Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security

Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security
administered by
Guidance for specifiers of
CCTV in security applications
S23 First published 2014 Version 01
The assistance of various partnering stakeholders in the preparation of this guide, in particular Jon Laws of The Lyndhurst
Consultancy, is gratefully acknowledged. Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v2.0.
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This document has been developed through
the RISCAuthority and published by the Fire
Protection Association (FPA). RISCAuthority
membership comprises a group of UK
insurers that actively support a number
of expert working groups developing
and promulgating best practice for the
protection of people, property, business
and the environment from loss due to fire
and other risks. The technical expertise for
this document has been provided by the
Technical Directorate of the FPA, external
consultants, and experts from the insurance
industry who together form the various
RISCAuthority Working Groups. Although
produced with insurer input it does not
(and is not intended to) represent a paninsurer perspective. Individual insurance
companies will have their own requirements
which may be different from or not reflected
in the content of this document.
The FPA has made extensive efforts to
check the accuracy of the information
and advice contained in this document
and it is believed to be accurate at the
time of printing. However, the FPA makes
no guarantee, representation or warranty
(express or implied) as to the accuracy or
completeness of any information or advice
contained in this document. All advice and
recommendations are presented in good
faith on the basis of information, knowledge
and technology as at the date of publication
of this document.
Without prejudice to the generality of the
foregoing, the FPA makes no guarantee,
representation or warranty (express or
implied) that this document considers all
systems, equipment and procedures or
state-of-the-art technologies current at the
date of this document.
Use of, or reliance upon, this document, or
any part of its content, is voluntary and is
at the user’s own risk. Anyone considering
using or implementing any recommendation
or advice within this document should rely
on his or her own personal judgement or, as
appropriate, seek the advice of a competent
professional and rely on that professional’s
advice. Nothing in this document replaces
or excludes (nor is intended to replace or
exclude), entirely or in part, mandatory and/
or legal requirements howsoever arising
(including without prejudice to the generality
of the foregoing any such requirements
for maintaining health and safety in
the workplace).
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or any part of it, or any use of, or reliance
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1Introduction ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
2Scope ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
3 Basics of CCTV systems ������������������������������������������������������������� 3
3.1Overview ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
3.2 Privacy issues��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
3.3 Potential roles and applications ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
3.4 Risk assessment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
3.5 Standards and industry codes������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
3.6 The Operational Requirement��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
3.7 The site survey������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7
3.8 Specifying systems – technical issues ������������������������������������������������������������������� 8
3.9 Temporary systems ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18
4 Detector-activated CCTV systems�����������������������������������������������19
4.1 Some typical uses of DA CCTV ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 20
4.2 What happens in the RVRC? ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21
4.3 The site survey����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23
4.4 Specifying the DA CCTV system ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23
4.5 Current BS 8418 issues ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25
5 All systems��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28
5.1 Completion/commissioning ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28
5.2 Documentation����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28
5.3 System management������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28
5.4 Service/maintenance ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
6 RISCAuthority guides containing additional guidance����������������� 29
7Glossary������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30
Appendix 1
Detectors designed for external use that may be used with CCTV
������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32
Appendix 2
Privacy issues����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34
Appendix 3
Regulatory framework and guides ��������������������������������������������� 37
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Summary of Key Points
This document has been developed through the RISCAuthority and published by the Fire Protection Association (FPA).
RISCAuthority membership comprises a group of UK insurers that actively support a number of expert working groups
developing and promulgating best practice for the protection of people, property, business and the environment from loss
due to fire and other risks. The table below summarises the key points of the document.
Need for clear rationale
• CCTV is a highly effective, flexible security solution which is usually more cost effective
than the equivalent level of security offered by on site security personnel but it is not
a panacea and there must be a persuasive rationale for its selection in favour of other,
more conventional, techniques.
Privacy dimension
• Unlike other solutions, privacy is an important issue demanding the close attention of
the system owner.
System requirements must be
clearly understood
• A decision to opt for CCTV should not be taken until it is determined through a
thorough risk assessment whether the system is to be monitored, if so by whom, the
nature of the response and whether images are to be recorded.
Technological advancement
• CCTV has made significant strides through digital technology with much improved
picture quality and, in particular, the ability to employ sophisticated image analysis.
Complexity and customer
• The technology has more complexity than traditional security measures and owners
would be well advised to be fully involved at the design and commissioning stages to
ensure that results, under all conditions, meet their expectations.
Detector-activated CCTV has
• Detector-activated CCTV systems monitored at a remote video response centre,
which are predicted to grow in popularity, allow intrusion to be detected and observed
without the need for continuous on site monitoring or expensive guarding.
Symbols used in this guide
Frequently asked
This guide describes closed circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance
system (VSS), technology and practice in security applications. Readers with limited technical
knowledge of the subject will benefit through gaining a better understanding of the subject
and the issues of relevance to customers and specifiers. In particular, specifiers should be
better equipped to recommend and specify systems with a sufficient grasp of the subject to
allow them to liaise and negotiate confidently with CCTV providers.
The guide sets out to provide an appreciation of all the elements of the subject felt to be of
most importance to a risk management advisor, an insurance surveyor or a reader with similar
objectives and level of knowledge (as contrasted with a specifier such as a CCTV consultant
responsible for designing a system in the fullest technical detail).
Since such a reader is likely to have a particular interest in the reliable detection of, and
intervention in, intrusion into a target area (a ‘secure area’) by persons intent on theft or
causing damage or disruption, the guide provides an in-depth look at detector-activated
CCTV (abbreviated to DA CCTV in this guide). However, the specifier of a DA CCTV system
needs to have an appreciation of the wide range of considerations applicable to all CCTV
systems and therefore, before DA CCTV systems are specifically dealt with, the guide first
explores some important basics of CCTV systems – those that need to be taken into account
when specifying and managing any/all types of CCTV applications.
Basics of CCTV systems
3.1 Overview
The main property that defines a CCTV system is that it is ‘closed’ – meaning the system
transmits signals to a pre-determined location rather than being ‘open’ and available to
anyone with a receiver (as in broadcast TV).
Understand and think about
the basics before taking a
decision to proceed
Thus, at a fundamental level, closed-circuit television is a means of providing images from a
television camera for viewing elsewhere via a dedicated transmission system.
In a security context an overt CCTV system’s basic purpose is to deter potential wrongdoers
and, if that fails, to facilitate an intervention and/or apprehend and prosecute offenders, even if
this is after the event. To achieve this there must be at least one camera, a transmission link, a
viewing screen (monitor) and/or recording device.
3.2 Privacy issues
Video images of individuals captured on systems at places to which the public have access,
eg in a public building or a street but also at such locations as a retailer or leisure facility, are
deemed ‘data’ as far as the Data Protection Act (DPA) is concerned. Operators of CCTV
need to observe the legally enforceable data protection principles in the DPA and reference
the Information Commissioner’s CCTV Code of Practice. These days they need also to
be familiar with the Surveillance Camera Code of Practice, developed by the Surveillance
Camera Commissioner as part of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012. The codes are similar
in the way they approach the key issues impacting privacy. Further information is provided in
Appendix 1.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
3.3 Potential roles and applications
Table 1 contains a few examples of how effective use is often made of CCTV, monitored both
on and off site. Certain of these applications (for example, where there is target property in the
open) may also be effectively protected by DA CCTV systems, described in detail in section 4,
where additional examples are suggested.
CCTV can be relatively expensive to install and maintain. It is technologically advanced and
may be a challenge to manage and operate successfully. With that in mind, the questions that
must always be asked are:
• is CCTV necessarily the best or only way forward?;
• what is it I need to see?;
• why do I need to see it?;
• do I need to be sure to see it as it happens?;
• who will observe the images and where?;
• what response is required to events observed?;
• who will make that response?; and
• do the images need to be captured on a recording device?
In arriving at a decision as to whether to pursue a CCTV solution, specifiers need to ensure
they thoroughly understand the security hazards being addressed and whether the case for
CCTV over competing solutions is clear. The tendency to see CCTV as being an ‘easy way
out’ or ‘the silver bullet’ must always be open to challenge.
There may be a strategy providing better and/or more cost effective protection using tried and
tested measures such as physical devices and barriers, premises intruder alarms, perimeter
barrier security, lighting, threat removal/reduction etc. These conventional solutions often
need to be considered in place of, or as adjuncts to, CCTV.
CCTV system function
Open (eg unfenced) site
Trespass, theft, vandalism, arson
Monitor behaviours and actions
Closed (eg fenced) site
Vandalism, arson, sabotage
Detect unauthorised/suspicious persons, observe
behaviours and actions
Premises interiors
Theft, dishonest staff, espionage, sabotage,
vandalism, arson
Inadequate access control
Observe compliance with secure procedures,
detect abuses such as ‘tailgating’ and wedging
open, facilitate admittance of legitimate visitors,
operate automatic number plate recognition
Sensitive secure operations
Hold up, personal attack, hostage taking,
extortion, disruption, espionage
Monitor for suspicious behaviour and potential
threats, display environment to subjects, monitor
dynamically upon operation of alarm device
Vulnerable personnel
Hold up, personal attack, hostage taking,
assault, stalking, interference, nuisance
Vulnerable/target asset
Theft, disfigurement, destruction, sabotage
Monitor behaviours and actions threatening the
asset(s), track attacker(s), monitor exits
Where automatic alarm
systems are installed
Inadequate information to validate an alert
as a confirmed alarm
Confirm activations with images
Table 1: Some typical uses of CCTV
3.4 Risk assessment
Carry out a thorough
risk assessment
• What are the values at
risk and/or consequences
of loss or damage or
exposure of intangibles
or persons?
• Determine the history
of security breaches,
methods of attack etc.
• Identify the means of
access/escape and ease
of removal of property.
• What is the level of natural
surveillance by occupiers?
• Are security guards
present when the premises
are otherwise unattended?
• What access do the public
have and when?
• Assess the character
and crime record of
the location/immediate
• What are the environmental
• What value is there in
the existing security
– eg strength of
perimeter barriers?
Again, the specifier must always have a credible rationale for the purpose of installing a
system. The objective of the whole system and each camera must be clear. An holistic
approach is needed, taking into account that all the elements of a system must be optimised
and harmonised to the defined security requirement – lighting, security of interconnections,
image handling and recording devices. CCTV technology is an excellent example of how the
results hang on the strength of the weakest link.
Before work on system design can start an analysis of the threats and hazards needs to
be completed. These need to be identified and assessed in terms of likelihood and impact.
This will allow a design to take shape tailored to the individual and unique requirements
of the location. The logical steps in risk assessment for CCTV will include those in the
adjacent panel. The conclusions of the risk assessment will inform a high level ‘Operational
Requirement’ (see section 3.6) and the final form of the system – subject also to the
application of any standard or code of practice.
3.5 Standards and industry codes
The national (BSI) standards for CCTV comprise a suite in the series BS EN 50132. This is
applicable to the use of CCTV for all security purposes except, (in the UK), the detectoractivated application, which has its own standard, BS 8418. The 50132 suite is incomplete
as this guide is prepared. There are also two standards dealing with the responsible
management and operation of CCTV, chiefly in a privacy context, and one addressing
recordings to be used in evidence. See appendix 3 for details of standards and guides.
For some years prior to the introduction of these standards specifiers could rely only on such
codes of practice as were published by inspection bodies. Currently these are the National
Security Inspectorate’s (NSI’s) NCP 104 Code of Practice for the Design, Installation and
Maintenance of CCTV Systems and the Security Systems and Alarm Inspection Board’s
(SSAIB’s) SS 2003 Code of Practice for Closed Circuit Television Systems. Conformance
with the contents of these codes can give the specifier and operator a degree of comfort that
good practice is being followed, particularly where there are currently gaps in standards or
uncertainty over their application.
At the time of preparation of this guide an IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
suite of standards in the 62676 series is awaiting adoption in Cenelec as replacements for
the EN 50132 suite. At some point in the foreseeable future therefore the applicable national
standards will be within a suite numbered 62676 rather than 50132. It is generally thought
that when the 62676 suite is confirmed as the replacement European standard its contents
will be essentially the same the 50132 series. If the specifier is referencing Part 1 System
Requirements, which sets the high level requirements, then the risk assessment will suggest
which of four grades the components should conform to. These grades reflect four risk levels
summarised as:
• Grade 1: low risk – there are no requirements for the level of protection and no restriction
on access;
• Grade 2: low to medium risk – low level of protection level and low restriction of access;
• Grade 3: medium to high risk – high protection level and high restriction of access; and
• Grade 4: high risk – very high level of protection and very high restriction of access.
