Broadcast Engineering - American Radio History

Broadcast Engineering - American Radio History
A HOWARD W. SAMS PUBLICATION
JUNE
1966/75 cents
Broadcast Engineering
the technical journal
of the broad cast communications industry
www.americanradiohistory.com
LJouTd
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ELECTRONICS, INC
Box 623
San Diego, Calif. 92112
Phone: 714-277-6700
SAN DIEGO DIVISION
Circle Item 2 on Tech Data Card
June, 1966
3
www.americanradiohistory.com
publisher
Howard W. Sams
general manager
Donald W. Bradley
William
E.
editor
Burke
the technical journal of the broadcast -communications industry
®Broadcast Engineering
................s3:ß»a':<?:`»>
managing editor
James M. Moore
CONTENTS
associate editors
Harold E. Hale
Ralph M. Scott
regional editors
George M. Frese, Northwest
Thomas R. Haskett, Central
Howard T. Head, Wash., D.C.
Robert A. Jones, Midwest
George C. Sitts, East
Martin J. Taylor, Southwest
and Latin America
research librarian
Bonny Howland
production
Esther M. Rainey, Manager
Paul A. Cornelius, Jr., Photography
circulation
Pat Tidd, Manager
advertising sales offices
Hugh Wallace, Sales Manager
midwestern
Roy Henry
Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.
4300 West 62nd St.
Indianapolis, Ind. 46206
291-3100
central
Paul Houston
Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.
4300 West 62nd St.
Indianapolis, Ind. 46206
291-3100
eastern
Gregory C. Masefield
Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.
3 West 57th St.
New York 19, New York
MU 8-6350
C. H.
iz
June, 1966
Volume 8, No. 6
Features
Choosing and Using
a
Microphone Larry
J.
Gardner
13
Selecting a microphone for a specific job
requires knowledge of how each type
works and what each type can do.
Small -Budget Audio -Proof Package Thomas
R.
Haskett
16
Satisfactory audio proof -of -performance
instruments can be acquired without
large expenditures.
The Unwanted Pattern Null Robert A. Jones
20
Customary antenna proof -of-performance
procedures do not always give a complete
picture of a directional pattern.
Lighting
A
Variety Show for Color George C. Sitts
24
Planning and constant attention to
details are required to produce a
major color show.
The New FCC CATV Regulations
32
The practical implications of the
new rules are reported.
1966 NCTA Convention
Supplement
33
preview of the
15th annual convention.
A 16 -page
southwestern
C. H. (Jake) Stockwell
Stockwell Co., 4916 West 64th St.
Mission, Kansas, RA 2-4417
western
LOS ANGELES OFFICE
G. R. (Jerry) Holtz
The Maurice A. Kimball Co., Inc.
2008 West Carson St., Suites 203-204
Torrance, California, 90501
320-2204
SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE
The Maurice A. Kimball Co., Inc.
580 Market St., Room 400
San Francisco 4, California
EX
2-3365
Departments
Letters
6
News of the Industry
62
Book Review
30
New Products
69
Washington Bulletin
51
Engineers' Tech Data
75
Engineers' Exchange
54
Advertisers' Index
77
Classified Ads
78
foreign
PARIS 5, FRANCE
John Ashcraft, 9 Rue Lagrange
ODeon 20-87
LONDON W.C. 2, ENGLAND
John Ashcraft, Leicester Square
WHitehall 0525
TOKYO, JAPAN
International Media Representatives,
Ltd., 1, Kotohiracho, Shiba,
Minato -Ku, Tokyo
(502) 0656
Copyright © 1966
by Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING is published
monthly by Technical Publications, Inc., an
affiliate of Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc. Editorial, Circulation, and Advertising headestSUBSCRIPTIONdIaPR
CES:
Idiana 4á6Z 6
U.S.A. $6.00, one year; $10.00, two years;
$13.00, three years. Outside the U.S.A., add
$1.00 per year for postage. Single copies are
75 cents, back issues are $1.00.
quarters:lis,
The growth of color continues to be
evident throughout the industry.
The scene on our cover was
typical of the activity at the
1966 NAB Convention.
(Photo courtesy of
Visual Electronics
Corp.)
www.americanradiohistory.com
---
Broedeew EnglneerIng
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and you get distortion. Use a comHard to believe it does everymon limiter and you get pumping. thing we say? Just send this page
You could reduce modulation levels. and your station letterhead. We'll
But that's not the answer.
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limiting device that replaces comUse it 30 days. After that, send
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only $695. Double that if you want
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AM broadcasters were quick to
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the new FM Volumax we can make
you the same offer. Be the first on
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LABORATORIES
Stamford, Connecticut.
A Division of
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.
on Tech Data Card
June, 1966
5
www.americanradiohistory.com
LETTERS
to the editor
Add
r
COL. I i
TO V, UR
DEAR EDITOR:
Our search for a reasonably priced
EBS monitor has proved fruitless,
and therefore we appeal to you.
We have heard from various engineers that it is not difficult to build
into a regular table radio a holding
relay that will trip the speaker circircuit when a signal is interrupted.
Although many men have said this
is possible, we haven't been able to
come up with a suitable plan.
1
station's
ROADCA
XPERIEN
AT YOUR
0MMANK
RICHARD RIEKE
Chief Engineer
WDBF, Delray
Beach, Florida
saun
WITH A
1
DEAR EDITOR:
Has anyone ever put together a
system operated from a control room clock that will automate the
hourly time tone? We've been considering such a project, but can't
come up with a switching system to
energize the relay at the precise second. Not being supplied with Naval
Observatory Time, we calibrate once
per week with W W V, and would
like to insert the oscillator tone into
the program line automatically.
Thanks for spreading the word.
i
i
WALT RICE
KNWS Radio,
Waterloo, Iowa
Can anybody help these readers in
their search? If so, we'll be glad to
publish the information for the
benefit of all who might be inter-
ested.-Ed.
u
Don't Lose
Touch ..
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simply telephone one of the
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Atlanta (phone 355-6110),
Chicago (WE 9-6117),
Philadelphia (HO 7-3300),
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Or contact Technical Products
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A Division of Radio Corporation
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Camden, N. J. 08101.
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Even with 100 H
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The Telemet Color Processing Amplifier provides a number of outstanding features which include: (1) Sync locks to monochrome or
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(5) White clip control and remote control of primary functions.
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TELEPHONE (AREA CODE 215) 874-5236 874-5237
Circle Item 33 on Tech Dario Cord
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
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one and one make....
In this picture we are building an Ultra High
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We make them well. We put Pye value engineering
tn
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*The man in the picture is completing a diplexer
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PYE TVT LIMITED
Coldhams Lane Cambridge England
Phone: Cambridge 45115. Telex 81103
Circle Item 8 on Tech Data Care
June, 1966
9
www.americanradiohistory.com
HIT OF THE SHOW
Once again the Norelco exhibition was outstanding in attraction and performance
and the Norelco Plumbicon* is now firmly acclaimed the pickup tube for modern
...
cameras.
The new Norelco PC -70 Color Camera introduced at the NAB, features operational
simplicity, short warm-up time, stabilized deflection circuits, built-in test functions
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grated circuitry.
The Norelco PC -70 Plumbicon Color Camera permits hours of "hands-off" operation
and precise color matching between cameras ... even for close-up flesh tones and over
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Performance at the show was obvious. The Norelco three -tube Plumbicon cameras
functioned faultlessly throughout
clearly demonstrating the advantages of the
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...
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tAI en-Ann
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EQUIPMENT
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900 South Columbus Avenue, Mount Vernon, t'ew York 10550
2.66
Circle Iter, 9 on Tech Data Caid
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
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www.americanradiohistory.com
D A LITTLE PAINT!
www.americanradiohistory.com
CLAMPS
RIBBON
TO
TRANS-
FORMER
MAGNET
Fig.
2.
Velocity -microphone
layout.
an extremely sharp directional pattern and is designed to permit much
greater distances between the sound
source and microphone. Its major
application is in TV "boom" work,
where the performer is several feet
from the microphone. While it lacks
the wide frequency response of
some of the other types, the greater
working distance and relative freedom from background noise make
it a good choice in many applications. It cannot be used, however,
in confined areas such as a small
studio or announce booth, since the
reflections within the room cause
the sound to enter the microphone
from many directions and destroy
its directional characteristics. Neither is it possible to work very close
to a shotgun microphone because
sounds enter the various ports at
different levels of volume, and cannot maintain the proper amplitude
balance on both sides of the diaphragm.
The dynamic microphones described are versatile and are frequently used in the broadcast field,
particularly in television. They are
rugged, lightweight, and are not
affected by extremes in humidity.
Their principal defect is that of re -
(A) High -frequency
type
sponse irregularity, particularly at
the very high and very low frequencies. This is created by the difficulty
of building the mechanical link between the diaphragm and the voice
coil. Other types of microphone
have much better response curves,
but have disadvantages of their
own.
Velocity Microphones
The velocity or "ribbon" microphone operates on a different principle. As shown in Fig. 2, a corrugated aluminum ribbon is suspended between the poles of a powerful
"horseshoe" magnet so that the
edges of the ribbon are very close
and parallel to the magnet pole
pieces. Movement of the ribbon in
the magnetic field causes a very
small voltage to appear at the ends
of the ribbon. The ends are connected to a small step-up transformer with a turns ratio of about 1 to
500, which brings the microphone
impedance up to a standard value.
As the name implies, the ribbon
is moved by air velocity rather than
air pressure. Because of this, and
because of the shape of the ribbon, the velocity microphone is
inherently "dead" on the sides and
"live" in directions at right angles
to the ribbon surface. Therefore, it
has a "figure -8" directional pattern.
Some models obtain other directional patterns by using baffles on
one side of the ribbon. This shapes
a directional pattern in much the
same way as the cardioid dynamics.
Because the ribbon has very low
mass and is itself the voltage -generating element, there is no need
for a mechanical likage to a voltage generator. Thus, a velocity
microphone has a very good frequency response and is character -
(B)
Low -frequency type
Velocity microphones of the type used in broadcast and recording facilities.
istically very smooth over its range.
The disadvantages of the velocity
type include its sensitivity to wind,
shock, and vibration; its relatively
large size; and its weight, resulting
from the heavy magnetic structure
required. (Modern types have largely overcome the weight problem.)
The output level is also quite low
as compared to other types. The
velocity microphone also suffers
from what is known as the "proximity effect." Sounds originating
close to the microphone produce
combined pressure and velocity
modes on the ribbon at low frequencies, overemphasizing the bass
response. This effect is responsible
for the familiar "boominess" of
the announcer who works very
close to a velocity microphone of
older types. (Announcers with thin
voices often prefer the bass boost
this effect gives.) Consequently,
some manufacturers have minimized this problem by incorporating a switchable bass cutoff filter
in the microphone. Without this
filter, the microphone should be
used at distances of two feet or
more from the sound source. Working at such a distance requires a
very quiet studio, but a velocity
microphone produces naturalness of
sound that is difficult to match.
Condenser Microphones
The third type of microphone
used in broadcasting is the condenser, or capacitor, microphone.
Its construction, shown in Fig. 3,
is similar to any capacitor, with the
diaphragm (usually made of metalized polyester film) forming one
plate and the back plate forming
the other. The diaphragm is
stretched tightly so that its resonance occurs above the audio range.
As with the ribbon type, there is
no mechanical linkage between the
moving element and the voltage
generator. The microphone capsule
is connected in series with a very
large resistor (100 megohms or
more) to a source of polarizing
voltage, usually between 50 and
150 volts. The operating principle
is simple. With no sound present,
the microphone capacitor charges
to the full value of the polarizing
voltage. When a compression wave
strikes the diaphragm, thickness
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
14
www.americanradiohistory.com
of the air dielectric is reduced,
capacitance is increased, and the
capacitor can hold a larger charge.
Current then flows through the
series resistor into the capacitor.
When compression is released, the
capacitance decreases, but the
charge must remain the same; the
capacitor voltage must increase.
Then the capacitor tends to discharge through the series resistor.
The grid circuit of a vacuum tube
(or in some cases the gate circuit
of a field-effect transistor) is connected across the series resistor
through a blocking capacitor. The
AC portion of the voltage on the
microphone capsule then controls
the plate current of the tube. Usually the tube is connected as a
cathode follower and supplies no
voltage gain. It simply converts the
very high impedance of the microphone itself into a lower, more
usable impedance, and is sometimes
called an "impedance inverter." At
times, a transformer is also used
to lower the impedance still further.
A condenser microphone is essentially a pressure -operated device,
but varied directional patterns are
obtained in two ways. The diaphragm back may be ported, as with
other cardioid microphones, or two
capsules may be placed back-toback and phased to produce the desired pattern.
Condenser microphones excel in
extremely wide and smooth frequency response, low noise level,
and fair immunity to wind noise;
they are small and lightweight in
construction. The chief disadvantages are the requirement for a
source of polarizing voltage, and, in
most cases, filament and plate voltage for the impedance -inverting
tube. The advent of semiconductor
devices has created a condition
whereby cumbersome power-supply
boxes and cable can even be made
a part of the microphone body, and
this problem will soon be a thing of
the past. In general, condenser microphones are an excellent choice
for high -quality studio use where
superior high -frequency response is
required.
Matching
Matching a microphone to a console input poses a few problems
not encountered in other audio
work. Microphone outputs and console inputs are manufactured in
three standard impedances: 50,
150, and 250 ohms. The peculiar
thing is that neither the microphone
outputs nor the console inputs have
these impedances inherently. The
microphones usually have a lower
impedance, while the console inputs are higher. The inputs are
coupled to a transformer with the
secondary connected directly to a
tube grid, or a high -impedance
transistor input, with no resistive
termination. The actual input impedance is about five to ten times
the nominal value at other than
very low frequencies. Loading the
microphone with a lower impedance
would force it to deliver power to
the load, rather than pure voltage.
This would cause increased losses
at the high frequencies where transformer windings have a greater inductive reactance. Usually, connecting a microphone to its rated
nominal impedance input achieves
a desirable compromise between
output level and frequency response. Better frequency response
may be obtained by connecting the
microphone to a higher load impedance (i.e., a 50 -ohm microphone
to a 250 -ohm input); somewhat
higher output level will be obtained
by connecting the microphone to a
lower load impedance (a 250 -ohm
microphone to a 50-ohm load).
Where the impedances are matched,
a 50-ohm connection allows long
runs with minimum high-frequency
loss, but with some loss of output
level, while a 250 -ohm connection
allows the greatest signal transfer
with some high -frequency loss.
Either connection is satisfactory
for short runs (up to 250').
Example of
a
condenser microphone
without the customary shock mount.
Summary
To summarize, these are the best
uses for the three microphone types:
1. Dynamic microphones-general-purpose use, especially in remotes where rough handling and severe environmental conditions are
-
commonplace.
2. Velocity microphones
general studio use, high -quality indoor
remote broadcasts where sound
source is not too close to the microphone, and where superior bass response is desirable.
3. Condenser
microphones
high-quality studio and recording
work, particularly with respect to
high -frequency response, and where
a separate power supply can be
used conveniently and will not be
abused.
While many volumes have been
written about microphones, these
pointers should help the broadcast
engineer make better use of an important broadcast tool.
-
t.
BACK PLATE
DIAPHRAGM
BLOCKING CAPACITOR
SERIES RESISTANCE
CATHODE FOLLOWER
I
POLARIZING VOLTAGE SOURCE
Figure. 3. Typical condenser microphone construction with attached power supply.
June, 1966
15
www.americanradiohistory.com
R. Haskett, Central
Regional Editor-Well constructed kits
with proper modifications can provide
adequate instrumentation for
audio proofs.
by Thomas
SMALL -BUDGET
i
AUDIO -PROOF PACKAGE
To insure that equipment is operating within specifications, all
AM, FM, and TV stations are required by the FCC to perform annual audio -frequency proof-of -performance measurements. These
measurements are also useful in
maintenance of audio equipment.
Since test equipment required for
this proof must be sensitive, accurate, and stable, most available gear
is expensive; a proof package can
easily cost between $300 and $500.
While this equipment has several
advantages-it comes ready for use,
has been calibrated, is well built,
and is easy to operate-it is difficult
for a small, low -budget station to
purchase. There is, however, a way
to obtain accurate and dependable
gear at modest cost-from kits.
4-Capacitors,
0.1 uf, 600V, Sprague
Although not of laboratory quality, many kits and/or low-cost audio generators, VTVM's, and harmonic -distortion analyzers can be
modified to meet proof -of -performance specifications. Among these
are Eico, Heath, Paco, LaFayette,
Knight, Hickok, and Triplett units.
The proof package described here
was built around the Heath IG -72
Audio Generator and IM -12 Harmonic Distortion Meter; and the
system achieved performance as indicated. Frequency range of the
generator is from 10 Hz to 100
kHz, with a guaranteed frequency
accuracy of ±5% and, in this case,
a measured accuracy of ±3%
(within the range used for proofs).
Residual distortion of the generator is less than 0.1% from 20 to
PARTS LIST
1-Switch,
Mylar
SPST, Toggle, A.H
& H.
No.
209-
94 -NV
6TMP10
1-Capacitor,
pf,
51
500V,
disc
ceramic,
2-AC
Aerovox Type D1
1-Capacitor, 220
Aerovox Type
Aerovox Type
pf, 500V,
disc
ceramic,
pf,
disc
ceramic,
D1
1-Capacitor, 330
500V,
D1
1-Capacitor, electrolytic,
25
10-Tie-lug strips, Cinch 52-A
1-Tube shield, Cinch Jones No. TR6-6020-B
2-Handles, Bud H-9111
1-Double assembly 5 -way binding posts,
Superior No. DF30-2-BBC
uf, 25V, Aero-
1-Single assembly
vox PTT82
1-Resistor, 510 ohms, 5%, 1/2 watt
1-Resistor, 200 ohms, 5%, 1/2 watt
1-Resistor, 120 ohms, 5%, 1 watt
1-Resistor, 51 ohms, 5%, 1 watt
1-Resistor, 620 ohms, 5%, 1/2 watt
1-RF choke, 10 mh, National R-100
1-Diode, 1N34
2-Fuseholders, Littlefuse No. 342004
2-Fuses, 0.5 amp
1-Transformer, UTC A-20
1-Switch, 6 -section, 4 -position, shorting,
Centralab
plugs, clamp type, Amphenol No. 61-
M11
son No.
6 -way
2-Double plugs, banana type, Pomona MDP
1-Single plug, banana type, Johnson No. 108
1-Microphone connector, male, Cannon XLR3-12C
ft-Shielded cable, 2 -conductor -plus shield
25 ft-Hookup wire, Belden 8529
1-Minibox, aluminum 4 in x 5 in x 6 in,
30
Bud No. CU -3007-A
1-Minibox, aluminum
2114
in
x
21/4 in x 4 in,
Bud No. CU -3003-A
5-Grommets, Vt" hole,
PA -1022
binding post, John-
111
H.H. Smith No. 2170
FLOAT SHIELD 0.5amp
_ 3AG
HERE
GROUND
SHIELD
T
0-1mfd 600V
HERE
(A) Before modification
Fig.
1.
AC input
e
circuits of audio
(B)
After modification
generator and harmonic distortion meter.
20,000 Hz. The lowest full-scale
distortion range on the HD meter
is 1.0%, and you can read 0.01%
easily. Noise is readable down to at
least -62 dbm, and to -80 or so
if careful techniques are used.
Present cost of these two kits is
$96.90. Some modifications, including a couple of accessory units,
must be made before the units are
ready for proof work. Cost for parts
was about $35 (including accessories); it takes from 14 to 20 hours
for construction and modification,
and the total investment should not
exceed $135. The equipment will
do most jobs as well as gear costing several times as much.
Kit Construction
Careful and accurate construction is vital to the purpose for which
the kits are being built. It is best to
use a small industrial -type iron of
about 47-50 watts, with temporary
heat sinks used during soldering of
all precision resistors and diodes. A
gun can easily overheat and damage these components. Read the instructions carefully, then follow
them explicitly, giving special attention to wire dressing. Changing
the location of wires can easily lead
to hum and noise pickup.
When construction is completed,
make certain that each instrument
operates exactly as the manufacturer specifies. If anything is wrong,
use the guarantee and replace defective components. When guaranteed performance is achieved, run
both instruments continuously for
about four days to age the tubes.
This is important to achieve stability. Check performance again to
make sure that equipment meets
specifications, calibrating each unit
according to the instruction manual. When the gear is performing as
guaranteed, it may be modified
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
16
www.americanradiohistory.com
safely. (Once these instruments are
modified, the manufacturer's war-
ranty
is
void).
