null  null
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Contents
4.1
Certificate Limits ....................................... 13
1
4.2
Share Limits ................................................ 14
2
3
4
Introduction ............................................................. 4
1.1
Designer's Foreword................................... 4
4.3
Entering the Stock Market...................... 14
1.2
Developer's Foreword ................................ 5
4.4
Share Value Marker Movement ............ 14
1.3
Terminology and Rules Semantics ......... 5
1.3.1
Definition of Company Types.............. 6
1.3.2
Other Terms .............................................. 7
5
Game Phases ......................................................... 15
5.1
Game Components ................................................. 9
Railroad Phases.......................................... 15
5.1.1
Auction Railroad Phase ...................... 15
5.1.2
Concession Railroad Phase ............... 15
2.1
The Map........................................................... 9
5.1.3
Regional/Minor Railroad Phase ...... 15
2.2
The Game Information Board .................. 9
5.1.4
Major Railroad Phase .......................... 15
5.1.5
Consolidation Railroad Phase .......... 15
2.2.1
Locomotive Works.................................. 9
2.2.2
Current Round ......................................... 9
2.2.3
Orient Express Markers ........................ 9
2.2.4
Stock Market............................................. 9
2.2.5
Par Values ................................................10
2.2.6
Regional/Minor Operating Order ....10
2.2.7
Game Limits/Starting Capital ...........10
2.2.8
Port Authorities .....................................10
2.2.9
Open Market ...........................................10
2.3
Track Tiles ....................................................10
2.4
Trains .............................................................10
2.5
Certificates ...................................................10
2.6
Tokens ...........................................................10
2.7
Markers .........................................................11
2.8
Scenario Tiles ..............................................11
2.9
Patronage Tiles ...........................................11
2.10
Charters .........................................................11
5.2
6
3.1
Physical Layout ...........................................12
3.2
Player Order/Priority ...............................13
3.3
Player Starting Capital..............................13
Opening Packet..................................................... 16
6.1
Privates ......................................................... 16
6.2
Minors ........................................................... 17
6.3
Concessions ................................................. 17
7
Auction Railroad Phase ..................................... 17
7.1
8
8.1
Concession Railroad Phase .................... 18
8.2
Regional/Minor Railroad Phase ........... 19
8.3
Major Railroad Phase ............................... 20
8.4
Reserved Shares ........................................ 20
8.5
Game Phase Overlap................................. 20
Railroad Formation and Consolidation........ 20
9.1
Floating a Minor......................................... 20
9.2
Floating a Regional ................................... 21
9.3
Floating a Major ......................................... 22
9.4
Forming a National ................................... 22
9.5
Abandoning a Minor ................................. 23
10
Stock Market ..........................................................13
2
Purchasing Minors .................................... 18
Train Phase 1 ........................................................ 18
9
Game Setup.............................................................12
Train Phases................................................ 15
Stock Rounds ................................................... 23
10.1
Selling Stock ................................................ 23
10.2
Buying Stock................................................ 24
10.3
Change of Presidency ............................... 24
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
10.4
Trade with another Player ......................24
11.4
Pay, Split, or Hold Revenues .................. 37
10.5
Merging a Minor .........................................24
11.5
Transfer Tokens......................................... 37
10.6
Consolidation Railroad Phase ................26
11.6
Buy Trains.................................................... 38
10.7
Ending a Stock Round...............................26
11.6.1
Reserved Trains ............................... 39
Operating Rounds ...........................................26
11.6.2
Pullman Cars ..................................... 39
11.6.3
Train Phase Changes ...................... 39
11.6.4
Forced Train Purchases ................ 40
11.6.5
First-Round Insolvency ................. 40
11.6.6
National Trains ................................ 40
11
11.1
Lay Track ......................................................27
11.1.1
Tile Placement Order ......................27
11.1.2
Tile Availability.................................27
11.1.3
Placing a Tile .....................................27
11.1.4
Track Rights.......................................29
11.1.5
Tile Expenses and Discounts........29
11.1.6
Cross-water Track ...........................29
11.1.7
Upgrading Cities ...............................29
11.1.8
Patronage Tiles .................................30
11.1.9
Right-of-Way .....................................30
11.2
11.7
12
Buy or Sell Shares ...................................... 40
The Orient Express ........................................ 41
12.1
Combining Trains ...................................... 41
12.2
First Time Bonus ....................................... 41
13
Ending the Game............................................. 42
13.1
14
Place Token ..................................................30
Winning ........................................................ 42
Appendix A: Privates ..................................... 42
14.1
Robert Stephenson and Company ....... 42
11.2.1
Cross-water Tokens ........................31
14.2
Ponts et Chaussees .................................... 42
11.2.2
Lille .......................................................31
14.3
Wien Südbahnhof ...................................... 42
14.4
Barclay, Bevan, Barclay and Tritton .... 43
14.5
Star Harbor Trading Company.............. 43
14.6
Central Circle Transport Corporation 44
14.7
White Cliffs Ferry ...................................... 44
11.3
Run Trains and Calculate Revenue ......31
11.3.1
Routes ..................................................31
11.3.2
Train Types ........................................32
11.3.3
City Limits ..........................................32
14.8
Hochberg Mining & Lumber Co. ........... 44
11.3.4
Ports and Sea Crossings .................32
14.9
Brandt & Brandau, Engineers................ 44
11.3.5
Port Authorities ................................33
11.3.6
Port Types ..........................................34
11.3.7
14.10
15
Swift Metropolitan Line ..................... 45
Appendix B: Minors ....................................... 45
15.1
Minor A ......................................................... 45
Ferries..................................................35
15.2
Minor B ......................................................... 45
11.3.8
Running Multiple Trains................35
15.3
Minor C.......................................................... 45
11.3.9
Calculating Revenue........................36
15.4
Minor D ......................................................... 45
15.5
Minor E.......................................................... 45
11.3.10
Calculating National Revenue ......36
15.6
Minor F .......................................................... 46
3
18OE Rules Version 1.0
15.7
Minor G ..........................................................46
15.8
Minor H..........................................................46
15.9
Minor J ...........................................................46
15.10
Minor K .....................................................46
15.11
Minor L .....................................................46
15.12
Minor M ....................................................46
16
1
1.1
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
take you someplace new and exciting—with an air
of mystery to boot!
The reader might note that in society today the
idea of The Orient Express still evokes similar
emotions.
…
I'm certain many people will presume that the
reason 18OE has such a large map is because of
my association with Mark Frazier who designed
the massive 18C2C. But the original reason for the
sheer expanse of the map was actually to create a
challenging track-laying environment—one for
which Europe was well suited.
Acknowledgements ........................................47
Introduction
Designer's Foreword
There are two conceptual elements that drove the
design of 18OE. The first arose from conversations
about game theory, both board and computer
based, specifically dealing with paying fees to
different nation-states and even cities for the right
to lay track. The extent of the restricted areas and
the fees I tinkered with didn't seem as severe as
those 18XX games in which every tile laid must be
paid for. Nevertheless the cash requirements
rapidly ran up—Europe covers a large territory
with many national borders. Starting a minor
railroad in each country to gain the right to lay
track there was nearly a requirement since these
small railroads received their home track rights
for free. Running trains across a border required
state permission: count the track rights needed to
travel the entire distance from Paris to
Constantinople and your railroad's treasury will
be dry before you even think about that 5 Train to
run the route.
When I was very young, there was a railroad track
that ran behind my house, separated from my
backyard by a thicket of brambles. But the track
curved at the end of the street and crossed it,
heading north towards Lake Erie. So the year
before kindergarten, my friends and I would
spend lazy summer days going down to the
crossing and walking back westward down the
weed-strewn rails, looking for rocks, frogs, and
odd pieces of metal—the typical cool and
interesting stuff a child of five could find in such
an environment. How the times have changed....
We would talk about the railroad and the trains,
when one might come through, what would
happen if we could get on board for a ride—what
wondrous places would it take us? (In those days
Stand By Me lay over a decade in the future.) What
an adventure we might have had!
Looking back on those days, it is ironic that I don't
recall seeing a train on those tracks during the
several years I lived there. Based on the few
references I've found on the Internet, my guess is
that that section of track had been abandoned for
at least a decade before my friends and I
wandered along the right-of-way. And yet, I find it
telling that in the early 1970’s with passenger rail
service in the United States forced into Amtrak or
bankruptcy, children still absorbed the idea
through parents and the media that trains could
Not only did it become apparent that using a
varying fee schedule for access rights slowed the
game to a halt, it also presented the huge logistical
challenge of tracking every right. This increased
errors when, in the process, players forgot where
each railroad was allowed to run. And so this
element had to change: it is now much simplified
from the original design. I feel the trimmed down
"Track Rights" reach a necessary balance because
they are very simple to calculate; and yet, they still
play a role in deciding a player's long term
4
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
strategy, even early in the game when the players
are floating minors and regionals. This is a result
I'd never considered on the first day, but it plays
well and is a valuable part of this game.
Ed Sindelar
Designer of 18OE
1.2
Developer's Foreword
18OE - On the Rails of the Orient Express is DICE's
second foray into monster 18XX games. The
brainchild of Ed Sindelar, my close friend and
18XX competitor for over twenty years, this game
has been swirling around in our heads for almost
as long as 18C2C has been in production. The
game resembles 18C2C insofar as they are both
monster 18XX games; the similarity almost
completely ends there. 18OE is an entirely new
animal.
The second element of the game builds from the
first: the importance of rail networks and railroad
synergy. I have a bias towards the building aspects
of games that I play. I see 18OE's map of Europe
facilitating this. The player needs to coordinate
several railroads to build a small empire, while
considering the ever-present competition—and,
dare one suggest cooperation—with the other
players' small empires. The map is atypical of
18XX designs since the addition of ports and
ferries increases the number of paths from city A
to city B. Suddenly the decision space expands
tremendously, giving this game its interesting
character.
This game's focus is more "plan ahead" than even
18C2C. The system rewards contemplation of the
transition from one type of railroad to another. As
with 18C2C, historical accuracy has been thrown
out the window when it conflicts with playability.
Much of the chrome has been trimmed to bring
the game length down to a comparable timeframe
to 18C2C (12 hours), leaving in the elements that
make the game truly unique.
Integral to the playing experience is the flexibility
given at various points in the game, from placing
the first bid on the opening packet, through
jostling for position and timing to place a station
in Constantinople, to deciding whether to
purchase a 7 Train outright or take a dividend hit
for the 5D Train. If you consider it challenging
while laying track to decide how to prioritize
outward expansion versus city upgrades versus
route simplification, then I consider my design a
success.
The game's central focus is, as one would expect
from the name, the Orient Express run. A fresh
approach to running train routes across water has
added a strategic element to the game that players
ignore at their own peril.
18OE has been a real blast to create. There are
zillions of railroads and its got huge tracts of land!
Our goal has always been to design, develop, and
publish games that we love to play. It is my hope
that you have as much fun playing as we had
creating this game!
...
I've been playing rail games for twenty years. I
certainly never expected that I would end up
designing one. But so I have, and as it happens,
that's been quite an adventure of its own. I thank
you who will play this game for sharing this
experience with me, giving it meaning. I hope you
enjoy spending your time On The Rails of The
Orient Express as much as I have.
Mark Frazier
President
Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
1.3
I think back to living by those railroad tracks at
my childhood home, and how they represented
adventure to me. Now I'm off to Constantinople,
via Paris and München, with stops in Wien and
Budapest…. Will you join me?
Terminology and Rules
Semantics
These rules are organized into sections. Each
section is numbered sequentially within the
context of its main heading. Every attempt has
been made to present these rules in the order in
5
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
which you will encounter them during play. Rules
are rarely repeated (this book is long enough as it
is), but they are heavily cross-referenced to assist
you when consulting them. When first learning the
unique mechanics of 18OE it is particularly
important to read the cross-referenced sections,
the Game Phases Chart, and the playbook.
similar to minors in many other 18XX games. They
do not have a fixed home city and must select one
when floated (see 9.1).
Regional – Regional Railroad Companies are
purchased by players after the Auction Railroad
Phase and are represented by a charter and 3
stock certificates: a president’s certificate worth
50% and 2 secondary certificates worth 25%
each. Regionals will ultimately expand into
majors (see 9.3). Each regional has a fixed home
city (see 9.2).
Developer's notes, designer's notes, examples of
play, and historical notes appear in red italic print.
Italic print is also used for emphasis.
The terms defined in this section are used
consistently throughout these rules. When used as
defined they appear in bold print.
Major - Major Railroad Companies are created by
the expansion of regionals after 18 of the
regionals and all 12 minors have floated (see
9.3). They are represented by a charter and 9
stock certificates: a president’s certificate worth
20% and 8 worth 10%. Their value will change on
the Stock Market based on actions their president
(and other players) take during the game.
Terms referring to the movement of markers on
the Stock Market appear in BOLD CAPITAL
PRINT.
Terms referring to sections of the Game
Information Board, the Map, and the Charts and
Tables sheets are Capitalized.
National - National Railroad Subsidiaries are
created by the closure of a major(see 9.4). They
are represented by a charter and 9 stock
certificates: a president’s certificate worth 20%
and 8 worth 10%. Their value will change on the
Stock Market based on actions their president
(and other players) take during the game. They
generate revenue using a different operating
paradigm than the other railroads in the game
(see 11.3.10).
Developer's note for experienced 18XX players:
Some of the terms defined in this section may
appear at first to be pedantic, but don't gloss over
them while reading the rules. For example, the new
term city limit pertains to a train's route rather
than to a specific city. Pay particular attention to
how city limit is defined and you will see its added
significance to running trains.
1.3.1
Developer's note: The nationals are an abstraction.
More than one major can form a national in a
given country, but each national continues to
operate independently. Think of each national as
representing a subsidiary of the national railroad of
that country. This is reflected in the national
charters that are differentiated within a country
only by the subsidiary's logo—the only surviving
relic of the absorbed major. To reflect this
abstraction, all nationals within a single track
rights zone use the national name of only one
country within that zone.
Definition of Company Types
Private - Private Companies are fixed income
properties purchased by the players during the
Auction Railroad Phase and are each
represented by a single certificate. They generally
have special abilities of use to the owner during
the course of the game (see 6.1 and 14).
Minor - Minor Railroad Companies are purchased
by the players during the Auction Railroad
Phase and are represented by a single charter
that is itself a certificate (see 2.5). Each of the 12
has a special power which it can use, or can be
used by the major it is merged into (see 6.2 and
14). Minors operate and pay revenue in a manner
Railroad - [hereafter often “RR”] collectively
refers to minors, regionals, majors, and
6
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
nationals. Where this term is used, the rules
mean "all four of these company types".
Metropolis - The largest cities of some nations
use individually designated track tiles.
Birmingham, Madrid, and Wien use a group of
tiles in common. These track tiles are all referred
to as metropolis tiles, and these cities also use the
term metropolis. The revenue values of
metropolises in a given Train Phase are the
highest of all cities of the same tile color.
1.3.2 Other Terms
Certificate Limit – A certificate slot is the place a
certificate fills in a player’s portfolio. The
certificate limit on the Info Board states the
number of certificate slots each player has. This
varies with the number of players in the game.
Offshort Port - refers to the symbols on the Map
that indicate a city has port access but is
surrounded by land hexes (see 11.3.6).
City Limit - refers to the maximum number of
cities (including grand cities and metropolises),
sea zones, and red zones that a train may include
in its route (see 11.3.3).
Operating Round - [hereafter "OR"] refers to the
game rounds in which the RRs lay track and
tokens, run trains, and collect revenue (see 11)
Concession - refers to the concession cards that
are at the bottom of the opening packet. These
cards each confer the right to take one of the first
10 float actions of Train Phase 1.
Opening Packet - refers to the minors, privates,
and concessions that are available for purchase
during the Auction Railroad Phase (see 5.1.1).
Designer's note: In abstracted real-world terms
they represent the governmental incentives
provided to the railroads to begin construction
within their nations.
Ownership and Control – Players own the
privates, RR charters, certificates, cash, etc. that
they possess but not anything situated on the
charter of a RR. RRs own everything on their
charters and all tokens on the Map related thereto.
Players control minors when they own the
charter for that minor. Players control other RRs
when they own the president’s certificate for that
RR [and possibly additional shares] and no other
player owns shares representing a greater
percentage of that RR.
Dead end – A black arrow pointing from a hex
side into a non-hex area near a circle showing
zero revenue. Tiles laid on such a hex may have
track sections that connect with these arrows.
Game Information Board - [hereafter "Info
Board"] - refers to the board that is used for
tracking the game state and for storing various
markers (see 2.2).
Par Value - refers to the purchase price of stock
from a RR's treasury (see 10.2).
Grand City - Cities that were important in the
industrial and social development of Europe use
different track tiles than normal cities. These
track tiles are referred to as "Y" tiles, and the cities
are called grand cities. The revenue values of
grand cities in a given Train Phase are higher
than typical cities of the same tile color.
Patronage Tiles - represent local nobility or
other interests who have offered a bounty to the
RR that first connects the city to major markets.
Designer's note: In the opening years of railroad
building across Europe, practical necessity dictated
the early connection of the large cities in highly
industrialized nations to facilitate moving freight
and passengers with efficiency. As the Industrial
Age blossomed, other locales without major
resources driving development would often
stagnate. To counteract this, many noblemen would
contract the construction of railroads to improve
Linked - refers to cities, red zones, and towns that
are connected by track to other cities, red zones,
and towns. It pertains to the method that
nationals use to count revenue (see 11.3.10).
7
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
their region’s transportation, economy, and of
course, their own prestige.
Stock Round - [hereafter "SR"] refers to the game
rounds in which players execute stock actions (see
10).
Player Order - is the clockwise order in which the
players sit around the table and take actions
during the SRs, starting, unless otherwise stated,
with the player holding the priority deal card.
Tile Point - refers to both the number of "points"
each RR may use to lay track and to the cost in
"points" of laying a particular tile (see 11.1).
Port Authority - refers to the markers that confer
sea crossing benefits in the North/Baltic Seas,
and the Mediterranean Sea (see 11.3.5).
Token Positions - are the white city circles on the
track tiles and the grey city circles in the hexes
and red zones on the Map.
Port Token - refers to station tokens placed in
cities adjacent to ports. They reduce city limits
for the owning RR. (see 11.3.4).
Track Rights - relate to the home territory of a
RR. Each track rights zone encompasses one or
more nations that existed in Europe in 1882. RRs
who have track rights in certain zones get a track
building discount inside their zone (see 11.1.5).
Track rights also limit where nationals,
regionals, and minors may lay track (see 11.1.4).
Portfolio – The certificates of face up privates,
minor’s charters, and RR stock certificates that
are in a player’s possession. The certificate limit
is the total quantity of these items that a player
may own.
Train Level (or just level) - Each train has a level
that is equal to its train number. That number is
also its type. (see 11.3.2). Exceptions: 4D trains
are considered to be level 7 and 5D trains are
considered to be level 8.
Priority Deal - is the status of the current holder
of the priority deal card. This player has the first
opportunity to take the next action during a SR.
(exception: Concession RR Phase, see 5.1.2.)
Train Phase – Train Phase 1 begins with the
Concession Railroad Phase. Train Phase 2
begins with the first OR. Thereafter, the period
from the moment a specific numbered train is first
purchased until the next higher numbered train is
first purchased or the game ends (see 5.2). See
also the Game Phases Chart.
Railroad Phase – [hereafter often “RR Phase”]
refers to certain game state changes that occur
during the course of the game, revolving around
the opening packet auction and the launching
and closure of railroads. The Railroad Phases
overlap with the Train Phases of the game (see
5). See also the Game Phases Chart.
Developer's Note to experienced 18XX players: this
term refers to the "typical" 18XX game phases that
are defined in almost all 18XX games. Train Phase
1 equates to what is commonly known as the
"initial stock round".
Red Zone - refers to the red colored areas on the
Map.
Sea Crossing - refers to a train's route when it is
crossing a sea zone (see 11.3.4).
Designer's Note: The national boundaries of Europe
have changed significantly since the invention of
the steam locomotive. In a game of this type, it is
not feasible to have national borders shift as time
goes on. For simplicity's sake, the names of the
track rights zones refer to the nations of Europe as
they existed in 1883 when the first Orient Express
journey occurred. This means that many current
nations are not mentioned.
Sea Zone - refers to the water areas on the Map
separated by the thick white dashed lines (see
2.1). Sea zones count against a train's city limit
when making a sea crossing (see 11.3.4).
Share Value - is the current value of one 10%
share of stock in a RR as indicated by its marker
on the Stock Market.
8
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
For playability reasons, most of the track rights
zones include several nations. This allows
regionals and minors a reasonable expanse of
countryside in which to build their networks in spite
of their restricted track and token abilities.
name of the sea and contains a circular steamship
symbol with a number in it to visually assist
players with counting the distance of a sea
crossing.
The black dashed lines separating and within land
hexes are track rights boundaries. These are
relevant to the starting positions for the minors
(via track rights, see 9.1), and also may affect
track laying costs (see 11.1.5). Some track rights
boundaries pass through the center of a hex; any
city in the hex is considered to be within the track
rights zone in which the city's symbol resides on
the Map.
2 Game Components
The components in the game are:
771 Yellow, Green, Brown, and Grey Track Tiles
9 Red Zone Tiles (for the Scenarios)
45 Patronage Tiles
The other terrain features listed on the Map
legend are described elsewhere in these rules.
240 Small (3/8") Wooden Tokens and Stickers
110 Large (1/2") Wooden Markers and Stickers
216 Railroad certificate cards
2.2
10 Concession cards (backside of 2+2 trains)
The Game Information Board
The Info Board contains areas for storing yet-tobe used components, and also serves to track the
current game status. The board is organized as
follows:
6 Order of Operation cards (backside of 2+2
trains)
10 Private cards
116 Train and Pullman cards
2.2.1 Locomotive Works
1 "Level 8 Trains now available" card
Store here trains that have never been purchased
or force purchased by a RR. The level 2, 3 and 4
sections each have a sideways box for storing
unclaimed rusted trains. (Rusted trains may be
acquired only by nationals.)
1 Priority Deal card
(Total: 360 cards)
16 Track Rights chits
36 Railroad charters
4 Charts and Tables sheets
2.2.2 Current Round
1 Rulebook
Move the round marker from circle to circle here
to identify the current game round.
1 Playbook
1 Map in two folded sections
2.2.3 Orient Express Markers
1 Game Information Board in one folded section
2.1
Store here the markers that are used to indicate
that a RR has made an Orient Express run (see
12).
The Map
The Map is overlaid with a hex grid. The track tiles
are placed on the hexes. Hexes with a tan, reddish
tan, olive green, or yellow background may have
track tiles placed on them. Red zones and areas
without hexes may never have track tiles placed
on them (see 11.1).
2.2.4 Stock Market
This section is used to track the current share
value of each major and national (See 4.3).
The white dashed lines in the seas are sea zone
boundaries. Each sea zone is also labeled with the
9
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
2.2.5 Par Values
2.4 Trains
This section is used to show the par values of all
regionals and majors. The six boxes with values
of £60, £65, £70, £75, £80, and £90 are used when
floating a regional. The six boxes with values of
£75, £80, £90, £100, £110, and £120 are used
when floating a major.
Track Color
Train Type
Train Level
Purchase Price
Obsolesence
2.2.6 Regional/Minor Operating Order
This section is used to show the order in which
minors and regionals run during ORs. As each
RR operates during the first OR of each pair of
ORs between SRs, its marker is moved from the
white box to the grey box directly below it. As
each RR operates during the second OR, its
marker is moved back to the white box directly
above it on the track.
Trains are used by the RRs to generate revenue.
The available track color indicates the highest
color track that may be used in the Train Phase in
which the first train of this level was purchased.
The purchase price of the train is the amount that
a RR pays for the train. Train types are described
in section (11.3.2).
2.5
2.2.7 Game Limits/Starting Capital
Certificates
This is a table listing the certificate limit and
starting cash for each player. This varies with the
number of players in the game.
2.2.8 Port Authorities
Privates, stock shares in RRs, and minor charters
are all certificates. Each type differs in the
percentage of ownership they represent and the
total number of shares available (see 1.3.1).
Store here the port authority markers until they
are purchased by a major (see 11.3.5).
2.2.9 Open Market
Store here shares of stock after they are sold by
players and all trains that are discarded. This is
called the Bank Pool in other 18XX games.
2.3
2.6 Tokens
Track Tiles
Track tiles are the hexagonally shaped game
pieces in four colors: yellow, green, brown, and
grey. Only yellow track tiles are available at the
beginning of the game; the others become
available at the beginning of Train Phases 3, 5,
and 7.
Tokens are small wooden cylinders 3/8" in
diameter used on the Map. Most tokens designate
the cities on the map to, from, and through which
specific RRs may run, and are called station
tokens. Some tokens are associated with privates
and minors, and are used to indicate the location
on the Map associated with the private's or
minor's special power (see 6).
10
18OE Rules Version 1.0
2.7
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
U = United Kingdom
Markers
P = Prussia, Denmark and Holland
F = France and Belgium
S = Spain and Portugal
I = Italy
Markers are larger wooden discs, 5/8" in
diameter, used for various purposes in the game.
Most markers are used to used on the Info Board
to indicate the current round, and the par value,
current share value and operating order of RRs.
Orient Express markers begin play on the Info
Board and are placed on a RR's charter to
indicate that the RR has made an Orient Express
run. Port authority markers also begin play on
the Info Board and are placed on a RR's charter
to indicate ownership. The rest of the markers
begin play on top of a private’s certificate or
minor’s charter and are placed on a RR's charter
to indicate ownership when the private's or
minor's special ability is exercised (see 6).
A = Austria-Hungary
N = Norway, Sweden and Denmark
R = Russia
B = Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia
O = Ottoman Empire
2.10 Charters
Charters are used to store a RR’s trains, Pullman
cars, station tokens, cash, privates and minors’
markers, and track rights chits. They keep
everything organized during play.
Minor Charter
Railroad Name
2.8 Scenario Tiles
Special Ability
Station Tokens
Face Value
Track Rights
(place chit here)
Treasury
The eight red tiles and one München yellow tile
are not used in the full game. See the playbook for
their use in the scenarios.
Trains
2.9 Patronage Tiles
Track Rights Chit
Track Rights
Construction
Discount
Home Station Cost
45 tiles that use colors and geometric symbols:
pink (circle), yellow (square), green (hexagon),
and white (triangle) to show which cities are
offering bonuses to connect to them. These tiles
also have a letter on them that indicates which
track rights zone their city is located in:
11
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Regional/Major Charter
National Charter
Railroad Name
Railroad Name
Home Station
Home Station
Track Rights
Track Rights
Subsidiary
Regional Station
Tokens
City Limit
Summary
Major Station
Tokens
Trains
Treasury
Pullman Car
Trains
Fourteen 7+7s in the level 7 box
Eight 8+8s in the level 8 box
3 Game Setup
3.1
The "level 8 trains now available" card is
placed under the fourth from the top 7+7
train.
Physical Layout

