years, first as
members of
the New Christy Minstrels,
and later as co- thunders of the
First Edition. When the First
Edition broke up in 19îá, 1
gradually spent more and more
time producing and engineering,
rather than performing. When
Kenny purchased the facility (then
known as Concorde), he asked if I
would take over the operation,
develop new clientele and basically turn the three -room house into
one that affords the ultimate in
recording technology.
Jay Antista, Lion Share's chief
maintenance engineer, and I spent
many hours investigating the
various equipment options. We
knew that three important items
the console, tape machines, and
monitors
had to be selected
before the room design could be
finalized, and would be extremely
important from a marketing
standpoint. I wanted a reliable
desk with versatility and, most
important, artist and producer
appeal. The Neve 8108 with
NECAM was selected. It has what
I feel to be the finest automation
-
-
system available. Studer tape
machines were chosen simply
because we feel they are the best
available. They work extremely
well in tandem with the Neve. Two
Studer A -800's are locked via the
Studer TIS 200(1 for multitrack
work, and two Studer A -80 2- tracks
one in 1/2-inch format, the other
-are used toi the final mix.
-
Probably the most difficult
decision was the monitors.
I
wanted UREI 813 Time Align's.
had worked extensively on the
81:1's, and found them to be the
flatest and truest monitor. Since
the other two existing rooms had a
custom system that many of the
staff engineers were familiar with,
we considered for a while the
possibilities of installing both.
Some of the ideas were really
crazy, with motors and hydraulics.
But in the end we went with the
813's, knowing (or hoping) that in
a good room they would sound
great.
The outbord equipment selection
was much easier. I wanted at least
one of everything. We ended up
with perhaps the largest selection
I
of permanent outboard gear
available anywhere. If you can't
do it in Studio A, it can't be done!
And we feel that a client shouldn't
have to rent equipment when
paying top dollar for a room. We
even purchased drums, acoustic
and electric guitars, a Sequential
Circuits Prophet 10 synthesizer, a
Linn Drum Machine, and an Eddie
Reynolds -modified Fender Rhodes
electric piano to complement the
Bosendorfer piano we already had.
All of the staff helped in the final
selection to ensure that nothing
would get left out.
the stairway so that construction of the
new studio could begin. With jack
hammers in hand the crew began
tutting through the existing walls in
the location indicated on the plans.
Within minutes. a structural steel post
was discovered directly in the middle of
the proposed opening.
Although plans of the existing studio
areas were available. the complex is
-
composed of several adjoining
buildings, plans for some of which were
either nonexistent, or lacking in detail.
To at%oid cunsiderble delay for re-
engineering and plan approval.
another location fur the opening had to
be found. hie to known factors, such as
I
existing electrical conduits and
plumhing. there were very few
alternatives. After several test borings
the last possible location was opened.
The adjacent urea had been a utility
sink, which with a few hours of
plumbing work could be removed easily.
However, the maximum opening that
could be cleared was two inches short of
the required opening width. But. by
placing the exit door at an angle to the
,. ¡sting wall. the ('ucle requirements
could .just be met. After some rather
creative engineering. carpentry,
concrete work, and the help of the
building department inspector, this
phase of the project was completed, and
the major construction was now ready
to begin.
For the first phase of the construction, Lakeside enlisted the services of
Mangrove Builders of London. a
construction firm with many years of
experience in studio work. Leroy
Pereira was chosen to handle the finish
work, as well as the construction of the
custom furniture required. Ills work,
long regarded as perhaps the finest in
the field, made his the only choice for
the job.
Studio Design
The number one design goal was to
make the studio as versatile as possible.
l'he refurbished Studio A had to be
capable of handling any situation that
might appear, from an overdub to a
rhythm session to a full orchestra, with
as much isolation and ambience as the
producer and engineer desire. To
accomplish this, the studio design
incorporates many features that allow
t'or not only the variation of acoustics,
but the physical room configuration as
well.
The basic layout has dedicated areas
for drums, bass, guitars, and piano,
which can offer maximum separation
and a very tight sound, each area being
tailored for its particular instrument. A
string area, which by closing some
sliding glass doors becomes an
isolation room, is very live by contrast
in its normal configuration. This allows
instruments that require reverberation
to he recorded with a natural sound.
Additional reverberation can be added
later, if necessary, but the natural
ambience induces inspired performan12e /1)42:1pril1982
(es, Which is something that cannot he
added later.
To further round out the standard
setup, a vocal booth was determined to
be necessary, again due to the concern
for the artist. Some of the best vocal
performances you never get to hear
were recorded during the original
tracking session. but with too much
leakage on the track to be used in the
final mix.' the booth also works well for
acoustic guitar or harp when they must
be recorded with the rest of the band.
These considerations made such an
investment in precious studio real
estate worthwhile.
'l'he provision of creative tools, and
the effective utilization of available
space, formed the basis for the decision
to make many of these standard
recycled with the addition of another
layer of soundboard and dry wall. 'l'he
ceiling was the only area requiring
substantial reconstruction. l)ue to the
shell's comparatively light construction, an acl(litional isolated ceiling was
required, even though it consumed more
than 12 inches of precious ceiling
height, and made the placement of air
conditioning ducts more difficult than
usual.
Total construction time was 16 weeks,
including eight days of denolition.
One wall of the
string area is equipped with six, 2 -foot
wide sliding panels
covered with clear
mirror. By opening
these areas. in any combination desired,
additional absorbers are exposed, and
the room sound is changed. This wall, as
well as the drum cage, has drapes available that can he either opened or closed
to offer even further acoustic variations.
Again, the overall concept was to provide. in a compact area, the option of
varying the acoustics and room configuration to adapt to any set of circum-
Electrical, air conditioning, plumbing,
concrete, and the various flooring
materials were provided by outside
contractors working to the specifications set out by Lakeside, and under the
supervision and watchful eye of the
stances, from dead to live.
Is(dation construction was relatively
staihtforwarcl since the area was
prey.ously a studio, and originally had
been well built. 'l'he floor was already
floated on a 12 -inch base slab. 'l'he
floated top slab required just a slight
increase in mass to bring it up to current
studio building crew. The finish
materials were specfied as an integral
part of the acoustic design, although the
selection of colors was the only area
where Kenny Rogers made the final
decisions. Ash hardwood, light fabrics
and drapes were chosen to visually
enhance the acoustic feeling of
continued over leaf
openness.
standards. Most of the original
isolation walls were also able to
be
hardwood wall, one wall of the drum
cage utilized a sliding glass door. so
that it could be pushed back, thereby
increasing the usable floor space when
needed. Studio floor space can be
divided by a series of sliding glass doors
that also disappear into a pocket when
separation is not required. Floors are
constructed entirely of hardwood and
marble, carpets being available to
change the character of this surface.
'l'he ceiling surface appears at first to
be nearly all hardwood. However,
certain areas of the ceiling are actually
remote-operated louvers that can be
opened to expose broad -band absorbers.
Having been one of the principal
designers of the Fantasy Records
Studio louver system (described in the
April 1980 issue of R -c p
Ed], Carl
Yanchar was able to use that experience
to come up with a system that was not
only less costly to build and install, but
also more versatile, mechanically less
-
complex and consequently more
reliable. Four of these 6- by 7-foot units
are almost invisibly built into the
-
.
recording areas perform multiple
purposes. Instead of the usual
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FLOOR PLAN OF LION SHARE STUDIO
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ceiling of Studio A.
:\pril
1982
17
R-e/p 43
acoustic design
and
studio construction
LION
SHARE
Control Room Design
and Equipment
The control room is totally symmetrical. The UREI 813 monitors were
carefully positioned with precise
spacing and horizontal and vertical
angles. This precision throughout the
entire construction process resulted in a
room that offers, according to the
studio's engineering staff, a very even
response and extremely good stereo
imaging. 'I'he monitors are slightly
above ear height to allow sufficient
vision into the studio through the
entrance. Measuring only 10- by 6 -foot
in size, the computer clean room has its
own two -ton air conditioning unit to
ensure that the NECAM system keeps
its cool. Also housed in this room are
power amplifiers for the various
monitor and cue systems. The studio
louver controls, alternate monitor and
studio loudspeaker selection switches,
and tape machine remote controls, are
mounted in custom panels on the Neve
window below.
Electronic systems design and
equipment installation was also
supplied by Lakeside, the coordination
of this area being equally important to
the successful completion of the project.
The control room is capable of 46 -track
recording, as well as video sweetening
with either an Ampex VPR -2lí -inch or
Sony 1-inch U -matic machine. In
addition to one of the most complete
selections of outboard devices, four live
echo chambers and six EM'l' 1411 plates
make Lion Share Studio A one of the
best-equipped studios in the world.
The two-track master recorders are
both Studer A -till Mk IL's
one in 2inch format, and the other /vinch.The
two Studer A -800 multitrack machines
are synchronized via a Studer'l'LS2000
Tape Lock System.
The 56 -input Neve 8108 console has
had its patchbay enhanced with an
additional 11 rows of jacks mounted in
one of two outboard equipment racks, to
place this facility out of the producer's
'
computer occupies its own "clean room"
just outside of the control -room
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1982
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R -e /p 44
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technical engineer. This portable
12 -INCH JOIST FILLED WITH INSULATIONS
r',':no
locations around the room to minimize
the length of microphone cables on the
floor. 'l'he panels also contain two cue
feeds, switchable to six cue sends in
both stereo and mono for nine possible
combinations. In addition, each of the
panels has two built -in Jensen direct
boxes to minimize setup time. Several
other smaller microphone panels are
built into the sound lock, vocal booth,
and key positions of the studio and
is elation room ceiling for easy overb(ad
Finding space for all of the outboard
equipment turned out to be quite a
chore; just about every square inch of
space was used for something. The
Studer TLS mainframe, various power
supplies, and the Copper Time Cube
boxes were placed in a small closet.
accessible through a door behind the
multitrack machines. Special cabinets
were built for two sets of Dolby M24
racks, allowing them to be stacked to
conserve floor space when both, and
everything else, are needed. Two Phase
Linear cassette decks are housed in
another cabinet directly above the
multitracks.
To enable some of the outboard
equipment requiring more frequent
tweaking to be placed closer to the
engineer, a custom trolley was designed
by Lakeside in collaboration with Jay
Antista and Howard Weiss, a staff
'
side of the board. The NECAM
panels are installed at strategic
console.
1
-
cabinet also incorporates the Studer
multitrack remote controls, autolocators, and TLS controller. And, as if that
weren't enough, the back side of the
cabinet has four direct boxes and two
switchable cue feeds.
In the studio six, 56 -input microphone
BOOTH
Look
what
we've
added
with this newest membe of our 224 reverb family:
Full 15 kHz bandwidth for smoother, more nc-rural r.mvt'rb
with high end "zing." Variable bandwidth (15 kHz 170
Hz) with a gentle slope that lets you emulate th? nati.rl effects of air absorption. Dynamic Decay that a .._or-Eticalfy
changes reverb time for longer decay when mu° is JaJses or
stops. A unique paging system that lets you recefi-1e th° six
sliders to control the six -voice chorus program w.-.h s x independent delays while retaining the most -used reverb adjust-
-
,
`;'
melts. A lull repertoire of reverberation programs plus
^on-vclatile storage for 36 user pre -sets as standard. A six voi=e choris program that allows the user to set level and
deay fcr any one or more of the six voices in this program.
Le.. con's Model 224 -X ... the ultimate reverb: all the great
features of the 224 coupled with true 15 kHz bandwidth, increased processing power, more sophisticated effects. Call or
write for full information today.
MODEL 224-X. The Ultimate Reverb.
Lexicon, Inc., 60 Turner Street, Waltham, MA 02154
(617) 891 -6790 /TELEX 923468
Export: Gotham Export Corporation, New York, NY 10014
(LION
acoustic design
and
studio construction
SHARE
miking. Four ut these overhead
positions are dedicated to a listen
system, to ensure that everyone in the
studio can be heard. especially when
close miking. 'l'ie lines are installed to
each of Lion Share's other two studios.
as well as the centralized echo patch
bay. Panels for interfacing video
cameras ur monitors can be found in
several locations about the room, and
which terminate in a patchbay.
The Acid 'l'est
As the ruum
ne :ued completion,
everyone involved in the project
awaited with great anticipation the
opportunity to listen to music through
the monitors, a welcome change from
the sound of hammers and saes. Even
before all the wiring was complete and
the roost voiced, a two -track tape was
fed directly into the monitors. Some
engineers on the staff were concerned
about the choice of t'Ri' 813 'l'imeAligned monitor loudspeakers. In fact,
at one point the notion of installing two
sets of monitors vats considered. This
idea was chopped only after much
discussion, and the realization that the
performance of one nr even but h sets of
numitors would he cuntpromised if' both
I
were installed. Fortunately. even the
most doubtful were amazed at the
performance of the monitor mum
combination. 'l'he subjective tests were
corroborated the following day when
the room was finally voiced, with only
minor modifications and the insertion
of the standard high -frequency runoff.
During the following two weeks,
extensive blind listening tests were
performed with several different power
amplifiers, including old standbys as
well as some not even on the market yet.
NOISE GATE GT -4
The remarkable low cost noise gate that is
so simple and economical to use
that people are finding new
applications for them every day.
John Arrias, an independent
engineer and producer comments:
Use one
channel for each
mike in your P.A.
System and drastically increase loudness without
feedback. Gate your echo returns to adjust
decay time without running to the chamber.
Gate your cue feeds and rid the headphones of distracting hum and noise. Gate each
mike on the drum kit, the sound is spectacular!
For the full story and a list of dealers call or write
Omni Craft Inc. Rt. 4 Box 40, Lockport, Illinois 60441 (815) 838 -1285
0
OMNI CRAFT
R -e /p 48 O :1pril 1982
The choices were not as difficult as
expected. Subtle differences were really
not that subtle anymore. When all the
votes were counted, the Brvston -I -B
power amplifier was the final choice.
Kenny Rogers. Uon Henley and
Timothy Schmidt of the Eagle's. and
Carole King were among the first
artists to record in the new studio. Gary
Klein of the Entertainment Co.,
producing the Marshall 'fucker Bancl
and Enid Levine, says of Studio A: "The
only thing I can compare Studio A to is
a Mercedes Benz. Everything is there
for a reason. This obviously cones from
it great deal of planning with the artists,
engineer, and producer in mind. it's the
most flexible studio I've ever worked in.
and the control roost is a joy. There's
practically no fatigue factor. It's
cumfortable, but not too comfortable.'l'o
put it simply, everything works and
works perfectly! It's definitely a 'State uf -the- heart' studio. Also. the staff and
personnel work as a team and make us
feel great. Everyone is wonderfully
accommodating."
OMNI CRAFT INC.
RT. 4 BOX 40
LOCKPORT, IL. 60441
nw
C
C1
815- 838 -1285
"Studio A at Lion Share is a very
versatile and efficient room. The best
quality of the studio is that it was built
with the engineer in mind; an easy to
use, high -tech room."
Future plans for Lion Share
Recording Studios are both extensive
and exciting. Studio C will he a larger
version of Studio A, with full video
shooting, post-production, and motion picture scoring capabilities. Electronically, it will incorporate the best
equipment available at the time, both
analog and digital. Studio B will then be
enlarged and updated to complete the
renovation of the existing facility.
Advance planning is underway for a
video production facility. Also, the
building exterior and office areas are
currently undergoing a major facelift.
This building has been around for a
while, and it looks like it will be around
for a long time to come.
E
Since their introduction in 1977, the
monitors have steadily
been replacing old UREI 800 series
a new diaph-am ana phasing
plug, the high -end response on all
three models now exte-ids
I
to well beyond 15 kHz.
All models n .)w feature a
BNC type connector to
acco-nmodate the Con-
With
New UREI
« »
Series A Ti me-Aligned
fashioned loudspeakers.
In studios throughout the
world, they've become tLe
the
accepted
critical standard by which
all other professional loidspeaker systems are now
judged.
Our new Series "A" mcdels
(811A, 813A & 815.) now incorporate the following improvements:
I 1e
professional Monitoring
Loudspeaker Systems
The exclusive Time -Aligned"' cross over has been redesigned to allow the
maximum power transfer to the trans
improved sensitivity for
ducers
more acoustic power per watt.
A totally new High Frequency Exponential Horn design (Patent
Pending) which includes a
diffraction buffer, flare
compensators, and
shadow slots.
The diffraction buffer has
been added to the leading
edge of the horn resulting
in better impedance transformation to the atmosphere. This provides a
substantially improved
transition through the
crossover region and dispersion is enhanced over
the entire range of the
High Frequency Horn.
The Flare Wall Boundary
treatment results in a
-
ductor Compensation"
feature of UREI's model
6500 Power Amplifier.
The new series "A'
mon tors from UREI are
available in three sizes to suit any
monitoring requirement. They're
accurate, powerful and improved.
From One Pro To Another trust all
your toughest signal processing and
monitoring needs _o UREI.
-
Time -Align is a Trademark d E M Long Assoc Oaklanc. CA
All referenced Trademarks an property d or licensed by
United Recording Electronics Industries. a URC Compass
.
0
From One Pro To Another
United Recording Electronics Industries
8460 San Fernando Road, Sun Valey. Calitornis 91352
(213) 767 -1000 Telex E5 -1389 UREI SNVY
Worldwide. Gotham Export Corporation. New York
Canada Gould Marketirg. Montreal H47 1E5
reduction cf transient
distortion without
degrading the power
transfer characteristics
of the Horn.
Shadow Slats have been
added to further improve
the mid -range magnitude
regularity and overcome
the classic "shadow effect"
characteristic of some
coaxial systems.
.;
t
See your professional audio -roducts
dealer for lull technical information
f
.4-`
-r
-`
!
:
y'L>
UREI 1981
990
Electronics Troubleshooting Maintenance
ESSENTIALS of DIGITAL
LOGIC CICRCUITS
THE BEST OP-AMP
Electronic design by Deane Jensen,
Jensen Transformers
by ETHAN WINER
The Recording Center
Packaging and production design by
John Hardy, Hardy Co.
Norwalk. Connecticut
Fur many audio experimenters,
digital circuits frequently seem st range
and difficult to understand. If you're
used to playing with amplifiers and
equalizers, its not hard to sec how the
prospect of dealing with a bunch of
digital Ones and zeroes could seem
pretty depressing. Of course, once you
get to know them, digital circuits are
actually pretty tame, and in many ways
easier to handle than their analog
counterparts. Aside from computers
that lurk inside console automation
systems, most digital logic found in a
studio is used for tape transport control
and other relatively pedestrian
Some of the satisfied users:
MOBILE FIDELITY
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applications. Digital audio is another
thing altogether. and although we'll
touch on it briefly. most commercial
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Complete specifications and
documentation available.
Manufactured by and sold exclusively thru:
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P.O. Box AA631
Evanston, IL 60204 USA
(312) 864 -8060
April
1982
-
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DE MEDIO ENGINEERING
12-c/p 48
-
-
(Console by De Medio Engineering)
ARMIN STEINER
Relay -based Logic
Early digital logic circuits employed
relays to perform all of the required
functions: therefore. it would be only
logical (sorry) to start there. A relay is
constructed from three very basic
components
a switch, an electromagnet, and a spring. Hut where most
switches are activated by throwing a
lever or pushing it button, the switch for
switches) in a relay change state when a
voltage is applied to the coil of the
electromagnet. Most relays contain at
least two double -throw switches; some
have as many as four or more, allowing
quite a range of possible circuit
combinations. Figure
shows the
schematic of a single-pole (only one
switch), double-throw relay. The term
"double -throw" is used to indicate that
one element
called the common
will be connected to either of two
possible contacts: normally-open (NO)
or normally -closed (NC).
One of the basic logic functions that a
relay can perform is called a latch,
1
SONY, Digital Audio Div
CAPITOL RECORDS, INC
devices are toi, sophisticated t'or casual
troubleshooting. And besides, this is
supposed to be an article on basic
digital logic circuits, not a dissertation
un advanced computer theory.
O
12 VOLTS
O
I
A
Audio
Westlake
The Professionals Choice
For over 10 years WESTLAKE AUDIO has been the
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Alado
Professional Audio Sales Group
;2435 Santa Monica Boulevard
Los Angeles Caidorn a 9C046
1. R ,' 9Rn0 Telex 69864ti
April 1982 0
12
e/p 49
DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS
FROM
BOTH RELAYS MUST BE
V WILL
APPEAR AT OUTPUT. ADD FROM
INVERTER TO MAKE
NAND GATE
°
NOTE
V
ACTIVATED BEFORE
which is shown in Figure 2. Here, a
double -pole, double -throw relay is
required, since one of the switches will
be needed just to perform the latching
function, and the other can then do
whatever switching you want. When
pushbutton switch SI is depressed. the
coil is energized by the 2V supply,
causing both switches to change state.
Notice. however, that the lower set of
contacts are connected in parallel with
I
AND
-
Negative feedback can also be
applied to relay operation, as shown in
Figure a. This oscillator circuit
commonly known as a buzzer
is
created by wiring the switch contacts in
series with the coil. When power is
applied the coil is energized, which
causes the switch to change. Of course,
the moment this happens. power to the
--
INVERTER
OUT
Figure 4
maintaining power to the coil when the
-
IN
GATE
the pushbutton switch. thereby
button is released. The tel will then he
held in this activated state continuously, as long as the I2V power source is
not interrupted. This circuit
or its
solid -state equivalent can be found in
all professional tape machines, so that
you don't have to continuosly hold
down the record or play buttons, for
example. You could also consider this
latching action to be a form of positive
feedback. since the output is being used
to reinforce the input.
coil is interrupted, and the spring pulls
the switch contacts bock to the normal
state. This actuates the coil all over
again. and the process will continue to
repeat indefinitely. (l realize that this is
pretty basic stuff although. as I pointed
out earlier, so are many logic circuits.)
Figures 1..t and show relax.circuits
x.
t' ur
AN I), OR, and EXt'I.L SIVE OR gates,
whose operation is explained in the next
section.
Solid -State Logic Circuits
NOW, most digital logic circuits do not
use a set of switch contacts as the
output. but instead provide either of two
possible voltages: the full supply, or
nothing. In practice, the outputs of
some IC devices don't quite reach up to
full supply, or all the way down to
ground but, as a general ruletfor('1N1OS
devices), any vuitge greater than two
thirds of the supply is considered to be a
.'One," or high, and less than one -third
is a "zero,.' or low.
One oI'the basic logic building blocks
is the gate, of which there are several
types. Regardless of which type of gate
is being considered, however, the output
-
state is always determined by the
signals al the input, as with any
electronic circuit. There are three
different catagories of gates: the : \ \I)
gate, the 0 R gate, and the EXCLUSIVE
OR. Inverted versions are also
available, called N. \NI) twhich stands
for "not amt..), NOR, and EXCLUSIVE
NOR, but lets look at the regular types
first.
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-
*40,000 MILES PER HEAD of tape travel
routine performance
for Saki premium quality audio heads. We are the world's leading
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V
Ask about our 2- track, 1/2 inch format.
ACTIVATING EITHER RELAY
WILL PROVIDE A HIGH OUTPUT.
Figure 7 slows the logic symbols fur
the three kinds of gates; while each is
shown with only two inputs, IC gates
are available with up to eight or more.
Under each symbol is a Truth 'fable
showing what happens at the output,
for each of the four possible input
combinations. Beginning with the
AND gate, if input
ad
2 are both
high, then the output vill be high;
otherwise the output will be low. For the
t )R gate, if input
or 2 is high, the
output will be high. All an EXCLUSIVE OR gate cares about is whether
the inputs are different, providing a
high output when they are. As you can
1
1
FROM V'
Figure 6
EXCLUSIVE OR
GATE
OUT
2>
8650 HAYDEN PLACE,
THE OUTPUT IS HIGH ONLY
WHEN
R-e/p 500 April
1982
1
AND
2
ARE DIFFERENT.
Pick a
number
from
ATM11R
You've just chosen
the ideal DC voltage
to phantompower
these new ATM electret
microphones.
ATM9 R
Introduc ng bur `universe
phaaton-- po.vered elrc-net
miopl ones. Uesivied .o wcrk
fron ex:ernal power, internal
revelation automat cally ha-tdles
any voltage from 9 to 52 VDC
without adaptes, s.vitches, or
rewiring. Just Flug in and enjoy. With
current drain a mete 0 3 mA at 4 volt;
(4 :IA at 12 -52V) a 9V battery Lsts t-cusands
of r ours, not just tl- e 60 or 70 hums t ?ptcai of
ott::r mike ;.