These grades govern the security, integrity and resilience of a CCTV system in terms of,
for example, resistance to unauthorised interference, functionality, utility and quality (of
outputs). As a generalisation, specifiers will find that the requirements and recommendations
at grades 3 or 4 are more appropriate to significant or onerous security risks whilst those at
grades 1 and 2 are more appropriate to situations with a requirement merely for informing the
operator of non threatening conditions or events at the location.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
An important distinction between the BS/European CCTV standards and the BS/European
standards for intruder and hold-up alarm systems (I&HAS) is that, due to the need to tailor
CCTV to the widely variable circumstances of each location, the components, sub-systems
and functions of a CCTV system are permitted to have different security grades within the one
system. This complicates the risk assessment exercise and the application of any process for
the approval of systems, eg through a certification scheme.
For this reason, and because the whole field of CCTV is in a state of flux in the UK and
Europe, at present the certification schemes of the inspection bodies (NSI and SSAIB) do not
call for their approved installers to observe to the letter Part 1 System Requirements of either
series (although in their codes of practice they do ‘call up’ Part 7 (IEC 62676-4): Application
guidelines which gives recommendations and requirements for the selection, planning,
installation, commissioning, maintaining and testing of CCTV systems in security applications).
3.6 The Operational Requirement
It is important that a high level Operational Requirement be developed at an early stage.
For the sake of brevity, from this point and throughout the remainder of this guide, the term
Operational Requirement is abbreviated to ‘OR’.
The OR sets out an overview of the key objectives and operations of the proposed system. It is
good practice for the OR to open with a concise statement of the security challenge(s) facing
the site that the CCTV system is intended to address. It should thereafter consist of a number
of statements under headings that reflect the key issues governing the design of a potential
system. It should be concise and succinct. EN 50132 Part 7 (IEC 62676-4): Application
guidelines contains a comprehensive list of topics to be considered for inclusion in an OR.
No two cases will be the same and the exercise is a good discipline that crystallises the
goals and possible snags. It also has the benefit throughout the design stage of bringing
stakeholders back to the object of the exercise, as it is all too easy to be deflected.
With the aim of achieving consistency in the terminology used by the parties involved in the
crime prevention and CCTV sectors five categories of imaging objectives have been defined.
Use of these terms helps the system designer to understand the attributes of the CCTV image
that will be required to meet the objective. These are as follows:
1.Monitor and control: At this level of detail an observer can monitor the number, direction
and speed of movement of people across a wide area such as a car park.
2.Detect: The presence of a person in the field viewed is clear, eg in a space such as a yard
expected to be unattended.
3.Observe: Some characteristic details of the individual, such as distinctive clothing, can
be seen, eg to establish that smokers clustered at an exit appear to be staff rather than
4.Recognise: Viewers can say with a high degree of certainty whether or not an individual
shown is the same as someone they have seen before – as is necessary, for example, to
control access to the premises.
5.Identify: Picture quality and detail are sufficient to enable the identity to be established
beyond reasonable doubt as would be desirable for evidential purposes.
When these picture ‘standards’ were first introduced they used picture height benchmarks,
ie the percentage of the screen occupied by the target figure (currently assumed to be
1.7m tall). Today, the percentages for each benchmark are deemed to be:
• monitor and control: 5%;
• detect: 10%;
• observe: 25%;
• recognise: 50%; and
• identify: 100%.
Figure 1
Whilst this measure is less valid as an indicator today as a result of improved resolution in
some imaging technologies, the quality definitions themselves continue to be understood
and applied.
The use of these terms in the OR when setting objectives for the system is encouraged as
they will be understood and applied reliably by any competent, reputable CCTV company
(see Appendix 3: Regulatory framework and guides). For each task that the specifier wishes
the system to perform there should be a written objective, ideally employing these terms or
embodying them in performance standards tailored by the specifier. For example:
•‘detect individuals approaching the stores building’;
•‘recognise known individuals requesting admittance’.
Stretching a system beyond
its capabilities drastically
impairs results – use
recognised terminology
to establish system
performance to match the
Operational Requirement
In addition, and if anticipated at this stage, the OR needs to capture all the remaining factors
with which the system supplier and operator will need to become completely familiar. The
following are a few examples:
• period of observation – during what hours is the protection required?;
• site conditions – eg site lighting, special problems with weather etc;
• monitoring and image storage – where, and by whom, will the system be monitored and
• response/intervention – eg is a voice challenge via local loudspeaker required? Will
personnel be dispatched?
The influence on system design of these and other additional factors that might emerge will
become clearer, and can be refined, following the CCTV site survey.
3.7 The site survey
Assuming CCTV has been identified as a solution, or potential solution, the location may
need to be surveyed by the specifier (for a second time if necessary) specifically for CCTV
protection. The conventional security survey that preceded the CCTV survey will have
provided an overview of the physical risk, sources of threat and all relevant circumstances.
The location can then be re-examined to start to formulate a strategy for a CCTV scheme
of protection.
It is not essential to arrive at a final design at the survey stage but the specifier should at
least aim to be familiar with all the options for camera views, the selection of equipment and
its operation. Having reliable notes and a marked up plan will greatly assist evaluation of
proposals received subsequently from installers/consultants.
Ideally, sufficient information is recorded at this stage for the system provider to be able to
select suitable cameras, and camera positions, to capture the scene in the required level
of detail. The high level OR can be refined/fleshed out or revised during these activities as
necessary. For example, will it be necessary to monitor the entire site or just pinch points or
sensitive locations?
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
What function do you require the system to perform? There can be more than one
requirement for a given space and each may require description as the technical requirements
to meet each need may differ.
If the threats at the location could take different forms consider each scenario in turn. Will
targets be persons who may be stationary, walking, running or in a vehicle? What speeds
could be involved? Relate all the factors recognised during the survey to how a response
would be made.
Take account of
Environmental issues
topography, undulations in terrain, vegetation, growth of foliage over the year, position of the sun
season to season, particularly east/west at sunrise/sunset
reflection from laying water
wildlife, animal runs
local weather record, eg high wind, mist on moors, at coast, snow
configuration of structures, lines of sight, blind spots
property in open – where? does it move?
vehicles parked on site
Table 2
3.8 Specifying systems – technical issues
The overall quality of images obtained will depend upon the quality of the poorest element, be
it the camera, transmission system, viewing or storage (recording) system.
A CCTV system will normally include at least each of these:
1. camera (or cameras);
2. means of transmitting images between the camera(s) and designated location(s); and
3. viewing facilities at designated location(s).
Except for the most basic systems, control and/or recording equipment will also be necessary
to meet the OR.
There is a large body of ‘legacy systems’ in service, ie those using the original, analogue
CCTV technology – images represented by continuous variation in the amplitude (or some
other measure) of the electromagnetic wave energy generated inside the camera. Mainly
in the last 10 years however, analogue technology has been largely superseded by digital
technology and during this transition period a portion of the ‘legacy’ estate of CCTV
installations has formed into a third, hybrid, body of systems – originally analogue but now
with compatible digital elements, to ensure that analogue data can be converted into digital
data for better storage and recovery.
The development of corporate IT networks over local and wide area networks (LANs
and WANs) has provided a new infrastructure for the conveyance of CCTV to remote
observers. Network video systems may be connected to existing network infrastructure
or an independent parallel network dedicated to the CCTV system. However, it should be
borne in mind that video is greedy of bandwidth. The skills of the provider, eg in selection of
products and compression technology (see section 3.8.4), and the owner’s network experts
will be required if the data load and security issues are to be managed to the satisfaction of
the customer.
3.8.1 Camera technology
Key terminology
• What is ‘focal length’?
This has to do with the geometry
of the lens and camera sensor
which dictates whether the field
of view captured by the camera
is ‘normal’, (equating to the human
eye), ‘telephoto’, rendering higher
magnification and a narrower field
of view or ‘wide angle’ rendering
a lower magnification and a wider
field of view. A lens with a variable
field of view is a ‘zoom lens’.
• What is ‘depth of field’?
This is the distance over which
a target remains in focus when
moving towards or away from
the camera. As an object starts
to move outside the depth of
field, either when moving towards,
or away from, the camera, its
image will become progressively
more blurred.
• What is ‘resolution’?
The performance of a camera
in relation to the amount of
detail it resolves. This dictates
the ultimate quality and utility
of the image available to the
monitor and recorder, all other
factors being equal. In the CCTV
business, language such as, ‘high
resolution’ and ‘high definition’ is
freely bandied about but in fact
there are no CCTV standards
for what these manufacturers’
claims translate to in terms of
actual technical performance.
See HD cameras.
• What is ‘sensitivity’?
Denotes the performance of a
camera according to the amount
of light reflected from the scene.
As the light falls past the level
at which the camera produces
an acceptable picture, the
image becomes progressively
more grainy and ‘snowy’ until
no meaningful information is
available. However, there is no
consensus in the CCTV business
as to how these conditions should
be measured.
The device at the heart of a standard CCTV camera that captures the images presented
by the lens is a CCD (charge coupled device) or CMOS (complementary metal oxide
semiconductor) sensor. These convert the visible, infrared or thermal image into an electrical
signal. The electronics in the camera produce an output video signal for transmission or
viewing/recording in either analogue or, increasingly, digital form.
Analogue cameras
Analogue cameras generally provide a composite video signal, which is a scanned electrical
representation of the image with timing and brightness information encoded into the signal.
The timing is recovered at the monitor to synchronise the camera image with the monitor
display and so enable a steady image to be viewed or the entire signal is recorded on to a
video cassette recorder for later playback. Analogue cameras give acceptable results and
are cost effective but digital technology allows camera designers to build in features that
analogue technology cannot provide.
Digital cameras
In simple terms each picture cell (pixel) on the camera’s sensor is assigned a number, in binary
digit form, translating to the brightness (and colour, if applicable) levels of an image. The pixel
information representing the image is scanned and processed to remove unnecessary
information (to reduce network loading and storage requirements) and is then transmitted over
the network as a series of frames to the display and recording elements of the system.
This management of the video output allows the image to be ‘engineered’, enabling additional
information (metadata) to be added by the camera itself – for example, video motion detection
(see section and target tracking (see section Furthermore, in very low light
conditions, images can be enhanced inside the camera, affording better identification and
recognition performance. Advantage can also be taken of the ability to record footage inside
the camera (a fixed and/or removable memory card), known as edge recording, which thus,
when connected to a computer, arguably becomes a complete CCTV system in itself.
IP camera/network camera
An Internet Protocol camera, (IP camera or network camera), is a digital output camera
specifically designed to work over a network – often the internet. It achieves this through
having an on-board video server with its own IP address, capable of streaming the video.
Being a digital device it shares all the versatility of any digital camera with the additional
benefit of the ability to be set up and adjusted from a remote location and having
remote ‘maintenance’.
Furthermore, wired IP network cameras can be supplied with power over the LAN ethernet
(PoE), a technology that enables power to be provided to a network camera using the same
cable as that used for the network connection, thus eliminating the need for a mains power
supply at each camera location.
Another advantage of IP video surveillance carried over a larger user’s network is that the
IT department already has the necessary expertise for implementing and maintaining much
of the system. Since the cameras have IP addresses just like any other network device,
IP networking in principle adds value to the existing infrastructure of servers, switches
and cabling.
Monochrome and colour cameras
Both types are capable of broadly similar results and the benefits of colour pictures for image
recognition and analysis are obvious – the presence of colour information adds huge value to
the viewer’s knowledge and understanding of what is displayed. That said, the colour camera
is unavoidably less sensitive than the monochrome equivalent, giving mostly unacceptable
night time results unless good lighting is available. Unfortunately, unlike the monochrome
camera, the colour camera sensor is not sensitive to infrared (IR) light (see section 3.8.2).
However, switchable colour/mono cameras are available where only IR illumination is
acceptable at night, or necessary for covert surveillance.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
HD (high definition) cameras
Whilst there may be no actual industry standard in the CCTV business defining ‘high
definition’ as such, megapixel cameras of various, but increasing, resolution may be sourced
making very high quality images available where essential – for identification for example.
A state-of-the-art HD camera will be marketed as ‘1080p Full HD’, a device that is, in fact just
over 2 megapixels.