Place the Map and the Info Board on a table
leaving sufficient room for all players’ assets,
the bank, and the track tiles.

Place the round marker on the Current Round
section of the Info Board to indicate a SR.

Split the bank's money (£54,000) into two
equal parts and place one on each side of the
table to facilitate easy access for all players.
This will expedite play by not funneling all
transactions through a single banker.
All trains may be stacked with either side face
up when in the Locomotive Works section.
The cost to purchase a train is that shown on
the face up side when the train is placed on a
RR’s charter.
Developer's Note: the game components
contain more than the £54,000 required to
play. Be sure to remove the excess "remainder
cash" and set it aside for the endgame.

Place the following trains in stacks in the
Locomotive Works section of the Info Board:
Thirty 2+2s in the level 2 box
Twenty 3+3s in the level 3 box
Ten 4+4s in the level 4 box
Eight 5+5s in the level 5 box
Six 6+6s in the level 6 box
12

Place the port authority and Orient Express
markers in their respective boxes on the Info
Board.

Place two of each of the majors' tokens
stacked on top of each other on their home
token hexes, to indicate their reserved token
positions.

Lay out the opening packet as shown on the
Opening Packet Layout Chart.

Sort the 45 patronage tiles by color or
symbol. Each group is turned face down and
mixed up. Players then draw three tiles each
from the pink (hexagon), yellow (pentagon),
and white (triangle) groups; and eight tiles
from the green (square) group. As each tile is
drawn it is placed on its respective city on the
Map.
18OE Rules Version 1.0


3.2
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Place the six major/national 10% certificates
and six tokens from each major in a stack in
their respective boxes at the top and bottom
of the Map. Place the presidential certificate
and the two 25% certificates of each regional
(with the regional side face up) and its two
markers in stacks next to the stack of shares
of their respective majors (see the playbook
for an example of this).
4 Stock Market
In the real world stock markets facilitate the
buying, selling, and tracking of the value of shares.
This is represented in the game by the large Stock
Market grid on the Info Board. Each square in the
grid has a number representing the value per
share of each RR whose share value marker is in
that box. The movement of the share value
marker, purchase and selling of shares, and RR
ownership, is determined by the rules below. Red
bordered squares in the grid show the starting
locations for markers at their initial par values.
The Open Market is the repository of shares
owned by passive investors not in this game. The
Par Values section of the Info Board displays the
initial value of shares when floated.
Split the track tiles into two equal parts and
place one on each side of the table to facilitate
easy access for all players. The Metropolis
Upgrade Chart should be placed to one side of
the Map, and all metropolis tiles placed onto
the chart to keep them organized during play.
Player Order/Priority
Determine player order by a random method.
The first player may choose where to sit at the
table. All other players sit in numerical order
clockwise from the first player. This player order
remains constant for the entire game. The first
player is given the priority deal card and, after
the concessions are executed, will take the first
stock action in the Regional/Minor RR Phase.
The priority deal card moves after each stock
action to the player to the left of the one who just
took the action.
4.1
The certificate limit per player varies with the
number of players. This limit is listed on the Game
Limits chart on the Info Board.
Private certificates and minor charters each
count as one certificate towards a player's
certificate limit. Each stock certificate in a
regional, major, or national counts as one
certificate towards that limit, regardless of the
percentage of ownership it represents.
Developer's Note: In practice, the priority deal
card normally is only moved at the end of each SR
and is given to the player to the left of the player
who took the last action. There may be times that
moving the card more frequently is helpful.
However, these rules make reference to the priority
deal card holder—this is the player defined as
above.
3.3
Certificate Limits
A player may exercise a private's ability, close it
by turning it face down, or remove the certificate
from their portfolio so that it no longer counts
towards their certificate limit (see 6.1).
A player who has more certificates than the limit
allows must correct this at the first possible
opportunity during a SR. The only actions
available to do this are selling stock or removing,
closing or exercising the ability of a private (see
6.1). Enough stock must be sold or the number of
face up privates reduced to bring the number of
certificates owned by the player back to, or under,
the limit. Other transactions may be made during
this sale if they are defined by these rules as a part
of the action the player selects. All normal stock
transfer rules must be obeyed.
Player Starting Capital
Starting capital is split among the players equally,
rounded upwards to the nearest £5.
Standard game: £5,400 total for all players.
If you are playing without concessions, use
£5,200 instead.
13
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
4.2 Share Limits
The share limit is the percentage of ownership a
player may have in a RR. In a regional it is 100%.
In a major or national it is 100% but there are
restrictions on the purchase of shares in excess of
60% (see 10.2).