Modification
Refer to parts list for components used.
1. Remove the cabinet from each
instrument and replace handles.
The handles supplied are too small
for most male hands and are not
very sturdy. Ream the cabinet holes
slightly to clear the mounting screws
for the Bud metal handles. (Of
course, this step isn't absolutely
necessary, as it has no effect on instrument performance.)
2. Carefully disconnect
wires
from the meter movements and remove the movements from the front
panels. Replace shorting jumpers
supplied with meter and removed
before construction. This is necessary to protect the delicate movements from vibration. Remove all
control knobs from the generator,
and all knobs except FREQUENCY
knob from the HD meter. Note
the position of the set screw and
the index line on each knob, and
set each control shaft to a known
position. Using a medium -tooth
metal file, file flats on each control
shaft at the point where the set
screw makes contact. The shafts
are supplied round, and in use the
knobs twist off index. After filing,
the knobs will retain index position
and not slip.
3. Drill panel holes and install
fuseholders and line fuses in each
instrument. On the HD meter, the
fuse is mounted above the power
switch, on the generator, below the
power switch. Connect each fuse in
series with the respective power
switch on the line side. Refer to Fig.
1. The fuses protect instruments
from internal shorts.
4. Remove AC line cords and
plugs from both instruments, as well
as plastic strain reliefs used where
line cords enter chassis. Replace
with shielded two -conductor cáble
and clamp -type two-conductor AC
plugs. (Two-conductor plugs are
used because it is not desirable to
ground instruments at the AC wall
receptacle.) Use rubber grommets
to protect cable where it enters
chassis. Conducting wires should
connect input of power transformer
C-125/1500
A-500/6000
B-200/2500
D-500
UTC
Zo SWITCH
0
co
A-20
d
r
A
B
o
8
10
o
TO
Y
INPUT
OF
AMPLIFIER
UNDER TEST
11
o
o
5
o
FROM GENERATOR
v
----2004
.
1204
vn.
112W
1W
RL SWITCH
510
1W
Fig. 2. Circuit of input matching box showing
to plug. Leave shield disconnected
(floating) at plug end and ground
to chassis near the power transformer input to chassis.
Connect 0.1 md, 600 V capacitors from each side of power transformer input to chassis.
It will be necessary to add a tie lug strip to each instrument for
mounting the capacitors and AC input. This may require drilling additional holes. Remove all tubes from
sockets while this is done, and put
masking tape over each tube socket
to prevent stray pieces of aluminum
from wedging into socket holes. The
bypass capacitors and the shielded
line cord decouple each instrument
from the AC power line, minimizing
noise and feedback pickup.
necessary ground connections.
5. Remove JAN -type tube shield
from 5879 tube in HD meter, and
replace with heat -dissipating type.
This will extend tube life.
6. Lubricate HD -meter tuning
shaft with petroleum jelly. This
shaft passes through bracket where
it binds slightly. The lubricant permits smooth operation.
7. Remount meter movements,
taking care not to overtighten
mounting nuts.
Accessories
Fig. 2 shows the circuit of the input matching box, and the completed
box is shown in Fig. 3. This box is
needed because the generator output is 600 ohms unbalanced, while
nearly all station microphone in -
(A) Interior layout
(B) Final assembly
Fig. 3. Construction details of the input matching box with appropriate cords.
June, 1966
17
www.americanradiohistory.com
CONTROL, to agree with the
VOM reading of 0 dbm.
Disconnect the VOM, observing
that deflection of the generator panel meter does not change. Set the
HD meter SENSITIVITY Switch
to the 1 -volt position, and adjust
CALIBRATE CONTROL SO that the
HD panel meter reads 0 dbm, as
does the generator meter.
Adjust the generator oscillator
control according to the manufacturer's instructions, but note that
greater than full-scale deflection at
20 Hz is unnecessary. Set for just
over 0 dbm on the red scale, where
most readings will be. By adjusting
to this lower reading, a smaller residual distortion in the generator is
obtained.
Fig. 6 shows the error in indicated frequency of the example generator as checked with a frequency
counter. Note that while the manufacturer specified ±5%, between
just where
30 and 15,000 Hz
proof measurements are made-the
actual error was only ±3%. Next,
residual distortion of the generator
was measured with both the kit HD
meter and a laboratory -type distortion analyzer. The readings obtained were identical, thus proving
the kit meter accurate.
Next the kit generator was connected through the input box to the
HD meter to check meter tracking
referred to frequency. Although it
would be desirable to know that
both meter movements are not frequency sensitive, they probably are.
However, so long as they are equally sensitive, they can still be used
with accuracy in proofing. Being the
same type of meter, they are substantially in agreement, as Fig. 7
illustrates. Note the effect of the
ER
1N34
25mfd 25V
620T1112W
GROUND
SHIELD
HERE
SHIELD FLOATS HERE
GROUND TO METAL CASE
SHIELD FLOATS HERE
GROUND SHIELD
HERE
GND SIDE
TO HD
METER
Fig.
4.
Schematic
of
RF
detection
box.
puts are balanced, and several input impedances are used. The box
will match 500/600, 200/250,
125/150, and 50 ohms, and has its
own internal load resistor, which
may be switched in or out of the
circuit. The unit is easily assembled
in a 4" x 5" x 6" Minibox; parts
placement isn't critical.
Fig. 4 shows the RF detector
circuit. It is easily assembled in a
Minibox, and parts placement is not
critical. Fig. 5 shows the unit assembled. Note: This accessory is
not necessary if the pro.of gear is
used at a station employing a modulation monitor with a "noise and
distortion" output. However, the
box costs little to make, and may be
useful for checking the system without the monitor, or if the monitor
is located at another point.
Final Calibration
After kits are assembled and accessories are constructed, it will be
necessary to calibrate the package
and run a few curves. Set up all
items in the package on a table or
bench, plug into AC, and let them
warm up for fifteen minutes. Use a
20,000 -ohms -per -volt VOM, with
accuracy of ±3% or better in the
Note
location
of
shield
grounding.
AC voltage function (not db or output meter function-the blocking
capacitor distorts frequency response). Representative models are
EICO 565, Heath MM -1, Hickok
455A, RCA WV -38A, Simpson
260, and Triplett 630. If a standard
AC voltmeter with higher accuracy
is available, use it. But the VOM
will do, and is to be preferred over
a VTVM.
Set the generator output to 0 dbm
in the internal -load position, couple
the generator output to the HD
meter input, and parallel the VOM
leads across the generator output,
with the VOM set to read AC volts
on the 1.5- or 3 -volt range. Since
the generator output is 600 ohms, it
will not be affected by the loading
effect of the VOM, even when set
on the lowest range. The HD meter
will read low because of the VOM,
but disregard this effect for the
moment. Set the VOM, if possible,
to read 0 dbm direct-this will usually be on the lowest range-and
be sure that 0 dbm equals 1 milli watt in 600 ohms. Then carefully
adjust the generator OUTPUT
CONTROL for a reading of 0 dbm
on the VOM. Next adjust the generator panel meter, using the MET -
-
MANUFACTURER'S RATED ACCURACY + 5%
Ì111
ACCURACY FROM 30 TO 15, 000 Hz ±
=X1
RANGE
X1000
X10 RA NGE
X 100 RAN-Of
lor
10
20
50
100
210
500
1000
2000
5000
10, 000
20, 000
50, 000
100, 000
FREQUENCY IN HERTZ
Fig. 5.
RF
detector for making proofs.
Fig. 6.
Comparison of manufacturer's rated accuracy with measured accuracy.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
18
www.americanradiohistory.com
matching transformer on the ends
of the curves at higher output levels.
The UTC A-20 transformer is a
highly shielded model rated at ±2
db from 10 to 50,000 Hz, with a
maximum level of +15 dbm.
This transformer limitation becomes more apparent in the next
test, shown in Fig. 8. Generator
output of
dbm was fed to the
HD meter and the residual distortion measured. In the direct mode,
distortion never exceeded 0.09%.
However, with the input matching
box in the circuit, distortion at the
low -frequency end of the curve increased, due to the transformer.
This is not serious-the lowest distortion reading required is at 50 Hz,
where residual is below 0.1 % Also,
distortion caused by the matching
transformer decreases with level;
since this test was made with
dbm into the transformer, and a
microphone input is usually driven
with -40 dbm or less, the residual
will be even lower at 20 and 30 Hz.
-8
Further Notes
The HD meter uses a VR tube
for plate -supply regulation. Voltage
regulation is not necessary on the
generator, for two reasons: (1) The
output level is constantly monitored
by the generator meter, and (2)
due to the feedback lamp in the circuit, power-supply current is relatively constant at 47 milliamperes
throughout the audio range of the
generator.
Some engineers prefer to use a
gainset, a box containing two or
three switch attenuators calibrated
in db, between the generator and
the console microphone input. By
switching the gainset to keep the
transmitter output constant, frequency response is read from the
gainset control knobs. Although
convenient, this method is not absolutely necessary with the kit gear
if meters are read carefully, since
it is possible to read to at least 0.5
db, and to estimate to 0.2 db.
During the first proof with this
gear, be sure to make a frequency response run and a residual -distortion run using only the generator,
the input box, and the HD meter
before including the console and
transmitter in the circuit. If the test
01111+0.1W
FROM 30 TO
8.000
Hz
.2
GENERATOR OUTPUT: O07m
2
-2
.2
.2
0
0
GENERATOR OUTPUT:
-20 mm
2
-8
.
AGREEMENT WI
.2
rr
.2
0
ROTOR OUTPUT:
-00 mm
2
10
50
IOU
500
200
1000
2000
5000
30.000
20 000
50,000
FREQUENCY IN HERTZ DECIBELS
Fig. 7. Agreement of audio generator with HD meter through input matching box.
gear curves look reasonably good,
forget about correcting the figures
obtained when station operating
equipment is measured.
When running a proof at a station
control point which is remote from
the actual transmitter site, there will
usually not be a high ambient RF
field. Grounding of the instruments
will then be relatively simple. The
generator output goes to the input
matching box, ground included, and
a balanced line with accompanying
ground circuit goes from the box to
the console microphone input. Connection to the system ground bus
should be made at this point. Since
the transmitter is located remotely,
the HD meter will probably be driven from the modulation monitor,
which may be fed from an RF preamplifier. The HD meter input connection will ground this instrument
to system bus where it is connected
to the modulation monitor. Only
one ground should be used per inAvoid ground loops.
strument
Experiment with the generator -tomicrophone-input connection for
the lowest hum and noise reading.
Sometimes, a lower reading can be
obtained by using copper strap or
braid to carry ground directly into
rack to the system ground strap,
and not grounding the generator
and box at the microphone input.
When a proof is made where studio and transmitter are under one
roof, the high ambient RF field can
get into the instruments if proper
grounding is not employed. Strap or
braid is a must, as well as shielded
cables for both instruments. Again,
there must be only a single ground
per instrument, and it should be as
short and direct as possible to the
station ground strap.
When using the HD meter in a
high ambient RF field, one special
technique must be used. Internally,
one side of the output is grounded
and the other goes to the meter
movement. When making frequency
response and HD measurements,
OUTPUT terminals should either be
open or connected to a scope input
having an impedance of at least 2
megohms and a shunt capacitance
not exceeding 100 pf. But for reading residual hum and noise within
an RF field, the OUTPUT terminals
should be shorted with a short piece
of solid wire. If they are not shorted, RF will get into the bridge circuit and prevent valid noise reading.
a
-
1.0
0.5
0.5
THROUGH INPUT MATCHING BOX SET TO TERMINATION IN 510 OHMS
0
0
2
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
DIRECT, WITH GENERATOR INTERNALLY TERMINATED IN
0
20
30
50
100
200
500
1000
2,000
5,000
56
OHMS
10000
20000
0
FR QUENCY IN HERTZ
Fig.
8
Residual harmonic distortion of audio generator measured by HD meter.
19
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
by Robert A. Jones, Midwest Regional
THE UNWANTED
Editor-Sometimes the antenna proof of
performance doesn't tell you all
PATTERN NULL
you should know.
TRANSMITTER SITE
NUMBER NEXT TO EACH POINT INDICATED FIELD INTENSITY IN MVIM
25 AND 5
MVIM CONTOURS SHOW THE AREA
OF
CITY NOT ADEQUATELY
SERVED AS REQUIRED
145°
180°
\
27;
68 40
s.
':.k
W.
13
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39
60
77
..
:f'
>
;:>
119
46
I
°
7.50
14.5 8.5
°
v
11
I
1
I
37
``l
1
I
I
21
12.5
o
i
I
1
29
(
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I
I
27. s
a
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3.3
3.3
3.2
3.10
Fig.
1
iB
°
°
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27
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018
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12.5
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Map showing field -intensity measurements used to find unwanted null.
20
The problem of unwanted directional pattern nulls with proper
FCC -approved monitor -point readings is rare and may not appear until complaints are received from listeners living in the affected area.
Unwanted nulls are most likely to
be brought to light in areas recently developed, or after the installation and proof of a new array or
major pattern change. This case
occurred after an increase from
1,000 to 10,000 watts, with an attendant new directional -antenna
pattern. The null lay across a densely populated section of the station's
principal city, and many low -signal
complaints were received shortly
after operation with increased power began. It is hoped the techniques
employed in the solution of this
problem will be of assistance to stations experiencing the same or
similar difficulties.
In order to understand better the
specific problem involved, it may be
helpful to review briefly the normal procedures for proving a pattern, then to show that errors can
occur. First, the FCC normally selects a few specific radial bearings
to be measured. These are the directions and limits specified in the
construction permit. It is assumed
that these bearings will act as an
indicator of whether the pattern is
initially correct, and whether it stays
in tune. Then current ratios and
phases are carefully set up to correspond, as nearly as possible, to
theoretically predicted values. With
careful adjustment, these values
normally give a satisfactory proof.
In the case to be described, these
procedures were followed, and, with
none of the distracting factors freB R
www.americanradiohistory.com
O A D C A
S
T
ENGINEERING
quently encountered, the pattern
appeared to be perfect-until the
complaints came in.
Listener Complaints
Soon after operation with increased power began, numerous
complaints of low signal were received from the southern part of the
city. At first these were ignoredbelieved to be the consequence of
faulty receivers or crank complaints
from those who expected ten times
greater signal strength. Their consistency, however, prompted an investigation to determine whether the
pattern had changed since the proof.
Parameters at the transmitter site
were found to be unchanged. Field intensity measurements at each of
the three daytime monitor points
were below FCC limits and nearly
the same magnitude as the original
readings. As a further check, readings were taken at two or three
points on each of the proof radials;
these proved to be substantially correct. All our data indicated that the
daytime pattern had not shifted or
changed from the original adjustments. The pattern was believed to
be perfect.
Further Investigations
During the following months
complaints of low-signal from the
affected area continued. In order to
define the trouble area, a series of
field -intensity readings was taken
on each of several streets crossing
the low -signal zone. Plotting these
readings indicated a sharp null at
a bearing of approximately 165°
true. Since there were no significant
changes in base currents, phase angles, or monitor -point readings, and
since the antenna design and proof
of performance were in agreement,
this null was hard to believe.
Fig. 1 represents a map of the
antenna site and the principal city
to be served. Drawn on this map are
two original proof radials, 145° and
180°. In addition, a new radial at
165° shows the unwanted null.
Each small circle on the map is
labelled with the field intensity in
my/m measured at that location.
The readings along 145° and 180°
agree with the original proof.
Cross Radials
Cross -radial
measurements
are
taken along a line other than a radial. While this type of reading is
not generally used, or referred to in
FCC rules, it is useful in detecting
lobes or nulls in a pattern. The measurements are not sufficiently precise to predict the unattenuated field
strength at one mile. Fig. 1 shows
the five cross -radials that were
taken in the original survey. Each
of these cross -radials supports the
null at approximately 165°.
Also shown on Fig. 1 are the 25mv/m and 5-mv/m contours.
Clearly, these contours show that
the originally adjusted 10 -kw pattern failed to serve a large portion
of the city, as FCC rules require.
The complaints were justified.
What To Do Now
the
complaints were invesAfter
tigated and a null was confirmed,
there arose the question of what to
do about it. Assuming there was no
error in the original pattern design,
a course of correction lay in one of
these directions: (1) There could
be a serious reflection, such as that
encountered several years ago by
WJIL'; (2) Possibly there was a
faulty ground system or a tower
that was not radiating circularly; or
(3) The problem might be a misadjustment in the directional pattern.
The last possibility would have had
to occur at the time of the original
proof, since no changes had taken
place since then.
Experience indicated that an undesirable reflector was the most
likely source of trouble, so a thorough search of the area close to the
transmitter site was made.. No
source for reflections was found;
there were no powerline towers, no
metal smoke stacks, and not a single water tank in sight.
Our next check was the ground
system and the multiple -tower installation. We reasoned that if the
major antenna equipment were at
fault, a distortion would occur in
the 1000 -watt night pattern. The
comparison of a skeleton proof
made on the night pattern with the
original night proof showed no such
distortion, and we felt safe in rejecting the ground system and towers as
the source of trouble.
Since the original adjustment of
the phasing equipment had been
made by an experienced and highly
regarded firm of consultants, it was
difficult to conclude that a misadjustment in the pattern had occurred, but logic now pointed to a
re-evaluation of the original tuning adjustments.
Vector Study of Null
A theoretical study was made at
145°, 165°, 180°, and 210°. These
vector calculations indicated that
a null at 165°, without a measurable shift at 145° and 180°, would
require a major change in the
phase angle of the number four
tower-probably as much as 70 to
90°. Fig. 2A shows the vector relationships at 165° for the theoretical
condition, and Fig. 2B shows what
is believed to be the incorrect original adjustment.
A comparison between the night
and day, theoretical and measured,
phase angles for tower four was
made. For the nighttime adjustment, a difference of 20° between
theoretical and measured w a s
found. This substantiated our finding of no unwanted nulls in the
night pattern. For the day pattern,
however, a difference of more than
70° was discovered. Since the installation had equal -length sampling
lines, the measured results should
have been close to calculated values. Certainly a difference of 70°
indicated something wrong, particularly when a difference of only
20° occurred with the night pattern.
Pattern Correction
Certain that the problem was a
tuning error, we adjusted the phase
angle of tower four from 90° to
near the theoretically correct value
of 20°. With some luck, we
achieved 29° without significant
(A) Theoretical pattern
RRESULTANT
3
z
a
(B)
Original adjustment
Vector diagram employed to
study null formation on 165° radial.
Fig.
2.
21
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
calculated. Reducing this current
should increase field strength on the
180° radial to its proper value. Current was lowered from 91.1% to
83% of the reference -tower feed,
and field readings at the 180° check
point came up to normal. A further
increase, from 33 my/m to 44 my/ m, was also observed on the 165°
radial. It was dramatically apparent
that the closer we readjusted to
theoretical parameters, the closer
we came to the proper pattern
shape.
change in any other phase angle or
base current. At this time field -intensity measurements were made
along the 165° radial. At one point
an increase from 3.8 my/m to 33
mv/m had been achieved. Our null
seemed to be gone. Readings at the
three monitor check points revealed
all points below FCC limits with
the 180° reading 50% lower than
allowed.
Returning to the vector mathematics, we determined that tower two current was 10% higher than
0
315
90°
270
225
135e
Fig. 3 shows the shape of radiation pattern minima before and after readjustment. The unwanted
null was a very deep one, particularly for a power output of 10,000
watts.
As a precaution, the readings of
the regular three monitor points
were supported by a skeleton proof.
The results revealed no pattern shift
or change in any other than the desired direction. Further, cross -radial checks were made in several directions. No unwanted lobes or
nulls were found.
Conclusions
The lesson learned was a good
one: In spite of careful calculations,
tuning, and measurement, a pattern
can appear to be correct when it is
not. A pattern of consistent complaints or a wrong phase angle or
current should not be dismissed as
the result of imagination, faulty receivers, or instrumentation errors.
An unwanted null can reduce area
coverage seriously; and conversely,
an unwanted lobe could interfere
with the signal of another station.
Two steps, taken at regular intervals, should be adequate to prevent
the occurrence of unwanted lobes
and nulls. First, the pattern should
be adjusted as carefully as possible
to establish base currents and phase
relationships. If these values and relationships cannot be attained, an
investigation should be made to determine why, and corrections made.
Second, regular field -intensity readings, even though correct, should
be supported by in-between measurements. The cross -radial technique was employed to good advantage in this case to eliminate a
serious problem.
If your pattern is in doubt and all
parameters are satisfied, check
the pattern with circular cross -radials at frequent intervals. When
large areas are to be covered, one
practical approach is the use of aircraft2. Vigilance can detect pattern
errors and effect better pattern coverage.