Figure 2: Dome camera
In addition to the higher resolution, these cameras allow wider angle images and the ability
to digitally zoom without an unacceptable loss of quality. The picture quality allows suppliers
to claim that a single camera with this resolution should be capable of viewing a wide area
where previously several standard cameras would have been needed. However HD cameras
are intrinsically less sensitive than standard cameras in that they require additional lighting to
achieve high quality images in marginal lighting and at night. It is particularly important in this
area to make every effort to verify manufacturers’ claims of performance.
Pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) cameras
PTZ cameras, also referred to as ‘functional cameras’ or ‘fully functional cameras’, can be
directed remotely by an operator. The camera may be moved in the horizontal (panning or
azimuth) and/or vertical (tilting or elevation) planes and, in addition, be adjusted for focal length
(zoom – ie to make the target view appear closer or further away with the consequence,
respectively, of narrowing or widening the angle of view). Most, but not all, functional cameras
perform all three functions (panning, tilting and zooming). Only one or two of the three
functions need be provided or operational if that would meet the requirement.
Traditional PTZ assemblies are still to be seen in operation but are being overtaken by the
dome type format. Slow panning speed (sometimes a few degrees per second) was a
severe limitation of early PTZ cameras. Depending on the age of the PTZ, quick and effective
movement of the camera was aggravated by the size and weight of the assembly, further
weighed down by the directional infrared (IR) lighting that older tube type cameras often had
to carry to cope with low light conditions.
Figure 3: Traditional PTZ
camera with on-board IR
The introduction of the chip (CCD sensor) into cameras significantly reduced their size and
weight. This allowed the speed and accuracy of PTZ cameras to be greatly increased.
Nowadays, fast dome PTZs pan at up to 500 degrees/second and are capable of continuous
rotation. At the same time, they can, if necessary, be ‘inched’ at extremely low speed
without vibration.
An important feature of the present day dome PTZ is the ability to programme the camera
to move to (or return to) pre-set views. In this way, the camera can pan, zoom in (or out) and
automatically refocus on locations identified as critical in the risk assessment and OR. This
can be under the command of the operator or when directed automatically through operation
of an intrusion alarm detector.
Alternatively, so called ‘auto tracking’ cameras are capable of monitoring the change of pixels
generated by the video chip. Pixel change due to movement within the field of view causes
the camera to capture the point of variation and move the camera so that the source is always
kept centred on the video chip. Electronics then optimise the size of pixel fluctuation as a
percentage of the view.
A PTZ camera with pre-sets may have a ‘home’ location as defined in the OR. The camera
may be programmed to automatically return to this ‘parked’ position pending a further
incident requiring repositioning.
Figure 4: If the OR is only
adequately met by having
constantly available fixed
views, static cameras must be
the choice
A PTZ camera can also be made to cycle through the pre-sets – holding at each position for
a programmed period of time. It may be argued that one programmed PTZ can be allowed
to take the place of a number of static cameras but, in practice, the results are invariably a
compromise because a PTZ can only look one way at a time.
For obvious reasons, unless measures are taken to mask or limit access to views that are not
legitimate for security monitoring, there is a greater risk of a privacy breach with a PTZ camera
than with a static camera. Specialised cameras
Low light cameras
Available light level will have a major influence on the choice of camera. In fact, most regular
cameras can operate at quite low levels, eg below lux levels generally considered as the
minimum for security observation. However if artificial light is limited, the camera and lens
will need to be selected for the worse case light environment, as it is the lens and the sensor
element in combination that determine the camera’s low light performance.
Figure 5: The observer might
‘recognise’ the individual
but, for practical purposes,
thermal images are unlikely to
meet an acceptable standard
for ‘identification’
In this context, artificial light does not necessarily include infrared sources, for which a
different camera selection needs to be made to match the infrared response of the sensor
to the lighting type. Enhanced sensitivity camera/lens combinations for low light (sub 1 lux)
can be expensive and it is normally more cost effective to provide lighting sufficient for use of
regular cameras. See also section 3.8.2.
Thermal cameras
Conventional cameras are unable to capture images in complete darkness. In common with
the ubiquitous PIR intruder alarm detector, thermal cameras exploit the fact that thermal
radiation is emitted from every object with a temperature above absolute zero. As with the
humble PIR device, the greater the temperature variation in the field of view, the better the
results, as the video image from the thermal camera will be clearer due to the greater contrast
between the subject and the background. Thermal cameras are compatible with video
analytics (see section, being insensitive to shadows, changing light conditions etc.
Visible lighting
technologies: how is
CCTV affected?
• tungsten and tungsten
halogen lamps give
excellent colour rendition
and start up immediately
on switch-on but are
not economic for
continuous use;
• most other types (gas
discharge lamps) suitable
for colour CCTV have a
start-up time of 1 to 12
minutes which prevents
their use by operators as
instantaneous sources;
• low pressure sodium
lamps (yellow light)
can be used only with
monochrome systems;
• lamps suitable for colour
systems include the metal
halide lamp, some types
of high pressure sodium
lamp and the white light
LED lamp (the state-ofthe-art lighting technology);
• vandal resistant lamps
and luminaires (light units)
are available.
Thermal cameras also perform better in difficult environments such as smoke or fog, or
where a target could be largely concealed, eg screened by vegetation or hiding in shadows.
The camera’s ability to detect thermal radiation makes it difficult for an intruder to escape
detection in a scene that may be too large for the observer of a conventional image to resolve
a target.
However the technology is not generally considered capable of performing ‘identification’ as
such, so its application lies mostly in that of ‘smart’ incursion detection.
Miniaturised cameras
The quality of images from these tiny colour cameras, measuring just a few millimetres across,
has made great strides in recent years and they find a wide variety of applications, some of
the better known being their use in endoscopes, covert surveillance and to capture the image
of an ATM user. Tiny cameras are also increasingly built into body worn cameras (especially
of interest to the police and fire authorities) and incorporated into spectacle frames with the
added benefit that the images match the actual scene being viewed by the wearer.
The miniaturised cameras, optics and high-power batteries developed for smartphones have
given impetus to this rapidly growing sector of video technology. Some versions allow remote
access to live video and GPS location information with obvious application for those working
in risky roles or where groups of individuals need to be coordinated.
3.8.2 Lighting Visible lighting
The qualities of the artificial lighting at the location govern the performance of the system
during twilight and overnight use. As with the human eye, lighting is the key to good vision.
As a basic principle, the more light, the better the results.
For a colour system, the lighting technology in use is as important as the quantity of light.
This is because the colour rendition of different lighting types varies. Often, the system must
be accommodated to existing lighting arrangements. It is vital that the specifier understands
the effects of different technologies on colour CCTV results, particularly where the types in
use are mixed.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Fortunately, this is not an issue for monochrome systems – they can live with all types of
lighting in common use and can operate with much less light than colour systems. For this
reason, so called ‘day/night cameras’ are frequently specified to meet the OR. These switch
from colour to monochrome operation when the light falls to a level at which a monochrome
camera, on balance, gives better results than a colour camera, albeit the absence of colour
detracts from the ability to interpret certain content in images.
Street lighting levels, around 5 lux, are satisfactory. Most cameras can operate with much
less. However, good lighting is a deterrent in its own right. Uneven lighting can actually
assist an intruder by providing light to work with and shadows to hide in. Scenes and
objects with low reflectance (dark walls, bitumen surfaces etc) will require more light than
reflective surfaces.
As a general principle the scenes to be viewed and the facades of the buildings should be
bathed in a good and even overall level of light. That way the intruder is ideally silhouetted
against the sides of the buildings. That said, and subject to light pollution control, additional
luminaires that face the expected direction of intrusion can have the effect of ‘blinding’ the
approaching intruder.
Figure 6: White LED illumination
allows high quality images from
colour cameras 24 hours a day
(courtesy GJD Manufacturing)
However, the propagation of light, both visible and infrared, is subject to the inverse square
law. This means that the intensity of the light is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance from the source. Thus, for example, a target double the distance from the light fitting
receives only a quarter of the light. Accordingly, wherever practicable, area lighting should be
as evenly distributed as possible. Some types of lighting (especially LED) have precise beam
patterns which cut off at the edges sharply. Care is therefore required with PTZ cameras that
all potential views will be illuminated without unlit borders. For fixed cameras it is vital that the
beam pattern matches the angle of the camera/lens set up.
Lighting can be switched on automatically by timer and/or photocell but the cheaper,
domestic self-contained PIR-activated light fittings can have erratic performance and are often
easily interfered with, so they should be avoided. Lighting must not be allowed to directly face
a camera to avoid ‘flaring’ (a haze in the picture around the light source, or across the whole
image, that degrades the information in the image).
For remote monitored systems linked to movement detectors, the lighting can be linked to the
system so that it switches on just before the camera (to allow the iris to settle before images
are transmitted) or the lighting can be operated from the monitoring point following activations. Infrared (IR) lighting
Figure 7: White LED lighting
switches on instantly (no start
up delay)
IR lighting is a practical solution where visible lighting would be unacceptable or covert
operation is required. Running costs are modest. IR lighting cannot be used in a colour
system and monochrome cameras need to be selected for their IR response. As with visible
light patterns the steep fall off in light intensity with distance from source can be countered
with distributed free-standing IR lamps attached to the buildings to give even, general area
lighting. Adverse weather effects can cause IR reflection and this should be taken into
account at system design and commissioning stages.
There are many cameras on sale with IR LED elements surrounding the camera lens for a
cost effective lighting solution. These cameras may suffer from the presence of insects which
may obscure the image and expert advice should be obtained before they are considered.
3.8.3 Detection
Figure 8: Infrared illuminator
(courtesy GJD Manufacturing)
In some circumstances the task(s) identified in the OR can be assisted if changes at the
protected location are automatically brought to the attention of the observer(s) through
automatic detection technology linked to the CCTV system; the most obvious example of
a change likely to require attention being the movement of objects or persons. It can be
arranged that an event involving significant movement is brought up on a monitor screen
hitherto dormant or showing a different view. It might also be made to register the change at
any image recording device included in the system, eg uprating the quality of the recording
for the duration of the event and ‘bookmarking’ the point on the recording at which the
event occurred.
Detection technology of the type designed for intruder alarm systems (typically the PIR)
may be used internally but, if used externally, it must be designed to withstand adverse
weather conditions and function with as few false activations as possible from environmental
factors. However there is a limit to how far the physics of the technology allows this and false
triggering from events occurring in the monitored zone of an exterior detector are inevitable.
As an alternative to the versions of intruder alarm detectors modified for external applications
the specifier may opt to explore the possibility of using Video Analytics and Video Motion
Detection which may (or may not) offer better false trigger rates although the challenges of
unwanted alerts are similar.
See Appendix 1 for a description of the detector types most frequently specified for external
use with a CCTV system.
(Note: the inclusion of event detection in a system does not, in itself, make it a detectoractivated CCTV (DA CCTV) system in terms of BS 8418: Installation and remote monitoring
of detector‑activated CCTV systems. Code of practice).
3.8.4 Control, processing and image storage
At the heart of most systems will be a Digital Video Recorder (DVR) – probably one expressly
designed for use with CCTV. The amount of video a DVR can store is of course limited to a
finite amount but capacities vary enormously between products and models. When the disc
is full the oldest material will be overwritten with new. As a result, a key factor for the specifier
to consider, taking account of the OR, is the capacity of the device. In addition, thought
should be given to the possibility that sequences will at some point need to be replicated
and taken off site, eg for use in a crime investigation and for this purpose inclusion of a DVD
writer or equivalent provision may be desirable. Useful advice is to be found in ‘UK Police
Requirements for Digital CCTV Systems’, which is available on the internet for download.
A further factor to consider at the outset is the image retention time deemed necessary as
this may have a bearing on the quality at which it is technically feasible to retain the images.
A period between 14 and 31 days is normally suitable (see EN 50132-7/draft IEC 62676-7 for
examples of how storage capacity can be calculated). See Appendix 2: Privacy Issues.
The specifier or user should understand the importance of challenging the system supplier
as to the quality of the images that can be expected when viewing recordings as compared
with the live images displayed on the monitor(s). If the supplier is relying excessively on a
compression process (see below) when calculating necessary storage capacity, the user
may find the recorded images unsatisfactory. It is important therefore to review the recorded
picture quality and compare it with the live view before signing off a new CCTV system.
Not only does such a DVR record the video from the cameras in a similar way to a home
DVR, it also functions as the device where inputs and outputs are configured, processed and
controlled. However the real time video signals from a number of cameras would soon fill
the drive of even a high capacity DVR and, before this is addressed by the system designer,
consideration needs to be given by both designer and customer as to the trade-offs that will
probably be inevitable if images need to be held over realistic timescales.