A major's or national's marker moves
DOWN for each of its shares that is sold.

A major's or national's marker moves UP at
the end of a SR if none of its shares are
available on the Open Market or in its
treasury (i.e. all shares are in the hands of
players). This condition is checked for and
markers are moved in share value order
from the highest to lowest.

A major's or national's marker moves
RIGHT if during an OR it pays a total—not per
share—dividend equal to or greater than its
share value. A major can pay half-revenues
and still move RIGHT if the total dividends
disbursed still equal or exceed its share
value.
4.3 Entering the Stock Market
When a major floats place its share value marker
in the red bordered square of the Stock Market
equal to its par value (See 9.3 and 10.7).
4.4 Share Value Marker Movement
The value of shares in a RR usually changes when
players buy or sell shares, when its shares are sold
out, and when the RR pays or withholds
dividends. When this happens, the RR’s share
value marker moves on the Stock Market,
normally one square in the direction stated in
these rules in capital letters. When it reaches an
edge of the Market it moves as indicated by the
arrows along the edges.
Example: a major with a share value of £150
that earns £320 in revenue and pays £160 in
dividends (£16 per share) will move RIGHT on
the market.

The share value marker moves as follows:


UP: The marker moves up one square. If a
major or national's marker is already in the
uppermost row of the Stock Market when it
qualifies to move UP, it will move RIGHT on
the Stock Market, remaining in its current
row. If a marker is in the £550 space it does
not move.
Example: a major with a share value of £165
that earns £320 in revenue and pays £160 in
dividends (£16 per share) will stay in place on
the market.
DOWN: The marker moves down one square.
If a marker cannot move down it does not
move.

RIGHT: The marker moves one square to the
right. If a marker cannot move right it will
move up one square. If a marker is in the £550
space it does not move.

LEFT: The marker moves one square to the
left. If a marker cannot move left, it will move
down one square. If a marker is in the £50
space it does not move.
A major's or national's marker does not
move if during an OR the amount of revenue it
pays in dividends is less than its share value
but greater than zero (£0).

A major's or national's marker moves LEFT
if during an OR it pays zero (£0) in dividends
to its stockholders.

A major's (not a national's!) marker moves
RIGHT three times if it is making its first
Orient Express run and the president chooses
this option (see 12.2). Note that this
movement is in addition to the movement for
paying a dividend.
If a share value marker moves into a box where
there already are one or more markers, the newly
arriving marker is placed below the other share
value markers. If a share value marker does not
move, it retains its relative position in the stack.
Each RR’s share value marker moves as indicated
when the following events take place:
14
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
minors and regionals leave the game. Only
privates and shares of majors and nationals will
remain.
5 Game Phases
The game begins with the Auction RR Phase and
progresses simultaneously through five Railroad
Phases and Train Phases 1-8 (see the Game
Phase Chart). Once Train Phase 2 begins, play
alternates between a series of two ORs followed
by one SR for the remainder of the game.
Most of the rules for the Consolidation RR Phase
are the same as a typical SR. The applicable
restrictions and available actions during this
phase are listed in section 10.6.
During this SR a player may take any of the usual
SR actions defined in section 10 except that
players cannot pass until they have no remaining
minors or regionals. A player may abandon a
minor if the restrictions in section 9.5 are met.
The RR Phases overlap with the Train Phases
(i.e., a RR Phase may begin during one Train
Phase and last into a subsequent Train Phase
and vice versa. See the Game Phases Chart for
details).
5.1
5.1.1
A player may temporarily avoid floating a major
or merging a minor during this round by taking
other actions, but eventually in this SR they must
take actions that remove all of their regionals and
minors from the game.
Railroad Phases
Auction Railroad Phase
This RR Phase begins the game and lasts until the
entire opening packet of 10 privates, 12 minors,
and 10 concessions sells out (see 6 & 7).
5.2

Train Phase 1 - begins with the Concession
RR Phase - (see 8).

Train Phase 2 - begins at the start of the first
OR. The following apply:
5.1.2 Concession Railroad Phase
This RR Phase is the first ten float actions of
Train Phase 1. These are limited to a specific set
of actions listed in section 8.1.
5.1.3 Regional/Minor Railroad Phase
This RR Phase begins at the end of the
Concession RR Phase, and lasts until both (1) 18
of the 24 regionals and (2) all 12 of the minors
are floated. The applicable restrictions and
available actions during this phase are listed in
section 8.2.
5.1.4 Major Railroad Phase

This RR Phase begins at the end of the
Regional/Minor RR Phase. It is interrupted for
the Consolidation RR Phase but otherwise lasts
until the end of the game. The applicable
restrictions and available actions during this
phase are listed in section 8.3.
5.1.5 Consolidation Railroad Phase
This phase is the first SR following the OR during
which Train Phase 5 begins. During this SR all
15
Train Phases
o
Only Yellow track may be used (exception:
see 11.1.9).
o
Each regional and minor is limited to
owning two trains.
o
Each major is limited to owning four
trains.
o
Level 2 trains are available for purchase.
One level 2 train in the Locomotive Works
is reserved for each regional, minor, and
major (see 11.6.1).
Train Phase 3 - begins with the purchase of
the first level 3 train. The following apply:
o
Only Yellow and Green track may be used.
o
Each regional/minor is limited to owning
two trains.
o
Each major is limited to owning four
trains.
o
Minors may merge with majors during a
SR (see 10.5).
18OE Rules Version 1.0

Train Phase 4 - begins with the purchase of
the first level 4 train. The following apply:
o
At the beginning of this phase level 3
trains rust (see 11.6.3). Nationals and
majors that choose to convert to
nationals at the moment this phase begins
do not remove their level 3 trains.
o
This is the second opportunity for
nationals to form (see 9.4).

Train Phase 7 - begins with the purchase of
the first level 7 train. The following apply:
Only Yellow and Green track may be used.
o
o
Each regional/minor is limited to owning
one train.
All track colors are available (Yellow,
Green, Brown, and Grey).
o
o
Each major is limited to owning three
trains.
Each major is limited to owning two
trains.
o
o
Each national is limited to owning four
trains.
Each national is limited to owning three
trains.
o
o
Minors may merge with majors and
nationals during a SR (see 10.5).
o
This is the first opportunity for nationals
to form (see 9.4).
Level 8 trains become available for
purchase after the first four level 7 trains
are purchased from the Locomotive
Works.

Pullman cars are now available (see
11.6.2).
Train Phase 8 - begins with the purchase of
the first level 8 train. The following apply:
o
Train Phase 5 - begins with the purchase of
the first level 5 train. The following apply:
All track colors are available (Yellow,
Green, Brown, and Grey).
o
Only Yellow, Green, and Brown track may
be used.
Each major is limited to owning two
trains.
o
Each regional/minor is limited to owning
one train.
Each national is limited to owning three
trains.
o
At the beginning of this phase all level 4
trains rust (see 11.6.3). Nationals and
majors that choose to convert to
nationals at the moment this phase begins
do not remove their level 4 trains.
o
This is the third (and final) opportunity for
nationals to form (see 9.4).
o
o

At the beginning of this phase all level 2
trains are obsolete [“rusted”] (see 11.6.3).
Rusted trains may later be claimed by
nationals (see 11.6.6). Majors that choose
to convert to nationals at the moment this
phase begins do not remove their level 2
trains.
o
o
o

Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
o
Each major is limited to owning three
trains.
o
Each national is limited to owning four
trains.
o
The next SR after this phase begins is the
Consolidation RR Phase (see 5.1.5).
Train Phase 6 - begins with the purchase of
the first level 6 train. The following apply:
o
Only Yellow, Green, and Brown track may
be used.
o
Each major is limited to owning two
trains.
o
Each national is limited to owning three
trains.
6 Opening Packet
6.1
Privates
Privates are purchased from the opening packet
during the Auction RR Phase. Each private
counts towards its owner’s certificate limit while
face up but not when face down. A face up private
16
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
pays its revenue to its owner at the beginning of
each OR.
The minors and their abilities are listed and
explained in section 15.
A private remains open until one of the following
events occurs:
6.3 Concessions

The game ends. The face value of the face up
private counts in the final tally of its owning
player's cash.

The owner of the private exercises its special
ability. The private is immediately removed
from the game unless that private’s
description below states another condition for
doing so (see 14). Privates remaining in this
way are placed face down (closed). The ability
of a private can only be exercised on behalf of
a RR owned by the private's owner.

Developer's Note: The ten concessions add an
element of complexity to the game that can be
daunting for the beginner. It may be difficult to
understand the significance until you have played
through the opening stages of the game a few times.
It is strongly recommended that new players
remove the concession cards from the opening
packet and ignore this rules section (along with
any rules relating to concessions) until the game's
intricacies have become more familiar.
The ten concessions each provide the successful
purchaser the right to take, in numerical order,
one of the first ten stock actions of Train Phase 1.
These actions are limited to a specific set of
allowable actions that are defined in section 8.1.
The owner of the private closes it during a
SR, flipping its certificate face down. The
private no longer counts towards the player’s
certificate limit and no longer pays revenue.
Remove the private from the game when its
special ability is exercised (see above).
7 Auction Railroad Phase
The game begins with the Auction RR Phase in
which the players purchase the items (private
certificates, minor charters, and concessions) in
the opening packet (See the opening packet
layout chart). Players take actions in player
order, starting with the priority deal card holder.
Action continues in player order around the table
until all opening packet items are in players'
hands. After each player takes an action, give the
priority deal card to the next player in player
order.
Privates may exercise their abilities from the
start of the game. Markers given to RRs by
privates will remain for the rest of the game
except where explicitly noted.
The privates and their abilities are listed and
explained in section 14.
6.2 Minors
Minors are purchased during the Auction RR
Phase but are not floated until the
Regional/Minor RR Phase (see 5.1.3). All
minors purchased from the opening packet will
run until merged, at the latest in the
Consolidation RR Phase (see 10.6). When
merged, each minor’s special ability is transferred
and is usable by the major, but not a national, for
the rest of the game. (See 10.5)
During a player's turn in this Phase the player
may take one of the following actions:
All minors have a face value of £120. They have
two tokens each. The cost of the first is
determined by the track rights chit selected when
the minor floats. The second costs £20.
17

Purchase one item for its face value if that
item is in the current topmost row of the
opening packet.

Place a bid on one item in any row below the
topmost row. This bid must be at least the
face value of the item and at least £5 above
any bid previously placed on that item by
another player.
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Developer's Note: players typically use station
tokens to designate bids for convenience, with
each player borrowing tokens of one distinct
color to mark their bids and returning them to
their original locations once the Auction RR
Phase is complete.
and the Concession RR Phase simultaneously
begin (see 8.1).
7.1
When a minor is purchased, its purchase price in
cash is placed into its treasury. If the purchase
price exceeds £180, the treasury receives only
£180 and the bank receives the balance.
The amount of the bid, in cash, must be set
aside by the bidding player, and is unavailable
to them for other bids until this item is
purchased.

Purchasing Minors
If a player has the option to purchase a minor at
face value during the Auction RR Phase, but
wishes to start with more than £120 in the
minor’s treasury (e.g. to expedite the purchase of
a level 3 train), they may place a higher bid on
that minor. This immediately starts an auction for
the minor in which all players are allowed to bid.
Pass the turn to the next player.
When the last item in the topmost row is
purchased, any items from the next row that have
exactly one bid on them are sold at the bid price to
the player(s) who placed the bid(s). If two or more
players have bid on an item in that newly topmost
row, an auction is held for each such item.
8 Train Phase 1
Train Phase 1 begins when the Auction RR
Phase ends. The beginning of Train Phase 1
coincides with the beginning of the Concession
RR Phase. Train Phase 1 starts with the player
holding the 1st concession, and continues in
numerical order until all ten concessions are
executed (see 8.1).
The auction starts with the bidding player to the
left of the player with the highest bid on that item
and continues in player order. Only players who
initially bid on the item at auction may participate,
and once they pass they may not re-enter the
bidding. The item at auction goes to the player
with the highest bid after all other participating
players have passed. If more than one item on a
row has multiple bids, the items are auctioned
individually from left to the right.
Developer's note: If you're playing without
concessions, just begin Train Phase 1 with the
Regional/Minor RR Phase.
If any items remain in that row, normal play
resumes with the priority deal card holder.
After the 10th concession is executed, the
Regional/Minor RR Phase begins with a SR,
starting with the priority deal card holder. Train
Phase 1 may or may not include all of the
Regional/Minor RR Phase.
If all players consecutively pass before the entire
opening packet is sold, all purchased privates
pay their dividends to the owning players. All
items on the topmost row are reduced in cost by
£5. Normal play then continues with the priority
deal card holder. If the cost of any of the items on
the topmost row is reduced to zero, they all must
be taken by the next player to have a turn. This
alternating sequence of auction rounds and
private dividend payouts continues until the last
item is purchased from the opening packet.
Play continues around the table in player order
until all minors have floated and all players
consecutively pass.
The game then enters Train Phase 2 with the first
OR.
8.1
Concession Railroad Phase
Developer's Note: This rules section can be skipped
altogether if you're learning the game without
concessions.
When the last item in the opening packet is sold
the Auction RR Phase is complete. Train Phase 1
18
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
During this RR Phase, the following rules apply:
The concessions are executed in order, from 1st
to 10th. Players may not pass at this point, but
must act in this order. Note that a single player
may take two or more sequential actions during
this process, and a player who did not purchase a
concession will not participate.

Purchased a parred regional's presidency
from the Open Market and float it. (This option
is not available if you are playing without
concessions.)

Remove one un-floated and un-parred
regional from the game. Remove the two
stacked tokens from its home token position.
This action may not reduce the total
remaining regionals to less than 18 (i.e., once
the sixth regional has been removed, this
action is no longer available). The six
regionals removed must be from different
track rights zones.
Exercising their concession, a player may take
one of the following actions.

Float a minor they own (see 9.1).

Float a regional (see 9.2). If the player has no
minor to float and sufficient funds to
purchase the presidential share of a regional,
the player must do so at this time.

Developer's Note: feel free to play without this
action while you're learning the game - it
provides a strategic twist to the early game at
the cost of added complexity for players to
consider, as the player is spending a stock
action to reduce the available regionals in play.
Par a regional. If the player does not have
sufficient funds to float a regional, and cannot
float a minor, they must select a regional, set
its par value, place its presidential share in
the Open Market, and place one of its markers
on the top line of the leftmost open space on
the Regional/Minor Operating Order track.
Regionals parred in this fashion will become
available for purchase by all players during
the Regional/Minor RR Phase.

During this Phase:
All concession cards must be removed from the
game when they are executed. At the end of the
Concession RR Phase, exactly ten regionals
and/or minors will be floated or parred and have
a marker placed on the Regional/Minor
Operating Order track. The game now enters the
Regional/Minor RR Phase.
This phase begins in Train Phase 1. It may also
end while still in that SR or it may continue
through subsequent ORs and one or more
additional SRs.

Float a regional (see 9.2).
No player may purchase the secondary (25%)
shares of any regional.

Majors may not float.

No RR may purchase a level 3 train.

Trains may not be purchased from another
RR.
Designer's Note: even though a player cannot
explicitly remove more than one regional from a
given track rights zone, there is no such restriction
here: if neither Italian regional is floated or parred
then there will not be an Italian regional or major
in play!
During SR’s in the Regional/Minor RR Phase
players may choose from the following actions:
Float a minor they own (see 9.1).

