post harvest profile of potato

post harvest profile of potato
POST HARVEST PROFILE OF POTATO
CONTENTS
1.0
2.0
3.0
PAGE NO.
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
Origin
2
1.2
Importance
2
PRODUCTION
4
2.1
Major producing countries in the world
4
2.2
Major producing states in India
5
2.3
Zone wise major commercial varieties
6
POST- HARVEST MANAGEMENT
8
3.1
Post harvest losses
8
3.2
Harvesting care
3.2.1
3.2.2
10
Harvesting
Drying & Curing
3.3
Post harvest equipments
11
3.4
Grading
11
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
Grade specifications
Codex Alimentarius Commission
Grading at producers’ level
3.5
Packaging
27
3.6
Transportation
28
3.7
Storage
29
3.7.1
Major storage diseases & pests and their control measures
3.7.2
Storage structures
i) Traditional Storage
ii) Improved Storage by refrigeration
3.7.3
Storage facilities
3.7.4
Pledge finance system
(i)
PAGE NO.
4.0
MARKETING PRACTICES AND CONSTRAINTS
37
4.1
37
4.2
Assembling
4.1.1
Major assembling markets
4.1.2
Arrivals
4.1.3
Despatches
4.2.1
4.3
4.4
5.0
40
Distribution
Inter-state movements
42
Export & Import
4.3.1
Sanitary & Phyto-Sanitary requirements
4.3.2
Export procedures
4.3.3
Agri-Export Zones
Marketing constraints and suggestions
46
MARKETING CHANNELS, COSTS AND MARGINS
47
5.1
Marketing channels
47
5.2
Marketing costs and margins
48
6.0
MARKETING INFORMATION AND EXTENSION
50
7.0
ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS OF MARKETING
53
7.1
Direct marketing
53
7.2
Contract marketing
53
7.3
Co-operative marketing
55
7.4
Forward and future markets
56
8.0
9.0
INSTITUTIONAL FACILITIES
59
8.1
Marketing related schemes of Govt. /Public Sector organizations
8.2
Institutional credit facilities
8.3
Organizations / agencies providing marketing services
59
61
62
PROCESSING AND UTILISATION
64
9.1
Processing
9.2
Uses
64
65
10.0
DO’S AND DON’TS
66
11.0
REFERENCES
67
(ii)
1.0
INTRODUCTION :
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) popularly
known as ‘The king of vegetables’, has emerged as
fourth most important food crop in India after rice,
wheat and maize. Indian vegetable basket is
incomplete without Potato. Because, the dry matter,
edible energy and edible protein content of potato
makes it nutritionally superior vegetable as well as
staple food not only in our country but also throughout
the world. Now, it becomes as an essential part of
breakfast, lunch and dinner worldwide. Being a short
duration crop, it produces more quantity of dry matter,
edible energy and edible protein in lesser duration of time than cereals like rice and
wheat. Hence, potato may prove to be a useful tool to achieve the nutritional security of
the nation.
It has been observed that during present trend of diversification from cereals to
horticultural crops, shifting from wheat / barley cultivation to potato cultivation, returns
more to the farmers.
Potato is a major food crop, grown more than 100 countries in world. The native
South Americans brought Potato under cultivation possibly 2000 years before the
Spanish conquest. In 1537, the Spaniards first came into contact with potato in one of
the villages of Andes. In Europe, it was introduced between 1580 .A.D. to 1585 A.D. in
Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium and Germany. At present, China, Russia, India,
Poland and U.S.A. contribute a major share of total world production. It was introduced
in India by the Portuguese sailors during early 17th century and it’s cultivation was
spread to North India by the British. Potato is one of main commercial crop grown in the
country. It is cultivated in 23 states in India. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab
and Gujarat account a lion’s share in total production. Country has achieved a
tremendous growth in potato production during last four to five decades. The annual
compound growth rate of potato is higher than other major food crops in respect of area,
production and productivity. In the year 2002-2003, the production was 25 million
tonnes while it was 5 million tonnes during 1970. Hence, owing its significant growth in
production, bumper yields has been observed almost in every year.
Due to the bumper crop, and lack of post harvest management, glut situations
risen in the market for the surplus yield every year which ultimately results in decline the
prices drastically.
Varieties like Kufri, Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-2, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Luvkar, Kufri
Chandramukhi have been released recently by different research organizations for
processing purposes. In India, there is a great scope for cultivation of potato suitable for
processing. Further, there is a rising demand for quality processed potato products
from the country particularly in Middle East. The countries like Japan, Singapore, Korea,
1
Malaysia, China also have a great demand for processed potato products as well as
fresh potato for processing purpose. Thus, the potato processing has opened a new
dimension for development of agro based industries in the country.
Indian potato preferred world wise for it’s taste and meets the international quality
standards in terms of disease freeness, shape, size, skin colour, flesh and dry matter
content. The Government of India has set up four Agri Export Zones (AEZs) in Punjab,
West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh for significant development in this
direction. These AEZs are making effort in strengthening and creating infrastructure for
export of fresh and processed potato products, with the mandate for tackling the export
of potato and it’s products. The main objectives of the Agri Export Zones set up is to
provide emphasis on partnership, convergence of different organizations, stakeholders
with a focus on providing a package of facilities for export of potato.
1.1
Origin :
It is believed that potato was a native of Andes in South America and gradually
spread throughout the world.
1.2
Importance :
It has been revealed that, according to FAO, potato is consumed by more than
one billion people the world over. It is a high quality vegetable cum food crop and used
in preparing more than 100 types of receipies in India. The popular Indian receipies like
Samosas and Alu Paranthas are prepared from potato. The protein of potato has high
biological value than proteins of cereals and even better than that of milk. The biological
value of mixture of egg and potato is higher than the egg alone. Hence, potato can be
supplement of meat and milk products for improving their taste, lowering energy intake
and reducing food cost. Nutritional point of view, potato is a wholesome food and
deserves to be promoted as a potential high quality vegetable cum food crop in the
country.
Nutritive Value :
The constituents of potato per 100 gms.
Sl.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Constituents
Water
Carbohydrates (Starch and Sugar)
Proteins
Fibre
Fat
Minerals
Weight (grams)
74.70
22.60
1.60
0.40
0.10
0.60
Source: Potato in India, Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), Shimla
2
The Minerals and Vitamins as available in Potato is given below :
Sl.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Source:
Minerals / Vitamins
Calcium
Copper
Iron
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Vitamin C
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Total Folate
Pyridoxine
Content (mg/100 gm of fresh
weight)
7.7
0.15
0.75
24.2
40.3
568.0
6.5
14.0 – 25.0.
0.18
0.01-0.07
0.4 –3.1
5.0-35.0
0.13-0.25
Potato in India, Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), Shimla
It is utilized in variety of ways, such as preparation of chips, wafers, flakes,
granules, flour, starch, potato-custard powder, soup or gravy thickener, pan cakes as a
process food.
As being one of the principal cash crop, it gives handsome returns to the
growers/farmers due to it’s wide market demand nationally and internationally for
different kinds of utilization. Further it has been reported by the International Food
Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and International Potato Centre (CIP), India is likely to
have highest growth rate of potato production and productivity during 1993 to 2020.
During the same period, demand for potato is expected to rise by 40 per cent world
wide. This indicates that a picture about a clear opportunity to capture the huge
domestic and international market of potato by producing quality potato and it’s products.
3
2.0
PRODUCTION :
2.1
Major producing countries in the world:
Potato is grown in more than 100 countries in the world with a production of
around 321 thousand tones during the year 2004 China ranks first while Russia and
India ranks second and third respectively. China, India, USA, Ukraine, Germany and
Poland shared more than 62 per cent of total global production as can be seen from
Table No.1. The country wise production during 2002-04 is furnished as under.
Table No. 1
PRODUCTION OF MAJOR POTATO PRODUCING COUNTRIES
(DURING 2002-04)
Production : 000’ tonnes
Sl.
YEAR / PRODUCTION
COUNTRY
No.
2002
2003
2004
1.
China
75,268
72,067
75,048
2.
Russia
32,871
36,746
37,000
3.
India
24,450
25,000
25,000
4.
USA
20,857
20,767
20,149
5.
Ukraine
16,620
18,453
19,450
6.
Germany
11,492
10,232
12,992
7.
Poland
15,524
13,731
15,000
8.
Others
131,784
121,291
117,046
All World
328,866
318,287
321,685
Source :
FAOSTAT
CHART – 1
WORLD POTATO PRODUCTION DURING 2004
23%
36%
China
12%
Russia
India
USA
Ukraine
5%
8%
4%
6%
6%
Germany
Poland
Others
4
2.2
Major producing states in India:
In India, potato is cultivated in almost all states and under very diverse agro
climate conditions. About 85 per cent of potatoes are cultivated in Indo-gangetic plains
of North India. The states of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Gujarat
accounted for more than 80 per cent share in total production. The statewise production
is furnished as under.
Table No. 2
PRODUCTION OF MAJOR POTATO PRODUCING STATES
(DURING 2003-04 & 2004-05)
Production : 000’ tonnes
Sl.No.
STATE
YEAR / PRODUCTION
2003-04
2004-05
1.
Uttar Pradesh
6825.60
9821.70
2.
West Bengal
7591.70
7106.60
3.
Bihar
5656.70
5656.70
4.
Punjab
1439.70
1470.20
5.
Gujarat
780.00
978.20
6.
Others
5632.10
4155.20
All India
27925.80
29188.60
Source :
National Horticulture Board (NHB).
CHART- 2
All India Production Potato during 2004 - 2005
14%
3%
35%
5%
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
19%
Bihar
Punjab
24%
Gujarat
Others
5
2.3
Zone wise major commercial varieties:
Table No. 3
I) Zone – North Western Hills
Area
Name of Variety
Yield (metric
tonne / hectare)
Dry
matter
Consumer and Processing
quality
Hills of Himachal
Pradesh and
southern Jammu &
Kashmir
Kufri Jyoti
20
Medium
Easy to cook, texture is waxy,
mild
flavour,
occasional
discolouration after cooking.
Suitable for instant flakes and
chips.
Area
Name of Variety
Yield (metric
tonne / hectare)
Dry
matter
Consumer and Processing
quality
Nainital
Almora,
Dehradoon,
Uttarkashi, Garhwal
and Chamoti
districts.
Kufri jyoti
20
medium
Easy to cook, texture is waxy,
mild
flavour,
occasional,
discolouration after cooking.
Suitable for instant flakes and
chips.
Area
Name of variety
Yield (Metric tonne
per hectare )
Dry
matter
Consumer and Processing
quality
Hills of
Meghalaya,
Manipur, Tripura,
Nagaland,
Arunachal Pradesh,
and Mizoram
Kufri Jyoti
10
Medium
Kufri Giriraj
20
Medium
Easy to cook, waxy texture,
mild flavour, free from
discoloration after cooking.
Not suitable for processing.
II) Zone – Hills of Uttaranchal
III) Zone - North Eastern Hills
IV) Zone - Southern Hills
Area
Name of variety
Yield (Metric tonne
per hectare )
Dry
matter
Nilgiri and Palani
Hills of Tamil Nadu
Kufri Jyoti
20-21
Medium
Kufri Swarna
25
Medium
Consumer
quality
and
Processing
Easy to cook, floury texture,
mild flavour, free from
discoloration after cooking.
Not suitable for processing.
V ) Zone – North Central Plains
Area
Name of variety
Yield (Metric tonne
per hectare )
Dry
matter
Madhya
Pradesh
(Indore,
Gwalior,
Sarguja,
Ujjain,
Chindwara,Sidhi,
Tikamgarh,
Shajapur,Dewas
districts),
Kufri Badsah
40-50
Medium
Kufri Jyoti
20-21
Medium
Kufri Lavkar
30
Medium
Western U.P. and
Gujarat
Kufri Bahar
45
Medium
Kufri
Chandramukhi
25
Medium
Kufri Chipsona
25
Consumer
quality
and
Processing
Easy to cook, texture is waxy,
mild
flavour,
occasional
discolouration after cooking.
Suitable for instant flakes and
chips.
Easy to cook, texture is waxy,
mild flavour, free from
discolouration after cooking.
Suitable for instant flakes and
chips.
6
VI) Zone – North Eastern Plains
Area
Name of variety
Yield (Metric
tonne per
hectare )
Dry matter
Consumer and Processing
quality
Bihar & Jharkhand
(Samastipur,
Madhubani,Siwan,
Champaran,
Hazaribagh,
Purnea,Nalanda,
Ranchi districts)
Kufri Jyoti
20- 21
Medium
Kufri Lalima
40
Medium
Kufri Sindhuri
40
Medium
Cooks on prolong boiling,
floury texture, mild flavour,
free from discoloration after
boiling
VII) Zone – Plateau Region
Area
Name of variety
Yield (Metric
tonne per
hectare )
Dry matter
Consumer and Processing
quality
Maharashtra,
Karnataka
and
parts of M.P. and
Orissa
Kufri Jyoti
25
Medium
Kufri Lavkar
30
Medium
Kufri
Chandramukhi
25
Medium
Easy to cook, floury texture,
mild flavour, free from
discoloration after cooking.
Due to high dry matter
content, the variety is
suitable for processing.
Source :
Indian Potato Varieties, Technical Bulletin No.51,
CPRI, India, Year – 1999.
7
3.0
POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT :
3.1
Post harvest losses:
Under tropical and sub-tropical conditions, the losses due to poor handling and
storage are reported to be in between 40-50 per cent. The post harvest losses of
potatoes are defined as qualitative and quantitative losses. The qualitative losses
greatly reduce the price of potatoes. The physiological, pathological causes and their
remedies are as under.
Table No. 4
Qualitative Losses of Potato
Types of Qualitative
Losses
Reasons
Remedies
1.
2.
3.
Physiological
losses
[Caused by the effect
of environmental
conditions]
i) Due to exposure to
extreme temperatures, (high
and low temperatures), both
before and during storage.
ii) Overheating of tubers
due to direct exposer to
sunlight or during high
temperature
and
nonrefrigerated storage.
iii) Rough handling of
tubers during harvesting.