Wien your power supoIy i
availa ale or isn't enough.
use curs. The new AT8`O1 Daal 3attcrv- S apply holds two 9N. batteries.
Ore to use, and one in r_serve. Ihstarx switchover and test LLD eliminates
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no more than I% T HD even what us.-d in acoustic fields of =1 dB SPL. Which sets
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And the saun i you hear is .aide -range aid musical. Presence without peaks.
Higts to 20,000 Ha but without i raw') "edge. Yet despite tb responsiveness
these new ATM m crcpbones hLre fie "Road Tough" reliabi fry proved so often at
stave and in the stt-dio.
Before yc u add another microphone. cony are our sound, our convenience, our
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1
it
1
For adctfonal intormatior ci 'cle 433
I)IGIl'A1. LOGIC CIRCUITS
the concept of binary arithmetic.
Boolean :\Igebra
gate can be used to make simple
decisions, depending on the information presented to its input.
'('hose circuits can be said to use
pusitic e lu¡¿ic, since a "one.. is
represented by the presence of an (output
voltage, and a zero by the absence.
Without wanting to make things too
confusing too early. their is unuther
frequently -used system ctelled ,)egalil e
For as long as people have had Ill
lingers, mathematicians have used a
decimal number system. A problem
occurs however, when trying to apply
this counting scheme to digital logic
circuits, since there are only two
possible circuit conditions: One or zero
Ico: responding to "on" or 'oft'..).
reversed. This does nut require the user
to stock it separate family of parts,
because once you think about it. a
positive ANI) gate is the sane thing as
a negative OR gate, and vice versa.
There are, however, inverted gates that
our (lil'fcrent Ilona those just discussed,
and these our shown in Figure S.
Operation of these latter type of gates
is essentially the saute as for the noninverted types. with the output polarity
simply reversed. The circle at the right
of each gate is used to indicate that an
inverter has hen added to the output
circuit, causing the output to be "not
one- when the normal input requirements our met. Sung other digital
building blocks are the counter, which
is needed fur a numerical display, and
the shift register. which can he found at
the heart of a digital delay. Before an
appreciation of these circuits is possiblt
though, it is imperative to understand
system, zero is still zero, and one is still
one. but beyond that additional
columns must be added to the Ieft, just
like you would normally do when you
reach the number ninv. I t's really not as
haul as it probably sounds, and I hope
that '('able I will stake everything
see. a
/ef!ic. where the definitions are
Figure 7
AND
out
INPUT
PPUUTT
1
crystal
clean-.
As can be seen from the table, by the
time weye counted to I:,. lour binary
digits must be used: there are two ways
to present this information. In a
parallel system, there would be four
output connections, with the voltage at
each representing one number, or hit. A
typical example would he the 4021
binary counter, which has one input
and seven outputs. When it square wave
of any frequency is applied to its dock
input, the outputs advance one count
during the negative transition of the
input waveform. By utilizing all seven
outputs. it is possible to count up to I''`,.
2
Decimal
0
Logic Applications
0
1
0
2
1
0
0
3
1
1
INPUT
1
111
1
1
INPUT
1
1111
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
NOR
5
1111
mi
I
2
7
III
N
1)1111)
OUTPUT
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
y
I
lout
X -OR
2
INPUT
1
INPUT
0
0
2
OUPUT
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
/p 520 \prit
:
1982
I))
INPUT
I)
111111
II
1011
12
1
1:3
1101
1.1
III))
1.1
1111
Decimal. 1,309
1
INPUT
2
OUTPUT
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
11)111
=
=
1,000 + 300
10 + 3x10:
+
+
2' +2,
INPUT
0 + 9
9x10"
+2'
-(o(ot
2
1)111
Binary: 1011011 =64 +0+ 16 +g +0 +2+
+2'
+2"
=
12 -c
out
2
III
OUTPUT
0
out
INPUT
1
2
1
OR
2
out
2
INPUT
0
NAND
()
t
0
-
Okay, so now wt'
ba( a binary
cuanter clues. but the real question is,
"What the heck are we going to do with
the darned thing:'' \yell, for starters,
anytime a numeric display is needed, a
counter circuit will be required to
generate the actual nuntbet:.- whether
it's a display for a pilet shifter: an
indicator for u tape lucator, et even a
digital thermometer. In fact, when
indicating tape position, it will be
necessary to use an up-dotcn counter,
since the tape cran travel in either
Binary
OUTPUT
0
1
-
Figure 8
Table 1:
Decimal to Binary Conversion
2
INPUT
a different method of
counting is required if we want to be
able to make it past two. In the binary
Therefore,
though other l( ''s are available that can
count much higher: and, of course, you
can olways combine counters toachieve
very lutgt' number :s.
Another system
called serial
uses only one output terminal, with the
digits appearing in succession. '('his
method allows large binary numbers to
be transmitted over a single pail' of
wires, or by telephone. with the obvious
tradeoff being speed of operation. All
other things living equal, an eight -hit
serial system will take eight times
longer to convey a given number
compared to the parallel approach.
Additionally. some method ol'synchronization must he provided to identify
the beginning of each group of digits.
Isn't it wonderful to know that no
matter hmv complicated a function is
required someone will (lute up with at
way to put it all on to a single chip!
1
1
INPUT
2
OUTPUT
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
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\
ä- -`
___________---
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For additional information circle #34
I
\ pril
.._
1982
12-c/p 53
The Future
Starts Here.
With the TASCAM Series 30 which
encompasses multitrack technology of
such impressive flexibility, possibility
and capability, that its remarkably modest pricing is merely a welcome bonus.
It's all the result of TASCAM's characteristic blending of good sense and
revolutionary thinking. The melding of
the practical with the blue sky. The
incorporation of electronic advances
which are both better and less costly.
The result is a line of recording tools
which can create a business or expand
one with a minor outlay of capital. Or
that a hand could use to put themselves
at the top.
A
highly capable and versatile system
within the reach of the artist or pro-
ence. This results also in a
ducer, composer and arranger, the
churchman, adman. and multi -image
maker who has yearned for the creative
freedom that comes with owning his
own studio.
AN EMPHASIS ON RELIABILITY.
maximum level for all outputs. For
25 dB of headroom. A generous buffer
against distortion and overload.
No advanced feature is worth much
when it's down. So we engineer our
advances for reliability.
Series 30 utilizes proven high speed
integrated circuitry throughout. Electronics that are well understood worldwide. All run within their design limits.
Not on the ragged edge.
Bipolar 15 volt D.C. power supplies
insure against hum and radio interfer-
+15dli\
TWO SERIES 30 MIXERS.
The proven M -35 and the new M -30
shown here. Both are the product of ten
years of evolutionary development and
experience.
Input LED's plus Buss output \1?
meters with overload LED's combine to
let you see and control just what's going
on all along the signal path.
Mic inputs on our mixers are balanced. And you get plenty of attenuation for control of your input signal.
And, our Parametric Sweep type Equali-
zer can bail you out of all sorts of
mixing trouble wits minimum effect
on audio quality.
Multiple patch points in the signal
path make these mixers notably flexible
and expandable. You can add cue systems, monitor systems, EQ systems and
sub mixes as you need them. Right out
of the TASCAM catalogue.
THREE SERIES 30 TRANSPORTS
Our all new model 38 recorder/
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The 38, like the 34 4 -track and the
32 half-track, uses full -size 10 -1/2"
reels. And like the other two, allows
'
dbx
IS A
TRADEMARK
CY-
dbx. INC
simultaneous record on all tracks.
All three are built on the same rugged 1/2" transport. So the 1/4" 32
and 34 are 8 -track tough.
These transports represent 25 years
of continuous mechanical refinement,
built around the latest electronics, and
have full Simul -Sync functions plus
optional dual -process dbx *.
Circuit driven, four digit FL counters
provide more accurate "zero return ".
And the Series 30 Recorders deliver
the convenience of "dump edit" along
with an optional foot -operated remote
punch -in/punch -out switch.
COME TRY IT OUT FOR YOURSELF
The Series 30 brings professional
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For details, just visit your TASCAM
dealer. Or, write us.
TASCAM PRODI CTIOS PRIM Il CTS
COPYRIGHT 1982 TEAL. CORPORATION OF AMERICA
TELEGRAPH ROAD. MONTE.BELLO. Ca 906911
"ü
TASCAM
For additional information circle ís35
April
1982
0 R -e /p
5.5
TRIGGER TO SYNTHESIZER ADSR
10
DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS
9
direction. Similar in all other respects to
a normal up -only counter, this device
has an extra input that dictates the
counting direction.
Before any digital display will
operate, a decoder must 1w used as an
interface between the binary counter
and the seven individual segments. For
8
1
J
>
lJ
CLOCK
INPUT
NOTE:
OUTPUT DESIGNATIONS
TO COUNTER OUTPUTS
F /4, 3
F /8, ETC.).
AND NOT 4017 PINOUTS.
4017 COUNTER
REFER
(1
F /2,
2-
7
an LEI) display. there are seven
separate I.EI)'s that must he lit in 10
different combinations to generate all
of the required numerals. Unfortunately, there is no immediate relationship
between what the counter is sending
and what the LEI)'s would like to
receive. Therefore. a decoder accepts a
binary number at its input, and
provides seven separate outputs, one for
each segment.
As you can imagine, this gets into a
lot Of wiring when you start dealing
with several digits. Consequently, a
multiplexing system is frequently used,
whereby all of the like segments are
connected together, although the
common connections remain separate.
'l'he digits are scanned sequentially,
with only one actually being on at a
time. 'l'he scanning rate is relatively
fast to avoid any visible flicker, and
since each set of EI)'s is only on for a
fraction of the timer extra current must
be applied to maintain the same level of
brightness. This will not cause the
I.1:I )'s to burn out, however, because the
average current will remain the same.
Multiplexing is not unique to LEI)
displays
it provides the basis for
broadcasting stereo FM on one radio
frequency, and for devices that send
eight mike signals clown one pair of
wires. For the latter, each mike line is on
for only one- eighth the time
very
much like the spark plugs in an eight cylinder engine.
Another important use for a binary
counter is as an octave divider for
electronic organs, synthesizers, and for
other frequency division applications.
For example, if an 8 kHz input is used to
clock the 4024 counter mentioned
earlier, the first output will be at 4 kHz,
the second at 2 kHz, and so on
all
octave divisions of the original 8 kHz
fundamental. Other IC's are available
that can divide by three, or five, or
almost any factor you want, while still
others can be programmed to select
from among several dividing ratios.
One divider of particular interest is the
top- octave generator, which delivers 13
successive musical notes all precisely
in tune, and equally tempered to boot
from one master oscillator. 'l'he Mostek
50290 requires a clock input of 2.00024
MHz, but this could be varied for nonstandard tuning. The notes produced by
this circuit will be fairly high in
frequency, requiring the addition of a
40.24 (or similar IC) for each note. Now,
with only 13 IC's and a VCO, you could
have the heart of a polyphonic
1
-
-
-
-
synthesizer.
R -e /p 560 April
1982
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
TO SYNTH
4
SUMMING
AMP
FIGURE 9
Spe, k ing of synthesizers, yet another
application Of the counter is for a
sequencer, where it can be used to
generate a recurring passage of notes
automatically. 'l'he 4017 would be a
good choice here because it has 10
I
Outputs, with each activated in
succession (Figure 9). I once built a
sequencer based on the 4017 that could
play any melody containing up to 10
notes, though there is no reason that
you couldn't cascade several 40I7's to
create any sequence length you like. By
the time you get into 311 or more notes,
you might want to consider using a
computer to do the remembering
instead. With the IC counter method,
one potentiometer will be required for
every note, which gets clumsy after a
while ancl. unless you add other
circuitry, all of the notes will have the
same duration. By using a computer,
extremely long and involved melodies
can be programmed, and several tracks
could be layered. all in perfect
synchronization.
Logic Families
There are many, many more digital
building blocks that we could talk about
for hours on end. Instead, it it would be a
whole lot easier to go out and get a copy
of "The CMOS Cookbook," by Don
Lancaster (Sams 021398). Nearly
everything you want to know about
CMOS digital IC's is discussed in plain
English and, if you're really serious
about such devices, you should also
obtain a copy of the National
Semiconductor CMOS Uatabook. This
"If
handy free manual contains data for
virtually all of the currently available
devices in this family.
Of course, CMOS (which stands,
would you believe, for "complementary
metal -oxide silicon ') is not the only
logic family, although it has become the
"darling" of the industry for several
important reasons. Based entirely on
FEl "s (field-effect transistors), CMOS
has an extremely high input impedance, and a low output impedance. This
configuration allows one output to drive
nearly any number of inputs, which can
be useful in a large system. Also, (COS
draws very little power from the supply,
especially in static modes such as a
latch, or a gate when the output isn't
changing. Another attractive feature of
CMOS is the ability to easily make
linear circuits negative feedback and
all!
-
'171. (transistor- transistor logic) is
another common digital logic family,
and offers a higher operating speed in
exchange for a higher supply current.
This type of logic is based on transistors
and resistors, although the operation of
the gates, counters, decoders, etc. follow
the same basic rules. Because of its
higher frequency capability, T'l'L can
be more difficult to use
especially at
the experimenter level and particular
care must be taken regarding bypass
capacitors and grounding schemes.
Also,'l'TL must be powered from a wellregulated and absolutely clean 5V
supply, whereas CMOS will tolerate
any supply between 3 and 15 volts. I rest
my case.
... continued overleaf
--
-
CLOCK INPUT
MSB 1K
-
500
ANALOG
64K
FIGURE 10
LSB
PITCH
OUTPUT
THE COMPLETE*
PORTABLE
MIXER
TWO CHANNELS
Two low-noise balanced input
stages, fully independent. Rear
panel switches allow selection of
three input configurations: 'Mic'
with trimmable gain; ' Inst', with
20dB gain; 'Line', unity gain.
Input bias automatically changes
for best noise performance.
3 BANDS OF SMOOTH
CONTROL
ONE GLANCE LEVEL
INDICATORS
Observe the relative peak level of
each input stage, green and amber
for normal levels, bright red before
clipping.
PHASE REVERSE
EQ ASSIGN SWITCH
Channel one has rear panel phase
reverse switch. Front panel
indicator glows when phase reverse
Send both channels to the equalizer, or send one to the normalled
rear panel side -chain jack for out-
is selected.
The three -band tone control is
built using musical centers. Very
smooth and very effective.
CLIP INDICATOR
Monitors signal at output stages.
Main output has switch selectable
pad for driving 6000 lines, - 10dB
for semi -pro equipment, and - 20dB
for instrument amplifiers.
board processing.
dina-mdc""
cl,
I
both&
ch
FOUALI[EF
EO
áyna
tm
mt
M
Im
GAIN REDUCTION
out
IOC
RELFASF
DET
a®p s
I
THRESHOLD
Variable from
- 40dBv to
DISPLAY
+ 20dBv
for flexibility in gating, limiting
and ducking.
CLIP WARNING
INDICATOR
\
High visibility LED meter
monitors amount of gain change.
Glows prior to internal
overloading.
MODE SWITCH
RELEASE TIME
Allows the Dyna -Mite to operate
Combined with our Anticipatory
Release Computer ensures freedom
from 'pumping' and 'squashing'.
in
19
specific modes.
DETECTOR
Besides establishing
DETECTOR SOURCE
ratios, this switch
limit /expand
sets the detector
to respond as a conventional fast
peak detector, or as an averaging
Linear Integration Detector.
Permits a wide variety of 'keying'
effects and allows use as a
specialized limiter.
OUTPUT LEVEL
CONTROL
Unique 'output -threshold
coupling' maintains constant
output level.
RANGE CONTROL
Limits amount of gain change
from 0 to 60dB in the expand,
duck and gate modes.
*With the Model 412, Dyna -Mic /Dyna -Mite, the basic effects of Limiting, Expansion,
De- essing, Noise Gating, Ducking, and Keying complement the transparency achieved at
the input. Beyond that, the effects you create are limited only by your imagination!
VALLEY PEOPLE, I NC.
,t
mercer of ALLISON RI-NI .ARCII A SALLLY
P.O. Box 40306
2820 Erica Place
Nashville, Tenn. 37204
615- 383 -4737
April 19820 R-e/p.57
For additional information circle #36
:LOIA
INPUT
M58 7R
DIGITAL LOGiC CIRCUI'T'S
ANALOG
OUTPUT
Digital Concepts
Rather than go into great detail about
all of the digital I('s that exist, I would
just as soon highlight some other
-
important digital concepts
such as
conversion between analog and digital
formats. It is far easier to take a binary
number and turn it into an analog
voltage, since it only takes one op -amp
and a bunch of resistors (Figure 111). Py
using resistors that decrease in value by
a factor of two, an output voltage is
developed that's proportional to the
value of each bit of the binary number.
The -units- digit or least significant
hit l.tili)
has the highest resistance.
hence the smallest contribution to the
t
-
-
total output voltage. The most
significant hit (MSB) is associated with
the lowest resistor value, and therefor(
has the greatest influence on the output
level.
Now, this example may be fine for
conveying the concept, but there are
several fundamental problems with the
design. First, it is difficult to find
resistors in values that continue to
multiply by two
especially when
many bits are involved; and second,
even with l'; metal film resistors, the
effects of very small changes in
ambient temperature will cause errors.
-
construct, and there are several
SB
FIGURE
11
a l l of the resistors were affected by the
same amount, there would be no loss in
accuracy, but 100 -ohm resistors are not
made the same as 1 Megohm resistors,
and will have a different temperature
coefficient. Another problem that arises
when using different value summing
resistors is the effect of loading on the
counter outputs, particularly for the
lower value resistors. Again, if each
resistor were identical, this would not
cause an error, since all of the outputs
would be loaded by the same amount.
Well, leave it to those clever engineers to
devise a way out, and it only requires
two different values of resistors, as
shown in Figure 11. This is know as the
"R /2R" method, and it effectively
eliminates all of the drawbacks
h
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inherent in the first example. It is
interesting to note that these are all
analog problems; the kind of things
that digital designers don't usually
have to worry about.
The opposite of a 1) -to -A converter, of
course, is the A -to -D, which transposes
an analog voltage into an equivalent
digital value. Practically speaking,
such a device is much harder to
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different methods for doing this. One
approach, shown in Figure 12, is to feed
the analog input into a comparator,
which enables a clock- driven counter.
The counter's output is then converted
back to analog, so the comparator can
determine when the counter has
reached the correct number. The
counter is reset at the beginning of each
measurement period (not shown), and
counts up until the comparator shuts it
off.
FIGURE 12
N
CLOCK
INPUT
SAAL
NARY
COUNT EA
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OIGpAI
ouraul
MUM
O
OUTPUT
OACONVERTER
RESISTOR
NE
WORM
NO SUMMING
AMP
While this is a perfectly valid way to
make an A -to -I) converter, it can be
painfully slow, especially when high
resolution is required. If you're counting
to 12 or more binary digits, it could take
more than 4,000 cycles of the clock
oscillator before the digital answer has
been arrived at. A much faster way is by
successive approximation; instead of
beginning at zero and increasing by
steps, it immediately jumps toa number
half of the way up to maximum. If that
turns out not to be high enough, it again
splits the difference and goes (in one
leap) to three -quarters maximum,
where it again is compared with the
input. By splitting the difference in a
single bound, this converter overcomes
the speed limitations of the previous
design.
Yet another method uses a voltage controlled oscillator or VCO (similar to
the kind in a music synthesizer) whose
output frequency is determined by the
magnitude of the input voltge. Again, a
counter is used only this time clocked
by the VCO
and however high it can
count within a certain period of time
becomes the digital output. In actual
practice, more sophisticated methods
are used to provide increased speed and
resolution, as well as a serial output,
since this is what would go on to digital
audio tape, or through a delay line.
--
Logic Faultfinding
With a firm grasp of how these little
digital goodies operate, let's take a look
at some of the ways to tell when they are
not operating. Since we know that the
outputs of all devices should be within
well defined limits (full supply or zero
volts for CMOS), any other voltage level
will probably indicate a bad device, hut
there are two things to watch out for
here. IC outputs aren't the only thing
that go bad, and it is just as likely that
the input being fed, if defective, will
cause the output of the preceeding stage
to appear blown. If IC sockets have been
used in the circuits being tested, this
will make the task of troubleshooting
much easier, especially if you had the
foresight to keep a stockpile of
replacement parts on hand.
If one output is feeding several inputs,
and the voltage at the junction
measures NG, there is a useful
technique you might try if the 1C's have
been soldered in place. This is an
adaptation of the famous "cut in halt"'
method, and involves only minor
surgery on the circuit board. (Although
it is still probably less damaging than
trying to unsolder a bunch of IC's one
by one.) SimpIN find a branch -off point
where the output splits several ways,
make a cut in the foil, and disconnect
half of the inputs being fed. This will
allow you to either eliminate or
implicate several devices at one time.
Usually, "cut in hall' refers to
troubleshooting many successive
stages, where a signal is applied at the
very input. Then, rather than testing
each individual section t'or the proper
voltages, you can save a lot of time and
trouble by skipping to a point half -way
through the circuit.
The second thing to watch out fir
when simply checking DC levels is that
a working circuit may appear to have
an output voltage outside the allowable
range, il' the output is constantly
changing. For example,
a
high
-
frequency squarewave oscillator will
appear to be at half supply if measured
with a DC voltmeter. This is because
half the time it is high, and half the time
low, and the meter just averages it all
together. Of course, if you have an
oscilloscope there won't be any
problem, but if a meter is your only
means of defense, you might check the
circuit with the AC setting before you
start pulling out IC's.
Much cheaper than an oscilloscope,
a typical
yet more revealing
multimeter is the logic probe. These
devices come in two basic styles and use
LED's to indicate the status at the point
in the circuit being measured. One type
of probe resembles a small flashlight,
and can check only one place at a time.
Another type contains 14 or more LE Is
on a spring clamp that attaches directly
to an IC, displaying the condition at all
pins simultaneously.
Beyond checking for incorrect voltges
and attempting to track down the
source, there is little an inexperienced
technician can do in the face of timing
errors or "glitches." Oh sure. you'll find
your share of fractured solder joints and
lame power supplies if you look
carefully enough, but don't expect to fix
tin
I
anything really big without the proper
tools. When my Eventide Harmonizer
developed a slight "gargling' quality at
its output, was fully prepared to pack it
up and ship it back after checking all
I could, of course. Imagine my relief
when I discovered a bad rectifier diode
was causing bum on the power supply.
Eventide is to be congratulated for
always providing wonderful documentatitm with each of their products; I've
always found their owner's manuals to
be both interesting and educational.
And while Lexicon (Prime 'l'ime) does
not provide service information as a
normal part of their owner's manuals,
they do have a very generous
loaner repair policy for a fixed price
regardless of what went wrong.
-
1
-
* * *
'l'he next issue of R-e p will contain a
description of the best construction
article that I've ever clone II hope): I'm
not embarrassed to say that I'm quite
excited about it. had to obtain special
permission from the company that
holds the patent rights, and even had to
sign a license agreement. i )t:e to the use
of special, custom -made integrated
circuits throughout. a kit of parts will be
of'f'ered as a service to the readers. since
I know a lot of folks will want one. What
is it'? Well, I'll give you a hint: its
smaller than a breadbox, and you can
use it in a recording studio.
1
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Throughout our involvement with a client, planning is
stressed -right from the time of initial contact. Careful
planning can minimize costly delays, help anticipate future
needs, and allow the project to run efficiently.
This approach has already worked for our clients around
the world: Allangrove Builders, London; CannellHeumann & Associates, Los Angeles; Discos Gas,
Lakeside Associates, Inc. was formed to provide very
particular services to a very specialized industry -the
entertainment industry.
The experience gained in over twenty -two years
involvement in just about every aspect of sound recording,
video, sound reinforcement, management, and acoustic and
electronic design provides an insight vital to the development
of an entertainment facility. This insight enables us to
integrate the diverse elements whose proper execution are
necessary to the success of any project.
Mexico City; Kenny Rogers' Lion Share Studios, Los
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Select Sound Studio, Buffalo; Star Studio, Milwaukee;
Sunwood Studio, Reno; The Fort, Los Angeles;
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Studios, Glendale.
Whatever the size of your project, Lakeside's experience will
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LAKESIDE ASSOCIATES, INC., 27939 Chiclana,
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LAKESIDE Li
Design for Acoustical Performance /Electronic Systems Design and Installation /Product Development and Evalual ion /Construction/Bus ness Consulting
For additional information circle 537
April
1982 O
R-e/p
59
feet away sounds reasonably well
balanced. Place the microphone close to
the sound hole, however, and the guitar
P11IICMOo pH0ME MCCliINIIQLUJM
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will sound bassy, because the sound
hole radiates strong low frequencies. In
b
by
Bruce Bartlett
Shure Brothers, Inc.