The Regional/Minor RR Phase ends immediately
when all 12 minors and 18 of the regionals have
floated. The six remaining un-floated regionals
are removed from play when the 18th regional is
floated.
8.2 Regional/Minor Railroad Phase

Pass the turn to the next player. This action
may not be selected if the player owns any unfloated minors.
19
18OE Rules Version 1.0
8.3
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Major Railroad Phase
8.5
The Major RR Phase will begin during a SR when
the Regional/Minor RR Phase ends. During this
phase:

Secondary shares of regionals are available.

Majors may float.

Level 3 trains may be purchased, though not
during the first OR of the game, even if there
are remaining level 2 trains reserved for
purchase by newly floated minors and
regionals.

9 Railroad Formation and
Consolidation
This section defines how to float each type of RR.
9.1
Trains may be purchased from other RRs.
Floating a Minor
A player may only float the minors that they
purchased from the opening packet. All of the
following steps are required:
These conditions last until the end of the game.
8.4
Game Phase Overlap
The Regional/Minor RR Phase begins during
Train Phase 1. Because the Train Phase and RR
Phase transitions differ from each other, the
Major RR Phase may begin during a later Train
Phase.
Reserved Shares
1.
At any time during the Initial SR, each player may
designate one regional's secondary (25%) share
as reserved. This regional's secondary shares
may not be purchased by any other player until
the beginning of the second SR.
This designation may be made at any time,
including when another player is attempting to
purchase the first of the secondary shares of the
regional. Once one secondary share has been
purchased, the other may not be reserved. The
player attempting to make the blocked purchase
does not forfeit their stock action, and may choose
a different action instead.
The player selects one of the remaining track
rights chits, declares the home city of this
minor within the designated track rights
zone (see Table 1 below), and places the
minor's token on that city to indicate the
location to all players.
If the city is in a hex that has land in more
than one track rights zone, the track rights
chit that corresponds to the portion of the hex
where the city circle lies must be selected.
If the regional expands into a major (see 9.3)
before the beginning of the first OR, the reserve
status is cancelled and the major's shares are
available for purchase by any player.
Prussia
Once the reserved status is declared, the player
may not rescind this decision nor shift the
reserved status to another regional.
AustriaHungary
Developer's Note: The reserved status of shares can
be indicated by placing the regional’s £20 station
token on top of them. This will help other players
quickly recognize their reserved status.
Example: If the player selects Dresden as the
home station of a minor, one of the
Prussia/Holland/Switzerland track rights
chits must be selected.
20
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Track Rights
Zone
# Chits
Available
Regionals
Home
Token
Cost
United
Kingdom
2*
GWR,
LNWR,
GSWR
£40
2*
BHB, KBS,
POB, KSS
£40
2*
PLM, OU,
BEL, MIDI
£20
2
SB, MAV
£20
2
SFAI, SFR
£10
2
MZA, CHN,
RCP
£10
2
BJV, DSJ
£10
2
MSP, MKV,
WW, LRZD
£10
Prussia,
Holland,
Switzerland
France,
Belgium
AustriaHungary
Italy
Spain,
Portugal
Sweden,
Norway,
Denmark
Russia
regionals that have been removed from
play are available.)

The city is not a metropolis.

Grand cities and red zones that are not
metropolises (marked with an "M") are
legal selections for a minor's home token.
9.2 Floating a Regional
A player floats an un-floated regional by
completing all of the following:
* There are two track rights chits provided
for each asterisked zone. When the fourth of
the six chits is selected, the remaining track
rights chits for these zones are removed from
play.
1.
The player selects an un-floated regional and
takes the regional's charter, presidential
certificate, the two secondary certificates, and
the two markers that were set aside during
game setup.
2.
The player sets the regional's par value by
placing one of the large markers taken during
step 1 on one of the REGIONAL A through
REGIONAL F spaces on the Par Values section
of the Info Board. The other marker is placed
on the leftmost open position on the top line
of the Regional/Minor Operating Order
track.
3.
The player pays cash to the regional's
treasury equal to twice the chosen par value
and places the two secondary certificates in
the treasury.
4.
The regional pays the cost for its home token
from its treasury to the bank.
5.
One of the two tokens on the Map (there
should be two on the regional's home city,
see 3.1) is placed on the charter in the £20
token slot.
Designer's Note: There are no track rights
chits for the areas in the Balkans: Greece;
Bulgaria, Romania, and Serbia; and the
Ottoman Empire are not valid starting
locations for minors.
At this time the minor must pay the cost for
its home token as listed on the selected track
rights chit. The minor’s operating order
marker is placed on the leftmost open
position on the top line of the
Regional/Minor Operating Order track.
The minor's home token may be placed in
any city with an available token position
within the track right's boundaries that
meets all of the following conditions:

The city does not already have another
minor's token in it.
A minor that floats and places its home token
on a city with a patronage tile fulfills that tile
immediately. The minor’s treasury receives
the lowest payout shown on the tile (see
11.1.8).
Table 1: Track Rights
2.

The city is not the home of a regional
(The empty home token positions of
21
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
they must exercise this option and become the
president of the newly floated major.
9.3 Floating a Major
A major may only be floated by expanding a
regional. The president of a regional or another
player who owns both secondary shares of a
regional may float a major by doing the
following:
1.
Optional - If the player is the regional’s
current president and any shares remain in its
treasury, the player may purchase one share
prior to step 2.
2.
Required - The regional “expands.” It will
operate as a major for the remainder of the
game. After the float is completed players may
purchase and sell shares of this major
according to the normal Stock Market rules.
9.4 Forming a National
Nationals may only form when Train Phases 4,
6, and 8 begin at the moment of purchase of the
first train of that Train Phase. (Said differently,
nationals only form when the level 2, 3, or 4
trains rust.) Beginning with the player that
purchased the train that caused the new Train
Phase to begin, proceeding in player order each
player may convert one or more of their majors
into nationals.
A national is formed by completing all of the
following steps:
1.
Place in the bank all cash in the treasury of the
major that is forming the national. Place in
the Open Market all certificates in the major's
treasury and any Pullman it owns (every
national owns the Pullman printed on its
charter). This action may result in the
temporary violation of the 50% Open Market
limit (see 10.1).
2.
Remove from play all of the major's tokens
that are on the Map.
3.
Abandon any minors that have merged with
the major (see 9.5).
4.
Remove from play all other assets on the
major's charter except for trains. This
includes track rights, port authorities,
Orient Express markers, and private markers.
Move the par value marker of the regional to
the identically lettered major space on the
Par Values section of the Info Board. This will
change the par value. This par value marker
will remain in place until the end of the
current SR (See 10.7).
Example: A regional whose par value marker
is on the REGIONAL “A” space will move to the
MAJOR “A” space.
Move the regional’s operating order marker
to the Stock Market section of the Info Board,
placing it in the red bordered square
corresponding to its new par value.
3.
4.
5.
Required - Move the remaining six shares and
six tokens of the newly formed major's stock
to the major's treasury. The major is now a
ten (10) share RR.
Developer's Note: if the Swift Metropolitan Line
is one of the eliminated privates, the
associated 2+2 train is not lost unless the train
limit is exceeded.
Optional - the active player may sell any
number of shares of any RR they already own,
within the restrictions outlined in section
10.1. This player may not sell shares of the
newly floated major.
5.
Optional - If no share was purchased in step 1,
the player may purchase one share of the
newly floated major from its treasury at this
time. If the active player is not the president,
22
Flip the charter over and move the remaining
assets to the new side. A newly formed
national retains all trains from the major,
including rusted trains. All shares remain in
players' hands. The share value marker of
the major stays in the same place on the
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Stock Market and now represents the newly
formed national.
9.5 Abandoning a Minor
A minor can be abandoned during the course of
the game. This may occur when a national forms,
when a minor is merged into a national, or when
a player is unable to merge the minor during the
Consolidation RR Phase. A minor is abandoned
by completing all of these steps:
1.
The minor's charter is placed in the Open
Market.
2.
Unless the minor is a subsidiary of a major
that is at this moment converting to a
national, all of its trains are placed on the
Open Market.
3.
All of the minor's tokens are removed from
the Map.
4.
The D minor's tokens and L minor's marker
are placed with their respective charters.
5.
All cash in the minor’s treasury is placed in
the bank. The track rights chit remains with
the minor's charter.
7.
A player may never purchase an abandoned
minor directly from the Open Market. Only a
major may purchase an abandoned minor,
and then only during the Buy or Sell Shares
step of its OR (see 11.7).
Use the special ability of a private if the
private's ability can be used during a SR (see
6.1).

Remove a private. The certificate is removed
from the game and no longer counts towards
the player’s certificate limit.

Close a private. Turn the private certificate
face down (see 6.1). The certificate no longer
counts towards the player’s certificate limit.
In their turn each player must take one of the
following stock actions:
The M minor's Pullman is placed with its
charter (and may not be purchased by
another RR, although any other remaining
Pullmans are still available for purchase).
6.


Sell any number of shares to the Open Market
(these must have been owned by the player at
the beginning of this stock action), and
then/or buy one share from a RR treasury or
the Open Market. The restrictions in 10.1 and
10.2 apply.

Trade with another player (see 10.4).

Float a major (see 9.3).

Merge a minor into a major or national (see
10.5).

Pass the turn to the next player.
A SR ends when all players have passed
consecutively. The next player in player order
after the last player to take an action other than
"pass" receives the priority deal card. This player
will take the first stock action of the next SR.
10.1 Selling Stock
The player may sell stock to the Open Market,
receiving cash for each share sold equal to the
stock's share value as of the beginning of this
stock action. After payment from the bank, adjust
the share value marker on the Stock Market
DOWN for each share sold (see 4.4).
10 Stock Rounds
Once the Major RR Phase has begun, the
following rules will apply during SRs. Each SR
starts with the player holding the priority deal
card. The order of play proceeds in player order
around the table. Each player may take one of the
following actions in their turn before starting their
stock action:
The player may not sell any shares that would
result in over 50% of the stock of a major or
national being in the Open Market. This Open
Market percentage limit may be temporarily
exceeded during the formation of a national (see
23
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
9.4). That formation is not considered a sell action
for share value adjustment purposes.
must always hold at least 20% ownership of that
RR.
A player may never sell a share of a regional. A
player may not sell stock during Train Phase 1.
The president may not sell any part of that 20%
ownership (normally the “president’s certificate”)
unless there is both another player with 20% or
more ownership in that RR, and the Open Market
limits in 10.1 allow at least one more 10% share in
the Open Market. If both these conditions are met,
the outgoing president may sell share(s) up to the
Open Market percentage limit to reduce their total
percentage below that of another player who then
becomes the new president. The old president
gives the new president the 20% president’s
certificate in exchange for two 10% certificates
prior to this transaction.
10.2 Buying Stock
A player may never purchase a share of stock in a
RR if that player sold stock in that RR during the
current SR.
When purchasing a share of stock from a RR's
treasury, if the RR currently has a par value
marker, the price of the share is indicated by that
marker's position; otherwise, the price of the
share is indicated by the RR's share value
marker. The player pays that price in cash to the
RR's treasury.
If two other players own an equal percentage of
the RR and both become eligible to be the new
president, the player closest to the left of the old
president becomes the new president.
When purchasing a share of stock from the Open
Market, the player pays the share value price in
cash to the bank.
After a presidential certificate is purchased by a
player it must always be held by a player and may
never be voluntarily placed in the Open Market. It
may be placed there during a first round
bankruptcy. See 11.6.5.
A player may own up to 100% of the stock in a RR.
However, a player who already owns 60% of the
stock in a major or national is restricted from
purchasing that RR's stock from the RR's treasury
(if it is a major) and from the Open Market. There
are two ways for a player to acquire stock in
excess of 60% ownership of a major or national:

A player may receive a share of stock in a
major or national when the player merges a
minor into it, regardless of the percentage of
ownership.

The president of a major or national may
purchase shares of that RR from the Open
Market (not from the treasury!), paying the
bank double the current share value per
share.
10.4 Trade with another Player
A player may purchase minors or face up
privates from another player at a mutually agreed
upon price. The players may only exchange
personal cash, minors and face up privates
during this transaction. All of the minors' and
privates' revenue, assets, and abilities will
thereafter be controlled by the new owner(s). A
private that is face down may not be sold, nor
may a minor that has merged with a major.
10.5 Merging a Minor
Starting at the beginning of Train Phase 3 a
minor may merge into a major or national
during a SR. Each minor has a special ability that
will be acquired by the major it merges into.
Other than the one-time cash payment for minor
A, this ability may be re-used until the end of the
game. A minor is abandoned when it, or the
major it merged into, merges with a national.
10.3 Change of Presidency
If a player acquires more shares in a RR than the
current president, either through the player
buying or the president selling shares, that player
becomes the new president and assumes all
responsibility for the RR. The president of a RR
24
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
A major or national may merge with several
minors over the course of the game. However, a
given major or national may only merge with a
single minor in any given SR. A player merging
two or more minors in a single SR will have to
merge them into two or more different majors or
nationals.
Intervening tokens from other RR’s do not stop
the run of either hypothetical train. That run may
include port cities but may only run over a ferry to
cross a sea zone—the hypothetical trains may not
make this connection by using port access to cross
sea zones. The RR forfeits all cash from the
minor's treasury to the bank.
The minor does not have to have a track
connection to the major or national.
During the merger the minor gives the major or
national the following items. Those that are
indicated as “majors only” are forfeited by
nationals.
Designer's note: This allows a major to leapfrog
across the Map and gain access to other regions
quickly.

The following rules apply during merger:

If the major has stock available in its treasury,
the owner of the minor receives one share of
this stock. The major receives all cash in the
minor's treasury.

If the major does not have stock available in
its treasury, but does have stock in the Open
Market, the minor’s owner receives a share of
the major from the Open Market. The major
forfeits all cash from the minor's treasury to
the bank.



Majors only: The minor’s tokens on the Map.
The major may decline to take one or more of
these which are then removed from play. The
major may replace at no cost the minor’s
tokens in any locations it chooses with tokens
from its inventory. The major must decline
any tokens in the same hex where the major
already has a token.
Designer's Note: Any of the major’s available
tokens may be used, including the most
expensive ones.

A national may have stock available in the
Open Market but will never have stock
available in its treasury. If the national has
stock on the Open Market the minor’s owner
receives one share. The national forfeits all
cash from the minor's treasury to the bank.
Majors and nationals: The minor’s trains.
The major or national may decline to take
one or more of these. The major or national
may discard trains it owns to accept trains
from the minor. Unrusted declined or
discarded trains go in the Open Market.
Rusted trains go in the Locomotive Works.

If a major does not have stock available in any
location for exchange, the minor may merge
with that major only if a hypothetical train
with no city limit can run from one of the
minor’s station tokens to one of the major’s.
Majors only: The minor’s special ability. The
major must take this and indicate its
continuing presence by placing the minor’s
charter under the major’s charter,
overlapping so the minor's ability is visible.

Majors only: The minor’s track rights. The
major must take the minor’s track rights
chit. The rights may give the major a discount
in track construction costs, depending on the
zone of the track rights chit (see 11.1.4).
Duplicate track rights have no cumulative
effect. Track rights that confer no track
construction discount have no effect at all.
If a national does not have stock available in
any location for exchange, the minor may
merge with that national only if a
hypothetical train with no city limit can run
between one of the minor’s station tokens to
one of the cities in the national's home track
rights zone.
25
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Developer's note: it is recommended that you
remember which track rights chit came with
which minor. Keep this chit on the minor's
charter. If the major is later converted to a
national, this track rights chit stays on the
abandoned minor's charter!


with another player’s major or national is
allowed even if the “no treasury share”
imperative does not exist.