Pathological losses
[Caused by the
attack of pathogens
e.g. fungi, bacteria,
insects etc.]
1. Do not expose tubers to
direct
sunlight
or
high
temperatures
or
freezing
temperatures.
2. Do not harvest the crop
before maturity.
3. Store potatoes at 2-40C in
cold storage.
4. In case of processing and
ware potatoes, store at
10-120C by using sprout
inhibitors.
1. Careful attention to pre
harvest management like
harvesting, grading etc., is
essential.
i) Rottage and decay
accounts for major losses
caused due to attack of
pests and diseases. It
depend primarily on the
condition of tubers stored 2. Sorting and removal of
and is linked with pre rotted and damaged tubers
harvest
factors
and before and after storage.
aggravated
by
storage
conditions. Such type of
losses are low in hills and
negligible or small in cold
storage.
Source :
Post Harvest Manual For Exports Of Potatoes, Agricultural
and Processed Food Export Development Authority
(APEDA), New Delhi.
8
The following quantitative losses of potato at different stages / levels in various
states are given below.
Table No. 5
Quantitative Losses of Potato
Stages / level
1.
Harvesting
Village Traders
Traders
Source :
States / U.T.
2.
Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh,
Meghalaya, Rajasthan
Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka,
Manipur, Punjab, Tamil Nadu
Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Tripura, West
Bengal
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,
Orissa, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh
Gujarat, Maharashtra
Assam
Bihar
Himachal Pradesh
Karnataka
Kerala
Madhya Pradesh
Manipur
Meghalaya
Orissa
Sikkim
West Bengal
Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Gujarat
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Madhya Pradesh
Manipur
Meghalaya
Orissa
Punjab
Sikkim
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Percentage of Losses
3.
Upto 1 per cent
Upto 2 per cent
Upto 3 per cent
Upto 5 per cent
5-6 per cent
2-3 per cent
5-10 per cent
1-2 per cent
2 per cent
10 per cent
1-2 per cent
1-2 per cent
0.5 per cent
1-2 per cent
2-4 per cent
3-6 per cent
1-2 per cent
2 per cent
5-10 per cent
5 per cent
1-3 per cent
5 per cent
10-15 per cent
3-5 per cent
0.5 per cent
2-5 per cent
6 per cent
1 per cent
10-15 per cent
10 per cent
4-6 per cent
Marketing of Potato in India, DMI,
Ministry of Agriculture. Year – 1984, 2001.
9
3.2
HARVESTING CARE :
3.2.1 Harvesting :
The following harvesting care should be taken :
a)
Follow the practice of Dehaulming [cutting of haulms / aerial parts by sickle or
killing by chemicals (e.g. Gramoxone) or destroying by machines] when the crop
attains 80-90 days and when the aerial part of the plant turns yellow.
b)
c)
d)
Always harvest in dry weather.
Stop irrigation about two weeks before dehaulming.
Avoid bruising and skinning of tubers otherwise tubers become susceptible to rot
diseases.
Harvest the crop after 10-15 days of haulm cutting.
e)
3.2.2 Drying and Curing :
A)
The following care should be taken during drying:
(a)
(c)
Always dry the harvested tuber quickly to remove excess moisture from the
surface of tubers for improving their keeping quality.
Always dry the harvested tuber in storage shed, expose to sun causes the
greening of potatoes.
Do not store the tubers immediately if they are exposed to rain after harvest.
B)
The following care should be taken during curing:
(a)
Always follow the curing process at 25 degree centigrade with a 95 per cent
relative humidity,
For optimum suberization, curing is essential for healing the wounds of tubers
resulted from cutting and bruising during harvesting.
(b)
(b)
C)
The following care should be taken during sorting:
(a)
All the damaged and diseased tubers should be removed during sorting.
10
3.3
POST HARVEST EQUIPMENTS :
1)
ANIMAL DRAWN POTATO DIGGER
It is an animal drawn single row equipment
for digging potato. It consists of
multipurpose tool frame, V shape blade and
extension rods on the blade wings to
separate soil and dirt from the potato. It
eliminates 11 per cent tuber damage
resulting in conventional digging.
Overall dimensions
in mm
Length
Width Height
3325
600
Weight Cutting
in kgs width in
mm
300
250
460
Operating
speed
Km/h
Field
Capacity
Ha/h
1.0-1.9
0.06-0.07
Field
Efficiency
Labour
Requirement
Man-h/ha
Price,
Rs
Op.
Cost
Rs/ha
75
14-17
3500/-
450/-
900
Source:
3.4.
46
Working Draft,
Depth in
N
mm
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal.
GRADING :
Grading is an important factor in the marketing
process of potato.
Benefits:
Sorting and grading of Potato
i)
Grading helps the potato producer and seller to
determine the price.
ii)
It reduces the cost of marketing and helps the consumers to get standard potato
at fair price.
iii)
It facilitates the scope to widen the avenue for potato export.
iv)
It has a direct influence on utilization point of view, as the small to medium sized
tubers are prepared for ‘seed tubers’ and large sized tubers are preferred for
processing purpose.
Methods of Grading :
Grading of tubers is done both by hand as well as by graders. The different
practices of grading of potato are as follows:
i)
Grading of potatoes with a set of rectangular sieves having round holes of
varying diameters, where a pair of such sieves placed one above the other are
shaken to and fro by two persons and the third person continuously feds the
upper sieve.
ii)
Grading of potatoes through sieves hung on chains or ropes and move back and
fore.
11
iii)
Grading of potatoes by the mechanical grader, where the sieves are mounted on
the oscillation of frame as operated mechanically by power. This grader can be
operated with 1H.P. electric motor, engine or tractor.
iv)
Grading of potato with power operated potato grader with conveyer attachment
gives better grading efficiency (90 per cent) .The power requirement is 1.5 H.P .It
can grade four categories viz less than 10 gms,10-25 gms, 25-60 gms, and more
than 60 gms.
v)
The rubber roller type of potato grader grades, six categories of grades viz. less
than 10 gms, 10-25 gms, 25-50 gms, 50-75 gms, 75-100 gms, and more than
100 gms.The system consist of mainframe, grading rollers, conveyor belt and
power transmission system. The grader is operated by 2 H.P electric motor.
2)
HAND OPERATED POTATO GRADER
Function: Sorting of potatoes into different size grades
Specifications:
Type: Manually Operated, Oscillating sieves.
Dimension: 2880mm(L) X 2940mm(w) X 1950mm(h)
Weight : 300 kgs.
No. of sieves : Two oscillating and one fixed.
Sieve inclination: 11%.
Sieve perforation: 45 mm and 30 mm diameter (oscillating sieves), 20 mm diameter (fixed
sieve)
Power transmission: Through belt and pulley arrangement.
Performance:
Output capacity : 20q/hr.
Grade size: i) Upto 50 gms, ii) 50-75 gms., iii) Above 75 gms.
Grading efficiency: 85%.
Tuber brushing: Less than 2%.
Labour requirement : 8-9 persons.
Cost ( Approx) : Rs: 8000/-
12
3)
POWER OPERATED POTATO GRADER
Function: Sorting of potatoes into different size grades.
Specifications:
Type: Power Operated, Oscillating sieves.
Dimension: 2880mm(l) X 2940mm (w) X 1950mm(h)
Weight : 350 kgs.
No. of sieves : Three oscillating and one fixed.
Sieve inclination: 11%.
Sieve perforation: 45.30 and 20 mm diameter(oscillating sieves), 12 mm diameter (fixed
sieve)
Oscillation frequency : 460 – 490 strikes/min
Power transmission: Through belt and pulley arrangement.
Performance:
Output capacity : 25q/hr.
Grade size: i) less than 10 gms, ii) 10-25 gms,
iii) 25-60gms. iv) Above 60
gms.
Grading efficiency: 88%.
Tuber brushing: Less than 2%.
Labour requirement : 9-10 persons.
Cost( Approx) : Rs: 10,000/-
Source :
Central Potato Research Institute, (CPRI), Shimla
3.4.1 Grade Specifications:
I)
AGMARK SPECIFICATIONS
Under the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act,1937, the Table
Potato Grading and Marking rules 1950 was formulated and notified by the Govt. of
India. The quality factors like size of tubers, conformity to the variety, tolerance limits for
under sized and over sized tubers, percentage of diseased and damaged tubers, and
13
dust and extraneous matters, etc. are taken into consideration. The Agmark grade
standards of Table Potato are furnished below.
I)
Grade
designation
Grade Designations and Definition of Quality of Table Potatoes
(Oval or long varieties*)
General
Applicable
to single
tuber’s
size
(Minimum
diameter
in)
millimeters
Conformity
to variety
etc.
Extra
special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption
41 mm**
At least
95% by
weight must
conform to
the variety
Special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption
29 mm
At least
95% by
weight must
conform to
the variety
Definition of quality
Applicable to quantities
Tolerance
Under size or
Disease +
Earth and
over-size
Damage etc
extraneous
matter
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may pass
through
sieve
having circular
holes with a
diameter of the
minimum
size
specified
(in
column 3) for the
grade; included
in this not more
that 0.5% of the
total weight may
pass through a
25 mm.mesh
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may pass
through
sieve
having circular
holes with a
diameter of the
minimum
size
specified
(in
column 3) for the
grade; included
in this not more
that 0.5% of the
total weight may
pass through a
25 mm.mesh
Maximum
aggregate
of all
defects
under
column 5,6
&7
Not more than
2% of the total
weight
may
consist
of
appreciably
diseased,
damaged or
unsightly
potatoes and
included
in
this amount
Not more than
2% may be
total present,
the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight
of
screened
potatoes.
4% of the
total weight
Not more than
2% of the total
weight
may
consist
of
appreciably
diseased,
damaged or
unsightly
potatoes and
included
in
this amount
Not more than
2% may be
total present,
the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight
of
screened
potatoes.
4% of the
total weight
*
The word “Oval or Long”: shall be marked following the grade name on the AGMARK label by means of a rubber
stamp.
**
When the potatoes have been passed over a riddle of greater mesh than 41 mm. the minimum size may at the
seller’s discretion be appended to the grade name, e.g. “Extra Special” (51 mm., 57 mm, 64 mm etc.) but
potatoes which exceed 89 mm in their smallest diameter shall be excluded from grading.
+ 1. Any disease or defect the presence of which may be established by cutting open the potato shall be taken into
account, and potatoes having cuts worm and slug holes penetrating into the flesh shall be regarded as damaged.
2.
Potatoes affected by greenness superficial disease or damage shall not be regarded as diseased or damaged
unless more than 1/10 of the surface is so affected.
3.
A potato shall only regarded as being obviously affected with the soft rot, if at the time of inspection, it is squashy
or the surface is at some part distinctly broken or wet owing to disease.
14
II)
Grade
designation
Grade Designations and Definition of Quality of Table Potatoes
(round varieties*)
General
Applicable
to single
tuber’s
size
(Minimum
diameter
in)
millimeters
Conformity
to variety
etc.
Extra
special
Reasonably
clean,
healthy
potatoes,
free from
serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption
45 mm**
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety
Special
Reasonably
clean,
healthy
potatoes,
free from
serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption
32 mm
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety
Definition of quality
Applicable to quantities
Tolerance
Under size or
Disease +
Earth and
over-size
Damage
extraneous
etc
matter
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may pass
through sieve
having circular
holes with a
diameter of the
minimum size
specified (in
column 3) for the
grade; included
in this not more
that 0.5% of the
total weight may
pass through a
25 mm.mesh
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may pass
through sieve
having circular
holes with a
diameter of the
minimum size
specified (in
column 3) for the
grade; included
in this not more
that 0.5% of the
total weight may
pass through a
25 mm.mesh
Maximum
aggregate
of all
defects
under
column 5,6
&7
Not more
than 2% of
the total
weight may
consist of
appreciably
diseased,
damaged or
unsightly
potatoes
and
included in
this amount
Not more than
2% may be total
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
4% of the
total weight
Not more
than 2% of
the total
weight may
consist of
appreciably
diseased,
damaged or
unsightly
potatoes
and
included in
this amount
Not more than
2% may be total
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
4% of the
total weight
*
Potatoes of round varieties shall be packed separately The word “Oval or Long”: shall be marked following the
grade name on the AGMARK label by means of a rubber stamp.
**
When the potatoes have been passed over a riddle of greater mesh than 45 mm. the minimum size may at the
seller’s discretion be appended to the grade name, e.g. “Extra Special” (51 mm., 57 mm, 64 mm etc.) but
potatoes which exceed 83 mm in their smallest diameter shall be excluded from grading*.
+ 1. Any disease or defect the presence of which may be established by cutting open the potato shall be taken into
account, and potatoes having cuts worm and slug holes penetrating into the flesh shall be regarded as damaged.
2.
Potatoes affected by greenness superficial disease or damage shall not be regarded as diseased or damaged
unless more than 1/10 of the surface is so affected.
3.
A potato shall only regarded as being obviously affected with the soft rot, if at the time of inspection, it is squashy
or the surface is at some part distinctly broken or wet owing to disease.
15
III)
i)
Grade Specifications for Export :
For grade specification for export of table potato under Agmark is as follows.
Grade Designation and Definition of Quality of Table Potatoes of Mettupalayam Variety
(Oval or long or round or mixed*)
Grade
designation
General
Applicable to
single
tuber’s size
(min. dia in
mm)
Conformity
to variety
etc.**
Definition of quality
Applicable to quantities
Tolerance
Under size or overDisease,
size
Damages, etc
Earth and
extraneous
matter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Extra
special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable
46 @
At least
95% by
weight must
conform to
the variety
Not more than 2%
of the total weight
may consist of
diseased, damaged
and sprouted
potatoes.
Special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable
35
At least
95% by
weight must
conform to
the variety
General
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable
25
At least
95% by
weight must
conform to
the variety
Not more than 3% of
the total weight may
pass through sieve
having circular holes
with a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in column
3) for the grade.
Not more than 3% of
the total weight may
pass through sieve
having circular holes
with a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in column
3) for the grade.
Not more than 3% of
the total weight may
pass through sieve
having circular holes
with a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in column
3) for the grade.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
Not more than 2%
of the total weight
may consist of
diseased, damaged
and sprouted
potatoes.
