ict skills - The Open University of Sri Lanka

ict skills - The Open University of Sri Lanka
FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCES
B.Sc. DEGREE PROGRAMME
OPEN
UNIVERSITY
LEVEL 3
OF
SRI LANKA
PCU1160/PCU1161/PCU1162/
PCU1163/PCU1164
ICT SKILLS
<<
< Experimental Copy >
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCES
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE
COMPUTER SCIENCE: LEVEL 03
PCU1160/PCU1161/PCU1162/PCU1163/PCU1164
ICT SKILLS
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
i
Course Team
Team Chair
Mr. W.P.C.D. De Silva
B.Sc. (Colombo); M.Sc. (AIT)
Authors
Mrs. C.Y. Munasinghe
B.Sc. (OUSL); M.Sc. (Colombo)
Content Editor
Mr. B. Hettige
B. Sc. (USJP); M. Phil (MRT)
Facilitators
Mrs. A.M.K. Dewagiri
Mrs. G.D.W.M. Ariyarathna
Mrs. P. Senthilkumaran
Mr. W.M.C. Perera
The Open University of Sri Lanka
Nawala Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
Revised
First published
©[2013] Open University of Sri Lanka
All rights reserved. No part of this course book may be reproduced or transmitted in any from or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording or from any information stored in a retrieval system,
without permission in writing from the Open University of Sri Lanka.
ii
Introduction to the course
Welcome to the PCU1160/PCU1161/PCU1162/PCU1163/PCU1164: ICT Skills. This Level 3
course is one of the foundation courses offered by the Department of Mathematics & Computer
Sciences. It is a 3 credits course which will require about 75 hours of study.
Course outline
This course is designed for the students to improve their skills on ICT (Information and
Communications Technology) enabling them to manage their tasks effectively and efficiently in
their working environment. The knowledge of the office package, the Internet, e-mail, ecommerce, etc. is extensively covered in the curriculum considering the practical aspects as well.
This course is similar to International Computer Driving Licence (ICDL) and prepares the
students for the University Competency Test in Information Technology (UCTIT) conducted by
the Ministry of Higher Education and Higher Education for Twenty-first Century (HETC) Project.
Structure of course
This course consists of one book. And it contains Fundamentals of ICT, Working with
Computers, Word Processing, Spreadsheet Management, Database Handling, Electronic
Presentation, The Internet and Communication, Managing a Computer.
The Course material will be given with the Practical Guide and the Multimedia CD, and in order
to get the best from this course be sure to use these three materials simultaneously. And also you
will be supported from the Learner Management System (Moodle) in an interactive manner.
Teaching Strategies
Day Schools
There will be six day schools during which you will be able to sort out any problems you may
encounter. All the topics of this course will be covered within six day schools. In order to gain
more from the day schools you are advised to work through the sessions (including all activities)
before you come. The time table issued to you at the time of your registration will indicate the
dates of these day schools.
Assessments
You will have two closed book tests as means of continuous assessment of your progress in the
course. 60% from the best mark and 40% from the next best mark will be taken to calculate the
eligibility marks. Your scores will be used to determine your eligibility to sit for your final
examination. Your performance on the course as a whole will be determined from your
continuous assessment and final examination scores, according to the formula given in your
course information sheet (more details on the course will be provided via the information sheet).
We hope that you will find the course material interesting and that you will enjoy your learning
experience with the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
Good Luck!
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CONTENT
TITLE
PAGE
SESSION 01
INTRODUCTION TO ICT AND ICT SKILLS ....................................................................... 1
1.1
Related terminology ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1.1 IT (Information Technology) .........................................................................................................................1
1.1.2 ICT (Information and Communication Technology) .....................................................................................2
1.1.3 CS (Computer Science) .................................................................................................................................2
1.2
Objectives of the course unit .................................................................................................................... 3
1.3
What next in the course unit .................................................................................................................... 4
1.4
Self Assessment Questions ....................................................................................................................... 4
SESSION 02
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS ........................................................................................ 5
2.1
What is a Computer? ............................................................................................................................... 5
2.2
Characteristics of a Computer ................................................................................................................. 6
2.2.1 Speed............................................................................................................................................................6
2.2.2 Reliability ......................................................................................................................................................6
2.2.3 Accuracy .......................................................................................................................................................6
2.2.4 Diligence .......................................................................................................................................................6
2.2.5 Versatility .....................................................................................................................................................7
2.2.6 Power of remembering ................................................................................................................................7
2.2.7 No Feeling ....................................................................................................................................................7
2.2.8 No IQ ............................................................................................................................................................7
2.2.9 Storage .........................................................................................................................................................7
2.3
Limitations of a Computer....................................................................................................................... 7
2.4
Different Types of Computers ................................................................................................................. 8
2.5
Different Types of Personal Computers (PCs) ........................................................................................ 9
2.5.1 Desktop PCs..................................................................................................................................................9
2.5.2 Laptop Computers ......................................................................................................................................10
2.5.3 Netbook......................................................................................................................................................10
2.5.4 PDAs ...........................................................................................................................................................11
2.5.5 Wearable Computers .................................................................................................................................11
2.5.6 Tablets ........................................................................................................................................................11
2.6
Main parts of a computer system .......................................................................................................... 12
2.6.1 Hardware....................................................................................................................................................13
2.6.2 Software .....................................................................................................................................................13
2.6.3 Data ............................................................................................................................................................13
2.6.4 User/ Live ware ..........................................................................................................................................13
2.7
Self Assessment Questions ..................................................................................................................... 13
SESSION 03
COMPUTER HARDWARE .......................................................................................................... 14
3.1
What is Computer Hardware? .............................................................................................................. 14
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3.2
Processing Devices ................................................................................................................................. 15
3.2.1 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) .............................................................................................................15
3.3
Memory Devices ..................................................................................................................................... 16
3.3.1 Computer Memory.....................................................................................................................................16
3.3.2 Random Access Memory (RAM) ................................................................................................................16
3.3.3 Read Only Memory (ROM) .........................................................................................................................16
3.3.4 Cache ..........................................................................................................................................................17
3.4
Input Devices.......................................................................................................................................... 17
3.4.1 What is Input? ............................................................................................................................................17
3.4.2 Data ............................................................................................................................................................18
3.4.3 Program ......................................................................................................................................................18
3.4.4 Command ...................................................................................................................................................18
3.4.5 User Response ............................................................................................................................................18
3.4.6 Input Devices ..............................................................................................................................................18
3.4.7 Keyboard ....................................................................................................................................................19
3.4.8 Mouse ........................................................................................................................................................19
3.4.9 Scanner.......................................................................................................................................................20
3.4.10
Bar code reader .....................................................................................................................................21
3.4.11
Optical Character Recognition ...............................................................................................................21
3.5
Output Devices ....................................................................................................................................... 22
3.5.1 What is output?..........................................................................................................................................22
3.5.2 Output Devices ...........................................................................................................................................23
3.5.3 Input & Output Devices ..............................................................................................................................26
3.6
Storage Devices ...................................................................................................................................... 26
3.6.1 Memory versus Storage .............................................................................................................................26
3.6.2 Storage .......................................................................................................................................................26
3.6.3 Storage Devices ..........................................................................................................................................27
3.7
The System Unit ..................................................................................................................................... 30
3.8
Motherboard .......................................................................................................................................... 30
3.9
Power Supply Unit ................................................................................................................................. 32
3.10
CD-ROM Drive ...................................................................................................................................... 33
3.11
Floppy Disk Drive .................................................................................................................................. 33
3.12
Card readers .......................................................................................................................................... 33
3.13
Connecting Peripheral Devices to the Computer .................................................................................. 34
3.13.1
Ports in Your Computer ........................................................................................................................34
3.14
Performance of a computer ................................................................................................................... 38
3.14.1
Factors affecting the Performance of computers ..................................................................................39
3.15
Self Assessment Questions ..................................................................................................................... 41
SESSION 04
COMPUTER SOFTWARE ................................................................................................................ 42
4.1
What is Software? .................................................................................................................................. 42
4.2
Categories of Software ........................................................................................................................... 42
4.2.1 System Software ........................................................................................................................................43
4.2.2 Utility Software ..........................................................................................................................................46
4.2.3 Library Programs ........................................................................................................................................48
4.2.4 Programming Language Translators ..........................................................................................................48
4.3
Application Software ............................................................................................................................. 49
4.3.1 General Purpose Application Software ......................................................................................................49
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4.3.2 Special Purpose Application Software .......................................................................................................50
4.3.3 Bespoke Application Software ...................................................................................................................50
4.4
Self Assessment Questions ..................................................................................................................... 51
SESSION 05
COMPUTER NETWORKS ........................................................................................................... 52
5.1
What is a Computer Network? .............................................................................................................. 52
5.2
Basic hardware and terminology in networks ....................................................................................... 53
5.2.1 Node ...........................................................................................................................................................53
5.2.2 Client ..........................................................................................................................................................53
5.2.3 Server .........................................................................................................................................................53
5.2.4 Hub .............................................................................................................................................................54
5.2.5 IP Address ...................................................................................................................................................54
5.2.6 Network interface cards .............................................................................................................................54
5.2.7 Repeaters ...................................................................................................................................................54
5.2.8 Bridges........................................................................................................................................................55
5.2.9 Switches .....................................................................................................................................................55
5.2.10 Routers .......................................................................................................................................................55
5.3
Classifications of Computer Networks .................................................................................................. 55
5.3.1 Classification of computer networks by scale ............................................................................................56
5.3.2 Classifications of networks based on the topology .............................................................................58
5.4
The Internet ........................................................................................................................................... 60
5.5
The Intranet and Extranet ..................................................................................................................... 61
5.5.1 The Intranet ...............................................................................................................................................61
5.5.2 The Extranet ...............................................................................................................................................62
5.6
Self Assessment Questions ..................................................................................................................... 62
SESSION 06
USAGE OF ICT& ENVIRONMENT FOR COMPUTERS ....................................................... 63
6.1
Computers at work ................................................................................................................................ 63
6.2
Usage of ICT in different sectors ........................................................................................................... 64
6.2.1 Potential Sectors with ICT usage ................................................................................................................64
6.2.2 ICT in Education..........................................................................................................................................64
6.2.3 ICT in Business/Trade and Commerce........................................................................................................65
6.2.4 ICT in Banking .............................................................................................................................................66
6.2.5 ICT in Medicine ...........................................................................................................................................67
6.3
Health, Safety, and Environment for computers ................................................................................... 68
6.3.1 Work environment .....................................................................................................................................68
6.3.2 Computer related health problems ...........................................................................................................69
6.3.3 Proper use of mouse, monitor, and key board ..........................................................................................71
6.3.4 Reference postures ....................................................................................................................................72
6.4
Protecting environment ......................................................................................................................... 73
6.4.1 Go paperless...............................................................................................................................................73
6.4.2 No Screen Saver .........................................................................................................................................73
6.4.3 Turn It Off ...................................................................................................................................................73