Majors only: Cash in the minor’s treasury.
The major may not decline this but the bank
receives the cash if no stock is available for
exchange in the major's treasury.
Designer's Note: this means that if a player owns a
minor which is not eligible to be merged into one of
their own majors or nationals, and the player also
owns a regional which has not yet floated as a
major, the player must float the major, thus
making it eligible to acquire the minor before the
end of the SR.
Nationals only: Once the minor's trains and
the share of stock have been transferred, the
minor is abandoned (see 9.5).
The minor and the major or national involved in
a merger need not be owned by the same player.
However, the merger must be agreed on by both
owning players. The transaction merging a minor
into a major or national controlled by a different
player may additionally include the exchange of
personal cash between the two players. (RR
treasury money may never be used for this
purpose.) No other assets may be exchanged.
If a player is left with one or more minors that
they cannot merge, the player must publicly
request offers of merger from all other players
that control a major or national with at least one
share of stock in its treasury for trade and that has
not had a minor merged into it during the current
SR. If a single RR makes an offer, the minor’s
owner must accept it. If multiple RRs wish to
acquire the minor, the minor’s owner may
choose from all the offers presented.
10.6 Consolidation Railroad Phase
During the Consolidation RR Phase (which is the
first SR after the beginning of Train Phase 5) all
remaining minors and regionals will be
consolidated into majors and/or nationals. The
consolidating mergers are subject to the
restrictions in section 10.5. The following also
apply to stock actions during this Phase:

If a player owns a major that has not yet
floated, the player may not select the pass
option during the SR until the major has
floated.
If no RR makes an offer for the minor in question,
the minor is abandoned (see 9.5).
10.7 Ending a Stock Round
At the end of a SR the share value marker of any
major or national which has all shares in players
hands will move UP on the Stock Market (See 4.4).
If a player owns any minors that section 10.5
allows to be merged into one of that player’s
own majors or nationals, the player may not
select the pass option during the SR until all
such minor’s have merged. Even if a player
has a major or national with no share of
stock available to trade for the minor (either
in the treasury or the Open Market), the
player still must merge the minor if it has a
track connection to one of the player’s eligible
majors or nationals unless they convince
another player to allow the minor to merge
into one of that other player’s majors or
nationals. A mutually agreed upon merger
At the end of a SR any existing par value markers
for majors (not regionals) are removed from the
Par Value section of the Info Board. Shares of
those majors will henceforth trade strictly at
share value for both purchasing and selling.
11 Operating Rounds
Railroads—not players—are the active entities in
ORs, each of which consists of the following steps:
26
18OE Rules Version 1.0
1.
All privates pay their revenues to the owning
players. A private that is face down (closed)
pays no revenue.
2.
The regionals and minors operate in the
order that their markers appear on the
Regional/Minor Operating Order track, from
left to right.
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
expended in any fashion: for example, four tile
points may be used to play two yellow tiles and
one green, brown, or grey upgrade. The same four
points could be used on four yellow tiles, or two
green, brown, or grey upgrades, or a metropolis
upgrade.
Every RR receives tile points to lay track. Tile
points not used during a lay track step expire and
cannot be retained for later use.
Developer's Note: remember to have the C
Minor or its owning major select its operating
position before beginning this step!
3.
The nationals and majors operate in share
value order, from highest to lowest. If two or
more RRs have the same share value, the RR
whose share value marker is further to the
right operates first. If two or more share
value markers occupy the same square on the
Stock Market, the RRs operate in the order in
which their markers entered the Stock Market
square (this should be the order in which they
are stacked, top to bottom).
Category
Tile Points
Minor and Regional
3
Major
6
National
9
11.1.1 Tile Placement Order
In ALL cases, the player may choose the order in
which tiles are laid. A RR may lay a yellow and
then upgrade it to green and then to brown and
even grey (a “double,” “triple,” or “quadruple”
upgrade) if the RR has enough tile points, the
colors laid are available in the current Train
Phase, and at least one legal upgrade track tile of
each intermediate color is available.
During each RR’s turn the president of that RR
performs the following steps in order on behalf of
the RR.
1.
Lay Track
2.
Place Token
3.
Run Trains and Calculate Revenues
11.1.2 Tile Availability
4.
Pay, Split, or Hold Revenues
5.
Transfer Tokens
At the beginning of the game, only yellow tiles are
available for building. Green, brown, and grey tiles
become available in later Train Phases (see 5.2).
6.
Buy Trains
7.
Buy or Sell Shares
All tiles not on the Map are available for anyone to
use for building. Tiles cannot be owned or
reserved by any player or RR.
11.1 Lay Track
11.1.3 Placing a Tile
RRs may lay a number of track tiles based upon
tile points. One yellow track tile is equal to one
tile point. One green, brown, or grey track tile is
equal to two tile points. Metropolis tiles cost
double tile points (i.e., yellow metropolis tiles
cost two points, and green, brown, and grey
metropolis tiles cost four points). Points may be
Yellow tiles may only be placed in the several
shades of tan, reddish tan and olive green hexes
that make up most of the Map at the beginning of
the game. Green tiles may only be laid to replace
existing yellow tiles or on preprinted yellow
hexes. Similarly, brown tiles may only be laid to
replace existing green tiles, and grey tiles may
27
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
only be laid to replace existing brown tiles. No tile
may be laid on a red zone or beyond the edges of
the hexagonal grid. Hex columns 1 and 87 are
permitted to have tiles placed on them.
removed from the Map and becomes available for
reuse.
Developer's Note: The Tile Upgrade Chart shows all
possible tile upgrades.
Tiles with white circles represent cities. They can
only be laid in places where the Map shows one or
more light grey or white circles, a circular RR logo,
or where the existing tile has one or more white
circles. Tiles without such circles cannot be laid in
those places. Upgrading to a tile with more circles
is allowed.
No tile may be laid that causes track to run into a
blank side of a red zone; into a hex side marked
as "impassable" by a thick, solid red line; or off the
hex grid. These hex sides are not “usable.” (See
11.1.7) It is legal to connect track to the arrows or
track sections in red zones, to the arrows in blue
or green sea zones, and to dead ends.
Hexes containing an "A", "B", "C", "L", "P", "N", or
"S" and a six pointed city circle must have
metropolis tiles placed in them. Metropolis tiles
may only be placed in these cities. See the
Metropolis Upgrade Chart for the specific tiles
that must be placed in each metropolis hex.
Developer's Note: There are many places on the
Map that have a black arrow with white circle next
to it containing a "0". These dead ends exist to
allow the use of upgrade tiles with more track
sections than could otherwise legally be laid in the
adjacent hexes.
Hexes containing a "Y" and a three pointed city
circle must have "Y" tiles placed in them. "Y" tiles
may only be placed in these cities. See the Tile
Upgrade Chart for the tiles that must be placed in
grand city hexes.
Each tile laid by a RR must contain either some
newly added track that is connected to an existing
token owned by that RR, or must upgrade a city
which is connected to an existing token owned by
that RR. The connection is traced as if you were
running a hypothetical train with no city limit;
thus it may not run through a city or red zone
whose available token positions are all occupied
by tokens owned by other RRs.
A black dot on a tile represents a town and can
only be laid in places where the Map or the
existing tile shows a black dot. Hexes with one
black dot may only have single black dot tiles
placed on them.
Developer’s Note: Since a train can cross open
water, track may be laid using a ferry or two ports.
Read 11.2 and 11.3.4 through 11.3.7 to fully
understand the following paragraph.
Tiles with two black dots can only be laid on Map
hexes or tiles with two black dots. Hexes with two
black dots may only have double black dot tiles
placed on them.
If a port access arrow (see 11.3.6) does not yet
have a connecting track section into a city and a
RR is able to create that connecting section by
laying or upgrading track across open water, the
hypothetical run from the RR’s existing station
token may utilize a sea crossing to lay the tile as
long as it connects to the port access arrow. (See
11.1.6, 11.3.4, and 11.3.7.) (If you wish to upgrade
a private port in this manner, you must already
have a token in the private port city! See 11.3.6.)
When a tile is laid in a hex that already contains a
tile or has preprinted track sections (such as a hex
that shows a blue track section connecting a city
to an adjacent ferry or port), all existing track,
cities, and towns on the old tile (or hex) must be
preserved. They need not be in exactly the same
places but all edges that were connected to each
other must remain so and any city that was
connected to an edge must remain connected to
the same edge. All tokens on the old tile (or hex)
are moved to the new tile. The old tile (if any) is
Example: København as a yellow tile may be
upgraded to a green tile via a sea crossing across
the Baltic Sea, provided one of the green tile's track
28
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
sections leads into the port access arrow on the
Baltic. Malmö may not have a tile placed in it via a
sea crossing because it is a private port.
Spain/Portugal will still only get a discount of
20%.
The abilities of Minor E or Minor F or both will
augment the track rights zone discount. A RR
with one of these abilities and a 20% zone
discount receives a discount of 50% when paying
construction fees for hexes in the zone in question.
Round fractions in favor of the RR: laying a tile in
a hex with a £45 construction fee at a 50%
discount requires a £22 payment.
Once a tile is laid on the Map it stays there for the
rest of the game unless and until it is upgraded by
another tile as described above.
11.1.4 Track Rights
Every RR acquires track rights during the game.
A minor's track rights come from the track
rights chit that is selected when the minor is
floated (see 9.1). Regionals have track rights in
the zone in which their first token is placed.
Majors inherit their track rights from their
preceding regional and also acquire any track
rights from minors that are merged into them.
Nationals inherit their track rights from the
major that forms them.
Nationals are exempt from all tile placement
expenses; they may always lay track at no cost.
11.1.6 Cross-water Track
RRs may lay track on the far shore of open water
areas. A hypothetical train with no city limit must
be able to trace a route from one of the RR’s
existing station tokens to the location of the new
tile.
Minors, regionals, and nationals may only lay or
upgrade track in hexes entirely or partly within
their track rights zones. Note that this does not
restrict them from running their trains into other
zones. They may place track at their boundaries
that leads into to other track rights zones.
Additional fees for tiles placed across open water
are as follows:

For a ferry: £5 multiplied by the ferry's
distance. Port categories (private vs. public)
do not change this fee.

Across one or more sea zones: £10 per sea
zone crossed.
11.1.5 Tile Expenses and Discounts
Certain hexes on the Map contain a terrain symbol
(see the Map Legend) containing a cost amount.
This cost represents difficult terrain in that hex
and requires payment of a construction fee to lay
the first tile there. This fee is paid in cash from the
RR’s treasury at the moment the tile is laid.
Upgrades of tiles in these hexes do not require
additional payment.
Port authorities reduce the total number of sea
zones and ferry distance counted for this cost by
two. Neither port tokens nor the H minor's
special ability will affect this cost. Private port
restrictions must be obeyed.
Nationals are exempt from all tile placement
expenses; they may always lay track at no cost.
All regionals, minors, and majors that have
track rights in Spain/Portugal, Italy,
Sweden/Norway/Denmark, and Russia receive a
discount of 20% when paying construction fees
for track within those zones. (This is indicated by
the terrain symbols on the track rights chit or
major’s charter.) Hexes that are partially within
zone boundaries get the discount. These discounts
are not cumulative—a major with a home token
in Madrid and also a minor's track rights for
11.1.7 Upgrading Cities
When a city that has station tokens in it (reserved
or otherwise) is upgraded, the station tokens are
transferred to the available token positions on
the new tile.
When upgrading a double town or grand city to a
brown or grey tile, a tile with track sections
29
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
leading to all legally usable sides of the hex is
required. (See 11.1.3) If a tile with the correct
number of track sections is not available the city
may not be upgraded. The same rule applies to
normal cities when they are upgraded to grey
tiles.
president’s sole discretion the RR may forego a
connection in order to lay different track, but in
this case may not lay a green tile.
The home token hex of a floated RR may not have
yellow track laid on it without the explicit
permission of the RR's president. Un-floated RRs
automatically provide this permission.
Example: Birmingham has the potential for legal
track connections on all six hex sides so brown and
grey tiles laid there must have track sections
leading to all six. Lille has the potential for legal
connections on four sides. Brown and grey tiles laid
there must have four track sections leading to those
four sides only.
During a RR’s Lay Track step, a patronage tile is
“fulfilled” when a RR places a track tile in the
patronage tile's hex. The bank immediately
makes a one-time cash payment to the RR’s
treasury in the amount shown on the fulfilled tile
next to the highest track color available in the
current Train Phase. The patronage tile is
removed from the game.
The SB and MSP RRs each have a home station
within a metropolis. When their respective
yellow metropolis tiles are laid, if the affected RR
is in-play and floated, its president must
immediately (before any other token is placed in
the metropolis) choose the token position the
RR’s home station will occupy. If the affected RR
is in-play but un-floated, no other RR’s token may
be placed in the home metropolis until the
affected RR has floated and selected its home
token position. That token position must be
selected immediately upon floating. The president
may not select a home token position that
triggers the need to place a green tile as outlined
above if a token position is available that would
not do so.
11.1.9 Right-of-Way
11.2 Place Token
Until Train Phase 3 begins, during a RR’s first OR
after floating, it may lay one non-city green tile at
the cost of all of its remaining tile points. This
green tile may only be placed if the RR would not
otherwise be able to connect its home station
token to at least one other town or city, via land or
Ferry, without using a sea crossing and without
causing a first turn bankruptcy (see 11.6.5). The
green tile must be placed so that the RR is able to
connect to another town or city. The RR must
have at least one remaining tile point to do this.
Developer's note: Since a train can cross open
water, a new token may be placed using a ferry or
two ports. Read 11.3.3 through 11.3.7 to
understand how train routes and city limits work
and get a full understanding of the significance of
this rules section!
11.1.8 Patronage Tiles
Each circle on a tile is an available token position,
where tokens may be placed. If a double-stacked
token (i.e., representing a reserved token
position) is in the city, it occupies an available
token position on the tile although it is nonblocking for the purposes of placing tokens and
running trains.
A player cannot deliberately lay track to require
the use of this rule by their currently operating RR
or one of their yet-to-be operated RRs! This rule
may not be employed if any legal route exists that
does not involve a sea crossing, including one
that merely includes the RR’s home station and a
single town.
To place a new token, a RR must, prior to this
placement, be able to run a hypothetical train with
no city limit between one of that RR’s existing
station token and the location of the new token.
Thus you cannot place a token in a private port
unless you are tracing your route into the private
port city via land! Intervening tokens of other RRs
The currently operating RR is never obligated to
actually make a connection in its first OR. At its
30
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
will block the train's path. The RR pays the bank
the fee listed on the space on its charter from
which the token is removed plus any fees listed
below. If the RR’s treasury has insufficient cash to
pay the fees, the token may not be placed.
route traced goes through the public port at
København first, and then enters Malmö from a
land hex side.
One available token from a RR's charter may be
placed per OR. A RR's home token is considered
to be in place at the start of its first OR. Placing it
there does not count as a step. Any available token
on the RR's charter may be selected for placement
(i.e., the RR is not required to place the tokens in
cost order, as in many other 18XX games).
Lille has an extra available token position
adjoining the White Cliffs Ferry route from
London to Lille. On the Map this is a red
“prohibited” circle and the number 5. Until Train
Phase 5, any RR may place a token in any token
position in Lille except that one.
11.2.2 Lille
Use of the ferry crossing to, from, and through
Lille thus remains open for any train from any RR
to pass through so long as the White Cliffs Ferry
position has no token on it, even if the "normal"
token positions are all occupied. Routes through
Lille that do not use the ferry follow the normal
rules governing blocked cities.
No RR may ever occupy more than one token
position in a single hex.
Regionals and minors may only place tokens
within their track rights zones (see 11.1.4).
Example: The Nancy city circle is located within the
France/Belgium track rights zone. The only
regionals and minors that may place a token in
Nancy are those whose home station token is within
France/Belgium.
At the moment Train Phase 5 begins, the owner
of the White Cliffs Ferry may use that private's
ability to purchase a token for any RR they
control, placing the token on the ”prohibited”
position. The cash for the token must come from
the RR's treasury. The Wein Südbahnhof
private's ability may be used to pay for this token
(see 14.3 and 14.7).
Nationals may never have tokens on the Map.
11.2.1 Cross-water Tokens
Additional fees for tokens placed across open
water are as follows:

For a ferry: £20 multiplied by the ferry's
distance. Port categories (private vs. public)
do not change this fee.