Not more than 2%
of the total weight
may consist of
diseased, damaged
and sprouted
potatoes.
*The word Oval Long or Round or Mixed” shall be marked, following the trade description, on the AGMARK label, by
means of rubber stamp,
**Column 4 relating to conformation to variety will not apply to mixed lots.
@ In case when the potatoes have been passed over a riddle of greater mesh than 46 mm. the minimum size may, at
the seller’s discretion, be appended to the grade name e.g., “Extra Special” (51 mm., 57 mm., 64 mm, etc.) but
potatoes which exceed 89 mm., in their smallest diameter shall be excluded from grading.
1.
2.
3.
Any disease or defect, the presence of which maybe established by cutting open the potato, shall be taken
into account and potatoes having cuts, worm or slug holes penetrating into the flesh shall be regarded as
damaged.
Potatoes affected by greenness, superficial disease or damage shall not be regarded as diseased or
damaged unless more than 1/5 of the surface is so affected.
A potato shall only be regarded as being obviously affected with the soft rot, if at the time of inspection, it is
squashy or the surface is at some part distinctly broken or wet owing to disease.
16
ii) Grade Designation and Definition of Quality of Katva or Farukhabad Table Potatoes
( round**)
Grade
designation
General
Applicable to
single
tuber’s size
(min. dia in
mm)
Conformity
to variety
etc.
Definition of quality
Applicable to quantities
Tolerance
Under size or
Disease,
over-size
Damages, etc
Earth and
extraneous
matter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Extra special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
25 @
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety.
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may
consist of
diseased,
damaged or
sprouted
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
Special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
20
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety.
Not more than 3%
of the total weight
may pass through
having circular with
a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in
column 3) for the
grade.
Not more than 3%
of the total weight
may pass through
having circular with
a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in
column 3) for the
grade.
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may
consist of
diseased,
damaged or
sprouted
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to be
calculated on the
net weight of
screened
potatoes.
*The word ‘Round’ shall be marked, following the trade description, on the AGMARK label, by means of
rubber Stamp.
@
When the potatoes have been passed over a riddle of greater mesh than 25 mm. the minimum
size may, at the seller’s discretion, be appended to the grade name eg., ‘Extra Special’ (51 mm.,
57 mm, 64mm., etc.) but potatoes which exceed 89 mm, in their smallest diameter shall be
excluded from grading.
1.
Any disease or defect, the presence of which may be established by cutting open the potato, shall
be taken into account and potatoes having cuts, worm or slug holes penetrating into the flesh
shall be regarded as a damaged.
2.
Potatoes affected by greenness, superficial disease or damage shall not be regarded as diseased
or damaged unless more than 1/5 of the surface is so affected.
3.
A potato shall only be regarded as being obviously affected with the soft rot, if the time of
inspection, it is squashy or the surface is at some part distinctly broken or wet owing to disease.
17
iii) Grade Designation and Definition of Quality of Table Potatoes of (Oval or long*)
of variety other than Mettupalayam Potatoes
Grade
designation
General
Applicable
to single
tuber’s size
(min. dia in
mm)
Conformity
to variety
etc.
Definition of quality
Applicable to quantities
Tolerance
Under size or
Disease,
over-size
Damages,
etc
Earth and
extraneous
matter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Extra special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
40 @
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety.
Not more than 3% of
the total weight may
pass through sieve
having circular holes
with a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in column
3) for the grade.
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may
consist of
diseased,
damaged and
sprouted
potatoes.
Special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
30
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety.
Not more than 3% of
the total weight may
pass through sieve
having circular holes
with a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in column
3) for the grade.
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may
consist of
diseased,
damaged and
sprouted
potatoes.
General
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
20
At least 95%
by weight
must conform
to the variety.
Not more than 3% of
the total weight may
pass through sieve
having circular holes
with a diameter of a
minimum size
specified (in column
3) for the grade.
Not more than
2% of the total
weight may
consist of
diseased,
damaged and
sprouted
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight of
screened
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight of
screened
potatoes.
Not more than
2% may be
present, the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight of
screened
potatoes.
*The word ‘Oval or long’ shall be marked, following the trade description, on the AGMARK label, by means of rubber
Stamp.
@
When the potatoes have been passed over a riddle of greater mesh than 25 mm. the minimum size may, at
the seller’s discretion, be appended to the grade name eg., ‘Extra Special’ (51 mm., 57 mm, 64mm., etc.)
but potatoes which exceed 89 mm, in their smallest diameter shall be excluded from grading.
1.
Any disease or defect, the presence of which may be established by cutting open the potato, shall be taken
into account and potatoes having cuts, worm or slug holes penetrating into the flesh shall be regarded as a
damaged.
2.
Potatoes affected by greenness, superficial disease or damage shall not be regarded as diseased or
damaged unless more than 1/5 of the surface is so affected.
3.
A potato shall only be regarded as being obviously affected with the soft rot, if the time of inspection, it is
squashy or the surface is at some part distinctly broken or wet owing to disease.
18
iv) Grade Designation and Definition of Quality of Table Potatoes (round*) other
than Mettupalayam and Katva or Farukhabad Potatoes
Grade
designation
General
Applicable
to single
tuber’s size
(min. dia in
mm)
Definition of quality
Applicable to quantities
Conformity to
Tolerance
variety etc.
Under size or
Disease,
over-size
Damages, etc
Earth and
extraneous
matter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Extra special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
45 @
At least 95% by
weight must
conform to the
variety.
Not more than 2%
of the total weight
may consist of
diseased,
damaged
and
sprouted potatoes.
Special
Reasonably
clean, healthy
potatoes, free
from serious
defect and
suitable for
human
consumption.
32
At least 95% by
weight must
conform to the
variety.
Not more than 3%
of the total weight
may pass through
sieve
having
circular holes with
a diameter of a
minimum
size
specified
(in
column 3) for the
grade.
Not more than 3%
of the total weight
may pass through
sieve
having
circular holes with
a diameter of a
minimum
size
specified
(in
column 3) for the
grade.
Not
more
than 2% may
be present,
the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight
of
screened
potatoes.
Not
more
than 2% may
be present,
the
percentage to
be calculated
on the net
weight
of
screened
potatoes.
Not more than 2%
of the total weight
may consist of
diseased,
damaged
and
sprouted potatoes.
*The word ‘Round’ shall be marked, following the trade description, on the AGMARK label, by means of rubber
Stamp.
@
When the potatoes have been passed over a riddle of greater mesh than 45 mm. the minimum size may, at
the seller’s discretion, be appended to the grade name eg., ‘Extra Special’ (51 mm., 57 mm, 64mm., etc.)
but potatoes which exceed 89 mm, in their smallest diameter shall be excluded from grading.
1.
Any disease or defect, the presence of which may be established by cutting open the potato, shall be taken
into account and potatoes having cuts, worm or slug holes penetrating into the flesh shall be regarded as a
damaged.
2.
Potatoes affected by greenness, superficial disease or damage shall not be regarded as diseased or
damaged unless more than 1/5th of the surface is so affected.
3.
A potato shall only be regarded as being obviously affected with the soft rot, if the time of inspection, it is
squashy or the surface is at some part distinctly broken or wet owing to disease.
3.4.2 Codex Alimentarius Commission :
The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) was created in 1963 by Food and
Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization
(WHO) to develop food standards, guidelines and related texts such as codes of
practices under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. It’s main purpose is
to protect the health of consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in food trade and
promoting conditions of food and food standards work undertaken by International
governmental and non-governmental organizations.
19
As per Codex, the Potato products shall comply with the maximum pesticide
residue limits as follows.
CODEX Specifications of Potato/ Potato Products
CODEX STANDARD FOR QUICK FROZEN FRENCH FRIED POTATOES
CODEX STAN 114-1981
1.
SCOPE
This standard shall apply to quick frozen French fried potatoes which have been
prepared from tubers of the species Solanum tuberosum L. and offered for direct
consumption without further processing except for repacking if required.
2.
DESCRIPTION
2.1
Product Definition
Quick frozen French fried potatoes is the product prepared from clean, mature,
sound tubers of the potato plant conforming to the characteristics of the species
Solanum tuberosum L. Such tubers shall have been sorted, washed, peeled, cut into
strips, and treated as necessary to achieve satisfactory colour and fried in edible oil or
fat. The treatment and frying operations shall be sufficient to ensure adequate stability
of colour and flavour during normal marketing cycles.
2.2
Process Definition
2.2.1 Quick frozen French fried potatoes is the product subjected to a freezing process
in appropriate equipment and complying with the conditions laid down hereafter. The
freezing operation shall be carried out in such a way that the range of temperature of
maximum crystallization is passed quickly. The quick freezing process shall not be
regarded as complete unless and until the product temperature has reached -18o C (0oF)
at the thermal centre after thermal stabilization.
2.2.2 The recognized practice of repacking quick frozen foods under controlled
conditions is permitted.
2.3
Handling Practice
The product shall be handled under such conditions as will maintain the quality
during transportation, storage and distribution up to and including the time of final sale.
It is recommended that the product be handled in accordance with the provisions in the
Recommended International Code of Practice for the Processing and Handling of Quick
Frozen Foods (CAC/RCP 8-1976).
20
2.4
Presentation
2.4.1 Styles
The styles of the product shall be determined by the nature of the surface and
the nature of the cross section.
2.4.1.1 Nature of the Surface
The product shall be presented in one of the following styles:
(a)
(b)
Straight cut - strips of potato with practically parallel sides and with
smooth surfaces.
Crinkle cut - strips of potato with practically parallel sides and in which
two or more sides have a corrugated surface.
2.4.1.2 Dimensions of the cross section
The cross sectional dimensions of strips of quick frozen French fried potatoes
which have been cut on all four sides shall not be less than 5 mm when measured in the
frozen condition. The quick frozen French fried potatoes within each pack shall be of
similar cross sections.
The product may be identified by the approximate dimensions of the cross
sections or by reference to the following system for designations:
Designation
surface
Shoestring
Medium
Thick cut
Extra large greater than
Dimension in mm across the largest cut
5-8
8 - 12
12 - 16
16
2.4.2 Other Styles
Any other presentation of the product, based on differing cross sections shall be
permitted provided that it:
(a)
(b)
(c)
is sufficiently distinctive from other forms of presentation laid down in this
standard;
meets all other requirements of this standard;
is adequately described on the label to avoid confusing or misleading the
consumer.
21
3.
ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS
3.1
Composition
3.1.1 Basic Ingredients
(a)
(b)
Potatoes as defined in Section 2.1
Edible fats and oils as defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
3.1.2 Optional Ingredients
(a)
(b)
(c)
Sugars (sucrose, invert sugar, dextrose, fructose, glucose syrup, dried glucose
syrup) as defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission;
Salt (sodium chloride);
Condiments, such as herbs and spices.
3.2
Quality Factors
3.2.1 General Requirements
Quick frozen French fried potatoes shall:
-
be free from any foreign flavours and odours;
be clean, sound and practically free from foreign matter;
have a reasonably uniform colour;
and with respect to visual defects subject to a tolerance shall be:
-
without excessive external defects such as blemishes, eyes and
discolouration;
without excessive sorting effects, such as slivers, small pieces and scrap;
reasonably free from frying defects, such as burnt parts.
When prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions quick frozen
French fried potatoes shall:
-
have a reasonably uniform colour;
have a texture characteristic of the product and be neither
excessively hard nor excessively soft or soggy.
3.2.2 Analytical Requirements
3.2.2.1 Moisture - the maximum moisture content of the whole product in the styles
shoestring, medium and thick cut shall be 76% m/m; and in extra large and other styles
78% m/m.
22
3.2.2.2 The fat or oil extracted from the product shall have a free fatty acid content of
not more than 1.5% m/m measured as oleic acid or an equivalent fatty acid value based
on the predominant fatty acid in the fat or oil.
3.2.3 Definition of Visual Defects
3.2.3.1 External defects are blemishes or discolouration (either internally or on the
surface) due to exposure to light, mechanical, pathological or pest agents, eye material
or peeling remnants.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Minor defect - A unit affected by disease, dark or intense discolouration, eye
material, or dark peel covering an area or a circle greater that 3 mm but less than
7 mm in diameter; pale brown peel or light discolouration of any area greater
than 3 mm in diameter.
Major defect - A unit affected by disease, dark or intense discolouration, eye
material, or dark peeling covering an area or a circle greater than 7 mm but less
than 12 mm in diameter.
Serious defect - A unit affected by disease, dark or intense discolouration, eye
material, or dark peel covering an area or a circle of 12 mm in diameter or more.
Note: ("slight" external defects which in either area or intensity fall below the definition
shown for minor defects shall be ignored)
3.2.3.2 Sorting Defects
(a)
Sliver - a very thin unit (generally an edge piece) which will pass through a
slot the width of which is 50% of the minimum dimension of the nominal or
normal size.
(b)
Small piece - Any unit less than 25 mm in length.
(c)
Scrap - Potato material of irregular form not conforming to the general
conformation of French fried potatoes.
3.2.3.3 Frying Defects
Burnt pieces - Any unit which is dark brown and hard due to gross over frying.
3.2.4 Standard Sample Size
The standard sample size shall be 1 kilogramme.
3.2.5 Tolerances for Visual Defects
For tolerances based on the standard sample size as specified in Section 3.2.4
the visual external defects are classified as "minor" or "major" or "serious". The
23
tolerances in respect of external defects are dependent on the cross section of the
French fried potatoes.
To be acceptable, the standard samples shall not contain units in excess of the
numbers shown for the respective categories, including total, in Table 1.
TABLE 1 - Tolerances for external defects
Defect category
Serious
Serious + major
Total (serious + major +
minor)
Number of Units Affected Cross section of strips
5 - 16 mm
over 16 mm
7
3
21
9
60
27
The tolerances for the other defects (not depending on cross section) are:
Sorting defects
Slivers
Small Pieces and Scraps Total Sorting Defects
-
max. 12% m/m
max. 6% m/m
max. 12% m/m
Frying defects max. 0.5% m/m
3.3
Definition of "defective" for Composition and Quality Factors
Any sample unit taken in accordance with the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius
Sampling Plans for Prepackaged Foods (AQL 6.5) (CAC/RM 42-1969) (see Codex
Alimentarius Volume 13) shall be regarded as a "defective" for the respective
characteristics when:
(a)
(b)
(c)
it fails to meet any of the requirements given in Section 3.1;
it fails to meet any of the general requirements given in Section 3.2.1;
when it exceeds the tolerances for visual defects in any one or more respective
defect categories in Section 3.2.5.
