T.O. 1-1-8, the umbrella Technical Order

T.O. 1-1-8, the umbrella Technical Order
TO 1-1-8
TECHNICAL MANUAL
APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF
ORGANIC COATINGS,
AEROSPACE AND NON-AEROSPACE
EQUIPMENT
BASIC AND ALL CHANGES HAVE BEEN MERGED TO MAKE THIS A COMPLETE PUBLICATION.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA Case Number PA05-0758. Other requests for this
document shall be referred to 406 SCMS/GUEE, Robins AFB, GA 31098. Questions concerning technical content shall be referred to AFRL/
RXSSR.
Published Under Authority of the Secretary of the Air Force
12 JANUARY 2010
CHANGE 13 - 29 APRIL 2015
TO 1-1-8
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES. DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.
NOTE
The portion of the text affected by the changes is indicated by a vertical line in the outer margins of
the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by shaded or screened areas, or by miniature
pointing hands.
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Original. . . . . . . .0. . . . .12 January 2010
Change . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 28 January 2011
Change . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 18 May 2011
Change . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .16 October 2012
Change . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . 12 June 2013
Change . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . 26 July 2013
Change . . . . . . . . 6. . . .8 November 2013
Change . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .30 March
Change . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . 29 May
Change . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . 11 July
Change . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . 30 August
Change . . . . . . . 11. . . . .11 October
Change . . . . . . . 12 . . . 25 December
Change . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . .29 April
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2014
2015
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 182, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
Page
No.
*Change
No.
Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ii.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ii.2 Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
iv.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
iv.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
vi.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
vi.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
viii - ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
x Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
xi - xiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
xv Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
xvi Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2-2.1 - 2-2.2 Deleted. . . . . . . . . .11
2-3 - 2-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2-4.1 Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2-4.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2-6 - 2-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
2-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2-12.1 Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-12.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2-13 - 2-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2-20.1 Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2-20.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Page
No.
*Change
No.
2-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-22 - 2-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
2-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-1 - 3-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
3-4.1 Added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-4.2 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-7 - 3-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
3-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
3-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3-18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
4-1 - 4-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
4-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4-10 - 4-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
5-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
5-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5-4 - 5-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
5-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
5-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
5-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
5-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5-13 - 5-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
5-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5-16 - 5-17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
5-18 Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
6-1 - 6-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
6-5 - 6-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
6-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
6-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
6-9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
6-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Page
No.
*Change
No.
6-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
6-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6-13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6-15 - 6-20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
6-21 - 6-23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
6-24 Blank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
7-1 - 7-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
7-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8-1 - 8-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
8-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
8-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
8-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
8-8 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
A-1 - A-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A-4 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
B-1 - B-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
B-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
B-6 - B-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
C-1 - C-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Glossary 1 - Glossary 4 . . . . . . . . 0
Glossary 5 - Glossary 6 . . . . . . . . 4
* Zero in this column indicates an original page.
A
Change 13
USAF
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
2.8A
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
2.8A.1
FOREWORD
.......................
SAFETY SUMMARY
1
.................
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DISCUSSION OF COATING MATERIALS AND
TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.3
2
Chapter
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .
GENERAL DISCUSSION OF
GANIC COATINGS . . . . .
Coatings Systems for Metal
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Protective Finish
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ORGANIC COATING . . . . .
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.7
2.8
xv
2.8A.2
1-1
....
OR....
1-1
....
1-1
....
....
1-1
1-1
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
2.2
2.3
xi
2.8A.3
2.9
1-1
2-1
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
PREPARATION FOR PAINT
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-3
Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-4
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM
REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4.1
CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEMS
FROM METAL
SUBSTRATES. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4.1
CHEMICAL REMOVERS. . . . . . . 2-4.1
Remover for Epoxy and Polyurethane Primers and Epoxy and
Polyurethane Top-Coats Over
Epoxy or Polyurethane
Primers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-5
Remover for Polysulfide Primer with
a Polyurethane Topcoat . . . . . . .
2-6
Removers for Environmental
Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-6
Chemical Remover Selection for
Depot Removal Operations . . . .
2-7
GENERAL OVERALL CHEMICAL
REMOVAL PROCEDURES . . .
2-7
CHEMICAL REMOVAL PROCEDURES FOR CONFINED
LOCATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-10
2.10
2.10.1
2.10.2
2.10.3
2.10.4
2.10.5
2.10.6
2.11
2.11.1
2.11.1.1
2.11.1.2
2.11.1.3
2.11.1.4
2.11.1.5
2.11.1.6
2.11.1.7
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.4
2.11.5
2.11.6
2.11.6.1
2.11.6.2
2.11.7
2.11.8
2.11.9
Page
CHEMICAL DIP TANK MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES . . . .
2-11
MIL-PRF-83936, Heated Tank Type
for Aircraft Wheels, Landing
Gear Components, and Other Aircraft and Support
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-11
MIL-PRF-87978, Type I and II Ambient Temperature Epoxy and
Polyurethane Systems Paint Remover for Aircraft Wheels and
Landing Gear Components . . . .
2-11
Chemical Dip Tank Procedures. . . .
2-11
MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF
ORGANIC FINISH
SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-12
MECHANICAL REMOVAL METHODS OTHER THAN PLASTIC
MEDIA OR MEDIUM PRESSURE WATER BLASTING FOR
METAL SUBSTRATES . . . . . . 2-12.1
Abrasive Blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12.1
Hand or Motor-Driven Abrasive
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12.1
Hand Held Abrasive Removal . . . .
2-13
Motor Driven Abrasive
Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-13
Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel
Based Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-13
Dust Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-13
PMB REMOVAL METHOD . . . . .
2-18
Media Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type VII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Type VIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Media Authorized for Air Force
Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Operational Parameters for Metallic
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-19
Usage Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-19
Operational Parameters for NonMetallic (Composite)
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-19
Operation Safety Requirements. . . .
2-19
Walk-In Blast Booth . . . . . . . . . . .
2-19
PMB Blasting Cabinets . . . . . . . . .
2-20
Personnel Qualifications . . . . . . . .
2-20
Pre-blast Preparation . . . . . . . . . . .
2-20
Postblast Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-20
Change 11
i
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
Page
2.11.10
2.11.11
2.11.12
2.11.12.1
2.11.12.2
2.11.12.3
2.12
2.12.1
2.12.2
2.12.3
2.12.4
2.12.5
2.12.5.1
2.12.5.2
2.13
2.13.1
2.14
2.14.1
2.14.2
3
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.4.1
3.1.5
ii
Specific Technical Data and Work
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-20.1
Disposal of Plastic Media Used in
Paint Removal Operations . . . . .
2-21
Contamination Testing of Plastic
Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-21
Equipment and Materials
Recommended . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-21
Sampling Procedure . . . . . . . . . . .
2-21
Contamination Test Procedure . . . .
2-21
MPW REMOVAL METHOD . . . . .
2-23
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-23
Paint Removal Operations . . . . . . .
2-24
Post-Paint Removal Cleaning . . . . .
2-24
Operational Safety
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-24
Personnel Qualification . . . . . . . . .
2-24
Equipment Manufacturer’s
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-25
Air Force Supplied Local
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-25
REMOVAL OF THERMOPLASTIC
POWDER COATING . . . . . . . .
2-25
Removal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . .
2-25
PAINT REMOVAL ON
NON-METALLICS . . . . . . . . .
2-25
Removal Requirements . . . . . . . . .
2-25
Mechanical Paint Removal on Fiber
Glass, Arranged Fiber (“Kevlar”)/
Epoxy, and Graphite or Boron
Fiber/Epoxy Composite
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-25
SURFACE PREPARATION AND CHEMICAL
PREPAINT SURFACE TREATMENT . . . .
3.1
Chapter
SURFACE PREPARATION FOR
PAINTING AND CHEMICAL
PREPAINT SURFACE
TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation for
Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation for Repair or
Over Coating of Damaged Organic Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scuff Sanding for Overspraying Existing Coating Systems on
Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solvent Wiping for Surface
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solvent-Wipe, Aircraft Prepaint for
Environmental Compliance . . . .
Surface Preparation for MIL-C27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 Integral Fuel Cell Coating. . . . . . . .
Change 2
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.1.8
3.1.9
3.1.10
3.1.11
3.1.12
3.1.13
3.1.14
3.1.15
3.1.16
3.1.17
3.1.18
3.1.19
3.1.20
3-1
3.1.20.1
3.1.21
3.1.22
3-1
3.1.23
3-1
3.1.24
3-1
3.1.25
3.1.26
3.1.27
3-2
3-3
3-5
3-5
4
Page
Reactivation of Newly Applied
Primer or Tiecoat . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation, Unpainted
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Removal, Chemical and
Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation for Prepaint Treatment,
Unpainted Surfaces. . . . . . . . . .
Water Break Inspection . . . . . . . . .
Evidence of Inadequate
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Removal Prepaint Compound, Aluminum. . . . . . . . . . .
Prepaint Chemical Corrosion Removal Materials . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of MIL-C-38334/SAE
AMS-1640 Solution/Not LOX
Compatible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Treatment Materials for
Aluminum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Touch-Up of Damaged Aluminum
Surface Treatment
MIL-DTL-5541 . . . . . . . . . . . .
“No-Rinse Process” for Surface
Treatment of Aluminum . . . . . .
Mixing MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706 Solution . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of MIL-C-81706/MILDTL-81706 Solutions . . . . . . . .
Alternate Surface Preparations for
Aluminum Surfaces (PreKote
SP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of PreKote SP. . . . . . .
Use of PreKote SP on Exterior Surfaces Where Paint and Primer
Have Been Removed During
Scuff Sand, Touch-up, or
Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Removal Solution for
Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Treatment Process for
Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation for Steel . . . . .
Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tack Ragging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAINTING APPLICATION METHODS . . . .
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.1.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY METHODS . . . . . .
HVLP Spray . . . . . . . . . . .
HVLP Touch-Up Spray Gun
Hot Spray . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Airless Spray . . . . . . . . . . .
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3-7
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-16
3-17
3-18
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
Page
Air-Assisted Airless Spray . . . . . . .
Electrostatic Spray . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY PAINTING EQUIPMENT,
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HVLP Spraying Systems . . . . . . . .
Spray Gun, General . . . . . . . . . . .
Classes of Spray Guns . . . . . . . . .
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
Chapter
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9
4.4
Page
Material Containers . . . . . . . .
Air Compressors . . . . . . . . . .
Air Regulators or Transformers
Air Condensers . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY PAINTING . . . . . . . .
Change 2
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.
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
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4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-7
4-7
4-8
ii.1/(ii.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
4.4.1
4.4.1.1
4.4.1.2
4.4.1.3
4.4.2
4.4.3
4-8
4-8
4-8
4-8
4-11
5.6.5
5.6.6
5.6.7
5.7
....
4-12
....
4-21
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
....
4-22
5.8
5.8.1
PAINTING OPERATIONS FOR AIRCRAFT
AND EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
5.8.2
5-1
5.8.2.1
5.8.2.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.8.6
5.8.7
5.8.8
5.8.8.1
5.8.8.2
4.6
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.3
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.1.1
5.6.1.2
5.6.1.3
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
Gun Techniques . . . . . . . . . .
Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stroking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gun Adjustments . . . . . . . . .
Painting Difficulties and
Remedies . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEANING AND
MAINTENANCE. . . . . . .
MECHANICAL PAINT GUN
WASHER . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
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.
.
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.
.
.
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.
.
Chapter
.
.
.
.
.
4.5
5
Page
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS
OF PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . . .
Respiratory Protection. . . . . . . . . .
SPRAY BOOTHS AND PAINTING
AREAS, GENERAL. . . . . . . . .
PAINT BOOTH TYPES . . . . . . . .
Dry-Type Booth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air-Water Wash Type Booth. . . . . .
Cleaning and Maintenance . . . . . . .
Part and Equipment Painting
Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT PAINTING
OPERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depot Level Aircraft Painting
Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field Level Aircraft Painting
Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrostatic Aircraft Painting. . . . .
Atmospheric Conditions for
Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material Requirements,
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE AIRCRAFT PAINTING PROCESS SEQUENCE OF
EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Paint Application
Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Small Aircraft-Tail Toward Hanger/
Insert Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large Aircraft-Nose Toward Hanger
Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walkway Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overspraying Existing Coating Systems on Aircraft and Aerospace
Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curing of Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating Thickness
Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
6
Page
Allowable Coating Thickness . . . . .
Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Barrier Coating . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERIOR FINISHING PROCEDURES AND
OPERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation for Coating . . . . . . . . .
Coating Application . . . . . . . . . . .
Refinishing of Fiber Glass
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAINTENANCE PAINTING . . . .
Epoxy or Polyurethane Primer/Polyurethane Topcoat . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer and Polyurethane
Touch-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brush or Spray . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Touch-Up Pen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerosol Touch-Up . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brush/Roller Touch-Up . . . . . . . . .
Brush Application. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roller Application . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temporary Protection . . . . . . . . . .
Powder Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance Painting . . . . . . . . . .
USAF STANDARD COATING SYSTEMS
FOR AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT . . . .
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-12
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-16
5-17
5-17
5-17
5-17
6-1
5-4
6.1
5-4
6.2
5-5
5-5
5-6
5-6
6.3
6.4
6.5
5-7
6.6
5-7
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.7
5-7
5-7
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-9
5-10
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.3
6.7.3.1
6.7.3.2
6.7.3.3
6.8
6.9
6.9.1
6.9.2
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC
COATINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONSTITUENTS OF ORGANIC
COATINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PIGMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREPARATION OF COATING
MATERIALS FOR USE,
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIXING AND THINNING OF
COATING MATERIALS,
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Method of Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SOLVENTS, DILUENTS, AND
THINNERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volatility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 2 Zahn Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No. 4 Ford Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLUSHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alkyds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acrylics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-5
6-5
iii
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
Page
6.9.3
6.9.4
6.9.5
6.9.6
6.9.7
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.12.1
6.12.2
6.12.2.1
6.12.2.2
6.12.2.3
6.12.2.4
6.12.2.5
6.12.2.6
6.12.3
6.12.3.1
6.12.3.2
6.12.3.3
6.12.3.4
6.12.3.5
6.12.3.6
6.12.4
6.12.4.1
6.12.4.2
6.12.4.3
6.12.4.4
6.12.4.5
6.12.4.6
6.12.5
6.12.5.1
6.12.5.2
6.12.5.3
6.12.5.4
6.12.5.5
6.12.5.6
6.12.6
6.12.6.1
6.12.6.2
6.12.6.3
6.12.6.4
6.12.6.5
6.12.6.6
iv
Vinyls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phenolics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silicones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Epoxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polyurethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADHESION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIMERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COATINGS AND COATING
SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USAF Standard Polyurethane Aircraft Coating System . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Epoxy, For Aircraft
Application, Specification
MIL-PRF-23377. . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Epoxy, VOC Complaint, Chemical and Solvent Resistant, MIL-PRF-85582 . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Polyurethane,
TT-P-2760. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating, Elastomeric, Polysulfide Corrosion Inhibiting,
PR-1432GV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tiecoat, Non-Chromated . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 1
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
Chapter
6.12.7
6.12.7.1
6.12.7.2
6.12.7.3
6.12.7.4
6.12.7.5
6.12.7.6
6.12.7.7
6.12.8
6.12.9
6-6
6-6
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-8
6-8
6-8
6-8
6-8
6-8
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-11
6-11
6-11
6.12.9.1
6.12.9.2
6.12.9.3
6.12.9.4
6.12.9.5
6.12.9.6
6.12.10
6.12.10.1
6.12.10.2
6.12.10.3
6.12.10.4
6.12.10.5
6.12.10.6
6.12.11
6.12.11.1
6.12.11.2
6.12.11.3
6.12.11.4
6.12.11.5
6.12.12
6.12.12.1
6.12.12.2
6.12.12.3
6.12.12.4
6.12.12.5
6.12.13
6.12.13.1
6.12.13.2
6.12.13.3
6.12.13.4
6.12.13.5
Page
Polyurethane Topcoat
(MIL-PRF-85285) . . . . . . . . . .
Coating Classifications . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced Performance Coating
(APC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APC Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curing of Complete Polyurethane
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer, Coating, Inorganic, Zinc
Dust Pigmented, Self-Curing, for
Steel Surfaces, Specification
MIL-P-38336/SAE
AMS-P-38336 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer Coating for Steel Surfaces,
Specification
MIL-PRF-26915. . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting
(1200 °F) TT-P-28 . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing and Application. . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enamel, Alkyd, Gloss, Low VOC
Content, TT-E-489 . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enamel, Heat Resistant (204 °C or
400 °F), CID A-A-3054 . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-11
6-11
6-12
6-12
6-12
6-12
6-13
6-13
6-13
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
6-16
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
6.12.14
Page
Coating, Sprayable, Strippable, Protective, MIL-PRF-6799 . . . . . . .
6-16
Chapter
6.12.14.1
6.12.14.2
Page
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 1
6-16
6-16
iv.1/(iv.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
6.12.14.3
6.12.14.4
6.12.14.5
6.12.15
6.12.15.1
6.12.15.2
6.12.15.3
6.12.15.4
6.12.15.5
6.12.16
6.12.16.1
6.12.16.2
6.12.16.3
6.12.16.4
6.12.16.5
6.12.16.6
6.12.17
6.12.17.1
6.12.17.2
6.12.17.3
6.12.17.4
6.12.17.5
6.12.18
6.12.18.1
6.12.18.2
6.12.18.3
6.12.18.4
6.12.18.5
6.12.19
6.12.19.1
6.12.19.2
6.12.19.3
6.12.19.4
6.12.19.5
6.12.20
6.12.20.1
6.12.20.2
6.12.20.3
6.12.20.4
6.12.20.5
Page
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resin Coating, Unpigmented, for
Engine Components and Metal
Parts, MIL-PRF-3043 . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating Kit, Epoxy, for Interior of
Steel Fuel Tanks,
MIL-PRF-4556 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating, Corrosion Preventive, for
Aircraft Integral Tanks, MIL-C27725/SAE AMS-C-27725. . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating Compound, Nonslip (for
Walkways), CID A-A-59166 . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing and Application. . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coatings, Polyurethane, Rain Erosion Resistant for Exterior Aircraft and Missile Parts, MIL-C83231/SAE AMS-C-83231. . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coating System, Polyurethane, NonYellowing White, Rain Erosion
Resistant, Thermally Reflective,
MIL-C-83445/SAE
AMS-C-83445 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drying Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter
6.12.21
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
7-1
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
7-6
EXTERIOR FINISHES, INSIGNIA, AND
MARKINGS APPLICABLE TO USAF
AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
7.2.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.7.1
7.8
7.8.1
7.8.2
7.8.3
7.8.4
7.9
6-19
6-19
6-19
6-20
6-20
6-20
7.9.1
7.9.2
7.9.3
7.9.4
8
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
DECALS - GENERAL . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Procedures for Decals
and Colored Marking
Stripes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMALL DECALS AND MARKING
STRIPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decals Up to 12 Inches x 2
Inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film for Striping . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LARGE EMBLEMS AND LETTERS USING HINGE APPLICATION METHOD . . . . . . . . .
DECALS APPLIED USING APPLICATION TAPE . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDGE SEALING . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION OF PREMASKED
DECALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DECAL REMOVAL . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Removal . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION OF MARKINGS
WITH SILKSCREEN . . . . . . . .
Materials and Equipment for
Silkscreening . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . .
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Topcoat Application . . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION OF MARKINGS
USING STENCILS . . . . . . . . .
Surface Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting Stencil . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Painting of Stencils. . . . . . . . . . . .
Adhesion Promoters . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1
6-19
6-19
6-19
6-19
6-19
6-19
6-20
6-20
6-20
6-20
6-20
6-20
APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF DECALS AND SILK SCREENING. . . . . . . .
7.2
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-18
6-18
6-19
Rain
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
6-20
6-20
6-20
6-22
6-22
6-22
6-23
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-17
Leading Edge Polyurethane
Erosion Resistant Tape .
Description and Use . . . . .
Installation . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of Edge Sealer
Repair of Damaged Area . .
Tape Removal . . . . . . . . .
Painting Instructions . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.12.21.1
6.12.21.2
6.12.21.3
6.12.21.4
6.12.21.5
6.12.21.6
7
Page
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance and Application .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Change 10
.
.
.
.
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
7-5
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
v
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
8.1.4
8.1.5
8.1.6
8.1.6.1
8.1.6.2
8.1.6.3
8.1.6.4
8.1.6.5
8.1.7
8.1.8
8.1.9
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.2.6
8.2.7
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.1.1
8.3.1.2
8.3.1.3
8.3.1.4
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.3.7.1
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
vi
Page
Major Command Instructions . . . . .
Authorized Deviations. . . . . . . . . .
Paint Scheme and Marking Approval
Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89th AW, 201AS, and the 1st Helicopter Squadron . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. Air Force Aerial Demonstration
Squadron “The
Thunderbirds” . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76th Airlift Squadron . . . . . . . . . .
Low Observable Aircraft . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Received from Other
Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applicable References. . . . . . . . . .
STANDARD EXTERIOR FINISHES, MARKINGS, AND INSIGNIA FOR USAF
AIRCRAFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal Exterior Finishes . . . . . . . . .
Titanium and Corrosion Resistant
Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment of Metal Exteriors . . . . .
Policy Guidance. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Camouflage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Purpose Exterior Solar Resistant Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint Facility/Finish Identification
Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MARKINGS AND INSIGNIA FOR
USAF AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . .
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Star Insignia . . . . . . . . . .
The National Star Insignia on Aircraft Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The National Star Insignia on Aircraft Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The National Star Insignia on
Helicopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
“USAF” Wing Marking. . . . . . . . .
American Flag Marking . . . . . . . .
United States of America
Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Radio Call Numbers . . . . .
AMC Standard Radio Call
Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACC Standard Radio Call
Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distinctive Unit Identifiers . . . . . . .
ORGANIZATION INSIGNIA OR
EMBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outstanding Unit Award
Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crew Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 11
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-3
Chapter
8.4.2.1
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.4.1
8.4.4.2
8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7
8.4.8
8.4.8.1
8.4.8.2
8.4.8.3
8.4.9
8.4.10
8.4.11
8.4.12
8.4.13
8.4.14
8-3
8-3
8.4.15
8-3
8-3
8-3
8.4.16
8-3
8.4.17
8.4.17.1
8.4.17.2
8.4.18
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8.4.18.1
8.4.18.2
8.4.19
8.4.20
8.5
8-4
8-4
8-5
Page
Combat Deployment
Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local Station Numbers and
Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Station Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tail Stripe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propeller Markings . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter Main Rotor Blade
Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter Tail Rotor Blade
Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identification Markings of Jettisonable Aircraft Components . . . . .
Canopies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ejection Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jettisonable Components . . . . . . . .
Markings for Servicing, Ground
Handling, and Hazard
Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Engine Compartment
Fire Access Panel . . . . . . . . . . .
Ejection Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identification of Ballistic Hose
Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Tank Filler Areas. . . .
Marking of Emergency Lighting
(Flashlight) for Cargo and Transport Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Walkways and
Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Composite/Honeycomb
Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removable Escape Panels . . . . . . .
Internal Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Markings . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markings for Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Drones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conspicuity Markings . . . . . . . . . .
Arctic Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ESTABLISHING REQUIREMENTS
FOR MISSION ACTIVITY,
CREW ACCOMPLISHMENT,
AND ESPRIT DE CORPS INSIGNIA AND MARKINGS . . . .
APPENDIX A SHELF-LIFE EXTENSION
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
A-1
8-5
A.1
8-5
8-5
GENERAL TESTING
PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
A.2
Page
MIL-PRF-23377 EPOXY
PRIMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
Change 3
vi.1/(vi.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED
Chapter
A.2.1
A.2.2
A.2.3
A.2.4
A.3
A.3.1
A.3.2
A.3.3
A.3.4
A.4
A.4.1
A.4.2
A.4.3
A.4.4
A.5
A.5.1
Page
Condition in the Container. . . . . .
Viscosity and Pot Life. . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Appearance . . . . . . . . . .
MIL-PRF-85582 WATERBORNE
EPOXY PRIMER. . . . . . . . . .
Condition in the Container. . . . . .
Viscosity and Pot Life. . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Appearance . . . . . . . . . .
TT-P-2760 POLYURETHANE
PRIMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condition in the Container. . . . . .
Viscosity and Pot Life. . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Appearance . . . . . . . . . .
MIL-PRF-85285 HIGH SOLIDS
POLYURETHANE . . . . . . . . .
Condition in the Container. . . . . .
.
.
.
.
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
.
.
.
.
.
A-2
A-2
A-2
A-2
A-2
.
.
.
.
.
A-2
A-2
A-2
A-2
A-2
.
.
A-2
A-2
Chapter
A.5.2
A.5.3
A.5.4
Page
Viscosity and Pot Life. . . . . . . . . .
Drying Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface Appearance . . . . . . . . . . .
A-3
A-3
A-3
APPENDIX B STANDARD AIR FORCE
AIRCRAFT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
B.1
B.2
NATIONAL STAR INSIGNIA . . . .
U.S. AIR FORCE MARKING . . . .
B-1
B-1
APPENDIX C RESPIRATOR PROTECTION
EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-1
C.1
C-1
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . .
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 9
Glossary 1
vii
TO 1-1-8
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Number
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
6-1
Title
Page
Nozzle Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . .
Simple Spray System Setup . . . . . . . .
Airless Spray System . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Spray System. . . . . . . . . . .
Sectional View of Spray Gun . . . . . . .
Proper Installation of Air Compressor,
Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Right and Wrong Methods of
Spraying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fifty Percent Overlap . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Gun Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . .
Excessive Spray Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paint Leaks From Spray Gun . . . . . . .
Gun Sputters Constantly . . . . . . . . . .
Orange Peel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sandpaper Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wrinkling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blistering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fish Eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitting or Cupping . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sempen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sempen Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sempen Application . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two-Component Aerosol . . . . . . . . . .
Zahn Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4-1
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
..
4-7
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-16
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-18
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-20
4-20
4-20
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-15
6-4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Number
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
7-11
B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-9
B-10
B-11
B-12
Title
Page
Applying Small Decal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Marking Stripe . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 1) . . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 2) . . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 3) . . . . .
Applying Large Emblems (Step 4) . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 1) . . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 2) . . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 3) . . . . . .
Use of Application Tape (Step 4) . . . . . .
Edge Sealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edge Sealing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Star Insignia on Swept
Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Form of Letters and Numerals . . . . . . . .
Typical Marking For Paint Facility/Finish
Identification Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
“UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” AND
AMC Standard Marking Sample . . . . .
Distinctive Unit, Serial Number, and ACC
Standard Sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Markings, Servicing, and
Precautioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ground Here, International Symbol . . . . .
Markings For Fire Access Panel . . . . . . .
Helicopter Tail Boom Markings . . . . . . .
Typical Emergency Instruction
Markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Emergency Entry Markings . . . . .
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-3
7-4
7-4
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-10
B-10
B-11
B-11
B-12
LIST OF TABLES
Number
2-0
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
3-1
3-2
4-1
5-1
viii
Title
Chemical Stripping Approved Aluminum
Backed Pressure Sensitive Tape . . . . .
Hand Held Abrasives . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motor Driven Abrasives. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abrasive Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommended Controls and PPE for
Abrasive Blasting Operations . . . . . . .
Recommended Controls and PPE for Surface Preparation Operations . . . . . . . .
Wipe Solvents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes,
and Remedies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum Recommended Controls and
PPE for Priming and Painting
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change 11
Page
Number
5-2
2-3
2-14
2-15
2-15
5-3
5-4
2-17
5-5
3-4.1
3-5
6-1
8-1
8-2
4-12
8-3
5-2
Title
Allowable Coating Thickness for Production Level Finishing (Depot, Original
Manufacture, Field). . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gloss Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suggested/Approved Rollers for
Primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suggested/Approved Rollers for
Topcoat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leading Edge Tape Materials/Tools . . . . .
Standard Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Authorized American Flag
Markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aircraft Authorized United States of
America Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page
5-10
5-12
5-17
5-17
6-21
8-4
8-4
8-4
TO 1-1-8
LIST OF TABLES - CONTINUED
Number
8-4
A-1
Title
Page
Aircraft Authorized Multi-Colored Blade
Tip Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viscosity and Pot Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-5
A-3
Number
C-1
Title
Page
Respirator Protection Equipment . . . . . . .
C-2
Change 11
ix/(x blank)
TO 1-1-8
FOREWORD
1
PURPOSE.
The purpose of this technical order is to prescribe standard
procedures for the removal, application, and maintenance of
coating systems on Air Force systems and equipment. Its
applicability is generally imposed by reference in system or
item technical data. It also should be used where there is an
absence of paint process requirements in system or item
technical data. System and item (SM/IM) management activities have an obligation to require the use of this technical
order to the maximum practical extent. It reflects the use of
standard materials and procedures that meet Defense Standardization Program, AF Corrosion Prevention and Control
Program, and Air Force policy (AFI 20-114) requirements.
SM/IM offices should modify standard requirements or
specify alternate requirements only as needed to support the
specific requirements of their systems and equipment as
stated in TO 00-5-1. Where there is a conflict between this
general TO and the weapon system specific TO, the weapon
system specific TO will take precedence. Such departures
from standard should also be coordinated with all applicable
Office of Coordinating Responsibilities (OCR) (e.g., Corrosion Control, Ground Safety, Bioenvironmental Engineering,
Environmental Management).
2
SCOPE.
This technical manual specifies procedures, materials, and
equipment for preparing surfaces and correctly applying effective finishes to interiors and exteriors of Air Force aircraft, missiles, and associated equipment. Painting techniques
are suggested and common difficulties discussed. Procedures
for applying complete coating systems are given. Some basic
discussion of paint technology is included and a glossary of
painting terms appended.
3
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS.
The following nonstandard abbreviations are used in this
manual. For definition of standard abbreviations and acronyms, refer to ASME Y14.38.
ACGIH
AFCPCO
ALC
BCE
BES
CFM
CID
CRES
DR
American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists
Air Force Corrosion Prevention and Control Office
Air Logistic Center
Base Civil Engineer
Base Environmental Services
Cubic Feet per Minute
Commercial Item Description
Corrosion Resistant Steel
Drum
EAID
EPA
FSC
GL
gm
HAP
HAZMAT
HDI
HVLP
ID
IPB
IPI
LEL
LOX
MEK
ml
moh
MPW
MSDS
NATO
NDI
NESHAP
No.
NSN
OCR
OSHA
PAPR
PCBTF
PD
PMB
PN
PPE
PPM
PSI
PSIG
PVC
QPL/QPD
RPM
SG
SLED
SM/IM
SPD
SPO
TNP
UAV
Equipment Authorization Inventory Data
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Stock Classes
Gallon
Grams
Hazardous Air Pollutants
Hazardous Materials
Hexamethylene Diisocyanate
High Volume Low Pressure
Inside Diameter
Illustrated Parts Breakdown
In-Process Inspection
Lower Explosive Limit
Liquid Oxygen
Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone
milliliter
Measure of Hardness
Medium Pressure Water
Material Safety Data Sheets
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Non-Destructive Inspection
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
Number
National Stock Number
Office of Coordinating Responsibilities
Occupational Safety and Health Act
Powered Air-Purifying Respirator
Parachlorobenzotrifluoride
Purchase Description
Plastic Media Blasting
Part Number
Personal Protective Equipment
Parts Per Million
Pound-force Per Square Inch
Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge
Polyvinyl Chloride
Qualified Products List/Qualified Products
Database
Revolutions per Minute
Specific Gravity
Shelf-Life Extension Data
System Manager/Item Manager
Systems Program Director
System Program Office
Touch-N-Prep
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Change 11
xi
TO 1-1-8
UV
VOC
4
Ultra Violet
Volatile Organic Compound
LIST OF RELATED PUBLICATIONS.
The following publications are to be used for reference.
Maintain only those publications required to perform assigned mission. This list is not all inclusive. This list also
includes general information TOs pertaining to inspection,
maintenance, storage, and use of personal flying and survival
equipment.
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
CID A-A-59281
CID A-A-59282
CID A-A-59323
CID A-A-59485
List of Related Publications
Number
ASTM D 329
CCC-C-440
CID A-A-289
CID A-A-1043
CID A-A-1044
CID A-A-1047
CID A-A-1800
CID A-A-2522
CID A-A-3007
CID A-A-3054
CID A-A-3118
CID A-A-55827
CID A-A-58054
CID A-A-58060
CID A-A-59106
CID A-A-59107
CID A-A-59166
xii
Change 11
Title
Acetone, Technical (Repl.
O-A-51)
Cloth, Cheese, Cotton,
Bleached and Unbleached
Brushing, Acid, Swabbing
Wool, Steel (Repl. FF-W1825 steel type)
Wool, Metallic (Copper and
Aluminum) (Repl. FF-W1825 aluminum type)
Paper, Abrasive, Silicon Carbide, Waterproof (Repl. by
ANSI B74.18)
Varnish, Oil, Spar (Repl.
TT-V-119)
Rags, Wiping (Cotton and
Cotton Synthetic)
Thinner for Phenol-Formaldehyde and Medium Oil
and Styrenated Alkyd
Paints and Varnishes
(Repl. TT-T-306)
Paint, Heat Resisting (204
°C) (Repl. TT-E-496)
Brush, Plater’s, Hand
(Curved Handle Type)
(Repl. H-B-178)
Chromium Trioxide, Technical (Repl. O-C-303)
Abrasive Mats, Non-Woven,
Non-Metallic (Repl. MILA-9962)
Fluorocarbons and Other
Refrigerants
Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl
Ether, Technical (Repl.
TT-E-781)
Toluene, Technical (Repl.
TT-T-548)
Coating Compound, NonSlip, for Walkways (Repl.
MIL-W-5044)
ETL 02-15
ETL 98-8
FED-STD-595
GGG-C-520
MIL-A-8625
MIL-B-23958
MIL-C-38334
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706
MIL-C-8514
MIL-C-8779
MIL-DTL-5541
MIL-DTL-85054
MIL-H-17672
MIL-M-3171
MIL-P-15930
Title
Cleaning Compound, Solvent Mixtures (Repl. MILC-38736)
Alcohol, Ethyl (Repl. O-E760)
Cloths, Cleaning, Low-Lint
Plastic Material, Pressure
Sensitive, for Aerospace
Identification and Marking
(Repl. MIL-P-38477)
Fire Protection Engineering
Criteria - New Aircraft
Facilities
Fire Protection Engineering
Criteria - Existing Aircraft
Facilities
Colors Used In Government
Procurement
Cloth and Disks, Abrasive,
Open-Mesh, Waterproof
(Repl. by ANSI B74.18)
Anodic Coatings for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Brush, Cleaning, Aircraft,
Metal Brightening
Corrosion Removing Compound for Aircraft Surfaces (Repl. by SAE
AMS-1640)
Chemical Conversion Materials, for Coating Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Coating Compound, Metal
Pretreatment, Resin-Acid
Color, Interior, Aircraft, Requirements for
Chemical Conversion Coatings for Aluminum and
Aluminum Alloys
Corrosion Preventive Compound, Water Displacing,
Clear
Hydraulic Fluid/10 wt. Oil
Equivalent
Magnesium Alloy, Processes
for Corrosion Protection
(Repl. by SAE AMS-M3171)
Primer Coating, Shipboard,
Vinyl-Zinc Chromate
TO 1-1-8
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
MIL-P-38336/SAE AMS-P38336
MIL-P-85891
MIL-S-22805
MIL-PRF-121
MIL-PRF-131
MIL-PRF-17672
MIL-PRF-22750
MIL-PRF-23377
MIL-PRF-26514
MIL-PRF-26915
MIL-PRF-3043
MIL-PRF-32033
MIL-PRF-32295
MIL-PRF-4556
MIL-PRF-6799
MIL-PRF-680
MIL-PRF-7808
MIL-PRF-85285
MIL-PRF-85570
MIL-PRF-85582
MIL-PRF-87937
MIL-STD-3007
Title
Primer Coating, Inorganic
Zinc Dust Pigmented, Self
Curing, for Steel Surfaces
Plastic Media for Removal
of Organic Coatings
Spray Kit, Self-Pressurized
(Repl. by SAE AS-22805)
Barrier Material, Grease
Proof, Water Proof, Flexible
Barrier Material, Water Vapor Proof, Grease Proof,
Flexible
Hydraulic Fluid, Petroleum,
Inhibited
Coating, Epoxy, High Solids
Primer Coatings, Epoxy,
High Solids
Polyurethane Foam, Rigid or
Flexible, for Packaging
Primer Coating for Steel
Surfaces
Resin Coating, Permanent,
for Engine Components
and Metal Parts
Lubricating Oil, General
Purpose, Preservative (Water-Displacing, Low Temperature)
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low-VOC, Hap-Free
(Repl. P-D-680)
Coating Kit, Epoxy, for Interior of Steel Fuel Tanks
Coating, Sprayable, Strippable, Protective, Water
Emulsion
Degreasing Solvent (Repl.
P-D-680)
Lubricating Oil, Aircraft
Turbine Engine, Synthetic
Base
Coating, Polyurethane, HighSolids
Cleaning Compound, Aircraft Exterior
Primer Coatings, Epoxy, Waterborne
Cleaning Compound, Aerospace Equipment
Unified Facilities Criteria
and Unified Facilities
Guide Specifications
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
MIL-STD-7179
MIL-T-81772
NFPA 10
NFPA 13
NFPA 33
NFPA 70
NFPA 91
O-E-760
SAE AMS-1640
SAE AMS-C-27725
SAE AMS-C-83231
SAE AMS-C-83445
SAE AMS-M-3171
SAE AMS-T-21595
SAE AMS-T-23397
Title
Finishes, Coatings, and Sealants for Protection of
Aerospace Weapon Systems (Repl. MIL-F-7179)
Thinner, Aircraft Coating
Standard for Portable Fire
Extinguishers
Standards for the Installation
of Sprinkler Systems
Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or
Combustible Materials
National Electrical Code
Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and
Noncombustible Particulate Solids
Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol);
Denatured Alcohol; Proprietary Solvents and Special Industrial Solvents
Corrosion Removing Compound, for Aircraft Surfaces (Repl. MIL-C38334)
Coating, Corrosion Preventive, Polyurethane, for
Aircraft Integral Fuel
Tanks (to 250 °F) (Repl.
MIL-C-27725)
Coating, Polyurethane, Rain
Erosion Resistant, for Exterior Aircraft and Missile
Plastic Parts (Repl. MILC-83231)
Coating System, Polyurethane, Non-Yellowing
White, Rain Erosion Resistant, Thermally Reflective (Repl. MIL-C-83445)
Magnesium Alloy, Processes
for Corrosion Protection
(Repl. MIL-M-3171)
Tapes, Pressure-Sensitive
Adhesive, Masking, NonStaining for Aircraft Painting Applications (Repl.
MIL-T-21595)
Tapes, Pressure Sensitive
Adhesive, for Masking
During Paint Removal
Operations (Repl. MIL-T23397)
Change 11
xiii
TO 1-1-8
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
SAE AS-22805
TT-E-489
TT-E-751
TT-I-735
TT-N-95
TT-P-1757
TT-P-2760
TT-P-28
TT-T-2935
AFH 23-123
AFI 20-114
AFI 23-101
AFI
AFI
AFI
AFI
AFI
32-1067
32-7001
32-7041
32-7042
32-7086
AFI 90-803
AFI 91-203
AFPD 91-2
AFMAN 23-122
xiv
Change 11
Title
Spray Kit, Self Pressurized
(Repl. MIL-S-22805)
Enamel, Alkyd, Gloss, Low
VOC Content
Ethyl Acetate, Technical
Isopropyl Alcohol
Naphtha, Aliphatic
Primer Coating, Alkyd Base,
One Component
Primer Coating, Polyurethane, Elastomeric, High
Solids
Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting (1200 °F)
Thinner, Purging
Materiel Management Reference Information
Air and Space Equipment
Structural Maintenance
Air Force Materiel Management
Water Systems
Environmental Management
Water Quality Compliance
Waste Management
Hazardous Materials Management
Environmental, Safety, and
Occupational Health Compliance Assessment and
Management Program
Air Force Consolidated Occupational Safety Standard
Safety Programs
Materiel Management Procedures
List of Related Publications - Continued
Number
AFMAN 48-155
AFOSH STD 48-137
AFPAM 32-7043
TO 00-25-172
TO 00-25-4
TO 00-5-1
TO 1-1-24
TO 1-1-689 Volumes I, III,
and V
TO 1-1-690
TO 1-1-691
TO 35-1-3
TO 42B1-1-15
Title
Occupational and Environmental Health Exposure
Controls
Respiratory Protection Program
Hazardous Waste Management Guide
Ground Servicing of Aircraft
and Static Grounding/
Bonding
Depot Maintenance of Aerospace Vehicles and Training Equipment
Air Force Technical Systems
Maintenance, Repair, and
Electrical Requirements
for Fiberglass Airborne
Radomes
Cleaning and Corrosion
Control, Avionics and
Electronics
General Advanced Composite Repair Manual
Aircraft Weapon Systems
Cleaning and Corrosion
Control
Corrosion Prevention, Painting, and Marking of
USAF Support Equipment
(SE)
Cross Reference - NATO/
ASCC Interchangeability
of Aviation Fuels, Lubricants and Allied Products
TO 1-1-8
SAFETY SUMMARY
1
GENERAL SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS.
This manual describes physical and chemical processes,
which may cause injury or death to personnel, or damage to
equipment if not properly followed. This safety summary
includes general safety precautions and instructions that must
be understood and applied during operation and maintenance
to ensure personnel safety and protection of equipment. Prior
to performing any task, the WARNINGs, CAUTIONs, and
NOTEs included in the task shall be reviewed and understood.
2
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, AND NOTES.
WARNING, CAUTION, and NOTE statements have been
strategically placed throughout this text prior to operating or
maintenance procedures, practices or conditions considered
essential to the protection of personnel (WARNING) or
equipment and property (CAUTION), or when essential to
highlight a practice (NOTE). A WARNING, CAUTION or
NOTE will apply each time the step to which it refers is
repeated. Prior to starting any task, the WARNINGS, CAUTIONS, and NOTES for that task will be reviewed and understood. Refer to the materials list table at the beginning of
the appropriate work package for material used during maintenance of this equipment. The detailed warnings for hazardous materials are listed separately in the safety summary in
the Hazardous Materials paragraph. Other warnings, cau-
tions, and notes which appear in this manual are not listed
separately in this safety summary, and are defined as follows:
Highlights an essential operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, statement, etc.,
which, if not strictly observed, could result in injury to, or death of, personnel or long term health
hazards.
Highlights an essential operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, statement, etc.
which if not strictly observed, could result in damage to, or destruction of, equipment or loss of mission effectiveness.
NOTE
Highlights an essential operating or maintenance
procedure, condition, or statement.
Change 11
xv/(xvi blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL DISCUSSION OF COATING MATERIALS
AND TERMS
1.1
INTRODUCTION.
NOTE
See Chapter 8 for Air Force policy on determining
when individual aircraft are to be repainted or
touched up.
The surfaces of aircraft, missiles, and associated equipment
are subjected to hostile environments both natural and manmade. Inadequate control or prevention of metal corrosion or
other forms of surface deterioration is costly and can shorten
weapon or equipment life, hinder mission accomplishment,
or endanger personnel or equipment. To add to their ability
to resist detrimental environments, surfaces are coated in
various ways with a variety of materials. Coatings are divided into two main groups: inorganic and organic. The principal and most versatile means of protection is organic coating, or “paint”. In general, a suitable organic coating system,
properly applied, offers greater protection against corrosion
on metals than an inorganic finish (such as a metallic plating) alone and is more easily maintained. This technical
manual also covers some inorganic materials, insofar as they
are applied in surface preparation for painting by personnel
involved with paint removal and painting operations.
1.2 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ORGANIC COATINGS.
NOTE
Precautionary measures shall be taken to prevent
paint and paint removal waste from contaminating
air, water, or soil. Some of the chemicals utilized
for painting and paint removal require treatment
or other special control prior to disposal. Disposal
of materials shall be accomplished under the direction of the Base Safety Office, Base Civil Engineer, Bioenvironmental Engineer, and Environmental Management in accordance with applicable
directives and in a manner that will not result in
violation of local, state, or federal pollution criteria. Detailed information for disposal is cited in
AFI 32-1067, AFI 32-7001, AFI 32-7041, AFI 327042, AFPAM 32-7043, AFI 32-7086, AFI 90-803
and AFI 91-203.
To provide optimum protection from deterioration and corrosion, the proper coating systems (combination of pretreatment, primer, and topcoat) must be selected for a specific
application. The selection of the proper coating system depends on the material to be coated, the environment to which
the item will be subjected, and the service life requirement
of the coating. No single coating or coating system can perform adequately on all types of surfaces under all conditions
to which Air Force equipment is subjected. For example, a
coating paint conforming to Specification MIL-C-27725/SAE
AMS-C-27725 is good for fuel immersion service, but is
inadequate for exposure to an industrial atmosphere or high
humidity conditions. Many primers and topcoats can be used
in various combinations; however, some primers are specifically formulated for a particular type topcoat. One Component, Alkyd Base Primers are for use under enamels. Use of
this primer under epoxy or polyurethane coatings will result
in premature failure of the coating system.
1.2.1 Coatings Systems for Metal Surfaces. Unless
protected, metals surfaces (with the exception of stainless
steel, titanium and some of the more exotic metals) react
with oxygen and various contaminants in the atmosphere,
particularly in the presence of moisture, to form rust or other
corrosion products. The most common method of preserving
metals is by applying organic coatings.
1.2.1.1 Polishing, buffing, and waxing of aircraft and parts
is prohibited unless authorized and directed by the MAJCOM Senior Logistics Official.
1.2.2 Aircraft Protective Finish Systems. MIL-STD7179 covers the general requirements for protective finishes
and coatings on aerospace weapon system structures and
parts. (It does not necessarily govern coatings on aeronautical equipment such as propellers or power plants, nor those
on accessories such as motors, generators, instruments, etc.)
The level of coating protection is specified depending on the
environment to which the weapon system is to be subjected.
1.3
ORGANIC COATING.
An organic coating or paint may be defined as a carbon based
liquid or semi-liquid material which is applied to a surface
by some mechanical means and which, when dried or cured,
will provide an adherent film of certain desired characteristics. Organic coatings are variously classed as paints, enamels, varnishes and lacquers. As these classifications are not
always practical, due to modern formulations, and because
the coating materials dealt with in this technical manual are
almost exclusively organic in chemical structure, the preferred term “organic coating” is used to designate finishing
materials in general. For the purposes of this technical
manual the term is extended to include some heavy elastomeric materials which are not truly “paints,” and also certain
chemical surface-treating materials which are not truly or-
Change 9
1-1
TO 1-1-8
ganic. These materials may or may not be applied by painters, but are closely associated with painting operations. Also,
1-2
the term “to paint” will continue to be used to signify the
application of organic coatings by painters.
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 2
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM REMOVAL
2.1
NOTE
INTRODUCTION.
The most important factor in removal of organic finish systems (coatings/paints) is complete removal without damaging surfaces on which they are applied. A variety of materials and either chemical or mechanical methods can remove
finish systems. In choosing a material and a method, a compromise between maximum removal power and maximum
protection for the equipment being stripped must be made.
Accessibility of areas to be stripped can dictate the types of
materials and methods to be used. For these reasons, only
those materials and methods described in this chapter, subject to noted restrictions, are authorized for general use in
organic finish system removal from Air Force equipment.
Adherence to removal procedures and their sequence of performance in this chapter is mandatory. Other removal materials and methods can be authorized for limited and specific
applications, but only when specifically approved and defined in system peculiar aircraft and/or equipment technical
orders. The term “Depot Level” in this chapter refers to organizations and facilities which are involved in complete aircraft stripping operations on a routine, if not daily basis.
This includes the Air Logistic Centers (ALC) and contract
stripping operations. It does not include field level maintenance facilities.
NOTE
National Stock Numbers (NSN), if assigned, for
chemical removers, abrasives, and other materials
and equipment authorized in this chapter are in
Federal Stock Classes (FSC) 5345/50, 6850, and
8135 and FSC 7500, 7900, and 8000. Consult the
current FED LOG and GSA Catalog and/or the
DO43 System to convert specification and part
numbers to NSNs and for ordering and pricing information and shelf life codes.
2.2
GENERAL.
PMB can peen or smear soft metals therefore it
shall not be used to remove paint from aluminum
or magnesium components requiring subsequent
fluorescent penetrant inspection unless specifically
directed by the component engineering authority.
Distortion caused by PMB could result in limited
crack/flaw detection.
Each time an aircraft is completely depainted, the
following information shall be documented in the
aircraft historical record, AFTO Form 95: 1. Type
of paint removal process used, 2. Where accomplished, and 3. Date accomplished.
Organic finish systems shall be removed from Air Force aircraft and equipment only when the condition of deterioration
of the system indicates the need for removal or when required in a system peculiar technical order to perform a
specified inspection of the underlying structure. This applies
to stripping of components and small areas of aircraft and
equipment as well as to the entire surface of aircraft or
equipment. Removal of the entire exterior organic finish system from aircraft shall be accomplished in accordance with
the criteria specified in this manual and the Aircraft System
Program Manager’s Service Life Paint Plan. Prior to any
organic finish system removal, the following steps shall be
taken in all cases:
a. Ensure that the facility to be used for finish system
removal operations meets all the safety, fire precaution, health promotion, and environmental requirements in applicable AFOSH and NFPA standards. Precautionary measures shall be taken to prevent paint
and paint removal waste from contaminating air, water, or soil. Prior to performance of finish system removal operations, all personnel must be trained on
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) as required in
AFOSH STD 48-137 and AFI 91-203. Personnel who
are not wearing appropriate PPE shall not perform finish system removal operations.
b. Ensure that the facility to be used for finish system
removal operations provides the proper precautionary
measures for disposal of finish system removal waste
products as required by AFI 32-7001, AFI 32-7041,
and AFI 32-7086 to prevent contamination of lakes,
rivers, and streams. Many chemicals used in finish system removal operations and finish system residues require special treatment and control prior to disposal.
Disposal shall be accomplished under the direction of
the Base Safety Office, the Base Civil and Bioenvironmental Engineers, and the Environmental Management
Office in a manner which will not violate local, state,
and federal pollution regulations. Consult AFI 32-1067,
Change 9
2-1
TO 1-1-8
AFI 32-7001, AFI 32-7041, AFI 32-7042, AFPAM 327043, AFI 32-7086, AFI 90-803, and AFI 91-203 for
detailed information on disposal of finish system removal waste.
c. Determine the type of organic finish system to be removed so that the proper material and method for removal can be chosen from those listed in this chapter.
Consult aircraft and/or equipment system peculiar technical orders and drawings, component drawings, aircraft historical records (AFTO Form 95), and/or the
aircraft exterior finish identification marking on the
aircraft (reference Chapter 8) to help in this determination. If the finish system cannot be determined from
these documents or they are not available, determine
the finish system as follows:
(1) Rub a small area on the surface from which the
finish system is to be removed vigorously with a
cotton rag wet with ASTM D 329 acetone. If the
finish system is removed, it is a lacquer or alkyd
enamel coating. If it is not removed, or very little
is removed, it is a polyurethane or an epoxy coating.
(2) For polyurethane and epoxy coatings, scrape off
the topcoat from a small area down to the primer
coating with a knife blade or razor blade. If the
primer is rubbery and a tan-gray color, it is a
polysulfide primer. If the primer is hard and either a yellow, light brown, or dark green (olive
drab) color, it is either an epoxy or a polyurethane primer.
d. As a last step, study the removal operation to be performed and determine the most logical and efficient
process for the job. If confined areas are involved, they
shall be protected during a general overall removal operation, and shall be stripped using the special procedures in this chapter for these areas. If fiberglass, kevlar, or other composites are involved, they shall be
stripped using the special procedures outlined later in
this technical order. For extensive removal operations,
such as removal of the entire exterior finish system on
aircraft and large pieces of equipment, a detailed sequential step-by-step process specification confirming
to all of the requirements in this chapter shall be prepared and followed. All personnel involved with finish
system removal shall be trained in and thoroughly familiar with all requirements of this chapter.
2.3
PREPARATION FOR PAINT REMOVAL.
All aircraft will be deenergized per AFI 91-203, support
equipment or components must be properly prepared for
paint removal operations. Additionally, it is essential that all
facilities and equipment for paint removal operations meet
the safety and environmental requirements for the processes
to be employed. Once the process for paint removal has been
2-2
Change 11
selected, use the following preparation requirements to prepare the aircraft, support equipment or component.
a. Inspect all surfaces to be stripped for grease, oil, and
dirt. These materials act as a barrier between the finish
system and the chemical or abrasive removers and will
contaminate recoverable air-driven abrasives. This can
cause excessive man-hour expenditures, longer flow
times, and additional waste generation during removal
operations. Small amounts of these contaminants do
not cause a problem; but if surfaces are exceptionally
dirty, oily, or greasy, they shall be washed in accordance with TO 1-1-691 prior to removal operations.
After washing, surfaces shall be either wiped dry, or
sufficient time shall be allowed for them to air dry
prior to removal operations. Small areas or components
may be cleaned using a solvent wipe per Chapter 3 of
this manual.
b. Position the aircraft, equipment, or component from
which the finish system is to be removed in a covered
facility. If chemical removal methods are to be used,
this facility shall be capable of maintaining the ambient air temperature within the range of 50 °F to 100 °F.
In addition, the item from which the finish system is to
be chemically removed shall be placed in the facility
for a length of time sufficient to allow its surface temperature to reach 50 °F to 90 °F prior to application of
the remover. While chemical removal can be accomplished within the ambient air temperature range of 50
°F to 100 °F, severe difficulties will be encountered
outside a temperature range of 70 °F to 90 °F. Below
70 °F, chemical removal is very inefficient because the
action of chemical removers is extremely slow; so the
flow time, man-hours, and amount of remover required
for chemical removal operations will be increased significantly. Above 90 °F, the solvents in chemical removers evaporate so rapidly that removal efficiency is
severely reduced and its drying on the surface makes it
severely difficult to clean the finish system and remover
residue from surfaces. This too will cause a significant
increase in flow time, man-hours, and amount of remover required for chemical removal operations.
c. Protect all special areas, equipment, and materials by
masking or other specified protective devices. For
chemical removal operations, masking shall be accomplished with MIL-PRF-131, Class 1, barrier material
and MIL-T-23397/SAE AMS-T-23397, Type II, (72hour protection) aluminum backed, pressure sensitive
tape. For extensive stripping operations such as depot
level complete exterior finish system removal from aircraft and large pieces of equipment, use only IPG Inc.
Part Number (PN) AFL301 aluminum tape (IPG Inc.
Address: Intertape Polymer Group (IPG)., 317 Kendall
Street, Marysville, MI 8040–1911). Refer to Table
2-1.1 for ordering information. This is the only tape
which will provide adequate protection for the extended time period involved with this type of opera
All data on pages 2-2.1 through 2-2.2 deleted
TO 1-1-8
tion. The engineering support activity for this technical
order evaluates and approves tapes for this source control listing using the latest issue of MIL-T-23397/SAE
AMS-T-23397. Chemical stripper Cee-Bee™ R-256 is
used as the testing agent for stripper resistance. Make
Table 2-0.
Part Number
AFL301-4
AFL301-5
AFL301-1
AFL301-1.5
AFL301-2
AFL301-3
ALF301002560
sure that the plastic coated side of the MIL-PRF-131,
Class 1, barrier material is toward the surface being
protected or the plastic will be deteriorated by chemical removers.
Chemical Stripping Approved Aluminum Backed Pressure Sensitive Tape
Item Name
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
TAPE, PRESSURE
SENSITIVE ADHESIVE
NOTE
Specific IPG Inc. PN AFL301 Aluminum Tape
NSNs can be found using the following Cage
Code: “3EU06” in Fed Log DVD, WEBFLIS, or
any other active Supply System database.
d. For air and water-driven abrasive removal operations
unless otherwise noted, the same materials listed for
chemical removal operations shall be used for masking
of areas which will not be exposed to direct impingement of the abrasive media to prevent abrasive media
intrusion. Impact stripping tape shall be applied with
hot glue to mask areas which will be exposed to direct
impingement of the bicarbonate of soda and water and
plastic blast media as an alternate for masking for
Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) subject to the restrictions following.
Materials:
Hot Glue Gun - Polygun PC Applicator 3M Co.
PN 99302 or
PN AIS 7000K, 4940-01-512-7768
Hot Glue - 3M Co.
PN 3748 TC, 8040-01-390-9728 or
NSN
7510-01-621-6197
7510-01-621-6202
7510-01-621-6203
7510-01-621-6204
7510-01-621-6205
7510-01-621-6206
7510-01-622-1435
Description
4.0 inches wide by 60 yards long
aluminum tape.
0.50 inches wide by 60 yards long
aluminum tape.
1.0 inches wide by 60 yards long
aluminum tape.
2.0 inches wide by 60 yards long
aluminum tape.
2.0 inches wide by 60 yard long
aluminum tape.
3.0 inches wide by 60 yards long
aluminum tape.
0.25 inches wide by 60 yards long
aluminum tape.
