EMC Tiered Storage for Oracle Database 11g—Data Warehouse

EMC Tiered Storage for Oracle Database 11g—Data Warehouse
EMC Tiered Storage for
Oracle Database 11g—Data Warehouse
Enabled by EMC Symmetrix VMAX with FAST
and EMC Ionix ControlCenter StorageScope
A Detailed Review
Abstract
This white paper discusses an EMC® tiered storage solution for information lifecycle management (ILM) in
enterprise-class Oracle data warehouse environments. The solution is enabled by EMC Symmetrix® VMAX™ with
FAST (Fully Automated Storage Tiering), EMC Ionix™ ControlCenter®, EMC Ionix ControlCenter
StorageScope™, Symmetrix Performance Analyzer, and Oracle Database 11g features such as partitioning, to
provide automated storage tiering and advanced storage reporting and analysis, including storage chargeback.
May 2010
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Part number: H7068
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Table of Contents
Executive summary ........................................................................................................................... 5
Business case ............................................................................................................................... 5
Key findings ................................................................................................................................... 6
Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 7
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Scope ............................................................................................................................................ 7
Audience ....................................................................................................................................... 7
Terminology................................................................................................................................... 8
Key concepts and components ......................................................................................................... 9
Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 9
ILM and storage tiering ................................................................................................................. 9
EMC Symmetrix VMAX ............................................................................................................... 10
EMC Virtual LUN technology ...................................................................................................... 11
EMC Fully Automated Storage Tiering (FAST) ........................................................................... 11
EMC Ionix ControlCenter and StorageScope ............................................................................. 14
EMC Symmetrix Performance Analyzer...................................................................................... 14
EMC PowerPath .......................................................................................................................... 14
Oracle Database 11g R2 Enterprise Edition ............................................................................... 14
Storage tiering using FAST and Oracle Partitioning ................................................................... 15
Use case ......................................................................................................................................... 16
Use case reference architecture ................................................................................................. 16
Use case description ................................................................................................................... 16
Use case objectives .................................................................................................................... 17
Use case profile........................................................................................................................... 17
Virtual server environment .......................................................................................................... 18
Physical server environment ....................................................................................................... 18
Physical drive configuration ........................................................................................................ 19
Logical drive configuration .......................................................................................................... 19
Storage design considerations .................................................................................................... 19
Oracle database configuration ........................................................................................................ 20
Swingbench database schema ................................................................................................... 20
Oracle partitions .......................................................................................................................... 20
ASM disk groups ......................................................................................................................... 21
ASM disk group / tablespace mapping........................................................................................ 22
Automatic Cluster File System .................................................................................................... 23
EMC FAST configuration ................................................................................................................ 24
Overview of FAST configuration ................................................................................................. 24
Step 1: Create the Symmetrix tiers ............................................................................................. 24
Step 2: Create a storage group ................................................................................................... 25
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Step 3: Profile application I/O using SPA .................................................................................... 26
Step 4: Create a FAST policy...................................................................................................... 27
Step 5: Associate the FAST policy and storage group ............................................................... 28
Step 6: Set FAST control parameters ......................................................................................... 28
EMC Ionix ControlCenter and ControlCenter StorageScope reporting .......................................... 31
ControlCenter end-to-end device mapping ................................................................................. 31
Storage trending and chargeback reporting with StorageScope ................................................ 32
StorageScope Dashboard ........................................................................................................... 32
StorageScope built-in queries ..................................................................................................... 33
StorageScope scheduled reports ................................................................................................ 34
Managing and refining FAST policies ............................................................................................. 35
Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 35
Running and monitoring FAST .................................................................................................... 35
Reviewing FAST change plans ................................................................................................... 36
Approving and executing the FAST change plans ...................................................................... 37
Refining the FAST policy ............................................................................................................. 38
StorageScope chargeback reporting .............................................................................................. 39
Charging back using built-in StorageScope reports.................................................................... 39
Charging back using custom StorageScope queries .................................................................. 40
Conclusion....................................................................................................................................... 41
Key points .................................................................................................................................... 41
References ...................................................................................................................................... 42
White papers and technical notes ............................................................................................... 42
Product documentation ............................................................................................................... 42
Other documentation ................................................................................................................... 42
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Executive summary
Business case
The unrelenting growth of business information and increased regulatory
requirements for long-term storage present a key challenge for very large database
(VLDB) environments, demanding storage systems that provide high availability and
performance, end-to-end visibility, and ease of management, at minimum cost.
The business value of information changes over time, and availability and
performance requirements change accordingly. Implementing an appropriate
Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) strategy is key to reducing storage costs.
Challenge
Solution
Storing all data on highperformance, highavailability drives is
expensive and inefficient.
Storage tiering is the process of moving data
between storage tiers as it progresses through its
lifecycle and as its business value changes.
®
EMC Fully Automated Storage Tiering (FAST)
proactively monitors I/O access patterns at the
®
Symmetrix device (LUN) level, identifying devices
that would benefit from being moved to higher
performing drives and also identifying devices that
could be relocated to higher-capacity, more costeffective storage, without altering performance.
Importantly, FAST moves data automatically and
nondisruptively between tiers, without interrupting
business continuity and data availability.
Selecting an optimal storage
platform for storage tiering in
large data warehouse
deployments.
EMC Symmetrix VMAX™ is an enterprise array
that supports multiple drive technologies and the
full range of RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) types, making it an ideal
platform for storage tiering within the array.
With automated storage
tiering, the ability to easily
monitor, analyze, and report
on storage utilization is of
fundamental importance.
Symmetrix Performance Analyzer (SPA) provides
real-time performance monitoring and trending.
Maintaining the accountability
necessary to address
expanding storage needs.
®
EMC Ionix™ ControlCenter provides advanced
storage reporting and analysis, with end-to-end
mapping of application files to storage devices.
EMC Ionix ControlCenter StorageScope™
provides capacity planning, reporting, trend
analysis, and chargeback utilities for FAST
environments.
An optimal ILM strategy, utilizing tiered storage, ensures that information is stored on
the appropriate device, depending on its current availability and performance
requirements, and automatically moves information between devices according to
policies that reflect the value of the information to the business.
This white paper discusses an EMC solution that addresses this challenge for large
Oracle 11g Release 2 data warehouse deployments, ensuring that the right data is
placed on the right storage, at the right time.
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Key findings
The solution described in this paper provides the following benefits:
• Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by:
− placing the right data on the right tier at the right time, based on their usage
patterns
− automatically tiering data according to predefined policies
− using fewer drives, and reducing energy consumption and storage footprint
− providing storage chargeback capabilities, whether for recovering storage
costs or for assisting consumers to make appropriate decisions as regards
their storage needs
• Optimization of storage resource utilization, performance, and availability.
• Improved Service Level Agreement (SLA) compliance for business users by
significantly reducing I/O wait time for the most critical applications.
• Nondisruptive movement of data to the most effective storage tier.
• End-to-end visibility and control of storage resources, usage, and performance
levels.