Arecording engineer has several
ways of creating the desired
"sound" or tonal balance of a
recorded musical instrument. You can
equalize the instrument's sound so that
it sounds right. Or you can try to find a
microphone that sounds right. (Jr you
can experiment with different microphone positions until you find one that
sounds right. As an aid to creating the
desired sound more efficiently, this
article considers the tonal effects of
some close microphone placements.
This present study was prompted by
an excellent article by W. Woszczyk in
the October 1979 issue of Recording
Engineer, Producer. Woszczyk described methods of achieving a well balanced tonal reproduction for the
baritone saxophone and viola, using
multiple microphones. This present
article focuses on single-microphone
techniques for the acoustic guitar,
piano, electric guitar amplifier, and
voice.
Why Microphone Placement
Affects Recorded
Tonal Balance
The tone quality or timbre of a
musical instrument is mainly the
perception of its spectrum or harmonic
structure. Each part of the instrument
produces a different spectrum, and
spectra of all the parts combine into a
pleasing composite at some distance
from the instrument. A microphone
placed there "hears" a blend of the tone
qualities of the various parts.
Most musical instruments are built to
sound best when heard from some
distance away. So, a microphone placed
fairly distant from an instrument- say
:3 feet away
tends to pick up a well balanced or natural tone quality. But
when feedback or leakage forces you to
mike an instrument up close, the part of
the instrument nearest the microphone
is emphasized. Thus, the tonal balance
-
picked up very close may not be
representative of the instrument as a
whole.
As an analogy, suppose a microphone
is placed several feet from a multiple
-
driver, high -fidelity loudspeaker
replaying a particular piece of music. A
well -balanced sound usually is picked
up. But if you move that same
microphone very close say next to the
mid -range driver
the sound that the
microphone "hears" is quite colored.
Similarly, an acoustic guitar miked :3
- -
general, close -microphone placement
can result in tonal colorations caused
by the local radiation characteristics of
the instrument.
Musical instruments radiate different
spectra in different directions, and from
various parts of the instrument. As a
result, a microphone used on an
instrument picks up a different
spectrum depending on where it is
placed. 'l'hus, the recorded timbre and
transient character vary greatly with
the microphone position.
Spectral Measurements
for Acoustic Guitar
Experiments were performed at
Shure Brothers to quantify the tonal
differences of various close microphone
placements. To do this, we recorded the
spectrum of a musical instrument at
several close microphone positions, and
then compared these spectra to the
spectrum picked up at a distance from
the instrument.
For example, an acoustic guitar was
recorded with a microphone placed 3
feet away to pick up a well- balanced
tone quality, or an overall blend.
Simultaneously, the guitar was
recorded at several typical close -in
positions (Figure 11: the spectrum
picked up at a distance of 3 feet was
compared to the spectra picked up very
close to the instrument.
The :3 -toot position (Figure 2 was
chosen as a "natural " -sounding
reference because it was far away
enough to pick up a good blend of all the
parts of the guitar, aided by early room
)
FIGURE
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FOR CARDIOID
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reflections, but was close enough to
minimize the influence of standing
waves and reverberation that can color
the results. There may be other
positions that work as well or better;
this position is a matter of personal
taste.
For the first test, a steel- string guitar
was recorded simultaneously with two
microphones: one placed 3 feet in front
of the sound hole, and one 3 inches from
the sound hole. Figure 3 shows the
third -octave spectra picked up in these
positions. (Measurement details of
these tests are provided in the author's
Engineering Report, -Tonal Effects of
Close Microphone Ilacement. ; October
1981 issue of the Journal of the Audio
Engineering Society.)
To make the spectral differences
easier to see. Figure 4 shows the
difference between the two spectra.
When the guitar is miked :3 inches from
the sound hole, there is a pronounced
low- frequency emphasis compared to
the spectrum picked up at 3 feet. In other
words, that is how the spectrum
changes as you move the microphone in
from 3 feet to 3 inches away. The bass
boost is not due to microphone
FIGURE 6
listening panel of eight musicians and
audio engineers. In a blind A. li test, the
panel compared the tone quality of each
close- placed microphone to that of the
more distant refi'rence microphone. The
majority of the participants considered
that a microphone placed next to the
sound hole makes the guitar sound
bassy, "buumy," "thumpy," and full
compared to the timbre picked up at 3
feet: these comments might be expected
in view of the spectrum measurement.
if you want a lull, bassy tone quality
from a recorded guitar, a good place to
put the microphone is near the sound
hale. On the other hand, if you want to
make the guitar sound more natural or
well- balanced when miked close to the
sound hole, you can roll -off the bass as
shown in Figure 5. The solid line is the
proximity effect, however, since
omnidirectional microphones were used
to make the recordings. Instead, the
bass rise is due to a strong $(.) Hz
resonance of the sound hole and the air
inside the guitar. The resonance is
picked up and emphasized by a
microphone placed near the sound hole.
The recordings also were played for a
spectral difference close to the sound
hole that was shown in Figure 4. The
dashed line on Figure 5 is the inverse or
mirror image of the spectral curve at
low frequencies, and is a suggested
equalization to compensate for the bass
boost caused by microphone placement
close to the sound hole. This equalization is for an omnidirectional
microphone with a flat frequency
response.
If a cardioid microphone is used
instead, it might have an additional
inherent bass boost related to close
placement called proximity effect. So, to
make the guitar sound natural with a
cardioid microphone, you must roll off
the bass an additional (i to 12 dB at 100
Hz, as shown by the dotted line in
Figure 5. Such equalization will
compensate for proximity effect and the
effect of close microphone placement.
(It should be noted that some cardioid
microphones have a built-in, switchable
bass rolloff filter.)
As Woszczyk pointed out in his
previous article in R -c p. the spectral
effects of close nticraphune placement
cannot always be accurately compensated by equalization. The required
equalization is complex and varies from
note to note. Also. harmonics that are
missed by close microphone placement
cannot always be recovered by
equalization. Still, some general
equalization probably is better than
none at all.
As an alternative to equalization, you
might consider using a microphone
Figures 7 -10: Difference between close-miked spectrum and Figure 1 -14: Difference between close -miked spectrum and
spectrum, for steel- string guitar (Guild 1) -410. 3 -foot spectrum, for nylon -string guitar (Sakura). Average
of results for "E" and "A" chords.
Average of results for "E" and "A" chords.
1
3 -foot
FIGURE
FIGURE 7
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The Ursa Major 8X32.
Compact, cost -effect ive digital reErberation.
An exciting and versatile
alternative to conventional
plate - reve -b systems, digital
reverberation has become a
fact of life in the modern recording studio. Any one of today's digital reverberators can provide a broader variety of useful
reverberationcharacteristics than a conventional plate
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If you've never experienced one, you'll immediately
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Up to 64 pre -sets encompassing all adjustable reverb
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reccrding studio, the
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In the
oMal rwe.aall1mo
50
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Photo: Mixing Room, Record Plant Studios,
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with an appropriate frequency
response. For example, an omnidirectional microphone with a low -frequency
rollolf would tend to make a guitar
sound natural when placed close to the
sound hole. Ideally, the microphone
should have a low -frequency response
similar to the dashed line of Figure 5.
An example of such a microphone
designed to provide a good starting point tonal balance when clipped onto
the sound hole of a guitar is shown in
Figure (i.
3 FEET
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20
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FIGURE 15
Reasons for Equalization
Of course, there are many other
reasons for equalizing an instrument
besides correcting the tonal effects of
close microphone placement. One major
use of EQ is for special production
effects. Or, you may have to use Hal to
compensate for microphone off-axis
3
FEET
colonat ion, microphone frequency
response, monitor frequency response,
or masking by other instruments.
Another reason for equalization has
its origins in the psyco- acoustics of our
hearing. As discovered by Fletcher and
Munson. the ear is less sensitive to bass
and treble frequencies at low volume
levels than at high volume levels.
Suppose you are listening to a very loud
musical instrument, live, such as an
amplified electric guitar. if this
instrument is recorded with a flat response microphone and played back
at a lower level than you heard live, you
probably will hear less lows and highs
in the playback than were heard during
the recording the sound may be thin
and lacking in punch or presence. So,
when recording very loud instruments
like electric guitars or drums, it may
help to use a microphone with bass and
treble boost in other words, proximity
effect and a presence peak. This will
help compensate for hearing pheno-
-
-
FIGURE 17
mena that occur with playback that is
quieter than the live instrument.
Other Acoustic Guitar
Spectral Measurements
We've seen what happens when a
guitar is miked close to the sound hole.
Let's now look at what occurs at some
other close positions.
If the microphone is placed 4 inches in
front of the bridge (Figure 7), the top plate vibrational modes starting
around 200 Hz are emphasized. The
result is a mid -bass boost, producing a
somewhat bassy, boomy, and dull
sound character. In positive terms, you
could say that this microphone pickup
sounds warm, "woody," and "mellow,"
A microphone placement 3 inches
from the neck where it joins the body of
the guitar (Figure 8) de- emphasizes the
mid -bass frequencies because the
microphone is relatively far from the
front plate. The sound-hole resonance is
still noticeable in this position.
Listeners reported that the timbre was
bassy and lacking in presence
perhaps due to low -frequency masking
of higher frequencies. With another
guitar, the presence range may well be
audible.
When the microphone is placed 6
inches over the top of the guitar, above
the bridge and even with the front plate
(Figure 9), the spectrum and timbre
picked up at this point are fairly similar
to what is picked up 3 feet in front. With
-
such an "over- the -top" position,
Figures 18 -25: Differences between close -miked spectrum and 3 -foot spectrum, for grand piano (Baldwin "B "). Nearly
all keys were pressed simultaneously.
FIGURE 18
I
FIGURE
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HIGH
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FIGURE 19
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FIGURE 22
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FIGURE 23
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LID
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The Altec Lansing 9813
High Accuracy Recording Monitor.
The truth never sounded so good.
Loudspeaker accuracy. It's a
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for good reason. The most prized
result of a recording session is an
accurate sonic illustration of what
is going on in the heads of the
producer, musicians, arrangers,
and composers. Recording is a
process of fusion, and the monitor
is responsible for an accurate
painting of the completed sonic
picture.
Enter our new 9813. We developed it to play its highly critical part
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The 9813 has
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and the
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The 9813 handles power like no
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though it were addicted to watts.
And if you should push it to the
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the front panel at the same time.
The new 9813 does everything
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.
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For additional information circle #41
\prit
1962
R -e /p 65
listeners reported that they heard a
FIGURE 24
natural, bright sound with clear
transients. The spectra of the various
parts of the guitar combine in a
pleasing manner in this location.
Another realistic- sounding location,
according to the listening panel, is
Ne.!
saa
shown in Figure 10. The microphone
diaphragm was positioned 0.05 inches
from a one square-foot sound -reflective
plate on a carpeted floor (a hard floor
also could be used). If feedback or
leakage present no problems, this may
be a useful microphone position. (lt
should be noted that Crown PZM
microphones feature a similar principle
of operation
Ed.)
COMMENTS
full '
'Busy.
so
20
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707au[rC
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KaTz
10400
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FIGURE 25
Unde'neatn piano.
-
The same measurements were
sae
repeated using a nylon-string guitar
with generally similar results (Figures
11 through 15). Differences occurred in
isolated frequency bands. Each
individual guitar will produce slightly
different results; also, the effects vary
from note to note. The results shown
here are meant to indicate only general
trends.
Grand Piano
Another instrument tested was a 5'/,foot baby grand piano (Figure 16),
which was recorded from several
typical close -up positions and,
simultaneously, 3 feet away from the
strings (Figure 17) to pick up an overall
blend or a reference spectrum. Figures
18 through 25 show the difference
between the:3 -foot spectrum and each of
the close -miked spectra.
In Figure 18, the piano is miked foot
over the middle strings, 8 inches
horizontally from the hammers, with
the lid on the long stick (full open).
There are only minor differences
between the spectrum picked up in this
position and the spectrum picked up 3
feet in front. Thus, -foot over the
middle strings is a suggested close
microphone placement for a natural
timbre. If the microphone is moved to 8
inches over the treble strings (Figure
19), the sound is still well-balanced and
bright.
1
1
COMMENTS:
"Sassy, dull."
Results for other microphone
acoustic comb -filter effects due to sound
arrival -time differences of the two
loudspeakers.
Note that sound reflections from the
floor still can cause acoustic comb -filter
positions are shown in Figures 20
through 25. Two of the positions tested
offer good isolation but an unnatural
sound: inside the piano with the lid on
the short stick (Figure 21); and located
in the sound holes (Figures 22 and 23).
effects at the
3 -foot
microphone
position. However, it is unclear whether
The spectral effects vary with
these effects color the instrument
microphone position because areas
close to the microphone are emphasized. In addition, sounds from various
areas of the piano and the lid combine
and cause acoustic phase cancellations
that vary with microphone placement.
Like the guitar, the sound from a piano
can be equalized to complement each
spectral curve to approach a natural
timbre.
timbre or enhance it. Floor reflections
will be heard while listening to a live
instrument; they add information about
the spectral content of the instrument
and its environment. Unfortunately,
the comb -filter notch frequencies and
notch depths picked up at the
microphone position are different from
those heard in the audience area.
Regardless of whether there is
coloration occurring at the reference
position, it is still a known standard to
which other microphone positions can
be compared.
At 3 feet from the loudspeakers, the
rear wave from the speakers tends to
cancel the front wave at low frequencies, because the two waves combine in
opposite polarity. If the microphone is
placed closer, say foot away (Figure
Electric Guitar Amplifier
An electric guitar amplifier /speaker
was also recorded. The amplifier tested
was an open -back design with dual 12inch loudspeakers. Pink noise was
played through the amplifier, and the
acoustic output equalized flat at the afoot reference position (Figure 26). This
position was selected to minimize
1
Figures 26 -29: Difference between close -miked spectrum
and 3 -foot spectrum, for electric guitar /amplifier /speaker
(Yamaha G- 100 -212 -II). Pink noise input.
FIGURE 26
FIGURE 28
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COMMENTS
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FIGURE 27
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to
12-c/p 66 0 April 1982
se
FIGURE 29
SO
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rood
.+[aas....a..t
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111.000
Introducing the TASCAM sERE's Model
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Input, monitor and effects returns
Remix Solo Enable
Input
PFL /Solo Select O 2 independent stereo mixing busses
16
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100 mm
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bypassed O 4 auxiliary mixing busses
16 x 2 channel or dual
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O
12-r/I, tú
at the
microphone position, resulting in low
frequencies not being cancelled so
completely. Thus, there is an apparent
bass boost compared to the spectrum at
27), the front wave is emphasized
FIGURE 30
feet.
In Figure 224, the microphone is one
inch from the grille cloth, so there is
3
even inure apparent bass boost. It
should be remembered that, because
omnidirectional microphones were
FOOT
1
used, this boost is not due to microphone
proximity effect: it results from the
loudspeaker radiation characteristics.
Note in Figure 29 what happens to the
high frequencies as the microphone is
moved to the edge of the speaker cone.
The high -end is lost, producing a dull
sound quality. This occurs because the
microphone is far from the center of the
cone, the high -frequency radiating part
of the sneaker. Pickup of amplifier hiss
and crackle can be reduced by this
microphone placement.
As these curves have shown, it is easy
to control the bass treble balance of
this type of guitar amplifier by varying
the microphone distance and position
relative to the speaker cone center.
Vocals
'l'o reduce audible reverberation, a
voice was recorded with the reference
microphone position
(
1
foot away
Figure 30).
Some members of the listening panel
experienced difficulty hearing the
FIGURE 31
Talker saying
11
°Mawnee
s.a
INCH
to
no
rOP00 i0p00
r r[Ti
Figure 31: Difference between close-miked spectrum and -foot spectrum,
for male voice (compare with Figs. 32 & 33 overleaf).
so
WOO
M[OU[4CT
1
spectral effects of placing an omnidirectional microphone une inch Crum
the mouth (Figures :il and 32). Thus, a
flat -response omnidirectional microphone placed close to the mouth
produces only minor coloration.
A nasal- sounding word, "mawnee,"
was used for une test (Figure 311. When
THE EXPANDABLE SYSTEM 200
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a microphone is placed very cluse to the
mouth, the sound from the mouth is
picked up louder than the sound from
the nose (especially when the microphone is highly directional). Consequently, the nose sounds "closed,"
lending a "nasal" coloration to the
voice. Note in Figure :31 the peak at 3
kHz, which often is associated with a
"nasal" tonal coloration. Possibly the
effect would be more audible if a
hypecardioid or bidirectional microphone were used, since each one has
reduced output off-axis (in the direction
of the nose).
To test for sibilance differences, the
word "seven- was recorded (Figure 32).
'l'he voice is somewhat directional at
high frequencies, so sounds that are
strong in high frequencies, such as
sibilants and lip noises, are slightly
/
Filter Display
Broadband
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Resolution
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T60 and Options
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Interchangeable Filters
45 dB Dynamic Range
16 x 31 High Intensity
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All Functions
Microprocessor
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Simultaneous Peak and
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Built -in Pink Noise Generator
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Measurements
Optional Function Generator
:r,'r-i_iiE_liüli.ii: ,i,ii1-
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make the close -miked voice sound more
natural.
In Figure 33, the microphone is 1 foot
away like the reference microphone, but
is positioned 45 degrees off-axis to the
mouth. Again, since the voice is
directional at high frequencies, the
microphone placed to one side picks up
a duller -sounding spectrum than the
same microphone placed in front. This
position, or one farther to the side, can
be used to minimize sibilance.
Summary and Conclusions
. urtr ü{ilaln:EiEEE{illü-
iristra.amer,tts.
P. O.
emphasized close to the mouth. This
can be corrected with a high- frequency
rolloff. Also, a 3 dB cut at 800 Hz may
TELEX 776409 WHITE INST AUS
The spectral plots presented in this
article suggest some starting microphone placements to achieve particular
tonal effects. According to the listening
panel, the 3 -foot reference microphone
positions generally were judged to
provide a more realistic and natural sounding tone quality than the close
positions tested. Such observations
Other locutions not tested in this study
may work as well or better.
If a natural sound is desired, but you
are forced to place the microphone in a
ball -sounding position. the instrument
can be equalized as suggested in this
or use a
article as a beginning
FIGURE 32
Talker saying
I
'Seven'
I
ee
INCH
microphone with
20
211201.112K,
--
o14a,s o'
mouth Talker
20.000
óI
IN
FIGURE 33
-,----
!
45
l
saying "Seven
FOUT
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..
sn
-
2
11(OU[K
iM
MZ11TZ
.
.
Figures 3.2 and 33: Differences between close -mcked spectrum and -foot
spectrum for mule voice (compare with Figure 31 on previous page).
I
suggest that a natural sound is best
obtained by relatively distant micro-
-
assuming, of
phone placement
course, that the room acoustics are
suitable.
Some close microphone positions
were discovered that pick up a tonal
balance similar to that picked up a feet
away. For acoustic guitar, the bestmatching position tested was (i inches
over the top of the guitar, above the
bridge, and even with the front face. For
grand piano, a good match was found
with the microphone located I fout
above the middle strings, or S inches
ahm'e the treble strings. )' inches
horizontally from the hammers. with
the lid on the long stick. Remember that
these positions are fur flat-response,
omnidirectional microphones: unidirectional microphones may sometimes add
bass boost caused by proximity effect.
Plannall4N114
Serving the
PIPO
Arsaihro
er.areaat
aar Ree.rdlas
Ltaroatrlea
-
a11
appropriate
frequency response. Final adjustments
should be clone by ear tu suit the
particular instrument and application.
Surprisingly, it flat- response microphone clues not always provide the most
natural reproduced sound, because
close microphone placement itself can
color the tonal quality. So, it is
necessary tu experiment with various
microphones and microphone positions
to find the hest ('nnlproillise.
The kiss and treble balance of un
open -back guitar amplifier can be
controlled easily by varying the
microphone distante
II ncl
position
relative to the speaker-cone center. If at
voice iS miktd up cluse with a flat
response omnidirectional microphone,
only minor coloration occurs.
The purpose of this article has been tu
indicatte the general tonal effects that
can be expected in various microphone
positions. \\'hether or not these effects
are desirable is up tu the engineer and
the producer. The more you know about
microphones, musical instruments, and
the interface between them, the easier it
is tu achieve the desired end results.
-
MEN
CALL TOLL FREE
800 -558 -0880
IN WISCONSIN CALL (414) 259-9665
2500 N.Mayfalr Road, P.O. Box 26005, Milwaukee, WI 53226
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69
-:
is- --',
1
r.
'
;,__r``
r¡
-LL..
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á
1_
-'-.
c-EAIUH MIND GP'FINE
AT THE LOS ANGELES FORUM
Sound System Design by Nova Research
"Since the day my life began
A band has been my true life plan
Time to get back on the road
Feel the music, take the stand."
Saggafire Music/
Steelchest Music, 1980
Watching the recent Earth Wind &
Fire concert at the Los Angeles Forum
brought these lyrics to mind from their
song "Back on the Road," by Al McKay
and EW &F founder, producer and lead
vocalist, Maurice White. Outwardly,
during set -up, sound check, at dinner,
and while the show was being presented
to a packed house of enthusiastic fans,
everyone in the group and on the crew
seemed to genuinely enjoy and
appreciate each other, the music, and
the tour in general.
Augmented by strategically- placed
flash pots, LaserMedia's rear- screenprojected symbols of ancient Egypt,
and a climactic confrontation between
Maurice White and a Darth Vader
character bent on destroying the world,
the show had something for everyone
not the least of which was some of the
R -e /p 70 0 April 1982
-
by Robert Carr
best in- concert sound that this writer
has had the pleasure of experiencing.
The man responsible, in part, was
Chief Sound Engineer Ken Fowler. As a
result of his seven -year association with
the group, George Massenburg Labs,
Nova Sound Research, and ARC
Records
all of which are housed,
along with three recording studios, in
-
House mixing engineer: Ken Fowler
ii
-
The Complex, West Los Angeles
Fowler has some unique insights into
how best to reinforce the live concept
that is Earth Wind & Fire.
For the tour in the States, the crew
totaled approximately 34 people, which
breaks down to 25 for lights, stage,
sound and band gear, six truck drivers
for six semitrailers, and three bus
drivers. The audio crew, by itself,
comprised three people, not counting
Ken Fowler. Ed Maloney served as chief
rigger for the flown PA rig, and was
crew chief for the tour.
The shows at the Los Angeles Forum
were spread out over the Christmas
holidays, which meant moving in and
out of the venue three times to
accommodate other scheduled functions on the alternate days, as well as
fulfilling an Earth Wind & Fire concert
commitment in San Diego on one of
those off nights. But Fowler and
monitor mixer Steve "Flash" Callahan
like the acoustics of the arena, and that
made the stint a little easier to handle.
"The sound crew doesn't get much of
a chance to do anything with any of the
Master Class
The new Syncon M24 2 -inch Recorder -
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For additional information circle #45
\ lril
It
M2
t2 -c
/l
71
Figure 2: Nova speaker system prior
to being flown at the LA Forum.
Figure4: MSI's Paul Giansante beside
the side -fill Crown amp rack.
venues," says Fowler. "They put the PA
up in the air, and deal with the acoustics
the best they can. Traveling around the
country, we got to appreciate the
acoustics of 'l'he Forum. There are so
many halls with really long reverb
times, and a lot of slap that destroys the
inefficiency soaked up what power
there was from the amp cards. and left
nothing to boost the signal.
"The system sounds good in the top
end," offers house engineer Fowler.
"The response extends up higher than
most PA's, which start to roll off
anywhere from 6 to 12 kHz. The Nova
system is very bright in that region.
Overall, the system is clean, but the
bottom end isn't big. To sum up the
approach with this set-up, I generally
push the bottom end, listen for clipping
in the low -mid band, and lay back on
the top end."
Ken Fowler's philosophy towards
sound systems is to use a large number
of horns with plenty of power. By
employing twice as many drivers, the
system can be run 3 dB lower. The music
is just as loud as before, but fewer
components are blown up.
"I'm always trying to buy headroom,
and there's tons of headroom in this
console," he says, "but it's not a stock
board. All the op-amps that Midas uses
have been removed from the submaster
section, and replaced with 5534's. l also
push the gain setting on the crossover
all the way up to maximum, which
translates to about 12 to 16 dB of added
gain. That way I get to run the console
mix busses a lot lower. So far, that's
worked the best for me. In fact, this has
been one of the best sounding tours
we've had."