In reality most security CCTV systems do a perfectly effective job with some sacrifices made
in image content compared with say studio or broadcast quality television. This is because the
eye/brain combination does not detect, or disregards, subtle dislocations in scene changes or
tolerates modest deficits in picture quality, provided what remains on screen is unambiguous.
The following are the engineering options made available with CCTV equipment to control the
sheer volume of video data needed to display and record useable information:
Frame rate, sometimes referred to as ‘update rate’, is the rate at which each new complete
image is built on the monitor screen. In the UK and Europe, the standard frame rate of real
time broadcast television is 25 full frames per second (fps). The frame rate can be reduced
by a surprisingly large factor before the eye discerns unacceptable jerkiness. For example, in
most security applications, assuming a carefully placed camera and good quality equipment
are in use, a frame rate of a minimum of six frames per second may be acceptable where a
near-real time viewing rate is essential. If the target is likely to be fast moving, then a rate of,
say, 12 fps may be necessary. Either way, the saving in captured/stored data is obvious.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
A useful trick that will appeal in many insurance specified applications, where it is intrusion
rather than behaviours that must be captured, is to make use, where provided, of a recording
function that dynamically uprates an economical (low) frame rate to a high rate for a finite time
following activation of an alarm sensor.
Frame rate is not to be confused with ‘multiplexed/time lapse’, available where many cameras
are being recorded ‘simultaneously’ over very long recording periods. However, the relentless
growth in affordable video storage capacity results in less use being made of this expedient
but it may be an option provided the OR can still be met. The penalty is that when the time
gap between each complete new frame is progressively increased, there is a point at which
the information available quite clearly consists of separate still images and events will inevitably
be lost.
Compression denotes a range of techniques designed to reduce (compress) the amount of
data that need to be managed/retained for a given picture quality with the object of retaining
as much of the original information as possible and minimising loss of information such as
detail and colour. One method for example preserves information only when a change in the
scene occurs, removing redundant or repetitive information and thus permitting the essence
of what the camera is seeing to be captured for display, recording and/or transmission. There
will come a point however where an excessive degree of compression will undermine the
system’s fitness for purpose.
3.8.5 Local interconnections
The connections between the control and processing equipment and the cameras are
generally either a co-axial or twisted pair cable or short range radio or microwave link. Use
of the correct cabling and care in setting up are crucial to performance. On very large sites,
line amplifiers may be needed. Standard cameras need a local mains electricity supply.
Alternatively, cameras are available that run on low voltage DC conveyed by the same
multi-core cable that carries the video.
Unlike intruder alarm interconnections, unless special steps are taken, any failure of the video
line may go unrecognised by the system (see section 3.8.8).
Operations running their own LAN (Local Area Network)/Intranet have the option of using their
network for the CCTV installation via, usually these days, Cat 5 or 6 wiring. These connections
are capable of powering local devices such as IP cameras as can power over ethernet
(PoE) systems which carry electrical power along with data on ethernet cabling, even over
long distances.
3.8.6 Video transmission to a remote location
Subject to costs, medium distances might be bridged with radio, microwave, optical fibre or
possibly other point-to-point methods.
Long range transmission requires the services of public networks, high speed broadband
being the obvious solution. 3/4G cellular radio may need to be used in some applications and
also finds use as a back-up (secondary) transmission path.
Distributed organisations with outlying sites interconnected, usually via VPN (Virtual Private
network) IP connections through their own network, can allow local CCTV installations
around their branches to piggy-back on their network. The implications of network sharing,
bandwidth usage and infiltration need to be addressed and difficulties/compromises are
not uncommon.
3.8.7 Viewing images
The quality of the monitored image will be a limiting factor if it falls below the performance of
the remainder of the system. Consequently selection of adequately specified monitors plus
the form of display and the controls available are important. Ideally, the final selection of the
monitor(s) on which images are to be viewed at the location should be made only after a
representative selection of images has been displayed to site personnel for their assessment,
including images in all prevailing light conditions and any multi-camera presentations or
images subject to compression (see section 3.8.4) at the maximum rate that will be in use.
Figure 9: In practice, it is
unrealistic to expect the
continuous viewing of large
banks of screens to be effective
Reference to the OR will influence the equipment selected. What purposes does the system
serve? For instance:
• general surveillance;
• periodic, routine video patrolling;
• continuous observation of a critical location or object;
• observation in reaction to a specific event, eg access control, alarm condition;
• performance of other tasks when defined events are observed; and
• all, or a mixture, of these.
Monitoring an unchanging scene, or images requiring no action, for any length of time, is not
a task that a viewer can perform with any reliability. Equally, monitoring more than a few (say
five) screens, irrespective of what they show, is also stressful. The object is to sustain the
attention of the operator and minimise the risk of the operator missing events that the system
has been provided to report.
The size of the monitor should not be excessive, allowing for the display of multiple views
where applicable. All things being equal, a modestly sized monitor will seem to provide a
higher quality image than a large monitor. However, the size(s) of monitor(s) selected will hinge
on the task, the anticipated contents of the picture and the comfortable viewing distance,
which will be influenced by the ergonomics of the facility.
Systems are often purchased
without the full implications
of the demands made by the
need for effective monitoring
being recognised – what
value does the system have if
the monitoring arrangements
cannot be relied on?
A ‘dark screen’ policy, whereby an image is displayed only when, for example, unexpected
movement or an alarm condition has occurred, minimises operator fatigue and maximises
the chance of the desired response. However, in some cases a scene is so important that it
must be displayed continuously in which case it might be allowed its own dedicated monitor.
Similarly, it is a benefit to have a screen available for separately tracking live events, allowing
the other monitor(s) to continue to show their normal scenes.
Small, simple systems are frequently seen that use a video splitter or video switcher to display
more than one camera view on a single screen. A quad video splitter simply splits a single
screen into quarters allowing four cameras to be viewed/recorded simultaneously. Some
splitters allow up to nine cameras to be displayed on a single screen. If event/alarm inputs are
provided, a full screen image from the camera ‘in alarm’ can then be presented.
A video switcher can display each camera view for a fixed time in sequence before moving
to the next view, or views may be selected manually. By this means an overview of multiple
cameras can be maintained without each having to have its own monitor. The ‘dwell time’ (the
time a given camera view remains on screen) can be determined by the operator. If required,
alarm inputs can generally be added so that any scene in alarm will be presented and
sequencing will be suspended. Failing that, events occurring at a time that the particular view
is not on display are of course not observable. Sequencing can be maintained on a second
monitor if one is connected. The operator should be able to exercise control whereby the
display can be switched at will from one scene to another.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
For the larger installation, in which more flexibility is required so that cameras outputs may
be distributed in a wide range of permutations between various monitors and recording
facilities (each with its own sequencing, dwell time settings, multi-image display etc) more
sophisticated switching and video multiplexing is necessary. Many modern digital recording
systems have a ‘virtual matrix’ built into them, thus reducing the physical system complexity.
There will be an unavoidable reduction in the quality of results presented for each camera
view if many are displayed on a single screen but there might be case for doing this if eg the
views are related spatially or in the sense of a given crime scenario, in which case, being
able to observe fast moving developments, with minimum operator head/body movement,
could be an advantage. However, splitting a screen into more than say four pictures requires
careful assessment.
There are various ways the control equipment may interface with the operator; buttons,
joysticks, PC mouse, touch-screen etc.
3.8.8 Tamper/sabotage protection
The owner or system specifier needs to consider the possibility and impact of sabotage. It
might be suggested that, assuming the primary objective of the large investment in the system
is to address a security vulnerability, the system itself is at risk unless anti sabotage measures
are taken – mechanical protection and tamper detection. This should be integral to the risk
assessment process.
The need for the following should be considered and specified if necessary. Indeed,
according to Table 5 in EN 50132-1/draft IEC 62676-1: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance
systems for use in security applications. System requirements, none of the following will
necessarily be included by the system supplier, unless system grade 3 or 4 is specified and
they are specifically called for in the OR itself:
• tamper detection circuits to be included and should be continuously monitored;
• indication of tamper to be provided at the location and notified to a responsible party
beyond the location if transmission facilities have been provided or a connection can be
made to another notification system (eg an intruder alarm system);
• vulnerable components such as pluggable connectors, control equipment and recorders
should be located in a secure area or within tamper-monitored enclosure(s);
• if detectors are included (to alert the viewer to an incident) the housings containing their
power supplies should be equipped with tamper detection to detect opening through their
usual method of opening;
• tamper detection should be fitted to detect removal of cameras from their mountings and,
wherever practicable, orientation adjustment; and
• housings containing fitted cameras should be equipped with tamper detection to detect
opening through their usual method of opening.
In addition, table 5 of EN 50132-1/draft IEC 62676 Part 1 System Requirements requires
the following:
• at grade 2 and above: report video loss;
• at grade 3 and above: report change in the specified field of view and deliberate
camera masking; and
• at grade 4: report video substitution; significant reduction in contrast.
Note: At the time of preparation of this guide the inspectorate bodies (NSI and SSAIB) are not
requiring their installers to observe the requirements of EN 50132-1/draft IEC 62676 Part 1
System Requirements pending ongoing negotiations with stakeholders.
Equipment physically resistant to sabotage can be sourced if necessary to satisfy the risk
assessment. Vandal, even ballistics, resistant camera housings and luminaires are available.
Figure 10: Bosch MIC Series
440 explosion-protected PTZ
camera (picture courtesy
Bosch Security Systems UK)
To an extent, if a totally vandal-hardened installation is required, reliance must be placed on
the skill, ingenuity and motivation of the installer. For example EN 50132-7: Alarm systems
– CCTV surveillance systems for use in security applications. Application guidelines
(IEC 62676-4), calls for cameras to be installed in such a way that makes it ‘difficult’ for
an intruder to change the field of view, eg through installing in a ‘suitable’ location/height,
use of ‘appropriate’ physical mounting and by the use of security fixings. Interconnections
(eg cabling, antennae) should not be accessible so they are easily ‘torn off’. Clearly, if
sabotage is a critical factor, the closest possible liaison between the specifier and installer is
desirable for a satisfactory result.
Figure 11: Intrusion detection:
the operator delineates the
zones in which detection
is required
Figure 12: Here ADPRO
LoiterTrace© software has
alerted the operator to a loiterer
3.8.9 Video software applications Video motion detection (VMD)
Video Motion Detection is an electronic method of detecting any changes in the field of
view (or a selected part) of a camera by comparing each successive frame for differences in
content. There are various proprietary methods of filtering to improve discrimination between
objects/movement that need to be reported and sources of false alerts (eg division of the view
into cells and analysis of successive changes in adjacent cells implying concerted movement
across a scene) but the technology has moved on and evolved into what is referred to as
Video Analytics (see following section). Video analytics (VA)
This performs analysis on video information within selected zones in a more ‘intelligent’ way
than simply registering movement (see previous section). It is capable for example of detecting
loitering, eg persons, objects or vehicles remaining in an area for a suspicious time; removal
detection: detects when an object has been removed; unexpected/unwanted behaviour,
eg detects and tracks for the observer people or vehicles moving in the wrong direction,
erratically, excessively fast. Software is available that ‘learns’ the normal patterns of human
circulation in a street or park and thereby highlight and log behaviours of individuals who act
or move in unusual ways.
A powerful attribute is the ability to calculate position allowing a target to be tracked over
considerable distances via multiple cameras relative to a known layout. When employed with
an on, or off, site monitoring service, a high degree of confidence can be had in the veracity
of alerts. It is simple for this software to detect various camera tampering events including
video loss. This, or similar, software can also be programmed to react to the ‘signature’ of
This is a technology that is developing rapidly and caution should be exercised with regard to
manufacturers’ claims. Systems tested and certified to ‘i-LIDS’ are preferable. ‘i-LIDS’ or the
‘i-LIDS library’ is the government benchmark for VA systems, prepared for the Home Office by
the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CNPI).
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
17 Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR)
This application employs a form of optical character recognition (OCR) to capture the alphanumeric information on a vehicle licence plate. The vehicle can be illuminated with IR light
to allow operation in all light conditions. An image of the car and/or occupants may also be
stored. The application allows the index number to be looked up on a database so that,
for example, police can be alerted to vehicles of interest or a staff car park barrier can be
programmed to automatically allow access to authorised vehicles.