Across one or more sea zones: £40 per sea
zone crossed.
After the White Cliffs Ferry private's ability has
been used, only the RRs that have tokens in
Lille—or have placed the Central Circle Transport
Company token on Lille—may use the ferry to
cross the English Channel into London. RRs
coming from the direction of London may use the
ferry to reach Lille but may not pass through Lille
unless they have a token there.
If the token on the White Cliffs Ferry token
position is removed due to the formation of a
national, Lille becomes permanently open for all
RRs to pass through.
Port authorities reduce the total number of sea
zones and ferry distance counted for this cost by
two. Neither port tokens nor the H Minor's
special ability will affect this cost. Private port
restrictions must be obeyed.
11.3 Run Trains and Calculate Revenue
Example: going from London through København to
place a token in Malmö would cost £40 times 3 sea
zones crossed, plus the cost of the token itself. Note
that the only reason that the token may be placed in
Malmö (which is a private port) is because the
11.3.1 Routes
In order to generate revenue, a RR operates any
trains it owns along a route on the Map. A valid
31
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
route for a train must include at least one of the
RR's station tokens and two or more cities, towns,
or red zones. A train's route may begin and/or
end in towns, cities, and/or red zones. Some red
zones may be passed through, such as Moskva
and North Sweden.
11.3.3 City Limits
A train's route may include at most a number of
cities, sea zones, and red zones equal to its level.
4D and 5D trains, however, are limited to 4 or 5
cities, sea zones, and red zones, respectively.
This is known as the train's city limit. Sea zones'
effect on this city limit is described in sections
11.3.4, 11.3.5, 11.3.6, and 11.3.7.
A single train’s route may not run through, from,
or to the same city in a hex or red zone more than
once. This especially applies to the metropolis
tiles that can have multiple stations on one tile.
Only one of these stations may be used in a given
train's route—no running into Berlin more than
once with a single train! A train may run to and
count the revenue from a city that is full of and
blocked by other RRs' station tokens but may not
run through it.
Example: A 4+4 or 4 train is limited to four cities
and red zones, as is a 4D train even though it is
level 7.
A train may include any number of towns in its
route. The number of towns that count for
revenue is based upon the train's type and level
(see 11.3.9).
Developer's Note: double-stacked tokens that
represent un-floated RRs are non-blocking!
11.3.4 Ports and Sea Crossings
Train routes may cross open water via ferries (see
11.3.7) and by undertaking sea crossings over
one or more sea zones. A sea crossing is a route
from one port to another following a path of
adjoining sea zones. Sea crossings begin and end
only at public and private ports. Trains enter and
leave a sea zone by using track sections or
offshore ports (see 11.3.6) that connect the town
or city with the port's blue "port arrow" in the
adjacent sea zone.
Some tiles have junctions, where four, five, or six
track sections meet in the center. Some junction
tiles have towns at the center, others do not. A
single train may trace any route that uses each
track section at most once—the center of a tile
without a token position does not block the
train's path. A single train may pass through a
single or double town in the center of a tile more
than once. A RR may count revenue from each
town only once per train.
There is a circular symbol containing a ship and a
"-1" in each sea zone. Sea zones are separated by
dashed, white lines. Each sea zone traveled
counts against the train's city limit but provides
no revenue.
Train routes may never include dead ends.
11.3.2 Train Types
Each train has a level that is equal to its train
number. Exception: 4D trains are considered to be
level 7, and 5D trains are considered to be level 8.
Each train also has a type: local or express.
The green “channel passage arrows” (see the Map
Legend) indicate adjacent sea zones when a land
hex intervenes. These arrows are not track
connections.
Most train cards are double sided; local and
express are on opposite sides. When these rules
refer to the quantity of trains of a given type, treat
each card as a train (i.e., there are twelve "4+4/4"
train cards in the game). Local trains are the 2+2,
3+3, 4+4, 5+5, 6+6, 7+7, and 8+8. Express trains
are the 3, 4, 5, 6, 4D, and 5D. The 2+2 local train
does not have an express side.
The sea zone on either side of the English channel
passage is the same sea zone. The same applies to
the channel passage near Sankt-Peterburg.
København and Constantinople each border two
sea zones, with channel passage arrows
indicating that the sea zones are adjacent to each
32
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
other. Both of these cities are considered to be
adjacent to both bordering sea zones.
not to each train individually; however, the
two reductions may be split between two
trains.
The North Atlantic (Silver Coast) is adjacent to the
Strait of Gibraltar.
11.3.5 Port Authorities
Port authority markers may only be purchased
by majors. Each major is limited to owning one
port authority marker. Markers cost £125 each
and may be purchased during a major's OR turn
at any time prior to the Buy Trains step. Place the
marker on the major’s charter.
A train may make multiple sea crossings during
its run; however, between sea crossings, the train
must cross at least one land hex side.
A port token is a station token located in a city in
a hex adjacent to a hex with a port symbol, or a
station token in a city in a hex containing an
onshore port symbol (see 11.3.6).
There are two types of port authorities: The
North Sea port authority and the Mediterranean
port authority. Each has eight markers available
for purchase from the beginning of the game.
Ownership of a port authority marker confers a
benefit on the owning major within the marker’s
relevant water area, either light blue or sea green.
For sea crossings using that area, the number of
sea zones that count against a RR's trains' city
limits is reduced by two (see 11.3.4).
Port authorities, port tokens, the Star Harbor
private’s token, and the H Minor may all be used
to reduce the number of sea zones that count
towards a train's city limit as follows:



If a train runs through a port token owned by
its RR or the Star Harbor Trading Company's
token during the course of its run, it is
allowed to reduce the number of sea zones
that count towards that train's city limit by
one during Train Phases 2 through 6, and by
two during Train Phases 7 and 8 (see 14.5).
This reduction must be applied to sea zones
that abut each other, with at least one
adjacent to the port token. The discount
applies regardless of whether the train's route
is moving from the port to the sea or the sea
to the port. A port token may be used by
more than one train during a RR's turn. Its
reduction applies to each train individually.
The two water areas are:
A port authority marker will reduce by two
the total number of sea zones that count
against trains' city limits within its
jurisdiction (see 11.3.5). The port authority's
reduction applies to the RR, not to each train
individually; however, the two reductions
may be split between two trains.

North Sea port authority - All light blue sea
zones, including the North Atlantic, Silver
Coast, Celtic Sea, Bay of Biscay, English
Channel, North Sea, German Bight, Skagerrak,
Baltic Sea, and Gulf of Finland.

Mediterranean port authority - All sea green
sea zones, including the Strait of Gibraltar,
Balearic Sea, Sea of Sardinia, Tyrrhenian Sea,
Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea, Black
Sea, and Karkinitsky Bay.
Port authority markers also affect the cost of
laying cross-water tokens (see 11.2.1) and crosswater track (see 11.1.6).
A major may purchase a port authority marker
from another major during the purchaser’s
transfer tokens step. The price paid must be
exactly £125.
The H Minor will reduce the total number of
sea zones that count against trains' city
limits by one during Train Phases 2 through
6, and by two during Train Phases 7 and 8
(see 15.8). This reduction applies to the RR,
33
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
11.3.6 Port Types
The port city is marked with the onshore port
Designer's note: Ports represent an abstraction of
supply chains. Goods that enter the supply chain at
one port are transported to another port. The goods
arriving at the far end of the crossing can be picked
up by another abstract train owned by the same
RR.
symbol
. The offshore port access is marked
with the symbol
. The port arrow and port
anchor appear in the sea zone accompanied by
the city name.
A train utilizing the offshore port during a sea
crossing to or from this city is connected to the
city directly by the offshore-onshore port
“connection.” The train does not travel on the
intervening hex or hexes and does not use a track
section from the city. The city's track sections
have no effect on the use of this “connection.”.
When a RR has placed a port token or purchased a
port authority marker, it is presumed to have put a
mechanism in place (shipping agents, warehouses,
processing plants) to accelerate the process of
transporting goods across the sea. It has built an
effective supply chain. Thus the goods move in
greater volume and more efficiently. This
improvement is represented by the port token and
port authority benefits described in 11.3.4 and
11.3.5.
Example: London, which has multiple stations until
the brown tile is placed, also is an offshore port.
Both stations on the London tile are connected to
the offshore port.
There are two types of ports:
Firth of Forth
Public ports are designated by an anchor in a light
blue circle. Any train may use a public port to
transition to or from a sea zone by using the blue
port arrow connected to a track section leading to
the adjacent city or town. Towns that are adjacent
to a public port may be run to and through by any
RR that runs a train to the port via track
connected to the port arrow. Trains may run to
but not through a city if all its token positions are
filled by tokens belonging to other RR’s
(Exception: see 11.2.2).
Onshore Port Symbol
Offshore Port Access
Example: Here, Edinburgh has a private offshore
port in the North Sea that is also a ferry. The need
for it has to do with the way the hex grid is laid out.
In the real world the Firth of Forth provides a
channel from Edinburgh to the sea. A tile laid on the
hex between the city and the sea can have at most
three track sections since it has only three usable
sides. None are involved with the offshore port
access. The red lines indicate no track section may
point into the Firth of Forth hex sides.
Private ports are designated by an anchor in a red
circle. Only a train owned by a RR with a token in
the adjacent city may use a private port to
transition to or from a sea zone over a track
section connected to the port arrow.
Historical note: The passengers on the first run of
the Orient Express travelled by train to the Danube
where no bridge yet existed. They rode a ferry into
Bulgaria where they boarded another train—
nowhere near as luxurious as their original
transport—that took them to the port of Varna, on
the Black Sea. There they boarded a steam
passenger boat and traveled south, through rough
Some cities have port access one or more hexes
distant from the actual city. Generally this is
because there is a long narrow river channel
leading from the sea to the city. This is termed an
offshore port access, or just “offshore port.”
Offshore ports may be public or private.
34
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
seas, to their destination city of Constantinople. A
train route across the mountains of the Balkans was
not completed for another six years. The first
through train from Paris to Constantinople took 67
hours, 35 minutes.
the port is private the operating RR must have a
station token in Roma to use the private port, but
not the public ferry.
Some ferry tracks have towns located on them.
Trains riding that ferry may include the town in
the train's route. The train does not have to travel
the entire length of the ferry track, but the ferry's
entire distance number does count toward the
train's city limit.
11.3.7 Ferries
There are many ferries in 18OE, each represented
by blue track crossing sea zones. A train rides a
ferry by using a track section that connects the
town or city with the ferry's blue track in the
adjacent sea zone. Ferries have an oval containing
a number next to them. This number is the ferry's
distance. When the train rides the ferry this
number counts towards the train's city limit. If
this number is 0, then it counts nothing against
the train's city limit.
11.3.8 Running Multiple Trains
If a RR is running more than one train during an
OR, each train must conform to the rules
governing train routes and may not use a section
of track that another train has already used (port
arrows, ferries and sea zones are exceptions: see
below!). A train may, however, use and count
revenue from cities used by the other train(s) as
long as each train uses different track sections
entering and leaving those cities.
A RR’s token in a hex adjacent to a ferry provides
to that RR’s trains the same city limit reduction
benefits for crossing the adjacent ferry that a port
token does for sea crossings. The abilities of
privates and minors that reduce city limits for
sea crossings also provide reduction of ferry
numbers.
Multiple trains may use junction tiles with or
without towns so long as each train uses a
different pair of track sections to enter and exit
the tile. Each train may count the revenue from all
towns on the tile. (See 11.3.1.)
If either end of a ferry line has a public or private
port symbol next to it, the port may be used to
access the adjoining sea zone instead of the train
embarking on the ferry. In this case, the same hex
side that the blue ferry track connects to is
considered to have a port arrow.
In contrast, any track section that connects a city
or town to a port or ferry is considered to be sea
traffic. As such, any number of trains from the
same RR may use this connection to make a sea
crossing and/or ride a ferry. Offshore ports may
also be used by any number of trains from the
same RR. The trains must still use different track
sections to enter and leave the cities and/or towns
by land.
Ferry lines are treated as public track. Any train
can ride a ferry, even if either or both ends of the
ferry are also private ports. Trains may not run
through a city if all its token positions are filled
by tokens belonging to other RRs. (But see Lille
White Cliffs exception 11.2.2)
Each sea zone may be used by more than one of a
RR’s trains during a single OR.
Ferries are exempt from the sea crossing rule
that requires the train to cross a land hex side
between sea crossings. A train's route may thus
enter a land hex from a ferry and exit from the
same hex side via a port (if there is one).
Example: two (or more) trains from the same RR
can use the White Cliffs Ferry from Lille to London.
However, when the trains reach London, each will
need to follow a unique route that does not use the
same track sections if both are to continue running
to other cities in the UK.
Example: A train may ride the ferry from the island
of Sardinia to Roma, and back out the private port
to Tunis without first crossing a land hex side. Since
35
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Normally, the president of the RR decides which
routes to use. However, any player may point out
a higher value route which the president is then
required to run. (See Orient Express exception
12.2.)
11.3.9 Calculating Revenue
The revenue generated by each train run in an OR
is calculated as follows:



All trains earn revenue equal to the total of
the values of the cities and red zones on the
train's route. "D" trains double this total. NonD trains may also include revenue from towns
as explained below.
If the RR owns a Pullman car (see 11.6.2), the
president may specify the train to which the
Pullman is attached. A Pullman car adds £10 per
level of the attached train to the train's revenue.
Local and express trains must include at least
one city (with the required station token) but
may count the revenue from one or more
towns on their routes instead of the same
number of cities.
Example: a Pullman attached to a 3+3 adds £30 to
the RR's revenue, and a Pullman attached to an 8+8
or 4D adds £80.
A local train may add to this total the revenue
from a number of additional towns included
in its route equal to its level (i.e., a 2+2 train
may add two towns).
Nationals use a different method of running
trains from the other categories of RRs.
11.3.10 Calculating National Revenue
A national is considered to have a token in every
city in its home track rights zone that has a token
position. This token exists even if all the available
token positions in a city are occupied by other
RR’s tokens. Therefore a national can trace a
route to and/or through any city within its home
track rights zone. These “virtual tokens” do not
block any other RR from running through a city.
Example: A 2+2 Train can count revenue from
one city and up to three towns, or two cities
and two towns, but a 4D can count revenue
only from up to four cities and then double it. A
4 train can count the revenue from up to four
places, three of which may be towns. A 4+4
train can count the revenue from up to eight
places, at least four of which must be towns. In
any of these examples, trains may substitute
red zones for cities.

If a train's route includes more towns than
may be counted, the president chooses which
ones pay revenue. Additional towns are
ignored.