Materials:
PN AIS 5050, 6850-01-512-7763
Cotton Rope
Caulking Cord - More - Tite Putty
Impact Stripping Tape
80 mils thick, 20 oz/in peel strength, 250% to 300%
elongation, Shore A hardness 70-80
Anchor Continental BT-100 or
3M Co. PN 500 Series (ex. 500, 506, 528, etc.)
Impact Stripping Tapes 500 are available in 30 feet
long rolls under NSNs:
9390-01-359-7367 (1 inch wide/9 rolls per box)
9390-01-359-7368 (2 inch wide/6 rolls per box)
9390-01-359-7369 (3 inch wide/3 rolls per box)
These are rubberized tapes capable of withstanding
a direct nozzle blast from PMB or bicarbonate of
soda and water blast equipment for a maximum
of two seconds.
2.3.1 Application. Hot glue is used to seal seams, covers
and access panel gaps less than 3/16 inch and to seal seams
and edges of impact tape for added protection. Fluid wicks
fabricated from cotton rope are sealed in place using this
Change 11
2-3
TO 1-1-8
material, and are installed at saturated seams prior to sealing
with hot glue. Caulking cord is used to fill seams and gaps in
excess of 3/16 inch. Impact tape is used to protect areas not
to be blasted.
2.3.2
Procedures.
removal operations, optional form-fitting metal or
wood shields may be fabricated for canopies and blisters in conjunction with 3M Co. PN 510, 3M Co. 500,
510, or Bron Tape, PN 818 material cut to the exact
size for windows. These tapes are available in 30 foot
long rolls under NSNs 7510-01-300-2124 (1 inch),
7510-01-300-2125 (2 inch), 7510-01-300-2126 (3
inch), 7510-01-300-2127 (4 inch), up to 30 inches
(special order).
Care must be taken to prevent hot glue from dripping on skin or into eyes. Wear safety goggles.
Care should be taken when cutting and trimming
of the barrier/tape to prevent damage to the transparent plastic and glass surfaces.
Media intrusion into engines, gun assemblies, avionics, or actuators can severely damage these components. Extreme care must be exercised to mask
every possible intrusion site.
Cover all antennas with impact tape. When masking off large
areas, such as vents, use hard cardboard, sheet metal or
equivalent, reinforced with impact tape over the side that
will be exposed to PMB or bicarbonate of soda and water
blast media. When placing cover in position, use impact tape
to hold in place, and apply hot glue to seal edges. Seal all
edges of all impact tape with hot glue to eliminate possibility of tape peeling. In seams or protrusions where slow hydraulic leaks compromise masking integrity, install a fluid
wick (cotton rope) with a minimum four inch length and seal
in place with hot glue. Aircraft mold line drain holes shall be
plugged with rubber stoppers or equivalent and sealed with
hot glue.
2.3.2.1 A detailed step-by-step checklist specifying the
masking procedure shall be prepared for all finish system
removal operations. This checklist shall be used to ensure
that all required masking is accomplished prior to removal
operations and that all masking is removed afterwards. The
following areas shall be masked and/or otherwise protected
for chemical and air or water driven abrasive finish system
removal operations:
a. Close all windows, doors, and hatches on aircraft or
equipment; and mask gaps between the structure and
these components. For air or water driven abrasive removal operations, these gaps may be stuffed full with
sheets of MIL-PRF-131, Class 1, barrier material or
heavy duty (0.004 inch thick) polyethylene or vinyl
plastic film sheet to prevent abrasive media intrusion.
b. Mask all transparent plastic and glass surfaces such as
windows, canopies, and blisters; because they will be
crazed, frosted, or lose transparency if exposed to
chemical removers or if air or water-driven abrasive
media strikes them. For air or water-driven abrasive
2-4
Change 11
c. Mask all radomes, antennas, fiber glass and/or composite structure, and rubber boots and/or all other rubber or elastomer surfaces to prevent chemical removers and air or water driven abrasive media from
damaging these materials and/or components. (See
Paragraph 2.14 for composite paint stripping procedure).
d. Mask all engine intake and exhaust openings and all
openings or ports leading to interior cavities of structure to prevent entrapment of chemical removers and
abrasive media. When masking aircraft pitot static
ports and probes, the probe and port openings shall be
covered with a disk of barrier material or paper prior
to application of pressure sensitive tape to prevent tape
adhesive from contaminating the interior and the openings of these probes and ports. The tape shall cover the
barrier material or paper completely and overlap onto
the aircraft surface approximately one-half inch past
the outside diameter of the pitot static port circular
hole pattern.
e. Mask all seams of removable inspection and equipment access panels and personnel doors for chemical
removal operations to prevent seepage of the remover
into joints.
f. Mask all edges, repairs, and loose fasteners on honeycomb and metal-to-metal adhesively bonded panels and
doors for chemical removal operations to prevent
chemical removers from damaging adhesives and disbonding adhesively bonded structure.
g. Fabric covered control surfaces (rudders, elevators, ailerons, etc.), shall be either completely masked or removed from the aircraft prior to any paint removal
operations in the area of these components. Fabric can
be damaged by chemical removers and air or water
driven abrasive media.
TO 1-1-8
h. Sometimes, replacements for very detailed or highly
specialized decals are very difficult to obtain. Mask
these types of decals using barrier material over the
decal if directed to save them.
therefore, each will be explained separately. If confined areas or non-metallic structural materials are involved in the
removal operation, specific procedures for these areas are
presented in this chapter and shall be used.
i. Mask all other areas specified in and as directed by
system peculiar aircraft or equipment technical orders,
such as aircraft -23 corrosion technical orders.
2.5 CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF ORGANIC FINISH
SYSTEMS FROM METAL SUBSTRATES.
NOTE
For extensive chemical removal operations such
as entire aircraft exterior finish system, some residual stripping will be required. For this limited
stripping, it may be more efficient and practical to
strip those areas of the finish system which will be
covered by masking tape by the hand residual finish system removal procedures in this chapter prior
to masking for the overall media removal operation. This is authorized as long as extreme care is
taken to prevent damage to areas which require
protection by masking, all remover and open finish system residue is thoroughly removed from the
stripped areas and areas around them, and surfaces
on which masking tape will be applied are solvent
wiped with a cotton rag wetted with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol followed by wiping dry with a
clean cotton rag before the alcohol evaporates.
2.4
Chemical removal procedures and their sequence of performance are essentially the same for all types of organic finish
systems, all types of chemical removers, and either limited
or extensive removal operations. However, the type of chemical remover used depends on the type of organic finish system to be removed.
2.6
CHEMICAL REMOVERS.
The type of chemical remover used to remove an organic
finish system varies according to the type of system to be
removed: alkyd base primer, lacquer or alkyd enamel topcoats over alkyd base primer, epoxy and polyurethane primers, epoxy and polyurethane topcoats over epoxy or polyurethane primers, or polyurethane topcoat over polysulfide
primer. The approved types of chemical removers which shall
ORGANIC FINISH SYSTEM REMOVAL.
There are two methods for removal of organic finishing systems; chemical and mechanical. Each method has its own set
of procedures, precautions, restrictions, and limitations; and
Change 11
2-4.1/(2-4.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
be used to remove each of these organic finish systems are
identified below along with precautions to be used for each
type:
NOTE
All chemical removers have a shelf life of 6
months from the date of manufacture unless otherwise specified, if they are stored and maintained
under the proper conditions. They should be ordered in quantities and by intervals which allow
all chemical removers on hand to be used prior to
the shelf life expiration date. Chemical removers
shall be stored in a protected area (out of direct
sunlight) capable of maintaining a temperature of
40 °F to 100 °F to prevent them from freezing or
being exposed to excessively high temperatures.
Chemical removers rapidly deteriorate at temperatures exceeding 100 °F, and many of them become
corrosive. Exposure to freezing temperatures
causes them to separate in such a way that the
components cannot be remixed to a homogeneous
solution. In either case, they become totally ineffective. While not necessarily unsatisfactory after
six months of age, chemical removers do deteriorate and lose removal efficiency on aging beyond
six months; and some start to become corrosive. A
definite age control program shall be established
for chemical removers by the using activity, and
any material which is questionable due to improper storage and/or exceeding its shelf life shall
be laboratory tested and updated in accordance
with DoD 4140.27-M and DoD Shelf-Life Program website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil) prior to
use. Particular attention shall be given to the corrosivity of chemical removers during testing.
2.6.1 Remover for Epoxy and Polyurethane Primers
and Epoxy and Polyurethane Top-Coats Over Epoxy or
Polyurethane Primers. There are no USAF approved specification removers for these finish systems, but proprietary
removers of two different types, phenolic and non-phenolic/
non-cresylic, have been tested and approved by the Air Force
Corrosion Prevention and Control Office for use on USAF
aircraft, missile or equipment metal surfaces. Each remover
is chemically unique and not necessarily interchangeable
with others for a particular task. Production variables affecting the choice of removers include the brand and age of the
finish system, type of surface to which it is applied (metal
type, large/small area, horizontal/vertical surface), local climate, capabilities of local industrial waste treatment facilities, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and local environmental restrictions on remover and paint residue
disposal, and local medical and bioenvironmental authority
concerns for worker contact with the more reactive type
products. Phenolic type removers are much more efficient
than the non-phenolic/non-cresylic type removers for removal of these finish systems, but they present waste dis-
posal problems and require treatment facilities capable of
handling them. Each activity is authorized and encouraged to
service test the listed removers to evaluate effectiveness for
their own particular situation and to select a preferred remover and one or two alternates, if possible, to promote
competition. These removers are heavy bodied or very viscous liquids, usually yellow or brown in color, designed to
remove these finish systems by solvent action. These removers shall be applied full strength with no dilution in a smooth
even coat by either a brush or a non-atomizing type sprayer.
Removers authorized to remove epoxy and polyurethane finish systems from USAF aircraft, missiles, and equipment
metal surfaces are identified by PN and source of supply.
2.6.1.1 Phenolic Type Removers, NSN 8010-01-023-0343
(55 GL DR), NSN 6850-01-512-6620 Cee-Bee™ R-256 (8
oz), NSN 6850-01-555-9124 Crest Stripper 18 (8 oz).
PN
B&B 1567 &
9500
Cee-Bee™
R-256
PR-3500
5292 & 5351
Stripper #18
Source of Supply
B&B Tritech, Inc.
CAGE Code: 21361
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
Cee-Bee™ Div., McGean-Rocho,
Inc.
CAGE Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
Eldorado Chemical Co., Inc.
CAGE Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian St, Ste 600
Carmel, IN 46032-7118
Turco Products Inc. Henkel Surface
Tech
CAGE Code: 1N6B3
32100 Stephenson Hwy.
Madison Heights, MI 48071
Crest Industrial Chemicals, Inc.
CAGE Code: 77513
1737 County Rd 57
Rosharon, TX 77583
2.6.1.2 Non-Phenolic/Non-Cresylic Type Removers, NSN
8010-01-261-6874 (55 GL DR), NSN 8010-00-348-7716 (5
GL), NSN 8010-01-167-9692 (1 GL).
PN
B&B 4411
Source of Supply
B&B Tritech, Inc.
CAGE Code: 21316
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
Change 9
2-5
TO 1-1-8
PN
PR-3400
Inland AP-599
Intex 857
Cee-Bee™
A-292
Source of Supply
Eldorado Chemical Co., Inc.
CAGE Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian St,
Carmel, IN 46032-7118
Inland Chemical Corp.
CAGE Code: None
1810 Magnavox Way
Fort Wayne, IN 46804
EZE Products Inc., Intex Chemical
Div.
CAGE Code: 8Z357
603 High Tech Ct.
Greer, SC 29650
Cee-Bee™ Div., McGean-Rocho,
Inc.
CAGE Code 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
2.6.2 Remover for Polysulfide Primer with a Polyurethane Topcoat. There are no USAF approved specification
removers for this finish system, but proprietary removers of
two different types, phenolic and non-phenolic/non-cresylic,
have been tested and approved by the Air Force Corrosion
Prevention and Control Office for use on USAF aircraft,
missile, and equipment metal surfaces. While they will remove military specification polyurethane topcoats, it is much
more efficient to remove polyurethane topcoats with one of
the removers listed for epoxy and polyurethane finish systems first and then to remove the polysulfide primer with
one of the removers listed in this paragraph. This method is
highly recommended to avoid excessive use of materials,
man-hours, and flow time in removal of this finish system.
These removers are heavy bodied or very viscous liquids
designed to remove polysulfide primer with a polyurethane
topcoat by solvent action; preferably after the polyurethane
topcoat has been removed with one of the removers listed
for epoxy and polyurethane finish systems. These removers
shall be applied full strength, with no dilution, in a smooth
even coat by either a brush or a non-atomizing type sprayer.
The removers authorized to remove polysulfide primer with
a polyurethane topcoat from USAF aircraft, missiles, and
equipment metal surfaces are identified below by PN and
source of supply, NSN 8010-01-270-3637 (55 GL DR).
The maximum shelf life of PN B&B 5151A Remover is 3 months. This remover shall not be used
if it is older than 3 months from the date of
manufacture.
2-6
PN
B&B 5151A &
9500
Cee-Bee™
A-458
Source of Supply
B&B Tritech, Inc.
CAGE Code: 21316
875 W 20th St
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
Cee-Bee™ Div., McGean-Rocho,
Inc.
CAGE Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
2.6.3 Removers for Environmental Compliance. In addition to removers listed in preceding paragraphs, removers
based on benzyl alcohol and alternate alkaline materials have
been tested and approved for use on USAF aircraft, missile,
or equipment metal surfaces by the Air Force Corrosion Prevention and Control Office. These products offer the advantage of reduced hazardous waste generation and contain ingredients not currently listed as hazardous materials for
occupational health or environmental contamination. However, skin and eye protection is still required. Consult the
local bioenvironmental engineer for minimum personal protection requirements and the local environmental coordinator
to establish proper handling and disposal procedures for the
removers and the process waste. These products have flash
points ranging from 150 °F to over 200 °F so they are not
classified as flammable materials, but as combustible materials. Their use should be coordinated with the local fire department. These products do not afford the same production
rates as the traditional methylene chloride and phenolic type
removers, and removal efficiency on each type of coating
varies for each product. They are chemically unique and not
necessarily interchangeable for a particular task. The products are generally effective for topcoat removal but have differing degrees of effectiveness with primers. The following
removers are authorized to remove organic finishes from
USAF aircraft, missiles and equipment metal surfaces:
2.6.3.1 Removers for epoxy/polyurethane primer and
polyurethane topcoats NSN 6850-01-495-0236 (55 GL DR),
NSN 6850-01-495-0135 (5 GL), NSN 6850-01-495-0148 (1
GL), NSN 6850-01-523-0007 (8 oz).
PN
Cee-Bee™
E-1092A,
E-2000,
E-2002A &
E-2012
Source of Supply
Cee-Bee™ Div., McGean-Rohco
Inc.
CAGE Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
TO 1-1-8
PN
PR-3131/PR3133
6813, 6813E, &
6840S
B&B 9400 &
9575
Source of Supply
Eldorado Solutions, Inc.
DBA of Eldorado Chemical Co.,
Inc.
CAGE Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian St, Ste 600
Carmel, IN 46032
Turco Products Inc. Henkel Surface Tech
CAGE Code: 1N6B3
32100 Stephenson Hwy.
Madison Heights, MI 48071
B&B Tritech, Inc.
CAGE Code: 21361
875 W 20th St.
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
2.6.3.2 Removers for polysulfide primers NSN 6850-01495-0150 (55 GL DR), NSN 6850-01-495-0149 (5 GL), NSN
6850-01-495-0235 (1 GL).
PN
Cee-Bee™
E-1058 &
E-1058A
SR-125A, SR145, & PR3133
5151B
D-Zolve GL15-33
Source of Supply
Cee-Bee™ Div., McGean-Rohco
Inc.
CAGE Code: 8U841
1314 Murphy Ave.
Atlanta, GA 30310-4004
Eldorado Solutions, Inc.
DBA of Eldorado Chemical CO
Inc.
CAGE Code: 55208
11611 N Meridian St, Ste. 600
Carmel, IN 46032
B&B Tritech, Inc.
CAGE Code: 21361
875 W 20th St.
Hialeah, FL 33010-2310
Solvent Kleene, Inc.
CAGE Code: 0L8C9
119 Foster St, Bldg 6
Peabody, MA 01960
2.6.4 Chemical Remover Selection for Depot Removal
Operations. Each Air Logistics Center (ALC), either alone
or in concert with other ALCs shall prepare a purchase description (PD) with a qualified products list (QPL). This QPL
will establish testing and qualification procedures for removers authorized for use in their facilities from among those
listed in Paragraph 2.6.1.1, Paragraph 2.6.1.2, Paragraph
2.6.3.1, Paragraph 2.6.2, and Paragraph 2.6.3.2. Testing for
removers in Paragraph 2.6.1.1, Paragraph 2.6.1.2, and Paragraph 2.6.3.1 shall include removal efficiency tests from test
panels with one coat of epoxy or polyurethane primer and
two coats of epoxy or polyurethane topcoat air dried for
seven days at room temperature and then baked for 4 days in
an oven at 210 °F (±10 °F). Efficiency tests from removers
in Paragraph 2.6.2 and Paragraph 2.6.3.2 will be conducted
on test panels with one coat of polysulfide primer (PR1432GV) and two coats of polyurethane topcoat air dried for
7 days at room temperature and then bake for 4 days in an
oven at 210 °F (±10 °F). Criteria for passage of the test shall
be complete removal to bare metal in 15 minutes maximum
for phenolic removers, 1 hour for non-phenolic/non-cresylic
removers, and 1 hour using just removers listed in Paragraph
2.6.2 and Paragraph 2.6.3.2. Criteria for polysulfide primer
is complete removal to bare metal in 30 minutes maximum
using these same removers after the topcoat is removed using a removers listed for epoxy and polyurethane finish systems. It should be understood that removal time for a finish
system which has been in service for several years is somewhat longer than for removal of the same finish system from
test panels prepared as noted above. Removal time is also
dependent on the number of overcoats present on the surface
and environmental conditions in the removal facility.
2.7 GENERAL OVERALL CHEMICAL REMOVAL
PROCEDURES.
Chemical removal of organic finish systems shall be performed in accordance with the following sequential steps:
Chemical removers are toxic to skin, eyes, and
respiratory tract. Skin and eye protection required.
Contact Bioenvironmental Engineering for determination of need for and selection of proper respiratory protection.
a. Ensure that all facility safety, health, and disposal requirements and all personnel safety and health requirements in Paragraph 2.2, step a and step b, are met.
b. Determine the type of organic finish to be removed in
accordance with Paragraph 2.2, step c. Select and obtain the proper chemical remover for the finish system
involved in accordance with Paragraph 2.6.1, Paragraph 2.6.2, or Paragraph 2.6.3.
c. Ensure that the removal operation has been properly
planned and that all personnel understand the operation as required by Paragraph 2.2, step d.
d. Ensure that the aircraft, equipment or component has
been properly cleaned, dried, and masked in accordance with Paragraph 2.3 through Paragraph 2.3.2.1,
step i.
2-7
TO 1-1-8
e. Ensure that the aircraft, equipment, or component has
a surface temperature within the specified range and is
located within a covered facility having an ambient air
temperature within the specified range defined in Paragraph 2.3, step b.
minute or 4 hour dwell and spot agitation procedure
until loosening of the finish system down to bare metal
is indicated or a maximum of one hour or 24 hour
dwell time has elapsed and then proceed to the next
step.
f. Mix the chemical remover well with a mechanical
mixer or a wooden paddle immediately before use as
chemical removers tend to separate on standing. Do
not mix by rolling a drum of chemical remover as this
will not mix the material adequately.
i. When the finish system has loosened to bare metal or
exceeds a reasonable dwell time, thoroughly agitate the
entire area on which the chemical remover has been
applied with a MIL-B-23958, Type I or III brush while
exerting as much pressure with the brush as possible.
g. Apply a light to medium thick, uniform coat of chemical remover to the area of the aircraft, equipment, or
component from which the finish system is to be removed with a long handled, non-metallic brush, specification MIL-B-23958, (type and style are optional) or
a non-atomizing type sprayer wand fitted to a barrel
pump. Never use an atomized spray to apply chemical
removers. Do not apply thick coats of chemical removers as this actually slows down the removal rate,
creates a more extensive waste disposal operation, and
wastes expensive chemical removers. Efficient removal
requires maintaining a wet film of remover on the surface. Active ingredients in chemical removers listed in
Paragraph 2.6.1 are highly volatile and evaporate rapidly; so after about one hour dwell time, they begin to
dry out and no longer react on the finish system as
most of the active ingredients have evaporated. Environmentally compliant removers listed in Paragraph
2.6.3 have a maximum dwell time of 24 hours before
they become non-reactive. For an effective removal
operation chemical removers must be applied progressively and in a planned logical sequence. Apply removers to areas no larger than can be effectively
worked by the personnel on hand to perform the operation. Removers should not be applied to a second
area prior to completion of the removal operation in an
area being worked. This is particularly important for
extensive removal operations such as removal of the
entire exterior finish system from an aircraft. Preferably, application of chemical removers should begin at
the highest point of a vertical or sloping surface to
prevent removers from running down onto surfaces
from which the finish system has already been removed; but this is an optional decision to be made by
local management.
h. Allow a chemical remover listed in Paragraph 2.6.1 to
dwell on the surface undisturbed for 15 minutes, and
one listed in Paragraph 2.6.2 and Paragraph 2.6.3 for 4
hours and then agitate several spots on the surface with
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade C abrasive mat, or a
MIL-B-23958, Type I or III brush to determine if the
finish system has been loosened down to bare metal. If
the finish system has loosened down to bare metal at
this point, proceed to next step; if not, repeat the 15
2-8
•
Never allow a chemical remover to dry on the
surface to which it is applied as it is extremely
difficult to remove after it dries.
•
Never rinse surfaces with water between chemical remover applications as this stops the removal action and tends to set up the remaining
finish system on the surface making it very difficult to remove. Schedule removal operations
so that once started on an area, they proceed
without interruption through the entire sequence
to complete removal to bare metal. If the operation must be interrupted due to some scheduling problem or the workday ending, scrape
off all chemical remover with a rubber bladed
squeegee and rinse the area with water as directed below prior to stopping work. When a
chemical removal operation is interrupted in
this fashion, extreme difficulty will be encountered in removal of the remaining finish system
from the area where work was stopped requiring increased amounts and applications of
chemical removers, increased man-hours for the
operation, and significant flow time delays. If
the area is exposed to direct sunlight during the
interruption, even more difficulty will be experienced in removal of the remaining finish system. Never restart chemical remover application until the area is completely dry.
NOTE
A MIL-B-23958, Type I, Style 1, brush is available through GSA under NSN 7920-00-054-7768
(round, nylon bristles). A MIL-B-23958, Type III,
Style 1, brush is available through GSA under
NSN 7920-00-051-4384 (round, nylon, and tampico bristles).
j. Immediately after agitation, scrape all loosened finish
system residue and chemical remover from the surface
with a rubber bladed squeegee; and immediately reap-
TO 1-1-8
ing worked, flush the area thoroughly with hot water at
a temperature of 100 °F to 120 °F and a pressure of
150-250 PSI. Start at the lowest point and work upward using care to keep the water off adjacent areas
from which the finish system will be removed.
ply fresh chemical remover per Paragraph 2.7, step g,
on spots where the finish system has not been removed
down to bare metal in the area being worked, and repeat Paragraph 2.7, step h and Paragraph 2.7, step i.
NOTE
Only those aluminum wools and brushes specified
shall be used to agitate metallic surfaces during
finish system removal operations. Other types of
metallic wools and brushes, such as steel, copper,
brass, beryllium copper, etc., shall not be used as
they will either embed in or smear on the metallic
surface and cause severe galvanic corrosion problems.
NOTE
•
If hot water is not available, fresh tap water at
hydrant pressure may be used for the flush operation. However, it should be well understood
that this will make the final cleaning/washing
step much more difficult and require additional
man-hours and flow time to accomplish, because cold water tends to gel waxy compounds
used in chemical removers and redeposit them
on the surface.
•
With prior written aircraft Systems Program
Director (SPD) approval, Medium Pressure Water (MPW) methods in Paragraph 2.12 (water
only-no baking soda) may be used instead of
Paragraph 2.7, step i through step l, to enhance
paint removal with environmentally compliant
removers in Paragraph 2.6.3 after their required
dwell time is reached.
•
When removing alkyd base primer having no
topcoat, flush the area with water as soon as
possible after it has been loosened by the
chemical remover and scraped from the surface
as it tends to readily redeposit on the surface if
the surface becomes dry thus requiring another
application of chemical remover.
If a polysulfide primer/polyurethane topcoat finish
system is being removed and the first application
of chemical remover takes off the topcoat but not
the primer, the second and subsequent applications
shall be with one of the chemical removers specified in this manual for removing polysulfide
primer.
k. Repeat the removal sequence, Paragraph 2.7, step g
through Paragraph 2.7, step j, in the area being worked
as necessary to remove the finish system down to bare
metal up to a maximum of three times. For the second
and all subsequent applications of chemical remover,
agitate the surface with CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade
C nylon abrasive mat; CID A-A-1044, Type II, Class
1, Form A, aluminum wool; and/or CID A-A-3118,
Type I, Class A7 aluminum wire brushes to assist in
the removal operation.
NOTE
•
CID A-A-58054, Type I, nylon abrasive mat is
available under NSN 5350-00-967-5092 for 10
sheets of Grade C (medium) material.
•
CID A-A-1044, Type II, Class 1, Form A, (PN
CID A-A-1044-B-1-A), aluminum wool is
available under NSN 5350-00-286-4851 for a
one-pound roll or 5350-00-312-6129 for 25
one-pound rolls.
•
CID A-A-3118, Type I, Class 7, (PN CID A-A3118/A7) aluminum wire brushes are available
under NSN 7920-01-067-6192 for one brush.
l. As soon as the finish system has been removed down
to bare metal or the final attempt at overall chemical
removal has been completed and the chemical remover
and finish system residue has been scraped from the
surface with a rubber bladed squeegee in the area be-
m. After the area being worked has been thoroughly
flushed with water, remove tape used for masking
within the area by hand; or, as an alternate, remove it
with the hot water at the same time the area is being
flushed.
n. Remove any residual finish system from very stubborn
spots and areas covered with tape during the general
removal operation using care to prevent chemical removal materials from entering into and becoming entrapped in confined areas and/or causing damage to
structure, components or materials. Apply either the
same chemical removers used for the general removal
operation, or specification MIL-T-81772, Type I or II
thinner, and/or specification TT-E-751 ethyl acetate by
dabbing them on the spots with a small non-metallic
bristle brush. Agitate the spots with the same materials
listed for agitation during the general removal operation and/or nonmetallic/plastic scrapers while the
chemical remover or solvent is on the surface. Wipe
the loosened finish system and chemical remover off
the surface with a cotton rag; and if necessary, abrade
the remaining finish system off the surface in accordance with the mechanical removal procedures in Para-
2-9
TO 1-1-8
graph 2.9 with materials in Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and
Table 2-3. Wipe the area from which the finish system
was removed with a cotton rag wetted with fresh water, and then dry with a clean cotton rag.
o. If the area just completed is the final area from which
the finish system is to be removed, proceed directly to
the next step. If other areas are to be worked, repeat
Paragraph 2.7, step g through step n, on the next area.
Application of chemical remover on a new area may
begin as soon as the flushing operation is completed
and while the residual finish system removal operation
is in progress on an area being worked as long as
enough personnel are on hand to work both areas effectively.
use these materials on valves, flanges or other
components where they may come in direct
contact with liquid oxygen or pure oxygen vapor.
Do not allow these materials to spread to adjacent
areas not being worked or to splash, overspray, or
spill onto adjacent rubber, synthetic rubber, plastic, or composite materials, or components as damage to the finish system on adjacent areas and these
materials and components will result.
NOTE
p. Immediately after finishing the chemical removal operation on the last area from which the finish system is
being removed, thoroughly wash all areas of the aircraft, equipment, or component from which the finish
system has been removed and those adjacent areas
which may have been exposed to or contaminated with
chemical remover in accordance with TO 1-1-691, the
aircraft -23 technical order, and/or the equipment system specific technical order. Inspect all areas where
chemical remover may have become entrapped, and
clean these areas as required. The aircraft, equipment
or component shall not be removed from the coating
removal facility until this washing operation is completed.
2.8 CHEMICAL REMOVAL PROCEDURES FOR
CONFINED LOCATIONS.
•
Specifications MIL-T-81772, Type I or II thinner, and TT-E-751 ethyl acetate are flammable.
Avoid all sources of ignition.
•
Chemical removers are toxic to skin, eyes, and
respiratory tract. Skin and eye protection required. Contact Bioenvironmental Engineering
for determination of need for respiratory protection and selection of proper type when required.
•
Use extreme caution when using specifications
MIL-T-81772, Type I or II thinner, or TT-E-751
ethyl acetate in areas where liquid oxygen storage and transfer equipment are located. Never
2-10
If this chemical method does not remove the finish system, proceed to one of the mechanical methods in this technical order.
When use of the chemical removers listed in Paragraph 2.6.1
through Paragraph 2.6.3 of this manual is impractical because of assembly complexities and/or rinsing difficulties,
remove the finish system from metal surfaces using specification MIL-T-81722, Type I or II thinner, or specification
TT-E-751 ethyl acetate in accordance with the following
procedures:
a. Apply a solvent selected from the list above to the area
from which the finish system is to be removed with a
small non-metallic bristle brush or a clean cotton rag.
b. Allow the solvent to dwell on the surface until all the
finish system to be removed has softened and/or lifted
from the surface. It may be necessary to keep a rag
saturated with solvent on the surface in order to keep
the surface wet for the time required to lift the finish
system.
c. Agitate the surface at frequent intervals using the same
abrasive materials and scrapers listed for agitation and
residual finish system removal in Paragraph 2.7 step k
and Paragraph 2.7 step n. Wipe loosened finish system
residue from the surface with clean cotton rags wetted
with the same solvent being used for removal.
d. Repeat Paragraph 2.8 step a through Paragraph 2.8 step
c as necessary until all finish system and residue have
been removed from the metal surface, including recesses around rivets, bolts, etc.
TO 1-1-8
e. Wipe the area clean with a clean cotton rag wetted
with fresh tap water, and then wipe the area dry with a
clean cotton rag.
2.8A CHEMICAL DIP TANK MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES.
Dip tank chemical removal procedures are used for the removal of coatings from aircraft wheels, landing gear components and other aircraft and support equipment parts small
enough to be submerged in a dip tank.
2.8A.1 MIL-PRF-83936, Heated Tank Type for Aircraft
Wheels, Landing Gear Components, and Other Aircraft
and Support Equipment. MIL-PRF-83936 are non-phenolic removers that can be used on steel, aluminum, and magnesium. There is a Qualified Products Database (QPD) for
this specification listing approved materials. These paint removers require heated tanks with ventilation. The remover
shall be heated and used at the manufacturer’s recommended
operating temperatures.
2.8A.1.1 MIL-PRF-83936 removers have an inhibitor
which prevents corrosion. The lack of inhibitors will have a
rapid and most serious effect on magnesium parts. Removal
solutions that have inhibitor breakdown will not attack SAEAMS-M-3171 (MIL-M-3171) coatings on magnesium parts
but will corrode the exposed metal where the coating is damaged. Evidence of inhibitor breakdown will be initially observed as a white powder residue around any scratches or
pits on the surface of metal after removing the part from the
solution. Inhibitor breakdown will be initially observed on
aluminum parts when they are removed from the solution
and surfaces appear to be dull or stained. When either of
these conditions is observed, one of the two following actions must be taken. The tank can be replenished with the
appropriate amount of inhibitors, determined through chemical laboratory analysis or replace the used chemical remover
with new MIL-PRF-83936 chemical remover.
nents . The Type I material is for use in a one-tank, one-step
process and Type II is for use in a two-tank, two-step process with two materials, Part A and B.
2.8A.3 Chemical Dip Tank Procedures. Chemical dip
tank removal of organic finish systems shall be performed in
accordance with the following steps:
a. Parts shall be cleaned in accordance with TO 1-1-691
prior to removal operation to ensure removal effectiveness. Parts shall be thoroughly dry before immersing
in chemical dip tank solutions.
b. Prior to placing part in the dip tank, mask all openings
to its interior such as lightening and drain holes and all
dissimilar metals such as steel helicoil inserts in magnesium and aluminum using procedures and materials
in paragraphs 2.3 through paragraph 2.3.2.1.i.
c. Immerse part in chemical dip tank. Ensure parts to be
stripped are completely immersed. Do not allow them
to extend into seal layer or to protrude above surface
of solution.
d. After soaking for a maximum of four hours, scrub parts
with non-metallic bristle or fiber brushes. If required
to remove stubborn areas of paint, procedure can be
repeated up to a maximum of six times. For two tank/
material remover, place in first tank for two hours, remove and rinse and place in second tank for two hours.
e. After removal from tank, pressure spray and rinse parts
thoroughly with water (warm water preferred).
f. Allow parts to dry. Parts may be wiped with towels,
rags, or forced-air dried to remove excess moisture.
g. Remove all masking materials applied prior to placing
part in dip tank.
2.8A.2 MIL-PRF-87978, Type I and II Ambient Temperature Epoxy and Polyurethane Systems Paint Remover for Aircraft Wheels and Landing Gear Compo-
Change 2
2-11
TO 1-1-8
2.9 MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF ORGANIC FINISH
SYSTEMS.
•
•
•
Reference Table 3-1 for the minimum recommended PPE for paint removal operations using hand held or motor driven abrasives (sanding and grinding). Reference Table 2-4 for the
minimum recommended PPE for abrasive blasting paint removal operations.
•
AFI 91-203 should be reviewed to ensure all
safety, fire and environmental safety requirements are accomplished prior to performing
mechanical removal of organic finish systems.
Abrasive blasting, motor-driven wire brush and
motor-driven abrasive disc operations create
airborne particles that are hazardous to the eyes,
skin, respiratory tract. Do not stand above, below or directly next to other workers. Avoid
being “downwind” from others using mechanical sanders and grinders. Do not use compressed air to remove dust.
•
Low-carbon steel brushes shall not be used on
aluminum, magnesium, copper, stainless steel,
or titanium alloy surfaces as steel particles will
embed in these surfaces and later rust or cause
galvanic corrosion of these surfaces. Copper,
brass, or beryllium copper brushes shall not be
used on aluminum, magnesium, steel, stainless
steel, or titanium alloy surfaces as they will
smear on these surfaces and cause galvanic
corrosion.
•
Mechanical methods shall be used only long
enough to remove the finish system and not
abrade the underlying metal surface. Speed of
removal is not the most important factor. Removal without damage to the surface or creating a condition which can lead to future corrosion damage and providing a surface suitable
for finish system reapplication are the most important factors.
•
Plastic media blasting (PMB) may be used on
composite materials in accordance with procedures in Paragraph 2.11, providing its use has
been approved by the specific aircraft’s SPD.
In all cases, use PMB to remove only the topcoat from composite surfaces. The underlying
primer must be used as a “flag” to signal the
PMB operator that the topcoat has been removed. When the primer begins to show during the stripping operation as the topcoat is
slowly removed, the PMB blast should be directed elsewhere on the surface being stripped.
This technique is essential to avoid damaging
the composite material.
The dust created by either of these methods is
hazardous to the respiratory tract, and noise
produced by abrasive blasting is hazardous to
the hearing. Coveralls with full-length sleeves
and gloves with gauntlets shall be worn by personnel performing either of these removal
methods. Protective clothing should be removed
prior to leaving the work area. Personnel using
motor-driven abrasives shall wear dust/particulate type respirators, goggles, and/or full face
shields. Personnel performing dry abrasive
blasting shall wear an abrasive blasting airline/
hood respirator meeting the requirements of
AFOSH STD 48-137 and hearing protection.
Hoods or helmets should be cleaned prior to
storage in dust-free environment. Contact the
Base Bioenvironmental Engineer for specifics
on required protective equipment.
•
Dust generated from abrasive, metal, and finish
system particles during dry abrasive blasting,
motor-driven wire brush, or motor-driven abrasive disc finish system removal operations creates the potential for a dust explosion. Use only
pneumatic type motor-driven equipment. Properly electrically ground all motor driven equipment, abrasive blasting equipment, work stands,
and work pieces when engaged in these operations. Avoid all sources of ignition where these
operations are in progress, and provide adequate
ventilation in the area.
•
Dry abrasive blasting, motor-driven wire brush,
or motor-driven abrasive disc finish system re-
2-12
moval on steel and titanium alloy surfaces may
cause sparking. Perform these operations in a
well ventilated area, and take proper fire safety
precautions. If these methods are being used in
a large operation involving other types of metals, remove the finish system from the steel and
titanium surfaces first; and then proceed to the
other areas.
Change 10
TO 1-1-8
•
When using mechanical methods, abrasive blast
media and pieces of broken brushes and discs
can escape from the work area. These methods
shall not be used in areas under conditions that
allow escaped particles to enter into and damage or contaminate any system, engine, or other
component. Barriers shall be erected around the
work area and masking of the surrounding area
and masking or plugging of all holes leading to
the interior of systems and equipment shall be
accomplished to prevent damage and contamination of systems and equipment by dust, abrasive blast media, and pieces of broken brushes
and discs. The system specific aircraft corrosion manual (-23) or the specific equipment
manual shall be consulted for proper masking
requirements.
Mechanical removal methods include the use of hand-held
wire brushes, bonded abrasive papers or cloths, and abrasive
mats; motor-driven wire brushes, bonded abrasive paper or
cloth discs, and abrasive mat discs and flap brushes; and
abrasive blasting. Mechanical removal is recommended when
use of chemical removers is impractical due to structural
complexities and/or rinsing difficulties in an area being
worked and/or local environmental restrictions. While these
methods are very effective for finish system removal, they
can cause severe damage to structure and equipment in a
very short time if improperly used. Consult with weapons
system specific TOs prior to performing work in fracture
critical/ no-work areas.
responsible ALC as directed in Paragraph 2.9. The area involved in the operation shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove all oil, grease, and hydraulic fluid per TO 1-1-691.
Masking shall be accomplished per instruction in Paragraph
2.3, step c and the applicable system or equipment specific
manual prior to starting the operation. Precautions listed in
the cautions and warnings in this manual, the applicable system or equipment specific manual, and TO 1-1-691 shall be
strictly followed. Mechanical removal methods consist of
hand abrasive or motor-driven abrasive removal of organic
coatings from various substrate materials and abrasive blasting.
2.10.1 Abrasive Blasting. Iron and Steel Alloys (Other
than Stainless Steel) may be abrasive blasted with aluminum
oxide grit, steel grit, or sand at a maximum air pressure of
40 PSI for a pressure type machine to remove paint. This is
very effective on low-carbon steels and iron as it also removes rust/corrosion leaving a bright metal surface. Use TO
1-1-691 as control for this type of abrasive blasting, and
never use on steel less than 0.0625 inches thick.
2.10.2 Hand or Motor-Driven Abrasive Removal. These
methods for mechanical removal of a finish system are basically the same for all substrates. The primary difference is
the type of abrasives used, which vary depending on the
underlying surface. Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3 shall
be used to determine the abrasive material to be used for
topcoat or primer removal and the substrate metal it may be
used on.
2.10 MECHANICAL REMOVAL METHODS OTHER
THAN PLASTIC MEDIA OR MEDIUM PRESSURE
WATER BLASTING FOR METAL SUBSTRATES.
Protective clothing worn during abrasive blasting
operations shall remain in the work area and shall
not be taken home for cleaning.
For any and all mechanical finish system removal operations, approval for the operation shall be obtained from the
Change 2
2-12.1/(2-12.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
2.10.3
Hand Held Abrasive Removal.
•
Damage to clad/Alclad or anodize surfaces will
reduce the corrosion protection in those areas.
•
Motor-driven wire brushes and discs and abrasive blasting shall not be used on flexible,
braided copper wire, cables, hoses, and lines as
these methods can cause severe damage to these
components.
•
Magnesium particles, powder, or dust are extreme fire hazards. Motor-driven wire brushes
and abrasive flap brushes and abrasive blast
media other than those listed in Table 2-1, Table
2-2, and Table 2-3 shall not be used for finish
system removal from magnesium alloy surfaces. Keep work area clean. Do not permit
flammable materials or any source of ignition
into the area.
•
Finish system removal using motor-driven abrasives can generate airborne particles that are
hazardous to the skin, or respiratory tract. Work
pieces and motorized equipment shall be properly electrically grounded, and personnel shall
wear dust/particulate respirators, goggles,
gloves, and full sleeved shirts when using motor-driven abrasives. Do not stand above, below or directly next to other workers performing these operations. Avoid being “downwind”
from others using mechanical sanders. Consult
Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
Abrade the finish system topcoat from the surface down to
the primer with hand-held metallic wool, abrasive mat, abrasive cloth, or wire brushes as specified in Table 2-1 and
Table 2-3. If required, change the abrasive being used and
abrade the primer from the substrate material, taking care
not to damage the metal substrate.
2.10.4
in disintegration of the abrasive and can cause injury to personnel.
Abrade the finish system topcoat from the surface down to
the primer with motor driven wire brushes, or either a random orbital tool or pneumatic drill motor fitted with a Roloc™ or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc, a
disc fabricated from an abrasive cloth sheet, a Roloc™
Bristle disc, or Radial Bristle disc. Select the abrasive for
use per Table 2-2 and Table 2-3. Use sanders and grinders
attached to high efficiency vacuum systems for dust recovery. Use of a random orbital sander or a pneumatic drill
motor fitted with the surface conditioning disc is preferable.
This method provides the fastest removal rate with the least
possibility of damage to the metal substrate and the longest
abrasive life due to the non-loading characteristics of this
type of disc. Keep sander heads flush against the surfaces
being sanded and apply the least amount of pressure necessary to effectively remove the finish system topcoat and not
go through the primer and gouge or abrade the metal substrate. Abrade the primer from the surface with the same
methods used for the topcoat, but with finer grade abrasives
per Table 2-2 and Table 2-3. Again, the motor-driven surface
conditioning disc is preferred, and only enough pressure to
remove the primer without gouging and abrading the metal
substrate shall be applied. Always use high efficiency vacuum
systems attached to the tools for dust recovery.
2.10.5 Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel Based Alloys. After completing mechanical removal using materials
per Table 2-1, Table 2-2, and Table 2-3, polish the surface
with hand held aluminum oxide/nylon mesh abrasive mat
(very fine) or either a random orbital tool or pneumatic drill
motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a (very fine) grade
“Scotch-Brite” aluminum oxide/nylon mesh Roloc™ or hook
and loop mounted surface conditioning disc.
2.10.6 Dust Removal. After the finish system has been
removed, use HEPA vacuums with appropriate attachments
to vacuum dust from aircraft and facility floors. Do not use
compressed air unless absolutely necessary to remove dust
from very narrow cracks and crevices.
Motor Driven Abrasive Removal.
Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven tool
having an operational speed higher than the maximum RPM rating of the abrasive. This can result
2-13
TO 1-1-8
Non-Clad and Unanodized Aluminum Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Iron and Steel Alloys (Other Than Stainless Steel)
Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel Based Alloys
Copper and Copper Based Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Abrasive Cloth
120 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type II, Class 1
240 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type II, Class 1
Abrasive Paper
120 grit ANSI B74.18/CID A-A-1047 silicon carbide paper
240 grit ANSI B74.18/CID A-A-1047 silicon carbide paper
Metallic Wool
CID A-A-1043, Type I, Class 1, low carbon steel wool
CID A-A-1043, Type I, Class 1, stainless steel wool
CID A-A-1044, Type I, Class 1, Form A, copper wool
CID A-A-1044, Type II, Class 1, Form A, aluminum wool
Abrasive Mats
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade A (very fine) aluminum
oxide/nylon mesh
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade B (fine) aluminum oxide/
nylon mesh
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade C (medium) aluminum
oxide/nylon mesh
Wire Brushes
Aluminum wire brushes (1)
Brass wire brushes (2)
Copper wire brushes (2)
Low carbon steel wire brushes (2)
Stainless steel wire brushes (1)
Clad/Alclad and Anodized Aluminum Alloys
Hand Held Abrasives
Graphite or Boron Fiber/ Epoxy Composite Surfaces
Hand Held Abrasives
T
P
T
P
T
P
TP
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
TP
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber (Kevlar)/Epoxy and
Table 2-1.
TP
TP
TP
TP
T
T
T
TP
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
T for topcoat removal
P for primer removal
(1) Stainless steel or aluminum wire brushes shall be used on non-clad and unanodized aluminum alloys only when the
structure is 0.0625 inch thick or greater.
(2) Never use brass, copper, or low carbon steel brushes on any aluminum or magnesium alloys.
2-14
TO 1-1-8
Graphite or Boron Fiber/ Epoxy Composite Surfaces
Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber(Kevlar)/ Epoxy and
Titanium Alloys
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
T
T
TP
T
T
T
T
TP
TP
TP
TP
T
TP
T
TP
T
T
TP
TP
P
T
P
T
P
T
P
Magnesium Alloys
Copper and Copper Based Alloys
Roloc™ or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning discs
Very fine grade “Scotch-Brite” aluminum oxide/
nylon mesh
Fine grade “Scotch-Brite” aluminum oxide/nylon
P
mesh
Medium grade “Scotch-Brite” aluminum oxide/nyT
lon mesh
Roloc™ Bristle discs and Radial Bristle discs Grade
TP
120
Abrasive Flap Brush/Wheels
Aluminum oxide coated nylon mesh
T
Abrasive Disks
120 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type II, Class 1
T
240 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C-520, Type II, Class 1
P
Wire Brushes
Aluminum wire brushes (1)
Brass wire brushes (2)
Copper wire brushes (2)
Low carbon steel wire brushes (2)
Stainless steel wire brushes (1)
Non-Clad and Unanodized Aluminum Alloys
Clad/Alclad and Anodized Aluminum Alloys
Motor Driven Abrasives
Stainless Steel (CRES) and Nickel Based Alloys
Motor Driven Abrasives
Iron and Steel Alloys(Other Than Stainless Steel)
Table 2-2.
TP
TP
T
P
T
P
T
P
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
T for topcoat removal
P for primer removal
(1) Stainless steel or aluminum wire brushes shall be used on non-clad and unanodized aluminum alloys only
when the structure is 0.0625 in. thick or greater.
(2) Never use brass, copper, or low carbon steel brushes on any aluminum or magnesium alloys.
Table 2-3.
Item
Roloc™ Plastic Holder
Abrasive Materials
Specification
Roloc™ #1 Plastic Holder
NSN
3460-01-509-1784
Unit of Issue
Case
2-15
TO 1-1-8
Table 2-3.
Item
Roloc™ Plastic Holder
Roloc™ Bristle Disk
Roloc™ Bristle Disk
Roloc™ Bristle Disk
Surface Conditioning Disk
Surface Conditioning Disk
Metallic Wool carbon steel
Metallic Wool stain. steel
Metallic Wool aluminum
Metallic Wool aluminum
Metallic Wool copper
Abrasive Mat
Abrasive Mat
Abrasive Mat
Abrasive Cloth silicone carbide
Abrasive Cloth flint/emery
Abrasive Paper silicone car
Abrasive Paper silicone car
2-16
Abrasive Materials - Continued
Specification
Roloc™ #7 Plastic Holder
Roloc™ Bristle Disk 2 inch x
5/8 tapered
Roloc™ Bristle Disk 3 inch x
5/8 tapered
Radial Bristle Disk (Thick Bristle
3 inch
Scotch-Brite Surface Conditioning Disk 2 inch
Scotch-Brite Surface Conditioning Disk 3 inch
CID A-A-1043, Type III, Class 1
CID A-A-1043, Type IV, Class 1
CID A-A-1044 Type II, Class 1
Form A
CID A-A-1044 Type II, Class 3
Form A
CID A-A-1044, Type I, Class 1,
Form A
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1,
Grade A
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1,
Grade B
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1,
Grade C
120 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C520, Type II, Class 1
240 grit ANSI B74.18/GGG-C,
520, Type II, Class 1
120 grit ANSI B74.18/CID A-A1047
240 grit ANSI B74.18/CID A-A1047
NSN
3460-01-509-1812
5345-01-432-3027
Unit of Issue
Case
Case
5345-01-432-3292
Case
3460-01-509-1789
Case
5345-01-367-7680
Box
5345-01-397-5256
Box
5350-00-242-4404
5350-00-440-5035
5350-00-286-4851
1 each, 1 lb roll
1 each, 1 lb roll
1 each, 1 lb roll
5350-00-312-6129
1 each, 1 lb rolls
5350-00-255-7736
1 each, 1 lb roll
5350-00-967-5089
10 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
10 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
10 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
25 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
25 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
50 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
50 each, 9 inch
inch sheets
5350-00-967-5093
5350-00-967-5092
5350-00-865-5689
5350-00-174-0999
5350-00-721-8115
5350-00-224-7207
x 11
x 11
x 11
x 11
x 11
x 11
x 11
None
HEPA vacuum
HEPA vacuum
Blasting helmet
with suppliedair
Respiratory
None
None
Blasting helmet
with suppliedair
None
Abrasive blast
enclosure
Abrasive blast
enclosure
Engineering Controls
None
None
None
Leather and disposable nitrile
gloves
None
Leather and disposable nitrile
gloves
None
None
Hand
b
Ear
Plugsd
Ear
Plugsd
Ear Plugs
None
None
None
Personal Protective Equipment
Ear
Eye
None
Noneb
Safety goggles
Noneb
or faceshield
Ear Plugs
None
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Body
None
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls;
leather shoulder coverc
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Recommended Controls and PPE for Abrasive Blasting Operationsa
Local Bioenvironmental Engineer may recommend more or less restrictive controls.
Hearing protection may be required in locations where hazardous noise is produced.
c
A Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) with hood is the best choice.
d
Not required if a full-facepiece or hooded respirator is worn.
a
Dust removal
(compressed
air)
Dust removal
(vacuum)
Media clean-up
Masking
Refilling of blast
media
Abrasive blasting
Operation
Table 2-4.
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Foot
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
TO 1-1-8
2-17
TO 1-1-8
2.11
PMB REMOVAL METHOD.
PMB can peen or smear soft metals therefore it
shall not be used to remove paint from aluminum
or magnesium components requiring subsequent
fluorescent penetrant inspection unless specifically
directed by the component engineering authority.
Distortion caused by PMS could result in limited
crack/flaw detection.
PMB is an excellent and rapid method for finish system removal, but it can cause severe damage to structure and injury to personnel if not done properly with the right type of
equipment in the an approved facility. In addition, proper
waste management must be ensured for economic and environmental reasons. Some types of materials and material
thicknesses cannot be plastic media blasted under any circumstances. Therefore, PMB is authorized at depot and field
level operations contingent upon SPD approval of facilities,
personnel training, and processes as specified in system or
item specific technical data. These instructions are not intended to be all inclusive, but are general requirements to be
used in conjunction with additional instructions in applicable
system peculiar aircraft or equipment manuals. All PMB finish removal operations shall conform to the following requirements:
2.11.1 Media Type. Media used in PMB shall be fabricated from plastic stocks which are free from high-density
particle contamination and other impurities. The plastics used
shall be of a specific, non-changing chemical composition as
specified in MIL-P-85891, Plastic Media, For Removal of
Organic Coatings, and paragraphs below. Media used shall
have a particle size of U.S. screen 20 to 40 mesh; however,
12 to 16 mesh may be added as make up media. The media
shall have a particle shape which is irregular with sharp,
angular edges and corners. Plastic media is classified by type
which specifies the hardness and plastic and, therefore, the
performance characteristics. The following are the definitions
of media types as specified by MIL-P-85891:
2.11.1.1 Type I. A polyester plastic with a 3.0 MOH (34
to 42 Barcol) hardness and the least damaging of all media
types. This media is recommended for use on aerospace
equipment and shall be used if a 1/2 square foot per minute
strip rate can be maintained under the aerospace stripping
parameters listed in Paragraph 2.11.3.
2.11.1.2
Type II.
The Type II media is more aggressive than the
Type I media and will induce greater residual
stresses in the underlying metals if used improperly. Increased residual stresses can cause warping
2-18
Change 13
and increased crack growth rates in aircraft skin
materials and ground equipment enclosures.
A Urea Formaldehyde based plastic with a 3.5 MOH (54 to
62 Barcol) hardness. This media may be used on aerospace
equipment if and only if the Type I material produces less
than a 1/2 square foot per minute strip rate under the parameters listed in Paragraph 2.11.3. Parameters for the proper
use of Type II media on aerospace structures are also listed
in Paragraph 2.11.3. Type II media is recommended for use
on non-aerospace equipment such as SE. For non-aerospace
use blast pressure shall not exceed 50 PSI on materials at
least 0.040 inches thick. The nozzle shall be held at least 12
inches from the material to be stripped.
2.11.1.3 Type III. A Melamine Formaldehyde Plastic with
a 4.0 MOH (64 to 74 Barcol) hardness. This Type III media
is not authorized for use in stripping aerospace structures,
unless blended within Type VIII media. Type III media is
very aggressive and is recommended only for stripping iron
based equipment where residual stress problems will have
no consequences. This material is authorized for use on SE
and other non-aerospace applications where the metal is at
least 0.0625 inches thick. Blasting pressure should not exceed 40 PSI at the nozzle. The nozzle shall be held at least
12 inches from the material to be stripped.
2.11.1.4 Type IV. A Phenol Formaldehyde Plastic with a
3.5 MOH (54 to 62 Barcol) hardness. Type IV is not authorized for blasting of aerospace structures. Type IV may be
used on SE and on other non-aerospace equipment. Blast
parameters are the same as for Type II.
2.11.1.5 Type V. An Acrylic Plastic with a hardness of
3.5 MOH (46 to 54 Barcol) hardness. This media is authorized for use on aerospace systems as well as non-aerospace
applications. Blasting parameters: pressure 25-40 PSI; standoff distance 12 inches - 24 inches; angle (Alclad and composites) 0 - 60 degrees; angle (nonclad) 30 - 90 degrees.
2.11.1.6 Type VII. A Starch-g-Acrylic with a hardness of
72 to 79 (Shore D hardness). This material is authorized for
use on aerospace systems and non-aerospace equipment applications. Blasting parameters: nozzle pressure 45 PSI;
standoff distance 12 inches - 24 inches; angle 0 - 60. This
media is very moisture sensitive and the air flow shall be dry
and oil free.
2.11.1.7 Type VIII. A Urea/Melamine Amino thermoset
plastic with composite and engineered particle reinforcement
with a 3.5 MOH (54 to 62 Barcol) harness. Blasting parameters: pressure 25-30 PSI; nozzle stand-off distance 10-12
inches; nozzle angle 0-80 degrees with a strip rate 00.15
ft2/min.
2.11.2 Media Authorized for Air Force Use. Plastic media (PMB), while meeting the military specification criteria,
can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The Air Force
Corrosion Prevention and Control Office (AFCPCO) maintains a current list of manufacturers that have been tested
TO 1-1-8
and meet Air Force requirements and first article requirements of MIL-P-85891. These materials are authorized for
use on aerospace and non-aerospace structures (where authorized by the SPD). Contact the Air Force Corrosion Prevention and Control Office (AFCPCO), 325 Richard Ray Blvd.,
Bldg 165, Robins AFB, GA 31098, DSN 468-3284, email
[email protected] to obtain a current list of qualified PMB
manufacturers.
2.11.2.1 All media shall be tested for contamination per
Paragraph 2.11.12.
2.11.5.2 The blast nozzle tip to work surface standoff distance shall be within the range of 12 to 24 inches.
2.11.5.3 The angle of incidence between the blast nozzle
and the work surface shall be within the range of 40 to 60
degrees.
•
When using the PMB method of paint removal
on non-metal (composite) surfaces, it is important to limit the amount of time the surface is
exposed to the PMB blast. To limit this “dwell
time” and still allow paint to be removed, operators should use the primer coat as a “flag.”
That is, when the primer begins to become visible, the PMB blast should be aimed at another
section of the surface to be stripped. This results in all paint being removed and only a portion of the primer. Most importantly, limiting
the dwell time prevents damage to the composite material being stripped.
•
To minimize dwell time, avoid “low pressurelong standoff distance-shallow angle” combination of parameters.
2.11.3 Operational Parameters for Metallic Surfaces.
All PMB operations on metallic surfaces shall conform to
the following parameters:
2.11.3.1 Pressure shall be within the range of 40 to 60 PSI
at the blast nozzle for 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I), 25
to 40 PSI at the nozzle for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type
V), and 20 to 30 PSI at the nozzle for 3.5 MOH hardness
media (Type II). See Paragraph 2.11.1 for recommended parameters for stripping aerospace ground equipment and vehicles.
2.11.3.2 The blast nozzle tip to work surface standoff distance shall be within the range of 12 to 24 inches for 3.0
MOH hardness media (Type I), 12 to 24 inches for 3.5 MOH
hardness media (Type V), and 18 to 30 inches for 3.5 MOH
hardness media (Type II). See Paragraph 2.11.1 for recommended parameters for SE and vehicles.
