18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Contents 4.1 Certificate Limits ....................................... 13 1 4.2 Share Limits ................................................ 14 2 3 4 Introduction ............................................................. 4 1.1 Designer's Foreword................................... 4 4.3 Entering the Stock Market...................... 14 1.2 Developer's Foreword ................................ 5 4.4 Share Value Marker Movement ............ 14 1.3 Terminology and Rules Semantics ......... 5 1.3.1 Definition of Company Types.............. 6 1.3.2 Other Terms .............................................. 7 5 Game Phases ......................................................... 15 5.1 Game Components ................................................. 9 Railroad Phases.......................................... 15 5.1.1 Auction Railroad Phase ...................... 15 5.1.2 Concession Railroad Phase ............... 15 2.1 The Map........................................................... 9 5.1.3 Regional/Minor Railroad Phase ...... 15 2.2 The Game Information Board .................. 9 5.1.4 Major Railroad Phase .......................... 15 5.1.5 Consolidation Railroad Phase .......... 15 2.2.1 Locomotive Works.................................. 9 2.2.2 Current Round ......................................... 9 2.2.3 Orient Express Markers ........................ 9 2.2.4 Stock Market............................................. 9 2.2.5 Par Values ................................................10 2.2.6 Regional/Minor Operating Order ....10 2.2.7 Game Limits/Starting Capital ...........10 2.2.8 Port Authorities .....................................10 2.2.9 Open Market ...........................................10 2.3 Track Tiles ....................................................10 2.4 Trains .............................................................10 2.5 Certificates ...................................................10 2.6 Tokens ...........................................................10 2.7 Markers .........................................................11 2.8 Scenario Tiles ..............................................11 2.9 Patronage Tiles ...........................................11 2.10 Charters .........................................................11 5.2 6 3.1 Physical Layout ...........................................12 3.2 Player Order/Priority ...............................13 3.3 Player Starting Capital..............................13 Opening Packet..................................................... 16 6.1 Privates ......................................................... 16 6.2 Minors ........................................................... 17 6.3 Concessions ................................................. 17 7 Auction Railroad Phase ..................................... 17 7.1 8 8.1 Concession Railroad Phase .................... 18 8.2 Regional/Minor Railroad Phase ........... 19 8.3 Major Railroad Phase ............................... 20 8.4 Reserved Shares ........................................ 20 8.5 Game Phase Overlap................................. 20 Railroad Formation and Consolidation........ 20 9.1 Floating a Minor......................................... 20 9.2 Floating a Regional ................................... 21 9.3 Floating a Major ......................................... 22 9.4 Forming a National ................................... 22 9.5 Abandoning a Minor ................................. 23 10 Stock Market ..........................................................13 2 Purchasing Minors .................................... 18 Train Phase 1 ........................................................ 18 9 Game Setup.............................................................12 Train Phases................................................ 15 Stock Rounds ................................................... 23 10.1 Selling Stock ................................................ 23 10.2 Buying Stock................................................ 24 10.3 Change of Presidency ............................... 24 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 10.4 Trade with another Player ......................24 11.4 Pay, Split, or Hold Revenues .................. 37 10.5 Merging a Minor .........................................24 11.5 Transfer Tokens......................................... 37 10.6 Consolidation Railroad Phase ................26 11.6 Buy Trains.................................................... 38 10.7 Ending a Stock Round...............................26 11.6.1 Reserved Trains ............................... 39 Operating Rounds ...........................................26 11.6.2 Pullman Cars ..................................... 39 11.6.3 Train Phase Changes ...................... 39 11.6.4 Forced Train Purchases ................ 40 11.6.5 First-Round Insolvency ................. 40 11.6.6 National Trains ................................ 40 11 11.1 Lay Track ......................................................27 11.1.1 Tile Placement Order ......................27 11.1.2 Tile Availability.................................27 11.1.3 Placing a Tile .....................................27 11.1.4 Track Rights.......................................29 11.1.5 Tile Expenses and Discounts........29 11.1.6 Cross-water Track ...........................29 11.1.7 Upgrading Cities ...............................29 11.1.8 Patronage Tiles .................................30 11.1.9 Right-of-Way .....................................30 11.2 11.7 12 Buy or Sell Shares ...................................... 40 The Orient Express ........................................ 41 12.1 Combining Trains ...................................... 41 12.2 First Time Bonus ....................................... 41 13 Ending the Game............................................. 42 13.1 14 Place Token ..................................................30 Winning ........................................................ 42 Appendix A: Privates ..................................... 42 14.1 Robert Stephenson and Company ....... 42 11.2.1 Cross-water Tokens ........................31 14.2 Ponts et Chaussees .................................... 42 11.2.2 Lille .......................................................31 14.3 Wien Südbahnhof ...................................... 42 14.4 Barclay, Bevan, Barclay and Tritton .... 43 14.5 Star Harbor Trading Company.............. 43 14.6 Central Circle Transport Corporation 44 14.7 White Cliffs Ferry ...................................... 44 11.3 Run Trains and Calculate Revenue ......31 11.3.1 Routes ..................................................31 11.3.2 Train Types ........................................32 11.3.3 City Limits ..........................................32 14.8 Hochberg Mining & Lumber Co. ........... 44 11.3.4 Ports and Sea Crossings .................32 14.9 Brandt & Brandau, Engineers................ 44 11.3.5 Port Authorities ................................33 11.3.6 Port Types ..........................................34 11.3.7 14.10 15 Swift Metropolitan Line ..................... 45 Appendix B: Minors ....................................... 45 15.1 Minor A ......................................................... 45 Ferries..................................................35 15.2 Minor B ......................................................... 45 11.3.8 Running Multiple Trains................35 15.3 Minor C.......................................................... 45 11.3.9 Calculating Revenue........................36 15.4 Minor D ......................................................... 45 15.5 Minor E.......................................................... 45 11.3.10 Calculating National Revenue ......36 15.6 Minor F .......................................................... 46 3 18OE Rules Version 1.0 15.7 Minor G ..........................................................46 15.8 Minor H..........................................................46 15.9 Minor J ...........................................................46 15.10 Minor K .....................................................46 15.11 Minor L .....................................................46 15.12 Minor M ....................................................46 16 1 1.1 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. take you someplace new and exciting—with an air of mystery to boot! The reader might note that in society today the idea of The Orient Express still evokes similar emotions. … I'm certain many people will presume that the reason 18OE has such a large map is because of my association with Mark Frazier who designed the massive 18C2C. But the original reason for the sheer expanse of the map was actually to create a challenging track-laying environment—one for which Europe was well suited. Acknowledgements ........................................47 Introduction Designer's Foreword There are two conceptual elements that drove the design of 18OE. The first arose from conversations about game theory, both board and computer based, specifically dealing with paying fees to different nation-states and even cities for the right to lay track. The extent of the restricted areas and the fees I tinkered with didn't seem as severe as those 18XX games in which every tile laid must be paid for. Nevertheless the cash requirements rapidly ran up—Europe covers a large territory with many national borders. Starting a minor railroad in each country to gain the right to lay track there was nearly a requirement since these small railroads received their home track rights for free. Running trains across a border required state permission: count the track rights needed to travel the entire distance from Paris to Constantinople and your railroad's treasury will be dry before you even think about that 5 Train to run the route. When I was very young, there was a railroad track that ran behind my house, separated from my backyard by a thicket of brambles. But the track curved at the end of the street and crossed it, heading north towards Lake Erie. So the year before kindergarten, my friends and I would spend lazy summer days going down to the crossing and walking back westward down the weed-strewn rails, looking for rocks, frogs, and odd pieces of metal—the typical cool and interesting stuff a child of five could find in such an environment. How the times have changed.... We would talk about the railroad and the trains, when one might come through, what would happen if we could get on board for a ride—what wondrous places would it take us? (In those days Stand By Me lay over a decade in the future.) What an adventure we might have had! Looking back on those days, it is ironic that I don't recall seeing a train on those tracks during the several years I lived there. Based on the few references I've found on the Internet, my guess is that that section of track had been abandoned for at least a decade before my friends and I wandered along the right-of-way. And yet, I find it telling that in the early 1970’s with passenger rail service in the United States forced into Amtrak or bankruptcy, children still absorbed the idea through parents and the media that trains could Not only did it become apparent that using a varying fee schedule for access rights slowed the game to a halt, it also presented the huge logistical challenge of tracking every right. This increased errors when, in the process, players forgot where each railroad was allowed to run. And so this element had to change: it is now much simplified from the original design. I feel the trimmed down "Track Rights" reach a necessary balance because they are very simple to calculate; and yet, they still play a role in deciding a player's long term 4 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. strategy, even early in the game when the players are floating minors and regionals. This is a result I'd never considered on the first day, but it plays well and is a valuable part of this game. Ed Sindelar Designer of 18OE 1.2 Developer's Foreword 18OE - On the Rails of the Orient Express is DICE's second foray into monster 18XX games. The brainchild of Ed Sindelar, my close friend and 18XX competitor for over twenty years, this game has been swirling around in our heads for almost as long as 18C2C has been in production. The game resembles 18C2C insofar as they are both monster 18XX games; the similarity almost completely ends there. 18OE is an entirely new animal. The second element of the game builds from the first: the importance of rail networks and railroad synergy. I have a bias towards the building aspects of games that I play. I see 18OE's map of Europe facilitating this. The player needs to coordinate several railroads to build a small empire, while considering the ever-present competition—and, dare one suggest cooperation—with the other players' small empires. The map is atypical of 18XX designs since the addition of ports and ferries increases the number of paths from city A to city B. Suddenly the decision space expands tremendously, giving this game its interesting character. This game's focus is more "plan ahead" than even 18C2C. The system rewards contemplation of the transition from one type of railroad to another. As with 18C2C, historical accuracy has been thrown out the window when it conflicts with playability. Much of the chrome has been trimmed to bring the game length down to a comparable timeframe to 18C2C (12 hours), leaving in the elements that make the game truly unique. Integral to the playing experience is the flexibility given at various points in the game, from placing the first bid on the opening packet, through jostling for position and timing to place a station in Constantinople, to deciding whether to purchase a 7 Train outright or take a dividend hit for the 5D Train. If you consider it challenging while laying track to decide how to prioritize outward expansion versus city upgrades versus route simplification, then I consider my design a success. The game's central focus is, as one would expect from the name, the Orient Express run. A fresh approach to running train routes across water has added a strategic element to the game that players ignore at their own peril. 18OE has been a real blast to create. There are zillions of railroads and its got huge tracts of land! Our goal has always been to design, develop, and publish games that we love to play. It is my hope that you have as much fun playing as we had creating this game! ... I've been playing rail games for twenty years. I certainly never expected that I would end up designing one. But so I have, and as it happens, that's been quite an adventure of its own. I thank you who will play this game for sharing this experience with me, giving it meaning. I hope you enjoy spending your time On The Rails of The Orient Express as much as I have. Mark Frazier President Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 1.3 I think back to living by those railroad tracks at my childhood home, and how they represented adventure to me. Now I'm off to Constantinople, via Paris and München, with stops in Wien and Budapest…. Will you join me? Terminology and Rules Semantics These rules are organized into sections. Each section is numbered sequentially within the context of its main heading. Every attempt has been made to present these rules in the order in 5 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. which you will encounter them during play. Rules are rarely repeated (this book is long enough as it is), but they are heavily cross-referenced to assist you when consulting them. When first learning the unique mechanics of 18OE it is particularly important to read the cross-referenced sections, the Game Phases Chart, and the playbook. similar to minors in many other 18XX games. They do not have a fixed home city and must select one when floated (see 9.1). Regional – Regional Railroad Companies are purchased by players after the Auction Railroad Phase and are represented by a charter and 3 stock certificates: a president’s certificate worth 50% and 2 secondary certificates worth 25% each. Regionals will ultimately expand into majors (see 9.3). Each regional has a fixed home city (see 9.2). Developer's notes, designer's notes, examples of play, and historical notes appear in red italic print. Italic print is also used for emphasis. The terms defined in this section are used consistently throughout these rules. When used as defined they appear in bold print. Major - Major Railroad Companies are created by the expansion of regionals after 18 of the regionals and all 12 minors have floated (see 9.3). They are represented by a charter and 9 stock certificates: a president’s certificate worth 20% and 8 worth 10%. Their value will change on the Stock Market based on actions their president (and other players) take during the game. Terms referring to the movement of markers on the Stock Market appear in BOLD CAPITAL PRINT. Terms referring to sections of the Game Information Board, the Map, and the Charts and Tables sheets are Capitalized. National - National Railroad Subsidiaries are created by the closure of a major(see 9.4). They are represented by a charter and 9 stock certificates: a president’s certificate worth 20% and 8 worth 10%. Their value will change on the Stock Market based on actions their president (and other players) take during the game. They generate revenue using a different operating paradigm than the other railroads in the game (see 11.3.10). Developer's note for experienced 18XX players: Some of the terms defined in this section may appear at first to be pedantic, but don't gloss over them while reading the rules. For example, the new term city limit pertains to a train's route rather than to a specific city. Pay particular attention to how city limit is defined and you will see its added significance to running trains. 1.3.1 Developer's note: The nationals are an abstraction. More than one major can form a national in a given country, but each national continues to operate independently. Think of each national as representing a subsidiary of the national railroad of that country. This is reflected in the national charters that are differentiated within a country only by the subsidiary's logo—the only surviving relic of the absorbed major. To reflect this abstraction, all nationals within a single track rights zone use the national name of only one country within that zone. Definition of Company Types Private - Private Companies are fixed income properties purchased by the players during the Auction Railroad Phase and are each represented by a single certificate. They generally have special abilities of use to the owner during the course of the game (see 6.1 and 14). Minor - Minor Railroad Companies are purchased by the players during the Auction Railroad Phase and are represented by a single charter that is itself a certificate (see 2.5). Each of the 12 has a special power which it can use, or can be used by the major it is merged into (see 6.2 and 14). Minors operate and pay revenue in a manner Railroad - [hereafter often “RR”] collectively refers to minors, regionals, majors, and 6 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. nationals. Where this term is used, the rules mean "all four of these company types". Metropolis - The largest cities of some nations use individually designated track tiles. Birmingham, Madrid, and Wien use a group of tiles in common. These track tiles are all referred to as metropolis tiles, and these cities also use the term metropolis. The revenue values of metropolises in a given Train Phase are the highest of all cities of the same tile color. 