2
Fig.
3. Erroneous adjustment of
array produced
a
deep null in the pattern.
Robert A. Jones, "The 'Hot' Water
Tank at WJIL," Broadcast Engineering, January 1963, p. 19.
Robert A. Jones, "Aeronautical Field
Intensity Measurements," Broadcast Engineering, March 1965,
p. 16.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
22
www.americanradiohistory.com
amplifier
pene
E
excellent linearity
Now you can have reliable power in a
new 1500 watt pentode. Eimac's 50X1500A
power amplifier tube is designed for use at
the popular 1000-2000 watt peak envelope
power range. And it's compact: height, 47/8",
diameter 31/2". Physical configuration is
similar to Eimac's well-known 4CX1000A
tetrode. The tube carries control and screen
grid dissipation ratings of 25 and 75 watts,
respectively. The 50X1500A is ideally suited
for Class C operation. ln linear service the
tube can provide a two-tone signal with
third -order products of -39 db at 1000 watts
PEP or -35 db at 1700 watts PEP. Write
Power Grid Product Manager for information or contact your local EIMAC distributor.
Circle Item
11
5CX1500A
CLASS C MAXIMUM RATINGS
DC PLATE VOLTAGE
5000 V
DC PLATE CURRENT
DC SCREEN VOLTAGE
PLATE DISSIPATION
SCREEN DISSIPATION
GRID DISSIPATION
SUPPRESSOR DISSIPATION
TYPICAL CLASS
1.0 Amp.
750 V
1500 W
75 W
25 W
25 W
ABA
LINEAR AMPLIFIER MEASURED VALUES
IN TWO TONE TEST
DC PLATE VOLTAGE
4000 V
DC PLATE CURRENT (No Signal)
250 mA
DC PLATE CURRENT (Two Tone)
485 mA
DC SCREEN VOLTAGE
500 V
PEAK ENVELOPE POWER OUT
1785 W
THIRD ORDER IM MAXIMUM
-35 db
EIMAC
Division of Varian
San Carlos, California 94070
on Tech Data Card
23
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
LIGHTING
A VARIETY SHOW
by George C. Sitts,
Eastern Regional
is the key
Editor-Careful planning
to successful production.
FOR COLOR
At the close of the 1965-1966
television season, viewers had a
choice of 18 network variety shows
each week. Seventeen of these were
broadcast in color. Developing any
one of these shows from talent
booking to a color telecast requires
close planning and coordination
among several departments, as well
as expenditure of vast amounts of
money and manpower weekly.
Typical of the "brute force"
weekly color productions is the Ed
Sullivan Show, first planned on
Tuesday morning and finally aired
as a live one -hour colorcast on Sunday night. To discover the "trade
secrets" of such a color production,
we followed the Sullivan staff
through a typical work week.
The cycle actually begins several weeks in advance of each production when talent bookings are
made, but the show itself swings into action the Tuesday morning of
its broadcast week, when the "creative" meeting takes place. Director
Tim Kiley, producer Bob Precht,
music coordinator Bob Arthur, associate producer Jack McGeehan,
and scenic designer Bill Bohnent
meet to block out the show.
The first item on the agenda is
the line-up of acts for the show.
Three factors determine the order
of acts: (1) a well balanced show;
(2) strong acts at the opening of
the show and after the mid -break
(these act as "hooks" to hold the
audience until it's too late to turn
to another station) ; and (3) the
sequence in which the stages will
Ed
Sullivan strikes familiar pose as "on stage" crew waits for "red light."
be used. Item 3 requires some explanation. Effectively, there are
three stages, all part of one long
stage. "In one" is the front of the
stage. "In two" is the middle of the
stage, or the area between curtains, and "full stage" is from the
second curtain to the back wall.
Time must be allowed to reset
stages between acts. A large or
complicated set requires more setup time than a lesser one. Consequently, a big set on "full stage"
may require two short acts "in one"
and "in two," in order that "full
stage" can be set up.
Once physical requirements are
set, discussion of aesthetic requirements begins. What color behind
Barry Sadler? What music fits Jackie Vernon's act? What moods of
lighting and staging for Dinah
Shore, for the Four Tops, for the
Les Feux Follets?
Following the meeting, scenic designer Bohnent spends the remain -
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
24
www.americanradiohistory.com
Plain Talk from Kodak about tape:
TRADEMARK
Giving your tape library
a longer prime of life
How long can you keep a recorded
tape? As of today, nobody knows for
sure. Recording companies have
tapes dating back to the late 1940s
that are still in fine shape. Actually,
the aging problem for tape is somewhat akin to the ones faced by movie makers. Their problems are tougher,
though
movie -makers have to
worry about latent chemical reactions,
greater mechanical strains, etc. And
yet, we can see movies made more
than a half century ago if the films
have been given proper care and expert duping. Like photographic films,
many audio tapes are made on ace.
.
.
goes for tapes. One obvious safeguard
is to keep tapes away from strong
magnetic sources like large electric
motors or transformers which could
demagnetize a recording.
Keep it clean. Tapes hate dirt just as
much as regular records do. Thanks
to sturdy, one-piece construction,
Kodak's new "library décor" box helps
keep dirt out ... won't fall apart over
the years as conventional tape boxes
sometimes do. And this new box looks
better. Play it clean too, of course.
Clean your recorder heads, capstans,
rollers and guides regularly with a
cotton swab moistened with one of
keep your tapes in the "tails out" format rather than rewinding them. The
uneven winding induced in the tape
by fast rewinding can cause physical
warping of the tape over a period of
time. Here too, you're better off with
KODAK Tapes because KODAK 5" and
7" Thread -Easy Reels are of dynamically balanced, one-piece construction. This gives you freedom from
wobbles and pulsations on both
"record" and "rewind"... keeps the
tape under smoother tension
just
what the doctor ordered for long tape
life. The need for smooth winding can
not be overemphasized.
Last but not least, it's a good idea
to dupe your really old tape recordings onto fresh KODAK Tape in order
to standardize on KODAK Tape quality. That's an interesting subject all
by itself, and we'll try to devote a
"Plain Talk" to it soon!
KODAK Tapes on DuROL and polyester
bases are available at electronic, camera and department stores. To get the
most out of your tape system, send for
free 24 -page "Plain Talk" booklet
which covers the' major aspects of
tape performance. Write Department
...
940, Eastman Kodak Company,
Rochester, N.
tate base. Ours is Kodak's famous
Du ROL Base, the stronger, tougher tri acetate (we also make KODAK Tapes
with a tempered polyester base for
extra toughness or for long -play applications). Lab tests show that DuROL
Base holds up as well as photographic
film. So ... tape wise, there's no reason your great grandchildren won't
be able to enjoy your present efforts.
T.L.C. makes the big difference.
Tender loving care is a must when
saving anything worthwhile. The same
the commercial cleaners sold for that
purpose. Use a degausser periodically
to remove any magnetization of recording heads.
Keep it cool. Tapes should be kept
away from extremes of temperature
and humidity. High temperatures may
affect the plastic support and increase the possibility of print -through
the transfer of magnetic signals
from one layer of tape to the next.
Keep it "backwards." For truly valuable recordings, a good trick is to
...
Y.
14650.
1t mil DURDL Bue
STANDARD PLAY
125011. on
31A
KODA
SOUND
RECORDING
TAPE
L_v.-fxxhna Aw/n<th...P
fF:nfwJrw
TceYfrxirrt ¡MRS...,
Aar.
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester, N.Y.
Circle Item 12 on Tech Data Card
June, 1966
25
www.americanradiohistory.com
der of that day and all of the next
designing "sets." Each "set" is
sketched, developed, and then
drawn into final form. This set design includes coloring, mounting
and bracing hardware, and sectioning details. Scenic designs then go
to the carpentry shop, where construction begins with the first prints,
and usually before the last designs
are completed.
On Thursday the first production
meeting is held at 10:30 a.m. The
stage manager, studio manager,
production manager, costume designer, scenic designer, director, associate director, lighting director,
music coordinator, and assistant to
the producer meet to determine
what each act does and needs in the
way of facilities. Although nine
dressing rooms are required, 11
more are reserved to allow for
"contingencies." In addition, two
chorus rooms, four make-up rooms,
three rehearsal halls, and three
meeting rooms are ordered. Acts
are blocked out for space on stage.
The meeting determines that Dinah Shore will open in one with a
blues number; then the hardwall
(curtain) will open to expose the
orchestra, and she will sing upstage, full stage. How will Mark worth and Mayana, an archery
team, be staged? The decision is for
full stage, shooting left front to
right back stage. Is there time to reset full stage between Barry Sadler
and Dinah Shore? This meeting,
scheduled to end at noon, often requires the participants to skip lunch.
Following the production meeting is a lighting conference. The
scenic designer, Bill Bohnent; lighting director, Bill Greenfield; and
stage manager, Ed Brinkman, determine lighting requirements. The
Four Tops set will look best with
several colored lights; the Barry
Sadler number demands a strong,
saturated green lighting of the rear
cyclorama. Dinah Shore's lighting
should change twice during her
number. Jose Feliciano, classical
guitarist, needs a low-key, dramatic
lighting.
At the end of the lighting conference, Greenfield roughs out a
lighting system on a grid-system
print of the studio. On this he
blocks out the "aces" (one-killowatt
Fresnels), "deuces" (two -kilowatt
Fresnels), "fives" (five -kilowatt
Fresnels), and the scoops in their
approximate positions. Then he determines where each light will connect into the strip connectors, on
which patch it will appear, to which
dimmer it will be patched, and into
which master dimmer it will ultimately connect.
A bank of scoops for base, and
Fresnels for keys and back lights is
typical of Greenfield's straightforward lighting. Each act is lighted
individually, but wherever convenient, fixtures are used for more than
one. Two fives are trained on the
audience, particularly the VIP section from which Ed Sullivan introduces audience celebrities.
By Friday morning lighting plans
are complete, and most sets have
been built, painted, and set to dry in
the paint shop. A 10:30 audio
meeting is called for the technical
directors, audiomen, and music coordinator. Special attention is given
to problem numbers. Barry Sadler,
the two comedians, and Sullivan are
all right on the boom microphone.
A hand microphone is best for Dinah Shore. Sixteen microphones
have to be set on stage for the orchestra in the Dinah Shore number.
While audio problems are being
resolved, Bill Greenfield has begun
directing the hanging of lights in
the studio. Referring to his diagrams for appropriate location, he
calls to lighting hands on the catwalks for lateral and vertical moves,
addition and deletion of color filters, and positioning of barn doors.
Although the talent is not present,
the area for each act is lighted with
all sets in place. This allows the
stagehands to adapt to problems
when moving the sets about. By
6:00 p.m., most sets are lighted.
The exception is a large relief map
of Canada for the Les Feux Follets
group. It has not been completed.
Although the lighting group normally works through the night until
set lighting is completed, the lighting director ceases work to start
again early Saturday morning.
At 8 a.m. Saturday, the lighting
job is completed. Camera rehearsal
begins at 9:30 with a piano for accompaniment. Each musical act is
Staging
rehearsed and timed.
changes are made as the rehearsal
progresses, and notes on lighting
changes are taken. These are chiefly
improvements in face lighting on
the talent. Currently, CBS is particularly careful to maintain reference white (3100°K) light on performers' flesh areas. This practice
helps viewers to avoid confusing
colored light for a misadjustment
of the tint control. During the
breaks between acts and following
rehearsal, lighting corrections are
made.
The Saturday afternoon schedule
calls for a full orchestra rehearsal
beginning at 2 p.m. This rehearsal
is simliar to the morning rehearsal
in that it includes only the musical
numbers. However, it does afford an
opportunity to touch-up Dinah
Shore's lighting (she had not been
scheduled for the morning rehearsal), to check the effectiveness of
orchestra lighting in the on-stage
number, and to adjust low-key
lighting on the classic guitarist. Rehearsal, scheduled to end at 4:30
p.m., ends at five. The lighting director spends the rest of the day
making major changes he has noted.
The scenic designer and the stage
manager work out some scenery location problems, and supervise
touch-up of marks and damage occurring during rehearsal.
Sunday begins early for the Sullivan crew. Audio men, boom operators, and cameramen report at
7:15 a.m. to align and check out
their equipment. Nine -fifteen brings
a full orchestra camera rehearsal of
all acts. This run-through is used
principally to check timing and
lighting, and to acquaint performers with their "spot."
Bill Greenfield makes a few more
notes on lights. Bill Bohnent and
Ed Brinkman discuss a problem of
hardwall alignment and camera angles-one shot of Dinah Shore
leaves the edge of the hardwall
showing. When the rehearsal recesses for lunch, they decide to move
the camera slightly and move in an
extra piece of hardwall.
Dress rehearsal is scheduled to
begin at 1 p.m. Bad weather holds
up Ed Sullivan and some other participants, delaying the "dress" until
almost two. This final rehearsal
takes place before a live audience
and is video-taped. Taping this rehearsal allows some protection in
case an act is prevented from ap-
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
26
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle Item
11
3
on Tech Data Cara
June, 1966
27
www.americanradiohistory.com
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pearing on the live broadcast. Dress
rehearsal, although before an audience, is less formal than the actual
show. Each act is timed; each commercial is in place; each musical
bridge is paced.
Several problems develop during
the rehearsal. The new camera angle on Dinah Shore degrades her
lighting. Some corrections are needed on the lighting of the Four Tops.
There is insufficient time to change
scenery between Barry Sadler full
stage and Dinah Shore full stage.
Following dress rehearsal, these
problems are worked out; Dinah
Shore is relighted; the Four Tops
are slightly repositioned; Barry Sadler's set is changed from full stage
to "in two."
Background music for Jackie
Vernon's comedy act is pretaped.
This frees the orchestra for an earlier move to "on-stage." A special
opening for servicemen in Viet Nam
is also pretaped. This consists of an
interview between Barry Sadler and
Ed Sullivan, and will be cut into the
overseas kine later. At six, cast and
crew break for dinner, returning
about seven.
At 7 p.m., one hour before air
time, the tension noticeably increases. Lighting men check their dimmer circuits and lamps. Video men
check camera levels. Props and sets
are given a final inspection. The
audience enters and is screened by
the doormen.
At 7:40 p.m., a color model
comes on stage for final aligning of
the cameras. She tells us that when
CBS first purchased cameras of the
three -Plumbicon® type, she was required to model for an hour before
rehearsals and an hour before a
show. Model time has now been reduced to 15 minutes. This decrease
in check-out time, according to a
video operator, is due to operators'
familiarization with the equipment,
and by better-than-expected equipment stability.
The model walks off at 7:55. Ed
Sullivan warms up the audience
briefly. All eyes are on the monitors, and the show begins at 8:00:30 as scheduled.
By 9 p.m., we knew that it was
not "trade secrets" that kept the Ed
Sullivan Show on schedule, but
skilled professional planning by a
large and competent staff.
Circle Item 52 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
28
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle Item 14 on Tech Data Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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BOOK REVIEW
Basic Microwaves; Bernard Berkowitz; Hayden Book Company, Inc.,
New York, 1966; 167 pages, 6" x
9"; clothbound $5.95, paperbound
$3.95.
This book is intended for the
reader who desires to undertake a
hroad study of microwave technology, either as an end in itself or as
a background for more detailed
study later. The text begins with a
chapter on the behavior of waves
in free space. The subject is introduced in terms of physical concepts,
and then the mathematical relationships are introduced and related to
the physical principles.
Succeeding chapters introduce theory with increasingly specific application to microwaves. The second
chapter describes the interaction
of waves with objects. Topics include reflection, index of refraction, Snell's law, Fresnel equations,
VSWR, and rectangular wave guides.
Chapter three is concerned with antenna theory. The discussion includes horns, lenses, paraboloid reflectors, antenna patterns and gain,
and other subjects. Chapter four describes several types of antennas.
Chapter five is concerned with
transmission lines. Considerable theory is included, and the use of the
Smith chart in solving transmission line problems is explained. The last
chapter describes a number of microwave components, such as the
directional coupler, magic tee, attenuators, detectors, etc.
The book has been written without the use of calculus, but the
reader will need at least some familiarity with algebra, trigonometry, and geometry. Some prior
knowledge of fundamental electrical
and magnetic principles is also necessary. The text is liberally supplemented with line drawings and a
number of photographs. A summary concludes each chapter, and a
list of review questions (answers
are not given) follows each chapter
but the last.
While this text is designed as an
introduction to microwaves, there
is considerable information contained within its covers. The reader
will not gain much from a superficial reading of the book; but if he
is willing to expend a moderate
amount of effort, he should acquire
a basic understanding of microwave
theory.
A
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
30
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Circle Item 15 on Tech Data Card
May, 1966
31
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE NEW FCC CATV REGULATIONS
A summary of the new Rules and what they mean.
When the Federal Communications Commission issued its Second
Report and Order on March 8,
1966, establishing jurisdiction over
all Community Antenna Television
(CATV) systems and adopting
new rules for their regulation, it
tried to include something for
everybody. Generally
speaking,
however, the television broadcast
stations and their big trade associations think the Commission has
been too easy on CATV systems;
the CATV operators and their trade
association (NCTA) think the new
regulations are too restrictive; and
various members of Congress are
pulling and pushing in different
ways, depending on the predominant feelings in their individual districts. Here's how things shape up.
Jurisdiction
First of all, the Commission has
asserted jurisdiction over all CATV
systems, except for apartment house master antenna systems and
CATV's serving fewer than 50 subscribers. This jurisdiction applies
to all CATV's, including those relying solely on off -the -air pickups,
whereas the Commission formerly
regulated only those systems employing microwave relays to bring
in distant programs.
Carriage of Local Stations
Here's what the CATV systems
may and may not do. First, each
CATV system must carry the signals of all television stations placing a Grade B or better signal over
the community served by the system. Translators having 100 watts
or more are treated the same as
television broadcast stations.
In case this would require the
CATV system to carry more signals than available channel capacity, a priority system is set up. First
priority is given to signals of principal -city grade, second priority
to Grade -A, third priority to
Grade -B, and fourth priority to
translator signals. (See Table 1.)
This carriage must be put into
effect upon request of the individual
broadcast stations. An effective date
of April 18, 1966, was established.
(Existing nonmicrowave CATV
systems were given an additional
60 days to comply.)
The CATV system is required
to carry the signals of the local
stations "without material degradation." However, no definite engineering standards have been adopted to define technical quality of
CATV pictures, although broadcasters asked that this step be taken. A particularly difficult problem arises where, for technical or
other reasons, the signal of a local
station is carried on the cable on
the same channel as it is broadcast
over air; in areas of strong radiated
signal, very objectionable ghosting
may occur. Broadcasters generally
express a distinct preference for
cable carriage using the same channel as the broadcast signal in order
to preserve channel-number identification. CATV operators, on the
other hand, commonly resort to the
practice of shifting local stations
to unused cable channels to avoid
interference.
Nonduplication
The Commision's new regulations require that CATV systems,
upon request of local broadcast stations, not bring in distant signals
which duplicate the programs of
the local stations. In contrast to
earlier conditions imposed on
microwave-served CATV systems,
however, the new requirements are
considerably relaxed. For one
thing, only same -day nonduplication is now required, whereas the
previous requirements forbade duplication of local -station programs
by CATV systems for a period 15
days before and after the local
broadcast. Furthermore, the new
nonduplication requirements do not
apply to color programs broadcast
locally in black and white, nor do
they apply to "prime -time" network programs which are not carried locally in prime time.
The principal effect of the non duplication requirements on network programs is to protect television broadcast stations from distant CATV importation, especially
across time -zone boundaries. For
non -network programming, however, such as feature programs and
syndicated shows, no significant
protection is provided.
Other Requirements
The foregoing requirements are
the only operating restrictions imposed on CATV systems located
outside of the nation's top 100
markets as established by ARB
ranking. All CATV systems are required, however, to notify the Commission of ownership interests,
number of subscribers, television
stations carried, and local program
originations. Furthermore, all new
systems and existing systems proposing to add new distant signals,
or to extend service into new geographic areas, are required to give
prior notice to local television
broadcast stations.
Top 100 Markets
CATV systems serving a community within the predicted Grade
A contour of any television station
in the 100 largest television markets have different ground rules.
The carriage and nonduplication
requirements are the same as for
the smaller markets. However, the
Commission's prior approval will be
required for CATV systems to carry the signals of any distant station
which does not have Grade B or
better service in the city where the
CATV system is located. The Commission intends to hold full-dress
hearings on any application for
importation of distant signals by
CATV's in the top 100 markets.