3.9 Temporary systems
The Surveillance Camera Commissioner has made it known that, in locations to which the
public has access, and where acute security threats arise that can be expected to abate if
circumstances change, he would prefer to see such a ‘hotspot’ monitored by a system that
can be readily dismantled (for deployment, as needed, elsewhere perhaps). Arguably, this
makes more intelligent use of equipment and avoids having to install a ‘permanent’ system
which may well remain in place long after the need for surveillance is no longer supported by
the threat. This is likely to be built into a future revision of the Commissioner’s Code of Practice
if and when it is extended from public authority/police systems to systems in general.
More generally, temporary CCTV designed for rapid deployment can be a suitable solution
to meet the security needs of construction sites, unoccupied buildings and similar short
term security challenges. A temporary CCTV product may simply consist of a single camera
mounted on a mast or attached to a surface or post. A more elaborate set-up can include
a camera with fully functional PTZ capability, audio challenge and IR lighting, all in the one
‘package’ linked, if required, to PIR detectors dispersed around the site. Images may be sent
for viewing and/or recording via an IP CCTV system over a telephone or a roaming type 3/4G
mobile phone connection.
Battery power can be included should no mains or locally generated electricity be available
or to cater for interruptions of the mains supply. Some products can even draw a supply from
wind and/or solar energy devices. An on board hard disc drive can also be included to store
full motion video, even to evidential quality standard, over long periods.
Such systems may allow a remote authorised person with a PC/laptop or mobile device to
take control of the camera and pan or zoom. This also allows a guarding service on site to
monitor sectors that might not be immediately in view at the assignment base. In either case,
they can be used to initiate the dispatch of a guard or commercial mobile security response
to the location. However it is important to understand that temporary systems, as described
here, do not conform to BS 8418 (detector-activated CCTV for which see Section 5) and do
not qualify for a police URN (unique reference number).
Detector-activated CCTV systems
Bridging the boundary separating conventional intruder alarm and CCTV systems, detectoractivated CCTV (DA CCTV) systems offer an adaptable solution to security exposures that
can be effectively addressed with automatic intrusion technology, yet demand the intervention
of a remote observer, and the exercise of judgement, before an event can be notified with
confidence as a ‘confirmed incident’ to the police (or other responding authority).
To be effective such systems need to be carefully designed, use suitable and reliable
equipment and be properly maintained and monitored. To help provide the framework in
which this can be achieved, such systems have their own specific UK Standard, BS 8418:
Installation and remote monitoring of detector‑activated CCTV systems. Code of
practice and separate, specific installer accreditation schemes run by NSI or SSAIB. It is
therefore important to establish at the start of this description of DA CCTV that, in the eyes of
the police authorities, a CCTV system only qualifies as a ‘detector-activated CCTV system’ per
se if it conforms to BS 8418. Consequently, for clarity, in this guide, references to DA CCTV
discuss systems that conform to that standard or, if not, deviate only on certain requirements
currently being challenged as part of a review of the standard underway at the time this guide
is in preparation (see section 4.5).
The following passages paraphrase the ‘Introduction’ in BS 8418: 2010 and, in a few words,
provide a profile of the key the parameters of this variant of CCTV:
• when a detection device (eg a movement detector) or camera function (eg VMD, see
section senses an event, images are transmitted to, and displayed at, a remote
video response centre (RVRC) – an operation providing a service equivalent to that provided
by an alarm receiving centre (ARC) for intruder alarm systems;
• prior to taking action, RVRC operators view these images for a period of time and take
action in accordance with an agreed ‘Response Plan’. An emergency police response is
only requested by the RVRC if there is positive evidence in these images of unauthorised
access to the secure area and of ‘actual criminal or other untoward activity’;
• the normal mode of operation for DA CCTV systems is not to display images at the RVRC
unless there has been an event in the secure area.
Making good use of the
audio challenge facility
nips crime in the bud and
prevents waste of police time
DA CCTV is a highly effective, flexible security solution relative to conventional security
measures, especially in situations where manned security would not be cost effective and/
or conventional security is difficult to apply or adapt. A typical application is where property
lies in the open, particularly where freely accessible, and thus exceptionally exposed to theft
and damage. In very high risk situations the technology provides an effective additional form
of protection in backing up traditional security solutions. The effectiveness of such systems
is enhanced by their ability to respond (especially via an ‘audio challenge’) to trespassers
detected and seen to be on site before they commit criminal acts.
A DA CCTV system is intended to monitor a ‘secure area’, ie an area within which a change
(such as movement) is detected using methods normally similar to those of an intruder alarm
system. Notification of this event, along with associated CCTV images, together amounting
to ‘an alert’, are transmitted over a transmission network to the RVRC. If, in the judgement of
the RVRC operator, a crime is underway, or seriously threatened, (elevating the ‘alert’ to an
‘incident’) the RVRC is entitled (for BS 8418 certificated systems protecting sites falling in the
police areas where the force awards unique reference numbers (URN) to DA CCTV systems)
to make direct contact with the police control room. A voice warning, audible in the secure
area, may also be played at the site (‘audio challenge’).
Figure 13: Camera with audio
challenge facility
Note that monitoring centres at which non certificated DA CCTV systems are terminated are
not permitted to contact the police control room using the privileged number reserved for
ARCs and RVRCs notifying activations from systems with URNs. Instead they are known,
controversially, to make 999 calls relying on the emergency operator to connect them through
the emergency service. This introduces delay and the risk that the call will be rejected as
coming from a Type B security system (cf ACPO Security Systems Policy).
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
In order to qualify for the police URN and level 1 (immediate) police response, a BS 8418
system must also conform to the ACPO policy. One aspect of this is that the police policy
requires the system to at least have the capability of audio challenge, even if it is decided
its use would be inappropriate. As with I&HAS the system must also be installed by a DA
CCTV installation company approved by a United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS)
listed inspection body, currently the NSI (National Security Inspectorate) and SSAIB (Security
Systems and Alarm Inspection Board).
Quite separately, the RVRC must be accredited by one or both of these bodies, each of which
maintains listings of approved companies that are available to customers. The customer
will normally have separate contracts with the BS 8418 CCTV installer and the BS 8418
RVRC (note that in principle a system using BS 8418, or similar, DA CCTV technology and
procedures may be monitored ‘in-house’ at a customer’s own monitoring operation but it
would not qualify as a BS 8418 system or be entitled to a police URN. To qualify it would have
to meet BS 8418 in all respects including being monitored by a RVRC as defined in BS 8418,
ie conforming to BS 5979, Category II). As this guide is being prepared a new standard,
BS 8591, destined to replace BS 5979 in respect of security systems other than I&HAS
(thus inclusive of CCTV in all its forms) is nearing readiness. During the transition stage the
police will provide URNs to systems terminating at RVRCs conforming either to BS 5979 or to
BS 8591.
It makes sense to have the
full benefit of the CCTV
system during business
hours but save on monitoring
costs at other times
through Detector-Activated
RVRCs are usually ‘third party’ businesses set up by independent operators or subsidiaries
of electronic security firms. The RVRC operation, or a subsidiary, may also contract with
the customer to install the DA CCTV on site but this is the exception. Thus, in most cases,
responsibility for the CCTV security service is split between the installer/maintainer and
the RVRC.
The RVRC normally has no involvement with the site unless/until the system is fully ‘set’ and
an event occurs – the triggering of an alarm device in the majority of cases. If agreed between
the owner and the RVRC, the RVRC operator may also be requested to ‘dial in’ periodically
to view the secure area. If required, the RVRC service can be extended to provide ancillary
services such as observing opening and closing of the system/site, access control etc.
Putting aside the RVRC functions, a DA CCTV system can usually also function as would any
other type of CCTV system, ie the system generally has monitor(s) and recording facilities
installed on site which are available for the use of the owner/appointed site security personnel
during times when the site is occupied. Increasingly, taking advantage of IP technology, users
are also able to view images remotely, eg on their home/laptop computers or mobile devices.
For the most part, these systems are used outside buildings and the equipment (cameras
and detectors) are manufactured to standards that tolerate the expected conditions. When
a detector is activated (eg by movement) images from one or more cameras, overseeing the
same part of the secure zone as the detection device, are sent over a link to the RVRC. For
many years following the introduction of the technology this link invariably took the form of
an ISDN telephone connection. However ISDN transmission technology has been overtaken
by systems carried on private/public networks employing IP and/or 3/4G cellular radio
(see section 4.4.2).
4.1 Some typical uses of DA CCTV
Typical uses are illustrated in the following table which superficially has a certain amount
in common with the table appearing earlier in this guide illustrating general applications.
However, in the majority of the incidents visualised below a clear distinction exists in that
observers are alerted and able to interpret what they see through the operation of automatic
detection rather than routine viewing, this being the key feature and benefit of DA CCTV.
Protection of moveable property
within a closed site, eg a walled
or fenced yard
Theft, vandalism, arson, sabotage
Capture images of trespasser(s) before they can
reach the property; evaluate situation and warn-off or
summon response
Site security/management within
a open site, ie where there is
free access (eg marina, school
grounds, car sales forecourt)
Theft, damage, nuisance, assault
Evaluate images when, due to the hour or the
behaviour/appearance of the ‘target(s)’, a security
breach could occur – manage situation remotely or
summon a response
Detection of unauthorised entry
into a building
Theft, vandalism, arson, sabotage,
espionage, assault, hold-up
Capture images of intruders attempting to enter, or
already inside, a building and summon response
Protection of fixed property
(eg roofing metal, cable)
Theft, damage
Detect the unauthorised approach to, or actual
interference with, target property; summon response
Object protection
(eg museum exhibit)
Theft, damage, defacement
Capture images of unwanted behaviour relative
to the object, evaluate situation and warn-off or
summon response
Visual confirmation of intruder
alarm signal
All of above
Use images to establish whether person(s) have
broken into the secure zone
Oversight or control of an event
(eg access control)
Exposed keyholders
Use images to manage a process, eg validating and
facilitating access whilst guarding against any lapse
in security
Table 3: Typical uses of DA CCTV
4.2 What happens in the RVRC?
When responding to an activation the RVRC must follow the actions set out in the ‘Response
Plan’ (see section 5.2). The following is a summary of the sequence of events for a typical setup. Some are requirements of BS 8418: 2010 (under revision as this guide is in preparation)
but equipment and practice varies and these operations are not necessarily supported at non
BS 8418 monitoring centres:
• an on-site detector triggers which causes the system to open a transmission path to the
RVRC and send live pictures from the associated camera;
• activations are classified to distinguish between ‘alerts’ (no positive evidence in images of
unauthorised access or criminal activity) and ‘incidents’ (activation where there is positive
evidence in images of conditions requiring an emergency response and/or of actual
criminal activity);
• there may be a delay between an event being detected and an activation occurring so that,
for example, if the activation coincides with a keyholder entering, any timed entry procedure
should be allowed to run its course;
• in addition to live pictures, the display shows, or allows ready access to, frozen images of
the scene at the moment the detector triggered and at pre-determined points immediately
following, or on a continuous ‘rolling buffer’ basis, allowing the operator to review footage
immediately before, during and post incident;
• to assist the operator to decide how to classify the activation (alert or incident) images prior
to the activation may be viewed from some or all of the zones;
• a ‘reference image’ will be available to the operator showing the scene in normal conditions
by day or night; for functional cameras with pre-sets, reference images are stored for each
of the pre-set positions;
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Figure 14: Example of an RVRC
operator’s screen: here the
ADPRO VideoCentral Platinum©
platform with VA in operation is
both detecting and tracing the
route of the target
• the operator may have to acknowledge the incident and may then move on to subsequent
alerts generated by other detectors and cameras;
• if there is a graphical mimic presentation of the site, an icon indicating the location of
previous alerts in the current monitoring session may be displayed;
• if the camera concerned has positioning functionality, the operator may change the field of
view or move to pre-set positions;
• the operator is free to display images from other cameras and adjust their fields of view if
applicable in order to track events;
• some RVRCs require or, through the software oblige, the operator to complete a tour of
every camera and pre-set view before moving on to deal with other incoming alerts but the
impact on the operator’s performance is an issue (see ‘Other activities’ below);
• if the images indicate that the RVRC needs to take action, the keyholder and/or a response
service and/or the police may be contacted (only a very small proportion of activations are
referred to police);
• alternatively or additionally, the RVRC may attempt to take control of the event through an
audio challenge facility – this allows the operator’s voice (or a pre-recorded challenge) to be
heard via a public address system at the site;
• the operator’s function may be to escalate the response in an agreed sequence – eg
switch on lights, instigate a low key warning, follow with a sterner warning, call keyholder
and call police if necessary;
Figure 15: Presentation on
the Smartphone of an owner,
site guard etc
• if no suspicious activities are seen by the operator, the response plan may require that other
cameras are checked before the connection is shut down;
• all received images are recorded (retention period agreed with the owner);
• all activations and key operator activities are logged; and
• during the night the CCTV system is accessed by a RVRC operator to check that the
artificial illumination allows clear images of each view.