6.4.4 Use a Flash Drive ........................................................................................................................................74
6.4.5 Fix Your Old Computer ...............................................................................................................................74
6.5
Self Assessment Questions ..................................................................................................................... 74
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SESSION 07
INFORMATION SECURITY AND LEGAL REGULATIONS ..................................... 75
7.1
Introduction to Information Security .................................................................................................... 75
7.1.1 Importance of Information Security...........................................................................................................75
7.1.2 Possible attacks ..........................................................................................................................................76
7.1.3 Security measures ......................................................................................................................................76
7.1.4 Forms of software threats ..........................................................................................................................76
7.2
Hardware Threats.................................................................................................................................. 79
7.2.1 Power Faults ...............................................................................................................................................79
7.2.2 Age .............................................................................................................................................................80
7.2.3 Incompatibilities .........................................................................................................................................80
7.2.4 Finger Faults ...............................................................................................................................................80
7.2.5 Malicious or Careless Damage ...................................................................................................................81
7.2.6 Data carriers ...............................................................................................................................................81
7.2.7 Magnetic Zaps ............................................................................................................................................81
7.3
Computer Related Privacy Issues .......................................................................................................... 82
7.3.1 Exposure in browsing Web.........................................................................................................................82
7.3.2 Information that reveals you .....................................................................................................................82
7.3.3 Limiting the information collection ............................................................................................................82
7.3.4 Protecting your privacy ..............................................................................................................................83
7.4
Computer Related Legal Regulations in Sri Lanka .............................................................................. 83
7.4.1 ICT Policy formulation bodies in Sri Lanka .................................................................................................84
7.4.2 Copyright and related laws ........................................................................................................................85
7.4.3 Data Protection Law in Sri Lanka ................................................................................................................85
7.5
Self Assessment Questions ..................................................................................................................... 86
SESSION 8
INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 7 .............................................................................................. 87
8.1
What is Windows 7? .............................................................................................................................. 87
8.1.1 Versions of Windows 7 ...............................................................................................................................87
8.1.2 System requirements .................................................................................................................................88
8.2
Installing Windows 7 into your PC ........................................................................................................ 88
8.3
Basic Operations in Windows7 .............................................................................................................. 89
8.4
Windows 7 Interface .............................................................................................................................. 90
8.4.1 Desktop ......................................................................................................................................................90
8.4.2 Start menu .................................................................................................................................................90
8.4.3 Task bar ......................................................................................................................................................91
8.4.4 Notification area ........................................................................................................................................91
8.4.5 Task buttons ...............................................................................................................................................92
8.4.6 Desktop Icons .............................................................................................................................................92
8.4.7 Shortcut Icons ............................................................................................................................................92
8.4.8 Windows Gadgets ......................................................................................................................................92
8.5
Ending a Computing Session ................................................................................................................. 93
8.6
Working with Windows Programs ........................................................................................................ 94
8.6.1 Start a Windows program ..........................................................................................................................94
8.6.2 Using Windows Accessories .......................................................................................................................95
8.7
Introduction to Windows 7 File System ................................................................................................ 96
8.7.1 The File System in general..........................................................................................................................96
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8.7.2 The File Hierarchy and File management ...................................................................................................97
8.7.3 What is a library? .......................................................................................................................................97
8.7.4 The System Root in Windows 7..................................................................................................................98
8.7.5 Personal Areas in Windows 7 .....................................................................................................................99
8.7.6 File naming conventions ............................................................................................................................99
8.8
Storing and Managing Data .............................................................................................................. 100
8.8.1 Basic File/Folder Operations in Windows 7 .............................................................................................100
8.9
Windows 7 User Accounts ................................................................................................................... 106
8.10
The System Settings ............................................................................................................................. 107
8.10.1
The Control Panel ................................................................................................................................107
8.10.2
The Control Panel in Category View ....................................................................................................107
8.11
Self Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................... 108
SESSION 9
WORKING WITH WINDOWS 7 .................................................................................................. 109
9.1
How to adjust your computer‟s settings .............................................................................................. 109
9.1.1 System and Security ...............................................................................................................................109
9.1.2 User Accounts and Family Safety .............................................................................................................110
9.1.3 Network and Internet ..............................................................................................................................111
9.1.4 Appearance and Personalization .............................................................................................................111
9.1.5 Hardware and Sound................................................................................................................................113
9.1.6 Clock, language, and Region ....................................................................................................................116
9.1.7 Programs ..................................................................................................................................................117
9.1.8 Ease of Access ..........................................................................................................................................118
9.2
Preventive Maintenance of Your Computer ....................................................................................... 118
9.2.1 What is Preventive Maintenance? ...........................................................................................................118
9.2.2 PM Procedures .........................................................................................................................................119
9.2.3 Run a Virus scan .......................................................................................................................................119
9.2.4 Recover lost clusters and Defragmentation .............................................................................................121
9.2.5 Cleanup a Disk ..........................................................................................................................................122
9.2.6 Install OS and software patches and update ...........................................................................................123
9.3
Self Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................... 123
SESSION 10
INTRODUCTION TO WORD PROCESSING AND MS OFFICE 2007 ............................ 124
10.1
What is Word Processing? ................................................................................................................... 124
10.1.1
Characteristics and features of Word processing software .................................................................125
10.2
Existing word processing packages ..................................................................................................... 125
10.2.1
Open source word processors .............................................................................................................125
10.2.2
Commercial software ...........................................................................................................................128
10.2.3
Online word processors .......................................................................................................................128
10.3
Improve your typing Skills .................................................................................................................. 129
10.3.1
Keyboard and its’ layout ......................................................................................................................129
10.3.2
Working with Computer Keyboard ......................................................................................................130
10.4
Introduction to MS Office 2007 ........................................................................................................... 131
10.4.1
What is Microsoft Office? ....................................................................................................................131
10.4.2
History of Office Versions ....................................................................................................................132
10.4.3
Microsoft Office 2007 ..........................................................................................................................132
10.4.4
System requirements for Office 2007 ..................................................................................................134
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10.4.5
Programs Available in Office 2007 .......................................................................................................134
10.5
Self Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................... 134
SESSION 11
MICROSOFT WORD 2007 ............................................................................................................. 135
11.1 Getting started with Microsoft Office Word 2007 ............................................................................ 135
11.1.1
Start Microsoft Office Word 2007 .......................................................................................................135
11.1.2
Create a new Word Document – Method 1.........................................................................................135
11.1.3
Create a new word document - Method 2 ..........................................................................................136
11.2 Getting familiarized with the MSWord 2007 user interface............................................................ 137
11.3 Using MS Word Help ......................................................................................................................... 138
11.4 Some useful basic operations in MS Word ....................................................................................... 141
11.4.1
Changing the typing modes .................................................................................................................141
11.4.2
Show/ Hide non-printable characters ..................................................................................................141
11.4.3
Save your word document ...................................................................................................................142
11.4.4
Close already opened word document and exit from Microsoft Word ...............................................142
11.4.5
Opening an existing MS Word document ............................................................................................142
11.4.6
Displaying different views of a document ...........................................................................................143
11.4.7
Previewing and printing a document ...................................................................................................143
11.4.8
Secure your document from others ....................................................................................................145
11.4.9
Save your document in a different file format ....................................................................................146
11.4.10 Show/Hide ruler ...................................................................................................................................146
11.4.11 Insert a page break ..............................................................................................................................147
11.4.12 Insert date and time ............................................................................................................................147
11.5 Self Assessment Questions .................................................................................................................. 147
11.1
Write down two possible ways of starting MS Word. ......................................................................... 147
SESSION 12
EDITING , PROOFING, AND FORMATING TEXT WITH MS WORD 2007 ................ 148
12.1 Editing, Proofing, and Formatting text ............................................................................................. 148
12.1.1
Editing your text in a document ..........................................................................................................148
12.1.2
Proofing your text ................................................................................................................................150
12.1.3
Formatting your text ............................................................................................................................152
12.2 Format a Paragraph ........................................................................................................................... 156
12.2.1
Align text ..............................................................................................................................................157
12.2.2
Set Line space between two line in a paragraph .................................................................................157
12.2.3
Drop Cap ..............................................................................................................................................158
12.2.4
Create a bulleted list ............................................................................................................................159
12.2.5
Sorting a given list ................................................................................................................................159
12.2.6
Create a new numbered list.................................................................................................................160
12.2.7
Column setting .....................................................................................................................................160
12.3 Page Formatting ................................................................................................................................. 161
12.3.1
Format your documents using page setup window ............................................................................161
12.3.2
Set Page Margins using page setup .....................................................................................................162
12.3.3
Set Page Size using Page Setup ............................................................................................................162
12.3.4
Set Page Layout by using Page Setup ..................................................................................................163
12.3.5
Set page borders by using Page Setup .................................................................................................163
12.3.6
Insert Headers, Footers and Page Numbering .....................................................................................164
12.3.7
Insert a watermark ..............................................................................................................................165
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12.4
Self Assessment Questions .................................................................................................................. 166
SESSION 13
WORKING WITH TABLES, ILLUSTRATIONS, AND MAIL MERGE .......................... 167
13.1 Working with tables ........................................................................................................................... 167
13.1.1
Creating a table ....................................................................................................................................167
13.1.2
Format your table ................................................................................................................................168
13.1.3
Setting Text Alignment inside the table ...............................................................................................168
13.1.4
Insert a row/column to the existing table ...........................................................................................169
13.1.5
Delete a row/column to the existing table ..........................................................................................169
13.2 Different types of Illustrations ........................................................................................................... 169
13.3 Working with Images ......................................................................................................................... 170
13.3.1
Insert pictures into your document .....................................................................................................170
13.4 Working with ClipArt ........................................................................................................................ 172
13.4.1
Insert a ClipArt .....................................................................................................................................172
13.4.2
Insert clipart on Office Online ..............................................................................................................173
13.5 Working with Shapes ......................................................................................................................... 173
13.5.1
Insert a shape.......................................................................................................................................173
13.5.2
Change the size of the Shape ...............................................................................................................174
13.5.3
Insert a new shape ...............................................................................................................................174
13.5.4
Add/Edit a text in a shape ....................................................................................................................174
13.5.5