Maryland Sound Industries was
contracted to join the group in
Washington, DC. MSI engineer Paul
Giansante brought in four cabinets per
side, two of which were 4 -way with two
JBL 2205B's, four JBL 2202H's, two 'inch Gauss HF- 4000's, and two
Yamaha 4281 tweeters, while the other
two boxes were only 3 -way and
eliminated the sub -woofers. Figures 3
and 4 show the flown MSI side fills, and
their associated amp racks.
Figurc
sound quality. Working here has
always been a pleasure as far as the
NISI side -fill cabinets
flown stage right.
speakers are angled for a deeper throw
in the room.
'Ehe entire Nova Sound Research PA
rig is a custom -designed, five -way
system. Layout of the house speakers
are shown in Figures and 2, with the
applicable amplifier models, power
ratings, and frequency bands.
When Nova first took the system on
the road, they found that the Spectra
Sonics Model 701) plug -in amplifier
cards on the low band weren't powerful
enough. Instead of the present 12 -inch
Gauss speakers, Bozak 8 -inch speakers
were the first choice, but they turned out
to be too inefficient. Overcoming the
sound is concerned."
Flown House system
The house system is hung just about
the same every night, with only slight
variations. Depending on the shape and
slope of the upper sections, the direction
of the side speakers becomes critical to
good coverage. If the room is very deep
on the sides, and extends up quite high,
the cabinets on opposite sides of the
stage get pointed practically straight
out so that their backs are parallel to
each other. In most other cases, the
1
1: Speaker configuration for Nova Sound Research five -way PA system at the LA Forum. Speaker cabinets "A" contain a pair of E -V 1513 15 -inch
drivers (20 -250 Hz),driven by a 136W 1000 amp. Cabinets"B" and "C" contain
a pair of JIM, 2220A 15 -inch, and three Gauss 2841 12 -inch units (250 Hz -1
kHz), powered by two bridged pairs of Spectra Sonics 700 amps. Cabinets "D"
are :3 -way systems housing an Altec 288-8G on a 51 1 E horn (1 -5 kHz) powered
by a bridged pair of 700's; a pair of .1131. 2400's on 2307 horns (5 -10 kHz)
across a bridged pair of 700's; and a pair oí.1131.24(15 radiators (10-20 kHz) in
series across a bridged pair of 700's.
Figure
-TON
HOIST
prT9
HINGE
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INCH
\STRAPS AND
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DELTA-HOOK
BUCKLE KEEPER
2 -INCH STRAPS
R-e/p
72
April 1982
AC Power
The AC power required to run the PA
system is two legs of single -phase. The
whole rig running at full blast,
including MSI's system, draws close to
44
WHAT
NEED
15AI30ARD
THATSOVN PS
GOOD."
"THEN GET
A TRI DENT.
M AYEAI 4Z
AND
ZEN ITI-R d ß
TUST DI D."
Trident USA 652 Glenbrook Road Stamford, Conn. 06906 (203) 357 -8337
Studio Maintenance Service; L.A., Ca (213) 877 -3311
Wilson Audio Sales; Nashville, Tn. (615) 794 -0155
TRIDENT
Trident Audio Developments, Ltd; London, England
For additional Information circle #46
\hril
1982012-e/1)
75
EARTH WIND & FIRE
Sound System by Nova Research
121 to 13:) amps per single -phase leg,
but neither is dedicated specifically to
the monitor or the house system.
Nova borrows some three -phase AC
power from the lighting company
during the afternoon to fly the speaker
cabinets. 'l'hat tie is later disconnected
to ensure isolation between the sound
and lights for the performance at night.
Grounding for the sound equipment is
accomplished at the crossover located
in the house rack. Even though the
power supply for the monitor system is
also AC grounded, that ground is
floated between the supply and board.
The monitor board is grounded
electrostatically through the Faraday
shields on the splitter box transformers.
Audio grounds are picked up through
the cable shields.
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Figure 6: Midas 32 -input l'R Series stereo house console. Effects and
outboard units also located at the house mixing position include a Roland
SRE555 Chorus Echo, GML /Nova Research Model 80 -15 five -way stereo
crossover, GM L/N ova Series IF Dynamic Gain Control compressor limiters, Eventide H9.19 Harmonizer, Otban Model 6228 parametric
equalizer, Nakamichi 550 cassette and a ReVox B77 stereo reel -to -reel.
Actually, instead of blowing up, they
just start to sound like trash, with a lot
of distortion."
Nova eventually switched to slightly
modified BGW Model 1000's on the low
band. According to monitor mixer
Stever Callahan, the BGW's generate a
peak -to -peak sinewave that's almost
1,200 watts into four 15-inch speakers.
Fowler wanted to replace the
amplifier cards with BGW's in the low mid section, too, but changing
connectors to accommodate the new
amps was so time consuming that the
idea had to be scrapped. "There's not
really that much time on the road," he
says, "and we couldn't get the changes
together in one day."
As for the rest of the Spectra Sonics
cards, the engineers feel that they seem
to produce adaquate power for their
corresponding speakers. However, in
the frequency band for the Altec 288
the cards are
to r kHz
horns
Figure 5: House system amplifier racks of Spectra Sonies Model 700
cards, and BGW Model 1000 units.
Amplification
Nova has taken a novel approach
towards supplying amplifier power to
their speakers. The system is comprised
of 22 small, identical amplifier cards
plugged into each of six racks ( Figurer).
Unfortunately, that avenue hasn't been
without its potholes. In Ken Fowler's
opinion, "that's the weak link in the
system at least in the low -mid band."
At one time, Spectra Sonics Model 700
amplifier cards capable of putting 60
watts into 8 ohms powered the entire
sound system. A pair of cards could be
bridged into 8 ohms to achieve 120
watts, but that didn't seem to be
sufficient for Earth Wind & Fire's
needs.
"Basically, the low -mid band is
underpowered," Fowler offers, "and, as
a result, that range tends to clip earlier
than everything else. Since the clipping
produces square waves, we're constantly blowing up low -mid Gauss speakers.
-
-
-
1
-
putting 120 watts into 8 ohms, when the
drivers are only supposed to take 30
watts RMS. Limiters have been
employed to protect the drivers, but
a foolproof solution.
Lowering the threshold hasn't
that's not
eliminated blowing up Altecs either.
Fowler recounts one experience: "We
had been faking our way through
ever since we left
several shows
Texas and by the time we got to San
Francisco less than half of the horns in
the system were working. A shipment of
diaphragms was sent out by Federal
Express from LA you know: 'When it
absolutely, positively has to get there
the diaphragms
overnight.' Well
went to Atlanta. We put the PA up 25
minutes before the show that night in
San Francisco."
"Once you blow out one or two horns,"
adds Callahan, "any system will start
-
-
.
.
.
getting weaker and weaker. The
tendency is to push the band harder to
compensate for the lack of horns, and
the rest fail progressively faster."
Limiting and Compression
The house- system stereo five-way
crossover has a package containing 14
channels of limiting (seven -way/ stereo)
that sits out at the house console ( Figure
6). The limiters are in each band of the
crossover in -line right before the power
amplifiers. Ken Fowler ends up using a
number of limiters, especially on the
keyboards, which are capable of
generating wicked transients. In an
attempt to protect the Altec 288 midrange drivers, he strives to keep level
signals going to the amplifiers by
squashing those transient spikes.
Nova also supplies 10 channels of
rack -mounted GML/Nova compression /limiting. Separate units were used
on the four main vocals, the bass guitar,
the solo horn mike (which was moved
around to follow the solo horn player),
the Yamaha electric grand, which was
on a separate feed, and on all the rest of
the keyboards that were funneled
R -e /p 74
April 1982
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April
1982 Cl
R-r/p
75
level gradually increases as the end of
EARTH WIND & FIRE
Sound System by Nova Research
through an on -stage multi- channel
mixer. Fowler also uses compressor
limiters to pump up softer parts that are
under the musical threshold.
For a while Ken Fowler tried a limiter
on the kick: "During the time that the
system was smaller before we got the
the kick
extra equipment from MSI
drum would cause the system low -band
limiter to go on. To avoid the whole
bottom -end of the system from going
out, I patched a separate limiter in -line
to squash the kick.
He avoids any hard compression or
-
-
limiting, because the breathing
becomes audible in the sound system. A
typical setting might be +(i dli gain
reduction on a 10:1 slope, but never
anything radical. Individual attack
and release times vary depending on
the instrument and the desired effect.
Surprisingly, Fowler doesn't usually
put any limiting or compression on the
snare chum at all. In fact, there were no
problem transients with any of the
percussion. Since the microphones are
mostly Shure SM- 56's, they can take the
level in their stride. If anything, the
music parts on top of the mix were what
was hitting the limiter thresholds.
When the system got loud, that would 1w
primarily the vocals parts.
Another tendency that comes out of
having so many cards together in a rack
is that if one Spectra Sonics card in a
particular output band starts to
oscillate, the oscillation doesn't stay
segregated. Instead, the entire band
commences oscillation. Since the
inputs, grounds, and power supplies for
all the low -mid amps in each rack are
tied together, finding the one culprit
card in so many little amps is very
difficult and time consuming.
"The crew tries to stay on top of the
system by periodically going through
all the gear," Fowler stresses. "Usually,
we've been lucky enough to sort the
problem out during the testing in the
Monitor mixer Steve Callahan
"If all the Ifrequency bands sound
:
I
good, and I can run a lot of level into
them without anything breaking up, I
I don't go
leave the system alone
searching for problems. But if there's a
weak component, I'll take care of it
when there's time."
-
Dealing with Room Acoustics
The Los Angeles Forum. like most
arenas, is oval- shaped, and the natural
location for the stage is right at the focal
point of one end arc. In fact. the focal
points of both ends can wreak havoc
when trying to control excessive sound
levels and the resultant reflections.
"Sometimes we'll get loud echoes or
slaps that come from a specific part of
the room," says Fowler. "Very often
when I mix on the floor, I find that that
location is one of the worst in the
building. Walking around the arena,
the sound tends to get much better up in
the audience on the sides; the bottom
end sounds tighter. By staying only on
the floor, I was actually fooling myself
as to what the sound was really like.
'l'he overall sound down there is always
a little 'boomier,' and doesn't have as
much clear bass. At least that's what
I've been experiencing.
"I did the mix at Madison Square
Garden from up on the side. The
difference was phenomenal. I remember wondering how the system could
afternoon, because we have the sound so good."
Earth Wind & Fire is a very big band
opportunity to shut the system down.
But you can imagine what it's like if the (14 pieces), but at the beginning of any
oscillation starts during a show. tour the overall performance volume
Sometimes the search takes quite a will be "fairly cool." But. as the tour
while. Sometimes we're unable to find it progresses, the crew has noticed that
altogether."
the band, the PA, and the monitors
Tight scheduling, and the limited slowly get louder and louder. Even
amount of'time allowed for move -in and during the course of a show, the band's
set -up, reduces the time for sound
system component checks to
a
minimum. Fowler will usually test the
open speakers with a 9 -volt transistor
radio battery, by touching the
connectors in the back of the cabinets
and listening for the DC "click" in the
speakers. Such a test is adequate for
eliminating open speakers, but the low mid band speakers have to be cranked
up pretty loud before any distortion is
audible.
"I'll turn the entire system on, and
play some music through it," he says.
April 1982
14 -e /p 78
Table
1:
their set draws near.
"Generally, sound checks are a waste
of time," Fowler offers. 'The band
members are all relaxed, and they're
kind of faking the playing, and saying,
'I'm not playing loud. This is my normal
volume. "Then when they come back for
the show, the music turns out to be a lot
louder, because the musicians get
excited and wound up. They haven't
necessarily turned anything up, but
they're playing harder."
If a sound check does anything
constructive, it's that the band knows
what the room is going to sound like.
From that aspect, they know what kind
of levels and limits to expect.
"In rooms that sound really bad,"
says Fowler, "the acoustics are usually
reaching the saturation point, where
there's so much slap coming back at you
that you can't distinguish one part from
another. Ideally, the key to the situation
is trying to get the band to play quieter.
and having the house and the monitor
just trying to bring
systems quieter
everything down. That way, the whole
band becomes more audible.''
Of course, that's not always possible,
and the need for a solid equalization
philosophy becomes clear. particularly
as a means of counteracting less than
perfect sonic parameters.
Feedback is probably the number one
curse that plagues sound -reinforcement
efforts, and is caused by peaks in the
frequency distribution curve.'l'o run the
overall volume up to levels that are
sufficient f'or most concert expectations,
the peaks in the system have to be
located and smoothed out.
"Our EQ is not really so much for
getting good tone," Ken Fowler
explains. "We don't have the studio
luxury of, 'Let's make the guitar
warmer: or 'Let's make the keyboards
brighter. ''Those aren't the parameters
that we're dealing with.
"The bottom line is to get rid of' the
-
feedback. 'That's where all the
equalizers get used, and on a very sharp
bandwidth setting. I boost the level and
roll the frequency until it starts to
feedback. When I get on either side of
the peak, the feedback quiets down, and
that tells me exactly where the problem
area is. By putting in the appropriate
cut, the peak is neutralized."
"What we're dealing with is the mix
that's coming out of the board," he
emphasizes. "We're talking 'sound
Monitor Amplifiers and Speakers
The 25 -input GML /Nova monitor console provides eight main mix, and two foldback bus
outputs. All inputs and outputs are equipped with parametric equalization. Automated
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Amplifiers: 16 Spectra Sonics Model 700 amplifier cards, providing a total of 300 watts of
bi- amplification. 4 BGW amplifiers providing 1,500 watts of bi- amplification.
-
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Enclosures: Available in two versions
two Gauss 2841 12 -inch bass drivers, a Gauss HF -4000 mid -range driver on a JBL 2309
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feet) two-way cabinets, each housing a pair of JBL 2220 15 -inch bass drivers, a Gauss
HF- 4000 /JBL 2309 mid - range, and a JBL 075 tweeter.
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HY JAMES The Audio Professionals
2839 BOARDWALK, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48104
For additional Information
from Detroit 552 -0190
from outstare Michigan 1 -800- 482 -2291
\I,ril 9182 0 i2 r'I, 77
circle #47
(313) 994 -0934
EARTH WIND & FIRE
Sound System by Nova Research
reinforcement,' and that means
compromises. Were dealing with
whatever we have to to augment what's
coming off the stage, which is
something that's not being pushed by
the board."
To accentuate his point even further,
Fowler offers the following example: "If
I were to make a tape directly off the
house console, the relationship of the
instrument and vocals might surprise
you. The tape will show the chums about
in the middle of the overall level. All
electric instruments, depending on how
loud they're being played on stage, will
be soft in the mix. The vocals will be
way out front. What we're really driving
the system with mostly is vocals, and
that's where we're getting all the
compression that you start to hear in
the system."
Contrary to several of his previous
statements, Ken Fowler's main
philosophy is not to just "get the sound
out there" and relegate tone considerations to the background. "We go for
different sorts of sound," he offers, "but
as far as the sound that they're getting
on something like a guitar or keyboard,
most of that is done on stage. They have
pedal boards and other effects, and
they're constantly switching those
devices on and off.
"'Take Roland Batiste's guitar as a
case in point of controlling the tonal
considerations from the house. Because
the guitarist wanted a "fatter" sound,
an AKG C441 microphone was used
instead of an SM -56, because the AKG
was much smoother in the top end
which, in turn, made the guitar a little
smoother. Then the low -mid range was
boosted on the console to fatten up the
tone."
Doing house sound allows the mixer
some choice of using the equalizers as
tone controls, whereas "Flash"
Callahan doesn't have that kind of
flexibility with the monitor system.
Monitoring System
Earth Wind & Fire has a powerful
monitoring system (Table 1 provides a
listing of monitor components and
amplifier configuration), yet the stage
is usually located in one of the focal
points of the room -end arc where there's
a great deal of slap from the house
system. The result is massive wave
interference piling up on stage, and
Callahan's only alternative is to push
the monitors so the band can hear.
Figure 7 shows the somewhat cramped
monitor mix position beneath the onstage Pagoda.
But excessive volume levels and
interference is a two -way street. The
monitors can also get so loud that the
microphones lose their ability to
sufficiently reject stage levels, and the
entire PA starts to sound like it's phase
shifting. That's also the cause of hollow
Rc /p 7813 April 1982
Figure 7: Monitor mixing position located beneath the on -stage Yagoda.
generally gets his voice or instrument
vocal sounds.
"The engineers involved have to work louder in that mix."
out a balance together," Fowler points
out, "because the people in the group
generally don't understand about the
problems with interference. If they
can't hear, they just want more and
more. They don't think about 'less.'
They just want themselves turned up,
and that's where the problems come
from."
As with the house system, monitor
mixer "Flash" Callahan depends on
equalization to control the peaks that
cause the annoying feedback. But after
those settings are made, he usually
finds that he's used most of the
equalizers, and is stuck with what the
cabinets sound like.
"I end up getting my tonal quality by
the amount of cut I'm doing on a peak,"
Callahan says. "If I want to make the
monitors sound like they have more
edge, for instance, I put back as much as
I can of the upper mid -range cuts that I
took out. For this tour, I kept the
limiting and compression of the
instruments to a minimum as far as the
monitor system is concerned.
A monitor trough conforms to the
front of the stage, and all the monitors
housed there are essentially the same
design. The six down -stage- center
monitors grouped together in the point
are all fed from one mix. By keeping
them together, the mechanical coupling
increases the system's efficiency for
lead vocalists. Additional monitors are
arranged in a line along the front of the
stage, but there is a different mix
coming out of each cabinet, or sets of
cabinets.
Except for the bass drum, which goes
through most of the monitors, each of
the mixes depends on who is being cued.
"It's a good bet that a vocalist is going
to want his voice on top in his monitor,"
Callahan points out. "That's just rule of
thumb. Whoever is in front of a monitor
Verdine White's bass guitar is only
run through the monitors during his
solo. The rest of the night, that
instrument is relegated strictly to the
bass amplifier. If that were not the
procedure, the bass "ring" would create
chaos all over the stage.
"The only electric instrument that
ever shows up in the monitor system is
Roland Batiste's guitar," relates Flash.
"Electric instruments generally don't
turn up in the monitors, because the
instruments themselves have extension
speakers all over the stage. 'l'he bass
guitar has speakers everywhere you
look, and the situation is the same for
the guitar rigs."
That's part of the key for improving
the overall sound of the band, too.
"Sometimes it helps to have more
amplifiers, or at least speaker cabinets,
spread out across the stage," adds Ken
Fowler, "rather than have one amplifier
and cabinet that is responsible for all
the volume. By breaking up the sound
sources, the musicians can run their
instruments a little bit quieter."
Roland Batiste's guitar, for example,
is going through several small Boogie
amps scattered across the stage in
strategic positions. Guitarist Johnny
Graham has one or two. The monitor
stand upstage of the horn players and
stage -right of the necktie (drum riser) is
comprised of a bass cabinet, one of
Graham's speakers, one of Batiste's
speakers, and a band monitor all
stacked up together.
Stage Miking
Because of the size of the band, Ken
Fowler found that he was very short on
microphone inputs (32 plus 4 line
inputs), and the stage miking turned
into a get-by situation (Figure 8).
"The band knows no limits," says
Fowler. " 'Money's not there'? What do
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ROLAND
STAGE
LEVEL
BATISTE
TACK
BASS
VERDINE WHITE
PHILIP RAILER
MAURICE
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A
Q
litage layout for the Lus Angeles Forum concerts.
you mean? Just do this!' Its not the kind
of situation where they want to hear
about not having the finances. My only
choice was to try to provide what they
wanted, and since it wasn't in the
budget, I was caught in the middle."
With two such opposing forces,
something had to give. Asa result, a few
instruments, like the gong, didn't get
miked. In addition, where there used to
be two overheads on the drums, one was
removed.
The house mixer sums it up this way:
"I tried to eliminate mikes on the drums
where there were phasing problems. We
had to add phasing switches to the
console on the last 16 inputs, which is
where all the drums were. Ideally, I'd
want phasing (switches' on all the
channels. I ended up running the kick
uc.. -of-phase a lot of
times. I had two
mikes on the snare and, of course, one of
them had to be run out -of- phase. 'l'he
phasing switches on the overhead, the
tom toms, the snare, and the kick were
swapped all around depending on what
sounded good."
U nfortunately, eliminating microphones wasn't enough. Ken Fowler had
to double up on inputs, too. Say, for
instance, that the line input of the tape
machine ran into channel ss1 for tape
playback at the beginning of the show.
Later, channel =1 became the line input
for the Kalimba.
On top of that, the stage design
offered its share of challenges to the
sound crew. The design was not
conceived with microphones and
monitors as a matter of prime concern
especially for the drummer: When the
drums come up through the riser floor at
the beginning of he show, some ut'the
crew have to run out, raise up the
cymbals. raise up the mike stands, and
make sure everything is in position.
Sometimes a mike is positioned
incorrectly and the sound suffers.
'1'he show dictated a certain criteria
for layout and, according to Fowler, the
designers didn't take into consideration
that there should be a place to put
monitors around the drummer. The
riser is just big enough for the drum kit
and drummer Fred White to sit down.
Eventually he went to using a Beyer
earpiece
a Beyer transducer that's
-
-
For Constant Q: The 622
Equalizer and notch filters? With Orban's Constant O parametric you get both in one.
The Orban 622, unlike most parametric egJalizers, is a Constant Q design, providing
almost infinite cut instead of ttie reciprocal's 12 to 20dB This means the 622 can be used as a
rotch filter, providing greater flexibility to the professional while reducing equipment regr.irenents. Long experience has shown the narrow cut and oroader boost curves of Constant Q to
be more musically useful, while the bandwidth control still allows de- equalization of recorded
material to exactly cancel a previous boost.
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Orban Associates Inc. 645 Bryant Street, San Francisco, CA 94107 (415) 957 -1067
For additional Information circle #48
April 1982
12 -c
/p
79
EARTH WIND & FIRE
Sound System by Nova Research
-
molded to his ear like a hearing aid as
his monitor, driven by a Crown I) -60
Table
INPUT
amplifier.
"The audience can't see the earpiece.
but we're continually blowing them
3
4
drummer is very erratic with what he
wants from day to day. Obviously we
can't get a very good kick drum sound in
an earpiece, but there's just no place to
put monitors...
5
6
7
8
9
10
Microphone Selection
It
With these conditions in mind. Ken
Fowler offers the following comments
to explain the "whys- and "wherefores of his mike placement:
"'l'he toms are all Icovered by
Sennheiser) 421's. I label their low, mid,
and high toms. There were five drums,
but only three mikes, so two unlit. mikes
were split between four drums
another result of a shortage of consolel
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
-
19
20
21
inputs.
"The bass 1)I is a Fat Box that's fed
by a Nadyl Nasty wireless unit. ")'hey
have a couple of back -up systems:
sometimes the wireless is a C'erwin
Vega. There's no transformer on the Fat
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Box.
"The two timbale mikes are '1"ed with
both mikes in- phase, and each placed
between the rims of two timbales.
"There are three congas. The low
drum is called the 'rumba: Conga is the
middle, and the Quinta is the high one.
Because the low drum requires a little
bit different E'Q, that's on one channel.
and the other two mikes are 'V'ed
together.
"The Kalrmba is hardwired into a
Neva direct box, because a pickup was
built into the instrument.
"All the horn mikes are Sennheiser
421's. There were two different horn
Microphone Assignments to House Console
Microphone
Instrument
Kalimba
1
2
up,- says Fowler. "because the
2:
30
31
32
Direct -inject
Shure SM -56
Sennheiser MD -431
Sennheiser MD -431
Sennheiser MD -431
Sennheiser MD -431
Shure SM -56
Sennheiser MD -421
Sennheiser MD -421
Sennheiser MD -421
Sennheiser MD -421
Sennheiser MD -421
Sennheiser MD -421
Direct -inject
Direct -inject
Yamaha EM- 300 /DI
Sennheiser MD -441 (2)
Shure SM -56
Fat Box DI Nasty Wireless
Sennheiser MD -421
AKG D224E
Neumann KM84
Hi -Hat'
Neumann KM84
Floor Tom
Sennheiser MD -421
Mid Tom
Sennheiser MD -421
High Tom
Sennheiser MD -421
Neumann KM84
Overhead Right
Neumann KM84
Overhead Left
Bells
Sennheiser MD -421
Conga & Quinta'
Shure SM -56 (2)
Tumba'
Shure SM -56
Timbales
Shure SM -56 (2)
'These inputs are also paralleled to the 24 -input monitor mixing console.
