Format conversion - American Radio History

Format conversion - American Radio History
Also Featured:
Digital audio workstations
Format conversion
www.americanradiohistory.com
CNN International Control Room
Nothing's FASTER than LIVE TV!
And There's No TV
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Than CNN!
WHEATSTONE's TV-600 Audio Control Console
gives your operators what they need: powerful mix-minus
capability to feed your IFB system; an input preselector
matrix, so you can have a myriad of sources and the
option to control them with Wheatstone's built-in Event
Computer, a computer than can also talk directly to your
station router, letting you integrate your entire system. And
of course the TV -600 has plenty of bussing: eight mono or
stereo subgroups, with twin stereo masters so you can feed
both local and uplink mixes, plus mono masters for both
SAP and mono sum side chains. Today's TV-600 makes a
lot of sense; it offers simplicity of operation, the power to
handle challenging tasks, and the professional level of
performance that only Wheatstone s experience delivers.
-
The Wheatstone TV -600 Live TV Audio Console
7305 Performance Drive, Syracuse, NY. 13212
(tel 315-452-5000/fax 315-452-0160)
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Introducing the best supporting cast
in television news.
Over 500 years of design and integration experience
are standard on every Harris Allied ENG vehicle.
The difference between a Harris Allied ENG vehicle and
others comes from our team's more than 5
centuries of combined experience and
world -class engineering capability - right
down to component level. Our full-time
staff provides unmatched expertise in
every discipline, including electrical,
Unrestricted customizing insures that you get a
guaranteed system perfect for your assignments.
We offer the industry's broadest selection of electronic
equipment, backed by the industry's finest
warranty and 24 -hour support, worldwide.
As a result, at Harris Allied you get the best
ENG vehicles for your needs. And you never
have to accept more or less than you want.
Harris Allied
7920 Kentucky Drive
Florence, KY 41042 USA
Phone: 606 282-4800
mechanical, RF and systems engineering.
In fact, Harris Allied has set the industry
standard with its M-1 ENG vehicles -a
design so extraordinary in its utility, that it is
the yardstick for every other manufacturer.
Fax:
HARRIS
ALLIED
606 283-2818
01995 Harris Corp.
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August 1995
Volume 37
BROaDCaST®
enGineeRinG
Number 9
THIS MONTH...
2Q
Combining Tape and Disk Storage
By Tim Slate and Ray Baldock
How well do tape and disk systems play together?
40
RAID Storage Technology
By Bill Moren
RAID arrays are needed even with 100 -year MTBF
disks.
54
Optical Storage Solutions
V
By Richard Bauarschi
As storage choices broaden, the application rather
than the technology can become the defining factor.
40
54
60
Hard -Drive Technology
By James Frantzreb
As capacity and throughput increase, hard -drive
technology is finding its way into more and more
areas of broadcast and post -production.
64
Digital Audio Workstations
70
60
By Skip Pizzi
Non-linear production
room, too.
is
moving into the audio
Getting There: Format Conversion
64
By Phil Hejtmanek
The path from origination to delivery can involve
many conversions.
COLUMNS:
DEPARTMENTS:
8 FCC Update:
Senate passes telecom reform bill
10 EAS Update: System overview,
part
1
Digital basics, part 1
of excellence
Production: Managing resources in a
computerized environment
Interactive: Receiving E-mail
ATV Update: ATV channel assignments
Transmission Technology: Tower maintenance
secrets revealed, part 1
4
News
6
Editorial
12 Transition to Digital:
79 Industry Briefs
16 Management: The mark
84 Classifieds
18
88 Advertisers' Index
20
24
76
12
80 New Products
ON THE COVER:
Video storage has come
a long
way since the days of 2 -inch
quad tape. Today's fast -paced
video production environments
need instantaneous access to
source material. The Quantel
Clipbox is shown on the cover.
(Cover design courtesy of
Quantel.)
BROADCAST ENGINEERING (ISSN 0007-1994) is published monthly (except semi-monthly in June and November) and mailed free to qualified persons within the United
States and Canada by Intertec Publishing, 9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212-2215. Second-class postage paid at Shawnee Mission, KS, and additional mailing offices.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Broadcast Engineering, P.O. Box 12902, Overland Park, KS 66282-2902. CORRESPONDENCE: Editorial and Advertising: 9800
Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212-2215. Phone:913-341-1300; Edit. fax:913-967-1905. Advert. fax: 913-967-1904. ©1995 by Intertec Publishing. All rights reserved.
2
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Visit us at World Media Expo -Booth #914.
Introducing
The DSA309
Digital Studio Analyser
E
EC,
,.-,
Cf,
All Format Digital Video Analyser: Tests
component and composite serial digital video
signals in both 525 line and 625 line formats.
Extensive Error Logging: Permits system
performance monitoring and documentation by
logging system errors on either the built-in
LCD display, external printer, or on the built-in
Real Time Measurements: Continuous real
time, on-line measurements of all key parameters
permits live monitoring of:
3.5" disk drive.
Alarm Interface: Provides immediate notification
when user defined thresholds are exceeded.
-
Designing
Excellence
Serial Jitter
Signal Amplitude
Color Levels
Non -Recommended Value Errors
EDH Errors
Parity Bit Errors
TRS Errors
Bit Activity
Reserved Code Errors
Real Time Color Level Monitoring: Monitors
component digital video in real time for RGB or
NTSC/PAL color space infractions.
Comprehensive Digital Displays: Complementec
by simulated analog waveforms, these displays
help bridge the gap between analog and digital
testing, creating a user friendly interface for both
operations and engineering staff.
Easy To Use: The touch screen interface and
easy to use menu system permits full instrument
utilization while minimizing user reference to
the manual.
A
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For a comprehensive information
packet, call 1-800-769-AAVS (2287).
www.americanradiohistory.com
t
OS by Sencore
The Name To Know In Digital Video Testing
Advanced Audio Visual Systems by Sencore
3200 Sencore Drive, Sioux Falls, SD 57107
Direct (605) 339-0100
Fax (605) 339-0317
NEWS
Sony develops
flat panel display
Sony Corporation has developed a flat
panel display for large-screen use tentatively called the PLASMATRON. The display is
based on Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystal
(PALC) technology jointly developed with
Tektronix. The display features high -brightness, high -contrast and clear picture quality. Sony plans to introduce PLASMATRON
sometime in 1996 in Japan.
The display is an active matrix system that
separately addresses each pixel of the liquid
crystal. The address method is based on
PALC technology, which uses plasma as an
electronic switch. The backlight, which is
independent of the panel, is used as the light
source to reproduce a picture with high
brightness. Each single scanning line corresponds to a single plasma channel. The
picture is composed of about 450 plasma
channels.
To facilitate the multilayer printing process needed in producing the panel's plasma address board, Sony developed a high precision screen -printing technology. Because the screens can be produced in lowgrade clean rooms rather than semiconductor facilities, the manufacturing process is simpler, resulting in higher yield
rates and lower costs.
EIA/ATV Committee
urges universal access
to HDTV broadcasting
Although the Advanced Television Committee of the Electronic Industries Association (EIA/ATV Committee) supports many
of the viewpoints of the Broadcasters' Proposed TV Allotment Assignment/Approach
filed with the FCC in January, the committee has urged the commission to require
broadcasters using the ATV channel to provide universal access to HDTV.
The EIA/ATV Committee feels that now is
the time to develop a table of allotments and
assignments for VHF and UHF channels. In
accordance with the broadcasters' proposal, the FCC should adopt this timetable at
the same time it adopts ATV transmission
standards. This will give broadcasters, manufacturers and programmers the incentives
and tools to implement ATV.
Although broadcasters should be accorded flexibility in their use of ATV spectrum,
the committee maintains that it is essential
for HDTV to be the centerpiece of the FCC's
ATV policies. If the FCC is to achieve its
ATV policy goals and ensure that the additional spectrum made available is used in
the public interest, broadcasters should be
4
By Dawn Hightower, senior associate
required to transmit a minimum amount of
HDTV broadcasting each day. Alternatively, the commission may wish to pursue a
policy that gives broadcasters an incentive
to transmit HDTV programming by assigning additional spectrum only to those licensees that demonstrate a commitment to
HDTV.
SCTE issues
call
for papers
The Society of Cable Telecommunications
Engineers (SCTE) is seeking abstracts for
technical papers. The papers will be presented at SCTE's 1996 Conference on Emerging
Technologies Jan. 8-10 in San Francisco.
Topics will include digital compression
and transmission, telephony, multimedia
and future technologies. Those interested in
presenting papers should contact Roberta
Dainton at SCTE by calling 610-363-6888
or via fax at 610-363-5898. Submissions
are due by Sept. 1 and should include an
abstract of the proposed paper.
New Orleans to
sponsor World Media
Expo '95
New Orleans is the site for the 1995 World
Media Expo Show and the SBE/NAB Broadcast Engineering Conference that will run
from Sept. 6-9.
The SBE, in cooperation with NAB, will
present three days of seminars on various
equipment and services important to radio
and TV stations. The one -day Ennes Workshops will precede the conference on Sept. 6.
The workshops are available for an extra
fee and are open to full -paid conference
registrants. Registration is on a first -come,
first-served basis, and you must pre -register
for the Ennes Day.
The Broadcast Engineering Conference is
the heart of the seminar schedule. Sessions
will focus on regulatory issues, including
EAS, unattended operation and FCC/FAA
considerations; digital technology for television; RF technology for television; tower
design; and safety and liability considerations.
Registrants for the SBE Program are invited to attend the opening reception on Sept.
7. The Ham Radio Reception is Sept. 8, and
the awards banquet is Sept. 9.
SMPTE sponsors
compression tutorial
editor
pression Experience" seminar will be held in
Rochester; NY, at station WXXI. The morning will be devoted to fundamentals and the
theory of digital compression. The afternoon session will focus on digital compression applications for moving pictures and
sound.
For SMPTE members, the cost of the one day event is $35 for advance registration,
which includes lunch. Registration after Oct.
2 and at the door will be $50.
Non-member advance registration is $50
but after Oct. 2 and at the door will be $65.
Student advance registration is $20 or $25
after Oct. 2.
Inquiries and requests for a registration
form should be sent to Tom Hope, 58 Carverdale Drive, Rochester; NY 14618-4004 or
faxed to 716-442-1310.
Pixar Animation
president to deliver
SMPTE keynote address
Edwin E. Catmull, president of Pixar Animation Studios in Richmond, CA, will be
the speaker at the opening session of the
137th SMPTE Technical Conference and
World Media Expo on Sept. 6 in New
Orleans.
Catmull created one of the first computergenerated animation effects for film. He has
won three Academy Awards for his company's work with computer graphics and
motion imaging on major motion pictures.
The opening session, including the keynote address, is free to all full conference
registrants to the SMPTE, NAB, SBE and
RTNDA conferences. The session will be
held in Meeting Room 42 of the New Orleans Convention Center on Sept. 6.
For more information, contact the SMPTE
Marketing Department at 914-761-1100.
Rocky Mountain Film
and Video Expo '95 set
for September
The eleventh annual Rocky Mountain Film
and Video Expo will run from Sept. 26-28
at the John Q. Hammons Convention Center in Denver.
The expo will feature state-of-the-art
equipment, cameras, computers, software,
lights and sound recording equipment in
addition to several speakers and seminars.
For more information, call ExpoMasters at
303-771-2000 or fax 303-843-6232.
The Rochester section of the Society of
Motion Picture and Television Engineers
(SMPTE) is sponsoring a one -day tutorial
compression seminar on Oct. 28. "The Corn-
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Coming up in New Orleans:
World Media Expo (202-429-5335)
NIKON'S NSW
S20 LENS
GIVES YOU LESS.
LESS WEIGHT. LESS SIZE.
LESS RESTRICTIONS.
Nikon's newest high
performance 2/3"
ENG lens, the S20x8 TV
Nikkor, is the lightest, most
compact lens in its class. It's
even a little lighter on your budget,
compared to competitive lenses.
Virtually the same size and weight as a typical
15x lens, you can use the Nikon S20 as a high
performance alternative.
»Its internal focus design allows users greater ease
of operation and more flexibility with filters and
accessories. With a minimum object distance
(MOD) of only 31.5 inches and a maximum focal
length of 320mm, with Nikon's 2x
extender, the new Nikon S20 lens gives
videographers superior range of use.
Like all of Nikon's ENG lenses, the S20x8
boasts aspheric lens technology with minimal
chromatic aberration. And its exclusive
adjustable zoom torque and new ergonomic design
allow you to customize its performance to meet
your specific requirements.
To learn more about all the benefits of owning
TV Nikkor lenses, including our express loaner lens
service, call 1 -800 -52 -NIKON or (908) 758-0308. Or
write to Nikon Electronic Imaging, 5775 Lindero
Canyon Road, Westlake Village, CA 91362.
Nikon
ELECTRONIC IMAGING
©1995 Nikon Inc.
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EDITORIAL
What train?
You country music fans may recall the song that laments those occasions in life when sometimes you're
the Louisville slugger and sometimes you're the ball, sometimes you're the windshield and sometimes
you're the bug. I recently experienced firsthand what the songwriter may have meant. My analogy was
more like that of being hit by a freight train. Not literally, of course, but in a figurative sense. There were
times, however, when I would have gladly chosen the literal option.
While struggling to put some perspective on what was going on in my life, I turned to some of my trusted
friends and books that have offered me good counsel and advice over the years. For what it's worth, here's
some of what I relearned.
One of the most important things I had to rediscover was, as Charlie Brown says, "We need all the
friends we can get." In the world of business, it's often easier to
make enemies than it is friends. And friends, like plants, need
cultivation. When was the last time you called a long-time friend
and asked how he or she was doing or planned a lunch date
together? If you saw the plants in my office, you'd think I never
paid any attention to them. Don't do that to your friends.
I also had to relearn that when business or personal relationships
go sour, there are only three ways to make things better:
Change the situation,
Change the other person,
Change yourself.
If the problem is your boss, then changing your job may be the
only answer. If the problem is a significant other, then the only
solution may be to dump him or her. Tough choices, I know, but
let's consider the other two options.
Most of us, especially managers, want to try and change the other
person. After all, we're not the problem
the other person or
employee is. You can forget trying to change the other person. It
doesn't work. How many times have you tried to get those difficult
employees of yours (or even your kids) to change their ways? Were
you successful? How long did the improved behavior last
two weeks, a month, maybe 20 minutes?
Think about it. Would the imposition of someone else's will on you make you feel any better? Heck no.
You'd be as mad about them trying to change you as they are about you trying to change them.
Now, I'm as guilty as the next manager (or parent) in this way, and sometimes I attempt to solve
problems by trying to get others to "fix" their behavior. Although I'm a slow learner and it took a while,
I finally remembered something I learned a long time ago. That is, it's impossible to change people, places
or things.
Which returns me to where I began. My life's lesson this month was to relearn one of life's important
lessons: Forget trying to change anything but yourself. You are the only thing over which you have any
control. Any other approach is guaranteed to fail.
-
-
Brad Dick, editor
E-mail:
[email protected]
CompuServe:
74672,3124
FAXback:
913-967-1905
6
Broadcast Engineering August1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Future -Safe Audio Testing
That's the way most audio test equipment
is designed...The instrument maker chooses
analog or digital, lays out a front panel, builds in a
fixed level of internal processing power and adds
a display from today5 choices.
They'll never adapt to the future like System One
and System Two from Audio Precision.
First a comprehensive selection of digital and analog measurement capabilities and options allows
you to tailor your initial purchase to an exact fit for
your needs of today.
Tomorrow, you benefit from continuous product
and technology improvements, as System One
and System Two grow with your needs. Both
System One and System Two allow you to later
add options not originally fitted.
DSP versions gain new functions and features by
simply downloading different and newer versions
of our DSP software.
'bu get better and faster system performance as
well as higher resolution displays by upgrading PC
technology without buying new audio measurement hardware. Upgrade to the popular WindowsTM
graphical user interface.
We introduced our first System One audio test
sets in 1985. Today over 4000 of our PC and GPIBbased System One and System Two analyzers are
in service worldwide, testing everything from aircraft to automobiles, satellites to cell phones, hi-fi
to hearing aids.
Our customers who purchased System One in
1985 are still enjoying the benefits of our openended design philosophy. Those who purchase
System Two in 1995 will enjoy the same benefits
well into the next millennium. You can join them by
contacting one of our worldwide Audio Precision
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INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS: Australia: IRT Electronics Ply. Ltd., Tel: 2 439 3744 Austria: ELSINCO GmbH, Tel: (1) 815 04 00 Belgium: Trans European Music NV, Tel: 2 466 5010 Brazil: INTERWAVE LTDA.. Tel: (21) 3259221 Bulgaria: ELSINCO, he. Strelbishte, Tel: (2) 58 61 31 Canada: GERRAUDIO Distribution,Tel: (416) 696-2779 China, Hong Kong: ACE (Int'l) Co. Ltd., Tel: 2424-0387 Croatia: AVC Audio Video Consulting. Tel: (41) 624
622 Czech Republic: ELSINCO Praha spol. s.r.o., Tel: (2) 49 66 89 Denmark: npn Elektronik aps, Tel: 86 57 15 11 Finland: Genelec OY, Tel: 77 13311 France: ETS Mesureur, Tel: (1) 45 83 66 41 Germany: RTW GmbH, Tel: 221
70913-0 Greece: KEM Electronics Ltd.. Tel: 01-6478514/5 Hungary: ELSINCO KFT, Tel: (1) 269 18 50 India: HINDITRON Services PVT, Tel: 22 836-4560 Israel: Dan -El Technologies, LTd., Tel: 3-6478770 Italy: Link Engineering
s.r.l., Tel: 0521/648723 Japan: TOY° Corporation. Tel: 3 (5688) 6800 Korea: B&P International Co., Ltd., Tel: 2 546-1457; B&P (Kumi Office). Tel: 0546 53-7347/8 Malaysia: Test Measurement & Engineering Sdn. Bhd., Tel: 3 734
1017 Netherlands: Heynen b.v., Tel: 08851-96300 New Zealand: Audio & Video Wholesalers, Tel: 7 847-3414 Norway: Lydconsult, Tel: (47) 66-988333 Poland: ELSINCO Polska sp. z o. o., Tel: (22) 39 69 79 Portugal: Acutron
Electroacustica LDA, Tel: 1 9414087/ 9420862 Singapore: THE Systems Pte Ltd., Tel: 747-7234 Slovakia: ELSINCO Bratislava spol. s.r.o., Tel: (7) 784 165 South Africa: SOUNDFUSION Broadcast, Tel: 11 477-1315 Spain: Talco
Electronics, S.A., Tel: 1 531-7101 Sweden: TTS Tal & Ton Studioteknik AB, Tel: 31-803 620 Switzerland: Dr. W.A. Gunther AG, Tel: 910 41 41 Taiwan R.O.C.: Cha Wei Electric Trading Co., Tel: 2-5612211 Thailand: Massworld
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Company Ltd., Tel: 662-294-4930 United Kingdom: Thuriby Thandar Instruments, Ltd., Tel: (1480) 412451
1
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FCC UPDATE
By Harry C.
Senate passes telecom reform
The House is likely to vote on H.R. 1555
in August or September. If this happens, a
final bill could be sent to the president by
Martin and Andrew
S.
Kersting
bill
1) Jurisdiction (i.e., whether the FCC has
the legal authority to resolve the complaint);
Oct. 1.
Standing (i.e., whether the petitioner or
opponent has the legal right to file against
the applicant);
2)
to speed processing of
assignment/transfer applications
FCC
In June, the Senate overwhelmingly
The FCC's Mass Media Bureau is operating under a new mandate to reduce the
backlog of pending TV and radio assignment and transfer applications. The bureau also will be acting more swiftly on
current and new applications and petitions. The accelerated processing procedure is based on a new set of review criteria
that will result in the dismissal of frivolous or otherwise baseless petitions to
deny or oppositions filed against
passed the telecom reform bill (S.652).
The bill includes amendments to the Communications Act dealing with spectrum
flexibility, the elimination of the national
numerical cap on the number of TV stations one entity can own, total radio ownership deregulation, a 2 -step license re newal process and an extension of
radio and TV license terms to 10
years.
DATELINE:
The companion bill in the House of
following
Representatives (H.R. 1555) is less
stations in the
ownerCommercial TV
deregulatory. It prohibits any entity
or before
and
on
certifications
from owning or controlling two or
reports orlownership Florida, Guam, Hawaii,
shipstates
Alaska,
more TV stations in the same market
Oct. 1, 1995:
Rico, Samoa, VirIowa, Missouri, Oregon, Puerto
unless the FCC finds such ownership
or
Oe
W ashington.
reOct.files,
gin Islands and
theirpublic
will not result in a loss of competition
p
must
stations
TV
all
programming
1995,
cm
or diversity in the market. However,
their listingsresponsive
Sept. 30, 1995.
UHF -UHF and UHF -VHF combinathe quarter ending
tions would be permitted unless such
ownership results in a loss of competition or diversity.
The House bill would permit the FCC
broadcast applications.
to grant TV license renewals for up to
The Mass Media Bureau's initial goal was
seven years instead of the current five years.
to resolve all uncontested cases that had
The new 2 -step renewal process in the been pending for more than 180 days by
House and Senate bill would require the June 30, 1995. Some of those cases, particFCC to renew a broadcast license once the ularly those that raised novel issues or
agency finds: (a) the station has served the involved complex facts, had been pending
public interest during its license term, and for years. The staff also set July 31 as the
(b) there have been no serious rule violadeadline to resolve all contested station
tions or patterns of rule violations by the sales that had been pending for more than
licensee. Applications filed in competition
180 days. In order to achieve these goals,
with renewals would not be considered if the bureau adopted tougher standards conthese threshold public interest findings are cerning:
made.
1995 REGULATORY
VHF stations
Markets 1-10
Markets 11-25
Markets 26-50
Markets 51-100
Remaining markets
Auxiliary station
Construction permits
$22,420
$19,925
$14,950
$9,975
$6,225
$30
$4,975
Remedy (i.e., whether processing of the
assignment/transfer application should be
delayed when the likely penalty for an
alleged rule violation would be only a
small fine).
3)
The staff's new "triage" processing system
should result in greater equity and
faster service in the assignment/
transfer application process.
FCC adopts
1995 regulatory fees
The FCC adopted new 1995 regulatory fees that require each licensee
and permittee to pay for each license or
permit granted on or before Oct. 1, 1994.
See Table 1 for a list of the fees for each
type of authorization.
Licensees with auxiliary licenses (e.g.,
remote pickup stations, STLs, intercity
relay stations and low -power auxiliary
stations) must pay a $30 regulatory fee
for each such license. Licensees of low power TV, TV translator and TV booster
stations whose licenses were granted on
or before Oct. 1, 1994, must pay a regulatory fee of $170 per station.
All fees are due on or before Sept. 20,
1995, and must be accompanied by FCC
Form 159.
The commission generally has retained
the same procedures established in 1994
for the payment of regulatory fees. However, because the time for collecting fees
will be limited and regulatees will have at
least 90 days' notice of the amount of
their fees, installment payments will not
be permitted.
Harry C. Martin and Andrew 5. Kersting are attorneys with Reddy,
Begley, Martin & McCormick, Washington, DC.
FEES FOR TV STATIONS
UHF stations
Markets 1-10
Markets 11-25
Markets 26-50
Markets 51-100
Remaining markets
Auxiliary station
Construction permits
$17,925
$15,950
$11,950
$7,975
$4,975
$30
$3,975
E-mail:
[email protected]
CompuServe:
74672,3124
FAXback:
913-967-1905
Table
8
1.
1995 regulator' toes for stations.
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Video 18/20 Plus.
The Best. For Professionals.
The only high capacity head with super smooth, pure fluid damping,
constant and even counterbalance with any load. The new standard!
True precise fluid
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The -irst counterba-
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lance system allo-
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The new
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Video 18 Plus up to 22 kg/48 lb
Video 20 Plus up to 28 kg/62 lb
7:r7 tth9-$#f
L
Eastern Europe:
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Japan
Amin Sachtler Corp.
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Telephone (030) 6364311
Telefax (030( 6 3634 66
Telefax (089) 32158227
Telex 5215340 sac d
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5
sachtler
Support
&
Lighting
System overview,
part
By Paul
1
Montoya
message to the public. This system breaks
down often due to a station not passing on
information or because of barriers and distances between stations. By the mid -1980s,
problems with this system moved broadcasters and the FCC to consider alternatives. A
few of those activities ultimately had input to
the new EAS. Here are some examples:
The Colorado Broadcasters Association put
together a task force to explore delivery of
alerting signals around the state. This was a
challenge because of the state's topography.
The task force came up with a plan using
multiple means for point-to-point communi-
cations between broadcasters, including
Acolleague recently mentioned that he
was glad the "BS" has been taken out of EBS.
General managers and owners will be happy
that their listeners won't be driven away by
22 seconds of obnoxious tones. Engineers
will be happy that they don't have to maintain a system that never worked well.
The first phase of the EAS system is already being implemented. These regulations
are incorporated into Part 11 of the FCC
rules. Before delving into the new system,
however, a bit of history is in order.
How we got here
The 2-tone EBS system was established in
the early 1970s. This approach provided the
most robust way to transmit signals without
false triggering. EBS relies on stations passing
information from one to another to get the
microwave and satellite. This web approach
became the basis of distribution for the system.
Meanwhile, in the Los Angeles area, another engineering group put together a plan
for distributing more detailed information
about disasters to news departments around
the area. Using packet radio, the group
developed a method of delivering long -form,
coded information around the service area.
The National Weather Service also needed
a way to reach specific areas through its
VHF-based NOAA Weather Radio. Through
basic coded information, it came up with a
protocol to notify specific populations with
multiple alert levels. The system, called
Weather-Radio Specific Area Message Encoder (WRSAME), serves as the basis for the data
protocol found in the EAS system.
In 1993, the FCC began testing new sys-
tems with the cooperation of state emergency
communications groups in Colorado and
Maryland. Testing took about a year.
The FCC then proposed rule changes for
the EBS system and after processing comments, it issued a Report and Order outlining the rules in December 1994.
Implementation is the key
Given the level of effort put into the development of EAS it should work well for many
years to come, if implemented properly. But
that's a big "if." Its most important component is not at the federal or the state level, but
on the local level. This is where EAS will be
used most. If the system works well at the
local level, then the state and national plans
should fall into place easily.
The EAS should be a system that broadcasters will want to participate in if it's put
together correctly. A well -implemented EAS
can become a valuable resource for the
broadcaster rather than simply a new regulatory burden from the FCC.
Next month, this column will explore how
the web system works and why this is such an
important part of the new EAS.
Paul Montoya is president of Broadcast Services of Colorado,
contract engineering firm in Lakewood, CO.
For information on EAS equipment, circle (100) on Reply Card.
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Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
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II! TRANSITION TO
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Digital basics, part
By Steve Epstein, technical editor
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For those familiar with digital, the early
part of this series may seem basic. However,
for those beginning to emerge from analog
and venturing into digital, this series should
provide a solid foundation and a comprehensive source of digital information.
mathematically.
This is a key difference between analog and
digital. Changes to the waveform, whether
desired or not, will cause distortion of the
information in analog circuits but not in
digital circuits. However, gross signal distortions in digital circuits can render it impossible to recover sufficient data to properly
reproduce the information. Analog signals
tend to degrade predictably, whereas in digital circuits there is no apparent degradation
of the information until signal recovery is
impossible, at which time all information is
lost.
Converting analog to digital
Analog signals are analogous to the natural sources they represent. These analog
electronic representations must be converted
to digital. To convert this information, it
must be sampled and quantized. Sampling is
the process of measuring signal levels at
Figure 1. Aliasing occurs when frequencies are
sampled using a sampling rate less than twice the
signal frequency. In (a) the sampling rate is adequate for the waveform, in (b) the sampling rate is
too low. The dashed line shows the resulting sampled
waveform.
Signal basics
In analog circuits, time -varying voltages
(or currents) are used to represent analog
light or sound energy (information). In a
quantization values is increased, the quantitypical analog circuit, the information repreperiodic intervals. According to Nyquist the- zation process becomes more precise. For
sented by the signal and the signal itself are ory, to properly resolve a signal that contains instance, if a studio lamp is brought up to
one and the same. Signal amplitude or level
a frequency of x, the signal must be sampled half brightness and you are asked to reprecan be increased with amplifiers or decreased
at a frequency of at least 2x. It follows that to sent its brightness level within a quantization
with attenuators for required signal processresolve an audio frequency of 20kHz, the range of two (full on or full off), either choice
ing. Equalization (frequency selective amplisampling rate must be at least 40kHz. Com- represents a 50% error. If, however, the range
fication or attenuation) can also be used to
mon sampling rates for audio include was increased to 16, the choice of a seven or
provide the desired output characteristics.