2.11.3.3 The angle of incidence between the blast nozzle
and the work surface shall be within the range of 30 to 90
degrees for 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I), 30 to 90
degrees for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type V), and 0 to 60
degrees for 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type II). SE and vehicles may be stripped at any angle.
2.11.4 Usage Restrictions. PMB shall not be used on
metal structures having a thickness less than 0.016 inch for
3.0 MOH and 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type I and V) and
0.032 inch for 3.5 MOH hardness media. See Paragraph
2.11.1 for portions pertaining to SE and vehicles.
2.11.5.4 To maintain a constant removal rate and limit the
amount of time which the PMB blast impinges on any given
surface (dwell time), the following relationships are important to remember:
2.11.5.5 As stand off distance increases (decreases), pressure should increase (decrease) to maintain a constant removal rate.
2.11.5.6 As the angle of incidence decreases towards 0°
(increases towards 90°), the pressure should increase (decrease) to maintain a constant removal rate.
2.11.6 Operation Safety Requirements. Refer to the operation safety requirements for the proper type of equipment
as follows.
NOTE
2.11.6.1
Walk-In Blast Booth. Proceed as follows.
When blasting close to masking on the work surface, the nozzle shall be held as close as possible
to 90 degrees with the work surface to prevent
undercutting of the masking materials.
a. Keep all sources of ignition a minimum of 50 feet
away from the area when PMB is in progress.
2.11.5 Operational Parameters for Non-Metallic (Composite) Surfaces. All PMB operations on non-metallic surfaces (fiberglass, kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, boron/epoxy,
etc.) shall conform to the following parameters:
b. All blasting equipment, work stands, and the aircraft,
equipment, or components being blasted shall be properly electrically grounded per TO 00-25-172 and the
applicable aircraft or equipment manual during the entire PMB operation.
2.11.5.1 Pressure shall be within the range of 30 to 60 PSI
at the blast nozzle for the 3.0 MOH hardness media (Type I)
and 25 to 40 PSI for the 3.5 MOH hardness media (Type II,
V, and VIII).
c. All power shall be removed from the aircraft or equipment while PMB is in progress.
Change 7
2-19
TO 1-1-8
d. Titanium and steel alloy surfaces will spark when subjected to PMB. When a PMB operation involves a
combination of these and other metals, the titanium
and steel alloy surfaces shall be blasted first and then
the other metal surfaces.
e. The facility used for PMB shall have adequate air flow
and ventilation to prevent build up of an explosive dust
mixture. The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer shall be
consulted for proper ventilation requirements.
f. Personnel involved in PMB operation other than blasting cabinets shall wear the required personal protective
equipment required by the Base Safety Office and Bioenvironmental. Hood shall be put on prior to entering
the blasting area and shall not be removed until after
exiting the blasting area. Hoods shall be stored in a
clean dust free area and shall be cleaned to remove all
dust accumulation on them prior to storage after use.
All personnel entering the blasting area while PMB is
in progress, even though not involved in the operation,
shall comply with these personnel protection requirements. The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer and Base
Fire Department will define the PMB blasting area
when the PMB equipment is located within a larger
facility and is not segregated from other areas. Protective clothing worn during PMB shall remain in the
work area and shall not be taken home for cleaning.
g. Blast nozzle operators shall never direct a nozzle at
other personnel. If more than one blast nozzle operator
is involved in an operation at the same time, they shall
be located on opposite sides and/or ends of the aircraft
or equipment being blasted to ensure safe separation of
personnel.
h. Dust and media residue generated during PMB operations create very slippery conditions. Walking on top
of aircraft or equipment during PMB operations shall
be avoided if at all possible and shall be done with
extreme caution by personnel wearing fall protection
devices if it is absolutely required by the operation. All
work stands shall be equipped with guard rails to prevent falls.
2.11.6.2
d. The facility where the PMB cabinet is located and the
PMB cabinet shall have adequate air flow and ventilation to prevent buildup of an explosive dust mixture.
The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer shall be consulted for proper ventilation requirements.
e. The Base Bioenvironmental and Safety Office shall be
consulted for specific PPE requirements. PPE requirements may vary based on media type. Protective clothing worn during PMB shall remain in the work area
and shall not be taken home for cleaning.
2.11.7 Personnel Qualifications. PMB shall be performed only be personnel thoroughly trained in the operation
of PMB equipment and thoroughly indoctrinated in PMB
requirements and techniques specified in this technical order
and any other system peculiar aircraft or equipment technical order applicable to the job to be performed.
2.11.8
Pre-blast Preparation. Proceed as follows.
a. Prior to masking for PMB, thoroughly clean the aircraft, equipment, or component per TO 1-1-691 to remove all grease, oil, hydraulic fluid, and dirt from surfaces to be blasted. Every effort shall be made to stop
all fluid leaks noted at this time. Surfaces shall be allowed to fully dry prior to masking and input of the
item into the blasting facility. Water and other fluids
contaminate blasting media and may damage separation equipment.
b. Prior to starting PMB, properly mask the aircraft,
equipment, or component to prevent blast media and
dust from penetrating into interior areas and causing
contamination or damage to equipment, systems, or
structure susceptible to damage by media impingement.
Masking shall be accomplished in accordance with instruction in Paragraph 2.3 step d of this technical order
and the applicable system specific aircraft or equipment technical order for the item being blasted such as
the aircraft system specific -23 manual.
PMB Blasting Cabinets. Proceed as follows.
a. Keep all sources of ignition a minimum of 50 feet
away from the area when PMB is in progress.
b. All blasting equipment, work stands, and the equipment or components being blasted shall be properly
electrically grounded per TO 00-25-172 and the applicable equipment manual during the entire PMB operation.
c. Titanium and steel alloy surfaces will spark when subjected to PMB. When a PMB operation involves a
2-20
combination of these and other metals, the titanium
and steel alloy surfaces shall be blasted first and then
and then the other metal surfaces.
Change 8
2.11.9 Postblast Cleaning. When the finish system has
been completely removed by PMB, thoroughly vacuum all
surfaces of the aircraft, equipment, or component with a
TO 1-1-8
heavy duty, pneumatic type, wet/dry HEPA filtered vacuum
cleaner to remove all finish system dust and media residue.
As an alternative, compressed air or water wash may be used
to remove dust and media residue. However, avoid the use
of compressed air to remove dust and media residue, unless
absolutely necessary. Masking shall be removed, and interior
areas and crevices which were masked or plugged to prevent
dust and media entry shall be inspected for presence of dust
and media particles and vacuumed clean as necessary.
NOTE
PMB media has an anti-static additive that tends
to contaminate the blasted surface and inhibit paint
adhesion. Solvent wiping is required in addition to
washing to completely remove this residue.
2.11.10 Specific Technical Data and Work Directives.
Prior to initiating any PMB finish system removal operation
on any aircraft, component, or piece of equipment, each aircraft SPD or equipment item manager (XX-ALC/XX) shall
prepare detailed work specifications or project directives that
outline masking instructions and blasting instructions. These
instructions shall conform to all requirements in this TO and
the applicable system specific aircraft or equipment TO. Finally, a detailed step by step process order or work control
document that complies with all the technical data and work
Change 1
2-20.1/(2-20.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
specification or project directive requirements shall be prepared by the maintenance organization or contractor for each
separate PMB finish system removal operation.
2.11.11 Disposal of Plastic Media Used in Paint Removal Operations. Disposal of used media must be coordinated with the proper local base agency due to the contamination of the media. The resulting contamination from most
paint removal operations makes the plastic media a hazardous waste that must be disposed of properly.
2.11.12 Contamination Testing of Plastic Media. Plastic media shall be tested for contaminates as specified in the
following paragraphs. The media used in PMB equipment
for paint removal of aircraft and aircraft components shall be
sampled and tested every 80 hours of equipment operation
time or after each aircraft or large piece of aerospace equipment is blasted (whichever is longer). Plastic media that is
being used to blast steel/ferrous items for paint removal or
other coatings removal shall not be used on aluminum aircraft surfaces or components. Media found to have a highdensity particle contamination level greater than that specified in Paragraph 2.11.12.1 shall be purged from the system
and replaced with new media. Testing at the ALCs shall be
accomplished in the physical sciences laboratory (XX-ALC/
MAD). Testing at contractor and field level activities shall
be accomplished locally in a designated area adequately
equipped to run the test for contamination. Organizations
using PMB coatings removal processes in small walk-in or
cabinet-type booths are given an option to either test media
as specified in the paragraphs that follow, or forego PMB
testing and purge the used media and replace it with new
media at intervals not to exceed 80 hours of equipment operation when used on aircraft components. This option is not
applicable to large-scale PMB coatings removal operations
where entire aircraft or large subassemblies, such as wings
or horizontal/vertical stabilizers, are completely stripped.
2.11.12.1
Equipment and Materials Recommended.
One 500 milliliter separatory funnel
Rod stand, for separatory funnel
Holding rings, for funnels
Perfluorohexane, (SG 1.68), 3M Company PN PF5060TM or equivalent
ASTM D1836 N-Hexane (Adhesive Thinner), NSN
8040-00-853-8913 for a 1- gallon can (SG 0.66)
One glass funnel, 3-inch nominal diameter
One glass powder (large stem) funnel, 4-inch nominal
diameter
Whatman number 42 (or equal) filter paper, 12.5 cm, to
fit above funnel
Scales, 1000 grams capacity, 0.1 gram sensitivity such
as:
Ohaus E4000, 0 - 4000g, 0.1g
Sartorius U3600, 0 - 3600g, 0.1g
Ohaus GT2100, 0 - 2100g, 0.01g
Analytical balance, 100 grams capacity, 0.001 gram
sensitivity such as:
Ohaus E120G, 0 - 120g/0.001g,
Sartorius H120, 0 - 120g/0.001g
Metler AB-160, 0 - 160g/0.0001g
Metler PM200, 0 - 210g/0.001g
Metler AT200, 0 - 205g/0.0001g
Special dual range balances offering bulk weighing and
precision weighing in a single instrument may be
substituted for the above instruments, but usually
they have limited capacity and significantly higher
prices. Two are:
Metler PM480 DeltaRange, 80g/0.001g, 410g/
0.01g
Metler AT460 DeltaRange, 62g/0.0001g, 405g/
0.001g
500-600 ml tall form Pyrex beaker
250 ml Pyrex beaker
500-ml graduated glass cylinder
Two jug-type glass storage bottles, gal, with screw caps
Hydrometer, 1.60 - 1.80 specific gravity
Pyrex watch glass, 75 - 90mm dia.
Nalgene polyethylene wash bottles, 250 ml
Bar magnet
Spatula, stainless steel
Glass stirring rods, 10 inch
Neoprene gloves, size as required such as: Playtex neoprene.
NOTE
Laboratory equipment may be purchased from national laboratory supply firms such as Fisher Scientific, VWR Scientific, Curtin Matheson Scientific,
or from local laboratory supply firms found in
most large cities.
2.11.12.2 Sampling Procedure. Collect approximately
two liters of used media, preferably from the blast pot or
hose.
2.11.12.2.1 Used Media. The best representative sample
is obtained by collecting media directly from the blast nozzle;
but if this is not feasible, collect the sample from media
hoppers located after separation equipment in recovery/reclamation system.
2.11.12.3
follows:
Contamination Test Procedure. Proceed as
Change 4
2-21
TO 1-1-8
a. Ensure all glassware is clean and dry.
Keep solvents away from heat and open flame.
Keep containers closed. Use only with adequate
ventilation. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact
with skin and swallowing.
b. Prepare a mixture of 95 percent by volume Perfluorohexane (SG 1.68), 3M Company PN PF-5060TM, and
5 percent by volume ASTM D1836 N-Hexane (SG
0.66). To make mixing easier, pour the N-Hexane into
the container first, and then add the PF-5060TM fluid.
Using a hydrometer, measure the specific gravity (SG)
of the mixture to ensure it is within the range of 1.60
to 1.66. If the SG is below 1.60 add a small amount of
PF-5060TM until the SG is within range; if the SG is
above 1.66, add very small amounts of N-Hexane until
the SG is within range. This fluid mixture is to be used
in testing for high density particle contamination of
used media. The SG of this fluid mixture is high
enough to float the light plastic media particles while
allowing high density particles to separate and settle
out. A quantity of this test fluid mix may be prepared
in advance and stored until needed in small necked,
tightly capped bottles marked with the value of the SG
of the fluid they contain.
c. Add approximately 300-350 ml (bulk dry volume) of
sample media to 500 ml beaker. Weigh beaker and media to the nearest tenth gram (0.1 gm) and record
(Weight #1) gross weight. Pour media into 500 ml
separatory funnel (stopcock closed) and ensure there is
no spillage. Obtain tare weight of 500 ml beaker and
record (Weight #2) to the nearest tenth gram (0.1 gm).
d. Add the fluid to separatory funnel leaving some air
space in the funnel for ease of agitation. Swirl the mixture. A swirling motion is better than shaking to reduce
entrainment of air and suspension of particles due to
energy of motion of the moving fluid. Media samples
may contain some dust-sized particles, which may be
suspended in the fluid after agitation and adhere to the
sides. Tapping the side of the funnel should dislodge
any particles adhering to the sides. Place the separatory funnel on the rod stand using the holding ring.
Allow 10 minutes for the suspended dust to settle or
rise. Higher density particles will accumulate in the
bottom of the separatory funnel on top of the stopcock.
e. Fold the filter paper in a standard filter fold and place
it in a funnel. Position the funnel in a holding ring on
the rod stand beneath the separatory funnel and place a
beaker beneath this funnel to catch the test fluid. Use
short duration opening of stopcock in order to drain
higher density particles settled out in the bottom of
2-22
separatory funnel (on top of stopcock) into filter funnel. Tapping the side of the separatory funnel may help
to remove the high-density particles. Do not allow fluid
level to get too low, because it might allow some floating media to be deposited with the high-density contaminants. Additional fluid may be added to separatory
funnel taking care not to agitate mixture. If agitation
occurs, allow 10 minutes for suspended dust particles
to float/settle prior to continuation. To separate all of
the high-density particles, the process has to be repeated until no particles will separate out of the plastic
media. One attempt will not extract them all.
f. Place the filter and filtrate in a vented, dust free location (preferably, a laboratory hood) to dry for one hour.
Weigh the filter paper and filtrate to 0.001 gm precision. Allow the filter paper to dry an additional 30
minutes and reweigh. If there is a change greater than
0.001 gm, continue to dry the sample, checking the
weight every 30 minutes until the weight between intervals does not change. Obtain the tare weight of a
watch glass, or on an electronic balance so equipped,
and reset the balance to 0 with the watch glass on the
pan. Carefully remove the filtrate from the filter paper
onto the watch glass by tapping. Unfold the filter paper
and remove the remaining particles with a hard instrument, such as a metal spatula, until no visible sign of
particles remain. Do not use a brush. Fine particles or
dust may have impregnated the filter paper. This residue is not a major concern and may be disregarded
because fine particles (less than 80 mesh, US Standard
Sieve) are not damaging to aircraft materials or structure. Depending upon the balance used, weigh or calculate the weight of the dense particles to 0.001 gm
precision and record as Weight #3. (Gross weight minus weight of watch glass). After weighing use a magnet to determine if any steel/ferrous material is in the
dense particles. This information may help in determining the source of the contamination and facilitate
process troubleshooting. However, the 0.02 percent
dense particle contamination level in Paragraph
2.11.12.3, step i, is the basis for acceptance or rejection of the media regardless of the contamination composition.
g. Filter the used test fluid mixture through a funnel with
clean filter paper, and retain for reuse. Store in a separate, small-neck, tightly closed and properly labeled
container. Recheck specific gravity with a hydrometer
to assure it is in the proper range prior to reuse.
h. Calculations: Gross weight of media and 500 ml beaker (Weight #1) minus tare weight of 500 ml beaker
(Weight #2) equals net weight of media, and weight #3
is the dense particle weight. The dense particle weight
divided by the media weight equals the weight fraction
of dense particles in the sample. Multiply the weight
fraction by 100 to find the weight percent of dense
TO 1-1-8
particles in the sample.
Dense Particles Wt
Media Weight
x 100 = Percent
i. Sand, concrete, and glass particles tend to cause pitting
and the most fatigue life degradation while steel/ferrous particles will pit and embed in softer aluminum
and magnesium substrates. The high density particle
contaminant level shall not exceed 0.02 percent for all
used media employed in aerospace equipment stripping operations. For non-aerospace equipment (SE,
vehicles, etc.) stripping operations, the high density
particle contamination level shall not exceed 2.0 percent for used media.
2.12
MPW REMOVAL METHOD.
This removal method requires the use of a medium-pressure
water and bicarbonate of soda injection system with control,
hoses, and handheld nozzles of various configurations. The
injection system shall consist of a positive feed control system, such as an auger/computer controlled system. This
MPW removal system, with or without abrasives, is an excellent method for finish system removal but can cause severe damage to structure and injury to personnel if not done
properly. MPW paint removal is authorized at depot and
field-level operations subject to SPD approval of facilities,
equipment, personnel training, and technical data. These instructions are not intended to be all inclusive, but are general, necessary guidelines to be used in conjunction with additional instructions in applicable system-peculiar aircraft or
equipment manuals and a definitive process order. All MPW
removal operations shall conform to the following requirements:
NOTE
Only the equipment and supplies listed below have
been approved for Air Force use. The mediumpressure-water equipment are the E25M Electric
Unit, NSN 4940-01-413-5627/4940-01-395-9471;
the D44 Diesel Unit, NSN 4940-01-411-9826/
4920-01-413-5629, and the B-25 Electric Unit
(least expensive basic unit), NSN 4940-01-451-
0020, all without rotating gun. For a portable unit,
a trailer NSN 4940-01-413-5602 can be used. It is
recommended that the repair kit Model 900-005,
NSN 4940-01-411-9829 be bought with the blast
equipment. The bicarbonate of soda blasting media is available in 40-pound bags under NSN
5350-01-414-1894.
2.12.1
Preparation. Proceed as follows:
a. Prior to masking for MPW paint removal, the aircraft
and other equipment shall be defueled and purged. In
addition, if deemed necessary, the aircraft or extremely
contaminated areas on the aircraft shall be washed in
accordance with TO 1-1-691.
b. Before starting the MPW paint removal operations, the
aircraft, equipment, or component shall be properly
masked and sealed to prevent water or bicarbonate of
soda blast media from penetrating into interior areas
and causing contamination or damage to equipment,
systems, or structure. All surfaces where tape is to be
applied shall be wiped down with isopropyl alcohol,
TT-I-735 or acetone, O-A51/ASTM D 329. The solvent used during the wipe down operation shall not be
allowed to evaporate from the surface, but shall be
wiped from the surface with a dry, clean cloth. Masking shall be accomplished according to instructions in
Paragraph 2.3, step c and step d, of this technical order
and the applicable system-peculiar aircraft or equipment technical order for the item being stripped, such
as the aircraft system-peculiar -23 corrosion manual or
the definitive process order. In addition to masking and
sealing such areas as fiberglass components, windows,
radomes, and composite structures, drain holes shall be
plugged prior to stripping.
c. Areas which are covered by the barrier tape may be
hand stripped with an environmentally compliant
chemical remover prior to masking for the complete
paint removal operation provided the procedures in this
technical order are strictly followed. Narrow seams
around emergency doors, hatches, entry doors, and
other doors on the aircraft shall be protected from the
blast stream.
2-23
TO 1-1-8
2.12.2 Paint Removal Operations. All MPW paint removal shall conform to the following parameters:
•
Bicarbonate of soda blast media shall not exceed 1/2 lb per minute on the exterior of any
aircraft.
•
It is very important to prevent intrusion of the
bicarbonate of soda blast media in areas where
it can become entrapped in the aircraft structure. It may become corrosive if left within the
aircraft structure. A thorough inspection for media intrusion shall be performed and a thorough
rinsing with hot water after blasting shall be
accomplished to prevent media from being retained in the aircraft.
a. The MPW equipment shall have the following operating parameters: water pressure of 15,000 PSI; water
flow rate of 3 gallons per minute, bicarbonate of soda
blast media flow rate 1/4 to 1/2 lb per minute.
b. The nozzle stand-off distance shall be within the range
of 2 to 4 inches from the tip of the nozzle to the working surface.
c. The angle of incidence between the nozzle and the
work surface shall be within the range of 40 to 60
degrees (measured from the surface being stripped).
d. In order to limit the amount of time the medium pressure water and abrasive strikes or hits any given surface (dwell time) and prevent possible damage, the
nozzle shall be moved across the surface at a minimum rate of 4 inches every second.
2.12.3
lows:
Post-Paint Removal Cleaning. Proceed as fol-
a. When the finish system has been completely removed
by the MPW method, all surfaces of the aircraft, equipment or component shall be rinsed with hot water (not
to exceed 140 °F) to remove all media residue.
b. Remove masking and sealing materials and, if necessary, hand clean protected areas. Allow entire area to
thoroughly dry. Open and flush all covers and/or crevices to eliminate media residue. The aircraft, equipment, or component shall be thoroughly washed in accordance with TO 1-1-691.
2.12.4 Operational Safety Requirements. The following is required for safety.
2-24
a. All sources of ignition shall be kept a minimum of 50
feet away from the area when MPW paint removal is
in progress.
b. All MPW equipment, work stands, and the aircraft,
equipment, or components being stripped shall be electrically grounded per TO 00-25-172 and the applicable
aircraft or equipment manual during the entire paint
removal operation.
c. All power shall be removed from the aircraft or equipment while MPW paint removal is in progress.
d. The facility used for MPW paint removal shall have
adequate air flow/ventilation. The Base Bioenvironmental Engineer shall be consulted for proper ventilation requirements.
e. Personnel involved in MPW paint removal shall wear
ear plugs, ear muffs, goggles, or full face shield, wetweather suit, water-resistant hoods, chemical-resistant
boots, and shin and instep guard assemblies. The shin
and instep guard assembly shall be puncture resistant
aluminum with a 5 inch wide by 6 inch long instep
section attached by a hinge assembly to a shin section
of at least 20 inches in length. Ellwood Safety Appliance Co. Model No. 3235P is one product that meets
these requirements. All personnel entering the removal
area while MPW stripping is in progress, even though
not involved in the operation, shall also comply with
these personnel protection requirements. The local base
Bioenvironmental Engineer shall define the MPW paint
removal area when the MPW equipment is located
within a larger facility and is not segregated from other
areas. Protective clothing worn during water stripping
shall remain in the work area and shall not be taken
home for cleaning.
f. MPW nozzle operators shall never direct a nozzle at
other personnel. If more than one MPW nozzle operator is involved in an operation at the same time, they
shall be located on opposite sides and/or ends of the
aircraft or equipment being stripped to ensure safe
separation of personnel.
g. Water and media residue generated during paint removal operations can create a slippery condition. Walking on top of aircraft or equipment during paint removal operations shall be avoided, if at all possible,
and shall be done with extreme caution by personnel
wearing fall protection devices. All work stands shall
be equipped with guardrails to prevent falls.
2.12.5 Personnel Qualification. Several methods of
training may be used for initial and follow on MPW training.
TO 1-1-8
2.12.5.1 Equipment Manufacturer’s Training. This
training may consist of on-site training or video training.
Regardless of the method, it is essential the individual receives and understands the training given through a practical, locally developed certification method.
2.12.5.2 Air Force Supplied Local Training. A unit level
training program can be developed to include general instructional information on operation and safety. This should
be followed by hands on practical training in performing
MPW using all appropriate safety equipment. This would be
the minimum requirements for operator certification.
2.13 REMOVAL OF THERMOPLASTIC POWDER
COATING.
2.13.1 Removal Procedures. Thermal spray coating resins are difficult to remove by medium pressure abrasive grit
blasting; but grit blasting, scrapers, and other manual tools
may be used to remove coating that have deteriorated or are
substantially cross-linked. Intentionally inducing cross-linking by overheating the powder coating during application or
degrading by excessive heating after coating application results in easier removal. Conventional abrasive blasting at 60
PSI will remove these coatings. For areas requiring nondestructive inspections on bare metal, brush a release agent
(NSN 9150-00-349-9290) on the specific NDI site after each
inspection prior to coating or re-coating. When removal is
required, carefully score the site and peel the coating off.
Reapply the release agent after the inspection cleanup before
re-coating. Small areas may also be reheated with a hot air
gun or small propane torch to soften the thermoplastic and
then manually scrape the area requiring removal while the
coating is still soft. For coatings that are still serviceable
with a low degree of cross-linking, or if induced cross-linking is not feasible, MPW blasting per Paragraph 2.12 is an
effective method for removal. MPW blasting augmented with
sodium bicarbonate is more effective in removing the powder coatings.
2.14
•
Sharp-edged and sharp-cornered tools shall not
be used as scrapers for removal of the finish
system from fabric covered surfaces, as they
can easily puncture or tear the fabric. Scrapers
shall not be pushed across the surface, but shall
be held with the blade angled away from the
body and pulled across the surface toward the
body to prevent gouging of the fabric.
2.14.1.1 PMB per Paragraph 2.11.5 may be used for paint
removal on Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber (“Kevlar”)/Epoxy,
and Graphite or Boron Fiber/Epoxy Composite Surfaces; but
if unavailable or unauthorized, use the mechanical methods
in Paragraph 2.14.2, step a, step b, and step c, below. If
repairs require the total removal of the topcoat and primer,
refer to TO 1-1-690 for additional procedures and precautions.
2.14.2 Mechanical Paint Removal on Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber (“Kevlar”)/Epoxy, and Graphite or Boron
Fiber/Epoxy Composite Surfaces.
Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven tool
having an operational speed higher than the maximum RPM rating of the abrasive. This can result
in disintegration of the abrasive and can cause injury to personnel.
NOTE
The following procedures are not applicable to radomes. Finish system removal from radomes shall
be accomplished per instructions in TO 1-1-24.
PAINT REMOVAL ON NON-METALLICS.
2.14.1 Removal Requirements. Non-metallics are defined as Fabric Covered Surfaces, Fiber Glass, Arranged Fiber (“Kevlar”)/Epoxy, and Graphite or Boron Fiber/Epoxy
Composite Surfaces. Non-metallics are susceptible to severe
damage by any of the paint removal processes if improperly
used. Therefore, these limited and specific procedures for
removal of organic coatings shall be used only when the
responsible Air Logistics Center (ALC), Aircraft System
Program Director (SPD) or Equipment or Component Item
Manager, with the full knowledge of the ALC Corrosion
Program Manager, approves the procedure to be used.
•
any non-metallics identified in this section, unless approved within weapon system specific
technical orders.
a. Abrade the finish system topcoat from the surface
down to the primer with hand held abrasives per Table
2-1 and Table 2-3, or either a random orbital tool or
pneumatic drill motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a
Roloc™ or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc or a cloth abrasive disc per Table 2-2 and
Table 2-3. Use sanders attached to high efficiency
vacuum systems for dust recovery. Use of a random
orbital tool or a pneumatic drill motor fitted with the
Scotch-Brite medium grade, aluminum oxide, surface
conditioning disc (3M Co.) is preferable. This method
provides the fastest removal rate with the least possibility of damage to the composite substrate and the
longest abrasive life due to the non-loading characteristics of this type of disc. Keep sander heads flush
against the surfaces being sanded and apply the least
Chemical removers used for finish system removal from metal surfaces shall not be used on
Change 4
2-25
TO 1-1-8
amount of pressure necessary to effectively remove the
finish system topcoat and not go through the primer
and gouge or abrade the composite substrate.
posed composite materials should be accomplished at
the earliest opportunity as composite materials degrade
when exposed to ultra violet (UV) light.
b. Abrade the primer from the surface using the same
methods as used for the topcoat but with finer grade
abrasives per Table 2-1 and Table 2-3 using the same
methods as specified for the topcoat in paragraph
above. Extreme caution is to be used to avoid any
damage to the composite materials. Re-coating of ex-
c. After all topcoat has been removed, use HEPA vacuums with appropriate attachments to vacuum dust from
aircraft and facility floors. Do not use compressed air
unless absolutely necessary to remove dust from very
narrow cracks and crevices. Refer to AFI 91-203 for
additional safety and health program guidance.
2-26
Change 10
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 3
SURFACE PREPARATION AND CHEMICAL PREPAINT SURFACE
TREATMENT
3.1 SURFACE PREPARATION FOR PAINTING AND
CHEMICAL PREPAINT SURFACE TREATMENT.
The life of an organic coating system, its effectiveness, and
the appearance of organic finishes depend more on the condition of surfaces receiving them than any other factor. Most
surfaces can be expected to present adverse painting conditions due to either the inherent nature of the material, the
environment in the presence of foreign materials, contamination, or corrosion. Presence of any of these factors will require treatment or removal action to make possible the proper
application of organic coatings. The life and effectiveness of
organic coatings are an integral part of corrosion prevention
and control for aerospace equipment. These procedures are
for preparation of interior or exterior surfaces that have existing coating systems to be re-coated or repaired. These procedures are also for surface preparation after complete depainting prior to the complete repainting of an aircraft. All
Technical Order requirements and procedures for prepaint
preparation of metal surfaces other than aluminum and magnesium, which may be used on aircraft exterior surfaces, shall
be complied with in addition to requirements of this manual.
3.1.1
•
Surface Preparation for Painting.
Refer to Table 3-1 for minimum personal protective equipment required for all paint preparation operations.
•
Provide adequate ventilation when using solvents. Avoid prolonged breathing of vapors and
avoid skin contact. Use appropriate protective
gloves and eye protection. Contact Bioenvironmental Engineering to determine need for respiratory protection.
Surface preparation for painting is the most important requirement for ensuring proper adherence and performance of
a paint system. For the purposes this manual, there are two
types of surfaces requiring preparation for painting; bare unpainted surfaces (metal or composite material) and surfaces
with organic coatings currently applied. In either case, an
exceptionally clean surface is necessary whether painting
over an existing paint system, painting newly fabricated aircraft or components, or after complete removal of an existing paint system or to overcoat an existing paint system must
be thoroughly prepared before the reapplication of new organic coatings.
3.1.2 Surface Preparation for Repair or Over Coating
of Damaged Organic Coating. Closely inspect candidate
areas for the extent of damage and maintenance painting required. If inspection reveals major paint failure or damage,
such as chipped or peeled paint from the center of a skin
panel, the involved skin section should be prepared and
maintenance painted from seam to seam. If only minor damage is found, i.e., paint chipped or missing from screw/rivet
heads and on outer edges of skin panel(s), the specific area
may be prepared and maintenance painted. Prepare damaged
area(s) as follows:
Change 10
3-1
TO 1-1-8
3.1.2.1 Thoroughly clean the area to be prepared per TO
1-1-691 or using solvent wipe procedures per Paragraph
3.1.4.
•
•
•
Sanding of finish systems using motor driven
abrasives can generate airborne particles and
toxic dust that can injure personnel and create a
possible dust explosion from paint and abrasive
material dust. Work pieces and motorized
equipment shall be properly electrically
grounded. When using motor driven abrasives
the minimum required personnel protective
equipment shall be dust/particulate respirator,
goggles/face shield, disposable nitrile rubber
gloves, and cloth coveralls with paint sock or
hooded Tyvek™ coveralls and non-slip rubberized foot coverings. Do not stand above, below,
or directly next to other workers. Avoid being
“downwind” from others using mechanical
sanders. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering
Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven
tool having an operational speed higher than
the maximum RPM rating of the abrasive. This
can result in disintegration of the abrasive and
can cause injury to personnel.
AFI 91-203 should be reviewed to ensure all
safety, fire and environmental safety requirements are accomplished prior to performing
surface preparation and chemical prepaint surface treatments.
3.1.2.2 Feather the edges of damaged coating adjacent to
the peeled section. Use 120 grit or finer abrasive paper or
nylon abrasive matting material Specification CID A-A58054 medium grade or finer for sanding. When using the
coarser grit sizes down to 120, use care not to score the
metal surfaces. Sanding to feather out the damaged coatings
may be done by hand or with the use of either a random
orbital tool or pneumatic drill motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a Roloc™ or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc, or a disc fabricated from an abrasive cloth
sheet. Use sanders and grinders attached to high efficiency
vacuum systems for dust recovery. Keep sander heads approximately flush against the surfaces being sanded and apply the least amount of pressure necessary to accomplish
feathering of the paint.
NOTE
It is essential that a formal maintenance/repair
schedule be instituted for the high efficiency
vacuum units. Replace bags in vacuum units after
3-2
Change 10
each aircraft or large part has been sanded. Do not
use vacuums when the hoses have holes or tears.
Use the minimum length of hose attached to
vacuum units to ensure the highest airflow rates
through the vacuum. Use the vacuum at the manufacture’s recalls compressed air pressure.
3.1.2.3 Scuff sand the surface of other area(s) adjacent to
the damaged coatings that are to be coated using abrasive
paper no coarser than 120 grit, 3M Corp. medium grade
aluminum oxide surface conditioning disc, or CID A-A58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade C abrasive mat. Use of a
random orbital sander or a pneumatic drill motor fitted with
the surface conditioning disc is preferred.
3.1.2.4 After the finish system has been sanded, use HEPA
vacuums with appropriate attachments to vacuum dust from
aircraft and facility floors. Do not use compressed air unless
absolutely necessary to remove dust from very narrow cracks
and crevices. Refer to AFI 91-203 for additional safety and
health program guidance.
3.1.3 Scuff Sanding for Overspraying Existing Coating
Systems on Aircraft. It is always better to start a paint
system from bare metal, however, when authorized in Chapter 8, it is feasible to overspray existing paint systems.
NOTE
Adhesion failure between coatings will require
complete removal of the non-adhering coating.
When intercoat adhesion failure occurs over large
areas, overcoating shall not be accomplished and
complete strip/repaint is required.
3.1.3.1 Aircraft exterior painted surfaces shall initially be
cleaned in accordance with TO 1-1-691 and thoroughly inspected to determine the soundness of the paint film. Areas
of severely deteriorated paint, as indicated by loose or peeling paint; contamination from hydraulic oil, engine oil, fuel,
or other fluids; or where bare metal is showing, shall be
stripped per Chapter 2 of this manual.
3.1.3.2 Mask all areas which may be damaged by entry of
fluids or paint dust generated during the cleaning and scuff
sanding operations per Chapter 2 of this manual.
3.1.3.3 Prepare the surface for overcoating by scuff sanding as follows:
TO 1-1-8
dust recovery. Keep sander heads approximately flush against
the surfaces being sanded and apply the least amount of
pressure necessary to accomplish feathering of the paint.
•
Sanding of finish systems using motor driven
abrasives can generate airborne particles and
toxic dust that can injure personnel and create a
possible dust explosion from paint and abrasive
material dust. Work pieces and motorized
equipment shall be properly electrically
grounded. When using motor driven abrasives,
the minimum required personnel protective
equipment shall be dust/particulate respirator,
goggles/face shield, disposable nitrile rubber
gloves, and cloth coveralls with paint sock or
hooded Tyvek™ coveralls and non-slip rubberized foot coverings. Do not stand above, below,
or directly next to other workers. Avoid being
“downwind” from others using mechanical
sanders. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering
Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
•
Do not mount an abrasive on a motor driven
tool having an operational speed higher than
the maximum RPM rating of the abrasive. This
can result in disintegration of the abrasive and
can cause injury to personnel
•
AFI 91-203 should be reviewed to ensure all
safety, fire and environmental safety requirements are accomplished prior to performing
scuff sanding.
NOTE
Requirements for vacuuming of sanding dusts may
be waived by local Bioenvironmental Engineering, Industrial Hygienists, or the OPR for corporate safety/health only after approval of alternative
measures for personnel protection.
3.1.3.3.1 Completely scuff sand the entire exterior surface
of the aircraft, excluding bare metal areas, using abrasive
paper no coarser than 120 grit, 3M Corp. medium grade
aluminum oxide surface conditioning disc, or CID A-A58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade C abrasive mat. scuff sanding
shall include roughing up 100 percent of the painted surface,
removal of oxidized paint, and feather-edging of all flaked
paint. It is not intended to remove a sound paint system.
Light scuffing is sufficient for adhesion of the primer tie-coat
to a sound topcoat. Do not sand through to bare metal as
damage to the aircraft may occur. All areas where the paint
system is nicked, scratched, or chipped and any edges of the
paint system around areas where paint removal was done are
to be feathered-out (blended smooth) during the sanding operation per Paragraph 3.1.2. All sanding operations should be
accomplished using either a random orbital tool or pneumatic drill motor (12,000 RPM max) fitted with a Roloc™
or hook and loop mounted surface conditioning disc, or a
disc fabricated from an abrasive cloth sheet. Use sanders and
grinders attached to high efficiency vacuum systems for
NOTE
It is essential that a formal maintenance/repair
schedule be instituted for the high efficiency
vacuum units. Replace bags in vacuum units after
each aircraft or large part has been sanded. Do not
use vacuums when the hoses have holes or tears.
Use the minimum length of hose attached to
vacuum units to ensure the highest airflow rates
through the vacuum. Use the vacuum at the manufacture’s recommended compressed air pressure.
3.1.3.3.2 After the finish system has been sanded, use
HEPA vacuums with appropriate attachments to vacuum dust
from aircraft and facility floors. Do not use compressed air
unless absolutely necessary to remove dust from very narrow cracks and crevices. Refer to AFI 91-203 for additional
safety and health program guidance.
3.1.3.3.3 Complete all remaining operations for preparation of the aircraft for painting as required in Chapter 4 of
this manual.
3.1.4 Solvent Wiping for Surface Preparation. Solvent
wiping may be used for general cleaning prior to surface
preparation or for final cleaning prior to coating application.
A clean surface is one of the most critical process requirements that must be met to ensure coating adhesion. Depending on the process requirement, solvent selection should be
made from the approved solvents in Table 3-2. The necessity
for having an exceptionally clean surface to receive the new
paint system requires that a solvent wipe be done: 1) if the
surface becomes contaminated after chemical treatment, 2)
after all scuff sanding operations, and 3) if required for reactivation of coating. Given these requirements, a hand solvent
wipe shall be performed each time the coating sequence of
an aircraft is broken and the surface has been vulnerable to
the accumulation of soils such as dust, shop dirt, fingerprints,
overspray, leaks, etc., either after conversion coating application, priming, or between topcoats. This will be accomplished immediately prior to application of further paint coats
to assure cleanliness and the adhesion of the paint film to the
surface. The hand solvent wipe-down shall be accomplished
using materials per Table 3-2. The solvent will be applied
and the surface wiped using wiping cloths. Wiping cloth
(CID A-A-59323) shall be lint free, 100 percent cotton cloth
conforming to CID A-A-2522, Grade A, color 1: cotton
gauze/cheese cloth conforming to CCC-C-440, Type II or
III, which are unbleached or white cleaning cloths conforming to AMS 3819A, Class 2, Grade A, and have not been
exposed to any other chemical solution. When accomplishing the solvent wipe, always pour fresh solvent onto the cloth
and dispose of them as they accumulate soils. The solvent
wipe must be performed in this manner in order to prevent
simply smearing soils or transferring them back to the surface from a pail of contaminated solvent. This operation must
Change 10
3-3
TO 1-1-8
be accomplished when required and always just prior to application of the primer or subsequent paint topcoats.
3-4
Change 10
f
e
d
c
b
Air-purifying
with OV cartridgesf
Air-purifying
with OV/
HEPA cartridgese
None
None
Respiratory
None
Air-purifying
with HEPA
filter
Air-purifying
with HEPA
filter
None
Disposable nitrile gloves
Disposable nitrile gloves
Disposable nitrile gloves
Disposable nitrile gloves
Disposable nitrile gloves
Butyl rubber
gloves
None
Butyl rubber
gloves
Hand
Rain suit
Safety goggles
or faceshieldd
None
Safety goggles
or faceshield
Safety gogglesd
None
Safety goggles
or faceshieldd
Ear plugsc
Noneb
Noneb
Ear plugs
Ear plugsc
Noneb
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
None
Body
None
Rain suit
Personal Protective Equipment
Ear
Eye
None
Noneb
Safety goggles
Ear plugsc
or faceshieldd
Recommended Controls and PPE for Surface Preparation Operationsa
Local Bioenvironmental Engineer may recommend more or less restrictive controls or PPE based on exposure monitoring.
Hearing protection may be required in locations where hazardous noise is produced from other sources.
When noise levels exceed 85dBA.
Not required if a full-facepiece or hooded respirator is worn.
A powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with hood is the best choice for scuff sanding.
When chemical exposure levels exceed occupational exposure limits.
General dilution
ventilation
Solvent wiping
a
HEPA vacuum
General dilution
ventilation
General dilution
ventilation
HEPA-ventilated
sander
General dilution
ventilation
Engineering
Controls
None
General dilution
ventilation
Dust removal
Masking
Corrosion removal (acid
etch)
Conversion
coating (alodine)
Alodine Sempen
Alodine “wipeon/blot-off”
Sanding
Operation
Table 3-1.
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Foot
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
TO 1-1-8
Change 10
3-4.1/(3-4.2 blank)
TO 1-1-8
•
CID A-A-59281 is flammable and toxic to eyes,
skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required. Good general ventilation is normally adequate.
•
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 is toxic to
eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin
protection required. Consult Bioenvironmental
Engineering Services to determine need for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
NOTE
Wipe Solvents
Organic Coatings FL 6
Metals
Solvent Selection
Surface to be Cleaned
Alcohols
Ethyl alcohol, denatured FL 4
Isopropyl alcohol FL 4
Napthas/Petroleum Distillates
P-D-680, Type II, III, Dry Cleaning Sol.
TT-N-95, Aliphatic Naptha
Meets Requirements of NESHAP FL 2
Table 3-2.
Regulated By NESHAP FL 1
Environmental requirements have placed restrictions on use
of some solvents. When using any solvents that are being
restricted by environmental regulations, minimize consumption by using only a small amount of solvent on a wiping
cloth; do not saturate the cloth. Wipe the surface being
cleaned and then wipe with a dry wiping cloth. When the
cloth becomes soiled, dispose of it in a closed container.
This operation must be accomplished when the surface to be
painted has become contaminated and always just prior to
application of primers or subsequent topcoats. Always check
with the local base Environmental authorities for restrictions
and full compliance requirements. Table 3-2 lists approved
alternative solvents that will meet many environmental regulatory requirements.
The integrity of fuel tank coatings is critical to all aircraft,
and surface preparation requirements are specific and not to
be wavered from. Clean surfaces to be coated with MIL-C27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 using only CID A-A-59281, Type
I cleaning compound. CID A-A-59281, Type I is a solvent
blend designed for this application. Apply CID A-A-59281,
Type I, to a lint-free cleaning cloth. Wipe dry. Do not allow
the solvent to evaporate. Change cleaning cloths regularly as
required to ensure soils are not spread or transferred. Immediately follow the solvent wipe with application of conversion coating conforming to Specification MIL-C-81706/MILDTL-81706 per Paragraph 3.1.19.
Reactivation of Painted Surface
Low vapor pressure NESHAP compliant solvents
are slow to evaporate and must be wiped dry before paint application. These are the preferred
solvents.
Composite Materials
These solvents should not be used on polycarbonates or acrylics. These solvents will cause most
rubber products to swell, however, the rubber will
return to its original shape when the solvent evaporates.
3.1.5 Surface Preparation for MIL-C-27725/SAE AMSC-27725 Integral Fuel Cell Coating.
Coated Solvent Resistant Finishes FL 6
3.1.4.1 Solvent-Wipe, Aircraft Prepaint for Environmental Compliance.
Compliance
G
GF
G
GF
G
G
G
G
X FL 5
X FL 5
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
X FL 5
X FL 5
3-5
TO 1-1-8
CID A-A-2904, Mineral Spirits
Ketones
Acetone
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
Methyl Propyl Ketone (MPK)
Specialty Solvents
Parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF)
Solvent Blends
MIL-T-81772, Type II
1:1 MEK Toluene
1:1 MEK Acetone
1:1 MPK Naptha
1:1 Acetone: PCBTF
CID A-A-59231
DS-104, Dynamold Solvents, Inc.
DS-108, Dynamold Solvents, Inc.
NAVSOLVE (R)
SD 1291, Brulin Corp.
Super 140, LPS Industries
Terpenes
Citra Safe, Inland Technology
De-Solv-It , Orange-Sol, Inc.
G
GF
F
GF
Surface to be Cleaned
G
G
GF
G
Meets Requirements of NESHAP FL 2
Regulated By NESHAP FL 1
Compliance
X FL 5
GF
F
GF
GF
F
GF
X
X
X
G
G
X
F
GF
G
GF
F
GF
G
GF
X
X
GF
GF
GF
GF
GF
GF
G
G
GF
GF
GF
G
G
X*
X*
X FL 2
X*
X*
F
GF
G
GF
G
X*
X*
F
G
GF
F
GF
G
GF
F
GF
GF
GF
G
G
Reactivation of Painted Surface
Organic Coatings FL 6
Metals
Solvent Selection
Composite Materials
Wipe Solvents - Continued
Coated Solvent Resistant Finishes FL 6
Table 3-2.
F
G
X FL 3
X
X#
X FL 3
X
X
X#
X#
X FL 3
X
X
G = Use for General Cleaning in surface preparation for painting (General cleaners not approved for Final Cleaning leave
a residue and must be followed by Final Cleaning before painting.).
F = Use for Final Cleaning before paint.
FL 1 = If the requirements of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) must be complied with, these solvents maybe restricted from use or have very specific limitations applied to their use.
FL 2 = These solvents meet the requirements of the NESHAP for compliance. This only applies where the requirements
of the NESHAP are being enforced.
# = These solvents have a vapor pressure not exceeding 45 mm Hg (24.1 in H2O) at 20 °C (68 F) and will have reporting and other requirements under the NESHAP.
* = These solvents are composed of a mixture of photochemically reactive hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons
and have a maximum vapor pressure of 7 mm Hg at 20 °C (3.75 in H2O at 68 °F). There are no reporting requirements
or containment controls on the use of these solvents. NOTE: These solvents evaporate slowly and must be completely
dried prior to application of paint.
3-6
Change 4
TO 1-1-8
FL 3 = These organic compounds have been determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity and is not to be included in volatile compound calculations per 400 CRF 51.100(s) (1). Not all local state authorities have granted these
exemptions.
FL 4 = Alcohol’s are not compatible with polyurethane’s. Make sure they are totally removed before applying polyurethane’s.
FL 5 = Most vendor’s products which meet specifications are NESHAP compliant, but some are not. Check vendor’s
MSDS to determine if composite vapor pressure is 45 mm Hg or less and therefore compliant.
FL 6 = See Glossary for definitions of “Organic Coatings” and “Solvent Resistant Coatings”.
3.1.6 Reactivation of Newly Applied Primer or Tiecoat.
All standard organic coating systems consist of an approved
primer and topcoat or tiecoat and topcoat. In the application
process, many times it is critical that topcoats be applied to
the primer before the primer completely cures. Specific coating cure times are listed in Chapter 6. When the cure time is
exceeded, the primer or tiecoat must be reactivated to assure
adhesion of the topcoat. Reactivation may be accomplished
either through a solvent wipe or by scuff sanding. Solvent
wipe for reactivation is normally allowed within a specified
window during the curing process and is not effective for
fully cured coatings. When solvent wipe is permitted, wipe
the entire aircraft surface with a white lint-free, cotton cloth
(CID A-A-59323) conforming to CID A-A-2522, Grade A,
color 1 (PN AA 522-A1) or cotton gauze/cheese cloth conforming to CCC-C-440, Type II or III wetted with one of the
solvents approved for this process in Table 3-2. Ensure surfaces are completely wetted to soften the coating and promote reaction between the solvents and binders in the topcoat with the primer or tiecoat for adhesion. scuff sanding
for reactivation shall be accomplished using 320- or 400-grit
sandpaper, CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade B abrasive mat, or hook and loop or Roloc™ mounted surface condition discs, “very fine” grade (3M Co.), to reactivate the
primer or tiecoat for adhesion of the topcoat. Surfaces shall
be scuff sanded 100 percent using procedures in Paragraph
3.1.3 followed by a solvent wipe per Paragraph 3.1.4.
3.1.7 Surface Preparation, Unpainted Surfaces. The
final step in surface preparation for coatings application is
the inspection and treatment of unpainted metal surfaces, i.e.,
areas of peeled or damaged coatings, depainted surfaces, or
new repairs or fabricated components. A thorough inspection
for corrosion shall be conducted over the entire surface to be
painted. All areas requiring mechanical and chemical corrosion removal will be identified and marked.
3.1.8 Corrosion Removal, Chemical and Mechanical.
All chemical and mechanical corrosion removal required for
treatment of corrosion damage shall be accomplished in accordance with the System Specific Corrosion Control technical Order and TO 1-1-691. All corrosion removal and treatment shall be accomplished prior to performing prepaint
processes in this manual.
NOTE
All work requirements, repairs, mechanical corrosion removal, and sealing requirements (sealant
cured completely) shall be completed, inspected,
and have all defects corrected prior to prepaint
cleaning and surface preparation. Failure to comply with the above requirement will cause paint
adhesion problems and severe delays in painting
operations.
3.1.9 Preparation for Prepaint Treatment, Unpainted
Surfaces. Prior to application of corrosion removal compounds on aluminum or magnesium, all surfaces to be treated
shall be thoroughly cleaned of dirt, grease, and contamination. Immediately prior to prepaint treatment, evaluate surfaces and clean as follows:
3.1.9.1 Conduct a thorough inspection over the complete
surface to be treated to ensure all foreign matter that may
have been retained in seams, or oily deposits that may have
accumulated during or after cleaning, have been removed.
Also, all corrosion that is to be chemically treated during the
prepaint surface preparation must be identified.
3.1.9.2 All surfaces shall be regarded as dirty even if there
is no visible dirt. Carefully wash the aircraft or surfaces to
be treated per TO 1-1-691 and spot clean using solvent wipe
per Paragraph 3.1.4.
3.1.9.3 Water break tests shall be conducted on representative areas to be treated immediately prior to application of
corrosion removal prepaint solutions.
3.1.10 Water Break Inspection. The following procedures shall be used to comply with the water break inspection. A Water Break Free Kit (NSN 6850-01-524-8291) is
available, which contains all the items needed to complete
the test. A mist of distilled or clean tap water is atomized on
the surface to be coated employing any convenient small
atomizing spray device. If the water gathers into discrete
(separate) droplets within 25 seconds, that is, if the surface
shows a water break within this time, the surface shall be
considered as failing the test. If the water forms a continuous
film by flashing out suddenly over a large area, it shall be
considered as evidence of impurities on the surface such as
free alkali, residual detergents, etc., and the surface shall
also be considered as failing the cleanliness test. If the water
drops coalesce (go together) into a continuous film of water
without a sudden flash out and form a lens, then the surface
shall be considered as having satisfactorily passed the water
break test. Any areas that fail the test shall be cleaned per
TO 1-1-691 and reinspected.
3-7
TO 1-1-8
3.1.11 Evidence of Inadequate Cleaning. During prepaint operations of acid-etch and chromate conversion coatings, surfaces should also be monitored for evidence of undetected soiled areas. When accomplishing the rinse of etch
or conversion coating solution and a rapid flash off or breaking of the rinse water occurs, this indicates an unsatisfactorily cleaned area not detected during the random sample of
the water break test. Areas that show evidence of inadequate
cleaning during rinsing require recleaning and reaccomplishment of prepaint surface preparation.
3.1.12 Corrosion Removal Prepaint Compound, Aluminum.
•
•
Exposure of magnesium surfaces to aluminum
prepaint chemicals will initiate corrosion which
will continue even under a new paint system
and ultimately cause severe damage.
All magnesium surfaces, steel/high strength
steel and cadmium plated surfaces shall be protected from MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640
solutions.
Masking of all lap joints, hinges, faying surfaces, access
doors, air scoops, and other openings that would allow MILC-38334/SAE AMS-1640 to enter or be entrapped is required
prior to beginning the required prepaint process. Also, masking of unprotected magnesium, steel, and cadmium-plated
components shall be done at this time. Masking will be accomplished per Chapter 2 using masking procedures for
chemical paint removal.
3.1.13 Prepaint Chemical Corrosion Removal Materials. Corrosion removal compound, prepaint specification
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640, is used for removing oxidation and corrosion products from aluminum alloys which are
not required to be Liquid Oxygen (LOX) compatible. MILC-38334/SAE AMS-1640 is available in two types.
3.1.13.1 Type I, liquid concentrate, which is diluted with
an equal amount of water before use.
3.1.13.2 Type II, powdered concentrate kit, materials will
be dissolved in the volume of water specified on the kit.
3.1.14 Application of MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640
Solution/Not LOX Compatible.
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 is moderately toxic
to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Eye and
skin protection is required. Good general ventilation is normally adequate.
3-8
Apply solution by flowing, mopping, sponging, brushing, or
wiping. The solution is more effective if applied warm (130
°F ±10 °F), followed by vigorous agitation with a non-metallic, acid-resistant brush or aluminum-oxide-abrasive nylon
mat (CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A). When applying the
solution to large areas, start at the lowest surface working
upward. Applying the solution with a circular motion to disturb the surface film will assure proper coverage. Allow the
solution to remain on the surface approximately 12 minutes,
then rinse away with potable water. Corroded areas identified for treatment during the prepaint process may require
additional agitation beyond that specified above. Corroded
areas being treated during the prepaint may also require more
than one application and rinse. Examine the areas being
treated with a 4 to 10 power magnifying glass to determine
if another application is required. MIL-DTL-5541/MIL-PRF81706/MIL-C-81706 chromate conversion coating shall be
applied immediately after the final rinse and before the surface dries.
NOTE
When a large area/aircraft is being treated with
MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640, start applying solution to lowest point first and work upward.
3.1.15 Surface Treatment Materials for Aluminum.
There are two specifications which cover formation of Chromate Conversion Coatings with its attendant process application and the Chemical Conversion Materials. These two
specifications and their scope are as follows:
NOTE
Chromate Conversion coating specification MILDTL-5541 should be applied after the manufacture of new aluminum alloy repair parts.
3.1.15.1 Chromate Conversion coating specification MILDTL-5541 covers two classes of chemical conversion coatings formed by the reaction of chemical conversion materials and the surfaces of aluminum and aluminum alloys. It is
designed to provide corrosion protection and better paint adhesion than uncoated aluminum. It is used on aluminum alloys as a prepaint treatment for most approved paint systems, repair of damaged anodic coatings, and treatment of
corrosion rework areas on clad and unclad aluminum alloys.
This specification covers the preparation and application of
chemical conversion materials, and film formation or consistency. These coatings are not as abrasion-resistant as anodized coatings conforming to specification MIL-A-8625, even
though they do provide an effective means for reestablishing
the corrosion resistance of mechanically damaged anodic
coatings in the field. Specification MIL-DTL-5541 covers
two classes of films as follows:
Class 1A - For maximum protection against corrosion
TO 1-1-8
Class 3 - For protection against corrosion where low electrical resistance is required
3.1.15.2 Specification
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706,
Chemical Conversion Materials for Coating Aluminum and
Aluminum Alloys, covers the chemicals used in the formation of conversion coatings. These are available under this
specification in three forms:
Form I Form II Form III -
Concentrated Liquid
Powder
Premixed liquid (ready for use
touch-up brush application)
3.1.15.3 Each form of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 can
be applied by spray, brush, or immersion. Materials for Class
1A chemical films are available in iridescent yellow or light
brown, or dyed in specific colors. The prepaint treatment of
aircraft surfaces prior to repainting will be accomplished using specification MIL-DTL-5541, Class 1A coatings, using
specification MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, color iridescent yellow.
3.1.16 Touch-Up of Damaged Aluminum Surface
Treatment MIL-DTL-5541. The touch-up of damaged MILDTL-5541 coatings due to maintenance or surface preparation for maintenance painting can be accomplished using one
of three methods:
3.1.16.1 MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, mixed (if required) per Paragraph 3.1.18 and applying to affected areas
per Paragraph 3.1.19.
3.1.16.2 MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, mixed (if required) per Paragraph 3.1.18 and applying to affected areas
per the “NO-RINSE PROCESS” in Paragraph 3.1.17.
3.1.16.3 Touch-N-Prep™ (TNP) Pens (Alodine 1132),
NSN 8030-01-460-0246, for minor repair of damaged MILDTL-5541 chemical conversion coatings on aluminum alloys can also be accomplished by applying Alodine 1132
using the TNP pens. These pens also conform to MIL-C81706/MIL-DTL-81706, Class 1A, Form VI, Method D. The
solution applied with TNP pens doesn’t require rinsing or
wiping off following application, thus minimizing hazardous
waste generation. Empty pens can be returned to manufacturer for disposal. However, check with Bioenvironmental
Engineering and Environmental Management for proper disposal of used applicators. To use the TNP pen, remove the
cap and charge the tip by pressing the tip against a flat surface for 10 to 15 seconds. The conversion coating solution
will saturate the tip. Do not oversaturate the tip. Refresh
solution often during use in a similar fashion.