Create a group of shapes .....................................................................................................................175
13.5.6
Insert 3D effect into a shape ................................................................................................................175
13.5.7
Insert Shadow effect into a shape .......................................................................................................175
13.5.8
Change the shape style ........................................................................................................................176
13.5.9
Change the fill colour ...........................................................................................................................176
13.5.10 Change the shape ................................................................................................................................176
13.5.11 Change shape position .........................................................................................................................176
13.5.12 Change the visible order of the shapes ...............................................................................................176
13.6 Working with SmartArt ..................................................................................................................... 177
13.6.1
Insert a smart Art .................................................................................................................................177
13.6.2
Working with SmartArt tools ...............................................................................................................178
13.7 Working with Charts .......................................................................................................................... 179
13.7.1
Insert a chart into your document .......................................................................................................179
13.8 Insert a WordArt ................................................................................................................................ 180
13.9 Working with Text boxes ................................................................................................................... 181
13.10
Working with equations ................................................................................................................. 182
13.11
Inserting Symbols ........................................................................................................................... 183
13.12
Word Templates ............................................................................................................................. 185
13.12.1 Create a new word template ...............................................................................................................185
13.12.2 Working with installed templates ........................................................................................................185
13.13
Working with Mail Merge ............................................................................................................. 186
13.14
Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................................................. 189
SESSION14
INTRODUCTION TO MS EXCEL 2007 ..................................................................................... 190
14.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 190
14.1.1
Start Excel 2007 ...................................................................................................................................191
14.2 Microsoft Excel 2007 User Interface ................................................................................................. 191
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14.3 Working with workbooks ................................................................................................................... 192
14.3.1
Create a new workbook (Method 1) ....................................................................................................192
14.3.2
Create a new work book (Method 2) ...................................................................................................192
14.4 Working with a work sheet ................................................................................................................ 193
14.4.1
Delete a worksheet ..............................................................................................................................193
14.4.2
Rename an existing worksheet ............................................................................................................193
14.4.3
Insert a new work sheet ......................................................................................................................193
14.5 Data entry techniques ......................................................................................................................... 194
14.5.1
AutoFill option .....................................................................................................................................194
14.6 Moving Data within a Workbook ...................................................................................................... 196
14.7 Defining data set as a Table ............................................................................................................... 197
14.8 Some useful tips .................................................................................................................................. 197
14.8.1
Displaying Different Views of an Excel sheet .......................................................................................198
14.8.2
Window Operations .............................................................................................................................198
14.9 Setting, Previewing, and Printing a document ................................................................................. 199
14.9.1
Setting/Clearing printing area..............................................................................................................199
14.9.2
Previwing and Printing your work ........................................................................................................200
14.10
Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................................................. 201
SESSION 15
MANUPULATING DATA IN MS EXCEL 2007 ....................................................................... 202
15.1 Performing Calculations on Data ...................................................................................................... 202
15.1.1
Define and use cell range names in formulas ......................................................................................202
15.2 Working with Excel Formulas ........................................................................................................... 203
15.2.1
Copying formulas .................................................................................................................................205
15.2.2
Absolute Positioning ............................................................................................................................205
15.2.3
Paste your formula using “paste special” method ..............................................................................205
15.3 Working with Excel functions ............................................................................................................ 206
15.3.1
Other functions available in Excel 2007 ...............................................................................................210
15.3.2
Exploring more on functions ................................................................................................................210
15.4 Sort and filter your data ..................................................................................................................... 210
15.4.1
Sorting your data .................................................................................................................................210
15.4.2
Filter your data ....................................................................................................................................212
15.5 Errors in cells ...................................................................................................................................... 214
15.6 Self Assessment Questions .................................................................................................................. 214
SESSION 16
SETTING DOCUMENT APPEARANCE AND WORKING WITH CHARTS ................ 215
16.1 Changing Document Appearance ...................................................................................................... 215
16.1.1
Format a cell by using cell formatting window ....................................................................................215
16.1.2
Change font effect in a cell ..................................................................................................................217
16.1.3
Change Border of a cell/range of cells .................................................................................................217
16.1.4
Change the fill style of a cell(s) ............................................................................................................218
16.1.5
Set row height ......................................................................................................................................219
16.1.6
Set the column width ...........................................................................................................................219
16.1.7
Merge two or more cells ......................................................................................................................219
16.1.8
Change the cell style ............................................................................................................................219
16.2 Conditional formatting of cells .......................................................................................................... 220
16.3 Applying Workbook Themes ............................................................................................................. 221
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16.4 Working with Charts .......................................................................................................................... 222
16.4.1
Create a Chart using Chart tool............................................................................................................222
16.4.2
Modify chart Layout.............................................................................................................................223
16.4.3
Customize the appearance of a chart ..................................................................................................224
16.4.4
The Chart design tool ...........................................................................................................................224
16.4.5
The Chart Layout tool ..........................................................................................................................225
16.4.6
The Chart Format tool..........................................................................................................................225
16.5 Self Assessment Questions .................................................................................................................. 226
SESSION 17
INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT POWERPOINT 2007 ................................................. 227
17.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 227
17.2 Working with MS PowerPoint 2007 .................................................................................................. 228
17.2.1
Starting MS PowerPoint 2007 ..............................................................................................................228
17.2.2
Creating a new presentation (Method 1) ............................................................................................228
17.2.3
Creating a new presentation (Method 2) ............................................................................................228
17.3 Getting Familiarized with MS Power point 2007 user Interface ..................................................... 229
17.4 Start your presentation ...................................................................................................................... 230
17.4.1
Starting with the first slide ...................................................................................................................230
17.4.2
Inserting a new slide ............................................................................................................................230
17.4.3
Deleting a Slide ....................................................................................................................................231
17.4.4
Open an existing presentation .............................................................................................................231
17.4.5
Change the slide view ..........................................................................................................................232
17.4.6
Hiding the slides ...................................................................................................................................232
17.5 Adding more components to the slides .............................................................................................. 233
17.5.1
Adding text and images in a single slide ..............................................................................................233
17.5.2
Adding hyperlinks ................................................................................................................................235
17.6 Formatting Presentations ................................................................................................................... 236
17.6.1
Inserting a text box ..............................................................................................................................236
17.6.2
Insert WordArt .....................................................................................................................................237
17.6.3
Insert a Footer and Slide numbers .......................................................................................................237
17.7 Formatting backgrounds and layout ................................................................................................. 237
17.7.1
Change the background style using Ribbon .........................................................................................238
17.7.1
Change the background using Format Background menu ...................................................................239
17.7.2
Change the Slide Layout ......................................................................................................................239
17.8 Applying Themes ................................................................................................................................ 239
17.8.1
Insert Themes in to all slides................................................................................................................239
17.8.2
Insert Themes in to Selected Slides .....................................................................................................240
17.9 Using Slide Master .............................................................................................................................. 240
17.9.1
Creating a Slide Master ........................................................................................................................240
17.9.2
Slide Master Tools................................................................................................................................241
17.9.3
Working with slide masters .................................................................................................................241
17.10
Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................................................. 243
SESSION 18
ADVANCED FEATURES AND DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION ...................... 244
18.1 Working with Graphics, Images and Clips ....................................................................................... 244
18.1.1
Insert Pictures into your slide ..............................................................................................................245
18.1.2
Insert a Picture from Clip Art gallery ...................................................................................................245
xii
18.1.3
Insert a Smart Art .................................................................................................................................246
18.1.4
Insert a Table into your presentation ..................................................................................................247
18.2 Working with Multimedia .................................................................................................................. 247
18.2.1
Different Types of Videos ....................................................................................................................247
Animated GIFs ......................................................................................................................................................247
Live-Action Videos ...............................................................................................................................................247
Video File Formats ................................................................................................................................................247
18.2.2
Insert a Movie Clip ...............................................................................................................................248
18.3 Inserting Sound and Narration .......................................................................................................... 249
18.4 Delivering Presentations ..................................................................................................................... 250
18.4.1
Using animations .................................................................................................................................250
18.4.2
Animation tools ...................................................................................................................................250
18.4.3
Add Slide transition ..............................................................................................................................251
18.5 Animating Objects of your slide ........................................................................................................ 252
18.5.1
Types of Animations ............................................................................................................................252
18.5.2
Adding Animation effects for an object or an object group ................................................................252
18.5.3
Custom Animation in depth .................................................................................................................253
18.5.4
Setting Animation Timing ....................................................................................................................255
18.6 Adding Action effects ......................................................................................................................... 256
18.7 Getting prepared for a Live Presentation ......................................................................................... 257
18.7.1
Starting and Ending a Show .................................................................................................................257
18.7.2
Using the On-screen Show Controls ....................................................................................................257
18.7.3
Moving from Slide to Slide ...................................................................................................................258
18.7.4
Jumping to Specific Slides ....................................................................................................................259
18.7.5
Blanking the Screen .............................................................................................................................259
18.7.6
Using the On-Screen Pen .....................................................................................................................259
18.8 Using Custom Shows .......................................................................................................................... 260
18.8.1
Ideas for Using Custom Shows .............................................................................................................260
18.8.2
Creating Custom Shows .......................................................................................................................261
18.8.3
Editing Custom Shows .........................................................................................................................262
18.8.4
Copying Custom Shows ........................................................................................................................262
18.8.5
Deleting Custom Shows .......................................................................................................................262
18.8.6
Displaying a Custom Show ...................................................................................................................262
18.9 Saving your Presentation ................................................................................................................... 264
18.10
Protecting a file with a password ................................................................................................... 264
18.10.1 Saving a Presentation in Other Formats ..............................................................................................265
18.11
Printing your slides ......................................................................................................................... 267
18.11.1 Creating Handouts ...............................................................................................................................267
18.11.2 Creating Speaker Notes .......................................................................................................................268
18.11.3 Printing Outline ....................................................................................................................................269
18.11.4 Exporting Handouts or Notes Pages to Word ......................................................................................269
18.11.5 Create a Package for a CD ....................................................................................................................270
18.12
Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................................................. 272
SESSION 19
INTRODUCTION TO DATABASES AND MICROSOFT ACCESS 2007 ......................... 273
19.1