3.4
Lot Acceptance for Composition and Quality Factors
A lot will be considered acceptable with respect to Composition and Quality
Factors when the number of "defectives" as defined in Section 3.5 does not exceed the
acceptance number (c) for the appropriate sample size as specified in the FAO/WHO
Codex Alimentarius Sampling Plans for Prepackaged Foods (AQL 6.5)(CAC/RM 421969) (See Codex Alimentarius Volume 13). In applying the acceptance procedure each
"defective" (as defined in section 3.3(a) to (c)) is treated individually for the respective
characteristics.
24
3.5
Definition of "defective" for Analytical Requirements
See Codex Alimentarius Volume 13.
3.6
Lot Acceptance for Analytical Requirements
See Codex Alimentarius Volume 13.
4.
FOOD ADDITIVES
4.1
Sequestrants
4.1.1
Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate
4.1.2
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate
4.1.3
Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid
(Ca-diNa salt)
4.1.4
Ascorbic acid
Maximum Level in
Final Product
100 mg/kg singly or in
combination (phosphates
expressed as P2O5)
4.1.5 Citric acid
Limited by GMP
4.1.6 Malic acid
4.2
Processing Aids
4.2.1
Sulphite, bisulphite, metabisulphite
(sodium or potassium salt))
4.2.2
Sodium hydroxide
4.2.3
Potassium hydroxide
4.2.4
Citric acid
4.2.5
Dimethylpolysiloxane
4.3
50 mg/kg, singly or in
combination, expressed as
SO2
Limited by GMP
-
10 mg/kg on a fat basis
Carry-Over Principle
"Section 3" of the "Principle Relating to the Carry-Over of Food Additives into
Foods" as set forth in Volume 1 of the Codex Alimentarius shall apply.
5.
HYGIENE
5.1
It is recommended that the product covered by the provisions of this standard be
prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the
25
Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene
(CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 2 (1985) Codex Alimentarius Volume 1), and other Codes of
Practice recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission which are relevant to
this product.
5.2
To the extent possible in Good Manufacturing Practice, the product shall be free
from objectionable matter.
5.3
When tested by appropriate methods of sampling and examination, the product:
-
6.
shall be free from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a
hazard to health;
shall be free from parasites which may represent a hazard to health; and
shall not contain any substance originating from microorganisms in
amounts which may represent a hazard to health.
LABELLING
In addition to the requirements of the Codex General Standard for the Labelling
of Prepackaged Foods CODEX STAN 1-1985, (Rev. 1-1991) Codex Alimentarius
Volume 1, the following specific provisions shall apply:
6.1
The Name of the Food
6.1.1 The name of the food as declared on the label shall include the designation
"French Fried Potatoes" or the equivalent designation used in the country in which the
product is intended to be sold.
6.1.2 In addition, there shall appear on the label a designation of the style as
appropriate, i.e. "straight cut" or "crinkle cut" and there may also appear an indication of
the approximate dimensions of the cross section or the appropriate designation, i.e.
"shoestring", "medium", "thick cut" or "extra large".
6.1.3 If the product is produced in accordance with Section 2.4.2, the label shall
contain in close proximity to the words "French Fried Potatoes" such additional words or
phrases that will avoid misleading or confusing the consumer.
6.1.4 The words "Quick Frozen" shall also appear on the label, except that the term
"Frozen" 1 may be applied in countries where this term is customarily used for
describing the product processed in accordance with Section 2.2 of this standard.
6.2
Additional Requirements
The packages shall bear clear directions for keeping from the time they are
purchased from the retailer to the time of their use, as well as directions for cooking.
1 "Frozen": This term is used as an alternative to "quick frozen" in some English
speaking countries.
26
6.3
Bulk Pack
In the case of quick frozen French fried potatoes in bulk, the information required
above shall either be placed on the container or be given in accompanying documents,
except that the name of the food accompanied by the words "quick frozen" (the term
"frozen" may be used in accordance with Section 6.1.4 of this standard) and the name
and address of the manufacturer or packer shall appear on the container.
7.
PACKAGING
Packaging used for quick frozen French fried potatoes shall:
(a)
protect the organoleptic and other quality characteristics of the product;
(b)
protect the product against microbiological and other contamination;
(c)
protect the product from dehydration and, where appropriate, leakage as far as
technologically practicable; and
(d)
not pass on to the product any odour, taste, colour or other foreign
characteristics, throughout the processing (where applicable) and distribution of
the product up to the time of final sale.
3.4.3 Grading at Producers Level:
In order to ensure proper price to the producers, grading at producer level is
introduced by DMI. It is revealed from the table no.6 that during the year 2002-03,
24838 M.T. with an estimated value of Rs.2394.97 lakhs of potato was graded under
grading at producers level as against 23170 M.T., with an estimated value of
Rs.2571.04 lakhs was graded in the year 2003-04.
Table No. 6
Grading of Potato at Producers Level
Commodity
Potato
3.5.
2002-2003
Qty. graded
Estimated Value
(in M.T.)
(Rs. in Lakh)
24838
2394.97
2003-2004
Qty. graded
Estimated Value
(in M.T.)
(Rs. in Lakh)
23170
2571.04
PACKAGING :
Handling and packaging of potatoes are done generally on farm. After harvesting,
the tubers are kept in a heaped condition temporarily and covered with straw. After a
few days, sorting is done for separating the diseased and cut tubers. The sound tubers
are packed in hessian cloth bags or nettlon bags.
27
Materials used for Packaging
a)
Hessian bags :
Ordinary hessian bags are used for packing potatoes with a capacity of 80 kgs,
50 kgs and 20kgs.
b)
Nettlon bags:
25 kgs bags made of plastic net are preferred for export purpose.
3.6.
TRANSPORTATION :
a)
Head Loads : The age old method of carrying produce by a person on the head.
It is convenient for :
b)
i)
Places like in hilly areas.
ii)
Carrying small quantity of produce.
iii)
For transporting nearest market having short distance.
Bullock / Camel carts : Bullock / Camel carts are
the primary means of transport in most rural areas.
It is convenient for following :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
c)
Cheap and easily available conveyance for
the farmers to transport 5-10 quintals of
produce to short distant places.
Operational Cost is low.
Easily manufactured by rural artisans from locally available materials
(wood)
Can be operated in muddy, kutccha or sandy roads.
This transport system creates employment to rural artisans.
Tractor trolley:
The use of tractor attached with a trolley
is commonly used for transporting potatoes in
many parts in the country. It is convenient for :
i)
Carrying large quantity of produce in
lesser duration of time.
ii)
Suitable in surplus producing areas than
the trucks for carrying produce to the
primary assembling markets in the
absence of pucca roads.
28
d)
Trucks :
Large or bulk quantity of potatoes are carried by the trucks to the distant places
through out the country. It is convenient for:
i)
Easy availability
ii)
Time saving
iii)
Quick movement of stocks
iv)
Door to door delivery.
v)
Lower transit losses due to least handing of
loading and unloading.
e)
Railway Transport :
During harvesting season, considerable quantities
of potato are transported by railway wagons. This is
convenient for :
i)
Suitable for carrying larger quantity of potatoes
over long distances.
ii)
Comparatively cheaper and safer mode of
transport available through a wide network of
railways.
3.7.
STORAGE :
It has been noticed that over the years, production of potato has increased
manifold which led to glut situation in the market. The practice of storage helps to
stabilize the prices in the market. Storing potatoes for longer period in normal
temperature is not possible as it is a living material and through respiration, the changes
occurs due to heat, resulting in loss of dry matter and ultimate deterioration of quality of
tubers. At optimum condition, the quality of potatoes remains good in storage for 3-5
weeks. The best temperature and humidity condition for storage of potatoes are as
follows:
Table No.7
Intended Use
Seed purpose
Table purpose
Processing purpose
Temp (in 0C)
2-4
7
8-12
RH (in per cent)
95
98
95
29
Sprouting in stored potato is always a serious problem. To avoid sprout inhibition,
suppressant like Isopropyl N-Chlorophenyl Carbamate (CPIC), TNCB, MH are used.
The irradiation process has also been found effective for sprout inhibition. The condition
and health of the tuber while in storage is important coupled with good management
during storage also plays an important role.
Benefits :
i)
Minimum losses occurred due to tuber rotting disease.
ii)
Preserve appearance by inhibiting development of surface blemishes.
iii)
Minimize moisture loss and softening.
iv)
Minimize losses during sprouting.
v)
Prevent damages.
vi)
Colour Loss.
3.7.1 Major Storage Pests and Diseases and its Control Measures :
Important pests and diseases affecting tubers in storage is classified as under:
I. STORAGE PESTS
Name of
Disease
1.
Tuber moth
Causal
organisms
2.
Phthorimaea
spp.
Nature of damage
3.
The larvae enter the
tuber through eyes and
bore tunnels. The larval
damage results in direct
weight loss and it’s
infection greatly reduced
the market value of
tubers
Remedial measures
4.
i) Keep the tubers covered
with earth in the field.
ii) Fumigate the godown
with Methyl Bromide at 4.8
Kg/100 cubic meter for 3
hrs.
II. PATHOLOGICAL STORAGE DISEASES
Charcol rot
Disease
Macrophomina
phaseolina
Late Blight
Phytopthera
infestans
Formed darkened patches on tubers which
later become water soaked and black.
Brown
colouration of
infected tubers,
wet rot in storage
causes huge
loss.
Require early harvesting,
seed
treatment
with
fungicides like Aretan or
Agallol.
Seed
treatment
with
fungicides and proper pre
harvest cares should be
taken.
30
1.
Wart
2.
Synchytrium
endobioticum
3.
4.
Apply heat treatment for
tubers.
Tubers become
undersized
Soft rot
Wash
tubers
with
chlorinated water before
storage.
Erwina spp.
Tubers are infected
through wounds.
3.7.2 Storage Structures:
i)
Traditional Storage:
a)
In situ storage :
In this system, farmers do not harvest the tubers
and allow it to remain in soil. This method is used for short
term storage of 2-3 months only in upland and lowland
areas of North eastern states. In this storage, following
practices are found as beneficial :
1.
2.
b)
Cover the potato beds with grass which provide
shade and cooling effect to the potatoes in upland
areas.
In situ storage
Cover the potato beds with paddy crop which
provide shade and cooling effect to the potatoes in lowland areas.
Heap storage :
In this method, potatoes are heaped under the shade
of trees, where 6-30 tonnes of potatoes can be stored. The
heaps are covered with a layer of available straw material
(about 30cm thick). This is a popular storage method
practiced in U.P, Maharashtra and Karnataka. In heap
storage, following practices are recommended for safe
storage:
Å
Select storage site in places like under the shade of
trees, preferably in orchard.
Storage in Heaps
31
Å
Raised sand / soil platform of height of at least 0.2-0.25 mt.
Å
Spray Mancozeb (0.3-0.5% solution) on the soil/sand at storage site which helps
in reduction of rotting during storage.
Å
Remove cracked, cut, bruished, damaged, green and rotted tubers before storing.
Å
Use always the polythene sheet for covering the heaps, which protects the heaps
from rains.
Å
Cover the heaped potatoes with 0.3 mt-0.45 mt. straw material (wheat, paddy),
placing two layers of locally made mat (chatai) in crosswise direction which
improves the efficiency of heap storage.
Å
Loading of potatoes may be done in the morning since the temperature is low in
comparison to noon.
c)
Pit storage:
This is a traditional method of storage. In this
storage system, two types of pits are prepared i.e. katchha
and pucca pits. Katchha pit is rectangular in shape
measures 4.5 mt. (length) x 3.6 mt. (width) x 14 mt.(depth)*
whereas pucca pit is normally circular in shape with a
diameter of about 4.2 mt. All the pits are covered with 0.3
mt. thick available straw material (wheat, paddy). It is a
popular storage method in Madhya Pradesh. The following
recommendations are fallows for safe storage:
Pit Storage
Å
Follow all cultural practices, recommendations applicable in heap storage
method.
Always store disease free and cured potatoes.
Measure the soil moisture level for determinations of depth of pit.
Keep the length and width of the pit according to the quantity of potatoes to be
stored.
Maintain an average 25.6oC of temperature and 66 percent relative humidity.
d)
Wooden storage structure :
Å
Å
Å
Å
In this system, small wooden rooms like
stores about 10 ft. heights are built in the field or
near residential area. The walls of the store are built
by horizontally fixed overlapping wooden planks
which help in preventing seepage in store and
running off the rain water. The roof of the store is
covered with tin sheet and a gap is left between roof
and wall for aeration purpose.
Wooden storage structure
* Ref – Traditional methods of Potato storage in changing scenario, Indian Farming Institute, August, 2002.
32
e)
Storage in rooms :
In this method, farmers used to store potatoes in small rooms built of brick /
stones / cement at the ground floor of their residence. The potatoes are stored in this
storage either in heaps, gunny bags or in bamboo baskets.
f)
Storage in baskets :
In North Eastern states, potatoes are stored in
bamboo baskets known as “polo” which provides better
aeration to the tubers. The baskets are made of different
sizes. The smallest size holds 10 -12 kgs and the largest
size one quintal potatoes. Smaller baskets are suitable
for use as they are convenient to carry to the fields.
g)
Storage in baskets
Storage in layers :
The method is not very common but popular where platforms of bamboo or
wooden planks are constructed by the support of the store wall on one side and
bamboo on the other side. It provides better space utilization and helps to minimize
rotting of potato.
ii)
Improved Storage :
a)
Storage at low temperature:
The low temperature (at 2-4oC and 8-10oC) is the most common method for
potato storage. The following recommendations are adopted in this type of storage:
Å
Store seed potatoes at 2-4oC as no sprouting takes place at this temperature and
metabolic process goes down. Besides, low temperature, sweetening is of little
importance in case of seed potatoes.