NOTE
Acrylic tip of TNP pen can be modified or altered
to form any shape to allow touching up hard to
reach areas.
a. It is necessary to ensure the surface to be treated is
thoroughly cleaned before application. Immediately
following cleaning, use the TNP pen to apply a chemical conversion coating solution in overlapping parallel
strokes. Do not over apply the solution which would
allow puddles, drips, or runs to form.
b. Apply one coat of solution and allow coating to dry
for 5-10 minutes before next application.
c. Apply a second coat perpendicular to the first coat and
allow it to dry. The treated surface does not require
rinsing or wiping off, and it can be air dried at ambient
temperature or force air dried with hot air. Once completely dried, the coating is ready for priming and/or
painting.
d. Use of TNP pen will be limited to 1 square foot
3.1.16.4 After processing, if bare surface areas still exist,
repeat step a through step c. Also, if the treated surface does
not turn to an iridescent yellow color shortly following application, reclean the surface and reapply per step a through
step c.
3.1.17 “No-Rinse Process” for Surface Treatment of
Aluminum. This process is for applying conversion coating
using a “wipe-on and blot-off” method. This procedure can
be used in order to minimize hazardous waste water generated from the application of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
solutions. This process is for use on repaired areas and where
coatings have been damaged or removed. Application of this
process is not to exceed 4 square feet per occurrence.
a. Apply corrosion removal solution (MIL-C-38334/SAE
AMS-1640 diluted with an equal amount of water) by
sponging, brushing, or wiping. The solution is more
effective if applied warm (130 °F ±10 °F), followed by
vigorous agitation with a non-metallic, acid-resistant
brush or aluminum-oxide-abrasive, nylon mat (CID
A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A), or scouring pads. Applying the solution with a circular motion will disturb
the surface film and assure proper coverage. Allow the
solution to remain on the surface approximately 12
minutes. Keep the surface wet during the entire 12
minutes. Rinse, using a clean cloth dampened with cold
potable water. After rinsing with cold water, allow the
water to evaporate until a thin film of water exists on
3-9
TO 1-1-8
the surface. Corroded areas identified for treatment
during the prepaint may require more than one application and rinse. Examine suspect areas being treated
with a 4 to 10 power magnifying glass to determine if
another application is required.
b. All requirements of Paragraph 3.1.18 through Paragraph 3.1.18, step b, shall be complied with prior to
the “wipe-on and blot-off” method.
c. MIL-DTL-5541/MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 chromate conversion coating shall be applied immediately
after the evaporation period. After allowing the aluminum part to dry to a damp surface, dampen a white
cotton wiping rag with MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706, Class 1A, Form III, corrosion conversion coating. Dampen the rag by slowly pouring the liquid onto
the rag (this will keep the material uncontaminated and
minimize the amount of material being used. The rag
will have a yellowish color.
d. Wipe-on the conversion coating to the still wet aluminum part. Apply the coating in a manner such that
streaking is minimized and a thin uniform coat is developed. On areas where difficulty is experienced in
getting the conversion coating to react with the aluminum, light abrading with a very fine or fine aluminum
oxide nylon abrasive mat, specification CID A-A58054 dampened with MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706,
will help overcome the difficulty. If dark brown spots
or streaking occurs, lightly rub the area with fingers of
your glove.
e. Allow the conversion coating to react with the aluminum until the aluminum turns a brassy iridescent yellowish tint. The reaction time should be at least 3 minutes, but not longer than 5 minutes.
3-10
f. Dampen a white rag in clean water and hand ring out
the rag so it is not dripping with water. Blot all of the
areas that have been conversion coated with the clean
wet rag. The rag should become contaminated with the
conversion coating, giving the rag a yellowish color.
Repeat this procedure (starting with a clean rag) at
least two more times so the surface has been blotted
off at least three times. No visible coating residue (yellowish color) should be on the rag after the last blotting action.
g. Areas not properly coated (including those that are
powdery) shall be recoated by reapplying fresh coating
solution allowing it to react with aluminum until the
aluminum turns a brassy iridescent yellowish tint.
h. Contaminated rags, abrasive mats, and other materials
shall be disposed of by placing them in an appropriate
hazardous waste container.
i. The coating should be allowed to air dry for 2 hours
minimum or, if required, force dried by blowing dry
with warm, clean air (140 °F maximum) for 1 hour
prior to overcoating with primer coating.
NOTE
Check with Bioenvironmental Engineering and
Environmental Management for proper disposal of
excess solution.
j. The final protective primer or primer/topcoat system
shall be applied only on a completely dry surface and
within 48 hours after completion of the MIL-C-81706/
MIL-DTL-81706 conversion coating application. The
reapplication of MIL-C-38334/SAE-AMS-1640 corro-
TO 1-1-8
sion removal compound and MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706 chromate conversion coating is mandatory if
more than 48 hours has elapsed since the previous application.
3.1.18 Mixing MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 Solution.
The use of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 requires that the
following precautions be observed.
•
Select an area for mixing so spillage or splatter
from solution will not cause damage to other
equipment. Use only a stainless steel, plastic,
or rubber container to mix solution. Mix only
enough solution to coincide with the immediate
job requirements in order that fresh materials
will be available for each use.
a. If specification MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706, Form
II - Powder, is being used and it is not finely divided,
crush by rolling on a clean piece of paper. This will
improve mixing efficiency.
•
MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
conversion
coating materials are toxic and require the use
of rubber gloves and eye protection (goggles
and face shield) by personnel mixing or applying. If the material (which is an acid) accidentally contacts the skin or eyes, flush immediately with plenty of clean water. Report to
dispensary and/or consult a physician if eyes
are effected or skin is burned.
•
Mixing and application shall be done in an adequately ventilated area. Avoid prolonged
breathing of vapors.
•
Do not permit specification MIL-C-81706/MILDTL-81706 materials to come into contact with
paint thinner, acetone, or other combustible material; fire may result. Also, any absorbent materials, i.e., rags, sponges, paper or nylon matting, etc., used in or exposed to these materials
shall be rinsed in water before discarding. They
are an extreme fire hazard if allowed to dry
otherwise.
•
Do not use MIL-DTL-5541 or MIL-C-81706/
MIL-DTL-81706 treatment on magnesium alloy, high strength steel, or on cadmium or zinc
plated surfaces. If these materials are present in
adjacent areas, they must be protected.
•
Conversion coating material should not be allowed to enter faying surface areas or other areas where the solution cannot be adequately removed by rinsing.
NOTE
•
The solution will usually turn green during application if dirt or corrosion is present on the
surface. The color green will not have the iridescent quality that a properly applied and dried
solution will display.
Nitric acid is highly toxic to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection is required.
Use only in a well-ventilated area. In case of eye
or skin contact, flush immediately with water and
report to dispensary.
b. Preparation and use of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706, Form II - Powder, will be done in accordance
with vendors technical instructions. This solution
should be analyzed prior to use for pH value and
hexavalent chromium content by the base chemical
laboratory at depot facilities. Solutions used in field
operations can be analyzed using pH paper or a pH
meter and visual performance characteristics. Solution
matter should be retested every 5 days and the chemical laboratory should be consulted should difficulties
arise. Field operations prepare solutions as per vendors
instructions and test per example below. Mix three
ounces of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 powder to
one gallon of clean water in an approved container.
Add nitric acid, Federal Specification O-N-350, and
check pH for range of 1.6 - 1.9. Five ml will usually
adjust pH to this range, however, it could require up to
15 ml. Mix solution well with a clean plastic or aluminum paddle. Check the time it takes to form an iridescent yellow to brown color on a sample of the same
alloy the solution will be used on. If the time is more
than 5 minutes, retest the pH and make the following
adjustments:
(1) A pH greater than 1.9 will require addition of 2
ml portions of nitric acid until desired pH is
achieved.
(2) A pH less than 1.6 will require addition of 2 ml
portions of ammonium hydroxide until the desired
pH is achieved. After pH adjustment, the solution
reaction time should fall within the range of 1 to
5 minutes.
3-11
TO 1-1-8
c. If powder material is being used, allow the solution to
stand approximately 1 hour prior to application. A
small amount of powder may not dissolve; however,
this is not objectionable.
3.1.19 Application of MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706
Solutions.
a. Apply the coating solution with a fiber brush, clean
rag, sponge, applicator bottle (plastic), or low pressure
stream (flow-on, do not atomize). The method used for
application should be selected depending on the specific job requirement. If pumping is required, pumps,
valves, and fittings shall be manufactured from 18-8
stainless steel, polypropylene, or polyvinyl chloride
(PVC). Flow on MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 solution immediately after rinsing the MIL-C-38334/SAE
AMS-1640 compound from aircraft surfaces which are
to be painted and while these surfaces are still wet.
Allow the gross amount of rinse water to run off the
aircraft, but do not wait for completed drying before
applying MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706 solution. The
oxide film just removed by MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS1640 compound will reform during this time period
and prevent a proper formation of the MIL-DTL-5541
conversion coating from the MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL81706 solution.
b. Wet or flood the surface to be treated and keep the
surface completely wet with the solution until coating
is formed. This will take from 1 to 5 minutes depending on the surface condition, the particular manufacturer’s product being used, and the temperature. Begin
application at the lowest surface then apply sideways
and upward to prevent streaking.
c. On areas where difficulty is experienced in getting the
coating to take (coating formation), light abrading with
a very fine or fine aluminum oxide nylon abrasive mat,
specification CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade B, soaked
with the solution will help overcome the difficulty. If
the surface is dirty, remove the dirt with the nylon mat
or sponge. The mat or sponge used to remove the dirt
should be rinsed in clean water and squeezed almost
dry before wetting with stock coating solution for reapplication.
3-12
d. It will be noted during the initial coating application
that there will be a tendency for dark (brown) spots to
form on some areas. The formation of these spots can
be prevented to some extent by lightly rubbing with
the fingers (gloves on). If the spots are allowed to form,
the applicable areas shall be abraded with the nylon
mat to remove the stain and a fresh coating shall be
reapplied.
e. After controlling the stain formation, discontinue agitation, apply additional solution to keep all surfaces
wet and observe the aluminum surface for a color
change. The aluminum will turn a brassy yellow or
iridescent greenish tint, which is easily detected
through the overlying solution.
f. Do not let the coating over develop or surface powdering will be experienced. Disturb such areas by rubbing
with fingers (gloves on) or nonabrasive nylon mat as
necessary.
g. When coating formation shows on all areas, stop the
reaction by rinsing or flooding the area with fresh clean
water. The reaction of the solution is stopped by diluting the acid component. Be careful not to flush the
solution into areas where it cannot be removed or further diluted by water. Accidental spills in confined areas can be neutralized using baking soda followed by
rinsing with clean water.
h. Allow the surface to drain or pick up the excess water
by absorbing in a sponge by blotting action; do not
rub. Excess rubbing will remove the coating since it is
soft.
i. Areas not properly coated (including those that are
powdery) shall be recoated by reapplying fresh coating
solution, abrading lightly with a nylon mat (nonabrasive or fine abrasive), allowing normal time for coating to develop, rinsing, and drying.
TO 1-1-8
j. The coating should be allowed to air dry for 2 hours
minimum or, if required, speed dried by blowing dry
with warm clean air (140 °F maximum) for 1 hour
prior to using a part or painting.
NOTE
•
•
Check with Bioenvironmental Engineer and
Environmental management for proper disposal
of excessive solution.
The final protective paint system or primer shall
be applied only on a completely dry surface
and shall be applied within 48 hours after application of MIL-DTL-5541/MIL-C-81706/
MIL-DTL-81706 conversion coating. The reapplication of MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640
corrosion removal compound and MIL-C81706/MIL-DTL-81706 chromate conversion
coating is mandatory if more than 48 hours has
elapsed since the previous application.
3.1.20 Alternate Surface Preparations for Aluminum
Surfaces (PreKote SP).
PreKote SP is for exterior mold line applications
only.
PreKote SP is a non-chromic, non-hazardous and non-toxic
alternative to chromate conversion coatings for surface painting preparation operations. The PreKote SP formulation is a
non-chromic alkali soap with a saline adhesion promoter and
inorganic inhibitor package. The PreKote SP application
cleans the surface and deposits a very thin layer of adhesionpromoting organic molecules on the surface of the substrate.
3.1.20.1 Surface Preparation. Preparation for aircraft
cleaning shall be accomplished in accordance with TO 1-1691 and any weapon system specific cleaning instructions.
Rinse exterior of aircraft with hot water (100-120 °F/38-49
°C) to remove any residue left in seams or on surface.
Finish system removal using motor driven abrasives may generate airborne particles and toxic
dust, which may injure personnel and create a
possible dust explosion. All aerospace and motorized ground equipment shall be properly electrically grounded. Personnel shall wear dust particle
masks, goggles, gloves and long sleeved shirts
when using motor driven abrasives. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements. Refer to AFI
91-203 for additional instructions.
NOTE
•
PreKote SP requires specific System Program
Office (SPO) approval prior to use.
•
PreKote SP will only be used with chromated
primers.
•
PreKote SP is not a direct drop-in replacement
for current chromated conversion coating processes. Unlike the application process for MILDTL-5541/MIL-C-81706/MIL-DTL-81706,
which produces a visible indication that the
chromate conversion film has formed, PreKote
SP does not provide any type of visible indicators. Therefore, it is absolutely critical that all
steps of the PreKote SP application process be
precisely followed.
Avoid excessive pressure or repeated passing over
the same area while sanding. Excess sanding can
cause damage to the surface of the aircraft.
NOTE
Some residual amounts of old coating system may
be left after stripping (i.e., fastener heads, seams,
hinges, surface porosity, etc.). These areas are acceptable as long as they are feathered into the surrounding surface.
a. Lightly sand aircraft and feather sand the rough areas
of the aircraft with 240-grit sandpaper.
Change 10
3-13
TO 1-1-8
b. Remove all tape adhesive residue using solvent, denatured alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol.
NOTE
If rinse facilities are not available, solvent wipe
using denatured (O-E-760) or isopropyl alcohol
(TT-I-735) on clean lint-free cotton rags (CID
A-A-59323) is an acceptable substitute process.
3.1.21
Application of PreKote SP.
d. Let PreKote SP dwell for approximately 2 minutes. Do
not rinse.
e. Flood surface again with PreKote SP.
f. Completely scrub surface again with a 180-grit aluminum oxide scrub pad (CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class
1, Grade B) to generate a rich lather. Start from the top
and work down.
g. Thoroughly rinse the surface with deionized or fresh
water.
h. Allow to dry.
Personnel shall wear full rain gear, face shield,
and rubber gloves to remain dry during the application of PreKote SP.
•
PreKote SP shall be applied when temperature
is maintained between 65 °F (18 °C) and 110
°F (43 °C), and humidity is between 10 percent
and 90 percent . Coating system failure may
result if these conditions are not met.
•
Use only aluminum oxide pads. Use of any
other pad type may contaminate surface and
prevent adhesion of primer.
Apply PreKote SP using the following procedures:
a. Mask aircraft in accordance with the weapons system
requirements for preparation of surfaces prior to painting.
b. Apply PreKote SP liberally to the surface being prepared for paint by creating a “flood type coating.”
PreKote SP may be applied by pressure sprayer, spray
bottle, or fluid feed attached to sander.
c. Completely scrub the surface with a 180-grit aluminum oxide scrub pad (CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class
1, Grade B) to generate a rich lather. A pneumatic
power buffer (preferred method) or pole may be used.
Start from the top and work down. Pay particular attention to leading edges and other high-erosion areas.
3-14
Change 12
NOTE
•
Deionized water is preferred for the final rinse
but is not mandatory. Purity standards for water
conforming to ASTM D1193-06, Type IV,
Grades A, B, or C are sufficient for this process.
•
The maximum time allowed prior to paint application is 48 hours. Excess time prior to paint
application will cause degradation of surface
condition. If more than 48 hours has passed or
exposure to significant contamination has taken
place, wipe the surface down with a clean,
PreKote SP moistened, lint-free cloth.
•
To avoid damage to the PreKote SP and surface
of the aircraft, all personnel shall wear cotton
booties when on aircraft from this point forward.
3.1.22 Use of PreKote SP on Exterior Surfaces Where
Paint and Primer Have Been Removed During Scuff
Sand, Touch-up, or Repair. PreKote SP may be used on
exterior aluminum parts as an alternative surface preparation
for MIL-DTL-5541 chemical conversion coating, and corrosion removal treatment requirements (MIL-M-3171, SAEAMS-M-3171, MIL-C-38334/SAE AMS-1640 prior to prime
and paint.
TO 1-1-8
a. Prepare exterior surfaces per Paragraph 3.1.19.
Finish system removal using motor driven abrasives may generate airborne particles and toxic
dust, which may injure personnel and create a
possible dust explosion. All aerospace and motorized ground equipment shall be properly electrically grounded. Personnel shall wear dust particle
masks, goggles, gloves, and long sleeved shirts
when using motor driven abrasives. Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering Services for respiratory and ventilation requirements.
Avoid excessive pressure or repeated passing over
the same area while sanding. Excess sanding can
cause damage to the surface of the aircraft.
NOTE
Some residual amounts of old coating system may
be left after stripping (i.e., fastener heads, seams,
hinges, surface porosity, etc.). These areas are acceptable as long as they are feathered into the surrounding surface.
b. If area to be prepared is adjacent to old paint system,
lightly sand entire bare metal area and feather edges
where required using 240-grit sandpaper.
c. Solvent wipe sanded area with denatured alcohol (OE-760/MIL-A-6090, Type III) or isopropyl alcohol (171-735).
d. Mask area where PreKote SP is to be applied so as to
avoid contact with surrounding paint. Masking should
extend to the outside edges of the feathered area or to
the edge of the part being treated.
NOTE
•
PreKote SP may be applied by pressure sprayer,
spray bottle, or fluid feed attached to sander.
•
The first coat of PreKote SP may be hand or
pneumatic scrubbed using 180-grit scrub pads.
•
All coats of PreKote SP may be removed using
a clean, lint-free cotton rag moistened with isopropyl or denatured alcohol instead of rinse
with water.
e. Follow procedures outlined in application of PreKote
SP, Paragraph 3.1.21.
3.1.23
Corrosion Removal Solution for Magnesium.
•
Do not allow rags, brushes, abrasive mats, or
any other item soaked with CID A-A-55827
chromic acid or the chromic acid pickle solution prepared with it to come in contact with
any organic solvent (MEK, acetone, paint thinner, CID A-A-59601/MIL-PRF-680 dry cleaning solvent, MIL-PRF-32295, etc.); fire will result.
•
CID A-A-55827 chromic acid and the chromic
acid pickle solution prepared with it are highly
toxic to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.
Chemical splash proof goggles and/or face
shield, chemical resistant rubber gloves and
apron are required. Good general ventilation is
usually adequate. Ensure this operation has
been reviewed by local Bioenvironmental Engineer. In case of eye or skin contact, flush with
water immediately and report to the base medical facility.
Chromic acid pickle solution, which is a mixture of CID
A-A-55827 chromic acid in water, may be used to remove
surface oxidation and light corrosion from magnesium alloy
surfaces. It is not adequate for removal of deep pitting, heavy
corrosion, sand or other blast media residue, or the effects of
blasting which will require use of one of the mechanical
methods described in this chapter. If properly used, this
chemical method removes much less metal causing much
less reduction of sectional thickness than mechanical methods, but it shall not be used on parts containing copper or
steel inserts unless they are completely masked off. Do not
allow excessive amounts of anions such as chlorides, sulfates, or fluorides to build up in the solution; they tend to
coat or etch the metal surface rather than removing corrosion
products. Do not reuse old solutions; prepare fresh solutions
for each separate removal operation.
a. Mix 24 ounces of CID A-A-55827 chromium trioxide
in enough water to make 1 gallon for each gallon of
solution being prepared in a container fabricated from
lead lined steel (any alloy), stainless steel (any CRES
alloy), or 1100 aluminum alloy. For depot level operations only, a removable part that is being treated can
be completely immersed in the solution with an immersion time ranging from 1 to 15 minutes at an operating temperature ranging from 190 °F to 202 °F (88
°C to 94 °C). For hand application with the solution at
room temperature, the dwell time for the solution on
the surface is 15 minutes minimum to 30 minutes
maximum. Paragraph 3.1.21, step b through step d, are
for hand application. Paragraph 3.1.21, step e through
step f, apply to both the immersion and hand application methods.
Change 4
3-15
TO 1-1-8
b. Mask off the surrounding areas, in particular to include
all nearby operating mechanisms, joints, crevices, copper and/or steel inserts, and plated steel, to keep the
solution from attacking them.
c. Apply the chromic acid pickle solution carefully to the
corroded area with an CID A-A-289 acid brush.
d. Allow the solution to remain on the surface for approximately 15 minutes for a solution at room temperature. Agitate the area with an CID A-A-289 acid
brush having half the bristle length cut off or a CID
A-A-58054, Type I, Grade B or C abrasive mat.
e. Thoroughly rinse the solution from the surface with
plenty of fresh tap water.
f. Repeat the preceding sequence as necessary until all
corrosion products have been removed and the metal is
a bright metallic color.
3.1.24
Surface Treatment Process for Magnesium.
Chromic acid solution is highly toxic to the skin,
eyes, and respiratory tract. Avoid all contact. Skin
and eye protection and vapor controls are required.
Ensure this operation has been reviewed by local
Bioenvironmental Engineer.
Chemical pretreatment solution provides a passive surface
layer with an inhibitive characteristic that resists corrosive
attack and also provides a bond for subsequent coatings. The
solution consists of the following materials and must be
mixed in the ratio specified:
Water to make
1 gal
Chromic Acid Solution (Also known as Dow 19)
Chromium Trioxide (CID A-A1 1/3 oz
55827 Type III) (99.5% pure)
Calcium Sulfate
1 oz
(CaSo44•2H2O)
Operating Temperature
70 °F to 90 °F
Container
Stainless steel, aluminum, vinyl
polyurethane or
rubber
3-16
Rubber gloves, acid apron, and eye protection
shall be worn by personnel during all mixing operations.
a. Add chemicals to the water in the order shown, stirring
the solution vigorously, either mechanically or by air
agitation, for at least 15 minutes.
b. Apply the solution to a properly prepared surface using a brush, clean rag, sponge, applicator bottle, or a
low pressure stream (flow-on, do not atomize). Apply
the solution to the surfaces treated with the acid pickle
solution while these surfaces are still wet. Allow the
gross amount of rinse water to run off the aircraft, but
do not wait for complete drying before applying Chromic Acid Solution, as the oxide film just removed by
the acid pickle solution will reform during this time
period and prevent a proper formation of the conversion coating. When applying solution to large areas,
start at the lowest surface working upward, applying
the solution with a circular motion to disturb the surface film and assure proper coverage. Agitation shall
be accomplished using a non-metallic acid resistant
brush or aluminum oxide abrasive nylon mat (CID
A-A-58054, Type I, Class 1, Grade A). Solution works
best when applied at 70 °F or above. Leave solution on
the surface 1 to 20 minutes, until a dark brown coating
is produced. Rinse with cold running water while ensuring complete flushing of any residual materials.
3.1.25 Surface Preparation for Steel. It is essential to
remove rust, scale, oil, or other contaminants from steel surfaces to be painted. The organic or inorganic zinc rich primers require good electrical contact with the steel (these primers provide galvanic protection). To enable this, the steel
surfaces shall be solvent cleaned per Table 3-2, phosphoric
acid treated (reference TO 1-1-691), or sandblasted. Sandblasting to white metal is preferred. Where sandblasting is
not practicable or possible, clean surfaces by means of powered wire brushes, disc sanders, grinding wheels or needle
scalers (reference TO 1-1-691). Grind sharp edges to a
rounded contour. Remove dust, sand, or grit by vacuuming
with a HEPA filtered vacuum. Follow this with a solvent
wipe per Table 3-2. Clean galvanized surfaces with power
tools.
TO 1-1-8
3.1.26 Masking. Masking off areas is almost invariably
required in painting operations on large assemblies or structures either for protective reasons, as in the precautionary
note below, or for purposes of delineation. In spray application of coatings, masking operations may consume more
man-hours than the actual painting.
NOTE
To prevent overspray or paint drift of one color or
material onto another, untreated Kraft paper may
be used to mask or cover areas not specifically
described below where protection of an area
against overspray is the prime consideration.
3.1.26.1 Mask areas such as windows, canopies, and large
openings with combinations of tapes and barrier materials:
•
Specification MIL-PRF-121, usually a treated paper
which is oil and moisture resistant
•
Specification MIL-PRF-131, usually a laminated
foil and cloth or foil and paper with good water
vapor resistance
NOTE
Both types above are heat sealable.
3.1.26.2 Pressure-sensitive masking tape conforming to
SAE AMS-T-21595 (formerly MIL-T-21595), Types I
(creped paper backing), II (flat paper backing), and III (plastic backing), or commercial equivalent tapes.
Care should be taken when cutting and trimming
of the barrier/tape to prevent damage to any transparent plastic and glass surfaces.
NOTE
For general large area masking, use either Type I
or Type II. For operations involving sharp, fine
line color separation such as aircraft markings and
two-tone gloss color schemes, use Type III tape
only. This tape is designed to prevent edge bleeding and is more flexible for masking shapes,
curves, etc.
a. Cover small or irregular shaped parts with tape alone.
Use pressure-sensitive masking tape conforming to
SAE AMS-T-21595 (formerly MIL-T-21595), Types I
and II, or commercial equivalent tapes.
b. In repetitive spraying of the same or similar structures,
it is advisable to have available predesigned bandages,
socks, etc., of barrier paper or cloth. Locally manufactured foam plugs or inserts may be used to protect
aircraft inlet areas (e.g., scoops, air intakes, engine intakes, etc.) from painting as a replacement for masking
and barrier paper. It is recommended that MIL-PRF26514, protective ion material, be used in the making
of foam plugs/inserts. One side of the plug should be
covered in replaceable plastic or barrier material for
easy cleanup.
NOTE
Care should be taken to ensure that paint is not
applied to certain surfaces where paint will interfere with a function. The following should be
masked or otherwise protected during painting:
machined surfaces that move with respect each
other such as threads, bearing contacts, and gear
teeth; electrical parts, such as contacts, relays, insulators, sockets, plugs, connectors, wiring, and
terminals; plastic and rubber (natural and synthetic) mounts, spacers, etc.; and lubrication fittings, cups, oil holes, etc.
c. Avoid using tape in such a way as to leave a paint
edge on aerodynamic surface unless feathering by
sanding can safely be done.
d. Use only approved masking tapes in varying widths
required by the job. A complex curved area is better
masked initially at the paint edges with narrow (1/4 or
1/2 inch) tape. Wider tape may then be applied over
the narrow, if required.
e. Use only approved masking paper for large area masking. Coating solvents may dissolve and deposit printing ink from newspapers, etc., on surface of the area
being masked.
f. When spray painting, mask or cover surfaces at a distance from the area being painted which might receive
overspray or paint drift.
g. Masking tapes should be removed as soon as possible
after coating application to allow edges of coating to
heal and draw down as much as possible.
h. Press tape firmly when applying it to prevent paint
bleeding under it by capillary action.
Change 5
3-17
TO 1-1-8
3.1.27
Tack Ragging.
Exercise extreme caution in applying protective
finishes to parts and equipment which may contact
propellants directly or by accidental spillage. Critical areas may have to be masked. The guidance of
applicable equipment technical manuals or engineering drawings shall be followed concerning use
of protective finishes on parts or equipment used
in or near propellant storage and transfer systems.
Commercial rental wiping cloths, laundered shop
cloths, or disposable fiber or chemically treated
paper wiping materials shall not be used.
3-18
To ensure that all primed surfaces are free from foreign matter, they should be tack ragged immediately before applying
the topcoat. Do not tack rag an entire large structure at one
time. Each area to be painted should be tack ragged immediately prior to the application of finishing material to that
area. Surfaces are gently wiped with the tack rag, removing
accumulations of dust and other foreign matter. One form of
tack rag in common use to CID A-A-2522, Grade A, Color 1
dampened with an approved solvent per Table 3-2. Other
commercially available forms of tack rag which are designed
for the purpose of removing surface contamination from an
area receiving paint may also be used. Do not use a tack rag
to clean more than 10 square feet at a time to prevent
spreading any contaminants on the rag over a large surface.
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 4
PAINTING APPLICATION METHODS
4.1
GENERAL.
Spray application is the standard for painting Air Force aircraft and most other equipment. It is fast and, in the hands of
skilled operators, produces films of good uniformity and
quality. When application is described in this technical
manual without specifying the method, High Volume Low
Pressure (HVLP) spray application is implied. Methods other
than spraying are useful in special cases, particularly in nonaeronautical or less critical applications. Brush or roller applications have their place and should be considered as alternate methods when used with suitable materials. The painters
discretionary use of brush or roller for painting aerospace
equipment should be based on local circumstances such as
health or fire hazards. Additionally, there are some requirements which demand brush application, such as painting porous surfaces which require brushing-in for adequate coverage and penetration.
4.2
Figure 4-1.
Nozzle Pressure Gauge
4.2.1.1 HVLP Touch-Up Spray Gun. For minor touch-up
and application of insignias and markings, a small HVLP
spray gun may be used. While designed for applying quantities less than a quart, it has all of the advantages of the full
size HVLP. It is also preferred over other aerosol power pack
spray units for touch-up if an air source is available.
SPRAY METHODS.
The Air Force uses several hand-operated spray methods:
hot spray, cold and/or hot airless, air assisted airless, HVLP
spray, and any of these methods in conjunction with electrostatics. The HVLP method is now the standard spray method
used in the Air Force and meets the requirements of environmental regulations.
4.2.1 HVLP Spray. In this method, the coating material is
atomized by a high volume of low pressure air through the
spray gun nozzle. The HVLP spray equipment generally utilizes low pressure (below 20 PSIG) gun cups to assist in
delivery of the coating material to the gun nozzle. Low pressure air between 1.0 and 10 PSIG is used to atomize the
coating material at the spray head. A high volume of air is
used to push the coating material and form a very soft, lowvelocity pattern. This soft spray generally provides more
consistent coverage and a better overall finish. The HVLP
gun should be held closer to the surface (6 to 10 inches) than
a conventional air spray gun because of the lower speed of
the paint particles. The film thickness generated in a single
coat is often greater than that of conventional air spray systems. This equipment shall not be used above 10 PSIG at the
nozzle. Pressure should be checked regularly with a nozzle
pressure gauge (see Figure 4-1).
4.2.2 Hot Spray. Hot spraying is the application of coatings with HVLP or airless spraying equipment using heat as
a substitute for all or a portion of the thinner ordinarily used
to reduce coating materials to spraying viscosity. Hot spray
is most frequently and effectively used with the airless spray
system. Also, the hot paint, while cooled rapidly when atomized, retains sufficient heat to still be close to the ambient air
temperature when it reaches the work surface. This reduces
the possibility of blushing due to moisture condensation and
allows spraying under conditions of relatively high humidity.
However, a disadvantage is that heating the paint reduces its
pot life.
4.2.3 Airless Spray. The term airless comes from the fact
that no air pressure is used with this paint application method.
Instead, hydraulic pressure is used to deliver the coating material, heated or unheated, to the gun head and atomize it by
ejecting it from special spray nozzles. These nozzles increase
the pressure by a factor of approximately 100. Atomization
of the coating material and formation of the spray pattern are
created by the gun nozzle. The droplets move toward the
work surface by their momentum and are appreciably slowed
down by air resistance. There is less bounce of the coating
material on arrival at the work surface and, therefore, less
4-1
TO 1-1-8
4.2.4 Air-Assisted Airless Spray. In this method, the
coating material is atomized by hydraulic pressure the same
as airless spray but at a much lower pressure. Low pressure
air is added at the gun head and directed at the paint mist to
control and form the spray pattern. While the coating can be
atomized at lower hydraulic pressure through the spray
nozzle, proper spray pattern formation requires the assistance
of the low pressure air through jets at the nozzle. This allows
the operator control of the atomized coating pattern that cannot be done with standard airless. It offers almost equivalent
advantages in spraying as the airless spray method, while
being safer and requiring lower maintenance on pumps.
These advantages are due to the lower hydraulic pressures
used. In addition, the appearance of coatings applied by this
method is better as the tendency to orange peel is lessened.
metal probe at the gun nozzle exit (the most common
method). Typically, this requires specially designed paint
guns as most HVLP, airless, or air-assisted airless guns cannot be modified to add this feature. This method is more
effective with airless or air-assisted airless as the combination of low-particle velocity of the airless spray and the electrostatic attraction to the workpiece produces an excellent
transfer efficiency rate. Electrostatic spray painting equipment can be powered by an external electrical source or a
self-generating electrical source contained within the spray
gun. Overspray is greatly reduced and hard-to-coat areas
such as edges or geometric shapes are more effectively
painted. The workpiece (aircraft, etc.) is not charged electrically, but is grounded as in normal painting practices. This
method has limited effectivity in coating interior corners,
crevices, and cavities due to the Faraday effect, that causes
charged paint particles to be repelled from the deepest points,
and on some aircraft exterior surfaces, due to aluminum
components being insulated by anodize, or due to composite
materials that cannot be grounded. The safety precautions,
operational parameters, and equipment maintenance for this
method in Paragraph 5.5.3 must be strictly followed.
4.2.5
4.3
overspray. The cooling effect of expanding air associated
with conventional spray is not present, so the only heat loss
in the cold airless method is through solvent evaporation. In
the hot airless method the material arrives at the work surface warmer than with other methods of spraying, usually at
or above ambient air temperatures.
Electrostatic Spray.
Electrostatic spray painting of JP-8 fueled aircraft
constitutes a significant hazard when the on-board
fuel temperature exceeds 100 °F.
This method is a variation of the spray methods previously
described which adds the feature of electrostatic charging
(60,000 volts at about 200 microamps) of the paint material
which is then attracted to the grounded workpiece. Charging
of paint material can occur either inside the gun or at a fine
4-2
SPRAY PAINTING EQUIPMENT, GENERAL.
4.3.1 HVLP Spraying Systems. All HVLP spray systems
have certain basic components necessary for their efficient
operation. There must be an adequate source of compressed
air, a supply of the finishing material from a reservoir or
feed tank, a spray gun, and a device for controlling the combination of air and finishing material. Other refinements, such
as an air-pressure transformer (regulator), air filter, water
drain, hose cleaner, etc., are incorporated in the system to
provide more efficient and satisfactory results. Figure 4-2,
Figure 4-3, and Figure 4-4 are diagrams of complete spray
systems.
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-2.
Simple Spray System Setup
4.3.2 Spray Gun, General. Spray guns are mechanical
devices for atomizing or breaking-up coating materials into a
spray and applying it under control, to a surface to form a
continuous film. Figure 4-5 illustrates a sectional view of a
typical spray gun. It is a precision instrument and must be
treated as such. Its daily care and maintenance determine the
effectiveness of spray painting. It should not be used by untrained personnel.
4.3.3 Classes of Spray Guns. HVLP spray guns are
classed in three general types: suction feed, gravity feed, and
pressure feed. Each type is further subdivided by having either external or internal mix air caps. For the most part, the
Air Force uses the external mix type.
4.3.3.1 The suction feed (or siphon) cup gun is usually
fitted with a fluid cup. Its nozzle assembly is designed to
feed paint into the air-stream by the vacuum created from
the air flowing past the fluid tip which protrudes into the air
stream beyond the air cap. The amount of spraying at one
time is limited to the contents of the cup. This gun is most
commonly used in painting smaller areas, usually within the
confines of a spray booth. (Figure 4-4, Detail 2, illustrates
suction feed hookup.)
4.3.3.2 The pressure feed gun is designed to fluid feed to
the gun under pressure from an external tank through a hose.
The air cap and fluid tip are flush with each other, and no
siphoning effect is necessary. It is suitable for high volume
painting. (Figure 4-4, Detail 1, illustrates pressure feed
hookup.)
4.3.3.3 The gravity feed gun is designed with the cup located on the top of the spray gun. This allows paint to completely drain, minimizing paint waste. Gravity feed guns
supply paint to the orifice solely by means of gravity. The air
pressure at the orifice of these guns is typically 40 to 50 psi.
4.3.4 Material Containers. Two types of containers serve
as material reservoirs for spray guns, the cup and the tank.
Both cups and tanks are available with agitators to provide
constant mixing to keep materials in suspension during application. Agitators are mechanically operated by either an
air or an electrical powered motor. See Chapter 6 to determine which coatings require agitators.
4-3
TO 1-1-8
4.3.4.1 Cup containers are used when small quantities of
paint are to be sprayed. They are generally of the suction
type with a small vent on top of the container through which
atmospheric pressure operates to force material up to the
fluid tip when a compressed air stream creates a vacuum at
the spray opening.
NOTE
Air condensers and transformers shall be drained
at least daily and more frequently in humid
weather.
4.3.4.2 Pressure feed tanks are used for high volume painting. Pressure feed tanks are tightly closed metal containers
of varying size (2 to 120 gallons) that provide material at a
uniform pressure and a constant rate of flow. Compressed air
is directed into the tank to force the material out. Air pressure must be increased or decreased to change the rate of
flow.
4.3.5 Air Compressors. Air compressors provide a continuous supply of compressed air at a predetermined maximum pressure and a minimum volume in cubic feet per minute. There are two general types of air compressors, single
stage and two stage. These can be further subdivided into
many types such as portable or stationary, electric motor or
gas engine driven, unloader or pressure switch controlled,
and air or water cooled.
4.3.6 Air Regulators or Transformers. A regulator is a
device equipped with indicator gages which reduces the main
line air pressure to a lower regulated pressure. It also provides outlets to which spray guns and other air operated
equipment may be connected. It must be capable of providing 15 cfm of air at 80 PSI (supply line pressure) with a
maximum pressure drop of 10 PSI.
4.3.7 Air Condensers. An air condenser is similar to the
air transformer and separates oil and moisture from the air. A
condenser is usually equipped with pressure gages, but may
be found without gages where a regulated supply of air is
available.
4-4
Figure 4-3.
Airless Spray System
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-4.
Complete Spray System
4-5
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-5.
4-6
Sectional View of Spray Gun
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-6.
Proper Installation of Air Compressor, Piping
4.3.8 Air Supply. Figure 4-6 illustrates proper installation
of an air supply for paint spraying.
4.3.9
Hose.
Hoses shall always be thoroughly cleaned by
flushing with solvent appropriate for the coating
material used. When the material is a catalyzed
(two-component) system (epoxy or polyurethane),
this must be done immediately after use to prevent
the material from curing in the hose.
Because of friction losses in hose, it is essential that the
proper size and length be used. Do not use hoses longer than
50 feet. High-pressure air hose leading from the air source to
the regulator or tank which may be a maximum of 150 feet
if required to reach the tail surfaces of exceptionally large
aircraft. Extra lengths of hose may be attached for this use
but shall be removed as soon as no longer needed. The highpressure air hose shall have a minimum inside diameter (ID)
of 7/16 inch. The fluid hose from the tank to the gun shall be
no less than 3/8 inch ID and the air hose from the regulator
to the tank and from the tank to the gun shall be no less than
5/16 inch ID. Any reduction in size or increase in length
may produce unsatisfactory results. Air and paint hoses are
furnished in various standard lengths.
4-7
TO 1-1-8
4.4
SPRAY PAINTING.
4.4.1 Gun Techniques. Spray guns are designed to be
used with certain spraying techniques. The quality of finish
that is applied will depend on how well these techniques are
used by the painter. Spraying techniques include the following:
4.4.1.1 Distance. Distance depends on the desired width
of the paint fan and the type of gun used (Figure 4-7, Detail
A). When all adjustments to the spray gun are correct and
the spray gun is held at too great a distance from the surface,
it will result in a dry spray (dusting) and excessive overspray. Conversely, if the spray gun is too close to the surface, it will result in too heavy a coating with a tendency for
sags or runs to develop.
4.4.1.2 Stroking. The essence of proper stroking is to
maintain as near as possible the same distance to the work,
the same speed, and the same perpendicularity of the gun to
the surface throughout the pass. The natural tendency for
spray painters, particularly when fatigued or in an uncomfortable position is to arc or wave the gun (Figure 4-7, Detail
B). This practice must be avoided at all costs. In general,
wrist movement must be eliminated in stroking as almost
inevitably it causes the gun to describe a curve instead of
remaining perpendicular to the surface. This results in a
thicker coating in the middle of the stroke than at the end.
An exception to the rule is spotting in for touch-up. In this
case, it is permissible to fan the gun to produce an area
which is thinner at the edges in order to blend into the surrounding painted area. When applying coating materials with
poor flow characteristics (such as vinyl paints), special efforts must be taken to hold the gun perpendicular to all surfaces (flat or contoured). If this is not done, the irregular
spray pattern formed will produce an uneven thickness and
cause uneven drying. Protrusions such as screw heads, etc.,
present surfaces that will require facing the gun in several
directions to completely coat them. It may be advisable to
spot paint these in advance. The rate of the stroke should be
uniform to produce a full wet coat of material. Stroking
should be in parallel passes with each stroke aimed for a 50
4-8
percent overlap, or so that the middle of the spray pattern
strikes the wet bottom edge of the previous stroke (Figure
4-8). In order to ensure good coating integrity and coverage,
the technique of cross coating is best (Figure 4-9). Cross
coating should always be used when applying multiple coats
of a coating system. This is done by applying each layer
using the 50 percent overlap and cross coating with each
alternate layer of the coating system, usually after a drying
or curing period between coats. The cross-coating technique
is also the standard for applying a single coat finish system
by applying a thin, wet coat followed immediately with another thin cross coat to obtain one full wet coat. When applying high solids primers and topcoats, with HVLP, airless,
or air assisted airless equipment, a single coat using 50 percent overlap without a cross coat may be used. The process
control must be adequate to prevent holidays or other finish
defects that may result from a single heavy application.
4.4.1.3 Triggering. Proper triggering of the gun is difficult
to learn. The variations of triggering technique which may
be called for in special situations can only be developed by
practice. It is a matter of judgment and experience. In general, the painter should begin his stroke before triggering the
gun and release the trigger before stopping the stroke. It can
be compared to the follow-through in swinging a golf club.
This tends to feather out the end of a stroke so that the end
of a succeeding overlapping stroke blends into it. Examples
of correct techniques are shown in Figure 4-7.
NOTE
•
A reasonable amount of care will maintain spray
guns and spray equipment in top operating condition and prevent a majority of spraying difficulties. Thorough cleaning immediately after
use and appropriate lubrication are essential.
•
This manual provides only general spray gun
information. See specific manufacturer’s booklet or manual for detailed operating and maintenance instructions.
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-7.
Right and Wrong Methods of Spraying
Change 1
4-9
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-8.
Fifty Percent Overlap
Figure 4-9.
4-10
Cross Coating
TO 1-1-8
4.4.2 Gun Adjustments. The flow of air and fluid at the
gun must be adjusted or balanced to obtain proper atomization and other desired spraying characteristics.
4.4.2.1 The first consideration in obtaining this balance is
the proper combination of air cap and fluid tip for the particular material being sprayed as recommended by the equipment manufacturer and the coating material manufacturer.
4.4.2.2 After the air cap and fluid tip have been selected,
there are several adjustments which may be made with the
gun controls to properly adjust the air and fluid relationship.
These adjustments are necessary to obtain proper atomization and other desired spraying characteristics required for
the job and conditions. The fluid adjusting screw on the gun
(Figure 4-10, B) permits restriction of fluid flow relative to
the volume of air being used, but is limited since it puts
additional tension on the gun trigger and tends to discourage
feathering at the beginning and end of the stroke.
4.4.2.3 For pressure feed spraying, adjustment of tank
pressure and adjustment of the atomization air supply to the
gun is more effective for obtaining the proper air to fluid
balance.
4.4.2.4 The air adjustment screw (Figure 4-10, A) can be
changed to spread the atomized fluid out over a greater area,
which, in combination with the increased air flow, is equivalent to reducing the flow of fluid.
4.4.2.5 The correct atomizing pressure depends on the type
of coating and the length and diameter of the air line from
the regulator to the gun. The pressure must be sufficient to
completely atomize the material being sprayed but no greater.
For HVLP paint guns, the regulator pressure shall be adjusted to a lower level to ensure the nozzle pressure does not
exceed a maximum of 10 PSI per Paragraph 4.2.1. An excessive amount of air may give a split pattern in which the
material deposited is light in the middle of the pattern; too
little air may give a heavy centered pattern. Pressure on the
paint pot is usually adjusted to a range of 25 to 40 PSI but
may vary more widely, depending on the density of the paint
and the elevation of the surface being painted above the
pressure tank. In normal operation, the wings on the nozzle
are in the horizontal position which provides a vertical fanshaped pattern for maximum coverage as the gun is moved
back and forth parallel to the surface being painted. The
spray pattern is variable from round to flat with all patterns
in between and can be adjusted to obtain the pattern which
produces the best results.
NOTE
As the width of the spray is increased, more paint
must be allowed to pass through the gun to get the
same coverage.
NOTE
Do not thin the paint excessively to increase the
flow of fluid.
Figure 4-10.
Spray Gun Adjustments
4-11
TO 1-1-8
4.4.3 Painting Difficulties and Remedies. Coating
troubles may be divided into five groups: inadequate surface
preparation, incorrect methods or techniques of application,
unusual climatic or atmospheric conditions, unsuitable equipment, and faulty finishing material. Inadequate surface preparation is self-explanatory and is discussed in Chapter 3. Incorrect methods of application should be discontinued upon
discovery of the discrepancy. Remedying incorrect techniques of application, however, calls for training. The practice of allowing inadequately trained personnel to apply
coatings, particularly to aeronautical surfaces, is unauthorized and dangerous. Conditions such as adverse weather and
humidity may cause the application method chosen to be
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Sags and Runs
1.
2.
3.
Streaks
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
Coating material too cold.
Coating applied on too heavily.
5.
6.
7.
Coating material thinned excessively.
7.
1.
1.
4.
Dirty air cap and fluid tip (distorted spray
pattern).
Insufficient or incorrect overlapping of
strokes.
Gun stroked too rapidly (dusting of the
paint).
Gun stroked at wrong angle to surface.
5.
Stroking too far from surface.
5.
6.
7.
8.
1.
Too much air pressure.
Split spray.
Coating material too cold.
Out of paint (gun begins to sputter).
6.
7.
8.
1.
2.
Settled, cake pigment blocking gun tip.
2.
3.
Grit, dirt, paint skins, etc., blocking gun tip, 3.
fluid coat valve or strainer.
1.
Lack of proper air pressure in the pressure
tank.
Air intake opening inside of pressure tank
lid, clogged by dried-up material.
Leaking gaskets on tank cover.
2.
3.
4-12
Possible Causes
Dirty air cap and fluid tip (distorted spray
pattern).
Gun stroked too close to the surface.
3.
3.
Paint will not come
from Pressure Tank
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies
Trigger not released at end of stroke (when
stroke does not go beyond object).
Gun stroked at wrong angle to surface.
2.
Paint will not come
from Spray Gun
unworkable. Unusual climatic and atmospheric condition can
to some extent be remedied or compensated for by temperature and humidity controls, shielding from elements, etc.
Consideration should always be given to alternative methods
such as hot spraying or even brushing and roller coating on
certain surfaces. Unsuitable or faulty equipment can only be
remedied by obtaining proper equipment or repair. An experienced painter may be capable of compensating for faulty
materials to obtain proper results, but this is an emergency
measure only and must be with the cognizance and authority
of the quality control facility. Table 4-1 and Figure 4-14
through Figure 4-22 lists common troubles of spray coating
operations with suggested remedies or methods of avoidance.
4.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
Preventive Measures or Remedies
Remove air cap and clean tip and air cap
carefully.
Maintain 6 to 10 inches for HVLP gun
distance from surface.
Release the trigger after every stroke.
Keep gun at right angle (perpendicular)
to surface during stroke.
Heat material by approved methods.
Develop ability to apply correct thicknesses by panel practice.
Add the correct amount of solvent by
measure or determine by viscosity test.
Remove air cap and clean tip and air cap
carefully.
Follow the previous stroke accurately.
Deposit a wet coat.
Avoid whipping. Make deliberate, slow
strokes.
Keep gun at right angle (perpendicular)
to surface during stroke.
Maintain 6 to 10 inches for HVLP gun
from surface.
Use least air pressure necessary.
Clean the fluid tip and air cap.
Heat material to get good flow-out.
Add paint, correctly thinned out and
strained.
Remove obstruction, stir paint thoroughly.
Clean spray gun thoroughly and strain
the coating material. Always strain
materials before using.
Check for leaks or lack of air entry. Set
correct pressure.
This is a common trouble. Clean the
opening periodically.
Replace with a new gasket.
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Paint will not come
from Suction Cup
Excessive Material
Loss
Excessive Spray Fog
(Figure 4-11)
Paint Leaks from
Spray Gun (Figure
4-12)
Gun Sputters Constantly (Figure 4-13)
1.
Possible Causes
Dirty fluid tip and air cap.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
Clogged air vent on cup cover.
Using wrong air cap.
Leaky connections on fluid tube or nozzle.
Not triggering the gun at each stroke.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
Stroking at wrong angle to surface.
2.
3.
Stroking gun too far from the surface.
3.
4.
5.
Wrong air cap or fluid tip.
Depositing a film of irregular thickness.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Air pressure too high.
Fluid pressure too high.
6.
7.
8.
1.
Coating material too cold.
Too high air pressure.
8.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Spraying past surface of the product.
Wrong air cap or fluid tip.
Gun stroked too far from the surface.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Material thinned out too much.
5.
1.
Fluid needle packing nut too tight.
1.
Preventive Measures or Remedies
Remove air cap and clean tip and air cap
carefully.
Remove the obstruction.
Ascertain and use correct setup.
Check for leaks under water and repair.
It should be a habit to release trigger
after every stroke and retrigger to begin the next stroke.
Gun should be stroked at right angles to
surface and the stroke parallel to the
surface.
Stroke the gun 6 to 10 inches for HVLP
gun from the surface.
Ascertain and use correct setup.
Learn to calculate the depth of wet film
of finish and develop control. Measure
wet film thickness.
Use the least amount of air necessary.
Reduce pressure. If pressure keeps
climbing, clean regulator on pressure
tank.
Heat to enable reduced air pressure.
Use the least amount of air pressure necessary.
Release trigger when gun passes target.
Ascertain and use correct setup.
Stroke the gun 6 to 10 inches for HVLP
gun from surface.
Add the correct amount of solvent by
measure or test.
Loosen nut, lubricate packing.
2.
3.
4.
1.
Packing for fluid needle dry.
Foreign particle blocks fluid tip.
Damaged fluid tip or needle.
Fluid nozzle not tightened to the spray gun.
2.
3.
4.
1.
Lubricate this part daily.
Remove tip and clean.
Replace both tip and needle.
Tighten securely, using a good gasket.
2.
1.
Leaking connection of fluid tube or needle 2.
packing (suction cup).
Fluid pipe not tightened to the pressure tank 3.
lid.
Coating material not thinned out sufficiently. 1.
2.
3.
Coating material too cold.
Insufficient air pressure.
2.
3.
4.
Using wrong air cap or fluid nozzle.
4.
5.
Gun stroked too far from the surface.
5.
3.
Orange Peel (Figure
4-14)
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Tighten connections; lubricate packing.
Tighten. Check for defective threads.
Add the correct amount of solvent by
measure or viscosity test.
Heat material to get flow-out.
Increase air pressure or reduce fluid
pressure.
Select correct air cap and nozzle for the
material and feed.
Stroke the gun 6 to 10 inches for HVLP
gun from surface.
4-13
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
6.
Sandpaper Finish (Fig- 1.
ure 4-15)
2.
1.
3.
4.
5.
Improperly cleaned paint lines.
Dried overspray, gun too far from surface.
4.
5.
3.
Caused by applying too thick a coating, this
prevents uniform drying of the coat and
thus results in formation of ridges and
furrows.
1.
Excessive Blushing of
Topcoats.
Peeling
Blistering (Figure 4-19 1.
2.
3.
4-14
6.
2.
These three defects are 2.
all very similar in
that they all consist
of surface cracks in 3.
varying degrees.
Crazing is a fine surface crack while
4.
cracking and checking often extend to
the metal surface.
Pinhole Cavities, Solvent Pop
Inconsistent Coloring
Possible Causes
Overspray striking a previously sprayed
surface.
Unsatisfactory primer.
Excessive dirt contamination from painting
area.
Insufficient scuff sanding of primer.
Wrinkling (Figure
4-16)
Crazing, Mud Cracking, Checking (Figure 4-17 and Figure
4-18).
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Painting over a hard glossy coat. A base
1.
coat of this condition offers a poor surface adhesion of subsequent coats. In drying, the topcoat slides over the base coat,
breaking out in cracks.
Excessive amount of catalyst in paint caus- 2.
ing brittleness.
Excessive heat employed in drying operation.
3.
Insufficient drying times between coats.
4.
Improper surface treatment or lack of surface treatment; entrapped oils and/or solvents; insufficient primer drying times;
use of improper thinner.
Excessive humidity; insufficient quantity of
Specification blush-retardant thinner
ASTM D 330.
Failure to remove moisture, oil or grease
from the surface before the finish is applied.
Oil or grease on surface.
Preventive Measures or Remedies
Spray detail parts first. End with a wet
coat.
Laboratory analysis to verify acceptability of the material; check primer application procedures.
Provide cleaner painting areas.
Scuff sand primer using No. 320 and
No. 400 wet or dry sandpaper.
Flush paint lines frequently with solvent.
Sand the complete finish until smooth to
the fingertips. Stroke gun 6 to 10
inches for HVLP gun from the surface.
Material should be applied in thin uniform coats. If a thick coating is necessary, it should be applied by spraying
several thin coats until the desired
thickness is obtained. Allow each coat
to set before applying the next.
Remove all previous coats of paint using
paint remover or scuff sand, solvent
wipe, and apply a primer tiecoat before overcoating.
Drier should be used only as recommended by manufacturer of material
being used.
Exercise caution in placement of heat
lamps to assure uniform heat distribution over the entire painted area.
Allow sufficient drying times.
Apply manual surface treatment and ensure complete coverage with surface
chemical film, before primer application; check mixing instructions to
eliminate use of improper thinners.
Check humidity control equipment
where employed and/or increase quantity thinner ASTM D 330.
Refinish surface.
1.
Moisture in lines.
2.
Trapped solvents.
3.
Pigment not evenly distributed as a result of
settling or insufficient mixing.
Strip and clean; or sand sown and repaing.
Drain lines periodically.
Use proper thinner.
Apply additional coats after thoroughly
mixing the finish material.
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Defective Spray Pat1.
terns (Heavy Center) 2.
3.
4.
Defective Spray Patterns (Split Spray)
Defective Spray Patterns (Heavy Top or
Bottom) (Heavy
Right or Left)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Horn holes partially clogged. Obstruction on 1.
top or bottom side of nozzle.
2.
Dirt on air-cap seat or nozzle fluid tip seat.
2.
3.
Fish-Eyes and Poor
Wetting, Crawling,
Poor Flowout. (Figure 4-20)
Possible Causes
Setting too low on fan adjustment.
Air cap; atomizing pressure too low.
Pressure feed: Fluid pressure too high for
normal capacity of air cap.
Nozzle too large for fluid used.
Air and fluid feeds not properly balanced.
1.
Starving the Spray Gun 1.
Failure of Wet Tape
Test
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
2.
Insufficient air because of waste filter in
1.
transformer too tightly packed or clogged.
Aircocks, hose or pipelines too small.
2.
Inadequate air supplies from too small a
3.
compressor or a break in the system.
Insufficient drying time for primer; insufficiently cleaned surface; cleaning compound residue, etc. Oil seepage through
inspection doors or fasteners; entrapped
oils and soil in shop applied temporary
primer; insufficient removal of shop
primer and/or previous coatings; use of
final finishes incorporating wax ingredients; use of laundered rags instead of new
lint free cotton rags; seepage of water
containing cleaning in compound residues
from between faying surfaces.
Use of waxes or sealants and adhesives
containing silicones. Presence of other
types of oils, greases, or hydraulic fluids
on the surface.
Preventive Measures or Remedies
Adjust fan adjusting valve.
Adjust atomizing pressure.
Adjust fluid pressure.
Replace nozzle with correct size.
Reduce width of spray pattern by means
of the spreader adjusting valve, and if
condition is not remedied, increase
fluid pressure. The latter increases rate
of material flow. Readjust atomizing
pressure, fluid pressure, and spray
width until desired spray is obtained.
Determine location of obstruction by
rotating air cap one-half turn and
spray a new pattern. If defect is reversed, obstruction is in air cap; if not
reversed, it is on the nozzle of fluid
tip.
Clean. Check for burrs and dried paint in
opening.
Repack or replace filter.
Replace with units of adequate size.
Obtain a compressor of adequate size or
repair leakage.
Employ solvent wipe down, per Chapter
2; remove any shop primers to provide
a clean aluminum surface prior to any
painting; employ solvent-dampened
cloths in lieu of dry cloths for removal
of oil contamination (especially along
jet engine inspection doors); conduct
laboratory analysis to determine
primer acceptability; allow aircraft to
stand for sufficient time to permit
drainage of effluent before final cleaning; note the type of failure, such as to
bare metal intercoat failure, and select
the applicable remedy according to the
cause of failure.
Solvent clean with silicone-removing
compounds.
NOTE
Minute quantities of silicones can cause
this film.
4-15
TO 1-1-8
Table 4-1.