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Introduction
Purpose
This white paper illustrates an ILM solution that enables automated storage tiering
and chargeback reporting in an enterprise-class Oracle 11g R2 data warehouse
environment.
The solution uses the following EMC information infrastructure hardware and
software accelerators:
• EMC Symmetrix VMAX
• EMC FAST
• EMC Ionix ControlCenter
• EMC Ionix ControlCenter StorageScope
• EMC Symmetrix Performance Analyzer
The use case deployment uses the following Oracle technologies:
• Oracle 11g R2 Enterprise Edition
• Oracle RAC
• Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
• Oracle Partitioning
Scope
The scope of this paper is to:
• Present an overview of the concepts and technologies involved in the solution
• Document the design, implementation, and testing of the use case described in
the paper
• Present the business benefits of the solution
Audience
This white paper is intended for Oracle database administrators, storage architects,
EMC customers, and field personnel who want to understand how EMC products
and solutions can provide automated storage tiering and advanced management,
monitoring, and reporting facilities for Oracle 11g R2 data warehouse deployments.
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Terminology
This paper includes the following terminology.
Term
Description
ACFS
Automatic Cluster File System
ASM
Automatic Storage Management
AWR
Automatic Workload Repository
ControlCenter
EMC Ionix ControlCenter
DCP
Data Collection Policy
DRV
Dynamic Relocation Volume
DSS
Decision Support System
EFD
Enterprise Flash Drives
ETL
Extract, transform, load
FAST
Fully Automated Storage Tiering
FC
Fibre Channel
ILM
Information Lifecycle Management
RAC
Real Application Clusters
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RVA
RAID Virtual Architecture
SATA
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
SMC
Symmetrix Management Console
SPA
Symmetrix Performance Analyzer
StorageScope
EMC Ionix ControlCenter StorageScope
VLUN
Virtual LUN
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Key concepts and components
Overview
This section identifies and describes the main concepts and components discussed
in the white paper.
• ILM and storage tiering
• EMC Symmetrix VMAX
• EMC Virtual LUN (VLUN)
• EMC Symmetrix FAST
• EMC Ionix ControlCenter (ControlCenter), and EMC Ionix ControlCenter
StorageScope (StorageScope)
• EMC Symmetrix Performance Analyzer (SPA)
®
• EMC PowerPath
• Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition R2 and Oracle Partitioning
ILM and
storage tiering
ILM refers to the policies, practices, hardware, and software used to administer and
store information throughout its lifetime.
Most business information follows a predictable lifecycle. At the start of its life,
information is generally accessed and updated frequently. As it ages, its business
value diminishes and access may be infrequent. At some point, the information may
be retained solely for regulatory purposes.
The following graph illustrates the typical lifecycle of information and how its value to
the business changes over time.
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The storage requirements of information also change through its lifetime. Frequently
accessed information with a high business value requires high-availability, highperformance storage. On the other hand, the volume of less active data usually
grows over time and this data can be moved to higher-capacity, low-power drives.
A key benefit of ILM strategies is the cost savings that result from moving information
between different storage device types as it progress through its lifecycle.
With large data warehouse databases, workloads tend to be directed to a relatively
small subset of the data stored in the database. Storing all data on the same highperformance, high-availability drives is expensive and inefficient.
Alternatively, storage tiering assigns different categories of information to different
storage types, based on considerations such as business value, performance
requirements, frequency of use, and protection requirements. As information ages,
or as its business value decreases, its category changes and it is moved to the
appropriate storage tier.
The goal is to retain the most valuable or frequently-accessed information on highavailability, high-performance storage media such as Enterprise Flash Drives
(EFDs), and, as its value to the business decreases, to move it to progressively
lowercost media such as Fibre Channel (FC) or Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment (SATA) drives. Moving even small volumes of highly-active data to EFD
drives can improve performance by significant amounts (see EMC Symmetrix DMX-4
Flash Drives with Oracle Databases—White Paper).
EMC
Symmetrix
VMAX
The Symmetrix VMAX system is a high-end, enterprise storage array comprising a
system bay and separate storage bays. The system scales from a single highavailability (HA) node configuration to eight-node configurations with up to 10 bays.
Each VMAX Engine contains two Symmetrix VMAX directors with extensive CPU
processing power, physical memory, front-end ports, and back-end ports.
Symmetrix VMAX systems deliver scalable performance that meets the most
demanding access, protection, and distribution requirements. They provide three-tier
storage within a single array. EFDs, FC drives, and SATA drives are all supported,
as well as the full range of RAID types.
Symmetrix Management Console (SMC) is a powerful and intuitive GUI that
configures and manages multiple Symmetrix arrays. It presents the functionality of
the Symmetrix Solutions Enabler SYMCLI (command line interface) in a browser
interface, simplifies storage administration tasks though the use of built-in wizards,
and provides the ability to:
• Manage Symmetrix access controls, user accounts, and permission roles
• Discover Symmetrix arrays
• Perform configuration operations (create devices, map and mask devices, set
Symmetrix system attributes, set device attributes, set port flags, create SAVE
device pools)
• Manage devices (change device configuration, set device status, reserve
devices, duplicate devices, create/dissolve metadevices)
• Perform and monitor replication operations
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• Monitor alerts
• Monitor an application’s performance
• Configure and manage FAST and Symmetrix Optimizer
For more information see EMC Symmetrix VMAX Series Product Guide.
EMC Virtual
LUN
technology
EMC’s Virtual LUN (VLUN) technology is a built-in feature on Symmetrix VMAX
arrays utilizing RAID Virtual Architecture (RVA). RVA is a new and optimized design
implemented in Symmetrix VMAX arrays with EMC Enginuity™ OS 5874 and later. It
provides Enginuity with a single code path to manage all Symmetrix RAID
protections.
This design allows two distinct RAID groups, of different protection or on different
storage tiers (or both), to be associated with a Symmetrix device for the purposes of
migration. In this way, VLUN allows for the migration of data from one protection
scheme to another (for example, RAID 5 to RAID 6) without interruption to the host
or application accessing data on the Symmetrix device.
Prior to VLUN technology, most other LUN migration methods required an outage to
the applications before or after the migration, to add the new target LUNs to the host
or to point the application to the newly migrated LUNs. VLUN technology allows a
user to migrate data on a per LUN basis within the array.
VLUN migration can be managed through SMC with the LUN migration wizard or
with the Solutions Enabler symmigrate command set. For further information, see the
EMC Solutions Enabler Symmetrix Array Controls CLI Version 7.1 Product Guide.
EMC Fully
Automated
Storage Tiering
(FAST)
FAST represents the next generation of storage tiering, by automating tiered storage
strategies and ensuring that the right data is placed on the right storage at the right
time. It is a feature of the Symmetrix family, and, on the Symmetrix VMAX, uses
VLUN technology to seamlessly migrate data between LUNs.
FAST uses intelligent algorithms to continuously analyze device activity and
generate plans for moving/swapping devices in order to re-allocate application data
across different tiers within a Symmetrix array.