Å
Store potatoes for export and processing purposes at 8-10oC, will not only save a
lot of energy but also make the potatoes more suitable for consumption,
processing and export.
Å
Use sprout suppressants like CIPC [isopropyl-N-(Chlorophynyl) carbamate] to
check the sprouting while potatoes are stored at 8-10oC.
33
b)
Storage at 10-12oC :
This storage method is suitable for potatoes for processing and export. Following
recommendations are followed:
Å
Store processing potatoes and ware potatoes at 10-12oC with CIPC treatment.
Å
Use refrigerated containers for export of potatoes stored at 10-12oC with CIPC
treatment when the transit time of export is more than 10 days.
Å
Ship CIPC treated potatoes stored at 10-12oC in non refrigerated container for
exporting to neighbour countries like Sri Lanka and Gulf countries where the
transit time is not more than 3-4 days.
3.7.3 Storage Facilities :
a)
Farmer’s storage:
Farmers generally use indigenous in-situ storage system of without harvesting
the tubers and to allow them remaining in the soil and also the ex-situ system where
the farmers used to store potatoes in pits, baskets, wooden structures or in heaps or
layers in room.
b)
Private / Co-operative / Public Storage:
In Private / Co-operative / Public Storage sectors, potatoes are stored in cold
storages at low temperature situated throughout the country. The state-wise
distributions of Potato cold storage in above sectors are furnished as under.
Cold Storage
34
Table No. 8
Potato Cold Storages as on 31/12/2004
Sl.
No.
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
State / UT
2.
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
(UT)
Andhra Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chandigarh (UT)
Chhatisgarh
Delhi
Gujarat*
Goa
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Jharkhand
Kerala*
Karnataka
Lakshadweep (UT)*
Maharashtra
Madhya Pradesh
Manipur
Meghalaya
Mizoram
Nagaland
Orissa
Pondicherry (UT)*
Punjab
Rajasthan
Sikkim
Tamilnadu*
Tripura
U.P and Uttranchal
West Bengal
TOTAL
Source:
Potato Cold Storage
Number
Capacity in MT.
3.
4.
00
00
00
00
00
187
01
09
00
164
00
172
05
05
06
00
0003
00
04
109
00
00
00
00
37
00
344
19
00
00
00
1371
364
2800
00
00
00
699780
1000
27575
00
584848
00
225991
9748
11281
22500
00
00
00
2436
553257
00
00
00
00
123580
00
1097609
65896
00
00
00
8163232
4379347
15968080
AGMARKNET website (www.agmarknet.nic.in).
35
3.7.4 Pledge Finance System :
The Indian farming community mostly consists of small and marginal farmers.
They do not have the economic strength to retain the surplus produce till favourable
market price and often compelled to sell their produce immediately after harvest when
the prices are low. The solution to this problem lies in providing safe and scientific
storage of their produce and availing easy marketing credit against the stored produce.
Hence, the systems of pledge finance have emerged as an unique avenue of finance to
farmer.
Table No. 9
Facilities of Loan
Loan system
As per guidelines of
Reserve Bank of
India, loan/advances
can be given against
hypothecation/
pledge of agricultural
produce
including
Potato.
Eligibility
Rate of interest
Persons
can It is determined
avail this facility by
respective
of pledge loan Bank.
by storing their
produce in cold
storage.
Types of participating
banks
Commercial Banks /
Cooperative Banks /
Regional
Rural
Banks.
36
4.0
MARKETING PRACTICES AND CONSTRAINTS :
4.1
Assembling:
Assembling is the first step in marketing of farm produce. It involves collection of
small surpluses from number of small farms scattered over large areas and bulking the
same for subsequent distribution in volume.
The agencies engaged in the assembling of potato
are as below :
a)
Producers
b)
Village Merchants
c)
Itinerant Merchants
d)
Wholesale Merchants
Potato auction
e)
Commission Agent
f)
Producers Co-operative Societies
4.1.1 Major- Assembling Markets :
The major assembling markets are located in Uttar
Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal in which the assembling
of potato is done along with other commodities. Some
major assembling markets in major producing states in
the country are listed below:
Potato weighment
Table No.10
Major Assembling Markets of Potato in the country
Sl.
No.
1.
Name of State
1.
Uttar Pradesh
2.
Name of district
3.
1) Agra
2) Firozabad
3) Kanpur nagar
4) Etawah
5) Kaunauj
6) Allahabad
7) Varanashi
8) Gorakhpur
9) Lucknow
10) Raibarily
Name of major markets /
mandies
4.
Agra, Samshabad
Sirshaganj
Kanpur nagar
Etawah
Kaunauj, Chhibraman
Allahabad
Varanashi
Gorakhpur
Lucknow
Laxmanpur
37
1.
2.
3.
1) Kolkata
1) Ambala
2) Yamunanagar
3) Kurukshetra
4) Panipat
1) Chamba
2) Hamirpur
3) Kangra
4) Kinnaur
5) Kullu
6) Lahulspiti
7) Mandi
8) Shimla
9) Solan
4.
Burrabazar Posta Market, Koley
Market
Champadanga, Haripal,
Tarakeshwar, Pandua, Arambag,
Seoraphulli, Dhaniakhali.
Midnapur, Garbeta, C.K Road
Kandi, Jangipur, Neema
Udaynarayanpur,Amta,
Ramrajatala Bazar
Azadpur Mandi
Okhla
Tilaknagar
Bhatinda, Bhuchhon, Maur,
Rampurphul, Talwandi Sabo
Mansa, Budhlada, Sardulgarh
Amritsar, Gheri, Khemkaran, Patti,
Raiya, Tarantaran.
Ferozpur city, Ferozpur cantt.,
Abohar, Fazilka, Makha,
Jalalabad, Kotissekhani,
Mallanwaler, Zeera, Mamelot,
Guruharsahai, Talwandi Bhai.
Roper, Morinda, Kurali, Kharar,
Chamkawr Sahib, Anandpur Sahib
Sirhind, Amlah, Bassipathana,
Khamano
Gurdaspur, Batala,
Derababananak, Deena Nagar
Ambala
Yamunanagar
Kurukshetra
Panipat
Chamba
Hamirpur
Kangra
Kinnaur
Kullu
Lahulspiti
Mandi
Shimla
Solan
10) Una
Una
2) Hoogly
2.
West Bengal
3) Midnapur (west)
4) Murshidabad
5) Howrah
3.
Delhi
1) North Delhi
2) South Delhi
3) West Delhi
1) Bhatinda
2) Mansa
3) Amritsar
4) Ferozpur
4.
Punjab
5) Roper
6) Fatehgarh Sahib
7) Gurdaspur
5.
Haryana
6.
Himachal
Pradesh
Source:
Field survey reports, Directorate of Marketing and Inspection,
38
4.1.2 Arrivals :
The arrivals of winter crop potato contribute about 85 per cent of total production
commencing from harvesting season stretching between Dec-Jan to March-April. The
season of arrivals of potato in the major markets in different states are described below:
Table No. 11
Season of Arrivals
Sl No
Name of State
1.
2.
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
3.
Punjab
4.
Haryana
5.
6.
Himachal Pradesh
Bihar
7.
8.
9.
Gujarat
Maharashtra
Karnataka
10.
Madhya Pradesh
Source:
Season
November-April
March-April , Sept-Nov (Plains)
Jan-March, Jul-Aug (Hills)
Dec-April (Peak arrival)
April, Oct-Nov (Average arrival)
May-Sept (Lean period of arrival)
Dec-Jan (for early variety),
Jan-March (for mid variety),
March-April (Late variety)
Sept-Oct (Seed potato varieties)
Dec-Jan (for early variety),
March-May(for late variety)
Feb-April
Feb-March
Sept-Oct ( Kharif crop),
March-April (Rabi crop)
Dec-April
Marketing of Potato in India, Directorate of Marketing and
Inspection, Year – 1984, 2001.
4.1.3 Despatches :
Generally most of the potato arrives in the markets are consumed within the state.
However, in some cases, it has been noticed that a significant quantity of potato
despatched to other states also in the country. The percentages of quantity dispatched
to other states from major assembling markets are given in following table:
39
Table No. 12
Percentage of Potato Despatched to Other States
Sl No.
Name of Market
Percentage of potato despatched to
other states
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Ratlam
Shimla
Farukhabad
Bangalore
Delhi
Mettupalayam
Kamrup
Amritsar
80.97
75.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
50.00
43.66
40.00
Source :
4.2.
Field Survey Reports,
Directorate of Marketing and Inspection,
DISTRIBUTION :
4.2.1 Interstate Movements:
The interstate movement of potato mainly takes place by road, rail and to some
extent by river. The movements of potato from surplus states to the deficit states take
place throughout the year in huge quantity specially during glut situation in peak season.
Table No.13
Trend of Interstate- Movement of Potato in India
Sl No
Despatched from
Despatched to
1.
Punjab
2.
Haryana
3.
4.
U.P.
H.P
Maharashtra, Bihar,
West Bengal
Maharashtra, Bihar,
West Bengal
Bihar, West Bengal, M.P.
Bihar, Maharashtra
40
The trend of interstate movement of potato in India is depicted from following
diagram :
41
4.3
EXPORT AND IMPORT :
Export :
Indian potatoes has immense export potential. It has a price advantage over it’s
European counterpart because of lower production cost and due to short crop duration
and cheap labour. The king of vegetables, Indian potato has the quality for it’s savory
taste with exuberant varieties. The country is also blessed with natural abode of some
of the best varieties of potatoes in the world. Besides, it has the potential to emerge as
one of the largest supplier of seed potato.
The Indian table potatoes dominate the export by about 50 per cent of total
potato export followed by frozen potatoes about 28 per cent, seed potatoes about 10
per cent, chip fried about 8 per cent and other frozen preparation nearly 3 per cent.
The quantities of different kinds of potatoes exported from the country are
given as follows :
Table No.14
Export of Potato from India during 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
Sl
No.
Commodity
1.
Potato Seeds
(fresh or chilled)
Potato other
Seeds (fresh or
2.
Quantity in Kgs
2003-2004 2004-2005
5200782
6146704
Rs in lakh
2003-2004
2004-2005
326.37
478.20
67739873 61012538 2778.65132 3317.04837
chilled)
Source:
Director General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics,
Kolkata.
Import :
India also imports potato from neighbouring countries e.g. Bhutan, Myanmar, etc.
to some extent. The details are furnished below.
Table No.15
Import of Potato in India during 2004-2005
Sl.
No.
Commodity
Year
Quantity in
Kgs
Value in
Rs lakh
1.
Potatoes fresh or chilled
other than seeds
2004-2005
4813220
276.08774
Source:
Director General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics, Kolkata
42
4.3.1 Sanitary and Phytosanitary Requirements :
The Agreement on the application of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS)
measures is an integral part of export trade, GATT (1994). Under SPS Agreement, the
standards should be such that the minimum level of protection required by an importing
country may be attained. With this view, the agreement to set up international standards
and guidelines under the aegis of Codex Alimentarius Commission (CODEX) which was
set up in 1963 by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health
Organization (WHO) to develop food standards, lay down guidelines and related texts
such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO / WHO Food Standards Programme. The
main purpose of this programme are protecting health of the consumers and ensuring
fair trade practices in the food trade, and to promote coordination of all food standards
work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations.
The SPS measure is applied in various ways to protect animal and plant life or
health within the territory of the member countries from risk arising from -Ö
The entry, establishment or spread of pest, disease or any disease causal
organisms.
Ö
The additives, contaminants, toxins or disease causing organisms on food stuffs.
Ö
The disease carried by animals, plants or their products.
By Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement, the signatory country can lay
down rules and regulations for the protection of life and health of human beings. The
signatory country is allowed to maintain a higher level of SPS protection than the
international standards provided it conforms to the following basic principles:i)
ii)
iii)
The SPS measure should not lead distortion in trade.
The SPS measure should not create any barrier in trade.
The SPS measure should also conform to scientific principles and standards
accepted internationally.
Under SPS measure, the standard should be applied in such a way that a
minimum level of protection can be achieved by importing country.
►
During export, in order to make the plant/seeds free from any quarantine pests
and diseases, the exporter should give a dis-infection treatment by keeping the
viability of the plant/seeds unaffected.
The dis-infection treatment before shipment should be carried out by authorized
expert/technical personnel since the above process is hazardous. To assure the pest
free product, the dis-infection treatment should be done just before shipment of
produce.
43
In this process, the exporter has to apply to the officer in-charge for Phyto
Sanitary Certificate (PSC) in the prescribed form at least 7–10 days in advance of the
export. Before submitting the application for PSC, it is to be ensured that the cargo is
treated properly by any licensed PCO to avoid any last minute detention by the P.Q.
authority who is authorized to issue P.S.C.
►
During import, no consignment of agricultural products is permitted to be
imported without Phytosanitary Certificate, issued by authorized officer in-charge
of Department of Agriculture and Co-operation.
4.3.2 Export Procedure :
The exporter may follow the following points during the export of seeds of potato:
)
Export procedure has been simplified under Open General Licence (OGL), and
there is no licence or restrictions is imposed. Generally, the buyers have to
mention the quality in the contract. Accordingly, the exporter has to approach the
recognized laboratories with samples to carry out the formalities of sample
analysis for export.
)
Product is then to be shifted to ports.
)
Marine insurance cover is to be obtained from any insurance agency.
)
Contact clearing and forwarding (C&F) agent for sorting of goods in godowns.
They collect the shipping bill for allowing shipment by custom authority.
)
)
Shipping bill is to be submitted by C&F agent to custom houses for verification.
Verified shipping bill is given to Shed Superintendent by C&F agent and carting
order is to be obtained.
)
The C&F agent presents shipping bill to the Preventive Officer for loading in to
the ship.
)
After loading, a mate receipt is to be issued by the Captain of the ship to the
Superintendent of the port who calculates the port charges and collect the same
from C&F agent.
)
After that payment is made, the mate receipt is obtained from the port authority to
prepare bill of loading for the respective exporter.
)
Then the C&F agent sends the bill of loading to the respective exporter.