1.3.2 Other Terms Certificate Limit – A certificate slot is the place a certificate fills in a player’s portfolio. The certificate limit on the Info Board states the number of certificate slots each player has. This varies with the number of players in the game. Offshort Port - refers to the symbols on the Map that indicate a city has port access but is surrounded by land hexes (see 11.3.6). City Limit - refers to the maximum number of cities (including grand cities and metropolises), sea zones, and red zones that a train may include in its route (see 11.3.3). Operating Round - [hereafter "OR"] refers to the game rounds in which the RRs lay track and tokens, run trains, and collect revenue (see 11) Concession - refers to the concession cards that are at the bottom of the opening packet. These cards each confer the right to take one of the first 10 float actions of Train Phase 1. Opening Packet - refers to the minors, privates, and concessions that are available for purchase during the Auction Railroad Phase (see 5.1.1). Designer's note: In abstracted real-world terms they represent the governmental incentives provided to the railroads to begin construction within their nations. Ownership and Control – Players own the privates, RR charters, certificates, cash, etc. that they possess but not anything situated on the charter of a RR. RRs own everything on their charters and all tokens on the Map related thereto. Players control minors when they own the charter for that minor. Players control other RRs when they own the president’s certificate for that RR [and possibly additional shares] and no other player owns shares representing a greater percentage of that RR. Dead end – A black arrow pointing from a hex side into a non-hex area near a circle showing zero revenue. Tiles laid on such a hex may have track sections that connect with these arrows. Game Information Board - [hereafter "Info Board"] - refers to the board that is used for tracking the game state and for storing various markers (see 2.2). Par Value - refers to the purchase price of stock from a RR's treasury (see 10.2). Grand City - Cities that were important in the industrial and social development of Europe use different track tiles than normal cities. These track tiles are referred to as "Y" tiles, and the cities are called grand cities. The revenue values of grand cities in a given Train Phase are higher than typical cities of the same tile color. Patronage Tiles - represent local nobility or other interests who have offered a bounty to the RR that first connects the city to major markets. Designer's note: In the opening years of railroad building across Europe, practical necessity dictated the early connection of the large cities in highly industrialized nations to facilitate moving freight and passengers with efficiency. As the Industrial Age blossomed, other locales without major resources driving development would often stagnate. To counteract this, many noblemen would contract the construction of railroads to improve Linked - refers to cities, red zones, and towns that are connected by track to other cities, red zones, and towns. It pertains to the method that nationals use to count revenue (see 11.3.10). 7 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. their region’s transportation, economy, and of course, their own prestige. Stock Round - [hereafter "SR"] refers to the game rounds in which players execute stock actions (see 10). Player Order - is the clockwise order in which the players sit around the table and take actions during the SRs, starting, unless otherwise stated, with the player holding the priority deal card. Tile Point - refers to both the number of "points" each RR may use to lay track and to the cost in "points" of laying a particular tile (see 11.1). Port Authority - refers to the markers that confer sea crossing benefits in the North/Baltic Seas, and the Mediterranean Sea (see 11.3.5). Token Positions - are the white city circles on the track tiles and the grey city circles in the hexes and red zones on the Map. Port Token - refers to station tokens placed in cities adjacent to ports. They reduce city limits for the owning RR. (see 11.3.4). Track Rights - relate to the home territory of a RR. Each track rights zone encompasses one or more nations that existed in Europe in 1882. RRs who have track rights in certain zones get a track building discount inside their zone (see 11.1.5). Track rights also limit where nationals, regionals, and minors may lay track (see 11.1.4). Portfolio – The certificates of face up privates, minor’s charters, and RR stock certificates that are in a player’s possession. The certificate limit is the total quantity of these items that a player may own. Train Level (or just level) - Each train has a level that is equal to its train number. That number is also its type. (see 11.3.2). Exceptions: 4D trains are considered to be level 7 and 5D trains are considered to be level 8. Priority Deal - is the status of the current holder of the priority deal card. This player has the first opportunity to take the next action during a SR. (exception: Concession RR Phase, see 5.1.2.) Train Phase – Train Phase 1 begins with the Concession Railroad Phase. Train Phase 2 begins with the first OR. Thereafter, the period from the moment a specific numbered train is first purchased until the next higher numbered train is first purchased or the game ends (see 5.2). See also the Game Phases Chart. Railroad Phase – [hereafter often “RR Phase”] refers to certain game state changes that occur during the course of the game, revolving around the opening packet auction and the launching and closure of railroads. The Railroad Phases overlap with the Train Phases of the game (see 5). See also the Game Phases Chart. Developer's Note to experienced 18XX players: this term refers to the "typical" 18XX game phases that are defined in almost all 18XX games. Train Phase 1 equates to what is commonly known as the "initial stock round". Red Zone - refers to the red colored areas on the Map. Sea Crossing - refers to a train's route when it is crossing a sea zone (see 11.3.4). Designer's Note: The national boundaries of Europe have changed significantly since the invention of the steam locomotive. In a game of this type, it is not feasible to have national borders shift as time goes on. For simplicity's sake, the names of the track rights zones refer to the nations of Europe as they existed in 1883 when the first Orient Express journey occurred. This means that many current nations are not mentioned. Sea Zone - refers to the water areas on the Map separated by the thick white dashed lines (see 2.1). Sea zones count against a train's city limit when making a sea crossing (see 11.3.4). Share Value - is the current value of one 10% share of stock in a RR as indicated by its marker on the Stock Market. 8 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. For playability reasons, most of the track rights zones include several nations. This allows regionals and minors a reasonable expanse of countryside in which to build their networks in spite of their restricted track and token abilities. name of the sea and contains a circular steamship symbol with a number in it to visually assist players with counting the distance of a sea crossing. The black dashed lines separating and within land hexes are track rights boundaries. These are relevant to the starting positions for the minors (via track rights, see 9.1), and also may affect track laying costs (see 11.1.5). Some track rights boundaries pass through the center of a hex; any city in the hex is considered to be within the track rights zone in which the city's symbol resides on the Map. 2 Game Components The components in the game are: 771 Yellow, Green, Brown, and Grey Track Tiles 9 Red Zone Tiles (for the Scenarios) 45 Patronage Tiles The other terrain features listed on the Map legend are described elsewhere in these rules. 240 Small (3/8") Wooden Tokens and Stickers 110 Large (1/2") Wooden Markers and Stickers 216 Railroad certificate cards 2.2 10 Concession cards (backside of 2+2 trains) The Game Information Board The Info Board contains areas for storing yet-tobe used components, and also serves to track the current game status. The board is organized as follows: 6 Order of Operation cards (backside of 2+2 trains) 10 Private cards 116 Train and Pullman cards 2.2.1 Locomotive Works 1 "Level 8 Trains now available" card Store here trains that have never been purchased or force purchased by a RR. The level 2, 3 and 4 sections each have a sideways box for storing unclaimed rusted trains. (Rusted trains may be acquired only by nationals.) 1 Priority Deal card (Total: 360 cards) 16 Track Rights chits 36 Railroad charters 4 Charts and Tables sheets 2.2.2 Current Round 1 Rulebook Move the round marker from circle to circle here to identify the current game round. 1 Playbook 1 Map in two folded sections 2.2.3 Orient Express Markers 1 Game Information Board in one folded section 2.1 Store here the markers that are used to indicate that a RR has made an Orient Express run (see 12). The Map The Map is overlaid with a hex grid. The track tiles are placed on the hexes. Hexes with a tan, reddish tan, olive green, or yellow background may have track tiles placed on them. Red zones and areas without hexes may never have track tiles placed on them (see 11.1). 2.2.4 Stock Market This section is used to track the current share value of each major and national (See 4.3). The white dashed lines in the seas are sea zone boundaries. Each sea zone is also labeled with the 9 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 2.2.5 Par Values 2.4 Trains This section is used to show the par values of all regionals and majors. The six boxes with values of £60, £65, £70, £75, £80, and £90 are used when floating a regional. The six boxes with values of £75, £80, £90, £100, £110, and £120 are used when floating a major. Track Color Train Type Train Level Purchase Price Obsolesence 2.2.6 Regional/Minor Operating Order This section is used to show the order in which minors and regionals run during ORs. As each RR operates during the first OR of each pair of ORs between SRs, its marker is moved from the white box to the grey box directly below it. As each RR operates during the second OR, its marker is moved back to the white box directly above it on the track. Trains are used by the RRs to generate revenue. The available track color indicates the highest color track that may be used in the Train Phase in which the first train of this level was purchased. The purchase price of the train is the amount that a RR pays for the train. Train types are described in section (11.3.2). 2.5 2.2.7 Game Limits/Starting Capital Certificates This is a table listing the certificate limit and starting cash for each player. This varies with the number of players in the game. 2.2.8 Port Authorities Privates, stock shares in RRs, and minor charters are all certificates. Each type differs in the percentage of ownership they represent and the total number of shares available (see 1.3.1). Store here the port authority markers until they are purchased by a major (see 11.3.5). 2.2.9 Open Market Store here shares of stock after they are sold by players and all trains that are discarded. This is called the Bank Pool in other 18XX games. 2.3 2.6 Tokens Track Tiles Track tiles are the hexagonally shaped game pieces in four colors: yellow, green, brown, and grey. Only yellow track tiles are available at the beginning of the game; the others become available at the beginning of Train Phases 3, 5, and 7. Tokens are small wooden cylinders 3/8" in diameter used on the Map. Most tokens designate the cities on the map to, from, and through which specific RRs may run, and are called station tokens. Some tokens are associated with privates and minors, and are used to indicate the location on the Map associated with the private's or minor's special power (see 6). 10 18OE Rules Version 1.0 2.7 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. U = United Kingdom Markers P = Prussia, Denmark and Holland F = France and Belgium S = Spain and Portugal I = Italy Markers are larger wooden discs, 5/8" in diameter, used for various purposes in the game. Most markers are used to used on the Info Board to indicate the current round, and the par value, current share value and operating order of RRs. Orient Express markers begin play on the Info Board and are placed on a RR's charter to indicate that the RR has made an Orient Express run. Port authority markers also begin play on the Info Board and are placed on a RR's charter to indicate ownership. The rest of the markers begin play on top of a private’s certificate or minor’s charter and are placed on a RR's charter to indicate ownership when the private's or minor's special ability is exercised (see 6). A = Austria-Hungary N = Norway, Sweden and Denmark R = Russia B = Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia O = Ottoman Empire 2.10 Charters Charters are used to store a RR’s trains, Pullman cars, station tokens, cash, privates and minors’ markers, and track rights chits. They keep everything organized during play. Minor Charter Railroad Name 2.8 Scenario Tiles Special Ability Station Tokens Face Value Track Rights (place chit here) Treasury The eight red tiles and one München yellow tile are not used in the full game. See the playbook for their use in the scenarios. Trains 2.9 Patronage Tiles Track Rights Chit Track Rights Construction Discount Home Station Cost 45 tiles that use colors and geometric symbols: pink (circle), yellow (square), green (hexagon), and white (triangle) to show which cities are offering bonuses to connect to them. These tiles also have a letter on them that indicates which track rights zone their city is located in: 11 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Regional/Major Charter National Charter Railroad Name Railroad Name Home Station Home Station Track Rights Track Rights Subsidiary Regional Station Tokens City Limit Summary Major Station Tokens Trains Treasury Pullman Car Trains Fourteen 7+7s in the level 7 box Eight 8+8s in the level 8 box 3 Game Setup 3.1 The "level 8 trains now available" card is placed under the fourth from the top 7+7 train. Physical Layout Place the Map and the Info Board on a table leaving sufficient room for all players’ assets, the bank, and the track tiles. Place the round marker on the Current Round section of the Info Board to indicate a SR. Split the bank's money (£54,000) into two equal parts and place one on each side of the table to facilitate easy access for all players. This will expedite play by not funneling all transactions through a single banker. All trains may be stacked with either side face up when in the Locomotive Works section. The cost to purchase a train is that shown on the face up side when the train is placed on a RR’s charter. Developer's Note: the game components contain more than the £54,000 required to play. Be sure to remove the excess "remainder cash" and set it aside for the endgame. Place the following trains in stacks in the Locomotive Works section of the Info Board: Thirty 2+2s in the level 2 box Twenty 3+3s in the level 3 box Ten 4+4s in the level 4 box Eight 5+5s in the level 5 box Six 6+6s in the level 6 box 12 Place the port authority and Orient Express markers in their respective boxes on the Info Board. Place two of each of the majors' tokens stacked on top of each other on their home token hexes, to indicate their reserved token positions. Lay out the opening packet as shown on the Opening Packet Layout Chart. Sort the 45 patronage tiles by color or symbol. Each group is turned face down and mixed up. Players then draw three tiles each from the pink (hexagon), yellow (pentagon), and white (triangle) groups; and eight tiles from the green (square) group. As each tile is drawn it is placed on its respective city on the Map. 18OE Rules Version 1.0 3.2 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Place the six major/national 10% certificates and six tokens from each major in a stack in their respective boxes at the top and bottom of the Map. Place the presidential certificate and the two 25% certificates of each regional (with the regional side face up) and its two markers in stacks next to the stack of shares of their respective majors (see the playbook for an example of this). 4 Stock Market In the real world stock markets facilitate the buying, selling, and tracking of the value of shares. This is represented in the game by the large Stock Market grid on the Info Board. Each square in the grid has a number representing the value per share of each RR whose share value marker is in that box. The movement of the share value marker, purchase and selling of shares, and RR ownership, is determined by the rules below. Red bordered squares in the grid show the starting locations for markers at their initial par values. The Open Market is the repository of shares owned by passive investors not in this game. The Par Values section of the Info Board displays the initial value of shares when floated. Split the track tiles into two equal parts and place one on each side of the table to facilitate easy access for all players. The Metropolis Upgrade Chart should be placed to one side of the Map, and all metropolis tiles placed onto the chart to keep them organized during play. Player Order/Priority Determine player order by a random method. The first player may choose where to sit at the table. All other players sit in numerical order clockwise from the first player. This player order remains constant for the entire game. The first player is given the priority deal card and, after the concessions are executed, will take the first stock action in the Regional/Minor RR Phase. The priority deal card moves after each stock action to the player to the left of the one who just took the action. 4.1 The certificate limit per player varies with the number of players. This limit is listed on the Game Limits chart on the Info Board. Private certificates and minor charters each count as one certificate towards a player's certificate limit. Each stock certificate in a regional, major, or national counts as one certificate towards that limit, regardless of the percentage of ownership it represents. Developer's Note: In practice, the priority deal card normally is only moved at the end of each SR and is given to the player to the left of the player who took the last action. There may be times that moving the card more frequently is helpful. However, these rules make reference to the priority deal card holder—this is the player defined as above. 