One of the most important considerations in passing on such requests will be the potential impact
upon the actual or expected development of UHF stations in the
affected market.
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
32
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PREVIEW
OF THE
1966 NCTA
CONVENTION
AMERICANA HOTEL
MIAMI
www.americanradiohistory.com
Preview Supplement
CONTENTS
CATV News
Miami-Things
35
To Do and See
36
Exhibit Area Floor Plan
40
List of Exhibitors
42
1966 NCTA
CONVENTION
Americana Hotel
Bal Harbour (Miami), Florida
June 26-29, 1966
34
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEWS RELATED TO CATV
15th Annual
NCTA Convention
The NCTA Convention, to be
held in Miami this year, will feature parallel sessions for management and engineering delegates.
Subjects to be covered at the management sessions will include marketing, promotion, sales, finance,
and taxes. For those interested in
technical matters, a new -products
session will feature new technical
developments by NCTA Associate
member firms.
Other highlights of the Convention are to be three luncheon addresses, including one by NCTA
President Frederick W. Ford; the
annual banquet; and special social
functions sponsored by NCTA Associate member exhibitors.
The Convention officially begins
June 26, with sessions on June 27,
28, and 29.
Arizona Group
Elects Officers
Election of officers highlighted
the Arizona Community Television
Association convention at Phoenix,
April 22 and 23. The new ACTA
president is Earl Hickman, owner
of cable systems at Williams and
Douglas. Jess W. Allen, owner of
Clearvision Television at Nogales,
was elected vice-president. Charles
Wigutow, of American Cable Television, Inc., is secretary -treasurer.
The two-day meet, hosted by
Allen Dean of Vumore Co., Roswell, N. M., outgoing ACTA president, was attended by 75 conferees.
International
Equipment Agreement
A CATV equipment licensing
agreement has been signed with
Teleng, Ltd. of Romford, Essex
(near London) by the Jerrold Corp.
Teleng is a subsidiary of Telefusion,
Ltd., a British TV -set rental firm
and operator of cable television
systems. Teleng has equipped a
number of cable TV systems in
Great Britain and Europe.
Initially, Teleng will import Jerrold's Starline series of CATV
equipment and accessories, to be
marketed under the Teleng-Jerrold
name. Later this year, the British
firm will build its own version of
the Jerrold equipment with special
modifications for use in the United
Kingdom and Europe.
The British system of cable television, known as TV Relay, differs
from CATV in that it includes the
rental of the TV set as well as the
antenna service.
Operating Company Formed
new company, Continental
CATV, Inc., will operate Viking's
existing CATV properties throughout the United States and will develop franchises and acquisitions.
Heading the new company as executive vice-president is John F.
Gault. Mr. Gault began his CATV
career as operations manager and
later as a systems manager for Teleprompter Corp. He then joined
TeleVision Communications Corp.
as Northeast regional manager and
later as vice-president of operations before assuming his present
position.
A
35
www.americanradiohistory.com
MIAMI
Things To Do and See
Here is a brief list of things to do and see while you're in
Miami. Each item is keyed by number to the map on the next
two pages.
In addition to the attractions listed here, Miami has 4000
restaurants, hundreds of hotels, miles of beaches, and 23 golf
courses (12 public and 11 private). A short drive will take you
to the Overseas Highway along the famous Florida Keys. For
more detailed instructions about directions, bus service, and
guided tours, contact your hotel or motel, or the Miami -Dade
County Chamber of Commerce, 330 Biscayne Blvd., Miami.
SPANISH MONAS1. ANCIENT
TERY GARDENS: Open 10-5 daily.
823 -year -old cloister brought to Miami
by William Randolph Hearst from Granada, Spain, in 1954 and put together
piece by piece. Oldest edifice in the
United States.
3. BAYFRONT PARK: This is a lush
40 -acre park containing Bayfront Park
Auditorium, John F. Kennedy Torch of
Friendship, the Miami Public Library,
gardens, bandshell, monuments, rock
gardens, and fishing.
3. DOG RACING: At this time of
year, only the Flagler Kennel Club is
open. This track features greyhound racing with pari-mutuel betting permitted.
No minors allowed.
4. CHINESE VILLAGE: Unique architecture in private dwellings.
5. CIRCUS CITY: Hours are from 105 daily with an admission charge. Features circus zoo, museum, and trained
porpoises.
6. CRANDON PARK: This beach on
Key Biscayne is open daily from 5-12.
It provides dressing rooms, showers, cabanas, beach accessories, picnic grove
with tables, grills, shelters, zoological
gardens, children's amusement park, and
children's zoo. Other features are a miniature 18 -hole golf course and an outdoor roller skating rink.
7. CRANDON PARK ZOO: This zoo
has 1,000 animals and a special children's
section where youngsters can mingle with
tame animals and hear talking story
books. Open daily from 9:00-4:30; there
is no charge. A special feature is an
aviary bird sanctuary.
GARDEN AQUAR8. EASTERN
IUM: This firm, which wholesales and
retails tropical fish, has no admission
charge to aquarium of tropical fish from
the world's jungle streams.
9.
EVERGLADES NATIONAL
PARK: This park of 1,046,000 acres offers scores of facilities for sightseers and
those interested in nature. Among its
features are boat trips, restaurants,
planned activities, fishing, lectures, and
the famous "catwalk" through unspoiled
nature. The park is some 75 miles from
Miami. Admission is free.
10. FAIRCHILD TROPICAL GARDEN: This is the largest tropical botanical garden in the country. There is no
admission fee, and the garden is open
from 8:30-5:30. Guided tours are available.
11. FIRE ENGINE LADDER #I/a: A
scaled -down but fully operational model
of a modern fire engine. No admission
charge.
12. FLAGLER STREET: Miami's famous shopping area.
13. FLORIDA PIONEER MUSEUM:
Old Florida East Coast Railway house,
furnished a la early 1900; also rare Indian -mound findings from the Florida
Keys, and other Indian artifacts. Open
1-5 p.m. Wednesday through Sunday.
14. FUNLAND AMUSEMENT PARK:
Kiddie and adult rides. Noon to 11:30
p.m. daily.
15. GARDEN OF OUR LORD: A love-
retreat containing shrubs, flowers, and
trees mentioned in the Bible or Christian
tradition.
ly
36
www.americanradiohistory.com
16. GOLD COAST RAILROAD AND
MUSEUM: Real steam-engine trains,
cars, and caboose are operated every
Sunday from 1-5 p.m. Includes presidential "armor -plated" car. Adults $1 and
children $0.50.
17.
HISTORICAL MUSEUM OF
SOUTHERN FLORIDA AND THE
CARIBBEAN: Contains historical materials and artifacts relating to Florida
and the Caribbean. Open 1-5 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday. Donations accepted.
18. HORSE RACING: The Florida
tracks are closed during June, but the
gardens of Hialeah and Gulfstream are
open to the public daily. Gulfstream
(18A) features a sailing lake and Hialeah (18B) the famous flamingos, coral
reef fish, and priceless collection of carriages.
19. JAPANESE GARDEN AND TEAHOUSE (SAN -AI -AN GARDEN): A bit
of Japan transplanted in Miami. Contains
statues, garden, arbor, teahouse, stone
lanterns, rock gardens, pagoda, waterfall, and lagoon. No admission fee. Open
9-6 daily.
20. MIAMI WAX MUSEUM: Over 40
life-like Dioramas depicting events of
history, sports, and movies from Columbus to the Astronauts. Weekdays 9:309:30, Sundays 1:30-9:30. Admission
charged.
21. MINERAL SPRINGS: Off -the -beaten -path tropical recreational area with
huge waterfall. Sand beach, bath house,
picnicking, Indian mounds, and archeological excavations. Famous Seminole
battle site. Small admission charge.
22. MIRACLE MILE: Famed Coral Gables Shopping Center.
23. MONKEY JUNGLE: M o n k e y s
roam wild and visitors are caged. Attractions include chimp show and Bulu,
famous 600 -pound gorilla. Daily 9:305:15. Admission charged.
24. MUSEUM OF SCIENCE: Contains
exhibits of Florida natural history from
prehistoric creatures to the colorful fish
and bird life of today. Open daily; admission free.
25. ORCHID JUNGLE: The world's
largest outdoor orchid garden; every
lady gets an orchid. Open daily 8-5:30.
Admission charged.
26. PARROT JUNGLE: A natural jungle where hundreds of colorful, tame
parrot -type birds fly free. Parrot Circus and "Flamingo Parade" of more than
100 marching flamingos. Admission
charged.
27. PENNEKAMP CORAL REEF
PARK: Nation's only underwater park
with display of coral reefs. Fishing,
camping sites. Open 8 a.m. to sunset.
Charge for sight-seeing boats.
28. PIONEER CITY: A park with a
western theme. Featured are interesting
bits of Americana from 1860-1900, including trains, river boats, stagecoach,
covered -wagon rides, gold panning,
shoot-outs, and other entertainment.
Daily from 10:30 -sunset. Admission fee.
29. SEAQUARIUM: Divers hand -feed
huge fish. Educated porpoises and sea
lions perform tricks. Includes the South's
only monorail ride. Open daily 9-5. Admission charged.
30. SERPENTARIUM: The only venom
laboratory of its kind. Conducted tours
are climaxed by a cobra venom extraction. Open daily 9:30-5:30. Admission
charged.
31. JOHN F. KENNEDY TORCH OF
FRIENDSHIP: Unique shaft with perpetually burning flame. Plaques of various neighboring republics mounted on
wall.
32. UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI: Spectacular 260-acre campus for 9,500 stu-
dents features modern hurricane-proof
buildings of steel, glass, and concrete.
33. WONDERS OF THE SEA: A marine exhibit open from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m.
37
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Exhibits
Technical Sessions
Other Activities
A complete report in the September issue of
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A FEW REASONS WHY
...
YOU CAN'T BUY A
.,
FINER TELEVISION CAMERA
..AT
ANY PRICE
.:
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Highly portable. Easy to handle. Uses conventional camera cable.
1a
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Time for full range, 3 seconds accuracy of setting
i- 0.25 lens stop
Horizontal' drive, 4 volts -- 0.5 volts; Vertical drive,
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SAR KES `_ TAR
BROADCAST EQUIPMENT DIVISION
Z
BLOOMINGTON,
Circle Item 17 on Tech Data Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
IAN
INDIANA
"
The Commission has provided that importation of distant
signals which was established in top 100 markets on or before
February 15, 1966 need not be discontinued. Proposals to
bring in new signals, however, will require a hearing, and
the Commission will also consider on an individual basis the
extension of lines by existing CATV systems into new locations.
Effects of the Rules
The Commission's newly established requirements can best
be summed up by stating that CATV systems in smaller
markets are essentially unaffected by the new regulations. To
be sure, the carriage and nonduplication requirements are
applied for the first time to CATV systems not employing
microwave, but there appear to have been few instances where
CATV systems had not of their own accord already undertaken such measures. Concerning the top 100 markets, however, the Commission's order essentially imposes a "freeze"
on CATV expansion. In these markets, the carriage of local
stations may be undertaken without Commission permission,
but one of the most attractive features offered by CATV
systems proposing operation in the larger markets has been
program fare not available locally.
Reaction
FOCUS ON
QUALITY
CLETRON, manufacturer of Orthicon and Vidicon
Deflection Components for Commercial and Military
applications offers you quality-engineered products and
services that have been incorporated as standards in
the country's leading manufacturing companies of Television Camera Equipment.
The Commission's action has raised the expected hue and
cry on Capitol Hill, and several bills on the subject have
been introduced. These range from proposals which essentially
nullify the Commission's action to proposals giving the Commission specific authority for CATV regulation. Some of these
extend well beyond the steps which the Commission has already
taken. Of particular interest is the matter of CATV program
origination. The broadcasters are asking for absolute prohibitions against origination of any kind, and CATV operators
are insisting that a CATV origination may be a new, or even
an only, outlet for local self-expression. The regulations are
silent with respect to CATV program origination, but the
Commission has asked for Congressional guidance on the
point.
The reaction of CATV operators and broadcasters to the
Commission's action is varied. Many CATV operators have
asked for exceptions to various provisions of the new rules,
thus tacitly acknowledging the Commission's assertion of
jurisdiction. A substantial number of applications for exceptions have already been received, and more are arriving daily.
Some broadcasters have appealed the Commission's decision
to the courts as being insufficiently restrictive on CATV. Other
broadcasters have petitioned the Commission to enforce its
regulations against CATV systems which allegedly have engaged in a wild scramble to construct or extend systems in
great haste to circumvent the new regulations.
The CATV "question" is not yet fully answered. BROADCAST
ENGINEERING will stay on top of developments and keep you
posted as they occur.
Table
1.
Calculated Distances to Coverage Contours
(Using 1F50,501 Curves in FCC Rules)
Chs 2-6, 100 kw (20 dbk) ERP
Effective Antenna Height
Write today for additional technical
literature, drawings and engineering
specifications on the complete line
of Cletron Deflection Components.
Countour
500
ft
1000 ft
2000 ft
Principal City
20mi
28mi
41 mi
Grade
A
26
37
50
Grade
B
57
70
Chs 7-13, 316 kw (25 dhk) ERP
Quality products by Cletron ..
Manufacturers of Deflection Components, Custom
Transformers and Sound Reproducing Devices...
.
CLEVELAND ELECTRONICS, INC.
Principal City
27 mi
Grade
A
Grade
B
31
51
38 mi
45
52
64
80
mi
61
Chs 14-83. 1000 kw (30 (Mk) ERP
Principal City
24mi
34mi
47 mi
Grade
Grade
A
32
43
B
47
59
5b
75
1974 East 61st Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44103, U.S.A.
Circle Item 16 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
50
www.americanradiohistory.com
June 1966
We interrupt this magazine to bring you...
Late Bulletin from Washington
by Howard T. Head
New Clear -Channel Proposals Expected Soon
After two years of study, the Commission is expected to act soon on eight
pending proposals filed by Class I -A clear -channel stations for operation
At issue
with powers ranging from 500 kw to 750 kw (July, 1964 Bulletin).
is the ultimate use to be made of the 24 U.S. Class I -A clear channels,
reserved by treaty for the exclusive nighttime use of single stations
operating with powers of not less than 50 kw.
The Commission has already provided for the assignment of a single Class
Each of these new stations
II -A station to each of 12 clear channels.
must operate with at least 10 kw power, and must provide nighttime service
In breaking down
to areas not now receiving primary service at night.
these 12 channels, the Commission reserved judgment on the remaining 12,
postponing until a future date a decision as to whether to permit the
clear -channel stations to increase power above 50 kw, or to open up these
channels to new full-time and daytime -only stations.
Substitute for CATV Trunk Cables to Be Tested
The Commission has authorized the testing of experimental equipment which
promises to eliminate the necessity for a substantial amount of CATV
CATV franchise holders have stated that
trunk cabling in New York City.
the laying of trunk cables in the city, where only underground wiring is
permitted, would be extremely expensive, and that added construction might
result in substantial disruption of traffic.
The system to be tested involves 5 -watt operation in the 18 gHz band over
A novel feature of the system is that
paths up to five miles in length.
the entire band from 54 mHz to 216 mHz, including all television and FM
carriers, as well as any other signals present, will be amplitude modulated
on the 18 gHz carrier, with the carrier and lower sideband being suppressed.
By substituting television picture signals in the portions of the 54 mHz
to 216 mHz band ordinarily used for other purposes, such a system could
conceivably have an ultimate capacity of over 25 individual television
channels.
Date Extended for Filing CATV Data
The Commission has extended from April 18, 1966, to an indefinite future
www.americanradiohistory.com
date the requirement that all CATV systems file data with respect to technical characteristics and ownership.
According to the Notice announcing
the postponement, CATV systems will now be required to file the specified
data only after a suitable form has been drawn up and approved for the
purpose.
The new required filing date will be 30 days after the publication
of the form in the Federal Register.
In the meantime, since the adoption of new Rules providing for regulation
of all CATV systems (see page 32 of this issue), the Commission has been
deluged with filings of all sorts by numerous parties.
Efforts are being
made to dispose of various pleadings and protests as promptly as possible,
but it is becoming apparent that the volume of such filings has far exceeded that expected by the FCC.
New Vacancy at FCC
Chairman E. William Henry of Tennessee, appointed FCC Commissioner and
later Chairman by the late President John F. Kennedy, has resigned.
Senior
Commissioner Rosel H. Hyde, an Idaho Republican, has been named Acting
Chairman.
The usual Washington speculation has begun concerning Chairman Henry's
successor on the Commission.
The rumors include the names of various
engineers, although the Commission has been without an engineer among its
ranks since the retirement of Commissioner T. A. M. Craven in 1963.
Many
observers feel that the presence of an engineer among the Commissioners
is more important now than it has been for many years in view of the increasing number of new and novel technical problems facing the Commission,
such as those in space communication and CATV.
Short Circuits
A bill has been introduced in the House of Representatives providing for
the operation of daytime -only AM stations from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m...
The requirement for code -wheel identification has been eliminated for 1 watt VHF television translators...The Commission has proposed to require
prior coordination with the Agriculture and Interior Departments of proposals for the installation of radio transmitting facilities on land under
the control of these Departments; this land includes many high elevations
particularly suitable for FM and television broadcasting...An agreement
has been signed extending the standard broadcast treaty (which now expires
in June, 1966) between the United States and Mexico until December 31, 1967,
subject to the approval of the legislatures of both countries (see April,
1966 Bulletin)... The Commission's proposed new FM and television propagation curves have been further revised (February, 1966 Bulletin)... The
American Telephone & Telegraph Company has been ordered to place all CATV
tariffs on file with the Commission.
Howard
T.
Head...in Washington
www.americanradiohistory.com
even on
the windiest
corner
of the
windy
city
...this
microphone
needs no
external
windscreen
Shure's remarkable new SM50 omnidirectional dynamic
microphone is SELF-WINDSCREENED! It is strikingly immune to wind noises and explosive breath sounds-making
it ideal as a dependable "workhorse" microphone for remote
interviews, news, sports pick-ups and a variety of field and
studio applications. The five -element built-in windscreen
makes it virtually pop -proof in close talking situations. And
unlike other "built-in" windscreens, this one is "unitized"
and self-contained with no bits or pieces to re -assemble
after cleaning. In fact, you can actually rinse dirt, saliva,
lipstick and other screen -clogging foreign matter out of
the windscreen assembly under running water as often as
needed-or replace the "unitized" assembly if necessary
in a matter of seconds.
Additionally, the SM50 is the cleanest sounding professional microphone at anywhere near its price class. It delivers highly intelligible, natural and pleasing speech and
vocal music that is especially full-bodied and rich in the
critical mid -range.
It is extremely rugged and will require little or no down time
as the years go by. Too, when comparing it to other moderately priced omnidirectionals, it is lighter in weight,
supremely well-balanced for "handability," has a detachable cable, and a rubber mounted cartridge for minimizing
handling noises. The SM50 is worthy of your most serious
consideration.
For additional information, write directly to Mr. Robert Carr,
Manager of Professional Products Division, Shure Brothers,
Inc., 222 Hartrey Avenue, Evanston, Illinois.
SM50
OMNIDIRECTIONAL DYNAMIC MICROPHONE
SHURE STATION-TESTED AUDIO CIRCUITRY EQUIPMENT
Shure stereo equalizer and preamplifiers are praised as MAJOR
contributions to upgrading station quality by broadcasters.
SE -1 Stereo Transcrip-
M66 Broadcast
Provides precise RIAA equalization from magnetic phono reproducers at line. levels. Separate
high and low, frequency response
trimmers. Lowest distortion, noise
level, susceptibility to stray RF
fields.
Passive equalizer compensates
recorded frequency to three
tion Preamplifier
Stereo Equalizer
playback characteristics: RIAA,
flat, roll -off. Provides precise
equalization from magnetic
pickup at microphone input
level.
Circle Item 19 on Tech Data Card
53
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
ANOTHER
LITTLE
ENGINEERS'
BLACK
BOX
ffl
EXCHANGE
ffl
FROM
NM
IMO
Emergency
Beacon -Flasher Repair
by Henly McElveen, Jr.
WJOT, Lake City, South Carolina
When lightning struck, our beacon flasher stopped
flashing because the motor had been destroyed. The
manufacturer informed us that it would be some time
before the motor could be replaced, so we decided to
"jury-rig" a temporary flasher.
Unable to find a suitable motor coil, we determined
that a 117 V AC solenoid could furnish the coil. The
solenoid coil core diameter, however, was too large, so
we shimmed the core with laminations from the solenoid core. This made a better fit and improved magnetic
coupling. Because the motor now generated too much
heat, we put a fifty -watt light bulb in series with the
motor, and the entire assembly was reinstalled in the
tower -base housing.
