USB-1408FS User`s Guide
USB-1408FS
Analog and Digital I/O
User's Guide
Document Revision 7, November, 2010
© Copyright 2010, Measurement Computing Corporation
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HM USB-1408FS.doc
3
Table of Contents
Preface
About this User's Guide .......................................................................................................................6
What you will learn from this user's guide ......................................................................................................... 6
Conventions in this user's guide ......................................................................................................................... 6
Where to find more information ......................................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 1
Introducing the USB-1408FS................................................................................................................7
USB-1408FS block diagram ............................................................................................................................... 8
Software features ................................................................................................................................................ 8
Connecting a USB-1408FS to your computer is easy......................................................................................... 9
Chapter 2
Installing the USB-1408FS..................................................................................................................10
What comes with your USB-1408FS shipment? .............................................................................................. 10
Hardware .........................................................................................................................................................................10
Additional documentation ................................................................................................................................................10
Unpacking the USB-1408FS ............................................................................................................................ 10
Installing the software ...................................................................................................................................... 11
Installing the hardware ..................................................................................................................................... 11
Calibrating the USB-1408FS ............................................................................................................................ 11
Chapter 3
Functional Details ...............................................................................................................................12
Theory of operation - analog input acquisition modes ..................................................................................... 12
Software paced mode .......................................................................................................................................................12
Continuous scan mode .....................................................................................................................................................12
External components ........................................................................................................................................ 12
USB connector .................................................................................................................................................................13
LED .................................................................................................................................................................................13
Screw terminal wiring ......................................................................................................................................................13
Main connector and pin out .............................................................................................................................................14
Analog input terminals (CH0 IN - CH7 IN).....................................................................................................................14
Analog output terminals (D/A OUT 0 and D/A OUT 1) ..................................................................................................17
Digital I/O terminals (Port A0 to A7, and Port B0 to B7) ................................................................................................17
Power terminals ...............................................................................................................................................................18
External trigger terminal ..................................................................................................................................................19
Counter terminal ..............................................................................................................................................................19
+2.5VREF terminal ..........................................................................................................................................................19
SYNC terminal ................................................................................................................................................................19
Ground terminals .............................................................................................................................................................19
Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................... 20
Channel gain queue .......................................................................................................................................... 22
Synchronizing multiple devices ........................................................................................................................ 23
Mechanical drawings ........................................................................................................................................ 24
Chapter 4
Specifications ......................................................................................................................................25
Analog input ..................................................................................................................................................... 25
Analog output ................................................................................................................................................... 27
Digital input/output........................................................................................................................................... 27
External trigger ................................................................................................................................................. 28
External clock input/output............................................................................................................................... 28
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Counter section ................................................................................................................................................. 28
Non-volatile memory ........................................................................................................................................ 29
Microcontroller ................................................................................................................................................. 29
Power ................................................................................................................................................................ 29
General ............................................................................................................................................................. 29
Environmental .................................................................................................................................................. 30
Mechanical ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
Main connector and pin out .............................................................................................................................. 30
4-channel differential mode .............................................................................................................................................30
8-channel single-ended mode...........................................................................................................................................31
Declaration of Conformity ..................................................................................................................32
5
Preface
About this User's Guide
What you will learn from this user's guide
This user's guide explains how to install, configure, and use the USB-1408FS, and refers you to related
documents available on our web site, and to technical support resources.
Conventions in this user's guide
For more information on …
Text presented in a box signifies additional information and helpful hints related to the subject matter you are
reading.
Caution! Shaded caution statements present information to help you avoid injuring yourself and others,
damaging your hardware, or losing your data.
bold text
Bold text is used for the names of objects on the screen, such as buttons, text boxes, and check boxes.
italic text
Italic text is used for the names of manuals and help topic titles, and to emphasize a word or phrase.
Where to find more information
For additional information relevant to the operation of your hardware, refer to the Documents subdirectory
where you installed the MCC DAQ software (C:\Program Files\Measurement Computing\DAQ by default), or
search for your device on our website at www.mccdaq.com.
6
Chapter 1
Introducing the USB-1408FS
This user's guide contains all of the information you need to connect the USB-1408FS to your computer and to
the signals you want to measure.
The USB-1408FS is a USB 2.0 full-speed, device that is supported under popular Microsoft® Windows®
operating systems. The USB-1408FS is fully compatible with both USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 ports.
The USB-1408FS features eight analog inputs, two 12-bit analog outputs, 16 digital I/O connections, and one
32-bit external event counter.
The analog inputs are software configurable for either eight 13-bit single-ended inputs or four 14-bit differential
inputs. The 16 digital I/O lines are independently selectable as input or output in two 8-bit ports. The 32-bit
counter can count TTL pulses. A SYNC (synchronization) input/output line allows you to pace the analog input
acquisition of one USB module from the clock output of another.
The USB-1408FS is powered by the +5 volt USB supply from your computer. No external power is required.
The USB-1408FS is shown in Figure 1. I/O connections are made to the screw terminals located along each side
of the USB-1408FS.
Figure 1. USB-1408FS
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Introducing the USB-1408FS
USB-1408FS block diagram
USB-1408FS functions are illustrated in the block diagram shown here.
Figure 2. USB-1408FS functional block diagram
Software features
For information on the features of InstaCal and the other software included with your USB-1408FS, refer to the
Quick Start Guide that shipped with your device.
8
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Introducing the USB-1408FS
Connecting a USB-1408FS to your computer is easy
Installing a data acquisition device has never been easier.