3.3 Certificate Limits A player may exercise a private's ability, close it by turning it face down, or remove the certificate from their portfolio so that it no longer counts towards their certificate limit (see 6.1). A player who has more certificates than the limit allows must correct this at the first possible opportunity during a SR. The only actions available to do this are selling stock or removing, closing or exercising the ability of a private (see 6.1). Enough stock must be sold or the number of face up privates reduced to bring the number of certificates owned by the player back to, or under, the limit. Other transactions may be made during this sale if they are defined by these rules as a part of the action the player selects. All normal stock transfer rules must be obeyed. Player Starting Capital Starting capital is split among the players equally, rounded upwards to the nearest £5. Standard game: £5,400 total for all players. If you are playing without concessions, use £5,200 instead. 13 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 4.2 Share Limits The share limit is the percentage of ownership a player may have in a RR. In a regional it is 100%. In a major or national it is 100% but there are restrictions on the purchase of shares in excess of 60% (see 10.2). A major's or national's marker moves DOWN for each of its shares that is sold. A major's or national's marker moves UP at the end of a SR if none of its shares are available on the Open Market or in its treasury (i.e. all shares are in the hands of players). This condition is checked for and markers are moved in share value order from the highest to lowest. A major's or national's marker moves RIGHT if during an OR it pays a total—not per share—dividend equal to or greater than its share value. A major can pay half-revenues and still move RIGHT if the total dividends disbursed still equal or exceed its share value. 4.3 Entering the Stock Market When a major floats place its share value marker in the red bordered square of the Stock Market equal to its par value (See 9.3 and 10.7). 4.4 Share Value Marker Movement The value of shares in a RR usually changes when players buy or sell shares, when its shares are sold out, and when the RR pays or withholds dividends. When this happens, the RR’s share value marker moves on the Stock Market, normally one square in the direction stated in these rules in capital letters. When it reaches an edge of the Market it moves as indicated by the arrows along the edges. Example: a major with a share value of £150 that earns £320 in revenue and pays £160 in dividends (£16 per share) will move RIGHT on the market. The share value marker moves as follows: UP: The marker moves up one square. If a major or national's marker is already in the uppermost row of the Stock Market when it qualifies to move UP, it will move RIGHT on the Stock Market, remaining in its current row. If a marker is in the £550 space it does not move. Example: a major with a share value of £165 that earns £320 in revenue and pays £160 in dividends (£16 per share) will stay in place on the market. DOWN: The marker moves down one square. If a marker cannot move down it does not move. RIGHT: The marker moves one square to the right. If a marker cannot move right it will move up one square. If a marker is in the £550 space it does not move. LEFT: The marker moves one square to the left. If a marker cannot move left, it will move down one square. If a marker is in the £50 space it does not move. A major's or national's marker does not move if during an OR the amount of revenue it pays in dividends is less than its share value but greater than zero (£0). A major's or national's marker moves LEFT if during an OR it pays zero (£0) in dividends to its stockholders. A major's (not a national's!) marker moves RIGHT three times if it is making its first Orient Express run and the president chooses this option (see 12.2). Note that this movement is in addition to the movement for paying a dividend. If a share value marker moves into a box where there already are one or more markers, the newly arriving marker is placed below the other share value markers. If a share value marker does not move, it retains its relative position in the stack. Each RR’s share value marker moves as indicated when the following events take place: 14 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. minors and regionals leave the game. Only privates and shares of majors and nationals will remain. 5 Game Phases The game begins with the Auction RR Phase and progresses simultaneously through five Railroad Phases and Train Phases 1-8 (see the Game Phase Chart). Once Train Phase 2 begins, play alternates between a series of two ORs followed by one SR for the remainder of the game. Most of the rules for the Consolidation RR Phase are the same as a typical SR. The applicable restrictions and available actions during this phase are listed in section 10.6. During this SR a player may take any of the usual SR actions defined in section 10 except that players cannot pass until they have no remaining minors or regionals. A player may abandon a minor if the restrictions in section 9.5 are met. The RR Phases overlap with the Train Phases (i.e., a RR Phase may begin during one Train Phase and last into a subsequent Train Phase and vice versa. See the Game Phases Chart for details). 5.1 5.1.1 A player may temporarily avoid floating a major or merging a minor during this round by taking other actions, but eventually in this SR they must take actions that remove all of their regionals and minors from the game. Railroad Phases Auction Railroad Phase This RR Phase begins the game and lasts until the entire opening packet of 10 privates, 12 minors, and 10 concessions sells out (see 6 & 7). 5.2 Train Phase 1 - begins with the Concession RR Phase - (see 8). Train Phase 2 - begins at the start of the first OR. The following apply: 5.1.2 Concession Railroad Phase This RR Phase is the first ten float actions of Train Phase 1. These are limited to a specific set of actions listed in section 8.1. 5.1.3 Regional/Minor Railroad Phase This RR Phase begins at the end of the Concession RR Phase, and lasts until both (1) 18 of the 24 regionals and (2) all 12 of the minors are floated. The applicable restrictions and available actions during this phase are listed in section 8.2. 5.1.4 Major Railroad Phase This RR Phase begins at the end of the Regional/Minor RR Phase. It is interrupted for the Consolidation RR Phase but otherwise lasts until the end of the game. The applicable restrictions and available actions during this phase are listed in section 8.3. 5.1.5 Consolidation Railroad Phase This phase is the first SR following the OR during which Train Phase 5 begins. During this SR all 15 Train Phases o Only Yellow track may be used (exception: see 11.1.9). o Each regional and minor is limited to owning two trains. o Each major is limited to owning four trains. o Level 2 trains are available for purchase. One level 2 train in the Locomotive Works is reserved for each regional, minor, and major (see 11.6.1). Train Phase 3 - begins with the purchase of the first level 3 train. The following apply: o Only Yellow and Green track may be used. o Each regional/minor is limited to owning two trains. o Each major is limited to owning four trains. o Minors may merge with majors during a SR (see 10.5). 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Train Phase 4 - begins with the purchase of the first level 4 train. The following apply: o At the beginning of this phase level 3 trains rust (see 11.6.3). Nationals and majors that choose to convert to nationals at the moment this phase begins do not remove their level 3 trains. o This is the second opportunity for nationals to form (see 9.4). Train Phase 7 - begins with the purchase of the first level 7 train. The following apply: Only Yellow and Green track may be used. o o Each regional/minor is limited to owning one train. All track colors are available (Yellow, Green, Brown, and Grey). o o Each major is limited to owning three trains. Each major is limited to owning two trains. o o Each national is limited to owning four trains. Each national is limited to owning three trains. o o Minors may merge with majors and nationals during a SR (see 10.5). o This is the first opportunity for nationals to form (see 9.4). Level 8 trains become available for purchase after the first four level 7 trains are purchased from the Locomotive Works. Pullman cars are now available (see 11.6.2). Train Phase 8 - begins with the purchase of the first level 8 train. The following apply: o Train Phase 5 - begins with the purchase of the first level 5 train. The following apply: All track colors are available (Yellow, Green, Brown, and Grey). o Only Yellow, Green, and Brown track may be used. Each major is limited to owning two trains. o Each regional/minor is limited to owning one train. Each national is limited to owning three trains. o At the beginning of this phase all level 4 trains rust (see 11.6.3). Nationals and majors that choose to convert to nationals at the moment this phase begins do not remove their level 4 trains. o This is the third (and final) opportunity for nationals to form (see 9.4). o o At the beginning of this phase all level 2 trains are obsolete [“rusted”] (see 11.6.3). Rusted trains may later be claimed by nationals (see 11.6.6). Majors that choose to convert to nationals at the moment this phase begins do not remove their level 2 trains. o o o Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. o Each major is limited to owning three trains. o Each national is limited to owning four trains. o The next SR after this phase begins is the Consolidation RR Phase (see 5.1.5). Train Phase 6 - begins with the purchase of the first level 6 train. The following apply: o Only Yellow, Green, and Brown track may be used. o Each major is limited to owning two trains. o Each national is limited to owning three trains. 6 Opening Packet 6.1 Privates Privates are purchased from the opening packet during the Auction RR Phase. Each private counts towards its owner’s certificate limit while face up but not when face down. A face up private 16 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. pays its revenue to its owner at the beginning of each OR. The minors and their abilities are listed and explained in section 15. A private remains open until one of the following events occurs: 6.3 Concessions The game ends. The face value of the face up private counts in the final tally of its owning player's cash. The owner of the private exercises its special ability. The private is immediately removed from the game unless that private’s description below states another condition for doing so (see 14). Privates remaining in this way are placed face down (closed). The ability of a private can only be exercised on behalf of a RR owned by the private's owner. Developer's Note: The ten concessions add an element of complexity to the game that can be daunting for the beginner. It may be difficult to understand the significance until you have played through the opening stages of the game a few times. It is strongly recommended that new players remove the concession cards from the opening packet and ignore this rules section (along with any rules relating to concessions) until the game's intricacies have become more familiar. The ten concessions each provide the successful purchaser the right to take, in numerical order, one of the first ten stock actions of Train Phase 1. These actions are limited to a specific set of allowable actions that are defined in section 8.1. The owner of the private closes it during a SR, flipping its certificate face down. The private no longer counts towards the player’s certificate limit and no longer pays revenue. Remove the private from the game when its special ability is exercised (see above). 7 Auction Railroad Phase The game begins with the Auction RR Phase in which the players purchase the items (private certificates, minor charters, and concessions) in the opening packet (See the opening packet layout chart). Players take actions in player order, starting with the priority deal card holder. Action continues in player order around the table until all opening packet items are in players' hands. After each player takes an action, give the priority deal card to the next player in player order. Privates may exercise their abilities from the start of the game. Markers given to RRs by privates will remain for the rest of the game except where explicitly noted. The privates and their abilities are listed and explained in section 14. 6.2 Minors Minors are purchased during the Auction RR Phase but are not floated until the Regional/Minor RR Phase (see 5.1.3). All minors purchased from the opening packet will run until merged, at the latest in the Consolidation RR Phase (see 10.6). When merged, each minor’s special ability is transferred and is usable by the major, but not a national, for the rest of the game. (See 10.5) During a player's turn in this Phase the player may take one of the following actions: All minors have a face value of £120. They have two tokens each. The cost of the first is determined by the track rights chit selected when the minor floats. The second costs £20. 17 Purchase one item for its face value if that item is in the current topmost row of the opening packet. Place a bid on one item in any row below the topmost row. This bid must be at least the face value of the item and at least £5 above any bid previously placed on that item by another player. 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Developer's Note: players typically use station tokens to designate bids for convenience, with each player borrowing tokens of one distinct color to mark their bids and returning them to their original locations once the Auction RR Phase is complete. and the Concession RR Phase simultaneously begin (see 8.1). 7.1 When a minor is purchased, its purchase price in cash is placed into its treasury. If the purchase price exceeds £180, the treasury receives only £180 and the bank receives the balance. The amount of the bid, in cash, must be set aside by the bidding player, and is unavailable to them for other bids until this item is purchased. Purchasing Minors If a player has the option to purchase a minor at face value during the Auction RR Phase, but wishes to start with more than £120 in the minor’s treasury (e.g. to expedite the purchase of a level 3 train), they may place a higher bid on that minor. This immediately starts an auction for the minor in which all players are allowed to bid. Pass the turn to the next player. When the last item in the topmost row is purchased, any items from the next row that have exactly one bid on them are sold at the bid price to the player(s) who placed the bid(s). If two or more players have bid on an item in that newly topmost row, an auction is held for each such item. 8 Train Phase 1 Train Phase 1 begins when the Auction RR Phase ends. The beginning of Train Phase 1 coincides with the beginning of the Concession RR Phase. Train Phase 1 starts with the player holding the 1st concession, and continues in numerical order until all ten concessions are executed (see 8.1). The auction starts with the bidding player to the left of the player with the highest bid on that item and continues in player order. Only players who initially bid on the item at auction may participate, and once they pass they may not re-enter the bidding. The item at auction goes to the player with the highest bid after all other participating players have passed. If more than one item on a row has multiple bids, the items are auctioned individually from left to the right. Developer's note: If you're playing without concessions, just begin Train Phase 1 with the Regional/Minor RR Phase. If any items remain in that row, normal play resumes with the priority deal card holder. After the 10th concession is executed, the Regional/Minor RR Phase begins with a SR, starting with the priority deal card holder. Train Phase 1 may or may not include all of the Regional/Minor RR Phase. If all players consecutively pass before the entire opening packet is sold, all purchased privates pay their dividends to the owning players. All items on the topmost row are reduced in cost by £5. Normal play then continues with the priority deal card holder. If the cost of any of the items on the topmost row is reduced to zero, they all must be taken by the next player to have a turn. This alternating sequence of auction rounds and private dividend payouts continues until the last item is purchased from the opening packet. Play continues around the table in player order until all minors have floated and all players consecutively pass. The game then enters Train Phase 2 with the first OR. 8.1 Concession Railroad Phase Developer's Note: This rules section can be skipped altogether if you're learning the game without concessions. When the last item in the opening packet is sold the Auction RR Phase is complete. Train Phase 1 18 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. During this RR Phase, the following rules apply: The concessions are executed in order, from 1st to 10th. Players may not pass at this point, but must act in this order. Note that a single player may take two or more sequential actions during this process, and a player who did not purchase a concession will not participate. Purchased a parred regional's presidency from the Open Market and float it. (This option is not available if you are playing without concessions.) Remove one un-floated and un-parred regional from the game. Remove the two stacked tokens from its home token position. This action may not reduce the total remaining regionals to less than 18 (i.e., once the sixth regional has been removed, this action is no longer available). The six regionals removed must be from different track rights zones. Exercising their concession, a player may take one of the following actions. Float a minor they own (see 9.1). Float a regional (see 9.2). If the player has no minor to float and sufficient funds to purchase the presidential share of a regional, the player must do so at this time. Developer's Note: feel free to play without this action while you're learning the game - it provides a strategic twist to the early game at the cost of added complexity for players to consider, as the player is spending a stock action to reduce the available regionals in play. Par a regional. If the player does not have sufficient funds to float a regional, and cannot float a minor, they must select a regional, set its par value, place its presidential share in the Open Market, and place one of its markers on the top line of the leftmost open space on the Regional/Minor Operating Order track. Regionals parred in this fashion will become available for purchase by all players during the Regional/Minor RR Phase. During this Phase: All concession cards must be removed from the game when they are executed. At the end of the Concession RR Phase, exactly ten regionals and/or minors will be floated or parred and have a marker placed on the Regional/Minor Operating Order track. The game now enters the Regional/Minor RR Phase. This phase begins in Train Phase 1. It may also end while still in that SR or it may continue through subsequent ORs and one or more additional SRs. Float a regional (see 9.2). No player may purchase the secondary (25%) shares of any regional. Majors may not float. No RR may purchase a level 3 train. Trains may not be purchased from another RR. Designer's Note: even though a player cannot explicitly remove more than one regional from a given track rights zone, there is no such restriction here: if neither Italian regional is floated or parred then there will not be an Italian regional or major in play! During SR’s in the Regional/Minor RR Phase players may choose from the following actions: Float a minor they own (see 9.1). The Regional/Minor RR Phase ends immediately when all 12 minors and 18 of the regionals have floated. The six remaining un-floated regionals are removed from play when the 18th regional is floated. 