44.1kHz and 48kHz. For video, sampling an eight would represent an error of 3%. For
Many times, signal attenuation and/or equalrates include 14.3MHz (composite NTSC)
those that think the middle value would be
ization is an undesired result of signal proand 13.5MHz (CCIR 601).
between eight and nine, digital systems norcessing. When this happens, the information
Aliasing occurs when signals contain fre- mally refer to the first value as zero, not one.
represented by the signal becomes distorted.
quencies that are higher than half the sam- A range of 16 values would start at 0 and go
In digital circuits, information is representpling rate. (See Figure 1.) To prevent aliasing, to 15 rather than 1 to 16.
ed numerically. The signal contains the inforan anti-aliasing (low-pass) filter is used to
The choice of 16 is not arbitrary. In digital
mation, but the information is not directly remove frequencies higher than half the sam- systems, bits are represented as either zeros or
affected by amplification, attenuation or pling rate prior to the sampling process.
ones. Numeric values of groups of bits follow
equalization of the signal. For example, in an
Quantization is the process of attaching an the powers of two. A group of four bits can
analog circuit, a signal level of 5V may integer value to the sample. Fractional repre- represent 16 values or 24, eight bits can
represent a 100% amplitude signal and a OV sentations are not allowed. As the range of represent 256 values or 28. More often than
level represents a 0% amplitude signot, in the future "round numbers"
nal. If, due to excessive cable lengths,
will be powers of 2, rather than
a 5V signal was attenuated to 3.5V,
powers of 10.
an analog circuit would interpret it
Quantization ranges are chosen
(incorrectly) as a 70% signal level.
based on the amount of storage
However, in a digital circuit where
space available, and balanced with
signal levels from OV to 2V reprethe precision required. A common
sent a "0" and levels from 3V to 5V
quantization range for audio is 16
represent a "1," a 5V signal attenubits, with 8 or 10 bits used for video.
ated to 3.5V would still be interFor component video, each compopreted correctly as a "1" at the
nent may be represented by 8 or 10
receiver. In digital circuits, attenuabits.
tion and equalization may affect the
Digital video
signal, but as long as the numeric
values can be correctly recovered,
Numerous standards exist for anthe original information can be realog video, unfortunately the same
produced with little or no distortion. As stations transition from analog to digital, equipment must be chosen is true for digital video. Luckily, the
To process, in the analog sense, the
carefully to minimize budgeting considerations while ensuring that CCIR-601 standard exists that takes
original waveforms, the numeric rep- existing equipment is not rendered obsolete prematurely. (Photo courtesy into account the need for converting to/from the various worldwide
resentations must be manipulated of Hewlett-Packard.)
12
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
COMPONENT SAMPLING FREQUENCIES
4:2:2
DIGITAL
STREAM
E
S
A
V
A
V
C
b Y r
C
Y
C
10
BITS
C
b Y r
SAMPLING
FREQUENCY
13.5 MHz
6.75 MHz
TOTAL
27.0 MHz
Figure 2. When sampling video fora 4:2:2 digital stream, all three components are sampled, followed by
a Y -only sample, then all three samples again.
standards. Like analog, there are composite
and component varieties. In addition, the
computer graphics world has given us a new
group of standard formats to deal with. Let's
start with a few basic video signals and deal
with the computer graphics world in future
columns.
Common digital video types include composite NTSC, sampled at 14.3MHz, using 8 bit quantization. This is the SMPTE 244
specification and is used on the D-2 series of
VTRs. A composite PAL standard exists that
uses a 17.7MHz sampling rate and up to 10 bit quantization. (For more information on
these standards, see "Strictly TV," January
and February 1994.) Probably the most common digital format is the CCIR 601 specification. This specification provides for component digital video, sampled at 13.5MHz
for luminance with either 8- or 10 -bit quantization. If an 8 -bit signal is used in a 10 -bit
system, the eight bits are used as eight most
significant bits and the two least significant
bits are assumed to be zero.
One common term in digital component
video is 4:2:2. Variations of 4:2:2 exist, including 4:4:4, 8:8:8 and 4:4:4:4. All of these
numbers refer to sampling rates used with the
video in question. In 4:2:2, the luminance is
sampled at 13.5MHz (4 x 3.375MHz). The
chrominance components, R -Y and B -Y, are
each sampled at 6.75MHz (2 x 3.375MHz)
(See Figure 2.) In a 4:4:4 system, all three
components are sampled at 13.5MHz, resulting in 50% more data. (See Figure 3.)
Systems using 8:8:8 use a sampling rate of
CAN BE
PRETTY TRICKY" CAUTIONED SNELL.
"YES! THE WAY AHEAD TO DIGITAL
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
13
4:4:4
DIGITAL
STREAM
E
S
A
V
A
V
C
b Y
C
C C
C
r b Y r b Y
1
Y
R - Y
B -Y
indicate the start of active video and end of
active video. When composite video is converted to digital, the sync signal is sampled
and included as data in the stream. Unfortunately, this means that quantization levels
used to describe the sync pulse reduce the
number of levels for describing the video.
The sync area of the composite signal is not
wasted entirely, because it can be used to
embed additional data including multiple
audio channels.
10
C
BITS
A
`/
SAMPLING
FREQUENCY
Acknowledgment: This article was prepared with materials sup-
13.5 MHz
plied by Michel Proulx, Leitch Incorporated and Synergistic Technologies, Incorporated. Additional information was taken from
"Your Essential Guide to Digital" by John Watkinson.
E-mail:
13.5 MHz
[email protected]
CompuServe:
74672,3124
FAXback:
913-967-1905
13.5 MHz
TOTAL
40.5 MHz
On Nov. 15-17 in Chicago, Broadcast
Engineering presents Advanced Television '95: Transition to Digital. For attendance information, see the advertisement on page 77 or call: FAX ON DEMAND at 1-800-601-3858 or Susan Link
at 913-967-1969.
Figure 3. When sampling for a 4:4:4 stream, all three components are sampled every time.
27MHz. The fourth number in the series
denotes the sampling rate of a luminance only alpha channel that is used for keying or
compositing purposes.
In component systems, to reduce the number of samples needed, synchronization information is not sampled, but rather, reserved symbols (SAV and EAV) are used to
"AT LAST...THE DOORWAY TO DIGITAL!"
WHISPERED WILCOX
.
14
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Email: [email protected]
MANAGEMENT
By
The mark
Richard Farquhar
of excellence
out and work with the other departments
for the mutual good of the company. You
cannot sit around and complain about other departments or the way they do business
without damaging your own reputation.
Remember, "the scent of the rose lingers on
the hand that threw it."
Making the effort
who properly
manage their time find themselves able to
get more things done without running out
of time. The quality of their performance
increases, and they can accomplish more in
fewer hours. They rarely miss deadlines.
Plan each day's activities the night before.
If you don't have a plan, you will end up
somewhere. Choose your direction.
3. Be a time manager: People
As a manager, I am always pleased when
The Society of Broadcast Engineers (SBE)
introduced the Certification Program in 1975.
Since then, engineers have been asking
"What is in it for me?" or "Will certification
help me gain employment or keep my job?"
While gathering information for this article, I was looking for people who could give
testimonials or relate real-life stories of how
being SBE certified enabled them to find the
job of a lifetime. I am sure there are many
such stories out there, and if I researched
long enough, I'm sure I could share an
impressive list with you. But it is more
important for you as the engineering professional to create your own testimonial. You
can be part of America's new future by
helping to create it. Professional organizations such as SBE, SMPTE, IEEE or ITVA
can provide the tools you need to begin
creating your own testimonial.
Professional
organizations can
provide the tools you
need to begin creating
your own testimonial.
Create your own testimonial
What can you do to create your own
testimonial? You read a book from the
beginning to the end. In creating your testimonial, you work backward. You start with
the ending you want and then you do everything you must to reach the beginning of
your book.
The first thing you need to do is rid
yourself of the current American work ethic of doing the minimum level of service
necessary to satisfy your employer. Second,
stop being a backseat driver and let the
boss know you stand behind him. Many
engineers are content to sit in the back
room, repair a black box and talk about
what is wrong with the other departments
in the company. They are reluctant to come
16
someone makes an effort to help me do my
job. Managers do not have all of the answers (even if at times they think they do).
They need your input. What would happen
if you stopped complaining and started
taking an active interest in resolving situations that affect other departments within
your organization? What would happen if
you made the effort to communicate with
those other departments and actually pitched
in and made suggestions?
If you are not being invited to daily, weekly
or monthly staff or department meetings,
why not simply say "I want to learn more
about our operations so may I attend your
meetings?" At a facility I worked at a few
years ago, two new managers came onboard
and did exactly that. The results were fantastic. New ideas were shared and we created a
team that became unbeatable. Everyone
viewed everyone else as a professional.
If you follow the advice of author and
teacher Dr. Edward Deming, you will have
something better than a testimonial; you
will have the respect of your peers. Here are
Deming's four steps to success:
1. Be a leader: Successful people are leaders.
They inspire others to do their best and
bring about greater results all around them.
Subordinates do a better job of solving
problems and coming up with creative ideas.
Leaders make good and timely decisions
and are self motivated.
In other words, stop talking about the
situations in your facility and become involved in correcting them. Each day resolve
to enrich the lives of three people. It doesn't
take much effort. If your receptionist has a
good phone voice, tell her so.
2. Be organized: Most successful people manage their time well. They make time work to
their advantage rather than against it. They
are organized and remember what needs to
be done. Their days are planned, and everyone seems to be amazed at how they can
accomplish so much and how many differ-
ent types of projects they can handle.
Throughout the day ask yourself, "Is this
the most valuable use of my time?"
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
4. Be a good communicator: Most successful
people are good communicators. In many
cases, people who make it to the top are not
those with the best technical capabilities,
but those who are best able to communicate. To improve your ability to communi-
cate, concentrate on the following:
Develop good speech
Speak at a moderate rate of speed
Use words your listeners understand
Be a good listener
Develop your public speaking
Understand and use body language
Speak with a purpose
Know how to get and keep attention
Speak clearly and concisely
As you work at Deming's four steps to
success, you will be more successful and be
more in control of your own destiny. You
will have your own testimonial in the form
of letters of recommendation from your
employers, raises and more. As Zig Ziglar
once said, "America was built by people
pulling on the oars, not resting on them."
You need to pull your own boat away from
the dock and move to the open sea. You will
be glad you did.
Continuing education
Engineering is a dynamic field and those
who decide to enter it must commit themselves to a lifetime of education. For engineers, receiving a college degree or SBE
certification is just the beginning of the learning process. Whether you are an accountant,
engineer or association executive, your professional organization has tests to measure
your professional growth. No one can guarantee you lifetime employment, but by following the steps outlined here and becoming professionally certified, you can achieve
a professional level that makes you proud.
Work always comes to those who are prepared. Are you ready?
Richard Farquhar is president of RAF Associates, a management,
engineering, consulting firm in Canal Winchester, OH.
E-mail: [email protected]
CompuServe: 74672, 3124
FAXback: 913-967-1905
Finally, technology has caught
up to your imagination.
Media Pool for Broadcast
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PRODUCTION
By Chris Leonard
Managing resources
in a computerized environment
Managing resources is an umbrella business term referring to the monitoring, decisions and action taken in regard to virtually
every element of your business to enhance
profitability. Valuable tools in accomplishing
this goal are automation and integrated facility management software. Most businesses
are computerized to some degree, but a fully
integrated system allows more complete and
specific resource management data to be
compiled and analyzed.
In the broadest sense, resources fit into two
categories: people (talent, operations, support,
management) and things (suites, equipment,
cash, tape stock, trucks, etc.). Facility management breaks down these resources into three
applications: monitoring projects, inventory
management and profitability management.
Monitoring projects
The primary benefit of monitoring projects
using integrated facility management software is instant access and updating of real
information. When based on factual input,
intelligent decisions can be made by production personnel and clients on a more
timely basis. Job changes are instantly posted to schedules and/or work orders, cost
changes are automatically implemented and
anyone with security clearance can pull up
the new parameters from on -site or remote
locations. By tracking every element along
the way, clients and producers can prevent
problems or omissions, track actual costs vs.
budgets, estimate costs for job completion
and avoid last-minute crises and confusion.
Another resource management tool is precise billing of elements. The practice of bundling costs (lighting, grip equipment, catering, transportation or other peripheral services) can be costly and agitating. By employing an integrated management system,
individual items can be automatically priced
at the bidding stage so there is less money
that falls through the cracks, and clients
aren't upset at being charged for items that
they didn't use or need.
Integrated scheduling software is fundamental in monitoring resources. Information
from the bidding process can be pulled up,
18
special client rates can be accessed and applied, and any applicable purchase orders
can be generated and posted to the work
order. Past client preferences, present schedules and future schedules can be viewed with
a few keystrokes. Room configuration templates can be applied, changed and approved
at this time. Bookings can be made with
various levels of hold, firm and bought. Potential resource conflicts are flagged and the
availability of any given resource at any time
can be noted at a glance. Therefore, conflicts
can be avoided or resolved ahead of booked
time, and client confirmations can be electronically sent immediately or at a specified time.
Let's say you are managing a production
from several remote sites with many variable
conditions. All of your transportation, equipment, tape, talent and engineers are scheduled, confirmed, priced and approved prior
to the shoot. If, after the teams are on site, any
last-minute equipment or personnel transfers, rentals, image retrievals, scheduling adjustments or other job changes crop up, any
remote site can instantly hook into the software system via modem, find the best and
easiest path to procuring or changing the
needed resource, and communicate the changes to other remotes, pertinent office staff or to
the client, all in a matter of minutes.
Inventory management
For this article, inventory refers to tape and/
or film stock. This can be categorized into
news footage, raw stock and client stock. In
newsroom systems, many parameters can be
applied to retrieve materials, including air
date and time, story, subject, key word and
reporter, to name a few.
A computerized tape vault system that is
integrated into your overall facility management system provides an excellent means of
tracking inventory and costs more accurately.
Physical inventories can be handled through bar
codes and bar code readers. Complete or specific
raw stock can be instantly viewed and noted by
number in stock, number on order and number
on back order Individual raw stock items can
be automatically flagged when they fall below specified reorder amounts. Inventory
discrepancy reports can be generated at any
time for evaluating shortages and non-billable usages. With integration, your vault
program can be automatically updated from
any applicable purchase orders and the program can automatically post tape usage,
shipments and costs to the client work order.
Client libraries can be set up and searches
conducted by preset or custom parameters.
Clients also can access their libraries from their
offices using a modem and security codes. Client
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
pricing, ship to addresses and labeling instructions can be electronically noted and accessed
and movement is posted directly to work orders.
This information can be reported in many ways
to better evaluate use and minimize losses.
Profitability management
Resource profitability and management is
derived from the reporting capabilities of
your system and management's ability to
make decisions based on these reports. The
variety of reports should be evaluated singularly and in combination with others in a
timely manner. By doing so, problem areas
and revenue losses can be pinpointed and
corrected before they have a major impact
on the P&L statement.
Resource utilization reports along with sales
reports are extremely useful. A summary of
resources scheduled by hours booked, pricing or client would make a good start for
your analysis. Combine that information
with sales reports by department, room, line item equipment, tape stock, account executive, produce; client or client type.
You now have more powerful tools to help
make sound decisions and judgments. This
information provides a base for evaluating
profitability and productivity of your sales
and operational staff, equipment, rooms,
departments, clients and client types. From
this data, you can direct training and pay
raises, ascertain what departments or equipment you should enhance or promote and
help determine which clients to pursue.
By perusing maintenance reports, equipment downtime reports, non -billable item
summaries and similar reports, you can evaluate and control many of your costs. Staff
productivity vs. billing analyses and employee billables/billable overtime/administration
time summaries are effective in determining
patterns and changes in employee productivity and profitability. Purchasing and rental
reports by item and vendor are helpful in
ensuring that you are receiving the best prices
and can pinpoint equipment that would be
more profitable if supplied internally rather
than through rental services or vendors.
Job productivity rises because people can
spend more time generating income and less
time on non -billable functions. By raising
the productivity of your resources and evaluating their use, the flow of dollars to the
bottom line can only increase.
Chris Leonard is president of Tradecom, an industry consultant
company in Englewood, CO.
E-mail: [email protected]
CompuServe: 74672, 3124
FAXback: 913-967-1905
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INTERACTIVE
By Greg
Monti
Receiving E-mail
of proper training, a public relations staffer could handle answering your E-mail
along with other duties. With time, you
may find that the number of E-mail messages the staff must answer per day will
dwarf the number of paper letters that are
delivered to your front door. Paper letters
take more time to prepare, print and mail,
so viewers or listeners with computers and
access to E-mail will generally take the
E-mail route to correspond with you.
month we took
look at sending
E-mail and the way it can give your station
and its staff quick worldwide connectivity
for short text messages. Receiving E-mail is
a different story because when someone
Last
a
else is doing the sending, you'll think they
control your life.
Your E-mail address
The first thing you'll want to do once
your station has E-mail service is to publish
an E-mail address at which you want to
receive correspondence. There is no complete directory for E-mail addresses, although at least one publisher has gathered
E-mail addresses from Internet news groups
in an attempt to create such a directory.
You'll have to publish your E-mail address, such as in print advertising, on your
letterhead, on invoices and checks, during
credits or promos for news or other shows,
on other people's computer bulletin boards
and on Internet news groups. If your station has a World Wide Web home page,
publish your address there. (A home page
is an electronic brochure or advertisement
about your station that is available to a
relatively small but growing percentage of
Internet users.) A handful of broadcasters,
such as NBC Television and National Public Radio, have published E-mail addresses for some or all of their news programs.
Looking in the box
Once your address is public, you'll start
receiving E-mail in your "In Box." It may
take several days for you to get your first
message or you could receive one in the
first five minutes. And it could be on just
about any subject: a listener with a question, a viewer complaining about your
anchorman's politics or his hair style, a
laser-printer toner salesman looking for
leads or a potential advertiser inquiring
about your station's audience.
If you want to show the world that you
are serious about accepting E-mail, you
will have to answer each one that is of any
significance. Also, you'll have to budget
staff time for answering E-mail. With a bit
20
Anyone with the right
level of E-mail access
and some enthusiastic
student know-how
could read credit card
numbers and use them
for less -than -legal
purposes.
E-mail triage
To avoid the personnel and office space
costs of another staffer, you'll have to di-
vide up the incoming E-mail. Sort the mail
into those messages that require an immediate, businesslike answer, those that are
pro and con on some issue of the day
(which may only need to be tallied), those
that are so off-the-wall that you can't
figure out how to answer them and junk
E-mail. Ask yourself these rhetorical questions and set down procedures:
Do we answer every E-mail from an
audience member or do we have our information systems department set up an "auto
reply," an E-mail form letter thanking the
viewer or listener for his or her opinion
without giving a personalized answer?
How do we handle E-mail advertisements from potential vendors? Erase it
without reading much of it? Send a form
letter reply that you are not interested in
those products or services? Save the sender's message (or at least their E-mail address) in case you want to do business with
them later?
In any case, you'll want to assure yourself
that your station's staff can respond in a
timely manner to E-mail messages that
deal with subjects you would consider important if they arrived by U.S. mail, by
phone or by fax. By publishing multiple
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
E-mail addresses, you can get the senders
to do some of the sorting for you. For
example, some multiple addresses might
include:
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
May we serve you?
To get people onto an E -mailing list,
you'll have to set up a computer to act as
what's called a list server or listsery for
short. A listsery is an application running
on a computer at your station that accepts
E-mail addresses from outsiders and adds
them to a mailing list. Your publicity or
promotions people can compose a list of
weekly programming highlights or a monthly program guide that is automatically sent
by E-mail to everyone on the list at that
moment. (KASU-FM at State University,
AR, is doing this now.) Members of the
public can add themselves to
or remove
themselves from
the list at will. Be sure
that what you send out is compelling
enough to keep that audience interested.
Setting up a listsery requires a computing
professional with Unix system experience.
-
-
Selling via E-mail
In your electronic newsletter, you could
advertise products or services, such as tran-
scripts of news reports and talk shows,
licensed sports merchandise or advertiser
products. Although it is possible for E-mail
users to send you their credit card numbers, expiration dates and billing addresses, there is a significant drawback: security.
Individual data packets and E-mail messages on the Internet travel as plain text.
Leased data circuits, which make up most
of the Internet, pass through routing computers that could be on anybody's premises, including that of a university computer lab. Anyone with the right level of
access and some enthusiastic student knowhow could read those credit card numbers
and use them for less -than -legal purposes.
Some E-mail users know this and others
don't. Stay out of legal and public relations
trouble by warning users that credit card
transactions are not secure. Private firms
and standards agencies are working on
ways to allow retail commerce on the Internet, but the issue is not settled.
Extending your reach
The Internet -connected audience is only
about 10% of your station's total audience.
NO OTHER
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www.americanradiohistory.com
But it can also include out-of-town participants who may not be able to view or listen
to your station over the ait America is full of
your station's chances of successfully branching out into alternative media.
Nevadans who used to hail from New
Hampshire or Floridians who grew up in
Illinois. They may be interested in your
station. Your sales department probably
won't be able to charge advertisers a premium rate to have their products and services
plugged on your station's E-mail listserv.
Not yet, anyway. But, if E-mail becomes a
viable marketing tool three years from now,
wouldn't you like to have an E-mail marketing database already in place?
E-mail: [email protected]
CompuServe: 74672,3124
FAXback:
913-967-1905
BROaDCaST
enGineeRmd
Coming in
September
Greg Monti is technical manager of National Public Radios Future
Interconnection System Project Office. He may be reached by
E-mail at [email protected]
Digital Audio
Discover the tools available for
digital audio production.
Internet road map
Advertising culture wars
Building
Don't send unsolicited advertising to your
E-mail list. It will be promptly noticed and
your station's other E-mail addresses will be
promptly "flamed" with complaints. The
Internet started out non-commercial, and
many believe it should remain non-commer-
is:
Transmitter Site
Frequency Coordination
for the '96 Olympics
Find out how station engineers
and producers use advanced planning
to troubleshoot problems
for this important broadcast.
broadcast -related company that
has a World Wide Web site can get
linked to the INFOSEARCH free of
charge. There is an on-line sign-up
form directly from the INFO SEARCH broadcasting links site.
The URL for the INFOSEARCH site
cial. The Internet mindset is often stereotyped: "Leave me alone. Don't censor me.
Don't advertise to me. Don't tax me. Don't
sell to me (unless I'm really interested). Don't
charge me. Give me information for free." By
having a public relations staffer keep up with
changes in the Internet culture, you can use
E-mail to build relationships that improve
a
Learn the basics of building RF systems
from tower considerations to
building transmitters.
INFOSEARCH is an Internet
resource that maintains a comprehensive hypertext directory of
broadcasting -related sites on the
World Wide Web. As a service to
the industry, any bona fide
SPECIAL REPORT
The V -Chip -- Program Censorship
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Get up-to-the-minute news on how
possible regulations may affect
production and programming.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
ATV UPDATE
By Louis Libin
ATV channel assignments
also built upon and enhanced the assignment
model used by the FCC. (See "Spectrum Studies for Advanced Television Service in the
U.S." by William Meintel, 1994 NAB Broadcast Engineering Conference Proceedings.) The
ATV service and interference characteristics of
the assignment plan developed with the aid of
these programs depend on parameters, assumptions and guidelines that must be determined prior to running the model.
In the general approach to making the ATV
in each area of the country, the new ATV
channels will be found among those TV channels that are not used for NTSC broadcasting
in that area. The broadcast channels for NTSC
were allotted to cities across the country by a
complex set of rules based upon providing for
minimum separation distances between the
use of certain pairs of channels. The intent was
to minimize the potential for the broadcasts of
a distant station to interfere with the reception
of a local station.
The possible channels for ATV in each area
are to be found among the NTSC allotments
that were never constructed and among the
channels whose use for NTSC would cause
objectionable interference to existing NTSC
stations. The FCC has also announced the
intention to allocate only UHF channels for
ATV. This may not be entirely possible, but
certainly most of the new ATV assignments
will be in the UHF band. There may be some
VHF ATV assignments where UHF assignments are not possible, such as areas where
available UHF channels for ATV are scarce.
The geographic distribution of NTSC channels and the potential for interference between
stations make it difficult to devise a nationwide set of ATV channel assignments that
avoid inequities among the channels assigned.
The channel assignments must be carefully
crafted for the major markets and for the nation
as a whole. Available channels having the
larger co -channel separation distances are preferred. A table of ATV channel assignments
recommended by broadcasters has been recommended to the FCC and is available for
review and comment.
Chief engineers should be prepared to evaluate the service area of their new ATV channel
assignments and should begin preparing to
build ATV stations. The FCC Office of Engineering Technology has long used computer
software to assign broadcast channels satisfying the technical and regulatory constraints
for a particular service. ACATS technical committees have developed receiver planning factors and a model for predicting ATV coverage
and interference. Broadcasters have supported this work by providing computer resources
and funding software development. They have
24
channel assignments, an allotment table is
formed by considering each city or area in turn
across the country. For each area, one prepares a list of channels that are candidates for
ATV assignment. First, channels that are used
in this or nearby cities are eliminated because
their use for ATV would cause unacceptable
interference to the reception of an existing
NTSC station. Other channels are eliminated
because they would be susceptible to interference from NTSC stations or ATV-to -ATV
interference would result. The channels allotted to one city restrict the channels that can be
allotted in nearby cities, and in turn, this effect
spreads like a daisy -chain across the United
States. When a list has been prepared for each
area, the service areas of the ATV channels are
calculated and matched to the existing NTSC
service areas. Adjustments are then made to
better satisfy certain optimizing criteria.
Channel assignment program
This program is used to assign an ATV
channel number to every NTSC station in the
United States. The assignments are made so
that minimum geographical separation distances are maintained between the use of
certain pairs of ATV and NTSC assignments.
The most important constraints are the distances between two uses of the same number
channel for two ATV stations or for an ATV
and an NTSC station; this is the co -channel
constraint. Also important are the separations
between channel numbers that differ by one - the adjacent -channel constraints. There are
additional constraints at the Canadian and
Mexican borders and between certain offsets
of UHF channels termed the UHF taboos.
The program begins with a list of all the
NTSC stations. For each station, the program
calculates the distance to the nearest use of
each TV channel. The channel with the greatest separation distance is examined first. If this
channel satisfies all the separation constraints,
then a tentative ATV assignment is made. If
not, then the channel with the next greatest
separation is tested. If no channel satisfies all
of the constraints, then no ATV assignment is
made. This process is repeated for each NTSC
station. There are many assignment tables
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
that could be considered and many have
entries consisting of a pair of stations that
violate one or more of the separation constraints. Also, the resulting ATV service areas
vary from table to table. As an indication of
the complexity of this process, the number of
possible nationwide assignment tables is greater
than 10 followed by more than 3,200 zeroes.
Coverage and interference model
The channels of an assignment plan are
evaluated by using the coverage and interference model. The ATV channel power is set so
that the ATV signal can be received at the
maximum radial of the paired NTSC channel's Grade B contour: Then the ATV coverage
is calculated, taking into account the transmitting antenna pattern of the NTSC station and
signal propagation over the terrain. Finally,
the impact of other ATV and NTSC stations
is considered to determine the loss of service
area due to receiving interference from those
stations. For most of the ATV channels, there
will be no problem satisfying the goals. A
number of stations in spectrum -congested
metropolitan areas may not have completely
satisfactory service areas.
Some areas have so many TV stations in
close proximity that it is difficult to fit in an
equal number of ATV channels. As geographic problem areas are identified, the assignment
program can be run separately for each area.
The number of stations in one local area is
small enough to completely optimize assignments in a reasonable time. Thus, many local
plans can be evaluated to optimize the service
areas within that area. These local plans can
be "seeded" into the list of NTSC stations for
running the assignment program for the entire
country. The resulting assignments are then
evaluated using the coverage and interference
model program to calculate service areas. This
may lead to adjustments in local assignments
and a new national assignment table. This
complex procedure has been repeated until
the improvement in service areas become negligible. The result is a table of NTSC-ATV
channel pairings with the assigned ATV power; the areas and populations of the NTSC
and ATV coverage and the areas and populations lost to interference from NTSC and
ATV stations.
Louis Libin is director of technology for the National Broadcasting
Company (NBC), New York, NY.
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www.americanradiohistory.com
26
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
The changing
dynamics of
storage
technology
As computers become more powerful, they are replacing many traditional "black
boxes." Today, video is handled almost entirely by microprocessor -based systems,
many of which are integral to dedicated boxes.
Despite the advantages offered by the new and powerful devices, the computer
manufacturers are only beginning to recognize the extreme complexity of handling
"real-time" video without artifacts and delays.
With this in mind, this issue looks at video storage technology. We are all familiar
with the advantages and disadvantages of tape storage, so it is only touched on here.
Disk drive technology, both magnetic hard drives and opticals, are examined in
depth, as is RAID technology. Engineers and managers can use this information to
analyze current and future needs and find cost-effective solutions to their storage
needs.
Tape, disk and optical storage systems all have their strengths. Maximizing those
strengths is the key to making the most of this technology.
"Combining Tape and Disk Storage"
"RAID Storage Technology"
28
"Optical Storage Solutions"
54
"Hard
60
Drive Technology"
40
Steve Epstein, issue editor
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering 27
www.americanradiohistory.com
Combining
tape and disk
By Tim Slate and
Ray Baldock
sto rage
How well do tape and disk systems
play together?