FAST proactively monitors workloads at the LUN level to identify “busy” devices that
would benefit from being moved to higher-performing drives such as EFD. It also
identifies less “busy” devices that could be relocated to higher-capacity, more costeffective storage such as SATA without altering performance. Data movement is
based on user-defined storage tiers and FAST policies.
FAST components
FAST configuration involves three types of components: storage types (Symmetrix
tiers), storage groups, and FAST policies.
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The following diagram illustrates the relationship between these components.
• Symmetrix tier: A combination of a drive technology (for example, EFD, FC
15k rpm, or SATA) and a RAID protection type (for example, RAID 1, RAID 5
3+1, or RAID 6 6+2). When defined, a tier will contain one or more physical disk
groups, of the same technology type, from the Symmetrix.
• Storage group: A storage group is a logical grouping of devices used for
common management, typically including all of the devices used by one
application or a set of functions of the application. A Symmetrix device can
belong to more than one storage group. However, if a device belongs to
multiple storage groups, it can be associated with only a single FAST policy.
Storage groups are used by both Auto-provisioning Groups and FAST, both of
which require Enginuity 5874.
For further information on storage groups and their use in Auto-provisioning,
see Storage Provisioning With EMC Symmetrix Autoprovisioning Groups
Technical Note.
• FAST policy: A set of tier usage rules that are applied to associated storage
groups. A FAST policy lists up to three tiers and assigns an upper usage limit
for each tier. The usage limit specifies the maximum percentage of the storage
group that the FAST controller can allocate to a particular tier.
For more information on these FAST components, see the EMC FAST configuration
section in this paper.
FAST control parameters
The FAST controller is the intelligence of the FAST software. When configuring
FAST, the following parameters specify how the controller manages its functions.
• FAST can be configured to operate in Automatic mode, where the system
automatically executes data movements based on the defined policy.
Alternatively, it can operate in User Approved mode, where all change plans
recommended must be explicitly approved prior to being executed.
• Time windows are used by FAST to specify when data can be collected for
performance analysis and when data movements can be executed. These time
windows ensure that data is collected during active periods and that data
movements are performed at times that minimize any possible adverse impact
on the performance of other, more critical workloads.
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• FAST can be configured to allow both moves and swaps to be performed or to
allow only swaps.
Symmetrix Optimizer is Symmetrix software that provides automatic performance
tuning. Data movement mode and time window parameters are shared with
Optimizer and changes to these parameters affect both Optimizer and FAST.
FAST device migration
Device migration is one of the most critical functions of FAST. The FAST controller
has two methods to relocate devices—move or swap.
• A move occurs when there is sufficient unallocated space available in the target
storage tier to accommodate the move. This is the preferred method of
relocating a device. This process uses the VLUN migration feature to relocate
the device to a different tier.
• A swap takes place when there is no unconfigured space in the target tier and a
corresponding device of similar size is available. A swap involves three copy
processes and uses a Dynamic Relocation Volume (DRV) device to preserve
the data on the devices involved in the swap.
FAST algorithms
FAST uses three algorithms to analyze data and identify the most appropriate
storage tier for devices:
• EFD promotion/demotion: This algorithm is designed to maximize EFD
utilization in the Symmetrix array. It models EFD performance for each device,
and assigns the device an EFD performance score based on average reads per
second and read/write ratios. The devices with the highest scores are
considered good candidates for promotion to EFDs.
• Capacity-based: This algorithm enforces the percentages configured in the
FAST Policy. If a storage group has a higher percentage of devices on a tier
than the policy allows, a recommendation is made to move devices to a
different tier in compliance with the FAST Policy.
• FC/SATA cross tier: This algorithm is used to balance utilization across FC
and SATA drives.
The end result of FAST analysis is the creation of a configuration change plan that
lists recommendations for device movement to more appropriate tiers. In Automatic
data movement mode, device migrations occur during the next available data move
window. In User Approved data movement mode, migrations occur during the next
data movement window after the user has approved the change plan.
In addition to FAST algorithms, the traditional Optimizer algorithm can be used. If
Optimizer is enabled, intra-disk group load balancing is executed to rebalance disk
utilization within tiers. EMC recommends that customers use FAST in conjunction
with the optional Optimizer data management solution to further enhance the load
balancing capabilities across tiers. See EMC Symmetrix Optimizer—A Detailed
Review for further information.
Note
To use FAST, both Symmetrix Optimizer and FAST must be licensed and enabled.
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EMC Ionix
ControlCenter
and
StorageScope
EMC Ionix ControlCenter comprises a comprehensive family of storage resource
management (SRM) and device management applications that automate
management of networked storage environments. ControlCenter supports and
automates common tasks such as reporting, planning, provisioning, and monitoring
storage resources, and includes tracking and reporting support for Symmetrix FAST,
through StorageScope.
StorageScope is a core component of ControlCenter, providing capacity planning,
reporting, and trend analysis functions across Symmetrix FAST environments,
including chargeback reporting.
For more detailed information, see the EMC Ionix ControlCenter and ControlCenter
StorageScope reporting section in this paper.
EMC
Symmetrix
Performance
Analyzer
SPA is a server-based application that provides a single tool to monitor the real-time
workload activity for a number of Symmetrix arrays. It is integrated with SMC and
shares SMC resources while providing diagnostic, performance, and planning
information with easy-to-use graphical data representations.
EMC
PowerPath
PowerPath is server-resident software that enhances performance and application
availability. It works with the storage system to intelligently manage I/O paths, and
supports multiple paths to a logical device.
PowerPath provides automatic failover in the event of a hardware failure by
automatically detecting the path failure and redirecting I/O to another path.
Oracle
Database 11g
R2 Enterprise
Edition
This white paper presents a storage solution for Oracle 11g R2 data warehouse
environments. The solution takes advantage of many features of Oracle 11g R2,
including Real Application Clusters (RAC), Automatic Storage Management (ASM),
Automatic Cluster File System (ACFS), and Oracle Partitioning.
In Oracle 11g R2, Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware have been integrated into a
single set of binaries and named the Oracle Grid Infrastructure. This now provides all
the cluster and storage services required to run an Oracle RAC database. Oracle
ASM has also been extended to include support for OCR and voting files to be
placed within ASM disk groups.
A new feature—Oracle ACFS—extends ASM functionality to act as a general
purpose cluster file system. Oracle database binaries can be placed on ACFS along
with support files, such as trace and alert logs, and non-Oracle general purpose
application files.
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Storage tiering
using FAST
and Oracle
Partitioning
For large Oracle data warehouse deployments, it can become extremely cost
effective to analyze and identify I/O patterns within the Oracle database. FAST
performs this analysis automatically.
Oracle Partitioning enables tables and indexes to be decomposed into smaller, more
manageable pieces (partitions). Each partition has its own name and can have its
own storage characteristics. Over time, performance requirements for Oracle
partitions may change as data naturally ages out and is accessed less.