After six months, a genuine replacement arrived, but
our temporary flasher had worked continuously all the
time. It was necessary to adjust the cam speed control
to obtain a flashing rate between 36 and 40 times per
minute, but the unit has otherwise been satisfactory.
FOR COLOR
A NEW
LAP AMPLIFIER
FEATURES:
VELVETY -SMOOTH TRANSITIONS
GUARANTEED INHERENT TRACKING
HI-PERFORMANCE DA SPECS
Mr. McElveen's ingenuity wins the
hook prize for this month. Have you
sent in your ideas for Engineers' Exchange?
ELIMINATION OF CLAMPING
FAULTLESS COLOR RENDITION
IDEAL UNIT FOR COLOR SWITCHING SYSTEMS
Audio Killer for
Antenna -Current Readings
* DUAL OUTPUTS
BRIDGING INPUTS
Melvon G. Hart, Technical Director
WIL, St. Louis
KBOX, Dallas
* LOCAL AND REMOTE CONTROL
* ALL SILICON SEMICONDUCTORS
* UNUSUAL PRICING-$555.00
FEATURE FOR FEATURE, THERE IS NOTHING COMPARABLE
ON TODAY'S MARKET.
FCC Rules require that antenna-base and common point currents be read without modulation. At stations
with a tight top-40 format, this is practically impossible
unless some method is provided to remove modulation
when the meter is read.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
b0
PATCH
PANEL
CALL OR WRITE
SINGLE CONDUCTOR
TOWER
APPLIED ELECTRO MECHANICS, INC.
2350 Duke Street
Alexandria, Va. 22314
i
TRANSMITTER
-0
a
r
AUDIO INPUT
TOWER
2,[°
o-
I AMP
TOWER 3
12V
703-548-2166
o
TOWER 4
I-O
C
11NAC
v
Circle Item 20 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
54
www.americanradiohistory.com
J
A
NI
PR O
TURNSTILE ANTENNAS
COMPLETELY ASSEMBLED AND
'TESTED FOR YOUR SPECIFIC USE
PRIOR TO SHIPMENT.
VHF
Jampro makes antenna effectiveness a certainty with advanced
-plant
test meth3ds: and a thorough knowledge of your coverage aeq iirements.
Moose f -or- a wide range of gains as well as these Jampro exclusive
features'
Every high powered Jan-pra Anenna con7/e'' cable
for years of trouble -free ape-ation, even
in corrosive environment;
tains copper jacketed inter bey
L
All cable connectors are solid brass with
TEFLON insulation.
A wide range of power Eti
1, vJ 1
able from 2.5. KW pe [=tom Eiji) UrD lU.227
power L Series, and 20 `v GX42(597
tür4
high power
BEAM TILTItVG & NULL FILL AT
DE-ICERS:
1
H
Series.''
N0 ADDITIONAL COST!
will be installed_ at NO ADDITIONAL COS': tche
chased with the antenna.
ACCESSORIES:
i
1)1,r-
Harmonic Filters Go -axial transmission line Steel
Support towers Tower lighting kits Hybric,° Diplexers
De -leers
ANTENNA COMPANY
6939 POWER INN ROAD
Circle Item 21 on
(Tech
SACRAMENTO. CAL FORMA
Data Card
55
June, 15,36
www.americanradiohistory.com
At WIL in St. Louis and KBOX
in Dallas, a simple,. foolproof system is in use. A momentary -contact
push-button switch is installed next
KEEP TOMORROW'S
NEEDS IN MIND
TODAY WITH DELAR
F
PJI
tq c? N T
I
tJ l2
to each antenna tuning unit. This
button controls a DPDT relay in
the audio rack. The relay shorts the
audio input to the transmitter, and
allows the operator to make an accurate reading with minimum program interruption.
Since WIL is operated by remote
control, the relay contacts are routed through the patch panel so that
a malfunction will not cause program outage. A simple diode demodulator is used at each antenna
tuning unit to monitor the program
so that an appropriate time for killing audio can be selected.
"reliable
profit makers"
REMOTE PICK-UP SYSTEM
We have several Automatic Tape
Control cartridge machines, and in
order to make the "stop" cue sensitivity adjustable, we made the following changes: Change R224 and
R225 to 47 ohms. Add a 100-ohm
variable resistor between R223 and
r1LJ
EQUIPMENT
Modification to
Cartr;dge Tape Machines
Shelby H. Bristow
Chief Engineer
WFRO, Fremont, Ohio
AD D ON
BROADCAST
Unequaled 160 me/s performance
for quality broadcasting
-f_ 1.5 db 50-10,000 cps.
1.6% max. distortion
PBR-21
El
1.1111.1111100/111
ZIMIZIMIBB11111111
{,
SCHEMATIC BEFORE
REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEMS
For AM -TV -FM via single AC phone line or STL
Push -Button
21 Channels
Silicon Solid -State
PCL-2B
950 mc;'s
The Belar ADD-ON MONITORING SYSTEM allows the broadcaster to fulfill his monitoring
requirements as the needs arise.
The basic unit is the FMM-1 Frequency and Modulation Monitor
for monaural use, and when requirements call for SCA, add the
plug in SCAM -1 SCA unit. For
stereo the FMS -1 Stereo unit
completes the system.
R224
R225
1204
680
AURAL STL
For AM, FM, Stereo and TV
0.5 db 50-15,000 cps
Less than 1% distortion
Provision for SCA Multiplex,
Remete Control and
+12VDC
Order Circuits
SCHEMATIC AFTER
B+
OSELEY
100Q
Today's monitoring requirements make this system
a
ASSOCIATES, INC.
must.
R224
R225
470
4752
BELAR
ELECTRONICS LAB.
1204 Childs Avenue
Drexel Hill, Pa.
+12VDC
135 NOGAL DRIVE
SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA
(805) 967-0424
Circle Item 22 on Tech Data Card
Circle Item 23 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
56
www.americanradiohistory.com
This is television's first UHF
super gain zig -zag antenna.
Overmyer Communications Company just ordered 3 of them.
General Electric's new super gain antennas,
seriesTY-97-A for channels 14 to 83, offer you
an almost unlimited choice of directional
patterns. The standard omnidirectional version
has a power gain of 44.5-with 20% null fill-in
and 0.75° beam tilt.
You also get these new
Simplified deicing systemdeicing current passed through radiator.
Plus separate feedpoint deicers.
All Zig -Zag radiators grounded for lightning
protection.
Factory tested-no field tuning required.
The antenna shown here is 1 of 3 purchased by
Overmyer Communications. It's for
channel 24, and has a directional pattern giving
a maximum power gain ratio of 131.3.
features:
Single or dual line feed.
With dual line feed, antenna can be
sectionalized for standby and/or emergency
operation at full rated power.
Rated power input 60 -KW black level plus
aural power -120 -KW for dual line feed.
Height, depending on channel, 63.5 ft. to
102 ft. less lightning protector.
Low impedance-no high voltage points.
Simplified electrical and mechanical design
for high reliability and low maintenance.
get complete details on General Electric's
new super gain antennas, call your G -E
To
broadcasting representative.
General Electric Company,
Visual Communications Products, 7-315,
Electronics Park, Syracuse, N.Y. 13201
GENERAL
GE -31
ELECTRIC
Circle Item 24 on Tech Data Card
57
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
Advanced, Solid State
Super B Series
MEETS OR EXCEEDS ALL NAB SPECIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
R225, connect the center tap to the
cathode (pin 8) of V204, and adjust for maximum usable sensitivity. This can be determined easily
because the oversensitive point will
not allow the "ready" light to come
on after the machine has been
stopped by a cue tone. Adding this
pot makes the effective bias on
V204 (2nd half of 12AT7) variable. Physically, this pot can be
mounted just back of V203 on the
cue amplifier module.
About one year ago, all of our
ATC playback machines were revised in this way. Subsequently,
cartridges have invariably stopped
on cue.
Interrupting Failsafe
for EBS Tests
Raymond J. Millmaker
Chief Engineer
WMIX AM -FM
Mt. Vernon, Illinois
Here is a method for interrupting
And Here's the New
Economy King
COMPACT 400-A
Don't let their low price fool you.
New, solid state SPOTMASTER
Compact 400's are second only to
the Super B series in performance
and features. Available in both playback and record -playback versions,
these Compact models share the
traditional SPOTMASTER emphasis on rugged dependability.
Top Quality
Tape Cartridges
Superior SPOTMASTER tape cartridges are available in standard
timings from 20 seconds to 31 minutes, with special lengths loaded
on request. In addition, Broadcast
Electronics offers a complete selection of blank cartridges, cartridges
for delayed programming and heavy
duty lubricated bulk tape. Prices
are modest, with no minimum order
required.
Introducing the Super B, today's
truly superior cartridge tape
equipment.
New Super B series has
models to match every
programming need-recordplayback and playback -only,
compact and rack -mount.
Completely solid state, handsome
Super B equipment features
functional new styling and ease
of operation, modular design,
choice of 1, 2 or 3 automatic
electronic cueing tones, separate
record and play heads. A -B
monitoring, biased cue recording,
triple zener controlled power
supply, transformer output ...
all adding up to pushbutton
broadcasting at its finest.
Super B specs and performance
equal or exceed NAB standards.
Our ironclad one-year guarantee
shows you how much we think
of these great new machines.
Write, wire or call for complete
details on these and other
cartridge tape units (stereo, too)
and accessories ... from
industry's largest, most
comprehensive line, already
serving more than 1,500 stations
on six continents.
1.21-11=
BROADCAST
ELECTRONICS, INC.
8800 Brookville Rd., Silver Spring, Md.
JU 8-4983
Area Code 301
Circle Item 25 on Tech Data Card
transmitter carrier for EBS tests,
using the failsafe circuit.
We have installed a normally
closed push-button switch near the
control -room operator's position.
When the operator depresses the
button, one side of the failsafe circuit is opened. This, in turn, opens
the "hold" relay in the transmitter
control unit, which subsequently
opens the transmitter interlocks,
thus killing the carrier. Releasing
the button restores carrier.
Alternately depressing and releasing the switch at prescribed intervals simplifies the operator's task
of fulfilling EBS test and alert requirements. The connections would
have to be adapted, of course, to the
particular remote-control unit used.
Telephone -Line
Modification
by Walter L. Moring
Engineer, WCSC-TV
Charleston, S. C.
Have you ever been plagued by
the station manager about the quality of incoming phone calls that are
used on the air? Telephone quality
can be improved considerably with
the addition of a 3-mfd oil -filled capacitor in each side of the line. The
audio quality is excellent, a lot of
residual noise is elminated, the
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
58
www.americanradiohistory.com
New
E -V
Model 668 Dynamic
Cardioid Boom Microphone
with built-in
programming panel!
micro-
It's just like
one, at the end of your
phones
eboom! Simply match the computer -style
having
36
in
programming pins to the color -coded
jack field inside the new E -V668. You'll
get any combination of flat response
(40 to 12,000 cps), bass and/or treble
rolloff, treble rise, and 80 or 8,000 cps
cutoff. The 668 built-in passive equalizer
matches response to need precisely without loss in output level-mixes perfectly
with any other microphone.
The 668 cardioid pattern is symmetrical
in every plane with excellent rear cancel-
lation at every program setting. Two independent Continuously Variable-D*systems
provide this uniformity, yet permit high
output (-51 dbm) for distant pickup
without added equipment or special cables.
Light in weight and small in size, the
668 with integral AcoustifoamTM windscreen and shock mount minimizes shadow
problems while allowing noise-free fast
panning, indoors and out. Its lb., 11 oz.
weight eliminates "fishpole fatigue" and
counterbalancing problems.
1
The 668 is guaranteed UNCONDITIONALLY against malfunction of any kindeven if caused by accident or abuse-for
two years. And, like all E -V Professional
microphones, it's guaranteed for life
against failure of materials or workmanship.
The E -V 668 is the result of a three year
intensive field testing program in movie
and TV studios from coast to coast. It has
proved itself superior to every other boom
microphone available. Find out why with
a no cost, no obligation trial in your studio.
Call your E -V Professional microphone
distributor today, or write us direct for
complete specifications.
I MODEL 667A Identical to Model 668 except sharp cutoff
filters and HF-rolloff eliminated. List price: Model 667A,S345.00;
NEW
Model 668, $495.00 (less normal trade discounts).
* Patent No. 3115207 covers the exclusive E -V
Continuously Variable-D design.
ELECTRO -VOICE, INC., Dept. EV115
638 Cecil Street, Buchanan, Michigan 49107
Ekeee-
act:
SETTING NEW STANDARDS IN SOUND
Circle (fern 26 on Tech Data Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
59
NEWS OF THE INDUSTRY
BM
NATIONAL
Daytime Broadcasters
Association Meets
The Daytime Broadcasters Association met in Chicago just before the
NAB Convention to discuss critical
issues facing daytime broadcasters.
Issues demanding urgent attention
were cited as minimum fixed operat-
Scata
*
*
*
s
ing hours and the Mexico-U.S. Broadcast Agreement, which expires on
June 9, 1966. Members were told
that of 4,052 Standard AM broadcast licensees, 1,938 (or 48%) broadcast only during daylight hours.
Members were urged to contact
congressmen regarding the introduction of minimum 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Precision Antennas
OFF -THE -AIR PICKUP-FM or TV
LOW POWER UHF, VHF TV TRANSMITTING
STL AND TELEMETERING ANTENNAS
Engineered to meet rigid FM and TV station specifications,
and to endure the tests of weather and time.
Built to your specifications by
San Leandro 1,
Calif.
94577
Area 415-351.3792
Circle Item 58 on Tech Data Card
Available locally from
GAB Convention
The 31st Annual Summer Convention of the Georgia Association of
LIKE
your distributor... NOW!
DIOGENES
NORTRONICS
We are looking for honest,
competent First Class en-
8000 SERIES
PROFESSIONAL
REPLACEMENT HEADS!
Full Track, 2 Track or 4 Track in Record, Playback or Erase
Heads as well as 3 or 4 Channel Heads in Record or Playback
..
AMPEX, MAGNECORD, CONCERTONE, RCA, CROWN
Now you can reduce "downtime" by using Nortronics replacement heads-
available locally and immediately from your distributor! Pick the head
and track style YOU want from Nortronics' full professional line. After
initial changeover, replace heads or convert track styles in minutes! Precision engineered adapters and mounting brackets let YOU make the initial
let YOU service your recorders according to your needs.
changeover
...
See your distributor today. Write
Other matters of discussion were
the problems faced by over 1,000
communities who suffer post -sundown
radio blackouts, the circumstances
which led to the allocation of only
six local Class IV channels out of
a total of 107 channels available, and
the implications of proposed 750-kw
operation by some stations.
1970 Republic Ave.
SCALA RADIO CORP.
Types for
operating hours bills, to actively participate in congressional hearings,
and to urge association participation
in forthcoming Agreement negotiations. The meeting was told that
portions of the Agreement prevent
granting of extended operating hours,
and that some 272 U.S. daytime
operations use seven Mexican clear
channel frequencies. Members were
also told that since little time remains before the Agreement's expiration date, the Association recommended acceptance of an extension of the
present document, for one year only,
in order that more negotiation could
be achieved.
for full details! Or call 612-545-0401,
-
See Us at the 1966 New
Show Booth
2425
Circle Item 32 on Tech Data Card
62
gineers who seek a happy
home where their talents
will be appreciated. We offer: good salary, stability,
good working environment
where you can accomplish
things under sympathetic
management, profit-sharing
plan and other benefits,
company growth potential
in AM & CATV.
Personal interview essential.
Near Philadelphia
P.O. Box 156
BROADCAST
ENGINEERING
Circle Item 31 on Tech Uota Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcasters will be held from June
25 to June 28 at the Carriage Inn,
Jekyll Island, Georgia. The meeting
will highlight the first state association
address by FCC Commissioner James
J. Wadsworth. Other features will include engineering and management
lectures and conferences. Of special
interest will be the "Miss See
Georgia" Pageant, a number of banquets, and social activities for the ladies and children.
ager, WJOY, Burlington, Vt.; Julian F.
Haas, president and manager, KAGH,
Crossett, Ark.; John Hurlbut, president and general manager, WVMC,
Mt. Carmel Ill.; John W. Jacobs, president and general manager, WDUN,
Gainesville, Ga.; Ted A. Smith, vicepresident and general manager, KU MA, Pendleton, Ore.; Robert E.
Thomas, vice-president and general
manager, WJAG, Norfolk, Neb.
Expands Burbank Plant
Radio Corporation of America has
begun construction of an addition to
its Burbank, Calif., plant to house
expanded production facilities needed
to meet increased demands for the
RCA line of closed-circuit television
equipment.
Gordon W. Bricker, manager, West
Coast operation, for the RCA Broadcast and Communications Products
Division, said the structure would contain approximately 8000 square feet
A contract to supply video distribution equipment for installation at
Apollo Launch Complex 39 at Ken-
of floor space and would boost the
plant's total work area by more than
25%.
Studies
Personnel Problems
NAB
The Small Market Radio Committee
of the National Association of Broadcasters focused on the problem of recruiting and qualifying station personnel at the group's initial meeting.
The Committee, composed of seven
executives from stations in markets of
less than 100,000 population, was established to recommend programs and
activities especially valuable to smaller
radio stations
To help solve the station employment problem, the Committee recommended that: (1.) State broadcaster
associations ask the FCC to send
inspectors to each annual state meeting to conduct third-class radio -license
examinations for station personnel and
be on hand to answer questions on
technical rules. (2.) The NAB staff
continue to seek more convenient sites
for giving these examinations. (3.)
Contacts be made with the American
Association of Junior Colleges to
encourage the establishment of broadcasting courses at junior and community colleges. (4.) The NAB staff
prepare a manual on organizing broadcasting clubs at high schools. (5;)
Educational groups and schools be
encouraged to include broadcasting in
high school career-day programs.
Members of the Committee are Raymond A. Plank, owner, WKLA,
Ludington, Mich., and a member of
NAB's Radio Board of Directors,
chairman; Frank Balch, general man-
Contract For Apollo
TV System
nedy Space Flight Center has been
awarded to DYNAIR Electronics, Inc.
The equipment is to be part of a
multi -million -dollar closed-circuit television system to be used to monitor
preflight and launch activites for
NASA's manned lunar flights. The
equipment is being supplied under a
subcontract to the Convair Division of
General Dynamics.
Gains Distributorship
Visual Electronics Corp. has been
appointed national distributor for the
broadcast industry in the U.S. for
Solari direct -reading clocks and automatic "Teleindicator" units used to
display election returns; weather data;
and scores for bowling, football, baseball, and quiz shows. These clocks
and display indicators are designed
for use in radio, TV, closed-circuit,
educational TV, and the military area
of broadcasting.
New Teaching Tool
Triangle Stations have unveiled a
new approach to education using FM
multiplex channels. Developed by Educasting Systems, Inc., the system uses
taped lectures and supplementary texts
prepared by International Correspondence Schools.
The technique consists of lectures
and questions incorporated into a
four -track tape. The student has a
choice of four answers which correspond to four buttons on a special
multiplex receiver. Each button activates a specific multiplex channel
which indicates right or wrong answers. If wrong, the right answer is
given with an explanation of the error. Preliminary courses, to cost the
student $50, will include the multiplex receiver.
A pilot course on business management will be given to 100 selected
Philadelphia students starting in June.
The course will last ten weeks and
contain about 30 lecture hours. The
FM station will be Triangle's Philadelphia outlet, WFIL-FM. Triangle also
holds the national franchise, and will
lease the service to interested FM
stations.
Powerful Broadcasting Station
A contract was signed recently for
the supply and installation of broadcasting equipment which will give
Kuwait one of the most powerful
broadcasting stations in the world. The
contract, with the Ministry of Guidance and Information, covers three
Marconi high -power transmitters,
which will provide the Voice of Kuwait with medium -frequency program
transmissions giving extensive coverage of the Middle Eastern countries.
Each transmitter has an output of 750
kilowatts. This is nearly twice the
power of the 200 -kHz Light Program
transmitter of the BBC at Droitwich,
the most powerful national service in
Britain.
Engineers from the company will
install and commission the three transmitters, and the contract also provides
for training six Kuwaiti engineers in
the operation and maintenance of the
transmitters.
CATV Ruling Protested
The National Association of Broadcasters has urged the FCC to modify
its proposed CATV rules to give all
commercial television stations greater
protection against the importation of
distant signals and the duplication of
network and film programs.