8.2 Regional/Minor Railroad Phase Pass the turn to the next player. This action may not be selected if the player owns any unfloated minors. 19 18OE Rules Version 1.0 8.3 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Major Railroad Phase 8.5 The Major RR Phase will begin during a SR when the Regional/Minor RR Phase ends. During this phase: Secondary shares of regionals are available. Majors may float. Level 3 trains may be purchased, though not during the first OR of the game, even if there are remaining level 2 trains reserved for purchase by newly floated minors and regionals. 9 Railroad Formation and Consolidation This section defines how to float each type of RR. 9.1 Trains may be purchased from other RRs. Floating a Minor A player may only float the minors that they purchased from the opening packet. All of the following steps are required: These conditions last until the end of the game. 8.4 Game Phase Overlap The Regional/Minor RR Phase begins during Train Phase 1. Because the Train Phase and RR Phase transitions differ from each other, the Major RR Phase may begin during a later Train Phase. Reserved Shares 1. At any time during the Initial SR, each player may designate one regional's secondary (25%) share as reserved. This regional's secondary shares may not be purchased by any other player until the beginning of the second SR. This designation may be made at any time, including when another player is attempting to purchase the first of the secondary shares of the regional. Once one secondary share has been purchased, the other may not be reserved. The player attempting to make the blocked purchase does not forfeit their stock action, and may choose a different action instead. The player selects one of the remaining track rights chits, declares the home city of this minor within the designated track rights zone (see Table 1 below), and places the minor's token on that city to indicate the location to all players. If the city is in a hex that has land in more than one track rights zone, the track rights chit that corresponds to the portion of the hex where the city circle lies must be selected. If the regional expands into a major (see 9.3) before the beginning of the first OR, the reserve status is cancelled and the major's shares are available for purchase by any player. Prussia Once the reserved status is declared, the player may not rescind this decision nor shift the reserved status to another regional. AustriaHungary Developer's Note: The reserved status of shares can be indicated by placing the regional’s £20 station token on top of them. This will help other players quickly recognize their reserved status. Example: If the player selects Dresden as the home station of a minor, one of the Prussia/Holland/Switzerland track rights chits must be selected. 20 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Track Rights Zone # Chits Available Regionals Home Token Cost United Kingdom 2* GWR, LNWR, GSWR £40 2* BHB, KBS, POB, KSS £40 2* PLM, OU, BEL, MIDI £20 2 SB, MAV £20 2 SFAI, SFR £10 2 MZA, CHN, RCP £10 2 BJV, DSJ £10 2 MSP, MKV, WW, LRZD £10 Prussia, Holland, Switzerland France, Belgium AustriaHungary Italy Spain, Portugal Sweden, Norway, Denmark Russia regionals that have been removed from play are available.) The city is not a metropolis. Grand cities and red zones that are not metropolises (marked with an "M") are legal selections for a minor's home token. 9.2 Floating a Regional A player floats an un-floated regional by completing all of the following: * There are two track rights chits provided for each asterisked zone. When the fourth of the six chits is selected, the remaining track rights chits for these zones are removed from play. 1. The player selects an un-floated regional and takes the regional's charter, presidential certificate, the two secondary certificates, and the two markers that were set aside during game setup. 2. The player sets the regional's par value by placing one of the large markers taken during step 1 on one of the REGIONAL A through REGIONAL F spaces on the Par Values section of the Info Board. The other marker is placed on the leftmost open position on the top line of the Regional/Minor Operating Order track. 3. The player pays cash to the regional's treasury equal to twice the chosen par value and places the two secondary certificates in the treasury. 4. The regional pays the cost for its home token from its treasury to the bank. 5. One of the two tokens on the Map (there should be two on the regional's home city, see 3.1) is placed on the charter in the £20 token slot. Designer's Note: There are no track rights chits for the areas in the Balkans: Greece; Bulgaria, Romania, and Serbia; and the Ottoman Empire are not valid starting locations for minors. At this time the minor must pay the cost for its home token as listed on the selected track rights chit. The minor’s operating order marker is placed on the leftmost open position on the top line of the Regional/Minor Operating Order track. The minor's home token may be placed in any city with an available token position within the track right's boundaries that meets all of the following conditions: The city does not already have another minor's token in it. A minor that floats and places its home token on a city with a patronage tile fulfills that tile immediately. The minor’s treasury receives the lowest payout shown on the tile (see 11.1.8). Table 1: Track Rights 2. The city is not the home of a regional (The empty home token positions of 21 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. they must exercise this option and become the president of the newly floated major. 9.3 Floating a Major A major may only be floated by expanding a regional. The president of a regional or another player who owns both secondary shares of a regional may float a major by doing the following: 1. Optional - If the player is the regional’s current president and any shares remain in its treasury, the player may purchase one share prior to step 2. 2. Required - The regional “expands.” It will operate as a major for the remainder of the game. After the float is completed players may purchase and sell shares of this major according to the normal Stock Market rules. 9.4 Forming a National Nationals may only form when Train Phases 4, 6, and 8 begin at the moment of purchase of the first train of that Train Phase. (Said differently, nationals only form when the level 2, 3, or 4 trains rust.) Beginning with the player that purchased the train that caused the new Train Phase to begin, proceeding in player order each player may convert one or more of their majors into nationals. A national is formed by completing all of the following steps: 1. Place in the bank all cash in the treasury of the major that is forming the national. Place in the Open Market all certificates in the major's treasury and any Pullman it owns (every national owns the Pullman printed on its charter). This action may result in the temporary violation of the 50% Open Market limit (see 10.1). 2. Remove from play all of the major's tokens that are on the Map. 3. Abandon any minors that have merged with the major (see 9.5). 4. Remove from play all other assets on the major's charter except for trains. This includes track rights, port authorities, Orient Express markers, and private markers. Move the par value marker of the regional to the identically lettered major space on the Par Values section of the Info Board. This will change the par value. This par value marker will remain in place until the end of the current SR (See 10.7). Example: A regional whose par value marker is on the REGIONAL “A” space will move to the MAJOR “A” space. Move the regional’s operating order marker to the Stock Market section of the Info Board, placing it in the red bordered square corresponding to its new par value. 3. 4. 5. Required - Move the remaining six shares and six tokens of the newly formed major's stock to the major's treasury. The major is now a ten (10) share RR. Developer's Note: if the Swift Metropolitan Line is one of the eliminated privates, the associated 2+2 train is not lost unless the train limit is exceeded. Optional - the active player may sell any number of shares of any RR they already own, within the restrictions outlined in section 10.1. This player may not sell shares of the newly floated major. 5. Optional - If no share was purchased in step 1, the player may purchase one share of the newly floated major from its treasury at this time. If the active player is not the president, 22 Flip the charter over and move the remaining assets to the new side. A newly formed national retains all trains from the major, including rusted trains. All shares remain in players' hands. The share value marker of the major stays in the same place on the 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Stock Market and now represents the newly formed national. 9.5 Abandoning a Minor A minor can be abandoned during the course of the game. This may occur when a national forms, when a minor is merged into a national, or when a player is unable to merge the minor during the Consolidation RR Phase. A minor is abandoned by completing all of these steps: 1. The minor's charter is placed in the Open Market. 2. Unless the minor is a subsidiary of a major that is at this moment converting to a national, all of its trains are placed on the Open Market. 3. All of the minor's tokens are removed from the Map. 4. The D minor's tokens and L minor's marker are placed with their respective charters. 5. All cash in the minor’s treasury is placed in the bank. The track rights chit remains with the minor's charter. 7. A player may never purchase an abandoned minor directly from the Open Market. Only a major may purchase an abandoned minor, and then only during the Buy or Sell Shares step of its OR (see 11.7). Use the special ability of a private if the private's ability can be used during a SR (see 6.1). Remove a private. The certificate is removed from the game and no longer counts towards the player’s certificate limit. Close a private. Turn the private certificate face down (see 6.1). The certificate no longer counts towards the player’s certificate limit. In their turn each player must take one of the following stock actions: The M minor's Pullman is placed with its charter (and may not be purchased by another RR, although any other remaining Pullmans are still available for purchase). 6. Sell any number of shares to the Open Market (these must have been owned by the player at the beginning of this stock action), and then/or buy one share from a RR treasury or the Open Market. The restrictions in 10.1 and 10.2 apply. Trade with another player (see 10.4). Float a major (see 9.3). Merge a minor into a major or national (see 10.5). Pass the turn to the next player. A SR ends when all players have passed consecutively. The next player in player order after the last player to take an action other than "pass" receives the priority deal card. This player will take the first stock action of the next SR. 10.1 Selling Stock The player may sell stock to the Open Market, receiving cash for each share sold equal to the stock's share value as of the beginning of this stock action. After payment from the bank, adjust the share value marker on the Stock Market DOWN for each share sold (see 4.4). 10 Stock Rounds Once the Major RR Phase has begun, the following rules will apply during SRs. Each SR starts with the player holding the priority deal card. The order of play proceeds in player order around the table. Each player may take one of the following actions in their turn before starting their stock action: The player may not sell any shares that would result in over 50% of the stock of a major or national being in the Open Market. This Open Market percentage limit may be temporarily exceeded during the formation of a national (see 23 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 9.4). That formation is not considered a sell action for share value adjustment purposes. must always hold at least 20% ownership of that RR. A player may never sell a share of a regional. A player may not sell stock during Train Phase 1. The president may not sell any part of that 20% ownership (normally the “president’s certificate”) unless there is both another player with 20% or more ownership in that RR, and the Open Market limits in 10.1 allow at least one more 10% share in the Open Market. If both these conditions are met, the outgoing president may sell share(s) up to the Open Market percentage limit to reduce their total percentage below that of another player who then becomes the new president. The old president gives the new president the 20% president’s certificate in exchange for two 10% certificates prior to this transaction. 10.2 Buying Stock A player may never purchase a share of stock in a RR if that player sold stock in that RR during the current SR. When purchasing a share of stock from a RR's treasury, if the RR currently has a par value marker, the price of the share is indicated by that marker's position; otherwise, the price of the share is indicated by the RR's share value marker. The player pays that price in cash to the RR's treasury. If two other players own an equal percentage of the RR and both become eligible to be the new president, the player closest to the left of the old president becomes the new president. When purchasing a share of stock from the Open Market, the player pays the share value price in cash to the bank. After a presidential certificate is purchased by a player it must always be held by a player and may never be voluntarily placed in the Open Market. It may be placed there during a first round bankruptcy. See 11.6.5. A player may own up to 100% of the stock in a RR. However, a player who already owns 60% of the stock in a major or national is restricted from purchasing that RR's stock from the RR's treasury (if it is a major) and from the Open Market. There are two ways for a player to acquire stock in excess of 60% ownership of a major or national: A player may receive a share of stock in a major or national when the player merges a minor into it, regardless of the percentage of ownership. The president of a major or national may purchase shares of that RR from the Open Market (not from the treasury!), paying the bank double the current share value per share. 10.4 Trade with another Player A player may purchase minors or face up privates from another player at a mutually agreed upon price. The players may only exchange personal cash, minors and face up privates during this transaction. All of the minors' and privates' revenue, assets, and abilities will thereafter be controlled by the new owner(s). A private that is face down may not be sold, nor may a minor that has merged with a major. 10.5 Merging a Minor Starting at the beginning of Train Phase 3 a minor may merge into a major or national during a SR. Each minor has a special ability that will be acquired by the major it merges into. Other than the one-time cash payment for minor A, this ability may be re-used until the end of the game. A minor is abandoned when it, or the major it merged into, merges with a national. 10.3 Change of Presidency If a player acquires more shares in a RR than the current president, either through the player buying or the president selling shares, that player becomes the new president and assumes all responsibility for the RR. The president of a RR 24 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. A major or national may merge with several minors over the course of the game. However, a given major or national may only merge with a single minor in any given SR. A player merging two or more minors in a single SR will have to merge them into two or more different majors or nationals. Intervening tokens from other RR’s do not stop the run of either hypothetical train. That run may include port cities but may only run over a ferry to cross a sea zone—the hypothetical trains may not make this connection by using port access to cross sea zones. The RR forfeits all cash from the minor's treasury to the bank. The minor does not have to have a track connection to the major or national. During the merger the minor gives the major or national the following items. Those that are indicated as “majors only” are forfeited by nationals. Designer's note: This allows a major to leapfrog across the Map and gain access to other regions quickly. The following rules apply during merger: If the major has stock available in its treasury, the owner of the minor receives one share of this stock. The major receives all cash in the minor's treasury. If the major does not have stock available in its treasury, but does have stock in the Open Market, the minor’s owner receives a share of the major from the Open Market. The major forfeits all cash from the minor's treasury to the bank. Majors only: The minor’s tokens on the Map. The major may decline to take one or more of these which are then removed from play. The major may replace at no cost the minor’s tokens in any locations it chooses with tokens from its inventory. The major must decline any tokens in the same hex where the major already has a token. Designer's Note: Any of the major’s available tokens may be used, including the most expensive ones. A national may have stock available in the Open Market but will never have stock available in its treasury. If the national has stock on the Open Market the minor’s owner receives one share. The national forfeits all cash from the minor's treasury to the bank. Majors and nationals: The minor’s trains. The major or national may decline to take one or more of these. The major or national may discard trains it owns to accept trains from the minor. Unrusted declined or discarded trains go in the Open Market. Rusted trains go in the Locomotive Works. If a major does not have stock available in any location for exchange, the minor may merge with that major only if a hypothetical train with no city limit can run from one of the minor’s station tokens to one of the major’s. Majors only: The minor’s special ability. The major must take this and indicate its continuing presence by placing the minor’s charter under the major’s charter, overlapping so the minor's ability is visible. Majors only: The minor’s track rights. The major must take the minor’s track rights chit. The rights may give the major a discount in track construction costs, depending on the zone of the track rights chit (see 11.1.4). Duplicate track rights have no cumulative effect. Track rights that confer no track construction discount have no effect at all. If a national does not have stock available in any location for exchange, the minor may merge with that national only if a hypothetical train with no city limit can run between one of the minor’s station tokens to one of the cities in the national's home track rights zone. 25 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Developer's note: it is recommended that you remember which track rights chit came with which minor. Keep this chit on the minor's charter. If the major is later converted to a national, this track rights chit stays on the abandoned minor's charter! with another player’s major or national is allowed even if the “no treasury share” imperative does not exist. Majors only: Cash in the minor’s treasury. The major may not decline this but the bank receives the cash if no stock is available for exchange in the major's treasury. Designer's Note: this means that if a player owns a minor which is not eligible to be merged into one of their own majors or nationals, and the player also owns a regional which has not yet floated as a major, the player must float the major, thus making it eligible to acquire the minor before the end of the SR. Nationals only: Once the minor's trains and the share of stock have been transferred, the minor is abandoned (see 9.5). The minor and the major or national involved in a merger need not be owned by the same player. However, the merger must be agreed on by both owning players. The transaction merging a minor into a major or national controlled by a different player may additionally include the exchange of personal cash between the two players. (RR treasury money may never be used for this purpose.) No other assets may be exchanged. If a player is left with one or more minors that they cannot merge, the player must publicly request offers of merger from all other players that control a major or national with at least one share of stock in its treasury for trade and that has not had a minor merged into it during the current SR. If a single RR makes an offer, the minor’s owner must accept it. If multiple RRs wish to acquire the minor, the minor’s owner may choose from all the offers presented. 