All trains include any applicable revenue from
the Hochberg Mining and Lumber Company
(see 14.8) and minor D (see 15.4). Majors
may also earn revenue by making an Orient
Express run (see12). The increased value of
cities is doubled for "D" trains.
A city, red zone, or town within the national's
home track rights zone is linked if it can trace a
route to any other city, red zone, or town inside
or outside its home track rights zone. Ferries, but
not sea crossings, may be used to trace routes
(exception: see below). Routes that cross a Brandt
& Brandau, Engineers token do not count as track
connections until the token is removed (see 14.9).
Red zones that may only be reached by sea
crossings are considered to be linked if there is
at least one city in the national’s track rights
zone that has track connecting to a port arrow on
the same sea zone. Each national's charter shows
the red zones that belong to its track rights zone.
Red zones on the Map which require a sea
crossing or ferry to reach show the track rights
zone to which they belong.
Where multiple trains are run, the RR’s total
revenue is the total of all the trains' revenues
added together.
A national calculates its revenue as follows:
36
18OE Rules Version 1.0
1.
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Total the number of cities, towns, and “double
cities” (from “D” trains) of the national's
trains. This is known as the national's
"capacity".
Example: The GWR regional runs for £70.
Player A owns 50% (2 shares), Player B owns
25% (1 share), and the remaining share is in
the RR’s treasury. Player A receives £35, Player
B receives £18, and the treasury receives £18.
For example, if a national has a 4+4, a 5, and a
4D, the national's capacity is 13 cities (four of
which, president's choice, are doubled), and 4
towns.
2.
3.
4.

Count revenue up to the national's city and
town capacities from linked cities, red zones,
and towns within its home track rights zone.
Gain revenue from these at their values,
doubling those visited by "D" trains. No city,
red zone, or town may be visited more than
once.
Pay half-revenue as dividends. The RR
receives half the revenue, which is placed in
the RR's treasury. The remaining half is split
by the percentage of the shares. Cash is paid
accordingly, rounding up to the nearest £1
after calculating the percentage for each
recipient. This is the only option a minor may
take.
Example 1: Minor K runs for £50. The treasury
receives £25 and the owning player receives
£25.
If any of either or both capacities remain,
deduct from those remaining capacities
respectively the number of unlinked cities,
red zones, and towns in the home track
rights zone. Revenue from them is zero.
Example 2: The KSS regional runs for £70.
Player A owns 50% (2 shares), Player B owns
25% (1 share), and the remaining share is in
the treasury. The treasury receives £35 plus
25% of the remaining £35 (8.75 rounded up),
for a total of £44. Player A receives £18 (17.5
rounded up). Player B receives £9 (8.75
rounded up).
Any remaining capacities may be counted at
£60 for each city and £10 for each town. There
is no requirement to be linked to any cities or
towns outside the home track rights zone to
count this revenue.
•
A national automatically attaches a Pullman to its
highest level train and counts that revenue.
(Every national owns the Pullman that is preprinted on its charter.)
Withhold the revenue. The total revenue from
the run is placed in the RR's treasury.
Shares in a RR's treasury pay their dividends into
the treasury; shares in the Open Market do not.
11.4 Pay, Split, or Hold Revenues
Majors and nationals then adjust their marker on
the Stock Market as described in section 4.4.
Minors and regionals adjust their marker on the
Regional/Minor Operating Order track as
described in section 2.2.6.
The president of the RR may take one of the
following actions to distribute the revenue:
11.5 Transfer Tokens
A national may never make an Orient Express
run.
•
During this step, a major may in its turn in an OR
purchase an already placed station token from
another major owned by the same player. The
major may purchase as many tokens from other
majors as the president desires, so long as the
purchasing major has the treasury cash to do so
and its own tokens available to place on the Map.
A major's home token may never be purchased.
Pay all revenue as dividends. The revenue is
split by the percentage ownership of the
shares of stock. Cash is paid accordingly to the
owning players’ and (possibly) the RR’s
treasury. Round up to the nearest £1 after
calculating the percentage for each recipient.
This is the only option a national may take.
37
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.

To transfer ownership of a token the purchasing
major replaces the selling major's token with one
of its own and returns the replaced token to the
selling major. The purchasing major must pay the
the bank the placement cost shown on its charter
for the new token, and must pay the following fees
to the selling major for the right of access to the
city:
City Type
All trains except 2+2 trains (see 11.6.1) may be
purchased from the Locomotive Works as a local
or express type train. A train purchased from the
Open Market may also be purchased as a local or
express train, regardless of which it was when
previously owned. The cost to be paid is that
showing on the face up side when it is placed on a
RR charter. A train purchased from another RR
must remain the same type of train that the
original purchaser chose.
Transfer
Cost
Normal City or
Red Zone
Grand City or
“Y” Red Zone
Metropolis or
“M” Red Zone
£20
Once the Major RR Phase has begun, a RR may
purchase a train from another RR owned by the
same or another player, paying the purchase price
to the selling RR's treasury instead of the bank. If
the RR is owned by a different player the price is
negotiated by the presidents.
£40
£60
The selling major takes the returned token and
places it on its charter in the highest cost open
position. This token may be placed again later by
the selling major.
Only cash in the purchasing RR's treasury may be
used. The purchase price of a train from a major,
minor, or regional must be a minimum of £1 to a
maximum of the purchasing RR’s entire treasury.
Exception: The purchase price of a Pullman must
be exactly £75.
11.6 Buy Trains
A RR may choose to purchase one or more trains
during this step in its OR turn. (Nationals handle
this step differently; see 11.6.6). It may purchase
as many trains as it can afford within the train
ownership limits in force at the time of purchase.
A RR at the current train ownership limit cannot
initiate a train purchase. The train's face value is
paid from the RR's treasury to the bank.
Nationals may never sell their trains.
Every major must own at least one train at the
end of its OR. Minors and regionals are not
required to purchase a train (exception: see
11.6.1). The 2+2 train preserved by the Swift
Metropolitan Line private does not count towards
this ownership requirement after Train Phase 4
begins, nor does a Pullman Car.
All un-rusted trains of each level in the
Locomotive Works section of the Info Board must
be sold before the first train of the next higher
level may be purchased. There are three
exceptions:

Level 3 trains may never be purchased in the
first OR of the game. After that round, level 3
trains may be purchased if the game has also
entered the Major RR Phase.

Level 8 trains may be purchased after the
fourth level 7 train is purchased.
Nationals may claim any rusted train in the
Locomotive Works for free without regard to
level. (See 11.6.6)
If a major does not have a train and it does not
have sufficient funds in its treasury to purchase a
train outright from the bank, it may purchase a
train from another RR as described above. It is
never required to do so. If it does not purchase a
train from another RR it must force buy a train
from the bank (see 11.6.4).
38
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Minor M (or its owning major) receives £15
royalties from the bank. Pullmans purchased from
the Open Market cost face value, £150, but do not
pay a royalty to Minor M. Minor J’s 10% discount
(see 15.9) applies to Pullman purchases, but
Minor M still receives the full £15 in royalties.
11.6.1 Reserved Trains
One 2+2 train is reserved for each regional,
minor, and major in the game. Each regional,
minor, and major must purchase one of these
trains from the Locomotive Works with its
starting capital during its turn in the first OR after
it floats. This obligatory purchase must be made
before any other train purchases.
Minor M or its owning major receives a Pullman
at no cost for its own use the moment they
become available at the start of Train Phase 4. It
does not receive a royalty for this transaction.
If the minor or regional does not have sufficient
funds to purchase the 2+2 train from its treasury
in that first OR, the RR must “force buy” the train
from the Locomotive Works (see 11.6.4 and
11.6.5).
When Minor M is merged with a major after the
beginning of Train Phase 4, the major receives
the Pullman owned by Minor M. If Minor M and
the major it merges with both own a Pullman, one
of these Pullmans must immediately be discarded
into the Open Market.
If a regional expands to a major before its first
OR, it is considered a major but is still required to
purchase a 2+2 train from the Locomotive Works.
Regionals that have already purchased their
reserved 2+2 train before expanding to a major
are not required to purchase an additional 2+2
train.
Pullmans may be purchased by a RR from another
RR during the purchasing RR’s buy trains step
(see 11.6).
11.6.3 Train Phase Changes
If Train Phase 4 begins prior to a RR's first OR
after floating, all reserved trains are rusted and
this rule no longer applies.
When a RR triggers the beginning of a new Train
Phase by purchasing the first train of a new level,
some trains may rust and the train limit may drop
(see 5.2).
11.6.2 Pullman Cars
After the beginning of Train Phase 4 a RR may
purchase a Pullman car from Minor M during its
buy train step (see 15.12). The RR purchasing the
first 4 train may purchase a Pullman in the same
buy train step.
At the end of a buy trains step in which a new
Train Phase began all RRs (including the
operating RR) must discard any rusted trains
(exception: see 9.4). After rusted trains are
discarded, any trains that remain in excess of the
new Phase’s train limit must also be discarded. A
RR receives no compensation for discarded trains.
A RR may own at most one Pullman. Pullmans on
Minor M, other than the one it receives for free,
are not owned by the minor or by the major it
merges into. Every national is considered to own
an inherent Pullman as printed on its charter.
Un-rusted discarded trains are placed in the Open
Market and are available for purchase by any RR
at face value (see 11.6).
A Pullman does not count against a RR's train
limit. A RR may discard a Pullman during its buy
train step prior to buying trains. Discarded
Pullmans go into the Open Market, not back to the
Minor M, and provide no refund.
Rusted discarded trains are placed sideways in the
Locomotive Works in the box corresponding to
their level. Rusted trains may only be acquired by
nationals.
If a Train Phase change results in a RR having
zero trains and a Pullman, the Pullman remains on
When a Pullman is purchased from Minor M, the
purchase price of £150 is placed in the bank and
39
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
the RR’s charter. It may not be used again until the
RR has another train.
purchased as a stock action. The purchase
price of the RR is the certificate or charter’s
face value plus the difference in the amount of
cash in the treasury and the cost of the
reserved 2+2 train. The par value of a
regional may not be altered.
11.6.4 Forced Train Purchases
When a major must force buy a train, it will
always purchase the lowest cost, un-rusted train
available in either the Locomotive Works or the
Open Market. The train type (local or express)
must be taken into account when determining the
lowest cost train available—the less expensive
side of the train must be purchased (see 11.6).
A player may not deliberately force a RR into firstturn insolvency by spending money to lay track or
purchase tokens. To prevent an insolvency that is
about to occur, any token that the RR placed must
be restored to the charter with the appropriate
cash refund to the RR's treasury. If that does not
prevent the insolvency, any track the RR placed
that had a monetary cost associated with it must
be removed from the Map with the appropriate
cash refund to the RR's treasury. If both of these
expenditures have been refunded, and the
president still doesn't have enough personal cash
to make the required train purchase, the
insolvency steps above are executed.
Example: A 3 train only costs £200, whereas a 3+3
costs £225. Thus the 3 train must be selected when
force buying this train.
The president must use personal cash to make up
the difference between the cash in the RR’s
treasury and the purchase price of the train. A
president that does not have enough cash to do so
must immediately surrender all personal cash to
the bank and convert the major to a national (see
9.4). The president cannot sell stock to raise cash.
11.6.6 National Trains
Nationals handle the buy trains step differently
from all other RRs.
11.6.5 First-Round Insolvency
When a minor or regional must force buy a train
(which can only happen during the purchase of its
reserved 2+2 train), and its president does not
have enough personal cash to make up the
difference in the purchase price, take the following
steps:
1.
Transfer all the president's personal cash to
the RR’s treasury. The RR receives its
reserved 2+2 train from the Locomotive
Works.
2.
Place the regional's president's certificate or
the minor’s charter in the Open Market. The
president receives from the bank the face
value of the certificate or charter (£120 for a
minor; par value times two for a regional).
3.
The RR will not operate again until it is owned
by a player.
4.
First, the national may acquire unclaimed rusted
trains for free, up to the national's train limit. The
national may also exchange any rusted train for
any higher level unclaimed rusted train for free,
returning the exchanged train to the Locomotive
Works. Any rusted trains owned by the national
may be flipped from their express side to their
local side for free.
Second, the national may upgrade one or more
rusted trains to non-rusted trains by purchasing
these trains from majors owned by the
national’s owner. The rusted train(s) are placed
back into the Locomotive Works and the bank
pays the major(s) 1/2 of the face value of the
non-rusted train(s), rounded down.
11.7 Buy or Sell Shares
During this step a major may buy or sell multiple
shares of its own stock only into or out of its
treasury at share value. This transaction is only
between the major and the Open Market and is
During a SR, the regional's president’s
certificate or the minor’s charter may be
40
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
subject to the rules for buying (see 10.2) and
selling stock (10.1) with the major acting as a
player.
limit of 7 and score revenue from 4 towns on an
Orient Express route. Trains may not be combined
for any other purpose.
In addition to buying or selling shares, the major
may also purchase one abandoned minor from
the Open Market (see 9.5). The price of £60 is paid
directly to the bank. The minor's charter and
assets are then added to the major as if it was
merged (see 10.5), with the exception that no
share of the major’s stock is conferred upon the
minor’s former owner.
The Swift Metropolitan Line's 2+2 train may not
be combined with another train, but the Krasnya
Strela's +1+1 marker may be used to increase the
stops on the combined train run (see 15.11).
A Pullman car attached to a combined train will
only enhance one of the component train's
revenues (example: combining a 2+2 and a 3+3,
with a Pullman, gains a bonus of only £30 for the
Pullman, not £50).
12 The Orient Express
If a major has both permanent and nonpermanent trains, the president may choose
whether to make the OE run with a single,
permanent train, or combine some or all of the
non-permanent trains.
Only majors may make an Orient Express run. A
train whose route includes Constantinople and
one or more of the metropolises of Paris, London,
Berlin, Madrid, or Sankt-Peterburg has operated
The Orient Express.
12.2 First Time Bonus
The first time that a given major runs the Orient
Express during the game, the major is given an
Orient Express marker. The president of the
major may then choose one of the following
bonuses:
When counting the revenue of an Orient Express
train the major adds extra revenue as follows:
Train Phase
Bonus
2-4
£30
5-6
£60
7-8
£100
A major may only receive the extra revenue for
one Orient Express train per OR. This extra
revenue is not doubled by a "D" train.
An Orient Express run may not consist entirely of
sea crossings. Some land based track in addition
to the start and end cities must be utilized on the
route.

The president of the major should separately
note the revenue derived from the Orient
Express train. After distributing the major's
revenue for the OR, the bank will pay cash to
the major's treasury equal to the total
revenue of the Orient Express train.