Other activities
There may be an agreement that at prescribed times or intervals, the RVRC carries out a
routine ‘video patrol’ of the location.
The operator may have instructions to perform certain location management actions such
as admitting persons or vehicles to site when arriving at an entrance, observing cleaners,
monitoring plant etc.
However such services may not be offered by the RVRC due to the amount of time
that the operator is tied up on the task and the consequences for adequate attention to
incoming alerts.
4.3 The site survey
Increasing use of Video
Analytics in DA CCTV
systems holds huge potential
but also challenges RVRC
operators and owners to
agree response plans that
anticipate all eventualities
For the most part, the issues that specifiers must pay regard to are common to those
outlined in the site survey for a conventional system but with particular attention paid to the
strength and control of the perimeter and conditions and activities occurring at or beyond the
location over which the owner may or may not have control. An appreciation of all normal and
abnormal operations and movements will need to be acquired.
Certain other site conditions hold slightly different implications for DA CCTV:
• unstable structures: detectors as well as cameras need robust, vibration free mounts;
• sunlight is also a problem, not only when on the face of cameras but also PIR and
IR detectors;
• wind induced surface movement and reflections on laying water cause false triggering and
degraded images;
• wildlife, windblown waste etc are particular problems.
4.4 Specifying the DA CCTV system
A tailored OR should be drafted as with any CCTV system.
Unless embodied in the OR itself, some key features of the assignment should be added to
assist the bidding firm who will be unfamiliar with the issues. These might include:
• period of observation: eg daily between 21.00 and 08.00 and all Sundays/public holidays;
• location features: eg the site lighting will be in 100% operation during the monitored period;
there will be no vehicles in the customer parking area;
• locality issues: eg this site is exceptionally exposed to mists rolling in from the moor during
autumn and winter which frequently prevents the compound from being seen clearly;
• response required: eg intruder(s) are to be warned off via the audio challenge facility (note,
in some circumstances this may be subject to noise pollution legislation restrictions). Any
vehicle seen in the customer parking area should be regarded as suspicious. The operator
shall check the status of (at least) the yard gates and the performance car display apron
(wheel clamps in place; bollards raised?) via the pre-set views of these two scenes before
the connection is closed.
More knowledgeable and experienced specifiers will wish to submit an outline specification
entering into some detail as to matters such as camera and detector positions, lighting
and required responses. The specifier needs to remain flexible and open minded if viable,
alternative DA CCTV strategies are suggested.
4.4.1 Detectors for DA CCTV
The great majority of detectors in use in the DA CCTV application are purposed-designed
exterior-use rated versions of I&HAS detectors familiar in internal applications – particularly
the PIR which has proved the most cost effective and versatile. Software based detection,
often built into the camera itself, consists of video motion detection (abbreviated to VMD),
perhaps as a basic component of a much more sophisticated video analytics (VA) package
(see section but, up to the present time, these technologies have been unpopular with
RVRCs (unless paired in parallel with conventional detectors) due to false triggering.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Figure 16: Incorrectly positioned detector with an extended area of coverage
3.area of coverage not within the cameras field of view
Note: this can result either in unwanted activations, or in genuine activations that cannot be viewed by
the respective camera
Figure 17: Multiple cameras correctly positioned to view the area of coverage of the detector
In positioning a detector, the first, and most important, principle is that the detector’s field of
operation (sensitivity to movement) must not extend beyond the field of view of the associated
CCTV camera(s). It must be established that activity elsewhere, either within, or outside,
the site will not be picked up by the device. If necessary, dual technology, and/or detectors
configured for sequential operation, can be resorted to.
In Figure 16 (from BS 8418: 2010) the zone (3) below the camera can be the source of
activations but cannot be viewed by the camera. In Figure 17 the RVRC operator has the
ability to establish the cause of an activation by viewing camera 1 and/or camera 2.
Best results are obtained if detection zones in the secure area are of limited size and well
within the range capability of the unit thus increasing the chance of detection and minimising
false triggering. The position should be selected for optimum response (normally) across
the plane of the detection field and the environmental factors mentioned above need to be
considered before siting is finalised.
See Appendix 1 for a description of the detector types most frequently specified for external
use with a CCTV system.
4.4.2 DA CCTV transmission
The transmission (remote signalling) technology in use for the most part at the present time,
employs IP over a fixed broadband line to signal (send) information to the RVRC. Ideally a
dual path transmission system should be provided, both paths of which should be capable of
transmitting images to the RVRC, and because of their importance to the overall effectiveness
of a DA CCTV system, such transmission systems should include suitable self monitoring for
The reporting requirements are unclear at present but, as this guide is being prepared,
BS 8418 is undergoing revision and the clause dealing with ‘communication integrity’
(currently 4.5.9) is sure to be clarified.
Leaving aside what BS 8418 may have to say on this matter, specifiers can have more
confidence in the efficacy of the transmission link between the DA CCTV system and the
RVRC if it is known to incorporate one of the proprietary (intruder) alarm transmission systems
(ATS) operating at ATS 5 (grade 4) performance level, ie one with 3 minute fault reporting.
For the higher security system at least, dual path signalling with fault reporting at 3 minutes
on both paths would be consistent with the superior resilience demanded of the system itself.
In any case, given the importance of this link in the resilience/security of the overall system,
ATS that have third party certification to a relevant standard, eg LPS 1277 3.0, are likely to
be preferable.
4.5 Current BS 8418 issues
BS 8418 is the only available British Standard or code for DA CCTV. Neither inspectorate body
maintains a code specifically dealing with this technology at present although the inspectorate
bodies apply their CCTV Codes of Practice to this sector (NSI: NCP 104 Code of Practice
for the Design, Installation and Maintenance of CCTV Systems; SSAIB: SS 2003 Code
of Practice for Closed Circuit Television Systems).
The security industry say they find some requirements in the current edition of BS 8418
so onerous and/or impracticable that they rarely quote for a BS 8418 conforming system
and, as a result, very few certificated systems exist in the field. Not only does this have the
consequence that specifiers cannot ask for a BS 8418 system with full confidence that
the customer will be offered such a quotation, but those DA CCTV systems that are being
installed (and in reasonable volumes at this time) are, to a significant extent, being installed to
no particular standards whatsoever, leaving any interested party with no assurance that the
system is in any way fit for purpose.
That said, some NSI/SSAIB installers have achieved accreditation to the standard and can
be identified from those inspectorate organisations’ websites – as each maintains a separate
listing of companies authorised to issue the appropriate BS 8418 certificates.
Putting aside the issue of transmission systems, the rump of the CCTV industry difficulties
with BS 8418 revolve around clauses dealing with tamper detection and power supplies. The
table over the page contains reference to the clauses that appear to cause the most difficulty
and commentary on the impact a relaxation may have on security. It also examines in each
case the potential consequences of relaxation.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
As this guide is being prepared, the responsible BSI committee is in the process of reviewing
BS 8418: 2010 in a way that allows systems to be more cost effective whilst possibly allowing
certain of the more onerous requirements to remain available for high security applications.
The relaxations in the column headed ‘Possible relaxation’ are currently under discussion
although it will not be known until the publication of the revised document whether these (or a
different solution) are adopted. Meanwhile in the interests of benefiting from robust DA CCTV
technology it is of course open to specifiers to selectively entertain proposals for systems with
these relaxations but which comply with BS 8418: 2010 in all other respects.
Practical issues
Possible relaxation
Potential impact of
4.5.6. detector tamper
detection: detection of
only available in the higher
graded detection devices
make optional
detector(s) could be masked
during an unset period f) camera tamper
detection: removal of camera
few dome cameras have this
make optional
camera(s) could be moved;
view changed or lost
4.5.12 power supplies: UPS
high cost of UPS
30 minutes battery standby
for signalling only
system is disabled if power
cannot be restored quickly
Table 4: Potential relaxations in requirements of BS 8418: 2010
Specifier’s checklist for new DA CCTV systems
The following will need to be addressed for all systems:
• Specify that the system conforms to BS 8418: 2010 (subject to any agreed dispensations –
see section 4.5 and ‘Potential relaxations in requirements of BS 8418: 2010’ above) and, if
the best possible police response is to be assured, that a URN is obtained.
• Check that the codes published by the Information Commissioner and Surveillance Camera
Commissioner will be observed.
• Agree the operational requirement (OR); what is the purpose of the system, for example, the
detection of intruders or the recognition of individuals (eg to manage access to the site)?
• Ensure that the installer and RVRC agree a tailored Response Plan with the owner/user: ie
determine the action to be taken by the RVRC upon receipt of an activation with reference
to the behaviour/actions of a human target, whether day/night, site open or closed, where
there is no identifiable cause of activation and in the event of faults and failures including
communication failures and problems with artificial lighting.
• Agree the activities/behaviours that are to be regarded as suspicious/innocuous, what form
intervention should take and who is to be informed: police/guarding service/owner/user/
• Consider including an audio challenge facility (mandatory for systems with a police URN)
and implement if necessary.
• Establish whether the RVRC should be briefed on the nature of any legitimate and
authorised activity that takes place in the secure area when the system is set.
• Ensure a suitable contract for service and maintenance is agreed.
At least some, if not all, of the following will also need to be considered, failing which their
treatment may default to minimum industry standards or the standard practice of the installer
and/or RVRC:
• determine how the system is to be set and unset. That is, from outside the secure area (the
process must be within the field of view of a camera); from inside the secure area (a ‘safe’
access route will be required that is as short as practicable to minimise the unavoidable
security compromises); through use of an automatic timer (this inevitably means that the
premises are left without protection for a time each day) or under the control of the RVRC;
• consider what camera views are required to meet the OR. Have site conditions and
topography been taken into account? Consider whether it would be desirable to specify the
actual camera and associated detector locations/positions;
• ensure that each camera and its associated detection device share the same field of view
with detector ‘leakage’ minimised;
• do the type and performance of associated detection devices or software need to be
specified (eg is linear as opposed to a volumetric detection preferred; should there be
supplementary video analytics)?;
• consider whether the demands of the OR suggest that the use of high definition technology
may be required;
• if applicable specify which views are to be made the pre-set positions of any functional
(eg PTZ) camera(s);
• check that pre-activation recordings are to be viewed;
• establish whether the artificial illumination at the site requires change or improvement
and whether use must be made of IR illumination in conjunction with IR sensitive
camera technology;
Shortlisting a reputable
installer with good
experience of DA CCTV
systems should ensure
that specifiers and owners
receive skilled guidance
• specify the degree of resilience required for the system power supply, eg should there be a
UPS? Does some or all of the site lighting also need to be backed up?;
• explore whether the owner/user needs or wishes to have access to the system via their own
computer or mobile device (if this feature is made available by the equipment/RVRC);
• on a larger or more complicated site, assess whether the RVRC operator should have the
benefit of a graphical mimic presentation of site layout depicting activations as they occur;
• indicate whether the operator is to complete a ‘camera tour’, ie the inspection of all
or selected camera views (including pre-set views?) before the RVRC shuts down an
alert condition;
• consider what would constitute significant changes at the site as noted by the RVRC
operator (eg presence of unexpected vehicle or object, whether or not impeding views) and
what action should follow;
• agree the rate of false triggering before a detector may be ‘omitted’ (as defined in
BS 8418: 2010) by the RVRC;
• specify the frequency of checks for picture degradation, eg through comparison of stored
reference images with current images;
• state whether the site is to be checked periodically by the RVRC operator and if so with
what frequency;
• indicate the required/preferred transmission system (network/signalling products, services
and responsibilities;
• agree the retention period to be set for images stored at the RVRC; and
• ensure that as part of the handover, and prior to acceptance of the system, key
stakeholders (eg specifier, owner, user, keyholder) will receive training in the use of the
system and have demonstrated to them, both during the day and at night, each camera
image, including pre-sets, the video quality of recorded images etc.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
All systems
5.1 Completion/commissioning
On completion, the system is commissioned by the installer and then demonstrated and
handed over to the customer. If the system is to operate at night the quality of the pictures
must be assessed in night time as well as daytime conditions. The installer should ensure
that the picture from each camera is acceptable to the customer, and meets the OR, through
use of an industry test target such as those provided by the Centre for Applied Science and
Technology (CAST). At this point a reference recording should be taken of each scene and
retained by the customer. Each element of the system should be tested and the customer
trained in its use.