Trouble
Lifting (Figure 4-21)
1.
2.
Pitting or Cupping
(Figure 4-22)
Figure 4-11.
Spray Coating Troubles, Possible Causes, and Remedies - Continued
Possible Causes
Absorption of solvents by previous partially 1.
dried film.
2.
3.
Second coats apt to lift if surface is poorly
prepared.
Use of lacquer over enamel.
4.
Use of lacquer thinner in enamel.
4.
1.
Rust under surface.
1.
2.
Oil or grease on surface.
2.
3.
4.
Moisture in lines.
Trapped solvents.
3.
4.
3.
Preventive Measures or Remedies
Allow coats to dry/cure for the proper
dry to over-coat time before recoating
for epoxies, polyurethanes, and lacquers; with enamels either allow first
coats to dry completely, or apply second coats immediately.
Begin with properly prepared surface.
Use compatible coatings and thinners.
Enamel may be applied over lacquer
but lacquer may not be applied over
enamel.
Use compatible coatings and thinners.
Enamel may be applied over lacquer
but lacquer may not be applied over
enamel.
Strip and clean; or sand down and repaint.
Strip and clean; or sand down and repaint.
Drain lines periodically.
Use proper thinner proportions and allow
proper cure times.
Excessive Spray Fog
Figure 4-12.
4-16
Paint Leaks From Spray Gun
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-13.
Gun Sputters Constantly
4-17
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-14.
4-18
Orange Peel
Figure 4-15.
Sandpaper Finish
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-16.
Figure 4-17.
Wrinkling
Figure 4-18.
Cracking
Crazing
4-19
TO 1-1-8
Figure 4-21.
Figure 4-19.
Blistering
Figure 4-20.
Fish Eyes
Figure 4-22.
4-20
Lifting
Pitting or Cupping
TO 1-1-8
4.5
CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE.
Proper maintenance of spray guns is necessary to preserve
the life of the gun and ensure high quality results. The gun
requires little other maintenance if kept clean.
a. Basic maintenance consists of occasional lubrication.
The packing surrounding the air valve stem shall receive a few drops of light oil to maintain easy movement of the air valve. The packing enclosed in the
packing nut around the fluid needle shall be lubricated
for easy movement of the fluid needle assembly. The
spring for the fluid needle assembly shall be coated
with petrolatum (Vaseline®). In addition to lubrication,
parts that experience wear, such as air nozzles, fluid
nozzles, and needle assemblies, should be periodically
replaced.
NOTE
Excessive tightening of the packing nut will damage the packing and the needle valve assembly.
b. After each paint job, the gun shall be thoroughly
cleaned with thinners/solvents listed in Paragraph 4.6.
If cleaning is delayed, the time needed to clean the gun
is greater and there is a potential for damage to the
equipment.
(2) Remove the paint container and clean the inside
using MIL-T-81772, Type I or II thinner or TT-T2935 purging thinner or one of the lower vapor
pressure solvents listed as preferred alternatives
for these in Paragraph 4.6.
Abrasive materials and chemical strippers shall not
be used to clean spray gun parts, as damage to the
gun will result.
(3) Fill a quarter of the clean container/cup with the
same type of thinner or solvent (fresh/unused)
used to clean it.
(4) Remove the air nozzle and carefully lower it into
the container/cup of thinner or solvent.
(5) Using a nonmetallic bristle brush, clean the fluid
nozzle openings and other parts of the gun that
are difficult to reach, such as around the packing
nuts and controls.
Do not submerge the gun in thinner or solvent as
they can dry out the packing around the fluid and
air stems.
When using solvents, keep away from heat and
open flame, keep container closed, use only with
adequate ventilation, and use gloves to avoid skin
contact.
(1) To clean a siphon-feed gun, unscrew the air cap
and release the paint cup from around the siphon
tube at least a distance of 1 or 2 inches. Hold a
cloth over the air cap and trigger the gun. Air will
be sent into the passageways, forcing any excess
paint back down the siphon tube and into the
loosened paint cup.
(6) Dampen a rag with thinner or solvent and wipe
the entire gun and cup until they are free of paint.
(7) Using the bristle brush, clean the air nozzle and
its openings.
(8) Put the gun back together and spray clean MILT-81772, Type I thinner only through the gun until a fan of clear thinner is produced. Do not use
4-21
TO 1-1-8
the lower vapor pressure solvents listed in Paragraph 4.6 for this final flushing procedure for the
same reasons noted in the CAUTION in Paragraph 4.6.
(9) Remove any excessive thinner, and wipe the cup
and gun with a clean dry rag.
NOTE
A spray gun contains parts that must work together. Dismantling a spray gun after each paint
operation will cause excessive damage to the gun
and its seals. A spray gun should only be dismantled when a proper spray pattern cannot be
produced.
4.6
MECHANICAL PAINT GUN WASHER.
When lower vapor pressure solvents are used to
clean paint guns and their paint supply lines/hoses,
the paint guns must be blown out with clean, compressed air and the lines/hoses must be flushed
with MIL-T-81772, Type I thinner immediately after they are removed from the paint gun washer
and prior to use to eliminate all traces of these
solvents from the guns and lines/hoses. These solvents are not compatible with the paints and primers used on Air Force equipment, and failure to
remove them will contaminate the next paint system applied with the paint gun and supply lines/
hoses and cause fish eyes and other paint curing
problems.
NOTE
It is highly recommended that an initial hazardous
waste collection container be located as near as
possible to the paint gun cleaner so that any contaminated sludge, solvents, and filters may be immediately placed in the container without having
to transport the waste to the collection container.
The most effective method for cleaning paint spray guns,
paint fluid hoses, and paint pots/cups is by using a mechanical paint gun washer. These washers use either MIL-T-81772,
Type I or II thinner, TT-T-2935, Parachlorobenzotrifluoride
(PCBTF) purging thinner, or other low vapor pressure solvents that contain some Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
but no Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP). The solvents are
contained in a closed-loop system consisting of a cover, reservoir, sump, pneumatic pump, spray nozzles, pneumatic
controls, and either a filtration or a distillation system. The
4-22
container has devices installed inside of it for connecting
paint guns for cleaning of internal as well as external surfaces. Since these washers are closed-loop systems, their use
reduces hazardous waste, VOC emissions, solvents required
to manually clean the paint equipment, and hazards to the
personnel. Use of paint gun washers is required to comply
with NESHAP rules when applicable.
a. Equipment fitted with a filtration system reutilizes the
solvent until it is so soiled that it must then be replaced, and it also requires periodic change out of the
filters. These units are recommended for paint shops
with a medium to low production rate and a high personnel turnover rate such as many field level maintenance organizations. The filtration type paint gun
cleaners are relatively simple to operate and require
only a minimum amount of personnel training for safe
and effective operation. There should be at least two
people in each paint shop that are proficient in the
operation of the shop’s paint gun cleaner so that personnel turnover will not result in a situation where
there are no trained operators present in the shop. Operation of this equipment shall be in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions.
NOTE
•
For proper disposal of contaminated solvent,
contact local civil engineering authorities for
instructions.
•
Solvent replacement shall be done in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
•
Contaminated filters are considered hazardous
waste and shall be placed in a hazardous waste
collection container immediately after removal
from the paint gun cleaner.
b. Equipment fitted with a distiller recycles the solvent
and separates out the waste and does not require solvent disposal. These units are recommended for paint
shops with a medium to high production rate and a
relatively stable work force such as found in most depot level maintenance organizations. The distillation
type paint gun cleaners are relatively difficult to operate and require a higher degree of personnel training
than the filtration type units for their safe and effective
operation. There should be at least two people in each
paint shop that are proficient in the operation of the
shop’s paint gun cleaner so that personnel turnover will
not result in a situation where there are no trained operators present in the shop. Operation of this equipment shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 5
PAINTING OPERATIONS FOR AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT
5.1
GENERAL.
This chapter describes coating application procedures for
aircraft and equipment used by the Air Force. Except when
otherwise directed by this technical order or by local requirements or limitations, protective organic coatings may
be applied by spraying, brushing, or any other approved
method which results in continuous adherent films. The
method selected or directed for application of coatings to
aerodynamic surfaces shall be developed and adjusted to
provide film integrity, optimum adherence, smoothness and
good appearance. Achieving acceptable finishes on airframe
surfaces requires trained personnel plus certain disciplines of
operation. Pre-planning for painting is an absolute requirement to provide a logical schedule of operations, arrange for
a cleared working area, and have available painting aids such
as scaffolding and cleanup materials and equipment, etc.
Correctly preparing coating materials and maintaining painting equipment in good operating condition are as important
as knowing the techniques of applying coatings.
5.2 SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS OF PAINTING.
Measures shall be taken to prevent paint waste
from contaminating air, water, or soil. Some of the
chemicals used in painting require treatment or
other special control prior to disposal. Disposal of
materials shall be accomplished under the direction of the Base Civil Engineer, Safety Office,
Bioenvironmental Engineer, and Environmental
Management Office in a manner that will not result in violation of local, state, or federal pollution
criteria. Detailed information for disposal is cited
in AFI 32-7001, AFI 32-7040, AFI 32-7041, AFI
32-7042, AF PAM 32-7043, and AFI 32-7086.
Painting operations are hazardous and require control or preventive measures. Vapors produced, particularly in spray
painting, are usually highly flammable, as are the accumulated dried coating materials deposited on walls, floors, and
equipment in the painting area. Also, coating materials and
their thinners very often contain toxic substances which are
injurious to health by inhalation and, to a lesser degree, by
skin contact. Painting operations also involve hazards of
physical injury due to improper use of work stands, ladders,
hoists, etc. As directed by the local Safety and the Bioenvironmental Engineers, all painting personnel shall observe all
safety precautions regarding toxicity, other health, and flammability hazards specified by existing instructions and regulations. AFMAN 48-155 and 48-137; AFPD 91-2; AFI 91203; and NFPA 10, 13, 33, and 91 apply, and all safety
precautions in these documents regarding personnel health,
fire prevention, ventilation, handling of equipment, electrical
grounding, storage of coating materials, area preparation, use
of vapor-proof lights, etc., are mandatory. Refer to Table 5-1
for the minimum recommended personal protective equipment. The following measures are minimum required practices for personal safety:
a. Wear approved respiratory protective devices.
b. Wear protective clothing to prevent contamination of
ordinary clothing. When painting, use cloth coveralls
with a head covering (sock hat) or hooded Tyvek™
coveralls, disposable rubber gloves, and non-slip foot
coverings for walking on aircraft. Do not store protective clothing in the painting area. Store protective
clothing in ventilated metal lockers in some other convenient location.
c. After painting, wash hands thoroughly before eating.
Do not carry food into spraying areas.
d. Spray paint only in areas approved by Fire, Safety, and
Bioenvironmental Engineering.
Spray gun nozzles are sources of very high pressure. During operation and cleaning of paint spray
guns, the nozzle shall never be pointed towards
any person in close proximity.
e. Spray painting equipment presents hazards of which
painters should be aware. Consult manufacturers’ instructions for proper handling, cleaning, operation, and
precautionary procedures.
Change 9
5-1
5-2
d
c
b
a
General dilution
ventilation
General dilution
ventilation
Engineering
Controls
General dilution
ventilation
General dilution
ventilation
Paint spray
booth/facility
None
Air-purifying
with OV/N95
cartridgesc
None
None
Respiratory
None
Disposable Nitrile gloves
None
Hand
Disposable Nitrile gloves
Disposable Nitrile gloves
Disposable Nitrile gloves
None
None
Noneb
Noneb
Personal Protective Equipment
Ear
Eye
Safety goggles or
Noneb
faceshield
Safety goggles or
Noneb
faceshield
Noneb
Safety gogglesd
None
None
Body
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Tyvek™ or cotton coveralls
Minimum Recommended Controls and PPE for Priming and Painting Operationsa
Local Bioenvironmental Engineer may recommend more restrictive controls or PPE based on exposure monitoring.
Hearing protection may be required in locations where hazardous noise is produced from other sources.
A powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with hood is the best choice for spray paint application.
Not required if a full-facepiece or hooded respirator is worn.
Sempen usage
Curing
Spray application
Thinning
Mixing
Operation
Table 5-1.
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Safety toe boots
Foot
Safety toe boots
TO 1-1-8
TO 1-1-8
5.2.1 Respiratory Protection. Many toxic materials are
found in spray painting shops which may impair the health
of personnel if control measures are not provided. Harmful
concentrations of these materials may be reduced to a safe
level by an efficient mechanical exhaust system supplemented with personal respiratory protection. At a minimum,
it is recommended that powered air purifying respirators with
hood be used (see Table C-1); however, always contact Bioenvironmental Engineering for selection of proper respiratory protection. It should be understood that a respirator is
not a substitute for a proper exhaust system, but is a supplement to existing ventilation methods (refer to NFPA 91, AFMAN 48-155, and AFOSH STD 48-137).
NOTE
This manual provides only general information for
respiratory safety devices. See the manufacturer’s
technical data for detailed operating and maintenance instructions. See the DO43 System for NSNs
and to convert specification and PNs to NSNs.
Equipment Authorization Inventory Data (EAID)
authorization for equipment type items must be
established in accordance with AFH 23-123.
5.3 SPRAY BOOTHS AND PAINTING AREAS, GENERAL.
Spray painting shall be conducted in a properly ventilated
spray area such as in a spray booth which confines and exhausts vapors and mists and overspray during painting operations. Paint booths are available in various sizes for small
parts painting, or for larger wheeled equipment, and can be
large enough for complete aircraft. Air flow design shall provide adequate velocity at the face of the booth. Basic airflow
criteria for a specific type paint booth is available from the
Bioenvironmental Engineer. Also, see NFPA 91, “Industrial
Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practices”, published by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and AFI 91-203. For additional
reference criteria, see the Air Force Corrosion Facility Reference Guide on the Air Force Corrosion Prevention and
Control office’s website. Doors and windows in the area
should be kept closed to exclude dust and dirt. Air should
enter a booth at a rate which will not cause turbulence or
excessive air currents but be sufficient to keep dried overspray from settling on surfaces which have been painted and
are still tacky. Humidity and temperature indicators shall be
installed and kept in proper operation so that the temperature
and humidity for correct spraying can be checked and maintained. Lighting shall amply illuminate all surfaces being
painted, and all lighting and connecting electrical switching
shall be explosion proof. Spray room surfaces shall be
cleaned frequently to ensure good housekeeping.
5.4
PAINT BOOTH TYPES.
Prior to spraying of paint, rigidly comply with all
safety regulations regarding to electrical grounding, fire prevention, vapor and explosion-proof
lights, etc.
Two types of paint spray booths are in general use, the dry
type and the air-water wash type. Traditional spray booths
are generally effective at removing particulate matter such as
solid and liquid particles of overspray, but they do not remove solvent vapors from exhaust air. Removal of solvent
vapors for air quality emissions compliance requires supplemental equipment to collect the organic vapors on activated
charcoal filters or to destroy them by combustion or catalytic
reaction. These special process capabilities are matters to be
addressed by local civil engineering and environmental planning functions.
5.4.1 Dry-Type Booth. Dry-type spray booths draw contaminated air through a series of baffles or filters before exhausting it to the outside. Care should be taken to minimize
air currents in the spray booth that will interfere with removal of spray dust or with the health and comfort of personnel. These booths are available with varying types of filter material, and local environmental regulations may specify
the numbers of filter banks required. In most cases, the filter
material will be considered a hazardous waste and disposal
should be coordinated with local civil engineering and environmental management.
5.4.2 Air-Water Wash Type Booth. In addition to the
baffles used in the dry-type booth, this type of spray booth
has a series of water curtains to trap and remove overspray
solids and liquids from contaminated air before it is exhausted. An air-water wash type booth will remove up to 95
percent of paint residue before it is exhausted when working
properly. Many areas today have greater restrictions than 95
percent efficiency. Fire hazards are greatly reduced when the
air-water wash booth is used. A deflocculating material or
water wash compound is added to the water to prevent residue from adhering to the working portion of the booth and
also serves to prevent rusting. A paint sludge removal system
may be installed in these booths to decrease the frequency of
changing the water. Disposal of paint sludge may be considered a hazardous waste and should be coordinated with local
civil engineering and environmental management.
5.4.3 Cleaning and Maintenance. A suitable coating
should be applied to all dry interior surfaces of a booth to
facilitate cleaning. Paint residue which floats on the surface
Change 9
5-3
TO 1-1-8
of the water should be removed each day to prevent it from
settling to the bottom of the tank. Spray booths should be
coated with an approved fireproof material. The applicable
equipment manual should be consulted for complete information on paint spray booths. It is very important to keep
the spray booth and its immediate vicinity as free from dirt
and dust as possible. The strong suction created by the exhaust fan can pull dust from outside into the booth and may
deposit it on sprayed surfaces.
5.4.4 Part and Equipment Painting Operations. All
parts and equipment painted in spray booths shall be properly positioned in the booth. This is necessary to ensure the
painter is not improperly exposed during the painting operation. The parts shall be placed on roll around tables or hung
from roll around racks to allow for their repositioning in the
paint booth during the painting operation. The painter shall
spray into the face of the booth with the air flow from the
painters back. When painting complex parts, change the position of the part being painted so that the painter is never
spraying into the air flow. Painted parts shall be removed
from the spray booth as soon as possible after the spraying
has been completed and the vapors have been removed.
When painting large equipment, the painter shall begin at the
front or exhaust end of the booth and work toward the back
or air supply end. This is to ensure the painter remains out of
the flow of the paint overspray.
5.5
b. The ventilation system must provide sufficient exhaust
to remove the solvent vapors generated by the process.
The exhaust stream shall be maintained below 20 percent of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) with no more
than 500 ppm total solvent vapor concentration as defined in OSHA Standard 1910.94. The paint hangar
facility shall be equipped with an audible alarm system
which activates if the ventilation system fails. Personnel shall wear proper respiratory protection in addition
to the ventilation as specified by Bioenvironmental Engineering.
c. The painting equipment must be used only in the paint
hangar and shall be of the HVLP, airless, or air-assisted-airless type and may employ electrostatic capabilities in accordance with EPA requirements.
d. Painters shall be trained in the hazards associated with
painting fueled and unfueled aircraft, and the fire and
safety problems associated with the process.
AIRCRAFT PAINTING OPERATIONS.
5.5.1 Depot Level Aircraft Painting Operations. Depot
painting of aircraft shall conform to the following safety and
health protection precautions:
NOTE
Painting of entire aircraft will necessarily be accomplished in a variety of locations including interior areas not primarily designed for painting
operations and out-of-doors. Insofar as applicable,
all safety precautions and directions on environmental and materials controls pertain in these areas also. Painting in maintenance hangars shall be
restricted to the minimum necessary to maintain
the integrity of the coating system and shall always be under cognizance of local safety, fire and
medical service representatives. Painting in maintenance hangar will be done in accordance with
AFI 91-203.
a. Base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental, and Environmental Management Offices shall approve locations for
spray painting aircraft. Painting of fueled aircraft must
be approved by AFMC and the responsible ALC Fire
Protection Engineering Offices, and is authorized only
if the following precautions are taken. Aircraft containing JP-5 or JP-8 fuel may be electrostatically
painted during depot level operations providing the onboard fuel temperature is below the flash point of 100
°F before and during electrostatic painting operations.
5-4
The aircraft being electrostatically painted must be
grounded in two locations to prevent accidental electrical discharge from the electrostatic spray equipment.
Each base is responsible for establishing procedures to
ensure that the temperature of on-board fuel is below
100 °F before and during electrostatic painting applications.
Change 7
e. All safety and regulating features on associated spray
painting equipment and safety equipment shall be operational.
f. No unauthorized personnel are allowed in the paint
hangar during fueled aircraft painting operations.
g. Any personnel involved in operations in the paint hangar, even those not associated with the painting process, shall be briefed on the hazards of static on ungrounded objects and provided with the appropriate
safeguards.
h. All aircraft, equipment, work stands, solvents containers/buckets, people, and adjacent equipment shall be
grounded prior to using the painting equipment.
i. Prior to cleaning electrostatic paint guns, the operators
shall ensure that they and the gun are grounded and
that the equipment is deenergized. All spray nozzles
and auxiliary equipment being cleaned with flammable
solvents shall be done inside the paint hangar facility
with the ventilation system operating.
j. The manufacturers operational/safety procedural criteria is used as a supplement to these procedures.
k. All electrical equipment within the paint hangar facility must be approved for explosion proof environments. The painting equipment used for this process
TO 1-1-8
must have been tested and approved by a recognized
laboratory for NFPA70 Class I, Division I, Groups C
and D locations.
l. When painting fueled aircraft, the paint hangar facility
and aircraft shall be protected with by a fire suppression system. The fire suppression system must be fully
operational prior to the start of electrostatic painting.
Facility fire suppression required for electrostatic painting is outlined in MIL-STD-3007, ETL 02-15, and ETL
98-8.
m. Supervisory personnel must ensure all fire/safety precautions have been implemented prior to the start of
the painting operation.
f. Prior to starting a paint operation, ground all aircraft,
metal solvent containers, flammable waste containers,
airless and air-assisted airless paint spray equipment,
and adjacent equipment as deemed necessary by the
Base Safety Office.
g. Supervisory personnel must make sure all fire/safety
precautions have been implemented prior to the start
of the painting operations.
h. Painting equipment shall be the HVLP or electrostatic
type in accordance with EPA NESHAP requirements.
5.5.3 Electrostatic Aircraft Painting. Electrostatic painting of aircraft shall conform to the following safety and
health protection precautions:
n. LEL readings in the fuel vent areas must be taken prior
to the painting of each aircraft. LEL readings must be
maintained at or below 20 percent.
5.5.2 Field Level Aircraft Painting Operations. Field
level painting of aircraft shall conform to the following safety
and health protection precautions:
Electrostatic spray painting of JP-8 fueled aircraft
constitutes a significant hazard when the on-board
fuel temperature exceeds 100 °F.
a. Painting of aircraft at field level shall be limited to
only maintenance painting operations. Maintenance
painting is permitted in designated paint areas identified and approved per requirements in AFI 91-203 and
approved by the Base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental,
and Environmental Management Offices. Aircraft containing JP-5, JP-8, or equivalent fuel may be electrostatically painted at field level organizations, providing
the on-board fuel temperature is below the flash point
of 100 °F before electrostatic painting operations begin.
b. The requirements for aircraft painting in AFI 91-203
shall be strictly followed.
c. Personnel involved in painting operations of both unfueled and fueled aircraft shall be trained in the fire/
safety and environmental hazards associated with the
processes.
d. All safety and regulating features on associated spray
painting equipment and safety equipment shall be operational.
e. Unauthorized personnel will not be allowed in designated paint areas during painting operations.
Electrostatic spray painting of JP-8 fueled aircraft
constitutes a significant hazard when the on-board
fuel temperature exceeds 100 °F.
a. Aircraft to be electrostatically painted shall be defueled and purged. Exceptions: Aircraft fueled only with
JP-5 and/or JP-8 are authorized to be painted with
electrostatic airless spray equipment approved in SA
480 without being defueled and purged, providing fuel
temperature remains below 100 °F. Electrostatic spray
painting of JP-5 or JP-8 fueled aircraft can only be
performed in designated paint hangars that are approved for this function by the local base Fire, Safety,
Bioenvironmental, and Environmental Management
Offices. The aircraft being electrostatically painted
must be grounded in two locations to prevent accidental electrical discharge from the electrostatic spray
equipment. Each base is responsible for establishing
procedures to ensure that the temperature of on-board
fuel is below 100 °F before and during electrostatic
painting applications.
b. Electrostatic coating application equipment shall be
used only in paint hangars or other areas designated
and approved by the local base Fire, Safety, Bioenvironmental, and Environmental Office.
c. The ventilation system is on and operating and must
also provide sufficient exhaust to remove the solvent
vapors generated by the process. The ventilation shall
be sufficient to limit vapor concentration to 500 ppm
or 20 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower as defined in OSHA Standard 1910.94. Electrostatic painting equipment powered by an external electrical source
requires an interlock system to ensure that equipment
can only be operated if the ventilation system is operational. An interlock system is not required for pneu-
Change 7
5-5
TO 1-1-8
matically operated equipment; however, the paint hangar facility shall be equipped with an audible alarm
system which activates in the event of a ventilation
system failure.
d. All painters using the electrostatic equipment shall be
trained in its use, the hazards associated with electrostatic painting, and the fire/safety problems associated
with the process.
e. All safety and regulating features on all equipment are
operational.
f. No unauthorized personnel are allowed in the paint
hanger during electrostatic painting operations.
g. Any personnel involved in concurrent operation in the
paint hangar, not associated with the electrostatic painting process, shall be briefed on the hazards of static on
ungrounded objects and provided the appropriate safeguards.
h. All aircraft, the electrostatic equipment, work stands,
solvent containers/buckets, people, and adjacent equipment shall be grounded prior to using the electrostatic
painting equipment.
i. Prior to cleaning electrostatic paint guns, the operators
shall ensure that they and the gun are grounded and
that the equipment is deenergized.
j. The manufacturer’s operational/safety procedures are
used to supplement these procedures.
k. All electrical equipment within the paint hangar facility must be approved for explosion-proof environments. The electrostatic painting equipment used for
this process must have been tested and approved by a
recognized laboratory for Class I, Division I, Groups C
and D locations.
l. When painting aircraft fueled with JP-5 and JP-8, the
paint hangar facility and aircraft shall be protected by
a fire suppression system. The fire suppression system
must be fully operational prior to the start of electrostatic painting. Facility fire suppression required for
electrostatic painting of fueled aircraft is outlined in
MIL-STD-3007, ETL 02-15, and ETL 98-8.
m. Supervisory personnel must ensure all fire/safety countermeasures have been implemented prior to the start
of the painting operation.
n. LEL readings in the fuel vent area must be taken prior
to the painting of each aircraft. LEL readings must be
maintained at or below 20 percent.
5-6
5.5.4 Atmospheric Conditions for Painting. Normally,
coatings should not be applied under unfavorable atmospheric conditions such as high humidity, strong drafts or
extremes of temperature. Painting should be accomplished
whenever possible in an environmentally controlled facility
capable of maintaining a range of 30 to 80 percent relative
humidity and 60 °F to 90 °F. Some coatings may be applied
outside these ranges without significant adverse effects, but
paint personnel should always watch for adverse effects when
applying paint outside of these ranges and develop painting
decisions based upon local experiences for the particular
types of coatings used and the local climate. Factors to be
considered are:
5.5.4.1 The temperature of surfaces being painted should
be considered in any painting decision since it is a major
factor in the drying or cure of coatings.
5.5.4.2 Low humidity retards the cure of moisture curing
coatings.
5.5.4.3 High humidity can cause blushing of lacquers and
also may result in condensation on the coating if the temperature of the coating drops to the dew point.
5.5.4.4 Low temperatures cause slow drying, or cure, longer tack time, and sometimes incomplete cure. If the temperature is 50 °F or lower, painting operations should be
suspended.
5.5.4.5 High temperatures cause too rapid an evaporation
of solvent which leads to premature skinning, pinholes or
solvent pop, blisters, cracked finish, or excessive dry spray.
If the temperature exceeds 95 °F, painting operations should
be suspended.
5.5.4.6 The aircraft skin temperature must be at least 60
°F prior to any application of coatings. During extremely
cold weather, this may require placing the aircraft in a heated
paint facility several days in advance to ensure proper skin
temperature.
5.5.5 Test Panels. To test suitability of materials, conditions, etc., spray test panels prior to beginning operations.
The suitability shall be determined experimentally on a panel
approximately 10 x 32 inches in size coated under prevailing
conditions with the finish system that is to be applied. If the
finish system applied to the experimental panel is satisfactory, then full scale operations may begin. Defects found in
the experimental application such as blushing, poor adhesion, excessive orange peel, sagging, etc., shall be corrected
prior to large scale application. Application of catalyzed
(two-component) coatings having a long drying time usually
cannot await inspection of completely cured and dry films,
TO 1-1-8
so use the best information available from the test panels at
the beginning of the application. Test panels are not required
for component/part or maintenance painting (touch-up).
5.5.6 Material Requirements, General. Materials used
on Air Force aircraft and equipment should normally conform to Military or Federal Specifications and shall be applied as directed in this technical manual and other pertinent
technical publications.
NOTE
Unauthorized material shall not be used by Air
Force activities on aircraft and associated equipment.
5.5.6.1 Proprietary non-specification materials may exist
on aircraft and equipment as supplied by the manufacturer,
and the maintenance of these may offer special difficulties.
Normally, the repair and maintenance of proprietary coatings
should be with the same material. However, if a material
cited in this technical order is determined by the ALC corrosion manager or the weapon/item manager engineering function to be compatible with the proprietary coating, use the
cited material for touch-up. In case of complete unit stripping and recoating, only Air Force authorized specification
materials shall be used.
NOTE
If the aircraft was not prepared in the paint hangar
and was moved to the paint hangar the aircraft
must be allowed to dry (if necessary) and the aircraft skin to warm to room temperature and solvent wipe the entire aircraft surface per Paragraph
3.1.4 of the technical order.
e. Allow the primer to cure for the time specified in
Chapter 6 but no more than 8 hours. Apply two coats
of the required topcoat in the appropriate paint scheme
per Chapter 8 of this manual, aircraft drawings, or -23
manual or equivalent manual. If more than 8 hours
elapse (not to exceed 24 hours) between priming and
topcoating, the primer must be solvent wiped for reactivation per Paragraph 3.1.6 or scuff sanded with 320or 400-grit sandpaper or CID A-A-58054, Type I,
Grade A, abrasive mat per Paragraph 3.1.3 to reactivate the primer for adhesion of the topcoat. If the
primer is scuff sanded, solvent wipe per Paragraph
3.1.4 must be reaccomplished prior to topcoat application. If 24 hours elapse between priming and topcoating, solvent wipe only for reactivation is not permitted
and scuff sanding is mandatory.
5.6.1
Aircraft Paint Application Sequence.
NOTE
Avoid the possibility of incompatibility of materials under the same specification but of different
manufacture by not mixing them. Primers of different manufacture but under the same specification shall not to be mixed in the same area, but
may be applied separately to areas which are to be
overcoated. Every effort shall be made; however,
to assure that an entire topcoat is restricted to the
product of a single manufacturer and, where possible, to the same batch in order to maintain uniformity of color, gloss, etc.
5.6 THE AIRCRAFT PAINTING PROCESS SEQUENCE OF EVENTS.
a. Clean and mask the aircraft per Chapter 3 of this technical order.
b. Apply conversion coating to bare aluminum surfaces
per Chapter 3 of this technical order.
c. Allow at least 2 hours for the conversion coating to
dry and set up. Then, move the aircraft (if required) to
the paint hangar with no delay in the outside environment.
d. After the aircraft is situated in the paint facility, begin
application of the primer after 2 hours minimum to 48
hours maximum has elapsed since applying the conversion coating to the aircraft.
•
Aircraft shall be primed and painted so painter’s exposure to the spray mist or cloud is
minimized.
•
Always spray with painter’s back or side upwind, and never direct spray upwind.
•
Two or more painters spraying at the same time
shall never spray directly at each other and shall
be positioned as far apart as possible or on opposite sides of the aircraft.
•
When priming, start at the end of the aircraft
near the exhaust filter bank and move toward
the air supply.
Application of coatings on aircraft by spraying methods is
best accomplished by at least two painters supported by
helpers to handle lines, stands, etc., as required. Four painters may be required on larger aircraft. Recommended painting sequences are as follows:
5.6.1.1
haust.
5.6.1.1.1
Small Aircraft-Tail Toward Hanger/Insert ExPriming.
a. For “T” tail aircraft, apply a full wet coat of primer to
the horizontal stabilizer upper surface starting at the
Change 4
5-7
TO 1-1-8
center moving outboard to the tip with a stroke perpendicular to the leading edge. Using this same technique, prime the horizontal stabilizer lower surface and
then apply a full wet coat of primer to the outboard
edge of the tip and the front of the leading edge working from the tip to the junction with the vertical stabilizer. Apply a full wet coat of primer to each side of
the vertical stabilizer(s) starting at the top and leading
edge moving down and aft with a vertical stroke. Finally, apply a full wet coat of primer to the front of the
vertical stabilizer(s) leading edge starting at the top
moving down. For bottom mounted horizontal stabilizer aircraft prime using the same techniques as for a
“T” tail aircraft except prime the vertical stabilizer first.
Prime vertical stabilizer mounted engine nacelles using the same techniques at this time.
b. Apply a full wet coat of primer to the aft section of the
fuselage starting at the aft end and the top moving
forward and down to the junction with the wing trailing edge with a vertical stroke. Prime any aft fuselage
mounted engine nacelles using the same techniques at
this time.
c. Apply a full wet coat of primer to the lower surface of
the wings starting at the tip moving inboard to the
wing root with a stroke perpendicular to the leading
edge. Prime all wing mounted pylons, tanks, and nacelles, all main landing gear pods and doors, lower
fuselage between the wings on low wing aircraft, the
side of the fuselage beneath the wings, and the lower
fuselage on high wing aircraft using the same techniques at this time.
d. Apply a full wet coat of primer to the upper surface of
the wings starting at the tip moving inboard toward the
fuselage with a stroke perpendicular to the leading
edge. Apply a full wet coat of primer to the wing tip
outboard edge and the front of the leading edge starting at the tip and moving inboard. For low wing aircraft, prime the fuselage side above the wing and the
top of the fuselage using the same techniques at this
time.
e. Apply a full wet coat of primer to the forward section
of the fuselage starting at the wing leading edge and
the top moving down and forward to the nose with a
vertical stroke.
5.6.1.1.2
Topcoating.
a. Topcoats are applied in either a one coat or a two coat
system. For a one coat system, apply a mist coat of the
topcoat with a stroke in one direction followed immediately be a full wet cross coat with a stroke perpendicular to the stroke of the mist coat working small
5-8
areas at a time. For a two coat system, apply the first
coat with a stroke in one direction and the second coat
with a stroke perpendicular to the first coat, but after
the first coat “time to overcoat” specified for the coating system has elapsed.
b. Apply topcoat to the fuselage forward section starting
at the nose and leading edge with the initial stroke
perpendicular to the fuselage length. Apply the criteria
in step a above.
c. Apply topcoat to the upper surface of the wings starting at the tip and moving inboard toward the fuselage
with the initial stroke perpendicular to the leading
edge. Apply the criteria in step a above. For lower
wing aircraft coat the fuselage section above the wings
using the same technique at this time.
d. Apply topcoat to the lower surface of the wings starting at the tip moving inboard toward the fuselage with
the initial stroke perpendicular to the leading edge.
Apply the criteria in step a above. Apply topcoat to all
wing mounted pylons, tanks, and nacelles, all main
landing gear pods and doors, lower fuselage between
the wings on low wing aircraft, and the side of the
fuselage on high wing aircraft using the same techniques at this time. Finally, apply topcoat to the outboard edge of the tip and front of the leading edge
starting at the tip and moving inboard toward the fuselage.
e. Apply topcoat to the fuselage aft section starting at the
wing trailing edge and the top moving aft and down to
the aft end with the initial stroke perpendicular to the
aircraft length. Apply the criteria in step a above. Topcoat any aft fuselage mounted engine nacelles using
the same techniques at this time.
f. Apply topcoat to the horizontal stabilizer upper surface
on “T” tail aircraft starting at the center and moving
toward the tip with the initial stroke perpendicular to
the leading edge, and then topcoat the horizontal stabilizer lower surface starting at the tip moving inboard
to the junction with the vertical stabilizer. Topcoat each
side of the vertical stabilizer(s) on “T” tail aircraft next
starting at the top and the leading edge moving down
and aft to the junction with the fuselage with the initial
stroke in a vertical direction. Topcoat the front of the
leading edge of the vertical stabilizer(s) starting at the
top moving downward. Topcoat any vertical stabilizer
mounted engine nacelles using the same techniques at
this time. Apply the criteria in step a above. Bottom
mounted horizontal stabilizer aircraft are topcoated using the same techniques except the vertical stabilizer(s) are topcoated first.
TO 1-1-8
5.6.1.2
Large Aircraft-Nose Toward Hanger Exhaust.
5.6.1.2.1 Priming. Apply primer using the same techniques as for small aircraft with tail toward the exhaust except reverse the order of areas being primed, i.e., prime from
the nose working toward the tail.
5.6.1.2.2 Topcoating. Apply topcoat using the same techniques as for small aircraft with tail toward the exhaust except reverse the order of areas being topcoated, i.e., topcoat
from the tail working toward the nose.
5.6.1.3 Walkway Coatings. Specialty walkway coatings
applied to the upper wing main gear pods, upper fuselage,
and horizontal stabilizer: surfaces should be applied before
topcoating the aircraft. Any masking for walkway areas
should then be removed and the aircraft should then be topcoated while the walkway coating is curing. If any anti-slip
grit is added to the topcoat material for application to walkway areas, the above does not apply; and the walkway areas
should be coated with topcoat material to which anti-slip grit
is added as the second topcoat for these areas.
5.6.2 Overspraying Existing Coating Systems on Aircraft and Aerospace Equipment. It is always better to start
a paint system from bare metal; however, it is feasible to
overspray existing paint systems. For aircraft, this must be
authorized by Chapter 8 of this manual or the weapon system specific technical orders.
NOTE
Adhesion failure between coatings requires complete removal of the nonadhering coating. When
intercoat adhesion failure occurs over large areas,
overcoating shall not be accomplished and complete strip/repaint is required. Refer to Chapter 2
of this technical order for removal.
a. Clean, mask, scuff sand, and vacuum surface to be
overcoated per Paragraph 3.1.3 of this technical order.
b. Apply conversion coating to repair bare aluminum surfaces per Chapter 3 of this technical order.
c. Allow at least 2 hours for the conversion coating to
dry and set up. Aircraft requiring movement to a paint
hangar must be moved with minimal delay in the outside environment.
d. After the aircraft or equipment is situated in the paint
facility, or after 2 hours minimum has elapsed since
applying the conversion coating to the aircraft, solvent
wipe the entire aircraft surface per Paragraph 3.1.4 of
this technical order.
NOTE
If the aircraft was not prepared in the paint hangar
and was moved to the paint hangar after scuff
sanding, the aircraft must be allowed to dry (if
necessary) and the aircraft skin to warm to room
temperature before final solvent wipe and before
conversion coating application if not already done.
e. Begin overcoating within 48 hours after scuff sanding
and conversion coating operations and immediately after solvent wipe down and tack rag if available per
paragraph 3.1.27. Apply one thin/mist coat of MILPRF-23377 Type I, Class C1 or C2 (one full wet coat
per Table 5-2 to large bare metal areas) to the entire
aircraft or equipment exterior painted surface per instructions in Paragraph 5.6. Allow primer to dry per
Chapter 6, but no more than 8 hours. Apply two coats
of the required topcoat MIL-PRF-85285 and appropriate paint scheme per Chapter 8 of this manual, aircraft
drawings, -23 manual, or equipment manual. If more
than 8 hours elapse (not to exceed 24 hours) between
priming and topcoat, the primer must be solvent wiped
for reactivation per Paragraph 3.1.6 or scuff sanded
with 320- or 400-grit sandpaper per Paragraph 3.1.3 to
reactivate the primer for adhesion of the topcoat. If the
primer is scuff sanded, solvent wipe per Paragraph
3.1.4 must be reaccomplished prior to topcoat application. To achieve a dust and lint free surface prior to
topcoat application, it is recommended to tack rag. If
24 hours elapses between priming and topcoating, solvent wipe for reactivation is not permitted and scuff
sanding is mandatory.
f. A non-chromated tiecoat/Primer (Class N) may be used
for overcoating of existing coating systems after scuff
sanding. This is an alternative to MIL-PRF-23377 Type
I, Class C1 or C2. All bare metal areas must have
primer applied using MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class
C1 or C2 before application of the tiecoat. Allow 2
hours for the primer to dry, but not more than 8 hours,
prior to application of the tiecoat. Apply the tiecoat
and topcoat per Paragraph 5.6.2 for MIL-PRF-23377,
Type I, Class C1 or C2 and MIL-PRF-85285.
NOTE
These primers do not provide adequate corrosion
protection and shall not be applied over bare metal
areas.
5.6.3 Curing of Finishes. After painting, allow aircraft
finish system to cure in a dust-free temperature controlled
atmosphere for a sufficient time prior to placing in service.
In the absence of a temperature controlled facility, the aircraft shall not be flown for at least 72 hours after painting. In
general, all painted aircraft should be handled, taxied, etc.,
as little as possible during the first week after painting.
Change 4
5-9
TO 1-1-8
5.6.4 Coating Thickness Measurements. Wet and dry
film gauges are available as local purchase items from various laboratory supply houses. If paint film thickness measuring instruments are not available, small (2 x 6 inches) anodized aluminum panels will be used for measurement of the
paint thickness after drying. Apply these panels to each side
of the fuselage with a section of 1 inch wide masking tape
doubled back on itself with adhesive contacting the panel
and the aircraft surface prior to the painting operation. Mask
one end of the panel with tape for a distance of approximately 2 inches to provide a comparison of the original panel
thickness and the thickness after painting. Remove the panel
after application of the primer so that immediate maintenance painting can be used to cover those areas previously
protected by the panel. This procedure will also permit locating other panels on various portions of the same aircraft to
provide a good indication of the overall paint thickness. The
location of panels depends upon inspection procedures and
may vary throughout the aircraft. Each aircraft should use a
set of panels for each different operation employed on the
aircraft identified by the name of the painter, aircraft model,
and the date of painting, to provide follow-on data during
any subsequent service evaluation. Slight errors in paint
thickness measurements can be expected when using this
method due to thickness tolerances for the basic aluminum
sheet. Measure the paint thickness with an ordinary micrometer possessing flat contact surfaces. Micrometers with
pointed or rounded contact surfaces are not recommended.
At least six readings shall be taken on both painted and unpainted portions of each panel to provide an average paint
thickness measurement. When using a wet film gauge or an
Table 5-2.
5.6.5 Allowable Coating Thickness. Because of the
greatly reduced corrosion protection for a dried film thickness of less than 0.6 mils (0.0006 inch), solitary primer films
below this thickness shall be avoided. Attaining proper coating thickness by spraying is a matter of technique plus
checking. There is a limit to the thickness that can be applied
in one pass because of protracted drying time or possible
sagging of the film. This must be considered in obtaining the
total desired thickness. Also, there is a tendency with coating
materials of good hiding power to increase the spreading
rate as the work progresses and this must be curbed. Operator fatigue may alter the speed of working, but this should
not be allowed to result in applying more or less material to
the surface. Changing atmospheric conditions during operations may have to be compensated for in order to continue
applying a uniform film. Frequent checks with a wet film
thickness gauge shall be made during painting to ascertain
and control film thickness. Thickness cannot be gauged accurately without instruments, but lacking these, the best assurance of consistent films is in correct adjustment of the
gun for the material being applied and the use of good
judgement. See Table 5-2 for dry film thickness ranges of
various primers and topcoats.
Allowable Coating Thickness for Production Level Finishing (Depot, Original Manufacture, Field)
Coating Specification
MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85582
Epoxy Primers
TT-P-2760 Elastomeric Polyurethane
Primer
MIL-PRF-85285 High Solids Polyurethane Coating
MIL-PRF-22750 Topcoat
5-10
electronic dry film gauge, a minimum of six readings shall
also be taken. Take readings in a 1 square foot area that is
representative of the entire area bring painted. Rejection is
only if the average of the six readings falls outside of the
thickness range for that particular paint system.
Change 7
Number of Coats
One coat
Dry Film
Thickness Range (inches)1
Minimum2
Maximum2
0.0006
0.0009
To Be Reactivated3
Mist, “Light Dust Coat” Activation
After Reactivation, Total
Two coats
One coat
0.0004
0.0002
0.0006
0.0008
0.0015
0.0013
0.0005
0.0009
0.0020
0.0020
Two coats
One coat (without cross coat)
0.0017
0.0017
0.0030
0.0023
One or two coats (with cross coat)
Three to four coats4
One coat
Two coats
0.0016
0.0048
0.0008
0.0016
0.0050
0.0070
0.0020
0.0040
TO 1-1-8
Table 5-2.
Allowable Coating Thickness for Production Level Finishing (Depot, Original Manufacture, Field)
- Continued
Coating Specification
MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 Fuel
Tank Coating
Number of Coats
Two coats
Dry Film
Thickness Range (inches)1
Minimum2
Maximum2
0.0008
0.0012
1
In most cases the desired coating thickness should be the low to nominal for the range specified unless there is a requirement for thicker coatings. The higher end of the range is not intended to be the mean or average of thickness
measurements (unless it is required) but to allow for overlaps, etc., that occur in localized areas or sections of a part
or surface. Measurements should not be taken around edges or holes and considerations must be allowed where overlap occurs such as in angles and on irregular surfaces.
2
Lower end of thickness range is expected when painting detail parts and small assemblies. Mid to high end of thickness range is often needed when finishing large areas such as the exterior of aircraft.
3
A single coat which is to be reactivated with a ″light dust coat″ before topcoat application after scuff sanding.
4
This coating thickness is intended for use only in specific areas where wear or abrasion are a factor, such as leading
edges. These unique requirements should be specified in finish documents.
5.6.6 Inspection Control. Inspection shall enforce the requirements of this technical manual.
a. Proper and adequate equipment shall be used at all
times.
b. Materials shall be thoroughly mixed with thinners and
catalysts properly proportioned.
c. Ensure that thorough cleaning and proper preparations
are taken prior to application of each coat, proper drying times are observed before recoating, and coatings
are applied at the proper thickness.
d. Ensure the general appearance, texture, color, and gloss
are acceptable. No sand paper finish to exceed approximately 320 grit coarseness, wrinkling, crazing, blistering, fisheye, lifting, or pitting/cupping as defined in
this technical order is permissible but not exceed limits
of Paragraph 5.6.6.2.6.
5.6.6.1 Certain physical tests shall be made before, during, or after coating operations:
5.6.6.1.1 Water Break Test (refer to Paragraph 3.1.9).
5.6.6.1.2 Spray Test Panel (refer to Paragraph 5.5.4).
5.6.6.1.3 Coating Thickness Measurement (refer to Paragraph 5.6.2).
5.6.6.1.4 Adhesion (Wet) Tape Test. This method covers a
procedure suitable for establishing acceptability of intercoat
and total surface adhesion of an organic coating system.
5.6.6.1.4.1 Adhesion tests shall be made on the completed
exterior finish system after drying for a period of at least 48
hours in a sufficient number of selected areas to ensure a
satisfactory level of adhesion for the overall finish system.
5.6.6.1.4.2 To perform this test, wet a piece of cloth/gauze
pad with either tap or distilled water and cover with plastic
sheet taped on the area under inspection. The test area shall
be soaked for 24 hours minimum and shall have a minimum
diameter of 3 inches.
5.6.6.1.4.3 Remove the wet cloth and plastic sheet and
blot up the surface water. Immediately apply a 1-inch strip
of tape, PN 250, manufactured by 3M Company, (NSN
7510-00-283-0612), age of tape not to exceed 3 years, adhesive side down. Press the tape down, using two passes of a 4
1/2 pound rubber covered roller or employ firm pressure with
the hand.
NOTE
This tape is the only approved tape (no alternatives or substitutes).
5.6.6.1.4.4 Remove the tape in one abrupt motion and examine the test area for any paint damage such as removal of
one of the layers of the finish system or removal of the entire
system from metal. Any removal constitutes failure of the
wet tape test.
5.6.6.1.4.5 Gloss shall be measured in accordance with
the general procedures described in Federal Test Method
Standard 141, Method 6101 and 6103, except that the measurements will be made on flat or approximately flat surfaces
5-11
TO 1-1-8
of the aircraft instead of a test panel. The test shall be made
on the complete exterior finish after drying for a period of at
least 24 hours in a sufficient number of areas to assure that
the required gloss has been obtained. See Table 5-3.
Table 5-3.
Gloss Meter
Degrees
60
60
60
60
60 and 85*
(both)
*
Gloss Requirements
Paint System
Reading
Semi-gloss
High-gloss
Gloss
Camouflage
Gunship*
Unit
35-45
90 Min
80 Min
7 Max
3 Max
Both Meters Required
5.6.6.2 Evaluation and classification of discrepancies for
complete aircraft painting.
5.6.6.2.1 The paint system, pattern, and markings shall be
in accordance with weapon system specific TOs, aircraft
drawings, or other applicable directives, and Chapter 8 of
this manual.
5.6.6.2.2 Colors of camouflage pattern shall fade and blend
into each other with irregular lines of demarcation, with no
straight or sharp lines.
5.6.6.2.3 No color variation in any single color area of the
camouflage pattern or paint scheme when the surface is
viewed with the unaided eye from a distance of 50 feet is
allowed. Touch-up of the paint system to correct minor discrepancies by the paint activity will produce some minor
color variation and is acceptable.
5.6.6.2.4 No more than two minor sags or runs per 50
square feet of surface is allowed (a minor sag run is one
which does not exceed 2 inches in length).
5.6.6.2.6 Fifteen or more individual discrepancies, any
combination of discrepancies with a total area of 15 or more
square feet, or any one discrepancy with an area of 5 or
more square feet wrinkling, crazing, blistering, lifting, or pitting/cupping as defined in this technical order, or peeling of
topcoat to primer or primer to bare metal shall be reported as
a major defect. List all these discrepancies by number found
and type, area of each, and total area of all discrepancies.
NOTE
Failure of 25 percent of the wet tape adhesion tests
prescribed here shall be reported as major defect.
List all failures of this test by location on the aircraft.
5.6.6.3 Frequency of Inspection. The quality control plan
and frequency of inspection shall be decided by local quality
control authority. For large surface painting (e.g., the partial
or complete repaint of an aircraft), a predetermined number
of tests may be applied to sampled areas of each item. For
subassembly and component painting, inspection of paint
shop workmanship may be covered by in-process inspection
or inspections of representative samples items according to a
sampling plan either on a time basis or production count
basis. Testing shall be kept to the minimum necessary to
determine acceptability of the finished work. System and
Item Managers have the option to specify a frequency of test
in technical orders or work specifications on their equipment.
5.6.7 Soil Barrier Coating. If approved by weapon system technical order, this coating may be applied to all newly
painted aircraft in the jet engine exhaust, APU exhaust, and
gun/rocket blast exhaust areas to protect the newly painted
surfaces. If left unprotected, the above areas will be very
difficult to clean after exposure to the aforementioned exhausts. This material and application procedures are called
out in TO 1-1-691. If used, the soil barrier coating shall be
applied after the topcoat cures at least 24 hours and prior to
engine run-up.
5.7 INTERIOR FINISHING PROCEDURES AND OPERATIONS.
NOTE
Slight orange peel appearance is inherent with the
PR-1432 GV polysulfide primer/MIL-PRF-85285
polyurethane paint system and is acceptable.
5.7.1 Preparation for Coating. Cleaning and anodizing
(new parts) or chemical surface treatment of metals and metal
parts per Chapter 3 is a necessary prerequisite on all interior
surfaces prior to priming and painting operations.
5.6.6.2.5 The paint system shall pass the paint adhesion
wet tape test. Candidate test areas shall include the following
(where applicable): Upper center wing, left and right upper
inboard and outboard wing, left and right lower wing surface
(inboard and outboard), left and right horizontal stabilizer
surface (upper and lower), left or right side of vertical stabilizer, cargo door, main landing gear pod, engine pylon, engine nacelle, left and right side of fuselage forward and aft,
lower fuselage or belly (multiple sites shall be selected for
this area). Failure of this test includes peeling of topcoat to
primer as well as primer to bare metal.
5.7.2 Coating Application. Interior surfaces previously
primed with TT-P-1757 may be touched up using MIL-PRF85582, Type I, Class C1 or C2. All other interior surfaces
shall be finished with MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class C1 or
C2 epoxy primer. If appearance is of concern, the epoxy
primer may be topcoated. For areas specified to be of a particular color, Sherwin Williams DTM Gloss Latex Enamel or
MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane shall be applied over the
primer in the desired FED-STD-595 color and in the same
manner and with the same precautions and restrictions as are
5-12
Change 4
TO 1-1-8
Use 180-grit paper or nylon abrasive matting material
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A or B, very fine or
fine for scuff sanding. Grit size down to 120 may be
used as long as care is taken not to score the metal
surfaces.
prescribed for exterior finishing in this technical order. The
interior colors prescribed by MIL-C-8779 shall be applied in
the locations called out in that specification, the aircraft
drawings, or the aircraft -23 technical order.
5.7.3 Refinishing of Fiber Glass Components. Proceed
as follows:
a. Remove the topcoat per Chapter 2.
c. Wipe scuffed or sanded areas with approved solvent
per Paragraph 3.1.4. Repair damaged conversion coatings per Paragraph 3.1.16 and Paragraph 3.1.17.
b. Thoroughly solvent clean per Chapter 3.
5.8.2
c. On the epoxy-primed surface:
5.8.2.1
(1) Sand the surface with 280-grit abrasive paper and
solvent clean. Do not sand through the primer.
(2) Reactivate the surface per Chapter 3.
(3) Apply one coat of MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class
C1 or C2 epoxy primer.
(4) Apply two coats of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I polyurethane topcoat.
5.8
MAINTENANCE PAINTING.
Closely inspect candidate areas for extent of damage and
maintenance painting required. If inspection reveals major
paint failure or damage, such as chipped or peeled paint from
the center of a skin panel, the involved skin section should
be prepared and maintenance painted from seam to seam. If
only minor damage is found, i.e., paint chipped or missing
from screw/rivet heads and on outer edges of skin panel(s)
the specific area may be prepared and maintenance painted.
Prepare damaged area(s) and paint as follows:
5.8.1 Epoxy or Polyurethane Primer/Polyurethane
Topcoat. Proceed as follows:
a. Thoroughly clean area to be repainted.
b. Feather edges of coating adjacent to peeled section and
scuff sand the other area(s) to be coated per Chapter 3.
Primer and Polyurethane Touch-Up.
Brush or Spray. Proceed as follows:
a. Apply (brush or spray) one thin coat of epoxy primer,
Specification MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class C1 or C2;
MIL-PRF-85582, Type I, Class C1 or C2; or Polyurethane Primer, TT-P-2760, Type I, Class C to area being
touched up. Thoroughly mix the primer materials per
instructions in Chapter 6 before use, but the viscosity
need not be checked.
b. Apply one full wet coat of MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat in the required color. If required, apply a
second coat after allowing 1-4 hours curing period for
the first coat.
5.8.2.2
Touch-Up Pen. Proceed as follows:
a. Touch-up using MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class C1 or
C2 or MIL-PRF-85582, Type I, Class C1 or C2 epoxy
primer and MIL-PRF-85285, Type I high solids polyurethane in the touch-up applicator pen. These self
contained touch up applicators are available by national
stock number under the coating specification.
b. The applicator provides two-component pre-measured
materials which are separated by a barrier, Figure 5-1.
To mix the materials for use, displace the barrier separating the materials by sliding the tube collar all the
way to the back of the applicator, Figure 5-2. Shake
the applicator vigorously by hand until the materials
are thoroughly mixed (approximately 1 minute).
Change 1
5-13
TO 1-1-8
valve which allows the coating material to flow when
the tube is gently squeezed, Figure 5-3. Use the brush
to distribute primer onto the work surface as required.
Replace the brush cap when the applicator is not being
used.
Figure 5-1.
Sempen
Figure 5-3.
Sempen Application
d. Apply one full wet coat of MIL-PRF-85285 mixed
polyurethane topcoat with a touch-up pen in the same
manner. If required, apply a second coat after allowing
1-4 hours curing period for the first coat.
5.8.3
Figure 5-2.
Sempen Mixing
After mixing, remove the brush cap and press the
applicator against a test article to bleed off any
internal pressure that may have formed during
storage.
c. Apply the primer by pressing the applicator brush
against the work surface. This opens the spring-loaded
5-14
Change 1
Aerosol Touch-Up.
a. Power Pak Spray Unit NSN 4940-00-803-6444, Specification MIL-S-22805/SAE-AS-22805, Type I, Class
134A (PN M22805-1-134A) may be valuable aid in
accomplishing field maintenance painting. (See Figure
5-4). The kit is designed to be disposable and intended
for use in isolated areas when air spray guns cannot be
used or are not available. Replacement propellant HFC/
Type R134A propellant cans may be obtained under
CID A-A-58060, Type R134A, (PN AA58060R134AW034).
TO 1-1-8
b. Preval Spray Unit, 8020-01-501-3127, (Preval Sprayer
Kit with Power Unit and Glass Bottle), or 8020-01496-2473, (Preval Power Unit only). Each power unit
is capable of spraying up to 16 oz of liquid.
(7) Use overlap stroke pattern for uniform application. Best performance is achieved when can is
used in a vertical position. If can must be tilted, it
may sputter. To correct, turn nozzle in 90° increments to ensure feed tube is immersed.
(8) For cleanup and disposal, invert aerosol can and
spray until clear. Dispose of can in accordance
with hazardous waste disposal regulations.
Figure 5-4.
Spray Tool
c. Two component aerosol containing mil-spec qualified
primer and topcoats from Akzo Nobel (NSN 8010-01528-XXXX) Figure 5-5. The spray nozzle on the aerosol can has an adjustable fan for vertical and horizontal
application.