)
After receiving the documents, the exporter obtains a certificate of origin from
chamber of commerce i e the goods are of Indian origin.
)
Exporter informs the importer regarding the date of shipment, name of vessel, bill
of loading, customer’s invoice, packing list etc.
)
The exporter for verification of documents submits all papers to the concerned
bank.
)
Bank sends documents to the foreign importer to enable him to take delivery of
goods.
44
)
After receiving papers, importer makes payment through bank and also sends
documents called GR Form to RBI.
)
Then exporter applies for various benefits from duty drawback schemes.
4.3.3 Agri Export Zones :
The policy for setting up of Agri Export Zones was announced by the Ministry of
Commerce, Govt. of India on the 31st March, 2001 with the primary objective of boosting
agri exports from the country. The Agricultural and Processed Food Export
Development Authority (APEDA) under Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India was
appointed as the nodal agency to promote the setting up of such zones. The zones are
a block / group of blocks or a district / group of districts. Agri export zones are specific
geographical areas that have their own competitive advantages in production,
processing or marketing of a specific agricultural produce including potato.
In an AEZ (Agri Export Zone), there is no physical demarcation of boundaries
and it provides a focused approach on agricultural export completely. It is primarily
based on the principles of 'convergence', 'partnership' and 'focus'.
The following agri-export zones (AEZ) have been identified for potato:
Sl.No.
1
2
3
4
Source:
Commodity
Potato
Name of the State
No. of AEZ
Punjab
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Madhya Pradesh
Total
1
2
1
1
5
www.Commodityindia.com
Benefits :
Å
Å
Å
Å
Å
Å
Å
Å
Strengthening of backward linkages with a market oriented approach.
Product acceptability and its competitiveness abroad as well as in the domestic
markets.
Value addition to basic agricultural produce.
Reduction of the cost of production through economy of scale.
Better price for agricultural produce.
Improvement of product quality and it's packaging.
Promotion of trade related research and development.
Increase of employment opportunities.
45
4.4
MARKETING CONSTRAINTS AND SUGGESTIONS :
Potato marketing in the country suffers from following constraints:
i)
High Marketing Costs & Margins:
There is a need for promoting producer’s co-operative in potato growing areas to
reduce the price gap between growers and consumers.
ii)
Wide Price Fluctuations :
The major potato growing states should arrange advance forecasting of area
under potato and plan to divert the potatoes to the deficient areas or by export to avoid
glut situations and price crashes in the markets.
iii)
Bottlenecks in Storage Facilities :
About 90 per cent of total cold storages in the country used for potato storage
and most of them are situated in big towns and markets. Hence it is needed to have
new cold storage units in deficient areas particularly a rural areas.
iv)
Lack of Long term Indian Potato Export Policy:
The significant step has been taken in this direction by Govt. of India by
establishing Agri Export Zones (AEZs). Adequate infrastructure paucities like movement
of potatoes from producing areas to exporting countries are required for further
improvement.
v)
Lack of avenues of utilization of Potato:
There is a need to utilize larger quantities of potatoes in the processing industries
to improve and enhance the efficiency of processing and to reduce the cost of
processing and processed products. Developed technologies for dehydrated potatoes
will not only ensure proper return to the farmers but also boost the processing industry.
46
5.0
MARKETING CHANNELS, COSTS AND MARGINS :
5.1
Marketing Channels:
I)
Private:
The different private agencies such as Producers, Commission agent,
Wholesaler, Retailer and consumers are involved in the route of marketing channels of
potato. These are :
1)
Producer Ä Cold storage Ä Commission agent Ä Wholesaler Ä Retailer Ä
Consumer
2)
Producer ÄCommission agent Ä Wholesaler Ä Retailer Ä Consumer
3)
Producer Ä Wholesaler Ä Retailer Ä Consumer
PRODUCER
COLD STORAGE
COMMISSION
AGENT
WHOLESALER
RETAILER
CONSUMER
II)
Institutional :
Due to price fluctuations and glut situation in the market, some institutions like
National Agricultural Co-operative marketing Federation (NAFED), different state govt.
agencies, co-operative societies are intervening in the domestic market and Agricultural
and Processed Food Export Development Authority (APEDA) for export purpose to
stabilize the prices.
47
The institutions involve in the marketing channels of potato as follows:
1)
ProducerÄ State Marketing Agencies Ä Retailer Ä Consumer
2)
ProducerÄ Co-operative Societies Ä Retailer Ä Consumer
3)
ProducerÄ NAFED Ä Retailer Ä Consumer
4)
ProducerÄ Marketing Federation (MARKFED) Ä Retailer Ä Consumer Ä
Export
MARKFED
PRODUCER
STATE MARKETING
AGENCIES
NAFED
CO-OPERATIVE
SOCIETIES
RETAILER
CONSUMER
EXPORT
5.2
Marketing Costs and Margins :
ˆ
Marketing costs: Marketing costs are the actual expenses required for
bringing potato from farm gate to the consumers. It includes the following:
D
Handling charges at local points
D
Assembling charges
D
Transportation and storage costs
D
Handling charges by wholesaler's and retailer to consumers
D
Expenses on secondary services like financing, risk taking and market
intelligence
D
Profit margins taken out by different agencies.
48
i)
Market fee: It is collected from buyers and not from sellers. The rates of market
fees are determined by respective Agricultural Produce Market Committees in
some states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, while in most of the states these are fixed
for the entire state under the respective State Marketing Regulation Acts.
ii)
Commission charges:
In some regulated markets, the commission agents
exist and they collect the charges.
iii)
Market charges: These are the charges, which are incurred towards loading,
unloading, weighing, brokerage, cleaning, etc. These charges are fixed by the
market committee and vary from market to market. The operational charges
starting from unloading, cleaning, preparation lot for sale and sometimes
weighments are borne by farmers /sellers. From weighing, the subsequent
operational charges are borne by the buyers/ traders. In case of some regulated
markets, entry fee is charged for the vehicle.
MARKETING MARGINS :
The marketing margins of potato are the difference between the actual price paid
by the consumer and the price received by farmer for an equivalent quantity and quality
of potato. It may be explained in terms of price spread applied for a particular situation.
Studies on marketing margins or price spread reveals that as the number of market
functionaries increases, they add cost to the commodity in the marketing channel which
results in the fall of producers show in consumer’s rupee.
49
6.0
MARKETING INFORMATION AND EXTENSION :
ˆ
Marketing information:
Agricultural Marketing Information comprises of collection, analysis and
compilation of agricultural marketing related information as well as dissemination of right
information to the people in need, at right place, at right time and in right form.
In a marketing system, market information is an important function which facilitates the
marketing decisions and regulates the competitive market processes and mechanisms.
It is helpful to the farmers for planning, production and marketing of their commodities.
It is also the key to achieve operational and pricing efficiency in a marketing system. In
the present context of global agricultural scenario, the small and marginal potato
farmers should change the habit of traditional farming to modern market / export
oriented farming by improving the quality and productivity of the produce.
Farmers / traders/ processors should reorient their potato enterprises by using
facilities of market information and information technology (I.T) for the following
purposes:
►
►
►
►
►
Planning for market oriented production.
Preparation of produce for marketing.
Adoption of modern storage techniques.
Availing suitable transport facilities.
Availing market intelligence for remunerative prices.
For effective dissemination of market-led information, almost all the state / U.T.
Govt. organizations have some activities for the benefit of the producers, traders,
processor, exporters and consumers, which are of conventional nature. Hence, to
improve this entire system, Govt. of India started “Market Research and Information Net
work” (MRIN) Scheme through the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI) and its
website i.e., AGMARKNET. Besides, there are also other organizations involved in the
dissemination of market information of agricultural commodities.
ˆ
Marketing extension:
Marketing extension is a tool to educate the farmers, traders, consumers and
other beneficiaries regarding the latest knowledge on post harvest management,
marketing, value addition, and exploring new market opportunities. It aims to bring
desired changes in their skill, attitude and behaviour towards post harvest management
and marketing practices of agricultural produce. In the present context of globalization
of agricultural trade, it is essential to grow awareness among the producers and other
beneficiaries regarding proper harvesting, grading, packaging, transportation, storage,
maintaining proper quality standards and Sanitary-Phytosanitary requirements, etc.
50
Benefits :
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
To provide up-to-date information on the prices and arrivals.
To orient producers/traders about price trends, demand and supply position, etc.
To guide the producers/farmers about when, where and how to market the
produce.
To educate farmers about different aspects of post harvest management /
operations.
To guide the farmers about benefits of direct / contract marketing and future
trading.
Table No. 16
Government and Semi Govt. Organizations Providing the Services
on Marketing Information and Extension
Sl.No.
1.
Organization & it’s website
2.
Services provided
3.
1.
Directorate of Marketing
& Inspection (DMI) ,
C.G.O Complex,
Faridabad.
website:
www.agmarknet.nic.in.
► It is at present implementing a plan scheme i.e.
‘Market Research and Information Network’(MRIN)
through NIC for establishing a network for speedy
collection and dissemination of market information for
it’s effective utilization.
Under the scheme, important agricultural markets,
state agricultural marketing boards/departments are
being linked through computerized internet services.
Under this scheme, DMI has also created a website
namely, AGMARKNET.
By this website, the user or beneficiary may collect
the detailed information on various aspects of
agricultural commodities including potato.
► Publishes journal, bulletin on Agricultural Marketing.
► Marketing extension.
2.
Directorate of Economics
and Statistics, Ministry of
Agriculture, Shastri
Bhawan, New Delhi
Website:
www.agricoop.nic.in
National Horticulture
Board,
Plot No-85, Sector18,
Institutional Area,
Gurgaon-122015
Central Potato Research
Institute (CPRI), Shimla,
(Himachal Pradesh)
Website: www.cpri.
ernet.in
► Compilation of statistical data on agricultural
commodities for planning and development.
► Dissemination of data/information on agriculture
through publication and internet.
3.
4.
► Collection, compilation and dissemination of market
intelligence, market related information / data on
horticultural commodities including potato.
► Acting as a centre for training methodologies and
technology for upgrading scientific manpower in
modern technologies for post harvest technologies of
potato.
f To provide consultancy in post harvest technologies
of potato.
51
1.
2.
3.
5.
Agricultural Produce
Market Committees
(APMCs)
6.
State Agricultural
Marketing
Departments/Directorates
7.
State Agricultural
Marketing Boards
8.
Akashvani Kendras of
New Delhi/ State capitals/
other cities
Doordarshan Kendras of
New Delhi/ / State
capitals/ other cities
► Providing market information on arrivals, prevailing
prices at different markets through display boards,
public address system, etc.
► Providing information of other markets.
► Organising training programmes, tours, exhibitions
for farmers and other beneficiaries.
► Provide agricultural marketing related information.
►Arranging
publicity
programme
through
demonstration, farmers’ meetings etc.
► Dissemination of information through literature, Radio
and T.V. Programmes
► Providing market related information by co-ordinating
all market committees in the state.
► Arranging training facilities to farmers and other
beneficiaries.
► Organizing seminars, workshops and exhibitions on
agricultural marketing.
► Broadcast programmes to disseminate the marketing
information on agriculture.
9.
ˆ
► Telecast programmes to disseminate marketing
information on agriculture.
Kisan call centre :
The Deptt. of Agriculture and Co-operation (DAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Govt.of
India launched Kisan Call Centres on January 21st,2004 throughout the country. It has
the objective of affording instant solution to the problems faced by the farmers during
crop cultivation under diverse challenging situations and facilitating their full
comprehension by the use of local language. The call centres are acting as composite
help centres which consist of a complex telecommunication infrastructure, computer
support and human resources organized to manage effectively and efficiently the
queries raised by farmers instantly in local languages. The subject matter specialists
using telephone & computer are used to interact with farmers to understand their
problems and answer their queries as soon as possible. This is a new dimension in
agriculture extension management which makes the full use of on-going information and
communication revolution by connecting the farming community in the remotest areas of
the country with the experts of agricultural field. By tackling the difficulties of the
farmers, a close linkage is established among the key stakeholders in extension system
– agricultural scientist, extension functionaries, farmers and marketing agencies.
Potato farmers are availing this facility through a
nationwide toll free number - 1551.
52
7.0
ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM OF MARKETING :
7.1
Direct marketing:
The direct marketing system enables the farmers to meet the specific demand of
wholesalers, traders, consumers according to their preferences from the farmers
inventory of graded and certified produce on one hand and on other hand helps the
farmers to take advantage of favourable prices. This system encourages the farmers to
undertake sorting, grading and quality marking at their farms. This model has been
introduced in the name of APNI MANDI in Punjab and in the name of RYTHU BAZARS
in Andhra Pradesh for fruits and vegetables.
7.2
Contract marketing:
The “Contract marketing” is a system in which the commodity is marketed by
farmers under a pre-agreed buy-back contract with an agency engaged in trading or
processing. In contract marketing, a producer will produce and deliver to the contractor,
a quantum of required quality of produce, based upon anticipated yield and contracted
acreage, at a pre-agreed price. In this agreement, agency contributes input supply and
renders technical guidance. The company also bears the entire cost of transaction and
marketing. By entering in to contract, farmer’s risk of price reduces and the agency
reduces the risk of non-availability of raw material. The inputs and extension services
provided by the agency include improved seed, credit, fertilizers, pesticides, farm
machinery, technical guidance, extension, marketing of produce etc. In present
scenario, Contract marketing is one of the way by which producers, especially small
farmers, participates in the production of good quality potato to get higher return.
Contract Farming enables producers to adopt new technologies to ensure maximum
value addition and access to new global markets. It also ensures efficient post harvest
handling and meeting specific needs of customers.
In such arrangement, the purchaser, may be exporter or processing unit,
generally provides inputs, technical know-how and financial support. Thus sharing the
risk by both the, buyers and sellers. It is an approach that can contribute to increased
income to farmers, avoidance of risk of adverse price fluctuation, and higher profitability
to sponsors. Many companies have entered into contracts with farmers for production
and marketing of agricultural produce including potato.
As for example, the Himalaya International Ltd. (HIL) has made backward linkage
through contract farming in potatoes with farmers of Ponta Sahib in Himachal Pradesh.