For a DA CCTV system the process will of course extend to a full walk test plus a check on
the conformity of detection areas and fields of view of associated cameras plus a test that the
image quality generated via available transmission paths is acceptable.
Figure 18: Unacceptable:
the subject is strongly
backlit and the camera
needs to be repositioned
5.2 Documentation
At handover, in accordance with EN 50132-7: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance systems
for use in security applications. Application guidelines (IEC 62676-4), specified
documents, including the following, will be supplied:
• the original risk assessment, OR and design specification;
• site plan marked up with the fields covered by the detectors (if any) and cameras;
• system drawings, test results;
• maintenance contract/schedule;
• remote surveillance service contract (if applicable);
• operating instructions, manuals and logbook;
• commission certificate and reference images.
The customer may also be able to purchase from the installer a suitable Data Protection
documentation kit containing model forms, leaflets, logs and a compliance manual.
A similar and expanded set of documentation must be prepared in order to comply with
NSI Code of Practice NCP 104 or SSAIB SS 2003 Code of Practice for Closed Circuit
Television Systems if, respectively, the installer is a CCTV company approved as a NACOSS
Gold or Systems Silver installer or a SSAIB approved CCTV installer.
For a DA CCTV system the documents will include the agreed response plan which should be
checked for acceptable procedures for dealing with detector omission and detector isolation
as well as routine RVRC operator procedures.
5.3 System management
Figure 19: A test target
(courtesy of Tavcom
The owner should regularly check the performance of the system between service calls,
reviewing each camera view in turn. Deterioration in performance is inevitable unless routine
checks are made and failings rectified. A written record of faults must be maintained in the
logbook or a dedicated fault reporting log. In particular the quality and the field of view of each
camera should be checked to confirm that the OR is still being met, that changes in the scene
such as foliage growth, parked vehicles, new structures etc are not interfering with results and
that lighting is being maintained at the correct level.
5.4 Service/maintenance
Responsibly operated CCTV systems, and those required to be in operation as a condition of
insurance, will normally be required to have the benefit of a contract for preventative/corrective
maintenance. The standards and codes of practice in operation in the UK do not currently
contain recommendations or mandatory requirements for the time allowed for a corrective
maintenance engineer to attend, or for the interval between preventive maintenance visits,
as the actual location, size and complexity of the installation will influence the terms of these
services negotiated with the CCTV company. The components of systems in the open and
the equipment supporting them such as detectors and lighting are significantly exposed to
deterioration unless frequently checked and maintained. (As a rule of thumb there might be
a reasonable expectation that a complex, high security system, vital to the location’s security
strategy, should have maintenance services at least on a par with the standard required for
remote signalling intruder alarm systems, ie 6 monthly preventative maintenance and 4-hour
call out).
NSI NACOSS Gold and Systems Silver approved companies must comply with the NSI
Code of Practice NCP 104 and BS EN 50132 part 7 Application guidelines or, for DA CCTV
systems, BS 8418 or NCP 104 and part 7 of BS EN 50132. SSAIB approved companies must
comply with SS 2003 Code of practice for closed circuit television systems and part 7 of
BS EN 50132 for all types of CCTV system.
The inspectorates are actively examining whether they should publish Codes of Practice
specifically for DA CCTV systems, particularly as there is an expectation that a revised
BS 8418 will encourage the take up of such systems, and if they proceed, more specific/
exacting guidance on DA CCTV maintenance can be expected.
RISCAuthority guides containing additional guidance
The following documents, chiefly dealing with Intruder and hold-up alarm systems (I&HAS),
contain additional information of relevance to specifiers of CCTV:
S2: Alarm signalling using the Internet Protocol Part 1 – An overview;
S4: The selection and use of electronic security systems in empty buildings;
S6: Electronic security systems: guidance on keyholder selection and duties;
S9: Intrusion and hold-up alarm systems (I&HAS): considerations for installers and
other stakeholders;
S12: Police response intruder alarm systems: ten-step guide for purchasers;
S14: Police response intruder alarm systems: summary of insurers’ typical
S15: Guidance on evaluating the performance of alarm transmission systems for use
with intrusion and hold-up alarm systems;
S17: Intrusion and hold-up alarm systems: guidance on event processing and handling;
S20: Essential principles for the protection of property.
These documents may be downloaded free of charge from the website:
Available to RISCAuthority members:
RI9: Report to insurers: Intrusion alarm signalling using the internet protocol
(note: this document accompanies, and is a development of, document S2 above).
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
3G (third generation mobile phone mobile communication standard): successor
to 2G GSM/GPRS (the de facto global standards for digital mobile/packet-switched
communications), fast mobile (cellphone) communication allowing higher rates of video
transmission than 2G and currently available in most UK urban locations.
4G (fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communication technology standards):
successor to 3G, very fast mobile (cellphone) communication allowing much higher rates of
video transmission than 3G but not yet widely available in UK.
ACPO: Association of Chief Police Officers of England, Wales & Northern Ireland.
Analogue (signal): a method or representing (in this context) video information using
continuously varying (eg) voltage (as distinct from a digital signal which is represented by a
finite number of distinct values).
Bandwidth: the range of frequencies over which a circuit or electronic system functions
with defined signal loss; the equivalent measure for a digital circuit would be expressed in
bits per second.
Cat (category) 5 cable: a ‘twisted pair’ cable, usually used in buildings, carrying computer
network (eg ethernet) signals.
CCD: charge coupled device; the sensor (or imaging) device in a modern camera that
converts electrical charge into a digital value.
CMOS: complementary metal oxide semiconductor; camera sensor.
Depth of field: the distance, measured from the camera, over which the image is in focus.
DA CCTV: detector-activated CCTV system/technology.
Digital (signal): discontinuous representations of (in this context) video information through
employment of discrete numbers (as opposed to the continuously variable signal of an
analogue signal).
Dome camera: a camera mounted inside a transparent dome through which the camera can
be seen or may be concealed; the camera may be of the fixed or PTZ type.
DVD: digital versatile disc; an optical medium that stores digital information by the reflection or
scattering of laser light.
DVR: digital video recorder; a device that processes, encodes and records video signals
in a digital format to a disk drive, flash drive, memory card, DVD or other mass storage
device (replaced the VCR (video cassette recorder), as the popular method of storing video);
see also NVR.
Field of view (also, angle of view): the extent of the scene captured by the camera within
the horizontal and vertical limits of usable video information (the angle of view defines the
scene in the horizontal plane alone).
Frame: a composition of lines that make one TV frame (a standard TV picture requires display
of 25 frames/second).
Focal length: a measure of the distance between the lens and image sensor that denotes the
angle of view.
Functional camera: (see PTZ camera).
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission.
I&HAS: intruder and hold-up alarm system(s).
IR light: infrared light, invisible to the human eye.
ISDN: integrated services digital network; a digital data service over a public network
(no longer available) which (latterly) featured two channels each of 64 kilobits per second
(kbps; ie thousand bits per second), giving a total of 128kbps.
ISP: internet service provider; an organisation offering access to the internet.
LAN: local area network; a short distance data communications network (typically within a
building or campus) used to link together computers and peripheral devices.
Lens: an optical device for focussing a desired scene onto the imaging device in a
CCTV camera.
Lux: unit of light for measuring illumination (the illumination of a surface when luminous flux of
1 lumen falls on an area of 1m2).
Matrix: a mathematical array; a logical network configured in a rectangular array of
intersections of input/output channels.
Microwave: a form of higher frequency electromagnetic radiation which, for the purpose of
this guide, is most often associated with microwave beams used as detection devices (usually
externally) or point-to-point (line of sight) communication links.
Modem: (MOdulator/DEModulator); connects a device (eg a processor in alarm control
equipment) via an audio channel communications link to another device with a modem,
converting digital signals to audio tones.
Monitor: the device (a screen) that displays video images.
Monochrome: black-and-white video; a video signal that represents the brightness values in
the picture, but not the colour values.
NVR: network video recorder; unlike a DVR, the video recorded on a NVR has been
processed at each camera then streamed to the NVR for storage or remote viewing.
Optical character recognition (OCR): conversion into machine-encoded text of scanned
images of (in context of number plate recognition) alpha/numeric characters.
Optical fibre: a technology designed to transmit signals in the form of light.
PIR: passive infrared (detector).
Pixel: (picture element); the smallest element of a video image.
PSTN: public switched telephone network, ie the public telephone service – capable of
carrying digital information only at the relatively slow rate of a modem.
PTZ camera (pan/tilt/zoom camera): a camera carrying a motorised zoom lens which
allows remote control of the focal length, mounted on a motorised assembly which allows the
camera to be moved in both horizontal and vertical planes. These cameras can usually be
programmed to move on command to pre-set positions selected as part of a viewing strategy
in the event of an alert.
Quad video splitter: equipment that simultaneously displays four images from four separate
sources on a single monitor, each occupying a quadrant of the screen.
Remote video response centre (RVRC): a continuously manned operation receiving
multiple, concurrent CCTV images from remote locations for the purpose of interacting with
sites to provide security and related services (BS 8418).
Refresh rate: this term is usually used to refer to the rate at which the image is updated when
image compression is in operation or in systems working other than in real time, eg time lapse
Resolution: resolution is the term used in television to describe the performance of a camera
in terms of the amount of detailed it resolves (ie reveals).
Sensitivity: a term used to denote the performance of a camera according to the amount of
light reflected from the scene.
Secure area: area within the protected premises in which unauthorised access or attempted
unauthorised access is intended to be detected (BS 8418).
Telephoto lens: a lens that makes distant objects appear magnified (through having a focal
length longer than the physical length of the lens), not to be confused with a zoom lens.
UPS: uninterruptible power aupply; power supplies used (usually high security systems) to
back-up the system when the mains power fails.
Video motion detection (VMD): a method of detecting a change in the video image, or a
given part of it, for the purpose of detecting movement.
Zoom lens: a lens that can vary the focal length while keeping the object in focus, giving
an impression of coming closer to, or receding from, an object (if the focus changes with
magnification, it is more correctly a ‘varifocal’ lens).
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Appendix 1
Detectors designed for external use that may be used with CCTV
The following are the types of detector most often selected to support a CCTV system or to
form the detection element of a DA CCTV system. Each has its own qualities and strengths as
briefly described:
Passive infrared (PIR)
Essentially similar in design and operation to the familiar internal PIR unit but suitably
‘ruggedised’ with case and electronic components selected for their ability to withstand the
harsher conditions experienced in the open. As with internal versions, they are available with
wide or narrow angles of detection, or a combination of both, and optimum performance
requires movement across the sensitive zone rather than towards/away from the unit. The PIR
is by far the most common detector being versatile and cost effective.
Active infrared beam
Figure 20: A wireless external
PIR (courtesy GJD)
Equivalent in design and operation to the internal IR beam device used in I&HAS. That is,
detection only operates when the target crosses, and thereby breaks, the invisible light path
between the transmitter and receiver units. However, in common with the internal version,
there can be a high level of confidence that the detection will operate as required at the instant
that the invisible barrier is breached. Beam and electronic configurations can be tailored to
filter out unwanted alerts, eg by requiring simultaneous breach of parallel beams. Elaborate
beam patterns are available whereby a ‘fence’ or ‘net’ of beams creates a virtual wall of
electronic penetration detection with in-built logic to minimise false alerts from small animals,
blowing paper etc.
Laser intruder detector
This is an active device using pulsed infrared laser radiation capable of accurately detecting
and locating targets within a secure area and discriminating on the basis of position, size,
shape and direction of the object entering the monitored zone. Potentially, subject to careful
orientation, superior false alarm immunity can be expected and the technology lends itself to
pinpoint control of PTZ cameras.