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

The USB-1408FS relies upon the Microsoft Human Interface Device (HID) class drivers. The HID class
drivers ship with every copy of Windows that is designed to work with USB ports. We use the Microsoft
HID because it is a standard, and its performance delivers full control and maximizes data transfer rates for
your USB-1408FS. No third-party device driver is required.
The USB-1408FS is plug-and-play. There are no jumpers to position, DIP switches to set, or interrupts to
configure.
You can connect the USB-1408FS before or after you install the software, and without powering down
your computer first. When you connect an HID to your system, your computer automatically detects it and
configures the necessary software. You can connect and power multiple HID peripherals to your system
using a USB hub.
You can run up to two USB-1408FS devices on most computers.
You can connect your system to various devices using a standard four-wire cable. The USB connector
replaces the serial and parallel port connectors with one standardized plug and port combination.
You do not need a separate power supply module. The USB automatically delivers the electrical power
required by each peripheral connected to your system.
Data can flow two ways between a computer and peripheral over USB connections.
9
Chapter 2
Installing the USB-1408FS
What comes with your USB-1408FS shipment?
As you unpack your USB-1408FS, verify that the following components are included.
Hardware

USB-1408FS (shown with cable)

USB cable (2 meter length)
Additional documentation
In addition to this hardware user's guide, you should also receive the Quick Start Guide (available in PDF at
www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/DAQ-Software-Quick-Start.pdf). This booklet supplies a brief description of
the software you received with your USB-1408FS and information regarding installation of that software.
Please read this booklet completely before installing any software or hardware.
Unpacking the USB-1408FS
As with any electronic device, you should take care while handling to avoid damage from static
electricity. Before removing the USB-1408FS from its packaging, ground yourself using a wrist strap or by
simply touching the computer chassis or other grounded object to eliminate any stored static charge.
If your USB-1408FS is damaged, notify Measurement Computing Corporation immediately by phone, fax, or email. For international customers, contact your local distributor where you purchased the USB-1408FS.



Phone: 508-946-5100 and follow the instructions for reaching Tech Support.
Fax: 508-946-9500 to the attention of Tech Support
Email: [email protected]
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Installing the USB-1408FS
Installing the software
Refer to the Quick Start Guide for instructions on installing the software on the Measurement Computing Data
Acquisition Software CD. This booklet is available in PDF at www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/DAQ-SoftwareQuick-Start.pdf.
Installing the hardware
Be sure you are using the latest system software
Before you install your USB-1408FS, run Windows Update to update your operating system with the latest HID
and USB drivers.
To connect the USB-1408FS to your system, turn your computer on, and connect the USB cable to a USB port
on your computer or to an external USB hub that is connected to your computer. The USB cable provides power
and communication to the USB-1408FS.
When you connect the USB-1408FS for the first time, a series of Found New Hardware popup balloons
(Windows XP) or dialogs (other Windows versions) open as the USB-1408FS is detected by your computer. It
is normal for multiple dialogs to open when you connect the USB-1408FS for the first time. The last popup
balloon or dialog states "Your new hardware is installed and ready to use," and the LED on the USB-1408FS
should flash and then remain lit. This indicates that communication is established between the USB-1408FS and
your computer.
You can install up to two USB-1408FS devices on most computers. If you need to connect more than two USB1408FS devices to your computer, contact Tech Support by phone, fax, or e-mail:



Phone: 508-946-5100 and follow the instructions for reaching Tech Support.
Fax: 508-946-9500 to the attention of Tech Support
Email: [email protected]
Caution! Do not disconnect any device from the USB bus while the computer is communicating with the
USB-1408FS, or you may lose data and/or your ability to communicate with the USB-1408FS.
If the LED turns off
If the LED is illuminated but then turns off, the computer has lost communication with the USB-1408FS. To
restore communication, disconnect the USB cable from the computer, and then reconnect it. This should restore
communication, and the LED should turn back on.
Allow the USB-1408FS to operate for at least 30 minutes before using the device. This warm up time is
required to achieve the specified rated accuracy of measurements.
Calibrating the USB-1408FS
The USB-1408FS is shipped fully calibrated. Calibration coefficients are stored in EEPROM. Return the device
to Measurement Computing Corporation when calibration is required. The normal calibration interval is once
per year.
11
Chapter 3
Functional Details
Theory of operation - analog input acquisition modes
The USB-1408FS can acquire analog input data in two different modes – software paced and continuous scan.
Maximum throughput is system-dependent
Maximum throughput may be lower in Windows operating systems that predate Windows XP.
Software paced mode
In software paced mode, you can acquire one analog sample at a time. You initiate the A/D conversion by
calling a software command. The analog value is converted to digital and returned to the computer. You can
repeat this procedure until you have the total number of samples that you want from one channel.
The maximum throughput sample rate in software paced mode is system-dependent.
Continuous scan mode
In continuous scan mode, you can acquire data from up to eight channels. The analog data is continuously
acquired and converted to digital values until you stop the scan. Data is transferred in blocks of 31 samples from
the USB-1408FS to the memory buffer on your computer.
The maximum continuous scan rate of 48 kS/s is an aggregate rate. The total acquisition rate for all channels
cannot exceed 48 kS/s. You can acquire data from one channel at 48 kS/s, two channels at 24 kS/s, and four
channels at 12 kS/s. You can start a continuous scan with either a software command or with an external
hardware trigger event.
External components
The USB-1408FS has the following external components, as shown in Figure 3.