In this system, company is providing seeds, organic manure and total technology to 150
farmers during 2005, the company has introduced baby potato skin stuffed with cheese
and tomatoes for rapidly growing market involving constant innovation and diversity of
cuisine. Being potato content low starch and high fibre content, these potatoes are
better for health than large potatoes. The HCL is exporting IQF frozen potatoes to U.S.A
and U.K.
53
In West Bengal, a similar system to contract marketing started. The Dept. of
Food Processing Industries & Horticulture, Govt. of West Bengal has made an
experiment through an arrangement between Frito-lay India Ltd and a few co-operative
societies for supply of chip quality potato to the processing units since 2003-04. The
varieties tried are Chipsona I & II, Jyoti, Atlantic (Dutch Variety) and Chandramukhi. On
the basis of trial "Jyoti" was selected. Frito-lay India Ltd supplied G-2 micro tubers to
some Co-operative Societies in Hoogly and Burdwan Dists at a fixed price.
Co-operatives in turn supplies seeds to its growers. Initial results has been reported
encouraging. Frito-lay buys a sizeable quantity of the chip grade potato so produced at
a fixed price and also pay service charge to the societies on final procurement.
The participators are:
A.
B.
C.
Frito-lay--
a)
supplying seed potatoes to each society under contract at a
fixed price;
b)
providing technical guidance and supervision ;
c)
testing the potato;
d)
buying back the potato at a fixed price;
e)
providing service charges to the society.
The Societies--
a)
making contractual agreement with Frito-lay for
growing chip grade potato through the member
farmers ;
b)
procure and supply seed to the member farmers ;
c)
arrange cultivation and supply of
acceptable
grade by the farmers ;
d)
arrangement of organizing training to the farmers by
the Dept. Frito- lay and experts from Universities and
other outsourcing.
The Govt. Department -- a)
b)
potatoes
of
maintain liaison with societies and Frito-lay ;
providing training to farmers for getting desired
grade potatoes.
Source : Dept. of Food Processing Industries & Horticulture, Govt. of West Bengal
54
Table No. 17
Benefits
Types of benefits
Access
To farmer / producer
Access to inputs
Risk
Minimizes price risk
Quality
New skills of post
harvest handling /
practices.
Mutual Relationship
Profit
7.3
To contracting agency
Access to required quality of
produce.
Minimizes risk of scarcity of
consistent supply of raw
materials
Getting supply of desirable
quality supply of produce.
Adopt more efficient and better
post
harvest
handling
/
practices.
Use of good quality of inputs
like seeds, fertilizers.
Facilitates the adoption of
new skills of post harvest
handling / practices at low
cost.
Strengthen
long
term Strengthen
long
term
relationship with buyer for relationship with farmer for
mutual interests.
mutual interest.
Increases
Increases.
Co-operative Marketing:
The Co-operative marketing is the system by which a group of farmers join
together to carry on some or all the processes involved in bringing goods from producer
to consumer. In other words, it is the association of cultivators / farmers for the purpose
of helping them to market their produce in a more profitable way than private trade
system.
Functions :
The members of an potato co-operative society sell their surplus produce to the
society. Member farmers sell their produce to the society and they get an advance. After
collecting the potato from the member, the society either processes it or sells it in the
mandies or to the processors. Sometimes, considering the unfavourable prices
prevailing in the market, the society stores the produce and sells later at favourable
price. As soon as the produce is sold, the society makes payment to the farmers. Thus,
the co-operatives play a key role in the agricultural marketing process and they protect
the interest of the farmers from exploitation of middlemen and secure better returns for
their produce. The Potato Growers Co-operative Association in Gujarat, Farukhabad
Co-operative Marketing Society in Uttar Pradesh etc. are associated with Co-operative
marketing of potato.
Besides, there are other co-operative organizations like NAFED which is a well
known organization because and its function as the National Apex Body of the cooperative marketing system in co-ordination with State level Marketing Federations,
Regional and District level co-operative societies. The aim of NAFED is to promote
55
co-operative marketing of agricultural produce including potato and to ensure the
farmers to get ready market as well as remunerative price for their produce.
7.4
Forward and Future Markets:
In terms of price discovery and risk management the forward and future markets
have been identified as an important tool for price stabilization. Presently, forward and
future market system is followed in certain agricultural commodities including potato.
►
The forward market supports two economic functions namely price discovery
and price risk management which enables the traders and stockiest to protect against
the risk of adverse fluctuation of prices.. It is governed under the Forward Contract
Regulation Act 1952.
►
The future market facilitates the trading of potato for the purchase or sale of the
commodity for future delivery where contracts are made on a future exchange on the
basis of standard quality, quantity, delivery time, locations and the price. This makes the
supply chain efficient and provide better price to the farmers.
In India, the National Commodity and Derivative Exchange (NCDEX) and
Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) started the future contract of
potato as follows:
(I)
NATIONAL COMMODITY AND DERIVATIVE EXCHANGE (NCDEX) :
POTATO FUTURES CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS, NOVEMBER 2006.
(Applicable to all futures contracts expiring in March 2007 and thereafter)
Type of contract
Name of commodity
Ticker symbol
Trading system
Basis
Unit of trading
Delivery unit
Quotation/ Base value
Tick Size
Futures Contract Specifications
Potatoes Fair Average Quality
POTFAQDEL
NCDEX Trading System
Ex-warehouse Delhi gross weight inclusive of all local
taxes and levies.
: 15 MT
: 15 MT packed in jute bags of 51 kgs gross weight basis
with tare weight of the bags being minimum 650 gms
: Rs per quintal
: 10 paisa
:
:
:
:
:
Potato as per following specification shall be acceptable
for physical delivery
Width Size (potato width size by one dimension or the
other)
Less than 35 mm -10% max.
More than 80 mm -15% max.
56
Quality Specification
:
Dull, Skin blemishes, Cut , Crack
(cut
and cracked not exceeding 3% max),
Sprouted
(Sprouted
content
not
exceeding 1% max and Sprout length
more than 2 mm only to be considered as
Sprouted), Black scars and Green
Potatoes
Soil (kgs per bag)
Quantity Variation
Delivery Center
Additional delivery centres
:
:
:
Hours of Trading
:
15% basis
1 kgs Max per 51
Kgs bag
The potatoes should be firm and the skin
should be mature and thick
+/-10%
Delhi
Agra, Hapur and Jalandhar (For all the centers up to the
radius of 50 kms from the municipal limits)
Mondays through Friday - 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM
Saturdays - 10.00 AM to 2.00 PM
Delivery specification
:
Delivery Logic
Opening of contracts
:
:
Due date/Expiry date
:
Source:
The Exchange may vary the above timing with due notice
Upon expiry of the contract, all outstanding open positions
would result in compulsory delivery. A penalty of minimum 5%
(of final settlement price) would be imposed on longs and/or
shorts on failure of delivery obligation
Compulsory Delivery
Trading in a new month contract will open on the 10th day of
the month in which the near month contract is due to expire. If
the 10th day happens to be a non-trading day, contracts would
open on the next trading day
20th day of the delivery month. If 20th happens to be a
holiday; a Saturday or a Sunday then the due date shall be the
immediately preceding trading day of the Exchange, which is
not a Saturday
www. ncdex. com
(II) Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) : Recognized by the
central government started the online trading of potatoes from September 16, 2006 to
benefit farmers who often resort to distress sales. The potatoes are sold under the
brand name Tarakeswar Alu though the crop would be procured from Hooghly (where
Tarakeshwar is located) as well as Burdwan, Howrah and other districts of the West
Bengal. The Tarakeshwar brand potato is popular for Kufri Jyoti variety grown in West
Bengal. Online trading brings parity in prices across the country and benefit both for the
farmers and the traders. According to a study by MCX, there is scope for a big turnover
in potato trade annually. The Kufri Jyoti variety is produced in abundance and
hence, it chosen for online sale. MCX is appoints brokers area wise for the online trade.
MCX is a joint venture of the Financial Technologies (I) Ltd., State Bank of India and its
associates, National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), National
Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE), Fid Fund (Mauritius) Ltd. Etc.
Source: www. teleguportal. net
57
The benefits of future trading :
„
Management of price risk an agricultural commodity .
„
Facilitates production, as per recognized quality standards of produce.
„
Acts as a price barometer to farmers and other trade functionaries.
„
It facilitate indirectly to the exporters / farmers through better information.
„
It gives an idea of prices to the consumer which enables them to enter forward
contract markets.
Table No. 18
Difference between future and forward contract
Future contract
1) Always through exchange.
2) Contract for range of varieties.
3) High liquidity.
4) Well regulated.
5) Standardized.
6) Requires margin payment.
7) Follows daily settlement.
Forward contract
1) Need not be through exchange.
2) Contract for specific variety.
3) No liquidity.
4) Unregulated.
5) Negotiated between buyer and seller.
6) No margin payment.
7) Settlement occurs at the end of the
period.
58
8.0
INSTITUTIONAL FACILITIES :
8.1
Marketing related schemes of Govt. and Public sector organizations:
Some of the schemes of Central Govt and public sector organizations which are
in operation for benefit of farmers and others are given as under :
Table No. 19
Sl.
no
1.
1)
2)
3)
Scheme
2.
CAPITAL
INVESTMENT
SUBSIDY FOR
CONSTRUCTION /
MODERNIZATION
EXPANSION OF COLD
STORAGE AND
STORAGE'S FOR
HORTICULTURE
S PRODUCEUBSI
AGMARK GRADING
AND
STANDARDISATION
SCHEME FOR
DEVELOPMENT/
STRENGTHENING OF
AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING
INFRASTRUCTURE,
GRADING &
STANDARDISATION
Name of
organisation
3.
NATIONAL
HORTICULTURE
BOARD, Ministry of
Agriculture, Govt of
India, 85, Institutional
Area, Sector – 18,
Gurgoan - 122015
(Haryana)
DIRECTORATE OF
MARKETING AND
INSPECTION (DMI),
Head Office,
CGO Complex , H-IV.
Faridabad –121 001.
- do -
Facilities of scheme
4.
►To promote setting up of cold storages /
storages in the country for reducing post
harvest losses.
► Creation of Cold chain infrastructure for
farm
to
the
consumers
and
modernization/rehabilitation of cold storages.
► Grading of agricultural commodities
including Potato.
► To provide additional agricultural marketing
infrastructure to cope up with the large
expected marketable surpluses of agricultural
and allied commodities including dairy,
poultry, fishery, livestock and minor forest
produce.
►To promote competitive alternatives in
agricultural marketing infrastructure by
inducement of private and cooperative sector
investments that sustain incentives for quality
and enhanced productivity thereby improving
farmers’ income.
►To
strengthen
existing
agricultural
marketing infrastructure to enhance efficiency.
► To promote direct marketing so as to
increase market efficiency through reduction
in intermediaries and handling channels, thus
enhancing farmers’ income.
►To provide infrastructure facilities for
grading,
standardization
and
quality
certification of agricultural produce so as to
ensure price to the farmers commensurate
with the quality of the produce.
59
1.
3)
2.
3.
SCHEME FOR
DEVELOPMENT/
STRENGTHENING OF
AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING
INFRASTRUCTURE,
GRADING &
STANDARDISATION
4)
SCHEMES FOR
MARKET
DEVELOPMENT
AGRICULTURAL &
PROCESSED FOOD
PRODUCTS
EXPORT
DEVELOPMENT
AUTHORITY
(Ministry of
Commerce, Govt. of
India),
NCUI Building
3, Siri Institutional
Area, August Kranti
Marg,
New Delhi - 110 016
5)
Scheme for
Infrastructure
Development
MINISTRY OF FOOD
PROCESSING
INDUSTRIES
Panchsheel Bhawan,
August Kranti Marg
New Delhi -110049
4.
►To promote grading, standardization and
quality certification system for giving a major
thrust for promotion of pledge financing and
marketing credit, introduction of negotiable
warehousing receipt system and promotion of
forward and future markets so as to stabilize
market system and increase farmers’ income.
►To promote direct integration of processing
units with producers.
►To create general awareness and provide
education
and
training
to
farmers,
entrepreneurs and market functionaries on
agricultural marketing including grading,
standardization and quality certification.
►Provide
development
of
packaging,
standards and design.
►Assistance to exporters for use of
packaging material as per standards and
specifications developed or adopted by
APEDA.
►Assistance to Exporters, Producers,
Growers, service providers, Co-operative
Organizations
etc.
For
purchase
of
"Intermediate
Packaging
Material”
for
domestic transportation of produce.
►Development and dissemination of market
information
data
base
on
products,
infrastructure, markets and pre-feasibility
surveys / study etc.
►Assistance
to
exporters,
growers
organizations,
trade
associations
for
conducting surveys, feasibility studies etc.
►Assistance to Semi Government, State
Government, Public Sector Undertakings for
Conducting surveys, feasibility studies etc.
►Supply of material, samples, product
literature,
development
of
website,
advertisement etc, for publicity and market
promotion for fairs / events organised /
sponsored by APEDA.
►Publicity & promotion through preparation of
product
literature,
Publicity
material,
advertisement, film etc by APEDA.
►Brand publicity through advertisement etc.
►Export promotion by APEDA undertake
activities like buyer-seller meet, Product
promotion,
exchange
of
delegations,
participation in Exhibitions / Fairs / Events etc.
► Food Park, Packaging Centre, Modernized
Abattoirs, Integrated Cold Chain Facilities,
Value Added Centre, Irradiation Facilities.
60
8.2
Institutional Credit Facilities :
Agricultural credit is disbursed in the form of short term, medium term, long term
loans through multi agency network consisting of –
¾
Commercial Banks (CBs)
¾
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs)
¾
Co-operatives
The types of institutional credit facilities which are available for marketing / post
harvest operations of agro commodities including potato are given as below.
Table No. 20
Types of Credit Facilities
Name of scheme
1.
Produce
Marketing Loan
Scheme
Kishan Credit
Card Scheme
Crop Loan
Agricultural
Term Loans
Eligibility
2.
Facility
3.