Active microwave beam
These are equivalent in basic concept to the IR beam in that detection occurs with the break
of a line-of-site path of energy between transmitter and receiver units. The beam has greater
depth and breadth than an IR ‘fence’ resembling a three dimensional ‘cigar shape’ and is
arguably more difficult to evade than an IR beam, provided any blind spots at either end of
the beam are compensated for with physical obstacles. One further benefit is that challenging
optical conditions such as thick fog that can affect an IR beam do not prevent these devices,
employing radio magnetic energy, from operating normally. However, in common with IR
beams, if crossing uneven/undulating terrain there may be unprotected zones or pools
between the surface and beam that require physical security or civil works.
Video motion detection and video analytics
These may be used as detection or in conjunction with other simpler methods. See sections and for details.
Perimeter fence protection
Using a variety of technologies, this form of detection relies on linear detectors to pick up
and analyse mechanical disturbance of an existing or purpose designed metal fence. As
well as detecting interference some purpose designed ‘electric’ fences can administer a
disabling (but not harmful) high voltage electrical shock. Robust, well maintained fences and
a favourable environment can produce satisfying results but there are numerous potential
problems. At a cost, high levels of security and reliability are achieved with twin fences
enclosing a ‘sterile zone’ monitored by cameras.
Buried sensors
When expertly specified and installed, high quality seismic and equivalent sensors are both
discreet and highly effective. They are at the more ‘exotic’ end of the spectrum of state-of-theart technologies but there is no doubt that they have their place.
Wireless detectors
These may need to be resorted to where cabling presents problems but the environment
and limitations of the technology can introduce problems of their own. Expert surveying,
specification and installation are essential. These devices, unless of the semi-wired type,
in which case they have a local wired power supply, rely on dry batteries. Depending on
the standard applicable to the system type, interference with the power supply, low battery
voltage and loss of wireless signal may be detected but there are other ways in which these
devices might fail to which normally connected devices are not exposed.
Combined technology detectors
Detectors are available that combine technologies in a single product along the lines of the
familiar internal dual technology movement detector (sometimes referred to as a ‘dualtech’).
Alternatively, improved reliably is attained if discrete detectors using different technologies are
linked in the logic of the system processor to produce alerts on coincidental triggering within
a timeframe.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Appendix 2
Privacy issues
The CCTV Code of Practice 2008 edition, published by the Information Commissioner’s
Office, contains measures designed to help support the operator’s compliance with The Data
Protection Act 1998. These actions are rigorous and demand preparation and resources. For
• a person or organisation is to be identified as legally responsible;
• the system is to be notified to the Information Commissioner;
Figure 21: Camera viewing
an area with public access
(courtesy BSIA)
• warning signs should be provided;
• the quality and integrity of the equipment should be maintained;
• images should not be retained for longer than necessary;
• data subjects should be allowed access to their images in certain circumstances;
• procedures and practices should be documented.
The onus for complying with the code rests with the CCTV user or operator, whether as
owner or occupier of the premises. The code applies to all systems that capture pictures of
individuals, (other than systems installed in a home by the owner) which will include shopping
centres, shops, banks, offices etc. There is a simplified checklist for operators of limited CCTV
systems monitoring small retail and business premises.
Specifiers must not overlook that operators may wish a system, fundamentally designed for
security, to be employed in one or more other applications. If this is the case it is especially
important that the operator’s attention is drawn to the Code of Practice to avoid falling foul of
the legislation.
Key terms and concepts
Personal data
Personal data is information relating to an identifiable natural person, ie a person who can be
identified, eg through reference to his physical identity.
This means obtaining, processing, recording, holding or carrying out any operation on the
personal data and images are deemed to be included.
Data controller
This is the person in the organisation who determines the purpose for which, and the manner
in which, personal data are processed.
Specifiers need to remember
to alert prospective owners
to the key requirements and
recommendations concerned
with privacy legislation so
that they fully understand the
implications of maintaining
video surveillance on
their premises
Data processor
If someone outside the operator’s organisation provides processing services, (eg editing
images showing members of the public) then that entity is a data processor working on
behalf of the data controller. There has to be a written contract in place with clearly defined
responsibilities and guarantees as to the security of the data, properly trained staff etc. An
RVRC probably constitutes a data processor as far as the legislation is concerned.
Data subject
The data subject is the individual captured by the CCTV system and subject to the processing
as defined.
Subject rights
Data subjects have the right to view or be given a recording of the video sequence in which
they are captured. This is termed subject access. They are also entitled to require that
the data controller ceases video processing which might cause unwarranted damage or
distress. Furthermore, if an automatic decision taking facility is in use (eg number plate or
facial recognition system), data subjects are entitled to notification and have a right of appeal
against a decision that has a significant effect on them.
Key requirements of the Act
Mandatory requirements:
• notification of the existence of the system must be submitted to the Information
Commissioner’s Office (ICO);
• the owner must identify a person to take responsibility for the system and establish its
purpose and rationale;
• cameras should not be allowed to view places not covered by the purpose but if there is a
possibility that they could capture scenes of neighbouring domestic premises, the operator
must consult those neighbours;
• the CCTV operator(s) must be instructed to apply the system only in line with the stated
purpose (eg no specific monitoring of employees’ non criminal behaviour) and, if necessary,
be adequately trained in privacy policy;
• signs, in a prescribed form, warning the public that they are entering a zone covered by
CCTV must be erected;
Figure 22
• there are stringent conditions covering the use of covert cameras (ie cameras used without
signage) which must not be used unless there is specific criminal activity to be detected
and then only for as long as necessary to capture the relevant evidence;
• the equipment must:
- work accurately and be checked out for correct operation;
- be properly maintained and protected from vandalism;
- be repaired promptly when defective;
- operate in suitable conditions (eg adequate lighting);
• assuming the system is a crime prevention measure and identification of individuals is an
objective, recorded image quality should be sufficient for the purposes of law enforcement
agencies; recordings must produce good clear pictures without unacceptable loss of detail
during the recording process (see section 3.8.4); it should be straightforward to take copies
of sequences when requested by police and the form of recording must be suitable for
their use (BS 8495: 2007: Code of practice for digital CCTV recording systems for the
purpose of image export to be used as evidence contains technical recommendations
for image quality, authenticity, audit trail etc);
• elements that can make automated decisions such as facial recognition systems must not
operate without human intervention;
• unnecessary recording should be avoided and recordings should be disposed of/wiped
after a sensible time (typically 31 days but subject to system application);
• retained recordings and CCTV monitoring must be subject to access control and
appropriately secured against unauthorised disclosure;
• proper records must be kept of any recordings that are viewed or disclosed;
• only designated, properly trained staff should operate the system and view images.
Considerations for specifiers:
• fixed cameras should not be allowed to capture private property; if necessary, elements of
the captured image can be ‘blanked off’ using digital masking; it may be possible to restrict
the travel of moveable cameras;
• covert surveillance may be conducted only by law enforcement agencies who are subject
to different legislation concerned with the investigation or prevention of crime; in exceptional
circumstances, the covert monitoring of workers may be used as part of a specific
investigation; the code supplies illustrations of where this may be acceptable; covert
monitoring is not acceptable in any other circumstances.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Specifiers should draw operator’s attention to the contents of the code. For example:
• avoiding recording that is not absolutely necessary and disposing of recordings when no
longer required;
• except for monitors displaying a scene which is in plain sight from the monitor location
(eg customers queuing in a bank), ensuring that screens can not be viewed by
unauthorised people;
• viewing recorded images only within a restricted area and keeping recordings and
recording equipment under lock and key;
• if the system covers a public space, awareness that the operators of the system face
possible licensing requirements imposed by the Security Industry Authority.
Protection of Freedoms Act 2012
This legislation, enacted in May 2012, contains provisions relating to the regulation of
surveillance and ANPR camera systems in public places operated by ‘relevant authorities’ –
public institutions such as local authorities and the police in England and Wales. The aim is
that surveillance camera systems continue to be an important tool available to tackle crime
and prevent terrorism whilst balancing public safety objectives with the individual’s right to
privacy. Systems will be required to be appropriate, proportionate, transparent and effective in
meeting their stated purpose.
The Act requires government to put in place a regulatory framework comprising a code
of practice and a Surveillance Camera Commissioner. The Commissioner’s Surveillance
camera code of practice was published by the Home Office in August 2013. It can be found
The code articulates 12 guiding principles that must be adopted by system operators
when implementing a CCTV system and, although the code does not initially extend to non
institutional operations such as businesses, ‘other system operators will be encouraged to
adopt it on a voluntary basis’. Significantly, the guide adds that the government may consider
extending the application of the guide beyond public bodies with the implication that systems
protecting private property could be drawn in later on as experience is gained.
Private Security Industry Act 2001
If the CCTV system covers a public space, then any organisation providing monitoring
services (such as a RVRC) will need to ensure it is in compliance with the Private Security
Industry Act 2001 and the requirements of the Security Industry Authority (SIA). This also
extends to circumstances in which the SIA takes the view that operators at the monitoring
centre are carrying out remote security guarding of the premises.
Appendix 3
Regulatory framework and guides
The following are the principal documents governing or guiding the design and use of
CCTV systems.
BSI publications: BS EN 50132-1: 2010: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance systems for
use in security applications. System requirements*.
BSI publications: BS EN 50132-5-1: 2012: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance systems
for use in security applications. Video transmission. General video transmission
performance requirements*.
BSI publications: BS EN 50132-5-2: 2011: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance systems
for use in security applications. IP Video Transmission Protocols*.
BSI publications: BS EN 50132-5-3: 2012: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance systems
for use in security applications. Video transmission. Analogue and digital video
BSI publications: BS EN 50132-7: 2012: Alarm systems. CCTV surveillance systems for
use in security applications. Application guidelines*.
* at the time of preparation of this guide, the IEC 62676 suite of standards is awaiting
adoption in Cenelec as replacements for the EN 50132 suite – it is generally thought that
when the 62676 suite is confirmed as the replacement European standard its contents will
be found to be similar to, if not essentially the same as, the 50132 series.
BSI publications: BS 8418: 2010: Installation and remote monitoring of
detector‑activated CCTV systems. Code of practice.
BSI publications: BS 7958: 2009: CCTV. Management and Operation. Code of Practice.
BSI publications: BS 8495: 2007: Code of practice for digital CCTV recording systems
for the purpose of image export to be used as evidence.
BSI publications: ISO 22311: 2012: Societal security. Video-surveillance. Export
National Security Inspectorate (NSI): NCP 104 Code of Practice for the Design,
Installation and Maintenance of CCTV Systems.
Security Systems and Alarm Inspection Board (SSAIB): SS 2003 Code of Practice for
Closed Circuit Television Systems.
Information Commissioner’s Office: CCTV code of practice.
Home Office: Code of Practice for Surveillance Camera Systems (Surveillance Camera
Association of Chief Police Officers of England, Wales & Northern Ireland (ACPO):
Police Response to Security Systems (commonly referred to as ‘The ACPO Policy’).
Police Service of Scotland: Security Systems Policy.
Home Office and the Association of Police Officers (ACPO): UK Police Requirements
for Digital CCTV Systems.
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) and the National Policing Improvement
Agency (NPIA): Practice advice on the use of CCTV in criminal investigations 2011.
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO): ACPO Good Practice Guide for Digital
Evidence March 2012.
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): (formerly Home Office
Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB)): CCTV Operational Requirements Manual
Publication 28/09.
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): CCTV supporting
small businesses.
Guidance for specifiers of CCTV in security applications
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): Testing CCTV
image quality.
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): CCTV making it work
– CCTV control room ergonomics.
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): Recruitment and
selection of CCTV operators.
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): Retrieval of video
evidence and production of working copies from digital CCTV systems.
Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology (CAST): Storage replay and
disposal of evidential images
Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CNPI): Imagery Library for
Intelligent Detection Systems (commonly referred to as the i-Lids library).
CCTV Users’ Group: Procedure manual for the operation of CCTV.
British Security Industry Association (BSIA) documents:
• Form 109 Planning, installation & maintenance of CCTV systems. Code of Practice;
• Form 120 A guide to the maintenance and servicing of CCTV surveillance systems;
• Form 172 A basic guide to BS 8418 systems for installers;
• Form 196 A user guide to a BS 8418 detector-activated remotely monitored CCTV
• Form 197 CCTV privacy masking guide;
• Form 211 A user guide to the use of internet protocol (IP) in the security industry;
• Form 228 A guide for installers & RVRCs to the use of external detection in BS 8418
Form 235 installation of CCTV systems using IP technology – a guide;
• Form 262 An introduction to video content analysis – industry guide.
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on behalf of RISCAuthority
Printed by: Berforts Information Press 0.6/06.14
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