Verdine White Vocal'
Philip Bailey Vocal'
Maurice White Vocal'
Ralph Johnson Vocal'
Beloyd Taylor Vocal'
Andrew Woolfolk Vocal'
Horn Vocals /Solos'
Trumpet - Rahmke Michael Davis'
Trumpet - Michael Davis'
Trombone - Louis Satterfield'
Saxophone - Don Myrick'
Saxaphone - Andrew Woolfolk'
Vocorder /Mini Moog'
Yamaha Grand - Larry Dunn'
Keyboards Mixer'
Guitar - Roland Batiste'
Guitar - Johnny Graham'
Bass - Verdine White'
Kick Drum'
Snare Top'
Snare Bottom
The eight subgroups on the Midas 32 -input PR Series house mixing console are
assigned to the lead vocals, background vocals, effects, horns, keyboards, guitars,
percussion, and drums. Four effects returns are connected to an AKG BX -10 spring
echo, a delayed return from the BX -10. a Lexicon Prime Time, and and Eventide
Harmonizer.
Ultimate 8 Track
MCI - The =1 Choice' of Professional Recording Studios in America today
has done it again.
Q'
114°
III
Il°
LW
-
Tracks on 1" Tape with Full Function Remote Control
Position Digital Memory, & Full Sync Capability plus QUIOR
Computer Assisted Transport with "Manual Velocity Control"
Digital Readout of Speed /Semi -Tones & Return -To -Zero
$11,995 Complete With Auto -Locator & Roll Around Cabinet
8
10
more information on the Ultimate 8 Track or other MCI equipment,
Call Tom Martin (Studio Sales) or Dave Dewey (Broadcast Sales)
at Pro Audio Systems, (206) 367 -6800.
For
'MCI was rated =1 in the last two Billboard Equipment Surveys
T.M.
Division of
11057 8th N.E.
12
-e .p Mil
\Innil 1482
SEATTLE WA 98125
(206) 367 -6800
EBX,
Inc.
FEATURING MCI AND OTHER FINE PROFESSIONAL STUDIO EQUIPMENT
For additional Information circle #49
positions: the regular on -stage position
stage right of the drummer; and a
position on the wing above the monitor
mixer. Each position has four mikes set
up at all times, and they're all connected
to a Grayhill switcher up on stage.
"The trumpet mike, for example, in
each stage position can be plugged into
the sanie selector so it comes down the
same input line. No additional mixing
is required
just a flick of the switch,
and we get the second trumpet mike
down the same channel as the first. The
tone setting stays the same, and the
second mike shuts off the first one. The
set-up applies for all the horns.
Sometimes I can't see what's happening on stage if the lights are out, so
Flash does the switching. The mike
splitter box sits right next to him, and
the switch box sits right on top of the
splitter within arms reach.
"'l'he keyboard player has a little
Yamaha EM-300 12-input mixer. He has
a stereo send, and we choose left and
right using the pan pots. I take the
Yamaha Grand separately, because the
direct electronics are already built into
the piano. All the rest of the keyboards I
get off one stereo channel. Everything,
except his Yamaha piano is panned to
one channel on his mixer. The grand is
panned to the other side. That lets Larry
l)unnl get all the keys through his onstage cabinet, while I get two separate
-
feeds [Grand direct, and all the
keyboards from the Yamaha mixer' for
different house EQ settings.
"Roland's guitar is miked using two
ISennheiserj MI) -441's 'Y'ed together
with a 6 -dB mike pad on one of the
microphones. Ile has two separate
speaker cabinets
one is a regular
rhythm amp. and the other an overdrive
amp for lead that's turned on and off via
a switch on his pedalboard. 'l'he mike
with the 6-dB pad was located in front of
the overdrive amp. The two micro
phones were 'red in -phase into one
input on the house board.
"Andrew Woolfolkj's coca! mike was
a Shure SM -56, because we didn't have
anymore 431's. The 431's are very
-
something like a loud cowbell. Andrew
had one that was especially overhearing. I had to ask him to play it away
from the Ml) -421. All the other mikes
were hearing it, and spreading it across
the stage through the monitors. There
were two SM -56's ' \ "ed together for
Beloyd ITaylorfs percussion. That was
just a lack of microphone choices
available, and a lack of inputs. He
eventually started playing a gong, too. I
didn't have a mike for that. either, so I
couldn't do) anything for him."
I
fragile mikes. Maurice 1WhiteI
sometimes likes to clap full force while
the mike is in his hand, and it
eventually destroys the capsule. We had
to nark all the 431 mikes that were
being used with the vocalist's name, so
Maurice continually got the mike he
was beating up. There were only eight of
these 143 mi kes to start with, and most
of the time there was always one sitting
1
at Sennheiser being repaired.
We
decided we had to save the good mikes
for the lead vocalists
Beloyd,
Maurice, Ralph and Phillip. The other
vocals Verdine and Andrews were SM56's.
"Andrew, as well as all the other horn
players, plays percussion. The horn
mikes are set up for a horn tone and
-
I
power, and the light percussion
instruments get lost unless it's
To Europe
Nova Sound Research is taking only
the monitoring system to Europe for a
\ \'d: F tour. Electro Sound
winter
(Originally Tom Fields Associates, and
then TM Electro Sound) has been
contracted to supply the rest of the
equipment.
..It's a Turbo System, the saine one I
used on the last tour," says Ken Fowler.
"The design is their own, and the result
is increased efficiency."
Fortunately for the crew, the 'l'FA
Soundcraft house console will be larger,
and travels in two separate sections
one with 30 inputs, and the other with
20. Obviously, the added flexibility will
make the mike assignments much
easier to deal with, and probably
enhance the overall sound presentaI :
-
tion. Although, after hearing the
quality of their Forum concert, I think
that's going to take some doing.
N
Synclavier® I I Seminar
Performance Applications fora Computer Music System
August 16.22, 1982
Private Instruction
Hosted by
Lectures
Workshops
Berklee College of Music, Boston, Mass
Sponsored by
New England Digital Corporation
Enjoy a week of your summer vacation in beautiful Boston
learning the future of music, while meeting some of the
music industry's most influential performers and producers.
As a seminar student you will receive daily private and small
group instruction on the world's most advanced computer
Synclavier) II, featuring real time digital synthesis,
Sample-to-DiskTMand Music Printing. New England Digital's
President and Chief of Hardware Design, Mr. Sydney Alonso,
will lecture on the portable digital system, its history, its
development, and its future.
.
.
.
To complete the curriculum, you will also attend daily lectures and hear prominent owners of the Synclavier® II
describe how they use the Synclavier® II to realize their
creative ideas.
Attendance is strictly limited, and all participants must have
a basic knowledge of music synthesis and/or some computer music background.
GUEST LECTURERS
Oscar Peterson
Patrick Gleeson
Albhy Galuten
Reknowned
Jazz Pianist
and
Composer
Music Producer,
famous music
synthesist and
arranger
Producer of
BeeGees,
Streisand, and
other top groups
Fee: $500.00 tuition. Remit $250 deposit
I
il.,ra
and brief resume together with return
address and phone number to:
Sydney A. Alonso
President New
England Digital:
Chief of Hardware
Design
Jon Appleton
Dartmouth College
Professor and
worldwide performer
on the Synclavier
New England Digital Corporation
Dept. SEM
White River Junction, Vermont 05001
(802) 295 -5800
For additional information circle #50
now
rgland
April 1982 O
digital
12 -e
/p 81
/T1
r[oa}c
all control functions, one clear step at a time.
An alphanumeric "marquee" readout keeps
the user fully informed at all times, as well as
offering set -up "HELP" when requested.
Program parameters (such as delay time)
can either be preset for later use, or "live
-
edited."
User presets are non -volatile and cannot
be accidentally lost, even if power is
EVENTIDE UNVEILS SP2016
PROGRAMMABLE EFFECTS
PROCESSOR
programmed with plug -in software modules
to create a wide variety of different reverb
set -ups, with user adjustment of all
parameters. In this regard, the SP2016 is
described as being comparable to the best
flanging, phasing, reverb, delay, echo,
it can create totally new
chorus, etc.
effects. One of the most dramatic of these
effects is Selective Band Delay, which effect
allows the engineer to separate the signal into
a number of discrete frequency bands, and
then to delay each band independently up to
3.2 seconds in 100 microsecond steps. Also,
with the SP2016, A.D.T. takes on a whole
new meaning
now it's Automatic Dozens
Tracking, not just double, since each voice
can vary randomly in time, amplitude and
space. Signal bandwidth for most programs
existing programmable digital reverbs,
is a
including those selling for twice the price. But
the new SP2016 is not limited simply to
reverb software; with this unit, reverb is just
Because the SP2016 offers so many
functions and so much flexibility, special care
had to be taken with the design of the control
system to avoid an unmanageable array of
front -panel knobs and switches. Instead, the
SP2016's computer guides the user through
-
The new stereo digital reverb unit is said to
go beyond the effects capability of existing
devices, because its internal computer is
totally software programmable. For
example, the Model SP2016 can be
-
the beginning.
Not only can the SP2016 duplicate the
functions of a whole rack of equipment
-
ALPHA ACOUSTIC
quoted
16
kHz.
CONTROL,
SPECIAL RECORDING OFFER
disconnected. If previously stored
parameters are changed, the unit will
continue to remember the original values for
easy return to preset. Typically, over 50
different preset programs can be called up
from memory, without changing plug-in
ROM's (read -only memory).
EVENTIDE CLOCKWORKS, INC.
265 WEST 54TH STREET
NEW YORK, NY 10019
(212) 581-9290
For additional information circle #52
SHURE RELEASES NEW
PRODUCT /APPLICATION
CATALOG
The introductory and closing editorial of
the new catalog creatively explains Shure's
Commitment to Excellence, detailing the
rigorous testing and retesting involved in
maintaining the company's high standards of
quality.
LTD.
!
Buy a Piano Bag and a Drum Bag
Together, and SAVE $55.00 Off
Our Usual Low, Low Prices!
The new Microphone and Circuitry
Products Catalog explains microphone
specifications in detail, and features an easy
to -use selection guide offering suggestions
for application. The catalog also implements
a new indexing style that cross references
each product by model, and contains a data
sheet reference guide for easy ordering.
The 72 -page catalog describes over 150
microphones, including professional, general
purpose, communication and special purpose models. The catalog also covers
microphone accessories, circuitry products
and their corresponding accessories.
-
DRUM BAG: $175.
PIANO BAG
9 FOOT: $950.
7
FOOT: $750.
ALPHA ACOUSTIC CONTROL, LTD.,
P.O. Box 7520, Burbank, CA 91505
213/760-1139
SHURE BROTHERS INC.
222 HARTREY AVENUE
EVANSTON, IL 60204
(312) 332-7640
For additional Information circle #53
... continued overleaf
R.e/p82:\pril
1982
-
AKG
The best
digital recordings
start here. The acvantages of digi-
tal recording can now be realized as never
before with the rew AKG C414 EB/P48
n- icrophcne.
The ramous go'c plated dual - large diaphragm CK -12 capsule shown here is in use in AKG's
total line of professional quad, stereo and mcno cccdenser
microphones. Ard these microphones nave been used to produce some of today's very best recordings.
The C414 EB/P48 maintains all the
features of our highly acclaimed standard
model C414 EB but incorporates new
^ ":lit
i
electronics designed to open the door to
ziìi
.`: i iii
truly outstanding digital recordings.
ììßi e`wi`
ì:` .
":.. :ìß`i
- z.:
Now you can work with an AKG
-..:`iC:
.s..micro hone with Ilo vable sound pressure levels of 142 dB*f 162 dB with selectaó9
ble attenuation) and the lowest self -noise
figure o{ any microphone we know.
To learn more aoout this vital link :o
the best digital recordings, we recommend a visÊ to your AKG dealer.
-
`i ::i
'
1
w
i
.
.
_
E
AKG'
CI ,9 O U
AKG
L,
CS
PCCUSTI3 INC
A NORTH AM = PL=AN P11 _Ix =ON. PANT
77 Selled. St.eet, Starufc.rt :10L5902
* DIN 45405 (Nth Avergf
\\
\\
Ilexatorig Meter)
® AKG AcusziFrc-t und KnoA3e-xe GmbH.AuFtra
©410.3 1991
\1ni1 140i2 O
/1,
R.ï
41IN
Radio Tape
for professionals
(le
LINNDRUM BOASTS NEW
FEATURES, LOWER PRICE
Linn Electronics, manufacturer
of the
digital LM -1 Drum Computer, has
introduced an improved model at
a
substantially reduced price.
The new LinnDrum contains studio
quality digital recordings of drums and
percussion stored in computer memory:
bass; snare; open and closed hi-hat; three
-
torts; two congas: sidestick snare;
tambourine; cabasa; cowbell and handclaps.
Crash and ride cymbals are new
enhancements that complete the set. Snare,
torts and congas are all tunable by front
panel controls, or control- voltage inputs.
LinnDrum stores as many as 49 different
rhythm patterns, all simply programmed by
the user in real time, with adjustable error
correction and complete editing functions.
Dynamics, odd time signatures and "human
rhythm feel" are all programmable. In the
"song" format, pre programmed patterns
are arranged for playback in desired
sequence, therefore making possible any
intro, verse, fill, chorus,
combination
breaks, etc.
All patterns remain in memory even with
the power off, or tape storage functions
enable programmed data to be kept on
cassette for reload at a later time. LinnDrum
will sync to a variety of synthesizers and
sequencers, and can overdub to tape.
-
REEL TO REEL TAPE
Ampex, 3M. All grades.
On reels or hubs.
CASSETTES, C- 10 -C -90
With Agfa, TDK tape.
LEADER & SPLICING TAPE
EMPTY REELS & BOXES
All widths. sizes.
-
Competitive!
Shipped from Stock!
-
Ask for our recording supplies cataioq
Poly
312/298-5300
Corp.
1233 Rand Rd
Des Plaines. IL
60016
Although separate outputa cur all sounds
are provided, a convenient stereo mixer with
volume and pan sliders is integrated into the
front panel. The LinnDrum begins shipping
in June, and will carry a suggested retail price
of $2,995.
LINN ELECTRONICS, INC.
18720 OXNARD STREET
TARZANA, CA 91356
(213) 708-8131
For additional information circle #57
MODEL RS440 FOUR -WAY
LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEM FROM
COMMUNITY LIGHT AND SOUND
The HS440 concert -sound system
comprises a 200-watt, 15 -inch woofer loaded
by an exponential coupler; a unique cone
driven exponential midrange horn; a 1 -inch
compression driver and conical high
frequency horn; and two piezo -electric
super- tweeters. The system features a one
piece, molded fiberglass faceplate with all
transducers properly aligned to produce a
coherent wavefront, a fact documented by
an Energy -Time- Frequency plot.
-
-
-
1,111
t1=
1=111
lit=
., =_1,1-=
t1=111.=f11=I11=III=-
=111-III=III='::
I
Frequency response is 45 Hz to 18 Hz, t4
dB; power handling 200- watts; sensitivity 101
dB 1 -watt, -metre full range, and 104 dB
voice band.
Manufacturer's suggested introductory
retail price is $998. Options include a factory
tested kit with enclosure plans, a decorative
grille, and a kit of handles and corners.
1
-
FOR A CLEAN SOUND
After WLEE installed SONEX, People
called about the "clean, new sound!" Was
it new equipment?
No. The answer is simple and inexpensive:
SONEX kills all the stray reflections, so
the mike processes a clean signal of the
announcer's voice. The announcer hears
himself in a warm environment, and there's
less clutter to waste watts. The result is a
noiseless, clear signal and greater market
penetration.
12
-e /p 84
0 : \pril
Get the facts today. SONEX is available
in five colors, in three thicknesses, and
in standard four -ft. square panels. Use it
in broadcasting, recording, videotaping
or performing areas for really pure,
clean sound.
Sonex is manufactured by Illbruck/USA.
Alpha
Audio
2049 Wee Broad Street
R,chmond. Virginia 23220 (8041 358 3852
Acoustic Products for the Audio Industry
1982
COMMUNITY LIGHT & SOUND, INC.
5701 GRAYS AVE.
PHILADELPHIA, PA 19143
(215) 727-0900
For additional Information circle #58
REVOX OFFERS UPDATED
VERSION OF B77
OPEN REEL RECORDER
The B77 MKII is said to offer several
significant improvements. First, the new
version incorporates a variable speed control
as a standard feature. When activated by a
push- button switch, the varispeed knob
then re- adjusts the system volume,
increasing the gain by 3 dB steps to the
maximum feedback -free level.
Applications include any system where
microphone /loudspeaker interaction can
occur to cause feedback, particularly
adjusts the tape speed as much as two
musical half -tones above or below the fixed
speed.
For easier editing. the front record head
shield remains in the down (open) position
when the edit switch is engaged, regardless
of the transport operating mode. Also, the
B77 MKII's updated transport control logic
utilizes four separate starting pulses for
smooth tape acceleration, regardless of tape
speed or reel size.
All the popular features of the former B7
are retained on the new MKII, including a die
cast transport chassis, servo -controlled
capstan motor, ASA standard VU meters
with peak reading LED's, multiple mode
input and monitor switching, 1011 -inch reel
capacity, and universal power supply.
The B77 MKII has a suggested list price of
unattended sound systems in meeting
rooms, churches, auditoriums, etc.
Standard features on the 1620A Acoustic
Feedback Suppressor include LED
attenuator displays (at 3, 9, 15 and 28 dB),
clipping indicator light, direct hardwire, by-
G
pass switch, remote -capable reset switch,
and set -up level indicator light. The 1620A
requires only 1'4- inches of vertical rack
space, and measures 19 inches wide by 6'_
inches deep. Manufacturer's retail'ist price is
$1192.
ALTEC LANSING
MANCHESTER AVE.
ANAHEIM, CA 92803
1515 S.
(714) 774-2900
For additional information circle #61
M
FROM PRS
$1799.
STUDER REVOX AMERICA, INC.
1425 ELM HILL PIKE
NASHVILLE, TN 37210
(615) 254 -5651
For additional Information circle #59
NEW PZM MICROPHONE
FROM CROWN OFFERS
ENHANCED BASS RESPONSE
The PZM -6S microphone resembles the
PZM -6LP, the smaller of the standard mikes,
but incorporates a cbfferent type of pressure
capsule. According to R. David McLaughlin,
Crown product manager, the new
microphone offers extended bass response,
and smoother high -end response.
The PZM -6S is now in stock at Crown
PZM dealers, and is available at the
manufacturer's suggested list price of $349.
CROWN INTERNATIONAL
MISHAWAKA ROAD
ELKHART, IN 46517
1718 WEST
OTARI
MTR-10-2
(219) 294 -5571
For additional information circle #60
"Overall thoroughly
Good Advice affects
the success of your
activities, which
directly affects the
success of ours.
I
PROPRIETARY ACOUSTIC
FEEDBACK SUPPRESSOR
FROM ALTEC
Described as "the first and only device of
its type on the market," the patented Model
1620A feedback eliminator automatically
detects and corrects oscillating signal
feedback caused by microphone/
loudspeaker interaction. Sensing the initial
signal oscillation, the 1620A automatically
reduces the sound system gain by 3 dB steps
until the feedback is eliminated. The device
recommend this
machine for its performance which
could justify a considerably higher
price." Hugh Ford
"Studio Sound"
Professional Recording & Sound
11
11
Professionals
helping
Professionals
Now Call Toll Free: (800) 343 -3001
1616
Soldiers Feld Road. Boston MA 02135 (617. 254-2110
April
1982
0 I2-c / p 8.5
MICMIX AUDIO PRODUCTS
2995 LADYBIRD LANE
DALLAS, TX 75220
(214)352 -3811
NEW VERSION OF MASTER -ROOM
Ge:\ke
at`ò
95
SaJeJS`aca
Gteae ead ° g+ore(` .\,pe
,(;pc
*ro( vaQe éQ
Qake s QoS
eaSeG°s
\etcra
\k
°
érea5
o tapro
o\tr° `L °\e
\J.
e
as.aá,
.e°`
°`
1. q
-
technology has also allowed us to lower the
price slightly, which we feel should be a
pleasant surprise to the potential buyer."
ook
described as offering several major
e`l4 °tao :
a
a ,ertre
ttret
1\
to America is a range of high
Available
technology power amplifiers that are said to
accurately meet the need of professional
audio users with an unmistakeable feel of
quality and enginering excellence that has
made them the first choice in amplifiers
throughout Europe. HH Electronic has been
in the business of designing high
performance professional power amplifiers
for nearly 15 years. The company's range of
amplifiers have already passed the stringent
requirements of such notable establishments
as the BBC and CBS Records.
HH MOS -FET power amplifiers are
improved transient response. This
1°Jto,°er9r0,`>6\.s.'
eea
`Ot.
eá e`9Q.Q, ,0\s de
ae,ás.o
HH ELECTRONIC MOS FET
POWER AMPLIFIERS
-
r`et
eJa
For additional information circle #76
210 REVERB SYSTEM FROM MICMIX
The XL -210 has become a popular reverb
device in sound reinforcement and small
recording studio applications. As far as
features are concerned, the new model is
identical to its predecessor. According to Bill
Allen, president of MICMIX, "The major
changes are in the cosmetics and sound of
the unit. We've developed some new
technology that allows us to add more high
frequency reverberation, as well as an
advantages:
Ultimate load protection without
°
complex protection circuits. HH MOS -FET
t
RESTORATION
The new XL -210A is a3'[inch rack -mount
reverb system featuring the capability of
operating in either stereo or mono. Each
channel incorporates three bands of
reciprocal peak dip equalization, a mix
control, an input level control, and a dual
colored LED that doubles a power overload
indicator. Reverberation decay time is
approximately 3 seconds.
Suggested user price is $890.
1.l
Ilt.
---:__-.____
tll
?*
-
audio
;
ref.lrb
15904 Strathern St. #231 Van Nuys,
Phone: (2131994-6602
CA
91406
m
power amplifiers are short -circuit, open
circuit, and mismatch proof, and are
unconditionally stable into highly reactive
-
THE
--11
-
FOR US
cIU
l
/411ralio
CONSOLES TAPE MACHINES
OUTBOARD EQUIPMENT MICROPHONES
BUY
SELL
TRADE
loads.
High -speed MOS -FET output devices
mean impeccable high frequency performance to beyond 50 kHz, resulting in lower
distortion in the audio band.
HH Electronic MOS -FET power amplifiers
are available in power ratings from 100 to 400
watts per channel, and can be used with the
HH X300 stereo electronic crossover. All
models can be rack mounted.
HH ELECTRONIC, INC.
2500 E. FENDER, UNIT
FULLERTON, CA 92631
(714)680 -4293
For additional information circle #77
PHASE LINEAR INTRODUCES
MODEL- E5I PARAMETRIC
EQUALIZER
The Model E51 is describes as the first fiveband parametric equalizer to be introduced
in a 1'4 -inch rack space configuration.
Summit Audio
Designed for instrument and sound
reinforcement applications, the Model E51
augments Phase Linear's existing
Professional Series line, which includes the
P.O.
I2-e/l.
86
Box 1678 Los Gatos, Ca. 95031
0 April
1982
408/395 -2448
MU, A30 and A15 Power Amplifiers, the X20
Active Crossover and the E2U Graphic
Equalizer.
A key feature oI the unit is the option of
switchable peak or shell response on bands
One and Five. In addition, the E51 oilers
automatic balanced unbalanced XLR ,-inch
Phone inputs outputs; '20 dB system gain
tor low -level sources- overall level control
and bypass switch with LED; "Signal
Present,
Power Ready and System
Overload I_ED's; out-nu relay control; and
line drivers.
fhe new E51 paran let ric Equalizer carries
a manufacturers suggested list price of $549.
PHASE LINEAR
20121 48.1H AVE W
LYNNWOOD, WA 98036
LOFT MODEL 450
DELAY LINE FLANGER
The new Delay Line Flanget is described
utilizing new design technology to provide
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pril
1982
0
12 -e
p rii
e
yl(.«,
Can
.
continued from page 20
...
a
generation later
-
..
.
How They Did
Janis Joplin's
Recording
Engineer.
FAREWELL SONG ALBUM
original recording.
On " Misery'n," which was done
originally at Columbia Studio E in New
York, the bass and chums were replaced
at HMW in 1974. Chrissy Stewart, who
had just left Spooky Tooth, was chosen
for the bass part. drums being played by
Denny Seiwell, who had just left Wings.