Introduction to Databases .................................................................................................................... 273
19.1.1
Hierarchical model ...............................................................................................................................273
19.1.2
Network model ....................................................................................................................................274
xiii
19.1.3
Relational model ..................................................................................................................................274
19.1.4
Object –Oriented model ......................................................................................................................274
19.2
Database Management System ............................................................................................................ 275
19.3
Basic terminology in Databases ........................................................................................................... 275
19.3.1
Database ..............................................................................................................................................275
19.3.2
Object ..................................................................................................................................................275
19.3.3
Table ....................................................................................................................................................275
19.3.4
Field .....................................................................................................................................................275
19.3.5
Record ..................................................................................................................................................275
19.3.6
Primary key ..........................................................................................................................................276
19.3.7
Foreign key...........................................................................................................................................276
19.3.8
Relationships ........................................................................................................................................276
19.4
Different Database Management Applications .................................................................................... 278
19.5
Introduction to Microsoft Access 2007 ................................................................................................ 278
19.5.1
Start Microsoft Access .........................................................................................................................278
19.5.2
Create a new database ........................................................................................................................279
19.5.3
User interface of MS Access 2007 .......................................................................................................279
19.5.4
Opening an Existing Database .............................................................................................................280
19.5.5
Closing an Existing Database................................................................................................................280
19.5.6
Objects available in Access 2007 .........................................................................................................280
19.6
Exploring Tables .................................................................................................................................. 281
19.6.1
Open a table in Datasheet view ...........................................................................................................281
19.6.2
Open a table in Design view ................................................................................................................281
19.7
Exploring Queries ................................................................................................................................ 282
19.7.1
Opening a Query ..................................................................................................................................282
19.7.2
Open a Query in design view ...............................................................................................................282
19.8
Exploring Forms .................................................................................................................................. 282
19.8.1
Opening a Form ...................................................................................................................................283
19.8.2
Open a Form in design view.................................................................................................................283
19.9
Exploring Reports ................................................................................................................................ 283
19.9.1
Opening a Report in the Layout view ..................................................................................................284
19.10
Save your database in other formats ............................................................................................... 284
19.11
Encrypt with a password ................................................................................................................. 284
19.12
Decrypt the database ....................................................................................................................... 285
19.13
Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................................................... 285
SESSION 20
WORKING WITH TABLES AND QUERIES ........................................................................... 286
20.1
Creating Tables .................................................................................................................................... 286
20.1.1
Creating table – method 1 ...................................................................................................................286
20.1.2
Creating table – method 2 ...................................................................................................................286
20.1.3
Create table in Design view .................................................................................................................287
20.1.4
Delete a Table ......................................................................................................................................290
20.1.5
Create another table ............................................................................................................................291
20.2
Creating Relationships between two tables ......................................................................................... 291
20.2.1
Relationship design tool ......................................................................................................................293
20.3
Modifying your tables .......................................................................................................................... 293
20.3.1
Delete Records from a table ................................................................................................................293
20.3.2
Insert a new field .................................................................................................................................294
xiv
20.3.3
Rename a Column/field .......................................................................................................................294
20.3.4
Delete a column/field ..........................................................................................................................294
20.4
Queries ................................................................................................................................................. 295
20.4.1
Create a Query using Wizard ...............................................................................................................295
20.4.2
Create a Query using design view ........................................................................................................296
20.4.3
More about criteria sections in the Query design tool ........................................................................298
20.4.4
Creating advance queries by using query design tool .........................................................................298
20.4.5
Viewing the SQL statements of created queries ..................................................................................299
20.5
Self Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................... 300
SESSION 21
WORKING WITH FORMS AND REPORTS ............................................................................ 301
21.1 Working with Forms .......................................................................................................................... 301
21.1.1
Create a form by using Form Wizard ...................................................................................................301
21.1.2
Control Buttons in a form ....................................................................................................................303
21.1.3
Form views ...........................................................................................................................................304
21.1.4
Create a form by using the Design View ..............................................................................................304
21.1.5
Format your form ................................................................................................................................310
21.2 Working with Reports ........................................................................................................................ 312
21.2.1
Create a report using Report wizard ....................................................................................................312
21.2.2
Create a report for a created query by using wizard ...........................................................................315
21.2.3
Create a Report by using Design View .................................................................................................316
21.2.4
Report Design Tools .............................................................................................................................316
21.2.5
Report design window .........................................................................................................................317
21.2.6
Working with report controls ..............................................................................................................318
21.2.7
Create a report by using design view ...................................................................................................318
21.2.8
Working with more report controls .....................................................................................................319
21.3 Formatting Reports ............................................................................................................................ 321
21.3.1
Format your report by using Auto format wizard ................................................................................321
21.4 Self Assessment Questions .................................................................................................................. 322
SESSION 22
INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNET ............................................................................. 323
The Internet: an introduction ........................................................................................................ 323
What is Internet? .................................................................................................................................323
22.1.1
22.1
22.1.2
The history of the Internet ...................................................................................................................325
Differences between Internet and World Wide Web ..........................................................................326
22.1.3
22.1.4
Introducing the Internet buzz words .................................................................................................327
22.2 Identifying facilities/benefits of Internet ............................................................................................ 329
22.2.1
WWW...................................................................................................................................................330
22.2.2
E-mail ...................................................................................................................................................330
22.2.3
Chat .....................................................................................................................................................330
22.2.4
Telnet ...................................................................................................................................................330
22.2.5
VoIP......................................................................................................................................................330
Connecting
to the Internet ................................................................................................................... 331
22.3
22.3.1
22.3.2
22.3.3
Dial-up Connections .............................................................................................................................331
Landline ...............................................................................................................................................332
T-lines...................................................................................................................................................332
xv
22.3.4
Wi-Fi.....................................................................................................................................................332
22.3.5
Satellite ................................................................................................................................................333
22.3.6
Cell phones ..........................................................................................................................................334
22.4 Self Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................... 335
SESSION 23
WEB BROWSERS & SEARCH ENGINES ......................................................................... 336
23.1
Web Browsers ...................................................................................................................................... 336
Introducing different web browsers ....................................................................................................336
23.1.1
User Interfaces of Web Browsers ........................................................................................................ 341
23.2
23.2.1
23.2.2
23.2.3
23.2.4
Internet Explorer ..................................................................................................................................342
Mozilla Firefox .....................................................................................................................................343
Google Chrome ...................................................................................................................................344
Saving the contents opened from the web browser ...........................................................................344
Downloading different contents from the Internet .............................................................................344
23.2.5
Search Engines ..................................................................................................................................... 349
23.3
23.3.1
Introducing different search engines ...................................................................................................349
Finding information using search engines ...........................................................................................351
23.3.2
23.3.3
Searching more efficiently in Google ...................................................................................................352
23.4
Browser Customization........................................................................................................................ 354
23.4.1
Setting up a Homepage........................................................................................................................354
23.4.2
How to set up a Proxy for Firefox 3?....................................................................................................356
23.4.3
Changing the ‘Content’ in Options .......................................................................................................357
23.5
Self Assessment Questions ................................................................................................................... 358
SESSION 24
INTRODUCTION TO THE E-MAIL ..................................................................................... 359
E-mail .................................................................................................................................................. 359
24.1
24.1.1
Snail mail Vs. E-mail ............................................................................................................................359
24.1.2
How e-mail works in brief ...................................................................................................................360
24.2
More about E-mailing concepts ......................................................................................................... 360
24.2.1
E-mail clients .......................................................................................................................................360
24.2.2
The SMTP Server .................................................................................................................................361
24.2.3
The POP3 Server .................................................................................................................................362
24.2.4
The IMAP Server .................................................................................................................................362
Different
e-mailing methods ............................................................................................................... 363
24.3
24.4
Need of Email etiquettes ..................................................................................................................... 364
24.5
Using emails ......................................................................................................................................... 365
24.5.1
Email address ......................................................................................................................................365
24.5.2
Creating a free e-mail account ...........................................................................................................365
24.5.3
Receiving e-mail ..................................................................................................................................368
24.5.4
Sending e-mail .....................................................................................................................................369
24.5.5
Sending/receiving attachments .........................................................................................................370
24.5.6
Set up an Address Book Group for List Mailing in Yahoo ..................................................................371
24.6
Security and risk in Internet .............................................................................................................. 372
24.6.1
Security settings in web browsers/e-mail client software ................................................................372
24.6.2
Taking precautions when using the Internet .....................................................................................373
24.7
Self Assessment Questions .................................................................................................................. 374
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SESSION 25
CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN THE INTERNET ................................................... 375
25.1
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 375
25.2
Introduction to E-commerce ................................................................................................................ 375
25.3
The benefits of e-commerce ................................................................................................................. 376
25.4
Types of Electronic Commerce ............................................................................................................ 379
25.4.1
B2C – Business to Consumer................................................................................................................379
25.4.2
C2B – Consumer to Business................................................................................................................381
25.4.3
B2B – Business to Business ..................................................................................................................382
25.4.4
C2C – Consumer to Consumer .............................................................................................................383
25.5
Basic Functions in the E-Commerce Site ............................................................................................. 385
25.6
What is e-learning? .............................................................................................................................. 388
25.6.1
Types of e-learning ..............................................................................................................................388
25.6.2
Advantages and Disadvantages of e-learning ......................................................................................389
25.6.3
Traditional Classroom learning Vs. E-learning .....................................................................................390
25.7
Introduction to E-Government ............................................................................................................ 390
25.8
Introduction to E-entertainment ......................................................................................................... 391
25.9
Future of Internet ................................................................................................................................ 391
25.9.1
Top Ten Future Trends- The Internet by 2020 .....................................................................................391
25.10
Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................................................... 393
xvii
Session 01
Introduction to ICT and ICT Skills
Aim:
The aim of this session is to give a brief introduction to ICT Skills and introduce the terminology
related to the subject.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:





1.1
Describe what IT is.
Describe what ICT is
Describe what CS is
Understand the relationship between Computer Skills and ICT
Understand the aims and objectives of learning ICT Skills
Related terminology
Before moving onto the topic of ICT Skills let us have a look at the different terms such as
IT, ICT, and Computer Science related to this course unit and let us identify the differences
among these terms.
1.1.1 IT (Information Technology)
The term Information Technology refers to an entire field that uses computers, networking,
software, and other equipment to manage information electronically in a digital form.
Consider an IT department in an organization. They are equipped with computers, database
Management Systems, servers, and security mechanisms for storing, processing, retrieving,
and protecting information available with the organization. You might have heard about the
professionals working in such department of a company like system administrators, database
administrators, programmers, IT managers, network engineers. If it is a business
organization, they all work together to provide services such as providing information,
providing tools to improve the productivity, automating the business processes, and
providing means for connect with customers. Therefore, in the modern world, IT is an
essential part of all of business operations.
UNESCO considered Information Technology as “Scientific, technological and engineering
disciplines and management techniques used in information handling and processing, their
application, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and associated social,
economic and cultural matters”. Accordingly, a fair knowledge in IT has become an essential
qualification to work successfully in almost all organizations in the country.
1
1.1.2 ICT (Information and Communication Technology)
The term Information and Communication Technology can be considered as an extended
version of the term IT as it involves a „C‟ that represents the communication of data by
electronic means, usually over some distance. Here, communication refers to the media
broadcasting technologies, audio/video processing and transmission and telephony.
Recently, the term ICT has been used to refer to the integrating telephone and audio/ visual
networks with computer networks. This integration has provided large savings of costs due to
the elimination of telephone networks. Simply, ICT can be seen as the integration of
information technology with communication technology.
In contrast with IT according to the Wikipedia, Information and Communications Technology
or (ICT), is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT). But it is a more
specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of
telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary
enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access,
store, transmit, and manipulate information.
The term ICT is more inclined and widely used in the educational sector. Some have
simplified ICT as using audiovisual equipment for learning at school and the use of networks
that help transmit information across schools.
IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with ease and fast.
But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any other media is also to
be transmitted to the users. Thus, the ICT = IT + Other media. It has opened new avenues,
like, Online learning, e-learning, Virtual University, e-coaching, e-education, e-journal, etc.
Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in imparting information
fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can access it anywhere. It will be
cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the classrooms and libraries for the
teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for the learner to use maximum senses to
get the information. It has broken the monotony and provided variety in the teaching –
learning situation.
As already mentioned above, by the technology of communication we process transfer digital
data from one device to another. These technologies related to the communications are
usually complex. Though you are not going to study about them in this material, there are
some aspects of digital communication that you need to study such as the types of networks
and the mechanism of getting connected with the internet. These topics are discussed within
this course material in coming sessions.
1.1.3 CS (Computer Science)
In addition to the terms IT and ICT described above, you might have heard another
terminology “Computer Science” which also sounds similar to the above two. Computer
Science is the mother of all computational disciplines (Computer Engineering, Information
Technology/Information Science, Software Engineering, ICT, etc). In simple words,
Computer Science is all about computers. In contrast with IT, CS is the science of computing
with in depth knowledge of working principles of computers whereas information technology
is the science designed to make best use of information systems to make work easier in
business environments. According to the Wikipedia, CS is the scientific and practical
approach to computation and its applications. A computer scientist specializes in the theory
2
of computation and the design of computational systems. So, a computer scientist is
obviously thorough in Physics, Mathematics, electrical engineering, and forms of languages.
CS is a field related to research work and thus it‟s evolving with the innovations of the
research outcomes.
Now you may have some idea that the ones who can afford to be in touch with the
information and communication technology can be updated with evolving knowledge while
the ones who fail or have less chances may remain in the pre-knowledge stage.
1.2
Objectives of the course unit
It is clear that you require some skills ranging from basic to advanced, that are needed to be
able to work with computer based information systems. Simply, you will require the
capability of using computers and computer software in order to deal with information and
communication technologies.
Therefore, the fundamental objective of this course unit is to be able to:






Convert
Store
Protect
Process
Transmit/communicate and
Retrieve
information by using computers and its software. So, now you can understand that the
computer skills are necessary and highly related to ICT.
Imagine that you have followed this course unit. Let us take very simple examples to brief
the above six terms related to information to understand the necessary computer skills for
ICT.

You can sing a song and record your voice using a microphone and save it in your
computer as a digital file which you can open and play later. Here the voice input has
been converted into a digital media file and stored it in your computer for future
reference. You may save (store) it in a CD and give it to your friend to listen.

Imagine that you have very confidential documents saved in a folder of your computer.
In order to avoid others accessing those documents you may lock (protect) the folder
accessibility by applying a password on the folder. Simply, when someone tries to open
that folder, the computer will ask for a password which is only known to you.

If you are working in the salary division of your company you may use a simple
computer program which gives the monthly salary of employees when the data such as
basic salary, salary advance taken, allowances to be given, no. of overtime hours
worked, and the rate of monthly salary increment are entered into the computer. Here
the data given has been processed into the monthly salary which is important
information.

The salary particulars of all employees of Matara branch of your company may be
processed at the Colombo Head office and the salary file may be sent to Matara branch
through the company intranet (a network built among the branches of your company).
Otherwise the salary file may be e-mailed to the branch manager at Matara. Here, using
3
either ways, the required salary file is transmitted /communicated through a computer
network.

1.3
You may be asked by your manager to give a list of employees who work in the Sales
division who have exceeded a total of 250 OT hours during the last six months. It will
be just a matter of calling (retrieving) the existing data saved in the central database to
generate the report in the required format.
What next in the course unit
From the next session onwards, you will get familiar with computers and will acquire the
necessary skills step by step. You will able to get the skills related to some of the key
applications of ICT such as text editors, spreadsheets, databases, and presentations. This ICT
Skills course is planned to do more, than teaching basic computer literacy skills on current
packages. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills that
together comprise a mental framework that will enable the student to get familiar and learn
new IT packages as they change, to solve new IT problems and use additional package
features that are not explicitly taught in this course. However, the course has a strong
practical focus with the intention of enabling students to use ICT‟s as tools for productivity
and problem solving in your lives which is the aim and objective of this course unit. So it is a
must to do practicals based on the content of this material to achieve the above aims and
objectives.
1.4
Self Assessment Questions
1.1 Describe the following terms;
a. IT
b. ICT
c. CS
1.2 What is the difference between IT and ICT?
1.3 Write a note on how IT can help an organization in gaining a competitive advantage on
its operations.
1.4
Briefly describe one way how ICT can be applied in each of the following areas.
a. Education
b. Health
c. Business
1.5 Using specific examples, describe how the information can be converted, stored,
protected, processed, transmitted, and retrieved using computers and its software.
1.6 What are the key applications of ICT that you will learn during this course unit?
4
Session 02
Introduction to Computers
Aim:
This lesson aims to provide students with an understanding the basics and the role of
computation.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:




2.1
Describe what a computer is
Identify the characteristics as well as the limitations of computers
Identify different types of computers from the ancient ones to modern ones
Explain what a computer system is as well as its parts
What is a Computer?
A computer is a general purpose device which can be programmed to carry out a finite set of
arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the
computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
- Wikipedia
A computer is, at its most basic, a machine which can take instructions, and perform
computations based on those instructions.
- wiseGEEK
A computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving the inputs (data from the
user), storing it for a desired period of time, manipulating it according to the set of
instructions (called program) and producing the output to the user in desired form. It
performs a variety of operations in accordance to the set of instructions.
- http://www.trivology.com
The above three descriptions are some standard definitions extracted from different
information resources available in the World Wide Web, including Wikipedia, the largest free
encyclopedia. Meanwhile, a computer can be defined as follows in terms of basic usage of
the computer which is more readable for a layman.
A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or "data". It has the ability
to store, retrieve, and process data. You can use a computer to type documents, send email,
and browse the internet. You can also use it to handle spreadsheets, accounting, database
management, presentations, games, and more.
5
When reading the above definitions you may find some common behaviors of computers
such as;