In this paper, all partitioned objects for the same period were held in a common
Oracle ASM disk group. FAST was then used to identify devices with similar I/O
patterns and, as partitioned data aged out, FAST automatically moved entire ASM
disk groups to the most appropriate storage tier.
Oracle Partitioning is an additional licensing option for Oracle Database 11g
Enterprise Edition.
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Use case
Use case
reference
architecture
A two-node Oracle 11g R2 ASM RAC environment was deployed on a Symmetrix
VMAX array, with a storage layout that adheres to EMC best practices for Oracle
databases in this environment (for further information see Oracle Databases on EMC
Symmetrix Storage Systems).
EMC Ionix ControlCenter and StorageScope reside on the same virtual machine,
and the Swingbench load generator resides on a separate virtual machine, in a twonode VMware ESX Server farm. SMC, Solutions Enabler, and SPA are hosted on a
physical infrastructure management server.
The following diagram depicts the architecture of the solution.
IP network switch
SAN network switch
SAN network switch
VMware
ESX server farm
Management host
Flash
VMs
EMC Ionix ControlCenter
EMC Ionix ControlCenter
StorageScope
Fibre
Channel
EMC Symmetrix
Management Console
EMC Symmetrix
Performance Analyzer
SATA
EMC Symmetrix VMAX with FAST
VMs
Swingbench load generator
Private Interconnect Gigabit Ethernet network
4 Gb/s Fibre
Channel network
Oracle 11g R2
RAC nodes
Public Gigabit Ethernet network
Public Ethernet
Fibre Channel
Private Ethernet
Use case
description
GEN-001345
Four Symmetrix tiers were created for the use case. FAST was then configured with
a single storage group and a FAST policy was associated with that storage group
(see the EMC FAST configuration section of this paper for full details).
At the start of testing, all data resided on a single FC storage tier. The initial FAST
policy configuration was then applied and FAST change plan recommendations were
executed. After reviewing and analyzing the results of the initial FAST configuration,
the FAST policy was refined to achieve the maximum usage and performance benefits.
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Use case
objectives
The objectives of the use case testing were as follows:
• Design an Oracle storage layout to facilitate a 7+TB Oracle data warehouse
database, while adhering to EMC best practices for deploying Oracle databases
on Symmetrix VMAX arrays (see Oracle Databases on EMC Symmetrix Storage
Systems).
• Deploy and validate a two-node Oracle 11g RAC environment on a Symmetrix
VMAX platform, create a database schema, and use Swingbench to generate a
load against the database to validate the environment.
• Test and validate the automation of storage tiering using a combination of FAST
technology and Oracle Partitioning.
• Use SPA to profile application I/O and use the statistics generated as a guide
for tuning an appropriate FAST policy for the application.
• Use FAST to monitor and analyze disk activity and to recommend and
move/swap data partitions (at the ASM disk group level) to the correct storage
tier.
• Use ControlCenter to create end-to-end mapping views that enable database
administrators to identify where each database component is physically located
on the Symmetrix VMAX array.
• Run StorageScope reports to identify trends and usage of storage assets. This
includes chargeback analysis of provisioned storage.
Use case
profile
The following table presents the use case profile.
Item
Quantity / type / size
Database characteristic
Data warehouse
Benchmark profile
Swingbench DSS Benchmark Load Generator tool
Oracle RAC
2 nodes
Size of database
7 TB
Number of databases
1
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Virtual server
environment
The infrastructure for the virtual environment was configured with the following
hardware and software.
Equipment
Quantity
Configuration
Hardware
VMware ESX Servers
2
Dell PowerEdge R710 with:
• Quad CPU
• 96 GB RAM
• Dual 10 GB CNAs
Virtual machine
Swingbench 2.3
1
Win2k3
EMC Ionix ControlCenter 6.1
1
Win2k3
StorageScope 6.1
Physical server
environment
The infrastructure for the physical server environment was configured with the
following hardware and software.
Purpose
Infrastructure
management host
Quantity
Configuration
1
Dell R710 with:
• Quad CPU
• 64 GB RAM
Windows 2003 SP2
Symmetrix Management Console 7.1
Symmetrix Performance Analyzer 2.0
Solutions Enabler 7.1.0
Oracle RAC
database servers
2
Dell PowerEdge R900 with:
• Quad CPU
• 96 GB RAM
Oracle 11g Enterprise Edition Release R2
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4
Solutions Enabler 7.1.0
PowerPath 5.3 SP1
Storage arrays
2
Symmetrix VMAX with:
• Enginuity 5874 Q409SR
• 2 x VMAX 64 GB engines
FC switches
2
Brocade 5100 8 GB FC switches, 2 per site
Ethernet switches
2
Cisco Catalyst 3750 Gigabit Ethernet switches
Host bus adapters
10
Emulex LP11002 HBA, 2 per physical server
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Physical drive
configuration
The following table details the physical drives used in the use case test environment.
Drive type
No. of drives
Specifications
RAID type
Usable capacity
EFDs
8
200 GB EFD
RAID 5 7+1
1.4 TB
FC drives
42
300 GB, 15k rpm
RAID 1
6 TB
FC drives
56
300 GB, 15k rpm
RAID 5 3+1
12.6 TB
SATA drives
22
1,000 GB, 7.5k rpm
RAID 5 3+1
16.5 TB
Logical drive
configuration
Storage design
considerations
The following table details the logical drives used in the use case test environment.
ASM disk group
No. of LUNS
LUN size
Technology
Protection
DATA
72
80 GB
FC
RAID 5 3+1
Redo
15
5 GB
FC
RAID 1
TMP
5
80 GB
FC
RAID 5 3+1
FRA
4
80 GB
FC
RAID 5 3+1
CRS
5
5 GB
FC
RAID 1
When designing tiered storage for FAST environments, the following factors should
be taken into consideration:
• Allow sufficient unconfigured storage on each tier for use by FAST move
operations.
• Swaps are accomplished through a DRV. DRVs have protection level RAID 1
and can reside on any tier. However, the tier on which a DRV resides may
effect the time taken to complete a swap.
• Plan for an adequate number of DRV devices when FAST is configured to allow
for swap operations. The FAST Maximum Simultaneous Volume(s) Moved
parameter should be set to match the number of DRVs.
• DRV devices should be the same size or larger than the devices that are being
swapped.
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Oracle database configuration
Swingbench
database
schema
The Swingbench load generator and benchmarking tool were used to stress test the
Oracle database. The Swingbench profile for the use case was the Sales History
workload. This workload models a data warehouse benchmark and is based on the
Oracle sample schema Sales History.
The load was run with 10 virtual users cycling through six intensive and long-running
Decision Support System (DSS) style select statements.
Swingbench Datagenerator was used to populate and load the database tables with
semi-random data. Note that the size of the database created by Datagenerator can
be scaled at both create time and at load time.
The use case database consists of the following tables.