Mick Weaver added \Wurlitzer piano,
which was recorded direct, as was the
bass. 'l'he chums were recorded with
Schueps CM'I' -r-1 overheads, Sennheiser
MI) --121 un the snare. an Electro -Voice
RE -20 un the kick, and Beyer M201's on
the toms. The board at His Master's
Wheels was a Neve í1)1(i; the deck an
Ampex MM- l(N)O.
"One Night Stand" was originally a
1(i- track, cut at Columbia 1) in Los
Angeles with The Paul Butterfield Blues
Band, 'l'udd Rundgren producing.
"The board was a custom Columbia
hoard.'' Mazer notes, "and there was a
union engineer on hand, but it's safe to
say the the sound on tape was Todd's.Nevertheless. to update the 1970
sound, Mazer added vibes, electric
piano, tom and cymbal fills, and
tambourine, all recorded at His Master's
Learn via
Audio Fundamentals Labs
Control Room & Console Labs
Wheels.
Studio Synthesizer Lab
Perhaps the most interesting piece of
music on Farewell Song is "Harry,- a
totally outside piece of jazzy jive. "It
was meant to be on Cheap Thrills. but
Digital Logic Lab
Disc Cutting Lab
CBS executives
Obtain your Diploma in
Multi -track Recording Technology
in one year, or
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-
didn't think it
belonged," Mazer recalls. "They really
wanted Janis to be seen as an R&B
singer at that time."
John Simon (who co- produced the
('heap Thrills sessions with Mazer) did
most of the effects live on the eight-
track, says Mazer. "A lot of people liked
to create their complete sound during
the recording of the project. They treat
the sound as part of the arrangement
and get it on tape. -'1'he splice was part
of the original recording; Mazer did no
overdubbing or editing on "Harry."
"Farewell Song'' was recorded April
13, 1968, at \Winterland in San
Francisco. with Big Brother. John
Simon was the producer; Dave Diller
engineered in the Wally Heider mobile
unit. Mazer himself redid the bass part,
direct, in 1974 at CBS in New York.
"Neither the recording nor the part
itself seemed good enough," Mazer
comments. "I tried to play something
that felt exactly like what they would
normally have done iO (*4, and since I'm
not your 'el slicko' bass player, it was
appropriate for me to do it.''
The raw material for the "Amazing
(race, Hi Heel Sneakers" medley was a
two -track recorded live with Big Brother
at San Francisco's Mat-ix on January
31, 19(i7.
"I
created the medley," says Mazer.
seemed right
they did
'Amazing Grace' acappclla a few times,
then they did a really raucous put -on of
it, uptempo and nutty, that didn't sound
very good. It just seemed nice to have
the acappella part, and then tempo-wise
and key-wise 'Hi Heel Sneakers' worked
well. For some reason, we only had a
limited amount of that song to work
with, so the entire medley only runs 2'
-
"It just
minutes."
"Catch Me Daddy" was recorded the
same day as "Misery's" at Columbia E.
Drums and bass were totally replaced
by Seiwell and Stewart. respectively,
and Mick Weaver added electric piano.
These overdubs were done in 1973 at
HMW, recording details for which are
identical to those for " Misery'n."
Mixdown Sessions
-"Me concept of the mix was to try and
make the end result of each song sound
like it was all recorded in the same
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ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR "MAGIC OF LOVE ", RECORDED
AT THE GRANDE BALLROOM, DETROIT, MARCH 1968.
PRODUCER: JOHN SIMON. CO- PRODUCER: ELLIOT MAZER
ENGINEER: FRED CATERO.
11
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"Farewell Song" producer Elliot Mazer
place," Mazer offers. "It sounds like an
oversimplification, but a lot of records
today don't sound that way at all
there are different ambiences on
different instruments.
"All the recorder's on this modern
turnaround were MCI, and the console
was a custom-made 36 -input board at
CBS in New York. Signal processing
consisted of a full 'Audio & Design
-
Recording' Scamp rack,
a
Focal
Stressor, and a brand -new Lexicon 21
Version 4.4 digital reverberator. The
outboard gear made the difference
Scamp equalizers are cleaner and
quieter than any others that I've used.
Sometimes you tweak a Scamp Ell by
ear, and it shocks you to realize that
you're adding 10 or 12 dB...
For the stereo mix, the signal went
first through the compressors to tighten
the sound, then through a pair of AI)R
F-300 gates, which in this case Mazer
used as expanders to open up the
dynamics "to make the quiet parts a
little quieter." The signal then went to
the equalizers, then was distributed to
the Lexicon Model 224; the returns were
balanced in, and then to the recorder.
In selecting his two -track medium,
Mazer and engineer Larry Keyes did a
blind comparison between a Mitsubishi
X -$O digital, an MCI 11-inch two -track at
30 IPS with no noise reduction, and the
same MCI at 15 IPS with Dolby -A the
latter two on Ampex Grand Master 456
at 320 nW m flux level.
"Half-inch two-track wasn't available
to us in that particular facility," Mazer
notes, "but this would have been the
classic record to do that with."
A representative song was chosen,
and Keyes mixed to the three machines.
Mazer found the most appealing sound
to be from the 30 IPS, no -NR version.
"The Mitsubishi just didn't flatter
Janis' voice," says Mazer. "I can't
explain it
it's a completely personal
opinion."
In the mixing process, Mazer dealt
with the general sounds and effects,
while Keyes balanced and handled the
-
-
-
-
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knows where you are in the song. Ile's
also brilliant at remembering cues- he
can do the same cues and create the
same balance time after time."
Distortion
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As a general rule, Mazer used the
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dbx.
April
1982 O R-e /p 89
RECREATING ROOM AND HALL AMBIENCE ON FAREWELL SONG
WITH THE LEXICON MODEL 224 DIGITAL REVERBERATOR
a
generation later
..
How They Did
Janis Joplin's
-
FAREWELL SONG ALBUM
-
and sweep equalizer any time he had
a discrete Janis vocal track to work
with. The settings were similar, with EQ
points varying depending on the
condition of the source tapes. He set it up
with the Stressor's equalizer inserted
post -compressor; the compressor was on
a 2:1 slope, never attenuating by more
than 2 to 3 dB. He also used the
expander here and there to pull the
breaths down a bit, and to get rid of
other miscellaneous garbage in
between.
"I remember how phenomenal it
sounded the first time I put Janis' voice
through the Vocal Stressor," Mazer
enthuses.
"The version of 'Tell Mama' on
Farewell Song came from a rough mix
that we did the first time around 15
IPS, Dolby -A, the same format as Joplin
in Concert," says Mazer. As mentioned
-
earlier, the original
Producer Elliot Mazer made extensive use of the Lexicon 224 Version 4.4
during the remix of Farewell Song, to enhance and recreate the natural
reverberation sound from the original Sixties and Seventies recordings. The
Model 224 Digital Reverberator is available with up to a total of nine effects
programs eight reverb programs, and an 8 -voice polyphonic chorus. The basic
system comes equipped with a Small Concert Hall (program #11 and a
Percussion Plate (program #5); other programs can be added as required, by
simply inserting the relevant cards.
Room program #14, one of the latest programs to be released by Lexicon, and
which Elliot Mazer used primarily during mixdown of Farewell Song, is similar
to Lexicon's existing Concert Hall programs, except it emulates a space of much
smaller size and volume. Like other Hall programs, it is configured as stereo -in,
quad -out; the four outputs simulating a chamber with four microphones..
According to Lexicon, the Room program "adds the richness of a good live
chamber to a voice or drum set, without the metallic sound associated with other
reverbs or plates."
Unlike natural spaces and the other 224 programs, the echo density of
program #14 is constant as the sound decays, producing a characteristic
smoothness and color; the basic sound is similar to a metal plate. Inputs are
mixed digitally before the decay is synthesized, but are added separately in a
cluster to the start of the auxiliary outputs B and D. These outputs can be used
alone, or mixed with the main outputs A and C to make a clearer sound on
8 -track
had
disappeared by the time Farewell Song
was resumed.
"I was faced with a very dead sounding tape, with a tremendous
amount of voice and a very way -back
vocals.
'l'he 224's remote front panel provides six faders to control the parameters for
each preset of Hall program #14:
1. Bass Decay Time is variable from 0.6 to 70.0 seconds.
2. Midrange Decay Time is variable from 0.6 to 70.0 seconds.
3. Crossover Point between bass and midrange- i.e., frequencies affected by
parameters 1 and 2 is variable from 100 Hz to 10.9 kHz.
4. Treble Decay, or the shelving point at which decay begins rolling off, is
variable from 100 Hz to 10.9 kHz. Decay time is unspecified but rapid "just
about kills reverb above the selected frequency," says Lexicon.
... continued on page 92
-
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1982
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ROOM AND MICROPHONE LAYOUT FOR
"RAISE YOUR HAND" GUITAR AND
DRUM OVERDUBS. VENUE: CBS STUDIO
"B ". NEW YORK.
drums, which were recut.
"Again, even though this was a studio
recording, I chose to give it a wide
ambience with the 224," explains
Mazer. The original tape was a -inch 8track, 15 IPS, with no noise reduction. It
1
was transferred to
16 -track
at
31)
IPS
with Dolby-A at His Master's Wheels.
where the bass and drums were
overdubbed.
"1'he backing vocals you hear on the
record are leakage," Mazer points out.
"They were a little out of tune, so I tried
to use them as little as possible." Ile also
had to loop the ending, since the take
broke down after the last verse. On the
downbeat after Janis sings, " ... great
big bed with two pillows for my
head but lately I've been sleeping',
Gpiu,,
Amp
sleepin' alone," Mazer alternated the
second and third bridges for the fade.
"One Night Stand" was a straightforward mix of the original 16 -track plus
the 17 1 additions, which were done at
His Master's Wheels. A small amount of
equalization was added with the Scamp
rack, but Mazer applauds 'l'odd
Itundgren's original production." He's a
brilliant guy in the studio," he says.
a different sound from what
people were normally doing in 1970."
For "Raise Your Hand," Mazer used
the Vocal Stressor on the raw mono
tape, with a combination of compression. four -band E(1 and expansion:
"There was some muddy stuff around
500 to 6(1(1 Hz I wanted to remove; the
voice needed more presence; and added
"Todd got
1
GUITAR: PETER STROUD
DRUMS: ROY MAR KOWITZ
rhythm section." Mazer recalls.
"'1'o
improve the voice -to -track relationship,
i ran through a locked- together pair of
Scamp SIII compressor's. Janis is
to 1.5 dB all the
compressed about
time, and the other stuff comes up
around her."
Mazer also used a Scamp S03 three
band Sweep Equalizer on each channel:
"'1'o fatten the bass drum, I boosted
about ti dli at 85 Hz; to add presence to
the voice, +H dB at 4.2 kHz; and to open
the top end of the piece in general, and
give it more air, I raised about 6 dB at 10
1
CASSETTE
FyorRECORDING
SONY
-
kHz," he says.
'"I'he particular problem on 'Magic of
Love' was that both the band and Janis
were singing on thesame track and, in a
couple of cases, they were louder than
she was. When that happened, it was
the loudest part of the track, so that stuff
got squashed more than anything else,
which achieved the desired result: it
brought the men's voices down around
Janis. And I'm not sure that I didn't
hand -ride the compressor a little bit
during that particular mix."
The guitars were given some
'dimension' with the Scamp 524 AM'
unit, using about :i5 milliseconds of
delay with no modulation. The bass was
equalized through the 503 and
compressed with the S01; the drums
were run through the S03 to enlarge the
bass drum sound, give the snare more
attack, and open up the drum sound in
general with 5 to 6 dB boost around 14 t
kHz.
The ambience of "Magic of Love,
which was recorded live in a 2,000-seat
hall, was enhanced with the Lexicon
224, using a modified version of
Program 14 (see accompanying chart).
"We didn't aim to change the
just to make it a little
ambience
bigger, more clearly -defined," says
Mazer.
On "Misery'n," F -300 gates and S03
equalizers were used to give body to the
guitars. The gates cut down on hum,
buzz and leakage from the bass and
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ENGINEERING
.. vie.
..
a
generation later
-a
...
How They Did
Janis Joplin's
FAREWELL SONG ALBUM
some at the top to give it some overall
brightness." A low-pass gate was used
to remove hiss.
"Farewell Song" again used the Vocal
Stressur on Janis- voice. The SW. and
-o:i were used to compress and equalize
the guitars, and the U l to punch up the
'
track.
mono drum
"There wasn't
enough ambience on the tape, so the
point Of the 224 here was to make the
recording sound like \Vinterland," says
Mazer.
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Raise Your Hand' was recorded in a
very dead German television studio
with no ambience at all; I wanted to give
it more of a rock -and -roll, W interland
round, wide, hollow kind
kind of feel
of room.
"Even though 'Magic of Love' was
recorded indoors at the Grande
Ballroom, there wasn't much ambience
on the tape, so we created it with the
"Amazing (;race Ili Heel Sneakers"
was a live two- track, equalized with the
S03's. "What you hear is what Peter
Abrams balanced at the Matrix in
1f)67 " says Mazer.
The closing cut, "Catch Me Daddy,was handled the same way as
"M isery' n."
The Lexicon Model 22.1 digital reverb
was programmed specifically for each
song as necessary and the music
balanced accordingly, says Mazer. "
''fell Mama' was recorded outdoors, so I
used the 221 to create all the ambience.
In sequencing the songs, '.The idea
was not to create the impression that
they were all recorded at the same time
and place," Mazer explains. "The
things we were concerned with sung -tosong were the general level and the
vocal power. There's obviously a very
drastic difference between 'Magic of
Love,' a four -track recorded in a very
live auditorium, and ''fell Mama,' an
overly saturated eight-track recorded
outdoors with a different hand
different everything!"
Elliot Mazer spent a lot of time at
.
RECREATING ROOM AN I) HALL AMBIENCE ON FAREWELL SONG
WI'T'H THE LEXICON 224 DIGI'T'AL REVERB ... continued
-
5. Depth of Reverberant Room. The value specified is an integer from 1 to 70,
with 70 representing a room depth of 140 feet.
6. Pre -reverb Delay Time. In Room programs, the decay time ranges from 24 to
140 milliseconds; in Plate Programs, from 0 to 250 milliseconds.
Operating system Version 4 also added a new feature to the Model 224. The
amount of diffusion in each reverberation program can be set from the remote
panel by holding the "Shift" button while moving the "Depth" control, and
allows the user to continuously vary the sound from a smooth "dense" reverb,
ideal for drums, to a "crisp," clear reverb for vocals. For Room program #14, the
diffusion has an arbitrary scale of zero to 64, and comes up set to about 24. Low
values result in very little diffusion, while a setting of 35 to 40 produces the
densest sound.
Listed below are the program numbers, six preset settings and diffusion
values used on Farewell Song:
Song
Program
1
2
3
4
"Magic of Love"
14
1.8
1.8
540
8.8
23
24
"Misery'n"
14
1.8
1.1
540
10.9
23
24
-
"One Night
Stand"
14
1.8
3.4
540
10.9
23
40
24
23
24
37
0
0
-
standard
.:
d
"'s;rs'11t
14
r3:a?+Ìír
..,...
"Farewell Song"
14
standard
"Amazing Grace/
Hi Heel"
14
standard
"Catch Me
Daddy"
4
1982
Shift/
14
14
April
6
"Tell Mama"
"Harry"
12-e/p 92 O
5
Depth
63
standard
1.8
0.6
1.8
0.6
.
home listening to the tapes before
proceeding with the final mix. Because
the songs ran together, groups of them
were mixed in sequence.
"We rehearsed the whole mix," he
says. "We had three or four tape
machines, and the 224 can be changed
with the push of a button.
"I think it took one, maybe two takes
to do it. The only thing that vuulct
"Raise Your
Hand"
...,.rs
.
540
1000
4.4
5.3
1E`
happen would be one of us forgetting to
turn un a certain machine at the right
time, ut' maybe I tripped running over to
start the four- track."
The care, patience and utIk ration to
detail that Elliot Mazer put into the
enhancement and remixing of theJanis
Joplin album Farewell Song should, like
Janis' music, stand the test of time.
MEN
TOP AUDIO ENGINEERING
AWARD TO DR. WILLI STUDER
The Audio Engineering Society has
presented its highest award, the Gold
Medal, to Dr. Willi Studer, founder and
director of the Studer company, for his
"lifelong outstanding contributions to the
development and making of the highest
quality recording equipment."
After accepting the award, Dr. Studer
displayed characteristic modesty in his
brief remarks to dignitaries attending the
awards banquet at the recent AES Convention in Montreux, Switzerland. "It is a
great honor for me to he distinguished with
this Gold Medal from the AES," i)r. Studer
said, "and I wish to express my hearfelt
thanks. But really, I hardly know why I
earned this medal. I've merely been pursuing my lifelong hobbies of electronics
and precision mechanics
to he sure, in
the area which seemed most sensible, that
of audio electronics.
"I feel fortunate to have been useful in
helping our branch of engineering achieve
ever higher levels of quality," he added.
The Studer company is distinguished as
the only firm in the world fully involved for
more than a quarter century in all three
main branches of audio studio recording.
broadcasting, and home high fidelity.
-
-
SOUND WORKSHOP
ANNOUNCES JAPANESE
REPRESENTTION
Negotiations were finalized last
March at the AES Convention in Montreux, Switzerland, between Mr. Takao
Aoki, director of the Otec Corp., and Emil
Hanke. sales manager for Sound Work-
shop, for the representation of Sound Workshop products in Japan. The Otec Corp. is
a
division of Otari Electric
Company, Ltd.
MICMIX AUDIO PRODUCTS
UNDER NEW OWNERSHIP
After months of negotiations. Bill Allen.
David Rettig, and Bob Rodgers h:I%
purchased 1OU of the stock of MICNII
Audio Products, I nc. This privately-owned
Texas corporation manufactures professional and consumer audio products.
including the MasterRoom reverberation
systems, along with the Uynafex, a new
line of noise -reduction systems.
Bobs B. Saul, majority owner, had been
seeking to sell the corporation since the
death of her husband, John R. Saul,
former president and co- founder of
... continued on page 106
The most respected audiophile -quality power amplifier line in
the world was available first to professionals! Bryston amplifiers bring
with them years of hands -on experience in sound- studios, where they
have proven their unique accuracy; on the road, where they have
proven absolutely unmatched reliability; in hundreds of professional
installations all over the world, where they continue to prove every
day that for uses requiring flawless sonic quality, tremendous load driving ability and zero down -time, Bryston has no equal.
Discover the advantages of the Bryston philosophy for sonic
perfection and on- the-road reliability.
For further, more detailed information, and a list
of dealers
in
your area, contact one of our Distributors:
-'C ñ:r1LVE RMONT
MARKETINC
RFDr'4, Berlin, Montpelier, Vermont 05602
57
(416) 746 -0300
(802) 223 -6159
Currently at
reduced
prices
JD
Westlore Dr, Rexdole Ont, Canada M9V 3Y6
From the
Neumann
ollection
The undisputed star of stage, screen and
television is Neumann's KMS 84 condenser
microphone, specifically designed with the
soloist ill mind.
This rugged perIbmlcr is
insensitive to l)tpping and overload
caused by clone-up, hand held use. It's
also insensitive to the noise caused by finer
gripping the case.
With the KMS 84, the recording artist
now has the same high -quality Neumann
microphone On stage that was previously
available only in the recording studio.
Accessories include six different
color- coded, easily ii IC-IC- hingeilk wire
mesh grilles to Iarilitare identification On
stage. Write or t.II iodas tor a brochure
and listing of dealers near %t
'
A. Nei
741
AUDIO CORPORATION
Washington St.. New York. NY 10014 (2121 74, -7411
West Coast Office: (211) 874 -4444
GA-20
April 1982
Rc/p 9.3
"
Digital Update
,()N \' I)I(.I'l'AI. (':\l''I'l'I(1:ti
DIX II:I. : \NI)'ti I(()1 11.'ST S(. /l'NI)S
The Its%tt'L Hills l'nlist-d Jazz hand. a
Dixieland group with strong support in the
1.0s Angeles film colony, recently was
recorded live-tu- digital at Hollywood's
('lover Studio, utilizing Sony's l'l'J1- 1111(
digital audio processor. Organized two
years ago. the Beverly Hills Unlisted Jazz
1982
Pro-Line Guide
* Before you buy
Guitar. Amplifier, Mixer.
Speaker or P.A. System, get the FREE80page
*
a
CARVIN Color Catalog!
Compare Carvin's exceptional values and
see the latest pro equipment. Buy DIRECT at
Pro -Net prices
saving you hundreds of
dollars.
Components include JBL, Renkus- Heinz,
Electro- Voice, Celestion, etc. Also, a complete lineof replacement parts for your guitar.
Find out about Carvin's new Tri -Amped
Sound Systems.
Write or Call now!
-
*
CARVIN, Dept. RP80.1155 industrial Ave.
Escondido. CA 92025. PH 714.747.1710
CARVIN FREE CATALOGS
Enclosed $1 for Rush First Class Mail.
Band's seasoned players include
leader trombonist niusician :ator Con-
rad Janis.
For the hand's new digital album on the
Angeles 'l'heasium's .Jazz l'hronit-les
Tree tvheeling solos and exciting
n..enibles sparked such standards us
\1 .tshington & Lee Swing.- -Yellow Dog
Blues "St..lemes Infirmary Blues" and
-Everybody Loves ply Baby," ('untmenting on the digital jazz session at ('lover,
I
I.
[HT
leader('onratI -J ttitssaid:"Weareknocked
out by the clarity and the realism of the
digital sound. The naturel sonic quality of
the master tape caplmrs all our strengths.
Any musician interested in sound has to
react tu digital."
:
Name
IAddress
I
City
LState
Zi
,
_
RPBJ
Noise Suppression
Protection
Power
:U
Nev World of
Digital Audio" ('ONF1:ItEN('E
The . \I-,S Premier ('nnterence, entitled
The New World of I ligital Audio. tu he held
at Rye, New York. .lune 3 -6, 1982, will
commence with an overview of the
digital audio recording and
reproduction, conducted by Barry Blesser
and 'foss Stuckham. Un .lune 4, the
('inherence will move on to an in -depth
discussion of the various aspects of the
technology, which will be undertaken by
the international leaders of the digital
community. June 5 will be concerned with
t ht
practical industrial applications of the
slay. included (luring the presentations
t
will be (tata ferons both . layan and Europe
on the about -to -be introduced Compact
Digital I )isk.
Accompanying the a', -day Conference
will be ti Product Information Center,
confined tu digital products, which will
allow manufactu'eres tu contact and
explain their digital products to
conference participants.
I
I
0
latching rela* help, w ;nunid dully speaker
damage dur lit poivre up tr :utarni. grnrrnhd
after a Irntpurnr loss of puts -r. :\-k i:uur
lot al munit dealer tar mure details.
Linear & Digital
Systems, Inc.
40 Marco Lane, Centery í11e, OH
45459
(513)4391758
April
1482
)
:\l'I)IOI-ul« 1: OFFERS
MITSUBISHI X -$1) DIGITAL
TWO-TRACK FOR RENT
The Mitsubishi X -80 digital recorder will
available for rental to studios,
musicians of Mastering facilities in the
be
New York and Eastern seaboard area, on a
daily or weekly basis. Audioforce owner
Sid % irret emphasizes the ease and
efficiency of the Mitsubishi unit. "Digital
projects that can be clone in one or two
(lays are ideal for the X-80, because the
machine eliminates the weekly rental
charge in favor of a smaller daily rental,
and you can edit directly on the machine,"
he said.
The X -80 has already been used on a live,
direct -to -two-track recording at Carnegie
Hall of a Canadian group, Starscape
Singers. The X -$t) is also available at
Sterling Sound in New York for disk
cutting duties.
l_-
r-
I
BAY 6 VCR
43
I
INPUTS
TELECINE TC TIE3LINES
BAY 4 TC OUT
VCR 44
VCR 45
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drnigneti t.. prom audio rtluipuuant from
high vultagt' Ir:utsuul. and HP interference.
Three meus :nap. ins it ate relative phasing
of the line. ntulrt and ground mnses lions.
Additional information is available
from the , \KS International Head-
PATCH BAY DESIGNATION STRIPS ON PERMANENT PLASTIC MATERIAL
I VCR 44
VCR 45,
45
r
BAY 6 VCR TC INPUTS-7
Model PS -1
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Conrad Janis (left) at the Sony DAE -1100 digital
editor, with Dan Morehouse, Clover's chief engineer
(center), and Theasium director, Harry Babasin.
0
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Creators of Designation Strips
for major recording and television studios
Low Cost!