The Association emphasized its
support of the FCC's basic approach
in the CATV controversy, but said it
felt the rules were only halfway measures. NAB's recommendations for revision were contained in a petition for
partial reconsideration. The petition
urged that importation of distant signals be restricted to all TV marketsnot just the top 100-and should include Grade B contours as well as
Grade A. Also, restriction should be
based on a general rule and not case by -case. Other points in the petition
concerned return to the old 15 -day
rule for network programs and up to
one year of protection for first -run
feature and syndicated films.
MOVING?
Don't
Lose Touch
..
.
Receive BE as usual at your new address
Write: BROADCAST ENGINEERING
Circulation Department
4300 West 62nd St., Indianapolis 6, Ind.
63
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
Simulated Satellìite TV Relay
tion undergoing final tests before being used in a National Aeronautics
and Space Administration satellite
communications project.
The 40 -ft antenna, capable of
tracking medium-attitude satellites at
6,000 miles and synchronous satellites at 22.300 miles with an accuracy of 0.015°, will transmit and receive information from all five satellites in the NASA project.
The antenna system employs a
cryogenic low -noise, high -gain ampli -
A demonstration of how television
programs will be beamed to and from
orbiting spacecraft as part of a program to explore satellite stabilization
and space communication techniques
was conducted by Sylvania Electric
Products Inc., a subsidiary of General Telephone & Electronics Corp.
The taped telecast was transmitted to
and from a simulated satellite by
means of a 40 -ft dish antenna which
is part of a transportable ground sta-
CARTRIDGE
12A
/"7"
Guaraaleed to Ercse Completely in 3 wands
fier. The system includes a combina-
tion of maser and parametric amplifiers. Both are operated in the same refrigeration unit, the master at 4.2° K,
and the parametric amplifier at 10° K.
In the demonstration, a TV program
was beamed from the ground station
to Sylvania's antenna test range onehalf-mile away. A boresight facility
at the range simulated a satellite's performance by accepting the TV signal,
changing the frequency, and then
transmitting the signal back to the
ground station where it was picked up
by the station's receivers. The frequency change permits the station to
transmit and receive signals simultaneously. The same procedure would
be followed in actual operation with
an orbiting satellite.
/
Det.i ued specifica1. fo- tape cartriiges.
Alt®-i ib}y NO sourit carry over from ]revious
recordings. Handler all îartridge sires.
Ak. eel tapes up tc 1(Y2 inches. En*re
pro.:e3s takes only seconds. Prim $3J.50
=PA RTA
ELECTkONIr
CORPOkA IGN
5851
V
florin-=erkins Rd.
Sacramento, California 95828
Phon?. (916) 432.5353
Circle Item 35 on Tech Data Card
EXTRA LIFE
FOR YOUR CARTRIDGES!
F
S
Y M C
RO
N
1
SOLID STATE
Properly serviced cartridges
PERFORM BETTER -LAST LONGER
It's Easy and ECONOMICAL
DELIVERY IS FAST
PROVE IT TO YOURSELF...
CONDENSER
MICROPHONE
Send your worn cartridges to JOA
for individual professional treatment.
-JOA will inspect, service and reload your cartridges with ANY
LENGTH
(/
FET
r%CfiT/ Gl GTiLlieV
circuitry eliminates ex:erna power supply
Permanen-ly solarized
Pcwered by 111104hour batter/
Frequercy Response: 40-29,300 Hz
Pressure gradi It Mylar diaphraam Carioid Pattern 20 db discriminaficn
No overload protection reeded
Low noise (less titer 23 db)
High output (-53 dbm)
Convector s en -off switch
Beautiful satin
rickel finish Orly 9 ounces with battery Full accessory Tine Wind
screen Elastí srspensior Omit stand Fully guaranteed $240 comrlete (with battery, case, swivel mount, 2C feet of cable) Made in U.S.A.
SYNCRfihN CORPORATION
WALLINQFORD, CONN., U. S. A.
Circle Item 34 on Tech Data Card
tape
NO MINIMUM
NO EXTRA CHARGE
for replacement of minor parts
ALL cartridges PRETESTED under
actual broadcast conditions
48 -HOUR processing
If you need new cartridges fast. JOA
will ship immediately, from stock, any
size Fidelipac cartridge you may need.
JOA-the cartridge service of authority-serving the broadcast industry
phone or write
Cartridge Service
JOA
P. 0. Box 3087,
Philadelphia. Pa. 19150
Area Code 215. TUrner 6.7993
Circle item 36 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
64
www.americanradiohistory.com
Eliminated by Revere-Mincom
Dropout Compensator...
Due to the shorter wave length and lower tip projection employed in
Hi -band VTR, dropout problems are 5 or 6 times more prevalent than
those encountered in low -band recording. These distracting white
flashes destroy otherwise prime program content and good, clean video
signals.
The Revere-Mincom Dropout Compensator restores the clarity and sparkle of Hi-band/Color VTR by detecting the dropouts as they occur and
replacing the "lost" signal with stored information from the previous
scan line of the same field.
Moderately priced, the Dropout Compensator features maintenance free, solid-state circuitry, standard rack mounting and compatibility
with all VTR equipment.
Rescue old tapes. Insure optimum playback quality in new COLOR/HIBAND recordings. Save money by eliminating unproductive engineering
evaluation time and unnecessary wear on expensive recorder heads and
VTR equipment.
Call or write today for a demonstration of the remarkable Dropout
Compensator.
Revere mincom
Division
Ein
=PAW
300 S. Lewis Rd., Camarillo, California
(805) 482.1911
Riker Industries
Huntington Station,
L. I., N. Y.
(516) HA 1.3444
Circle Item 37 on Tech Data Card
65
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
NOW! GIVE YOUR FM STATION
100%a MODULATION CAPABILITY
WITH THE FAIRCHILD CONAX!
Now! The FAIRCHILD CONAX enables FM radio stations to increase
their signal strength and apparent loudness potential by the effective control of high frequencies which cause trouble when pre -emphasized. High
frequencies add sparkle and "bite" to program material and pre -emphasis
improves signal-to-noise ratios. When the two are combined, however, it
often becomes necessary to decrease the station's power to eliminate over -
modulation possibilities.
How can high frequencies, which normally contain less energy than mid
or low frequencies, cause trouble when pre -emphasis is applied? Simple!
High frequency information, such as the jingling of keys, the sharp "s", the
muted trumpet, cymbals, or other high frequency sounds, often become high
frequency "spikes" when pre-emphasized thereby exceeding the FCC 100%
modulation limitation. By making high frequency information "spike -free"
(through the use of inaudible super fast
attack and release times) the FAIRCHILD
CONAX now allows the use of the full high
frequency pre -emphasis curve.
HERE'S A STEP-BY-STEP GRAPHIC ANALYSIS
OF THE FAIRCHILD CONAX IN ACTION ...
FIG A- Normal program material with program
information distributed in mid range -500
to 5000 cycles.
FIG B
Same program material pre-emphasized.
Still trouble -free.
FIG C
Program material with a high percentage
of high frequency material in its content
-such as found on today's records.
FIG D
Same high frequency program material
(hot) after pre -emphasis. Note high frequency "spikes" now exceed 100% of
-
FIG
E
-
*
FIG
A
FIG
B
FIG
C
The transportable ground station
includes three 40 -ft vans housing control equipment and a major portion
of the control electronics. The three
vans have removable walls which permit the units to be located side -by -side
as a single unit.
The telemetry and command
equipment that controls the satellite
is housed in a fourth van. The station's parabolic antenna can be dismantled and, with the support pedestal, can be transported in two flatbed
trailers, one of which carries the jacking equipment and boom crane necessary to erect the antenna. In addition,
the station includes two power vans
and five house -type trailers for office
and maintenance space.
PERSONALITIES
Ma BBB
ta
a s,
a It a
Earl Hickman has been named
president and general manager of
Ameco Engineering Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Ameco, Inc. The
new engineering service corporation,
headquartered in Phoenix, will have
more than 50 electronic and mechanical engineers on its staff. The organization will handle all research and development work for Ameco and its
other subsidiaries. AEC will also provide complete engineering research
and development service to outside
firms.
loo
/.
"D
FRED. KC
modulation.
Same program material now controlled by
the FAIRCHILD CONAX action.
Note even with pre -emphasis the lack.
of troublesome high frequency "spikes"
that normally would cause over -modulation.
The FAIRCHILD CONAX has an exclusive
patented preview circuit which applies a
standard pre -emphasis curve to any entering
100
signal. The patented FAIRCHILD CONAX freY.MOD
quency dividing and controlling network allows accurate and inaudible control only of
o
FRED. RC
10
IS
the troublesome high frequency "spikes".
This means you can transmit a signal with
FIG D
high average modulation level up to 3 db
higher, utilizing the full apparent loudness
possibilities of your rated power. In FM
stereo and SCA transmission, the FAIRCHILD
CONAX prevents splatter between the SCA
channel and the stereo channel, allowing you
to use both of these dollar producing signals
FIG E
to their fullest. Now full modulation capabilities can be realized without the danger of
FCC citation or any change in the transmitted sound of your signal. Now
FAIRCHILD CONAX gives your station that brighter and louder sound...
the sound that sells. AVAILABLE IN MONO OR STEREO COMPACT SIZE!
Write to FAIRCHILD
- the pacemaker in professional audio products - for complete details.
FA I R C H I L 0
NT
45th Ave., ULo gEIsland
1ECORDING
10-40
OC?yORANION
1,
Mr. Hickman was vice president
and general manager of the Kaiser
Aerospace and Electronics Plant in
Phoenix for the past eight years. He
is no newcomer to Ameco, where he
served as chief engineer during the
period from 1952 to 1957. Hickman
also has been active in broadcasting
since the early forties and was chief
engineer for the Gila Broadcasting
Circle Item 42 on Tech Data Card
66
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
www.americanradiohistory.com
How to climb aboard
the color bandwagon
easily, economically,
with RCA-4415/S,-4416/S
image orthicons...
Color TV is really rolling in high gear... And now, you may
be facing the question of creating a color facility-with
new studios, lighting, air conditioning and other equipment.
Being old-timers at color, we anticipated some of these
facility problems and developed the RCA-4415/ S, -4416/ S,
matched -set of three image orthicons. They perform
well in cameras for color at lighting levels usually available
in black -and-white studios and eliminate the need for
extra air conditioning equipment as well.
a
Another good feature of these tubes is that they behave
more like the old faithful 5820A or 7293A's that you have
been using in black and white during the past years. In the
color camera, they can stand more over -exposure and
are a little less finicky on the operating controls. For
example, when you have a suntanned actress working
in a gleaming white kitchen, you can operate with the
highlights fairly far above the image orthicon knee without
having the color picture going to pot.
We make up
Available From Your
RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor
carefully matched sets consisting of two
4415/S Image Orthicons for the red and green channels,
and one 4416/S Image Orthicon for the blue channel
where a lot of "umph" in blue sensitivity is needed. The
three mates of the set are matched to track very well and
produce a nice uniform color picture. In addition, the
sensitivities are balanced so that each tube is just about
working at its maximum sensitivity and you are not
throwing away extra light in the optical system to favor
one low sensitivity channel. The result is good color pick-up
at black -and-white studio lighting levels.
For further information about RCA Image Orthicons contact
your RCA Broadcast Tube Distributor.
RCA ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND DEVICES, HARRISON, N.J.
The Most Trusted Name in Electronics
www.americanradiohistory.com
LP's
LP's
LP's
LP's
LP's
MR. STATION OWNER:
Here is our answer to your problem,
LP's
Model GS0736
Shown
Model GS2412
-
24" wide
-
$69.50
Model GS3612
-
36" wide
-
$84.50
Model GS4812
-
48" wide
-
$99.50
Prices include Crating & Freight prepaid
by motor truck anywhere in U.S.A.
5% Discount if Check Accompanies Order
GRINNAN FIXTURE CO.
MINERVA, OHIO
LP's
LP's
LP's
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LP's
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Circle Item 39 on Tech Data Card
SPOTMASTER
PortaPak I
Cartridge
Playback Unit
Your time salesmen will
wonder how they ever
got along without itl
Completely self-con-
tained and self -powered, PortaPak offers
wide -range response, low distortion,
plays all sized cartridges anywhere and
anytime. It's solid state for rugged dependability and low battery drain, and
recharges overnight from standard 115v
ac line. Packaged in handsome stainless
steel with a hinged lid for easy maintenance, PortaPak weighs just 111 lbs.
Vinyl carrying case optional.
Write or wire for full information.
I
I
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
8800 Brookville Road
Silver Spring, Maryland
Company and for Radio Stations
KSUN and KAWT.
He holds an electrical engineering
degree from the University of Arizona.
William B. Carr has moved his firm
of consulting engineers, William B.
Carr & Associates, to the Walker
Building, 4028 Daley, Fort Worth,
Texas.
4-
812-
PROPERTY
--1.-l.--
16-
TRANSACTIONS
maw
Natco Communications, Inc. has
contracted, subject to FCC approval.
to buy Radio Station WTAC, Flint.
Michigan, from Whitehall Stations,
Inc. for a total consideration of $980,000. WTAC operates full-time with
1000 watts on 600 kHz.
This is the first station to be
brought into Natco Communications,
Inc., which was chartered in January
of this year. Plans are to diversify the
interests of the Pittsburgh company
through investments in the communications field. Natco Communications,
Inc. is headquartered in Augusta,
Georgia. J. B. Fuqua, Natco board
chairman and chief executive officer,
is also vice-president of the subsidiary.
Natco Corp. is the parent company.
Charles Speights, present Station
Manager of WTAC, will be general
manager under the new ownership.
As part of a proposed merger with
Polaris Corp. of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Natco would gain two additional
broadcasting properties, KXOA (AM FM), Sacramento, California, and
WTVW (TV), Evansville, Indiana.
The merger is expected to be submitted to the stockholders of both companies in the near future.
After 39 years of operation as a
municipally owned facility, WSUN
radio and television in St. Petersburg,
Fla., was turned over to a private
owner on April 24. Radio broadcasts
are on 620 kHz, and television operations are on channel 38.
High bidder for the station was
WCAR, Inc., of Detroit, Michigan.
The sale price was $1.3 million. Bids
for the sale of the station were opened
several months ago, but the final
transaction was delayed until approval
was granted by the Federal Communications Commission.
The radio arm of the operation
went on the air in 1927. The television facility began broadcasts in 1953.
Circle Item 38 on Tech Data Card
20-
YOU
24-
ONLY
NEED
28
-
323640
--
46-
THIS
MUCH
PANEL
SPACE
FOR
52-
TECH
58-
LAB'S
64
-
NEW 1"
OFF
-
VERTICAL
ATTENUATOR
(actual size)
Here's the smallest vertical attenuator
made in the U S A
another first
from Tech Labs, pioneers in vertical attenuators since 1937.
It uses little panel space
only 1"
wide x 6" long. It provides quick change
of levels on multiplie mixers and assures
long, noise -free life, Units are available
in 20 or 30 steps with balanced or unbalanced ladder or "T", or potentiometer circuits. Standard Db per step is
1.5, others on order. Impedance ranges
are 30 to 600 ohms on ladders or "T's"
and up to 1 megohm on pots.
Don't wait, send for complete data today!
Need Video or Audio RotaryAttenuators?
...
All Tech rotary
attenuators are
precision made
for extended
toise -free service.
Many standard
designs available
and specials
made to your
specs. Send for
literature today.
TECH LABORATORIES, INC.
Bergen & Edsall Blvds., Palisades Park, N.J. 07650
Teh 201-944-2221
TWX: 510-230-9780
Circle Item 40 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
68
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEW PRODUCTS
For
further information about any item, circle the associated number on the Tech Data Card bound inside the cover fo this issue.
Eight -Channel
Console
1601
The A-20 audio console is designed
provide flexibility and operator
convenience in audio mixing applications. This Sparta console has eight
mixing channels accommodating 22
separate inputs; conventional rotary
attenuators and lever selector switches
are used. The preamplifiers, line amplifiers, and cue amplifiers are assembled on individual printed circuit
to
boards. Input balancing transformers
and a cue function are provided on
all eight channels.
Three channels serve nine low-level
inputs. Three other channels serve
as high-level inputs; preamplifiers may
be installed to convert these channels
to low-level service if desired. The
remaining two channels, through switch
selection, serve five auxiliary sources
each. The console includes provisions
for two studio talk -back systems,
three key -selected line outputs, multi source selection for the monitor and
headphone amplifiers, and a muting relay system.
The unit measures 285/s " X 65/a "
X 10". Typical specifications are:
frequency response, ± 2 db from 30
Hz to 15 kHz; distortion less than
1% at +8 dbm; signal-to-noise ratio,
below 60 db with -55 dbm input at
+8 dbm output; microphone input
impedance, 150/250 ohms; all other
inputs, 600 ohms.
Automatic Broadcasting System
161)
The Model 5000 tape -playback
system, unveiled at the NAB show,
is designed to automate a radio broadcasting facility. A primary feature of
this Tape-Athon Corp. system is its
VUE-ÏRONIC$
MODEL RK11O VIDEO FILM
RECORDER
Simple automatic
operation
High resolutionto 20 Mc bandwidth
Selective standard
525 to 1050
line systems
Up to one hour
recording capacity
Now anyone can easily record from all TV sources-live
camera, tape, film, network telecast. Signals appear on flat,
high -resolution tube, and are recorded on low-cost TV recording film. Automatic preset exposure parameters ensure high
picture quality; automatic corrective circuits give brighter
whites, blacker blacks, wide range of grays.Manufactured by
Vue-Tronics, Inc., Los Angeles; distributed by Traid Corporation.
t
WRITE TODAY FOR COMPLETE
INFORMATION OR DEMONSTRATION!
TRAID CORPORATION
777 Flower St.,
Dept. B66, Glendale, Calif, Ph. 213/245-9393
with Greenlee punches
Here's the simple speedy way to cut smooth,
accurate holes in metal, hard rubber, plastics, epoxy, etc.
...
Save hours of hard work
punch clean, true
holes in seconds for sockets, controls, meters,
and other components. Easy to operate. Simply
insert punch in a small drilled hole and turn with
a wrench. For use in up to 16-gauge metal. Available at leading radio and electronic parts dealers.
NI
GREENLEE TOOL CO
Division of Greenlee Bros.
1866
& Co.
Columbia Avenue, Rockford, III.
61101
Circle Item 43 on Tech Data Card
Circle Item 44 on Tech Data Card
June, 1966
69
www.americanradiohistory.com
versatility of programming available.
The tape -rack section is an integrated
combination of tape transports containing music, and rotary cartridge
decks holding prerecorded commercials, time announcements, and station breaks. Modular construction of
the system permits incorporation of
two to ten tape transports and one
to nine rotating cartridge units, in
monophonic and stereophonic versions. The basic system holds two music transports and one 24 -cartridge
message unit.
Control of the tape complex is accomplished by a remote program console that may be located as far as 200'
from the tape rack. By setting a number of switches on the console, an
operator can preprogram a day, week,
or month of automatic broadcasting.
Musical selections may be run in
singles, or consecutively, with commercials or other messages interspersed on a timed basis. A message
will not break into a musical number
until the nearest silent period occurs
prior to the next number. At the end
of a broadcast day, the program may
be set to shut off the station automatically and start again the following
day.
Prices start at $5000.
quired for mixer -control cleaning and
lubrication.
Since photoconductive devices can
be remotely controlled by DC voltages, the switching and attenuating
components can be mounted where
they are needed. This allows complete
physical and electrical operation of
the two program channels from the
front panel, which no longer contains
program audio wiring and components. Sensitive wiring is concentrated
in card cages away from interference.
The 212S has five stereo inputs
from local sources plus one of four
remote stereo inputs or one network
stereo input. Each local stereo input
may have two selectable sources. The
212S-1 modules can be used easily in
custom studio installations; the plugin cards may be utilized in many ways
to fit particular needs.
Lightweight Color Studio
Camera
163)
C. L. GARDNER
COMMUNICATION
CONSTRUCTION CO.
BUILDERS OF COMPLETE
ANTENNA SYSTEMS
Stereo Speech -Input Console
162)
Antenna rehabilitation
Tower erection
Inspection and maintenance
TV, AM, FM rigging
Subcontracting
Yearly contracts for
Beacon and Lighting
Service (East coast)
Tower Painting
Write, wire or phone for estimates
C.
L.
GARDNER
COMMUNICATION
CONSTRUCTION CO.
422 Washington Building
Washington, D. C. 20005
AREA CODE 202 ST 3-2903
Circle Item 45 on Tech Data Card
A live demonstration of the 212S-1
stereo speech -input console was featured in the Collins exhibit at the
NAB convention.