Oracle
partitions
Table name
Partitioned
SALES
Yes, Range
CUSTOMERS
Yes, Hash
SUPPLEMENTARY_DEMOGRAPHICS
No
COSTS
Yes, Range
TIMES
No
PROMOTIONS
No
CHANNELS
No
COUNTRIES
No
PRODUCTS
No
Data in the database is partitioned on a quarterly basis, with separate partitions for
Quarter 1, Quarter 2, Quarter 3, and Quarter 4 of any given year. Each quarterly
partition has a separate table and index tablespace residing on a dedicated ASM
disk group. Partitioning the database in this way enables each quarter’s data to be
managed as a unit.
In the use case, data is aged out after three years (12 quarterly partitions) and the
disk groups recycled for new partitions.
Oracle partitions are assigned based on a partition key that comprises one or more
columns. Using a partition key, each row is unambiguously assigned to a single
partition and Oracle automatically directs operations (inserts, updates, deletes, etc.)
to the correct partition.
The following Oracle partitioning methods were used for the use case:
• Range partitioning: Maps data to partitions based on ranges of values of the
partitioning key. Commonly used with date ranges where tables are partitioned
by day, week, month, quarter, or year.
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• Hash partitioning: Evenly distributes data to partitions based on a hashing
algorithm that Oracle applies to the partitioning key. This allows distribution of
the data evenly over a fixed number of partitions of similar size.
The following table shows the configuration of the table and index partitions.
ASM disk
groups
Table name
Partition name
Table tablespace
Index tablespace
SALES
SALES_Q1_2008
…….
SALES_Q4_2010
DATA_P1
…….
DATA_P12
INDEX_P1
…….
INDEX_P12
COSTS
COSTS_Q1_2008
……..
COSTS_Q4_2010
DATA_P1
………
DATA_P12
INDEX_P1
……..
INDEX_P12
CUSTOMERS
SD_HASH_P1
…….
SD_HASH_P12
DATA_P1
…….
DATA_P12
INDEX_P1
…….
INDEX_P12
For the use case, the Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant was used to create the
ASM disk groups.
• A disk group (CRS1) was created, with normal redundancy, for CRS and voting
files, which, as of Oracle 11g R2, can be stored within an ASM disk group.
• Following EMC recommended best practice for ASM, standard disk groups
were created, with external redundancy, as follows: DATA (datafiles and
controlfiles), REDO (redo logs), and FRA (archived log files).
As this is a DSS database, with both index creation and select queries
generating large amounts of temp data, a separate TEMP disk group was also
created.
• The tablespaces for each Oracle partition were allocated their own ASM disk
group and the names assigned to the disk groups were chosen to reflect the
partition number—that is, DATA_P1, DATA_P2, DATA_P3, and so on. These
were created with external redundancy.
• In total there were 12 partitions per table. Each date range (quarter) was
assigned its own ASM disk group, which was common to all table and index
partitions for that quarter.
• Oracle ASM has a limit of 63 disk groups per ASM instance. One disk group,
CRS1, was used for Oracle Clusterware files and four disk groups were created
to hold standard database files. Therefore, 58 disk groups were available to
hold further database objects, partitioned or otherwise.
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The following image shows the ASM disk groups created for the use case.
ASM disk
group /
tablespace
mapping
The following table maps the Oracle ASM disk groups to the database tablespaces
and files.
ASM disk group
Tablespace
+DATA
SH_DATA
SH_INDEX
SYSAUX
SYSTEM
UNDOTBS1
UNDOTBS2
USERS
+TEMP
TEMP1
+DATA_P1
…………
+DATA_P12
DATA_P1, INDEX_P1
…………
DATA_P12, INDEX_P12
+FRA
As of Oracle 11g R2, FRA is known as the Fast
Recovery Area (previously Flash Recovery Area). The
use case archive logs were placed here. The database
parameter db_recovery_file_dest was set to use the
ASM disk group +FRA with a usable size of 300 GB.
+REDO
Each database instance was configured with five
online redo log groups, with individual members sized
at 600 MB to match the workload and reduce waits due
to log switching during data loads.
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Automatic
Cluster File
System
For the use case, an ACFS file system was created and shared between the RAC
nodes in order to enable periodic loading of fresh data into the database in parallel,
via either or both instances. The asmcmd command line utility was used to create
the ACFS file system.
Having prepared and created a disk group with external redundancy (CLUSTFS1),
the steps outlined below were performed to configure ACFS.
1. Start asmcmd as the grid owner and create a 76 GB ACFS volume:
volcreate -G CLUSTFS1 -s 76G --redundancy unprotected CLUSTFS1
2. Check the configuration:
volinfo -G CLUSTFS1 CLUSTFS1
Sample output:
Diskgroup Name: CLUSTFS1
Volume Name: CLUSTFS1
Volume Device: /dev/asm/clustfs1-105
State: ENABLED
Size (MB): 76800
Resize Unit (MB): 256
Redundancy: UNPROT
Stripe Columns: 4
Stripe Width (K): 128
Usage: ACFS
Mountpath: /u01/app/oracle/loaddata
3. Enable the ACFS volume:
volenable -G CLUSTFS1 CLUSTFS1
4. As the Linux super user, on a single node, create a file system on the Volume
Device identified above:
/sbin/mkfs.acfs /dev/asm/clustfs1-105
5. On each node, as the Linux super user (root), run the following commands to
register and mount the file system:
/sbin/acfsutil registry -f -a /dev/asm/clustfs1-105 /u01/app/oracle/loaddata
/bin/mount -t acfs /dev/asm/clustfs1-105 /u01/app/oracle/loaddata
The mount point will now be mounted automatically by the Cluster Ready Services.
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EMC FAST configuration
Overview of
FAST
configuration
This section outlines the main steps for configuring FAST on a Symmetrix VMAX
array. It follows the process used for configuring FAST for the use case in this paper.
1. Create a set of Symmetrix tiers (storage types).
2. Create a storage group for the Oracle 11g database.
3. Profile the application I/O using SPA.
4. Create a FAST policy to be applied to the storage group.
5. Associate the storage group with the FAST policy.
6. Set the FAST Controller parameters.
All steps are carried out using SMC. The various menu options used are accessed
from the SMC tree view, where all available Symmetrix arrays are listed.
Other options for configuring FAST include the FAST Configuration Wizard and the
Solutions Enabler Command Line interface (SYMCLI).
Step 1: Create
the Symmetrix
tiers
The use case defines four tiers on the Symmetrix VMAX array, as follows:
Symmetrix tier name
Disk technology
RAID protection
Platinum
EFD STEC 200 GB
RAID 5 (7+1)
Gold
FC 15k rpm 300 GB
RAID 1 (mirrored)
Silver
FC 15k rpm 300 GB
RAID 5 (3+1)
Bronze
SATA 7.5k rpm 1 TB
RAID 5 (3+1)
Note that the Gold tier was not included in the FAST policy, but is used as part of the
chargeback mechanism.
The following image shows the definition of the Platinum tier.
When creating each tier, the following attributes must be specified:
• The tier name, which uniquely identifies the user-defined tier (maximum 32
characters).