10.6 Consolidation Railroad Phase During the Consolidation RR Phase (which is the first SR after the beginning of Train Phase 5) all remaining minors and regionals will be consolidated into majors and/or nationals. The consolidating mergers are subject to the restrictions in section 10.5. The following also apply to stock actions during this Phase: If a player owns a major that has not yet floated, the player may not select the pass option during the SR until the major has floated. If no RR makes an offer for the minor in question, the minor is abandoned (see 9.5). 10.7 Ending a Stock Round At the end of a SR the share value marker of any major or national which has all shares in players hands will move UP on the Stock Market (See 4.4). If a player owns any minors that section 10.5 allows to be merged into one of that player’s own majors or nationals, the player may not select the pass option during the SR until all such minor’s have merged. Even if a player has a major or national with no share of stock available to trade for the minor (either in the treasury or the Open Market), the player still must merge the minor if it has a track connection to one of the player’s eligible majors or nationals unless they convince another player to allow the minor to merge into one of that other player’s majors or nationals. A mutually agreed upon merger At the end of a SR any existing par value markers for majors (not regionals) are removed from the Par Value section of the Info Board. Shares of those majors will henceforth trade strictly at share value for both purchasing and selling. 11 Operating Rounds Railroads—not players—are the active entities in ORs, each of which consists of the following steps: 26 18OE Rules Version 1.0 1. All privates pay their revenues to the owning players. A private that is face down (closed) pays no revenue. 2. The regionals and minors operate in the order that their markers appear on the Regional/Minor Operating Order track, from left to right. Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. expended in any fashion: for example, four tile points may be used to play two yellow tiles and one green, brown, or grey upgrade. The same four points could be used on four yellow tiles, or two green, brown, or grey upgrades, or a metropolis upgrade. Every RR receives tile points to lay track. Tile points not used during a lay track step expire and cannot be retained for later use. Developer's Note: remember to have the C Minor or its owning major select its operating position before beginning this step! 3. The nationals and majors operate in share value order, from highest to lowest. If two or more RRs have the same share value, the RR whose share value marker is further to the right operates first. If two or more share value markers occupy the same square on the Stock Market, the RRs operate in the order in which their markers entered the Stock Market square (this should be the order in which they are stacked, top to bottom). Category Tile Points Minor and Regional 3 Major 6 National 9 11.1.1 Tile Placement Order In ALL cases, the player may choose the order in which tiles are laid. A RR may lay a yellow and then upgrade it to green and then to brown and even grey (a “double,” “triple,” or “quadruple” upgrade) if the RR has enough tile points, the colors laid are available in the current Train Phase, and at least one legal upgrade track tile of each intermediate color is available. During each RR’s turn the president of that RR performs the following steps in order on behalf of the RR. 1. Lay Track 2. Place Token 3. Run Trains and Calculate Revenues 11.1.2 Tile Availability 4. Pay, Split, or Hold Revenues 5. Transfer Tokens At the beginning of the game, only yellow tiles are available for building. Green, brown, and grey tiles become available in later Train Phases (see 5.2). 6. Buy Trains 7. Buy or Sell Shares All tiles not on the Map are available for anyone to use for building. Tiles cannot be owned or reserved by any player or RR. 11.1 Lay Track 11.1.3 Placing a Tile RRs may lay a number of track tiles based upon tile points. One yellow track tile is equal to one tile point. One green, brown, or grey track tile is equal to two tile points. Metropolis tiles cost double tile points (i.e., yellow metropolis tiles cost two points, and green, brown, and grey metropolis tiles cost four points). Points may be Yellow tiles may only be placed in the several shades of tan, reddish tan and olive green hexes that make up most of the Map at the beginning of the game. Green tiles may only be laid to replace existing yellow tiles or on preprinted yellow hexes. Similarly, brown tiles may only be laid to replace existing green tiles, and grey tiles may 27 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. only be laid to replace existing brown tiles. No tile may be laid on a red zone or beyond the edges of the hexagonal grid. Hex columns 1 and 87 are permitted to have tiles placed on them. removed from the Map and becomes available for reuse. Developer's Note: The Tile Upgrade Chart shows all possible tile upgrades. Tiles with white circles represent cities. They can only be laid in places where the Map shows one or more light grey or white circles, a circular RR logo, or where the existing tile has one or more white circles. Tiles without such circles cannot be laid in those places. Upgrading to a tile with more circles is allowed. No tile may be laid that causes track to run into a blank side of a red zone; into a hex side marked as "impassable" by a thick, solid red line; or off the hex grid. These hex sides are not “usable.” (See 11.1.7) It is legal to connect track to the arrows or track sections in red zones, to the arrows in blue or green sea zones, and to dead ends. Hexes containing an "A", "B", "C", "L", "P", "N", or "S" and a six pointed city circle must have metropolis tiles placed in them. Metropolis tiles may only be placed in these cities. See the Metropolis Upgrade Chart for the specific tiles that must be placed in each metropolis hex. Developer's Note: There are many places on the Map that have a black arrow with white circle next to it containing a "0". These dead ends exist to allow the use of upgrade tiles with more track sections than could otherwise legally be laid in the adjacent hexes. Hexes containing a "Y" and a three pointed city circle must have "Y" tiles placed in them. "Y" tiles may only be placed in these cities. See the Tile Upgrade Chart for the tiles that must be placed in grand city hexes. Each tile laid by a RR must contain either some newly added track that is connected to an existing token owned by that RR, or must upgrade a city which is connected to an existing token owned by that RR. The connection is traced as if you were running a hypothetical train with no city limit; thus it may not run through a city or red zone whose available token positions are all occupied by tokens owned by other RRs. A black dot on a tile represents a town and can only be laid in places where the Map or the existing tile shows a black dot. Hexes with one black dot may only have single black dot tiles placed on them. Developer’s Note: Since a train can cross open water, track may be laid using a ferry or two ports. Read 11.2 and 11.3.4 through 11.3.7 to fully understand the following paragraph. Tiles with two black dots can only be laid on Map hexes or tiles with two black dots. Hexes with two black dots may only have double black dot tiles placed on them. If a port access arrow (see 11.3.6) does not yet have a connecting track section into a city and a RR is able to create that connecting section by laying or upgrading track across open water, the hypothetical run from the RR’s existing station token may utilize a sea crossing to lay the tile as long as it connects to the port access arrow. (See 11.1.6, 11.3.4, and 11.3.7.) (If you wish to upgrade a private port in this manner, you must already have a token in the private port city! See 11.3.6.) When a tile is laid in a hex that already contains a tile or has preprinted track sections (such as a hex that shows a blue track section connecting a city to an adjacent ferry or port), all existing track, cities, and towns on the old tile (or hex) must be preserved. They need not be in exactly the same places but all edges that were connected to each other must remain so and any city that was connected to an edge must remain connected to the same edge. All tokens on the old tile (or hex) are moved to the new tile. The old tile (if any) is Example: København as a yellow tile may be upgraded to a green tile via a sea crossing across the Baltic Sea, provided one of the green tile's track 28 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. sections leads into the port access arrow on the Baltic. Malmö may not have a tile placed in it via a sea crossing because it is a private port. Spain/Portugal will still only get a discount of 20%. The abilities of Minor E or Minor F or both will augment the track rights zone discount. A RR with one of these abilities and a 20% zone discount receives a discount of 50% when paying construction fees for hexes in the zone in question. Round fractions in favor of the RR: laying a tile in a hex with a £45 construction fee at a 50% discount requires a £22 payment. Once a tile is laid on the Map it stays there for the rest of the game unless and until it is upgraded by another tile as described above. 11.1.4 Track Rights Every RR acquires track rights during the game. A minor's track rights come from the track rights chit that is selected when the minor is floated (see 9.1). Regionals have track rights in the zone in which their first token is placed. Majors inherit their track rights from their preceding regional and also acquire any track rights from minors that are merged into them. Nationals inherit their track rights from the major that forms them. Nationals are exempt from all tile placement expenses; they may always lay track at no cost. 11.1.6 Cross-water Track RRs may lay track on the far shore of open water areas. A hypothetical train with no city limit must be able to trace a route from one of the RR’s existing station tokens to the location of the new tile. Minors, regionals, and nationals may only lay or upgrade track in hexes entirely or partly within their track rights zones. Note that this does not restrict them from running their trains into other zones. They may place track at their boundaries that leads into to other track rights zones. Additional fees for tiles placed across open water are as follows: For a ferry: £5 multiplied by the ferry's distance. Port categories (private vs. public) do not change this fee. Across one or more sea zones: £10 per sea zone crossed. 11.1.5 Tile Expenses and Discounts Certain hexes on the Map contain a terrain symbol (see the Map Legend) containing a cost amount. This cost represents difficult terrain in that hex and requires payment of a construction fee to lay the first tile there. This fee is paid in cash from the RR’s treasury at the moment the tile is laid. Upgrades of tiles in these hexes do not require additional payment. Port authorities reduce the total number of sea zones and ferry distance counted for this cost by two. Neither port tokens nor the H minor's special ability will affect this cost. Private port restrictions must be obeyed. Nationals are exempt from all tile placement expenses; they may always lay track at no cost. All regionals, minors, and majors that have track rights in Spain/Portugal, Italy, Sweden/Norway/Denmark, and Russia receive a discount of 20% when paying construction fees for track within those zones. (This is indicated by the terrain symbols on the track rights chit or major’s charter.) Hexes that are partially within zone boundaries get the discount. These discounts are not cumulative—a major with a home token in Madrid and also a minor's track rights for 11.1.7 Upgrading Cities When a city that has station tokens in it (reserved or otherwise) is upgraded, the station tokens are transferred to the available token positions on the new tile. When upgrading a double town or grand city to a brown or grey tile, a tile with track sections 29 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. leading to all legally usable sides of the hex is required. (See 11.1.3) If a tile with the correct number of track sections is not available the city may not be upgraded. The same rule applies to normal cities when they are upgraded to grey tiles. president’s sole discretion the RR may forego a connection in order to lay different track, but in this case may not lay a green tile. The home token hex of a floated RR may not have yellow track laid on it without the explicit permission of the RR's president. Un-floated RRs automatically provide this permission. Example: Birmingham has the potential for legal track connections on all six hex sides so brown and grey tiles laid there must have track sections leading to all six. Lille has the potential for legal connections on four sides. Brown and grey tiles laid there must have four track sections leading to those four sides only. During a RR’s Lay Track step, a patronage tile is “fulfilled” when a RR places a track tile in the patronage tile's hex. The bank immediately makes a one-time cash payment to the RR’s treasury in the amount shown on the fulfilled tile next to the highest track color available in the current Train Phase. The patronage tile is removed from the game. The SB and MSP RRs each have a home station within a metropolis. When their respective yellow metropolis tiles are laid, if the affected RR is in-play and floated, its president must immediately (before any other token is placed in the metropolis) choose the token position the RR’s home station will occupy. If the affected RR is in-play but un-floated, no other RR’s token may be placed in the home metropolis until the affected RR has floated and selected its home token position. That token position must be selected immediately upon floating. The president may not select a home token position that triggers the need to place a green tile as outlined above if a token position is available that would not do so. 11.1.9 Right-of-Way 11.2 Place Token Until Train Phase 3 begins, during a RR’s first OR after floating, it may lay one non-city green tile at the cost of all of its remaining tile points. This green tile may only be placed if the RR would not otherwise be able to connect its home station token to at least one other town or city, via land or Ferry, without using a sea crossing and without causing a first turn bankruptcy (see 11.6.5). The green tile must be placed so that the RR is able to connect to another town or city. The RR must have at least one remaining tile point to do this. Developer's note: Since a train can cross open water, a new token may be placed using a ferry or two ports. Read 11.3.3 through 11.3.7 to understand how train routes and city limits work and get a full understanding of the significance of this rules section! 