Apply
per
manufacturer’s
recommended instructions or by using the following
steps:
(1) Activate can by removing the red button from
cap and attach to pin on the bottom of the can.
The pot life of the aerosol after activation is approximately 48 hours.
(2) Using the ball of your hand or a hard stable surface, push on the red cap, depressing it into the
can until stop is reached.
(3) To test activation, the plastic pin should be move
easily when pushed after button is removed. To
prevent Foreign Object Damage (FOD), discard
the red plastic button in trash bin or FOD container.
(4) Invert the can and shake vigorously for 2 to 3
minutes to mix hardener and base. Follow can
label instruction for appropriate induction time.
(5) Clean and prepare the surface per applicable TO
instruction. Distance from spray nozzle to surface
should be 8 - 10 inches.
Figure 5-5.
Two-Component Aerosol
5.8.4 Brush/Roller Touch-Up. Paint brushes and rollers
can be used effectively for touch-up and maintenance painting, but they will not produce the esthetic results of a spray
application. Some advantages of brush and roller touch-up
over spray application are:
(6) Rotating spray tip select either vertical or horizontal spray fan.
Change 4
5-15
TO 1-1-8
5.8.4.1 Masking is minimized, and in most cases, is not
required at all.
5.8.4.2 More economical for small area and low volume
painting because much less paint is required.
5.8.4.3 More efficient for application of stencil type markings and grit containing anti-slip walkway coatings.
5.8.4.4 Requirements for solvent thinners is very limited.
5.8.4.5 Coating transfer efficiency is almost 100 percent
with no over spray and very little air pollution that is generated by a small amount of solvent evaporation.
5.8.4.6 Hazardous and non-hazardous waste is minimized
and limited to used brushes or roller covers and small
amounts of excess primer or paint.
5.8.4.7 Can be performed in standard maintenance facilities without specialized ventilation and air filtering while
other maintenance is being performed.
5.8.4.8 PPE is limited to chemical type gloves and eye
protection (face shield or chemical type goggles).
5.8.5 Brush Application. It is very difficult to get a smooth
professional appearance without brush strokes with the brush
touch-up method on metal surfaces. Therefore, brush
touch-up should be limited to areas of 1 square foot or less
and preferably to areas of 1 square inch or less, such as
fastener heads. Use a fine, flat nylon or nylon/polyester blend
bristle brush with a chiseled tip or a triangular tip foam brush
having a width appropriate for the job at hand. The application procedure is as follows:
a. Scuff sand and solvent wipe the touch-up area per
Chapter 3.
b. Mix and thin the primer or paint for brush application
per Chapter 6 and the manufacturer’s instructions. Mix
the least amount possible for the job at hand.
NOTE
Pint quantities are more economical than quart or
larger quantities to avoid waste of the unused portions when doing small touch-up jobs.
c. Dip the brush to 1/2 its bristle length into the paint or
primer and no more. Remove the brush and press it
lightly against the inside of the container to distribute
the liquid throughout the thickness of the brush and
eliminate any excess. Do not drag the brush over the
container rim as this will form bubbles in liquid in the
container.
d. Grasp the brush at the bottom of the handle as if holding a pencil at a 60° angle to the surface. Start the
brush stroke on one side of the touch-up area with
5-16
Change 1
light pressure in the “feathered” paint area, heavier
pressure in the bare area, and light pressure again in
the opposite “feathered” paint area.
e. If the area is completely covered, blend the paint into
all the “feathered” edges using just the brush tip stroked
at several different angles across the initial stroke; and
proceed to the next area.
f. If the area is not completely covered, begin the next
stroke parallel to the first stroke with an overlap of
about 1/4 of the brush width using the same pressure
methods as in step d and replenishing the paint or
primer on the brush per step c as needed. When the
entire area is covered blend the paint or primer as in
step e.
g. If primer was applied, allow the proper cure time; then
apply the topcoat using the same brush techniques as
in step a through step f.
5.8.6 Roller Application. While not as good as sprayers
for metal surfaces, rollers do provide a smoother and more
professional appearance than brushes. Therefore, rollers may
be used to touch-up large areas. The most effective roller
covers for application of primer are manufactured from ultra
high-density sponge (Table 5-4). The most effective roller
covers for topcoat are manufactured from lint-free, extradensity, high-quality, soft-woven fabric, with a maximum nap
length of 1/4 inch (Table 5-5). The core roller center should
be resistant to water and solvent. Choose a handle of the
proper length and a roller of the right width (3 to 9 inches)
for the job at hand, and use one with a splatter shield to
prevent the coating from splattering on personnel and other
surfaces not being coated. For large areas, power or automatic feed rollers are more efficient and their use eliminates
the possibility of spillage from open containers. To minimize
spillage when using manual rollers, use coating container
grids. Move the roller across the grid to eliminate excess
coating material. Polyurethanes and epoxy coatings require a
little more paint on the roller during application to achieve a
smooth surface and a second cross-coat may be required.
The application procedure is as follows:
a. Scuff sand and solvent wipe the touch-up area per
Chapter 3.
b. Mix and thin the primer or paint for roller application
per Chapter 6 and the manufacturer’s instructions. Mix
the least amount possible for the job at hand. Insert the
vertical, portable, metal grid into the container; or pour
the liquid into the power/automatic feed roller reservoir.
c. Dip the roller fully into the primer or paint. Withdraw
the roller and move the roller across the vertical metal
grid to distribute the liquid throughout the roller pile
and eliminate any excess. For power or automatic feed
rollers, depress the feed trigger until the roller is full of
liquid; and move the roller across a vertical, portable,
TO 1-1-8
metal grid mounted in an empty container after the
initial filling only to distribute the liquid throughout
the pile evenly.
d. Always start application in a corner of the area being
touched up. The maximum area of coverage should be
about 9 square feet before moving to an adjacent area.
Place the free end of the roller about 3 feet away from
where the roller stroke will end so that it covers a
small portion of the left or right “feathered” edge of
the area being touched up completely and with the
roller at an angle to this edge. For horizontal surfaces,
always make the first stroke away from you and, without lifting the roller from the surface, make alternate
strokes toward and away from you to form a “W” pattern. For vertical surfaces, always make the first stroke
upward and, without lifting the roller from the surface,
make alternate up and down strokes to form an “M”
pattern. Fill in the gaps in the “W” or “M” patterns
Table 5-4.
e. If the touch-up area is not entirely covered, touch-up a
section adjacent to the first section making sure it over
laps the first section about 2 inches. Application is by
the same techniques as in step d.
f. If primer was applied, allow the proper cure time and
then apply the topcoat using the same roller techniques
as in step a through step e.
Suggested/Approved Rollers for Primer
Nomenclature
Roller Kit, Paint (Sponge Roller, Roller Handle
and Tray)
Table 5-5.
with crisscrossing strokes of the roller moving back
across the “W” or “M” pattern and still not lifting the
roller from the surface. Make sure that the entire section is completely covered, including its “feathered”
edges, before moving to an adjacent section or finishing the touch-up of an area less than 9 square feet.
Always use even pressure on the roller to prevent
bubbles and blotches in the primer or paint.
Specifications/Part Number
97610 (2 in. Roller)
97614 (4 in. Roller)
97616 (6 in. Roller)
National Stock Number
8020-01-566-8652
8020-01-566-8654
8020-01-566-8655
Suggested/Approved Rollers for Topcoat
Nomenclature
Specifications/Part Number
Roller Kit, Paint (Roller, ¼ in. Soft Woven Nap, 99103 (3 in. Roller)
Roller Handle and Tray)
99104 (4 in. Roller)
99105 (7 in. Roller)
5.8.7 Temporary Protection. When polyurethane is not
available, repair of paint systems with MIL-DTL-85054,
Type I or II, CPC sprayed on or brushed on bare metal areas
for protection until polyurethane is available, is permissible.
(See TO 1-1-691) Complete painting of aircraft with other
than polyurethane MIL-PRF-85285 is not authorized.
5.8.8 Powder Coating. New support equipment is being
delivered coated with thermoplastic or thermoset powder
coatings. Thermoplastic powder coatings are generally applied to a surface that has been preheated to a temperature
significantly higher than melting point of the powder,
whereas thermoset powders contain a heat-activated catalyst
and are generally applied to a surface at ambient temperature. The surface and the powder are then heated and, as the
temperature rises past the melt temperature of the powder, it
melts to the surface.
National Stock Number
8020-01-566-8650
8020-01-566-8653
8020-01-566-8651
5.8.8.1 Surface Preparation. In situations where complete removal of the thermoplastic/thermoset powder coatings are required, they shall be stripped with PMB, Type II
or Type V, using procedures listed in Paragraph 2.11. Chemical paint removal procedures listed in this TO are very ineffective at removing these coating and, therefore, should not
be used.
5.8.8.2 Maintenance Painting. Maintenance painting of
thermoplastic/thermoset powder coatings shall be accomplished using epoxy or polyurethane topcoat procedures listed
in Paragraph 5.8.
Change 1
5-17/(5-18 blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 6
USAF STANDARD COATING SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT
6.1
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC COATINGS.
Customarily, finishing materials are classed as paints, enamels, lacquers, and special coatings such as epoxies and polyurethanes. The word “paint” is loosely used to mean all finishing materials. Modern coatings now include quite different
components in combinations that do not fall into the old
categories. Coating materials used by the Air Force are generally identified by the basic classifications above. General
information on materials in these categories used by the Air
Force is presented here.
in protective primers. The particular pigment used depends
upon the metal that is to be protected, steel, aluminum, magnesium, etc., and the environment to which it is to be subjected.
NOTE
The theoretical function of a protective paint is to
physically exclude environment from the metal
surface; but, practically, it rarely succeeds entirely.
All organic films are moisture permeable to some
degree. Also, tiny physical defects in a film are
usually present to some degree or develop in time.
General practice is to supplement the physical
protective properties of coatings with materials
that provide electrochemical protection either by
using surface conversion coating treatments (refer
to Chapter 3), or by inclusion of corrosion-inhibiting pigments in the primer coatings.
NOTE
6.2
•
National Stock Numbers (NSN) for specific
coatings and related materials are to be obtained
from FSC (normally FSC 8000). Also, see the
current GSA Catalog and the DO43 System to
convert specification and part numbers to
NSNs.
•
To determine the proper paint system for specific equipment, refer to -23 TOs, and aircraft
paint drawings, for aircraft; TO 35-1-3 for support equipment; or specific repair TOs.
6.4
CONSTITUENTS OF ORGANIC COATINGS.
Modern paints may be a mixture of many things, but the
primary constituents are pigment, vehicle (the film former),
and solvents. Secondary components (although they may still
be of prime importance) may be extenders, driers, antioxidants, surfactants, light-filtering agents, and/or other additives. When special properties are required such as luminescence, fluorescence, fire retardant, etc., materials to provide
these are also added.
6.3
PIGMENTS.
Pigments are finely divided, substantially insoluble, and usually opaque materials incorporated into paints to provide
color, hiding power, and specific qualities such as light and
heat reflectance (or heat absorption), corrosion-inhibition,
and certain flow characteristics. Pigments may be inorganic
or organic types and of either natural or synthetic origin.
Examples are the metallic compounds such as zinc oxide
and titanium dioxide in white and light tinted paints, zinc
chromate in primers to give yellow coloration and act as a
corrosion inhibitor, chromium oxide for green, iron oxide for
red, etc. Synthetic agents or dyes are also widely used. A
limited number of pigments are used as corrosion inhibitors
VEHICLE.
The vehicle is the liquid portion of the coating. It is the most
significant part of the coating as it furnishes desired qualities
of adhesion, toughness, flexibility, and resistance to various
environments. The vehicle consists of non-volatile and volatile portions. The non-volatile includes resins, drying oils,
and plasticizers that become the binding agent in the cured
film. Upon evaporation of the volatile portion, the non-volatiles form the actual film on the surface together with the
pigment, if one is present. Vehicles appear in a multitude of
combinations, containing many materials. A varnish vehicle
in enamels generally contains an oil-modified alkyd resin,
thinners, and driers. A lacquer vehicle consists mainly of
resins, solvents, and plasticizers.
6.5 PREPARATION OF COATING MATERIALS FOR
USE, GENERAL.
Containers of paint may develop internal pressure
during storage and should be opened with caution.
Coating materials shall be prepared for application under
clean conditions with clean equipment. Paint shops shall be
equipped with mechanical paint agitators of suitable capacity. The proper sequence for preparing packaged materials
prior to each use is as follows:
6-1
TO 1-1-8
a. Allow materials to come to room temperature.
b. Remove lids and inspect paint for skin-over, gelling,
lumps, etc. Skins, if present, shall be carefully removed
and discarded, retaining liquids which drain from them.
Gelled, lumpy, or otherwise deteriorated paints shall
not be used.
NOTE
Cans of pigmented paint with non-resealable lids
should not be opened and inspected until after the
original mechanical agitation.
c. Thoroughly agitate all pigmented paints using a mechanical agitator prior to thinning and prior to and during application.
d. Thinning shall be controlled by weight, volume, or
viscosity measurement to obtain and maintain proper
and uniform consistency. Thin according to manufacturer’s instructions or the specification for the material.
When the volatile organic compound (VOC) content
of coatings is regulated, thin only with exempt thinner
or solvent, and do not use non-VOC compliant thinners or solvents such as MIL-T-81772 to reduce high
solids primers and topcoats. Reducing with non-VOC
compliant thinners or solvents can cause high solids
coatings to exceed the maximum allowable VOC content in violation of air pollution regulations.
trouble either through negligence or lack of knowledge. All
coating materials require preparation prior to application, and
problems with color, gloss, hiding power, film application
characteristics, adhesion, and curing can be expected if materials are not adequately prepared. For two-component materials, the components must be thoroughly mixed with each
other and in the exact specified proportions or curing and
adhesion problems will occur. Pigments, which give color
and other desirable characteristics to coatings, are generally
insoluble and heavier than the liquid portion of the coating
material, so they eventually settle out of suspension. The
consistency or viscosity of the liquid portion determines the
rate of settling; for example, pigments mixed with a thinner
alone would settle out in a few minutes; but in a paint vehicle, it might take months. The practice of thinning too
much material at a time and pouring unused portions of the
material back into the original container with unthinned material lowers the total consistency and increases the rate of
settling and should not be done. Settled material usually redisperses readily unless the material is over-aged or has become exposed to the atmosphere. In some materials, such as
some vinyl based materials, settling may be accompanied by
a change in chemical structure after storage of only a few
months. Such changes are not reversible; therefore, judgment
should be employed whenever using them.
NOTE
e. Reduction and/or catalyzation of coatings shall be in
accordance with Paragraph 6.6, Paragraph 6.7, and the
specific coating paragraph as well as the manufacturer’s instructions. If this does not produce the proper
spraying viscosity, quality control personnel shall be
consulted.
After a coating materials shelf life has expired,
thoroughly test material per Appendix A before
using it. If an aged material appears unsuitable
after appropriate attempts at mixing and reducing,
it should be discarded. If the quantity involved is
large, laboratory tests by Robins Science and Engineering Laboratory to determine its continued
conformance to specification requirements will be
required before its use or its disposal.
f. Strain all material to be used in spray equipment
through fine-mesh strainers or cheesecloth.
6.6.1 Method of Mixing. Mixing in containers shall be
done per the following methods:
6.6 MIXING AND THINNING OF COATING MATERIALS, GENERAL.
a. Hand-mixing of single-component materials and the
catalyst component of two-component materials in cans
and drums, per the manufacturer’s instructions, using
wooden or plastic paddles.
Mixing shall be done in controlled areas that are
well ventilated and away from any open flame or
other source of ignition and direct sunlight. Forced
air ventilation, preferable with air flow from the
back of personnel to an exhaust in front of them.
For two-component materials, an organic vapor
type respirator shall be worn as a minimum, with
the air supplied type being preferable.
Mixing of coating materials may seem too elementary to
require lengthy discussion, but it is a very common source of
6-2
b. Mixing of one-component materials and the base component only of two-component materials in containers
up to 5 gallons is best accomplished by using mechanical shakers that vibrate or shake the unopened container.
c. Accomplish mixing of one-component materials and
the base and catalyst components of two-component
materials with low speed mechanical paddles.
TO 1-1-8
6.6.2 Mixing Test. A simple test of complete mixing is to
flow samples down an inclined piece of glass. Irregularities
of color or flow will indicate incomplete mixing. Comparison of materials from the bottom and top of a container may
be made by this method.
6.7
beyond determination in the field; hence, only
authorized thinners specifically called out for
use with a given coating shall be used to thin it.
•
SOLVENTS, DILUENTS, AND THINNERS.
At ordinary room temperatures, the consistency or viscosity
of mixtures of oils, pigments, and resins that make up coating materials is too high to allow spreading them effectively
over surfaces in the desired thickness. Also, most resins are
solids and need to be dissolved in a liquid before they can be
dispersed. A solvent has the essential function of reducing
the viscosity of the vehicle portion of the material to the
point where it can be managed. Solvents do not react chemically with coating constituents or dissolve pigments; and ultimately, they are lost from the coating by evaporation having served their purpose. Most solvents are organic materials
and are classified by their chemical structure as alcohols,
esters, ketones, etc. In practice, they must be considered from
the standpoint of their powers of solvency as expressed in
reference to some material. A liquid may dissolve one substance well, another poorly, and still others not at all. There
is no universal solvent in coating technology. A liquid that
does not actually dissolve a given substance may, however,
be used as a diluent or a thinner for that substance. Solvents
and diluents are frequently used together in coating formulations, and the purpose of a liquid determines whether it is
“solvent” or “diluent”. For example, mineral spirits is a solvent for linseed oil, but not for cellulose nitrate. But solutions of cellulose nitrate in butyl acetate will tolerate substantial amounts of mineral spirits and here the mineral spirits
is used as a diluent for the solution. Diluents and thinners
are normally less expensive than solvents. Generally, the solvent portion of a coating is itself a blend of solvents, each
one chosen for its power to dissolve a particular constituent
of the coating, and each present in proper proportion to regulate evaporation to a rate that prevents premature segregation
of any single dissolved constituent.
NOTE
•
Although in practice the terms solvent, diluent,
and thinner are often used interchangeably to
describe a liquid, it should be understood that
the words have different meanings, and the
mechanism of solvents and diluents or thinners
are different. For example, a solvent will thin
incidentally while performing its prime purpose
of dissolving something; whereas a diluent or
thinner is used to reduce viscosity and/or regulate evaporation and is not required to, and may
be unable to, dissolve any constituents of the
coating concerned. Of course, thinner must be
compatible with the coating. Compatibility is
To distinguish between “diluent” and “thinner”,
the material added by the manufacturer to adjust viscosity is called a “diluent”, while the
same material added by the painter for the same
purpose is called “thinner”.
6.7.1 Volatility. Volatility is the rate at which a solvent
evaporates, governs the length of time a paint film remains
fluid. Thus, it affects performance characteristics of the paint
film when deposited, such as smoothness of flow-out, time
an edge remains wet to enable blending of overlapped strokes
of the spray gun or brush, tendency to sag or run, drying
time, etc. Volatility also largely governs the flash point of
materials.
6.7.2
Thinners.
The very properties that make a substance a good
solvent for organic materials tend to make it harmful to the body. Many are also hazardous due to
flammability. Use caution to avoid unnecessary
and continued exposure to the volatile constituents
of paints either by inhalation or by skin contact.
Precautions must be taken at all times to prevent
accidental ignition.
Thinner is the material added to a coating material by the
painter to adjust its viscosity. The following specification
thinners are among those used in Air Force painting:
6.7.2.1 CID A-A-3007 is thinner for enamels, such as TTE-489, for spray applications.
6.7.2.2 MIL-T-81772, Aircraft Coating Thinner, covers
three types of thinners for reducing the standard aircraft
coatings. They are suited for, but are not necessarily limited
to, the following applications:
6.7.2.2.1 Type I is for thinning MIL-PRF-85285 and MILC-83231/SAE AMS-C-83231 polyurethane coatings or other
coatings, as authorized.
6.7.2.2.2 Type II is for thinning MIL-PRF-23377 epoxy
primer, MIL-PRF-22750 epoxy coating, or other coatings, as
authorized.
6.7.2.2.3 Type III is for thinning TT-P-1757 primer or
other coatings, as authorized.
6-3
TO 1-1-8
6.7.2.3 Special purpose “thinners” are often added to coating materials to provide good drying characteristics under
abnormal environmental conditions. High boiling point solvents such as diacetone alcohol (ASTM D2627) and butyl
alcohol (ASTM D304) are often added to prevent blushing.
6.7.3 Viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow. Very viscous or thick liquids such as molasses
flow very slowly, while low viscosity liquids such as water
flow very quickly. Maintaining the proper viscosity is very
important for proper spray application of primers and paint
coatings. Too high a viscosity produces poor spray patterns
and poor coverage, while too low a viscosity produces a film
that sags and runs easily. Many different methods can be
used to measure viscosity, but the easiest and most frequently
used methods for primers and paint coatings are flow time
measurements from either a No. 2 Zahn Cup or a No. 4 Ford
Cup. Therefore, the acceptable viscosity ranges for each
primer and paint coating discussed in this technical order are
given in flow time in No. 2 Zahn Cup and No. 4 Ford Cup
seconds at 75 °F. For any of these materials, the viscosity
will be somewhat higher at lower temperatures and somewhat lower at higher temperatures. Viscosity is measured as
follows:
6.7.3.1 No. 2 Zahn Cup. (See Figure 6-1) After the
primer or paint coating is properly mixed, fully immerse the
cup in the liquid so it is completely filled, and lift the cup
out of the liquid. Using a stop watch, measure the time, in
seconds, it takes the material to flow out of the hole in the
bottom of the cup from the moment the cup clears the liquid
surface to the point where the first break in the flow stream
is noted. This time is the viscosity in No. 2 Zahn seconds.
NOTE
The No. 2 Zahn Cup doesn’t work well for highsolids coatings. The No. 4 Ford Cup is preferable
for these high-solids coatings.
6.7.3.2 No. 4 Ford Cup. After the primer or paint coating
is properly mixed, pour the material into the cup mounted in
a stand while blocking the hole in the bottom of the cup with
a finger. Make sure the cup is completely filled and then
scrape away any excess sliding a flat glass plate across the
rim of the cup. Leave the glass plate in place and remove the
finger blocking the hole in the bottom of the cup. Slide the
plate horizontally to remove it from the top of the cup. Using a stop watch, measure the time, in seconds, it takes the
material to flow out of the hole in the bottom of the cup
from the moment the plate is removed to the point where the
first break in the flow stream is noted. This time is the viscosity in No. 4 Ford Cup seconds.
6.7.3.3 Adjustments. If the viscosity measured is not
within the specified range, thin the material per the thinning
instructions for the primer or paint coating listed in this technical order and remeasure the viscosity after cleaning the
cup with thinner. Repeat as necessary until the viscosity is
within the specified range.
6.8
BLUSHING.
Blushing of coatings is the result of moisture condensation
from the atmosphere within or on a drying organic film. It
occurs when the temperature of the work surface and/or the
coating material itself falls below the prevailing dew-point.
Always look for it in production coating operations whenever high humidity conditions exist. It shows as a lighterthan-normal or whitish discoloration or increased opaqueness of film. It may occur to the extent that a surface powder
results which can be removed by a fingernail or by light
rubbing. Rubbing will not cure the condition. It may also be
almost imperceptible, and blush-inducing conditions may escape notice on test panels sprayed prior to production coating due to their temperature differing from that of the actual
work surface. Blushing most often occurs with quick-drying
coatings such as lacquers and only rarely with enamels. It is
detrimental in some degree to any coating material and will
affect adhesion of any overcoat. Any blushed areas must be
stripped and redone. Superficial blushing may occur at borderline temperature and humidity conditions and subsequently disappear. This is not considered harmful and may
be ignored.
NOTE
Slight blushing may sometimes be detected by
noting faint dissimilarities of appearance in the
film occurring over structural members underlying
the surface such as bulkheads, ribs, etc. Skin surfaces in contact with internal structures may be
lower in temperature than the surrounding skin,
and this may be reflected and outlined in blushing.
Figure 6-1.
6-4
Zahn Cup
TO 1-1-8
6.9
RESINS.
Natural resins are solid organic substances of vegetable or
animal origin. Synthetic resins are man-made substances
physically similar to natural resins. Rosin and shellac are
examples of natural resins. Synthetic resins have largely
taken over in modern coating formulations because they can
be made to order to furnish desired characteristics. Coating
materials described in this technical manual are almost exclusively based on synthetics. The following are examples of
resins and their special characteristics:
6.9.1 Alkyds. Alkyds are the backbone of modern enamel
in a great many combinations. Federal Specification TT-E489 is alkyd or modified alkyd enamel used by the Air Force.
Alkyd is characterized by toughness, flexibility, and durability, and is used in exterior and interior coatings for utility
and decorative purposes. It does not have good chemical
resistance.
6.9.2 Acrylics. Acrylics have outstanding light resistance
and outdoor weather durability, with moderate chemical resistance. Used with nitrocellulose as a hardener, they have
better drying properties and increased hardness.
6.9.3 Vinyls. Vinyls have limited aircraft application, but
where construction materials, such as metal and wood, must
be protected from high humidity, acidic, or caustic environments, vinyls are used. An example is Specification MIL-P15930 vinyl-zinc chromate primer.
6.9.4 Phenolics. Phenolic resins are used in varnishes and
enamels requiring extra hardness and abrasion resistance.
Specification CID A-A-1800 spar varnish is an example.
6.9.5 Silicones. Silicone resins are used primarily in heat
resistant coatings. They are not particularly hard surfaced
and may craze. They are usually baked to cure.
6.9.6 Epoxies. Epoxies have outstanding adhesion and
chemical resistance. In combination with other resins, they
become baking enamels. For air drying types, catalysts are
mixed with a base material prior to application, starting a
chemical reaction that continues after application to develop
a film with good performance characteristics. The Air Force
uses Specification MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85582
primers.
6.9.7 Polyurethane. Polyurethane resins are also catalyzed coatings. The Air Force MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane
coating is characterized by its very high gloss retention in
gloss finishes and its flatness in camouflage finishes, its superior toughness and outdoor durability, and good chemical
resistance.
6.10
should be roughened to provide “tooth” for physical bonding. Adhesion to smooth materials, such as glass, is difficult
and surface etching is essential. With plastics, etching may
be augmented by solvent activation to obtain some degree of
fusion with the surface. Metal surfaces require an appropriate surface preparation, such as conversion coating, for adequate primer adhesion.
6.11
PRIMERS.
Primers are used to provide an adherent coating to which
subsequent coatings will firmly adhere and to provide corrosion protection for metals. The pigment portion of primers
for ferrous base metals usually consists of iron oxide, strontium chromate, zinc chromate, zinc oxide, zinc dust, or a
mixture of these. Zinc or strontium chromate is the principal
pigment in primers used on aluminum, magnesium, and their
alloys. Primers are satisfactory for corrosion protection of
metals, but are generally not suitable as topcoats. Color,
weathering properties, or physical durability may be unsatisfactory; and for these reasons, primers require protection by
topcoating.
6.12
COATINGS AND COATING SYSTEMS.
Some examples of specification coatings are as follows:
NOTE
Because of the large number of Military and Federal Specifications approved for Air Force use, no
attempt has been made to discuss all of them in
this technical manual. In addition, many items of
Air Force equipment and components are coated
with proprietary materials making logistic support
of such equipment difficult. Every effort should be
made by responsible personnel to select standard
Air Force approved specification material for
overcoating or replacing these proprietary materials.
6.12.1 USAF Standard Polyurethane Aircraft Coating
System. (See Chapter 8, aircraft -23, or other weapon system specific TOs, and paint drawings for schemes, colors,
and markings.) Optional standard polyurethane coating systems consist of epoxy primer MIL-PRF-23377, water reducible epoxy primer MIL-PRF-85582, polyurethane primer TTP-2760, or polysulfide primer PR-1432GV, topcoated with
polyurethane coating MIL-PRF-85285. Additionally, a light
dust coat may be utilized for the reapplication of MIL-PRF-
ADHESION.
Good adhesion of organic coatings requires a surface that is
mechanically and chemically clean. A smooth or highly polished surface will have very poor coating adhesion and
Change 1
6-5
TO 1-1-8
85285 over an existing coating. Most coatings formulated
for these specifications are two-component materials intended
for spray application.
NOTE
•
•
Before applying a material, spray it on an aluminum panel to determine its suitability. Observe the panel for blushing, sagging, or other
defects detectable during or shortly after application. Correct the cause of any defect found
before continuing. This test panel is in addition
to the one coated simultaneously with the aircraft and used as a check of the completed job.
Epoxies and polyurethanes cure (chemically react) rather than dry by evaporation. Use only
clean equipment for mixing and applying the
system to prevent contamination of the materials. Clean the equipment immediately after use
with a suitable solvent before the coatings set
up.
•
Cure accelerators are not authorized for use in
painting aircraft exterior surfaces as they make
coatings brittle.
•
Inadequate mixing or mixing in the wrong proportions causes poor adhesion, slow or incomplete curing, and poor performance of the coating.
6.12.2 Primer Coating, Epoxy, For Aircraft Application,
Specification MIL-PRF-23377.
6.12.2.1 Characteristics. This is a two-component, low
VOC, solvent-borne, lead free, corrosion inhibiting epoxy
primer particularly formulated for its adhesion properties. It
is compliant with the NESHAP VOC requirements of 340
g/L (2.8 lbs/gal). It is very resistant to chemicals, lubricants,
and corrosive atmospheres; but it has only fair weathering
characteristics. Because it is an epoxy, this primer is difficult
to remove with standard paint removers. This primer is
available in two different types each with two different
6-6
Change 1
classes.
Type I
Type II
Class C1
Class C2
Class N
Standard pigments (yellow)
Low infrared reflective pigments (dark
green)
Barium chromate based corrosion inhibitors
Strontium chromate based corrosion
inhibitors
Non-chromate based corrosion inhibitors
NOTE
Class N shall not be substituted for Class C1 or
C2, unless authorization is given by the engineering authority for the system or item on which the
primer is used.
6.12.2.2 Uses. A primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat for the exterior of aircraft, components, and
other aerospace equipment, and as a stand alone primer on
interior surfaces of aircraft and components.
6.12.2.3 Mixing. Thoroughly agitate components (Epoxy
Resin Base Component A and Polyamide and/or amine resin
curing agent Component B), preferably with a mechanical
shaker, prior to mixing and, if required, pour into separate
measuring or metering containers. Using manufacturer’s directions, mix proper volumes of the components A and B by
pouring B into A and thoroughly agitating. Best mixing results can be achieved with a mechanical shaker. Mix only
materials from the same manufacturer and do not mix more
material than can be used in a 4-hour period. After mixing,
allow the primer to stand 30 minutes before applying. This
primer must be agitated continuously during spraying applications to prevent settlement of pigment and ensure uniformity of color. If in-line or in-head proportioning equipment
is used to mix base and catalyst (curing agent) as the paint is
being used, a 30-minute dwell time is not required before
application.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.2.4
Thinning.
•
MIL-T-81772 is flammable and moderately
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required.
•
Parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF), is combustible and an irritant to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required.
Disposable 8 mil nitrile gloves, splash goggles,
Tyvek™/cloth coveralls are the recommended
PPE. Use in well ventilated areas.
spray gun must be kept moving to prevent excessive film
buildup with subsequent reduction of adhesion. Apply a topcoat within 24 hours of primer application. After 24 hours,
scuff sand the entire primed surface with CID A-A-58054,
Type I, Grade A abrasive mat and solvent wipe the area per
Chapter 3 prior to topcoating. Discard any of this primer
mixed for longer than the manufacturer recommended pot
life. Higher or lower temperatures shorten or lengthen the
pot life proportionally.
6.12.2.6 Drying Time. Drying times will vary by the
manufacturer, temperature, and relative humidity in the painting area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity
will increase drying times while higher temperatures and
lower relative humidity will decrease these drying times.
6.12.3 Primer Coating, Epoxy, VOC Complaint,
Chemical and Solvent Resistant, MIL-PRF-85582.
In areas where air quality regulations restrict volatile emissions, do not add thinner MIL-T-81772 to
the primer coating as that addition may raise the
VOC content to greater than 340 g/L (2.8 lbs/gal).
6.12.3.1 Characteristics. This is a two-component, lead
free, water-reducible, corrosion inhibiting epoxy primer formulated to meet most local environmental pollution regulations. This primer is available in two different types each
with three different classes.
NOTE
PCBTF, is exempt as a VOC or HAP by the EPA
and by 48 states and will not change compliance
of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
Type I
Type II
Class C1
The viscosity of the unthinned primer may range up to a
maximum of 40 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (56 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Strain the primer through clean cheesecloth, per CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 or a commercial paint
strainer. When required, adjust the viscosity by thinning to a
viscosity of 8 to 19 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (17 to 23
seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Use thinner per MIL-T-81772
Type II or PCBTF, NSN 6850-01-399-0676 (5-GL) or NSN
6850-01-566-2678 (1-GL). Add MIL-T-81772, Type II thinner as required to achieve the viscosity range above. In areas
where air quality regulations restrict volatile emissions, thin
with PCBTF using up to 10 percent by volume as a recommended maximum for reduction of viscosity.
6.12.2.5 Application. Apply one coat of primer to a dry
film thickness of 0.6 to 0.9 mils, per Table 5-2. Follow
manufacturer recommendations for dry to tack-free times.
Tack-free is the point of time in drying at which the surface
of the film will not fingerprint; yet the film is not dry and
hard throughout. If the primer is allowed to hard dry, solvent
wipe per Chapter 3 to reactivate before topcoating. The film
is considered hard dry when any mark left by the thumb is
completely removed by lightly polishing the contacted area
with a soft cloth. Since this epoxy primer has a very high
solids content, cross coating may not be required; and the
Class C2
Class N
Standard pigments (yellow)
Low infrared reflective pigments (dark
green)
Barium chromate based corrosion inhibitors
Strontium chromate based corrosion
inhibitors
Non-chromate based corrosion inhibitors
NOTE
Class N shall not be substituted for Class C1 or
Class C2 unless authorization is given by the procuring activity or engineering authority for the system or item on which the primer is used.
6.12.3.2 Uses. As a primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat for aircraft and a stand alone primer on interior
surfaces of aircraft and components.
6.12.3.3 Mixing. See manufacturer’s mixing instructions,
as different manufacturers may have different mixing ratios
and methods.
6.12.3.4 Thinning. Thin with water per the manufacturer’s instructions as each manufacturer may have different
thinning ratios and methods. Application viscosity will be
Change 3
6-7
TO 1-1-8
approximately 14 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (20 seconds
in a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Allow the mixed and thinned primer
to stand 30 minutes prior to use.
NOTE
The volume of some primers may increase by 250
percent when properly thinned with water.
6.12.3.5 Application. After thoroughly cleaning, surface
treating, and solvent wiping the surface to be primed per
Chapter 3, and purging spraying equipment lines with a mixture of 25 percent TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol and 75 percent
water, apply the primer to a dry film thickness of 0.6 to 1.8
mils, see Table 5-2. Follow manufacturer recommendations
for dry to tack-free times. Tack-free is the point in time in
drying at which the surface of the film will not fingerprint;
yet the film is not dry and hard throughout. If the primer is
allowed to hard dry, the primer shall be lightly scuff sanded
with CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive mat, tack
ragged and solvent wiped before topcoat application. The
film is considered hard dry when any mark left by the thumb
is completely removed by lightly polishing the contacted area
with a soft cloth. Areas that are not clean will not support
the primer film, which will break into droplets; like a water
break test. If this happens, the primer can be blotted up, the
area wiped clean with a clean cloth dampened with solvent
per Table 3-2, and the primer reapplied.
6.12.3.6 Drying Time. Drying times will vary by the
manufacturer, temperature and relative humidity in the painting area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity
will increase drying times while higher temperatures and
lower relative humidity will decrease these drying times.
6.12.4
Primer Coating, Polyurethane, TT-P-2760.
6.12.4.1 Characteristics. This is a two-component, low
VOC, solvent borne, highly flexible elastomeric polyurethane
primer. The maximum VOC content of the primer coating is
340 g/L (2.8 lbs/gal). It is available in two different types
each with two different classes.
Type I
Type II
Class C
Class N
Standard pigments (yellow or light
brown)
Low infrared reflective pigments (dark
green)
Strontium chromate based corrosion
inhibitors
Non-chromate based corrosion
inhibitors
NOTE
Class N shall not be substituted for Class C unless
authorization is given by the procuring activity or
engineering authority for the system or item on
which the primer is used.
6.12.4.2 Uses. As a primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat. It is a suitable alternate for MIL-PRF-23377
and MIL-PRF-85582 primers and can be used as a touch-up
primer for both MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85582 on
exterior surfaces. Because of this primer’s flexibility, it is
recommended for high impact areas, such as leading edge
slats, and the entire exterior surface on large, flexible cargo
and bomber aircraft.
6.12.4.3 Mixing. Shake the base material (component A)
for 5 minutes on a paint shaker and stir the catalyst (component B) with a wooden paddle prior to mixing. Pour one
volume of catalyst into one volume of base and mix the
material thoroughly following manufacturer’s instructions.
Do not mix more material than can be used in 4 hours.
NOTE
TT-P-2760 is moderately toxic to eyes, skin, and
respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required.
Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering to determine need for respiratory and ventilation
requirements.
6-8
Some materials are mixed in a three to one by
volume ratio.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.4.4
Thinning.
•
MIL-T-81772 is flammable and moderately
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required.
•
PCBTF, is combustible and an irritant to eyes,
skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required. Disposable 8 mil nitrile gloves,
splash goggles, Tyvek™/cloth coveralls are the
recommended PPE. Use in well ventilated areas.
wetting the floor of the painting area or by equivalent methods. If the primer is allowed to hard dry, the primer shall be
lightly scuff sanded with CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A
abrasive mat, tack ragged, and solvent wiped before topcoat
application. The film is hard dry when any mark left by the
thumb is completely removed by lightly polishing the contacted area with a soft cloth. Discard any of this primer mixed
for longer than the manufacturer recommended pot life time.
6.12.4.6 Drying Time. Drying times will vary by the
manufacturer, temperature, and relative humidity in the painting area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity
will increase drying times while higher temperatures and
lower relative humidity will decrease these drying times.
Higher or lower temperature shorten or lengthen the pot life
proportionally.
6.12.5 Primer Coating, Elastomeric, Polysulfide Corrosion Inhibiting, PR-1432GV.
•
All thinners used with this coating must be
“urethane grade” with a water content of less
than 0.05 percent by weight.
•
In areas where air quality regulations restrict
volatile emissions, do not add thinner MIL-T81772 to the primer coating as that addition
may raise the VOC content to greater than 340
g/L (2.8 lbs/gal).
NOTE
PCBTF, is exempt as a VOC or HAP by the EPA
and by 48 states and will not change compliance
of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
Thinning of this primer is not required, as viscosity as manufactured should be correct for spray application. If thinning
is done, it shall be with MIL-T-81772, Type I or PCBTF,
NSN 6850-01-399-0676 (5-GL) or NSN 6850-01-566-2678
(1-GL). Use thinner in the least quantity necessary to get the
proper viscosity. The application viscosity will be approximately 14 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (20 seconds in a No.
2 Zahn Cup).
6.12.4.5 Application. After thoroughly cleaning, surface
treating, and solvent cleaning the surface to be primed per
Chapter 3, apply one coat of primer to a dry film thickness
of 1.0 to 1.5 mils, per Table 5-2. This primer will not adhere
to an improperly prepared or contaminated surface. Allow to
dry tack-free. Follow manufacturer recommendations for dry
to tack-free times. Tack-free is the point of time in drying at
which the surface of the film will not fingerprint; yet the film
is not dry and hard throughout. The coating must be applied
in a relative humidity range of 30 percent to 80 percent. If
humidity is below 30 percent, add moisture to the air by
PR-1432GV is moderately toxic to eyes, skin, and
respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required.
Consult Bioenvironmental Engineering to determine need for respiratory and ventilation
requirements.
6.12.5.1 Characteristics. This is a two-component, polysulfide primer, particularly formulated for its corrosion resistance and flexibility. It is a superior material for protection
of relatively flexible aircraft structures as it does not crack or
peel away from fasteners in highly stressed areas, and it will
not crack, peel, or rupture from lap and butt joints. The
physical properties of this primer on large flexible aircraft
structures will increase the longevity of the paint system as
well as decrease maintenance and corrosion rework during
the life cycle of the coating system.
6.12.5.2 Uses. As a primer for MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat on aircraft exterior surfaces. The Weapon System Manager shall specify when this primer is to be used.
6.12.5.3 Mixing. Adequate curing of sealant and sealant
based coatings depend on proper and controlled component
mixing by weight. This ensures that the component ratio is
as close as possible to that specified by the manufacture.
When mixing partial kits, an accurate scale is required that
will weigh up to 2.6 kilograms to the nearest 0.1 of a gram.
One scale meeting these requirements is the Triple Beam
760-W Balance made by Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc., 316
N.E. First St., Pompano Beach FL 33060. Mix the base compound and (component A) and the accelerator (component
Change 3
6-9
TO 1-1-8
B) in the proportions of 15 to 1 by weight. Always properly
mix in the correct proportions by the manufacturer’s directions for optimum results.
NOTE
The base compound has a tendency to settle out in
storage and should be thoroughly mixed prior to
adding the accelerator.
•
Some orange peel appearance in the coating
system is inherent with this primer and is acceptable.
•
It is mandatory that spray equipment be cleaned
immediately after use.
NOTE
6.12.6 Tiecoat, Non-Chromated. This coating differs
from MIL-PRF-23377 which has requirements directed toward the corrosion protection of and adhesion to bare metal.
The tiecoat purchase description requirements are only for
adhesion to other coatings. Tiecoats listed here meet all of
the requirements for MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class N, except for the corrosion protection requirements and are an
interim authorization until completion of the purchase description. All test results and certifications for meeting the
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I, Class N, with the exception of the
corrosion protection requirements must be submitted to
AFRL/RXSSR for inclusion in this technical order. The following coatings are approved as tiecoats for overcoating existing MIL-PRF-85285 paint systems:
Fast and longer mixing decreases application time
(pot life). High humidity (70 percent RH or above)
at time of mixing decreases application time (pot
life).
8010-01-482-8620 Aeroglaze 9741 (light gray) U/I GL
8010-01-483-4363 Aeroglaze 9743 (red) U/I GL
8010-01-483-4365 Aeroglaze 9744 (dark gray) I/I GL
6.12.5.4 Thinning. If thinning is required, follow manufacturer’s instructions. Acetone or OxSolv may also be used.
6.12.6.1 Characteristics. This is a two-component, VOC,
solvent-borne, lead and chromate free epoxy coating particularly formulated for its adhesion properties to other coatings.
It is compliant with the NESHAP VOC requirements of 340
g/L (2.8 lbs/gal). It is very resistant to chemicals and lubricants, but it has only fair weathering characteristics. Because
it is an epoxy, this coating is difficult to remove with standard paint removers.
a. Shake the base compound on a standard paint shaker
for 5 minutes.
b. Mix the accelerator by stirring with a paddle and add
to the base compound.
c. Replace the base compound container lid and shake
for 2 to 3 minutes in an upright position followed by 2
to 3 minutes in an inverted position.
6.12.5.5 Application. The primer can be applied by HVLP,
airless spray, or air-assisted airless spray. The primer has a
2-hour pot life at 75 °F temperature and 50 percent relative
humidity. For every 18 °F rise in temperature, the application time (pot life) is reduced by half; and for every 18 °F
drop in temperature, the application time is doubled. The
polysulfide primer shall be applied to a wet film thickness of
3.0 to 4.0 mils which results in a dry thickness of 1.0 to 1.2
mils. The polyurethane topcoat, MIL-PRF-85285 can be applied anytime after the polysulfide primer is tack-free up to
24 hours if no moisture or dirt is on the aircraft, the aircraft
is kept in an environmentally controlled hangar, and no
maintenance or walking has been done on the aircraft.
6.12.5.6 Drying Time. At 75 °F, the tack-free time is approximately 6 hours, 3 hours at 90 °F, and 12 hours at 60 °F;
however, high humidity at time of application will shorten
the tack-free time. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for
specific drying times.
NOTE
•
6-10
The material shall be applied to test panels as
specified in Paragraph 5.5.5 so that any defects
can be corrected prior to production spray application. The correct line and pot pressure can
be determined at this time.
Change 1
6.12.6.2 Uses. As a tiecoat over existing coating systems
for the reapplication of MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat on the exterior of painted aircraft and other aerospace
equipment.
6.12.6.3 Mixing. Thoroughly agitate components (Epoxy
Resin Base Component A and Polyamide or amine resin curing agent Component B), preferably with a mechanical
shaker, prior to mixing. If required pour into separate measuring or metering containers. Using manufacturer’s directions, mix equal volumes of the components A and B by
pouring B into A and thoroughly agitating. Best mixing results can be achieved with a mechanical shaker. Mix only
materials from the same manufacturer, and do not mix more
material than can be used in a 4-hour period. After mixing,
allow the primer to stand 30 minutes before applying. This
primer must be agitated continuously during spraying applications to prevent settlement of pigment and ensure unifor
TO 1-1-8
mity of color. If in-1ine or in-head proportioning equipment
is used to mix base and catalyst (curing agent) as the paint is
being used, a 30-minute dwell time is not required before
application.
6.12.6.4
Thinning.
•
MIL-T-81772 is flammable and moderately
toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required.
•
PCBTF, is combustible and an irritant to eyes,
skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection required. Disposable 8 mil nitrile gloves,
splash goggles, Tyvek™/cloth coveralls are the
recommended PPE. Use in well ventilated areas.
In areas where air quality regulations restrict volatile emissions, do not add thinner MIL-T-81772 to
the primer coating as that addition may raise the
VOC content to greater than 340 g/L (2.8 lbs/gal).
NOTE
PCBTF, is exempt as a VOC or HAP by the EPA
and by 48 states and will not change compliance
of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
23 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Use thinner per MIL-T81772 Type II or PCBTF NSN 6850-01-399-0676 (5-GL) or
NSN 6850-01-566-2678 (1-GL). Add MIL-T-81772, Type II
thinner as required to achieve the viscosity range above. In
areas where air quality regulations restrict volatile emissions,
thin with PCTBF using up to 10 percent by volume as a
recommended maximum for reduction of viscosity.
6.12.6.5 Application. Apply one coat of tiecoat to a dry
film thickness of 0.6 to 1.8 mils. Allow the tiecoat to dry to
tack-free. Tack-free is the point of time in drying at which
the surface of the film will not fingerprint; yet the film is not
dry and hard throughout. If the tiecoat is allowed to hard dry,
solvent wipe per Chapter 3 to reactivate before topcoating.
The film is hard dry when any mark left by the thumb is
completely removed by lightly polishing the contacted area
with a soft cloth. Since this epoxy tiecoat has a very high
solids content, cross coating may not be required; and the
spray gun must be kept moving to prevent excessive film
buildup with subsequent reduction of adhesion. Apply a topcoat within 24 hours of primer application. After 24 hours,
scuff sand the entire primed surface with CID A-A-58054,
Type I, Grade A abrasive mat and solvent wipe the area per
Chapter 3 prior to topcoating. Discard any of this tiecoat
mixed for longer than the manufacturer recommended pot
life time. Higher or lower temperatures shorten or lengthen
the pot life proportionally.
6.12.6.6 Drying Time. Drying time will vary by the manufacturer, temperature, and relative humidity in the painting
area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity will
increase dry times while higher temperatures and lower relative humidity will decrease these drying times.
6.12.7
The viscosity of the unthinned tiecoat may range up to a
maximum of 40 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (56 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup). Strain the tiecoat through clean cheesecloth, per CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 or a commercial paint
strainer, and, when required, adjust the viscosity by thinning
to a viscosity of 8 to 19 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (17 to
Type I
Type II
Type IV
6.12.7.1.2
Class H
Class W
Polyurethane Topcoat (MIL-PRF-85285).
6.12.7.1 Coating Classifications. MIL-PRF-85285 coatings are divided into the following types and classes:
6.12.7.1.1
Type. The types of coatings are as follows:
Aircraft application (420 grams/liter [g/l] maximum VOC content)
Support equipment application (340 grams/liter [g/l] maximum VOC content)
Aircraft application with extended weatherability (420 grams/liter [g/l] maximum VOC
content)
Class. The classes of coatings are as follows:
High solids formulation
Water-borne formulation
Change 3
6-11
TO 1-1-8
6.12.7.2 Uses. Type I and Type IV are intended for use
on aerospace weapon systems and other applications. Type II
is intended for use on ground support equipment and shall
not be used on aircraft due to its very low flexibility.
6.12.7.3 Advanced Performance Coating (APC). MILPRF-85285, Type IV, Advanced Performance Coating (APC),
also known as Extended Life Topcoat (ELT), is a chemically
cured, two-component polyurethane topcoat formulated with
fluorinated polyol resin to provide a protective coating with
exterior durability and cleaning efficiencies superior to MILPRF-85285, Type I or Type II. APC, when used over MILPRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 epoxy primer, provides fade
resistance superior to conventional polyurethane topcoats.
Although some degradation in fade resistance will occur if
APC is applied over PR-1432 GV elastomeric polysulfide
primer, color retention still exceeds MIL-PRF-85285 requirements.
6.12.7.4
•
•
•
6-12
Mixing.
The catalyst portion of polyurethane topcoat
contains a resin that may contain up to one percent Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI). This
material is a sensitizing agent and in low atmospheric concentrations is a strong respiratory
and skin irritant. After the catalyst portion containing HDI is mixed with the polyester resin
base component, the HDI reacts chemically
with the resin base and the potential for generation of HDI is significantly reduced. Personnel
mixing the isocyanate catalyst component with
the polyester resin base component must avoid
the vapors and skin contact of these materials.
Mixing shall be done in exhaust ventilated
booth or well ventilated area.
Personnel shall wear plastic or rubber gloves,
plastic apron, and a face shield. Requirement
for respiratory protection during mixture and
application procedures shall be determined by
Bioenvironmental Engineering.
Even after the polyurethane components have
been mixed as noted below, painting with the
polyurethane paint, Specification MIL-PRF85285 still may result in a significant health
hazard to the painter. Respiratory protection
Change 7
shall be specified by the local medical service
based upon the process evaluation by Bioenvironmental Engineering. Also, it is important
that all the precautions required for spray painting as outlined in AFI 91-203 be rigidly enforced. Personnel with histories of allergies or
asthma shall be cleared through the base medical services before using any material containing diisocyanates.
Since the polyurethane is sensitive to moisture,
ketones, and alcohols, use only clean, dry equipment for mixing and keep the mixed material in
closed containers. Use adequate oil and water
separators between the air supply and pressure pot
to exclude water. Water reacts with the catalyst
and liberates carbon dioxide, causing bubbles and
craters in freshly applied polyurethane paint. In
addition, blow down air lines at least every hour
to remove water. Reaction of catalyst with water
is evident by an accelerated rate of increase in
viscosity.
Thoroughly agitate the resin component (preferably with a
mechanical shaker) and stir the catalyst with a wooden
paddle in an exhaust ventilated booth or a well ventilated
area and pour into separate metering containers. Mix three
parts resin (component A) with one part catalyst (component
B) by volume, unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer, and agitate thoroughly. Induction time (dwell time) or
a waiting period is not required before applying the coating.
Use only catalyst and resin from the same manufacturer and
the same lot, and do not mix more material than will be used
in a 4-hour period. It is preferable, however, that the amount
of material mixed at one time be limited to that usable in 2
hours. This polyurethane coating requires continuous agitation during spraying application to prevent settlement of pigment and ensure uniformity of color.
6.12.7.5 APC Mixing. Follow mixing instructions in Paragraph 6.12.7.4.
NOTE
Do not use catalyst (component B) from MILPRF-85285, Type I or Type II, coatings or catalyst
from other APC colors.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.7.6
Thinning.
“tiger striping”. This condition typically disappears after
coating has reached full cure. Although the visible gloss of
camouflage APC will appear to be greater than conventional
MIL-PRF-85285, APC still meets the requirements of the
military specification.
PCBTF, is combustible and an irritant to eyes,
skin, and respiratory tract. Eye and skin protection
required. Disposable 8 mil nitrile gloves, splash
goggles, Tyvek™/cloth coveralls are the recommended PPE. Use in well ventilated areas.
NOTE
PCBTF, is exempt as a VOC or HAP by the EPA
and by 48 states and will not change compliance
of high solids coatings to air quality regulations.
Cure accelerators are not authorized for use in polyurethane
when painting aircraft as they change the cured properties
and integrity of the coating. It can be thinned with PCBTF
NSN 6850-01-399-0676 (5-GL) or NSN 6850-01-566-2678
(1-GL) or the paint manufacturer’s recommended EPA exempt product. Thin the coating using up to 10 percent by
volume as a recommended maximum for reduction of viscosity. The expected viscosity as thinned will be in the range
of 8 to 29 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup (17 to 23 seconds in
a No. 2 Zahn Cup), but it can be up to 30 seconds in a No. 4
Ford Cup (39 seconds in a No. 2 Zahn Cup) before thinning.
6.12.7.7 Application. MIL-PRF-85285, Type I or Type II,
is for application on properly prepared and primed substrates.
Surfaces shall be prepared per Chapter 2 and primed with
MIL-PRF-23377, Type I, Class C1 or C2; TT-P-2760, Type
I, Class C1 or C2; or MIL-PRF-85582, Type I, Class C1 or
C2. Steel surfaces shall be phosphate treated or coated with
MIL-C-8514 and primed with the same primers listed above.
Use Type II of these primers if low IR reflectance is required. This coating may be applied by airless, air assisted
airless, HVLP, or electrostatic equipment after proper mixing
of the base and catalyst. Apply the coating in one wet crosscoat or two coat with the second coat applied crosswise to
the first after cure time of 4 hours or as recommended by the
manufacturer. The dry film thickness shall be 1.7 to 2.3 mils
each coat, per Table 5-2. Air assisted airless is preferable.
For air assisted airless, use No. 617 tip for 12-inch fan and
No. 517 tip for 10-inch fan. Atomize at 8 to 10 PSI at the tip
with the trigger pulled to conform to the HVLP requirement
of the NESHAP.
6.12.7.7.1 APC (MIL-PRF-85285, Type IV) Application. Follow application procedures of Paragraph 6.12.7.7.
In addition, maintain a wet edge during each application.
After the first coat, the coating should be air dried 15-60
minutes at 75 °F/ 24 °C ±5 °F/15 °C before application of
the second coat. It is normal for occurrences of mottling or
6.12.7.7.2 Maintenance Painting. Maintenance painting
(touch-up) of APC shall be accomplished using same procedures as described in Chapter 5. Although APC and MILPRF-85285, Type I and Type II, coating are compatible, it is
recommended to use the same material as the previously applied coating system for maintenance painting. If both materials are used, a significant color mismatch will develop as
the two coatings age due to APC’s superior color retention.
6.12.8 Curing of Complete Polyurethane System. The
preferred cure schedule for polyurethane coatings should be
followed. Aircraft should not be operated until 72 hours has
elapsed at a temperature of 75 °F or higher after the topcoat
application is completed. If the temperature is less than 75
°F at any time during the cure cycle, it is preferable to wait a
full 7 days before flying the aircraft.
a. Cure time before handling, taping, masking, etc., is 6
hours minimum. Time may be reduced to 4 hours if
temperature and humidity reach upper limit (90 °F and
80 percent RH). Low temperature and low humidity
(60 °F and 30 percent RH) retards cure rate to 12 hours
minimum.
b. Curing time before movement from controlled hangar
environment at a temperature of 75 °F or higher is 6
hours minimum after application of last paint coat.
Aircraft may then be moved to another location with a
controlled environment of 75 °F or higher to continue
its 72-hour cure.
c. Curing time before decal application, 8 hours minimum.
d. Curing time before engine run up, 30 hours minimum.
e. Curing time before wet tape test, 48 hours minimum.
f. Curing time before flight, 72 hours minimum.
g. Curing time for maintenance painting of polyurethane
system at 75 °F and 50 percent RH and higher. (Lower
temperatures and relative humidity require longer cure
times.)
(1) Complete leading edges (All), complete control
surface (All), major skin panels 9 square feet and
over, and engine intake, 72 hours minimum.
Change 8
6-13
TO 1-1-8
(2) Skin panels less than 9 square feet, fasteners, rivet
heads, screw heads, and minor chipped and
scratched areas less than 36 square inches, 30
hours minimum.
6.12.9 Primer, Coating, Inorganic, Zinc Dust Pigmented, Self-Curing, for Steel Surfaces, Specification
MIL-P-38336/SAE AMS-P-38336.
6.12.9.1 Characteristics. This is a ready-to-mix, twocomponent, inorganic zinc, corrosion inhibitive primer consisting of a liquid inorganic vehicle and zinc dust pigment in
separate containers. It is intended for use on steel and galvanized surfaces, above or below grade, that are subjected to
damp or wet environments, i.e., high humidity of 70 percent
or above, water condensate or splash, and marine or severe
weather environments. It has high resistance to hydrocarbon
solvents and withstands temperatures up to 750 °F. It provides galvanic protection to steel surfaces. Thorough cleaning is required to remove rust, scale and oil from surfaces so
the primer can make intimate electrical contact with the steel.