The Bottom Line:
-
Professional hard -disk
recorders used to store
compressed video offer
flexibility, convenience
and cost savings in
handling commercial
spots, interstitials and
short program segments.
However, for many
broadcast applications,
tape may remain the
medium of choice for
longer -format program
material for the
foreseeable future.
28
Advances in data compression are bringing
hard -disk storage technology out of its traditional home in the computer industry and squarely into the midst of the broadcast and postproduction industries. Disk storage is a highvolume technology that's reliable, economical
and proven. Coupled with a well -designed professional disk recorder, hard -disk technology
promises unsurpassed flexibility for storage,
editing and manipulation of digital video.
But what does the advent of disks mean for the
hundreds of thousands of dollars invested in
videotape recorders? What are the advantages
of disk storage, and when is tape preferable?
What do you need to know so you can take full
advantage of disk storage technology? This article looks at combined tape and disk storage
systems and the advantages they offer.
Multichannel recording
Hard-disk storage represents a milestone in the
transformation of television from analog to digital. A typical hard -disk storage system consists
of a disk array and a controller unit. Under
software control, the system records, files and
plays back video and (usually) audio material,
moving it to and from the disks as needed. A
variety of other capabilities may also be included. Some systems provide multiple internal digital disk recorders (DDRs) with the ability to
record or play back multiple audio and/or video
channels independently and simultaneously.
Source signals can come from a VTR, a VTR
playout system or a satellite receiver. External
signals can be integrated with video played back
from the internal recorders using either internal
or external switchers. Paint and effects software
may also be included for video manipulation.
Given such broad capabilities, hard -disk storage systems can meet diverse needs, often in
ways that extend or complement existing tape based systems. One role for disk recorders is
serving as a cache for a VTR or automated tape
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
library system. Caching takes its name from the
computer world, where frequently used programs
and data are kept in fast memory devices for quick
access by the CPU. Disk caching relies on one of the
key differences between disk and tape; information stored on disks can be randomly accessed.
Combining random or non-linear access with
multiple record and playback channels makes disk
caching a powerful capability for playout of longand short -form material. For example, the ability
to provide multiple, staggered start and stop times
makes it possible to play out a movie to many users
from a single stored copy. This is ideal for videoon -demand and near-video -on -demand applications. In many cases, however, the cost of storing
many hours of long -form material can be prohibitively expensive. Disk caching short-form material is far more cost-effective.
One TV network that benefits from disk caching's short cycle time is La Cinquieme. It is a
publicly funded, privately run UHF network that
provides educational programming throughout
France. Much of La Cinquieme's programming
consists of short shows, many just 15 minutes
long. Disk caching is used to store and play out
hundreds of promotional spots and short program
segments each day. According to the station's technical manager, Sylvain Anichini, "Without the
disk recorder, it would be hard to broadcast so
many short events, since the back-to-back time
cannot be supported by the traditional spot replay
methods." Without it, some longer -duration material would have to be inserted.
Support for multiple stations
A multichannel professional disk recorder can
-
also provide affordable disk caching for multiple
channels simultaneously
a capability that's being put to good use by the TV3 Broadcast Group
in London. Along with its TV3 commercial broadcast, the group offers the TV1000 and TV1000Cinema subscription movie channels. Customers
Continued on page 32
At times like this, you better have
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available today. Exactly what you'd
expect from a sound company like
Telex. Give us a call, we'll he'p
you keep your sunny disposition.
RTS Intercom Systems. A Product of Telex.
9600 Aldrich Avenue South
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 USA
Circle (9) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
612-884-4051 Fax 612-884-0043
Earn money
munur
WAYS TO
YOUR SYSTEM'S
REVENUES WITH THE SONY
VIDEOSTORE FILE SERVER.
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Each media unit has a storage capacity
of 4.5 hours. The VideoStore system ca.-,
be easily and economically expanded
to up to 31.5 hours of storage. That's
almost 3,800 :30's.
LE'PE-X01 gül
Because it's digital, the VideoStore
system gives you non-linear random
access to your entire library. Spots
can be added, canceled or moved with
an average access time of .2 seconds
from command to play.
3 Predictive Maintenance"
technology provides: advance notice
of a failing component; interruption free playback in the event of most any
component failure; and hot swappable
components. Plus, in the event of hard
drive failure, all lost data is rebuilt
automatically, as a background task
when the hard drive is replaced.
CNFIGURAB
Up to 12 simultaneous, independent
video/audio output channels per sent
That could mean hundreds of channe s.
SONY
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The new Sony VideoStoreTM Multichannel Video File Server lets
you bring the advantages of digital storage to your commercial
playback needs. With the VideoStore system, you can access a huge
library of material - instantly and in ary order. Last minute changes
are simple. Picture quality is improved. The system is designed to
be more accurate and reliable than your current analog system-you
can have absolute verification every time a spot airs. And there's no
more time wasted assembling hundreds of spots onto a cassetteyou simply enter the playlist into the VideoStore system. No more
resource conflicts. Changes are just a matter of adjusting the playlist.
Since the VideoStore system is digi _al, you save money on labor,
maintenance, equipment; you make money from last minute opportunities. You basically make out financially, both coming and going.
For further information call 1-800-635 -SONY, ext. EARN
www.americanradiohistory.com
SMALL
MEANS MORE REtNUEii
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IT WAS JUST ANOTHER PEACEFUL DAY IN THE LIFE OF
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WEINER. You
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YfOU TOO
CAN END YOUR
COMMERCIAL INSERTION
NIGHTMARES.
THE EXPANDABLE
FLEXIBLE RELIABLE
SONY VIDEOSTORE
SYSTEM ALWAYS
DELIVERS A HAPPY
ENDING.
UGH, WHAT AN AWFUL DREAM.
THANK GOODNESS MY OPERATION HA5 THE
SONY VIDEOSTORE SYSTEM.
I
GUE55
I
HAVE TC
LAY OFF THE ANCHOVY PIZZA BEFORE BET.
J1995 Sony Electronics Inc. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. All rights reserved. Sony, Predictive Maintenance and VideoStore are trademarks of Sony.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Continued from page 28
disk recorder stores and plays
back commercials for GloboSat's rebroadcasts of the Fox
and CNN networks.
CART MACHINE - SPOT ARCHIVE & PROGRAM REPLAY
NETWORK
0
A
NETWORK B11
Time delay flexibility
Multichannel disk recorders
can record video and audio
STATION A
AUDIO
OUTPUT
and play it back, delayed, while
VIDEO
continuing to record, freeing
SWITCHER
tape machines for other uses.
This feature makes them ideal
PROGRAM REPLAY B
for program delay, whether
am
the goal is a 10 -second delay
STATION B
OUTPUT
®
-----nwm
or to capture programming
SPOTS A
SPOT
DIGITAL
DOWNLOAD
for playback in a later time
DISK CACHE
zone. When ongoing delays
SPOTS B
are needed that are longer than
the duration of a tape (a 4Figure 1. Serving as a disk cache for commercial sin tv, ,r professional disk recorder can provide spot playout for multiple
hour time delay with 3 -hour
channels from the same set of disks.
tapes, for instance), disk technology's higher storage capacwho subscribe to TV1000 receive TV1000- material to fill out the hour segments.
ity is particularly cost-effective, because it
Cinema for free; both channels play the same
GloboSat, the cable arm of Brazil's TV avoids the need for an additional tape deck.
movies but on a different schedule. Having
Globo and one of Brazil's largest subscripCBS currently runs 10 D-2 tape machines
the second channel increases value but not
tion channel providers, also puts multi- non-stop for each time zone delay; five
revenue, so an affordable way of providing channel disk recording to good use. One machines record the network signals, and
this service is needed. The disk recorder plays
disk recorder handles promos and commer- the other five provide redundancy. The netback promotional materials and interstitials
cials for GloboSat's own movie, sports, en- work is currently initiating a system that
for both channels, as well as short segment
tertainment and news channels. Another replaces all 10 tape machines with two disk
PROGRAM REPLAY A
[
V
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Extractor(SDAE)strips embedded audio from serial digital video signal and
converts it to AES/EBU format.
FITS LEITCH OR GRASS VALLEY
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AES/EBU DIGITAL INPUT -Accepts AES/EBU signal from SDAE or other
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(415) 589-5676 FAX:(415) 589-1355
Circle (12) on Reply Card
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32
- 8x1
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
constant
Constant
Change.
ADC's New LightSwitch "-The "Future -proof" Digital Router.
As digital formats come and go, so does a lot of expensive equipment. But while changing
formats often requires upgrading cameras, decks and other source equipment, it doesn't have
to affect your switching system.
Introducing the new LightSwitch digital router from ADC. A switching system that literally
doesn't care what format you use. By avoiding internal reclocking, the LightSwitch router is
able to switch any true digital signal, regardless of format-even ones that don't exist yet! It can
interface with either coax or fiber and features on -site matrix mapping, group takes, chop mode
and RS232/RS485 control panel interfaces.
So, regardless of what digital format the future holds-from D1 to HDTV-turn on the
LightSwitch router from ADC. For more information
about LightSwitch or our digital video and audio fiber
optic links and DAs, call us at 1-800-726-4266
D 'Telecommunications
or circle the reader service card below.
g
Circle (22) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
recorders. "Doing time zone delays for several different time zones can tie up a quarter
of a million dollars in tape machines very
quickly," explained Robert Seidel, vice president of CBS Engineering. A 4 -channel disk
recorder "essentially provides four virtual
VTRs. In terms of the sheer number of tape
machines involved, we expect to realize a
significant savings in capital and free those
assets for other uses."
Peaceful coexistence
As the previous examples suggest, disk
and videotape are best viewed as complementary, rather than competing technologies. At roughly a nickel per megabyte, tape
is far less expensive than disk, and currently
is the storage medium of choice for archival
purposes and full-length programming. For
short elements, on the other hand, disk
technology can increase reliability, performance and system storage capacity, while
reducing overall cost.
Disk storage can extend the lifetime and
the utility of existing tape equipment. Disk
caching can enable one robotics system to
serve as a central archive for spot insertion
on multiple independent channels. Spots
stored on archive tapes in the library can be
downloaded to the disk recorder cache on
an as-needed basis, enabling a single 4 channel disk recorder to support as many as
three on -air channels simultaneously. Caching can also lessen the wear and tear on
tapes, tape heads and robotic systems because tapes are used only to load the disk
cache, not for play-to -ait Each element is
loaded only once, regardless of how many
times it is repeated during the broadcast
day. The VTRs that are freed up can be used
for archival storage and the playout of longformat material. This can significantly increase the amount of material on-line without adding expense.
In addition, disk -based systems should
bring about a reduction in maintenance
costs and an increase in reliability. The mean
time between failure (MTBF) for disks is
close to 800,000 hours and rising. (See the
related article, "RAID Storage Technology," p. 40.) A small array of eight drives
yields an array MTBF of close to 10 years!
Operating costs are lower as well because
there are no heads to clog and no brushes or
rollers to clean and replace.
Compression quality
Although hard -disk technology has a proven record in the computer industry, a successful disk storage system for TV applications must be tailored to the requirements of
professional TV production and playout.
When evaluating disk storage systems, look
for the features you will need and use, and
pay attention to image quality.
TV disk storage systems rely on image
compression to compensate for the tremendous amounts of data needed to represent a
video image. For example, a single second
of uncompressed CCIR 601 video contains
more than 21MB of data, and an uncompressed 30-second spot nearly fills two
340MB hard disks. Not only must the system store this data, but to deliver several
streams of video to multiple output channels, it must carefully manage the data flow
to ensure a continuous video stream to each
channel. Without compression, this task
can quickly overwhelm even powerful microprocessors, fast buses and high-speed
system -to-disk interfaces.
Compression has been applied throughout the history of the TV industry to deliver
practical solutions economically. Representing a continuous image as 525 or 625 lines
is a form of compression, as is the sampling
of a moving image at 25 or 30 frames per
second or the interleaving of luminance and
chrominance signals. Modern digital compression techniques extend these principles
by eliminating redundancy in the picture.
For professional TV applications, digital
disk recording systems succeed or fail on the
quality of their compression. Successful systems must compress image data enough to
manage it in real time and ensure that when
'The Port Authcrity
Back in 1986, Sealevel launched its first generation serial I/O interface for the PC. h the
nine years that have followed, we have grown to over 75 communication and I/O products for the
PC and compatibles.
Arid each remains true to our original course: to provide you the value of high end features
and reliability at low end prices.
Versatile Vessels - Sealevel products provide selectable addressing and flexable interrupt request
selections. 16550 UART's are standard while optional 16650 enhanced UART's are available to
provide compatibility with twice the buffer size.
Chartered Voyages - And we're one of the few that provides the value of customized products.
You can direct our resources to design and build customized products to fit your specific needs.
Lifeline - Of course, we provide the value of comprehensive technical support staffed with knowledgeable people who can navigate you through even the roughest water.
Whatever Floats Your Boat - We manufacture a wide variety of communication and I/O cards for
multiple platforms including ISA Bus, PC/104, PCMCIA, and Micro Channel.
i
Products Include: Multi -port DOS, Windows, and OS/2 Serial I/O
High-speed Sync/Async Digital/Latching Relay I/O
Solid State Disk Emulation Systems
Electrical Interfaces Supported: RS -232, RS -530, RS -422/485,
RS -449, 2OmA Current Loop, V.35, and more.
SEA LEVEL
Tel: 803.843.4343
PO Box 830
Liberty, SC 29657
Fax: 803.843.3067
Visa and MasterCard accepted. All brand and product names mentioned arc trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Circle (23) on Reply Card
34
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Hard Disk. Easy Choice.
Who Says You Can't Buy Experience?
A
disk system is just another
of computer hardwareuntil you add the decades of
broadcast experience that only Odetics offers.
Broadcast expertise makes the SpotBank' from
Odetics your most flexible, cost-effective, and
piece
RAID3 disk controller provides redundancy
to protect against data loss
MicroSpot' option for easy news replay
Interfaces for all popular traffic systems
MediaPrep software automates dubbing
new spots to disk
Four playlists on one screen allows
single operator control
Smart management of disk storage prevents
dead -on reliable choice in on -air disk systems.
Actually a complete family of formatindependent disk automation systems,
SpotBank integrates network sources, programs
fragmentation
So don't compromise on your bottom line.
and spots as well as tags and other still images
for single and multi -channel applications. It has Odetics knows disk technology as well as we
know broadcast. That equals an easy choice for
all the features you need:
you.
Control of up to 24 devices-digital disks,
VTRs, and a variety of switchers
Call today to (800) 243-2001.
Director of Sales
Northeast
Southeast
Bill Keegan
(714) 774-2200
George Anderson
(609) 953-9101
Emerson Ray
(813) 960-0853
Odetics
Broadcast
®ODETICS 1995
West
Chuck Martin
(702) 256-7001
9671
Circle (24) on Reply Card
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South Central
David Scally
(404) 917-9506
Canada
Applied Electronics
(905) 625-4321
GOT SERIAL?
Then see us
played back it meets quality expectations. Steady progress in algorithms and compression hardware have improved image quality to
a level that is acceptable to the TV industry.
Regardless of the compression standard used, the results will
depend on the manufacturer's sophistication and expertise in implementing the standard. In addition, image quality is affected by
interaction between compression schemes and noise in the signal
being compressed. For example, interference artifacts between the
chrominance and luminance information can impair the picture.
These artifacts are represented as image data and bandwidth is
wasted compressing them and then playing them back. Thus, the
better job a system can do on decoding incoming signals and
reducing noise without reducing detail, the better job of compression
it can do and the better performance it will provide.
Objective test methods for compressed video systems are being
developed. For now, however, the proof of image quality must be in
the playback. Careful comparison of the compressed/decompressed
video with the original uncompressed video will help when making
a subjective judgment of the results.
for
cost-effective
Serial Digital Component
Convertors
digital-analog
conversion.
Multi format.
Multi -standard.
10-bit clean.
Performance and flexibility
In addition to high image quality, disk storage systems must provide
high performance and flexibility for TV applications. Disk storage
systems may provide an industry -standard bus, such as EISA, to
control internal devices, such as the disk recorder boards, I/O modules,
and mix/effects, and to handle audio data. Even with data compression, however, traditional computer buses are not up to the job of
transferring high -quality video data in real time. Systems that rely on
a bus architecture severely limit the number and the quality of
simultaneous video and audio streams. If you're evaluating disk
storage systems, expect to find sophisticated routers or other custom
hardware that supplement the standard PC bus in moving the data
ENSEMBLE
DESIGNS
Grass Valley, CA 95945
916 478-1830
Fax 916 478-1832
n f [email protected] e n d e
c o m
PO Box 993
i
s.
Circle (25) on Reply Card
Extend Your
Serial Digital Signal
with GEPCO
VSD2001
UL Listed Type CM
Flame Retardant PVC
Cellular Polyethylene
Dielectric
/
Double Shield
95% TC Braid
100% Alum./Polyester
internally.
Along with the system's central processor, look for dedicated realtime controllers for tasks such as field-accurate playback and switching of video and audio signals. Above all, look for a system that has
been designed by people who understand television, not by computer specialists trying to move into a new market. This can become
apparent when attempting to integrate the system into the real
world. EMI/RFI problems are common in station environments and
can wreak havoc on systems if they are not properly designed.
Choose a system with an architecture that interfaces readily with
your existing production equipment. Because professional disk recording is still a new and expanding field, look for a system designed
for future growth and the addition of new capabilities
from new
compression codecs to new video standards and interfaces. Make sure
the system also provides a range of recording and playback options,
-
18 gage'
BC Center
plus the features you need for frame-accurate editing.
In short, computer-based hard disks have long been a cost-effective, reliable storage medium. The combination of high -capacity
Conductor
Gepco's Video Serial Digital cable outperforms traditional
precision video cable because it has a larger center conductor
and dielectric which means lower attentuation at higher
frequencies. This enables you to make longer cable runs.
The RG/6 Type VSD2001 is suitable for all serial digital
applications, post production, TV studios and HDTV. It is a
stock item available in bulk lengths, various colors and can be
connectorized and custom -cut to your length requirements.
All Gepco cable is made in the U.S.A.
disk storage and advanced compression techniques have allowed
professional disk recorders to provide flexibility and power in
handling short elements. These systems can also extend the life of
existing tape equipment and robotic library systems, and give them
new power as well.
Tim Slate and Ray Baldock are product marketing managers in the Video and Networking Division at
Tektronix, Beaverton, OR.
1-800-966-0069
Ask your sales representative for a VSD2001 sample
Cable to carry you into the next millennium
C!
C
GEPCO INTERNATIONAL, INC. 2225 W. Hubbard, Chicago, IL 60612
312-733-9555 Fax 312-733-6416 TOLL -FREE: 1-800-966-0069
Circle (26) on Reply Card
36
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
E-mail: [email protected]
CompuServe: 74672,3124
FAXback:913-967-1905
fjA 9b9,44
else you may be stuck with a camera
left behind by digital technology
u
`
.ti
JOr
Lei
.d
With DIGITAL advantages such as a new
video transparency, flesh tone detail to
As we all know, communications, video,
information...everything is going digital.
Isn't it time cameras did? Today's digital
camera not only outperforms the best
analog can offer but sets new bench
marks in video quality, features, stability
and reliability. The days of the analog
camera are numbered because digital
offers too many advantages to be
ignored.
soften facial blemishes, precision detail
correction, precision transfer of setups between cameras, a plug-in memory card
to recreate exact setups weeks or months
later and serial digital outputs for D-1 and
D -2/D-3 VTR's, now is the time to consider
what all cameras will be DIGITAL.
Introducing the Digital SK2 600
NI
I
Unique PIP (Picture in Picture)
Allows a second video source
to be windowed with camera
video in any of four quadrants
or reversed with camera video
Separate H&V detail generator
for viewfinder makes focus "pop"
for camera operator
Exclusive single LSI device
provides 13 -bit
(minimum) digital
processing for
RGB
video includ-
ing detail and
masking.
The 600,000 pixel CCD provides
900 TV line resolution
SK -2600P
Portable Companion
Plug-in 6 position ND and CC
filter wheels
allow ecs}
insedlion o`
"No Diascope'
special effect
filters wilh 'ull
remote control
capability
internal automatic
camera setup
Thru-the-Lens
automatic setup
with standard grey
scale chart
f
r
High performance
Ultra Band triax system
(12MHz Green) or Field
triax system for long
cable lengths or Digital
optical fiber system
and dramatically reduces aliasing. An
optional, 520K pixel
CCD is available to
provide switching between 4:3
and 16:9 aspect ratios at the
push of a button.
Network Users:
CBS TV City, Los Angeles
CBC Toronto, Canada
IIJ
1111911-1_1 F l
HITACHI
"on
ora demo' "s
rill
Hitachi Denshi, Ltd.
Hitachi Denshi America, Ltd.
New yolk
(516) 921-7200
Los Angeles (310) 328-6116
Chicago
(708) 250-8050
Circle 39) Dn Reply Card
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Atlanta
(404) 242-3636
(214) 891-6381
Canada (416) 299-5900
Dallas
www.americanradiohistory.com
(71L
give you
amazing
pòwers.'
How can he do it for the price?
Circle (40) on Reply Card
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1
RAID
storage
By Bill
Moren
technology
RAID arrays are needed even with
100 -year MTBF disks.
The Bottom Line:
-
Disk drives, like airliners, don't crash often.
But when they do, the
amount of damage can
be tremendous. Fortunately, a technology
called RAID acts as
your disk drive's seat
belt keeping the data
intact and available
after a drive crashes.
Even though some disks
have published MTBFs
of one million hours,
using them without
RAID in real-time
broadcast applications
can be like flying without your seat belt
fastened.
$
-
How would you feel if the airline you fly with
removed all the seat belts, took out the escape
slides, sealed the emergency exits, and eliminated the fire extinguishers because, on the average,
they crash only once every 400,000 hours of
flight? Feel like taking the train?
Disk -drive Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)
is a much -talked -about and generally misunderstood term. The methodologies used by manufacturers to establish MTBF specifications have
changed over the past several years. The newer
methodologies aren't necessarily better or worse
than their predecessors
they're just different,
reflecting a different view of how to express the
reliability of a family of disk drives. This change,
and general improvements in disk -drive technology, are the catalysts for an increase in published
MTBFs from under 50,000 hours to well over
500,000 hours and in some cases, more than
1,000,000 hours (114+ years!). And they continue to increase.
-
MTBF
The MTBF calculation is a statistical method
for predicting the reliability of a device. For
electronic components, there are published standards for calculating MTBFs. The MTBF of a
device is generally determined by the failure rates
of the device's individual components. Failure
rates for individual components are standardized and found in published reliability references. The arithmetic average, or mean, of the
component failure rates yields the device's failure rate, which is easily expressed in hours
between failures.
This type of MTBF calculation is interpreted as
a prediction of a device's life. In fact, it was
common for a drive's warranty and MTBF period to be approximately the same. This methodology predicts the useful life (a component failure rendering a device useless) of an individual
device. But it is only a prediction, and then, it
only predicts the average time between failures.
If you installed a number of like drives, some
40 Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
would fail before reaching the MTBF while others
would last well past the MTBF. Furthermore, it
often assumes a period of infant mortality with a
decreasing rate of failure until the device's steadystate failure rate is reached.
More recently, other methods of MTBF calculation have become adopted for published disk drive MTBF specifications. These methods predict
the failure rate for a family (e.g. large statistical
sample) of disk drives, instead of an individual
device. The methodologies are typically based on
either field return statistics or ongoing reliability
testing (ORT). Field return data is either based on
statistics collected for similar products (used for a
new product), or on statistics for the actual device
if it has a significant installed base. However, given
the short life cycles of today's disk drives, by the
time statistically significant field return information is available for a particular drive, most users
are considering using the next generation of drives.
Using field return data for drives with older; but
similar technology has merit, but is not without
risk. No matter how similar two drives are, there
are differences in design and manufacturing processes. These differences may be enough to mask
an endemic problem with the newer drive that
manifests itself as a higher failure rate. Furthermore, as drives become more intelligent with higher degrees of onboard processing capability, the
influence of microcode design on reliability
shouldn't be discounted. After all, a drive failure
caused by a microcode bug is just as much a failure
as a failed circuit or bad bearing. Unfortunately,
software problems tend to be insidious and difficult to identify.
Like field return data, ORT is not foolpsoof.
Accelerated life tests, typically involving a sample
of drives exercised to their limits under extreme
environmental conditions, do not guarantee a
correlation between the test results and actual
performance in field conditions. No matter how
stressful this type of testing can be, it does not
subject a drive to the same conditions as does use
Continued on page 44
The HK -377 Ultra-wideband Studio/Field CCD Camera
System has the highest resolution, sensitivity and pixel count
of any NTSC camera currently available. The camera employs
newly -developed 2/3" FIT CODs, each with more than
600,000 pixels. An ultra-wideband triax system with 10MHz
bandwidth for each RGB channel delivers an unprecedented
900 TV Lines resolution at the base station output. The new
base station has provisions for digital signal output (optional)
to accommodate the demands of
high -quality production.
Unique features of Ikegami's
new high -end camera also include
extensive remote control of detail
functions, including the Skin Detail
to soften the complexion and to
The HK -377P portable companion
give your stars a more youthful
offers the same performance
appearance. A high -resolution
characteristics as the HK -377 and
operates through the some Base
viewfinder has its own VF DTL
Station or can be configured for
stand-alone operation.
(Viewfinder Detail) and PIP
THE
(Picture -In -Picture) circuits. The HK -377
has an AHD (Auto Hue Detect) circuit for
"skin tone capture.' Master Control
Panels ore equipped with memory card
I/O Ports. A 'Snap Shot File" permits
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" In Canada call, 1-800-050-2271, Dept. 151.
There is a better way.
[ha HEWLETT''
PACKARD
Continued from page 40
for an extended time. For instance, even if
500 drives are tested in parallel for 2,000
hours (1,000,000 device hours) there are no
assurances an inherent problem won't begin to surface after drives have accumulated
10,000 hours on an individual basis.
Regardless of the methodology used, today's MTBF specifications predict the time
between failures exhibited for a family of
drives, with no single drive operated longer
than its specified service life. The service life
of a drive is specified by its manufacturer
and qualifies MTBF predictions. With a
INFANT
MORTALITY
(BURN -IN)
BATHTUB CURVE
FOR FAILURE RATES
ally, reliability decreases as temperature increases, so drives that are operated in warm
environments with poor airflow will tend to
have a lower MTBF than those operated in
Multiple drive arrays
The total number of failures a user can
expect for a pool of drives in a given period
is the ratio of the number of drive hours of
operation and the drive's MTBF. This is
expressed mathematically with the following formula:
f
(n * s) / MTBF
where: f = total number of failures
n = number of drives considered
s = hours per drive in period under consid-
during their service life. It follows that 29
drives would be expected to fail.
The distribution of failures over time is
generally expected to follow the "bathtub"
curve. (See Figure 1.) This type of distribution has a decreasing rate of failure at the
beginning of a product's life (infant mortality), followed by a period of steady-state
failure, and concludes with an increasing
rate of failure corresponding to a bell curve
distribution nominally centered at the end
of the service life period. While drive manufacturers try to minimize field infant mortality with burn -in testing before shipment,
conservative wisdom does not expect new
drives to exhibit steady-state failure rates
immediately upon shipment. Also, note that
the steady-state failure rate is not zero; drives
are expected to fail during this period, but
the rate of failure is the lowest during the
eration
drive's life expectancy.
cool environments with good airflow. Drives
that experience a high seek rate tend to have
a lower reliability than those that experience a low seek rate."
END -OF-LIFE
W
STEADY STATE
(NORMAL LIFE)
TIM E
Figure 1. The "bathtub" curve depicts the failure
rates of a device over time, from the burn -in phase,
in which infant mortality is experienced, to the
steady-state period of normal life, to the end -of-life
period in which failure rates increase.
MTBF = MTBF of individual drive
Consider a video server application. If a
video -on -demand (VOD) server was to store
500 titles on-line, how many disk failures
can be expected if the server is operated
continuously for a 5 -year service life? Assuming each title is two hours long and
compressed to a video stream rate of 3Mb/s,
each title would require about 2.7GB of
storage or 1,350GB for all the titles. With
approximately 4.2GB of usable capacity
per drive, 321 drives would be required. In
five years, 14.1 million hours of operation
would be put on the 321 drives. If the drives
have an MTBF of 1,000,000 hours, then 15
drives, or nearly 5% of the total, would fail.
If, to achieve a higher video stream bandwidth, 2.1GB drives were used in lieu of the
higher -capacity drives, 643 drives would be
required. These drives collectively would
experience 28.2 million hours of operation
RAID to the rescue
Video servers are being adopted for a
range of applications such as video -on -de-
mand, commercial insertion and on-line
editing and playback. A common characteristic of these applications is the need to play
back video in real-time. Without redundancy, drive failures in a video server cause
interruptions to the video streams being
sourced by the server. Fortunately, these
interruptions are preventable using a technology called Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID).