Collins uses a photoconductive cell
and a lamp in a sealed container for
the purpose of eliminating pops,
clicks, and hums in the console. The
photoconductive cell has a very low
resistance when the lamp is turned
on and allows the signal to pass.
When the lamp is off, the cell resistance rises, cutting off the signal. The
length of time required for the lamp
to extinguish permits the signal to be
eliminated quickly but smoothly, rather than by sudden chopping as with
normal contacts.
A similar device is used for level
control of the program material. The
photoconductive cell responds to variable voltages from a potentiometer
to control attenuation. This control
eliminates maintenance normally re-
The all -transistorized PE -250 color
studio camera fully equipped with
zoom lens weighs less than 150 lb.
It is one-third smaller than its General
Electric predecessor. The PE -250,
first displayed at the NAB Convention, uses four pickup tubes in a design intended to give the camera improved color 'fidelity along with light
weight and compact size.
Overmodulation Control for
FM
(64)
The FM Volumax, a device intended to prevent FM overmodulation
and SCA crosstalk without distortion, was demonstrated by CBS Laboratories at the NAB Convention. The
Volumax uses time -varying functions
to control the low and the high frequencies separately, and instantaneous
final limiting to assure no over modulation occurs. A dynamic frequency compensator is used to adjust
high frequencies and process all fre-
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
70
www.americanradiohistory.com
CINEMA
quencies at reference level without
distortion. The device is priced at
$695 ($1390 for stereo).
PRECISION
AUDIO
EQUIPMENT
if THIS Yagi design doesn't
solve your problem...
l00
other
choose from over
Taco ruggedized Yagi antennas
50 -kw AM Broadcast
AUDIO ATTENUATORS
Cinema's new compact rotary slide wire attenuator is now available for
your mixing consoles as single or
Transmitter
control is desired. Other standard
ganged units. A must where smooth
types are also available for applications demanding precision noiseless
attenuation, reliability and long term
1651
Vapor -phase cooling is featured in
new 50,000 -watt AM broadcast
transmitter from Gates Radio Co. Vapor -phase cooling offers improvements
in the removal of heat from powertube anodes and reduction of noise.
The new Model VP -50 transmitter,
exhibited at the NAB show, has its
modulator and power tubes cooled by
a liquid -vapor system. Only four
tubes are used in the transmitter; the
entire audio system, excluding only
the power modulators, is transistorized, and all RF circuits up to the
driver are solid state.
stability.
a
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
The Cinema Graphic Equalizer offers
a
compact system of extreme flexi-
bility. Each of the six controls permit the operator to equalize or
attenuate that portion of the spectrum 8 db. This is an active unit
having zero
Insertion loss
and up to 35
db additional
gain.
DIP FILTER
Features a notch depth
of 50 db minimum and
which is continuously
variable from 30 to
9,000 cps. Extremely
useful for removing
single frequency noise
and for harmonic distortion measurements.
PROGRAM EQUALIZER
Provides for accurate frequency response corrections
In audio equipment. Easy operation of the two control
knobs allow over 395 curve combinations. Detented
action of the controls permits reference dial settings
for future duplication of desired characteristics.
There is simply no compromise when
you specify a TACO Yagi antenna or
antenna system. As a pioneer manufacturer and prime supplier of Yagi antennas, TACO has developed models for
every communications need-point-to-
point, rebroadcast TV, Translator, CATV,
MATV, ETV, or sophisticated tracking
arrays.
TACO Yagi antennas are available in 5, 8, and
10 element designs in single or multiple arrays
for vertical or horizontal polarization. These
are cut and tuned for specific broad or narrow
bands in the frequency range from 30 MHz to
500M Hz.
TACO catalogs almost one hundred and fifty
different types of Ruggedized Yagis-each
suited to do a particular job best. TACO's tremendous backlog of experience in special -
function design is matched by
no
other
antenna manufacturer.
Send for complete catalog data today.
TA C O
antennas and
antenna systems
JERROLD ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
Government and Industrial Division
Philadelphia, Pa. 19106
Air
Provides erasure of program
material and residual noise
from magnetic tapes on
reels up to 17 inches in diameter and 2 inches wide.
Also,
Cardioid Microphone
"Pencil" type
gaussers are available
,defor
erasing small areas thus
166)
transducer design for sound
reproduction is embodied in a Norelco cardioid microphone, the D-202ES,
produced in Austria by AKG.
The D-202ES incorporates two independent microphone capsules in a
DEGAUSSERS
Cinema bulk degaussers
are a favorite with sound
men throughout the world.
avoiding splicing.
A new
single housing, connected by a crossover network at 500 Hz. One is adjusted for optimum low -frequency,
the other for optimum high -frequency
response, an arrangement that achieves
a specified response flat within ± 2
db from 30-15,000 Hz. Other specifications include front -to-back discrimination greater than 20 db over the
precision audio equipment is backed by
enviable reputation generated by over 25 years of
outstanding service in critical sound recording, broadcast and laboratory applications. Many other custom
audio products are available. Put the benefit of our
experience to work for you. Write for Hi-Q's Cinema
precision audio equipment literature today.
HI -Q's Cinema
an
H. -0X AEROVOX
CORPORATION
DIVISION CINEMA PLANT
1100 CHESTNUT STREET, BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 91503
PHONE: 213-849-5511
TM:
213-846-3578
Circle Item 47 on Tech Data Card
Circle Item 46 on Tech Data Card
71
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
entire frequency range, and off -axis
response (90°) completely parallel to
the 0° (front) curve. Price of the
microphone is $130.
PENTA Power
Tubes
for
Broadcast
Applications
Professional
Recorder
(67)
Package and circuitry changes in
its recorder for use in professional
These power tetrodes for broadcast trans-
mitters, available only from Penta, have
already run up a service record for
ruggedness and reliability.
The PL-4D21A is directly interchangeable
with the 4D21 (4-125A), but has a plate dissipation of 175 watts. It runs cooler than the
4D21 (4-125A) and generally has longer life.
In the PL -6775, you have a more rugged
version of the 8438/4-400A. It features the
exclusive Penta filament -supporting insulator
which minimizes interelectrode shorts.
Both these tubes have
a
mastering, duplicating, and broadcasting, have been completed by the 3M
Company. All electronic components
have been redesigned to incorporate
quick -change plug-in modules. Signalto-noise ratio is now listed as greater
than 80 db. The new unit will accommodate from 1/4 " to 1" tape widths,
and will record from one to eight
tracks. In addition to the dynamic recording range made possible by a special electronic switch, the patented
"Isoloop" transport system has been
designed to reduce flutter to as low
as .04% rms.
Other features include solid-state
circuitry, a range of recording speeds
from 33/4 to 120 ips, and a tape handling system designed to eliminate
tape spillage, stretching, or breakage.
The 3M recorder is available as an
unmounted transport, a portable unit
with electronics, or a studio console.
Prices for the system begin at $2750
for the tape transport.
unique, onewill not
piece plate cap and seal which
come loose or break off easily.
Penta beam pentodes are also of interest to
designers of broadcast equipment. Highly
suited to today's trend toward the use
of AM linear amplifiers is the PL -195, with a
plate dissipation rating of 4000 watts.
To find out about the complete Penta line
of tubes for AM, FM and TV applications,
send for a free copy of "Penta Broadcast
Tubes." The Machlett Laboratories,
Inc.-
Penta Plant, 312 N. Nopal Street,
Santa Barbara, California 93102.
RAYTHEON
THE MACHLETT LABORATORIES, INC.
SUBSIDIARY OF RAYTHEON COMPANY
A
Video -Pulse Distribution
Amplifiers
1681
The Mark IX video and pulse distribution amplifiers are being produced specifically for use in broadcast television studios by Ball Brothers Research Corp.
Circle Item 48 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
72
www.americanradiohistory.com
Design features of the fully transistorized equipment include 20-mHz
broadband amplification, low differential gain and phase distortion, de rated components, and individual selfcontained electronically regulated power supplies.
Modular construction of the plug-in
units permits incorporation of up to
10 individual amplifiers in one electronic housing, providing a total of
40 isolated signal outputs at one central distribution point. The installed
equipment, including a stowable module extender for servicing, requires
only 51/4" of relay -rack space. Test
points on each amplifier facilitate input/output signal monitoring and DC
supply -voltage measurements. Each
video amplifier has optional provisions for adding either sync or blanking to the output video.
Model AA200
SOLID STATE AUDIO AMPLIFIER
34so
Price:
Including complete Technical Data and Schematic
FULL MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE IF NOT SATISFIED!
Send check or money order-we pay postage,
A MILO ELECTRONICS SUBSIDIARY
The Novacor CATV bridging am
REMOTE CONTROL
a
DIFFERENCE
For your UNIQUE STATION we
can provide Unique custom modifications to our 615 series Remote
Control quickly, cheaply, and efficiently.
Basic Complete Model 615-C for
16 functions including 4 meters.
$895
Dials
NO
Weight: 28 ounces
434 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10011
(691
still
steel case
Size: 9"L x 23/4"W x 31/4"H
ROUND HILL ASSOCIATES INC.
Bridging Amplifiers
with
Output: 500 and 8 ohms
(grain oriented transformer)
Noise: Better than -70 db
Circuit: 7 transistors, 1 thermistor
Controls: Locking volume control
Connections: Barrier strip
Power Supply: 9 volts DC, 100 MA
(accessory power supply available)
Construction: Brown enamelled
Frequency Response:
i-1db, 20 to 20,000 cycles at 100MW
`-2db, 20 to 35,000 cycles at 100MW
Harmonic Distortion:
Less than 1%, 20 to 20,000 cycles at 100MW
Less than 2%, 20 to 20,000 cycles at 200MW
Input:
50 ohms balanced (mu metal shielded,
permalloy core transformer)
2,000 or 100,000 ohms unbalanced
Gain:
70db, 50 ohm input, 8 ohm load
65db, 2,000 ohm input, 8 ohm load
15db, 100,000 ohm input, 8 ohm load
Circle Item 51 on Tech Data Card
."CCA
:
"DUAL RELIABLE"
AM BROADCAST TRANSMITTERS
¢
BUILT-IN OPERATING STANDBY TRANSMITTER
5 SECONDS MAX.
ANTICIPATED OFF AIR TIME
CONSTANT ELECTRONIC MONITORING SYSTEM
AUTOMATIC SWITCHOVER TO HALF POWER
INCLUDING TUBES
ALL COMPONENTS
RATING
@
50%
OPERATE
-
-
-
100% SPARE PARTS
-
5 MINUTES PER WEEK
MINIMUM MAINTENANCE
10,000 HOUR MINIMUM AVERAGE TUBE LIFE
ANTICIPATED AT SUPER CONSERVATIVE OPERATION
Pictured on the left is the monitoring, combining and automatic switching cabinet of the CCA AM-5000DX, 5KW Dual Reliable Transmitter. This
cabinet constantly monitors the audio and RF of two independent 2.5KW
transmitters and combines their outputs to provide 5KW output. In the
unlikely event of a fault, the defective transmitter will be instantly
turned off and the second transmitter will automatically feed the antenna. This reduction to half power will have negligible effect on station
coverage.
CONTACT CCA FOR DETAILS ON OUR "DUAL RELIABLE"
AND DELUXE AM AND FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTERS.
Transistors
Tubes
more information circle
Bingo number to call us collect at 215/839-3250.
For
Circle Item 49 on Tech Data Card
FM
FOR STATIONS REQUIRING THE FOLLOWING FEATURES NOT
AVAILABLE IN CCA STANDARD DELUXE TRANSMITTERS:
Steppers
BIONIC INSTRUMENTS, INC.
221 Rock Hill Road
Bala Cynwyd, Pa. 19004
'AM
CCA ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
A.
GLOUCESTER CITY, NEW JERSEY
(609)456-1716
"TRANSMITTERS ARE OUR BUSINESS"
Circle Item 50 on Tech Data Card
73
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
plifiers are modular in design. The
bridger case with the connectors and
cables attached can become a permanent part of the plant. The electronics
chassis unplugs simply for maintenance.
These C -COR amplifiers feature a
housing designed to prevent radiation.
They are available in 12 different
models, all of which have been field
tested.
corder, produced by Magnasync Corp.
repositions the sound track of a processed
16 -mm
-
single-system
release
print film to "editor's sync"
sound
and corresponding picture "iá line"
for rapid, accurate editing, then
automatically repositions the sound
track to printer's sync, or "projection
sync," for immediate projection.
Use of the DR -1 eliminates equipment associated with conventional
double -system transfer of 100 -mil
original magnetic sound track to a
second 16 -mm magnetic sound track.
One displacement recorder and viewer
equipped with magnetic head are the
only equipment required.
The unit may be interlocked with
other magnetic film -recording equipment and projectors, including conventional TV -chain projectors. An
audio input is provided to permit addition of sound to unrecorded release print film, and a playback audio
output is provided for projection
tracks.
The DR -1 circuitry is modular plugin solid-state. Monitor speaker, headphone output, and automatic switching
are provided. Price is $1785.
-
Displacement Recorder
6/12 gHz Antenna
vn
(70)
The Model DR -1 displacement re-
This two -port antenna is for use
in dual -band operational fixed appli-
cations. The Andrew antenna operates
in the 6.575- to 6.875-gHz and 12.2 to 12.7-gHz bands and is available in
6, 8, and 10' sizes.
A frequency -combiner approach is
used to mate the two buttonhook feeds
into a common -feed design. The feed
has a plane -polarized input for each
frequency band, orthogonally arranged. Maximum VSWR is 1.15:1
with polarization discrimination of 20
db, minimum. Typical midband gain
of the 6' antenna is 38.8 db over an
isotropic radiator (dbi) for the 6-gHz
band, and 44 dbi for the 12-gHz
band.
A
SPRAY/WIPE TEAM REMOVES ALL OXIDE BUILD-UP
mag/tape heads ... drives ... capstans ... guides
.. tapes wherever non -contamination is essential
TEXWIPE
a disposable 100% cellulose LINT -FREE
CLOTH designed for cleaning critical areas where non -contamination is essential.
Non -Contaminating
pure lint -free and fuzz -free.
Non -Abrasive
featuring the Twill Weave, a raised thread pattern.
Static -Free does not require anti -static finishes to neutralize static
charges. Non -Raveling
is cut on a bias to prevent raveling.
High -Absorbency -no additives to impede instantaneous absorption.
TEXWIPE is available from stock in the following sizes: Bias 9" x 9",
12" x 12"; Hemmed 18" x 14".Texwipe is packaged for complete protection from outside contamination.
- -
"FREON"*TF
Solvent Cleaner a safe selective solvent for cleaning Computer -Video -Sound Tape Heads and Films.
-
removes oxide build-up, grease, oils, dust & grit without
Selectivity
damaging materials or equipment.
non -explosive, non-conductive, non-flammable, ncrn-corrosive,
Safety
odorless and virtually non-toxic. Can be used on operating equipment.
Low Residue
"FREON" solvents leave essentially no residue on
evaporation. EXCELLENT PENETRATION
Because of low surface tension, "FREON" has superior wetting properties . .. will enter the tiniest
openings and pores to replace soils. EXTENSION NOZZLE
Pin -Points
spray into hard to reach areas. "FREON" TF is available in the large
16 oz. Aerosol Industrial size.
eltur,,nt TM
-
-
-
-
Write for details.
THE TEXWIPE COMPANY
HILLSDALE. NEW JERSEY 07642
Circle Item 52 on Tech Data Card
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
74
www.americanradiohistory.com
BI
al
BO
MI BB BB MI
...
For a top job in broadcasting
ENGINEERS' TECH DATA
OM BIll
all
BB
get a
FIRST CLASS FCC LICENSE
...or
AUDIO & RECORDING EQUIPMENT
your money baekl
80. MEMOREX-Type 77V precision broadband video tape is
described in a new eight -page brochure. Magnetic and phys-
ical properties are featured.
81.
QUAM-NICHOLS-General catalog lists speakers for new
installation and replacement in public address, background music, hi-fi, and automotive systems.
82.
SWITCHCRAFT
83.
VIKING OF MINNEAPOLIS
Brochure
Series 235 tape -duplicating system.
84.
ALFORD
-
New Product Bulletin 159 covers "Mix
Amp" high -power miniature preamplifier Models 503 and
504. Models offer higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher
gain. Offer includes New Product Bulletin 158 which describes recently introduced "Multi-Slide" switches.
-
describes new
COMPONENTS & MATERIALS
-
128 -page catalog "N" provides photographs
and detailed descriptions of AMCI RF instruments and components. Listed are slotted lines, precision connectors, RF
bridges, dipoles, power dividers, and many other products.
65 -page expanded and revised
Replacement Component Selector includes addition of 16
major replacement products marketed through general -line
distributors.
85. CORNELL-DUBILIER-New
86.
DAVCO-135 separate items, including unusual coaxial connectors and adapters, are listed in new 24 -page catalog.
87.
POMONA ELECTRONICS
-
New General Catalog 11-66
displays variety of molded banana -plug patch plugs, test
leads, test probes, shielded "black boxes," and socket
adapters for standard tubes and CRT's.
MOBILE RADIO & COMMUNICATIONS
88.
MOSLEY ELECTRONICS-Catalog lists complete line of 1966
Citizens -band equipment.
-
Data sheet and schematic features CS -10
wireless cuing system. Receiver is shirt -pocket size.
89. ROUND HILL
future success in electronics is a First -Class
FCC License. It will permit you to operate and maintain
transmitting equipment used in aviation, broadcasting, marine, microwave, mobile communications, or Citizens -Band.
Cleveland Institute home study is the ideal way to get your
FCC License. Here's why:
Our electronics course will quickly prepare you for a
First -Class FCC License. Should you fail to pass the FCC
examination after completing your course, you will get a
full refund of all tuition payments. You get an FCC
License ... or your money back!
And only CIE offers you new, up-to-the-minute lessons in all
these subjects: Logical Troubleshooting, Microminiaturization, Single Sideband Technique, Pulse Theory and Application, Boolean Algebra, and many more.
You owe it to yourself, your family, your future to get the
complete details on our "proven effective" Cleveland Institute
home study. Just send the coupon below for FREE book or
write to Cleveland Institute of Electronics, 1776 E. 17th St.,
Dept. BE-27, Cleveland, Ohio 441 14.
Youst key to
NEWS FOR VETERANS
Bill may entitle you to Government -paid
tuition for CIE courses if you had active duty in the
Armed Forces after Jan. 31, 1955. Check box in coupon for complete information.
New
POWER DEVICES
90.
HEVI-DUTY-Bulletin 7-22 supplies data on line-voltage regulator using saturable -core reactor.
G. I.
RADIO & CONTROL ROOM EQUIPMENT
-
MAIL COUPON TODAY FOR FREE BOOK
Spec sheet gives information about new "customer-designed" automatic programmer.
91. AUTOMATIC TAPE CONTROL
REFERENCE MATERIALS
92.
CIEClevelandInstitute
of Electronics
& SCHOOLS
-
1776 East 17th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44114
New pocketsize plastic "Electronics Data Guide" includes formulas and
tables for: frequency vs. wavelength, db, length of antennas, and color code.
CLEVELAND INSTITUTE OF ELECTRONICS
-
Eight -page "Broadcast Studio Planning Guide"
emphasizes technical "core area" principle of station layout. Covers small, medium, and large broadcasters with
alternate "core area" plans.
93. GATES
your FREE book, "How
To Get A Commercial FCC License."
Please send me
lrc.,,..
Name
(please print)
Address
94.
JERROLD-Basic systems for ETV is subject for a 36 -page
booklet prepared for educators exploring TV and others interested in specifications. Systems outlined include: ETV
broadcasting stations, microwave, MATV, and CCTV.
Zip
Occupation
-
Literature describes popular and
informative technical publications; includes latest catalog
of technical books.
95. HOWARD W. SAMS
State
City
Age
Veterans check here for GI Bill information
Accredited Member National Home Study Council
since 1934
A Leader in Electronics Training
L
...
BE -27
75
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
STUDIO AND CAMERA EQUIPMENT
96.
-
CLEVELAND ELECTRONICS
A 52 -page quick -reference,
step-down die -cut catalog covers complete information on
Vidicon, Plumbicon®, and image-orthicon deflection com-
ponents. Included are photographs, specifications, technical
data, and dimensional drawings.
97. COHU ELECTRONICS
Available are Bulletin 8-57, "A
New Approach to Election Coverage by TV;" Bulletin 8-53,
"Portable TV Camera Gives Golfing Complete Coverage;"
and Bulletin 8-49, "Miniature Camera Used in Broadcast
TV." A four -page technical data sheet, No. 6-415, gives
both specifications and details on sync generators, genlock,
color standard, dot -bar generators, and automatic changeover switch.