6.12.9.2 Uses. The primer is for application directly to
steel surfaces with or without phosphoric acid treatment (reference TO 1-1-691) which have been roughened mechanically, preferably by abrasive blasting. It may be applied to
damp, but not too wet, surfaces and may be used alone or
with a variety of proprietary items, applied in accordance
with vendor’s instructions. Inorganic zinc primer may appear
in versions requiring water as a diluent. Storage stability or
“Shelf Life” is 1 year in an unopened package. It is not for
use in direct contact with acids, alkalis, or salts. MIL-P38336/SAE AMS-P-38336 inorganic zinc primer is the preferred primer for use in high humidity application.
6.12.9.3
Mixing.
Most inorganic primers contain flammable solvents. In confined areas, proper respiratory protection must be worn. Contact the Base Safety Office
and the Bioenvironmental Engineer for specific
details.
The primer is supplied as a two-component kit. The liquid
vehicle container holds an amount which, when mixed with
the zinc dust pigment, provides the specified volume of
primer. Mix the component materials in the proportions furnished as follows:
a. Mix the vehicle portion thoroughly until all solids are
in suspension using hand paddles, mechanical devices,
or any powered stirrers available.
6-14
Change 1
b. Sift the zinc dust pigment slowly into the mixed vehicle while stirring continually. Use either hand paddles
or a small powered stirrer. Do NOT use a powered
shaker type paint agitator to disperse zinc dust in the
vehicle.
c. If it is required to mix batches smaller than the full
unit size, strictly maintain the proportions of vehicle
and pigment specified by the manufacturer.
NOTE
Proportions customarily are given by weight. If
mixing less than a full kit, it can be done by using
the volume of the vehicle and the weight of the
zinc pigment. Determine the fraction of the total
kit volume of the vehicle being used and multiply
the total weight of the zinc pigment in the kit by
this fraction, and weigh out that amount of zinc
pigment and mix with the volume of vehicle being
used. An accurate scale is required that will weigh
up to 2.6 kilograms to the nearest 0.1 of a gram. A
scale which meets these requirements is the Triple
Beam 760W Balance made by Paul N. Gardner
Co., Inc., 316 NE First St., Pompano Beach FL
33060.
d. Stir until zinc pigment is thoroughly wetted and the
mixture is free of lumps. If small lumps persist, strain
the mixture through a 30-mesh wire screen or through
double or triple thickness of cheesecloth before using.
e. When application is by brush, stir moderately and often to maintain a homogeneous mixture throughout application.
6.12.9.4
Thinning.
Use CID A-A-59282 (NSN-6810-00-127-4532)
ethyl alcohol only where no fire hazards exist.
Within enclosed areas and the missile silos, use
the CID A-A-59106 ethylene glycol monoethyl
ether.
Package viscosity is generally appropriate for brush application. Adjust the viscosity for spraying by thinning in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions using the following:
•
The proprietary thinner(s) called out by the manufacturer.
•
Either CID A-A-59282 ethyl alcohol, (NSN-681000-127-4532) or CID A-A-59106 ethylene glycol
monoethyl ether.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.9.5 Application. HVLP spray application is the preferred method; however, the material can be applied by
brush. Airless spraying methods are not recommended, as
the higher pressure involved (1200-2200 PSI) can result in
the rapid packing of the zinc pigment at valves and orifices.
6.12.9.6 Drying Time. On dry surfaces at 75 °F, it is tackfree in 30 minutes and fully cured in 4 hours. On wet surfaces at 75 °F, it is tack-free in 1 hour and fully cured in 6
hours. Follow manufacturer’s recommended instructions to
determine actual dry times.
NOTE
•
Materials can vary to some extent under the
controlling MIL-P-38336/SAE AMS-P-38336.
The specification requires inclusion of mixing,
thinning, application and curing instructions in
the package. Where the manufacturer’s application instructions differ appreciably from these
general supplementary instructions, the manufacturer’s instructions shall apply.
•
It is difficult to impossible to measure viscosity
of inorganic zinc primer using the standard authorized measuring devices; therefore, it will
not be done. Use the proportions of thinner recommended by the manufacturer, adjusting further in small degrees to suit special conditions
using the painters judgment. Just prior to spraying, wet or damp surfaces shall be wiped clear
of moisture films and, where possible, then solvent wiped with clean cloths wetted with CID
A-A-59282 ethyl alcohol (NSN 6810-00-1274532) or TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol. When using spraying technique, adjust material tank
pressure as recommended by the manufacturer
or, in absence of this information, to 12-15 PSI
or less.
6.12.10 Primer Coating for Steel Surfaces, Specification MIL-PRF-26915. This specification covers two types
of primer, each with two different classes for use on steel
surfaces. Both types and classes are compatible with MILPRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat material.
6.12.10.1 Characteristics. Traditionally, this has been an
organic zinc dust pigmented primer used for galvanic protection of steel surfaces on ground support equipment. This
primer is furnished in two types and two classes: Type I,
non-water reducible, Type II (DEFT Corp., PN 44-GY-16,
CAGE 33461) water reducible, Class A maximum VOC content of 340 g/L (2.5 lbs/gal); and Class B, maximum VOC
content of 250 g/L (2.1 lbs/gal). This primer may come in
two-, three-, or four-component kits.
such as on steel that is normally subjected to outside exposure, condensing moisture, or corrosive atmospheres. If color
or finish texture is important, overcoat with one coat of
MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, II or III polyurethane.
6.12.10.3 Mixing. Mix in accordance with manufacturer’s
instructions. To prevent settling of the pigment, continuous
agitation of the coating is necessary during application.
6.12.10.4 Thinning. Package viscosity is generally appropriate for brush application. Adjust viscosity of the primer
for spraying by thinning in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
6.12.10.5 Application. Apply by spray (hot or cold
method) to solvent cleaned, phosphoric acid treated, or sandblasted steel. HVLP spray application is the preferred
method; however, the material can be applied by brush, but
only to small areas. Airless spray methods are not recommended, as the higher pressure involved (1200-2200 PSI)
can result in the rapid packing of the pigment at valves and
orifices.
NOTE
•
Vendor’s materials can vary to some extent under the controlling Specification MIL-PRF26915. The specification requires inclusion of
mixing, thinning, application, and curing instructions in the package.
•
It is very difficult to measure viscosity of this
primer by means of the standard authorized
measuring devices; therefore, it will not be
done. Use the proportion of thinner given by
the manufacturer, adjusting further in small degrees to suit special conditions in accordance
with judgment of the painter.
6.12.10.6 Drying Time. At 75 °F and 50 percent RH, it is
tack-free in 1 hour and is fully cured in 2 hours. It can be
topcoated after 1 hour and up to 24 hours drying. Follow
manufacturer’s recommended instructions to determine actual cure times.
6.12.11
P-28.
Paint, Aluminum, Heat Resisting (1200 °F) TT-
6.12.11.1 Characteristics. This is heat resistant aluminum paint capable of withstanding temperatures of 1200 °F.
It is not intended to provide protection against corrosion as a
primary function. In high temperature areas on aircraft where
other paints will not survive, it will provide limited protection, primarily for steel components.
6.12.10.2 Uses. The primer is used to provide galvanic
protection for steel ground support equipment surfaces. Use
two coats (4-6 mils dry film thickness) for severe exposure,
6-15
TO 1-1-8
6.12.11.2 Uses. Can be used on superheated steam lines,
boiler casings, boiler drums, superheated headers, other similar high temperature applications, and areas on aircraft where
operating temperatures exceed 400 °F.
6.12.11.3
turer.
Thinning. As recommended by the manufac-
6.12.13.4 Application. Apply by brush method as issued
or by HVLP spray methods after thinning as required.
Thinning. As recommended by the manufac-
6.12.11.4 Mixing and Application. Because the pigment
settles out of suspension and cakes in the bottom of the can,
this coating requires thorough mixing on a mechanical paint
shaker before application. Apply by brush or by spraying
after thinning as recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.11.5 Drying Time. When air drying at 75 °F, it is
tack-free in 1 hour, full hard in 3 hours, and fully cured in 24
hours. Baked at 400 °F, it is fully cured in 1 hour. Follow
manufacturer’s recommended instructions to determine actual cure times.
6.12.12
E-489.
6.12.13.3
turer.
Enamel, Alkyd, Gloss, Low VOC Content, TT-
6.12.13.5 Drying Time. Drying times will vary by the
manufacturer, temperature, and relative humidity in the painting area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity
will increase dry times while higher temperatures and lower
relative humidity will decrease dry times.
6.12.14 Coating, Sprayable, Strippable, Protective,
MIL-PRF-6799.
6.12.14.1 Characteristics. This is a water emulsion, protective, strippable, sprayable, multi-coat coating for application over metallic, painted, and plastic surfaces that comes in
one type with several classes.
Type
Type
Type
Type
II,
II,
II,
II,
Class
Class
Class
Class
1
5
6
7
Base coat (black)
Topcoat (white or olive drab)
Topcoat (white)
Topcoat brushable
6.12.12.1 Characteristics. This is a high-gloss, air-drying, alkyd enamel with excellent weather resistant properties. It is flexible and has satisfactory gloss and color retention. It is lead and chromate free and VOC compliant with a
maximum of 420 g/L (3.5 lbs/gal).
6.12.14.2 Uses. These materials are used to protect equipment and aircraft during shipment and storage.
6.12.12.2 Uses. It is used on properly pretreated and
primed exterior and interior metal and wood surfaces. Its
main use is for refinishing automobiles, construction equipment, machinery, gasoline pumps, trucks, buses, passenger
and freight railway cars, metal drums (exterior), metal signs,
metal railings and fences, and marine use (above water).
6.12.14.2.1 Type II, Class 1. This is a black material
intended for use as a strippable, protective coating for acrylic
plastic bulk materials and assemblies containing acrylic plastics when the protected item is shipped fully covered or
stored under cover; and as a base coat for Type II, Class 5
and Class 6 materials.
6.12.12.3 Thinning. Use enamel thinner conforming to
CID A-A-3007. Add one pint of thinner per gallon of enamel
or the amount recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.14.2.2 Type II, Class 5. This is a white or olive
drab material intended to be used only as a topcoating for
Type II, Class 1 material. This combination protective system serves as a sprayable, strippable, protective coating for
application on metallic, painted, and plastic surfaces, such as
entire aircraft, missiles, rockets, and transportation vehicles,
during outdoor storage and overseas deck-loaded shipments.
This material should be applied to a dry film thickness of
3±1 mils.
6.12.12.4 Application. Brush-apply as issued. Spray by
HVLP methods after thinning.
6.12.12.5 Drying Time. Drying times will vary by the
manufacturer, temperature, and relative humidity in the painting area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity
will increase dry times while higher temperatures and lower
relative humidity will decrease dry times.
6.12.13 Enamel, Heat Resistant (204 °C or 400 °F),
CID A-A-3054.
6.12.13.1 Characteristics. This is a one-component, heatresistant paint.
6.12.13.2 Uses. For coating metal surfaces subjected to
temperatures not higher than 400 °F. Typical uses are steam
pipes, boiler fronts, automotive engine parts, and similar applications.
6-16
6.12.14.2.3 Type II, Class 6. This is a white material
intended to be used only as a topcoating for Type II, Class 1
material. This combination protective system serves as a
sprayable, strippable, protective coating for applications on
metallic, painted, and plastic surfaces, such as entire aircraft,
missiles, rockets, and transportation vehicles, during outdoor
storage and overseas deck-loaded shipments. This material
should be applied to a dry film thickness of 6 ±1 mils.
6.12.14.2.4 Type II, Class 7. This material is intended as
a brushable coating for patching or repairing damaged Class
5 or Class 6 coatings.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.14.3 Thinning. Thin as required per the manufacturer’s instructions.
6.12.14.4 Application. Apply by HVLP spray methods.
Class 5 material may be applied at 75 ±15 °F and 50 ±10
percent RH. Class 6 material may be applied within a temperature range of 50 °F to 115 °F and 50 ±10 percent RH,
but the pot life and cure time will be much longer at the
lower temperature and much shorter at the higher temperature as compared to those at 75 °F.
6.12.14.5 Drying Time. Drying times will vary by the
manufacturer, temperature, and relative humidity in the painting area. Lower temperatures and higher relative humidity
will increase dry times while higher temperatures and lower
relative humidity will decrease dry times.
6.12.15 Resin Coating, Unpigmented, for Engine
Components and Metal Parts, MIL-PRF-3043.
6.12.15.1 Characteristics. This is a permanent thermosetting resin coating free from drying and non-drying oils
and cellulose. The resin coating is baked on and provides a
transparent green film on the surface.
6.12.15.2 Uses. The coating is used as a permanent corrosion preventative, oil resistant coating for metallic nonbearing surfaces of engine parts, airframe components, magnesium parts, gun mounts, gear housings, and other
components. The material is specifically used on the interior
surfaces of droppable steel tanks and tubing of methylbromide or trifluorobromethane fire extinguishing systems.
6.12.15.3
turer.
Thinning. As recommended by the manufac-
6.12.15.4 Application. Apply by dip or spray at room
temperature.
6.12.16.1 Characteristics. This is a kit containing a
primer and a topcoat, each of which are two-component kits
of epoxy coatings. This coating is for protecting interior surfaces of steel tanks used for transportation and storage of
fuels. It is lead and chromate free and has a maximum 340
g/L (2.8 lbs/gal) VOC content.
6.12.16.2 Uses. This coating is intended for protection of
sand blasted interior surfaces of mobile and stationary mild
steel tanks and auxiliary handling equipment used for the
storage and transportation of military fuels and oils.
6.12.16.3 Mixing. Thoroughly mix component A, preferably using mechanical agitation, and then add one part component B to four parts by volume of component A.
6.12.16.4
facturer.
6.12.16.5 Application. Apply by HVLP spraying methods
(hot or cold method) or as recommended by the manufacturer within the 6 hours at 75 °F/24 °C pot life of the material.
6.12.16.6 Drying Time. Set-to-touch - 5 hours and dry
hard - 18 hours. Follow manufacturer’s recommended instructions for detailed information on dry times.
6.12.17 Coating, Corrosion Preventive, for Aircraft Integral Tanks, MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725.
6.12.17.1 Characteristics. This is a polyurethane material available in two types each with two classes. It is fuel
resistant and is used to provide protection of aircraft fuel
tanks against corrosion from contaminants and water in fuels.
Type I
6.12.15.5 Drying Time. The coating air dries to handle in
30 minutes at room temperature. Fully cure by baking in oil
or by oven baking. Follow manufacturer’s recommended instructions for detailed information on dry times.
Type II
6.12.15.5.1 Baking in Oil. Air dry for 16 to 24 hours and
immerse in MIL-PRF-7808 hot lubricating oil for 15 minutes.
Class B
6.12.15.5.2 Oven Baking. Air dry for 1 hour followed by
30 minutes baking at 325 °F. Follow manufacturer’s recommended instructions for detailed information on dry times.
Thinning. Thin as recommended by the manu-
Class A
A one-part formulation polyurethane
coating
A two-part formulation polyurethane
coating
General use (does not comply to most
air pollution regulations, may be used
only where not prohibited)
Limited use (for areas requiring regulation of air pollution caused by emissions of certain solvents that produce
smog)
6.12.17.2 Uses. This coating is intended for the protection of aircraft integral fuel tanks against corrosion in a service temperature range of -65 °F to +250 °F.
6.12.16 Coating Kit, Epoxy, for Interior of Steel Fuel
Tanks, MIL-PRF-4556.
6-17
TO 1-1-8
6.12.17.3
NOTE
Mixing.
Do not mix more material than can be used in a
5-hour period.
•
MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 is flammable and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory
tract. Eye and skin protection required. Consult
Bioenvironmental Engineering to determine
proper respiratory and ventilation requirements.
•
The coating material contains harmful solvents
and free isocyanates. Inhalation of vapor may
cause irritation of the nose, throat, and lungs,
and may cause sensitization. Vapors or liquid
contact with the eyes or skin may cause severe
irritation.
•
•
Safety and health procedures are mandatory and
no deviation will be permitted except by written approval of the Office of Safety and/or Bioenvironmental Engineer. It is the responsibility
of the immediate supervisor to ensure that all
safety and health procedures are followed without deviation.
Personnel applying the coating by spray or
brush or those required to reenter coated fuel
tanks before complete cure shall be protected
by wearing full-face air supplied respirator with
air flowing before tank entry until exiting the
tank, white cotton coveralls, cotton booties or
cotton socks, rubber chemical resistant gloves
or surgical type gloves, and cotton head covering.
•
All clothing shall be washed after each use.
•
Place all material used to mop up spilled coating or runs in coating into water immediately.
A small container of water shall be provided in
the immediate area.
•
Blowers which are grounded and bonded to the
aircraft shall be circulating air in the fuel cells/
tanks before and during entry of personnel to
perform any operation such as cleaning. Air
shall flow so that vapor will be carried away
from the operator.
•
MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 has a flash
point of 266 °F open cup, therefore, can present a fire hazard when heated or atomized.
Some materials used in this operation have flash
points as low as 20 °F and will ignite if exposed to a flame or spark.
•
6-18
If MIL-C-27725/SAE AMS-C-27725 is spilled
in the repair area, evacuate the area and call the
Fire Department. Neutralize with strong ammonia solution, then flush with water.
Mix coating components within an approved ventilated paint
booth. If a booth is not available, personnel shall wear an
air-supplied respirator and mixing shall be accomplished so
that vapors are exhausted to an area as approved by the Bioenvironmental Engineer. Mix and blend the two components
of the coating thoroughly for a minimum of 5 minutes. Do
not mix in contaminated containers. Stir the material with a
metal spatula. Keep empty containers, and those containing
mixed and unmixed coating, tightly closed when not in use.
6.12.17.4
Application.
The dry film thickness of this coating shall be between 0.8 and 1.2 mils, per Table 5-2. Runs and
sags shall be mopped immediately to prevent thick
spots. Thicknesses over 1.2 mils result in cracking, flaking, and peeling of coating while those
less than 0.8 mils do not provide adequate protection. Measure the wet film thickness with a wet
film gauge and control the wet film per the manufacturer’s requirements.
After the tank surface is thoroughly dry and immediately
prior to application of the coating, gently clean the area to be
coated with lint-free cleaning cloth wet with MIL-C-38736/
CID A-A-59281 cleaner and wipe dry. Do not allow the
cleaner to air dry. Do not abrade the chemical conversion
coating film. Clean small areas starting from the top and
farthest from the access door and work down and out using
clean lint-free cloths/pads. The exception is for large repair
areas where there must be alternately cleaning, sealing, and
coating of an area and then repeating in the next area while
working toward the access door. Use caution not to contaminate a previously cleaned area and reclean immediately if it
occurs. Spray all accessible areas when practical; areas that
cannot be sprayed shall be coated by brush application. Access doors and removable parts shall be spray coated in a
spray booth and cured in an area with circulating fresh air.
Personnel entering the curing area shall follow all precautions stated in the “warning” When spraying, apply a light
double pass to cover the surface. Take care to prevent runs
and puddles; and if they occur, remove them immediately.
6.12.17.4.1 Prior to starting application of MIL-C-27725/
SAE AMS-C-27725 and at each change of painters, spray or
brush a small strip of aluminum prepared in the same manner as described above. Properly adjust the flow of material
from the spray nozzle to provide the proper coating thickness of 0.8 to 1.2 mils dry film.
TO 1-1-8
6.12.17.4.2 Spray Application. Use a HVLP spray gun.
Use a pressure feed tank with 5 PSIG and an atomizing air
pressure of 35 PSIG. Pressure tanks shall be equipped with
an agitator to provide proper pigment suspension. Immediately after use, the equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned
with MIL-T-81772, Type II.
6.12.17.4.3 Brush Coating. A fine camel hair or soft hog
bristle brush shall be used when applying this coating by
brush. The material shall be stirred with a metal spatula every 3-5 minutes.
6.12.17.5 Drying Time. Curing MIL-C-27725/SAE AMSC-27725 coating will be tack-free in 4 hours under normal
conditions (75 °F and 50 percent humidity). Cure may be
accelerated after a minimum of 4 hours cure at 75 °F by
adding heat up to 120 °F. The state of cure can be tested by
rubbing a test spot with a gauze pad wet with MIL-T-81772,
Type II thinner. If bare metal is exposed after 50 double
strokes of the pad at moderate pressure, the coating is not
completely cured.
6.12.18 Coating Compound, Nonslip (for Walkways),
CID A-A-59166.
6.12.18.1 Characteristics. A nonslip compound formulated in a hand brushable consistency that is fuel and fluid
resistant. These coatings are available in several colors. This
material is compliant with the NESHAP VOC requirements
of 420 g/L (3.5 lbs/gal).
Type I
Type II
This is a smooth coating without grit
formulated primarily for brush application.
This is a rough material formulated primarily for brush application containing grit as an integral part of the
coating.
6.12.18.2 Uses. A nonslip is used on aircraft exterior
walkway surfaces to protect personnel from falling while
walking on aircraft surfaces. May also be used on vehicles,
maintenance ramps, steps, ladders, and similar areas.
Type I
Type II
Used along leading edges of aircraft
that fly less than 250 mph and on
other adjacent surfaces of aircraft
where the roughness of the Type II
coating is undesirable due to aerodynamic considerations.
Material used along trailing edges and
adjacent surfaces in cases where
maximum nonslip qualities are essential and aerodynamics are not
affected.
6.12.18.3 Thinning. If thinning is necessary, use the solvent recommended by the manufacturer. Adjust the viscosity
for spray application by thinning to 21 to 27 seconds in a
No. 2 Zahn Cup (16 to 21 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup).
6.12.18.4 Mixing and Application. Walkway coatings are
applied to primed surfaces prior to application of final topcoat of aircraft coating systems. The topcoat applied over
walkway coating shall be a single mist coat to reduce distinctive difference in color while not causing loss of nonslip
features. Only the Type II (rough) coating shall be used under the topcoat of aircraft coating system. Type II walkway
coating need not be topcoated on interior walkways, ramps,
steps, and doorways in high traffic areas. Before applying the
nonslip coating, wipe primed surface with a clean lint-free
cloth with solvent per Table 3-2, if necessary. Thoroughly
mix the material, preferably with a mechanical shaker. The
coating will normally have the proper viscosity for brush
application. Application by brushing is recommended as the
material is primarily formulated for this. Apply quickly and
avoid brushing previously coated areas that are wet. Allow
to dry at least 30 minutes but not more than 45 minutes
between coats. Apply by spraying only when large areas are
involved. Apply the coating (Type I and II) to a dry film
thickness of 10 to 12 mils on aircraft exterior surfaces which
weights 15 to 20 ounces per square yard for a Type I coating, and 20 to 25 ounces per square yard for a Type II coating. A 30 to 40 mil thick coating is recommended for nonaeronautical interior surfaces.
6.12.18.5 Drying Time. Type I and Type II coatings dry
tack-free in 15 minutes, for re-coating in 30 minutes, through
in 6 hours, and to full hardness in 24 hours. Follow manufacturer’s recommended instructions for detailed information
on dry times.
6.12.19 Coatings, Polyurethane, Rain Erosion Resistant for Exterior Aircraft and Missile Parts, MIL-C-83231/
SAE AMS-C-83231.
6.12.19.1 Characteristics. This material is available in
two types each with two classes. Type I is an electrically
non-conductive rain erosion resistant coating, and Type II is
an antistatic rain erosion resistant coating. Class A material
is not dependant on moisture or high relative humidity for
curing and Class B is dependent on them. Primer and topcoat components are furnished together as a kit. Specific aircraft directives specify the area to be coated and the materials to be used.
6.12.19.2 Uses. Classes A and B, Types I and II coatings
are intended for protection of exterior laminated plastic parts
of high-speed aircraft and missiles from rain erosion while
in flight. Classes A and B, Type II coatings also discharge
and dissipate static electricity to prevent radio and radar interference.
6-19
TO 1-1-8
6.12.19.3 Thinning. Thin as recommended by manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6.12.19.4 Application. Apply per TO 1-1-24 and/or as
recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.19.5 Drying Times. Drying times are per TO 1-1-24
and/or as recommended by the manufacturer.
6.12.20 Coating System, Polyurethane, Non-Yellowing White, Rain Erosion Resistant, Thermally Reflective,
MIL-C-83445/SAE AMS-C-83445.
6.12.20.1 Characteristics . This material is one type of
thermally reflective, non-yellowing white, rain erosion resistant polyurethane coating for glass fabric, reinforced plastic
laminated, and other plastic parts used as exterior surfaces of
aircraft and missiles.
6.12.20.2 Uses. This coating is intended to protect exterior laminated plastic parts of high speed aircraft and missiles from rain erosion and thermal energy while in flight.
This coating cannot be used on radomes and other plastic
parts that have a requirement for protection against static
electrical charges, because it is not electrically conductive.
6.12.20.3 Thinning. Thin as recommended by manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6.12.20.4 Application. Apply as recommended by the
manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
•
Use only the tapes specified in Table 6-1 for
application on aircraft exterior surfaces.
•
Adhesion promoters in Table 6-1 cannot be
substituted. If not available, do not apply tape.
•
Pre-scored liner material is very critical for
proper installation. Without the slit liner, application is very difficult.
•
Do not apply tape to bare metal. Surfaces must
at least be primed before film is applied. Allow
primer to cure for 24 hours minimum before
tape application.
a. Feather, sand, prime, and paint the leading edge as required. Feathering chipped/peeled areas is vital for a
quality installation. Recommend material be applied to
aircraft in conjunction with touch-up painting.
b. Using the template fabricated per Table 6-1, align its
centerline with the centerline of the leading edge. Mark
the location of the top and bottom of the tape every 2
feet of the length on the leading edge component receiving tape.
NOTE
Varying widths of tape can be used depending of
the amount on leading edge to be covered.
c. Mask using above marks as guides.
6.12.20.5 Drying Times. Drying times are as recommended by the manufacturer and/or TO 1-1-24.
6.12.21 Leading Edge Polyurethane Rain Erosion Resistant Tape.
6.12.21.1 Description and Use. This tape is used to provide rain erosion protection for the wing, vertical and horizontal stabilizer, and any other leading edges aft of the engine intakes. Material and tools to be used are listed below
in Table 6-1.
6.12.21.2
Final sanding with anything coarser than CID
A-A-58054 Type I, Grade A abrasive (very fine
240-320 grit) will adversely affect bond of tape.
d. Abrade the masked off area to a smooth surface using
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade B followed by Grade
A abrasive mat.
Installation.
Do not use rented or polyester rags to apply TT-I735 isopropyl alcohol as this may cause contamination of the surface.
•
The temperature during application shall be at
least 60 °F. This may be accomplished with a
ground heater for small areas.
e. Remove residue with cheesecloth moistened with TTI-735 isopropyl alcohol.
•
Materials to make repairs or remove the tape
must be available in case of errors in application.
f. Fill all seams and fastener heads with MIL-PRF-81733,
Type I, Class 2, Grade A sealant to eliminate any pos
6-20
TO 1-1-8
sible air pockets behind the film, trowel smooth/flush
with razor blade or other suitable tool, and allow to
cure before proceeding. AMS 3265 sealant can be used
as an alternative to MIL-PRF-81733 when approved
by the SPO and when environmental restrictions prohibit the use of chromated sealants.
NOTE
Ensure air bubbles do not build under film.
l. Remove another 3 inches of the top liner section and
rub film to surface.
g. Use CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 cheesecloth to apply
thin, but thorough coat of adhesion promoter per Table
6-1 to all application areas, including sealant, in the
masked off area used to smooth seams and fastener
heads.
m. Repeat process above removing the next liner section
and continue until film is completely bonded.
h. Remove masking tape.
o. Trim excess at the beginning and end of chip strip
where adhesion promoter was not applied.
n. Inspect work for air bubbles. Pierce bubbles with a
needle or pin, and press air out before removing tool.
i. Let adhesion promoter dry for 20 minutes.
j. Cut a length of tape to fit leading edge plus 4 inches.
Remove about 3 inches of the edge.
k. With about 2 inches of the excess against the inboard
edge of the component, align the film with the top
template line and rub down with a tightly folded piece
of CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2 cheesecloth.
Table 6-1.
Material
Tape width and color to match erosion
area to be covered
Clear Tape
NSN 9330-01-338-9994
Adhesion Promoter
PN 86A (NSN 8040-01-448-4791,
Wipes 7 inches x 7 inches) or (NSN
8040-01-450-9187, Pint)
PN 70 0701-8275-6 (NSN 6850-01326-1607, Pint)
Edge Sealer
PN Epoweld 8173A Double bubble
NSN 8040-00-092-2816
Tape, masking
MIL-T-21595/SAE AMS-T-21595,
Type I
Abrasive Mat
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Class A or
B
Cheesecloth
CCC-C-440, Type I, Class 2
Xacto Knife or Razor blade
Isopropyl Alcohol
Leading Edge Tape Materials/Tools
Source
3M Industrial Specialties Division
CAGE Code No. 52152
AF Supply
Use
Leading edge rain erosion
protection
Leading edge rain erosion
protection
3M Company
Promote tape adhesion
3M Company AF Supply
Seal tape edges and fill
fastener head and other
voids
AF Supply
Masking of application
area
AF Supply
Smoothing and scuff
sanding of area as surface preparation
Cleaning of area and
smoothing of leading
edge tape
Trimming tape
Cleaning
AF Supply
Commercial
AF Supply
Change 1
6-21
TO 1-1-8
Table 6-1.
Material
TT-I-735A
Pin or 22 gauge or finer Syringe
Needle
Scraper, plastic
Template
Paper Wipers
Adhesive Remover
PN 8098 (NSN 8040-01-318-3668)
PN 35975 (NSN 8040-01-545-7323,
6 Pints)
PN 35976 (NSN 8040-01-545-9129,
Gallon)
6.12.21.3
lows:
Leading Edge Tape Materials/Tools - Continued
Source
Use
AF Supply
Air removal
Local Manufacture
Local manufacture from heavy paper
other suitable material (width:
same as tape. Length: same as
leading edge. Mark centerline for
alignment with leading edge centerline.)
3M Company
3M Company
Tape removal
Mark area which leading
edge tape will be applied.
Cleaning
Adhesive removal
NOTE
Application of Edge Sealer. Proceed as fol-
Ensure air bubbles do not build under film.
a. Scuff 1 inch on either side of all seams and edges
where possible.
b. Wipe area with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol and allow
to dry.
g. Inspect repair for air bubbles. Try pressing air out, allowing proper bonding. If not successful, insert needle
or pin into the air bubble and press out air before removing pin/needle.
c. Apply heavy coat of edge sealer per Table 6-1 into
seams and trowel flush with a razor blade.
6.12.21.5 Tape Removal. Remove tape by either of the
following methods:
d. Apply edge sealer to all vertical edges exposed to air
stream with an acid brush.
6.12.21.5.1
e. Allow edged sealer to cure 24 hours before painting.
6.12.21.4
Repair of Damaged Area. Proceed as follows:
a. Measure 2 inches either side of damage and apply
masking tape along this line.
b. Trim loose film from damaged area. Cut new film to fit
area to be repaired.
c. Scuff entire area with an CID A-A-58054, Type I,
Grade A nylon abrasive mat.
d. Wipe area thoroughly with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol.
e. Apply adhesive promoter per Table 6-1 to entire area.
Allow to dry for 20 minutes.
f. Apply film and rub thoroughly.
6-22
Change 1
Removal Disc.
a. Using a pneumatic drill and 3M Adhesive Removal
Disc (NSN 3460-01-447-8021), remove both tape and
adhesive from damaged area.
b. Trim edges as required.
c. Wipe work area with CCC-C-440 Type I, Class 2
cheesecloth moistened with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol, turning cheesecloth frequently. Continue until cloth
no longer shows residue.
6.12.21.5.2
Scraping and Solvent Removal.
a. Remove the tape by peeling it off. For repairs, remove
tape 1/2 inch on either side of damage.
b. Remove residual edge sealer by chipping with a plastic
scraper.
c. Mask work area.
TO 1-1-8
d. Apply adhesive remover per manufacturer’s instructions.
a. Scuff tape surface with CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade
B nylon abrasive mat.
e. Allow to dwell long enough to soften adhesive.
b. Saturate a clean, lint-free, cotton rag with ASTM D
329 acetone and lightly wipe the tape surface.
f. Remove old adhesive with plastic scraper. Repeat as
necessary.
g. Using an CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A abrasive
mat soaked with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol, scrub area
to remove all adhesive.
h. Wipe work area with CCC-C-440 Type I, Class 2
cheesecloth moistened with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol, turning cheesecloth frequently. Continue until cloth
no longer shows residue.
6.12.21.6
c. Wipe surface dry with a clean, lint-free, cotton cloth
before the acetone evaporates.
d. Paint tape surface with MIL-PRF-85285, Type I or
Type IV, color to match area, per Chapter 5.
e. Air dry paint a minimum of 72 hours at 75 °F before
flying the aircraft.
Painting Instructions. Proceed as follows:
Change 1
6-23/(6-24 blank)
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 7
APPLICATION AND REMOVAL OF DECALS AND SILK SCREENING
7.1
DECALS - GENERAL.
NOTE
National Stock Numbers (NSN) for specific decals
and related materials are to be obtained from Federal Supply Classes (FSC) 7690, 9330, 9905, and
others as found in Illustrated Parts Breakdowns
(IPB or -4 manuals) for specific aircraft. Also, see
the current FED Log and the DO43 System to
convert specification and part numbers to NSNs.
See Chapter 8 for requisitioning procedures and
other related decal information.
Decals are specially prepared plastic film containing designs,
words, numerals, or colored marking stripes, which may be
applied or attached to Air Force equipment as a method of
marking or identification. Decals can be used in lieu of paint
for internal and external markings and insignia as authorized
in Chapter 8. Decals shall conform to CID A-A-59485 or
commercial equivalent and are available in solid or perforated film. Decals with perforations shall only be applied
over fully painted surfaces. For application to pressurized
areas on aircraft exteriors, prepared (factory) perforated film
shall be used to prevent blistering due to leaking rivets,
seams, etc. Non-perforated, premasked decals may be applied directly to the primer prior to applying the topcoat.
Decals applied prior to the topcoat must be premasked with
low tack translucent application/mask tape, leaving a 1/16
inch uncovered lip around the decal edge. This lip will allow
the topcoat paint to seal the edge of the decal, eliminating
the need for edge sealer. The mask is removed after the topcoat paint is allowed to cure. Decals are not authorized on
unpainted surfaces.
7.1.1
Surface Preparation.
Do not apply decals when the temperature is below 45 °F as early failure or peeling will occur.
NOTE
If application of decals is required at temperatures
of 45 to 60 °F, the pressure sensitive adhesive must
be activated per instructions supplied by the
manufacturer.
The integrity of a decal installation is largely dependent upon
proper preparation of the surface to which the decal is applied. Therefore, the following must be accomplished prior
to application of decals to aircraft surfaces.
a. Remove exceptionally oily or greasy contaminants using wipe solvents listed in Table 3-2.
b. In areas where the decal will be applied, buff very
lightly with very fine aluminum oxide abrasive mat per
CID A-A-58054, Type I, Grade A.
c. Clean the entire application surface thoroughly with
alkaline cleaner MIL-PRF-87937 or MIL-PRF-85570,
in accordance with TO 1-1-691, on all old painted surfaces. This is not required on newly painted surfaces.
d. Perform final cleaning of the application area with a
lint-free cotton cloth wet with TT-I-735 isopropyl alcohol. Wipe the area dry.
e. Optional use of a gloss MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane
clear-coat applied to the area to be covered by aircraft
decals for adhesion purposes on camouflage aircraft is
authorized.
7.1.2 Application Procedures for Decals and Colored
Marking Stripes. Application of decals authorized by Chapter 8 or system specific equipment or aircraft TOs is accomplished per the basic methods detailed below. These methods
refer generally to simple shapes of the approximate sizes
noted. Application of intricately cut shapes require the use of
detailed application instruction supplied with the decal.
7-1
TO 1-1-8
7.2
SMALL DECALS AND MARKING STRIPES.
a. Tape decal into position with small pieces of masking
tape (See Figure 7-3) as Step 1.
7.2.1 Decals Up to 12 Inches x 2 Inches. Remove entire backing from adhesive, align decal, and press on one
edge to surface with the finger. Hold the remainder of film
taut and slightly away from surface until pressed down with
plastic squeegee using firm, overlapping strokes (See Figure
7-1).
Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-1.
Applying Small Decal
7.2.2 Film for Striping. Pull off backing for approximately
12 inches, exposing the adhesive. Press end in position and
apply the striping as the backing is removed. Press firmly to
surface with a plastic squeegee. Be sure all edges are firmly
adhered (See Figure 7-2).
Figure 7-2.
b. Apply 1 inch or 2 inch wide tape over one edge to
serve as a hinge. Whenever possible, hinge narrow
edge (See Figure 7-4). If the surface requires that the
longer edge be hinged, it may be necessary to use the
carrier method. Bending the decal back at the hinge,
peel the liner off of the decal. For large decals, it may
be more convenient to peel the liner back a few inches
at a time as the application progresses (See Figure 7-5)
- Steps 2 and 3.
Applying Marking Stripe
7.3 LARGE EMBLEMS AND LETTERS USING
HINGE APPLICATION METHOD.
Apply these decals using a “Hinge” method as outlined below.
7-2
Applying Large Emblems (Step 1)
Figure 7-4.
Applying Large Emblems (Step 2)
TO 1-1-8
d. Tape into position and follow application steps under
hinge method.
e. Remove tape by pulling directly back upon itself at
180°. Re-squeegee decal, especially the edges (See
Figure 7-10).
Figure 7-5.
Applying Large Emblems (Step 3)
c. Hinge back and squeegee or roll the emblem to surface
with firm, overlapping strokes. Hold sheeting away
from the surface with one hand and allow adhesive to
touch only as pressure is applied. Be sure the edges are
firmly adhered (See Figure 7-6) - Step 4.
Figure 7-6.
7.4
Figure 7-7.
Use of Application Tape (Step 1)
Figure 7-8.
Use of Application Tape (Step 2)
Figure 7-9.
Use of Application Tape (Step 3)
Applying Large Emblems (Step 4)
DECALS APPLIED USING APPLICATION TAPE.
This method is particularly useful with large or intricately
shaped emblems or for hot weather applications. Steps 1, 2,
and 3 under Figure 7-7, Figure 7-8, and Figure 7-9 are not
necessary when decals are supplied premasked (cut to same
shape as decal with application tape).
a. Place a piece of application tape with the adhesive side
up on a flat, rigid surface (See Figure 7-7).
b. Align emblem or letter with film side down and drop
onto the adhesive (See Figure 7-8).
c. Starting in the middle of the decal, squeegee to application tape with firm strokes of the plastic squeegee
(See Figure 7-9).
7-3
TO 1-1-8
a. Tape the decal into position and follow application
steps under hinge method (Paragraph 7.3.).
b. After the paint topcoat has cured, remove the masking
in the same manner shown in Figure 7-10 except do
not re-squeegee.
7.7
Figure 7-10.
7.5
Use of Application Tape (Step 4)
DECAL REMOVAL.
•
MIL-T-81772 thinner is flammable and toxic.
Keep away from heat and open flame. Keep
container closed when not in use. Use only with
adequate ventilation. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Avoid swallowing.
•
Eye protection must always be used when operating these tools. Power tools can cause flying particles which can cause injury.
EDGE SEALING.
Seal all edges of decals applied over the topcoat on the exterior of the aircraft. Decals that have been applied
premasked over primer coat and subsequently top coated do
not require edge sealing.
NOTE
Seal decal edges when required with 3M Co.
(CAGE Code 34360) Edge Sealer, PN 4150 under
NSN 8030-00- 195-7660, or PN 3950 under NSN
8030-00-936-9940. Use of other edge sealers will
cause early failure of 4000-series decal ink and
CID A-A-59485 polyester film decals.
a. Use the felt wick applicator attached to screw top can
or use small narrow striping brush.
b. Apply sufficient sealer to effect a feather edging along
the entire decal edge (See Figure 7-11).
Remove perforated decals, listed in Chapter 2, conforming
to CID A-A-59845, Type I, with paint remover. The film is a
highly solvent resistant polyester, so the paint remover must
penetrate through the perforations to soften the adhesive. It
may be necessary to use repeated applications of remover to
remove the film from adhesive. Another application of remover on the adhesive may then be required. Scrape off the
bulk of the softened adhesive with a non-metallic scraper.
Wipe off any remaining adhesive residue with thinner conforming to MIL-T-81772 on a cotton cloth. Non-perforated
CID A-A-59845 type film can only be removed by applying
steam or dry heat to the decal and physically removing film.
Wipe off any remaining adhesive with thinner conforming to
MIL-T-81772 on a cotton cloth.
7.7.1 Mechanical Removal. Use a pneumatic drill and
one of the Adhesive Removal Disc Systems to remove both
decal material and adhesive from the area. Non-perforated
decals can only be removed by mechanical methods listed
below or by applying steam or dry heat to the decal and
physically removing the film. Wipe off any remaining adhesive residue with thinner conforming to MIL-T-81772 on a
cotton cloth until cloth no longer shows residue.
Figure 7-11.
7.6
Edge Sealing
APPLICATION OF PREMASKED DECALS.
Decals that have application tape (cut to the same shape as
the decal) applied to the film side are supplied specifically
for application on the primer coat (MIL-PRF-23377, MILPRF-85582, or TT-P-2760 only).
System
MBX Vinyl Zapper
7-4
PN/NSN
USSP-01-Blue
Description
MBX Vinyl Zapper
Source of Supply
Aerosafe Products, Inc
TO 1-1-8
System
Tool and Eraser
3M Aircraft
Adhesive and Decal
Removal Disk
PN/NSN
USZU-010
3460-01-447-8021
7.8 APPLICATION OF MARKINGS WITH SILKSCREEN.
Description
Removal Tool
(Pneumatic)
Vinyl Decal Eraser
Wheel, Buffing
Materials and Equipment for Silkscreening.
Equipment:
Locally fabricated or commercially procured silkscreens are both authorized. Screen should be
polyester monofilament (220-280 mesh).
Silkscreen, squeegee, commercially procured.
Materials:
Colored marking paint, MIL-PRF-81352, Type I Acrylic, Type II - Alkyd, Type III - Polyurethane.
Thinner, MIL-T-81772, Type I and III.
Topcoat, MIL-PRF-81352, Type I, II, or III, clear.
7.8.2 Surface Preparation. Prior to silk-screening, wipe
area being marked with one of the ketones or non-terpene
solvent blends in Table 3-2. Freshly painted surfaces require
no cleaning.
7.8.3 Application. Mount the silkscreen securely on the
aircraft or equipment being marked.
3M Center
Saint Paul, MN
55144-1000
CAGE Code:
52152
NOTE
•
The silkscreen paint being used may be either
acrylic, alkyd, or polyurethane, unless otherwise specified in the system specific technical
order.
•
If the silkscreened marking requires a clear
topcoat, ensure it is compatible with the silkscreen and the base paint materials.
This method can be used for painting internal and external
markings and insignias.
7.8.1
Source of Supply
P.O. Box 4755
Marietta, GA 30061
888-666-7885/
770-590-8863
CAGE Code:
1LPF0
a. Place just enough paint on the top of the silkscreen,
just above the design, to completely cover the design
when drawn. Using a square edge squeegee, draw the
paint across the silkscreen design using firm constant
pressure. When complete, remove the screen from
equipment.
b. Clean screen, squeegee, and other equipment using applicable thinner.
7.8.4 Topcoat Application. Silkscreened markings applied
over a base coat of MIL-PRF-85285, Type I, polyurethane
paint may also have a topcoat of clear MIL-PRF-85285
polyurethane, applied using an air spray gun, to improve the
abrasion resistance of the silkscreen design. To avoid blurring of the silkscreen ink, apply a light coat of the clear
polyurethane initially. Follow with heavier coats and allow
to cure dust free.
MIL-PRF-81352 Types I, II, or III are flammable
and toxic to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Eye
and skin protection required. Good general ventilation is normally adequate.
7-5
TO 1-1-8
7.9.3 Painting of Stencils. Stencils shall be applied by
using spray, brush, or roller application methods. Use the
same type of paint as the topcoat.
7.9 APPLICATION OF MARKINGS USING STENCILS.
This method can be used for painting internal and external
markings and insignias. The use of locally fabricated or
commercially procured stencils is authorized. Use of stencils
cut from a vinyl material on a computerized stencil machine
is preferable.
7.9.1 Surface Preparation. Prior to stenciling, wipe area
to be stenciled with one of the ketones or non-terpene solvent blends in Table 3-2. Freshly painted surfaces require no
cleaning.
7.9.2 Mounting Stencil. Stencil may be taped into position using MIL-T-21595/SAE AMS-T-21595, Type 2, Masking Tape or alternatively use 3M Co. (CAGE Code 34360)
Repositionable Spray Adhesive 75, PN 3M-75. This adhesive will securely hold the stencil but will not leave any
residue when removed. The adhesive is sprayed on the back
of the stencil prior to mounting and will remain tacky enough
to be reused several times. For the vinyl stencil mask material cut on the computerized stencil machine, peel the protective backing off the self-adhesive side, mount on the surface being marked, remove the cut out sections, and make
sure all edges are adhering to the surface. This stencil mask
material is easily peeled off the surface after stenciling and
leaves no residue.
Material
SurPrep
Source/Cage Code
ANDPAK, INC. ZIP-CHEM
PRODUCTS/25873
SurPrep
ANDPAK, INC. ZIP-CHEM
PRODUCTS/25873
PreKote SP Presatu- PANTHEON CHEMICAL/
rated wipes
0F5L5
PreKote SP Presatu- PANTHEON CHEMICAL/
rated wipes
0F5L5
7-6
Change 10
NOTE
Single-component aerosol paint is authorized for
instructional markings on off-equipment components, temporary markings required for functional
test flights, and wing-level organizational insignia
or emblems. Approval is contingent on the existing coating system being intact (primer and topcoat), with no bare metal where the temporary
marking is applied. Single-component aerosols are
not authorized for any other application. These
materials are not as durable as Mil-Spec qualified
coatings and should not be used if schedules support the use of Mil-Spec qualified materials.
7.9.4 Adhesion Promoters. When the time between topcoat applications and paint stenciling has been exceeded the
use of the following adhesion promoters is authorized. These
materials chemically reactivate the topcoat in lieu of scuffsanding, and improve the paint stencil’s adhesion properties.
Follow the manufacturers recommended instructions for application and use.
Part Number/NSN
AP-1/8010-01-600-1533
AP-1/8010-01-600-2254
Unit of issue (UI)
Twenty-four 4-OZ aerosol cans
Box
Twelve 11-OZ aerosol cans Box
065-1080/6850-01-602-6827
Roll of wipes W/O container EA
065-1081/6850-01-602-6830
Container with roll of wipes EA
TO 1-1-8
CHAPTER 8
EXTERIOR FINISHES, INSIGNIA, AND MARKINGS APPLICABLE TO USAF
AIRCRAFT
8.1
GENERAL.
8.1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to standardize the painting, marking, and exterior configuration of all
Air Force, Air Force Reserve, and Air National Guard aircraft. This chapter describes Air Force policy on the painting, marking, and exterior configuration of aircraft. Also described in this chapter are common internal markings and
standardized international markings. In the event of a technical conflict between this chapter and the weapon system
specific manuals, the weapon system specific manuals shall
take precedence. Conflicts concerning safety, health, or environmental issues shall be resolved locally and through the
MAJCOM headquarters. Only the types of finishes and insignia described in this chapter shall be applied to USAF
aircraft. Refer to AFI 20-114 with MAJCOM supplements,
weapon system manuals, and weapon system drawings for
specific paint schemes and marking applications.
8.1.2 Responsibilities. HQ USAF/A4 is responsible for
coordinating Air Force painting and marking policy with the
various international organizations, and is the focal point for
all Air Force painting and marking issues. The MAJCOM
logistics and maintenance function is responsible for implementing the policy as described by USAF/A4. System Program Directors (SPD) are responsible for maintaining accurate technical data depicting approved paint schemes and
markings for their assigned aircraft. SPDs shall be responsible for assuring compliance with AFI 20-114 and Air Force
policy promulgated by USAF/A4.
8.1.3 Maintenance and Application. The MAJCOMs and
using organizations are responsible for the application and
maintenance of coatings and markings for all assigned aircraft listed in TO 00-25-4. AFMC shall be responsible for
the overcoating or strip and repaint of aircraft listed in TO
00-25-4.
8.1.4 Major Command Instructions. Each major command shall prepare a supplement for AFI 20-114 pertaining
to painting and marking of aircraft. The supplement will be
limited to distinguishing insignia, markings, and finishes as
authorized in this chapter and other Air Force directives.
8.1.5 Authorized Deviations. All requests for deviations
from the standard exterior paint and marking configuration
in this TO will be sent to HQ USAF/A4. HQ USAF/A4 will
coordinate with HQ USAF/XO and maintain copies of drawings and photographs.
8.1.6 Paint Scheme and Marking Approval Process.
All changes to approved schemes and markings will be submitted to the MAJCOM Aircraft Structural Manager (ASM)/
Corrosion Manager (CM). The ASM/CM will coordinate the
changes within the command structure and ensure survivability analysis is completed as necessary. The ASM/CM will
work with the SPD to ensure the applicable technical documents are changed and develop a method to implement the
changes. A copy of the approved change package will be
forwarded to HQ USAF/A4. USAF/A4 will acknowledge receipt of the package and will retain the authority to require
changes to the package. Exceptions are as follows:
8.1.6.1 89th AW, 201AS, and the 1st Helicopter
Squadron. Deviations from standard paint schemes and
markings are authorized and shall be approved by HQ USAF/
A4.
8.1.6.2 U.S. Air Force Aerial Demonstration Squadron
“The Thunderbirds”. Paint schemes and markings shall be
approved by HQ USAF/A4.
8.1.6.3 76th Airlift Squadron. Aircraft assigned are authorized radio call numbers on each side of the vertical stabilizer, American flag, and United States of America markings with no other external USAF markings authorized (i.e.,
USAF, stars and bars, organizational markings, fuel grade
markings under pilot’s window) Painting and marking of
these aircraft will be as specified by USAFE/CC. Information copies of all approved paint schemes and markings will
be forwarded to HQ USAF/A4.
8.1.6.4 Low Observable Aircraft. HQ ACC is responsible
for developing paint schemes and markings for low observable aircraft.
8.1.6.5 Aircraft Received from Other Services. When
types and models of aircraft not previously in the Air Force
inventory are acquired from other military departments, the
MAJCOM and SPD will develop paint schemes and marking
patterns for the aircraft. The SPD will be responsible for
developing special purpose markings for servicing and personnel safety.
8.1.7 Service Tests. Approved service test programs will
be implemented by coordinated effort, monitored by the appropriate engineering function, SPD, AFRL, and the requesting MAJCOM.
Change 4
8-1
TO 1-1-8
8.1.8 Decals. Decals are special prepared film containing
design, words, letters, or numerals and are intended to be
permanently affixed to the aircraft. Decals may be used in
lieu of paint for all external markings and insignia where the
contact surfaces are of sufficient smoothness to permit good
adhesion. Decals shall meet CID A-A-59484 or commercial
equivalent.
8.1.9 Applicable References. The application of North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) code numbers cited in
TO 42B1-1-15 shall supplement the applicable service points
prescribed in this TO. The codes will be applied immediately
adjacent to the symbol as considered most practical. NATO
code numbers may be omitted when not reflected in TO
42B1-1-15 or may be omitted on training type aircraft and
other aircraft not subject to being serviced at overseas location. Additional instructions and directives applicable or allied to the application and maintenance of the finishes and
markings of aircraft are contained in the following:
CENTO STANAG #3230
NATO STANAG #3109
NATO STANAG #3230
Emergency Marking on
Aircraft.
Servicing and Ground
Handling Codes.
Emergency Marking on
Aircraft.
8.2 STANDARD EXTERIOR FINISHES, MARKINGS,
AND INSIGNIA FOR USAF AIRCRAFT.
Standard finishes are applied as either glossy or camouflage
topcoats. All topcoats, painted markings, and painted insignia will be applied using high-solid polyurethane, MIL-PRF85285.
8.2.1 Metal Exterior Finishes. Metal exterior finishes
other than titanium and Corrosion Resistant Steel (CRES)
require surface protection from corrosive elements and,
therefore, will be painted.
8.2.2 Titanium and Corrosion Resistant Steel. These
materials usually make up a small portion of the exterior
surface. Titanium and CRES will be painted to match the
rest of the exterior of the aircraft providing temperatures permit.
8.2.3 Treatment of Metal Exteriors. Treatment of metal
exteriors and corrosion control are specified in TO 1-1-691
and weapon system specific manuals.
8.2.4 Policy Guidance. It is a general policy that all Air
Force aircraft will be painted equally as a prime means of
corrosion protection and prevention, appearance, and survivability. Painting for professional appearance is an integral
part of a well-managed corrosion control program (AFI 20114). The requirement to paint must be tempered with good
judgment. Mission requirements, environmental concerns,
8-2
Change 4
and resources must be considered prior to painting. Aircraft
will be painted in accordance with a service life program. A
coordinated paint/depaint program will be established and
kept current for each weapon system. Where possible, a
scoring system should be used to determine painting requirements. The scoring system should account for paint condition, local corrosion severity index (Refer to TO 1-1-691),
and calendar time. The MAJCOM and SPD will determine
when an aircraft is to be stripped and repainted. Maintenance
painting will be used to enhance and preserve coating systems.
8.2.4.1 In determining the requirements for sectional overcoating, total overcoating, or strip and repaint, the following
general technical criteria should be considered in the development of the weapon system paint plan.
8.2.4.1.1 Sectional or total overcoat if the paint is oxidized, discolored, stained, chipped, scratched, or peeled from
the primer and the primer remains adhered to the aircraft
surface. If the condition is extensive, consider a total overcoat.
8.2.4.1.2 Strip and repaint if the following defects or
combination of defects exists: areas which have been overcoated (primer plus topcoat) at least three times; primer is
not adhering to the substrate; or the paint system is peeled to
the substrate.
8.2.4.2 When applying the above criteria to determine
painting requirements and a combination of defects for strip
and overcoating exists, the following general economic
guidelines should be considered in the development of the
weapon system paint plan.
8.2.4.2.1 When determining sectional or total overcoat and
a combination of defects exist, overcoating may be accomplished if the time or man-hour requirements for surface
preparation (mask, sand, or clean) do not exceed 70 percent
of the time or man-hours for a complete strip/repaint.
8.2.4.2.2 Sectional stripping may be required, as determined by deteriorated areas, on aircraft designated for complete overcoat. Complete overcoating may be accomplished
if the combined time or man-hours for sectional stripping
and surface preparation for overcoat do not exceed 70 percent of the time or man-hours required for complete strip/
repaint.
8.2.4.2.3 Complete strip/repaint should be accomplished
in lieu of overcoating whenever the time or man-hours for
masking, sanding, and cleaning for the total or sectional
overcoating exceed 70 percent of those to accomplish strip/
repaint.
8.2.4.3 In the absence of a tailored weapon system paint
plan, the above criteria will apply to all aircraft.
TO 1-1-8
8.2.5 Camouflage. Camouflage is used for the purpose of
deception, to conceal material from undesired observation,
or to confuse and mislead observers as to the identity and
number of assets available. Camouflage may be either pattern or non-pattern. Pattern camouflaging is based on optical
principals that dictate certain non-reflective colors, color
configurations, and color portions. Arbitrary application of
markings and color schemes other that those approved will
defeat the purpose of the camouflage and is not authorized.
8.2.6 Special Purpose Exterior Solar Resistant Finishes. For the purpose of this manual, solar resistant finish
is defined as a white cap painted on the top surface of the
aircraft to reduce interior temperature. The solar resistant
finish is only authorized on aircraft used primarily as troop
carriers or those that carry heat sensitive equipment. In either case, the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 20-114 or
equivalent MAJCOM instruction will authorize the application of a solar resistant finish.
8.2.7 Paint Facility/Finish Identification Block. (See Figure B-4) All aircraft receiving a new paint finish will have a
contrasting color or black (color 37038) block of no less
than 2 1/2 inches, applied to the right side fuselage on the
underside even with the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer or wing by the activity that applied the paint. Stencils
or decals may be used for the paint block. Figure B-4 shows
an example of a typical paint block, MAJCOMs may allow
different designs. The block will contain:
•
The name of the activity, plus the CAGE code
•
Date of completion (DD, MMM, YY)
•
Identification by specification of all coatings used
•
For non-standard or unique coatings, such as Advance Performance Coating (APC)/Extended Life
Topcoat (ELT), add manufacture product code and
CAGE Code
NOTE
All full scuff sanded and overcoated aircraft require an additional paint identification block for
each coating system applied (in addition to the
original paint identification block). It shall contain
the same information as required above and will
be placed adjacent to the original paint identification block.