RAID is designed to provide cost-effective
redundancy to groups, or arrays, of disk
drives. The technology was originally presented in an academic paper from the Berkeley campus of the University of California.
The paper presented five alternative techniques for implementing redundancy. These
techniques were referred to as
Level 1 through Level 5, otherwise
known as RAID -1 through RAIDS. A redundancy technique pre-
published service life, time becomes an environmental specification (similar to temperature, humidity, shock and vibration) not to
be exceeded if published reliability specifications are to be realized. Today's high -end
drives have service lives of five years, which
is the typical warranty period. A drive's
service life is analogous to the expiration
date on a carton of milk. If you always drink
the milk before the expiration date (replace
a drive at its service life), you'll likely live
your life without pouring a glass
of spoiled milk (a high MTBF).
Environmental factors beyond
time influence actual and speci$2 500
fied reliability. When evaluating
RAID
drives, care should be exercised to
ensure the environmental specifi000
cations are similar for different
n+1 RAID
drives. Two drives with identical
1,500
MTBF specifications are not of
similar reliability if their environmental specifications are different. For example, if one 1,000,000 hour drive is specified to operate
at 50°C and another is only specified to 35°C, the higher -rated
drive will have a higher MTBF
rating if only operated at a maxloo
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0
imum of 35°C. Even when operTITLES STORED
ated within specifications, two
4 GB drives, $0.40/MB, n=4 for n+1 RAID
identical drives operated with difFigure 2. This chart shows the typical storage costs for varying number of
ferent levels of stress cannot be
compressed (3Mb/s video rate) 2 -hour movies. Shown are costs for non expected to exhibit similar failure
redundant, n+1 RAID and mirroring (RAID-1) configurations.
rates. On this, IBM says, "Gener-
iiuiiu
IIUUI
-
I.-$500.
Ir%.
o
I,..
IUiUøi
Vor
44 Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
dating the paper, typically referred
to as mirroring, was used as a
frame of reference for the other
four levels of RAID and was termed
RAID -1. This technique duplicated every disk in an array. If one
failed, there was another with a
mirror image of the first's data.
This technique was common in
large-scale computing environments such as mainframes. However, mirroring is expensive because
the total purchased storage capacity is twice what is required.
The additional RAID levels were
devised to lower the cost of re-
dundancy while preserving the
redundancy and performance attributes of RAID -1. The underlying principle of lowering the re-
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dundancy cost is the use of error -correcting
codes (ECC) stored on a single disk. The
ECC enables a disk array subsystem to
regenerate the data that was contained on a
failed drive. Because the ECC for an arbitrary number (n) of data disks is stored on a
single disk, the cost for redundancy is much
lower than with RAID -1 ((n+1) disks for
RAID -3, 4 and 5, (2*n) disks for RAID -1).
See Figure 2 for a comparison of the relative
costs.
The (n+1) RAID configurations (levels 3,
4 and 5) have similar redundancy capabili-
ties, but differ in their performance characteristics. This is due to the techniques used to
distribute user data (e.g. digitized video)
across the array. RAID-3 uses a byte -striping
technique. User data is striped a byte at a time
across all data drives. As a result, a RAID -3
array appears to the host as a single disk with
a transfer rate equivalent to (n) drives operating in parallel. RAID-3 is ideal for applications that transfer large amounts of sequentially stored data, such as digitized video.
RAID -4 and RAID -5 distribute user data
using a block -striping technique. Each block
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46
of user data is stored in its entirety on an
individual disk. User data is evenly distributed a block (or sequence of blocks) at a
time across the data drives. A disk array
subsystem using RAID -4 or RAID -5 has the
performance characteristics of a multiple spindle configuration, each spindle servicing different user data requests. Because each spindle is independent, the data rate for each
request is low, as compared to RAID -3. RAID 4 and RAID -5 are better suited to applications that access small, randomly distributed
pieces of data, in which I/O performance is
more important than transfer rate. LAN
servers and transaction processing are examples of these types of applications. The
difference between RAID -4 and RAID -5 is
the method used to store the ECC. RAID -4
uses a dedicated disk while RAID -5 rotates
the ECC with user data across all drives.
RAID -5's write performance is higher because all write requests do not contend for a
single disk as in RAID -4.
Because RAID -3 is best suited for videobased applications, the balance of this article will reference RAID -3 for analysis.
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
RAID provides redundancy by storing an
ECC on a separate disk every time user data
is written. If a data disk fails, the ECC is used
in conjunction with the remaining data to
reconstruct the failed disk's data. The ECC
is actually a simple parity code applied to
the data stored on the data drives.
An analogy illustrates the principle. Each
sector of data on each disk is nothing more
than a sequence of numbers. Each byte
stored on the redundant (or ECC) disk is the
simple sum of the same byte position on
each of the data disks. If a disk fails, its data
can be reconstructed by subtracting from
the data stored on the redundant disk the
sum of the data on the remaining data disks.
The remainder is the data that was stored on
the failed disk. For example, if the number
10 is stored on each of four data disks, then
40 is the ECC (10+10+10+10). To reconstruct a failed disk's data, the sum of the
remaining data disks, 30 (10+10+10), is
subtracted from the ECC (40), yielding the
failed disk's data, the number 10. Figure 3
illustrates how user data and the ECC is
stored on an array with four data drives.
The redundancy technique employed in
RAID allows any single drive (including the
redundant drive) to fail without causing
access to the data to be lost, known as data
availability. The RAID Advisory Board
(RAB), an industry organization that promotes RAID technology, defines data availability as "an application's ability to access
correct data in a timely manner." For broadcast applications this means a RAID -based
video server can sustain a drive failure (or,
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Fax
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more precisely, one failure per
USER DATA:
(512 bytes/block)
RAID installed) and still supA1... A512
B,... Bs,2
C1... C512
D1... D512
ply video data in real-time for
BLOCK
BLOCK 2
BLOCK 3
BLOCK 4
broadcast. In fact, a host ac4 + RAID_-3
cesses (e.g. reads and writes) a
DISK
DISK 2
DISK 3
DISK 4
REDUNDANT DISK
RAID no differently after a
EJ
drive has failed than when all
A2
Al
A3
A4
® A1 .. A4
drives are operating. With
As
A6
A7
AS
® A5 .. Ae
RAID -3 arrays in particular,
there is no performance degraA509
A510
A511
Aso
0 As09 A512
dation after drive failures.
B1
B2
B3
B4
ED B7
B4
The "catastrophic failure"
B5
B6
B7
Be
® B5 . Be
for a RAID array is two simultaneous disk failures. The
13510
B511
B512
B509
e B509 B512
C/
C2
C3
C4
ECC of a RAID is not able to
C4
® C1
C5
C6
C7
Ce
® C5
Ce
regenerate the data for two
failed disks. However, the prinCs09
C510
Cs11
C512
e C509 C512
ciple of RAID says that the
D1
D2
D3
D4
e D1
D4
likelihood of two disks failing
D5
Ds
D7
De
e Ds
De
simultaneously is so remote as
to be considered negligible.
D510
Dos
D511
D512
D512
ED D509
The Berkeley paper presented
an analysis that quantified this Figure 3. User data is striped a byte at a time across the data drives
premise. The metric of con- in a RAID -3 configuration. The redundant disk contains an ECC
calculated using the logical exclusive -OR (parity) operator applied
cern is the Mean Time until
to the data stored on all the data disks. This ECC, when combined
Data Loss (MTDL). MTDL is
defined as "the average time with the data stored on any three of the data disks, generates the data
for the fourth disk.
from startup until a component failure causes a permanent loss of user data in a disk array." Permanent loss of data occurs
when two drives experience failures simultaneously, which, of course, prevents data availability.
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MTDL
Like MTBFs, MTDLs are predictions based on statistical probabilities. There are no
guarantees that two drives won't fail simultaneously. But because the risk for RAID is so
low, there is little justification for pursuing the more costly methods of redundancy that
tolerate multiple simultaneous drive failures. The variables in predicting the MTDL of a
disk array include the reliability of the drives, the number of drives, and the time to replace
and regenerate a failed drive. The Berkeley paper derived the following formula for
predicting the MTDL of a RAID disk array:
MTDL = (MTBF) 2/ ((D + C * n) * (G + C - 1) * MTTR)
where MTBF = the drive's MTBF,
D = total number of data drives,
C = number of redundant drives per rank (for RAID-3, C = 1),
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Broadcast Engineering August 1995
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NTL MPEG-2
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Two years ago NTL set the pace for digital
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NTI
New Unique Cable
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The disks in many RAID arrays are mounted on disk
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An example based on a typical RAID
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Most users will conservatively replace and
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(much quicker in many cases). Published disk
MTBF specifications are around 1,000,000
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MTDL = 2.08 billion hours = 237,823 years!
Given the earlier analysis of disk MTBFs,
a more conservative approach to calculating MTDL substitutes the disk's service life
(43,800 hours, typical) for MTBF. In the
example, the calculated MTDL drops from
an astronomical 237,823 years to a still
extremely high 456 years. Regardless, the
probability of an individual RAID suffering
a "catastrophic failure" is so remote that
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Copper coax
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Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
In addition to requiring real-time access to
video data, broadcast applications often
require round-the-clock operations. In this
paradigm, servicing a failed disk must not
result in downtime. RAID implementations
designed to operate in this environment
allow users to hot swap failed drives. Special
packaging, typically involving a disk shuttle, is incorporated in the array subsystem.
The shuttle card slides in and out of the
There are a lot of great
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Circle (34) on Reply Card
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array on card guides, much like a printed circuit board. The cards
typically plug into a drive backplane that connects the drive shuttles
and RAID controller. This approach eliminates internal cabling, a
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source of failures.
Once a failed drive has been replaced, the RAID controller rebuilds
onto the replacement the data originally contained on the failed
drive. The controller reads a portion of the remaining data disks and
the corresponding location on the redundant disk. With this information, the failed disk's data is regenerated and written to the
replacement disk. The process proceeds iteratively until the replacement is completely regenerated. At this point, 100% of the array's
redundancy capabilities have been restored.
Disk drive bandwidth is consumed during the rebuild procedure,
reducing the maximum user load the array can support. Because of
this, most users schedule rebuilds to off-peak hours, when the array
normally isn't running at full bandwidth. This way, the array can
simultaneously rebuild a replacement disk and service a lower user
demand without a degradation in performance.
Hot swap power
Disk arrays can provide redundancy in other components. Power is
a good example of this. Many RAID products support hot swap
redundant power supplies. However, caution should be used in evaluating redundant power implementations.
Two basic types of redundant power include load -sharing supplies
and disk -mounted power supplies. The load -sharing approach uses
a technique similar to the redundancy used for the disks themselves.
An extra power supply is added to the base number of supplies
required to power the array. The gang of supplies share the total
power load. If one of the supplies fails, the remaining supplies are
adequate to continue powering the array. There is no interruption to
service with this approach. Furthermore, there is no linkage between
power and disk failures. An array can simultaneously experience a
disk and power supply failure with no decrease in data availability.
Because the power in this approach is used for the entire subsystem,
power redundancy is available for all disk array components such as
fans, controllers and displays.
Small, disk -mounted power supplies are the other standard form of
redundant power. In this scheme, a power supply failure causes a disk
failure. The power supply failure is serviced by replacing the disk/
power unit as though it were caused by a disk failure, not a power
supply failure. Unlike the load -sharing power supplies technique,
here there is a linkage between power and disk failures. As a result,
a disk array using disk -mounted power cannot simultaneously
experience a disk and power supply failure. This condition would be
equivalent to two simultaneous disk failures, the "catastrophic
failure" for a RAID array. Furthermore, while this scheme provides
power redundancy for the disks, it does not provide power redundancy for other array components.
The reliability of disk drives has improved over the past several
years. During this period, disk manufacturers have changed the
methodologies used in calculating the MTBF specifications they
publish for their disk products. As a result, published MTBF figures
have risen by at least an order of magnitude. Upon closer examination, the actual increase in disk reliability is much less. The increase
in MTBF is attributable to the change in methodology used to
calculate MTBF predictions. Users also need to adjust their interpretation of MTBF specifications. This will show that drives are more
reliable, but are by no means failure -free.
Bill Moren
is
senior product manager for Ciprico Inc., Plymouth, MN.
509-534-2499
509-534-2428
E-mail: [email protected]
CompuServe: 74672, 3124
FAX:
FAXback:
Circle (36) on Reply Card
52
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
913-967-1905
+
As the manufacturer which performed the world's first installation of a full
digital studio back ih 1985, THOMSON BROADCAST
is
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introduce the 9200, the newest member of its digital switcher family. This
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decade of experience in conceiving, manufacturing and delivering only
component digital switchers. The 9200
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of this size
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keyframes and sequences, timeline control, 6 auxiliary busses, and more.
Besides being feature -rich, the 9200 switcher is ergonomically designed
and interfaces easily with existing equipment. THOMSON has funneled its
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Optical
By
Richard Bauarschi
storage
solutions
As storage choices broaden, the application, rather than the technology,
can become the defining factor.
The Bottom Line:
-
There was a time in
broadcasting when
being new or better was
reason enough to adopt
a new technology.
Today, engineering is
much more pragmatic.
When deciding whether
to adopt new
technologies, many
times the deciding
question is: "Will it save
money and what will be
the return on this
investment?"
For many years, storage costs have been part of
the day-to-day routine of broadcasting. Tape wore
out and you always needed more. The dynamics of
video storage have changed over recent years, with
new technologies adding flexibility and confusion.
This article explores the potential cost savings and
revenue opportunities of a new high-density, organic -dye-based write -once, read -many (WORM)
drive, the digital laser disc (Digital LD).
Storage decisions
Not all storage systems are created equal. Many
systems read and write data using magnetic energy.
With videotape, heads mounted in a spinning
drum penetrate into the oxide and binder system of
moving tape. Videotape is the least-expensive medium for recording a full -bandwidth video signal,
but there is still a price to be paid. The constant
friction of the tape means periodic replacement of
the heads and guides. Also, the mechanical alignment of the tape path is critical. To maintain
reliability, videotape machines require much attention. A sizable maintenance budget must be added
to the cost of videotape storage to find its true cost.
The hard -disk drive (HDD) found in most computers also uses a magnetic recording process, but
it is somewhat more durable. The head is designed to hover close to, but never touch, the
whirling media. To reduce foreign particle contamination that could lead to head crashes, HDD
manufacturers seal the heads, platters and drive
motor in a metal enclosure. This keeps HDD
reliability high, but it also causes one of its major
drawbacks: The media is captive. If something
goes wrong, the data can be lost. With videotape
and optical discs, on the other hand, the recording
medium is removable. It can be quickly pulled
from one machine and transferred should problems develop with the playback system.
O
Reliability factors
disc systems
There are several optical disc processes. The
phase change and magneto-optical (MO) systems
54
use lasers to apply heat to a thin layer of rare-earth
transition metals. In MO systems, a laser heats a tiny
patch of the disc to a temperature called the curie
point (about 200°C). At -that point, a relatively tiny
magnetic field can change the magnet polarity of the
heated area to record data. At playback, polarized
light is beamed at the magnetically polarized surface.
The phase angle of the reflected light varies according
to the polarization surface, thereby accurately reproducing the input datastream.
In the phase change system, variations in the
power of the heating laser cause the metal to go to
either an amorphic or crystalline state. The scanning laser will then either be defracted or reflected,
representing the binary states of the input data.
Both these systems use metal, which is a good
conductor of heat. Laser spot size and duration
must be carefully controlled to avoid disturbing the
neighboring data, effectively limiting the track pitch,
and therefore, capacity.
Non-metallic disc recording systems are also available. These can be printed systems, such as CDs and
CD-ROMs, or they can be dye systems. In a dye
system, laser light is pulsed onto a thin spin -coated
layer of organic dye. The heat changes the dye's
surface characteristic, forming a pit. A scanning laser
will be reflected when it contacts a pristine surface
area and defracted when it strikes a pitted area. The
dye is not a good heat conductor, and therefore, pit
spacing and track pitch can be much tighter. A
double-sided 12 -inch Digital LD can hold 19GB of
information, about three times the amount that can
be stored on MO or phase change discs.
Dye-based discs are write -once, read-many (WORM)
devices. For many applications, such as archives and
on-line libraries, this can be advantageous. It provides intrinsic write -protection and unlimited random-access playback.
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Digital LD players are designed with few moving
parts. Actuators move the optical heads across the
disc while a spindle motor rotates the disc at the
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proper velocity. Maintenance consists of keeping the unit dust-free, although for highest
reliability, it is also recommended that the
spindle motor be replaced annually. The
media is sealed between polycarbonate discs,
and because it is touched only by a beam of
light, it is not affected by frequent use.
Media costs over the life of a system are a key
factor in determining the overall system price.
The most expensive of the three media discussed
are the hard -disk drives. On the other hand, they
are purchased only once, and operated until they
break down. The least -expensive media is videotape, but it also has the shortest life. Digital
LDs cost more than videotape, but they can be
used heavily without degradation.
This is only half of the story, however As
the equipment we are contemplating will be
in service for several years, we would do well
to consider what prices may do in the future.
The price of hard-disk drives is descending
approximately according to Moore's Law.
This axiom of the computer industry states
that the amount of electronic memory you can
get for a certain price doubles every 18 months.
By corollary, prices for a fixed amount of
memory halve in the same period. There will
be a limit to how far HDD prices can drop.
Thereafter, it is likely that HDD capacities will
increase, but prices will remain constant.
Digital LD prices will also descend as their
Hard -disk systems can operate in any
environment suitable for office workers because the media is in a protective enclosure.
Videotape machines work best in a controlled environment, and tape vaults are needed to keep archived videotapes at a constant
temperature and humidity. Because the tapes
should not be exposed to water, the building
sprinkler system must often be replaced by
special fire -suppression equipment.
The Digital LD system can operate in environments suitable for either videotape machines or computers. The media, however, is
much more durable. It is specified for storage
at just below boiling and somewhat below
freezing. Submersion is not recommended,
but will likely cause little or no damage. The
discs can sit on the shelf until needed, although the robotic changer is greatly preferred because it keeps discs at the ready, but
provides physical protection as well.
Bred.
The transport mechanism ofthe Digital LD is shown
above. On this unit, one optical pickup is used for
playback and the other is for record. Units can be
configured for up to four simultaneous output channels from a single side. A 2 -pickup unit can provide
outputs from both sides. However, only one pickup
at a time can be used because the disk rotation must
be reversed.
volume increases. However, the Digital LD,
being polycarbonate and porfine, is far simpler than hard drives.
Demand for videotape may decrease as
emerging non -tape alternatives enter the
market. If the volumes fall, prices may rise.
Although tape and Digital LD prices may not
cross each other directly, by factoring in
upkeep and replacement cassettes, the longterm cost difference may be minimal.
Environmental expenses
Special environment costs must be consid-
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Modular expansion
There may be hidden costs in stepping up or
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Tape machines can be added or subtracted as
required. All that is needed is to adjust the
work schedule to provide personnel to keep
the machines loaded and repaired. Hard-disk
drive storage can be harder to step up or down
in volume. Changing array sizes may require
a reload and re -striping procedure.
Extremely large systems of tape machines or
tape machines that must access large libraries,
are enhanced by robotics. The Digital LD
system is most efficient when used as part of a
robotic storage system. A system of 225 discs
and two drives can store almost 5TBs. At this
level, the cost per GB is much lower than that
of hard disks, and approaches videotape.
Revenue matters
It has become increasingly important for
facilities to consider additional revenue streams,
not just operate more efficiently. One resource
that stations often turn to is their own archives, especially news. Providing fast, easy
access to news libraries allows producers to
create additional programming inexpensively.
Organizations with extensive news archives
have also sensed the potential profit in allowing
outside customers to access their archives. This
initial activity may be the seed from which
stations develop revenue streams in on-line
services, NVOD applications, second-channel digital programming services and National Data Broadcasting Services (NDBS).
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Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Most archives are already videotape, so we
will discuss the advantages of electronic archival. First, the entire library is available
Stand-alone VDR
without having to employ someone to pull
tapes and load machines or having to keep
For those who would like to take
machines of various formats running. Second, putting archives on the station server
gives all users access to programs within a
reasonable period. With videotape, if one
user has a cassette, no one else can use that
tape until it is re -shelved. Finally, some archive material is fragile. As access is increased,
irreplaceable tapes may be damaged.
Archives are meant to be read, not written.
The most successful applications of this technology will be those that combine the advantages of Digital LD with the strengths of tape
and hard-drive systems. Experience with a
few such scenarios will likely fuel the vision
for even more effective combinations.
Richard Bauarschi is director of broadcast and professional marketing
for Pioneer New Media Technologies, Long Beach, CA.
E-mail: [email protected]
CompuServe: 74672,3124
FAXback:
913-967-1905
By Steve Epstein, technical
editor
connector on the rear panel.
What really makes this unit unique,
is that all functions are accessible from
the front panel. An RS -422 serial port
is provided for easy integration into
existing facilities and the unit has builtin LTC/VITC synchronizing capabilities. For film applications, a film -style
remote is also available.
a SCSI
advantage of disk technology, but find
that the support computers are either
too costly or simply take up too much
space, the Video MOD -100 from
Rorke Data may be just what you are
looking for. The unit is smaller than a
typical VTR, requires no additional
support equipment and has removable media.
Depending on your needs, the unit
can be purchased with either a 1.3GB
magneto -optical drive or a removable
hard drive. Video is stored in a
Motion JPEG or MPEG (optional)
format. Two channels of 8/16 -bit
audio is also provided. Depending on
the quality required, from 80 minutes
of off-line quality to 32 minutes of S VHS quality can be stored on each
1.3GB magneto -optical disc. For even
higher quality levels, up to 54
minutes of Betacam/MII quality can
be recorded on a removable 4GB
hard drive. Both drive systems can be
expanded to up to seven drives using
The Video MOD -100, a stand-alone VDR
designed for applications from off-line to
broadcast.
Get Set, GO!
In the race for spot news, competition is tough so you can't afford to get tied down. To stay
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It's the winning strategy for exceptional journalism and higher ratings.
But news doesn't always happen where parking a live truck is convenient. The best pictures are often
across the busy highway, or beyond the fire department's barriers. Umbilical camera cables will
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your crews loose with Telex's new Camlink'" 200 Wireless Video system. A miniature microwave
transmitter snaps onto virtually any camera, sending top-quality video and audio back more than one
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Cut
utilizes our exclusive AutoPhasé" triple -diversity reception
system to help eliminate multipath problems. The signal
can then be relayed to the station using your truck's
current
ENG or SNG gear.
An
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Hurry... call the Telex Wireless Video Group at (415) 564-2728.
The Camlink 200 will set your crews free to cover the news where
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Caflg200
by Telex
Telex Communications, Inc.
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The
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(6121 884-4051, Fax (612) 884-0043
available in frequency -agile
2 and 2.5 OHz models. Patents pending.
©1995
Circle (48) on Reply Card
58
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Telex Communications, Inc.
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Hard -drive
technology
Eh
lame. Frantzreb
As capacity and throughput increase,
hard-drive technology is finding its
way into more and more areas of
broadcast and post-production.
As non-linear media production and distribution technologies find acceptance in the
broadcast industry, broadcasters have become
The Bottom Line:
Revolutionary changes
in video storage systems
have brought about new
equipment categories,
including non-linear
editors and video
servers. These changes,
coupled with the
increased availability of
sophisticated computer
hardware and software,
are changing the face of
broadcasting.
Understanding the
basics of these new
systems will facilitate
the decisions necessary
to move facilities into
the next century.
,$
60
more and more dependent on storage products
for reliable, cost-effective operations. The central element of non-linear storage is the harddisk drive. This device plays a critical role in
non-linear editing, distribution, archiving and
even acquisition.
Today's Winchester disk drives, commonly
known as mag disks or hard drives, consist of a
stack of rigid platters, coated with a magnetic
material; read/write heads (generally two for
each platter); mechanical assemblies for moving
the heads and platters; and sophisticated electronics. At the highest level of abstraction, these
components combine to determine four technical elements of interest: sustained data transfer
rate, capacity per device, form factor and mean
time between failures (MTBF).
Disk-drive performance
Broadcasting applications such as commercial
insertion, news editing and on-line video libraries, where extremely large amounts of randomly
accessible video are needed instantaneously and
in continuous streams, push drive performance
to the limits. For these video applications, the
most important aspect of disk -drive performance is the ability to produce high-speed,
sustained and uninterrupted data transfers.
Transfer rate is a measure of how quickly the
drive can deliver a datastream measured in
megabytes per second. Many other performance
specifications typically are reported with any
given hard drive. These include seek time, access time, media data rate, burst transfer rate
and read channel bandwidth. Although interesting on their own merit, they all combine with
the drive's firmware to produce a characteristic
overall performance level.
Today's JPEG-compressed, broadcast -quality
video streams require at least 4MB/s, including
two channels of audio sampled at 44kHz. While
the data rate demanded by a single video/audio
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
stream varies relatively little, the transfer rate from
the drive varies based on the data's physical location. Specifically, data stored closer to the center of
the platter (the inner diameter or ID) cannot be
transferred out as rapidly as data at the outside
diameter (OD). For this reason, overall transfer
rate is expressed as a range or an average. Broadcasters must ensure that the slowest part of the
drive is capable of sustaining an appropriate data
rate for the most demanding material.
Firmware modification is another critical component of the sustained data rate equation. Most
data-processing applications require fast access to
relatively small chunks of data and are premised
on the belief that the drive can and will be idle
frequently. As such, hard -drive design incorporates heavy use of error correction and does not
provide for instant and uninterrupted access to the
data. For data processing, a slight delay of the data
is acceptable, but losing a single datum is not. With
digital video, however, it is acceptable if some
pixels are not optimally resolved or drop out
completely as long as the datastream is not held up.
Disk -drive firmware can be optimized for video by
adjusting error correction schemes and eliminating
non-interruptable "housekeeping" activities.
The final element of the data transfer pipeline is
the external device interface, primarily, small computer systems interface (SCSI). SCSI defines a communication and interface standard for desktop
peripheral devices that is being increasingly adopted on higher-end equipment. Fast-wide SCSI, currently the most common high-performance disk
interface, allows raw bus bandwidth rates of up to
20MB/s. New SCSI implementations will reach up
to 40MB/s, and serial SCSI architecture (SSA) and
fiber channel-arbitrated loop interfaces promise to
bring raw bus bandwidth to 100MB/s and beyond. All together, these factors account for leading-edge, single -drive performance in the 4.5 to
7MB/s (ID to OD) today.
Disk -drive capacities
The amount of data that can be stored on a hard
drive is a function of platter capacity and the
VHF TV
T
15, 1995
Beginning A
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HARRIS
ALLIED
©1995 Harris Corp.
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number of platters in the drive. Platup, a drive failure can wipe out
ter capacity, in turn, is a function of
everything. Even with backups, usa platter's "areal density" measured
ers are faced with the time it takes to
in bits per square inch, and the
restore the data.
platter's diameter. For any given diBecause loss of data is unacceptameter or drive form factor, areal
able, broadcasters have turned to
density is increasing at the staggerRAID storage. (See "RAID Storage
ing rate of 60% per year. This is the
Technology," p. 40.) With RAID, a
primary reason for the incredible
parity bit is generated by a RAID
price/performance/capacity gains in
controller and included along with
hard -disk drive storage. It is being
the striped data. In the event of a
driven by evolutions in read/write
disk failure, missing data is deterhead design, platter design and read
mined on the fly with no effect on
channel (electronics) technology.
the output video. Once the defective
Today, most disk drives use thindrive has been swapped with a new
film inductive heads to read and
one, reconstruction of the data on
write on the platters. Although inthe new drive is done automatically
ductive head technology is capable
by the RAID controller:
of up to about 500 million bits per
Additionally, by migrating infresquare inch, the trend toward smallquently used data from their disk
er disks with an increased areal dendrives, broadcasters can free valusity is taking its toll on thin-film
able space and maintain optimum
technology. Thin film heads have
hard -drive storage performance.
been proven to work well, but the
Software tools, called hierarchical
linear velocity of smaller disk's inner
storage managers, can be used to
tracks are too low to produce an
automate the process of analyzing
adequate signal for an inductive
data usage and migrate frequently
head. As tracks become more comused data to faster devices and less pressed, the signal is attenuated, A 3.5 -inch form factor hard drive. Current models offer capacities up requested data to slower devices.
making them unreliable for higher- to 4.3GB. Future units are likely to offer capacities in excess of 8GB.
density applications.