98. DYNASCIENCES CORP.-Dynalens, an image motion compensator which nullifies image distortion with long -lens
cameras, is detailed in technical bulletin M060.
99. ROANWELL
Brochure describes new family of lightweight, cushioned headsets with microphones. Features include choice of subassemblies and impedances.
-
-
-
100. TELEVISION ZOOMAR
Literature is offered on low-cost
10 x 40, 10:1 image orthicon zoom lens, and on Autocam
programmed remote control for TV cameras.
S7udin 96
101.
PROFESSIONAL TAPE TRANSPORT
AND MATCHING SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS
QUALITY DESIGNED FOR BROADCASTERS
AND RECORDING STUDIOS
-
TELEVISION EQUIPMENT
A six -page brochure, No. A-044, lists audio,
video, and tape products useful in broadcast applications.
Included are information and pictures on closed-circuit
television, low-cost video tape recorders, language -laboratory equipment, professional audio recorder/reproducers,
TV cameras, audio and video tape, and audio and video
systems.
AMPEX
102. COLORADO VIDEO
for communications is
STUDIO 96
Two speed tape transport with automatic sequence braking,
choice of hyperbolic head configurations, hysteresis capstan
drive and heavy duty reel drive motors, remote control jacks and
101/2" reel capacity. Superbly smooth tape handling - interlocked
"fool -proof" switching - fit for every studio.
-
"Slow -Scan" television equipment
described in data sheets.
103. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR
-
Booklet gives information
on "Reed -Relay" video switches.
-
Data sheets give specifications of model VI -500
stabilizing amplifier, Model VI-l0A video distribution amplifier, and Model VI -20 pulse -distribution amplifier.
104. VITAL
Rack mount ready from $585.45
TEST
AMPLIFIERS
EQUIPMENT & INSTRUMENTS
BIRD-Short-form catalog SF -66 lists nearly all the coaxial
load resistors, absorption wattmeters, directional wattmeters,
and coaxial switches stocked. Also tells about custom-built
accessories.
106. FREQUENCY ELECTRONICS-Four-page brochure includes
photographs, specifications, and descriptions of frequency control and timing instrumentation, components, and systems. Describes frequency standards, phase comparators,
distribution amplifiers, digital clocks, etc.
105.
Solid state, record and playback amplifiers of modular design with
interchangeable plug-in options, mixing controls, A -B monitoring,
600 OHM line output, illuminated VU meters, exceed NAB standards.
Rack Mount Monaural RPI IO -R2
Stereo
RPI 20-R2
$299.00
$399.00
HEWLETT-PACKARD-Two new brochures outline portable
electronic equipment for maintenance of underground cable
plant. Bulletin 66-2 illustrates Delcon 4900A fault locator for
pinpointing electrical faults, and Bulletin 66-3 covers the
new Delcon 18000A ultrasonic duct-probe for locating pressure leaks.
108. SIMPSON-Stock instruments, panel meters, and the new
"Lab -Line" group of precision instruments are headlined in
each of three separate catalogs offered.
107.
Portable Case "100"
with detachable front and back, accepts
Studio 96 and either RP110-R2 or RPI20R2 amplifier.
"100"
case only $59.50
COMPLETE INFORMATION
PLEASE WRITE FOR CATALOG ..
FOR
TRANSMITTER & ANTENNA DEVICES
Hang
OF
MINNEAPOLIS®
9600 Aldrich Ace S. Minneapolis, Minnesota. 55420
CANADA: Alex L Clark, Ltd.. 3751 Bloor. Sc W., Islington, Onterlo
Electro Te Marketers. Ltd., 1624 W. Third Av., Vancouver, British Columbia
CENTRAL 8 SOUTH AMERI CA:ManRep Corp. P.O. Box 429 N. Miami Beach. Florida. U.S.A.
OVERSEAS EXPORT: International Division Viking of Minneapolis. Inc..
9600 Aldrich Av. S., Minneapolis, Minn.. U.S.A.
\\\`
-
New catalog No. 24 presents detailed
product information, UHF, VHF, and microwave antennas
for commercial and military applications. Heliax, flexible
coaxial cables and elliptical waveguides, antenna position ers, RF switching devices, pressurization equipment, rigid
transmission lines, and waveguides for complete and integrated antenna systems are described.
Brochure illustrates new product line exhibited
110. BAUER
at 1966 NAB Convention. Products include AM and FM
transmitters, and dual -channel and stereo consoles.
109. ANDREW CORP.
Circle Item 54 on Tech Data Card
-
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
76
www.americanradiohistory.com
r
Advertisers' Index
71
Aerovox Corp.
54
Applied Electro Mechanics
56
Belar Electronics Lab.
73
Bionic Labs
77
Boston Insulated Wire
58, 60, 68
Broadcast Electronics
CBS Laboratories,
5
Div. of CBS System
73
CCA Electronics Corp.
50
Cleveland Electronics, Inc.
75
Cleveland Institute of Electronics
3
Cohu Electronics
25
Eastman Kodak
23
Eitel -McCullough, Inc.
59
Electro-Voice, Inc.
6, 66
Fairchild Recording Co.
70
Gardner, C. L., Construction Co.
27
Gates Radio
57
General Electric
69
Greenlee Tools
Grinnan Fixture
International Nuclear Corp.
Jampro Antenna Co.
Jerrold Electronics Corp.
J.O.A. Cartridge
Lenkurt Electric Co.
Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Co.
68
cover
3
55
7I
64
29
61
Moseley Associates, Inc.
56
Norelco Professional
10
Studio Equipment
62
Nortronics Co., Inc.
Pye T.V.T.
9
72
Penta Labs
RCA Components &
Devices
11, 12, 67, cover 4
RCA Service Co.
6
Revere-Mincom
Riker Industries
65
cover
2
Round Hill
73
Sarkes Tarzian
49
Scala Radio Co.
62
Scully Recording Co.
28
Shure Bros.
53
Sparta Electronics Corp.
64
Syncron Corp.
64
Tech. Labs, Inc.
68
Telemet Co.
7
Texwipe Co.
74
Traid Corp.
69
Trepac Corp. of America
60
Viking of Minneapolis
76
Visual Electronics
30
Vitro Corp.
31
Ward Industries
Wilkinson Electronics
60
8
CABLES
For studio, mobile or remote use, BIW offers rugged, reliable cables
for color and black and white cameras. All types are offered in complete factory wired and tested assemblies, cut to any desired length.
Or, they can be had in bulk.
BIW TV cables are available for all models of American, British and
European cameras. Particularly interesting are the BIW prefabricated
custom terminations for studio wiring. These provide instantaneous
hook-up and save technicians time in providing.trouble free installation.
BIW has designed and made TV camera cables since TV's inception.
Long experience since this time provides the knowledge to produce
quality cables that:
1. Have unusual flexibility that permits easy camera action whether
in complex studios, dirty, wet football fields or sub -zero St. Moritz.
2. Have tough, durable neoprene jackets that withstand the rigors
of abuse from dollies, trucks and dragging.
3. Have signal and control leads grouped to minimize cross talk.
BIW also makes cables for special application television cameras. Let
us know your requirements and we will send complete information,
catalog and quotations.
BOSTON INSULATED WIRE
BI I)
and Cable Company
Boston 25, Massachusetts
Canada:
Hamilton, Ontario
El
Segundo, California
International:
Boston, U.S.A. and Montreal, Canada
Circle Item 55 on Tech Data Card
77
June, 1966
www.americanradiohistory.com
Classified
Professional Services
Advertising rates in the Classified Section
are ten cents per word. Minimum charge is
$2.00. Blind box number is 50 cents extra.
Check or money order must be enclosed
with ad.
The classified columns are not open to
the advertising of any broadcast equipment
or supplies regularly produced by manufacturers unless the equipment is used and
no longer owned by the manufacturer. Display advertising must be purchased in such
cases.
VIR JAMES
CONSULTING RADIO ENGINEERS
Applications and Field Engineering
345 Colorado Blvd.
Phone: (Area Code 303) 333-5562
DENVER, COLORADO 80206
Member AFCCE
JAMES C. McNARY
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
Consulting Engineer
Cartridge Machines $511.00. Accept Fidelipac
or equivalent to 1200'. Good working order.
Easily adapted for studio playback or
transmitter standby. Supplied 1 7/8. Speed
easily converted. w/Pre-amp. As -is, working order. $50.011 per unit, limit 2 per
customer. Shipped freight collect. Send
Check or Malley order to: H & H Productions, 112 East Euclid Ave., Tampa, Florida
6-66-1t
3:3602. Sorry, No C.O.D.'s
11 volumes in very
RIDER MANUALS
good condition. Schematics for hundreds
of radios. $35 F.O.B. Richard M. Jacobs,
1(115 Glenside Place, University City. Mis6 -66 -It
souri 63130
CO -AXIAL CABLE tteliax, Styrollex, Spiro line, etc. Also rigid and RG types in stock.
New material. Write for list. Sierra -Western
Electric Co., Willow and 24th Streets, Oak5-66-tf
land, Calif. Phone 415 832-3527
Tape Cartridge reconditioning and rewinding. Reloaded with 3M 151 tape and minor
parts replaced for as little as 90e, on a 40
second tape. Average savings over new
cartridges: 60%. New cartridge warranty.
Special pricing for rewinding only. Southwestern Cartridge Service Co., Box 121, San
5-66-3t
Angelo, Texas.
Audio Equipment bought, sold, traded.
Ampex, Fairchild, Crown, McIntosh, Viking.
F. T. C. Brewer Company, 2400 \\'est Hayes
3-84-tf
Street, Pensacola, Florida.
Television / Radio / communications gear of
any type available. From a tower to á
tube. Microwave, transmitters, cameras,
studio equipment, mikes, etc. Advise your
needs-offers. Electrofind Co., 440 Columbus
8-64 tf
Ave., NYC. 212 -EN -25680.
COMMERCIAL CRYSTALS and new or replacement crystals for RCA, Gates, W. E.,
Bliley, and J -K holders; regrinding, repair,
etc. BC-604 crystals; also service on AM
monitors and H -P 335B FM monitors. Nationwide unsolicited testimonials praise our
products and fast service. Eidson Electronic
Company, Box 96, Temple, Texas.
5-64 tf
Trimm 504 Audio Patch cords $4.00. Audio
jack panels for 19" racks, 10 pair $8.95.
Repeat coils 500-500 ohm flat to 2Okc $4.00
-Relay racks and equipment cabinets.
Write for list. Gulf Electro Sales, Inc.,
National Press Bldg.
Washington 4,
Telephone
D. C.
District
7-1205
Member AFCCE
CAMBRIDGE CRYSTALS
PRECISION FREQUENCY
MEASURING SERVICE
SPECIALISTS FOR AM -FM -TV
Phone 876-2810
445 Concord Ave.
Cambridge, Mass. 02138
AMPEX HEAD ASSEMBLY RECONDITIONING SERVICE for all Ampex pro-
fessional model recorders. This professional service features precision relapping of all heads for maximum head life.
Your assembly is thoroughly cleaned and
guides are replaced as required. Price includes optical and electrical inspection
and complete testing on Ampex equipment in our plant. Full track or half
track assemblies . . . $35.00. One to two
day service. "Loaner" assemblies available if necessary. LIPPS, INC., 1630
Euclid Street, Santa Monica, California
tf
90404. (213) EX 3-0449.
VIDEO TAPE RECORDER
AUDIO HEAD ASSEMBLY SERVICE
Precision relapping of all heads and sup-
porting posts, including cleaning and
testing. Ampex head assembly with "cue"
tracks, $75.011 complete. RCA units also
relapped. One to two day service. LIPPS,
INC., 1630 Euclid St., Santa Monica, Calif.
90404. (213) EX 3-0449.
tf
7031
PAUL H. LEE, P.E.
27 Years Experience in Radio,
Communications Engineering.
5209 Bangor Drive,
KENSINGTON, MD.
(A suburb of Washington, D. C.)
Phone 301-946-7238
Burkett, Houston, Texas.
4-66-tf
NEW CAPSTAN PRESSURE IDLERS FOR
AMPEX 300's, 350's, and 354's, $15.00. TA BER MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING
CO., 2619 Lincoln Ave., Alameda, California.
4 -66 -fit
Senior Member IEEE
AMPEX HEADS replaced in your
head
assembly. Our heads are manufactured under controlled laboratory conditions and are guaranteed to meet or
better original equipment specifications.
Full track and half track $97.50. \\'e will
send free brochure. TABER MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING CO., 2619 Lincoln
Ave., Alameda, California.
4-66-61
3
300, 350, 351
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
2-track stereo R&P with
4 -track playback also. Portable case. Like
new, audiophile owned, never used comAMPEX PR -10-2.
mercially.
$675. Dept. 155,
neering.
-
Broadcast Engi6-66-1 t
"AUDIO EGUIPMENT
Whatever your
needs, check us first. New and Used. Ampex, .\ Bee, AKG, EV, Fairchild, Neuntann,
Langevin, Rek-O-Kut, Uher, Viking. Send
for equipment list."
6-66-6t
-
Completely reconditioned
and guaranteed including new Hysteresis
Synchronous motors and Nortronics metal
faced heads. Model 505 playbacks (51 $2511
each Model SOO Record/Playback (11 $325
ea. SPECIAI, --\Nall mount Cartridge Racks
$30 each. Holds 90 cartridges. 30 day Money
Back Guarantee on all items. Terms; Check
SPOTMASTERS
We need used 250, 500, 5K & 10K Watts
Transmitters. No Junk. Broadcast
Electronics Corp. 1314 Iturbide St., Laredo,
3-66-tf
Texas 78040.
WANTED: Several crystal units or holders
of these types: RCA TMV-12911, G.R. :3761,
and Collins 297, frequencies unimportant.
List what you have, state condition and
cash price. Edison Electronic Co., P.O. Box
6 -66 -lt
96, Temple, 'texas.
WANTED-Sound effects records, new or
used, must include all types of sounds and
musical bridges as well as fanfairs. If you
are in the area call collect Doug Clark 203527-9017 ai' write Fiesta, 158 Albany Ave.,
6 -66 -lt
Hartford, Conn.
We wish to buy ONE REL TRANSMIT'T'ER.
AM
type 695A -series S-1103, in good condition.
Range: 1511-174 \IC. Address all correspondence to: RADIO POPULAR, P.O. Box :117,
MARACAIBO, \'ENZUELA.
6-66-1t
-
CARL E. SMITH
Consulting Radio Engineers
AM, FM, TV and CATV
8200 Snowville Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44141
Phone: 216-526-4386
Member AFCCE
TV, 8
EQUIPMENT WANTED
with order or COD, FOB Washington D.C.
(BROADCAST PRODUCTS Co., Box 324,
Kensington, MI) (301)942-1224
6 -66-lt
AMPEX HEAD RECONDITIONING SERVICE
for 300's, 350's, 351's and 354's, includes the
relapping of worn or grooved heads, and
the same complete alignment and quality
control testing as new head replacements.
Full and half track assemblies $45.00, two
track $60.00. TABER MANUFACTURING &
EQUIPMENT CO., 2619 Lincoln Ave., Alameda, California.
4-66-6t
AMPEX VIDEO TAPE RECORDER AUDIO
HEAD ASSEMBLIES REBUILT. Assemblies
with cue track lapped $100.00, without cue
tracks, $80.00. New heads for assemblies
without cue track $220.00, with cue track
$310.00. Assemblies without cue converted
with four new heads $350.00. TABER MANUFACTURING & ENGINEERING CO., 2619
Lincoln Ave. Alameda, California
4-66-6t
Position Wanted
Mal
MMI
SIM IBM EM
Seeking position as chief engineer or assistant chief engineer in AM FM radio and
VHF UHF television. Ten years experience
in radio, television, microwave. and antennas. First class license and electronic
college graduate. Currently employed for
large Eastern electronics firm. Married.
l'refer Alaska but all oilers considered.
6-66-1t
College student desperately needs summer
employment. Experience w/NBC owned and
operated, and others. Third endorsed ticket.
Navin 271-7116; write
Cleveland, Ohio. 5-66-2t
Age 20. Call Henry
9325 Beacon Avenue,
Employment
"IMMEDIATE OPENINGS for television
technicians experienced in all phases of
studio operations. Color experience helpful.
First class radio telephone license required.
Send resume to: R. L. Renaud, Chief Engineer, \\'\\'J -TV, Detroit, Michigan 48226."
6-1ì6-1t
1st Class Engineer with broadcast experi-
ence. Excellent working condtions, salary
open. WR\IN AM&F11, Charles l'ettit, 18%
Douglas Ave., Elgin, Illinois -312-711-7700.
-66 -If
11
- Technicians for closed circuit
systems planning - closed circuit - color
television - video tape maintenance or
supervision of installations of
equipWANTED
ment.
RCA
14:1-08
297-3336.
94th Ave, Jamaica, New York.
6-66-t f
Immediate Openings with radio and TV
stations in all parts of the country for
chief engineers, and both transmitter and
studio engineers. Send resume today to:
Nationwide Radio & TV Employment Agency, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois, or call Area Code; :112-337-7075.
5-66-t f
America's largest Radio and Television
Employment Agency has immediate openings with stations in all parts of the
country for experienced Engineers. Send
resume today to: Nationwide Broadcast
Services, 645 North Michigan Avenue,
Chicago, Illinois.
1 -66 -If
Job Headquarters for all Radio and Television Engineers. Immediate openings exist
in 9 western states and elsewhere for qualified engineer and technical personnel. All
categories from trainees to experienced
transmitter maintenance, chief, assistant
chief, live color video maintenance and
technical operations. Send us your complete resume now. The AMPS Agency, 3974
Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, California
90005. Telephone DU 8-3116.
By Broadcasters
For Broadcasters
-
Chief Engineer For Alaska. Excellent wage.
Practical experience in color TV necessary.
Assume responsiblity to layout. install,
maintain new TV -FM. Studios-Xnttr on
existing AM site. Airmail application, references to Bill Harpel
KHAR, Anchorage.
-
4-66-2t
BROADCAST ENGINEERING
78
www.americanradiohistory.com
ATTENTION:
Television chief engineers ..
dollar
to a doughnut
says you're using
International Nuclear
TV equipment.
How about it?
A
...
you sure ought to consider doing so. Why? Because
If you're not
we make some of the finest transistorized television components in
the industry. They're used in hundreds of TV stations all over the
world
reliable, solid state. very competitively priced. If you don't
know us
take us up on our little bet!
...
...
IMIZ
ME
I
I El
'
I
IBM
liMB
Gentlemen
...
I
Mal
BEM
11 Ma
-7
accept your bet with pleasure.
Send me the buck, we don't use your equipment.
But, send me some info ... sounds interesting.
'
Yeah, we use your equipment. Doughnut enclosed.
I
'
YOUR NAME
I
COMPANY
ADDRESS
INTERNATIONAL
r
r1
'NUCLEAR CORP
LCITY
STATE
ZIP
JI
INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR CORPORATION
"Transistorizing the Television Industry"
608 NORRIS AVENUE
PHONE 615-254-3366
NASHVILLE, TENN.
Circle Item
56 on Tech Data
Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
pays
to use
it
the best
Before RCA's new solid-state silicon rectifiers became commercially available as
direct plug-in replacements for mercury
vapor and gas rectifiers, they had to be the
best. At stake was RCA's reputation with
the broadcasters.
1. NEW SOLID-STATE
RUGGEDNESS-nothing
to vibrate or deteriorate.
2. INSTANT-ON-No warm-up time, no cool -
down necessity.
3. INTERFERENCE-FREE-No
arc -backs,
no
rectifier "hash."
4. LESS TO MAINTAIN-Long life-replacements minimized.
5. LESS EQUIPMENT-No filament transformer required.
6. SAME -SOCKET REPLACEMENTS-Type
Now, after 1,000,000 hours of cumulative life tests on prototypes and same socket plug -ins, RCA types CR273/8008,
CR274/ 872A, CR275/ 866A/ 3B28 are
available for high -reliability performance
in your broadcast equipment.
numbers identical to those of your present
mercury vapor and xenon rectifier types.
RCA Silicon Rectifier plug -ins are available
only through your RCA Industrial Distributor.
Call him for price and delivery information.
Here are benefits you can count on
when you use RCA Silicon Rectifiers:
RCA Electronic Components and Devices, Harrison, N.J.
The Most Trusted Name in Electronics
Circle Item
57 on Tech Date
Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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