All the categories of farmers This type of loan is given upto 1
i.e., small / marginal / others lakh
against
pledge/
are eligible.
hypothecation of agricultural
produce (including warehouse
receipts) for a period not
exceeding 6 months.
All types of agricultural Kissan credit card is valid for 3
clients having good track years through which the
record for last two years are barrower / farmer can meet his
eligible.
production
and
other
contingency needs by using
easy convenient withdrawal
slips. The minimum credit limit
is Rs.3000/- and based on
operational
land
holding,
cropping pattern and scale of
finance.
All categories of farmers i.e, Provides financial assistance to
Small / Marginal and others meet cultivation expenditure for
are eligible
various crops including potato.
All categories of farmers It is provided to the activities
and agricultural labourers i.e., land development, minor
are eligible for this loan irrigation, farm mechanization,
provided
they
should horticulture, dairying, etc.
possess the necessary
experience in this activity.
61
1.
2.
3.
S.H.Gs
are
the
self
managed
homogeneous
groups of economically
backward
people
who
promote savings among
themselves and can pool
their agricultural activities.
National
On compulsory basis :
Agricultural
All
farmers
producing
Insurance
notified crops and availing
Scheme (NAIS) Seasonal
Agricultural
Operations (SAO) loans
from financial institutions i.e.
loanee farmers.
Self-help
Groups (SHGs)
Linkage Credit
Programme
Self-help
groups
are
supplemented by bank credit
when
these
groups
gain
experience.
Provides insurance coverage and
financial support to the farmers in
case of failure of any notified
crop due to any natural
calamities, pests and diseases.
It also encourages the farmers to
adopt progressive farming high
value inputs and high agricultural
On voluntary basis :
technology. Besides, it helps to
All other farmers (Non- stabilize the farm income during
loanee farmers) producing disaster years.
notified crops.
8.3
Organisations / Agencies Providing Marketing Services :
The following Govt., Semi-Govt. and State Govt. organizations provide and assist
in marketing services like procurement, grading, storage, and processing in the field of
potato.
Table No. 21
Sl.
No
1.
1.
Organization and it’s
website
2.
Directorate of Marketing and
Inspection (DMI),
Head Office,
CGO Complex N.H.IV.
Faridabad –121 001.
Website:
www.agmarknet.nic.in
Services provided
3.
►To promote grading of agricultural produce
under the Agricultural Produce (Grading &
Marking) Act, 1937.
►To facilitate the construction of marketing
infrastructure of agricultural produce.
►To render advice on statutory regulation,
development and management of agricultural
markets by states / U.Ts.
►Marketing research, surveys and planning
►To train personnel in agricultural marketing
62
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
2.
Agricultural and Processed
Food Export Development
Authority (APEDA), Head Office,
4, Siri Institutional Area, Opp.
Asiad Village, August Kranti
Marg, New Delhi-110016
Website: www. apeda.com
National Horticulture Board,
Plot No-85, Sector18,
Institutional Area,
Gurgaon-122015
Website: www.
hortibizindia.nic.in
Ministry of Food Processing
Industries(MOFPI),
Panchsheel Bhawan,
New Delhi.
Website: www. mofpi.nic.in
National Agricultural
Cooperative Marketing
Federation of India Ltd.(NAFED)
Head Office,
1, Siddarth Enclave, Ashram
Chowk, Ring Road, New Delhi.
Website: www.nafed-India.com
State Marketing Boards
at State Capitals.
3.
►Promote
export
of
agricultural
commodities including potato and it’s
products to foreign countries.
►Adopting standards and specifications for
the purpose of export of schedule products.
►To develop post harvest infrastructural
facilities of horticultural commodities
including potato.
►Grant and support for food park
component which in turn also help in
setting up of Agri Export Zone. .
►To act as a nodal agency for
implementing the market intervention
scheme to avoid glut situation and price
craze of potato.
►Regulation
management
and
development of marketing in concerned
state.
►To implement different schemes on
agricultural marketing including potato.
►To co-ordinate functioning of all market
committees.
►Grading of agricultural produce.
7.
►Publicity on regulated marketing of agro
produce.
Agricultural Produce Market
►For better marketing of agricultural
Committees(APMCs) at different produce the APMC provide the following
regulated markets of different facilities :
states.
►Facilitates drying of produce.
►Providing grading, weighing and storage
facilities of produce, brought to APMC
complexes.
63
9.0
PROCESSING AND UTILISATION :
9.1
Processing :
Potato is a perishable commodity and it’s
harvesting time (March/April) coincides with the
rise in temperature in Indo- Gangetic plains which
contributes about 85 per cent of total production in
India. Therefore, the potato produced requires to
shift in cold storage.
It has been observed that all varieties of
potato are not suitable for processing. The dry
matter and reducing sugar content are two important parameters for selecting raw
materials for processing. The varieties namely Chipsona-1 and Chipsona-2 released by
Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI), Shimla, have been found fit and beneficial for
potato processing. The following are the characteristics of potato meant for processing
purposes.
Table No. 22
Characteristics of Potato Fit for Processing
Characteristics
Dehydrated
Tuber size
Specific gravity
Dry matter
(percentage)
Starch
(percentage)
Reducing Sugar
(percentage)
Shapes / Sizes
preferred
Source :
Type of Potato Products
French Fries
Chips
Canned
30
1.080
22-25
50
1.080
20-234
40-60
1.085
22-25
35
1.080
18-20
15-19
14-16
15-18
12-24
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.5
Medium to
large sized
tubers
Long oval
shaped tubers
Round to oval
shaped tubers
Small
sized tubers
Post Harvest Manual for Export of Potatoes, APEDA, New Delhi.
64
The processed potato products are classified as follows:
Å
Fried Products
:
Potato chips, Frozen French Fries, other frozen
fries.
Å
Dehydraed Products
:
Dehydrated chips, dices, flakes, granules, flour,
starch, potato custard powder soup or gravy
thickner and potato biscuits.
Å
Non-Fried Products
:
Potato jam, Potato murraba, Potato candy,
Potato biscuits, Potato cakes.
Å
Canned Products
9.2
USES :
a)
As vegetable
:
Potato is utilized as
throughout the world and
number of recipes either by
or by combining it with
pulses, cereals etc..
b)
As seed
:
Medium sized tubers are used normally in the
northern plains. In the northern and eastern
hills, is used as seed.
c)
As processed food
:
It is utilized in variety of ways such as
dehydrated potato products like chips, dice,
waries, flakes, granules, flour, starch, potato
powder and potato biscuits. It is also used to
prepare frozen foods like potato patties, puffs,
wedges,
pancake,
dehydrated
mashed
potatoes etc.
major vegetable
in preparation of
using potato alone
other vegetables,
65
10.0 DO'S & DON’TS :
DO’S
DON’TS
9 Harvest the crop, when the weather is U Harvest the crop, when the weather is moist.
dry.
9Stop irrigation two weeks before
dehaulming.
9Avoid bruising and skinning of tubers
during harvesting.
9 Dry the harvested tubers in storage
shade.
9 Separate the damaged and diseased
tubers before storing.
9 Store always the matured tubers.
9Store potatoes at 2-4 degree centigrade
in cold store for the purpose of
preventing sprouting.
9Use sprout inhibitors (e.g., CIPC) to
store potatoes at 10-12 degree
centigrade in cold store.
9Grade
the potatoes manually
mechanically before marketing.
U Continue irrigation two weeks before
dehaulming.
U Neglect bruising and skinning of tubers
during harvesting.
U Dry the harvested tubers in sun.
U Mix the damaged and diseased tubers
before storing.
U Store the matured tubers with immature
tubers.
U Store potatoes above 2-4 degree centigrade
in cold store for the purpose of preventing
sprouting.
U Store potatoes at 10-12 degree centigrade
in cold store without using sprout inhibitors
(e.g, CIPC).
or U Market the potatoes without grading either
manually or mechanically.
9 Sale potato to the co-operative society, U Sale the produce to local traders or itinerant
nearest procurement centers of
National Agricultural Co-opt Marketing
Federation (NAFED)/ other agencies or
at regulated markets for getting better
prices
9Avail benefit of contract farming with
any agency to ensure better marketing
of the produce.
9Get the market information on potato
regularly
from
newspaper,
T,V,
concerned APMC offices, websites of
different
organizations
namely
Agmarknet website.
9 Avail the system of future trading to
avoid price risk arising due to wide
fluctuation in commodity prices.
9 Contact the Central Potato Research
Institute
(CPRI),Shimla(H.P.)
for
availing the procedure of phytosanitary
measure for export of potatoes.
merchants at low prices.
U Produce potatoes without assessing &
assuring it’s market demand for that year.
U Sell potatoes without collecting/ verifying
any marketing information.
U Sell the produce at fluctuating prices or in
glut situation.
U Export potatoes without any phytosanitary
measure.
66
11.0
REFERENCES :
11.1
Text Books:
1.
Post harvest Manual for Export of Potatoes (Jan2003) by Agricultural & Processed
Food
Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).
Handbook of Agricultural Sciences-by Dr. Singh, S,S(1998)
Marketing of Vegetables in India by Vigneshwara Varamudy .Published by Daya Publishing
House., Delhi.
Handbook of Agricultural Science- Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR),
New Delhi.
2.
3.
4.
11.2
Annual Reports:
1.
Annual Report, 2003-04 Department of Agriculture and Co-operation , Ministry of Agriculture,
Govt. of India., New Delhi.
Annual Report, 2002-03 National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation of India
Ltd.(NAFED), New Delhi.
Annual Report, 2002-03, Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development
Authority (APEDA), New Delhi.
2.
3.
11.3
Research Papers:
1.
Ezekiel ,R., Brajesh Singh, N.R.Kumar and S.M.Paul Khurana 2003. Storing potato scientifically.
Indian Horticulture,Issue-April-June2003
Paul,Vijay, R.Ezekiel, and G.S. Shekhawat 2002. Traditional methods of potato storage in
changing scenario, Indian Farming,Issue-August2002
Pandit,A., Rejesh K. Rana, N.K. Pandey and N.R.Kumar 2003. Potato marketing in India. Indian
Horticulture, Issue- April-June2003.
Dahiya, P. S., 2001. Potato Scenario-2001.Agriculture Today, Issue-June2001.
Ezekiel,R., and P.S. Khurana 2003. Market Potential for Potatoes and Processed Potato
Products. www.commodityindia.com. Issue-Aug2003.
Sanganaria,S. 2003. Need of the hour-export orientation for Potatoes. Agriculture Today, IssueJune2003.
Marwaha,R.S. and S.K.Sandhu 2003. Enjoy finger linking potato products. Indian Horticulture,
Issue-April-June2003.
Khurana, Rana 2004. Need for initiatives, The Hindu Survey Of Indian Agriculture,2004.
Shekhawat,G.S. and P.S. Dahiya 2000. A neglected major food crop, The Hindu Survey of
Indian Agriculture,2000.
Shekhawat, Ezekiel 1999. Potential as a food. The Hindu Survey Of Indian Agriculture,1999.
Pandey ,S.K., S.M.Paul Khurana and S.V.Singh2002,New Potato varieties for processing .Agro
India, Issue-November 2002.
Marwaha,R.S. and S.K. Sandhu2003, Potato flour processing, Agribusiness & Horticulture, IssueFeb-March 2003.
Sudhozae.N.2003,Export potential for Indian Potato, Agribusiness & Horticulture, Issue-April-May
2003.
Pandit, Arora and Sharma 2003, Problems of Potato Marketing in India. Indian Journal of
Agricultural Marketing , Issue-17(2), 2003.
Dahiya P.S. and, Sharma 1994. Potato marketing in India. Status: Issues and Outlook. Working
paper no.1994-2, Social Science Department. International Potato Centre(CIP), Lima, Peru.
Dey,A. and A. Bhukta1994. Marketing of Potato in West Bengal. Indian Journal of Agricultural
Marketing , Issue-Jan-March1994.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
67
11.4
Other related documents:
1.
Product Catalogue2006,Tech Bulletin no-CIAE/2005/119, Central Institute of Agricultural
Engineering, Bhopal.
Potato In India1992, Tech Bulletin no-1, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla.
Indian Potato Varieties for Processing, Tech Bulletin no-50, Central Potato Research Institute,
Shimla.
Potato Processing In India, Tech Bulletin no-34, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla.
Potato Equipments Developed at Central Potato Research Institute, Tech Bulletin no-25, Central
Potato Research Institute, Shimla.
Economics and Marketing of Potato in India, Tech Bulletin no-44, Central Potato Research
Institute, Shimla.
Indian Potato Varieties, Tech Bulletin no-51, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla.
World Potato Statistics, Tech Bulletin no-52, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla.
Quality Seed Potato Product in NEH Region of India. Tech Bulletin no-62, Central Potato
Research Institute, Shimla.
Major Potato Pests in North-eastern India and their management. Extension Bulletin No-40,
Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla.
Traditional Potato Cultivation Practices In Meghalaya, Tech Bulletin
no-72, Central Potato
Research Institute, Shimla.
Packages of Practices for Potato Cultivation in Meghalaya, Leaflet, Central Potato Research
Institute, Shimla.
Potato in India, e-book, website of Central Potato Research Institute(CPRI), Shimla.
Marketing of Potato In India, Published by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Ministry of
Agriculture, Govt. of India.
Post Harvest Technology and Utilization of Potato by Mukhtar Singh and S.C.Verma , Published
at 'International symposium on Post-Harvest Technology and Utilisation of Potato',1979.
Agri- Export zones in West Bengal. Food Processing Industries & Horticulture Department, Govt.
of West Bengal
Potato Crop in Punjab: Production, Marketing and Export by J.Singh,R.S.Sandhu, A.S. Dhat,
S.Singh, J.S.Kamboj, D.K.Grover. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhina and Punjab AgriExport Corporation Ltd. Monograph no.5, 2001.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
11.5
Websites:
www.agmarknet.nic.in
www.apeda.com
www.cpri.ernet.in
www.fao.org
www.nafed-india.com
www. mofpi.nic.in
www. ncdex.com
www.agricooop.nic.in
www.cipotato.org
www.ficciagroindia.com/aic/post-harvest-mgmt/vegetables/potato.htm
www.mcx.com
www.codexalimentarius.net
68
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