Disk -drive considerations
A newer head technology, and one curReliability and enhancing
Hard-disk technology is increasingly berently in use by IBM and other manufacturdrive performance
coming an important component for proers, is called magneto -resistive (MR). MR
As described earlier, the hard drive is an
duction and playback in broadcast. As staheads deliver significant increases in areal electromechanical device. It is subject to me- tion operations migrate to the next -generadensity, reliability and performance. The chanical wear and failure over time. Furthertion facility, disk -based systems will provide
major advantage of MR heads is a superior more, it is an integrated storage device in high performance, capacities and speed for
signal-to-noise ratio.
which the electronics, mechanics and media mission -critical storage. Key features to conFor 30 years, the electronic method for cannot be easily separated. These two factors sider before purchasing hard -disk storage
detecting the bits on the surface of the media combine to make the reliability of hard drive subsystems include:
has been the peak detect method. This is a subsystems a key consideration in the specifi1. Does the storage subsystem get the job
technique in which peak values of transi- cation decision. Manufacturer MTBF claims done reliably and at an appropriate cost over
tions are detected through an analog circuit. are difficult to verify and, at the end of the day, its lifetime? The unit must be heavy-duty,
One major drawback is that noise spikes can are simply average statistics for large popula- reliable, maintainable and cost-effective.
be mistaken for signals, and signals can tions of product. Caveat emptor
individual 2. Will the vendor support the storage
cancel each other out. As such, peak detect experience may vary substantially from pubsubsystem? Despite claims to the contrary,
is gradually being replaced by partial relished specifications. In addition, when multidisk drives running at the edge of their
sponse maximum likelihood (PRML), which ple drives are combined in a subsystem to store performance envelope and at the limit of
digitizes the incoming transition stream be- data as a single unit, MTBF decreases substan- the SCSI specification are not commodifore detection. Because these signals can be tially with the additional components. Cer- ties. The storage subsystem provider should
stored, the pattern of a sequence of signals tain performance improvement schemes, such be able to troubleshoot overall system probcan be used to determine the signal value, as disk striping, point this out.
lems because the user may not be capable
and the need to use an instantaneous peak to
of determining the root cause of a problem.
As fast as disk drives are, they are still not
detect a transition can be eliminated. Using fast enough for the demands of multiple
On -site maintenance, strategic spares and
MR heads and PRML channels, IBM holds stream or uncompressed NTSC, which can overnight replacement programs should
the current areal density record of 644Mb/ require up to 33MB/s per stream. In these also be available.
in2. According to IBM, MR heads will suscases, where throughput greater than that
James Frantzreb is a senior product manager for storage products at
tain an increase of 60% per year in areal obtainable on a single drive is essential, disk Avid Technology, Tewksbury, MA.
density at least until the end of the decade. striping is a good solution.
E-mail:
These areal densities currently allow 9GB
With striping, a software utility or [email protected]
per drive on the 5.25 -inch form factor prod- ware controller divides the incoming data CompuServe:
ucts and 4.3GB on the 3.5 -inch drives. The stream between two or more drives, so the
74672,3124
next generation of technologies will push drives operate in parallel. The disadvantage
FAXback:
these capacities to 18+GB and 8-10GB, re- is the reduced MTBF that results from using
913-967-1905
spectively.
additional drives. Unless the media is backed
-
62 Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
31st International Broadcast
Equipment Exhibition
Period:November 15-17, 1995 Place:Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe)
DISPATCH OF INFORMATION FOR EXHIBITORS IN MARCH/CLOSING DATE FOR APPLICATION APRIL 20TH
-,,
.
3
st
Internatic;hal
Inter BEE '95
VCRs and related equipment video processing equipment
measuring apparatus transmission equipment link -up systems
ment for multiple broadcasting systems satellite broadcasting systems HDTV sets and related equipment
TS: audio equipment
cameras and related equipment
titters and related equipment
See
All You Can BEE
The 31st International Broadcast Equipment Exhibition (Inter BEE '95) is your chance to see
the latest in broadcast, video, and audio technologies in action.
And there's more. As well as exhibits, Inter BEE '95 will feature symposiums,
forums, and seminars hosted by some of the world's leading broadcasting, audio, and video software developers.
As the largest event of its kind in Asia and one of the world's top three,
Inter BEE '95 will be a magnet for more than 450 manufacturers and around 25,000 visitors from around the world.
Inter BEE '95 will be held on November 15-17, 1995, at the Nippon Convention Center (Makuhari Messe).
So, make the trip to Inter BEE '95 to see all you can BEE.
For more information on Inter BEE '95, contact:
Circle (38) on Reply Card
Japan Electronics Show Association
Tokyo Chamber of Commerce and Industry Building, 3-2-2, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan
www.americanradiohistory.com
Fax
Digital
audio
workstations
By Skip Pizzi,
technical editor
Non-linear production is moving into
the audio room, too.
The Bottom Line:
-
The advantages of hard disk recording, nonlinear editing and virtual
multitracking are a hard
combination to beat.
That's why digital audio
workstations are
becoming so popular in
the broadcast and
post -production
environments. But their
use and integration into
the TV production
facility takes some
special skills.
.
Above photo: The Otani RADAR is a
stand-alone, expandable hard-disk recorder supporting 8, 16 or 24 tracks.
64
Digital audio workstations (DAWs) have been
in use for more than a decade, but many in the
broadcast production environment have yet to
take the plunge. Recent improvements in reliability, speed and cost-effectiveness are rapidly dissolving this reluctance, however
The advantages of DAWs in broadcast post production are fairly obvious. The ability to
conform audio to last-minute picture changes is
what first put DAWs on the map for video and
film post. The speed and convenience with which
they handled this perennial problem made them
worth their weight in gold to the post-production
community. Since then, prices for DAWs have
fallen dramatically, making them more attractive
to a growing range of users. In fact, price has
become a primary reason for purchasing DAWs.
In many cases, they can replace the bulk of a
whole suite of conventional audio production
equipment at a fraction of the cost.
offer machine -control interfaces, allowing the DAW
to serve as master or slave to VTRs and other videoproduction devices. Most of these use RS -422,
typically under the Sony 9 -pin protocol, but others
are also offered. Some systems can control multiple
devices simultaneously and independently. A few
DAWs offer full VTR emulation capabilities for
direct interface to video editors. These systems often
include integral support of several popular editors'
EDL protocols.
Mugging into the video world
In some sophisticated production environments,
it's also important to synchronize a DAW to other
digital audio devices. This will allow smooth audio
interfacing in the digital domain, typically via the
The most video -specific element of DAW applications is, of course, audio -video synchronization. Although by no means elementary, this
process is often simpler and more reliable with the
non-linear media used in DAWs than it is with
tape -based audio systems, either analog or digital. Most of today's DAWs
even basic systems
offer some level of video synchronization
ability, typically via trigger- or chase -lock to
SMPTE time code. Synchronization is available
on many basic models via optional hardware and
software. On more sophisticated systems, this
capability is integral and its operation can be
quite comprehensive. Among these advanced features are the capability of following time code at
non-standard or variable speed (typically +/-10%),
scrubbing/shuttling to time code, generation of
time code at various rates and forward/reverse
chase-lock.
Some of the more heavyweight systems also
-
-
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
The ability to conform
audio to last-minute picture
changes is what first put
DAWs on the map.
AES/EBU format. For this purpose, higher-end
DAWs offer word -clock (or AES/EBU-clock) synchronization. For music production, synchronization to MIDI time code (MTC) is also possible on
many units.
A final level of DAW interface with post-production involves integration on the non-linear level. A
few DAWs support interconnection with video disk
recorders or non-linear editor/production systems,
allowing video and multitrack audio to be manipulated fully digitally and with random access capabilities. Some of these systems also allow synchronized video workprints to be copied to hard disk on
the DAW, so that off-line audio production and
sweetening can continue in an audio-only environment, while retaining the advantage of a synchronized picture for reference throughout.
Edit Video At The
Speed of Sight.
0
D -Vision OnLINE'", our Windows®
yes.
NT/95 - based digital video
editing software, helps you edit so fast, you'll see all your cuts
and changes instantly. No waiting for decks to rewind and cue,
no waiting for video to render to your hard drive.
Whether you're creating video tapes or digital video files for
multi-media applications, D -Vision OnLINEr lets you cut and
paste video, add video effects, create titles, layer audio and mix
on the fly.
And its OPEN architecture gives you more tools to
choose from and more room to grow.
What are you waiting for? Probably another video file to render
or a deck to cue. Pick up a phone and get more info on digital
D -Vision
non-linear editing.
ur eyes to the possibilities.
Systems, Inc.
Making Digital Media Work For You.'
1-800-8DVISION (1-800-838-4746)
Or Outside the
U.S.:+1-312-714-1400
For the Professional Partner Nearest You.
01995
D -Vision Systems, Inc.
D -Vision is a registered trademark and D-Vision OnUNE and Making
Digital Media Work for You are trademarks of D-Vision Systems, Inc. Windows NT and Windows are either
registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (50) on Reply Card
Compatibility
Loading audio on and off a DAW's hard
disk has always been a point of contention
in broadcast production. Today's systems
ameliorate this difficulty with a number of
different methods to handle audio I/O.
Upload and download of audio to a nonlinear recorder can be handled in either of
two basic fashions: via real-time audio connections or via file -based transfer from another non-linear system. The latter typically
can take place at some fraction of real time,
although in file exchanges over narrow -
bandwidth transmission paths, the transfer
can actually take up to several multiples of
the file's actual running length.
Real-time audio I/O on DAWs can be
handled in the analog domain (usually with
standard balanced +4dBu signals), or on
most systems, in the digital domain as well
(typically via AES/EBU or S/PDIF standard
interfaces). Some advanced systems now
allow this real-time uploading and downloading to take place as a background operation, while production continues on previously loaded files.
QUICK-0ÇFRAMETM
IN A DIGITAL HOUSE
AT
At a nearby digital studio, a dozen
animation/effects workstations are positively
humming, piloted by twelve talented operators,
each with their favorite application. And though
video-in
real
Such cross -system file transfer is now becoming easier; however, because of a number of recent developments. One is the Open
Media Framework (OMF), developed cooperatively between a number of major nonlinear system manufacturers. It defines a
common file format that is supported by a
growing number of DAW systems, such that
files can be interchanged across systems
with the retention of audio material and
Some systems read OMF files directly while
others perform conversions. In this respect,
OMF is to audio what ASCII text is to word
time-
you won't find their cubicles cluttered
with towers of disk storage. That's because all
processing (although most audio "formatting" details are retained with OMF).
Other file -exchange or common sound file
formats (within platform types) also exist. In
the PC/Windows world, the .WAV file is most
common, while .AIFF is preferred in the
Macintosh environment and .AU is popular
among UND( users. Utilities now exist in the
PC and Macintosh world for conversion
between some DAW file formats, similar in
function to the file conversion software that
exists for word-processing applications.
the digital material required by the entire team is
stored by one Quick -Frame Video Disk System
and channeled seamlessly to the workstations vio
Sierra Design Labs' new SCSI Framer.
Roomy Storage in Tight Quarters.
Quick-Frame revolutionized digital video
recording by providing from 3 to 24 minutes of
uncompressed Dl in just 5A inches of valuable
rack space. With Ethernet and SCSI
Loading audio on and
off a DAW's hard disk
has always been a
point of contention.
editing/control/auxiliary data elements.
they're all working with uncompressed 4:2:2
component digital
File -based transfer is less standardized because each DAW uses its own file format.
Transferring audio files between like-model
DAWs is, therefore, relatively simple via
disk or LAN, but the process is far more
complex between differing systems.
interfaces-
plus support from all leading SGI-based applica-
tions-Quick-Frame now plays host to animation, paint and 2D/3D effects. No wonder broadcast, telecine and post facilities welcome the
Sierra solution.
Architects of Network Storage.
OMF is to audio what
ASCII text is to word
processing.
Sierra innovation continues with SCSI Framer,
a
low-cost combination of SCSI, real-time frame
buffering, and serial
Dl.
High-speed access to
uncompressed CCIR601 video is provided for
1
to 24 applications with no additional workstation
hardware investment. Built-in analog video output supports the display of Quick-Frame video
As for full networking of DAWs (beyond
simple audio file exchange), a number of
systems allow interconnection via LAN.
Typically, only systems of the same manufacturer can directly communicate in this
fashion, however. In some instances, standard (Ethernet-type) networking is used to
connect workstations, while in other cases,
the manufacturer has developed a proprietary, high-speed network architecture.
data being recorded or played back.
Remodel Your House with Quick -Frame.
Quick -Frame has rapidly become the VOR of
choice for post houses, animation and effects
software manufacturers, production facilities and
television stations worldwide. Video Systems
even named it
a
Pick -Hit of NAB
'94.
Call Sierra Design Labs today
and find out how to furnish your
digital studio with Quick -Frame.
SIERRA
DESIGN LABS
Tel: (702)
Fax: (702)
831-7837
831-5710
Circle (51) on Reply Card
66
System types
Digital audio workstations come in two
basic flavors
those made to operate on
-
Come see us at IBC
-
Stand #11353
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
general-purpose desktop -computer plat -
M ERGING T
WORLDS OF
E
(
he
media
industries-radio & television
broadcasting, film, communications, computing,
video production and post-production-are
converging at an astounding rate. These
dynamics are affecting not only the way you do
business, but also the products, services and equip-
ment necessary to keep on top and stay competitive
with the changing media environment.
By combining four leading expositions and educational
programs from the National Association of Broadcasters
(NAB), RINDA, the Society of Broadcast Engineers (SBE)
and the Society of Motion Picture and Television
Engineers (SMPTE)-World Media Expo is the
one
place
where you can keep up with the merging worlds of media.
See new products and services for radio and television
broadcasting, communications, film, entertainment,
video production and post -production before NAB '96.
Take an
in-depth look at the trends and technologies
that affect the way you do business and allow you to
stay competitive and profitable.
Save time and money by attending one
comprehensive fall event!
3
FREE SESSIONS!
"Profiting From Technology in the '90s"
In
two exciting FREE sessions for all World
Media Expo attendees, Dr. John
D.
Abel
,
NAB's Executive
Vice President of Operations, will show you, through
entertaining demonstrations, how innovations like data
broadcasting, the Internet, the World Wide Web, digital
compression and other exciting opportunities made
possible by digital technologies can impact your
business and your bottom line.
SPONSORED BY:
National Association of
Broadcasters
RINDA
Society of Broadcast Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and
Television Engineers
FOR MORE INFORMATION CALL
(800) 342-2460 OR (202) 775-4970
CALL FAX -ON -DEMAND for immediate access to the
most up-to-date convention, registration and conference
program
details-simply
dial the numbers below from
ÓM E DImA
ixß
SÌÌÑ
World Media Expo Exhibition
(301) 216-1841
e
The NAB Radio Show
(301) 216-1841
SEPTEMBER
RINDA International Conference
(503) 721-5861
SBE Conference
(301) 216-1853
SMPTE Conference
(301) 216-1850
the touchtone handset of your fax machine and follow
the voice instructions.
RTNDA
'
95
% TXV
6-9, 1995
Exhibits: September
7-9,1995
New Orleans Convention Center
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
PBE1
Circle (54) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
m
FARADAY TECHNOLOGY
Active HybridFillers
Filters For QPSK
Surface Mount Fillers
(SuitableforAqueous washing)
Avid's Audio Vision is an example ofa DA W that includes synchronized random
access video playback.
SIL 601
(dillspecjca/Íon)
See us at IBC '95
-
Stand 11284
CROFT ROAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE
NEWCASTLE STAFFORDSHIRE
TEL
ST5 OQZ ENGLAND
(+44) 1782 661501 FAX (+44) 1782 630101
Circle (55) on Reply Card
:E
= == VIDEO
TEST INSTRUMENTS
6" CRT
CLEAR
CHOICE
COMBINATION
NTSC
WAVEFORM MONITOR
or
PAL
VECTORSCOPE
DUAL TRACE OSCILLOSCOPE
forms and those that use entirely dedicated, proprietary hardware.
Among the general-purpose varieties, a number of systems use the
Macintosh platform and several operate on IBM-compatible PCs.
Each of these categories also exhibits a range of system costs and
capabilities. Both low -end and high -end products exist for the Mac,
IBM and proprietary platforms.
High -end proprietary systems predominate in the largest post production houses, while most other production environments use
high -end and midrange Mac -based systems. TV stations have begun
to implement the low -end Mac- and IBM-based DAWs, along with
a few of the low- and midpriced proprietary systems.
Continuing DAW and computer -platform development stretches
the pricing spectrum ever wider, so that today's non-linear audio
production can be conducted on systems that range from less than
$2,000 to more than $200,000. Facilities' and clients' requirements
will dictate which system is appropriate, but as price/performance
ratios continue to improve, engineering managers have to constantly
re-evaluate their directions and decisions.
MULTI INPUTS
COMPOSITE.S-VHS/HI-8.COMPONENT
EXT REFERENCE
BASIC FEATURES
FLAT.IRE.CHROMA.1 H.2H.
1mS/DIV 2V 2V MAG
CIRCLE VECTOR
OVERLAYS.DC REST.
H -PHASE. SUB-PHASE
ADVANCED FEATURES
LINE SELECT.
.
Non-linear audio production can
be conducted on systems that range
from less than $2,000 to more
than $200,000.
.
.
.CI.
waYl
r,ln
fY
$
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REAR
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CONNECTIONS
IN STOCK NOW
DG.DP
X - Y DISPLAY (STEREO/AUDIO)
VIDEO/AUDIO HEADS CHECK
POWER (AC/DC/BATTERIES)
DESK TOP OR RACK MOUNT
Priced from $1421
NTSC or PAL
VIDEO SYNC d TEST GENERATORS
MULTI OUTPUTS I MULTI PATTERNS
C(BVPI'
a
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®
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ASK FOR "POCKETGEN"
4111, S -VHS
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12 PATTERNS ind SMPTE & BLACK
6 BLACK BURST OUTPUTS (GENLOCK)
SYNC & SUBCARRIER OUTPUTS
AUDIO TONE
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POWER (AC/DC/BATTERIES)
DESK TOP OR RACK MOUNT
Pnced from $ 299
10 PATTERNS INCLUDING
SMPTE BARS AND BLACK BURST
ALL SIMULTANEOUS OUTPUTS
COMPOSITE
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2 -CH
Broadcast Engineering August
S -VHS
RGB
XLR AUDIO BALANCED OUTPUTS
POWER (AC/DC/BATTERIES)
Priced from $ 357
TEL:: (718)
Circle (56) on Reply Card
68
NTSC or PAL
HANDHELD
VIDEO/AUDIO GENERATOR
iiá-o2á2
-
At the low end, the sound boards on multimedia desktop computers
or the native hardware available on the newest Mac and
-
PowerPC platforms
allows the purchase of "software -only"
DAWs for as little as $500 for virtual 4 -track or 8 -track editing and
mixing capability. Audio processing (non -real-time) is available for
a bit more, as are more tracks.
At the high end are many more inputs, outputs and tracks,
simultaneous playback/mixing of a large number of virtual tracks,
and powerful real-time audio processing (including equalization,
compression/limiting, reverberation and time compression/expansion). Many of these systems also offer fully automated operations,
high-speed networking to facility servers, comprehensive synchronization and machine control/emulation capabilities (including integral non-linear video support), and hardware control surfaces, such
as real faders (including moving -fader automation), continuous
turnpots, transport controls and LED/LCD/fluorescent metering
panels. This control-surface hardware is often supplied in a small set
(e.g., eight faders on a compact console) that is assignable to a much
larger number of actual tracks (e.g., 192 virtual tracks and 32 real
inputs/outputs).
1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
1.Lll
UIgan
Between these two extremes are quite a
few variations on proprietary and generalpurpose platforms. Some of these intermediate systems are finding life increasingly
difficult, however, as the market seeks out
products that provide either the most power
or the greatest value.
New directions
Recent developments have heightened this
race to be either best or best -priced. One
important feature in this regard is the inclusion of data -compression capabilities on
some DAWs. This allows increased storage
densities such that four to six times more
audio data can be recorded on a given hard
disk. (The standard metric of 10MB/min of
full -fidelity stereo audio can thereby be reduced to less than 2MB/min.) Perhaps more
important in the TV production environment, however, is the increased transfer speed
and LAN capacity that such file -size reductions offer.
The purchase and operating cost -reductions
that DAWs offer have also made them attractive, even under purely traditional production scenarios. The digital audio workstation is clearly well-suited for the broadcast facility of today and tomorrow.
For more information on
digital audio workstations, circle
(102) on Reply Card. See also
"Recording & Playback Products,"
p. 58 of the BE Buyers Guide.
E-mail: beginteriec.com
CompuServe: 74572,3124
FAXback:
913-9 7-1905
In videotape, quality is everything.
whether they are in mawfacturing,
Processes that introduce dropouts
shipping, storage, or usage
0
-
need to be identified and the sources of
That's why we at Ampex Recording Media
Corporation have never taken our eyes off one goal: No Dropouts.
dropouts removed.
Recent developments
have heightened the
race to be either best or
best -priced.
File-based audio transfers between DAWs
and other non-linear audio devices are also
revolutionizing the distribution of audio
outside the facility. Production houses and
stations are able to send compressed audio
files in non -real-time fashion over analog or
digital phone lines or via the Internet and
other on-line services.
Multimedia production is having its effect
on DAWs as well, with several systems incorporating specific elements for this purpose. These include support of reduced sampling rates and resolutions plus various audio data -compression algorithms for CDROM production. A few systems include
mastering capabilities for CD and CD-ROM
formats.
Finally, as more production moves exclusively to computer-based systems, data
backup has become increasingly important. New backup media options and faster backup speeds are an important (and
often overlooked) area of current development. More powerful platforms also allow
increased use of background operations
for backup processes.
All the talk of media convergence notwithstanding, TV production actually seems
to be diverging, with numerous new venues
of distribution arising. The move toward
multicasting and multiversioned production argues strongly for a non-linear environment in which DAWs play a key role.
DROPOUTS
Every day, 365 days a year, we're identifying
-- and removing ---
the causes of dropouts wherever they are. This includes a world -
class Quality Improvement Program within our manufacturing
facility
but it also includes helping our customers improve their
-
storage, handling, and usage of tape, to minimize dropouts.
AMPEX Recording Media
PLEASE CALL OUR TOLL -FREE NUMBER
800/240-7042
AND REQUEST A COMPLIMENTARY COPY OF OUR BOOKLET:
%(
IIIEVING EXCELLENCE IN VIDEO PRODUCTION
-
VIDEOTAPE QUALITY IS EIPRYONE S BUSINESS.
THIS BOOKLET PROVIDES THE AMPEX APPROACH TO REACHING THE GOAL OF -NO DROPOUTS."
Circle (57) on Reply Card
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering 69
www.americanradiohistory.com
SWITCHER
CONTROL
ND
ANALOG
MATRIX
TIE LINES
D/A
ANALOG
DESTINATIONS
Getting
there:
Format
conversion
By Phil Hejtmanek
The path from origination to delivery
can involve many conversions.
The Bottom Line:
As the number
-
of video
and audio formats used
in the broadcast
environment continues
to grow, building a
flexible facility becomes
more difficult.
Conversion between
formats is possible, but
not without significant
cost and potential
quality loss. Sensible
conversion strategies
and long-term planning
are required to minimize
these difficulties.
5
In the good old days of TV broadcasting,
audio was audio and video was analog composite, period. This meant that interconnection within a broadcasting facility was fairly
simple. Subcarrier timing was about the most
complex issue that an engineer had to deal
with. Unfortunately, those simpler days of
yesteryear are gone forever. Advances in technology have forever changed the nature of
audio and video equipment, and the emergence of the computer in video production has
made digital expertise a must for today's engineers.
Now that the FCC is poised to approve a
digital transmission standard for terrestrial
TV broadcasting and equipment manufacturers are rolling out new product lines of computer -based digital production equipment,
there is pressure on broadcasters to begin the
transition from the traditional analog facility
to an all -digital environment. Unfortunately,
in the real world, the cost of a complete new
facility is quite high, and it may not fit into the
financial plans of facility owners. There is also
considerable uncertainty about the specifics of
ATV that makes large investments in technical
equipment somewhat risky. The most prudent
course for broadcasters today is to follow the
trend and build toward digital with a reasonable capital investment, while still getting the
most from existing equipment.
Format soup
Although today's engineers seem to be wading ever deeper into a swamp of formats and
acronyms, TV broadcasters have had to deal
with format changes from the industry's earliest years. For example, the natural output of a
70
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
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color -TV camera has always been an RGB signal, that has to be encoded into the NTSC
composite format for transmission to the receiver, where the signal is decoded back to RGB drive
signals for the picture tube. Advances in videotape technology have since added numerous
analog and digital component formats to the
mix. Signal processors, such as DVEs and standards converters that perform spatial manipulation of images, cannot function in the composite
domain. These devices inherently contain functional stages that decode incoming composite
video into component form and encode the processed components back into composite. A typical TV operation today may have three or more
different video formats present, as well as several
audio formats. Just being familiar with all the
various formats in use in your facility at the
moment can be challenging.
More significant format -conversion problems
began raising their heads for broadcasters when
analog component video equipment became
available. The component format's signal -quality advantages over composite were hard to
resist, but they did not come without costs in
complexity and dollars.
The latest wave in this transition involves some
form of component serial digital signal routing.
This conversion is likely to make the majority of
broadcasters think twice about the economics
involved. Unless facility owners are prepared to
finance a complete rebuild, most of the existing
production equipment, tape machines and graphics hardware will need to be adapted to the new
digital standard. It is therefore possible that a
hybrid system of analog and digital will be
present in most broadcast facilities for some time
into the future. A TV facility's engineering de -
partment will then be charged with acquiring the proper format conversion devices to make it all work.
Fortunately, broadcast equipment manufacturers have responded with a seemingly endless array of black boxes to handle the job. The trick lies in picking the
right tool for the problem at hand, and
designing the overall system for maximum functionality at minimum cost.
Finding the building blocks
Many devices are available that trans-
form video and audio signals from one
format to another. These products are
known variously as encoders, decoders or
Many devices are
available that
transform video and
audio signals from one
format to another
transcoders depending upon their function. One group of these devices is designed to convert video signals between
composite NTSC (or PAL or SECAM) and
analog formats offering component I/O,
such as Betacam, MII and
S -VHS.
Some
modern TBCs and frame synchronizers
on the market also provide simultaneous
transcoding functions between these formats.
On the digital side, there are serializers
and deserializers to transform parallel digital formats to serial formats, as well as
transcoders that convert composite digi-
tal (4f.) to 4:2:2 component digital (CCIR
601) and back. There also are devices to
fully transform composite or analog -component recording formats directly to component serial digital (SMPTE 259M) and
back. (See "Transition to Digital," March
and April 1995.) Finally, there are devices
to transform computer video display formats (monochrome, CGA, EGA, VGA,
SVGA, XGA) with their various pixel ratios and color resolutions to NTSC composite, component analog or component
digital. Prices for these transcoding devices range from a few hundred to several
thousands of dollars, depending on the
function to be performed. (See Figure 1.)
Note that some signal -quality losses can
occur in these format conversions. When
simply going from digital to analog, but
staying within the component or composite domain, minor degradation from A -toD and D -to-A conversions can occur, usually resulting from the addition of quantization noise. More significant artifacts are
likely when crossing the component/composite boundary in either the analog or
digital domains, generally due to changes
in bandwidth and the introduction of intermodulation distortion products.
Audio formats also abound in the modern broadcast facility. Converters exist to
adapt signals between analog and the AES/
EBU serial digital audio formats, as well
as others. Sample -rate converters effectively translate between the compact -disc
sampling rate (44.1kHz) and that used for
most professional digital audio recording
devices (48kHz). There are also units to
interleave and extract embedded digital
audio information from a serial digital
video bitstream. (See "Transition to Digital," July 1995.) Typical AES/EBU digital
encoder/decoder functions have been in-
- ArrALOG
o
No waiting,
no worries,
NTSC
4 fsc
PAL
D2
SECAM
D3
RGB
4:2:2
Betacam
D1
M -II
DCT
Most computer displays
Digital Betacam
D5
just sheer
editing power.
QUANTEL
Quantel Inc.
Old Kings Highway North
Darien. CT 06820
Tel: (203) 656 3100
Fax: (203) 656 3459
Figure 1. Video formats exist in either analog or digital domains and either component and composite
modes. This diagram shows today's most popular formats and their respective categories.
Circle (58) on Reply Card
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
71
Some people in this
particular line of work
tend to live in a
world of their own.
tegrated into a small chipset, making it
simple for audio equipment manufacturers to offer digital and analog I/O on
current hardware.
Some system examples
Many TV stations faced with the digital
upgrades required for implementing ATV
will find that their current video signal
routing systems are in need of expansion.
Rather than making a full investment in
an all -digital backbone, some station owners have decided to make the transition to
digital signal distribution in stages. This
decision is heavily influenced by the costs
The transcoding
devices needed for
transition can
approach the cost of the
serial digital routing
switcher
involved in the total replacement of often
relatively new analog routers with serial
digital systems. Lack of space in the existing facility may also be a contributing
factor, making the construction of a totally new routing system difficult without a
major upheaval or a move to new quarters.
Much of the cost of conversion to a fully
digital signal routing system comes from
the many individual format -converter boxes required to transform existing composite analog, component analog and composite digital devices to SMPTE 259M
(serial component digital). In larger established facilities with substantial investment in older hardware, the cost of the
transcoding devices needed for a full transition can approach the cost of the serial
digital routing switcher itself.
One sensible, long-term transition strategy for coping with this problem is based on
the acquisition of an expandable serial
digital router frame. This router is initially
fitted with enough crosspoints to accommodate just the existing number of signal
sources that already use component digital
inputs and outputs. This digital matrix is
then linked to the existing analog matrix
via tie lines and equipped with appropriate
transcoders to convert between analog and
serial digital. As remaining analog devices
in the facility are replaced by new component serial digital units, the digital router
frame can be expanded to accommodate
the new sources, and a corresponding num-
72
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
ber of analog crosspoints can be eliminated. Ideally, the router manufacturer must
offer software that can effectively link the
two matrices together under a common
control system and automatically route
signals from one matrix to the other via tie
lines using path -seeking techniques. Several router manufacturers now offer this capability, but if the router of choice does not
offer such features, the same effect can be
realized
though less elegantly through
the use of multiple control panels.
-
-
Similar arrangements apply to audio only routing. In many cases, audio routing systems require upgrading due to simple growth and/or the need to manage
AES/EBU signals. Often, small stand-alone
audio routers also cannot be controlled
by external computers. Many digital VTRs
and audio -only devices (including DAT
machines, audio workstations and signal transmission codecs for terrestrial and satellite interconnection) that interface with
today's routers offer analog and AES/EBU
I/O, so the external format -conversion
boxes often needed for video signals are
not generally required.
One other important point applies to the
cost analysis for audio -only switcher replacement. Because two analog audio channels are multiplexed together in a single
AES/EBU digital stream, only one AES/
EBU audio matrix is necessary, rather than
An analog-to-digital
format conversion
process can involve a
number of hidden
problems.
two matrices for analog stereo. Multichannel audio environments maintain this
2-for -1 arrangement, with every two audio channels requiring only one AES/EBU
switcher matrix or level. The cost savings
that this provides, combined with the corresponding savings in cable and connectors, can often pay for the additional encoders and decoders needed to interface
any remaining analog -only devices still in
use at the facility. (These audio conversion
devices are relatively low-priced.) In the
future, new digital devices can be added to
such a hybrid system, while the older analog -only sources continue to be supported. Some analog distribution will likely be
maintained at many facilities for monitoring, news/field operations and other utility uses.
And then there
are those who prefer
to stay extremely
well connected.
then we have
exactly what you need: systemization
and connectivity products designed to
help you do your job better, as well as
the design expertise to help you put it
all together.
Today, Grass Valley offers a comprehensive range of single -function, "breadand-butter" products-everything from
small, off-the -shelf distribution, timing,
processing, and format conversion products to large signal -routing systems-that
allow all those "bells -and -whistles" production systems to operate flawlessly.
In fact, it's these type of reliable support products that effortlessly bridge the
worlds of analog and digital and ensure
that everything's well connected. All of
which makes Grass Valley the one company that can help you put it all together.
For more information, call us at
1-800-474-8889, ext. 210 and ask for a
copy of our Designing Digital Systems
Handbook.
Grass Valley. The best connection
you can make.
If you're one of these people,
GrassUalley
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COMPANY
Circle (59) on Reply Card
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering 73
www.americanradiohistory.com
f-
CONTROL
PANELS
SWITCHER
CONTROL
CONTROL
PANELS
i
t
I IN
A/D
ANALOG
ANALOG
SOURCES
MATRIX
DIGITAL
TIE LINES
DIGITAL
SOURCES
MATRIX
D/A
7
ANALOG
DIGITAL
DESTINATIONS
Figure 2. A conceptual block diagram of a hybrid analog/digital routing environment. As the transition to digital progresses, the size of the analog matrix will
decrease and the size of the digital matrix will increase. The number of tie lines and converters can also be reduced over time.
Caveat emptor
An analog-to-digital format conversion
process can involve a number of hidden
problems that will add to its challenges.
For example, mixing digital and analog
video can result in huge timing differences, due to the relatively long delays associated with digital encoders and decoders.
Delay values of 70µs or more can appear,
which are orders of magnitude greater
than those delays compensated for with
timed cable lengths in analog -only sys-
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74
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
from $250.00
tems. Therefore, the cost of digital frame
synchronizers must be factored into the
total price of conversion. There are also
rather severe limitations on cable lengths
for serial digital video between reclocking
distribution amplifiers.
Routing AES/EBU
signals along with
low-level analog audio
can cause crosstalk, so
this should be avoided.
On the audio side, routing AES/EBU
signals along with low-level analog audio
can cause crosstalk, so this should be
avoided. There are also cable -length restraints associated with AES/EBU signals,
and audio test -monitoring and troubleshooting can no longer be done with a
headphone and clip leads.
The transition between analog and digital formats is something that all broadcast
engineers will be facing in the future. Ultimately, TV engineers may be converting
their existing NTSC facilities to simultaneously feed both an analog NTSC transmitter and a component digital HDTV
transmitter. Simultaneous full-time feeds
from multiple sources and to multiple outputs may also have to be handled. A full
understanding of the formats themselves
and the tools available to make the required transitions will be critical to the
technical and economic success of these
upcoming projects.
Phil Hejtmanek is director of technology for the Southern
Illinois University Broadcasting Service(WSIU-FM/TV and WUSIFM/TV), Carbondale, IL.
For more information on
format conversion, circle (101)
on Reply Card. See also "Signal
Conversion Equipment," "Encoders, Decoders" and "Format
Translators," pp. 75-81 of the BE
Buyers Guide.
E-mail:
[email protected]
CompuServe: ñkÿ
74672,3124
FAXback:
913-967-1905
x+
WANTED:
TECHNICAL WRITERS
11611
Broadcast Engineering magazine is looking
for experienced engi neers and technical managers to provide leading -edge articles on a free-lance basis. If you are interested,
contact the editor by sending or faxing your telephone number along with a brief
description of your experience and areas of expertise to:
Fax:
913-967-1905
Mail: Editor, Broadcast Engineering magazine
9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212
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Circle (52) on Reply Card
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering 75
www.americanradiohistory.com
TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY
By John
Tower maintenance secrets revealed, part
-
-
(FCC)
the enforcement arm for FAA.
Electronics Industries Association (EIA)
recommends design and maintenance cri-
teria.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
governs worker safety.
There may also be other local or private
agencies that have a vested interest in how
your specific tower is maintained. For example, your insurance company may re-
-
Tower maintenance is a phrase that is widely used and largely undefined. Yet, tower
maintenance is a crucial part of every operating system that helps to assure continued
operating performance. A well -conceived
plan for tower maintenance is critical for all
tower sites.
A tower is part of an operating system that
encompasses the tower, antennas, transmission lines, radio equipment, shelter, and the
site itself (road, compound, fencing, etc.).
Several parts of the system require special
maintenance beyond the scope of these articles. "Tower maintenance," as defined here,
relates to the tower structure, the shelter and
related attachments.
Governing agencies
-
Requires lighting and painting
on towers over 200 feet.
FAA
-
Suggests maintenance criteria
and intervals for towers.
BA
quire periodic inspections or special points
of inspection.
The maintenance plan
The first step in managing anything, including tower maintenance, is planning. A
plan must be well -conceived and outlined to
be effective. Develop a list of items that you
would like to have maintained while the
inspection proceeds.
For example, during the inspection, the
crewefinds some loose tower bolts. Would
you have the crew tighten the bolts while on
site? This may sound like an almost absurd
question. However, it is a question that comes
up often and can lead to a great deal of
investment. If there are two bolts loose, it
would be a minor problem. If there happen
to be a hundred or so bolts loose, this could
mean several crew days to repair. Would your
inspecting company need to figure this into
their bid, or look for additional funding over
the original inspection cost?
Crooks
1
EIA specifications
Guy tensions: Must be within manufacturer's specifications for tension, based
on temperature, within +/-10%.
Tower plumb: l in 400 for overall tower
height or between any two guy points.
This can also be translated as 0.0025
times the distance in question.
There are several areas where this question
might come up over the course of an inspection:
Tower lighting and marking: Tower lighting and marking is an item dear to the heart
of the FAA. Current FAA regulations state
that a tower owner has 30 minutes to report
a non-compliance condition and 15 days to
correct the condition if it pertains to a tower's
main lighting system. Penalties can be large
for non-compliance, so immediate attention
should be given to these items.
Tower alignment and/or tension: When
tower alignment or guy wire tensions are
found to be outside of EIA specifications,
immediate attention is required. EIA specifications are lenient in comparison to many customers' specifications. When EIA specifications are not met, this can mean trouble for the
structural integrity and longevity of the tower.
-
OSHA
Requires fall protection for
workers. Also sets forth specific limits
for worker exposure to RF during tower
maintenance.
Tower maintenance is the act of "keeping
up" a tower or "maintaining" it as close as
possible to its original intended design and/
or purpose. This is necessary and desirable
for several reasons:
Continued good performance of the system and the structure itself.
Safety and health of workers and employees that must work on or under the structure.
Safety of aircraft that must fly near the site.
To fulfill regulations imposed by governing agencies.
Several governing bodies have a vested
interest in the proper and timely maintenance of towers. There are four main agencies that affect the area of tower maintenance. They are:
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
governs painting and lighting requirements.
Federal Communications Commission
-
76
Originally an AM tower, the structure was converted to a paging/2-way tower. All of the new antennas were
located at the top ofthe tower. The tower was not designed for the increased windload and eventual collapse
of the tower occurred.
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Now to
di
plan now for
tomorrow's
digital
facility.
Now is the time to begin the conversion
nrocesr It's no "plug and play" endeavor.
Proper technical planning is vital today to
prepare stations and post facilities for the
future in digital.
Join us in November when Broadcast Engineering
prepares you for the coming digital age. A future
that will require new delivery methods, multiple
program streams and multichannel operation
including HDTV and interactive services.
Advcnced Television Summit '95
Novernh n 15-17
The Westin Hotel O'Hare
Chicago
Your future is a
now absolutely critical to understand precisely
how and when to incorporate digital systems into
your operation. Everyone responsible for planning,
designing, engineering, budgeting and managing
the transition to digital will benefit from this
major learning event.
It is
For a detailed
conference agenda
and registration
materials, call:
FAX -ON -DEMAND
-800-601-3858
Or Susan Link
913-967-1969
1
Top experts in broadcast and post -production
offer surprising solutions to the challenges you
ay and will face tomorrow. How can
you design a system that handles analog now
but upgrades to digital in the future? How can you
avoid throwing away expensive equipment as the
transition moves forward? Can you plan a video
routing system that expands to accommodate the
changing requirements of all -digital operations?
What are the critical issues in audio? Connectivity?
Testing? Network integration?
ATTENTION VENDORS
Sponsorship opportunities
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Contractor
qualifications
Request information from at least
six companies.
Obtain prior experience and reference information.
Take into consideration mobilization costs when choosing a contractor.
Obtain bids from at least three contractors.
Grounding: Proper grounding is crucial
for continued system performance. Any
major grounding problems should be handled at the time of inspection. Broken ground
wires at the tower base or transmission line
grounding should be repaired immediately.
Shelter environment:: An inspection should
include an overview of the shelter If airconditioning is required for equipment cooling, an inspection would reveal an inoperable system. Remedy should be given to the
situation immediately.
Corrosion protection on tower: This may
not be a critical item unless deterioration
has progressed to the point of damaging
tower members. Howevey it could be quite
cost-effective to have the crew make minor
finish repairs to the tower. This would include wire brushing, cold galvanizing and
topcoating.
Each of these items should be planned for
well in advance of implementation. They
must also be communicated with the inspection crew at the time of proposal. In
addition to this list, an inspection format
must be developed. This will include inspection procedures and a list of items to be
inspected. (This will be explored in part 2 of
this article.)
Develop a standard for intervals of inspection. EIA recommends that guyed towers be
inspected every three years and that selfsupporting towers be inspected at 5 -year
intervals. Again, this is lenient, in comparison to many owner requirements. Some
owners require that their towers be inspected on a yearly basis.
Much of the discrepancy between the intervals lies in the reason behind the inspections. There is little chance of the structure
having major problems between 3 -year inspections without outside forces acting upon
it. However, the performance of the equipment on the tower can be materially changed
by normal conditions. Example: weatherproofing can deteriorate over a 3 -year period, possibly allowing water to enter the
lines.
Circle (53) on Reply Card
78
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
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As our recommendation, all tower structures ought to be inspected at intervals no
longer than three years. More stringent
intervals should be followed where equipment concerns are paramount and where
outside forces act unusually upon the structure. (For example, inspection after a large
wind storm.)
Towers should be maintained at regular
intervals no less stringent than the tower
inspections. Some items will need maintenance at more frequent intervals, such as
yearly antenna system sweeps, and repairs
will need to be made between regularly
scheduled maintenance times as required.
Cost savings can be realized by having the
inspecting crew perform simple maintenance
items while already at the site. As a minimum, there will be cost savings from mobilization.
As managers, we deal regularly with three
criteria in our projects: time frames, budgets
and quality standards. Internally in a corporation, a system must be implemented to
assure that tower inspections must be completed at pre -determined intervals, according to specified procedures and according to
a realistic budget.
Assuming that the inspection work will be
done with outside sources, there is some
homework that must be done. Contractors
must be screened carefully and all necessary
information regarding inspection requirements must be clearly communicated.
Bidding documents should include the
following information:
Clearly state the final objectives of the
maintenance/inspection effort.
Include a full technical requirement outline. For example, a specific form that must
be filled out or a specific procedure for
measuring guy wire tensions, etc.
Ask for bids that would offer a certain
scale of economies. For example, awarding
multiple sites to one contractor may generate savings in mobilization expenses.
Tower maintenance is a critical item to
help assure continued system performance.
Planning is a key starting point to the
tower maintenance. Part 2 of this article
will investigate specific areas that should
be inspected on tower systems.
John Crooks is the vice president, and instructor at the tower
technology school, for Broadcast Communications, New Glarus,
WI.
I
INDUSTRY BRIEFS
BUSINESS
TimeLine Vista Inc., Vista, CA, has formed
an alliance with Computer Concepts, Inc.,
Lenexa, KS. Under the terms of the agreement, Computer Concepts will market a
radio production and post-production version of TimeLine's DAW-80.
BTS Broadcast Television Systems, Simi
Valley, CA, has announced the sale of its
Media Pool video server to KGO-TV, the
Capital Cities/ABC Network -owned TV
station serving San Francisco and northern
California, for its new all -digital studio.
Sony Corporation, United Kingdom and
Oracle Corporation, Redwood Shores, CA,
have signed a letter of intent to work together
to develop video, audio and text news database products. The companies' goal is to
increase broadcast newsroom productivity
by combining video and audio clips with
wire service text on a single edit workstation.
PEOPLE
Tektronix, Beaverton, OR, and Lightworks
Editing Systems have closed the transaction
for Tektronix to acquire Lightworks.
Dean Winkler has been named president of
Post Perfect, New York, NY.
Graham -Patten Systems, Grass Valley, CA,
has supplied Editel-LA, Hollywood, CA,
with three D/ESAM 400 digital edit suite
audio mixers for use with a trio of recently
completed telecine suites equipped with
Rank Ursa systems with Renaissance Da Vinci color correction and Alpha Image
Alphie component switchers.
Abekas, Redwood City, CA, has installed
its 8100 switcher, a pair of A57 DVEs and the
new Diskus digital disk recorder in Video smith's post-production facility, Philadelphia.
Pixel Power Inc., United Kingdom, has
announced the 100th purchase of its Collage generator and graphics system by The
BBC at Elstree, UK.
Itelco, Orvieto, Italy, has opened its second office in the United States. The new
office is located in Denver, and will serve
North America, including Canada. The
phone number for the Denver office is
303-431-1699; fax 303-431-2868.
Telex Communications, Inc., Minneapolis, and NBC have reached an agreement for
Telex to supply several RTS intercom sys-
tems to NBC during the next year.
CREATE
12
A
Al Jensen has been named marketing communications manager for BTS, Simi Valley,
CA.
David E. Acker has been appointed vice
president of engineering for Nova Systems,
Canton, CT.
Kevin Dauphinee has been appointed product marketing director for the Digital Video
Storage Systems business unit of Tektronix,
Beaverton, OR.
David Gardner has been named director of
media services for the Satellite Services organization of Orion Atlantic, Rockville, MD.
Also, Arthur Hill has been named executive director of satellite services sales.
Chris Emery has rejoined Sony, Park Ridge, NJ,
as director of marketing for professional media.
Michael Wellesley -Wesley has been elected
to the board of directors at Chyron Corporation, New York, NY.
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Circle (64) on Reply Card
August 1995 Broadcast Engineering 79
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEIN PRODUCTS
Audio/video delay
Prime Image
A/V delay: a self-contained,
solid-state unit that delays
both video and audio for up
to 30 seconds (standard configuration is shipped with
just over 10 seconds of delay) without data compression and switches in alternative audio and/or video
feeds as required; either audio or video
or both
signals can be replaced, recorded or rerouted as necessary within the unit; video input and output are composite, Y/
C, Y/UN, or Y/R/B, and the unit is fully compatible with component signals.
-
-
Circle (350) on Reply Card
Miniature HMI light
Frezzolini Electronics
Day-Arc light: a miniature HMI,
high -output daylight temperature
light in a single self-contained unit;
the Day-Arc provides daylight temperature light (5,500°K) by drawing only 24W of power and outputting the equivalent of a 100W
quartz bulb; with a single Frezzi
NP battery, the Day -Arc will provide the equivalent of 100W of
light for an hour; the operating life
is over 500 hours.
Circle (358) on Reply Card
Edit controller
MOD -based digital video recorder
Rorke Data/ Future
Equipment Design
Editing Technologies
Corporation (ETC)
Stiletto: an edit controller that
features a graphical user interface screen and includes all the
necessary hardware and software
for control of VTRs, switchers
and other devices; available as a
2- or 3 -machine package that
includes two general-purpose interfaces; the open architecture
allows for multlinear and nonlinear editing compatibility; a
complete Aladdin software package is included with the software to run most popular production switchers; the
Stiletto supports Sony, Panasonic, JVC and BTS 9 -pin serial protocols.
Video MOD 100: a magneto -optical
drive (MOD) -based standalone fully
featured digital video recorder; the Video MOD 100 replaces all analog VTRs
from VHS to Betacam and is capable of
CCIR 601 component digital video
output and full serial remote control;
two channels of selectable 8/16 bit digital audio are provided for original or
master audio applications with full insert edit functions; all functions are
accessible from the front panel.
Circle (351) on Reply Crud
Circle (352) on Reply Card
.Stable real-time clock for PCs
B&B Electronics Manufacturing Company
Model PCRTC: an accurate,
Integrated computer interface
Varian Associates Inc.
temperature -stable, real-time
clock for PCs; the clock is based
on a highly stable oscillator
circuit and uses a software driver to update the DOS clock
every minute; the 8 -bit (short
slot) PCRTC card does not require IRQ lines and reduces
the computer's clock error to
15 seconds/month; when the
power is off, a 3.6V lithium battery maintains the clock and a battery
function status allows the battery to be replaced before the time is
F series integrated computer interface: Varian's 400W to
700W F series satellite communications (SATCOM) uplink
amplifiers now include an integrated computer interface
and standard pin diode attenuator (optional integral linearizer available); the interface allows direct communications
with the user's PC/digital interface for monitoring and
control without taking up valuable rack space with the
placement of an external controller; the interface is designed to work with all current F series amplifiers and all
SATCOM frequencies.
Circle (355) on Reply Card
corrupted.
Circle (354) on Reply Card
Rotator
TIC General, Inc.
Ringrotor: rotator that allows antennas and
dishes to be mounted at any safe mounting
location on a tower and rotated around the
tower 360 degrees in either direction; a rugged
steel mounting ring encircles the tower and the
Ringrotor rides on a drive bracket assembly that
allows the ring to rotate around the tower;
features a 24-VDC gear motor; RS -232 interface
and/or remote port also available.
Circle (356) on Reply Card
80
Non-linear editing system
Applied Magic
Broadcaster Elite: an Amiga based non-linear video editing
system designed to enhance the
l
video
editor's ability to compose
_,I
images and sound; the system is
,
capable of sustaining transfer
'
..
rates equivalent to the fastest SCSI
II hard drives on the market; the Elite works in composite, Y/C or Betacam SP
formats; to work in the component domain, the Elite uses three on-board
digitizers for Betacam SP, one for each component of Y, Cr and Cb.
uu,
-
i
.
'
i
Circle (353) on Reply Card
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE"
FOR ORDERS CALL:
PHOTO -VIDEO
OR
(24 HOURS(:
800-947-9928
800-947-9003
212-444-5028
212-444-5001
SONY
EV1N-300
OVERNIGHT AND RUSH
SERVICE AVAILABLE
E-Mail at [email protected]
KY º7uB JVC
3-CCD Color Video Camera
3-CCD Hi -8 Camcorder
Equipped with three high density 1/2' IT Hyper HAD image sensors. Has an excellent sensitivity of /8.0
at 2000 lux, high S/N of 60 dB, and delivers over 700 lines of horizontal resolution.
Provides high quality PCM digital stereo and single channel AFM Hi-Fi recording. Has XLR
balanced audio connectors.
Quick start 1.5' viewfinder with 550 lines of resolution plus Zebra pattern video level indicator and color bar generator. Also, quick -start recording - takes only 0.5 seconds to go
from REC PAUSE to REC MODE for immediate recording in the field
Built-in 8mm Time Code generator records absolute addresses. (Either non -drop
frame or drop frame mode may be selected.) Furthermore the EVW-300 incorporates
a variety of time code features such as Time Code PRESET/RESET. REC RUN/FREE
RUN and User Bits.
variety of automatic adjustment functions for different lighting conditions are incorporated into the EVW-300:
- ATW (Auto Trace White Balance) - when ATW is turned on optimum white balance is always ensured during recording, even
for changes in color temperature. Conventional white balance adjustment is still provided with tte Auto White Balance.
in addition to manual Gain Up AGC provides linear gain up in tf a range of 0 dB to 18 dB.
- AGC (Automatic Gain Control)
- Intelligent Auto Iris
for situations where the lighting between subject and background is different (subject is
underexposed) the Intelligent Auto Iris automatically examines the scene and adjusts the lens iris for proper exposure.
Selectable Gain -up from 1 dB to 18 dB in 1 dB steps for Mid and High positions.
Clear Scan function - provides a variety of selection of shutter speeds ranging from 60-200 Hz a lowing recording of
A
-
-
FAX
almost any computer display without flicker.
Compact, lightweight (12 lbs with NP -113) ergonomic design provides well balanced and extreme comfortable operation.
EVW-300 with Canon 13:1 Servo Zoom Lens, VCT-12 Tripod Mounting Plate
and Thermodyne LC-422TH Shipping/Carrying Case
New X"CCDs with 380,000 pixels (360.000 effective) with advanced electronics delivers resolution of 750 horizontal lines and reduced smear.
Sensitivity of f/9.0 at 2000 lux. Min. illumination 7.5 lux with f/1.4 lens, .18d13.
LOLUX mode allows shooting scenes that were previously impossible due to
insufficient lighting. CCDs are maximized for low light sensitivity equivalent
to an electronic gain of 24dB plus a JVC pixel readout system which provides
an additional 6dB. Together they provide .30dB without the noise and picture
degradation normally associated with this much gain. Excellent color balance is maintained even down to 1.5 lux illumination.
Auto Shooting Mode where you only have to zoom, focus and record. All other parameters are controlled automatically.
Enhanced ALC (Automatic Level Control) mode for continuous shooting in all light levels. This allows continuous automatic
shooting from dark Interiors to bright outdoors. Also features an aperture priority mode. Manually set iris for desired depth of
focus. and ALC circuit automatically achieves correct video level.
The Multi -Zone Ins Weighting system gives preference to objects in the center and lower portions of the picture. The Automatic
Peak/AverageDetection (APB) provides intelligence to ignore unusual objects such as bright lights.
Auto knee circuitry extends a scene's light to dark dynamic range reproduction by up to five times without overexposure.
levels, accumuHas large 1.5 -inch viewfinder with 500 tines of resolution and SMPTE color bars. Status system provides audio
lated or remaining recording time and VTR operation. Also battery voltage and camera setup. Zebra pattern indication and safety
zones with a center marker are also provided.
Equipped with Variable Scan function. This allows flicker -free shooting of computer screens. Variable scan enables a precise
shutter speed from 1/60.2 to 1/196.7 of a second in 256 increments to be set, matching a computers scan rate. Almost any computer display can be clearly recorded.
Star filter creates dramatic 4-point star effects. Users can also select from a wide range of optional fitters,
Advanced Memory System (AMS) stores customizable settings for various shooting conditions.
Docks directly to the JVC BR-S422U, BR -S411 UB and BR-S420CU professional S -VHS recorders. Optional adapters for docking
to Hi -8 and Betacam SP are also available.
Vinten
Quick -Draw
Professional
FOR CAMCORDERS
OR STAND ALONE
THE
CAMERAS
ADVANCED
The Quick -Draw Camera Case provides a convenient
way to carry and protect your camera on the
ground, in your car and in the air. While much
lighter and more compact than shipping cases, this
padded nylon case has hard-shell construction and
an aluminum viewfinder guard for 100% protection
and security. It is particularly designed for working
out of the back of a van or the trunk of your car. The
top loading case has a wipe -open fold back top that
stays out of the way.
FEATURES:
Heavy-duty shoulder strap and comfortable leather hand grip.
Crush proof aluminum guard protects viewfinder.
Fits into back seat and fastens securely with seat belt.
Holds camera with on -board batery attached.
Lid closes with Velcro for quick opening or secures with
full-length zippers.
Two trim exterior pockets and cip board pocket.
Dual purpose rear pouch is an expandable battery chamber or
all-purpose pocket.
RANGE OF
VISION
LIGHTWEIGHT
HEADS AND
TRIPODS
antotiauer
Vision
Logic Series DIGITAL Gold Mount Batteries
municates directly with Anton/Bauer InterActive chargers, creating significant new
benchmarks for reliability, performance. and lite. They also complete the communications network between battery. charger and camera. With the network in place, DIGITAL batteries deliver the feature most requested by cameramen: a reliable and accurate indication of remaining battery power.
cameras/camcorders.
DIGITAL PRO PAC 14 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
14.4v 60 Watt Hours. 5 1/8 lbs. Run time: 2 hours ® 27
watts, 3 hm. @ 18 watts
DIGITAL PRO PAC 13 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
13.2v 55 Watt Hours. 4 3/4 lbs. Run time: 2 hours @ 25
watts.
3
hours
-
smoothest pans and tilts regardless of speed, drag setting
and ambient temperature. The Serial Drag system provides
the widest range of infinitely variable precise settings with
repeatable, consistent drag in each pan and tilt direction.
GOLD MOUNT BATTERIES
DIGITAL PRO PACS
®17 watts
The Logic Series Gold Mount bat eries are virtually identical to
their respective DIGITAL version! (above) with respect to size,
weight, capacity, IMPAC case construction, and application. They
are similarly equipped with micrc-code logic circuits and comprehensive ACS sensors that comm.nicate directly with all Logic
Series chargers, providing the emential data critical for optimum
performance, reliability and long ife. They do not, however,
include DIGITAL microprocessorteatures such as the integral
diagnostic program "Fuel Compiler", LCD/LED display and
InterActive viewfinder fuel gauge circuit.
PRO PAC 14 NICAD BATTERY
(
4.4v 60 Watt Hours)
PRO PAC 13 NICAD BATTERY
(
3.2 v 55 Watt Hours)
MAGNUM 14 NICAD BATTERY (14.4v 72 Watt Hours)
MAGNUM t3 NICAD BATTERY (13.2 v 66 Watt Hours)
COMPAC MAGNUM 14 NICAD BATTERY (14.4v 43 WH)
DIGITAL COMPAC MAGNUM
Extremely small and light weight (almost half the size and
weight of a Pro Pac), the powerful Digital Compac
Magnum still has more effective energy than two NP style
slide -in batteries. The high voltage design and Logic
Series technology eliminate all the problems that cripple
conventional 12 void slide-in type batteries. The Digital
Compac Magnum is the professional choice for applications drawing less than 24 watts. Not recommended when
using an Ultralight.
DIGITAL COMPAC MAGNUM 14 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
2 3/4 lbs. Run time:
watts.
14.4 v 43 Watt Hours.
watts,
3
hours
@ 13
2
hours
@ 20
and SD 22
The Vision SD 12 and SD 22 are the first heads with the
"Serial Drag" pan and tilt system. The system consists of a
unique, permanently -sealed fluid drag and an advanced lubricated friction drag. So for the first time. one head gives you
all the advantages of both fluid (viscous) and lubricated (LF)
drag systems and none of their disadvantages. Achieve the
The Logic Series DIGITAL batteries are acknowledged to be the most advanced in the
rechargeable battery industry. In addition to the comprehensive sensors integral to all
Logic Series batteries, each DIGITAL battery has a built-in microprocessor that com-
The Digital Pro Pac is the ultimate professional video battery and is recommended for all applications. The premium heavy duty Digital Pro Pac cell is designed to deliver
long life and high performance even under high current
loads and adverse conditions. The size and weight of the
Digital Pro Pac creates perfect shoulder balance with all
SD 12
Pan and Tilt Heads with Serial Drag
COMPAC MAGNUM 13 NICAD BATTEBY(13.2v 40 WH)
MP -4D DIGITAL FAST CHARGER
w/LCD and DIAGNOSTIC PORT
The most advanced and versatile Anton/Bauer charger. In addition
to features such as four -position one -hour sequencing fast charge,
five fast charge termination systems, it also has:
SSP (Selective Sequence Programming) which automatically
arranges the charging order among the 4 batteries to assure fully
charged batteries in the shortest time possible.
Multifunction LCD checks each of the four battery positions and
indicates charge status, availabe capacity, battery type/rating,
percent of maximum charge, battery sent number, date of manufacture, accumulated charge/cischarge cycles and other data.
Features:
Simple, easy-to -use external control for perfect balance.
Patented spring -assisted counter -balance system permits
perfect "hands-off" camera balance over full 180° o1 tilt.
Instant drag system breakaway and recovery overcome
inertia and friction for excellent "whip pans".
Consistent drag levels in both pan and tilt axis.
Redesigned flick on, flick off pan and tilt caliper disc brakes.
Greater control, precision, flexibility and "touch" than any
other head on the market.
Touch activated, time delayed illuminated level bubble.
Environmental working conditions from as low as -40° to
as high as .60°C.
SD 12 weighs 6.6 lbs and supports up to 35 lbs.
S0 22 weighs 12.7 lbs and supports up ta 55 lbs.
Vision Two Stage ENG and
Carbon Fibre ENG Tripods
LT
The ultimate in lightweight and innovative tripods, they are
available with durable tubular alloy (Model #3513) or the
stronger and lighter, axially and spirally wound carbon fiber
construction (Model #3523). They each incorporate the new
torque safe clamps to provide fast, sate and self-adjusting
leg clamps that never let you down. Two stage operation
gives them more flexibility when in use as well as greater
operating range.
"Torque Sate" requires no adjustment Its unique design
adjusts itself as and when required, eliminating the need
for manual adjustment and maintenance and making for a
much more reliable clamping system.
New hip joint eliminates play and adds rigidity.
They both feature 100mm levelling bowl, fold down to a
compact 28", and support 45 lbs.
The #3513 weighs 6.5 lbs and the #3523 CF (Carbon Fibre)
weighs 5.2 lbs.
DIGITAL COMPAC MAGNUM 13 LOGIC SERIES NICAD BATTERY
13.2v 40 Watt Hours. 2 1/2 lbs. Run time:
watts, 3 hours at 12 watts.
2
hours et 18
WE BUY, SELL AND TRADE USED VIDEO EQUIPMENT]
SEVEN-DAY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION GUARANTEE
Circle (62) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Vision 12 Systems
All Vision 12 systems include #33643 SD 12 dual fluid and
lubricated friction drag pan/tilt head, single telescoping pan
bar and clamp with 100mm ball base.
SD -12A System
3364-3 SD -12 Pan and tilt head
3518-3 Single stage ENG tripod with 100mm bowl
3363-3 Lightweight calibrated floor spreader.
SD -12D System
3364-3 SD -12 Pan and tilt head
3513-3 Two -stage ENG tripod with 100mm bowl
3314-3 Heavy-duty calibrated floor spreader
SD-12LT System
3364-3 SD -12 Pan and tilt head
3523-3 Two -stage carbon fibre ENG tripod w/100mm bowl
3363-3 Lightweight calibrated floor spreader
3425-3A Carry strap
3340-3 Soft case
Vision 22 Systems
All Vision 22 systems include #3386-3 SD-22 dual fluid and
lubricated friction drag pan and tilt head, single telescoping
pan and clamp with dual 100mm/150mm ball base.
SD -22E System
3386-3 SD-22 Pan and tilt head
3219-52 Second telescoping pan bar and clamp
3516-3 Two-stage EFP tripod with 150mm bowl.
3314-3 Heavy-duty calibrated floor spreader
SD -22 LT System
3386-3 SD-22 Pan and tilt head
3219-52 Second telescoping pan bar and clamp
3523-3 Two-stage carbon fibre ENG tripod w/100mm bowl
3314-3 Heavy-duty calibrated floor spreader
3425-3A Carrying strap
3341-3 Soft case
SD -22 ELT System
3386-3 SD -22 Pan and tilt head
3219-52 Second telescoping pan bar and clamp
3383-3 Two-stage carbon fiber EFP tripod w/150mm bowl
3314-3 Heavy-duty calibrated floor spreader
CALL FOR
PRICES
"THE PROFESSIONAL'S SOURCE
FOR ORDERS CALL:
,r3
The first thing you notice about the eight channel DA -88 is the
size of the cassette - it's a small Hi-Bmm video cassette. You'll
also notice the recording time - up to 120 minutes. These are
just two of the advantages of the DA -88's innovative use of
8mm technology.
Intrinsic to the 8mm video format is the Automatic Track
Finding (ATF) control system. This approach records the
tracking control information, along with the program material,
using the helical scan (video) head. Competing S -VHS based
system record the tracking data with a linear recording head,
independent of the program data.. The S -VHS tape must be
run at a higher speed (thereby delivering shorter recording
time) to deliver control track reliability, and requires some
form of automatic or manual tracking adjustment. Synchronization and tracking must be adjusted, either automatically
or manually (just like on your home vcr) as the machine ages,
or if the tape is played back on another machine.
On the other hand, the ATF system ensures that there will be
no tracking errors or loss of synchronization. The DA -88
doesn't even have (or need) a tracking adjustment. All eight
tracks of audio are perfectly synchronized. What's more, this
system guarantees perfect tracking and synchronization
between all audio tracks on all cascaded decks - whether you
have one deck or sixteen (up to 128 tracks!).
Incoming audio is digitized by the on -board 16 -bit D/A at
either 44.1 or 48KHz (user selectable). The frequency
response is flat from 20Hz to 20KHz while the dynamic range
exceeds 92dB. As you would expect from a CD -quality
recorder, the wow and flutter is unmeasurable.
One of the best features of the DA-88 is the ability to execute
seamless Punch -Ins and Punch- outs. This feature offers programmable digital crossf odes, as well as the ability to insert
new material accurately into tight spots. You can even delay
individual tracks, whether you want to generate special effects
or compensate for poor timing. All of this can be performed
easily on a deck that is simple and intuitive to use.
212-444-5028
212-444-5001
This digital multitrack recorder is designed specifically for the
audio professional. Fostex has long been a leader in synchronization, and the RD-8 redefines that commitment. With its
built-in SMPTE / EBU reader/generator, the RD -8 can stripe,
read and jam sync time code - even convert to MIDI time code.
In a sync environment the RD -8 can be either Master or Slave.
In a MIDI environment it will integrate seamlessly into the most
complex project studio, allowing you complete transport control
from within your MMC (MIDI Machine Control) compatible
sequencer.
Full transport control is available via the unit's industry -standard RS -422 port, providing full control right from your video
bay. The RD -8 records at either 44.1 or 48KHzand will perform Pull -Up and Pull -Down functions for film/video transfers.
The Track Slip feature helps maintain perfect sound -to -picture
sync and the 8 -Channel Optical Digital Interface keeps you in
the digital domain.
All of this contributes to the superb sound quality of the RD -8.
The audio itself is processed by 16 -bit digital-to -analog
(D/A's) converters at either 44.1 or 48KHz (user selectable)
sampling rates, with 64X oversampling. Playback is accomplished with 18 bit analog -to-digital (A/D's) and 64% oversampling, thus delivering CD -quality audio.
The S -VHS transport in the RD -8 was selected because of its
proven reliability, rugged construction and superb tape handling capabilities. Eight tracks on S-VHS tape allow much
wider track widths than is possible on other digital tape
recording formats.
With its LCD and 10 -digit display panel, the RD -8 is remarkably easy to control. You can readily access 100 locate points,
and cross-fade time is fully controllable in machine to
machine editing. Table of Contents data can be recorded on
tape. When the next session begins, whether on your RD -8 or
another, you just load the set up information from your tape
and begin working. Since the RD -8 is fully ADAT compliant,
your machine can play tapes made on other compatible
machines, and can be controlled by other manufacturers
ADAT controllers. Your tapes will also be playable on any
other ADAT deck.
In addition to familiar transport controls, there are a number
of logical, user friendly features. This is the only unit in its
class with an on -board, back-lit variable contrast LCD display.
It provides all of the information you'll need to keep track of
offsets, punch points, generator functions and other pertinent
data. Three function keys, combined with HOME, NEXT and
UP/DOWN buttons, enable you to navigate the edit menus
effortlessly. If you need to have access to the front panel controls. the optional model 8312 remote control gives you
remote command of the most common functions.
SERVICE AVAILABLE
E-Mail at [email protected]
sNvRE
RF SERIES CONDENSER MICROPHONES
Unlike traditional condenser microphones, the capacitive transducer in
Sennheiser condenser microphones is part of a tuned RF -discriminator circuit.
Its output is a relatively low impedance audio signal which allows further processing by conventional bi-polar low noise solid state circuits. Sennheiser
microphones achieve a balanced floating output without the need for audio
transformers, and insures a fast, distortion -free response to audio transients
over an extended frequency range The RF -design yields exceptionally low noise
levels and is virtually immune to humidity and moisture. The comparatively low
RF -voltage across the elements of the transducer also eliminates arcing and DCbias creeping currents. Sennheiser employs RF -technology to control residual
microphone noise. Optimizing the transducer's acoustic impedance results in a
FP32A PORTABLE STEREO MIXER
This small and rugged portable mixer is well equipped to handle
the demands of EFP, ENG, live music recording or any other situation that requires a low noise high performance mixer.
further improvement in low noise performance. Sennheiser studio condenser
microphones operating according to this RF -principle have proven their superior
ruggedness and reliability in the past decades under every conceivable environmental condition.
MKH 20 P48Ú3 Omnidirectional
MKH 70 P48U3 (Shotgun)
Low distortion push-pull element, transformerless RF condenser,
flat frequency response, diffuse/near-field response switch (6 dB
boost at 10 KHz) switchable 10 dB pad to prevent overmodulation.
Handles 142 dB SPL. High output level. Ideal for concert, Mid -Side
(M -S), acoustic strings, brass and wind instrument recording.
Extremely lightweight RF condenser, rugged, long shotgun,
low distortion push-pull element, transformerless, low noise,
switchable presence (.5 dB at 10 KHz), low cut filter (-5 dB at
50 Hz), and 10 dB preattenuation. Handles 133 dB/SPL with
excellent sensitivity and high output level. Ideal for video/film
studios, theater, sporting events, and nature recordings.
MKH 40 P48113 Cardlold
Highly versatile, low distortion push-pull element transformerless
RF condenser, high output level, transparent response, switchable
proximity equalization (-4 dB at 50 Hz) and pre -attenuation of 10 dB
to prevent overmodulation. In vocal applications excellent results
have been achieved with the use of a pop screen. Recommended
for most situations, including digital recording, overdubbing vocals,
percussive sound, acoustic guitars, piano, brass and string instruments, Mid -Side (M -S) stereo, and conventional X-Y stereo.
MKH 416 P48113
Supercardlold/Lobe (Shotgun)
MKH 60 P48U3 (Short Shotgun)
Transformerless, RF condenser designed as a combination of
pressure gradient and interference tube microphones. Very
good feedback rejection, low proximity effect, 128 dB/SPL.
Rugged and resistant to changing climate conditions. Ideal for
boom, fishpole, and camera mountings. A long-distance microphone for video, film, and studio recording. Excellent for interviewing for reporters, podium or lecture microphone.
Short interference tube RF condenser, lightweight metal alloy, transformerless, low noise, symmetrical capsule design, smooth off -axis
frequency response, switchable low cut fitter (-5 dB at 100 Hz), high
frequency boost (.5 dB at 10 KHz) and 10 dB attenuation. Handles
extremely high SPL (135 dB), ideal for broadcasting, film, video,
sports recording, interviewing in crowded or noisy environments.
Excellent for studio voiceovers.
Narrow -beam pattern. transformerless RF condenser microphone. Handles 124 dB/SPL and has high output voltage.
Perfect for crowded news conference, movie sets, TV stages,
sporting events and nature recording.
RC -848
FOSC['X
OVERNIGHT AND RUSH
GEoSENNHEISER"
RC -888
RD -8 Multi -Track Recorder
(24 HOURS):
800-947-9003
OPTIONS
- Single Unit Remote Control
- System Remote Control
MU -8824 - 24 -Channel Meter Unit
SY-B8 - Complete SMPTE/EBU Chase Synchronizing and
MIDI Machine Control interlace
FAX
800-947-9928
TASCAM
DA -88 Multi -Track Recorder
oR
A PC -compatible
TEXT and GRAPHICS GENERATOR
(ISA bus) board, the PC-CODI incorporates a broadcast quality encoder and wide bandwidth linear keyer to provide
highest quality realtime, video character generation and graphics display. Used individually or configured with multiple boards, it is a
complete and affordable solution for information displays, broadcast, video production or multi -media applications.
User definable tab/template fields
Shaded backgrounds of variable sizes and transparency
User definable read effects playback; wipes, pushes, fades
High quality composite & S -video (Y/C) encoder
Integral composite and S -video linear keyer
NTSC or PAL sync generator with genlock
Module switchable NTSC or PAL operation
Software controlled video timing
Board addressability for multi -channel applications
Auto display sequencing
Local message/page memory
Preview output with safe-title/cursor/menu overlay
Composite & S -video input with auto-genlock select
SONY COLOR MONITORS
PVM-1350
13-
PVM-1351Q
Presentation Monitor
Employs a P-22 phosphor fine pitch CRT to deliver stunning horizontal resolution of 450 horizontal lines.
Equipped with beam current feedback circuit which eliminates
white balance drift for long term stability of color balance.
Has analog RGB, S -video and two
composite video (BNC) inputs as
well as 4 audio inputs.
Automatic Chroma/Phase setup
mode facilitates the complex, delicate procedure of monitor adjustment. Using broadcast standard
color bars as a reference, this
function automatically calibrates
chroma and phase.
Chroma/Phase adjustments can
also be easily performed with the
monochrome Blue Only display. In
Blue Only mode video noise can be
precisely evaluated.
Factory set to broadcast standard
6500K color temperature
Provides an on-screen menu to
facilitate adjustment/operation on
the monitor. The on -screen menu
display can be selected in English, French, German, Spanish or
Italian.
On power up, automatic deguassing is performed.
There is also a manual degauss switch to demagnetize the screen.
Sub control mode allows fine adjustments to be made on the knob
control for contrast, brightness, chroma and phase. The desired
level can be set to the click position at the center allowing for mul-
High quality -low noise electronics, perfect for digital
recording and transmission
Each channel has own pan pot
Each channel has illuminated
meter and peak indicator
Three balanced inputs, two
balanced outputs plus tape
out and monitor
Supports all types of condenser mics with intemal
phantom supply
Inputs can be switched
between mic and line level
Two units can be cascaded to
provide six input channels
Internal 1 KHz oscillator for
record and send level
calibration
Intemal (2x9V alkaline
batteries) or external power
Switchable low cut filters
MKH 816 P48U3
Ultra -directional Lobe (shotgun)
CIHIOIPI Graphics
PC-CODI
Standard PC/AT ISA bus interface; 2/3 length form factor
fully-antialiased displays
Less than 1Onsec. effective pixel resolution
16.7 million color selections
Fast, realtime operations
Character, Logo and PCX Image transparency
Display and non -display buffers
Bitstream typeface library selection
Variable edges: border, drop shadow and offset
Variable flush
Full position and justify control of character & row
User definable intercharacter spacing (squeeze & expand)
Multiple rolVcrawl speeds
Automatic character kerning
.
13-Production Monitor
Is also a
Has all the features of the PVM-1350 PLUSmultisystem monitor. It accepts NTSC, PAL and NTSC
video signals. NTSC 4.43 can also be repro-
duced.
Equipped with a SMPTE 259M Serial
Digital Interface. By inserting the
optional serial digital interface kit
BKM-101C for video and the BKM-102
for audio the PVM-13510 can accept
SMPTE 259M component serial
digital signals.
Equipped with RS -422 serial interface.
With optional BKM-103 serial remote
control kit all of the monitor's functions
can be remotely controlled with greater
confidence and precision.
Equipped with input terminals such as
component (Y/R-Y/B-Y), analog RGB, Svideo, 2 composite video (BNC) and 4
audio terminals for complete flexibility.
Aspect ratio is switchable between 4:3
and 16:9 simply by pressing a button.
Underscan and FiN delay capability.
With underscan, entire active picture
area is displayed. Allows you to view
entire image and check the picture
edges. HN delay allows viewing of the
blanking area and sync/burst timing by displaying the horizontal
and vertical intervals in the center of the screen.
Color temperature switchable between 6500K/9300K/User preset. 6500K is factory preset. 9300K is for a more pleasing picture.
and 1a9
-Production Monitors
All the features of the PVM-13510 PLUS:
SMPTE C standard phosphor CRT is incorporated in the PVM-13540/19540. SMPTE C phosphors permit the most critical evaluation
of any color subject. Provides over 600 lines of horizontal resolution.
The PVM-13540 mounts into a 19 -inch EIA standard rack with the optional MB -5028 rack mount bracket and
SLR -102 slide rail kit same as PVM-13510. The PVM-19540 mounts into a 19 -inch Ely rack with the optional SLR -103 slide rail kit.
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MicroSeries 1202
12 -Channel Ultra -Compact
Mic/Line Mixer
Usually the performance and durability of smaller mixers drops
in direct proportion to their pece, making lower cost models
unacceptable for serious recording and sound reinforcement.
Fortunately, Mackie's fanatical approach to pro sound engineering has resulted in the Micro Series 1202, an affordable
small mixer with studio specifications and rugged construction. The Micro Serles 1202 is a no -compromise, professional
quality ultra-compact mixer designed for non-stop 24 hour -a day professional duty in broadcast studios, permanent PA
applications and editing suites where nothing must ever go
wrong. So no matter what your application, the Micro Series
1202 is ideal. If price is the prime consideration or you simply
want the best possible mixer in the least amount of space.
there is only one choice.
CR -1604
16 -Channel Audio Mixer
than three years, the Mackie CR-1604 has become the
industry standard for compact 16 -channel mixers. It is the
hands -down choice for major touring groups and studio session players, as well as for broadcast sound contracting and
recording studio users. For them the CR -1604 offers features.
specs, and day -in -day -out reliability that rival far larger boards
Its remarkable features include 24 usable line inputs with special headroom/ultra-low noise Unityplus circuitry, seven AUX
sends, 3-band equalization, constant power pan controls, 10 segment LED output metering, discrete front end phantom powered mic inputs and much more.
In less
TASCAM
M-2600 Series
16/24/32 Channel
Eight Channel Mixers
LOW NOISE CIRCUITRY
Combining completely redesigned, low noise circuitry with
Absolute Sound Transparency.' the M-2600 delivers high quality extremely clean sound. No matter how many times
your signal goes through the M-2600, it wont be colored or
altered. The signal remains as close to the original as possible. The only coloring you hear is what you add with creative
ED and your outboard signal processing gear.
Double reinforced grounding system eliminates any hum.
World -class power supply provides higher voltage output
for better headroom and higher S/N ratio.
THE BEST ABO SECTION IN THE BUSINESS
The most versatile AUX section in its class; rivaling expensive
high -end consoles. 8 sends total, 2 in stereo. Send signal in
stereo or mono, pm- or post -fader. Available all at once.
Return signal through any of 6 stereo paths.
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Makes burned -In SMPTE TC window dub copies
Indicates drop -frame or non -drop -frame time code
Also functions as play speed SMPTE time code reader
Adjustments for horizontal and vertical size and position
Dark mask or "see-thru" mask surrounds display
Provides reshapedtime code output for copying TC
Display on/off
Displays time code or user bits
Sharp characters
Field 1/ held 2 indicator
Always frame accurate (on time)
TG -50
advanced Digital Noise Reducer
(DNR) for both the chrominance
WV
and luminance signals to eliminate noise during playback.
At the same time, a field memory
incorporated in the noise reducer
removes jitter to provide sharp,
stable pictures. The field memory.
also includes a Digital Field DOC
(Dropout Compensator),
which replaces signal dropout
with information from the
previous field.
They also incorporate Chroma
Process Improvement circuitry for
excellent color picture quality in
the playback mode. This advanced
circuitry greatly improves the
chroma bandwidth, thus enabling
sharper and clearer color picture reproduction.
$349
BSG -50
Blackburst/Sync/Tone Generator
The BSG -50 provides an economical means for generating
the most common RS -170A video timing signals used to
operate various video switchers, effects generators, TBC0.
VCRs, cameras and video edit controllers.
6 BNC video/pulse outputs
Now available: 6 blackburst, 4 sync, 2 subcarrier
Each sync output individually settable for composite sync,
composite blanking, H -drive, or V -drive.
Separate buffer for each output-maximum signal isolation
1KHz, OdB sinewave audio tone output, locked to video
Outputs can easily be configured to meet
specific user and equipment needs
FXE-100
CSG-50
Generates full/SMPTE color bars, blackburst and com-
posite sync signals.
Built-in timer can automatically switch video output from
color bars to color black after 30 or 60 seconds. Easy and
convenient for producing tape leaders and striping tapes
with color bars and black.
Front panel selection of full -field or SMPTE color bar patterns or colorblack (blackburst) video output.
Includes crystal -controlled, K z, OdB audio tone output.
KHz, OdB
Outputs: video, sync, ref frame,
Audio tone switches to silence and color bars change to
black when using 30/60 second timer
Fully RS-170A SC/H phased and always correct.
No adjustment required
1
1
$349
NTSC Test Signal Generator
The TSG-50 generates 12 video test signals suitable for setting up, aligning, and evaluating the performance of various
video equipment found in a typical video editing system, such
as video monitors, distribution amplifiers, VCRs, switchers,
effects generators, TBC5, etc. In addition to the video signals,
the TSG-50 also generates composite sync and, with a video
DA such as the Horita VDA-50, becomes a high quality, multiple output, house sync generator.
Fully RS -170A SC/H phased and always correct. No adjustments ever required
Built-in timer automatically switches video output from color
bar pattern to black after 30 or 60 seconds. Makes it easy to
produce tape leaders of color bars followed by black.
Video signals generated are in accordance with industry standard EIA RS-170A video timing specification.
Audio tone switches to silence and color bars change to black
when using 30/60 second timer.
Convenient pattern selection - 12 position front panel switch.
Includes crystal controlled, 1 KHz, OdB audio tone output.
Generates precise oscilloscope trigger output signal one H
line before start of color field 1.
Outputs: video, sync, ref frame, 1 KHz, OdB
$439
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Window Dub Inserter
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Has all of the above plus RS -232 control.
VG -50 -VITC Generator, LTC-VITC Translator
VLT-50 - VITC-To-LTC Translator
VLT-5OPC - VITC-To-LTC Translator / RS -232 Control
RLT-50 - HIB (EVO-9800/9850)TC to LTC ranslator
TSG-50 - NTSC Test Signal Generator
SCT -50 - Serial Control Titter "Industrial" CG,
Time -Date Stamp, Time Code Captioning
SAG -50
Safe Area, Convergence Pattern and
Oscilloscope Line Trigger and Generator
TRG-50 TRG-5OPC -
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They each incorporate four -channels of high quality video.
There are two channels with Hi-Fi (AFM) tracks and two with
longitudinal (normal) tracks. The Hi-Fi tracks provide a wide
frequency response from 20hz to 20khz and a superb dynamic
range of 90db. The normal tracks incorporate Dolby B noise
reduction for high quality sound reproduction. XLR connectors
;, . _
are used for the inputs and out#
...,
':
puts for all tour channels.
?
MULTIPLE INPUTS & OUTPUTS
Both machines employ composite and S -Video connectors.
With optional SVBK-170
Component Output Board. they
provide component signal output through BNC connectors.
With the board, the VCRs can
be integrated into Betacam SP
editing systems.
USER FRIENDLY OPERATION
Built-in character generator
which superimposes characters
on the "video monitor output"
signal. This allows time code
data, control track, menu setup
and VCR function status to be
shown on a monitor.
For more efficient operation they have an on -screen setup
menu which allows a variety of customized VCR mode operations. Programmed in the form of a layer structure, you simply
go through the menu and initialize VCR operation.
All parameters of the TBC, such as luminance level, chroma
level, setup. hue, Y/C delay, sync phase and SC phase are
easily controlled from the front panel, and can be remotely
controlled from the optional UVR-60 TBC Remote Control.
The UVR-60 also accesses field freeze function in the still
mode and allows on/off control of the chroma and luminance
noise reducer.
Quick and smooth picture search can be performed by either
using an RS -422 equipped edit controller or the optional
SVRM-100 Remote Control Unit. Recognizable color pictures
are provided at up ío100 normal speed in forward or reverse.
ALL -IN -ONE VIDEO EDITING SYSTEM
The new FXE-100 is an A/B roll editing system designed for quicker, easier video
Color Bar/Sync/ Tone Generator
-
FOUR CHANNEL AUDIO SYSTEM
ADVANCED EDITING FUNCTIONS
For frame accurate editing, both machines employ a sophisticated servo system, an improved quick response mechanism
and built-in LTCNITC time code capability. This makes them
ideal for animation and computer graphic recording, where a
frame -by -frame editing function is indispensable.
They are equipped with industry standard RS -422 9 -pin serial
interface. The 9-pin connector carries edit commands and
time code data between the VCR and the edit controller.
When connected to an RS-422 equipped edit controller, the
SVO -5800 functions as an editing recorder. It performs
assemble and insert functions and also provided audio split
editing capability of norman audio tracks 1 and 2. In the insert
mode, video, audio and time code can be Inserted independently, or in any combination.
$269
WG -50
TG -50
Player/ S -VHS Editing Recorder
Digital Field DOC and Chroma Process improvement, they
deliver the consistent picture quality so essential to editing.
They also incorporate a wide video head gap and track width
(58mm) for stable and faithful picture reproduction.
Each has a built-in TBC plus an
Generates SMPTE time code in drop/non-drop-frame format
Jamsync mode jams to time code input and outputs new TC
Simple "on screen" preset of time code and user bits
Run/stop operation using front panel momentary switch
Selectable30/60/90/120 -second automatic generator back -time
Make a window dub copy while
recording TC on source tape
AUDIO -VIDEO
Sat Closed
and SVO
S -VHS
Combination time code generator and window dub
It includes all features of WG -50 PLUS-
Fri 9-2
SONY
-5800
-5600
SVP -5800 and SVO -5800 features:
By combining the high resolution (400 horizontal lines) of S VHS with high quality signal processing techniques like DNR,
$269
Wed & Thurs 9-7:30
RUSH OR OVERNIGHT SERVICE AVAILABLE (extra charge)
SVP
Generator / Inserter inserter.
TSG-50
Mon & Tues 9-6
10-4:45
366-3738
WG -50
Window Dub Inserter
NEW YORK, N.Y. 10011
Store & Mail Order Hours:
Sun
OR
STREET,
editing. and is well -suited for today's professional audio/visual communicaIt is at once an edit controller which controls basic VCR functions,
special effects generator which cuts, mixes, wipes and composites
the video sources with stunning effects; and an audio mixer with
various fading and switching abilities. There is no longer a need to
tions.
MAGNI
103111b
-400
MM
MM -400 is a combination waveform and vector
monitor especially configured for the cost-conscious
producer. A low-cost alternative to CRT-based waveform
monitoring the MM -400 produces a video picture of the
input signal's waveform and displays it on any video
monitor. It provides a simple, affordable and accurate
way to set camera levels before a shoot, or to check time
base correctors and color fidelity in editing. Problems
like hue shift, smearing, muddy contrast and loss of
detail are easily identified for correction.
The
FEATURES:
Converts waveform or vector display information into a
standard video signal which can be displayed on a video
monitor or routed around a video facility, no need for
additional expensive monitors. Switch between pictures
and waveforms at the push of a button.
Incorporates an advanced SC/H phase and color frame
indicator that is a must for editing and post production.
At a glance it tells you if a signal's subcarrier-to- horizontal phase is properly adjusted and if the signal's color
frame matches the house black burst connected to the
MM -400 external reference input.
Works anywhere and with any analog video formatNTSC, PAL. Component or S -Video. It has automatic
detection between NTSC and PAL formats.
Three loop -through inputs can accept three composite
signals or one component, or RGB signal
Na complex displays or special test signals are required
for component video monitoring
Interchannel timing and amplitude display make component analog monitoring easy. has color bar limit markings for Betacam, M -II and SMPTE formats.
Waveform and vectorscope controls, including channel.
sweep speed, position control, phase rotation are on
easy -to-see dedicated pushbuttons.
Besides instant toggling between picture and waveform,
a mix mode combines waveform and picture displays for
simultaneous viewing.
The MM -400 can be readily used by even novice operators. It has easy -to- understand set-up menus for display color, Interchannel timing, SC/H phase alarm.
Usable in any video facility of any size for displaying signals. its low cost makes it affordable by the smallest studio, while its features and performance make it ideal for
monitoring in high-end facilities as well.
a
LEADER
configure multiple devices for video editing. With either
Hi -8 or S -VHS VCRs and the FXE-100, an ideal professional editing
system can be easily configured.
Switchable machine control of three
RS-422 equipped VCRs or
three RS-232 equipped VCRs. Basic VCR functions, such as
play, stop, still, fast forward, rewind and record are controlled
through these interfaces. Variable speed control is also possible
for VCRs equipped with Dynamic Tracking.
Accepts time code, control track (CTL), and 8mm time code as
editing references. These can be set separately for each VCR.
Performs assemble and insert editing (Video, Audio 1, Audio
2). The first EDIT mode, which allows you to record sufficient
timecode for synchronization to a new tape is also featured.
Features a split audio edit function which allows setting of
audio and video in -points separately. This permits you to bring
in the audio source before a visual transition.
Store up to 99 scenes, including effects settings, in memory.
Edit list data can be saved and downloaded to an IBM-compatible PC, allowing you to review or modify edit data at any time.
The FXE-100 has two program busses, the A- and B -bus. Each
bus provides Player 1, Player 2. Aux inputs and Background
Color. Both composite and S-Video signals can be input.
Taking advantage of the freeze function, two machine editing
with effect transitions is realized by freezing the recorder OUT
point picture. Also, by selecting the same video source in both
A and B bus, wipe or mix In/Out of the digital effects is possible
without picture transition. This "Self A Roll" function is another
feature which allows effective two machine video editing.
SWITCNER AND SPECIAL EFFECTS GENERATOR
Multiple wipe patterns, including picture scroll and slides. are
programmed in. Wipe patterns are easily accessed, and transition rates can be set. Soft edges or a choice of 15 color borders
can be added to most wipes and effects.
Variety of mix effects, such as mosaic mix, black and white
mix, posterization mix and picture -in -picture (PIP). Also fade to
black and fade to white effects.
Digital effects, such as mosaic, paint, pixel trail, multi -picture,
monochrome, and zoom. Picture freeze function is also featured in frame or field mode.
Because all the special effects can be set separately to the video
sources of each bus, wipes or dissolves of the sources with the
digital effects can be executed. It is also possible to combine
multiple effects to create stunning images, such as wiping the
multi -picture effect with the paint effect and dissolving color
corrected picture with mosaic effects.
We
Model 5850C
ADJUSTABLE TRANSITIONS
Transitions are done using the fade lever, or they can be automatically set. Transition time can be set from 0 to 999 frames,
Transition can also be paused and reversed. Other parameters
such as GPI timing. wipe selection and pre -roll time can be set.
CHROMA KEYER
The FOE -100 features chroma and luminance keyers to superimpose characters, figures. or video sources onto a background.
Clip and gain levels can be adjusted to give clean and sharp key
edges. Color correction is done via the joystick for both busses
with memory to hold a favorite setting for storage and recall.
WIPE CONTROL
By moving the location stick, you can move the closed wipe patterns such as square, circle and heart, around the screen. This
function also enables you to start the wipe transition from any
desired position on the screen.
AUDIO MIXING
Audio -follow -video editing can be performed with the FXE-100. Two
channels are assigned to each player VCR's input and one channel for
the recorder VCR's input. Two channels of AUX inputs and a MIC input
are available for mixing background music with voice-over. NI audio
input levels can be adjusted separately. Two Program output channels
and one monitor channel am provided. A switch for -7.5dB and *4.0
dB is provided for flexibility in choosing input levels for VCRs with
either RCA or XLR connectors.
USER FRIENDLY OPERATION
All keys and buttons are logically grouped by function. and are
color coded for quick identification and economy of keystrokes.
Permits one monitor operation. No need for multiple monitors.
Various editing data, such as edit mode and time code address
of each VCR, can be monitored on the same screen.
VERSATILESYSTEM INTEGRATION
No need to configure multiple devices. By simply connecting
three VCRs. a professional video editing system is farmed.
Two frame synchronizers allow perfectly synchronized wipes
and dissolves without time base correctors.
Equipped with two GPIs for control of external devices, such as
character generators and audio mixers. Also has a GPI input,
allowing it to be controlled from an external edit controller.
Has four black burst outputs to distribute internally generated
sync signal, synchronizing connected devices. There is no need
for an external sync generator.
are an authorized Service Center for Sony and Panasonic
Industrial and Professional video equipment. Call (800) 963-2525.
In NYC (212) 206-8861 (24 hour service available)
Minimum shipping USA (Except AK & HI) $7.00 up to
3111s.
Vectorscope
An ideal companion for the 5860C Waveform Monitor.
the 5650C adds simultaneous side -by -side waveform
and vector monitoring. Featured is an electronically -generated vector scale that precludes the need for fussy centering adjustments and eases phase adjustments from
relatively long viewing distances. Provision is made for
selecting the phase reference from either (A or B) inputs
ora separate external timing reference.
Model 5860C
Waveform Monitor
A two -input waveform monitor, the 5860C features 1H. 1V.
ps/div and 2V MAG time hases as well as vertical
2H. 2V,
1
amplifier response choices of flat. IRE (low pass), chrome
and DIF-STEP. The latter facilitates easy checks of luminance linearity using the staircase signal. A PIX MON output
jack feeds observed (A or B) signals to a picture monitor.
and the unit accepts an external sync reference. Built-in calibrator and on -off control of the DC restorer is also provided
Model 5864A
Waveform Monitor
5854
monitor for field use, the
Model 5864A is a two -channel unit that provides 21-1 and
2V sweeps with MAG, FLAT and IRE response, and normal and X4 gain.
A fully portable waveform
Model 5854
Vectorscope
2-channel portable vectorscope is ideal for field use and
features A and B phase reference, fixed and variable gain.
Both units shown with optional battery holder and NP -1
type battery
Add 60C far each additional Ib. For Ins. add 406 per $100. Prices subject to supplier prices.
Circle (63) on Reply Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
© 1995 Photo -Video
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
JOHN H. BATTISON P.E.
CONSULTING BROADCAST ENGINEER,
FCC APPLICATIONS AM, FM, TV, LPTV
HAMMETT & EDISON, INC.
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Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Oranomect
Specializing in the Secondary Market for
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Communications Systems
Tampa, FL
FL -800-447-4714 / 813-888-5353
PROMOTE TOUR EERVICEE
and increase business for as low as 511900 per
insertion in Broadcast Engineering Classifieds.
401-800-396-9939
Circle (101) on Reply Card
August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering 85
CLASSIFIED
HELP WANTED
"Great article!
Can we get
copies for our
clients and
sales force?"
For a free price quote,
contact Chris Lotesto,
toll -free at 800-458-0479
or 312-435-2359.
POSITION WANTED
ENGINEER WITH 19 YEARS EXPERIENCE in
post, broadcast, dealer support, engineering man-
agement, system design and installation. Factory
trained Dl, D2, digital betacam, 1" switchers, editors, cart, studio/ENG cameras, etc, etc. Seeks
stable long term engineering opportunity. Prefer
Chief/Asst. Chief in Florida marketplace. Willing
to relocate. For more information send inquiries
to Classified Ad Coordinator, Broadcast Engineering, Dept. 766, 9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS
SYSTEMS DESIGN ENGINEERS
SENIOR PROJECT MANAGERS
As a result of continuing growth, AFA is expanding its Project Engineering staff.
A.F. Associates is an acknowledged leader in the design, engineering and fabrication of
advanced television systems and facilities for the industry's most prestigious clients.
We are seeking talented and experienced systems engineers to join our dedicated staff of
professionals and become involved in a number of very visible and challenging projects.
AFA offers a dynamic, yet "small company" work environment, located in suburban Northern
New Jersey. As a subsidiary of Video Services Corporation, we offer unique growth potential
in the industry's fastest growing group of high-tech companies, as well as a comprehensive
package of benefits.
Candidates should have a minimum of five years of broadcast systems design experience,
characterized by the proven ability to perform detailed design of digital video and audio
systems. Fluency in AutoCAD is a must. You must be well -versed in breaking techríologies,
including computer -related video disciplines such as video file servers, and demonstrate the
ability to manage an intricate project where the client's satisfaction is the highest priority.
An EE degree or significant industry experience is required.
Please send resume' and salary history to:
Mr. Jim McGrath
- Vice President of Engineering
No phone calls, please.
66212-2215.
AFA
HELP WANTED
A.F. ASSOCIATES, INC.
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: Immediate opening
for Maintenance Engineer. Associate Degree in
Electronics and 4-6 years experience TV Mainte-
nance. FCC General Class license required-SBE
certification desirable. Individual must be energetic, self-starter with experience in component
level troubleshooting and maintenance of a wide
variety audio, video and RF equipment. U-Matic
maintenance experience required, Beta experience a plus. Must also share in driving/operating KU band SNG truck (chauffeui s license required). Some weekends and nights required, and
occasional master control operating shift. Minorities and women encouraged to apply. Send
resume listing references, salary requirements
and any manufactures technical schools to: Chief
Engineer, KOMU-TV, 5550 Hwy. 63 South, Columbia, MO 65201. An EEO, Affirmative Action Employer.
VIDEO PROJECTIONIST- National staging com-
pany seeking independent contractors on a
project by project basis. Qualifications include a
working knowledge of Sony 1270 video projectors interfaced with various computer systems,
both doubled and tripled stacked. Familiarity
with Barco 8100 or GE light valves a plus. Must
be able to deal effectively with client and crew.
Place of residence not a factor. Travel required.
Send resume and references to Classified Ad Coordinator, Broadcast Engineering, Dept. 764, 9800
Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212-2215.
COMPUTER/VIDEO TECHNICIAN Experience
with mini computer hardware, software networking and related systems. Ability to understand and maintain various analog and digital
control systems. Basic knowledge and willingness to learn high -end video and audio systems
is a plus. Capable of being "on -call" for systems
problems. Send resume to: Engineering Manager, P.O. Box 4800, Baltimore, MD 21211. (June
issue correction: P.O. Box 4798 is incorrect.)
Equal Opportunity Employer.
MASTER CONTROL OPERATORS wanted to
oversee playback operations for major cable
channels, New York City based. Fax resumes to
(212) 941-1821. No phone calls please.
86
100 Stonehurst Court, Northvale, New Jersey 07647
FAX 201-784-8637
A Video Services Corporation Company
CHIEF ENGINEER - Dominant gulf coast affiliate
seeks a chief engineer who can lead us into the
digital future. The successful candidate will have
excellent technical and leadership skills plus a
thorough knowledge of broadcast equipment in-
cluding RF transmission systems. Requirements
are an FCC license, college or technical degree
(or equivalent experience), plus at least 10 years
broadcast engineering experience. Send letter,
resume, references and salary requirements to
Veronica Bilbo, EEO Coordinator, KPLC-TV, P.O.
Box 1490, Lake Charles, LA 70602. EOE.
BROADCAST MAINTENANCE ENGINEER to
maintain television broadcasting equipment for
a large college radio -TV-film department in the
Los Angeles area. Requires formal education in
electronics and 2 years technical engineering
work in a television broadcasting environment.
Salary: $49,120. Excellent benefit package. Call
for application: (213) 891-2129. LOS ANGELES
COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT. Deadline:
August 25th. AA/EEO.
CHIEF TV ENGINEER Immediate opening. Large
college radio-TV-film department in the Los Angeles area. Requires formal education in electronics and 5 years experience maintaininga wide
variety of commercial color television equipment,
-
AFA is an Equal Opportunity Employer
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER Black Entertainment
Television Inc. Ability to troubleshoot to the com
ponent level production switchers, digital video
effects systems, routing switchers, vtis character generators, cameras, editing systems and audio equipment. This will include system interfacing to computers and compatible components,
equipment installation for studio and remote productions. Must be knowledgeable of system timing theory, broadcast specifications, and electronics course study. Ability to perform fiber switches
and satellite downlink. Must have 3 years experience. BET, Corporate Human Resources, 1905-E
9th Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20018
TELEVISION HELP WANTED, TECHNICAL Assis-
tant Chief Engineer: Looking for well qualified
Assistant CE who can eventually assume position
of CE for UHF station. FCC general class license;
SBE certified. Send detailed resume and salary
requirements to Classified Ad Coordinator, Broadcast Engineering, Dept. 765, 9800 Metcalf, Overland Park,
KS 66212-2215. EOE.
including
VIDEO ENGINEER- National staging company
seeking independent contractors on a project by
project basis. Qualifications include a working
knowledge of component systems with multiple
routers in a live environment. Responsibilities
include set-up, operation and troubleshooting of
$54,992. Excellent benefit package. Call for application: (213) 891-2129. LOS ANGELES COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT. Deadline: August
25th. AA/EEO.
component packages, videotape machines, cameras, routers, and interfacing various computer
systems. Must be able to deal effectively with
clients and crew. Place of residence not a factor.
Travel required. Send resume and references to
2 years maintaining commercial broadcast quality color television systems. Salary:
Classified Ad Coordinator, Broadcast Engineering,
Dept. 763, 9800 Metcalf, Overland Park, KS 66212ATLANTA CHIEF ENGINEER Trinity Broadcasting station in the Atlanta area. Experienced in
maintenance of UHF transmitter, studio systems
2215.
as well as personnel supervision and training.
SBE certification a plus. Send resumes to Ben
Miller, Mail P.O. Box C-11949, Santa Ana, CA 92711;
TRI-STATE CHRISTIAN TV has trainee positions
open in production and engineering. Some expe-
E-mail: BMILLER614HAOL.COM; Fax: 714/6652101. M/F EOE.
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
rience helpful. Must be willing to relocate. Send
resume to P.O. Box 1010; Marion, Illinois 62959.
An EEO employer.
CLASSIFIED
HELP WANTED
WE PLACE
Video
Service/Maintenance Technician
(Technical Engineers -Post Production
Editors, Colorists, Graphics & Animators)
Swiderski Electronics, Inc. a leader in
the Audio/Video/Telecommunications
field, has an immediate opening for a
qualified Audio/Video Service/Maintenance Technician. 2 yrs. exp. Position
works with Broadcast/Industrial 1/2',
3/4' and 1' VTR's & related equipt.
Send resume & salary history to:
H/R Dept., 1200 Greenleaf Ave.
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
Fax resume (708) 364-5019
STATION MANAGER
with television engineering background
needed immediately for KSKN-TV in
Spokane, Washington. Individual responsible to operating full power, 24hour, UHF home shopping network station. Must be experienced in transmitter, studio, and microwave maintenance.
Knowledge of FCC regulations and compliance mandatory. Management experience a plus but not required. Good
people and community relations skills
necessary. FCC license required. Send
resume to KSKN-TV, Inc., Corporate
Office, 408 Paseo Companeros, Chico,
CA 95928. KSKN-TV is an equal opportunity employer.
TELEVISION ENGINEERS
Turner Broadcasting System, the leading
News, Sports, and Entertainment system in
satellite communications, has career
opportunities for engineers with broadcast
maintenance experience. These positions
demand an extensive background in television
engineering and at least two years of training in
electronics technology. Turner Broadcasting
System offers an excellent benefit and
compensation program.
Send resumes to:
Mr. Jim Brown, Corp. Engineering
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
One CNN Center
P.O. Box 105366
Atlanta, GA 30348-5366
(404) 827-1638 office
(404) 827-1835 fax
TBS is an equal opportunity employer
ence in the installation and maintenance of television and radio production/broadcast equipment. Experience in RFtroubleshooting, performance measurementsfor television, radio and
satellite systems required. FCC license and/or SBE certification with two year degree required, four year degree preferred.
Ability to design systems and circuits. Knowledge of computer operating systems. Ability to work under pressure and
willingness to work any shift, weekends, holidays and overtime. Television Engineer Il -One year minimum of experience
in RF troubleshooting, operation and maintenance of television and radio production/broadcast equipment. FCC license
and/or SBE certification with two year degree required, four
year degree preferred. Knowledge of computer operating systems. Knowledge of FCC rules and industry standards. Ability
to work under pressure. Willingness to work any shift, weekend, holidays and overtime. Apply at Human Resources, Grand
Valley State University, 158 AuSable Hall, Allendale, Ml 49401.
Deadline date is August 31, 1995. EEO/AA/ADA.
CLASSIFIED
ADVERTISING RATES
Advertising rates in Broadcast Engineering Classified Section are $119°4 per column inch, per insertion, with frequency discounts available. There is a
one inch minimum and ten inches maximum.
Ads may also be purchased By-The -Word for $1.75
per word, per insertion. Initials and abbreviations
count as full words. Minimum charge is $40 per insertion.
Blind box ads (replies sent to Broadcast Engineering for forwarding) are an additional $40". Reader
Service Numbers are available for $5000 per insertion.
Ads four inches or larger receive a Reader Service
Number free.
Spot color, determined by Broadcast Engineering,
is available at $9540 per insertion.
No agency discounts are allowed for classified advertising.
Call Matt Tusken
Classified Sales Manager
at 800-896-9939
to reserve your classified ad!
Employer Paid Fees
Guaranteed Confidential
15 Years Service
FAX and/or Mail your Resume to Mike Kellc
KEYSTONE INT'L, INC.
16 Laflin Road, Suite 900
Pittston, PA 18640
Fax 717-654-5765 Phone 717-655-7143
CHIEF ENGINEER:
NY 1 News, a technological leader in
local news, has a challenging position for
a Chief Engineer who will play a key role
in moving NY 1 into a digital future. You
should be self -motivated, organized and
have:
Experience in news operations.
RF/TRANSMISSION TECHNICIANS
Full Time -Floral Park, NY
Strong management and budgetary
experience
Rainbow Network Communications, an established
satellite up -link and transmission center, is seeking
experienced AND entry level Technicians:
Working knowledge of LMS and
automated playback systems
EXPERIENCED: Extensive background with
Experience with all tape formats,
especially Hi 8
microwave frequency equipment, ability to install/
maintain up and downlink facilities and a thorough
knowledge of video/audio transmission required;
fiber optics experience and ability to troubleshoot at
component level preferred.
ENTRY LEVEL: A basic knowledge of satellite
communications and video/audio transmission
Television Maintenance Engineer/relevision Engineer: State
of the art television and radio broadcast facility with satellite
uplink is accepting applications for the following positions:
Television Maintenance Engineer-Three to five years experi-
All Levels, Locations, & Disciplines
concepts required.
All positions require the ability to work under
pressure, strong communications skills and
availability for flexible schedules (weekends, nights,
holidays). A technical or college degree is preferred.
Please send resume and salary history/requirements
to: PO Box 999-RF2, Woodbury, NY 11797. An
equal opportunity employer.
TELEVISION CHIEF ENGINEER
POSITIONS (2):
Group operator has two Chief Engineering openings. Both in small, second -hundred markets. These are hands-on,
maintenance-intensive positions that offer the opportunity to develop management and people skills. Positions are in
northern California and southwestern
Texas.
The stations are being acquired by a
new owner with substantial major market experience. The successful candidates will be joining a new team of broadcast professionals and play a key role in
developing the stations into strong, professionally-managed competitors in their
markets.
If you have excellent studio/transmitter
maintenance skills and want the challenge and responsibility of managing and
maintaining the technical operations of a
small -market television station, please
send your resume to Bachow & Associates, Inc., 3 Bala Plaza East, Suite 502,
Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 c/o Mr. Fisher
or fax to 610/660-4930.
Strong maintenance, troubleshooting
and system design skills
Knowledge of server based/digital
production systems
Please send or fax your resume and
salary history to:
Harlan Neugeboren
Director of Operations & Engineering
NY 1 News
460 West 42nd Street
New York, NY 10036
FAX (212) 563-7156
NEWS
NY
1
IS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER
13J
I
The Manitoba Television Network has an
immediate opening for a Chief Engineer based
at its studio facilities in Portage la Prairie. The
ideal candidate should have strong hands-on
technical expertise and a minimum of 5 years
experience along with strong managerial skills.
You will be part of an innovative independent
station and work with a team of people dedicated to quality.
If you enjoy the challenge of
a major market
television operation with the benefit of small
community living, this challenging opportunity
could be for you.
Submit resumes in confidence to:
Mr. Drew Craig
General Manager
Manitoba Television Network
RO. Box 13000
Portage la Prairie MB R1N3V3
August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering 87
AD INDEX
Reader
Page Number
AAVS/Div. of Sencore
ADC Telecommunications
Advanced TV Summit
Ampex Recording Media
Audio Precision
Service Number
3
5
33
22
69
57
7
23
14
20
48
31
77
Barco Inc.
Belar Electronics Laboratory
B & H Photo - Video
Broadcast Video Systems Ltd.
62,63
81-83
32
52
17
25
11
11
17
74
60
65
50
19
8
36
25
ESE
79
Faraday Technology
Feral Industries
Fiber Options
Gamer Industries
68
64
55
19
BSM Systems
BTS Broadcast TV Systems
Clear-Corn Intercom Systems
Datatek, Inc.
DNF Industries
D/Vision Systems Inc.
Dynatech Video Group
Ensemble Designs
36
7
21
22
56
84
36
Gepco
Grass Valley Group
Harris Allied
Hewlett Packard
Hitachi Denshi America
Hotronic Inc.
100
26
59
1, 61
4,37
Ikegami Electronics Inc.
Interbee/Jesa
Ipitek
JVC Professional Products Co.
Leightronix Inc.
Leitch Incorporated
Lighthouse Digital
Lightwave Systems Inc.
Miller Fluid Heads
Mohawk Wire & Cable Corp.
National Transcommunications
Nikon Electronic Imaging
Odetics, Inc.
Opamp Labs, Inc.
PolyPhaser Corp.
Prime Image Inc.
Quantel
Sachtler GMBH
Seagate Technology
39
52
41
41
63
55
38
18
74
BC
47
47
61
3
29
29
28
30
49
32
5
13
35
24
56
50
45
46
33
27
51
34
66
13-15
38, 39
30-31
78
29, 58
57
53
85
IBC
59
68
Thomson Broadcast Systems
Varitek
Videotek, Inc.
Vistek Electronics Limited
Viz Technology
Wheatstone Corporation
Winsted Corporation
Wohler Technologies, Inc.
World Media Expo
44
21
10, 71
9
TFT
42
37
75
46
48
Sealevel Systems Inc.
Sierra Design Labs
Snell & Wilcox Ltd.
Snell & Wilcox Ltd.
Sony Business & Professional
Stainless Inc.
Telex Communications, Inc.
45
72-73
42-43
IFC
52
32
67
Advertiser
16,58
15
34
23
51
6
40
53
9, 48
47
43
101
2
49
56
1
35
12
54
Hotline
800-769-AAVS
800-726-4266
913-967-1969
800-240-7042
800-231-7350
404-590-7900
610-687-5550
800-947-9928
905-764-1584
509-534-2499
800-962-4BTS
510-527-6666
800-882-9100
213-650-5256
800-D -VISION
800-453-8782
916-478-1830
310-322-2136
+44 782-661501
800-331-2019
800-342-3748
800-228-0275
312-733-9555
800-343-1300
606-282-4800
800-452-4844
516-921-7200
408-378-3883
201-368-9171
+813 3284-0165
619-438-8362
800-JVC-5825
517-694-5589
800-231-9673
214-741-5142
214-741-5142
201-857-8300
508-537-9961
+170-349-8000
800 -52 -NIKON
800-243-2001
213-934-3566
800-325-7170
801-272-5352
203-656-3100
+32-909-150
408-438-6550
803-843-4343
702-831-7837
730-821-1188
730-821-1188
800-635 -SONY
215-699-4871
800-392-3497
800-347-3383
800-882-1824
714-283-8980
800-800-5719
+628-531-221
718-714-9873
315-452-5000
800-447-2257
415-589-5676
800-342-2460
SALES OFFICES
NEW YORK, NY
Gordon &Associates
Josh Gordon
210 President Street
Brooklyn,NY 11231
Telephone: (718) 802-0488
FAX: (718)522-4751
AGOURA HILLS, CA
Duane Hefner
Lianne Fairchild
5236 Colodny Ave., Suite 108
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Telephone: (818) 707-6476
FAx:(818)707-2313
Joanne Melton
888 7th Avenue, 38th Floor
New York, NY 10106
SANTA MONICA, CA
MCI Magazine Communications
Marketing Corporation
Jason Perlman: (310) 458-9987
Sue Horwitz: ( 310) 458-8080
501 Santa Monica Blvd., Ste. 401
Santa Monica, CA 90401
FAx:(310)393-2381
Telephone: (212) 332-0628
FAx: (212) 332-0663
OXFORD, ENGLAND
Richard Woolley
Intertec Publishing Corporation
Unit 3, Farm Business Centre,
Clifton Road, Deddington,
Oxford 0X15 4TP England
Telephone: +44 (0) 1869 338794
FAX:
+44(0)1869338040
Telex: 837-469 BES G
88
CHICAGO, IL
Vytas Urbonas
55 East Jackson, Suite 1100
Chicago, IL 60604
Telephone: (312) 435-2361
FAX:(312)922-1408
TOKYO, JAPAN
Orient Echo, Inc.
Mashy Yoshikawa
1101 Grand Maison
Shimomiyabi-Cho2-18
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan
Telephone: (3) 3235-5961
FAx: (3) 3235-5852
Telex: J-33376 MYORIENT
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
OVERLAND PARK, KS
MattTusken
P.O. Box 12901
Overland Park, KS 66282
(913) 967-1732 Fax: (913) 967-1735
LIST RENTAL SERVICES
REPRESENTATIVE
Lori Christie
9800 Metcalf
Overland Park, KS 66212-2215
Phone: 913-967-1928
FAX:913-967-1872
Broadcast Engineering August 1995
www.americanradiohistory.com
BRoaDcasT
enGineeRinG
EDITORIAL
Brad Dick, Editor
Skip Pizzi, Technical Editor
Steve Epstein, Technical Editor
Dawn Hightower, Senior Associate Editor
Deanna Rood, Associate Editor
Carrie Poland, Editorial Assistant
Tom Cook, Senior Managing Editor
Carl Bentz, Directory Editor
ART
Stephanie L. Masterson, Associate Art Director
BUSINESS
Raymond E. Maloney, President
Cameron Bishop, Group Vice President
Dennis Triola, Publisher
Tom Brick, Marketing Director
Stephanie Hanaway, Group Director, Special Projects
Kathryn Buckley, Promotions Manager
Sandra Tomczak, Promotions Coordinator
Dee Unger, Director Advertising Services
Nancy Hupp, Advertising Production Manager
Annette Hulsey, Classified Advertising Coordinator
Pat Eisenman, Senior Ad Production Coordinator
Susan Jones, Advertising Coordinator
Doug Coonrod, Corporate Art Director
Barbara Kummer, Circulation Director
Meghan Wright, Circulation Manager
Customer Service: 913-967-1711 or 800-441-0294
TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS
Jerry Whitaker, Contributing Editor
Richard Dean, European Correspondent
Eric Neil Angevine, Broadcast Acoustics
John H. Battison, Antennas/Radiation
Dennis Ciapura, Radio Technology
Dane E. Ericksen, P.E., Systems Design
John Kean, Subcarrier Technology
Donald L. Markley, Transmission Facilities
Harry C. Martin, Legal
Curtis Chan, Audio/Video Technology
MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS
Sustaining Members of:
Acoustical Society of America
Society of Broadcast Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and TV Engineers
Society of Cable & Telecommunications Engineers
Affiliate Member, International Teleproduction Society
Member, American Business Press
ABP
Member, BPA International
BROADCAST ENGINEERING is edited for corporate
management, engineers/technicians and other management personnel at commercial and public TV stations,
post -production and recording studios, broadcast networks, cable, telephone and satellite production centers
and networks. Qualified persons include consulting
engineers and dealer/distributors of broadcast equipment.
SUBSCRIPTIONS: Non -qualified persons may subscribe at the following rates: United States and Canada;
one year, $50.00. Qualified and non -qualified persons
in all other countries; one year, $60.00 (surface mail);
$115.00 (air mail). Subscription information: P.O. Box
12937, Overland Park, KS 66282-2937.
Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific
clients, is granted by Intertec Publishing, provided that
the base fee of U.S. $2.00 per copy, plus U.S. $00.00 per
page is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222
Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. The fee code for
users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISSN
0361-0942/1995 $2.00+00.00. For those organizations
that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a
separate system of payment has been arranged. Prior to
photocopying items for classroom use, contact CCC at
(508)750-8400. Organizations or individuals with large
quantity photocopy or reprint requirements should contact Chris Lotesto, (312)435-2359. Microfilm copies of
Broadcast Engineering magazine are available by calling
or writing UMI, 300 North Zeeb Rd., P.O. Box 1346,
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Phone: (313)761-4700 or
(800)521-0600.
01995 by Intertec Publishing
IIMTERTLEC
All ri: is reserved.
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U.S.A.
Los Angeles
-
(800) 231-9673
-
FAX: (804) 548-4088
Indianapolis
Dallas
New York
Atlanta
(800) 380-1676
(800) 861-9440
(800) 401-3770
(800) 653-4824
(800) 641-1277
Canada
Europe
Japan
Brazil
(800) 387-0233
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+81 (3) 5423-3631
+55 (11) 8188975
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