USB connector
LED
Screw terminal banks (2)
Figure 3. USB-1408FS external components
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
USB connector
The USB connector is on the right side of the USB-1408FS. This connector provides +5 V power and
communication. The voltage supplied through the USB connector is system-dependent, and may be less than
5 V. No external power supply is required.
LED
The LED on the front of the housing indicates the communication status of the USB-1408FS. It uses up to 5 mA
of current and cannot be disabled. The table below defines the function of the USB-1408FS LED.
LED Illumination
LED Illumination
Indication
Steady green
Blinks continuously
The USB-1408FS is connected to a computer or external USB hub.
Data is being transferred.
Screw terminal wiring
The USB-1408FS has two rows of screw terminals—one row on the top edge of the housing, and one row on
the bottom edge. Each row has 20 connections. Pin numbers are identified in Figure 4.
Figure 4. USB-1408FS Screw terminal pin numbers
Screw terminal – pins 1-20
The screw terminals on the top edge of the USB-1408FS (pins 1 to 20) provide the following connections:
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Eight analog input connections (CH0 IN to CH7 IN)
Two analog output connections (D/A OUT 0 to D/A OUT 1)
One external trigger source (TRIG_IN)
One SYNC terminal for external clocking and multi-unit synchronization (SYNC)
One voltage output source (2.5VREF)
Five analog ground connections (AGND)
One ground connection (GND)
One external event counter connection (CTR)
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Screw terminal – pins 21-40
The screw terminals on the bottom edge of the (pins 21 to 40) provide the following connections:



16 digital I/O connections (PortA0 to Port A7, and Port B0 to Port B7)
One power connection (PC+5 V)
Three ground connections (GND)
Main connector and pin out
Connector type
Wire gauge range
Screw terminal
16 AWG to 30 AWG
8-channel single-ended mode pin out
4-channel differential mode pin out
Analog input terminals (CH0 IN - CH7 IN)
You can connect up to eight analog input connections to the screw terminal containing pins 1 to 20 (CH0 IN
through CH7 IN.) Refer to the "Main connector and pin out" diagrams above for the location of these pins.
You can configure the analog input channels as eight single-ended channels or four differential channels. When
configured for differential mode, each analog input has 14-bit resolution. When configured for single-ended
mode, each analog input has 13-bit resolution, due to restrictions imposed by the A/D converter.
Single-ended configuration
When all of the analog input channels are configured for single-ended input mode, eight analog channels are
available. The input signal is referenced to signal ground (GND), and delivered through two wires:


The wire carrying the signal to be measured connects to CH# IN.
The second wire connects to AGND.
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
The input range for single-ended mode is ±10 V. No other ranges are supported in this mode. Figure 5
illustrates a typical single-ended measurement connection.
Figure 5. Single-ended measurement connection
Battery voltage should read as expected when the hardware is configured for single-ended mode.
Single-ended measurements using differential channels
To perform a single-ended measurement using differential channels, connect the signal to "CHn IN HI" input,
and ground the associated "CHn IN LO" input.
Differential configuration
When all of the analog input channels are configured for differential input mode, four analog channels are
available. In differential mode, the input signal is measured with respect to the low input.
The input signal is delivered through three wires:



The wire carrying the signal to be measured connects to CH0 IN HI, CH1 IN HI, CH2 IN HI, or CH3 IN
HI.
The wire carrying the reference signal connects to CH0 IN LO, CH1 IN LO, CH2 IN LO, or CH3 IN LO.
The third wire connects to GND.
A low-noise precision programmable gain amplifier (PGA) is available on differential channels to provide gains
of up to 20 and a dynamic range of up to 14-bits. Differential mode input voltage ranges are ±20 V, ±10 V,
±5 V, ±4 V, ±2.5 V, ±2.0 V, ±1.25 V, and ±1.0 V.
In differential mode, the following two requirements must be met for linear operation:


Any analog input must remain in the −10V to +20V range with respect to ground at all times.
The maximum differential voltage on any given analog input pair must remain within the selected voltage
range.
The input [common-mode voltage + signal] of the differential channel must be in the
−10 V to +20 V range in order to yield a useful result.
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
For example, you input a 4 V pp sine wave to CHHI, and apply the same sine wave 180° out of phase to CHLO.
The common mode voltage is 0 V. The differential input voltage swings from 4 V− (−4 V) = 8 V to
(−4 V) − 4 V = −8V. Both inputs satisfy the −10 V to +20 V input range requirement, and the differential
voltage is suited for the ±10 V input range (see Figure 6).
Figure 6. Differential voltage example: common mode voltage of 0 V
If you increase the common mode voltage to 11 V, the differential remains at ±8 V. Although the [commonmode voltage + signal] on each input now has a range of +7 V to +15 V, both inputs still satisfy the −10 V to
+20 V input requirement (see Figure 7).
Figure 7. Differential voltage example: common mode voltage of 11 V
If you decrease the common-mode voltage to −7 V, the differential stays at ±8 V. However, the solution now
violates the input range condition of −10 V to +20 V. The voltage on each analog input now swings from −3V
to −11V. Voltages between −10 V and −3 V are resolved, but those below -10 V are clipped (see Figure 8).
Figure 8. Differential voltage example: common mode voltage of -7 V
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Since the analog inputs are restricted to a −10 V to +20 V signal swing with respect to ground, all ranges except
±20V can realize a linear output for any differential signal with zero common mode voltage and full scale signal
inputs. The ±20 V range is the exception. You cannot put −20 V on CHHI and 0 V on CHLO since this violates
the input range criteria. The following table shows some possible inputs and the expected results.
Sample inputs and differential results
CHHI
CHLO
Result
−20 V
−15 V
−10 V
−10 V
0V
0V
+10 V
+10 V
+15 V
+20 V
0V
+5 V
0V
+10 V
+10 V
+20 V
−10 V
0V
−5 V
0
In Valid
In Valid
−10 V
−20 V
−10 V
−20 V
+20 V
+10 V
+20 V
+20 V
For more information on analog signal connections
For more information on single-ended and differential inputs, refer to the Guide to Signal Connections (this
document is available on our web site at www.mccdaq.com/signals/signals.pdf)
Analog output terminals (D/A OUT 0 and D/A OUT 1)
You can connect up to two analog output connections to the screw terminal pins 13 and 14 (D/A OUT 0 and D/A
OUT 1). Refer to the "Main connector and pin out" diagrams on page 14 for the location of these pins.
Each channel can be paced individually at rates up to 10,000 updates per second. Both channels can be paced
simultaneously using the same time base at 5000 updates per channel. The 0-4.096 V output range provides a
convenient 1 mV per LSB when setting the output voltage levels.
Digital I/O terminals (Port A0 to A7, and Port B0 to B7)
You can connect up to 16 digital I/O lines to the screw terminal containing pins 21 to 40 (Port A0 to Port A7,
and Port B0 to Port B7.) Refer to the "Main connector and pin out" diagrams on page 14 for the location of
these pins. You can configure each digital port for either input or output.
When you configure the digital bits for input, you can use the digital I/O terminals to detect the state of any
TTL level input. Refer to the switch shown in Figure 9 and the schematic shown in Figure 10. If the switch is
set to the +5 V input, Port A0 reads TRUE (1). If you move the switch to GND, Port A0 reads FALSE.
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Figure 9. Digital connection Port A0 detecting the state of a switch
Figure 10. Schematic showing switch detection by digital channel Port A0
For more information on digital signal connections
For more information on digital signal connections and digital I/O techniques, refer to the Guide to Signal
Connections (available on our web site at www.mccdaq.com/signals/signals.pdf).
Power terminals
The PC +5V connection (pin 30) draws power from the USB connector. This terminal is a 5 V output that is
supplied by the host computer. Refer to the "Main connector and pin out" diagrams on page 14 for the location
of this pin.
Caution! The +5 V terminal is an output. Do not connect to an external power supply or you may damage
the USB-1408FS and possibly the computer.
The maximum total output current that can be drawn from all USB-1408FS connections (power, analog and
digital outputs) is 420 mA. This maximum applies to most personal computers and self-powered USB hubs.
Bus-powered hubs and notebook computers may limit the maximum available output current to 100 mA.
Just connecting the USB-1408FS to your computer draws 80 mA of current from the USB +5 V supply. Once
you start running applications with the USB-1408FS, each DIO bit can draw up to 2.5 mA, and each analog
output can draw 15 mA. The maximum amount of +5 V current available for experimental use, over and above
that required by the USB-1408FS, is the difference between the total current requirement of the USB (based on
the application), and the allowed current draw of the PC platform (500 mA for desktop PCs and self-powered
hubs, or 100 mA for bus-powered hubs and notebook computers). With all outputs at their maximum output
current, you can calculate the total current requirement of the USB-1408FS USB +5 V supply as follows:
(USB-1408FS @ 80 mA) + (16 DIO @ 2.5 mA ea) + (2 AO @ 15 mA ea ) = 150 mA
For an application running on a PC or powered hub, the maximum available excess current is
500 mA − 150 mA = 350 mA. This number is the total maximum available current at the PC +5 V screw
terminals. Measurement Computing highly recommends that you figure in a safety factor of 20% below this
maximum current loading for your applications. A conservative, safe user maximum in this case would be
280 mA.
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Since laptop computers typically allow up to 100 mA, the USB-1408FS in a fully-loaded configuration may be
above that allowed by the computer. In this case, you must determine the per-pin loading in the application to
ensure that the maximum loading criteria is met. The per-pin loading is calculated by simply dividing the +5 V
by the load impedance of the pin in question.
External trigger terminal
The TRIG_IN connection (pin 18) can be configured for either rising or falling edge. Refer to the "Main
connector and pin out" diagrams on page 14 for the location of this pin.
Counter terminal
The CTR connection (pin 20) is input to the 32-bit external event. Refer to the "Main connector and pin out"
diagrams on page 14 for the location of this pin. The internal counter increments when the TTL levels transition
from low to high. The counter can count frequencies of up to 1 MHz.
+2.5VREF terminal
The +2.5VREF connection (pin 16) is an output terminal that supplies 2.5 volts. The images below show the
+2.5VREF pin configured as the voltage source for channel 0.
Single-ended measurement
Differential measurement
SYNC terminal
The SYNC connection (pin 19) is a bidirectional I/O signal. You can use it for two purposes:


Configure as an external clock input to externally source the A/D conversions. The SYNC terminal
supports TTL-level input signals of up to 48 kHz.
Configure as an output to synchronize with a second USB-1408FS and acquire data from 16 channels. For
information on synchronizing multiple devices, refer to page 23.
Ground terminals
The four analog ground (AGND) connections provide a common ground for all USB-1408FS input channels.
Four ground (GND) connections provide a common ground for the DIO, TRIG_IN, CTR, SYNC and PC +5V
connections. Refer to the "Main connector and pin out" diagrams on page 14 for the location of these pins.
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Accuracy
The overall accuracy of any instrument is limited by the error components within the system. Quite often,
resolution is incorrectly used to quantify the performance of a measurement product. While "14-bits" or "1 part
in 16383" does indicate what can be resolved, it provides little insight into the quality of an absolute
measurement. Accuracy specifications describe the actual results that can be realized with a measurement
device.
There are three types of errors which affect the accuracy of a measurement system:



offset
gain
nonlinearity
The primary error sources in the USB-1408FS are offset and gain. Nonlinearity is small in the USB-1408FS,
and is not significant as an error source with respect to offset and gain.
Figure 11 shows an example of an ideal, error-free, USB-1408FS transfer function. The typical calibrated
accuracy of the USB-1408FS is range-dependent, as explained in the "Specifications" chapter on page 25. We
use a ±10 V range here as an example of what you can expect when performing a measurement in this range.
Figure 11. Ideal ADC transfer function
The offset error is measured at mid-scale. Ideally, a zero volt input should produce an output code of 8192. Any
deviation from this is an offset error.
Figure 12 shows an example of a USB-1408FS transfer function with a ±2.44 mV offset error. Offset error
affects all codes equally by shifting the entire transfer function up or down along the input voltage axis.
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USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
The accuracy plots in Figure 12 are drawn for clarity and are not drawn to scale.
Figure 12. ADC transfer function with offset error
Gain error is a change in the slope of the transfer function from the ideal, and is typically expressed as a
percentage of full-scale. Figure 13 shows the USB-1408FS transfer function with gain error. Gain error is easily
converted to voltage by multiplying the full-scale (FS) input by the error.
The accuracy plots in Figure 13 are drawn for clarity and are not drawn to scale.
Figure 13. ADC Transfer function with gain error
Figure 13 shows an example of a USB-1408FS transfer function with a calibrated gain error of ±0.02%, or
±2 mV. This means that at full scale, neglecting the effect of offset for the moment, the measurement would be
within 2 mV of the actual value. Note that gain error is expressed as a ratio. Values near ±FS are more affected
from an absolute voltage standpoint than are values near mid-scale, which see little or no voltage error.
Combining these two error sources in Figure 14, we have a plot of the error band of the USB-1408FS for the
±10 V range. This is a graphical version of the typical accuracy specification of the product.
21
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
The accuracy plots in Figure 14 are drawn for clarity and are not drawn to scale
Figure 14. Error band plot
Channel gain queue
The USB-1408FS channel gain queue feature allows you to set up a scan sequence with a unique per-channel
gain setting and channel sequence.
The channel gain queue feature removes the restriction of using an ascending channel sequence at a fixed gain.
This feature creates a channel list which is written to local memory on the USB-1408FS. Each element of the
channel list is made up of a channel number and range setting. An example of a four-element list is shown in the
table below.
Sample channel gain queue list
Element
Channel
Range
0
1
2
3
CH0
CH3
CH1
CH2
BIP10V
BIP5V
BIP10V
BIP1V
When a scan begins with the gain queue enabled, the USB-1408FS reads the first element, sets the appropriate
channel number and range, and then acquires a sample. The properties of the next element are then retrieved,
and another sample is acquired. This sequence continues until all elements in the gain queue have been selected.
When the end of the channel list is detected, the sequence returns to the first element in the list.
This sequence repeats until the specified number of samples is gathered. You must carefully match the gain to
the expected voltage range of the associated channel — otherwise, an over range condition can occur. Although
this condition does not damage the USB-1408FS, it does produce a useless full-scale reading. It can also
introduce a long recovery time from saturation, which can affect the next measurement in the queue.
22
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Synchronizing multiple devices
You can run up to two USB-1408FS devices on most computers.
You can connect the SYNC pin of two USB-1408FS devices together in a master/slave configuration and
acquire data from the analog inputs of both devices using one clock. When the SYNC pin is configured as an
output, the internal A/D pacer clock is sent to the screw terminal. You can use this signal as a clock input to a
second USB-1408FS by connecting it to the SYNC pin of the second USB-1408FS.
When used as a clock input, the SYNC pin operates in one of two modes – Continuous or Gated. The mode is
software-selectable using InstaCal.
In the default Continuous mode, the USB-1408FS ignores the first clock pulse in order to ensure adequate setup
time. Use this mode if the device is being paced from a continuous clock source, such as a generator.
In the Gated mode, it is assumed that the clock signal will be held off for an adequate amount of time for setup
to occur. No clock pulses are ignored. Use this mode if you want to use the USB-1408FS device as a slave, and
the source of the external clock is another USB device.