8.3 MARKINGS AND INSIGNIA FOR USAF AIRCRAFT.
8.3.1 General. The markings and insignia contained in
the manual will be applied to all USAF aircraft. Markings
and insignia will vary depending on the paint system being
applied and the MAJCOM to which the aircraft is assigned.
Standard Markings are as listed in Table 8-1. The above
standard insignia and markings will not be altered in location, dimension, or configuration to accommodate any other
insignia or marking.
8.3.1.1 National Star Insignia. The National Star will be
installed on all aircraft. Specific instructions for installing
the National Star and approximate dimensions are shown in
Figure B-1 and in Paragraph 8.3.1.3.
8.3.1.2 The National Star Insignia on Aircraft Fuselage. The star insignia will normally be applied to the aircraft fuselage midway between the wing trailing edge and
the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer.
8.3.1.3 The National Star Insignia on Aircraft Wings.
The star will be applied to the upper surface of the left wing
and the lower surface of the right wing. (See Figure B-2)
8.3.1.4 The National Star Insignia on Helicopters. The
star shall be applied on the fuselage. The insignia shall be
located so that it is visible from each side, above and below.
Because of helicopter design configuration, the insignia shall
be located so as to provide maximum identification. Such
locations shall be standardized on like MDS helicopters.
8.3.2 “USAF” Wing Marking. On aircraft identified by the
MAJCOM requiring USAF wing markings, the USAF marking shall be applied to the lower surface of the left wing and
upper surface of the right wing. The height and location of
the USAF will correspond with the National Star insignia.
The top of the letters shall be towards the leading edge of
the wing.
8.3.3 American Flag Marking. The display of the American Flag on aircraft exteriors is intended for specific uses
which have national significance or U.S. diplomatic connotations. The use of the flag will be restricted and approved
only by HQ USAF/A4. Routine or occasional overseas flight
of aircraft, assignment of aircraft to foreign soil, or intratheater travel of overseas based aircraft are not sufficient reasons for use of the American Flag marking. The National
Star insignia and USAF markings painted upon aircraft exteriors will adequately identify USAF aircraft. Table 8-2 lists
all aircraft authorized the American Flag marking.
8.3.3.1 The American Flag shall have a height, width ratio
of 0.52 to 1, and be located on each side of the vertical fin
above all other markings of significance. The flag shall be
positioned horizontally such that the union shall be uppermost with the bars appearing to be trailing at all times. (See
Figure B-5)
8.3.3.2 The flag or emblem of other countries/(non-Air
Force) organizations shall not be displayed on USAF aircraft
for any reason.
Change 11
8-3
TO 1-1-8
Table 8-1.
Standard Markings
Item
National Star Insignia
“USAF” Marking
“U.S. AIR FORCE” Marking
Serial Number
Aircraft Radio Call Number
American Flag
Table 8-2.
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
Aircraft
General Location
Wing and Fuselage
Wings
Fuselage
Fuselage
Vertical Fin
Vertical Fin
Aircraft Authorized American Flag Markings
Air Attache
MAAG
USAF Mission
Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft, EC-135 (AFMC-ARIA) and NKC-135A SN 53-3132 (BIG CROW)
89th Airlift Wing/201AS
Air Force Section Mission (U.S. Military Group Aircraft in Latin America)
AMC/ACC Airlift Forces Aircraft
76th Airlift Squadron, USAFE
AFRC and ANG Airlift Aircraft for which ACC/AMC are the Gaining Command
EC/RC-135
E-4 Aircraft
All Transport and Tanker Aircraft
8.3.4 United States of America Marking. The words
“UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” are authorized to be
painted on the fuselage exteriors of aircraft authorized the
American Flag listed in Table 8-3 . When authorized, the
marking “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” will be applied
on both sides of the aircraft fuselage, parallel to and above
the top of the cabin windows (See Figure B-5). The fuselage
marking “U.S. AIR FORCE” shall be removed from the
aircraft.
Table 8-3. Aircraft Authorized United States of America Markings
Air Attache
MAAG
AFMC-ARIA
USAF Mission
89th Airlift Wing
Air Force Section Mission (U.S. Military Group Aircraft in Latin America)
76th Airlift Squadron, USAFE
E-4 Aircraft
8.3.5 Aircraft Radio Call Numbers. The radio call number will be applied to each side of the vertical stabilizer. On
aircraft with multiple vertical stabilizers the radio call num-
8-4
ber will be applied to the outboard side of the outer most
vertical stabilizer. AMC and ACC each use a different method
to mark the vertical stabilizer with the radio call number.
8.3.6 AMC Standard Radio Call Numbers. The radio
call number consists of five numbers usually derived from
the aircraft serial number. The first numeral of the contract
number and the hyphen will not be used (e.g., SN 63545134A will be 35134 and 62-3467 will be 23467) (See
Figure B-5).
8.3.6.1 In the event five numerals are not available, the
radio call number will include the second numeral of the
contract year followed by a sufficient number of zeros to
provide five numerals (e.g., SN 73-23A will become 30023).
8.3.6.2 All radio call number placards within the aircraft,
including helicopters, shall reflect the same radio call number as applied to the aircraft exterior.
8.3.7 ACC Standard Radio Call Numbers. ACC uses a
distinctive two-place alphanumeric in conjunction with the
first two and last three numbers of the aircraft serial number.
When duplicate last three digits exist among aircraft with the
same distinctive unit designator, the last four numerals of the
serial number shall be used (See Figure B-6).
TO 1-1-8
8.3.7.1 Distinctive Unit Identifiers. The identifier is two
numbers, two letters, or one number and one letter. Any
MAJCOM may authorize the use of the identifier. HQ ACC
will be the approving authority and maintain a registry of the
identifiers. When the identifiers are no longer required, the
respective command will notify HQ ACC. Distinctive identifiers shall not be removed or installed without the expressed
knowledge and approval of HQ ACC. Similarly, only ACC
may authorize changes in the identification code assignments.
8.4
ORGANIZATION INSIGNIA OR EMBLEMS.
All proposed organizational emblems and insignia will be in
accordance with the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 20-114 or
equivalent MAJCOM instruction. The MAJCOM or ANG
will be the approving authority for these insignia and emblems. Only ANG aircraft are authorized the state name and
ANG Minuteman emblem. Application location and size will
be in accordance to the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 20114 or equivalent MAJCOM instruction. Standard markings/
insignia shall not be altered to accommodate any organizational markings/insignia. When the aircraft is being
transferred, the transferring unit will remove its markings
and insignia. Aircraft being processed for storage are exempt
from the requirement to remove markings/insignia.
8.4.1 Outstanding Unit Award Marking. A replica of the
“Outstanding Unit Award” ribbon earned by an organization
may be installed on the sides of the fuselage in accordance
with the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 20-114 or equivalent
MAJCOM instruction. The marking shall not exceed 12
inches in length. The size ratio shall be 4:1.
8.4.2 Crew Names. The names of the pilot, crew chief,
or other members of the flight or ground crew shall be applied to the aircraft in accordance with the MAJCOM supplement to the AFI 20-114 or equivalent MAJCOM instruction.
8.4.2.1 Combat Deployment Requirements. Aircraft
deployed to combat zones are not authorized to have any
crew markings. All exterior crew markings shall be completely removed from the aircraft prior to deployment to
combat zones. No visible outline (shadowing) or glue shall
remain on the aircraft. Names shall be reapplied as soon as
practical following redeployment from the combat zone.
Information on approved names, colors, sizes, and locations
shall be included in the MAJCOM’s supplement to AFI 20114 or equivalent MAJCOM instruction.
8.4.4 Local Station Numbers and Markings. Where aircraft may have a duplication of the last three digits of the
aircraft serial number or atmospheric conditions may hinder
visibility at a station, the MAJCOM may authorize local station numbers.
8.4.4.1 Station Numbers. Station numbers shall be located on the nose section of fixed wing aircraft and on the
deflector shields or other forward component of rotor wing
aircraft. Numerals will not be more than 8 inches tall and
proportionate to the aircraft size. Station numbers shall be
removed prior to transfer of the aircraft.
8.4.4.2 Tail Stripe. MAJCOMs may authorize a distinguishing colored horizontal stripe for application to both
sides of the vertical fin. The stripes shall not be applied over
apex antenna.
8.4.5 Propeller Markings. All Air Force propeller blade
tips will be painted in a contrasting color. All blades will be
checked for balance after application of blade markings. For
blades less than 15 feet in diameter (measured from the tip
of the blade to the hub center) the stripe will be 4 inches
wide. Larger diameter blades will have 6-inch stripe.
8.4.5.1 Propeller tips may be marked with light reflective
yellow or a contrasting color when it is necessary to define
the blade track in the dark.
8.4.5.2 Aircraft whose primary mission is transportation
of VIPs are authorized to have red, white, and blue stripes
applied to the propeller tips. Approval authority for this
marking is the MAJCOM. The occasional transport of VIPs
in not sufficient justification for multicolored blade tips. Each
blade will be painted red, white, and blue in this order with
red being the color closest to the blade tip. For blades 15
feet in diameter and less each stripe will be 1 1/2 inches
wide. Larger diameter blades will have a 2-inch stripe. Table
8-4 lists aircraft authorized multicolored blade tips.
Table 8-4. Aircraft Authorized Multi-Colored Blade Tip Markings
NOTE
Crew name background blocks may need to be
completely repainted to ensure the names are not
recognizable, distinguishable, or visible in any
form on the exterior of the aircraft.
8.4.3 Aircraft Names. All requests for applying aircraft
names to the exterior of aircraft shall be coordinated through
the appropriate MAJCOM/CC and forwarded to HQ USAF
for CV approval. Send justification to HQ USAF/A4. Exception: Units may transfer a previously coordinated/HQ USAF
approved name from one aircraft to another (same MDS
within their unit) when transferring aircraft to another unit.
Air Attache
MAAG
USAF Mission
89th Airlift Wing
8.4.6 Helicopter Main Rotor Blade Markings. Classification numbers shall be stenciled on the inboard (butt end),
flat surface of the ground side of each main rotor blade by
facilities authorized to balance and alter the rotor blades.
Three numbers in decimal format shall be utilized: the first
shall be weight in pounds; the second shall reflect the disChange 4
8-5
TO 1-1-8
tance in inches from the center of rotation to the center of
gravity of the blade; and the third number shall be the distance in inches from the leading edge of blade to the center
of gravity for the blade chord-wise (e.g., 57.2-75.2-5.2 indicates the blade weighs 57.2 pounds, with a center of gravity
75.2 inches from the center of rotation and chord-wise center
of gravity is 5.2 inches from the leading edge.). Contrasting
coloring stenciling shall be 3/4 inch in height. Color bands
installed by the contractor on the tip of the blade shall be
maintained along with matching colors on the housing. Different colors are required on the blades for tracking purposes.
8.4.7 Helicopter Tail Rotor Blade Markings. To promote
safety, all tail rotor blades, except Sikorsky blades utilizing
B and B bonding or having vinyl plastic tape installed, shall
be marked using MIL-PRF-85285 and a compatible primer
coat as follows:
components for a specific aircraft, the base supply account
number will be applied to the component. The stencil will be
1 inch high and applied near the component center on both
sides.
8.4.9 Markings for Servicing, Ground Handling, and
Hazard Warning. (See Figure B-7 through Figure B-12)
The markings shall be in contrasting colors. Lettering shall
be in accordance with Appendix B. Symbols for the identification of service points, ground handling, and hazard warnings shall be applied to the required locations on all USAF
aircraft. Location is dependent on the amount of available
space. The marking may be on or adjacent to the equipment
or service point. Symbols and markings may be applied using paint or decals. Symbols shall be approximately 4 inches
in size but may be smaller depending on the area or item
being marked. The markings provide:
•
Rapid identification of servicing points
•
Identification of the type of ground servicing required
•
Hazard warning or safety precautions which will
prevent injury to personnel or damage to equipment
•
Rapid exit from air vehicle under emergency conditions
a. Prime surface with a light coat of primer.
b. Apply a 6-inch band of red (color 31136) to the tail
rotor tip followed by a 6-inch band of white (color
37925) followed by another 6-inch band of red (color
31136).
c. Following the second band of red, apply a black band
(color 37038) to within 6 inches of the hub. Paint the
remaining 6 inches of the tail rotor red (color 31136).
d. Identifying color bands painted by the contractor shall
be maintained and an identifying dot, approximately
1/2 inch in diameter of the same color as appears on
the housing, shall be painted on the butt end of the
blade for matching purposes.
e. Balance the blades as necessary.
8.4.8 Identification Markings of Jettisonable Aircraft
Components. All jettisonable components will be stenciled
using MIL-PRF-85285. The color will be selected to provide
the greatest contrast with the surrounding base color of the
component.
8.4.8.1 Canopies. The radio call number shall be stenciled in 1-inch letters 6 inches from the forward left-hand
end, on either the inside or outside of the canopy frame.
8.4.8.2 Ejection Seats. All ejection seats shall have the
radio call number stenciled on the seat back near the top
edge. If the aircraft is equipped with more than one seat, the
flight crew position (i.e., pilot, NAV, GUNNER, etc.) shall
be stenciled under the radio call number. The numbers and
letters shall be 1 inch high and positioned to avoid contact
with parachute gear.
8.4.8.3 Jettisonable Components. Where jettisonable
components, such as external tanks, are interchangeable and
are frequently removed and create a problem of stockpiling
8-6
Change 9
8.4.10 Markings for Engine Compartment Fire Access
Panel. The fire access panel or doors in the engine compartments shall have contrasting color boarder and identifying
text.
8.4.11 Ejection Seats. A contrasting color equilateral triangle with the sides up to 9 inches long, with the apex pointing downward, shall be applied on each side of the fuselage
adjacent to the explosive device.
8.4.12 Identification of Ballistic Hose Assemblies. Ballistic hose or tubing assemblies leading to the ejection seat
or catapults shall be marked for ground rescue purposes. The
area selected shall be easily visible and readily accessible
and as close as possible to the catapult (See Appendix B).
8.4.13 Markings for Tank Filler Areas. Fuel filler caps
shall be painted red. A red band, 1 inch wide, around and 2
inches away from the fuel fill cap or over the cover door is
optional.
8.4.14 Marking of Emergency Lighting (Flashlight) for
Cargo and Transport Aircraft. Aircraft which have flashlights adjacent to natural or emergency exits will have a 1/2
inch yellow band around the base of the flashlight mount.
The band may be applied to the sides of the light holder if
the material cannot be applied around the base. The band
may be formed from 3M retro reflective or 6900 photo luminescent paint (TT-P-54), or reflection tape (ASTM D4956).
TO 1-1-8
8.4.15 Markings for Walkways and Steps. In cases
where walkways don’t contrast with surrounding areas, the
walkway will be bounded by a contrasting color line. The
word “WALKWAY” shall be stenciled at sufficient intervals.
Step areas shall be indicated at all points on the aircraft.
8.4.16 Markings for Composite/Honeycomb Panels.
Composite or honeycomb panels on upper surfaces shall be
distinctly marked by contrasting color 1 1/2 inch wide hash
marks. Each hash mark shall be 2 inches long and separated
by 2 inches. The marks shall slope 45 degrees.
8.4.17
8.4.18
Markings for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.
8.4.18.1 Target Drones. Target drones for crew training,
weapons evaluation, etc., shall be painted International Orange (color 12197) using MIL-PRF-85285.
8.4.18.2 Other Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. All other
UAVs, RPVs, and drones may be painted with a color scheme
to suit the mission requirement. The schemes and markings
shall be approved in accordance with the MAJCOM supplement to AFI 20-114. MIL-PRF-85285 shall be the standard
topcoat.
Removable Escape Panels.
8.4.17.1 Internal Markings. Marking for the identification of escape hatches, doors, and exits on the interior of the
aircraft shall be painted orange-yellow (color 13538). Use
black (color 17038) on yellow surfaces. Use MIL-PRF85285, 3M retro reflective or 6900 photo luminescent paint
(TT-P-54), or reflection tape (ASTM D4956).
a. Apply an intermittent band to mark the periphery of
the personnel escape exit. The segments of the band
will have a minimum width of 1 inch and a length of 2
inches, divided equally, possible and practical between
the door mounting and the escape door itself. Where
the lining will cover the identification marking band
inside of the aircraft, continue the marking onto the
lining.
b. The words EMERGENCY EXIT shall be applied on
the escape hatch door or exit or any covering thereof
in the most readily visible location. Letters should be
approximately 2 inches high.
c. Paint handles, releases, catches, and knobs for inside
hatches and exit doors. Where lettering or marking areas are covered by lining, the lining shall also be appropriately marked. Suitable descriptive wording, readily visible, shall be applied to the door or structure of
the aircraft, whichever is nearest the emergency release, to identify and explain its operation. This wording should be approximately 1 inch high. Use Standard
English terminology such as PULL, TURN, SLIDE, or
PUSH.
8.4.17.2 External Markings. Markings for the identification of escape hatches, doors, and exits on the exterior of the
aircraft shall be painted orange-yellow (color 13538) or a
contrasting color. Use MIL-PRF-85285. The words EMT
RELEASE, shall be applied on the outside of the aircraft to
facilitate quick identification. Suitable descriptive wording
shall be applied to the door or structure of the aircraft,
whichever is nearest the emergency release, to identify and
explain its operation. This wording should be approximately
1 inch high. Use Standard English terminology such as
PULL, TURN, SLIDE, or PUSH. Letters should be approximately 2 inches high.
8.4.19 Conspicuity Markings. Conspicuity Markings
(MIL-PRF-85285, color 12197) may be used under special
conditions on non-camouflaged aircraft and are intended to
enhance air-to-air visual detection for safety purposes. Conspicuity markings will be approved by HQ USAF/A4 for
aircraft engaged in special missions. Aircraft required to have
conspicuity markings:
•
Aircraft used primarily as target
•
Aircraft specifically designated by the MAJCOM
due to special requirements of research and development. Included may be director and drone aircraft
•
Special conspicuity markings are authorized only
when 75 percent or more of the mission flying hours
are utilized en route/on facility time
8.4.20 Arctic Markings. The use of arctic markings (MILPRF-85285, color 12197) is intended to facilitate the location of aircraft downed in regions covered by ice and snow.
Aircraft in the following categories are exempt from compliance with arctic markings:
•
Air Attache
•
Aircraft scheduled for short periods of duty, less
than 180 days, in Arctic or Antarctic regions
•
Active strike force and combat support aircraft assigned offensive missions for less than 180 days in
Arctic or Antarctic regions
8.5 ESTABLISHING REQUIREMENTS FOR MISSION ACTIVITY, CREW ACCOMPLISHMENT, AND
ESPRIT DE CORPS INSIGNIA AND MARKINGS.
Markings which reflect mission activity, crew accomplishment, and esprit de corps are allowed at the discretion and
final approval of the senior logistics official in each MAJCOM. A copy of all approved markings should be forwarded
to HQ USAF/A4.
Change 4
8-7/(8-8 blank)
TO 1-1-8
APPENDIX A
SHELF-LIFE EXTENSION PROCEDURES
A.1
GENERAL TESTING PROCEDURES.
802 MXSS/MXDT is the AF executive agent for the ShelfLife Extension Data (SLED) program, reference DoD
4140.27-M and the DoD Shelf-Life Program website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil). The SLED program is managed by 802
MXSS/MXDTD at Robins AFB, GA (DSN 468-8590, COM
(478) 926-8590, or FAX (478) 926-1276 or FAX DSN 4681276. Under their authority, the following test procedures
are provided for the testing of the most commonly used coatings in this technical order under the 8010 NSC.
a. These procedures are authorized for use to supplement
the test requirements of DoD 4140.27-M and the DoD
Shelf-Life Program website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil)
for MIL-PRF-23377, TT-P-2760, MIL-PRF-85582, and
MIL-PRF-85285. When any of the above materials
have reached their established shelf-life, they must be
tested per the requirements of DoD 4140.27-M and the
DoD Shelf-Life Program website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil) at AFMC Laboratories, commercial laboratories, or at bases with the means to test these materials
using the procedures established here.
b. The information contained in the SLED program is
advisory in nature; however, it may be used to assist in
the management of shelf-life extension for MIL-PRF23377, TT-P-2760, MIL-PRF-85582, MIL-PRF-85285
(and other 80 FSG materials not discussed here, reference DoD 4140.27-M and the DoD Shelf-Life Program
website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil)). This information
may be used to extend the inspection and test date for
material under the same NSN and manufacturer’s batch
and lot number. Additionally, condemning material
shall be per the requirements of DoD 4140.27-M and
the DoD Shelf-Life Program website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil) or results of testing of local stocks, either
by a laboratory or the tests provided here.
c. Testing shall be accomplished on or before the initial
expiration date and on or before each extension expiration date. Initial shelf life extensions is for full period of the original shelf-life (i.e., Original shelf-life 1
year, initial extension 1 year). Subsequent shelf-life
extensions will be for one-half of the original assigned
shelf-life (i.e., Original shelf-life 1 year, second and
subsequent shelf-life extensions will be for 6 months).
Reference DoD 4140.27-M and the DoD Shelf-Life
Program website (www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil) for further
instruction. This is the maximum allowable update for
each retest.
d. To perform base level tests where laboratories are not
available or sending the material for laboratory testing
is not economically feasible, the following are necessary: an approved paint spray booth, disposable volume measuring containers either fluid ounces or milliliters (these may be available from medical
organizations), a powered stirring device of 140 RPM,
and either No. 2 Zahn or No. 4 Ford viscosity measuring cup. Each material must be accurately mixed and
sprayed on test panels to perform the test. Each coating must be evaluated for its condition in the container,
viscosity, pot life, curing (drying) time, and surface
appearance.
e. These materials chemically react when mixed and they
are temperature sensitive. The coating components
must always be allowed to warm to room temperature
for up to 24 hours, as necessary. Tests shall not be
performed at temperatures below 70 °F or above 80 °F
as the temperature will impact viscosity, pot life, and
curing time. The components must be mixed accurately. When the manufacturer’s instructions are to mix
by ratio, such as 3 to 1 (3 parts component A to 1 part
component B) and the quantity to be mixed for testing
is 16 fluid ounces, mix 12 fluid ounces of part A to 4
fluid ounces of part B. Manufacturer’s instructions for
mixing ratios of these materials is always by volume
and not by weight; therefore, quantities to be measured
for mixing can always be determined by using disposable measuring cups.
A.2
MIL-PRF-23377 EPOXY PRIMER.
A.2.1 Condition in the Container. Using a kit of material
from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow both components A and B to stand until reaching room temperature,
and open each container and examine. Mix each component
vigorously by hand (using a paddle) or with a mechanical
shaker. Each component shall be capable of being mixed
within 5 minutes. Each component shall be smooth, homogenous, and pourable. The material shall be free of grit, skins,
seeds, lumps, abnormal thickening, or livering. In addition, it
will reincorporate into a smooth, homogeneous state by mixing with a hand paddle without exhibiting pigment flotation
or excessive settling. The containers shall not exhibit deformation due to internal pressure.
A.2.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the primer per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Change 9
A-1
TO 1-1-8
Check viscosity of the unthinned coating with either a No. 2
Zahn or No. 4 Ford cup for conformance with the maximum
viscosity ratings given in Table A-1 at the times specified in
the table.
A.2.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component) and spray the
primer on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 inches x 6 inches. The primer
coating shall be set-to-touch (when touched, no material
transfers to finger) within 5 hours, and dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable force and turned with no deformation
of coating) within 8 hours after spray application.
A.2.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on a vertical
surface to a thickness of 0.0006 to 0.0018 inch, the primer
coating shall not sag, run, or streak, and shall dry to a
smooth, uniform surface free from grit, seeds, craters, blisters, and other irregularities.
A.3 MIL-PRF-85582 WATERBORNE EPOXY
PRIMER.
A.3.1 Condition in the Container. Using a kit of material
from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow to stand
until reaching room temperature, and open each container
and examine components A and B. Mix each component by
hand or mechanical shaker. Each component shall be capable
of being mixed within 5 minutes. Each component shall be
smooth, homogenous, and pourable. The material shall be
free of grit, skins, seeds, lumps, abnormal thickening, or livering. In addition, it will reincorporate into a smooth homogeneous state by mixing with a hand paddle without exhibiting pigment flotation or excessive settling. The containers
shall not exhibit deformation due to internal pressure.
A.3.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the coating per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Thin the coating as required per the manufacturer’s instructions. When the mixed primer is diluted to application viscosity with water, there shall be no evidence of incompatibility and the material shall be suitable for spray application.
Measure the viscosity and record the results. Place the mixed
coating in container and stir at 140 RPM ±30 RPM for 4
hours. After 4 hours, the viscosity shall not increase more
than 8 seconds through a No. 4 Ford cup or 9.5 seconds
through a No. 2 Zahn cup.
A.3.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray the
primer on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 inches x 6 inches. The primer
coating shall be set-to-touch (when touched, no material
transfers to finger) within 1 hour, and dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable force and turned with no deformation
of coating) within 6 hours after spray application.
A-2
Change 9
A.3.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on a vertical
surface to a thickness of 0.0006 to 0.0018 inch, the primer
coating shall not sag, run, or streak, and shall dry to a smooth
uniform surface free from grit, seeds, craters, blisters, and
other irregularities.
A.4
TT-P-2760 POLYURETHANE PRIMER.
A.4.1 Condition in the Container. Using a kit of material
from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow to stand
until reaching room temperature, and open each container
and examine components A and B. Mix each component vigorously by hand (using a paddle) or with a mechanical
shaker. Each component shall be capable of being mixed
within 5 minutes. Each component shall be smooth, homogenous, and pourable. The material shall be free of grit, skins,
seeds, lumps, foreign contaminants, abnormal thickening, or
livering. In addition, it will reincorporate into a smooth, homogeneous state by mixing with a hand paddle without exhibiting pigment flotation or excessive settling. The containers shall not exhibit deformation due to internal pressure.
A.4.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the prime per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component). Check
viscosity with either a No. 2 Zahn or No. 4 Ford cup for
conformance with the maximum viscosity ratings given in
Table A-1 at the times specified in the table.
A.4.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray the
primer on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 inches x 6 inches. The primer
coating shall be set-to-touch (when touched, no material
transfers to finger) within 5 hours, and dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable force and turned with no deformation
of coating) within 8 hours after spray application.
A.4.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on a vertical
surface to a thickness of 0.0012 to 0.0025 inch, the primer
coating shall not sag, run, or streak, and shall dry to a
smooth, uniform surface free from grit, seeds, craters, blisters, and other irregularities.
A.5 MIL-PRF-85285 HIGH SOLIDS
POLYURETHANE.
A.5.1 Condition in the Container. Using a kit of material
from each batch or lot number to be tested, allow to stand
until reaching room temperature, and open each container
and examine component A and B. Mix component A vigorously by hand using a paddle or with a mechanical shaker. It
shall mix to be smooth, homogenous, and pourable condition. The material shall be free of grit, seeds, lumps, abnormal thickening, or livering. In addition, it will not show pigment flotation or excessive settling which cannot be easily
reincorporated to a smooth, homogenous state. Component
TO 1-1-8
B shall be homogeneous, clear, free from gelation or detectable particulate matter either suspended in solution or settled
on the inner surface of the container.
A.5.2 Viscosity and Pot Life. To test the viscosity and
pot life, mix an adequate quantity of the coating per the
manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component).
Check viscosity with either a No. 2 Zahn or No. 4 Ford cup
for conformance with the maximum viscosity ratings given
in Table A-1.
A.5.3 Drying Time. Mix an adequate quantity of the coating for spray application of test panels per the manufacturer’s instructions (measuring each component), and spray the
coating on the test panels. Test panels shall be aluminum
measuring approximately 3 inches x 6 inches.
The coating shall be set-to-touch (when touched,
no material transfers to finger) within 4 hours, and
dry-hard (finger applied with reasonable force and
turned with no deformation of coating) within 12
hours after spray application.
A.5.4 Surface Appearance. When sprayed on one vertical and one primed horizontal mounted panel to a thickness
of 0.0017 to 0.0023 inch, the coating shall dry to a smooth,
uniform surface free from runs, sags, bubbles, streaks, hazing, seeding, dusting, floating, mottling, or other defects and
irregularities.
NOTE
For this coating, test panels must be primed with
either MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 primer
applied to a thickness of 0.0006 to 0.0009 inch.
Table A-1.
Coating and Primer
MIL-PRF-23377
TT-P-2760
MIL-PRF-85285
Type I
Viscosity and Pot Life
Check Time After Mix (Minimum)
Initial
4 hours
Initial
4 hours
(closed container)
Initial
4 hours
8 hours
Maximum Time
No. 4 Ford Cup
No. 2 Zahn Cup
40
48
70
84
30
36
60
72
30
60
shall not gel
Change 9
36
72
shall not gel
A-3/(A-4 blank)
TO 1-1-8
APPENDIX B
STANDARD AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT MARKINGS
B.1
NATIONAL STAR INSIGNIA.
(4) The National Star Insignia selected for the wing
shall not exceed a maximum diameter of 60 inches
nor have a minimum diameter of less than 20
inches (excluding border). The diameter of the
circumscribed circle will be the standard size
closest to but not exceeding 75 percent of the
distance between the wing leading edge and the
moveable surface cutout at the point of application.
a. Dimensions. (Figure B-1) The dimensions of the insignia shall be determined by the diameter of the circumscribed circle which is standardized in multiples of 5
inches.
(1) The width of each end of the rectangle shall equal
1/2 the radius of the circle; the length shall equal
one radius (excluding border).
(2) The width of the horizontally centered stripe at
each end of the rectangle, shall equal 1/6 of the
radius of the circle (excluding border).
(3) The width of the insignia outer bar shall equal
1/8 the radius of the circle (excluding border).
(4) Construction of the five-pointed star may be accomplished by marking off five equal distant
points on the circumscribed circle and connecting
each point to the non-adjacent points.
c. National Star Insignia on Aircraft Fuselage. The insignia may be moved forward or aft the minimum distance required to avoid transparent material or areas
exposed to extreme heat or fluids which would scorch,
deteriorate, or otherwise damage the insignia. The insignia may extend over doors and emergency exits, but
the insignia shall not extend over the window areas or
other such openings which would change the design of
the insignia.
NOTE
The insignia will be the standard size closest to,
but not exceeding, 75 percent of the fuselage
height at the point of application. The diameter of
the blue circle will not exceed 50 inches nor be
less than 15 inches. Symmetry will be maintained
when applying the insignia on each side of the
fuselage.
b. National Star Insignia on Aircraft Wings. Each insignia will be positioned at a point inboard from each
wing tip equal to 1/3 the distance from the wing tip to
the wing-fuselage mating point. The border of the insignia will be tangent to the movable control surface
cutout.
(1) The wing insignia may be moved in the minimum required distance to avoid structures which
would alter the insignia pattern. However, symmetry will be maintained with the USAF marking
on the opposite wing surface.
(2) Normally, the wing insignia shall be positioned
so that in normal flight attitude the top point of
the star points forward and a line through the
center of the insignia and the top star point is
parallel to the direction of flight.
(3) On swept wings or wings of variable sweep aircraft, the National Star Insignia shall be positioned as illustrated in Figure B-2. The insignia
or any part thereof shall not extend to movable
flight control surfaces. The insignia shall be applied so that the line through the center and the
top point of the star is perpendicular to the constant 50 percent chord line of the wing.
d. National Star Insignia on Helicopters. The National
Star Insignia will be applied on vertical surfaces so
that in normal flight attitude the top point of the star
points upward; on horizontal surfaces the top point of
the star will point forward in the direction of flight.
B.2
U.S. AIR FORCE MARKING.
a. Letter width shall be equal to 2/3 the letter height except that the width of the letter “I” shall be equal to
1/6 of the letter height.
b. Letter stroke and spaces shall be equal to 1/6 the
height, except that the space between “period” and “A”
shall be 1/3 letter height.
c. The space between AIR and FORCE shall be one letter
width.
B-1
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-1.
B-2
Edge Sealing
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-2.
National Star Insignia on Swept Wings
B-3
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-3.
B-4
Form of Letters and Numerals
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-4.
Typical Marking For Paint Facility/Finish Identification Block
NOTE
For non-standard and unique coatings, such as APC, add manufacture product code.
Change 1
B-5
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-5.
B-6
“UNITED STATES OF AMERICA” AND AMC Standard Marking Sample
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-6.
Distinctive Unit, Serial Number, and ACC Standard Sample
B-7
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-7.
B-8
Aircraft Markings, Servicing, and Precautioning (Sheet 1 of 2)
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-7.
Aircraft Markings, Servicing, and Precautioning (Sheet 2)
B-9
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-8.
Figure B-9.
B-10
Ground Here, International Symbol
Markings For Fire Access Panel
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-10.
Figure B-11.
Helicopter Tail Boom Markings
Typical Emergency Instruction Markings
B-11
TO 1-1-8
Figure B-12.
B-12
Typical Emergency Entry Markings
TO 1-1-8
APPENDIX C
RESPIRATOR PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
C.1
INTRODUCTION.
Table C-1 provides a list of respirator equipment and related
materials for use in aircraft, missile, and equipment corrosion prevention and control processes. This table provides
only general information for respiratory safety devices. See
the manufacturer’s technical data for detailed operating
maintenance instructions. See the DO43 System for proper
NSNs and to convert part numbers to NSNs.
C-1
C-2
Full Facepiece Respirator, Air
Filtering (w/o Cartridges or
Retainers)
Full Facepiece Respirator, Air
Filtering (w/o Cartridges or
Retainers)
Half Facepiece Respirator, Air
Filtering (w/o Cartridges or
Retainers)
Filter Cartridges (Organic Vapor/P100 Type)
Respirator Lens Assembly for
3M Co. Full Facepiece Respirators (With Plastic Film
Covers)
2
3
4
5
6
4240-01-247-8929
Open Purchase
PN 6898
4240-01-455-7353
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 60921
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 7884
4240-01-342-2854
4240-01-342-2852
PN 6100 (Small)
PN 6300 (Large)
4240-01-454-8538
PN 6900 (Large)
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
4240-01-342-2853
4240-01-454-8535
PN 6800 (Medium)
PN 6200 (Medium)
4240-01-454-8531
4240-01-314-2780
4240-01-342-5239
4240-01-301-3200
4240-01-247-2348
National Stock Number
PN 6700 (Small)
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 7800S-S (Small)
PN 7800S-M (Medium)
PN 7800S-L (Large)
1
Specifications/PN
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378) PN 8511
Nomenclature
Respirator Protection Equipment
Particulate Respirator (1/2
Facepiece Mask), Disposable
Type
Item
No.
Table C-1.
BX (5 EA)
BX (5 EA)
BX (60
EA)
BX (24
EA)
BX (24
EA)
BX (24
EA)
BX (4 EA)
BX (4 EA)
BX (4 EA)
EA
EA
EA
BX (80
EA)
Unit Issue
7800S Series Replacement
Lens
6000 Series Replacement
Lens
3M Co. half and full Facepiece respirators
Personnel protection from
inhalation of organic vapors, dust, particulates and
paint sprays in non-confined areas during spraying,
sanding, and grinding operations
Personnel protection from
inhalation of dust particulates during light sanding
and grinding operations
Personnel protection from
inhalation of organic vapors, dust, particulates, and
paint spray in non-confined
areas during spraying, sanding, and grinding operations
Personnel protection from
inhalation of organic vapors, dust, particulates and
paint sprays in non-confined areas during spraying,
sanding, and grinding operations
Intended Use
TO 1-1-8
Inhalation Valve for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators
Exhalation Valve for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators
Tyvek™ Shroud for 3M Co.
Full Facepiece Respirators
Spectacle Kit for 3M Co. Full
Facepiece Respirators
Respirator Cleaning Wipes (Alcohol-Free Towelettes)
7
8
9
10
11
12
Nomenclature
Lens Covers for 3M Co. Full
Facepiece Respirators (PeelAway Plastic Film)
Item
No.
4240-01-455-2346
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 6878
4240-01-395-4128
4240-01-372-3078
4240-01-320-1957
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 7915-5
PN 7925
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 504
4240-01-455-2809
4240-01-248-2608
4240-01-455-2811
PN 6889
PN 7283
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
PN 6893
PN 7282
Open Purchase
4240-01-455-2787
PN 6885
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
4240-01-248-6435
4240-01-248-4634
PN 7899-100
PN 7899-25
3M Co. (CAGE Code
#50378)
National Stock Number
Respirator Protection Equipment - Continued
Specifications/PN
Table C-1.
EA
BX (100
EA)
EA
PG (5 EA)
BX (50
EA)
BX (10
EA)
BX (200
EA)
BX (200
EA)
BX (25
EA)
BX (100
EA)
BX (100
EA)
Unit Issue
Frame & Retainer Clip 6000
Series Spectacle Kit
7800S Series Spectacle Kit
Hygienic cleaning of respirators and other personal protective equipment
7800S Series Replacement
Valves
6800 Series Replacement
Valves
Used with full Facepiece respirators to protect the head
and neck from painting
and/or abrasive blasting
overspray.
7800S Series Replacement
Valves
6800 Series Replacement
Valves
6800 Series Lens Covers
7800S Series Lens Covers
7800S Series Lens Covers
Intended Use
TO 1-1-8
C-3
C-4
Pump/Compressor, Breathable
Air, Pneumatic (Air Motor)
Driven, Portable
Nomenclature
4310-01-168-7302
PN ADP-16/ADP-20
NOTE
4240-01-363-4699
National Stock Number
PN NF-1100
Bullard Co. (CAGE Code
#09729)
Rhine Air, Inc. (CAGE
Code #58501)
Specifications/PN
Respirator Protection Equipment - Continued
EA
EA
Unit Issue
Used to supply breathable air
to hoods and full Facepiece
respirators for abrasive
blasting and other corrosion
removal operations. These
small, air-driven, portable
compressors are very convenient as they may be easily transported and set up
almost anywhere
Intended Use
Replacement Filter Cartridges
for Breathable Air Pumps
Compressed Air Inlet Hose Assembly, 1/2 in ID Hose
Quick Disconnect Fittings for
Inlet Hose
Outlet Manifold, Quick Disconnect (Female Coupler Assembly)
14
15
16
17
Rhine Air, Inc (CAGE Code
#58501)
PN ED1313B-50 (50 ft L)
PN ED1313B-100 (100 ft L)
CAGE Code #73992
PN 3L25 (Male Plug)
PN 3R25 (Female Coupler)
Rhine Air, Inc (CAGE Code
#58501)
PN ED-06-430
Rhine Air, Inc (CAGE Code
#58501)
PN CF8080
Open Purchase
4730-01-442-1809
4730-01-442-1808
4240-01-251-8159
4240-01-251-8160
4240-01-084-0921
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
BX (10
EA)
Replacement fittings for the
Rhine Air PN ED1313B
inlet air hose assemblies
Connects respirator air hose
assemblies to the breathable
air pump. Can be used with
both Rhine Air and Bullard
units
Used only for supplying
fresh, breathable air to the
air motor on the breathable
air pump unit
Rhine Air’s NF-1100 and NF
15-3 pumps
Use MIL-PRF-32033 oil (NSN 9150-00-231-6689/1 QT CN) or MIL-H-17672 hydraulic fluid/10 wt. oil equivalent (NSN 9150-00-985-7231/1 QT CN)
to fill in-line oiler of air motor after each use, as required, to maintain lubrication and prevent motor oxidation.
13
Item
No.
Table C-1.
TO 1-1-8
TO 1-1-8
GLOSSARY
A
ACCELERATOR — A substance which speeds up the polymerization of a synthetic resin.
ACRYLIC RESIN — Any of a group of transparent thermoplastic resins formed by polymerizing esters of acrylic acid
or methacrylic acid.
ALIPHATIC — An organic chemical whose carbon atoms
are not in a ring form. A straight-chain compound. Mineral
spirits, some naphthas, and kerosene are typical aliphatic
compounds.
ALKYD RESIN — One of the major synthetics formed by
polybasic acid reaction with polyhydric alcohols. Primarily
used in enamels but also in combinations in some other types
of coatings.
ALLIGATORING — A condition where cracks in the film
are caused by contraction of the coating when a sudden
change in temperature occurs during drying. It may also occur because of insufficient drying time between lacquer coats,
or because of poor penetration or wetting, or when a hard
topcoat has been applied over a soft undercoat. These cracks
usually penetrate to the metal surface.
AMINE — An organic chemical containing carbon hydrogen and nitrogen. Certain amines may be used as convertors
for epoxy resins.
ANHYDROUS — Containing no water.
AROMATIC — An organic chemical possessing the benzene ring structure. Benzene and toluene are typical aromatic
hydrocarbons.
B
BAKING FINISH — Any paint or varnish which requires
temperatures in excess of 150 °F for the development of
desired properties. The usual baking difficulties are the result
of over-baking or under-baking schedules. Over-baking will
result in a hard, brittle film with less adhesion than requirements demand. Proper correction of baking faults demands
strict adherence to the instructions of the manufacturer.
BINDER — The non-volatile portion of a coating vehicle. It
generally consists of drying oils, resins, or combinations
thereof.
BLEEDING — A condition caused by pigments or dyes in
the under surfaces floating up into the top coating. Bleeding
may occur when material is applied with unclean spraying
equipment or when a topcoat/second coat is applied too soon.
BLISTERING (OR BUBBLING) — Blistering may occur
when there is poor air circulation during drying of the coating. Unbalanced solvents in the structure of the coating will
also cause this effect. Temperature differences between the
part being sprayed and the coating will also cause air pockets or blisters. Water in air lines can cause blistering, and
daily draining of the water filters on air lines will help minimize this problem.
BLOOMING (OR HAZING) — The appearance of blooming is similar to blushing, though the underlying reasons are
different. Blooming is the result of rubbing the finish too
soon after application, the use of too coarse an abrasive or
too hard a rubbing stroke. When blooming does occur, it
may be removed by washing with a mild soap solution and
warm water, followed by chamois skin. Properly dried and
hardened surfaces will not bloom when rubbed or polished.
BLUSHING — Commonly referred to as clouding or whitening, blushing is the result of moisture being present on the
film surface during the drying period. Although the fault
commonly lies in improper drainage of the air line during
finishing operations, the condition is also caused by high
humidity conditions within the finishing room. Improper selection of solvents will also cause blushing.
BODY OF PAINT — The liquid portion without the volatile solvents and water.
BODYING — See Gelling.
BROWN SPOTS — Spots which occur in a lacquer film
when oil is permitted to get into the material. As a precautionary measure, drain the water and oil separators daily.
BUBBLES — When improper quality or quantity of thinner
is used, bubbles often occur (also known as “solvent pop”).
To help prevent this defect, use correct proportions of thin-
Glossary 1
TO 1-1-8
ner at all times. Application of a topcoat before the initial
coat has cored properly or at too high a temperature can also
cause bubbles.
BUCKLING — A nitrocellulose lacquer film may shrink or
buckle when sprayed over an oil base undercoat. If necessary to overcoat oil paint with lacquer, make the first top
coat as light as possible.
CRACKING — Cracking occurs when the various components of a lacquer are not blended or mixed properly, or
when coatings not compatible with one another are used together.
CRATERING — A defect in a coating resulting in craters
or fish eyes. Most often caused by the presence of grease,
oil, silicone polishes or other similar contaminants on the
surface.
C
CASE HARDENING — The formation of a hardened top
surface with a soft underbody. Proper relative humidity conditions within the drying room will assist in eliminating this
condition.
CATALYST — A substance which changes the rate of a
chemical reaction without itself undergoing permanent
change in its composition.
CRAWLING — The reverse of crazing, that is, a more flexible coating is applied over a hard or brittle film.
CRAZING — When lacquer films expand and contract, a
series of fine hair line cracks (crazing) results. Crazing frequently occurs when a very heavily pigmented surface coat
is applied over a more flexible undercoating. The elastic
coating of lower filler content will expand and contract more
easily than the heavily pigmented coating.
CHALKING — Deterioration of an organic coating upon
exposure that results in a powdery, chalky residue on a
painted surface.
CRYSTAL LACQUERS — A decorative finish which is
achieved by re-cyrstallization of dissolved lacquer bases. It
occurs after the thinners have evaporated. Pearl essence or
mother of pearl finishes may be produced in this fashion.
CHECKING — Slight breaks in the film which do not penetrate to the underlying surface. It occurs when lacquer coats
are applied too heavily or without sufficient time allowed for
drying between coats.
CRYSTALLINE FINISH — A crystalline like, decorative
finish is accomplished by using certain gas checking oils
which on drying produce the pattern.
COBWEBBING — Filaments of paint which appear as cobwebs instead of fine droplets.
COLLOID — A very finely divided (but not molecular) dispersion of a solid in a liquid. Colloidal dispersions do not
settle and the particles are too small to be observed by ordinary microscope.
CONSISTENCY — Consistency is another word for viscosity of a wet material. The term may also be applied to the
resistance to deformation of a cured film.
CONVERTER — A substance which causes a resin to polymerize or cure. Polyamides and amines are two examples
of epoxy converters.
COVERAGE — The surface area which can be coated with
a given volume of coating applied at a given film thickness.
Coverage is usually expressed in square feet per gallon at
one mil dry film thickness. Coverage is not related to hiding
power.
Glossary 2
CURDLING — Curdling usually occurs when a high evaporative but weak solvency thinner is used with a lacquer or
enamel. Control of solvency and evaporation rate will prevent curdling.
D
DECAL — A plastic film with an adhesive on one side that
adheres to glass, wood, metal, etc., that transfers decorative
pictures or designs printed on the specially prepared film to
the surface.
DILUENT — A thinner blended with an organic coating
mixture to increase its volume and/or reduce its viscosity.
DISPERSION — An intimate mixture of finely divided solid
particles in a liquid substance. Paints are dispersions of pigments in a vehicle.
DOUBLE COAT — A double application of paint. This
does not mean two consecutive passes of the spray gun. One
TO 1-1-8
coat is applied by a double or cross pass of the gun followed
by a second similar application after the first coat has set up.
DRIER — A catalytic material which when added to a drying oil or drying oil modified coating accelerates the rate of
drying. A substance which speeds the reaction of a binder
with oxygen. Naphthenates of cobalt and manganese are
common driers.
FLASH POINT — The minimum temperature at which the
vapors of a liquid will ignite. An indication of the flammability of a product; the higher the flash point, the safer the
product.
FLATTENING AGENT — A material added to a coating
to reduce the gloss of the cured film.
DRYING OIL — An oil which readily absorbs oxygen from
the air to form a durable film.
FLOODING — A change in color of a coating from the
time it is applied until the time it sets caused by fines in the
pigment portion floating to the surface. The result is a final
shade different from the original.
DRYING TIME — The time required for a coating to attain
various stages of dryness. Three commonly referred to drying times are: dry to touch, dry to handle, and dry hard
(recoat). Drying time is greatly affected by temperature, humidity, and air movement.
FORCE DRYING TEMPERATURE — A temperature between room temperature and 175 °F to which a coating is
exposed to accelerate curing.
G
DUST COAT — a very light coat of a coating, which will
improve adhesion.
E
EMULSION — An intimate suspension of two or more liquid substances which are not mutually soluble but which do
not ordinarily separate. Examples: milk (butterfat and water), self-polishing floor waxes (wax, solvent, water), vehicle
for water-thinned latex paints.
ENAMEL — A coating characterized by an ability to form
an especially smooth finish film.
GELLING — The irreversible transformation of a liquid to
a solid without the loss of weight through evaporation.
GLOSS, SPECULAR — The luster, shininess, or reflective
ability of a surface; or the ability of a surface to reflect light
regularly when light strikes the surface at a 60-degree angle.
It is based upon the degree of optical smoothness of a surface, variations in smoothness being microscopic. Values
above 90 are classified as high gloss, 80 to 90 as full gloss,
35 to 45 as semi-gloss, 5 to 7 as flat or camouflage, and 3 or
less as gunship quality. Seven or less is also classified as
lusterless.
H
EPOXY RESIN — A synthetic resin produced by the reaction of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol. Epoxy resins may be
used alone (unmodified) or modified with drying oils (epoxy
esters) for coating vehicles.
EXTENDER PIGMENTS — Pigments used to provide texture, bulk or hardness to a coating. Also known as inert pigments. Magnesium silicate and diatomaceous silica are examples of extender pigments.
HIDING POWER — For an organic coating, it is either the
degree to which the base material has been obliterated from
view or the relative smoothness or surface leveling a coating
may produce.
HOLIDAY — An unintentional skipped area, missed while
applying a coating. Holidays can be avoided by using contrasting colors for alternating coats.
F
HYGROSCOPIC — The ability to attract or absorb water.
FERROUS — Magnetic metals derived from steel or iron.
I
FILLER — A material of pigmented composition used to
fill irregularities and undesirable depressions after a primer
coating is applied and prior to finish coating application.
INFRARED LAMP — A heat lamp commonly used in paint
drying operations that emits infrared light.
FILLING POWER — The degree a filler material hides irregularities of texture.
INHIBITOR — A substance which slows down a chemical
reaction.
Glossary 3
TO 1-1-8
INORGANIC — Chemical compounds based chiefly on elements other than the carbon-hydrogen-oxygen group. Inorganic compounds are divided into four classifications:
remedied by slowly stirring into the livered material a very
slow evaporating paint reducer.
M
Acids — Materials such as sulfuric, hydrochloric
(muriatic), nitric, and phosphoric acids.
Alkalies — A base material such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), potassium hydroxide
(caustic potash), ammonium hydroxide (ammonia).
Salts — Materials produced by the reaction of an
acid and an alkali. Sodium chloride (table salt),
magnesium sulfate (epsom salt), calcium chloride, copper sulfate.
Oxides — A combination of a metal and oxygen
such as iron oxide (rust), zinc oxide, titanium
dioxide (white pigment), silicone dioxide (sand
and glass).
INTERCOAT — A layer of paint that is “sandwiched” between two others. Also refers to something occurring between coats, as in “intercoat adhesion”.
L
LATEX — A water suspension of fine particles of rubber or
rubber-like materials.
LEVELING — The degree to which a film will smooth out
after application is its leveling ability. Improper solvent or
driers may prevent proper leveling.
LEAFING — The ability of an aluminum or gold bronze
paint to exhibit a brilliant or silvery appearance. This occurs
when the flat pigment particles align themselves parallel with
the coated surface so as to give the appearance of a solid
sheet of metal.
LIFTING — Separation of a coating film from a surface
when solvents from a topcoat penetrate an existing coating
which has not dried sufficiently to permit proper adhesion. In
all instances where one finish is applied over another it is
important that the undercoat be sufficiently dry; otherwise,
poor adhesion will result.
LIVERING — Gelling of a paint that occurs when the pH
of a paint is lowered, such as when acid-producing reactions
occur in the material. In many cases, this difficulty can be
Glossary 4
MIL — A unit of measurement for the thickness of a coating film. One mil equals 1/1000 (0.001) inch.
N
NAPHTHA — The product of the distillation of the solvent
fractions obtained from the thermal decomposition (cracking) of coal or petroleum. A volatile, flammable fluid consisting chiefly of mixed hydrocarbons. It can be aromatic
with a benzene ring structure or aliphatic with a linear structure.
NITROCELLULOSE — A binder used in most lacquers;
principally air drying. It may be modified with resins and
plasticizers for improved gloss, adhesion and flexibility. An
ester of nitric acid and cellulose produced by the action of
nitric acid upon wood, cotton, or some other form of cellulose in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid.
NON-FERROUS — A description of metals other than iron.
NON-VOLATILE VEHICLE — The liquid portion of a
paint, enamel, varnish, or related products not including the
volatile thinners and water.
O
ORANGE PEEL — Pebble effect appearance caused by too
high an air pressure during spraying, the spray gun being
held too close to the surface, or using a highly volatile thinner which prevents the normal flow of lacquer solids.
ORGANIC — Chemical compounds chiefly composed of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a multitude of molecular
arrangements. The term organic was established when it was
thought that organic compounds could be produced only by
living organisms. Many organic compounds are produced
synthetically today. However, even these are derived from
former living plants and animals (coal and oil are the chief
sources of raw materials for organic chemicals). Examples
of organic compounds: gasoline, alcohol, sugar, fish oil,
glycerin.
TO 1-1-8
ORGANIC COATING — A finish/paint system such as a
lacquer or an enamel that cures/dries by solvent or volatile
component evaporation only and not by chemical reaction.
PSI — Pounds per square inch. A measure of pressure of
fluids and gasses.
R
ORGANISOL — Finely divided or colloided dispersion of
a resin in a plasticizer with solvents or other materials.
OXIDATION — A chemical reaction involving the reaction
of a substance with oxygen. Iron rusts by oxidation. Oilcontaining coatings dry or cure by oxidation.
P
PERMEABILITY — The extent to which a coating or other
film will allow air or water to pass through it.
PH — A term used to indicate acidity or alkalinity. The pH
scale runs from 0 to 14; pH 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acid, 7
to 14 is alkaline. The further the rating is from seven, the
greater the acidity or alkalinity.
PIGMENT — The solid particles used in the preparation of
paints, lacquers and enamels which are substantially insoluble in the vehicle and provide color, under film protection and special effects.
PITTING — A condition which occurs when a lacquer is
sprayed at high pressures and at temperatures below 65 °F. It
will occur if a lacquer used in spraying has been stored in a
cool place and has not been allowed to attain room temperature.
PLASTICIZER — Substances added to soften or otherwise
modify the properties of a finished resin without excessive
sacrifice of strength and rigidity.
PLASTISOL — Colloidal dispersion of a resin in a plasticizer without solvent.
POCK MARKS — Marks caused by bursting of trapped air
bubbles in a porous film. Too high an air pressure or too
thick a coating can result in pock marks. To overcome this
condition, apply thinner coatings, use less air pressure, and
use a high solvency thinner.
POLYMER — A substance composed of large molecules
formed by the combination of a number of simple molecules
with one another by chemical reaction.
PRIMER — A coating applied directly to the basic metal or
pretreated metal and upon which a subsequent coating or
topcoat is applied.
RAISING — The appearance of wrinkles or blisters in a
film; often due to a reaction of lacquer solvents with unoxidized oil films in oil base undercoats.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY — The ratio of the actual amount
of moisture in the air to the maximum amount it could contain at the same temperature, expressed as a percentage.
RESIN — A natural or synthetic substance usually organic
in composition, characterized by being amorphous (noncrystalline), isotropic (properties being the same in all directions),
plastic, often sticky and usually fusible and soluble at some
stage in its manufacture or processing.
RUNS — Rivulets in a coating caused by too much organic
coating material or thinner being applied to an area at one
time.
S
SILOXANE — A compound composed of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with hydrogen side chains. Cyclic
siloxanes are used for environmentally preferred cleaner alternatives for dry cleaning and industrial cleaning applications.
SOLVENT — Any liquid which will dissolve another substance. Solvent power of a liquid is specific, that is, it can
dissolve certain substances but not others.
SOLVENT RESISTANT COATING — A finish/paint system such as an epoxy or a polyurethane that is catalyzed and
cures by chemical reaction in conjunction with solvent
evaporation. These coatings are highly resistant to solvents/
thinners after they completely cure.
SPRAY DUST — Paint dust that causes surface roughness
when a spray gun is held too far from the work, especially
when a highly volatile thinner is used. This is caused by
solid particles in the coating material drying up while traveling from the nozzle to the surface being sprayed. Insufficient thinning or too high air pressure may also cause spray
dust. Correct by spraying at lower air pressures, adjusting
distances to between 6 to 10 inches from the work, and/or by
increasing the thinner content.
STRIPPING — Removal of paint from a surface.
Change 4
Glossary 5
TO 1-1-8
SURFACE TENSION — The property of a liquid by which
the surface film of a liquid tends to form into a sphere. Surface tension affects the ability of a liquid to wet a surface.
The higher the surface tension, the poorer the wetting.
VEHICLE — The liquid carrier portion of a paint/coating.
T
WET SPOTS — If metals are not thoroughly cleaned of oils
and greases before painting, those areas which retain the foreign material become wet spots or fish-eyes. The condition
is characterized by a sticky coating film which requires extremely long drying time and often remains soft or wrinkled.
Stripping of the paint film, cleaning, and refinishing is required to correct this condition.
TIECOAT — A two-component, VOC, solvent-borne, lead
and chromate free epoxy coating particularly formulated for
its adhesion properties to other coatings.
THIXOTROPY — The property of a coating which causes
it to undergo a gel-sol-gel transformation upon agitation and
subsequent rest. Upon agitation it becomes quite fluid but
readily falls back again to the semi-solid form after the agitation is stopped.
TONER — Organic pigments which do not contain inorganic pigments or inorganic carrier bases.
V
VARNISH — A liquid resin material which after application
converts to a transparent or translucent solid material.
Glossary 6
Change 4
W
WRINKLE FINISH — In those cases where wrinkling is
undesirable, it is a defect caused by improper application,
usually of too heavy a coating, an abnormally high or too
rapid a rise in temperature, or high humidity. Avoid these
conditions by applying thinner films, allowing sufficient drying time between coatings, and avoiding extremes of temperatures and humidity.
Z
NO. 2 ZAHN CUP/NO. 4 FORD CUP — A small portable
viscosity measuring device.
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