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• The disk technology (for example, EFD) on which the tier will reside. Disk
groups available on the specified technology display in the lower portion of the
dialog box when this option is defined.
• The RAID protection type for the tier—for example, RAID 5 7+1 or RAID 5 3+1.
• The tier selection type: Dynamic is the default selection type and creates a
dynamic tier that includes all the disk groups of the selected drive technology
and RAID level. Selecting the Manually select disk groups option instead
creates a static tier. In this case, the dialog displays a list of the disk groups on
the specified technology, and the user selects the disk groups to be included in
the tier.
Step 2: Create a
storage group
To create a storage group, the following attributes must be specified in the Storage
Group Management – Create dialog box:
• The storage group name, which uniquely identifies the storage group.
• The device source type, which specifies the source of the devices to be added
to the storage group.
The Symmetrix option allows the user to select specific devices from all those
available on the array.
Once the source type has been specified, one or more of the available devices can
then be selected for inclusion in the storage group.
The following image shows the definition of the storage group for the use case.
The use case defines a single storage group for the Oracle 11g RAC database. This
storage group encompasses all the devices to be monitored by FAST. All devices
presented to the RAC cluster (except Redo and CRS devices) were included.
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Due to the pattern of access to Redo logs, there may be high periods of inactivity on
these devices, except during data loads. As reasonably high response times are
required from the devices, they are excluded from the FAST storage group to
prevent them being moved between tiers during long periods of inactivity. The CRS
devices are excluded as their nature dictates that they should reside on highavailability mirrored devices. These devices reside on the Gold tier, which is not
included in the use case FAST policy, so they will not be moved/swapped by FAST.
Note
The FAST storage group should always include all the devices in any ASM disk
group that is under FAST control.
Step 3: Profile
application I/O
using SPA
EMC recommends that SPA is used to profile application I/O before a FAST policy is
created. The statistics generated can then be used as a guide for configuring an
appropriate FAST policy for the application.
• Use the SPA Snapshot Hit/Miss Distribution view to determine applicable
workloads and to target Symmetrix tiers for FAST. For example, the following
image shows a significant amount of average read miss activity for a storage
group. In this case, the group may be better placed partly on the EFD tier and
the FAST policy can be configured accordingly.
• Use the SPA storage group Diagnostic view to produce graphs of application
I/O spread. For example, the following Host IOs/sec graph of the use case
storage group (Oracle11gRAC) shows that there is a skew in the workload for
the devices in this storage group. This skew reflects the load that was
generated against the different ASM disk groups by Swingbench.
Possible candidates for EFD
Possible candidates for SATA
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Approximately 15% of the devices are being hit harder with I/O than the
others. The devices related to this 15% of the storage group may be suitable
candidates for up-tiering from FC to EFD.
Step 4: Create a
FAST policy
The use case defines a single FAST policy for use with the Oracle11gRAC storage
group. The policy specifies the maximum percentage of the storage group that the
FAST controller can allocate to each defined Symmetrix tier.
When creating the policy, the following attributes must be specified in the FAST
Policy Management – Create FAST Policy dialog box:
• The policy name, which uniquely identifies the policy.
• The name of each tier to be added to the policy—these are selected from a list
of previously defined tiers.
• The storage group capacity for each tier—that is, the maximum amount (%) of
the storage group that can be allocated to the tier. This value must be from 1 to
100, and the total percentage for a FAST policy must add up to 100% or more.
The following image shows the definition of the FAST policy.
The policy allows for up to 100% of the associated storage group to reside on FC
disks, up to 15% to reside on EFD, and up to 100% to reside on SATA disks. With
this configuration, FAST will recommend data movements based on its performancebased algorithms rather than its capacity-based algorithm.
The SPA Diagnostic View of the test database shows approximately 75% of the
devices with very little I/O, suggesting that they can be down-tiered to SATA if
required. By specifying a 100% value for the Bronze tier (SATA Raid 5 3+1), the
FAST policy can accommodate not just the 75% of devices identified in SPA but also
additional devices that may become available to move to SATA drives without
negatively affecting overall performance of the application.
Since users are mostly concerned with usage of premium tiers, the most flexibility is
achieved by configuring the least performing tier with a tier allocation of 100% and
limiting the tier allocation of the premium tiers. This enables sharing of the limited,
high-performance storage by multiple applications as their needs change over time.
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Step 5:
Associate the
FAST policy
and storage
group
When the FAST policy has been defined, it can then be associated with one or more
storage groups. The Create FAST Policy dialog box presents an option for opening
the Storage Group Association dialog box. This lists all available storage groups,
with options for adding one or more storage groups to the current policy.
Step 6: Set
FAST control
parameters
The parameters for specifying how FAST manages data analysis and movement are
set in the FAST – Settings dialog box. The following image shows the parameter
values for the use case.
The following image shows the association of the Oracle11gR2_FAST_Policy with
the Oracle11gRAC storage group.
• Data Movement Mode: Specifies whether to move data automatically or to wait
for user approval. User Approved mode is recommended for new installs and
for users unfamiliar with FAST.
• Maximum Number of Volume(s) Moved Per Day: Specifies the maximum
number of moves to perform in a 24-hour period.
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• Maximum Simultaneous Volume(s) Moved: Specifies the maximum number
of moves/swaps that can be performed simultaneously. Due to the size of the
database in the test environment, this parameter is set to 16 for the use case,
double the default value of eight. Having more DRV devices available, and
increasing the number of simultaneous swaps permitted, reduces the number of
swap windows needed to rebalance the storage through FAST.
• Workload Analysis Period: Specifies the amount of workload sampling to
maintain for sample analysis, in units of hours, days, or weeks.
• Initial Period: Specifies the minimum amount of workload sampling to be
completed before analyzing the samples for the first time. The default value of
one week allows sufficient time to establish a good characterization of the
typical workload.
• Migration Restriction: Specifies whether the FAST controller can do swaps
and moves, or only swaps. The use case allows both swaps and moves.
• Time Windows: These specify when performance samples can be taken for
analysis and when moves/swaps can be performed. There are three types of
time window:
− Performance Time Window (Inclusive): This specifies the period of time
during which performance is to be monitored—for example, Monday to Friday,
09:00 hrs to 17:30 hrs.
− Performance Time Window (Exclusive): This can be set to exclude periods
from statistics collection. For example, it may be appropriate to exclude
periods of low activity or periods when unusual activity is taking place.
− Swap Time Window: This specifies when moves/swaps swaps can be
performed—for example, Saturday and Sunday, 09:00 hrs to 17:00 hrs.
The following image shows an example of a Performance Time Window.
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Best practice for setting time windows is to use the SPA workload Trend Views to
help identify the ideal FAST performance and move time windows based on the
sampled I/O activity of FAST monitored volumes.
FAST performance windows should ideally coincide with periods of maximum
workload; FAST move/swap windows should ideally occur during periods of
comparatively lower activity, so as to minimize the possible impact on the
performance of other, more critical workloads.