The SYNC pin (pin 19) is set for pacer output by default. To set it to input requires a software command (see
Figure 15 below).
To synchronize a master USB-1408FS with a slave USB-1408FS and acquire data from the analog inputs of
both devices using one clock, follow the steps below.
1.
Connect the SYNC pin of the master USB-1408FS to the SYNC pin of the slave USB-1408FS.
2.
Run InstaCal.
3.
From the PC Board List on the InstaCal main form, double-click on the USB-1408FS you want to use as a
slave. The Board Configuration dialog opens.
4.
Select Gated from the Ext. Clock Type drop-down list.
5.
Set the Universal Library EXTCLOCK option with cbAInScan()/AInScan for the slave USB-1408FS to
enable pacing from the master USB device.
This InstaCal option does not affect internally paced acquisition. It only affects scans that use the EXTCLOCK
option.
An example of a master/slave configuration is shown here.
Figure 15. Configuring for synchronous data acquisition
When you are operating one USB-1408FS, do not set the EXTCLOCK option unless you are using an external
clock for A/D pacing.
23
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Mechanical drawings
Figure 16. Circuit board dimensions
Figure 17. Housing dimensions
24
Chapter 4
Specifications
Typical for 25°C unless otherwise specified.
Specifications in italic text are guaranteed by design.
Analog input
Table 1. Analog input specifications
Parameter
A/D converter type
Input voltage range for linear operation, single-ended
mode
Input common-mode voltage range for linear operation,
differential mode
Absolute maximum input voltage
Input impedance
Input current (Note 1)
Conditions
Specification
CHx to GND
Successive approximation type
±10 volts (V) max
CHx to GND
–10 V min, +20 V max
CHx to GND
±28 V max
122K Ohms
70 microamperes (µA) typ
–12 µA typ
–94 µA typ
8 single-ended / 4 differential, software
selectable
±10 V,
G=2
±20 V,
G=1
±10 V,
G=2
±5 V,
G=4
±4 V,
G=5
±2.5 V, G=8
±2.0 V, G=10
±1.25 V, G=16
±1.0 V, G=20
Software selectable
250 samples per second (S/s) typ,
PC-dependent
48 kilosamples per second (kS/s)
Software configurable channel, range,
and gain.
14-bits, no missing codes
13-bits
±2 least significant bit (LSB) typ
±0.5 LSB typ
±3LSB typ. (delta t = 1000 hrs)
±6LSB typ. (delta t = 1000 hrs)
±8LSB typ. (delta t = 1000 hrs)
±36.25 mV max.
5 mA max.
20 µA min, 100 µA typ
External digital: TRIG_IN
Vin = +10 V
Vin = 0 V
Vin = –10 V
Number of channels
Input ranges, single-ended mode
Input ranges, differential mode
Throughput (Note 2)
Channel gain queue
Resolution (Note 3)
Integral linearity error
Differential linearity error
Absolute accuracy long term drift
(Note 4)
2.5VREF accuracy (pin 16)
2.5VREF output current (pin 16)
Trigger source
Note 1:
Software paced
Continuous scan
Up to 16
elements
Differential
Single-ended
±20V range
±4V range
±1V range
Source
Sink
Software
selectable
Input current is a function of applied voltage on the analog input channels. For a given input
voltage, Vin, the input leakage is approximately equal to (8.181*Vin-12) µA.
25
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Specifications
Note 2:
Maximum throughput scanning to PC memory is machine dependent. The rates specified are for
Windows XP only. Maximum rates on operating systems that predate XP may be less and must
be determined through testing on your machine
Note 3:
The ADS7871 converter only returns 13-bits (0 to 8192 codes) in single-ended mode.
Note 4:
Extrapolating the long term drift accuracy specifications will provide the approximate long term
drift of the USB-1408FS intermediate input ranges.
Table 2. Accuracy, differential mode
Range
Absolute Accuracy 25°C (±mV)
Absolute Accuracy 0 to 50°C (±mV)
±20 V
±10 V
±5 V
±4 V
±2.5 V
±2 V
±1.25 V
±1 V
10.98
7.32
3.66
2.92
1.83
1.70
1.21
1.09
49.08
33.42
20.76
19.02
14.97
14.29
12.18
11.63
Table 3. Accuracy, single-ended mode
Range
Absolute Accuracy 25°C (±mV)
Absolute Accuracy 0 to 50°C (±mV)
±10 V
10.98
49.08
Table 4. Noise performance, differential mode
Range
Typical counts
Least significant bitroot mean square (LSBrms)
±20 V
±10 V
±5 V
±4 V
±2.5 V
±2 V
±1.25 V
±1 V
8
8
9
10
12
14
18
22
1.21
1.21
1.36
1.51
1.81
2.12
2.72
3.33
Table 5. Noise performance, single-ended mode
Range
Typical Counts
LSBrms
±10 V
8.0
1.21
26
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Specifications
Analog output
Table 6. Analog output specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Resolution
Output range
Number of channels
Throughput (Note 5)
Software paced
Single channel, continuous scan
Dual channel, continuous scan,
simultaneous update
Power on and reset voltage
Output drive
Slew rate
Note 5:
Specification
12-bits, 1 in 4096
0 to 4.096 V, 1 mV per LSB.
2
250 S/s single channel typical, PC dependent
10 kS/s
5 kS/s
0V, ±20 mV typ. (initializes to 000h code)
±15 mA
0.8 V/microsecond (µs) typ
Each D/A OUT
Maximum throughput scanning from PC memory is machine dependent. The rates specified are
for Windows XP only. Maximum rates on operating systems that predate XP may be less and
must be determined through testing on your machine.
Table 7. Analog output accuracy
Range
Accuracy (±LSB)
0 to 4.096 V
4.0 typ, 45.0 max
Table 8. Analog output accuracy components
Range
% of FSR (±)
Gain Error at FS (±mV)
Offset (±mV)
Accuracy at FS (±mV)
0 to 4.096 V
0.1 typ, 0.9 max
4.0 typ, 36.0 max
(Note 6)
1.0 typ, 9.0 max
4.0 typ, 45.0 max
Note 6:
Zero-scale offsets may result in a fixed zero-scale error producing a "dead-band” digital input
code region.. In this case, changes in digital input code at values less than 0x040 may not
produce a corresponding change in the output voltage. The USB-1408FS offset error is tested and
specified at code 0x040.
Digital input/output
Table 9. Digital I/O specifications
Digital type
Number of I/O
Configuration
Pull-up/pull-down
configuration
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Output high voltage
(IOH = –2.5 mA)
Output low voltage
(IOL = 2.5 mA)
Power on and reset state
CMOS
16 (Port A0 through A7, Port B0 through B7)
2 banks of 8
All pins pulled up to Vs via 47 K resistors (default). Positions available for pull-down to
ground. Hardware selectable via zero ohm (Ω) resistors as a factory option.
2.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
0.8 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