The major's share value marker is moved
RIGHT three times in addition to its normal
movement on the Stock Market. See 4.4.
The major must accept both the marker and the
bonus during this OR. A major that has an Orient
Express marker from a previous OR may no
longer receive a bonus.
12.1 Combining Trains
For the purpose of making an Orient Express run,
a major may combine two or more nonpermanent trains into one larger train (i.e., level
2, 3, and 4 trains may be combined). Permanent
trains may not be part of the combination. For
example, combining a 2+2, 3, and another 2+2
would allow the major to run a train with a city
A RR is not obligated to run the Orient Express on
the first occasion it is able to do so, unless such a
route is part of the "best possible routes" for all
trains on the RR. (Ties do not count as best
possible.) However, a RR that is able to make an
41
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
Orient Express run may always do so, even if the
route is NOT part of the "best possible routes” for
all trains on the RR.
13.1 Winning
The winner is the player with the highest
combined total of cash, stock certificates at share
value, and face up privates at face value.
13 Ending the Game
14 Appendix A: Privates
The game ends in one of two ways:
First, if the bank runs out of money during an OR
prior to the purchase of the first level 8 train,
finish only the current OR. If the bank runs out of
money during a SR, play one more OR before
determining the winner. Use the “remainder cash”
(set aside during setup) as needed.
14.1 Robert Stephenson and
Company
(Face Value £20, Revenue £5.) - No special
abilities. No markers or tokens.
History: George and Robert Stephenson founded
this company to design and build the first steam
locomotive in Newcastle Upon Tyne, United
Kingdom, in 1823.
Second: If the bank does not run out of money
prior to the purchase of the first level 8 train, add
all the “remainder cash” to the bank at the
moment of purchase. Finish the current OR, then
follow these steps:
•
•
14.2 Ponts et Chaussees
(Face Value £20, Revenue £5.) - No special
abilities. No markers or tokens.
If the first level 8 train was purchased in the
first OR of a set of ORs, finish the current set
of ORs, play a SR, then play the “final two
ORs” as described below.
History: famed civil engineering school that
provided planning for many early French railroads.
If the first level 8 train was purchased in the
second OR of a set of ORs, finish the current
OR, play a SR, then play three ORs - the
second and third of which are the final two
ORs as described next.
14.3 Wien Südbahnhof
(Face Value £40, Revenue £10.) - No markers or
tokens. During any RR's place token step, the
owner of this private may place any one of the
RR's station tokens on the Map for free. The token
must be reachable by the given RR using the same
rules as if it were paying for the token. If
applicable, this free placement still incurs the
extra costs of placement across sea zones (see
11.2.1)
The final two ORs are abbreviated. The first of the
two is played normally. The second OR consists
only of each RR paying again and distributing in
the same way the same revenue that was earned
in the first OR (less any first time bonus received
by a major for an Orient Express run during that
OR). However, if a RR acquires a train during the
first of these two ORs, that RR's revenue for the
second OR may be recalculated to include the new
train in the “run trains and calculate revenue” step
and then distributed as its president chooses in
the “pay, split, or hold revenue” step. There is no
track laying, token placement, or train buying.
Designer's note: The above rule intentionally does
not specify which token may be played by using this
private. Use the most expensive one, unless you
have good reason to do otherwise.
If this private is owned by the same player as the
White Cliffs Ferry private, this private's ability
may be used to pay for the cost of the token placed
by the White Cliffs Ferry's special ability.
42
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
History: was Wien's largest railway terminus.
share of stock in the RR! Since it remains in the
RR's treasury, the reserved share continues to pay
revenue to that treasury until purchased or
exchanged.
14.4 Barclay, Bevan, Barclay and
Tritton
Finally, (3) the owning player may use this
private's ability at any time during a SR, including
at the moment another player is selling a share of
stock.
(Face Value £40, Revenue £10.) - This private has
one marker which is used if the second or third
ability is exercised (see below). This private may
be exercised in one of three ways. (1) The owning
player may use this private's power during one of
their stock actions during any SR, or during the
RR's OR, to re-set the par value of one owned
regional or major. This regional or major must
have a marker on the Par Values section of the
Info Board to qualify (see 10.7). The new par
value selected must be a valid par value for the
type of RR being re-parred (A regional is
restricted to regional par values, and a major is
restricted to major par values).
When exercised, this option allows the owning
player to prevent any one RR's share value
marker (including a RR not owned by this
private's owner) from moving DOWN on the Stock
Market for the remainder of the current SR.
Place this private's marker on top of the RR's
share value marker to indicate that the share
value marker may not be moved DOWN. When
the SR ends, remove the marker and the private
certificate from play.
Developer's Note: A major's par value marker is
removed at the end of the SR in which it floats, so it
may only be affected by this private's ability for a
brief period (see 10.7).
14.5 Star Harbor Trading Company
(Face Value £60, Revenue £15.) - This private has
one marker and one token. The token allows free
passage through any port city on which it is placed
during a RR's lay token step. The affiliated RR
may use this token as a private or public port
during a sea crossing, gaining the benefits
outlined in section 11.3.4. Put the marker on the
RR's charter to indicate the RR's ownership of the
token.
Alternatively, (2) the owning player may use this
private's ability to place one share of a RR's stock
into “custodianship.” This share may not be
purchased by any other player. It is reserved for
the owning player. Place the private's marker on
top of the reserved share on the RR’s charter until
the share is purchased, or, if it is a share of a
major, exchanged when merging in a minor.
The next two paragraphs apply to both the Star
Harbor and Central Circle privates.
This power may be exercised at any time during a
SR, including at the moment another player is
purchasing a share of stock in the owning player's
RR.
This power may only be exercised on a regional's
secondary share if both secondary shares are still
in the regional's treasury. (After one of the
regional's secondary shares is purchased, the
other share cannot be placed into custodianship
until the regional grows into a major).
The existence of a reserved share does not
prevent any player from purchasing any other
43
•
The token placed on a city does not consume a
token position. This city no longer counts
towards the city limit of any trains belonging
to the owning RR. Tokens of other RRs in this
city do not block the owning RR’s trains and
they do not collect revenue from this city.
•
The city on which the token is placed need not
be reachable by one of the RR's trains;
however, this token may not be used as the
sole token on a train's route, nor may it be
used by the RR to place other tokens.
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
14.6 Central Circle Transport
Corporation
hex may not contain two towns, a city, a grand
city, or a metropolis.
(Face Value £60, Revenue £15.) - This private has one
marker and one token. The token allows free passage
through any non-port city on which it is placed during a
RR's lay token step. Put the marker on the RR's charter to
indicate the RR's ownership of the token.
Any RR controlled by this private's owner may
count the token as a town when running a route
including this hex. The token provides revenue as
follows:
Train Phase
Revenue
2
£10
14.7 White Cliffs Ferry
3-4
£20
(Face Value £60, Revenue £15.) (This represents
the ferry across the English Channel between
London and Lille.) - No markers or tokens. At the
beginning of Train Phase 5, the player who owns
this private may immediately place one station
token from any controlled RR on top of the White
Cliffs Ferry token position next to the city of Lille.
The RR must pay for this token with cash in its
treasury. The RR does not need to be connected to
Lille. This token will not consume a token
position in Lille, but rather uses the Ferry’s token
position.
5-6
£40
7-8
£60
See the Star Harbor section above for other rules
pertaining to this private.
14.9 Brandt & Brandau, Engineers
(Face Value £100, Revenue £25.) - This private
has four tokens. Up to two of the tokens may be
used each OR by this private’s owner. The tokens
may both be used for the same controlled RR or
one each used by two different RR’s during their
track laying step. The token is placed on a rough
(green) terrain hex and a yellow tile is placed
there at no cost. This tile placement does count
towards the tile points expended by the RR. The
RR may upgrade the yellow tile immediately,
keeping the token on the hex. Only the controlling
player's RRs may use a track tile marked with one
of this private's tokens. When the last token is
placed, the private's certificate is turned face
down to indicate ownership of the tokens. It is
removed from the game when none remain on the
Map.
If the owner of the White Cliffs Ferry waits until
after the beginning of Train Phase 5 to exercise
this option, he may use this private's ability to
place the token only during the place token step of
the RR's OR. Using the private in this way will
consume that RR's place token step for the
current round. The Ferry’s token position
functions as an open token position for the city of
Lille until the ability is used.
See 11.2.2 for more details.
To remove one of these tokens and allow all RRs
to use the track, another RR must pay the original
terrain building cost of that token's hex and
expend one tile point (two tile points for a
metropolis). This tile point expenditure does not
place any track on the Map—it merely removes
this private's token from the hex. A national may
remove the token by paying the tile point(s), but
does not need to pay the terrain building cost.
14.8 Hochberg Mining & Lumber Co.
(Face Value £80, Revenue £20.) - The owner of
this private may place this private's token on the
Map during the lay track step of a controlled RR
and turn the private's certificate face down to
indicate ownership. The token on the Map must be
placed in a hex that has a rough terrain (green)
construction cost of at least £45. The hex may
already contain track. Optionally, it may already
contain one town, which this token replaces. The
History: constructed the Simplon Tunnel between
Switzerland and Italy.
44
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
position in the RRs' operating order this unmerged minor or its owning major will run.
14.10 Swift Metropolitan Line
(Face Value £120, Revenue £0.) - This private has
a marker that preserves one 2+2 train as a short
haul/commuter line for the duration of the game.
This private's ability may be exercised at the start
of Train Phase 4 or later. When this occurs, the
owner designates one of their RR's to receive one
unclaimed rusted 2+2 train, and indicates the
receipt and durability of the train by placing the
marker on it.
The president of an un-merged Minor C may
choose to operate it first, last, or in its normal
position on the Regional/Minor Operating Order
track (The minor always operates with the
regionals and minors). Temporarily place its
extra marker on the track in the position in which
it chooses to operate and turn its original marker
face down.
This train does not count against the train limit.
The 2+2 train cannot run on track already used by
the RR's other trains in the same OR (see 11.3.8).
This train can never be sold. If it is owned by a
minor it will go into a major's inventory when
this minor merges, keeping this restriction.
The president of a major that owns Minor C may
choose to operate the major first, last, or in its
normal position in the share value operating
order. (The major always operates with the
majors and nationals). Temporarily place one of
Minor C's markers on top of the major's share
value marker if last position is chosen (see 4.4).
This train does not fulfill the "must own a train"
requirement . The RR owning this train will be
able to run and pay revenue in an OR in which its
other trains are rusted. If it generates enough
revenue with a 2+2 run, the RR’s share value
marker may not be required to move LEFT on the
Stock Market (see 4.4).
This ability is exercised anew at the beginning of
each OR. The president announces the choice
before any other RR operates.
15.4
(Green Junction Mercantile) – When placed in a
city on the Map this minor's token adds £20
bonus revenue to trains run to or through that city
by the minor or the major it merges into from
Train Phase 2 to Train Phase 4. A possibly
different city pays £40 to the major from Train
Phase 5 onward. The president may place this
token in any city on the Map, except a metropolis
or red zone — it may even be one the RR cannot
run a train to.
15 Appendix B: Minors
15.1
Minor A
(Silver Banner Line) - When it is merged into a
major, the bank pays cash into the major’s
treasury equal to the current share value of the
major, even if no share is available. The cash is
never part of the minor's treasury.
15.2
The president may delay placing the token. It must
be placed during the RR's lay track step. At the
beginning of Train Phase 5, the “+£20” token is
removed from the Map. The president may then or
thereafter place the “+£40” token on the board, in
the same or different city, subject to the rules
above.
Minor B
(Orange Scroll Surveyors) - This minor counts all
track upgrades as one tile point (including tiles
with towns, but not cities, grand cities, or
metropolises).
15.3
Minor D
15.5
Minor C
Minor E
(Blue Coast Bridge Construction Company) - This
minor receives a 33% discount on all
(Golden Bell Marketplace) - At the start of each OR
the president of this minor may choose the
45
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
coastal/river (blue terrain costs) track
construction costs (multiply total cost for
construction by 0.67, and round down to the
nearest pound). Each OR, this minor may also
spend 1 additional tile point when laying track, as
long as the point is expended to place a yellow tile
in a hex that has a blue terrain cost.
15.6
round it is received to use when laying track
and/or placing tokens.
£20
3-4
£40
5-6
£50
7-8
£60
Minor L
(Krasnaya Strela) - This minor has a marker
which the RR may assign to a train, increasing that
train's city limit and the number of towns it may
count for revenue by one each — effectively, a
“+1+1” increase. Revenue from the additional city
and town add to the revenue generated by the
train. E.g. a 2+2 train runs as a 3+3, an 8+8 train
runs as a 9+9, and a 4 train runs as a 5+1.
Minor G
If the train is a D train the extra city does not
double in value. Any one of the cities on the D
train's extended route may be selected to not
double in value.
Minor H
This marker may be reassigned in each OR at
beginning of the RR's run trains step.
(Great Western Steamship Company) - This minor
reduces the number of sea zones that count
towards its trains' city limits. The reduction is
one per OR during Train Phases 1 through 6, and
two per OR during Train Phases 7 and 8 (see
11.3.4).
15.9
2
15.11
(Indigo Foundry & Iron Works) - This minor
receives an extra two tile points to use during its
lay track step in every OR.
15.8
Revenue
Minor F
(White Peak Mountain Railway) - This minor
receives a 33% discount on all mountain/rough
(green terrain costs) track construction costs
(multiply total cost for pounding by 0.67, and
round down to the nearest pound). Each OR, this
minor may also spend 1 additional tile point
when laying track, as long as the point is expended
to place a yellow tile in a hex that has a green
terrain cost.
15.7
Train Phase
This increase in a train’s city limit does not
increase that train’s level when calculating the
revenue a Pullman car generates.
History: Also known as the "Red Arrow" line
between Moscva and Sankt-Peterberg.
Minor J
(Grey Locomotive Works) - This minor receives a
10% discount on the purchase price of all trains.
15.12 Minor M
(Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits) This minor comes with ten Pullman cars that
enhance the revenue of a train running on a RR.
See 11.6.2.
15.10 Minor K
(Vermilion Seal Couriers) - This minor owns a
mail contract that provides revenue throughout
the game. The mail contract revenue is paid
directly to the RR's treasury at the beginning of
each OR. This revenue is not included in the
calculation of paid or split revenue generated
when the RR runs trains. It is available in the
History: Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits
(founded Belgium 1876) was the premiere
dining/sleeper car operator of its era. CIWL
instituted service on its "Orient Express" in 1883.
46
18OE Rules Version 1.0
Copyright 2013 Designs In Creative Entertainment, LLC.
I owe a special thanks to Ed Sindelar, my friend of
twenty five years, for his un-paralleled creativity
and tolerance with my tinkering; Mike Monical
and Mike Calhoon for their uncanny ability to
poke holes in the rules and help me smooth the
rough edges; J.C. Lawrence for his rule suggestion
on national revenue which was the last piece of
the puzzle in making the game playable in one
day; Rick Scholes for his invaluable expertise in
distilling Ed's and my rambling rules text into this
coherent document; and my dearest, patient, and
supportive wife, Susan, for tolerating the long
days and endless nights of hard work that was put
into publishing this game—without you, none of
this would have ever been more than just a dream.
16 Acknowledgements
Thank you to Brian Yelton for the entertaining
musings over many a lunch hour of rail gaming
strategy and game theory. Our conversations on
the concept of "requiring fees for track rights" led
ultimately to the core of my design for 18OE.
And my gratitude to my friend Mark Frazier for
insisting that we play that long-winded, annoying,
confusing "train game" for the half-dozenth time,
such a long time ago....
because on that particular evening, that blasted
"train game" finally clicked for me. And
unquestionably, that event is the one that leads
most directly to 18OE.
-Mark Frazier, Developer
-Ed Sindelar, Designer
The designer of 18OE, cleverly disguised as a tourist at Zürich Hauptbahnhof.
47
Credits:
Designer - Ed Sindelar
Developer - Mark Frazier
Artwork - Gary Simpson, Mark Frazier, Ed Sindelar
Rules Contributors - Mike Monical, Bill Jaffe, Mike Calhoon, Rick Dutton, Thomas Wall Hannaford Jr., J.C.
Lawrence
Proofreading and Editing - Rick Scholes
Tile Numbering and Orientation - John David Galt and Steve Thomas
Playtesters - Daniel Barnes, Adam Brocker, Phil Cherry, Kevin Clark, Mike Coyne, Russ Craft, Eric Flood, Karl
Foelsche, Tim Franklin, Mark Geary, Spencer Hamblen, Jeff Kimmel, Matti Kortelainen, Antero Kuusi, Mike
Markey, Joe Miller, Arne Östlund, Aliza Panitz, Michael Panzer, Larry Pollack, Edward Povilaitis, John Rapp,
Bill Rosgen, Bob Rutherford, Robert G. Schroeder, Scott Strobele, Adhika Widyaparaga
Published with permission from Mayfair Games, Inc., Skokie, IL USA. Copyright © 2013 by Designs In Creative
Entertainment, LLC. “18XX” is a Francis Tresham game design. “18XX” and the “18XX brand logo” are trademark
properties of Mayfair Games. All rights reserved. No reproductions or commercial use without permission of
Mayfair Games, Inc.
Published with leave of Francis Tresham and permission from Mayfair Games, Inc., Skokie, IL USA.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement