Literature in Mathematics Title: Addtron Author: Calvin Irons Publisher: Rigby Education Inc. Math Concepts / Topics: Addition, doubles, even/odd Summary: Addtron is a rhyming book in which the concept of adding doubles is explored through the antics of a robotic space creature. Connecting Activities • Find rhyming pairs, chart these. • Doubles • Odd/even • Number words • Go back and find all the sets on each page that are being added. Extending Activities • Create “Subtractron book”. • Create new book of Addtron that is not focused on doubles. • Integrate with Earth, Moon, Sun unit. • Change number words to numerals. • Doubles plus one. Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 1 12-09 12-15 55-07 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of sums/differences 0-10 Recall addition/subtraction facts to 10 Explore number patterns to 100 by 1's, 2's, 5's and 10's Materials: Paper for student book pages. Preparation: Addtron is a fun book to use during Earth, Moon, and Sun units. Children will have been introduced to and are comfortable with addition. Suggested Homework: Find doubles at your house. Draw and label them. Development: 1. 2. 3. Before Predict, after looking at the book, why it is called Addtron. Who is Addtron? What does he do? List ideas or have children write own predictions. During Let's find out what Addtron likes to do? After What did you learn about Addtron? Check predictions. Addtron forgot to give us the answers to the double problems. In teams, you will create your own Addtron books, but this time we need answers. Follow-up: Teams create Addtron books, making their own addtron creature and sets for the doubles pages. They may include text and number sentences or just number sentences. (Manipulatives may be provided.) Literature in Mathematics Title: Addtron Contents of this packet: 1. Grade 1 lesson 2. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Literature in Mathematics Title: Alexander, Who Used to Be Rich Last Sunday Author: Judith Viorst Publisher: Aladdin Books Math Concepts / Topics: Money, fractions, decimals, percents Summary: Alexander’s grandparents gave him one dollar when they came to visit, and now he has nothing to show for it. Follow his losses with interest and recognition! Connecting Activities • Practice counting money skills. • Determine combinations of coins that make $1.00. • Keep a running tally of Alex’s money situation. • Write money amounts as fractions and percents. • Discuss and practice shopping within a budget. Extending Activities • Discuss ways kids can earn money. • Create the story of Alexander’s next dollar. • Encourage students to share money-earning experiences with the class. • Alexander wants to buy a walkie-talkie. Have students research how much a walkie-talkie costs. If Alexander’s grandparents came to visit every other week, and if they gave him a dollar each time, how long would it take Alexander to buy a walkie-talkie? • How could Alexander earn enough money? Suggestions: renting his toys, hunting for coins in soda machine, returning bottles. Students decide on an item they would like to own. Devise a plan to earn the money. Implement and record progress. Literature in Mathematics Title: Alexander, Who Used to Be Rich Last Sunday Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for Level 5 on fractions, decimals, & percents. 2. Decimal/Fraction/Percent Chart 3. Money Fraction sheets (6) 4. Math Literature Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Read Any Good Math Lately.........................................................pp. 74-76 2. Math Through Children’s Literature.................................................p. 51 3. It’s the Story That Counts..................................................................p. 101 4. Books You Can Count On........................................................................p. 35 5. Literature-Based Math Activities...............................................pp. 72-73 Mathematics Lesson Plan Alexander Who Used to Be Rich Last Sunday Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 5 12-07 12-11 13-27 Materials: Discover concretely the fraction of a number or monetary amount Express fractions as percents, and decimals to thousandths Find the percent of a number or monetary amount Alexander Who Used to Be Rich Last Sunday by Judith Viorst Decimal/Fraction/Percent Chart (1 per student) Play money kit (1 per group) Penny fraction sheet (1 per student) Money fraction overheads Preparation: Make copies of chart and money fraction sheets Make overhead of money fractions Assemble play money kits Suggested Homework: Use any combination of 3 coins. Write the amount in decimal, fraction and percent form. Try 5 of these. Development: 1. 2. 3. Follow-up: Read the book to students in its entirety. Read it again, stopping each time Alexander spends some of his dollar and asking students to figure out how much he has left. Write the remaining amount as a decimal. Find and model what fraction of a dollar this is. Show the connection to a percent by coloring the number of pennies remaining from 100, writing it as a percent. Continue the process, writing the decimal, fraction, and percent for the remaining amount Alex has after spending each time. 25 = 1 . Show 100 4 4. Simplify fractions of a dollar, ex. 5. relationship on overheads. Extend to writing any fraction as a decimal and percent. Decimal Fraction Percent Literature in Mathematics Title: Anno’s Math Games III Author: Mitsumasa Anno Publisher: Philomel Books Math Concepts / Topics: Location/ Direction Summary: The book contains a variety of activities covering Stretching Shapes, Triangles and Paper Folding, Mazes, and Left and Right. The activities cross grade levels from K through middle school. Connecting Activities The children will: discuss, act out, and draw pictures relating to the questions, images, and ideas presented in the book. Extending Activities Draw maps and give directions using “left” and “right” to move through them. The map activity can be done individually or by teams. Many math problem solving activity books provide maps that would be suitable. Divise oportunities for the children to use “left” and “right” directions throughout the school day. Allow students to create their own set of programming cards to move the robot through the “robot house” and performs other tasks (see attached sheet). Literature in Mathematics Title: Anno’s Math Games III Contents of this packet: Anno’s Math Games III Robot activities miscellaneous left/right activities sheets ROBOTS activity Setup: Use tape or other material to set up a Robot House (see diagram below) Purpose: To provide practice giving and following accurate instructions. Student will develop a program for the ROBOT (another student) by arranging a set of instruction cards. Method: The robot will face the doorway of the Robot House with the program(deck of instructions) and proceed to follow the instructions in the order given. Robots may not pass through exterior walls of the Robot House. The simplest program may be to develop a program that will send the robot into the room and out the other door. A more challenging program will have the robot enter the house, sit in a chair placed in the house, and then rise and exit the room. An additional activity would be to place an object on the chair. The object can only be placed on the chair while the robot is facing the front of the chair, etc. ROBOT Room: A deck of program cards should contain the following types of cards . 10 Forward cards - move one square forward 3 Turn Right cards - turn right 90 degrees 3 Turn Left cards - turn left 90 degrees 1 Sit Down card - sit down in the square directly behind you 1 Stand Up card - the inverse of Sit Down 1 Pick Up card - pick up the object directly in front of you but do not move 1 Put Down card - put an object in the square directly in front of you Use your imagination and the students’ to define tasks for the robot to carry out in the house. Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 2nd - 3rd Enabling Skill(s): An understanding of the concept of left and right. Materials: Anno's Math Games III, manipulatives (chips, etc.), program cards from the Robot Activity (attached). Preparation: practice with the children the concept of left and right hand. Provide manipulative experiences with the concept of left and right. Suggested Homework: Make or create copies of exercises similar to those on pgs. 90-95. For children to work on with others or alone. Have children create a map of the school or part of the school. Have them create sets of directions using left and right directions to get from their class to other areas of the school. Development: Read pages 75 to 89 to the students. Discuss and act out where appropriate to illustrate an idea that is difficult to grasp in the abstract. Example: Even though something is on the right when you look at it, if a person opposite you looks at it, it will be on that person's left. The relation of north south east and west to right and left can follow from the proper understanding that left and right are relative to the way one is facing. Follow-up: Use North, East ,South, and West ordinal directions to determine whether they too are relative to the person standing opposite the person giving directions. Use Robot activity (materials attached,) to provide further activities to extend the ability of the student to get outside him/her self and provide directions to a "robot" in an attempt to accomplish a task. Literature in Mathematics Title: Anno’s Mysterious Multiplying Jar Author: Masaichiro and Mitsumasa Anno Publisher: Philomel Books Math Concepts / Topics: Multiplication, factorial Summary: Inside Mr. Anno’s jar is not a genie but a deceptively simple bit of water, which leads somewhat magically to the deeper waters of the sea, and thence to a series of amazing numerical happenings. Connecting Activities • Survey text - identify math in book; Read story - estimate# of jars. • Construct Math Booklets of fact problems to provide a simpler problem to solve. 1 group makes 2 booklets with 3 pages each. Each page has 4 problems. • Pose another problem to further develop factorial concept. 1 backpack with 2 lunch bags. Each lunch bag has 3 baggies. Each baggie has 4 grapes. Each grape has 5 seeds. • Adjust jar estimates. • Introduce term factorial and ! symbol. • Revisit story and complete worksheet of calculations. Determine # of jars. Extending Activities • • • • • Create own picture books using Anno’s Mysterious Multiplying Jar as an example. Create multiplying chests of objects within objects. Students can research “astronomical” facts and numbers, create problems, and challenge others to solve them. •How much farther is it to the Sun than the Moon? •Rank the 9 planets in our solar system by distance away form Sun. Talk about how symbols are used in math to make recording easier and simpler. Challenge students to make up their own symbols: ex. 10* = 10 + 9 + 8 + 7....+ 1 [email protected] = 10 x 10 + 9 x 9 + 8 x 8 ....+ 1 x 1 10™ = 10 x 9 + 9 x 8 + 8 x 7 ....+ 1 x 0 Estimate how long it would take to take the lids off 3,628,800 jars. Literature in Mathematics Title: Anno’s Mysterious Multiplying Jar Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson for Level 5 2. Math Booklet Planning Sheet 3. Basic Math Facts Sheet 4. Anno’s Mysterious Multiplying Jar Worksheet 5. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math and Literature (K-3) Book 1..........................................p. 59 2. Read Any Good Math Lately.................................pp. 10 - 11, 84, .......................................................................91 - 92, 131, 135 - 139 3. Math Through Children’s Literature.....................................p. 52 4. It’s the Story That Count’s............................pp. XI, 60 - 65, 92 5. Books You Can Count On............................................................p. 46 Mathematics Lesson Plan Anno's Mysterious Multiplying Jar Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 5 12-03 13-03 13-13 15-03 55-03 Demonstrate factors Show relationships among standard numerals, expanded notation, and word names through millions Multiply whole numbers Estimate/verify reasonableness of answers Complete/describe/explore a number pattern or sequence Materials: Anno's Mysterious Multiplying Jar by Masaichiro and Mitsumasa Anno calculator (1 per child) construction paper, plain paper (for booklets) Math Facts sheet (1 per child) Planning worksheet (1 per pair of children) Anno's Mysterious Multiplying Jar worksheet (1 per child) Preparation: Set up materials for booklet making for student access. (You may determine and precut sizes of the covers and pages, or students may determine this themselves.) Make copies of the math facts sheet, planning sheet, and worksheet Suggested Homework: Have students write about what they learned from the book or what they liked about it. Development: 1. 2. 3. Warm-up: Show students pictures in book. Students look for signs of math. Look for similarities/differences. Students share ideas. Read story and stop after reading the page "Within each box there were 10 jars." Ask students to estimate how many jars they think there are altogether. Discuss strategy of solving a simpler problem. Introduce booklet construction project. a. work in groups: 1 group = 2 students b. each group produces 2 booklets c. each booklet contains 3 pages and verify calculations. 6. Begin developing factorial concept: 1 group x 2 booklets x 3 pages x 4 problems = 24 7. Use following problem to develop further: One backpack contains 2 lunch bags. Each lunch bag contains 3 baggies. Each baggie has 4 grapes inside it. Each grape contains 5 seeds. Estimate how many seeds. Set up number sentence and solve. 8. Go back to previous estimates about jars in story and adjust if desired. 9. Introduce the term factorial and the ! symbol. 10. Revisit the story and complete worksheet. Follow-up: 1. 2. Students create a picture book using The Mysterious Multiplying Jar as a model. Create a multiplying chest: Begin with 1 large object and progress by putting objects within objects. Math Booklet Planning You and your partner will work together as one group to create booklets of math problems. 1. Your group will construct 2 booklets. • How many booklet covers will you need? Number sentence: 2. Each booklet will contain 3 pages. • How many pages will be needed for your 2 booklets? Number sentence: 3. pages On each page of each booklet you will put 4 math problems. • How many math problems will you need for your 2 booklets? Number sentence: 4. covers problems List below the supplies you will need. covers pages problems 5. Get the materials listed above and construct your booklets. Anno’s Mysterious Multiplying Jar Complete the chart Number Amount Item 1! island 2! countries 3! mountains 4! walled kingdoms 5! villages 6! houses 7! rooms 8! cupboards 9! boxes 10 ! jars Literature in Mathematics Title: Anno’s Magic Seeds Author: Mitsumasa Anno Publisher: Philomel Books Math Concepts / Topics: Problem Solving, mental math Summary: The magic begins when a wizard gives Jack two mysterious seeds. Jack eats one and buries the other. His fortunes grows by ones and twos, then faster and faster. Connecting Activities • Extend the patterns seen in the book. • Talk about the economics of planting crops. • Search for number relationships that help in extending the pattern. Extending Activities • Think about how Jack may have changed (improved or lessened) his production and created a different type of pattern. • How would things have been different if Jack had saved a different number of seeds after the storm - explore the patterns created. • Pretend Jack had children through the years. Each would need to eat a seed. How would the pattern be affected? Literature in Mathematics Title: Anno’s Magic Seeds Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson for Level 5 2. Anno’s Magic Seeds Inventory 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 5 Enabling Skill(s): 15-07 47-03 Materials: Compute mentally the product of one and three digit numbers by rounding the larger factor to the nearest 100 Select and apply appropriate strategies to solve life problems (time, money, measurement, & temperature) Anno's Magic Seeds by Mitsumasa Anno beans, unifix cubes or other counters Inventory Chart - on a chart or overhead Inventory Chart - one per student overhead or chart of the various problems students will solve (7th, 8th, 9th years) Preparation: • • • Fill a baggie approximately half way for each pair of students. Prepare a chart or overhead of the Inventory Chart (attached). An overhead or chart of the story problems for these years: seventh, eighth, and ninth years. (see procedure #3) Suggested Homework: Development: If Jack always harvested twice as many seeds as he planted and ate only one seed each year (before his family came along) how many seeds would be bury in the fourth year? Draw a "T" table to show your answers. 1. Read the book through one time. Go back and reread until the sixth year that Jack plants the seed and it yields two seeds. Ask the class what Jack might do to produce more seeds. Continue reading the selection until Jack decides to plant both seeds. Ask, "How many seeds will Jack have at the end of the next year. (4 seeds) Begin recording on the "T" table. As students begin to notice a pattern allow them to share ideas. (doubles) 2. Continue reading the selection having the students predict each time how many new seeds Jack will get from the seeds he planted. Stop at the point when Alice also eats a seed. How many seeds will they plant? Follow-up: 3. Distribute beans to each pair of students. Have students work in pairs to determine how many seeds Jack and Alice buried and record on the student data sheets. 4. Continue reading the story and having students solve the various story problems. Literature in Mathematics Title: A Cloak for a Dreamer Author: Aileen Friedman Publisher: Scholastic, Inc. Math Concepts/Topics: Geometry Summary: The archduke orders new cloaks for an important journey.The tailor asks his three sons for help. The father is pleased with the beauty of each cloak. Two cloaks have been sewn by aspiring tailors, and one cloak has been sewn by the dreamer. Connecting Activities Sort, classify,and label shapes in a hands-on discussion. Create a basic(abab) pattern of geometric shapes. Have the students describe and extend the pattern. Have children investigate which shapes can be used to create patterns found in quilts. Extending Activities Look for examples of geometric shapes in the classroom, at home, on clothing, on buildings, etc. Model a math investigation about the most frequent geometric shape found on clothing,by having your class serve as a sample one day. Collect data, and display results in a graph. Then have students work cooperatively in teams to investigate which shape might be seen most frequently on clothing. Will the sample group(other third grade classes, classes from other grade levels) that your students select have similar results? Let the teams predict and investigate(plan, collect data). Teams display the results of their math investigation in a graph, and discuss their findings. Children create their own tesselation design using paper shapes, pattern blocks, or an original shape they create themselves. For additional activities see the end of the selection, A Cloak for the Dreamer. Literature in Mathematics Title: A Cloak for a Dreamer Contents of this packet: A Cloak for a Dreamer Blackline master for Cloak for the Dreamer Shapes Resource Sheets Tesselation Master Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 3 Enabling Skill(s): Recognize and name basic shapes. Sequence a pattern using 2 or more shapes. Materials: A Cloak for the Dreamer Shapes for students(pattern blocks, or pre-cut paper) Preparation: Suggested Homework: Have students create a new pattern at home using shapes(pre-cut paper) to cover a sheet of paper. Development: Read the selection, but stop after the tailor has given the task to his sons, so that the children can investigate cloak-making themselves with shapes (pattern blocks,pre-cut). This will promote problem solving and concept attainment for shapes, repeated patterns, and finally tesselations. Have them predict what shapes will form a cloak. Allow time for hands-on investigation. What shapes produced a repeated pattern to form a “cloak.” Return to the selection to compare their findings with those of the tailor’s sons. Introduce tesselations by having students look at the repeated patterns found in the cloaks . Have students tell you what they see. Do they see repeated patterns where shapes touch sides, but don’t overlap nor have gaps? When this observation is made, label this type of repeated pattern as, a tesselation. Make a T chart: Will tesselate Won’t tesselate Hold a shape. Have students decide where it belongs. List names of shapes on the chart under the appropriate heading. Demonstrate the nibble technique for creating tesselations. Demonstrate how to slide the newly cut nibble across the congruent and parallel side. Tape it. Demonstrate rotations and turns with the new shape. Have students practice rotating and tracing the shape until it covers a paper. Consult the resources pages, math/science facilitator,or curriculum specialist for further information on tesselations. A Cloak for a Dreamer by Aileen Friedman Math and Literature(K-3) Book 2 by Stephanie Sheffield. pp. 17-25 Literature in Mathematics Title: Counting on Frank Author: Rod Clement Publisher: Gareth Stevens Publishing Math Concepts / Topics: Estimation, Problem Solving Summary: A young man and his dog estimate their world. Connecting Activities • Have students estimate as the boy in the story does. • Work on problem solving skills and strategies. • Practice various measurement - linear, liquid, volume Extending Activities • Have students find estimation problems in the classroom and home • Create a similar book • Suggested questions in back of book Literature in Mathematics Title: Counting on Frank Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for Level 3 2. Lesson Plan for Level 6em 3. SOARganizer 4. Homework questions for Level 3 lesson 5. Problems for Level 3 lesson 6. Problems for Level 6em lesson 7. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 6em 12-12 43-08 Estimate answers to decimal problems Choose a reasonable answer to a problem Materials: Counting on Frank by Rod Clement Transparencies of problems to be presented Multiple transparencies of the SOARganizer Can (size of dog food can) Dried peas (1 bag per team) Various size small boxes (1 per team) Copy of SOARganizer for each student SOAR poster Rulers Preparation: Prepare can by cutting and pasting Doggo label on it Suggested Homework: Development: Talk with the students about estimation. Ask them to give some examples of what it means to estimate. Are there things you estimate each day? Emphasize that estimates are important when checking answers to make sure they are reasonable. Explain, too, that sometimes being exact is not necessary. Sometimes an estimate is enough. Tell the students that you have a book about a kid who likes to estimate. Read Counting on Frank to the class. Use reading strategies as you do this - have the students hypothesize about what it is about. As you read the book, you may want to talk with the kids about whether they think the estimates are good ones. The boy in the story proves that sometimes estimation is a valuable skill. We are going to take a closer look at some of the estimations in this book and see whether we agree that they really are reasonable estimations. The teacher can choose which problems to address first, but the 'peas' problem should be saved for the end. If the class is comfortable with SOAR, the teacher may choose to let the teams progress with solving the problem independently. It is recommended, however, that these problems be addressed as a class with teams working independently on the Attack stage. The teacher should record the students' responses on the SOARganizer. For example: "I calculate that twenty-four Franks could fit into my bedroom." Study the problem. Begin by having the students state the problem in their own words. Underline important information. Identify areas of confusion. Organize. Have the students hypothesize about whether they think the estimate is a good one or not. Why or why not? Have them clarify the problem by establishing what they know and coming to consensus on things they don't know (size of Frank, size of bedroom). Have them plan how they might conduct an experiment to solve the problem. You may want each team to conduct this discussion so they can plan what their group will do. As they do this point out the problem solving strategies being suggested. Attack. Have the groups go to work on solving the problem. Review. Have each team report their findings. Make sure they answer the question. Think back about their hypothesis. This type of process should be done for each problem. The 'peas' problem is the most difficult. This will be difficult because the problem must be defined by consensus and because other data is needed (the number of days in a year). After the students have begun the planning process, tell them that you just happen to have some materials that may help them (a bag of peas and a box). From there, let them go to work. Make sure students are filling in the SOARganizer as they work. The communication of results in the Review stage is critical one. Make sure the students tell about the process they used and the reasons for doing what they did. Remind them that they must answer the question. Follow-up: Have the students share their results. DOGGO “I calculate that twenty-four Franks could fit into my bedroom.” Problem: Is this an accurate estimate? “If I had grown at a rate of six and one-half feet every year, I’d now be fifty-three feet tall.” Problem: Is this an accurate estimate? “If I had accidentally knocked fifteen peas off my plate every night for the last eight years, they would now be level with the table top.” Problem: Is this an accurate estimate? “It takes forty-seven cans of dog food to fill one shopping bag.” Problem: Is this an accurate estimate? Mathematics Lesson Plan Counting On Frank Instructional Level: 3 Enabling Skill(s): Materials: 15-07 Estimate and justify reasonableness of answers in life situations SOARganizer (1 per student) SOARganizer transparency SOAR poster “Now Here’s A Chance to Use Your Brain!” packet Problem Solving Strategy cards Empty one gallon milk jug Preparation: Prepare handouts in advance. It is best to distribute them one at a time so collating will not be necessary. Suggested Homework: See Homework questions sheet in packet Development: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Warm up: Think-Pair-Share question, “What is problem solving?” Accept all answers! The purpose of this activity is to assess the student’s understanding of problem solving, not to develop an accurate definition of problem solving. Introduce literature selection. Explain that the boy in the story is a true problem solver. Ask them to pay close attention to the way he attacks problems as they occur in the story. After completing the selection, discuss with the class what they noticed about the boy. Was he a problem solver? What strategies did he use to solve problems? What were some of the problems he solved? Do you think SOAR could have helped the boy solve some of the problems? Tell the students, “Now here’s a chance to use your brain!” Remind them to refer to the strategy cards to help them solve the problems you are about to give them. Hand out a copy of the first problem, “How many cans of Doggo Dog food does Frank eat every week?” Read through the problem together. Ask the students to highlight or underline important information. Discuss what might be important and what is not. Allow them to work independently, in cooperative pairs or teams. After several minutes, ask students to share the ways they approached the problem. Deemphasize the answer. Focus on how they got the answer. Model the use of the SOARganizer on the overhead. Demonstrate the “Make a Table” strategy for this problem. 6. 7. Day# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 cans of dog food 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 total 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Distribute the next problem, “How old is Frank’s owner?” Again, read through the problem and have them highlight the important information. Suggest that as they attack the problem they consider using one of the strategies. Allow them time to work. After several minutes discuss the strategies used. You may want to model the use of the SOARganizer again and work through this problem using the “make a table” strategy again. year# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 height 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 Distribute problem 3, “How many Frank pictures can you fit on a whole piece of paper?” Repeat steps from above. Make a model, act it out is a nice strategy for this problem. You can make available an 8 1/2 x 11 sheet of paper and suggest scissors can be used! (Steps 1-7 are likely to take at least one class period. The following steps can be extended to the following period as further extension of the concept of using SOAR and Strategy cards to solve problems in math.) 8. Distribute problem 4, “How would you calculate how long it would take to fill a ten gallon tub of water?” Ask the students to brainstorm some ideas before they proceed with the problem. Usually someone will suggest using a one gallon container and time how long it will take to fill up. This idea uses the Make it simpler strategy as well as the Act it out strategy. If you have a sink and an empty one gallon milk jug handy you can actually try it. Do the procedure at least 3 times, record your data, and average the time. Discuss why you wouldn’t want to rely on the data from just one trial and why it is important to keep all variables the same each time you fill the jug and time it. 9. Distribute problem 5, “That would be a real mess wouldn’t it” Ask students to read through the problem and use their problem solving skills to solve it. After several minutes, draw a simple table on the board with 2 columns. Label one “Yes” and the other “No” . Ask the students to raise their hands if they think the answer to the problem is “Yes” Count the hands and place tally marks on the board. (Sometimes no one will vote at first!) Next ask for a show of hands for those who thought “no” was the correct response. By this time many students have re-read the question and realized it is a simple yes or no response. Some insist on telling you the answer is 93. Point out that it is important to pay close attention to the wording in questions so we don’t get off track. Ask the students to write a question for the peas that could be answered using numbers. Have the students share their ideas. Follow-up: Homework questions could also be used as independent work during class. Name__________________________ “Counting on Frank” Homework questions If Frank eats 21 cans of Doggo Dog food every week, about how much would he eat in a year? Remember: 52 weeks in a year. 365 days in a year) Show your work. How tall would you be if you grew six feet every year? Is that taller or shorter than your school building? show your work. According to Frank’s owner, it took almost 12 hours to fill the entire bathroom with water. At one gallon per minute, how many gallons of water does the bathroom hold? Show your work. Name__________________________ SOARganizer S tate the problem What do you know? Estimate the answer O rganize Plan what to do A ttack Step 1 Step 2 Review Check your work The answer is: Step 3 Literature in Mathematics Title: The Twelve Days of Christmas Author: Jan Brett (Illustrator) Publisher: Trumpet Club Math Concepts / Topics: Multiplication, Patterns, Problem Solving Summary: In this song gifts are presented on each of the twelve days of Christmas. There are many math patterns in the song and in the illustrations. Connecting Activities • Play a recording of the “The Twelve Days of Christmas” before reading the book. • Teach the students to use the “Memory Recall” button on the calculator. • Have the students develop tables to organize the problem. • Have students determine the least number of bills needed to pay for each gift. • Graph the cost of each gift or number of each kind of gifts received. • Have students research the cost of each gift. Extending Activities • Students can use ads from newspapers or catalogs to generate their own “Twelve Days of Christmas” list. They can figure the cost of the gifts and their work could be turned into their own pattern book. • Create an original story that uses another number pattern. • Discuss how to write out a check to pay the total cost of the gifts. • Have students extend tables to 20 days and develop formulas for determining the number of gifts received on any day. (ex. 25th day = n (n+1) = 325 2 Literature in Mathematics Title: The Twelve Days of Christmas Contents of this packet: 1. Grade 4 or 5 Lesson Plan 2. Students Worksheets 3. Answer Key 4. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Books You Can Count On.....................................................p. 43 Mathematics Lesson Plan The Twelve Days of Christmas Instructional Level: 4-5 Enabling Skill(s): 13-09 47-03 55-03 Materials: Preparation: The Twelve Days of Christmas, by Jan Brett Class copies of student worksheets Teacher might want to make overheads of several or all pages of the book so students can see details of illustrations and identify patterns easily. Suggested Homework: Development: Multiply a multi-digit number by a two-digit number. Select and apply appropriate strategies to solve life problems. Describe a number pattern. Students list 12 presents they would like to give someone. After finding the cost of each present, students can figure the cost of all presents. 1. Read the story and have students identify the patterns in both the story and in illustrations. Possible Patterns: (Use the first three patterns to get the children to practice their observing skills so that they are able to see the mathematical pattern.) * Each page of the story has side panels where they are wishing "Merry Christmas" in different languages. The main illustration reflects the culture of that language. Ex. "Feliz Navidad" on the 11th day of Christmas is Spanish and the picture is of Spanish dancers. * The garland at the top of each page has ornaments representing the gift that is given each day. The ornaments are also found on the Christmas tree on the last page. * At the bottom corners of each page there are animals and they are drawn in their proper environment. * The number of gifts = the number of days plus the previous days gifts. 2. Have the students try to solve the following three problems: Note: The teacher may decide to give the class the attached students worksheets that have the charts already organized to solve the previous problems, or the teacher can have the students try to organize their own charts. Another option would be to give the students the three problems and allow them to use any strategy to come up with their solutions. Follow-Up: Discuss what students are "GIVING" for Christmas and Hanukkah, emphasizing thinking of others instead of themselves. Problem 1: How many gifts did the lady receive each day? Day Daily Gifts Received Total Daily Gifts Cumulative Gifts 1 1 1 1 2 1+2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 What patterns do you see? Answer key: Problem 1: How many gifts did the lady receive each day? Day Daily Gifts Received Total Daily Gifts Cumulative Gifts 1 1 1 1 2 1+2 3 4 3 1+2+3 6 10 4 1+2+3+4 10 20 5 1+2+3+4+5 15 35 6 21 56 7 1+2+3+4+5+6 1+2+3+4+5+6 +7 28 84 8 1+2+3+4+5+6 +7+8 36 120 9 1+2+3+4+5+6 +7+8+9 45 165 10 1+2+3+4+5+6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 55 220 11 1+2+3+4+5+6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 66 286 12 1+2+3+4+5+6+ 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 +12 78 364 n (n + 1) 2 Formula: 4 (4 + 1) 2 Ex. 4th day = 20 2 = = 10 gifts Problem 2: How many gifts did the lady receive over the 12 days? Gift # X days Total Gift # X 1. partridge X 7. swans X 2. turtle X 8. maids a-milking X 3. French hens X 9. ladies dancing X 4. calling birds X 10. lords X 5. golden rings X 11. pipers X 6. geese X 12. drummers X days Total Gifts What patterns do you see? Problem 3: HowGift much would allQuantity the gifts cost? 1. partridge 2. turtle 3. French hens 4. calling birds 5. golden rings 6. geese 7. swans 8. maids a-milking 9. ladies dancing 10. lords 11. pipers 12. drummers TOTALS Cost Each Total Cost Total Answer Key: Problem 2: How many gifts did the lady receive over the 12 days? Gift # X days Total 1. partridge 1 X 12 12 2. turtle 2 X 11 3. French hens 3 X 4. calling birds 4 5. golden rings 6. geese Gift # X days Total 7. swans 7 X 6 42 22 8. maids a-milking 8 X 5 40 10 30 9. ladies dancing 9 X 4 36 X 9 36 10. lords 10 X 3 30 5 X 8 40 11. pipers 11 X 2 22 6 X 7 42 12. drummers 12 X 1 12 Total Gifts 364 What patterns do you see? Problem 3: How much would allQuantity the gifts cost? (Prices are based on findings of 4th graders Gift Cost Each Total Cost from Milton Academy in Milton, Mass. (1993). 1. partridge 12 $45 $540 2. turtle 22 $28 $616 3. French hens 30 $8 $240 4. calling birds 36 $500 $18,000 5. golden rings 40 $250 $10,000 6. geese 42 $25 $1,050 7. swans 42 $20 $840 8. maids a-milking 40 $50 $2,000 9. ladies dancing 36 $275 $9,900 10. lords 30 $100 $3,000 11. pipers 22 $900 $19,800 12. drummers 12 $35 $420 TOTALS 364 $67,456 Literature in Mathematics Title: The Doorbell Rang Author: Pat Hutchins Publisher: Greenwillow Books Math Concepts / Topics: Division Summary: Two children are sharing a dozen cookies. Then, the doorbell rings. Each time more people arrive to share the cookies. Connecting Activities Division - lesson included Area - cookie sheet activity Graphing - favorite cookie activity Fractions - sharing cookies equally Extending Activities Cookie bags - see attached Recipes - see attached Writing activities - see attached Literature in Mathematics Title: The Doorbell Rang Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for division 2. Dozen Cards 3. Writing Activities 4. Favorite Cookie Graph 5. An introduction to Area 6. Division Door Pattern 7. Sharing Cookies Chart 8. Sharing Cookies Division Practice 9. Extending Activites (recipes & cookie bags) 10. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math and Literature (K-3).......................................................p. 59 2. Storytime Mathtime...................................................................pp. 36 - 42 3. Read Any Good Math Lately.....................................................p. 87 4. Read Any Good Math Lately.....................................................p. 102 5. Read Any Good Math Lately.....................................................pp. 105 - 108 6. Math Through Children’s Literature...................................pp. 47 - 48 7. It’s the Story that Counts.........................................................pp. 45 - 46 8. It’s the Story that Counts.........................................................pp. 91 9. It’s the Story that Counts.........................................................pp. 97 10. It’s the Story that Counts.........................................................pp. 99 11. Books You Can Count On...........................................................p. 26 12. Literature-Based Math Activities...........................................pp. 40 - 41 Mathematics Lesson Plan The Doorbell Rang Instructional Level: 2 or 3 Enabling Skills: Gr. 2 Gr. 3 Materials: 12-11 Distribute items equally to demonstrate division. 12-07 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of multiplication/division facts to 9 The Doorbell Rang cereal - Cookie Crisp or chosen manipulative cookie template if wanted paper folded to show 4 blocks dozen cards Preparation: Have cookies already bagged at one dozen for each child. Suggested Homework: Development: Share the dozen cookies equally with the people at your house. Draw a picture and show how many cookies each person will get. Write a number sentence to go with your picture. Set motivations: bring cookies, make paper cookies, share, etc. Predict from the title, cover and illustrations. Read to relate sharing to the division concept. Read the first 3 pages. Have the children draw a plate for each child mentioned. Draw the number of cookies on each plate. How many cookies did Ma make? Write a number sentence to prove. Continue in this manner until the end of the book (one problem in each of the 4 boxes). Discuss how the cookies were shared. Turn the paper over and use it to record when you reread the book. This time, emphasize how many cookies Ma had to start with--12. If using cookie cereal, pass out a dozen pieces to each child. Now start with 12 cookies and draw a plate for Sam and Victoria. Show how many cookies each child will get when you divide 12 into 2 groups. Complete the book recording each division problem. Teacher should model the recording sentence on the board if this is your introduction to division. Continue the division using different amounts of cookies and children. Follow-up: Can include the following questions for discussion or a follow up activity where they divide different numbers of cookies among varying sizes of groups. Ma said she had plenty of cookies. Did she? How did they know that there were 6 each? The students arrive is groups of 2 and a group of 6. Why not a group of 3 or 5? What did the author have in mind? Why does Ma suggest they eat the cookies before opening the door? How many students would there have to be outside the door fir each child to get exactly half a cookie? About how many cookies are there on Grandma's tray? Have the students write and illustrate cookie problems. Pupils may develop charts of servings, given trays of cookies. Organize students in groups. Assign a dozen card to each group. The groups find ways to "fair share" that number of cookies among 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 children. The Doorbell Rang Writing activities If you rewrote this story, what would happen if the number of cookies changed? Have pairs of students work together to write their own version. It might be helpful to some students to first explore why the author chose 12 cookies and groups of 2,3,4,6, and 12 children before they write their own stories. Talk about other numbers of cookies and groups that would result in no remainders. Have students write a division sentence at the appropriate place in their stories. Students may decide to include remainders. Allow time for students to share their stories. Included in this packet is a template for writing their own story. This makes an attractive bulletin board. Another writing option is to answer the question at the end of the book. Who was at the door? How many more cookies did Grandma bring? Now how many cookies does each person get? Write the next chapter. Cookie Sheets An introduction to area The Doorbell Rang How large a cookie sheet would Grandma have used to bake her cookies? Have students work in small groups to estimate or count the number of cookies on Grandma’s tray. Have them cut out a life size paper cookie. A template page of cookies is included. Provide groups with newsprint, construction, or chart paper to represent a cookie sheet and challenge them to find out how much area would be required to bake the cookies in one batch. Could you cover more tray area with round or with square cookies? Explain your answer. Other possible manipulatives aside from cut cookies and squares may be the cereal Cookie-Crisp, color tiles and/or different sized tile squares from a carpet store. Sharing Cookies Find each child’s share. Write the matching number sentence. 1. 12 COOKIES 2 children 3 children 4 children 6 children each each each each ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = Favorite Cookie Graph The cookies in the book are chocolate chip. Do you think chocolate chip is the most popular cookie among members of your class? Have students work in groups to design a survey to find out. Ask them to predict the outcome. Groups may differ in what choices they offer on their survey, how they phrase their survey question, and how they collect and record their data. One interesting possibility to introduce students to creating circle graphs may be to use a paper plate and labeled clothespins. This may be done as a class. Then, individual groups may prepare, conduct and present their own survey, graph, (not necessarily a circle graph) and report. Other graphs may be created: bar, line, or pictograph. Students could survey other classes, their families, etc. The Doorbell Rang Extension Activities Recipes Children may bring in a favorite cookie recipe. Write their recipes on chart paper and post around the room. • double a recipe • compare the recipe temperatures • which recipe use the least salt? • find equivalent measurements • identify standard vs. metric measures • how much milk would we need all together if we made all the recipes? (eggs, flour, etc.) • act out measurements using water • use newspaper ads to determine costs • bind all recipes together for a class book Cookie Bags • • • • • • • • • Using a real bag of cookies: play 20 questions estimate the weight of the cookies weigh the cookies find the price, determine the change back if you pay a certain amount estimate the probability of a broken cookie graph (# of chips in cookies) write ads compare bags (size, measure, type of packaging) create original story problems Dozen Cards 3 dozen 4 dozen 5 dozen 6 dozen 7 dozen 8 dozen Pattern Ex. Directions: Use the door pattern to write a division word problem. Follow the cookie model in the story. Cut out the frame and 3 sides of the door. Glue onto white paper. Illustrate the problem inside. Sharing Cookies Ex. Cookies Children Cookies Each Number Sentence 18 3 6 18 ÷ 3 = 6 Literature in Mathematics Title: Grain of Rice Author: Helena Clare Pittman Publisher: Bantam Skylark Math Concepts / Topics: Problem Solving, Standard Numerals, Place Value, Word Names, Estimation, Doubling, Exponents, Number Patterns Summary: Once a year, the Emperor of China opens the court to visitors. One year, Pong Lo, the son of a farmer, tells the Emperor that he would like to marry the princess . The Emperor refuses, the princess falls ill because she has fallen in love with the young farmer. Pong Lo cures her with a potion, and as a reward receives a grain of rice. This grain is to be doubled every day for one hundred days. Connecting Activities • Bring in a jar filled with rice. Give each student a grain of rice through the day as a reward. Show the cover of the book and ask students to predict what they think the story will be about. • Bring out the jar of rice, and have the students estimate how many grains of rice there are in the jar. Ask them to justify their estimate. List the variety of possible methods to solve this problem. • Ask the children the following question: “What if Pong Lo had received two grains of rice the first day?” Show how this can be written in exponential form . The first day, Pong Lo received 2 grains of rice, the second day, 2 to the second power, etc. Review base and exponent. • In the book, Pong Lo receives 549,754,213, 888 grains of rice. Have the children write the word name for this standard numeral, as well as the expanded notation. Ask the children to write three examples of similar numerals in standard form, word name, and in expanded form. • Present students with the idea of the rice doubling every day. For example, day one, one grain of rice, day two, two grains, day three, four grains, etc. Have students predict how many grains of rice, Pong Lo will have on the fifth day, and the tenth day. Connecting Activities (continued) • Create real applications of “What if?” situations that address doubling. For example, what if you received a penny for your allowance. The first day you receive one penny, the second day, two cents, and so on. How much money would you receive at the end of thirty days? • Determine the size of the container it would take to hold the rice Pong Lo received on Day 10, Day 20, and Day 30. What if Pong Lo had received a Hershey Kiss instead? What size container would be required for Day 10, Day 20 and Day 30? Extending Activities • Write a persuasive paragraph to convince your parents that you should receive an allowance of a penny the first day, two cents the second, four cents the third day, etc. for a month. • Brainstorm other ways Pong Lo could have convinced the Emperor to allow him to marry the Princess. • Write a paragraph explaining why or why not you would have chosen to be a friend of Pong Lo. • Answer the following question: “Do you feel Pong Lo was a wise person?” Support your answer with details from the story. • After reading this book, compare and contrast the life of an Emperor and a peasant in China. Include a graphic organizer and a paragraph. • Explain what you think the duties of an “Imperial Mathematician” would be. (Refer to page 41 in the selection.) • Draw a map of China. Label and tell the location of the capital using latitude and longitude. • Magic Card activity from I Hate Mathematics by Marilyn Burns. Literature in Mathematics Title: A Grain of Rice Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 5 on exponential numbers. 2. Teacher Key and Student Worksheet 3. Connection and Extension activities 4. Math Literature Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): Math Level 5 13-03 13-07 17-03 47-03 55-03 55-07 55-09 Show relationships among standard numerals, expanded notation, and word names through millions. Expand a three digit number using multiples of ten and exponential notation Vocabulary : estimate, expanded notation, exponent, reasonableness,repeated pattern,standard numeral,place value Select and apply appropriate strategies to solve life problems Complete/describe a number pattern or sequence including exponents Explore/describe number pattern or sequence including exponents Solve for a missing number/variable in a number including exponents for numbers Materials: A Grain of Rice by Helena Clare Pittman Jar filled with rice Worksheet- "A Grain of Rice" Preparation: Fill a jar with rice. Prepare worksheets. Suggested Homework: Look in the newspaper or magazine from home. Find three examples of numbers in the millions. Write the standard numeral, expanded notation, and word names. Expand one of these examples using multiples of ten and exponential notation. Development: 1. Bring in a jar filled with rice. Give each student a grain of rice through the day as a reward. Show the cover of the book and ask students to predict what they think the story will be about. 2. Teacher reads the novel through page 39. Discuss the totals for each day so far, and look for a pattern. Have the students calculate the total of grains for Day 11. Check the total given for Day 12 to see if it follows the pattern. 3. Have students work cooperatively to complete Days 13 through Days 17 on the attached worksheet. 4. Students will independently complete Days 18 through 40 on their worksheet. 5. As teacher continues to read the novel, page 40 to the end, the students will check their worksheets for the Days 18, 20,25,30, and 40. The answers for these days are given in the selection. 6. Students will write the totals for Days 35-40 in expanded notation and word names. 7. Students will write the totals for Days 8-10 using multiples of ten and exponential notation. Follow-up: Bring out the jar of rice, and have the students estimate how many grains of rice there are in the jar. Ask them to justify their estimate. List the variety of possible methods to solve this problem. TEACHER KEY Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 A Grain of Rice by Helena Clare Pittman 1 grain of rice 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 2,048 131,072 524,288 16,777,216 EMPEROR’S MATHEMATICIAN, “Your Majesty...by next month that young man will own all the rice in China!” Day 27 Day 28 Day 29 Day 30 536,870,912 grains of rice Days 31 - 39 Day 40 549,754,213,888 grains of rice Five hundred forty-nine billion,seven hundred fiftyfour million, two hundred thirteen thousand, eight hundred eighty-eight grains of rice!!!!!! Pong Lo married the Princess Chang Wu...NO MORE RICE!!! “A Grain of Rice” NAME: Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Day 11 Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15 Day 16 Day 17 Day 18 Day 19 Day 20 Day 21 Day 22 Day 23 Day 24 Day 25 Day 26 Day 27 Day 28 Day 29 Day 30 Day 31 Day 32 Day 33 Day 34 Day 35 Day 36 Day 37 Day 38 Day 39 - 1 grain of rice 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 Day 40 - Literature in Mathematics Title: Grandfather Tang’s Story Author: Ann Tompert Publisher: Crown Publishers, Inc. Math Concepts / Topics: Geometry Summary: Grandfather Tang and Little Soo enjoy making shapes with their tangram pieces. Grandfather tells a story of two foxes, who use their powers to become other animals. As he tells the story he uses the pieces to make the animal shapes. Connecting Activities • Introduce tangrams. An explanation can be found on the last page of the book. • Compare and classify tangram pieces according to size and shape. • Arrange pieces of puzzle into a square. • Manipulate pieces to make other objects using all pieces without overlapping. • Create animal tangrams. (Tangram animal shapes included in packet.) Extending Activities • Have students use tangrams to tell stories you have created • Create a class book with tangram characters. • Make the 7 tangram pieces by folding and cutting apart an 8”x8” square. Directions are in Math Through Children’s Literature, pp. 73-74. • Send a tangram puzzle home with each child. students are to explain tangram to parents, and create a tangram together. Literature in Mathematics Title: Grandfather Tang’s Story Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for Level 2 or 3 2. Character Sheet 3. Tangram Pattern 4. Character Patterns from the Story 5. Numbered Tangram Pattern 6. Tangram Shape Sheet 7. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Math and Literature (K-3).....................................................................p. 62 Storytime Mathtime....................................................................pp. 82 - 96 Read Any Good Math Lately.....................................................p. 154 -156 Math Through Children’s Literature......................................pp. 72 -75 Mathematics Lesson Plan Grandfather Tang's Story Instructional Level: 2 or 3 Enabling Skill(s): 32-11 32-13 Materials: Describe characteristics of two and three dimensional shapes and effects of combining them. Demonstrate congruency, symmetry, reflection, two dimensional rotation (slides and turns) Grandfather Tang's Story, by Ann Tompert a baggie for each child tangram puzzle pattern (available as die cut) tangram shape sheet activity tangram animal shape patterns Preparation: Use the tangram pattern (with or without numbers) to prepare student puzzle pieces. Suggestion: run off on index paper. Cut apart and place the 7 puzzle pieces in a baggie. Prepare one puzzle in a baggie for each student. Suggested Homework: Send puzzle pieces home with each child. students are to explain tangrams to their parents, and create a tangram together. Development: Teacher says: "I am going to read you a Chinese story about fox fairies. According to Chinese folklore, fox fairies live for eight hundred to one thousand years. They could change themselves into any animal. The storyteller uses tangrams to illustrate the animals that the fox fairies changed into. Show the class the seven pieces of the tangram puzzle. Explain "A tangram begins, with a square. It is divided into seven standard pieces. You can arrange the seven pieces to create a picture of anything you want." Challenge the students to use the tangram pieces to form a square. Next, have students rearrange all seven pieces to make one of the fox fairies from the story. Model how to make a fox. (See animal pattern sheet in packet.) Distribute prepared baggies to the students. Let the children explore by making the fox. Read Grandfather Tang's Story. There are two fox fairies in this story. Their names are Chou and Wu Ling. Stop reading right before Chou or Wu Ling changes into a different animal. Have students use the clues given to predict what animal the next change will be. Allow the students time to form each new animal with their tangrams. Discuss shape names that form the new animals. For example: The head of the rabbit is a square OR the tail of the lion is a parallelogram. Continue reading the story. Stop at appropriate places in the story to predict and form images with the tangram pieces. Upon completion of the story, use the character sheet to list the animals changes and the reason for each change. Give each child a large sheet of white construction paper. Have the students explore the pieces by rearranging them on the construction paper. Make "tangranimals", resembling either real or imaginary animals. After this exploration, have students select one of the animals they have created. Students should trace each tangram piece of their chosen animal onto the construction paper. Color the animal and create background details. Have students write an original story about their "tangranimal". Follow-up: Share original stories. Tangram shape sheet activity. TANGRAM NUMBERED TANGRAMS Literature in Mathematics Title: The Greedy Triangle Author: Marilyn Burns Publisher: Scholastic Inc. Math Concepts / Topics: Geometry Summary: A triangle is dissatisfied with its shape so it asks a shape shifter to add more lines and angles until the triangle doesn’t know which side is up. Connecting Activities • Have students draw one triangle on a piece of paper. Ask: How many sides? Tell them to draw two triangles. How many sides? Continue with three, four, etc. Have students create a “T” table on a sheet of paper to record their answers. If students do not see a pattern, point out the numbers and ask if anybody sees a pattern. Extending Activities • • • Have students practice creating various polygons using the geoboard. One way is to play a game similar to “battleship”. One person (the “describer”) creates a polygon without the other person (the “guesser”) looking. The “guesser” turns his/her back with a geoboard in his/her lap. As the “describer” explains how to create the intended shape, the “guesser” must try to create the same shape on his/her board. Both students must use mathematical terms. (Another version is to have the “guesser” ask questions (yes or no questions) to gain enough information to create the shape.) The players then compare their boards to see if they were successful in creating the same shape. Math journals: Write your definition of a polygon. Select one polygon and describe it using mathematical terms. Answer this question: What would happen if the shapeshifter continued to make sides and angles on the shape? What might the triangle become? (Teacher may want to provide a pipe cleaner for students to test predictions.) Have the students create riddles about each shape. Ex: My shape is a closed shape. It has 4 sides. Can you draw (or create on a geoboard) my shape (This type of riddle allows students to see relationships between a variety of shapes (quadrilateral, rectangle, parallelogram, square, rhombus, etc.) Literature in Mathematics Title: The Greedy Triangle Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson for Level 3 2. Polygons data chart 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional resources for this literature selection: 1. 2. Burns, Marilyn, “Close Encounters with Shapes”, Instructor Magazine, January/February 1995, .............................................................. pp. 24-25 Math and Literature (K-3), Book Two.....................................pp. 26-31 Mathematics Lesson Plan The Greedy Tangle Instructional Level: 3 Enabling Skills: Material: 25-19 Estimate and find perimeter of polygons 32-11 Describe characteristics of 2 and 3 dimensional shapes and effects of combining them. 32-13 Demonstrate congruency, symmetry, reflection, two dimensional rotations (slides and turns). The Greedy Triangle by Marilyn Burns geoboards geobands (rubber bands) pattern blocks Preparation: Suggested Homework: Development: 1. Provide each student with a geoboard and one geoband. Tell the students to use the band to create a shape on the geoboard. (Suggestion: Set you expectations for the "do's and don'ts" of using rubber bands. Calling them "geobands" sends the message that the bands are math tools and not to be used in another manner.) 2. After students have created the shape, use "concept attainment" to develop the concept of a polygon (a closed figure with more than 2 sides). Some possible ideas students may share are: not open spaces, straight sides, angles or turns. Concept Attainment (Guess my rule): On the board draw a "T" chart. On one side write "yes" and on the other write "no". Select one or two examples from the students' work that fits the definition of a polygon and examples that do not fit the definition on the chalk ledge under the correct heading. Continue to add examples until students think they know the rule you have in mind. They are to raise their hand when they think they know your "rule". When students think they know your "rule" allow them to select another example from the class that fits one of the categories and place it accordingly. They should not tell the answer aloud. When the majority of the class seems to know the "rule" allow students to share their ideas. Have students write a definition of a polygon from the examples on the chalk ledge. 3. Tell the class that today they will listen to a story that describes many different polygons. As they listen to the story they should draw a picture of the shape and write as many describing words about the shape as they can. A piece of paper folded into fourths should work well for this activity. (Students should stop after "hexagon" since the other shapes are not described or shown very clearly.) 4. Create a class chart of the 5 polygons mentioned in the story. You may want to add octagon since children may be familiar with the term. (*See the attached matrix to organize the information. An overhead transparency of the matrix or a class chart would work well in the classroom. You may want each child to have a copy to complete as you discuss the polygons.) It is at this time you may want to introduce the formal language used to describe shapes. (sides, angles, closed/opened figures) Follow-up: 1. Have students practice created various polygons using the geoboard. One way is to play a game similar to "Battleship". One person (the "describer") creates a polygon without the other person (the "guesser") looking. The "guesser" turns his/her back with a geoboard in his/her lap. As the "describer" explains how to create the intended shape the "guesser" must try to create that same shape on his/her board. One rule is that both students must use mathematical terms. Another version is to have the "guesser" ask questions (yes and no questions) to gain enough information to create the shape. The players then compare their boards to see if they were successful in creating the same shape. 2. Math journals: Write you definition of a polygon. Select one polygon and describe it using mathematical terms. Answer this question: What would happen if the shapeshifter continued to make sides and angles on the shape? What might the triangle become? (You may want to provide a pipecleaner for students to test their predictions.) 3. Have the students create riddles about each shape. Ex: My shape is a closed shape. It has 4 sides. Can you draw my shape (or create the shape on the geoboard). Polygons Data Chart Literature in Mathematics Title: The Grouchy Ladybug Author: Eric Carle Publisher: Scholastic Book Services Math Concepts / Topics: time to the 1/4 hour and 1/2 hour, measurement, counting, sequence, comparison, fractions Summary: The grouchy ladybug is looking for someone to fight, no matter how big. From sunrise to sunset the ladybug badgers and bullies until she finds herself back where she started. Finally, tired and wet, she accepts the friendship of another ladybug. Connecting Activities • Length - size of animals • Discuss seasonal activities • Relate circle, square, triangle and rectangle to objects in the environment • Find patterns Extending Activities • Make different “animals” clocks • Design a ladybug clock • Write digital times • Follow Eric Carl’s flipbook style to make a book about another animal’s adventure for a day • Research ladybugs / life science integration • Dramatize the story Literature in Mathematics Title: The Grouchy Ladybug Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 1 on time. 2. Connection and Extension activities lists 3. Child’s Recipe Book 4. Connecting Clock Paper 5. Inside page of Clock Book 6. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional Resources: 1. Math Through Children’s Literature ...............................................p. 78 Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skill(s): 18-03 25-17 25-13 42 45 47-07 Materials: Preparation: Vocabulary Tell time to hour and half hour Discuss seasonal activities Collect, organize, and display data; and interpret information in oral and written form Demonstrate basic concepts of probability such as predicting and finding outcomes Relate math experiences in daily life using clocks, lunch money, bus numbers, etc. Construction paper, paper with clock on it. Recipe book and connecting clock paper. Make clock books and recipe books. This book can be used at the end of your time unit. Excellent review and assessment. Suggested Homework: Have students play time games related to telling time. Take clocks home to retell story. Development: Before: Build background on ladybugs and aphids. Show book survey, identify, predict and do chosen vocabulary in context. Make clocks for each child. The beginning of the story reviews time to the hour. The end reviews time to the half-hour. During: Read story for enjoyment. Then re-read and encourage active listening. As you read, children follow along using their own clocks to show each time. They may work in pairs. Question and discuss at appropriate times during reading. After: Demonstrate joint hand movement on a real clock. Follow-up: Make a clock activity book. Practice elapsed time with cook books (in pairs). Create his/her own story about any animal and its activities throughout the day. Start - 12:00 Stop - 1 hour later Start - 2:00 Stop - 1 hour later Start - 3:00 Stop - half past 3 Start - 4:00 Stop - 1 hour later Start - 8:30 Stop - 1 hour later 11 12 1 11 2 10 4 8 7 6 5 1 2 10 3 9 12 3 9 4 8 7 6 5 Food Start Stop Literature in Mathematics Title: How Big Is A Foot? Author: Rolf Myller Publisher: Dell Publishing Math Concepts / Topics: Measurement Summary: The King wants to give the queen a bed for her birthday. No one knows how big a bed is. The King has an apprentice that tries to make a bed for the Queen. Connecting Activities • Non-standard measuring (paper clips, toothpicks, Unifix Blocks) • Use teacher made measuring tape (non-standard) by using stickers lined up on a strip of paper. • Measure with inches. Extending Activities • Estimate, measure, compare student heights with their own foot, then find the class “standard.” • Compare your own foot to an actual “foot.” • Paste 3 of their own foot outlines to make a “yard” stick. Use the yard stick to measure with. • Write a letter to the apprentice telling he/she how to get the bed the right size for the Queen. • Talk about what careers use measuring each day. (carpenter, plumber, mechanic, landscaper, seamstress, etc.) • Measure distances in the room using their feet. Literature in Mathematics Title: How Big Is A Foot? Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for Level 1 2. Student Record Sheets for Level 1 lesson: “Measuring With Footprints” “Taking the Big Step!” “Measurement Recording Sheet” 3. Lesson Plan for Level 2 4. Student Record Sheets for Level 2 lesson: Letter to the King Measurement Worksheet 5. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional Resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Math and Literature ................................................................................p. 49 Read Any Good Math Lately? ..........................................................pp. 8-9 ..........................................................................................................pp. 170-171 Math Through Children’s Literature ..................................pp. 99-101 Literature-Based Math Activities ............................................pp. 64-65 Mathematics Lesson Plan How Big Is A Foot? Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skills(s): 25-03 Use standard and nonstandard units for length, , liquid capacity 18-03 Vocabulary: bar graph, estimate, equal Materials: How Big Is A Foot?, by Rolf Myller Newspaper 12 inch foot to measure with “Measuring with Footprints” (1 per students) “Taking the Big Step!” (1 per students) “Measuring Recording Sheet” (1 per students) Preparation: Have taught previously some non-standard and standard (inches) measurement Paper for graph (see attached) Ask principal (or a parent) to come in for part of the lesson Copies of 12 inch foot selected from students Duplicate “Measuring with Footprints”, “Taking the Big Step!”, “Measuring Recording Sheet” pages. Suggested Homework: Use your foot to measure your bed and a family member’s bed (see attached sheet) Development: Day 1: 1. Read book through the page where the king measures the queen for her bed with his feet. 2. Tell the students “The King used his feet to measure for a bed for the queen. Now we’ll prepare a pattern we can use to measure a bed for yourself”. Group students in pairs. 3. Each pair gets several layers of newspaper. As one child puts their foot on the paper, the partner traces the foot. The child cuts out their own foot pattern, cutting through all layers of newspaper. Each child needs at least 10 outlines of their feet. 4. Now partners will measure like the king did with their foot, using both the width and the length, recording data. 5. Go over homework sheet. (Teacher needs to keep one foot for each child with their name for the next days lesson.) Day 2: 1. Reread part of the book from the previous day. 2. Read each new part of the book to the page where the apprentice is put in jail. 3. Each child measures their foot in inches, using the newspaper pattern from the previous day. 4. Each child colors the corresponding square on the the class graph to indicate the length of their foot. 5. Children serial order their paper “feet” on the floor from the shortest to the longest and discuss. 6. Have the children vote on a way to choose the class “standard” to measure with. Discuss why. 7. Invite in the principal for the next activity. Trace his/ her foot, cut out several copies, then tell the children that this pattern will represent the “King’s” foot. 8. Divide the children into 2 teams (one team will use the class standard foot and the other will use the King’s foot to measure.) 9. Teams complete “Measuring with Footprints.” 10. Share results on a class chart. 11. Have students will complete their own “Taking the Big Step!” page. Day 3: 1. Review what you have previously read in the book and read to the end. Discuss. 2. Discuss how 12 inches equals 1 foot. 3. Each student will make a 12 in. foot. 4. In pairs, students need to find 2 things in the room that are more than a foot, but no more than 6 feet. 5. Follow-up: Assign “Measurement Recording Sheet” for homework. Use inch-long paper clips to keep track of the number of days left in the school year (link those remaining together). The linked chain can be used as warm-up for measuring objects with non-standard units. Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): Materials: 2 25-03 Estimate/measure lengths to nearest meter, centimeter, foot, inch How Big is a Foot? by Rolf Myller 3' x 6' sheets of packaging paper (1 per group) Scissors Letter to king Measuring worksheet Preparation: Cut paper to size. These need not be exact as students will cut them. However, this is the size prescribed by the king if his feet are 1' in length. Print letter (1 per student) Suggested Homework: Have students measure their bed in their foot size and in standard feet. Development: Read How Big is a Foot? to the point where the job of making the bed has been given to the apprentice. Tell the students that they are going to pretend to be the apprentice. Set up groups of 3 to 4 students. Present this as a problem using the steps of SOAR. State the problem. Ask the students to give the problem. It should be something like "we need to make a bed for the queen." Ask them if they know any data that is needed to solve the problem. The answer is that the bed must be 3' wide and 6' long. Organize. Ask the students what they will need to solve this problem. Hopefully, they will respond with: materials for the bed (give them the paper) scissors Have the groups plan how they will solve the problem. Attack the problem. Have the groups make their beds. Review. Tell the students that ______ will pretend to be the queen. This can be a teacher, principal, etc. Bring in the queen and have the students test their beds. Continue reading the book to see what happened in the story. Stop reading when the apprentice is in jail thinking. Now, each of the students will pretend to be the apprentice. Using the letter template, have the students write a letter to the king explaining what went wrong and offering a solution for correcting the problem. Have the students share their letters. Now, complete reading the book. Talk with the students about the importance of standard units of measure. Talk about a measuring device that is 1' long and that it is called a "ruler". If this name came from the book, why is it called a ruler? Ask the students how big they think the apprentice's measuring device is? Have them look at the picture. Follow-up: Have the students measure other things around the room with their feet and with standard feet. A template is provided is desired. How Big is a Foot? Pick 5 things in the room and measure each with your foot and with a standard foot. Item Example My Foot Estimate Measurement Standard Foot Estimate Measurement Mathematics Lesson Plan How Much is a Million Instructional Level: 4 Enabling Skill(s): 13-03 Show relationships among standard numerals Materials: Literature Selection: "How much is a Million" (Use the selection at the conclusion of the lesson to reinforce the concepts taught rather than to introduce the lesson!) Base ten blocks: You will need at least 10 "one thousand" cubes 12 meter sticks Preparation: Included in this packet is pattern for one thousand cubes. You may need to prepare several of these for the lesson if you don't have at least 10. Development: 1. As a warm-up have the class think-pair-share definitions for: cube, square, base ten, and digit. 2. As an introduction to the lesson ask the question, "How much is a million?" Accept all responses. You don't need to comment on the responses as right or wrong, good or not good. 3. Tell the students that the question you asked was actually somewhat vague! You could have been talking about a million dollars or a million cats or a million grains of sand. Actually it would have been a much better question had you specified exactly what you were talking about! Tell them that rather than answering the question they should have asked you the question, "A million what?" 4. Ask the students (again) "How much is a million?" More than likely some wise student will respond with, "A million what?" At this point your response should be, "Well, I'm glad you asked!" Show the students a one (centimeter) cube. Say, "I want you to tell me how big a million of these cubes would be. What would a million of these look like? How much space would they take up? Would they fit in this room? In this school?" Hand out one to each student. Tell them to use this object as a tool (which is something you work with) to help them determine the size of a million. Remind them that if they use the cube as a toy (which is something you play with!) you will have to take it back. 5. After the students have offered several guesses, remind them that a million is a big number and that it is difficult even for adults to imagine how much space a million of anything might take up. Suggest that it might be easier if we start small and work our way up. 6. Ask the students to predict what size ten might be. Usually this is quite simple for them. Have them "show" the size by holding up their hands. Next say, "Well let's find out." Count out ten ones into a student's hand. Show them an actual ten rod. Ask them to identify the shape. Remind them that the company who makes the blocks calls this a "rod" or a "long." 7. Create a chart on the board that shows place value and list shapes of the base ten blocks. (see below) T O ROD CUBE 8. Ask the students what comes next in place value. When they say "hundred", ask them to show what size a hundred is with their hands. Start to count out a hundred ones and then ask the students if there is an easier way. They should suggest to count by tens. Ask how many tens they will need to get to one hundred (10). Count them out. 9. Show them a "hundred flat". Ask them what shape this makes. Remind them that the company who makes these blocks calls this a "hundred flat". Record the shape on the chart. 10. Ask what comes next in place value. Ask what you can count by to easily get to one thousand. Ask how many hundreds it will take to reach one thousand. Count them out. Ask what shape this makes (cube). Record on the chart. 11. At this point you can ask the students if they have noticed any patterns. Some of them will notice that it takes ten of each manipulative at any place value to make the shape of the next place value. (ie. ten ones is ten; ten tens is one hundred; ten hundreds is one thousand). Ask if they can imagine the size and shape of a million now that they know the size and shape of one thousand. (Most still can't!) 12. Ask the students to identify the next place in place value. At this point they should realize that it will take ten "one thousand cubes" to make the next shape. Many students will guess that the next place in place value is a million. Instead of saying no, accept this as a possibility and suggest the class count by thousands to the next place. Count out ten one thousand blocks with the class so they realize that ten one thousands is in fact "ten thousand." 13. Ask the students what shape the ten thousand is. Once they recognize that it is a rod, record this on the chart. Ask them to study the chart to see another pattern besides the repeating ten pattern. Hopefully they will recognize the repeating cube, rod, flat pattern. H T O Th Th Th H T O F C - Cube R - Rod R C F R C F - Flat 14. Now ask them to use the information they have learned so far to make several predictions about the next place in place value. Ask the students to work with a partner to answer these questions: "What is the name of the next place in place value? (one hundred thousand), What shape will it be? ( A flat of course...it's a pattern!), How many ten thousand rods will it take to make one? (ten of course...it's a pattern!)" 15. Once the students recognize the patterns of repeating tens and cube, rod, flat, see if they see yet another pattern. They should be able to identify the repeating ones, tens, and hundreds place. Students should have identified the next place value as "one hundred thousand." This will be difficult to physically demonstrate unless you have created 100 "one thousand cubes". You can use meter sticks to build a model. Each ten thousand rod is exactly one meter. (Cardboard ten thousand rods could also be constructed.) 16 Now ask students to work with their partner and use the patterns and models they have seen to describe what the next place in place value will look like. We have finally reached a million! They should be able to tell you it is a "cube", it takes ten "one hundred thousand flats" to make one, and it is called "one million." 17. You can create a model of a one million cube with 12 meter sticks. One million centimeter cubes creates one cubic meter. Ask the students if the million cube is anything like the shape they imagined when the lesson first started. Follow-up: Ask students to complete the activity page (attached). To further demonstrate the incredible quantity of one million, read the literature selection "How Much is a Million?". Students can also create a 2 dimensional (2-D) model of a million using millimeter grid paper (attached). A million square millimeters will form a square meter! Literature in Mathematics Title: How Much is a Million? Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for base ten 2. "A Million Is A Lot" Student pages 3. Millimeter Grid Sheet 4. Centimeter Cube Pages - Blackline of 1,000 Cube 5. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Read Any Good Math Lately? .................................................pp. 1, 2, 130 2. Math Through Children's Literature ..................................p. 53 3. It's The Story That Counts .....................................................pp. 39, 39, 6572, 91, 122-124 4. Literature-Based Math Activities .........................................pp. 24-25 Name______________________________________________ A Million is a Lot!!! A million is a lot! I’ll show you what I mean! Try and answer the following questions. They’re kind of tough but you can work them out. Use your problem solving strategies and don’t give up too quickly! 1. Suppose your teacher said you could be excused from all regular class work to do a special assignment. Sounds good so far doesn’t it? This is the assignment! Take one million cubic centimeters and stack them up into a perfect cube! No problem! It will take you one second to place each cube. Your teacher says “No breaks...except for lunch!” That means you will be stacking cubes for 6 hours each school day! the question is “How long will it take you to stack all one million? Remember, one per second for 6 hours each day! Well, get started! There is some space below to show your work. A few hints.: There are 60 seconds in each minute and 60 minutes in each hour! Also, if you use manipulatives it might help you ! Good luck! Name______________________________________________ 2. What if your teacher decided it would be fun to take one million centimeter cubes and lay them end to end! Some wacky teacher your probably thinking, but just suppose it really happened! How far would they stretch from beginning to end? If you said “one million centimeters “you would be absolutely right but I want the answer in kilometers. Before you get started you might want to get more familiar with metric measurement! Find out how many centimeters are in a meter and how many meters are in a kilometer. I will tell you that a kilometer is .62 miles or about 6/10 of a mile. Of course that doesn’t help you solve the problem but it will help you calculate the distance that a million centimeters stretch in miles! Again, good luck! You may want to consult your problem solving strategies before you get started! This kind of problem won’t be easy unless you get yourself organized! Name______________________________________________ Answer Key #1 Every minute you can stack 60 cubes! So in one hour that would be 60 x 60 or 3,600 cubes. After six hours you would have a stack of 21,600. That’s just 2 ten thousand rods, a one thousand cube and 6 hundred flats! Still a long way to go! After 10 school days you could stack 216,000 cubes. After 40 days you would be up to 824,000. You’re getting closer! 46 days will get you close but you won’t be able to finish until your 47th day! Wow, that’s over 9 weeks of school! Four million would take you the whole school year! #2 A million centimeters! That’s far! One hundred centimeters is one meter. Kilo means one thousand so a kilometer is a thousand meters. 1,000 x 100 is 100,000! That makes sense doesn’t it? So each kilometer is one hundred thousand centimeters. Since 10 hundred thousand flats is equal to one million, 10 kilometers must be the same as a million centimeters. If a kilometer is .62 miles then 10 kilometers is 6.2 miles. That really is far! Imagine running along for even one mile and the whole time you’re running all you see are these little centimeter cubes lined up one after the other as far as you could see! Math rules! Literature in Mathematics Title: How Tall Are You? Author: JoAnne Nelson Publisher: Modern Curriculum Press Math Concepts / Topics: Subtraction, measurement Summary: As a child grows, his height is monitored and recorded Connecting Activities • Measure and graph students in the class. • Record the heights in the book and graph them. • Use the graph to predict how tall the boy will be when he is six. • Compare things other than height. • Compare quantities of coins to work on comparative subtraction. Extending Activities • Have students measure their feet with unifix cubes and write number sentences to compare sizes. • Use the graphs mentioned above to write subtraction (or addition) sentences . • Have students measure their family members with paper rulers (in inches). Bring the data to school for height comparisons. Literature in Mathematics Title: How Tall Are You? Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for Level 1 on comparitive subtraction 2. My Pockets sheet 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skill(s): 12-09 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of sums/differences 0-10 12-11 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of sums/differences for two-digit numbers without regrouping Materials: Unifix cubes Pennies My Pockets Mat How Tall Are You by JoAnne Nelson Preparation: Make a copy of the My Pockets Mat for each student. Development: Begin by discussing comparing things. We use "more than" and "less than to compare numbers. Ask the children to identify some more than and less than things in the room. There are other words we use to compare things. When we compare sizes, we use "larger" and "smaller". Are there other words like larger and smaller that we use. Ex: longer, shorter, richer, poorer, heavier, lighter, When things are the same, we call them equal. Talk about some equal things they can see. But when things are not equal, it is often helpful to talk about how much they are different. Compare the students ages which are a little different and my age which is a lot different. But sometimes it helps to know exactly how different things are. I have a book that I'd like to share with you to show what I mean. Read How Tall Are You. As you read, talk about how much growth occurred. Talk about how you could find how much more or taller. Let's try to figure out how many more boys or girls their are in the class. How could we solve this problem? Let's look at another problem. I have some pennies in each of my pockets. How many do you think I have in each. Give them some clues until they have the correct numbers for each pocket. Now let's see if we can figure out how many more coins I had in one pocket than the other. Talk about how we can represent this as a number sentence. Maybe you can discover it yourself. Do several more of these games together. Talk about why subtraction can help with this (use pairing up in order to see what is left.) Have the students play the game together and create their own pockets. After using the coins, have them draw the coins, then write the number sentence at the bottom. Follow-up: Have the students measure their feet with unifix cubes (or inches if they have worked at measuring in inches.) Have them write word and number sentences about their feet. Ex: John's feet are 8 cubes. My feet are 6 cubes. John's feet are 2 cubes longer. 8 - 6 = 2 Tape a measuring tape to the chalkboard. Have children use sticky paper with their name on it and have them stick their paper up where they think is their approximate height. Children to use measuring tapes to measure heights. Make a chart on graph paper to show their heights. My Pockets Literature in Mathematics Title: 1 Hunter Author: Pat Hutchins Publisher: Mulberry Books Math Concepts / Topics: Counting, Number words, Estimation, Problem Solving Summary: A Hunter goes into the jungle and passes by 2 elephants, 3 giraffes, 4 ostriches....10 parrots. Connecting Activities • Practice counting-pictures of groups of animals, estimate are there more or less than ten? • Practice problem solving skill - Draw a picture • Talk about patterns. • Practice recognizing numerals 1-10. Extending Activities • Create class 1 Hunter book change characters, number of organisms • Read books that have the same pattern i.e. One Gorilla, Ten Black Dots Literature in Mathematics Title: 1 Hunter Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 1 on problem solving using Make a Picture 2. Numbers for number puzzles 3. Math Literature Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math and Literature (K-3)....................................................... p. 8 2. Books You Can Count On.....................................................p. 18 Mathematics Lesson Plan 1 Hunter by Pat Hutchins Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 1 12-03 15-03 15-07 17-03 47-03 Use words zero through thirty-one Use ordinal numbers through thirty-first Use numbers in sequence and random through 99 Estimate the number of objects in a set as being greater than or less than ten Select and apply appropriate strategies Materials: 1 Hunter by Pat Hutchins Number puzzles names of animals on sentence strips Preparation: Cut apart numbers place in plastic bags. Write names of animals on sentence strips: Hunter, elephants, giraffes, ostriches, antelopes, tigers, crocodiles, monkeys, snakes, parrots. Development: Share book 1 Hunter by Pat Hutchins with class. Looking at cover discuss what they think we will read about in the book. What is a hunter? Do you know any hunters? How do you think animals feel about hunters? Read book. Pose the challenge question, How many animals (organisms) are in the book 1 Hunter? Can we estimate? Do you think there are more than 10 or less than ten? Why? Discuss estimates. Have students fill out more or less than sheet (individually or in groups). Ask students to explain thinking. How can we find out exactly how many animals are in the book? Accept answers. If someone suggests counting in book, ask if there is a way to see all the pages at one time? Could we make pages like the pages in the book to help us count? Use number puzzles to group students into 9 or 10 groups. (decide if the hunter is an animal or not, group consensus). Give each group a baggie with number puzzle inside. Group puts together puzzle and glues the numeral on paper Groups will draw a picture to go with the numeral. Put all pictures on board and group count animals. Compare with estimates. Follow-up: 1. 2. Have students sort animals explaining their reasons for groupings. Make a class book based on 1 Hunter,possibly changing the animals, or the title(i.e. 1 Student). 12 34 56 78 9 10 1234 5678 9 10 Literature in Mathematics Title: Author: Publisher: Math Concepts / Inch by Inch Leo Lioni Astor-Honor, Inc. Topics: Measurement, estimation, comparison, classification Summary: A tale of a friendly inchworm who is in danger of being eaten by several birds. He cleverly inches his way to safety my measuring. Connecting Activities • copy illustrations from book; give to teams to measure using nonstandard measure, then measure using inches • make 12 inch ruler of “inchworm” • use ruler to practice finding objects in room or desk that are so many inches long (see recording sheet) • have students create their own animal pictures, trade, and measure • discuss how many inches are in a foot; how many “inchworms” are in one foot? Extending Activities • Go to a store and locate items that have units of measure printed on them (i.e. picture frames, bedspreads, etc.) • Use inch measurements to discuss foot and yard, etc. • Scavenger Hunt - have students find objects out on the playground that are different, predetermined measurements • Write an inchworm story - change the setting of the story from that of the book • Find out more about inchworms Literature in Mathematics Title: Inch by Inch Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan 2. Student Record Sheet 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional Resources: 1. Read Any Good Math Lately................................................................p. 170 2. Literature-Based Math Activities...............................................pp. 66-67 Mathematics Lesson Plan Inch by Inch Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skills(s): 25-03 25-13 42-03 47-07 Use standard and nonstandard units for length, weight, liquid capacity Discuss seasonal activities Construct/interpret a picture/bar graph Relate math experiences in daily life using clocks, lunch money, bus number, etc. Materials: Inch by Inch by Leo Lioni Recording sheet Card stock Rulers (standard) Yardsticks Drawing paper Preparation: Have students’ “Recording Sheets” copied in advance Run off copies of “inchworm” rulers on card stock Suggested Homework: Take home inchworm rulers to measure specific things. Development: (could be integrated with Organisms unit) Spend a day or two with non-standard measurement using pasta, paper clips, straws, etc. to measure objects in the classroom. Discuss what an inchworm is. Has anyone ever seen one? Share the book Inch be Inch. Refer to “Connecting Activities” and “Extending Activities.” Follow-up: Use inch-long paper clips to keep track of the number of days left in the school year (link those remaining together). The linked chain can be used as warm-up for measuring objects with non-standard units. Name: Measurement Recording Sheet In each box below, draw or write the name of an object that is the size shown in that box. about 1 inch about 2 inches high about 3 inches long about 4 inches around about 6 inches tall about 9 inches high about 1 foot about 2 feet about 3 feet Literature in Mathematics Title: The King’s Commissioners Author: Aileen Friedman Publisher: Scholastic, Inc. Math Concepts / Topics: Place value, division with remainders, counting patterns, addition with and without regrouping. Summary: A king has so many commissioners he loses track of them. He enlists the help of his Royal Advisors and the Princess to help him count them. He finds that there’s more than one way to count to 47. Connecting Activities • Use base ten blocks to build various numbers • Play “Race to a Flat” (“Race to 100”) Directions: Children begin with an empty place value board. Player 1 rolls die, adds ones to the board equal to the number rolled. Player 1 regroups when necessary. Player 2 then takes a turn adding one to the place value board. Play continues until a player reaches one hundred. Try playing “Race From 100”. Played in the same manner except the players begin with one hundred on the board and take away the number they have rolled on the die. Play continues until a player reaches zero. Extending Activities Write a note to the King explaining one of the ways the two Royal Advisors and the Princess calculated the total number of commissioners. Brainstorm what all 47 commissioners’ jobs could be. If you could be one of the commissioners, which one would you be and why? How many ways can you write the numbers 36, 49, etc. Literature in Mathematics Title: The King’s Commissioners Contents of this packet: 1. Grade 2 lesson plan for understanding numerical relationships in grouping, place value and operations. 2. Grade 3 lesson plan for multiplication and division facts to 9. 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math and Literature (K-3).......................................................p. 39 - 46 Mathematics Lesson Plan The King's Commissioners Instructional Level: 2 Enabling Skills: 13 Understanding numerical relationships in grouping, place value, and operations 55-09 Counting patterns Materials: Base Ten Blocks or unifix cubes place value boards or mats dice book - The King's Commissioners Preparation: Organize Base Ten Blocks for each team. The following amount should be sufficient: 1 flat, 11 rods, 15 cubes Suggested Homework: Development: Have the students play "Race to 100" with a family member. One suggestion is to make a set of base ten blocks for each student using the plastic canvas. 1. Ask the students, "Why would a king need a math? Develop the concept of a commissioner as someone who helps a king with important matters. What might be some of the tasks the king would want commissioners to help complete? 2. Read the story, stopping at the appropriate point to predict how the king could solve his problem. What strategies can we use to solve the problem? (Make a table, draw a picture, etc.) 3. Continue reading the story discussing how each person solved the problem. Which way was correct? (All of them; there are many ways to solve the same problem.) 4. Distribute unifix cubes or base ten blocks and have the students count 47 cubes/blocks. Is there an easier way to count 47 than one cube at a time. Instruct the students that the problem today is to find many different ways to count the commissioners. Which way is quickest or easiest? Have students make an illustration of the different combinations they create on a large piece of newsprint folded into fourths. illustration of the different combinations they create on a large piece of newsprint folded into fourths. 5. Allow time for teams to share the different solutions they discovered. Follow-up: Focus the class on solving the problem using tens and ones. Introduce the game, "Race to a Flat (or 100)". Have students practicing trading tens and ones by playing the game. Mathematics Lesson Plan The King's Commissioners Instructional Level: 3 Enabling Skills: 12-09 Recall multiplication / division facts to 9. Materials: Base Ten Blocks or unifix cubes or other type counters place value boards or mats dice book - The King's Commissioners Hundred chart Preparation: Organize Base Ten Blocks for each team. The following amount should be sufficient: 1 flat, 11 rods, 15 cubes Suggested Homework: Development: Have the students play "Race to 100" with a family member. One suggestion is to make a set of base ten blocks for each student using the plastic canvas. 1. Develop the concept of a commissioner as someone who helps a king with important matters. Brainstorm tasks the king might need commissioners to help complete? Why might a king need math? 2. Read the story stopping at the appropriate point to predict how the king could solve his problem. What strategies could we use to solve his problem? (make a table or chart, draw a picture, etc.) 3. Continue reading the story discussing how each person solved the problem. Have students use counters to act-out the different solutions. They can also record the solutions on paper. Which way was correct? (All of them; there are many ways to solve the same problem.) 4. Ask the students if there are any other ways to count the commissioners. Have them create a chart listing the following headings for each column; # of commissioners, # in each group, # of groups, leftovers. (Students may try grouping counters by 3, 4, 6, etc.) 5. Discuss the concept of dividing the counters into groups to make counting easier. 6. Allow time for teams to share the different solutions they discovered. 6. Allow time for teams to share the different solutions they discovered. Follow-up: 1. Focus the class on solving the problem using tens and ones. Introduce the game, "Race to a Flat (or 100)". Have students practicing trading tens and ones by playing the game. 2. Have students use a Hundred's Chart to find patterns as they count by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, etc. Students may use colored chips to cover the numbers or colored code a chart using crayons. 3. Ask the students, "Why would a king need a math? Tell the students they are to listen and look to find many different ways math was used throughout this book. Students can record their ideas on an individual T-chart of "math we saw" (in the illustrations) and "math we heard" (in the text). A class T-chart can be created later. Literature in Mathematics Title: The M&M’s Counting Book Author: Barbara Barbieri McGrath Publisher: Charlesbridge Publishing Math Concepts / Topics: Addition, Subtraction, Estimating, graphing Summary: This book uses real M&M’s to develop math concepts and skills. Connecting Activities • Sort M&M’s by colors. • Make a real graph on desk. • Color bar graph sheet Extending Activities • Choose any other activities from packet. • Use bar graph to write story problems, e.g., There are 8 red M&Ms and 7 M&Ms. How many altogether? •Use cut-out M&Ms (construction paper) to make shapes or designs. • Use place value sheet. • Use M&Ms to make a pattern or face on a frosted cookie. Literature in Mathematics Title: The M&M’s Counting Book Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for M&M book using counting 2. Governor’s Academy M&M packet: 3. Parent Letter 4. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography pp. 1-13 Activities available in the following resources: 1. AIMS “Bears” Mathematics Lesson Plan The M & M's Counting Book Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skill(s): 12-15 Recall addition/subtraction facts to 10 15-13 Count backward from 10 to demonstrate subtraction 15-17 Share items equally with classmates to demonstrate division Materials: M&M book 1 pint size bag for each student 1 gallon size bag for extras "Guess Box" Chart paper Student pages of choice, pp. 1-13 Laser disc, Window On Science, Vol. 1, "Primary M&M's Sorting" Preparation: Have chart paper, "Guess Box", and any desired class charts prepared in advance Suggested Homework: Students are to take home p. 13 from the packet and list at least 4 describing words or adjectives about M&M's. Development: Use a "Guess Box" to motivate students. Students are to ask 20 questions about the possible mystery object(s) inside. Use a yes/no answer format. Mark their questions and your responses on chart paper. Read M&M's Counting Book. Discuss ways we could do math using the book and our M&M's. Distribute bags to students and have them estimate the number of M&M's in their bags. Open and check estimation of M&M's. Have students count out the matching number of M&M's to the story, based on the colors. Use the extra bag to fill in M&M's that children may not have in their own bags. Re-read the book and have students use M&M's to act out the story. Remind them not to eat until the end of the lesson if you are doing more activities. Follow-up: See pp. 1-13 in the enclosed packet for a wealth of wonderful ideas! Literature in Mathematics .Title:The Magic School Bus Lost in the Solar System Author:Joanna Cole Publisher: Scholastic, Inc. Math Concepts / Topics:Graphing, diameter, scale, and decimals Summary:Mrs. Frizzle takes her class on a trip to the planetarium. Since the planetarium is closed for repairs, the class heads back to their school. On the way back the bus becomes a spaceship and travels to outerspace. The class takes a trip through the Solar System Connecting Activities !1. Answer a list of questions. 2. Make a model of the Solar System to scale. 3. Compare the relationship between the length of the year and the distance from the sun. 4. Study data to discover other relationships. Extending Activities 1. Figure out if there is a relationship between the length of a day and the distance from the sun 2. Use ratio to determine whether or not there is a relationship between the length of a day and the length of a year. Mathematics Lesson Plan The Magic School Bus: Lost in the Solar System Instructional Level: 4 Enabling Skill(s): 15-07 Estimate and Justify reasonableness of answers in life situations 42-07 Develop / solve problems using information derived form tables / charts 42-11 Write a descriptive paragraph that interprets data 32-09 Identify / label diameter of a circle Materials: Literature Selection: "The Magic School Bus: Lost in the Solar System" Planet Chart Planet Chart overhead meter stick(s) base ten blocks - ones & tens only measuring tape - metric (optional) bulletin board paper for each planet - Remember: Jupiter will be 143 centimeters in diameter...that's big! Calculators Preparation: Have bulletin board paper, scissors, and markers available to make scale planets. Suggested Homework: Development: 1. Introduce literature selection. Ask the students to focus on information in the selection that has a math connection. Ask the students to list possible connections to math a book on the solar system might have. 2. Read the selection. 3. Discuss math connections. Compare connections found to predictions made before the selection was read. 4. Hand out the planet chart shown near the end of the literature selection to each student (attached). Allow them several minutes to look over the chart. There is a lot of information on it and can be overwhelming to many students. Ask them if the chart gives them any new ideas about math connections. 5. Introduce Activity 1. (See Attached) Although this is a teacher directed activity, encourage students to think and respond. Use student responses to direct the activity. For each question, you may have them think-pair-share. Ask students to point to the place on the planet chart where they found the information. 6. Activity 2 (see attached) Model each step of the activity for the students using Jupiter as an example. Students will need to refer to their planet chart to find the information. You may want to ask students to round off and find the scale size for several other planets if you think more practice is necessary. 7. Activity 3 (see attached). Model for the class how to use the information from activity 2 to create your scale planet. The scale diameter of Jupiter is 143 centimeters. Show the students how they can use base ten blocks, metric rulers, or even meter sticks to mark the diameter on the bulletin board paper. Ask class what strategies they would use to create a circle based on the diameter. Demonstrate how to find the center point of the circle by dividing the diameter by 2. Show them how to measure from the center at a number of different points around a circle to create points to connect. 8. Have students count off 1 to 8. Assign a team leader for each number and have them select a planet to make. Allow teams 10-15 minutes to draw, cut, and label their scale planet. Some teams will finish sooner than others. (Pluto is 2cm diameter and Saturn is 121cm!) Teams that finish faster can begin to write their steps (See activity 3). 9. You may want to have each team present their models and display them on the board. With the physical models displayed students can visually see the relationship between the numbers on the planet chart under the heading "How Big Across". 10. Activity 4 (see attached). Discuss with your class the meaning of the heading "How Long One Year". Ask the students which planet (according to the planet chart) orbits the sun in the shortest amount of time. Some will say Jupiter because the number 12 is smallest. Ask why that information is inaccurate. Read Activity #4. Have the students work with calculators to translate years to days. 11. Activity #5 (see attached). Read Activity #5. Allow cooperative groups or teams time to discuss. Give students several minutes to work independently to write their conclusions. 12. Activity #6 (see attached). Based on all the information covered so far give the students time to work independently or with a group to complete the chart. You could also make an overhead of the chart and work through it as a class or simply ask the class to create their own headings for a planet chart that they believe are more appropriate than those selected by Ms. Frizzle's class. Follow-up: Activity #6 is a good culminating activity for this lesson. Based on student responses the class could create a large bulletin board sized chart for the classroom. Name___________________________________________ The Magic School Bus - Lost in the Solar System Ms. Frizzle’s class made an awesome planet chart and we are going to use those facts to help us understand the solar system a little better. Activity #1 Lets get comfortable with the planet chart. Answer the following questions: a. What is the diameter of Mars? (remember, diameter is the distance across something!)__________________ b. How long does it take earth to revolve around the sun? (Don’t forget, revolution is the path objects in the solar system take from a starting point back to that same place!) ________________ c. How long does it take Pluto to revolve around the sun?____________ d. Hey, what’s the deal there? Why do you think it takes Pluto so much longer than Earth to travel around the sun? e. Which planet rotates the fastest?___________________ f. Which planet is closest to the sun? ____________ g. How close to the sun is it?__________________ Name___________________________________________ Activity #2 Well, that was fun! Now I think we’re ready to move on. We’re going to build a scale model of the solar system using the data we have on the planet chart. It would take way too long for everybody to do all 9 planets so let’s each do one. a. My planet is__________________________. b. The actual diameter of my planet is_____________________. c. Rounded to the nearest thousand, the diameter is_______________. d. So everybody uses the same scale, we will say that every thousand km is the same as 1 cm. (1cm = 1,000k). My scale planet is__________ centimeters across (diameter). Activity #3 Okay, now use the information from activity #2 and your base ten blocks to create a 2 dimensional scale model of your planet. Label it with planet name, actual diameter, and scale diameter. Explain below the steps you took to make your model. Name___________________________________________ Activity #4 The planet chart is a little confusing to me. One of the headings is called “How Long One Year”. What does that mean? Talk with a Friend and tell me what you think! There’s something else weird too! Sometimes the class writes “days” and sometimes they write “years”. I don’t like that. It gets me mixed up. Please use a calculator (or your just figure them out) to fill in the chart below. Planet Number of Days for a Complete Revolution Mercury 88 Venus 225 Earth 365 Mars 687 Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Activity #5 Notice anything interesting about the relationship between the “How long One Year” data and the “How Far From The Sun” data? Talk with a classmate and report your findings below. Name___________________________________________ Activity #6 Use your planet chart from Ms. Frizzles class and all of the information you have used so far to complete the attached “Planet Chart”. Good luck! Literature in Mathematics Title: Math Curse Author: Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith Publisher: Viking Math Concepts / Topics: problem solving using real life experiences Summary: When the teacher tells her class that they can think of almost everything as a math problem, one student acquires a math anxiety which becomes a real curse. **(Discuss the term curse and the fact that there is really no such thing as a curse; this is just make-believe.) Connecting Activities • Take the class schedule and create similar time problems. (p. 4) • Get concrete measurement manipulatives and use them to solve problems in the book. (p. 7) • Use a calendar to solve the calendar questions in the story. (p. 9) • Draw models for “class” multiplication problems. (p.10) • Compare fractions using manipulatives. (p. 12) • Get a map of the U. S. to estimate the length of the Mississippi River using manipulatives and the map scale. (p. 13) • Compare sports data. (p.14) • Use fingers to practice counting in the same manner as the beings on planet Tetra and planet Binary. (p. 17) • Determine the truth of money statements using real or manipulative money. (p. 20) • Calculate the number of minutes of “math madness” in a year using clocks, calendars and calculators. (p. 23) • Discuss why some questions in the book cannot be solved. • Discover the counting pattern Mrs. Fibonacci uses. (p16) Extending Activities • Design class or individual “math curse” book. • Make a class birthday graphs (bar, line, picto). Write a paragaph to analyze data. • Extend concept of different base systems. Have students use the appropriate number of fingers as “manipulatives.” • Read the book A Day with No Math published by HBJ. This is about a boy whose day has no numbers in it and the problems that this causes. Continued on next page Extending Activities Cont’d. • • Have students keep track the times and events in their day. Use this information to compose and share problems involving elapsed time. Create counting patterns similar to the one presented by Mrs. Fibonacci. Have friends see if they can discover the pattern. Compile these into a books to be shared with other classes. Literature in Mathematics Title: Math Curse Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 4 on scheduling time 2. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 4 Enabling Skill(s): 25-11 Tell time to one minute intervals 25-13 Represent activities as a.m. or p.m. 25-17 State time equivalencies 25-19 Discuss elapsed time Materials: Math Curse by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith Preparation: Prior to lesson teacher will have read Math Curse to the class. Review time and time equivalencies. Suggested Homework:Students will take planned schedule home and record actual amount of time to one minute intervals spent on various listed activities. They will write a brief paragraph that compares their planned schedule to the actual amount of time spent on various activities. Development: Warm-Up - Review the events in the book Math Curse that deal with time. Discuss whether the girl felt that time was a problem for her. Ask students if they feel that time is a sometimes a problem for them? Have them brainstorm in cooperative groups reasons to support their opinions. Share responses. Procedure 1. Ask students to list the activities that they plan to do this evening from the time that they get home from school until they go to bed. (Teacher models this with her evening activities) 2. Have students estimate time needed to the nearest 10 minute interval for each activity. (Teacher models this with her activities) 3.Students will list activities in the order that they want them to happen. (Teacher will continue to model using her activities.) 4. Using their planned time allotments students will develop a schedule for their evening activities listing exact beginning and ending times including the p.m. designation. (Teacher models.) 5. Share schedules. Follow-up: 1. Design a schedule for a weekend day using the same basic Literature in Mathematics Title: Moira’s Birthday Party Author: Robert Munsch Publisher: Annick Press Ltd. Math Concepts / Topics: Estimation, problem solving, money, division, multiplication Summary: Moira has a birthday party and invites all students in grades K-6 without her parents consent. Her parents are expecting 6 of her friends, but 200 show up. Moira orders 200 pizzas and birthday cakes. Connecting Activities • Estimate the cost of feeding the class pizza and birthday cake before reading the book. • Have students create a birthday graph from class data (or grade level data- children choose a class and conduct a math investigation). Have them choose the graph to organize their data. • Graph the classes favorite type of pizza,cake, or ice cream. Extending Activities • Figure out the least number of cuts needed to serve a layer cake to the class. • Evaluate Moira’s way of cleaning the house. • Discuss other ways of distributing the 200 gifts and the extra food. • Compare Moira’s birthday party to one a student has had. • Plan a menu for a birthday party, including the amounts of each food. • Discuss ways Moira might pay the bill for the pizza and cakes. • Figure out the total number of students in Moira’s school and the total amount in your school and compare. Literature in Mathematics Title: Moira’s Birthday Party Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for grade 4 2. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional Resources: 1. Read Any Good Math Lately...............................................................p. 118. 2. Math Through Children’s Literature.................................pp. 127-129. Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skills: 4 12-03 13-09 13-11 Materials: Moira’s Birthday by Robert Munsch paper 200 counters per cooperative group optional: birthday decorations or a gift wrapped box to create a party mood Suggested Homework: Development: * * * * Given: Given the number of students in the class, devise ways to cut cakes(sheet and or layer), to serve everyone. Warm up- Discuss memorable birthdays. Read the selection. Moira ordered 2 pizzas, and 2 cakes for her guests. This means each child was expected to eat 1 whole pizza and 1 whole cake. Evaluate her thinking. Do the students think she needed to order that much food? How would they decide what Moira should order? Students calculate the cost of food for each of the groups in the table. 1 pizza feeds 4 and costs $8 1 cake feeds 9 and costs $9 Person or group You Your family Your class Your grade Your school Moira’s guest Follow-up: Integrate concrete pictorial, and symbolic representations of division Multiply a mutlti-digit number by a l digit number Divide a three or four digit dividend by a 1 digit divisor Number of people Number of pizzas Total pizza cost Number of cakes Total cake cost Moira’s guests spread out in two bedrooms, the basement, the living room, the kitchen, the bathroom, and on the roof. Have cooperative groups draw a picture of these rooms. Give each group 200 counters and divide evenly in each room. How many would be in each room? Students draw a picture of their plan and write a number sentence. Literature in Mathematics Title: Only One Author: Marc Harshman Publisher: Cobblehill Books Math Concepts / Topics: Patterns, number relationships Summary: A unique counting book centered around a country fair. The author shows how single things combine to create something totally different. (ex: “The sky is made of millions of stars; one hive of 50,000 bees” Connecting Activities • Have students look for patterns in our base ten system or in our liquid measurement tools. Use one of these themes to create a big book about the relationships students found. (ex.: There may be only one quart, but there are 4 cups.) Students can create characters to illustrate the patterns they observe. Extending Activities • Have students create a big book for the multiplication ideas they explore during Day II of this lesson. You may want to call the book, “More Than One”. Students can create a sentence to include on each page. (ex: “There may be four wheels on a wagon, But two wagons have eight.”) • Follow these lessons with the book What Comes In Twos, Threes and Fours, by Literature in Mathematics Title: Only One Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for grade 2 2. Organizer - Concrete, Pictorial, Abstract 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional resources for this literature selection: 1. Math And Literature (K-3) Book 2...........................................pp. 79-83 Mathematics Lesson Plan Only One Instructional Level: 2 Enabling Skills: 12-09 Demonstrate concretely multiplication as repeated addition 47-03 Select and apply appropriate strategies to life problems (time, money, measurement, and temperature) 47-07 Relate math experience in daily life using clocks, lunch money, bus money, calendar, games, etc. 55-07 Explore counting patterns for odd and even numbers to 99 Materials: Only One large paper for students to create a big book (Day I) copies of the attached organizer (Day II) Preparation: Prepare a baggie with 25-30 counters for each student or pair of students. (needed for Day II) Copy the organizer for the follow-up activity for Day II. Suggested Homework: Have students look at home for various ways to group objects. (ex: four members, only one family; three remote controls, only one television; four doors, only one house; six drawers, only one dresser) Development: Day I 1. Read the book to the class. Discuss the patterns found in the book. (some answers may include: only one sentence on a page; every page has the words, "only one"; the numbers get smaller as the book progresses;) 2. If students haven't noticed, point out that some pages have words/groups that must contain a specific number of objects, (ex. one dime must have 10 pennies) but other groups/words may contain more or less of the objects (ex. a herd does not need to be 11 animals). 3. Brainstorm a list of words that have a specific number of objects and a list of words where the number is not specific. Some possible words for the "specific number" list might be: pennies in a nickel, eggs in a dozen, planets in our solar system, legs on a healthy dog, wheels on a bike, legs on a rectangular table, letters in our alphabet. Some possible words on the varying number list might be: pages in a book, people in a family, students in a class) 4. Have each student select an idea from the lists and write a sentence that follows the pattern in the book. Next have them illustrate the idea and then put the pages together to create a class big book. Day II **This portion of the lesson may take more than one day depending on your students. 1. Reread the book Only One or read the book the class created during Day I. 2. Tell the students that the literature selection you just read discussed how many in a group if you only had one group (ex: 10 pennies in one dime). Today we will discuss how to determine how many objects in a group if we have more than one of each group. In the book the author said there were four wheels on a wagon. Ask students, "If we had two wagons, how many wheels would we have?" Allow time for students to use counters or pictures to create a model of the problem. Discuss the various strategies students chose. (Act it out, Make a picture, repeated addition, etc.) Then ask, "What if we had 3 wagons? How would our model change?" Draw a "T" chart on the board and begin to record the answers on the table. Continue with four and five wagons. wagons 1 2 3 wheels 4 8 12 If the students have not recognized the pattern ask them to look for patterns on the chart. Student should begin to see that the number of wheels increases as we add more wagons to our picture. 3. Have the students repeat the process for five babies in a nest and three musicians in a trio. (**You may want students to create the "t" table for trios in their math journals.) 4. Select one of the equations the students have solved (ex. 5 babies in a nest and 3 nests). Ask the students how we might record a number sentence that matches the picture. Possible answers should include 5 + 5 + 5 =15. Tell them you are going to show them another way to write the equation: 3 x 5 = 15 or 3 groups/nests of 5 babies. Introduce this as multiplication. 5. Allow time for the students to practice creating number sentences to match other equations you have solved during the lesson. Follow-up: 1. Provide the students with the attached organizer. Share the following stories with the students and have them first create the model with counters, then have the students draw picture of the model, and finally write a number sentence to match the picture. A. There are four petals on a flower and you have three flowers. How many petals altogether? B. You see three bicycles ride by you. There are two wheels on each bicycle. How many wheels did you count? C. You can fit five oranges in a box. You have three boxes. How many oranges do you have altogether? A. There are four petals on a flower and you have three flowers. How many petals altogether? B. You see three bicycles ride by you. There are two wheels on each bicycle. How many wheels did you count? C. You can fit five oranges in a box. You have three boxes. How many oranges do you have altogether? 1. Draw a picture of the model you create. 1. Draw a picture of the model you create. 2. Write a number sentence that matches your picture. 2. Write a number sentence that matches your picture. 3. Write the story problem that matches your number sentence. 3. Write the story problem that matches your number sentence. Literature in Mathematics Title: The Quilt Story Author: Tony Johnston Publisher: Scholastic Math Concepts / Topics: Patterns, Geometry, Fractions Summary: Project-based lessons introducing geometry and fractions, and reinforcing patterns. Connecting Activities • Review two-dimensional shapes and relate to objects in the environment • Have children bring in quilts from home. Look for patterns and evidence of symmetry. • Four-triangle investigation lesson in Geometry by Marilyn Burns. Extending Activities • Science: Discuss quilt-making as an early form of recycling. • Art: Prepare a color wheel to aid in the choice of two colors, choosing complementary colors. • Language Arts: Read more stories about quilts. Josephina Story Quilt by Eleanor Coerr The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polacco Literature in Mathematics Title: The Quilt Story Contents of this packet: 1. Grade 2 Lesson 2. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan The Quilt Story Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): Materials: 2 12-13 Explore fractional concepts concretely. Spatial geometry problem solving The Quilt Story by Tony Johnston a sampler or quilt 36"x36" background paper (black is good for most color combinations) Preparation: Each child will need: a 4"x4" square piece of ditto paper two squares 2"x2" of light-colored paper two squares 2"X2" of dark-colored paper Suggested Homework: Instruct students to find quilts at home. Make a list of the different shapes used to make the quilt squares. Duplicate on paper if possible. Development: 1. Introducing quilts: Read The Quilt Story and share a quilt to initiate a discussion about quilts. Make a simple chart of the children's contributions. Entitle the chart: What We Know About Patchwork Quilts 2. Create a four-patch quilt: Ask children how a square of paper can be folded to make four smaller squares. Follow their instructions exactly. Model correct procedure. Give each child a 4"x4" square and ask them to fold their own four-patch block. Using two light and two dark squares, lay them on your paper to make a checkerboard. 3. Have each child place their quilt block on a 36"x36" piece of background paper. Blocks can be set in straight rows or diagonal rows. 4. Look at one of the four-patch blocks. Say that half the squares are light and half the squares are dark. Show that as the fraction one-half. Demonstrate how this is also two out of four or two-fourths. Follow-up: Day Two Each child will need: one 7"x7" square of ditto paper two 3 1/2"x 3 1/2" squares of one color paper two 3 1/2"x 3 1/2" squares of a second color paper 1. Further exploration of four-patch patterns: Draw a square on the board. Ask children to show how it could be divided in half. Discuss the resulting shapes and explain that today we will be working with triangles. Pass out the two squares of one color and the two squares of a second color to each child. Have them fold each square in half to form two triangles. When all four are folded and cut, each child should have four triangles of one color and four triangles of another color. Next, ask them to fold their 7"x7" paper into four equal squares. 2. Ask children to arrange and rearrange their triangles, creating as many different blocks as they can. Have them glue down their favorite arrangement. 3. Compare the arrangements. How are they the same? How are they different? Talk abut the shapes that appear in their designs. Literature in Mathematics Title: Reflections Author: Ann Jonas Publisher: Greenwillow Books Math Concepts / Topics: Geometry Summary: A child’s perfect day is expressed through a series of beautiful illustrations that hold a double wonder. In each full-color picture there is another picture reflected. Read the book, turn it upside down, and continue the story. Connecting Activities • Reviewing fractions such as halves and fourths. • Making connections with objects in nature that have symmetry (butterfly, fruit, etc.). • Study reflection and symmetry in architecture. • Locate fabric patterns or quilts that are symmetrical. • Teach your students about tessellations. Extending Activities • Have students locate pictures in magazines that have one line of symmetry. Have them carefully cut out the symmetrical subject then fold the picture along this line. Have them cut the picture in half, following the fold line and glue one half to a piece of drawing paper. They are then to draw a matching “half” to complete the missing side of the picture. • Use mirrors to show that not all things must be cut in half to show symmetry. An object that has a reflection is not symmetrical with the object in the mirror. • Have the students create their own short story and illustrate it in such a way that the pictures are symmetrical. Literature in Mathematics Title: Reflections Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for Level 3 2. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Additional Resources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Math and Literature ................................................................................p. 49 Read Any Good Math Lately? ..........................................................pp. 8-9 ..........................................................................................................pp. 170-171 Math Through Children’s Literature ...................................pp. 99-101 Literature-Based Math Activities ............................................pp. 64-65 Mathematics Lesson Plan Reflections Instructional Level: Enabling Skills(s): 3 32-13 Demonstrate congruency, symmetry, reflection, two dimensional rotation (slides and turns) Materials: Reflections by Ann Jonas Rulers Scissors Attribute or Pattern Blocks Drawing paper Crayons Small mirrors Magazines Preparation: Select pictures from magazines that have at least one line of symmetry. Have these torn out ready for class. Have enough blocks available for the class. Suggested Homework: Make a list of places in the their surroundings that they see reflections or mirror images. Development: Seat your students so that they can easily see the pictures in the book. Share the story slowly and carefully, making sure that the students can see the images as you read, but not making reference to the words are the top of each page. When you get to the last page, emphasize the words “It’s a little scary in the woods, so I turn around...” as you slowly turn the book over and continue with the words “... and find my way back.” Ask the students what they noticed as you turned the book. Finish the story, then review each illustration from both points of view. Ask the students what they are seeing in each illustration and what the illustrator did to create each image. Point out specific illustrations that use symmetry, such as the bed, sunset and sunrise or the buildings in the rain. Ask the students if there would be a way to fold the page in half so that both halves of the illustration match. Have pictures from magazines or another source available that can be folded in half, so that both halves “match.” Demonstrate this technique, then have a few students try. Invent the term symmetry. Have the students create their own definition, based on what they have seen on the pages and what they were able to do with the magazine pictures. Have the student return to the seats and provide them with attribute or pattern blocks. Allow them to explore these materials, looking for shapes that have symmetry. Have students trace or draw the shapes they find on their paper, indicating the line(s) of symmetry with a dotted or broken line. Look for objects around the classroom that are symmetrical. Have the students point out those that they find and list and/or draw them. How many lines of symmetry does each object have? If time allows, try some of the extension activities provided. Literature in Mathematics Title: A Remainder of One Author: Elinor J. Pinczes Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, 1995 Math Concepts / Topics: Division, with remainders, factors and multiples Summary: Joe wants to march in the parade but every time the lines are uneven he has to stand aside. He studies the problem of rearranging the 25 bugs from two lines to three lines and four lines, until inspiration results in five lines of five. Joe fits in at last! Connecting Activities Develop the concept of division and remainders. Use chips to build an array under the “division” sign. Label the number of rows to the left of the sign and the number in each row (columns) above the sign. Discuss ways to interpret a remainder. Give students examples of remainders in different situations and discuss how we should handle that remainder. Ex. 1. Students need to work with a partner. There are 25 students in the class. What should we do with the extra student? 2. We are going on a field trip and parents are driving. Four students can fit in one car and we have 29 students in our class. How many cars do we need? Extending Activities Have each team choose a number to create their own book about remainders. Some suggested numbers: 15, 26, 21, 28. Have students research how various battle formations were utilized in the Civil War. Literature in Mathematics Title: A Remainder of One Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 5 on “prime” and “composite” numbers 2. Organizer to show the progression from concrete to pictorial to abstract for multiplication arrays/ equations 3. Student copy of a Hundred Chart 4. Organizer for division box 5. Grade 3 Extension activities 6. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan A Remainder of One Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): Materials: 3/5 12-03 13-23 Demonstrate primes, multiples, and factors. Integrate concrete, pictorial and symbolic representations for division of a two digit number with remainders. (grade 3) colored bingo chips (one container for each team) organizer - attached (one for each student) hundreds chart (one for each student) overhead of a hundreds chart Preparation: make copies of the attached math organizer, hundreds chart make an overhead transparency of the hundreds chart Suggested Homework: Continue looking for prime and composite numbers on the hundreds chart. Find at least 5 more prime numbers. Development: 1. Read the story to where the bugs divide into groups of six (page 25). 2. Distribute chips to students to show the first squadron the bugs tried (12 x 2). Discuss the concept of an array. Label the columns and the rows as "factors" and the total as a "multiple". Model the attached organizer. 3. Continue with the 4 x 6 and 3 x 8 arrays, recording on the data sheet. 4. Tell the students to find a solution that would allow Joe to be part of the squadron. Record their solution on their organizer. 5. Finish reading the story to verify their prediction. 6. Try to organize other squadrons to find solutions where no member would be left out. 7. Model solutions for the numbers four and twelve. (The number four can be set up in three different arrays: 2 x 2 and 1 x 4; 4 x 1. Discuss how the arrays 1 x 4 and 4 x 1 are the same array, only rotated.). 8. Assign a number to each team. Be sure to include prime numbers. Attached is a number page for your use. Have students use the chips to find arrays for the numbers. They should record all solutions on the organizer. 9. After students have explored their assigned number, allow each team to share their number and all arrays they have found. Discuss why some teams have only one solution. Identify those numbers as "prime numbers". Numbers are either "prime" or "not prime". (You may have students recall that a volcano composed of different types of materials is a composite volcano.) Numbers that have more than one array are called "composite numbers". Follow-up: 10. Focus the students' attention on the chart you posted and the hundreds chart you distributed. Challenge them to discover other "prime numbers" and "composite numbers" and record on the hundreds chart by color coding the primes and composites. (Students should develop their own key.) 11. Have the class share the prime and composite numbers they have found. Discuss any conflicts by having the class use the chips to make arrays. A Remainder of One Grade 3 - Extension Ideas • Use plastic creatures for manipulatives. You may relate to life science and integrate populations. • Cootie model to build motivation. • Create a “geo-ant”. shapes. • Use calculators to interpret remainders in ant problems. • Write a note to the squadron leader to suggest a good total number for lines. • Outline long division steps using the text number problem. • Odd and even numbers. Ex. labeling geometric Concrete Pictorial Symbolic Write the numbers of rows here. Place chips here A Remainder of One Number Page 8 26 33 9 27 34 15 28 36 16 30 37 20 31 39 Note: Any numbers may be used as long as some prime numbers are included. Literature in Mathematics Title: Sea Squares Author: Joy N. Hulme Publisher: Hyperion Books for Children Math Concepts / Topics: multiplication facts / basic exponents Summary: Illustrations of sea creatures used to count animals and their parts from 1 to 10; 1 one-ton whale to 10 squirmy squids. Connecting Activities • • • • Division Fact Families Patterns, extend and create Repeated addition Extending Activities 1. If you have geoboards, the students can practice making squared numbers on them. Have the students start out with a square of one. Then make a square of two, then a square of three, and so on up to a square of ten. Ask students if their squares make a pattern. 2. Write the numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, and 100 on index cards, one number per card. Make enough cards so each student has one. Make another packet of index cards. On these cards write the numbers one through ten. You or a student leader then pulls out a number from the packet and holds it up for the class to see. If the number five, for example, is pulled from the packet and held up, the students with 25 stand to represent the the square of 5 is 25. 3. Pattern write a class big book (ex. Bay Blocks, Desert Squares, etc.) 4. Color the square products on a multiplication table so that students can recognize the diagonal patterns formed. 5. Complete the attached Pattern Table Sheet. Literature in Mathematics Title: Sea Squares Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 4 on patterns and exponential numbers. 2. “More Sea Squares” student page 3. SOARganizer 4. Sample extension text 5. Sea Squares Pattern Chart 6. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math and Literature K-3).....................................................................p. 67 2. Literature-Based Math...........................................................................pp. 22-25 Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 4 Enablings Skills: 55-07 Explore/describe a number pattern or sequence including exponents 55-09 Solve for a missing number/variable in a number including exponent for numbers Materials: Sea Squares, by Joy N. Hulme SOARganizer (1 per student) SOARganizer transparency Graph paper (1/2 in. or 1 in.) Scissors Student pages; "More Sea Squares" Drawing paper (8 1/2 in. x 11 in. or larger) Crayons / colored pencils Glue sticks Preparation: Print student pages of "More Sea Squares" Suggested Homework: Have each student find 2 more perfect squares. Development: 1. Read aloud book, Sea Squares. Allow the students to study the beautiful illustrations and how they match the text. 2. After completing the book, reexamine each of the ocean organisms or groups of organisms to discover how their body parts relate to the numbers used. 3. Have the students attempt number sentences that would represent what is discussed in the text ex. three-striped clown fish 3+3+3=9 or 3x3=9 4. Share their responses using the board or overhead for each of the organisms. 5. Using the graph paper, have the students use the squares to construct a model to represent each number sentence. They should outline the square created then use the scissors to cut it out. ex. 3x3=9 6. Model for the students the exponential form for each of the equations or “squares” created. ex. 3x3=9 or 3 =9 7. Have the students write the appropriate exponential form inside the graph paper “square” that represents it. 8. Using notebook paper, the students should choose one of the “squares” to create a new story line for, other than 1x1=1. 9. Students should then use the drawing paper to transfer their sentence to then create an illustration that brings their sentence to life. 10. The students should staple their graph “squares” along the top of their drawing, making sure their name is also on their paper. 11. The students may wish to explore what 11 squared or 12 squared would look like. 12. The students may wish to continue this activity by creating complete books, either on their own or working in teams. They could assemble their creations including a cover to be shared within the class or with with other classrooms. Pages could be laminated. Follow-up: You may want to explore the understanding of the exponent concept by having the students try to create the following models using graph paper. 1. 2x2x2 = 2. 4x4x4x4x4 = 3. 6x6x6x6 = 4. 7x7x7 = 5. 9x9x9x9x9x9 = 6. 3x3x3x3x3x3x3 = Discuss whether or not these are “squares”or not. If not, why not? Only true "squares" or figures created by two factors can be modeled using graph paper. Others would require a three-dimensional configuration. Sea Squares Pattern Table Complete the following charts based on the story numbering to 10. Seal Eyes 1 Sea Star Arms 2 1 Squid Tentacles 6 1 Octopus Legs 10 1 Find the missing numbers! Clownfish 2 Stripes Seal Flippers 6 3 12 15 5 9 24 Sea Lily 20 3 36 6 1 3 Frond 50 24 2 Brain Teaser! 12 eyes = ______________ whales 22 tails = ____________ whales 35 fronds = _____________sea lilies 16 wings = _____________gulls 24 flippers = _____________seals 20 shells = _____________clams 8 Sea Squares (Exponents) Grade Level: 4/5 Objectives: 55-07 55-09 Explore/describe a number pattern or sequence including exponents Solve for a missing number/variable in a number including exponent for numbers Materials: Sea Squares, by Joy N. Hulme Graph paper (1/2 in. or 1 in.) Scissors Drawing paper (8 1/2 in. x 11 in.) Crayons Glue sticks Lesson: 1. Read aloud book, Sea Squares. Allow the students to study the beautiful illustrations and how they match the text. 2. After completing the book, reexamine each of the ocean organisms or groups of organisms to discover how their body parts relate to the numbers used. 3. Have the students attempt number sentences that would represent what is discussed in the text ex. three-striped clown fish 3+3+3=9 or 3x3=9 4. Share their responses using the board or overhead for each of the organisms. 5. Using the graph paper, have the students use the squares to construct a model to represent each number sentence. They should outline the square created then use the scissors to cut it out. ex. 3x3x3=9 6. Model for the students the exponential form for each of the equations or “squares” created. ex. 3x3=9 or 3 =9 7. Have the students write the appropriate exponential form inside the graph paper “square” that represents it. 8. Using notebook paper, the students should choose one of the “squares” to create a new story line for, other than 1x1=1. 9. Students should then use the drawing paper to transfer their sentence to then create an illustration that brings their sentence to life. 10. The students should staple their graph “squares” along the top of their drawing, making sure their name is also on their paper. 11. The students may wish to continue this activity by creating complete books, either on their own or working in teams. They could assemble their creations including a cover to be shared within the class or with with other classrooms. 12. The students may wish to explore what 11 squared or 12 squared would look like. Extension/Evaluation: You may want to explore the understanding of the exponent concept by having the students create graph paper models for extended examples, such as: 1. 2x2x2= 3. 6x6x6x6=6 2 2. 4x4x4x4x4=4 4. 7x7x7=7 5. 9x9=9 6. 3x3x3x3x3x3x3=3 Discuss whether or not these new arrays are “squares” or not. If not, why not? These “squares” can be cut apart and reassembled in different configurations to demonstrate that area is conserved in the new figures. SOARganizer S tate the problem What do you know? Estimate the answer O rganize Plan what to do A ttack Step 1 Step 2 Review Check your work The answer is: Step 3 Literature in Mathematics Title: The Shapes Game Author: Paul Rogers Publisher: Henry Holt and Co. Math Concepts / Topics: Geometry Summary: This book introduces children to a variety of shapes using riddles and colorful pictures. Connecting Activities • Practice drawing and labeling of shapes. • Write definitions for shapes (has four sides, all the same length). • sort plastic geometric shapes. Extending Activities Grade 1 • Look through magazines for one of several geometric shapes and make a collage of what is found. • Write a class “copycat” shape riddle book. • Find examples of cubist paintings & share with the clas. Identify various geometric shapes. • Have children use their bodies to make geometric shapes and take “aerial” photographs. • Glue toothpicks on paper to make geometric shape pictures. • Make shapes using geoboards. Grade 2 • Use the book as a review of shapes. • Move into 3-dimensional shapes. • Use toothpicks and small marshmallows to make 3-d shapes. • Use real manipulatives, boxes, cones, styrofoam sphers, etc. to design something. Literature in Mathematics Title: The Shapes Game Contents of this packet: 1. Grade 1 lesson 2. Shapes Collection Sheet 3. Student Samples 4. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math Through Children’s Literature...................................p. 65 2. Math & Literature (K-3) Book 1............................................p. 68 Mathematics Lesson Plan The Shapes Game Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skill(s): 32-07 Materials: Relate circle, square, triangle, and rectangle to objects in the environment. Circles, triangles, squares, and rectangles (various sizes) copied on different colored paper - see black line master or, cut shapes from craft die cutter. The Shapes Game by Paul Rogers. Shapes Collection Sheet (1 per pair of students) Attribute Blocks (optional) Preparation: Duplicate Shapes Collection Sheet as needed. You will need at least one shape black line worksheet per two students. Cut out shapes. Suggested Homework: Development: Have students take home one of the shapes recording sheets to explore and record shapes found at home or in nature. Provide students with trays of various shapes. Allow time to explore shapes(paper, pattern blocks, attribute blocks, or manipulative shape of your choice). Have students decide how to sort their shapes. Have students describe their shapes in their own language. Record. Read The Shapes Game to the class. This story is written in an "I Spy" riddle format. It is suggested that you select the pages most appropriate for this lesson. These pages would relate to circle, square, triangle, rectangle. Then you can return to this selection at a later date to share other pages. Read the riddle on each page before showing students the picture. Have students close their eyes while you read and visualize the shape you are describing. Then show them the picture to verify their answer. As you show each page to the children, have them describe all the different examples of the shape in the illustration. For each shape they spy, encourage them to tell its color, size, (properties) and position on the page. As you read, post the names and pictures of the shapes described in the story above the descriptions recorded earlier: (circle, triangle, squares, stars, ovals, crescents, rectangles spirals, and diamonds.) Have students play the "I Spy" game using shapes in the classroom. Ex. "I spy a large, wooden rectangle" - door. To assess students knowledge of identifying shapes, describe the properties of shapes and have students hold up the correct shape using the paper cutouts. Ex. "Hold up the shape that has three sides and three corners" - triangle. Follow-up: DAY 1 Choose the Shape Collection/Recording worksheets. Have students work with a partner to go on a "Shape Hunt" in the classroom. Students can write or draw the shapes that they found. This activity can also be extended to the entire school and/or outside. "Shapes Hunt" discoveries can than be shared with the class. DAY 2 Give students pattern block shapes to create a shape picture. with a given number of shapes. In this way students will be successful in reproducing their design. Have the children draw ( or trace) their design and describe it using shape words. See student example attached for a model. Have individual students share their written descriptions verbally. Have the rest of the class reproduce the picture using their own blocks. Accept all possibilities. Responses will vary. Shapes Collection Sheet Literature in Mathematics Title: Six-Dinner Sid Author: Inga Moore Publisher: Aladdin Math Concepts / Topics: Multiplication/Division Summary: Sid is a cat who has convinced six people on his street that each is his owner. He visits each house every day for dinner and gets six different dinners every day. Connecting Activities • Use manipulatives to act out student-created Sid (or other cat) stories. Extending Activities • Problem: How many dinners did Sid eat in one week, two weeks, or one month, one year? Have students illustrate and explain how they determined their answer. How many more is that than the average cat? How much does it cost to keep Sid fed for a week, month, or year? • Time: Write out a schedule that Sid might follow in order to make it to all six dinners in one night. • Graphing: Have students graph the number of pets owned by students in their classroom. • Perimeter/Area: Help Sid’s owners design a cage for him so they can keep him at home for dinner. • Facts: Have students develop mult/div. fact families from different stories written; ie. Two-Dinner Tom, Three-Dinner Theo etc... Literature in Mathematics Title: Six-Dinner Sid Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson plan for grade 3: problem solving activity using “act it out” as a strategy 2. Nine-Dinner Nate Sheet 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. Math and Literature (K-3) Book 2.......................................pp. 101-108 2. It’s the Story That Counts...........................................................pp. 44-45 Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 3 Enabling Skill(s): 12-07 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of multiplication/division facts to 9 12-09 Recall multiplication/division facts to 9. Materials: Six-Dinner Sid by Inga Moore Counters (beans, chips , etc.) Six small (6") paper plates for each pair of students Preparation: Gather materials as listed. This lesson may be used at the beginning or after the introduction of multiplication. Suggested Homework: Nine-Dinner Nate problem (see attached). Development: 1. Discuss cats with student: habits, likes, peculiarities, etc.. 2. Read Six-Dinner Sid. Student listen and look for math in the book. Write responses on class chart. Reread book and add to chart. Six-Dinner Sid by Inga Moore Math we saw: Math we heard: 3. Present problem: How many dinners did Sid eat in one week? Use SOAR to help students think through the problem. Discuss strategies for solving the problem act it out should be a choice. Students can use counters and plates to solve problem concretely. Then students illustrate the solution to the problem and explain in a paragraph how they got that solution. 4. Student pairs share their solutions with the entire class. Follow-up: Use Six-Dinner Sid as a pattern to develop stories and problems for Sid's friends: Two-Dinner Tom Seven-Dinner Sampson Three-Dinner Theo Eight-Dinner Elsie Four-Dinner Francesca Nine-Dinner Nate Five-Dinner Fred Design a cage for Sid. Prompt: Sid's real owner wants Sid to stay home. His bed should be in a cage. Determine how large the floor of his cage should be to hold Sid, his bed and his two dishes (food and water). Draw and label the measurements of the floor. Find the perimeter and area. Write a note Sid's family convincing them that your cage is the one they should choose. Name Date Nine-Dinner Nate Problem: Nine-Dinner Nat had nine families. Each one lived in a different house. Every night, Nine-Dinner Nate enjoyed nine different dinners. How many meals did Nine-Dinner Nate eat . . . (Remember to show your work!) in one week? dinners in two weeks? dinners in three weeks? dinners in four weeks? dinners Write about how you got your answers. Literature in Mathematics Title: Ten Black Dots Author: Donald Crews Publisher: Scholastic Math Concepts / Topics: Geometry, Problem Solving, Addition Summary: Black dots are used to make pictures from 1-10. Connecting Activities Use chips or dot counters for children to manipulate and create their own number dot pictures. Have the children estimate and then problem solve to find the total number of black dots used in the book. Encourage children to use their own problem solving strategy. Have children explain which one they used. Extending Activities Make copy cat book using another color and shape(ten blue rectangles). How many dots would the teacher need to prepare for the whole class? Circle patterns: The teacher selects 2 colors for the class. Circles are cut so that each child will have one. Each child folds their circle and cuts them in half. Then the half circles are combined with others to create different patterns. Number sentences: Use two colors of dots or chips to create addition number sentences. Read additional selections about shapes as a topic. Literature in Mathematics Title: Ten Black Dots Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 1 on problem solving. 2. Grade 1 extension activities 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. 2. Math and Literature K-3...........................................................p. 19 Read any Good Math Lately?...................................................p. 51 Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: one Enabling Skill(s): 12-07 12-09 17-03 32-07 18-03 Materials: Demonstrate concretely addition and subtraction facts 0-10 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of sums/differences 0-10 Estimate the number of objects in a set as being greater than or less than ten Relate circle, square, triangle and rectangle to objects in the environment Vocabulary: circle, shape Ten Black Dots by Donald Crews Preparation: Development: Ten page books for each student 1. Circle Hunt-pairs find things in and outside of the classroom that have circles. (shirt buttons, clock, sprinklers, etc..) Students will draw and label objects and write the number of circles. Share with partners or class. 2. Read Ten Black Dots 3. Tell students they are going to make a copy cat book. How many dots will you need? Let students choose a strategy to solve this problem. Guide as needed. 4. Share strategies. 5. Students can make own copy cat books. Write a sentence on each page, if appropriate. this may take more than one day. Or do a class book using cooperative groups. Follow-up: Make "circle pictures" using paper circles. Students can use as many circles as they want. Write about the pictures. Literature in Mathematics Title: Ten Silly Sheep Author: Calvin Irons Publisher: Rigby Math Concepts / Topics: Subtraction Summary: The story is set on a farm where there are 10 sheep. On consecutive pages a different quantity of sheep run away until there are none left. Connecting Activities Use manipulatives to act out student created sheep stories Extending Activities Children create own book, Ten _________ different adjective and noun in teams. ___________, using a What will the farmer do when he wakes up? children create class story of what they think happens next. (This can be done in teams.) Create an addition book, instead of subtraction. (This can extend the farmer waking up and going to find his sheep.) Learn more about sheep, wool, or sheep farming. count be used in conjunction with a theme day. Match number words to number words in the story. Literature in Mathematics Title: Ten Silly Sheep Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for grade 1 on problem solving using strategies act it out and draw a picture. 2. Grade 1 extension activities 3. Sheep book page 4. Sheep page 5. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: 1 Enabling Skill(s): 12-09 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of sums/differences 0-10 12-07 Demonstrate concretely addition and subtraction facts 0-10. Materials: Ten Silly Sheep manipulatives(counters, beans, cotton balls) paper,crayons, pencil for each child wool Preparation: Students should have prior knowledge of subtraction. Teacher needs to make copies to use for follow-up. Suggested Homework:The children take turns taking home the class created book to share with their families. Development: This lesson uses the Before, During, and After strategy. Before: Have a piece of wool to pass around. What is this? Where did it come from? Discuss sheep and show cover of the book. Discuss the setting. During: Listen to what happens in the story. What is the farmer doing in the story? After: What happened to the sheep? What did you discover by reading this selection? Are we adding or subtracting in this story? Look at how the pages were created. What subtraction number sentences can we make using this story? Pass out manipulatives(counters, beans, cotton balls). Each child should receive 10. Students will use manipulatives to concretely show subtraction relating to the story. The children will be using the Act it Out strategy. For example, if the first page is used, children would use 10 manipulatives, take 2 away. A student would write10 on the board. How many ran away? The number 2 is written on the board. The teacher can then ask what sign needs to go in between the 10 and the 2(-). This number sentence shows subtraction. Children then draw a picture of what has taken place using X's on /'s to mark off those sheep who have jumped over the gate. Children than write a number sentence to correspond with their picture. Follow-up: Model on a chart or overhead how to create pages for our own Ten Silly Sheep book. Each pair of children will create their own page for the class book. Share pages after assembly in book form. Name silly ran away are left Draw a picture. Write a number sentence. Literature in Mathematics Title: What Comes in 2’s, 3’s, & 4’s Author: Suzanne Aker Publisher: Simon & Schuster Math Concepts / Topics: Introduction to multiplication as repeated addition, multiplication, skip counting Summary: Real life objects that typically come in 2’s (eyes), 3’s (silverware), 4’s (legs on a table) Connecting Activities • Use manipulatives to develop grade level skills, for example: • First grade: Create a train from unifix cubes using the counting pattern of two. • Second grade: Build two sets of 2. • Third grade: Show me 5 groups of 3. • Use 100’s chart to color in number patterns. Extending Activities • Create a copy cat book- choose other patterns. • Have teams create posters of other numbers or multiples. • Cut out pictures from magazines showing things in groups of 2,3,4. Literature in Mathematics Title: What Comes in 2’s, 3’s, and 4’s Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for level 4 2. Hundreds Chart 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Activities available in the following resources: 1. 2. Read any Good Math Lately?........................................ p. 97 Math and Literature K-3.............................................. p. 70 Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 4 12-03 17-03 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of multiplications facts to 12. Read, write, and discuss mathematics using appropriate language: multiple Materials: What Comes in 2’s, 3’s, and 4’s by Suzanne Aker chart paper chips/beans (enough for each student to eventually build an array with 96 chips in it) overhead or large hundreds chart for the teacher hundreds chart 1 per student book making materials (paper, markers) Preparation: Read over entire plan before beginning lesson. Gather materials. Suggested Homework: Look around the house for things that come in 2’s, 3’s or 4’s(5’s, 6’s, 7’s, 8’s,9’s etc.) Development: 1. Begin by brainstorming objects in our everyday lives that come in groups of twos, threes, and fours. Record responses on a chart listed on the overhead(see format below). What Comes In... 2’s 3’s 4’s 2. Let the children know that we will share the literature selection, and compare our list to the author’s. Share the selection. Have the children return to their seats and distribute hundreds charts and chips. For most students, remembering 6’s,7’s,8’s are a problem. The remainder of the lesson will be focusing on these multiples. 3. 4. 5. 6. Begin with the basic fact of 6x1. Have the children build an array of 6 chips in a row. Build this same array on the overhead. Label the array like this: 6 1 7. Then the students will mark this multiple of six with their crayon on the hundreds chart. Continue systematically with the next multiple of 6: 6x2. Have the children add another row of six chips to their initial row. Label the next row with a 2(hence building on the concept that the product of 6x2 is the next multiple in the series). 6 1 2 8. Have the students mark 12 with a crayon. Move on to the next multiple of 6. Build the row of another set of 6. Add onto the existing array. Mark off the number 18 on the chart. Continue systematically until an entire array of the multiples of six have been built(See below). Then have the students read off the multiples of 6, as you record on chart paper. 6 1 2 3 Build. Add on. Mark off 24 on chart. 4 5 6 7 8 9 9. Have students pair/share their definition of a multiple. Ask for each team to report their definitions and have class determine a common definition for multiple. 10. When the multiples of 6 are completed, move onto the multiples of 7, and then 8, following the same aforementioned series of steps. Depending upon your students and time frame, this may be accomplished in one class period or several. Follow-up: (at a later time) The children will create with a partner or a team a page for the class adaptation of “What Comes in 6’s, 7’s and 8’s.” The teacher and students may decide which medium to use (crayon, marker, cut out pictures, paint, stamps, etc.). Literature in Mathematics Title: What’s in the Cupboard? Author: Rosemary & Calvin Irons Publisher: Rigby Math Concepts / Topics: Addition Summary: A big book modeled after the nursery rhyme, Old Mother Hubbard. Each time the cupboard is opened,it is filled with sets of fun things that lend themselves to addition. Connecting Activities • Bring in real items from your cupboards to make sets and number sentences(cans, pasta boxes, cereal boxes,etc.). • Open a cupboard in the classroom and find sets to create number sentences. • In teams children make number sentences and copy pages from the book. • Discuss probability of keeping all of the things in the book in your cupboard. Why would you or would you not find these things in the cupboard? • Opposites, comparative words in the book. Extending Activities • Write a class book entitled, “What’s in the closet?” or “What’s in the toy box?” • Compare this Old Mother Hubbard to the one in the nursery rhyme. What is a like/ different about their cupboards? • Choose another rhyme to turn into a math activity. Let the children choose the rhyme and how to create a math story, book or rhyme with it. Literature in Mathematics Title: What’s in the Cupboard? Contents of this packet: 1. Grade 1 Lesson 2. Cupboard design 3. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 1 12-07 12-09 Materials: Demonstrate concretely addition and subtraction facts 0-10 Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations of sums/differences 0-10 Big Book: What's in the Cupboard? by Rosemary & Calvin Irons Brown construction paper pre-folded for cupboards Crayons, markers magazines(optional) Preparation: Prior exposure to addition would be recommended. Prepare brown paper with folds. Suggested Homework: Write and draw the sets for a number sentence in a cupboard in your house. Development: Before: Ask students what are some things that could be found in a cupboard in your house? List. Read Old Mother Hubbard to familiarize them with the rhyme. During: Listen for things found in the cupboard. Show the book. After: What was found in the cupboard? Any items like ours? What do you notice about the items found in the cupboard (adding two things together)? Can we make a number sentence for some of these sets? Choose a page or two to model how to turn them into number sentences( two big bones and three little bones, 2+3=5). Record these on the board. What could you put on your cupboard(refer to list generated)? Add to list Follow-up: The children will create their own "cupboards," and draw sets and write number sentences to go with the sets. Fold paper so that the doors fold in and open. (Optional):Magazine pictures could be used for sets. and display on the board. Share Cupboard Design Literature in Mathematics Title: “Band-Aids” from Where the Sidewalk Ends Author: Shel Silverstein Publisher: Harper Collins Publishers Math Concepts / Topics: Addition, problem solving Summary: A child has a series of band-aids all over his/her body. Connecting Activities Use real band-aids on a student to find how many band-aids are used in the poem. Use real band-aids on large front/back copies of bodies. Teams solve problem. (Paper cut out or children drawn band-aids could also be used.) Make band-aid glyphs. Extending Activities Children create own poem using other things on their bodies (chicken pox, mosquito bites, freckles, etc.) Design own band-aids. Children bring in band-aids from home. Use them to sort, graph. Literature in Mathematics Title: Where the Sidewalk Ends Contents of this packet: 1. Lesson Plan for level 1 for “Band-aid” addressing number sense and addition 2. Lesson Plan for level 3 for “Smart” addressing money 3. Band-aid Glyph master 4. Two Band-aid Glyph ideas 5. Front and back of girl for use with “Band-aid” 6. Literature in Mathematics Resource Bibliography Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 1 12-03 12-07 15-07 Materials: Use words zero through thirty-one Demonstrate concretely addition and subtraction facts 0-10 Use numbers in sequence and random through 99 "Band-aid" from Where the Sidewalk Ends "Band-aid" on chart or overhead band-aids (real or paper copies) copies of front and back of body (front and back of paper) Preparation: Put poem on chart or make overhead copy. Make copies for students of bodies, band-aid. Suggested Homework: Bring in a band-aid to use for sorting, graphing, etc. Development: Find a student in the room with a band-aid or wear one yourself. Discuss band-aids and their uses. Read Shel Silverstein's "Band-aid" from Where the Sidewalk Ends. How would we find out how many band-aids the child has on their body? List ideas. In teams, children choose a problem solving strategy and solve. Discuss ways the problem was solved. Discuss discrepancies in answers and how we can check. “Band-aid Glyph” • • Color sides of band-aid boy - red girl - purple Are you wearing a band-aid now? yes no • - Favorite sport soccer basketball gymnastics baseball swimming other • Color of eyes - color the center pad • Color of hair - draw lines on band-aid blond brown black red • Favorite lunch tacos 1 pizza 2 nuggets 4 spaghetti 5 packed 3 “Band-aid Glyph” • Color sides of band-aid boy - green girl - blue • Age - number of dots on band-aid • Number of brothers and sisters - number of stripes on bandaid • Favorite subject math 2+2=4 science • • language arts social studies Favorite type of book animal sports people science Are you wearing a band-aid now? yes no ABC Literature in Mathematics Title: “Smart” from Where the Sidewalk Ends Author: Shel Silverstein Publisher: Harper Collins Publishers Math Concepts / Topics: Number sense, addition, subtraction Summary: The poem tells the story of a boy who started with one dollar and made several exchanges for coins. Connecting Activities Use the poem as the basis for practicing money equivalencies (lesson included. Decimals using money. Fractional parts of a dollar. Extending Activities For each set of coins, find equivalent coin combinations. If the boy had five coins, what is the most money he could have? the least? Compare coins. List coin combinations for one dollar. Find sums to $10.00 and change to $1.00. Identify coins. (by touch in a bag, coin rubbing, etc.) Mathematics Lesson Plan Instructional Level: Enabling Skill(s): 3 12-03 13-13 25-09 Materials: Integrate concrete, pictorial, and symbolic representations for sums and differences Count change to $1.00 Write value of a set of coins from $.02 to $1.00 "Smart" from Where the Sidewalk Ends transparency of "Smart" money: coins and bills Preparation: Make a transparency of "Smart" Suggested Homework: Redesign quarter, nickel, dime, and penny basing size on value. Scale: 1 cm = 1 ¢. Development: Students read the poem and answer the question, "Did the boy get a good deal?" They may draw and/or write their explanation. Read the poem to the class. Have the students role-play the boy and characters. Record how much money was traded and received. Discuss the wrong assumptions the boy made: more coins = more money and Dad was proud. Determine how the poem would be different if the coins were bills. List the various denominations from #100 to $1. Have students rewrite the poem, replacing the coin amounts with bills. Again, students role-play and record the sequence of trades by drawing pictures and writing subtraction sentences. Discuss if the boy in the poem would rather have his height in dimes laid side by side or his height in stacked pennies.

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