Note
FAST device move and swap operations may result in a short-term impact to disk
response time for a very limited period (see FAST Theory and Best Practices for
Planning and Performance Technical Note). To circumvent any performance impact
during the swap/move window a Quality of Service (QoS) value can be set on the
devices using either Solutions Enabler or SMC.
For further information, see Solutions Enabler Symmetrix Array Controls CLI Product
Guide.
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EMC Ionix ControlCenter and ControlCenter StorageScope reporting
ControlCenter
end-to-end
device mapping
Using ControlCenter, storage administrators can now easily work out end-to-end
mapping of ASM devices to storage devices. To retrieve the mapping information
from the host without using ControlCenter involves the use of multiple host and
database commands. With ControlCenter, however, a few mouse clicks displays the
relevant information.
ControlCenter 6.1 Update Bundle 7 provides this added support for Oracle ASM. The
ControlCenter Database Agent for Oracle is installed on a host in the environment
and enables discovery, monitoring, and viewing of configuration and allocation
information for all ASM instances on the agent host and on any machines that can
communicate with the agent host.
The following image shows information collected by ControlCenter for the Oracle
database and ASM devices in the use case scenario, as well as the properties for
the associated PowerPath devices.
Oracle file mapping in ASM DATA disk group
ASM disk group–ASM disk mapping
ASM disk–
PowerPath
device mapping
PowerPath device–Symmetrix
logical volume mapping
The view shows that the ASM disk group DATA is made up of four PowerPath
devices (emcpowerce, emcpowercf, emcpowercg, and emcpowerch). These are
pseudo devices for Symmetrix logical volumes 7A-7D. The ASM device names
match the names of the PowerPath pseudo device names.
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This approach provides customers with a best practice for easily retrieving mapping
information from ControlCenter.
For further information on Agent installation and setup, see the EMC Ionix
ControlCenter 6.1 Planning and Installation Guide.
Storage
trending and
chargeback
reporting with
StorageScope
StorageScope provides a variety of features (snapshots, views, built-in and custom
reports, built-in and custom database queries) to help users to:
• View configuration, status, and usage information for individual objects, userdefined groups, or the entire enterprise in order to assess the current storage
environment.
• Determine future storage needs based on historical usage and trending reports.
• Reclaim storage resources by identifying unused or underutilized storage, as
well as duplicate, rarely accessed, or non-business files.
• Facilitate billing and chargeback operations by location, line of business, or
application.
• View point-in-time charts and tables (snapshots) of high-importance areas of
the storage environment on StorageScope’s customizable Dashboard.
• Generate custom database queries unique to the enterprise.
StorageScope snapshots, views, reports, and queries use data collected by
ControlCenter agents. To obtain complete reporting of the specific resources in an
environment, the appropriate ControlCenter agents must be deployed.
The StorageScope Repository is populated through an extract, transform, load (ETL)
process that organizes and prepares data retrieved from the ControlCenter
Repository for reporting in StorageScope. The ETL process can be scheduled to
occur at a specific time each day, and also runs on demand through the
StorageScope user interface.
Note
For StorageScope reports to be accurate, the ControlCenter Data Collection Policy
(DCP) and the StorageScope ETL must first be completed.
StorageScope
Dashboard
The Dashboard is the initial screen displayed when users log in to StorageScope. It
is fully customizable and runs both built-in and custom snapshots (queries).
On the customized Dashboard for the use case, the user is presented with
information on the storage consumption of the 10 largest database tablespaces and
the 10 largest database instances in the environment.
A custom query is also included: Tier Usage and Cost. This is a chargeback query
that has been modified to show the cost breakdown of storing the test database
(TCE-FAST) across multiple tiers.
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The following image shows an extract from the customized Dashboard.
Custom snapshot created with SQL statement
Built in snapshots
For further details on chargeback reporting, see the StorageScope chargeback
reporting section in this paper.
StorageScope
built-in queries
StorageScope’s built-in queries provide a wide range of usage, capacity planning,
and chargeback reports. Examples include Database Tablespace Usage, Weekly
Database Usage, Array Storage by Service Level, and Host Storage by Service Level.
These reports can be tailored to meet customer requirements.
The Host Storage By Service Level query provides information on host storage
allocation for use in chargeback capacity reporting. The sample output in the
following image shows the current storage allocation for host TCE-FAST01, with all
storage for the host residing on the Gold and Silver tiers.
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StorageScope
scheduled
reports
StorageScope’s built-in query scheduler enables automation of both built-in and
custom report generation. Report output can be automatically e-mailed to specified
e-mail addresses or distribution lists. The output can then be imported to a
spreadsheet application for use in chargeback or simply viewed as a PDF file for
comparison.
The following image shows the query scheduler set up to e-mail report output in CSV
format for import to a spreadsheet.
Data can be output in XML, PDF, or
CSV format and e-mailed for input to
chargeback reports
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Managing and refining FAST policies
Overview
As described earlier, four Symmetrix tiers were created for the Symmetrix VMAX
array. FAST was configured with a single storage group (Oracle11gRAC), and a
FAST policy (Oracle11gR2_FAST_Policy) was associated with that storage group.
The FAST policy was set up to use three of the Symmetrix tiers (Platinum, Silver,
and Bronze). It initially allowed for 100% of the storage group to reside on the Silver
tier, 100% on the Bronze tier, and 15% on the Platinum tier.
For the purpose of testing, FAST was set up in User Approved mode, so all
swaps/moves needed to be approved and scheduled before being executed.
Performance windows were also set up to monitor the storage group, as shown in
the following image.
Running and
monitoring
FAST
Once FAST was configured, I/O was generated against the database for the duration
of the performance monitoring time window. Swingbench was used to do this,
applying the same I/O pattern that was used to profile the database for configuring
the FAST Policy.
With User Approved mode enabled, FAST generates a configuration change plan
every hour, based on its analysis of the performance metrics. At the end of the
performance window the most recent plan was reviewed and approved for execution.
Note
When FAST is in Automatic mode, a plan is created at the start of each configured
move window. At this time, FAST selects and executes one of its algorithms. If
execution of the plan completes before the end of the current move window, another
algorithm is selected and executed.
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Reviewing
FAST change
plans
The image below shows the result from the first performance window—a number of
devices were recommended for up-tiering by the EFD promotion/demotion algorithm.
Plan is based on performance
based algorithms
FAST is recommending move to
FLASH drives on Platinum tier
Examination of the Oracle Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) report generated
for the period revealed that tablespaces DATA_P8 and DATA_P9, and their
corresponding disk groups, were experiencing the majority of I/O in the database.
The following image, extracted from the AWR report, shows the percentage of I/Os
experienced by these tablespaces and their underlying devices.
Using ControlCenter, it was confirmed that these Oracle tablespaces mapped to the
devices that FAST recommended for promotion to EFD.
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Approving and
executing the
FAST change
plans
Once the FAST recommendations had been reviewed, they were approved and
scheduled for execution using the FAST > FAST Control Parameters > Approve
Swap/Move menu option.