3.8 V min
0.7 V max
Input
27
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Specifications
External trigger
Table 10. Digital trigger specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Specification
Trigger source (Note 7)
Trigger mode
External digital
Software
selectable
TRIG_IN
Edge sensitive: user configurable for CMOS compatible rising or
falling edge.
10 µs max
1 µs min
4.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
1.0 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
±1.0 µA
Trigger latency
Trigger pulse width
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Input leakage current
Note 7:
TRIG_IN is a Schmitt trigger input protected with a 1.5 kilohm (kΩ) series resistor.
External clock input/output
Table 11. External clock I/O specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Pin name
Pin type
Software selectable direction
Input clock rate
Clock pulse width
Input leakage current
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Output high voltage (Note 8)
Output low voltage (Note 8)
Note 8:
Specification
SYNC
Bidirectional
Outputs internal A/D pacer clock.
Receives A/D pacer clock from external source.
48 KHz, maximum
1 µs min
5 µs min
±1.0 µA
4.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
1.0 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
3.3 V min
3.8 V min
1.1 V max
0.6 V max
Output (default)
Input
Input mode
Output mode
Input mode
IOH = –2.5 mA
No load
IOL = 2.5 mA
No load
SYNC is a Schmitt trigger input and is over-current protected with a 200 Ω series resistor.
Counter section
Table 12. Counter specifications
Pin name (Note 9)
Counter type
Number of channels
Input type
Input source
Resolution
Schmidt trigger hysteresis
Input leakage current
Maximum input frequency
CTR
Event counter
1
TTL, rising edge triggered
CTR screw terminal
32 bits
20 mV to 100 mV
±1 µA
1 MHz
High pulse width
Low pulse width
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
500 ns min
500 ns min
4.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
1.0 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
Note 9:
CTR is a Schmitt trigger input protected with a 1.5K Ω series resistor.
28
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Specifications
Non-volatile memory
Table 13. Non-volatile memory specifications
EEPROM
EEPROM Configuration
1,024 bytes
Address Range
Access
Description
0x000-0x1FF
0x200-0x3FF
Read/write
Read/write with unlock
512 bytes user area
512 bytes calibration data
Microcontroller
Table 14. Microcontroller specifications
Type
Program memory
Data memory
High performance 8-bit RISC microcontroller
16,384 words
2,048 bytes
Power
Table 15. Power specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Supply current (Note 10)
+5V USB power available
(Note 11)
Output current (Note 12)
Specification
Connected to self-powered hub
Connected to externally-powered root port hub
Connected to bus-powered hub
Connected to self-powered hub
Connected to externally-powered root port hub
Connected to bus-powered hub
80 mA
4.5 V min, 5.25 V max
4.1 V min, 5.25 V max
420 mA max
20 mA max
Note 10: This is the total current requirement for the USB-1408FS which includes up to 10 mA for the
status LED.
Note 11: Self-powered hub refers to a USB hub with an external power supply. Self-powered hubs allow a
connected USB device to draw up to 500 mA.
Root port hubs reside in the PC’s USB host controller. The USB port(s) on your PC are root port
hubs. All externally powered root port hubs (desktop PCs) provide up to 500 mA of current for a
USB device. Battery-powered root port hubs provide 100 mA or 500 mA, depending upon the
manufacturer. A laptop PC that is not connected to an external power adapter is an example of a
battery-powered root port hub.
Bus powered hubs receive power from a self-powered or root port hub. In this case the maximum
current available from the USB +5 V is 100 mA. The minimum USB +5 V voltage level can be
as low as 4.1 V.
Note 12: Output current refers to the total amount of current that can be sourced from the USB +5 V,
analog outputs and digital outputs.
General
Table 16. General specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Specification
Device type
Device compatibility
USB 2.0 full speed
USB 1.1, USB 2.0
29
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Specifications
Environmental
Table 17. Environmental specifications
Operating temperature range
Storage temperature range
Humidity
0 to 70 °C
–40 to 70 °C
0 to 90% non-condensing
Mechanical
Table 18. Mechanical specifications
Dimensions
USB cable length
User connection length
79 millimeters (mm) long x 82 mm wide x 25 mm high
3 meters max
3 meters max
Main connector and pin out
Table 19. Main connector specifications
Connector type
Wire gauge range
Screw terminal
16 AWG to 30 AWG
4-channel differential mode
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Signal Name
CH0 IN HI
CH0 IN LO
AGND
CH1 IN HI
CH1 IN LO
AGND
CH2 IN HI
CH2 IN LO
AGND
CH3 IN HI
CH3 IN LO
AGND
D/A OUT 0
D/A OUT 1
AGND
+2.5VREF
GND
TRIG_IN
SYNC
CTR
Pin
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
30
Signal Name
Port A0
Port A1
Port A2
Port A3
Port A4
Port A5
Port A6
Port A7
GND
PC+5V
GND
Port B0
Port B1
Port B2
Port B3
Port B4
Port B5
Port B6
Port B7
GND
USB-1408FS User's Guide
Specifications
8-channel single-ended mode
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Signal Name
CH0 IN
CH1 IN
AGND
CH2 IN
CH3 IN
AGND
CH4 IN
CH5 IN
AGND
CH6 IN
CH7 IN
AGND
D/A OUT 0
D/A OUT 1
AGND
+2.5VREF
GND
TRIG_IN
SYNC
CTR
Pin
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
31
Signal Name
Port A0
Port A1
Port A2
Port A3
Port A4
Port A5
Port A6
Port A7
GND
PC+5V
GND
Port B0
Port B1
Port B2
Port B3
Port B4
Port B5
Port B6
Port B7
GND
Declaration of Conformity
Manufacturer:
Address:
Category:
Measurement Computing Corporation
10 Commerce Way
Suite 1008
Norton, MA 02766
USA
Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use.
Measurement Computing Corporation declares under sole responsibility that the product
USB-1408FS
to which this declaration relates is in conformity with the relevant provisions of the following standards or other
documents:
EC EMC Directive 2004/108/EC: Electromagnetic Compatibility, EN 61326-1:2006, (IEC 61326-1:2005)
Emissions:


EN 55011 (1990)/CISPR 11 Radiated emissions: Group 1, Class A
EN 55011 (1990)/CISPR 11 Conducted emissions: Group 1, Class A
Immunity: EN61326-1:2006, (IEC 61326-1:2005) Table 3 Immunity requirements for equipment used in
controlled EM environments.

IEC 61000-4-2 (2001): Electrostatic Discharge immunity.

IEC 61000-4-3 (2002): Radiated Electromagnetic Field immunity.
To maintain the safety, emission, and immunity standards of this declaration, the following conditions must be
met.






The host computer, peripheral equipment, power sources, and expansion hardware must be CE
compliant.
Equipment must be operated in a controlled electromagnetic environment as defined by Standards EN
61326-1:2006, or IEC 61326-1:2005.
Shielded wires must be used for all I/Os and must be less than 3 meters (9.75 feet) in length.
The host computer must be properly grounded.
The host computer must be USB 2.0 compliant.
A protective ESD wrist strap should be used when connecting or disconnecting leads from screw
terminal blocks.
Note: Data acquisition equipment may exhibit noise or increased offsets when exposed to high RF fields
(>1V/m) or transients.
Declaration of Conformity based on tests conducted by Chomerics Test Services, Woburn, MA 01801, USA in
February, 2006. Test records are outlined in Chomerics Test Report #EMI4445.06. Further testing was
conducted by Chomerics Test Services, Woburn, MA. 01801, USA in November, 2008. Test records are
outlined in Chomerics Test report #EMI5193.08.
We hereby declare that the equipment specified conforms to the above Directives and Standards.
Carl Haapaoja, Director of Quality Assurance
Measurement Computing Corporation
10 Commerce Way
Suite 1008
Norton, Massachusetts 02766
(508) 946-5100
Fax: (508) 946-9500
E-mail: [email protected]
www.mccdaq.com
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