Call or write for
FREE sample and information
"ME PATCH BAY
DESIGNATION COMPANY
Glendale Rubber Stamp Printing Co
I:)O OO
Otv of
4742 San Fernando Rd
Glendale. CA 91204
S
Inc
O
(213) 244 -4148
For additional Information circle #84
(213) 245-6969
0
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Classified
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RATES
$65.00 Per Column Inch
(2'.' x -)
"THE PLATINUM RAINBOW"
Is available from
R -e /p BOOKS
P.O. Box 2449
-
BOOKS
1
HOW TO BUILD A SMALL BUDGET
RECORDING STUDIO
FROM SCRATCH
with 12 Tested Designs
.
by
Alton Everest
F
Solt Corer - 326 Pages
$9.95 Postpaid
R -e /p Books
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood. CA 9002$
will be shipped postpaid upon receipt of
The Platinum Rainbow (How To
Succeed In The Music Business Without
Selling Your Soul) by Grammy Award
winning record producer Bob Monaco
and syndicated music columnist James
Riordan. Complete sections on
producing and engineering including
the practical aspects of pursuing a
career. Also contains a complete
DIRECTORY of the music business
Including studios and engineering
schools.
-
thoroughly recommended."
- Studio Sound
curves, schematic diagrams, photographs, and cutaway views of equipment.
$21.95 each. Hardbound
R -e /p Books
P. O. Box 2449
Books
Hollywood CA 90028
HANDBOOK OF
MULTICHANNEL RECORDING
by F. Alton Everest
320 pages
201 illustrations
The book that covers It all
a comprehensive guide to all lacets of
multitrack recording ... acoustics ..
construction ... studio design
equipment ... techniques
and
much, much more!
Paperback $9 95
R-e/p Books
Hollywood. CA 90028
P 0 Box 2449
-
.
.
C'11
.
-
INTRACLEAN
'I'lli:
-
SPECIAL HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS FORMU_A
CLEANS:
R
-e/ p Books
Hollywood, ('A
9111128
THE MUSICIAN'S
(.t'I1)l'
TO INDEPENDENT
RECORD l'k()I)t'('TION
by Will ('onnelly
All aspects of the business side of
making records . . the role of the
producer
budget preparation and
economics
reducing the financial
risks of independent record production.
$8.50 Postpaid
H -e /p Books
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA
...
...
INTRACLEAN DOES AN EXCELLENT JOB CLEANING TAPE OXIDE FROM TAPE
HEADS. PINCH ROLLER, AND TAPE GUIDES FROM OUR PROFESSIONAL TAPE
RECORDERS
S -711
'
Tape Heaas
rave Guraes
Anon Rollers
Capstans
...
1'.0. Box 2449
Boston, MA 02116
(617) 423-0007
.
FOR STATE OF THE ART IN RECORDING MAINTENANCE
.
--
136 Arlington St.
please mention
YOU SAW IT IN R-F /P
.
--
Professional Sound. Film and Video. Inc.
Hollywood, CA 90028
.
MASTER HANDBOOK
OF ACOUSTICS
by F. Alton Everest
35 :3 l'ages
Numerous Illustrations
A thorough guide to all aspects of
acoustic design for recording studios,,.
sound propagation ... air conditioning
design examples
provides the
essentials to understanding how rooms
affect the sound we hear.
Paperback: $15.00
hardback: $21.00
Inccluding Postage
PSI
355 Pages, Illustrated with 232 tables,
R -e /p
...
Send Demo Reel, call. write
or whatever to:
by John Eargle
JME Associates
"The best book on the technical side of recording
-
-
Qualified Engineers with this
background need only apply.
Excellent opportunity.
Pay commensurate with talent.
SOUND RECORDING
THEY WORK AND HOW
TO USE THEM"
by Martin Clifford
224 Pages
97 Illustrations
$10.95 Hardbound; S7.95 Paperback
Postpaid
.
Shows -Four Studios -Using
Voice. SFX. Library Music.
A/ V
$11.00 (U.S.)
in Check Or money Order
theory and working
information and emphasis on
practical uses
"MICROPHONES
HOW
P.O. Box 2449
Recording Engineer
We do sound for Radio -TV-
Hollywood, CA 90028
THE PLATINUM RAINBOW"
1
One -inch minimum, payable in advance. Fourinchesmaximum Space
over four inches will be charged for
at regular display advertising rates
WANTED
S
KARL BISCOFF. CHIEF MAINTENANCE ENGINEER
A & M RECORDS. HOLLYWOOD
-7n:
D ssipates
Ouicisly
Lea ves No
'
newoue
NonH ydroscoprc
NonFlammable
Non Toa/c
Completely
INTRACLEAN IS THE FINEST HEAD CLEANER WE AT LUXURY AUDIO
WORKSHOP HAVE EVER USED
WE USE IT DAILY ON OUR MULTI TRACKS. TWO
TRACKS. AND CASSETTE MACHINES.
S- 711
LEE WATERS, STUDIO MANAGER
LUXURY AUDIO WORKSHOP. LAS VEGAS
Sale
Cotton Swab
Amo
Applicators
Sham rey
vpaeo
Applicators
Dispensers
.
S- 711 INTRACLEAN IS AN EXCELLENT CLEANER TO REMOVE TAPE OXIDE DEPOSITS
FROM TAPE HEADS WE AT STUDIO MASTERS HAVE BEEN USING r DAILY ON OUR
AMPEX 1200 & STUDOR A80 TAPE MACHINES
I
DON BLAKE. CHIEF ENGINEER
STUDIO MASTERS. HOLLYWOOD
.
90028
FREE
PLEASE SEND ME A FREE SAMPLE OF
SAMPLE
MAIL
Name
COUPON
S
-711 INTRACLEAN
Company Name
Address
City. State Zip
iPhone
MAIL TO
A & B
ENTERPRISES.
P. O.
BOX 3592. SIMI VALLEY. CA 93063
April 1982
D1
R-e/p 97
Ijensen transformers
I
The Best
Direct Box Transformer
is Now Twice as Good.
the
JE-DB-E
Unsurpassed Audio Quality
Twice the level handling at
critical low frequencies,
( +19 dBv @ 20 Hz).
Half the distortion; less than
0.15% @ 20 Hz, decreasing by
'/2 for each octave higher.
Very wide bandwidth for a clean
top end ( -3 dB @ 70 kHz).
Two Faraday shields fight hum in
the mixer and amp.; Mu metal
case for 30 dB magnetic shielding;
each shield has separate lead.
HOW TO MAKE AND SELL
YOUR OWN RECORD
by Mane Sward Rapaport
'A trusty guide through the thickets
awaiting the ambitious young band or
mini- record mogul
-NewJohnYorkRockwell
Times
"Without question the best book on the
subject definitive, down to earth and
practical
Len Chandler & John Braheny
Alternative Chorus. L A
-
$11.50
R-e/p Books
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
MASTER THE RECORDING SCIENCE
Sherman Keene's Practical Techniques
for the Recording Engineer is a book
about the real world of studio recording.
Acclaimed by magazines, reviewers,
college teachers, studio owners and
engineers. 381 pages, 28 chapters (4 on
computer mixing). To order send $29.75
plus $2.25 shipping plus 60/0 (Calif) to:
OpAmp Books, 1033 N. Sycamore Suite
A. L.A.. CA, 90038. Order by phone (213)
464 -4322.
FOR SALE
Scully 280 -inch 8 -trk tape machine. No
synch master or remote. Presently in
operation in our tape mastering facility.
$4300. Call Chas at Diskmakers.
1
(215) 627 -2277.
Priced Ready to Move
HARRISON 40 -in /32-out
4': years old. highly modified and
updated. Automation ready, includes
newest Valley People VCA's. Modified to
automated muting. All new EQ pots ...
Full patchbay, two sets of 40 line returns.
Clean. in excellent condition, available
with spare module and parts.
Call Mike Fusaro, Automatt
(415) 777 -4111
-
FOR SALE
AMPEX, OTARI, SCULLY
In stock,
all major professional lines; top dollar
trade -ins, write or call for prices.
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO VIDEO
CORP
384 GRAND STREET
PATERSON, NJ 07505
(201) 523 -3333
Proven Reliability
Every transformer fully tested.
Write or call for information,
including a schematic to build your
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
own direct box.
S S
10735 BURBANK 3OULEVARD
N. HOLLYWOOD, CA 91601
(213) 8760059
(V,s
to,
by appo,nrment cnIV
-
Closed Fr,daysl
MALVTENANCE
ENGINEERS
Los Angeles television
post- production com-
pany has openings for
qualified maintenance
engineers. Salary range
$50,000 to $70,000 per
year. Applicants must
have minimum of 3
years experience with
maintenance of quad
and one -inch tape,
CMX editing and
camera equipment.
Please apply to:
Recording Engineer- Producer
PO Box 2449P
Hollywood, California 90028
12 -e
/p 98April
1982
FOR SALE $ 5
Allen & Heath Syncon B series 20 . 20.
VCA Auto, 390 gold pt. patchbay & prod.
desk. Also, Soundcraft SCM382 -16 2 -in.
16 -trk prewired 24 with auto locate.
$40,000.00 firm, incl wire harp. does not
incl delivery.
Call Roy Moore (817) 433 -1816.
Other equipment available.
FOR SALE
Used recording equipment, AKG C -24
and other tube type condenser
microphones
(415) 441 -8934
or. (415) 527 -6167
FOR SALE
3M M79 24 -Track Recorder $21,500
dbx 310 Noise Reduction
Package $10,000
monmi
Contact: Cindy or Gary
Streeterville Studios
(312) 644 -1666
SUPERFLEXIBLE CABLES
Mogami is a world leader in the research
and manufacturing of advanced high
definition audio cables, now available in
the U.S.
MICRO PHO N E. SNA K E IN T ERCONN ECT
GUITAR SPEAKERTONEARMMINIATURE COAX
MOGAMI PRODUCTS DIVISION
P.O. BOX 2027
CULVER CITY,CA 90230
(213) 836 -4288
MCI 2 -TRACK
For Sale: JH -110A, exc cond.
Remote. many extras.
Different Fur Recording
(415) 864 -1967
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO EQUIPMENT
Shop for pro audio from N.Y s leader. no
matter where you live! Use the Harvey
Pro Hot Line (800) 223 -2642 (except N.Y..
Ak. & Hi.). Expert advice, in -depth parts
dept.. 3/" video systems available.
Broadest selection such as Otari. Quad
Eight. Soundcraft, Tascam and more
Write or call for price or product info
Harvey Professional Products Division
25 w. 45th Street
New York. NY 10036
(212) 921 -5920
MCI
JH -416
Console 24.16v24, all
factory updates, headroom kit,
selectable mid range dip, (eq compar-
able to 428) full patch facilities,
matching walnut producers desk, excel
cond. $18,000 or make offer, also, 8 MCI
JH -416 input modules equipped as
above and pr Altec 604E's in cabs.
(612) 774 -4857
FOR SALE
3M 79 Recorder wiselectake. $24,000.
Auditronics 501 26.16 modified $16,000.
Both for $38,000. Telefunken Elam 251.
Will consider offers. (801) 785 -0077
MASTERING EQUIP FOR SALE
Neumann Amplifier VG66S. Rack
Includes:
Recording Equalizers (RIAA)
Cutter Adjustment Modules
CE66, 4 Drive amplifiers LU66, 2
Feedback amplifiers GU66, 2 Circuit
Breakers SI66, 1 Monitor Control panel
AR66, 2 Monitor (Power) Amplifiers
AU66. Asking S3,000. CONTACT: Tim
Hinds, Wakefield Manufacturing Co,
1745 West Linden, Phoenix, AZ 85007.
SE66,
2
2
(602) 252 -5644
FREE
32pg Catalog 8 50 Audio Video Applic.
P
Stero
Mono Par
.,. I
Wir
n.,,
1033
N
,,
Su
4
SS
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o.., Ample
LABS INC
C
FO
...( 1\
$:¡ I'()1{ lfl':N'I' It
JIM GAMBLE ASSOCIATES
11('1(1-21
1\íVS
TV Audio a Peca Prod
MISCELLANEOUS
Consoles
(2131934-3566
Sycamore Av LOS ANGELES CA. 90038
For additional information circle #89
EMPLOYMENT
t$ FOR SALE tt
Blank Audio and Video Cassettes:
Direct from manufacturer Below
Wholesale' Any length cassettes Four
different qualities to chose from Bulk
& Reel Mastertape: from '. -inch to 2inch Cassette Duplication also
available. Brochure
ANDOL AUDIO PRODUCTS, INC.
Dept. REP
4212 14th AVENUE
WANTED
BROOKLYN, NY 11219
SALES /MARKETING MANAGER
TOLL FREE: 1- 800 -221 -6578
N.Y. Res: (212) 435- 7322/Ext. 5
Midas Consoles
. , lrri)I
1u
(21:1) :191-0952
or, (201i 227-3ti7t(
STUDIOS FOR SALE
-
-
HOME STUDIO
3500 Sq Ft Recording Studio addition in
progress. Sherman Oaks hills (L.A.
Calif). 180` view.
acre. Rm for Tennis
Ct & Pool. S295.000.
Owner: (213) 789 -3742 eves.
.
for Los Angeles -based Linn Electronics,
makers of the LM -I Drum Computer and
LinnDrum'" digital rhythm machines.
We are looking for a professional with
experience in sales marketing of hi -tech
electronic musical instruments. Send
resume and salary history - no phone
calls please.
LINN ELECTRONICS, INC.
18720 Oxnard Street #103
Tarzana, California 91356
nn
A NEW ON -LINE
NOISE REDUCTION
SYSTEM
EDUCATION
The University of lu.'..
SEMINAR IN
AUDIO RECORDING
(Third Year1
Guest Lecturer:
STEPHEN F. TEMMER
dynakx
July 12 -23, 1982: Fee: S150.00
For further information contact:
Prof. Lowell Cross
School of Music, University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 55242/(319) 353 -5976
SHERMAN KEENE
CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
Author 01 acclaimed textbook Practical
Techniques for the Recording Engineer
invites you to study recording at home.
Course includes reading and homework
assignments in two textbooks with
personal dialog via cassette. Eight
lessons per level, three levels. S250 per
level. For info write: Correspondence
Course, 1626 N. Wilcox No 677A,
Hollywood, CA 90028.
EQUIPMENT WANTED
WE HAVE BUYERS
For Multitrack Recorders
Consoles
Gear
Outboard
Mica
Summit Audio
P.O Box 1678 Los Gatos.
CA 95030 (408) 395 -2448
WANTED: Used Ampex MM1200
machines (Calif area).
Contact Eric or Warren
Sunset Sound
(213) 469 -1186
No Encoding or decoding
o
Simple, Trouble -free Operation
30 dB of Noise Reduction
Useful on Any Audio Signals
The Dynafex is a single -ended system that does not require
encoding or decoding. With this device, noise can be virtually
eliminated on cart machines, VTR audio tracks, mixdown recording,
film sound tracks, or any other audio source. It is also capable of
removing noise from old, noisy tapes, and can be used to reduce
surface noise on phonograph records.
With the advent of higher quality audio in radio. television, and
motion pictures, Dynafex provides an immediate and dramatic
improvement in audio quality at a price any budget can afford. Call
or write for further technical information. Dynafex is available from
professional audio dealers throughout the world.
MICMIX Audio Products, Inc.
2995 Ladybird Lane
Dallas. TX 75220
(214) 352 -3811
\
1982LIl
a 1LITIF
S
Northeast:
EUROSOUND STUDIO (New York City) is the newly opened facility run by Raul Alarcon. The studio features a Neve console will
NECAM automation. feeding a Studer 24 -track and half-inch 2- tracks for mastering. 1733 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. (212) 541 6072.
KAJEM RECORDING STUDIOS (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is nearing completion of a new lounge and dining area for its Studio
A, while new equipment at the facility includes a Sony DRE -2000 digital reverb unit. 1400 Mill Creek Road. Gkidwyne, PA 19035. (215) 649
3813.
-
ZEAMI STUDIOS (New York City), utilizing the services of Harvey Professional Audio /Video. has added two BTX Shadow SMP-(I
synchronization systems with controllers. The new systems allow sound effects to be dropped in with frame accuracy on a multitrack
machine. Zeami will now be able to synchronize 2 -, 4 -, and 8 -track machines with U -mat is video cassette decks. 102 Green Street, New York,
NY.
BROOKLYN COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER (Brooklyn, New York) has taken delivery of a custom APSI Model
3000 audio console designed to provide 4- channel sound reinforcement, audio recording, and broadcast mixes. Brooklyn, NY.
SONIC SOUND STUDIO (Freeport, New York) has purchased a new MCI JH -24 24 -track recorder from Harvey Professional
Audio/Video. Freeport, NY.
KINGDOM SOUND STUDIOS (Long Island, New York) has installed a new Trident TSM console with floppy-disk automation, and
announces the appointment of Dee Deis to the position of studio manager. 6801 Jericho Turnpike, Syosset, Long Island. NY 11791. (516)
364-8666.
UNIQUE RECORDING STUDIOS (New York City) has taken delivery of a new, fully- automated MCI JH-636 32 ini 24 -out console,
equipped with eight VCA subgroups. This addition complements the Otani MTR -90 24 -track recorder and the Ampex ATR -100 machines, all
of which are fitted with Dolby -A noise reduction. Joanne Georgio is Unique's studio manager. 701 7th Avenue, New York. NY 10036. (212)
921 -1711.
TROD NOSSEL RECORDING STUDIOS (Wallingford, Connecticut) has purchased a new MXR Pitch Transposer and several
new Shure SM -58 microphones. Also, the studio's monitoring system has been upgraded with the re- tuning of its Altec 604 Big Reds for a
"flatter response," and the addition of a set of Visonik David speakers. Instant comparisons can now he made between the Altec 604's, ADC
bookshelf's and the new Visonik Davids. 10 George Street, Wallingford. CT 06492. (203) 265-0010.
NORTH LAKE SOUND (North White Plains, New York), a 24 -track facility, complete with live-in accommodation, has added
Lexicon Model 224 Digital Reverb, and Linn Drum Computer. 3 Lakeuiew Drive, North White Plains, New York 10603. (914) 682-0842.
Southeast:
CHESHIRE SOUND STUDIOS (Atlanta, Georgia) has opened its second automated 24 -track studio, and has acquired a new MCI
JH -636 automated console and an Ampex MM -1200 24 -track for its first room. The new studio features an MCI JH -428B automated console,
interfaced with an Ampex MM -1100 24 -track equipped with dbx noise reduction. 2093 Faulkner Road North East, Atlanta, GA 30324. (404)
633-6626.
South Central:
be used by students
enrolled in the Music Business Program of Belmont's School of Business. The purchase of the new
A -800 marks the first phase of an ambitious studio upgrading program initiated by Dr. Jay Collins,
director of the Music Business Division. Later stages of the program call for the purchase of a new
automated console and signal processing gear, and the renovation of the studio and control room.
"We want to get students familiar with the equipment they would be using should they leave here, as
some will, to find a job in a state -of- the -art studio setting," says Dr. Collins. "We don't want to be one
step behind the industry. I think we should approach our program the same way they approach
teaching at a medical school. You expect them to have the latest and very best equipment and that's
what think we should have here." Nashville. TN.
THE ROXY PRODUCTION CENTER (Nashville, Tennessee), under construction for
over two years, has completed the first stage of development with the opening of two state -of- the -art
recording studios. One of t he new rooms is capable of accommodating 50 musicians, while the other comprises a 240 -seat theater with a 30- by
40 -foot stage, dressing rooms. and % -inch video capability. The theater boasts a Baldwin studio piano and a Gulbransen theater organ. A 2,500
square foot engineering wing supports the two rooms with a full in -house technical and engineering staff. Phase Two of the Roxy Production
Center will include a 60- by 90 -foot television sound studio, and a similarly sized audio room. 827 Meridian Street, Nashville. TN37207. (615)
BELMONT COLLEGE (Nashville, Tennessee) has taken delivery of a Studer A -800 24 -track recorder, which will
,
1
227-0920.
THE SOUND EMPORIUM (Nashville, Tennessee) was the site of the digital mix of Joe Waters's upcoming single, "The Queen of
Hearts Loves You." A JVC
2 -track
digital recording system was supplied for the dates by Masterfonics of Nashville. Nashville, TN.
RECORDING INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT SOUND STUDIO (Murfreesboro, Tennessee), an operation of Middle Tennessee
State University, has upgraded with the addition of a new MCI JH -24/16 recorder fitted with Autolocator III, and a complement of test
equipment including a new Tektronix 2213 oscilloscope, a B&K precision Frequency Counter, and a B&K Precision Signai Generator. A
Yamaha C -5 Grand piano has also been purchased by the studio. Box 21, Middle Tennessee State University. Murfreesboro, TN37132. (615)
898 -2813.
THE TOYBOX STUDIO (Brentwood, Tennessee) has upgraded from 16 to 24 tracks with the purchase of a new Studer A -80VU
multitrack recorder, and a Harrison MR -3 console. Also included in the upgrade package are a Studer A -80 2- track. a Revox PR99 2- track, a
Lexicon Model 224 digital reverb, and a rack of Rebis signal - processing devices. The Toybox is owned by Tom T. Hall. Brentwood, TN.
THE SOUNDSHOP (Nashville, Tennessee) has appointed Travis Turk to the post of studio manager. Working with Turk will be
newcomer Clifton Harris, as well as regulars Sherry Roney, Mike Bradley, and Mike Black, and Rick Landers. 1307 Division Street,
Nashville, TN 37203. (615) 244 -4149.
GOLDEN TRIANGLE RECORDING (Denton, Texas), formerly Average Joe Studios, has totally remodeled its 8 -track facility
utilizing a nine-sided, Live -end/Dead -end control room design. New monitors are Yamaha NS- 1000's, while the instrument list has been
updated with the addition of a Sequential Circuits Prophet 5 synthesizer, and a Gretch wood -shell drum kit. Darwin Grosse is the resident
engineer. 313 North Locust, Denton, TX 76201. (817) 566 -2367.
Midwest:
SOLID SOUND RECORDING STUDIO (Hoffman Estates, Illinois) has acquired a new Otani MTR -10 half -track mastering
machine with autolocator, a Studio Technologies Ecoplate II, a Baldwin Grand Piano, and an Aphex Exciter. 2400 West Hassell Road, Suite
430, Hoffman Estates, IL 60195. (312) 882-7446.
12-e/p 100
:\pril
1982
THE MAUD MOOD WEYERHAEUSER STUDIO (St. Paul, Minnesota), the production facility of Minnesota Public Radio. has
installed a 3M Digital Mastering System, making MPR probably the first broadcasting operation in
the United States to be equipped with a multitrack digital recording and editing system. "The acquisition of 3M's Digital Mastering System and Digital Editor will enable MPR to produce and broadcast
programming with the finest quality sound technologically possible today," commented Tom
Voegeli, Vice President of MPR Productions. "Because MPR transmits programming to public radio
stations nationwide, listeners across the country will now have the opportunity to enjoy these sonically superior productions. The equipment will also be used by the commercial recording artists who
lease the Maud Moon Weyerhaeuser Studio for their productions." MPR, referred to as the flagship
of the national system," has already earned a reputation for its quality productions. The network has
won three Peabody Awards in the last four years for its programs, and currently produces and distributes more programming for the public radio system than any other station -based entity. 45 East
Eighth Street, St. Paul. MN 55101. (612) 221 -1525.
AUDIO GRAPH PRODUCTIONS (Haslet, Michigan) announces the appointment of Charles Norton to the engineering and
production staff. Audio Graph is a full service production company, with Wildwind Sound Studio as
its in -house recording facility. The 8 -track studio features a music room with Live -end. Dead -end
design, a Tangent console feeding a TEAC 80 -8 recorder with full dbx noise reduction, JBL 4311
monitors, plus mikes by Beyer. Shure, Sennheiser, and Electro- Voice. Instruments include an Ober
heim OBX -A synthesizer, and vintage Fender, Gibson, and Marshall amps. Marvin Hall is the
owner of Audio Graph. 6285 Reynolds Road, Haslett, MI 48840.
THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS EXPERIMENTAL MUSIC STUDIOS (Urbana
Champaign, Illinois) has aquired two Professional Series amplifiers donated by the Phase Linear
Corporation. The Experimental Music Studios consist of five laboratories and two workshops where
approximately 100 students per semester follow an intensive curriculum of research and composit-
-
ion. Urbana-Champaign, IL.