FAST then executed the approved plan during the scheduled execution window. The
resulting moves can be viewed in the Properties view of the FAST policy for the
storage group, as shown in the following image.
Devices now reside
on the Platinum tier
With each FAST monitored time window, swap/move lists were generated, approved
and executed, and the ASM disk groups gradually spread across the defined tiers. A
number of move types were suggested by the FAST algorithms and Optimizer also
recommended some moves for balancing disk utilization with intra-tier swaps.
Oracle ASM attempts to balance I/O load across all members in an ASM disk group,
so the members will all have similar performance metrics. As a result, the swap /
move plans generated by FAST ensure that the entire disk group will reside on a
single tier.
To enable this, the percentages defined in the FAST policy should allow space for
one or more entire ASM disk groups per tier and sufficient physical storage should
exist to accommodate this.
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Refining the
FAST policy
Once satisfied that the implemented FAST swap/move plans did not have any
adverse impact on the performance of the data warehouse, the FAST policy was
refined in order to force FAST to implement a more aggressive approach to downtiering of less active devices.
The silver tier allocation was lowered to 50%, a performance monitoring window was
configured, and Swingbench was used to drive load against the database. At the end
of the performance window the FAST swap plan was reviewed. A section of the
move plan is shown in the following image.
Move is based on FAST
capacity-based algorithms
FAST recommends
moving to Bronze Tier
By changing the policy configuration, capacity-based algorithms were triggered to
force down-tiering of less active data to the Bronze tier (SATA).
The policy was approved and FAST automatically moved the volumes to the new
configuration on SATA drives using VLUN migration. The Oracle database remained
operational for the entire move process, with zero downtime and no reconfiguration
was necessary on the host or the database.
The net effect of this refined policy was to lower the TCO by storing the same
quantity of data, at similar performance, and at reduced cost, while freeing up highperforming FC drives (Silver tier) for use elsewhere in the environment.
The change in the assignment of devices can be seen from the StorageScope
reports and the custom query on the StorageScope Dashboard. The following image
shows an extract from the Host Storage by Service Level report.
Reduced from pre-FAST
value of 6301.61 GB
The reduction in the amount of storage that now resides on the Silver tier can be
translated into a real-world saving by charging back to application owners.
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StorageScope chargeback reporting
Charging back
using built-in
StorageScope
reports
As previously stated, it is possible to schedule StorageScope reports and distribute
them by e-mail in CSV format. The information can then be transformed for
chargeback purposes by using a simple spreadsheet.
The following tables were generated from StorageScope’s Host Storage by Service
Level report and show the potential savings achievable by applying the refined FAST
policy.
Before FAST policy applied
Host name
Service level
name
Charge
per GB
Accessible
capacity GB
Cost
TCE-FAST01
Gold
35
98.47
$3,446.45
TCE-FAST01
Silver
20
6301.61
$126,032.20
Total Cost
$129,478.65
After FAST policy applied
Host name
Service level
name
Charge
per GB
Accessible
capacity (GB)
Cost
TCE-FAST01
Platinum
50
945.24
$47,262.00
TCE-FAST01
Bronze
10
3150.81
$31,508.10
TCE-FAST01
Gold
35
98.47
$3,446.45
TCE-FAST01
Silver
20
2205.56
$44,111.20
Total Cost
$126,327.75
The key benefits of applying the FAST policy, as shown by the StorageScope
reports, include:
• Four TB of chargeable storage released on the Silver tier was made available
for provisioning elsewhere.
• Cost reductions were achieved by down-tiering less active Oracle partitions to
the cheaper Bronze tier.
• Improved performance was achieved by the continued up-tiering of the busy
ASM disk groups to EFD devices in the Platinum tier.
Note
Values used for the chargeback examples are test values and do not reflect realworld charges. Actual savings will vary depending on the values applied.
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Charging back
using custom
StorageScope
queries
StorageScope custom queries can also be used to facilitate chargeback.
The following image shows output from the Tier Usage and Cost query, which was
developed for the use case using standard SQL.
The query demonstrates chargeback for a storage group using actual storage
figures, nominal charges, and a percentage breakdown of storage and cost.
37% of the total cost for the
storage group relates to
Platinum tier storage
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Conclusion
Key points
This white paper highlights the ease of use, efficiency, and cost savings realized in
an Oracle 11g R2 data warehouse by utilizing the FAST capabilities of the
Symmetrix VMAX storage system.
The functionality, testing, and observations documented in this white paper
demonstrate how the following components improve asset utilization in the data
center:
• FAST technology can monitor and improve database and storage performance
over time, while reducing the overall cost of provisioned storage. It provides:
− Reduced TCO by placing the right data on the right tier at the right time.
− Nondisruptive movement of data to the most effective storage tier.
− Optimization of storage resource utilization, performance, and availability.
− Reduced administration costs by automatically tiering data according to
predefined policies.
− Reduced operating costs by using fewer drives, and lowering energy
consumption and storage footprint.
• EMC’s suite of storage management, monitoring, and reporting applications
provides unified management of an Oracle 11g R2 data warehouse
environment on the Symmetrix VMAX platform, as follows:
− End-to-end mapping of Oracle ASM disk groups to Symmetrix logical volumes
(EMC Ionix Control Center).
− Performance statistics that assist the process of designing and monitoring
FAST policies (Symmetrix Performance Analyzer (SPA)).
− Built-in and custom reporting for trend analysis and chargeback across
Symmetrix FAST environments (StorageScope).
• When combined with FAST, Oracle Partitioning is an enabler for ILM.
Partitioned data is automatically migrated to the correct storage tier without
impacting existing performance or service levels.
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References
White papers
and technical
notes
For additional information, see the papers listed below.
• FAST Theory and Best Practices for Planning and Performance Technical
Notes
• Implementing Fully Automated Storage Tiering (FAST) for EMC Symmetrix
VMAX Series Arrays Technical Note
• Storage Provisioning With EMC Symmetrix Autoprovisioning Groups Technical
Note
• FAST and Virtual LUN for Oracle Database and EMC Symmetrix VMAX with
Enginuity 5874—Applied Technology
• Oracle Databases on EMC Symmetrix Storage Systems TechBook
• EMC Symmetrix DMX-4 Flash Drives with Oracle Databases—Applied
Technology
• EMC Symmetrix Optimizer—A Detailed Review
Product
documentation
For additional information, see the product documents listed below.
• EMC Symmetrix VMAX Series Product Guide
• EMC Solutions Enabler Symmetrix Array Controls CLI Version 7.1 Product
Guide
• Symmetrix Performance Analyzer Online Help 2.0 A02
• EMC Symmetrix Management Console Online Help 7.1 A06
• EMC Ionix ControlCenter 6.1 Planning and Installation Guide
Other
documentation
For additional information, see the documents listed below.
• Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2)
• Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
• Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for
Linux and UNIX
• Oracle Database Installation Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
• Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2)
• Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide 11g
Release 2 (11.2)
• Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2)
EMC Tiered Storage for Oracle Database 11g—Data Warehouse Enabled by EMC Symmetrix VMAX with
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