11.1.8 Patronage Tiles Each circle on a tile is an available token position, where tokens may be placed. If a double-stacked token (i.e., representing a reserved token position) is in the city, it occupies an available token position on the tile although it is nonblocking for the purposes of placing tokens and running trains. A player cannot deliberately lay track to require the use of this rule by their currently operating RR or one of their yet-to-be operated RRs! This rule may not be employed if any legal route exists that does not involve a sea crossing, including one that merely includes the RR’s home station and a single town. To place a new token, a RR must, prior to this placement, be able to run a hypothetical train with no city limit between one of that RR’s existing station token and the location of the new token. Thus you cannot place a token in a private port unless you are tracing your route into the private port city via land! Intervening tokens of other RRs The currently operating RR is never obligated to actually make a connection in its first OR. At its 30 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. will block the train's path. The RR pays the bank the fee listed on the space on its charter from which the token is removed plus any fees listed below. If the RR’s treasury has insufficient cash to pay the fees, the token may not be placed. route traced goes through the public port at København first, and then enters Malmö from a land hex side. One available token from a RR's charter may be placed per OR. A RR's home token is considered to be in place at the start of its first OR. Placing it there does not count as a step. Any available token on the RR's charter may be selected for placement (i.e., the RR is not required to place the tokens in cost order, as in many other 18XX games). Lille has an extra available token position adjoining the White Cliffs Ferry route from London to Lille. On the Map this is a red “prohibited” circle and the number 5. Until Train Phase 5, any RR may place a token in any token position in Lille except that one. 11.2.2 Lille Use of the ferry crossing to, from, and through Lille thus remains open for any train from any RR to pass through so long as the White Cliffs Ferry position has no token on it, even if the "normal" token positions are all occupied. Routes through Lille that do not use the ferry follow the normal rules governing blocked cities. No RR may ever occupy more than one token position in a single hex. Regionals and minors may only place tokens within their track rights zones (see 11.1.4). Example: The Nancy city circle is located within the France/Belgium track rights zone. The only regionals and minors that may place a token in Nancy are those whose home station token is within France/Belgium. At the moment Train Phase 5 begins, the owner of the White Cliffs Ferry may use that private's ability to purchase a token for any RR they control, placing the token on the ”prohibited” position. The cash for the token must come from the RR's treasury. The Wein Südbahnhof private's ability may be used to pay for this token (see 14.3 and 14.7). Nationals may never have tokens on the Map. 11.2.1 Cross-water Tokens Additional fees for tokens placed across open water are as follows: For a ferry: £20 multiplied by the ferry's distance. Port categories (private vs. public) do not change this fee. Across one or more sea zones: £40 per sea zone crossed. After the White Cliffs Ferry private's ability has been used, only the RRs that have tokens in Lille—or have placed the Central Circle Transport Company token on Lille—may use the ferry to cross the English Channel into London. RRs coming from the direction of London may use the ferry to reach Lille but may not pass through Lille unless they have a token there. If the token on the White Cliffs Ferry token position is removed due to the formation of a national, Lille becomes permanently open for all RRs to pass through. Port authorities reduce the total number of sea zones and ferry distance counted for this cost by two. Neither port tokens nor the H Minor's special ability will affect this cost. Private port restrictions must be obeyed. 11.3 Run Trains and Calculate Revenue Example: going from London through København to place a token in Malmö would cost £40 times 3 sea zones crossed, plus the cost of the token itself. Note that the only reason that the token may be placed in Malmö (which is a private port) is because the 11.3.1 Routes In order to generate revenue, a RR operates any trains it owns along a route on the Map. A valid 31 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. route for a train must include at least one of the RR's station tokens and two or more cities, towns, or red zones. A train's route may begin and/or end in towns, cities, and/or red zones. Some red zones may be passed through, such as Moskva and North Sweden. 11.3.3 City Limits A train's route may include at most a number of cities, sea zones, and red zones equal to its level. 4D and 5D trains, however, are limited to 4 or 5 cities, sea zones, and red zones, respectively. This is known as the train's city limit. Sea zones' effect on this city limit is described in sections 11.3.4, 11.3.5, 11.3.6, and 11.3.7. A single train’s route may not run through, from, or to the same city in a hex or red zone more than once. This especially applies to the metropolis tiles that can have multiple stations on one tile. Only one of these stations may be used in a given train's route—no running into Berlin more than once with a single train! A train may run to and count the revenue from a city that is full of and blocked by other RRs' station tokens but may not run through it. Example: A 4+4 or 4 train is limited to four cities and red zones, as is a 4D train even though it is level 7. A train may include any number of towns in its route. The number of towns that count for revenue is based upon the train's type and level (see 11.3.9). Developer's Note: double-stacked tokens that represent un-floated RRs are non-blocking! 11.3.4 Ports and Sea Crossings Train routes may cross open water via ferries (see 11.3.7) and by undertaking sea crossings over one or more sea zones. A sea crossing is a route from one port to another following a path of adjoining sea zones. Sea crossings begin and end only at public and private ports. Trains enter and leave a sea zone by using track sections or offshore ports (see 11.3.6) that connect the town or city with the port's blue "port arrow" in the adjacent sea zone. Some tiles have junctions, where four, five, or six track sections meet in the center. Some junction tiles have towns at the center, others do not. A single train may trace any route that uses each track section at most once—the center of a tile without a token position does not block the train's path. A single train may pass through a single or double town in the center of a tile more than once. A RR may count revenue from each town only once per train. There is a circular symbol containing a ship and a "-1" in each sea zone. Sea zones are separated by dashed, white lines. Each sea zone traveled counts against the train's city limit but provides no revenue. Train routes may never include dead ends. 11.3.2 Train Types Each train has a level that is equal to its train number. Exception: 4D trains are considered to be level 7, and 5D trains are considered to be level 8. Each train also has a type: local or express. The green “channel passage arrows” (see the Map Legend) indicate adjacent sea zones when a land hex intervenes. These arrows are not track connections. Most train cards are double sided; local and express are on opposite sides. When these rules refer to the quantity of trains of a given type, treat each card as a train (i.e., there are twelve "4+4/4" train cards in the game). Local trains are the 2+2, 3+3, 4+4, 5+5, 6+6, 7+7, and 8+8. Express trains are the 3, 4, 5, 6, 4D, and 5D. The 2+2 local train does not have an express side. The sea zone on either side of the English channel passage is the same sea zone. The same applies to the channel passage near Sankt-Peterburg. København and Constantinople each border two sea zones, with channel passage arrows indicating that the sea zones are adjacent to each 32 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. other. Both of these cities are considered to be adjacent to both bordering sea zones. not to each train individually; however, the two reductions may be split between two trains. The North Atlantic (Silver Coast) is adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar. 11.3.5 Port Authorities Port authority markers may only be purchased by majors. Each major is limited to owning one port authority marker. Markers cost £125 each and may be purchased during a major's OR turn at any time prior to the Buy Trains step. Place the marker on the major’s charter. A train may make multiple sea crossings during its run; however, between sea crossings, the train must cross at least one land hex side. A port token is a station token located in a city in a hex adjacent to a hex with a port symbol, or a station token in a city in a hex containing an onshore port symbol (see 11.3.6). There are two types of port authorities: The North Sea port authority and the Mediterranean port authority. Each has eight markers available for purchase from the beginning of the game. Ownership of a port authority marker confers a benefit on the owning major within the marker’s relevant water area, either light blue or sea green. For sea crossings using that area, the number of sea zones that count against a RR's trains' city limits is reduced by two (see 11.3.4). Port authorities, port tokens, the Star Harbor private’s token, and the H Minor may all be used to reduce the number of sea zones that count towards a train's city limit as follows: If a train runs through a port token owned by its RR or the Star Harbor Trading Company's token during the course of its run, it is allowed to reduce the number of sea zones that count towards that train's city limit by one during Train Phases 2 through 6, and by two during Train Phases 7 and 8 (see 14.5). This reduction must be applied to sea zones that abut each other, with at least one adjacent to the port token. The discount applies regardless of whether the train's route is moving from the port to the sea or the sea to the port. A port token may be used by more than one train during a RR's turn. Its reduction applies to each train individually. The two water areas are: A port authority marker will reduce by two the total number of sea zones that count against trains' city limits within its jurisdiction (see 11.3.5). The port authority's reduction applies to the RR, not to each train individually; however, the two reductions may be split between two trains. North Sea port authority - All light blue sea zones, including the North Atlantic, Silver Coast, Celtic Sea, Bay of Biscay, English Channel, North Sea, German Bight, Skagerrak, Baltic Sea, and Gulf of Finland. Mediterranean port authority - All sea green sea zones, including the Strait of Gibraltar, Balearic Sea, Sea of Sardinia, Tyrrhenian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea, Black Sea, and Karkinitsky Bay. Port authority markers also affect the cost of laying cross-water tokens (see 11.2.1) and crosswater track (see 11.1.6). A major may purchase a port authority marker from another major during the purchaser’s transfer tokens step. The price paid must be exactly £125. The H Minor will reduce the total number of sea zones that count against trains' city limits by one during Train Phases 2 through 6, and by two during Train Phases 7 and 8 (see 15.8). This reduction applies to the RR, 33 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 11.3.6 Port Types The port city is marked with the onshore port Designer's note: Ports represent an abstraction of supply chains. Goods that enter the supply chain at one port are transported to another port. The goods arriving at the far end of the crossing can be picked up by another abstract train owned by the same RR. symbol . The offshore port access is marked with the symbol . The port arrow and port anchor appear in the sea zone accompanied by the city name. A train utilizing the offshore port during a sea crossing to or from this city is connected to the city directly by the offshore-onshore port “connection.” The train does not travel on the intervening hex or hexes and does not use a track section from the city. The city's track sections have no effect on the use of this “connection.”. When a RR has placed a port token or purchased a port authority marker, it is presumed to have put a mechanism in place (shipping agents, warehouses, processing plants) to accelerate the process of transporting goods across the sea. It has built an effective supply chain. Thus the goods move in greater volume and more efficiently. This improvement is represented by the port token and port authority benefits described in 11.3.4 and 11.3.5. Example: London, which has multiple stations until the brown tile is placed, also is an offshore port. Both stations on the London tile are connected to the offshore port. There are two types of ports: Firth of Forth Public ports are designated by an anchor in a light blue circle. Any train may use a public port to transition to or from a sea zone by using the blue port arrow connected to a track section leading to the adjacent city or town. Towns that are adjacent to a public port may be run to and through by any RR that runs a train to the port via track connected to the port arrow. Trains may run to but not through a city if all its token positions are filled by tokens belonging to other RR’s (Exception: see 11.2.2). Onshore Port Symbol Offshore Port Access Example: Here, Edinburgh has a private offshore port in the North Sea that is also a ferry. The need for it has to do with the way the hex grid is laid out. In the real world the Firth of Forth provides a channel from Edinburgh to the sea. A tile laid on the hex between the city and the sea can have at most three track sections since it has only three usable sides. None are involved with the offshore port access. The red lines indicate no track section may point into the Firth of Forth hex sides. Private ports are designated by an anchor in a red circle. Only a train owned by a RR with a token in the adjacent city may use a private port to transition to or from a sea zone over a track section connected to the port arrow. Historical note: The passengers on the first run of the Orient Express travelled by train to the Danube where no bridge yet existed. They rode a ferry into Bulgaria where they boarded another train— nowhere near as luxurious as their original transport—that took them to the port of Varna, on the Black Sea. There they boarded a steam passenger boat and traveled south, through rough Some cities have port access one or more hexes distant from the actual city. Generally this is because there is a long narrow river channel leading from the sea to the city. This is termed an offshore port access, or just “offshore port.” Offshore ports may be public or private. 34 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. seas, to their destination city of Constantinople. A train route across the mountains of the Balkans was not completed for another six years. The first through train from Paris to Constantinople took 67 hours, 35 minutes. the port is private the operating RR must have a station token in Roma to use the private port, but not the public ferry. Some ferry tracks have towns located on them. Trains riding that ferry may include the town in the train's route. The train does not have to travel the entire length of the ferry track, but the ferry's entire distance number does count toward the train's city limit. 11.3.7 Ferries There are many ferries in 18OE, each represented by blue track crossing sea zones. A train rides a ferry by using a track section that connects the town or city with the ferry's blue track in the adjacent sea zone. Ferries have an oval containing a number next to them. This number is the ferry's distance. When the train rides the ferry this number counts towards the train's city limit. If this number is 0, then it counts nothing against the train's city limit. 11.3.8 Running Multiple Trains If a RR is running more than one train during an OR, each train must conform to the rules governing train routes and may not use a section of track that another train has already used (port arrows, ferries and sea zones are exceptions: see below!). A train may, however, use and count revenue from cities used by the other train(s) as long as each train uses different track sections entering and leaving those cities. A RR’s token in a hex adjacent to a ferry provides to that RR’s trains the same city limit reduction benefits for crossing the adjacent ferry that a port token does for sea crossings. The abilities of privates and minors that reduce city limits for sea crossings also provide reduction of ferry numbers. Multiple trains may use junction tiles with or without towns so long as each train uses a different pair of track sections to enter and exit the tile. Each train may count the revenue from all towns on the tile. (See 11.3.1.) If either end of a ferry line has a public or private port symbol next to it, the port may be used to access the adjoining sea zone instead of the train embarking on the ferry. In this case, the same hex side that the blue ferry track connects to is considered to have a port arrow. In contrast, any track section that connects a city or town to a port or ferry is considered to be sea traffic. As such, any number of trains from the same RR may use this connection to make a sea crossing and/or ride a ferry. Offshore ports may also be used by any number of trains from the same RR. The trains must still use different track sections to enter and leave the cities and/or towns by land. Ferry lines are treated as public track. Any train can ride a ferry, even if either or both ends of the ferry are also private ports. Trains may not run through a city if all its token positions are filled by tokens belonging to other RRs. (But see Lille White Cliffs exception 11.2.2) Each sea zone may be used by more than one of a RR’s trains during a single OR. Ferries are exempt from the sea crossing rule that requires the train to cross a land hex side between sea crossings. A train's route may thus enter a land hex from a ferry and exit from the same hex side via a port (if there is one). Example: two (or more) trains from the same RR can use the White Cliffs Ferry from Lille to London. However, when the trains reach London, each will need to follow a unique route that does not use the same track sections if both are to continue running to other cities in the UK. Example: A train may ride the ferry from the island of Sardinia to Roma, and back out the private port to Tunis without first crossing a land hex side. Since 35 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Normally, the president of the RR decides which routes to use. However, any player may point out a higher value route which the president is then required to run. (See Orient Express exception 12.2.) 