It is a man-made machine
It accepts instructions of a human given in a sequential manner
As per the given instructions, it performs some calculations and does changes for the
information fed by human
Releases or produces an output that is useful to the user
Since the computer is a man-made digital electronic device, it has a physical structure with
several parts like the monitor, processor, mouse, and key board which are tangible. These are
called Hardware. The sets of instructions which are also called computer programs installed
in the computer are called Software. These softwares tell the hardware what to do and how
to do to accomplish some tasks expected by the user to get done by the computer. The web
browsers like Mozilla Fire Fox, Computer games, and Word processors like Microsoft Word
are some examples for Software. You will learn more about these computer hardware and
software in coming sessions of this course material.
2.2
Characteristics of a Computer
The range of users of computers is overwhelming. Why is so popular? What can it do that we, as
humans, cannot? The computer‟s superiority lies in its special characteristics such as speed,
reliability, accuracy, diligence, versatility, storage capacity, etc. Let us discuss on each
characteristic briefly.
2.2.1 Speed
A computer can perform tasks very fast. For example, the amount of work that a human being
can do in an entire year (if he worked day and night and did nothing else) can be accomplished
by a computer within a few minutes. As you are aware now, inside the system unit, the
operations occur through electronic circuits. When data, instructions, and information flow along
these circuits, they travel at close to the speed of light. This allows billions of operations to be
carried out in a single second.
2.2.2 Reliability
Electronic components in modern computers are dependable because they have a low failure
rate. The high reliability of the components enables the computer to produce consistent results.
2.2.3 Accuracy
The accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of accuracy of a particular
computer depends upon its design. Errors can occur in a computer, but these are mainly due to
human mistakes. Thus, computers can process large amounts of data and generate error-free
results, provided the data is entered correctly. If inaccurate data is entered, the resulting outputs
will also be incorrect. This computing principle is known as Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO).
2.2.4 Diligence
Unlike human beings, a computer is free from boredom, tiredness, lack of concentration, etc.,
hence a computer can work for hours without making any errors or complaints. Even if ten
6
million calculations have to be performed, a computer will perform the ten millionth calculations
with exactly the same accuracy and speed as the first one.
2.2.5 Versatility
The computers have the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use
your computer to prepare payroll slips at the moment. Next moment you may use it for inventory
management or to prepare electric bills. The computers are flexible enough to adapt to any type
of work and outputs according to what is fed and instructed.
2.2.6 Power of remembering
Every piece of information that a user „stores‟ on a computer can be retained as long as it is
needed and can be recalled when necessary. Even after several years, the information recalled
would be identical to what was fed to the computer. A computer will never „lose‟ stored
information on its own; a user has to „remove‟ (or delete) the information from it.
2.2.7 No Feeling
Computers do not have emotions. They have no feelings and no instincts because they are
machines. Although human beings have succeeded in building a memory for the computer, a
computer does not possess the equivalent of a human brain. Based on our feelings, taste,
knowledge and experience, we often make certain judgments in our day-to-day life, but
computers cannot make such judgments on their own. Their judgment is based on the
instructions given to them in the form of programs by someone.
2.2.8 No IQ
Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It
performs the instructions at wonderful speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you
want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can.
2.2.9 Storage
The computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. This is called
Primary Storage. This Primary Storage has a limited capacity but it is very important as the
processing unit of the computer can act directly only on instructions and data on the primary
storage. But, you can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be
kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers. These are called Secondary
Storage. Before the computer can process the data stored in Secondary storage devices, the data
must be moved from secondary storage device to primary storage. This is not a serious
drawback. The computers can retrieve information from files in a secondary storage device in a
few milliseconds.
2.3
Limitations of a Computer
It is obvious that the computer has a variety of capabilities. Similarly, this man made
machine has some its own limitations as well. Such limitations are given below:


The computer can do only what you tell it to do-you cannot expect the computer give
you something which you did not ask.
It cannot generate information on its own-the computer will work only if you operate
7


2.4
it and give the instructions. It cannot give you information unless you feed it required
data.
It will give wrong information if you feed it with wrong data- the computer cannot
identify what the correct data and what the wrong data are.
It cannot correct wrong instruction- if you give the computer wrong instruction, it will
not be able to do anything to rectify it. The only thing it can do is to stop functioning
till you correct the mistake.
Different Types of Computers
When you hear the word “Computer” most of the time a personal computer like desktop or
laptop will come to your mind as they are widely used by the people around us. However,
these computers come in many sizes and shapes that perform different functions which is
useful in our daily lives. You are using a type of computer even when you withdraw cash from
an ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) or scan groceries at the shop, or use a calculator.
It is said that the ENIAC, which is considered as the first electronic general-purpose
computer was of size of a large room (See Figure 2.1 and 2.2 below). However, with the
advance of technologies the size of a today‟s computer has become smaller as of a small
wrist watch. These computers have different processing powers as well.
Figure 2.1: ENIAC
Figure 2.2: The ENIAC, taking up about 680
Square feet
The computers can be mainly classified into four categories as briefly described below. This
classification is done based on the size and the data processing power.
1. Microcomputers: most common type of computers in the society. Can be used at your
workplace, at school or on your study desk at home. Used by single user at a time. Small in
size. Also called Personal Computers (PCs).
2. Minicomputers: used by multi-users. In the middle when the computers are ranged from
smallest to largest. Used in laboratories.
3. Mainframes: Largest in size. Capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data
quickly.
8
4. Super computers: Used for performing complex scientific and numerical computations such
as weather forecasting, fluid dynamics, nuclear simulations, theoretical astrophysics.
Sometimes called as “Workstations”
Since the Personal Computers are the most common category of computers among the
individuals let‟s talk more on PCs.
2.5
Different Types of Personal Computers (PCs)
A Personal Computer (Mostly referred to as PC in the community) is designed as a more
user-friendly device to be directly used by the end-user rather having an especially skilled
separate computer operator. It is less expensive compared to other types of computers listed
above. PCs come in different forms as listed below and we will have a description on each
form of PC separately.
It is noticeable that only few famous forms of PCs used today are listed below and the list
may be extended by adding many more in the future with the advancement of the
technologies.






Desktop
Laptop
Netbook
PDAs
Wearable Computers
Tablets
2.5.1 Desktop PCs
Usually the Desktop computers are placed in a fixed location and the name has derived as it
is intended to be sitting on a top of a desk. A monitor, mouse, and a key board can be seen as
parts of a typical desktop computer. These computers consume low power and cost effective
than the laptop computers that will be described next. The spare parts are readily available
and less expensive. These computers are easy to upgrade and expand. Figure 2.3 shows a
labeled standard desktop computer.
Figure 2.3: Standard Desktop Computer
9
2.5.2 Laptop Computers
Laptops are similar to desktop PCs in operation, but designed for mobile use. Capable of
operating on the battery power and the battery can be charged with the external power
adaptor. An in-built keyboard, Liquid Crystal Display unit (LCD screen), a touch pad (also
known as track pad) to act as the mouse are the commonly seen components. However, a
mouse can be also used instead of the touch pad. Laptops are obviously smaller in size and
weight less than the desktop PCs. Therefore, it is difficult to access its internal hardware thus
difficult to upgrade as much as a desktop. But adding more RAM or Hard Drive is possible
(You will learn about RAM and Hard Drive in next session). Figure 2.4 below shows a
typical Laptop computer. Built-in web camera is a common feature of a modern laptop
computer and these laptops come in different weights, sizes, performances, speeds, and a
layman may differentiate them specified by the diagonal distance of its display unit.
Figure 2.4: Laptop Computer
2.5.3 Netbook
Netbooks belong to the laptop family, but are inexpensive and relatively smaller in size.
Though the set of features and the capacity of netbooks were lesser compared to regular
laptops at the time of introducing them to the market, nowadays the netbooks come in
advanced features and in high capacities as similar to modern laptops. Figure 2.5 shows some
images of Netbooks.
Figure 2.5: Some Netbook Computers
10
2.5.4 PDAs
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers which are also called palmtop
computers due to its size which is smaller enough to keep it on your palm. Most of the
PDAs are pen-based and come with a stylus (a writing pen) to be used as the input device
which is sensitive to its touch screen. Most of them can access the Internet by means of
Bluetooth or Wi-Fi facilities. PDAs allow you to organize your personal or business work
and to manage your tasks through its facilities. It may be used as a Cellular phone to send and
receive calls, to search in the web, to download and play audio/video files, to send/receive emails, to type in a text editor to jot down notes or write a document, take pictures or record
videos, etc. Following Figure 2.6 shows two images of PDAs.
Figure 2.6: Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
2.5.5 Wearable Computers
The computers that can be worn on the body are known as Wearable computers. There is a
constant interaction between the computer and user. These computers are mostly used to
track human actions when the hands and other sensory organs are engaged in other activities.
And used with applications such as behavioral modeling systems and healthcare monitoring
systems. Figure 2.7 shows some images of such wearable computers.
Figure 2.7: Wearable Computers
2.5.6 Tablets
Tablets are mobile computers larger than PDAs and smaller than Laptops described above.
Usually operated by its touch screen and no formal key board are used. The people using
them spent most of their time outside and would not have access to a keyboard or mouse.
11
Usually the input method is the stylus or the digital pen. Tablets have become famous and
ideal for field technicians and health workers due to its very light nature and the portability.
Some tablets are capable of recognition of natural handwritings as the mode of input. The
features of tablets may vary depending on the type of job done such as graphic designing
teaching purposes, gaming, or business purposes. See Figure 2.8 and 2.9 for images of some
tablets.
Figure 2.8: Modern Tablet PC without the
traditional keyboard
2.6
Figure 2.9: An early tablet PC with
Rotating/removable keyboard
Main parts of a computer system
You learned in the previous section that computers come in many varieties, from tiny
computers to very large super computers. But no matters how complex it is or how big it is,
every computer is part of a system. A complete computer system consists of four main parts
as follows (see figure 2.10 below):