PEPPERHEAD SHOWCASE STUDIO (Madison, Wisconsin) is a new fully-equipped 16 -track recording facility featuring an instudio "live" recording capability, tied to a syndicated radio broadcast concept. The announcement was made by studio owner, Stephen
Wilcox. The studio has a specially- designed glass control room to provide visibility from a large "live" room, which will hold an audience of up
to 150 people, into a more typical acoustically dampened studio room, where bands will set up and perform on showcase nights. 3602Atwood
Avenue, Madison, WI 53714. (608) 241-2001.
Mountain:
KLUDGIT SOUND (Santa Fe, New Mexico) has upgraded to 24 -track with the installation of an MCI JH-24 24 -track transformerless
tape machine, a Sound Workshop Series 40 30 -in /24 -out mixing console with 32- channel ARMS automation, a Lexicon Model 224 Version 4.4
digital reverb unit, and UREI Time -Aligned and JBL Bi- Radial monitors powered by a UREI 6500 amp. The facility is owned and operated by
Baird Banner. P.O. Box 171. Cerrillos, NM 87010. (505) 471-0051.
Southern California:
CONWAY RECORDING STUDIO (Hollywood) has taken delivery of a second Studer 24 -track recorder that can be locked to
Conway's existing Studer multitrack via an Audio Kinetics Q -Lock synchronizer. Waterland Tecno Sonics Ltd. handled the control room
alterations, which included a new tape machine bay on one side of the room, and similarly sized lounge area opposite to maintain the room
symmetry. George Augspurger of Perception Inc. was responsible for the new room voicing. 655 North Saint Andrews Place. Hollywood.
CA 90004. (213) 463 -2175.
STUDIO 53 (Los Angeles) announces the addition of Roman Olearczuk to the technical staff. For the past four years, Olearczuk
served as Technical Director for Rusk Sound Studios in Hollywood, and was recently appointed a consulting editor for R -e,; p. The announcement was made by Studio 55's studio manager, Larry Emerine. 5505 Melrose Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90038. (213) 467 -5505.
What
¡S'what
you
The MRL Calibration Graph is your proof of
the quality control that goes into every MRL
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each one to exceed the performance
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e
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supported by experts in magnetic recording
arid audio standardization ... we helped write
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detailed instructions and application notes.
The MRL catalog includes tapes for all studio
applications. In addition to the usual spot
frequency tapes, we make single-tone tapes,
rapid -swept frequency tapes, wideband or
/3rd octave-band pink random noise tapes,
and difference-method azimuth-setup tapes.
Most are available from stock.
get...
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(415) 965 -8187
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For additional information circle #91
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1482
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ARTISAN INSTALLS FIRST GERMAN PARAM AUTOMATED EQUALIZER IN THE U.S.
the first in t he United States. Installation
Artisan Sound Recorders (Hollywood) has installed a Leunig PARAM automated equalizer
was supervised by Reudiger Barth of Hamburg. and Sierra Audios Vencil Wells. The PARAM is a 32- channel 6 -deck parametric.
computer-controlled equalizer. The system is the only one in the world that provides automated equalization; it is programmed via a central joystick. allowing the engineer to draw the
curve on a video display. This graphically presents the curve while showing interaction between bands. By bypassing in- console EQ, a resultant signal -to -noise of better than90 dB can
be achieved
quieter than any console in use today. A total of 64 completely different
"looks- at the setup of the PARAM console may be stored during a tune. allowing the ultimate in flexibility. All settings can be recalled from memory at any time during a nix. Longterm storage of console settings can be done on any type of audio tape format. Some four
dozen standard EQ curves can be preset and stored for recall. and any channel can have an
instantaneous A B comparison of two complex EQ settings. This PARAM installation is
described as the crowning touch on Artisan's newly opened "Variable Acoustics" studio,
which presently is block booked by producer engineer Hank Cicalo. The PARAM system
1cw
,11,,,i
I n,l, ,already been used by REO Speedwagon in the preparation of the forthcoming new EPIC album
currently recording at Kendun Recorders Studio D. 1600 N. Wilcox. Hollywood. CA 90028. (213) 461.2751.
-
-
Northern California:
BAY SOUND REPRODUCTION (Oakland) has enlarged its control room and upgraded to 16- tracks with the purchase of a new 3M
Series 79 tape deck with Search -to -Cue. 5 Yorkshire Drive, Oakland, CA 94618. (415) 655-4885.
HEAVENLY RECORDING STUDIOS (Sacramento) has moved into its new Jack Edwards-designed facility. The control room
features a Quad -Eight Pacifica console feeding an MCI JH-16 24-track machine, and two MCI JH
1108 2- tracks. The new UREI 6500 power amp drives UREI 813 -A, JBL 4311's, and Auratone
monitors. Outboard gear includes 28 channels of dbx noise reduction, an AKG BX -20 spring reverb,
Lexicon Model 224 digital reverb. Marshall Time Modulator, Eventide Harmonizer, and a collection
of compressors and limiters. Mikes are by Shure, Sennheiser, Electro- Voice, Neumann, AKG, and
Crown. 620 Bercut Drive, Sacramento, CA 95184. (916) 446 -3088.
BODACIOUS AUDIO MOBILE RECORDING SPECIALISTS (San Mateo), in conjunction with Concert Music Design of San Carlos, California, now offers a Harrison 24 -input Alive
console, EMT 250 digital reverb, a full Audio & Design Scamp effects system, ADR Vocal Stresser,
ADR parametric EQ, and an Eventide Harmonizer. 4114 George Avenue Number 1, San Mateo, CA
94403. (415) 573-5297.
MOBIUS MUSIC RECORDING STUDIO (San Francisco) has recently installed an MCI JH-24 16-track recorder with Autolocator
III. 1583 Sanchez. San Francisco, CA 94131. (415) 285 -7888.
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S CHOICE!"
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Try these Compact
Producers, and the other
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Model 5050B0- Series
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Optional Session
Controller $650
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CUSTOM DESIGN & MODIFICATIONS, SALES &
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MX5050 Mark 111/8 1/2
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99 East Magnolia Boulevard
Suite 215
Burbank, California 91502
For additional information circle #92
(213) 843 -6320
L
ECO
ETM
When so many famous studios and
recording engineers choose
ECOPIATES for their exceptional
musical qualities, isn't it time you
thought about owning one?
141
Bruce Swedien, Engineer for
Quincy Jones. Michael Jackson
Don Hahn, Director of A & M Recording
Studios, Engineer for Herb Alpert
Gary Loizzo of Pumpkin Studios.
Engineer for STYX
George Massenberg Studios for Earth.
Wind and Fire
i
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STUDIO
TECHNOLOGIES
ECOPLATE II
ECOPLATE
$5000
THE FAMOUS
ORIGINAL
THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE
REVERB IN THE WORLD
.rIÌ íin.
II
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Lincolnwood. IL 60645
Programming Technologies, Inc. 3121676 -9400
6666 North Lincoln Avenue
an affiliate of
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DIFFERENT FUR RECORDING (San Francisco) has installed Studer multitrack and mastering machines in its John Storykdesigned control room. Explains studio manager Susan Skaggs: "After listening to the latest Studers, rather than just get a new A -80VU Mkt!
24 -:rack as we originally planned, we went Studer throughout. Now our clients can begin their projects on the Studer 24- track, and then
choose either Studer !,4-inch or . -inch for their two-track mastering." Pat Gleeson is Different Fur's owner. 347019th Street. San Francisco,
CA 94110. (415) 864 -1967.
OUT THERE RECORDING STUDIOS (Belmont) is a new 8 -track studio owned and operated by Robert Firpo and Cookie
Marenco. The facility is equipped with Otani multitrack and mastering machines, a Sound Work-
``
,
'íst't'i
.
--....
shop Series 20 console, MICMIX Master Room XL -305 reverb, and mikes by AKG, Electro-Voice,
Sennheiser, and Shure. The control room was tuned by Sonic Landscapes, and the music room is
augmented by two isolation booths. The studio's instrument list boasts a Steinway 7 -foot grand
piano, a Sequential Circuits Prophet 5 and SMS Voice 400 synthesizers and sequencers, a Hammond B -3 organ, a Fender Rhodes piano, Muser Pro -Vibes, and hundreds of percussion instruments. Special effects units include a 4- channel 350 watt Walter Woods amplifier. Bob Orban has
been acting as a consultant to the studio, which is located in the Belmont Hills. P.O. Box 874,
Belmont, CA 94002.
Northwest:
TRIAD STUDIOS (Redford, Washington), a newly opened 24 -track facility, has installed a new JBL 4430 monitoring system. and
addedd an Aphex Aural Exciter to its list of outboard equipment. 4572 150th Avenue North East, Redmond, WA 98052. (206) 881 -9322.
THE MUSIC SOURCE (Seattle, Washington) has been utilizing the new AKG BX -25ED Reverberation and Digital Delay System.
The new AKG unit, which features four pre-reverb delay lines, was made available through the cooperation of Ray Bloom and Matrix
Marketing of Seattle. The Music Source is an MCI- equipped 24 -track studio with video post -production facilities. 615 East Pike Street,
Seattle, WA 98122. (206) 323 -6847.
Canada:
ULTRASOUND (Montreal) has built a new 24 -track facility with equipment supplied by Richard Audio, Inc. The studio is fitted with a
Soundcraft Series 2400 28 -in/24 -out console, and an SCM-762-24 multitrack. Monitors are UREI 813's with UREI amplification, and mixdown
machines comprise an Ampex ATR -102 and an Otani MX- 5050B. Outboards include Symetrix noise -gates, MICMIX Master Room reverb,
and Delta Labs DL -5 and DL -4 digital delay lines. Mikes are by AKG, Sennheiser, Neumann, and Audio -Technica. Montreal, Canada.
STUDIO ST. CHARLES (Longeuil, Quebec) has upgraded its 24 -track facility with the installation of a set of UREI 815 monitors.
Longeuil. Quebec, Canada.
PRODUCSON (Montreal) has added a Studer A -80 2 -track machine to complement its existing Scully 280 deck. Montreal, Canada.
MUSHROOM STUDIOS (Vancouver) has appointed Linda Nicol to the position of studio manager. Nicol began her career with
Mushroom Records in 1976 as assistant to the promotion director, and by 1978 held the post of promotion coordinator for Western Canada.
\pril
1982
12-e/p 105
E
CITIES
p;CIoPMENT
PEOPLE
-
e
,
She assumed the post of production manager for the studio when it was sold in 1979. 1234 West 6th Avenue, Vancouver, Canada, V6H 1A5.
(604) 7341217.
STUDIO VERT (St. Hubalde, Quebec) has installed a new Soundcraft 2400 24 -in/24-out console. St. Hubalde, Quebec, Canada.
STUDIO SON' AUBERGE (Montreal) has upgraded from 8- to 16 -track operation with the purchase of a TEAC Tascam 85-16 16track equipped with dhx noise reduction. Other new gear includes is a Tascam 2- track, Tannoy monitors, and MG BX -10 spring reverb.
Montreal, Canada.
ROUND SOUND STUDIOS (Weston, Ontario) now offers audio sweetening for video tape post -production. The studio
an Audio Kinetics Q -Lock 3.10 synchronizer with Gen -lock to provide SMPTE timecode and three machine sync for its JVC
MCI multitrack and Otani MTR -10 I/2-inch 4 -track machine. 357 Ormont Drive, Weston, Ontario M9L 1N8. (416) 743 -9979.
has aquired
? -4
-inch VCR,
Great Britain:
PINEWOOD STUDIOS (London, England) has taken delivery of a fully custom -designed
mixing console manufactured by Theatre Projects, Ltd.
The desk incorporates three operator stations, which are separated by intermediate sections
containing ancillary equipment such as panners and limiter/compressors. The console was designed
for ease of service and future modification. One of the unique features of the board is said to be
Theatre Projects' Multipan System, which consists of six X -Y joystick controls. These, together with
the Master selection unit and a microprocessor system, provide a multichannel, programmable
memory panning system. The joysticks can also be linked to provide parallel panning of separate
sources, thus allowing for separate dialogue, music and effects mixes until the final mix is made.
London, England.
60- channel, 32 -group film post- production
South Korea:
JIGU RECORDING STUDIO (Seoul, South Korea) is a new facility owned by Jeong Soo Lim. The studio is equipped with a Neve
8066 20 -in/ 16 -out console, interfaced with a Studer A -800 multitrack and an A -80 for mixdowns. Tae Kyung Lee is the studio manager. 233-1
Daeja -Ri, Byokje -Eup, Koyang -kun, Kyunggi -Do, C.P.O. Box 2539, Seoul, South Korea. (387) 3111-3.
Studio Update is intended for R -e %p readers to report equipment additions and upgradings,
new service offerings, and personnel changes. Photographs (black and white or color) are
always appreciated, as are quotes concerning why a particular piece of equipment was
selected for your studio.
Submissions for Studio Update should include the address and phone number of the audio
or video facility, and should be sent to:
Studio Update
Recording Engineer Producer
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
Suntronics introduces
the NEW Tascam Model 16 Mixer
UN r-RO\ IICS
II
II
\
I
In the continuing development of
Suntronics and TASCAM, we are
proud to announce the Model 16
the newest mixer available
Mixer
from TASCAM.
-
ITII<.\('h tiI(Ntl-:
This mixer has been updated from
the Model 15 with the following
features:
band sweepable E.Q.
High slew rate chips
Phantom supply
16 switchable meters
4
Model 16 input
module options:
8 x 8 @ $6,900'
16
24
x
x
8 @ $10,500
8 @ $12,900
Model 16 Mixer
1620 West Foothill Blvd.
Upland, CA 91786
R -e /p 104
(714) 985 -0701
985 -5307
April 1982
'Model 16 -S* 8 x 8 is
available from Suntronics
Multitrack Stores Only!
7760 Balboa Blvd.
Van Nuys, CA 91406
(213) 781 -2537
781 -2604
phase reversal
Stereo mixdown
Master metering
Hi and lo pass filters
Mac
Model 16 -S' (8 x 8) and 80 -8 8 -track
recorder
$10,500.
-
NEW
STORE
For additional Information circle #94
7560 Garden Grove Blvd.
Westminster, CA 92683
(714) 898 -6368
898 -9036
Professional Recording Consoles. No one can shape sound and put
together quite like the British...Masters of the recording console. Come
see the new generation 16 & 24 track Soundcraft 2400. From microphones
to multi track, studio owners and recording engineers
Look to Lake. For information or a demonstration contact
LakeThe Pro Audio Group, Lake Systems Corporation,
55 Chapel St., Newton, MA 02160 (617) 244.6881
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- AUDIO/VIDEO UPDATE -
REEVES TELETAPE (New York City) reports that Steve Kahn, head of RCA Record's video department, has returned to Reeves to
edit two video promotions by War from their upcoming album. "You've Got the Power" and "Outlaw" feature the group performing with
special effects and quick cuts to vignettes that illustrate the lyrics. Kahn produced and directed the promos and worked at the facility with
editor Barry Waldman and his assistant Wendy Friend. 304 East 44th Street, New York. NY 10017. (212) 573 -8888.
VIDICUE (New York City), a division of Cue Recordings, is now offering comprehensive audio-track production and sweetening
services for video. The operation utilizes a VCR/multitrack -ATR slave/master interlock system to allow the audio track and SMPTE timecode
from 1- and 2 -inch video tape to be transferred on to IA- or !-inch audio tape, in order to bypass the quality loss of VCR's. Audio signal
processing gear at the studio includes a collection of equalizers, noise gates, compressor /limiters, filters, and reverb. Music and vocal
recording is also available. as is an extensive sound effects library. 1156 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. (212)921-9221.
Central Activity.
OMEGA AUDIO (Dallas, Texas) was recently in Tulsa, Oklahoma, with its remote truck for a video shoot with Quarterflash. The rig
was called upon to record 24 -track audio linked via SMPTE to the video portion of the program. The concert was taped for Warner Amex's
MTV Music Channel by producers Gowers, Fields, and Flattery of Los Angeles. Video facilities were supplied by AVT Television,
Knoxville, Tennessee. Engineering was by Paul Christensen, Russel Hearn, and Ken Paul. 8036Aviation Place, Box 71, Dallas, TX 75235.
(214) 350 -9066.
Western Activity:
KAY -SMITH STUDIOS (Seattle, Washington) recently completed construction of Studio C, which contains a computer-oriented %inch video off -line editing system. Included in the room is an MCI 24 -track recorder, MCI Series 500 console, and two Sony BVU -800 video
editing transports. Also available is a complete BTX Shadow control system, with console, for SMPTE synchronization of the %e -inch video
decks with the 24 -track and 2- or 4 -track recorders for sweetening, mixing and editing of audio and video source material. 2212 4th Avenue,
Seattle, WA 98121. (206) 624 -8654.
HOUSTON RECORDING (Sonoma, California) recently supplied its mobile recording truck to provide audio for video taping of
Earth, Wind and Fire at the Oakland Colliseum. The mobile unit was outfitted with dual 24 -track recorders, 2- tracks and cassette decks,
while supplying a simultaneous stereo feed to the VTR machines. Engineering was handled by Maurice Leach and Rich Houston, assisted
by Fred Runner and Kathy Meyer. 2355 Sobre Vista Road, Sonoma, CA 95476. (707) 996 -8881.
BUZZY'S RECORDING SERVICES (Los Angeles) has expanded its audio operation to include a computer-controlled video
system designed especially for automatic dialogue replacement, narration to picture, audio sweetening and mixing, and video scoring from
four different production music libraries. The heart of the frame -accurate system is the Commander II video editor, which utilizes SIAPTE
timecode and/or control track to interlock the multitrack machines to 14-inch video cassette playback. CMX- compatible edit -list
management, a programmable talent cue system, and an "auto-mute" function have also been incorporated for faster, more efficient
production. The studio also provides a comprehensive sound effects library, dbx and Dolby noise reduction, 16 mm and 35 mm mag transfers,
and a full range of audio services. 6900 Melrose Avenue, Los Angeles, Ca 90038. (213) 931 -1867.
\1,ril
11012
12e/h
105
ì ontinaed from page 93 ..
M1('MIX, who died in January 19$1. The
.
new owners have been long -time
employees of the company. Bill Allen,
former sales manager has assumed the
role of president. David Rettig, who
formerly served as production manager,
will be vice -president secretary, and Bob
Rodgers will assume the position of viceporation.
president treasurer of the corporation.
please mention
YOU SAW IT IN R-E/P
.
_
.
SONEX /AI.I'HA Aí'1)10
The manufacturer of SON EX acoustical
foam wishes to clarify the fact that Alpha
Audio, of Richmond. Virginia, is the sole
distributor of SON EX in the professional
sound industry. Alpha Audio, besides
being a nationwide distributor, is also a
recording studio, and is in a technical
position to test many acoustic concepts
with SON EX before recommending them
to the industry. As an example, Alpha
recently applied the I.ive-end Dead -end
concept at station \V LEE, where on -air
experiments established the ability of
SONEX to "help generate a cleaner signal
with greater penetration by eliminating
extraneous noise from mixing with the
announcer's voice...
/uailable Now!
From The Editors of R -e /p The 92 Page
Special Report on the State of:
$5.00
ploc paid
Includes indepth articles:
Broadcast
Production
Today
Production Studio
Design
Improving Broadcast Cart
Performance
TV Audio,
"Who Cares ?"
Time Code:
Where Video
Meets Audio
Digital
Recording
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enclose $5.00 (check, or money order) for post paid delivery for my copy'
NAME
COMPANY
'
STREET
'
CITY /STATE /ZIP
Adray's
AMEK /TAC
Allen & Heath /Brenell
Alpha Acoustic Control Ltd.
Alpha Audio
Altec Lansing International
Ampex Corporation
Audio & Design Recording
Audio Engineering Associates
Audio Kinetics
Audio Technica
Auditronics
Brystonvermont
Carvin Manufacturing Company
Countryman Associates
dbx Inc
Datatronix Inc.
Electro -Voice Inc.
Flanner's Pro Audio
Glendale Rubber Stamp Co.
Gotham Audio Corporation
Hardy Company
Hy James
Institute of Audio Research
Jensen Transformers
Lake Systems
Lakeside Associates
Lexicon Inc.
Linear & Digital Systems Inc
97
90
83
35
87
91
2
71
82
84
65
6 -7, 21
19
27
20
51
32
93
94
18
89
16
3
69
94
93
48
77
88
89,98
105
59
45
94
5
31
101
Magnetic Reference Lab
99
MICMIX Audio
58
Mike Shop
39, 40, 41
McLeyvier
26
Sye Mitchell Sound Company
8
Rupert Neve Inc.
11, 15, 17, 81
New England Digital
93
Neumann
92
Omega Recording School
46
Omnicraft, Inc.
79
Orban Associates
24
Otani Corporation
97
Pro Sound, Film & Video Inc
84
Polyline Corporation
102
Professional Audio Services
80
Pro Audio Systems
85
Professional Recording & Sound
86
Restoration
37
Rumbo Recorders
50
Saki Magnetics
90
SESCOM Inc.
108
Shure Brothers
9
Sierra Audio
29
Sound Workshop
12
Standard Tape Labs
107
Studer Revox /America
103
Studio Technologies
86
Summit Audio
67, 90, 104
Suntronics
75
TAD /Pioneer
53
TDK
Tascam Div. /TEAC Corp
54 -55
9
Tom Hidley Design
TAPCO
61
23
3M Companies
Trident Audio
73
....
4100 Pk'O/7UCT/O/V
1u
:
m
AKG Acoustics
AVC Systems Inc.
Abadon /Sun Inc
MXR Pro Audio
Minnesota
Public
Radio
Production Hints and Tips
Monitor Selection for Broadcast
more
more
more
* ma
A &B Enterprises
A &R Record Manufacturing Co
MCI
at
rn
THIS ISSUE OF R -e /p IS
SPONSORED BY THE FOLLOWING
LIST OF ADVERTISERS
UREI
URSA Major
Valley People
Westlake Audio
White Instruments
47
63
57
49
68
In the Swiss tradition of meticulous precision and matchless craftsmanship,
the STUDER A800 represents the ultimate achievement in multichannel tape recording.
It is a system designed and engineered to complement the competent professional.
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INIMITABLE QUALITY- IMPECCABLE PERFORMANCE
UNQUESTIONABLY STUDER!
The A800 embodies all the technical sophistication and total durability you expect from STUDER; a company whose name is synonymous with reliability and functional innovation. For example, the
A800 was the first machine to utilize micro- processor control of all
critical transport and electronic functions, and employs STUDER developed servo -controls over both tape tension and capstan speeds.
The total A800 system includes a remote command unit containing a total -function audio remote control, a 20 address memory
auto-locator, the Ta ?e Lock System 2000 Programmer, capstan variable speed control and SMPTE code channel remote selector, a] under
micro -processor control.
And as usual wish STUDER equipment, the A800 includes no
unnecessary features; it doesn't tell you what you don't need to know.
STUDER has established a nn_ititrack record, having pioneered
most of the functional innovative features found in multitrack recorders today. STJDER remains the standard -setter for the entire
industry, producing a steady succession of technological break-
throughs.
The A800 is another one.
UNQUESTIONABLY STUDER!
!
r R EVOX
For additional Information circle *97
Studer Revox America, Inc. '425 Elm Hill Pike, Nashville, TN 37210!(615) 254 -5651
Offices: Los Angeles (213) 780 -4234 New York (212) 255 -4462 /Canada: Studer Revox Canada, Ltd.
Freedom is what these special Shure icrophdnes offer
...freedom to move about the stage, the wiy you want,
when you want -and still be heard.
'
Take the tiny SM17. It's a favorite of musicians,
because it quickly attaches right on banjos, violins,
mandolins, guitars, and the acoustic bass, to name a
few.nd, unlike contact pickups, the SM17 gives your
ntaiment a super natural sound that makes you
`orget you're using a microphone at all!
you can joir tl a hundreds of drummers and
yboard players who have discovered the pleasure of
Jsing the SM10Ai12A/14A head -worn microphones
with or without
'tor earphone). These lightweight,
noise -canceling micr
nes offer a full range,
smooth frequency response especially tailored for
vocals so you can sing and play witllbut bothersome
booms getting in your way.
Also, there's great news for harmonica players, the
legendary 520D "Green Bullet.' is back for a limited
engagemen
ers all the down
made it ssQ 011War with top bluesmen for
years while fitting right in the palm of your hand.
Shure offers a wide selection of microphones to meet
your sound reinforcement requirements. Visit your local
dealer or write us regarding your specific sound
requirements.
r,
The Sound of the Professionals''
Shure Brothers Inc 222 Hartrey Avenue, Evanston, I
In Canada A C Simmonds 8 Sons Limited
Manufacturer of high fidelity components, microph
loudspeakers, sound systems and related circus
For additional Information circle $98
.
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