11.3.9 Calculating Revenue The revenue generated by each train run in an OR is calculated as follows: All trains earn revenue equal to the total of the values of the cities and red zones on the train's route. "D" trains double this total. NonD trains may also include revenue from towns as explained below. If the RR owns a Pullman car (see 11.6.2), the president may specify the train to which the Pullman is attached. A Pullman car adds £10 per level of the attached train to the train's revenue. Local and express trains must include at least one city (with the required station token) but may count the revenue from one or more towns on their routes instead of the same number of cities. Example: a Pullman attached to a 3+3 adds £30 to the RR's revenue, and a Pullman attached to an 8+8 or 4D adds £80. A local train may add to this total the revenue from a number of additional towns included in its route equal to its level (i.e., a 2+2 train may add two towns). Nationals use a different method of running trains from the other categories of RRs. 11.3.10 Calculating National Revenue A national is considered to have a token in every city in its home track rights zone that has a token position. This token exists even if all the available token positions in a city are occupied by other RR’s tokens. Therefore a national can trace a route to and/or through any city within its home track rights zone. These “virtual tokens” do not block any other RR from running through a city. Example: A 2+2 Train can count revenue from one city and up to three towns, or two cities and two towns, but a 4D can count revenue only from up to four cities and then double it. A 4 train can count the revenue from up to four places, three of which may be towns. A 4+4 train can count the revenue from up to eight places, at least four of which must be towns. In any of these examples, trains may substitute red zones for cities. If a train's route includes more towns than may be counted, the president chooses which ones pay revenue. Additional towns are ignored. All trains include any applicable revenue from the Hochberg Mining and Lumber Company (see 14.8) and minor D (see 15.4). Majors may also earn revenue by making an Orient Express run (see12). The increased value of cities is doubled for "D" trains. A city, red zone, or town within the national's home track rights zone is linked if it can trace a route to any other city, red zone, or town inside or outside its home track rights zone. Ferries, but not sea crossings, may be used to trace routes (exception: see below). Routes that cross a Brandt & Brandau, Engineers token do not count as track connections until the token is removed (see 14.9). Red zones that may only be reached by sea crossings are considered to be linked if there is at least one city in the national’s track rights zone that has track connecting to a port arrow on the same sea zone. Each national's charter shows the red zones that belong to its track rights zone. Red zones on the Map which require a sea crossing or ferry to reach show the track rights zone to which they belong. Where multiple trains are run, the RR’s total revenue is the total of all the trains' revenues added together. A national calculates its revenue as follows: 36 18OE Rules Version 1.0 1. Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Total the number of cities, towns, and “double cities” (from “D” trains) of the national's trains. This is known as the national's "capacity". Example: The GWR regional runs for £70. Player A owns 50% (2 shares), Player B owns 25% (1 share), and the remaining share is in the RR’s treasury. Player A receives £35, Player B receives £18, and the treasury receives £18. For example, if a national has a 4+4, a 5, and a 4D, the national's capacity is 13 cities (four of which, president's choice, are doubled), and 4 towns. 2. 3. 4. Count revenue up to the national's city and town capacities from linked cities, red zones, and towns within its home track rights zone. Gain revenue from these at their values, doubling those visited by "D" trains. No city, red zone, or town may be visited more than once. Pay half-revenue as dividends. The RR receives half the revenue, which is placed in the RR's treasury. The remaining half is split by the percentage of the shares. Cash is paid accordingly, rounding up to the nearest £1 after calculating the percentage for each recipient. This is the only option a minor may take. Example 1: Minor K runs for £50. The treasury receives £25 and the owning player receives £25. If any of either or both capacities remain, deduct from those remaining capacities respectively the number of unlinked cities, red zones, and towns in the home track rights zone. Revenue from them is zero. Example 2: The KSS regional runs for £70. Player A owns 50% (2 shares), Player B owns 25% (1 share), and the remaining share is in the treasury. The treasury receives £35 plus 25% of the remaining £35 (8.75 rounded up), for a total of £44. Player A receives £18 (17.5 rounded up). Player B receives £9 (8.75 rounded up). Any remaining capacities may be counted at £60 for each city and £10 for each town. There is no requirement to be linked to any cities or towns outside the home track rights zone to count this revenue. • A national automatically attaches a Pullman to its highest level train and counts that revenue. (Every national owns the Pullman that is preprinted on its charter.) Withhold the revenue. The total revenue from the run is placed in the RR's treasury. Shares in a RR's treasury pay their dividends into the treasury; shares in the Open Market do not. 11.4 Pay, Split, or Hold Revenues Majors and nationals then adjust their marker on the Stock Market as described in section 4.4. Minors and regionals adjust their marker on the Regional/Minor Operating Order track as described in section 2.2.6. The president of the RR may take one of the following actions to distribute the revenue: 11.5 Transfer Tokens A national may never make an Orient Express run. • During this step, a major may in its turn in an OR purchase an already placed station token from another major owned by the same player. The major may purchase as many tokens from other majors as the president desires, so long as the purchasing major has the treasury cash to do so and its own tokens available to place on the Map. A major's home token may never be purchased. Pay all revenue as dividends. The revenue is split by the percentage ownership of the shares of stock. Cash is paid accordingly to the owning players’ and (possibly) the RR’s treasury. Round up to the nearest £1 after calculating the percentage for each recipient. This is the only option a national may take. 37 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. To transfer ownership of a token the purchasing major replaces the selling major's token with one of its own and returns the replaced token to the selling major. The purchasing major must pay the the bank the placement cost shown on its charter for the new token, and must pay the following fees to the selling major for the right of access to the city: City Type All trains except 2+2 trains (see 11.6.1) may be purchased from the Locomotive Works as a local or express type train. A train purchased from the Open Market may also be purchased as a local or express train, regardless of which it was when previously owned. The cost to be paid is that showing on the face up side when it is placed on a RR charter. A train purchased from another RR must remain the same type of train that the original purchaser chose. Transfer Cost Normal City or Red Zone Grand City or “Y” Red Zone Metropolis or “M” Red Zone £20 Once the Major RR Phase has begun, a RR may purchase a train from another RR owned by the same or another player, paying the purchase price to the selling RR's treasury instead of the bank. If the RR is owned by a different player the price is negotiated by the presidents. £40 £60 The selling major takes the returned token and places it on its charter in the highest cost open position. This token may be placed again later by the selling major. Only cash in the purchasing RR's treasury may be used. The purchase price of a train from a major, minor, or regional must be a minimum of £1 to a maximum of the purchasing RR’s entire treasury. Exception: The purchase price of a Pullman must be exactly £75. 11.6 Buy Trains A RR may choose to purchase one or more trains during this step in its OR turn. (Nationals handle this step differently; see 11.6.6). It may purchase as many trains as it can afford within the train ownership limits in force at the time of purchase. A RR at the current train ownership limit cannot initiate a train purchase. The train's face value is paid from the RR's treasury to the bank. Nationals may never sell their trains. Every major must own at least one train at the end of its OR. Minors and regionals are not required to purchase a train (exception: see 11.6.1). The 2+2 train preserved by the Swift Metropolitan Line private does not count towards this ownership requirement after Train Phase 4 begins, nor does a Pullman Car. All un-rusted trains of each level in the Locomotive Works section of the Info Board must be sold before the first train of the next higher level may be purchased. There are three exceptions: Level 3 trains may never be purchased in the first OR of the game. After that round, level 3 trains may be purchased if the game has also entered the Major RR Phase. Level 8 trains may be purchased after the fourth level 7 train is purchased. Nationals may claim any rusted train in the Locomotive Works for free without regard to level. (See 11.6.6) If a major does not have a train and it does not have sufficient funds in its treasury to purchase a train outright from the bank, it may purchase a train from another RR as described above. It is never required to do so. If it does not purchase a train from another RR it must force buy a train from the bank (see 11.6.4). 38 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Minor M (or its owning major) receives £15 royalties from the bank. Pullmans purchased from the Open Market cost face value, £150, but do not pay a royalty to Minor M. Minor J’s 10% discount (see 15.9) applies to Pullman purchases, but Minor M still receives the full £15 in royalties. 11.6.1 Reserved Trains One 2+2 train is reserved for each regional, minor, and major in the game. Each regional, minor, and major must purchase one of these trains from the Locomotive Works with its starting capital during its turn in the first OR after it floats. This obligatory purchase must be made before any other train purchases. Minor M or its owning major receives a Pullman at no cost for its own use the moment they become available at the start of Train Phase 4. It does not receive a royalty for this transaction. If the minor or regional does not have sufficient funds to purchase the 2+2 train from its treasury in that first OR, the RR must “force buy” the train from the Locomotive Works (see 11.6.4 and 11.6.5). When Minor M is merged with a major after the beginning of Train Phase 4, the major receives the Pullman owned by Minor M. If Minor M and the major it merges with both own a Pullman, one of these Pullmans must immediately be discarded into the Open Market. If a regional expands to a major before its first OR, it is considered a major but is still required to purchase a 2+2 train from the Locomotive Works. Regionals that have already purchased their reserved 2+2 train before expanding to a major are not required to purchase an additional 2+2 train. Pullmans may be purchased by a RR from another RR during the purchasing RR’s buy trains step (see 11.6). 11.6.3 Train Phase Changes If Train Phase 4 begins prior to a RR's first OR after floating, all reserved trains are rusted and this rule no longer applies. When a RR triggers the beginning of a new Train Phase by purchasing the first train of a new level, some trains may rust and the train limit may drop (see 5.2). 11.6.2 Pullman Cars After the beginning of Train Phase 4 a RR may purchase a Pullman car from Minor M during its buy train step (see 15.12). The RR purchasing the first 4 train may purchase a Pullman in the same buy train step. At the end of a buy trains step in which a new Train Phase began all RRs (including the operating RR) must discard any rusted trains (exception: see 9.4). After rusted trains are discarded, any trains that remain in excess of the new Phase’s train limit must also be discarded. A RR receives no compensation for discarded trains. A RR may own at most one Pullman. Pullmans on Minor M, other than the one it receives for free, are not owned by the minor or by the major it merges into. Every national is considered to own an inherent Pullman as printed on its charter. Un-rusted discarded trains are placed in the Open Market and are available for purchase by any RR at face value (see 11.6). A Pullman does not count against a RR's train limit. A RR may discard a Pullman during its buy train step prior to buying trains. Discarded Pullmans go into the Open Market, not back to the Minor M, and provide no refund. Rusted discarded trains are placed sideways in the Locomotive Works in the box corresponding to their level. Rusted trains may only be acquired by nationals. If a Train Phase change results in a RR having zero trains and a Pullman, the Pullman remains on When a Pullman is purchased from Minor M, the purchase price of £150 is placed in the bank and 39 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. the RR’s charter. It may not be used again until the RR has another train. purchased as a stock action. The purchase price of the RR is the certificate or charter’s face value plus the difference in the amount of cash in the treasury and the cost of the reserved 2+2 train. The par value of a regional may not be altered. 11.6.4 Forced Train Purchases When a major must force buy a train, it will always purchase the lowest cost, un-rusted train available in either the Locomotive Works or the Open Market. The train type (local or express) must be taken into account when determining the lowest cost train available—the less expensive side of the train must be purchased (see 11.6). A player may not deliberately force a RR into firstturn insolvency by spending money to lay track or purchase tokens. To prevent an insolvency that is about to occur, any token that the RR placed must be restored to the charter with the appropriate cash refund to the RR's treasury. If that does not prevent the insolvency, any track the RR placed that had a monetary cost associated with it must be removed from the Map with the appropriate cash refund to the RR's treasury. If both of these expenditures have been refunded, and the president still doesn't have enough personal cash to make the required train purchase, the insolvency steps above are executed. Example: A 3 train only costs £200, whereas a 3+3 costs £225. Thus the 3 train must be selected when force buying this train. The president must use personal cash to make up the difference between the cash in the RR’s treasury and the purchase price of the train. A president that does not have enough cash to do so must immediately surrender all personal cash to the bank and convert the major to a national (see 9.4). The president cannot sell stock to raise cash. 11.6.6 National Trains Nationals handle the buy trains step differently from all other RRs. 11.6.5 First-Round Insolvency When a minor or regional must force buy a train (which can only happen during the purchase of its reserved 2+2 train), and its president does not have enough personal cash to make up the difference in the purchase price, take the following steps: 1. Transfer all the president's personal cash to the RR’s treasury. The RR receives its reserved 2+2 train from the Locomotive Works. 2. Place the regional's president's certificate or the minor’s charter in the Open Market. The president receives from the bank the face value of the certificate or charter (£120 for a minor; par value times two for a regional). 3. The RR will not operate again until it is owned by a player. 4. First, the national may acquire unclaimed rusted trains for free, up to the national's train limit. The national may also exchange any rusted train for any higher level unclaimed rusted train for free, returning the exchanged train to the Locomotive Works. Any rusted trains owned by the national may be flipped from their express side to their local side for free. Second, the national may upgrade one or more rusted trains to non-rusted trains by purchasing these trains from majors owned by the national’s owner. The rusted train(s) are placed back into the Locomotive Works and the bank pays the major(s) 1/2 of the face value of the non-rusted train(s), rounded down. 11.7 Buy or Sell Shares During this step a major may buy or sell multiple shares of its own stock only into or out of its treasury at share value. This transaction is only between the major and the Open Market and is During a SR, the regional's president’s certificate or the minor’s charter may be 40 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. subject to the rules for buying (see 10.2) and selling stock (10.1) with the major acting as a player. limit of 7 and score revenue from 4 towns on an Orient Express route. Trains may not be combined for any other purpose. In addition to buying or selling shares, the major may also purchase one abandoned minor from the Open Market (see 9.5). The price of £60 is paid directly to the bank. The minor's charter and assets are then added to the major as if it was merged (see 10.5), with the exception that no share of the major’s stock is conferred upon the minor’s former owner. The Swift Metropolitan Line's 2+2 train may not be combined with another train, but the Krasnya Strela's +1+1 marker may be used to increase the stops on the combined train run (see 15.11). A Pullman car attached to a combined train will only enhance one of the component train's revenues (example: combining a 2+2 and a 3+3, with a Pullman, gains a bonus of only £30 for the Pullman, not £50). 12 The Orient Express If a major has both permanent and nonpermanent trains, the president may choose whether to make the OE run with a single, permanent train, or combine some or all of the non-permanent trains. Only majors may make an Orient Express run. A train whose route includes Constantinople and one or more of the metropolises of Paris, London, Berlin, Madrid, or Sankt-Peterburg has operated The Orient Express. 12.2 First Time Bonus The first time that a given major runs the Orient Express during the game, the major is given an Orient Express marker. The president of the major may then choose one of the following bonuses: When counting the revenue of an Orient Express train the major adds extra revenue as follows: Train Phase Bonus 2-4 £30 5-6 £60 7-8 £100 A major may only receive the extra revenue for one Orient Express train per OR. This extra revenue is not doubled by a "D" train. An Orient Express run may not consist entirely of sea crossings. Some land based track in addition to the start and end cities must be utilized on the route. The president of the major should separately note the revenue derived from the Orient Express train. After distributing the major's revenue for the OR, the bank will pay cash to the major's treasury equal to the total revenue of the Orient Express train. The major's share value marker is moved RIGHT three times in addition to its normal movement on the Stock Market. See 4.4. The major must accept both the marker and the bonus during this OR. A major that has an Orient Express marker from a previous OR may no longer receive a bonus. 12.1 Combining Trains For the purpose of making an Orient Express run, a major may combine two or more nonpermanent trains into one larger train (i.e., level 2, 3, and 4 trains may be combined). Permanent trains may not be part of the combination. For example, combining a 2+2, 3, and another 2+2 would allow the major to run a train with a city A RR is not obligated to run the Orient Express on the first occasion it is able to do so, unless such a route is part of the "best possible routes" for all trains on the RR. (Ties do not count as best possible.) However, a RR that is able to make an 41 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. Orient Express run may always do so, even if the route is NOT part of the "best possible routes” for all trains on the RR. 13.1 Winning The winner is the player with the highest combined total of cash, stock certificates at share value, and face up privates at face value. 13 Ending the Game 14 Appendix A: Privates The game ends in one of two ways: First, if the bank runs out of money during an OR prior to the purchase of the first level 8 train, finish only the current OR. If the bank runs out of money during a SR, play one more OR before determining the winner. Use the “remainder cash” (set aside during setup) as needed. 14.1 Robert Stephenson and Company (Face Value £20, Revenue £5.) - No special abilities. No markers or tokens. History: George and Robert Stephenson founded this company to design and build the first steam locomotive in Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom, in 1823. Second: If the bank does not run out of money prior to the purchase of the first level 8 train, add all the “remainder cash” to the bank at the moment of purchase. Finish the current OR, then follow these steps: • • 14.2 Ponts et Chaussees (Face Value £20, Revenue £5.) - No special abilities. No markers or tokens. If the first level 8 train was purchased in the first OR of a set of ORs, finish the current set of ORs, play a SR, then play the “final two ORs” as described below. History: famed civil engineering school that provided planning for many early French railroads. If the first level 8 train was purchased in the second OR of a set of ORs, finish the current OR, play a SR, then play three ORs - the second and third of which are the final two ORs as described next. 14.3 Wien Südbahnhof (Face Value £40, Revenue £10.) - No markers or tokens. During any RR's place token step, the owner of this private may place any one of the RR's station tokens on the Map for free. The token must be reachable by the given RR using the same rules as if it were paying for the token. If applicable, this free placement still incurs the extra costs of placement across sea zones (see 11.2.1) The final two ORs are abbreviated. The first of the two is played normally. The second OR consists only of each RR paying again and distributing in the same way the same revenue that was earned in the first OR (less any first time bonus received by a major for an Orient Express run during that OR). However, if a RR acquires a train during the first of these two ORs, that RR's revenue for the second OR may be recalculated to include the new train in the “run trains and calculate revenue” step and then distributed as its president chooses in the “pay, split, or hold revenue” step. There is no track laying, token placement, or train buying. Designer's note: The above rule intentionally does not specify which token may be played by using this private. Use the most expensive one, unless you have good reason to do otherwise. If this private is owned by the same player as the White Cliffs Ferry private, this private's ability may be used to pay for the cost of the token placed by the White Cliffs Ferry's special ability. 42 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. History: was Wien's largest railway terminus. share of stock in the RR! Since it remains in the RR's treasury, the reserved share continues to pay revenue to that treasury until purchased or exchanged. 14.4 Barclay, Bevan, Barclay and Tritton Finally, (3) the owning player may use this private's ability at any time during a SR, including at the moment another player is selling a share of stock. (Face Value £40, Revenue £10.) - This private has one marker which is used if the second or third ability is exercised (see below). This private may be exercised in one of three ways. (1) The owning player may use this private's power during one of their stock actions during any SR, or during the RR's OR, to re-set the par value of one owned regional or major. This regional or major must have a marker on the Par Values section of the Info Board to qualify (see 10.7). The new par value selected must be a valid par value for the type of RR being re-parred (A regional is restricted to regional par values, and a major is restricted to major par values). When exercised, this option allows the owning player to prevent any one RR's share value marker (including a RR not owned by this private's owner) from moving DOWN on the Stock Market for the remainder of the current SR. Place this private's marker on top of the RR's share value marker to indicate that the share value marker may not be moved DOWN. When the SR ends, remove the marker and the private certificate from play. Developer's Note: A major's par value marker is removed at the end of the SR in which it floats, so it may only be affected by this private's ability for a brief period (see 10.7). 14.5 Star Harbor Trading Company (Face Value £60, Revenue £15.) - This private has one marker and one token. The token allows free passage through any port city on which it is placed during a RR's lay token step. The affiliated RR may use this token as a private or public port during a sea crossing, gaining the benefits outlined in section 11.3.4. Put the marker on the RR's charter to indicate the RR's ownership of the token. Alternatively, (2) the owning player may use this private's ability to place one share of a RR's stock into “custodianship.” This share may not be purchased by any other player. It is reserved for the owning player. Place the private's marker on top of the reserved share on the RR’s charter until the share is purchased, or, if it is a share of a major, exchanged when merging in a minor. The next two paragraphs apply to both the Star Harbor and Central Circle privates. This power may be exercised at any time during a SR, including at the moment another player is purchasing a share of stock in the owning player's RR. This power may only be exercised on a regional's secondary share if both secondary shares are still in the regional's treasury. (After one of the regional's secondary shares is purchased, the other share cannot be placed into custodianship until the regional grows into a major). The existence of a reserved share does not prevent any player from purchasing any other 43 • The token placed on a city does not consume a token position. This city no longer counts towards the city limit of any trains belonging to the owning RR. Tokens of other RRs in this city do not block the owning RR’s trains and they do not collect revenue from this city. • The city on which the token is placed need not be reachable by one of the RR's trains; however, this token may not be used as the sole token on a train's route, nor may it be used by the RR to place other tokens. 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. 14.6 Central Circle Transport Corporation hex may not contain two towns, a city, a grand city, or a metropolis. (Face Value £60, Revenue £15.) - This private has one marker and one token. The token allows free passage through any non-port city on which it is placed during a RR's lay token step. Put the marker on the RR's charter to indicate the RR's ownership of the token. Any RR controlled by this private's owner may count the token as a town when running a route including this hex. The token provides revenue as follows: Train Phase Revenue 2 £10 14.7 White Cliffs Ferry 3-4 £20 (Face Value £60, Revenue £15.) (This represents the ferry across the English Channel between London and Lille.) - No markers or tokens. At the beginning of Train Phase 5, the player who owns this private may immediately place one station token from any controlled RR on top of the White Cliffs Ferry token position next to the city of Lille. The RR must pay for this token with cash in its treasury. The RR does not need to be connected to Lille. This token will not consume a token position in Lille, but rather uses the Ferry’s token position. 5-6 £40 7-8 £60 See the Star Harbor section above for other rules pertaining to this private. 14.9 Brandt & Brandau, Engineers (Face Value £100, Revenue £25.) - This private has four tokens. Up to two of the tokens may be used each OR by this private’s owner. The tokens may both be used for the same controlled RR or one each used by two different RR’s during their track laying step. The token is placed on a rough (green) terrain hex and a yellow tile is placed there at no cost. This tile placement does count towards the tile points expended by the RR. The RR may upgrade the yellow tile immediately, keeping the token on the hex. Only the controlling player's RRs may use a track tile marked with one of this private's tokens. When the last token is placed, the private's certificate is turned face down to indicate ownership of the tokens. It is removed from the game when none remain on the Map. If the owner of the White Cliffs Ferry waits until after the beginning of Train Phase 5 to exercise this option, he may use this private's ability to place the token only during the place token step of the RR's OR. Using the private in this way will consume that RR's place token step for the current round. The Ferry’s token position functions as an open token position for the city of Lille until the ability is used. See 11.2.2 for more details. To remove one of these tokens and allow all RRs to use the track, another RR must pay the original terrain building cost of that token's hex and expend one tile point (two tile points for a metropolis). This tile point expenditure does not place any track on the Map—it merely removes this private's token from the hex. A national may remove the token by paying the tile point(s), but does not need to pay the terrain building cost. 14.8 Hochberg Mining & Lumber Co. (Face Value £80, Revenue £20.) - The owner of this private may place this private's token on the Map during the lay track step of a controlled RR and turn the private's certificate face down to indicate ownership. The token on the Map must be placed in a hex that has a rough terrain (green) construction cost of at least £45. The hex may already contain track. Optionally, it may already contain one town, which this token replaces. The History: constructed the Simplon Tunnel between Switzerland and Italy. 44 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. position in the RRs' operating order this unmerged minor or its owning major will run. 14.10 Swift Metropolitan Line (Face Value £120, Revenue £0.) - This private has a marker that preserves one 2+2 train as a short haul/commuter line for the duration of the game. This private's ability may be exercised at the start of Train Phase 4 or later. When this occurs, the owner designates one of their RR's to receive one unclaimed rusted 2+2 train, and indicates the receipt and durability of the train by placing the marker on it. The president of an un-merged Minor C may choose to operate it first, last, or in its normal position on the Regional/Minor Operating Order track (The minor always operates with the regionals and minors). Temporarily place its extra marker on the track in the position in which it chooses to operate and turn its original marker face down. This train does not count against the train limit. The 2+2 train cannot run on track already used by the RR's other trains in the same OR (see 11.3.8). This train can never be sold. If it is owned by a minor it will go into a major's inventory when this minor merges, keeping this restriction. The president of a major that owns Minor C may choose to operate the major first, last, or in its normal position in the share value operating order. (The major always operates with the majors and nationals). Temporarily place one of Minor C's markers on top of the major's share value marker if last position is chosen (see 4.4). This train does not fulfill the "must own a train" requirement . The RR owning this train will be able to run and pay revenue in an OR in which its other trains are rusted. If it generates enough revenue with a 2+2 run, the RR’s share value marker may not be required to move LEFT on the Stock Market (see 4.4). This ability is exercised anew at the beginning of each OR. The president announces the choice before any other RR operates. 15.4 (Green Junction Mercantile) – When placed in a city on the Map this minor's token adds £20 bonus revenue to trains run to or through that city by the minor or the major it merges into from Train Phase 2 to Train Phase 4. A possibly different city pays £40 to the major from Train Phase 5 onward. The president may place this token in any city on the Map, except a metropolis or red zone — it may even be one the RR cannot run a train to. 15 Appendix B: Minors 15.1 Minor A (Silver Banner Line) - When it is merged into a major, the bank pays cash into the major’s treasury equal to the current share value of the major, even if no share is available. The cash is never part of the minor's treasury. 15.2 The president may delay placing the token. It must be placed during the RR's lay track step. At the beginning of Train Phase 5, the “+£20” token is removed from the Map. The president may then or thereafter place the “+£40” token on the board, in the same or different city, subject to the rules above. Minor B (Orange Scroll Surveyors) - This minor counts all track upgrades as one tile point (including tiles with towns, but not cities, grand cities, or metropolises). 15.3 Minor D 15.5 Minor C Minor E (Blue Coast Bridge Construction Company) - This minor receives a 33% discount on all (Golden Bell Marketplace) - At the start of each OR the president of this minor may choose the 45 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. coastal/river (blue terrain costs) track construction costs (multiply total cost for construction by 0.67, and round down to the nearest pound). Each OR, this minor may also spend 1 additional tile point when laying track, as long as the point is expended to place a yellow tile in a hex that has a blue terrain cost. 15.6 round it is received to use when laying track and/or placing tokens. £20 3-4 £40 5-6 £50 7-8 £60 Minor L (Krasnaya Strela) - This minor has a marker which the RR may assign to a train, increasing that train's city limit and the number of towns it may count for revenue by one each — effectively, a “+1+1” increase. Revenue from the additional city and town add to the revenue generated by the train. E.g. a 2+2 train runs as a 3+3, an 8+8 train runs as a 9+9, and a 4 train runs as a 5+1. Minor G If the train is a D train the extra city does not double in value. Any one of the cities on the D train's extended route may be selected to not double in value. Minor H This marker may be reassigned in each OR at beginning of the RR's run trains step. (Great Western Steamship Company) - This minor reduces the number of sea zones that count towards its trains' city limits. The reduction is one per OR during Train Phases 1 through 6, and two per OR during Train Phases 7 and 8 (see 11.3.4). 15.9 2 15.11 (Indigo Foundry & Iron Works) - This minor receives an extra two tile points to use during its lay track step in every OR. 15.8 Revenue Minor F (White Peak Mountain Railway) - This minor receives a 33% discount on all mountain/rough (green terrain costs) track construction costs (multiply total cost for pounding by 0.67, and round down to the nearest pound). Each OR, this minor may also spend 1 additional tile point when laying track, as long as the point is expended to place a yellow tile in a hex that has a green terrain cost. 15.7 Train Phase This increase in a train’s city limit does not increase that train’s level when calculating the revenue a Pullman car generates. History: Also known as the "Red Arrow" line between Moscva and Sankt-Peterberg. Minor J (Grey Locomotive Works) - This minor receives a 10% discount on the purchase price of all trains. 15.12 Minor M (Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits) This minor comes with ten Pullman cars that enhance the revenue of a train running on a RR. See 11.6.2. 15.10 Minor K (Vermilion Seal Couriers) - This minor owns a mail contract that provides revenue throughout the game. The mail contract revenue is paid directly to the RR's treasury at the beginning of each OR. This revenue is not included in the calculation of paid or split revenue generated when the RR runs trains. It is available in the History: Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (founded Belgium 1876) was the premiere dining/sleeper car operator of its era. CIWL instituted service on its "Orient Express" in 1883. 46 18OE Rules Version 1.0 Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. I owe a special thanks to Ed Sindelar, my friend of twenty five years, for his un-paralleled creativity and tolerance with my tinkering; Mike Monical and Mike Calhoon for their uncanny ability to poke holes in the rules and help me smooth the rough edges; J.C. Lawrence for his rule suggestion on national revenue which was the last piece of the puzzle in making the game playable in one day; Rick Scholes for his invaluable expertise in distilling Ed's and my rambling rules text into this coherent document; and my dearest, patient, and supportive wife, Susan, for tolerating the long days and endless nights of hard work that was put into publishing this game—without you, none of this would have ever been more than just a dream. 16 Acknowledgements Thank you to Brian Yelton for the entertaining musings over many a lunch hour of rail gaming strategy and game theory. Our conversations on the concept of "requiring fees for track rights" led ultimately to the core of my design for 18OE. And my gratitude to my friend Mark Frazier for insisting that we play that long-winded, annoying, confusing "train game" for the half-dozenth time, such a long time ago.... because on that particular evening, that blasted "train game" finally clicked for me. And unquestionably, that event is the one that leads most directly to 18OE. -Mark Frazier, Developer -Ed Sindelar, Designer The designer of 18OE, cleverly disguised as a tourist at Zürich Hauptbahnhof. 47 Credits: Designer - Ed Sindelar Developer - Mark Frazier Artwork - Gary Simpson, Mark Frazier, Ed Sindelar Rules Contributors - Mike Monical, Bill Jaffe, Mike Calhoon, Rick Dutton, Thomas Wall Hannaford Jr., J.C. Lawrence Proofreading and Editing - Rick Scholes Tile Numbering and Orientation - John David Galt and Steve Thomas Playtesters - Daniel Barnes, Adam Brocker, Phil Cherry, Kevin Clark, Mike Coyne, Russ Craft, Eric Flood, Karl Foelsche, Tim Franklin, Mark Geary, Spencer Hamblen, Jeff Kimmel, Matti Kortelainen, Antero Kuusi, Mike Markey, Joe Miller, Arne Östlund, Aliza Panitz, Michael Panzer, Larry Pollack, Edward Povilaitis, John Rapp, Bill Rosgen, Bob Rutherford, Robert G. Schroeder, Scott Strobele, Adhika Widyaparaga Published with permission from Mayfair Games, Inc., Skokie, IL USA. Copyright © 2013 by Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC. “18XX” is a Francis Tresham game design. “18XX” and the “18XX brand logo” are trademark properties of Mayfair Games. All rights reserved. No reproductions or commercial use without permission of Mayfair Games, Inc. Published with leave of Francis Tresham and permission from Mayfair Games, Inc., Skokie, IL USA.