Hardware
Software
Data
User (Live ware)
Data fed into computer
Hardware
Software installed
on the computer
User (Liveware)
Figure 2.10: Parts of a Computer System
Let us have a look at each part of the computer system briefly.
12
2.6.1 Hardware
The tangible parts that make up the computer are called „Hardware‟. The physical parts such
as monitor, key board, processor, and speakers can be identified as hardware. We can use the
generic term device to refer any piece of hardware. You will learn deeply about computer
hardware in Session 03 of this course material.
2.6.2 Software
Computer software is a set of instructions that tells computer hardware what to do. The computer
will work according to the instructions given to it. We can use the generic term computer
program to refer any piece of software. Some software are specially designed for the primary
functions of the computer to manage its operations while some software are designed for the
users to get their work done, ex. to prepare a letter. However, software can be categorized into
different categories and you will learn deeply about software in Session 04 of this course
material.
2.6.3 Data
Any individual fact or piece of information in a form suitable for use with a computer is
known as „data‟. This information may be in the form of text, documents, images, audio clips
or software program. The primary use of the computer is to convert these data into useful
information to the user. The computer accepts data from some sources or from the user to
produce useful information. Thus the raw data fed into the computer may not make much
sense to the users until it is processed.
2.6.4 User/ Live ware
Though the computers automate most functions we cannot say that it is fully automatic, as
the intervention of a human being or an operator is often needed. You may think whether a
user is essential as you might have seen some performs their job without a person sitting in
front of the computer. But you should not forget that the people design and build the
programs running on it. The people do repairs to computer systems when needed. Therefore,
„User‟ is an essential part of a computer system. Further, you will learn about the applications
that you can run in „Personal computers‟ within this course material.
2.7 Self Assessment Questions
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
Define a computer.
Define the following terms with examples.
a. Hardware
b. Software
Briefly explain the relationship between Hardware, Software and users.
List main characteristics of the computer. Briefly describe them.
Write three significant limitations of the computer.
What are the four classifications of the computers according to their size and the data
processing power?
List different types of personal computers. Briefly describe three.
Name the four main parts of a complete computer system. Briefly describe them.
State the difference between data and information.
13
Session 03
Computer Hardware
Aim:
Aim of this session is to discuss and give a brief idea on computer hardware.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:






3.1
Describe what hardware is
Classify computer hardware according to the usage of them
Give examples for each category of computer hardware
Identify the different ports of a PC
Identify why your computer is slow
Identify the factors affecting on performance of computers
What is Computer Hardware?
You are already aware that a computer system is made up of several different components. Those
that can be seen and touched are referred to as the Computer Hardware (or simply „hardware‟).
In other words, the physical equipments that are involved in the function of the computer are
called its hardware. The computer hardware is typically divided into four main categories:
Processing Devices, Memory Devices, Input/, Output Devices, and Storage Devices.
The following diagram (Figure 3.1) summarizes the classification of the computer hardware.
Computer
Hardware
Processing
devices
Memory
devices
Input/Output
devices
Storage
devices
Figure 3.1: Classification of Computer
Hardware
Following Figure 3.2 shows the basic computer architecture and the organization.
14
Figure 3.2: Basic computer architecture and the organization
Let us discus on each type of hardware in the next sections with reference to the above Figure
3.1 and 3.2.
3.2
Processing Devices
3.2.1 The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The Central Processing Unit is an electronic device which runs computer programs: a set of
sequential instructions. It is also called as the Computer Processor or the brain of the
computer. According to the above Figure 3.2, you can see that there are two major components
namely the Control Unit (CU) and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). The CU is the
circuitry that controls the flow of data through the processor, and coordinates the activities of the
other units within it. In a way, it is the "brain within the brain", as it controls what happens inside
the processor, which in turn controls the rest of the PC. The ALU is a digital circuit that performs
arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central
processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one, for purposes
such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs have very powerful and
very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs.
We consider the CPU as the processing device of the computer. You are aware that the CPU
contains Control Unit (CU) and an Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). These two components
work together to perform the processing operations. On a PC, the CPU usually is contained on a
single chip and sometimes is called Microprocessor. In addition to the CU and ALU, a
microprocessor usually contains the registers and system clock.
Let us talk about the above sub parts briefly.
The Control Unit (CU)
As you know, a computer program or set of instructions must be stored in memory for a
computer to process data. The CPU uses its CU to execute these instructions. Further, the CU
directs and coordinates most of the operations of the computer. The speed at which the processor
15
carries out its operations is measured in megahertz (MHz). The higher the number of MHz the
faster the computer can process information. The Intel i7, Athlon, Celron, and Duron, Ultra
Spark are some examples for the brands of processors available in the market.
The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
ALU performs the arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations. Arithmetic operations
include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*) and division (/). Comparison operations
include comparing one data item to another to determine if the first item is greater than (>), equal
(=), or less than (<) to the second item. Logical operations work with conditions such as AND,
OR, NOT.
3.3
Memory Devices
3.3.1 Computer Memory
A character is stored in the computer as a group of 0s and 1s, called a Byte. The size of the
memory is measured by the number of bites available. The following equalities give the
measuring units of the memory.
8 Bits
1024 Bytes
1024KB
1024 MB
1024 GB
= 1 Byte
= 1 Kilobyte (1KB)
= 1 Megabyte (1MB)
= 1 Gigabyte (1 GB)
= 1 Terabyte (1 TB)
While performing a processing operation, a processor needs a place to temporarily store
instructions to be executed and the data to be used with those instructions. The data and the
instructions needed by the CPU are temporarily stored in the Memory. Therefore the memory
acts as the internal storage of a computer. The programs that are stored in external storages
are loaded into the memory before they start running. The memory of a computer may be
either volatile or non-volatile. If the data will be lost as soon as the power is turned off the
computer, then this type of memory is said to be Volatile. Such memory needs a continuous
steady power/electricity to remain its content.
3.3.2 Random Access Memory (RAM)
The Random Access Memory (RAM) is a volatile form of a computer memory. This small
memory is capable of memorizing temporarily. It can be read and written. That is, you can
both write data into RAM and read data from RAM. Together with the CPU, RAM
determines the computer's speed. A computer with a large RAM and a CPU can actually run
faster than a computer with a powerful CPU but with a low RAM.
3.3.3 Read Only Memory (ROM)
As RAM is volatile, the computers need a non-volatile memory to read larger programs. This
is known as the Read Only Memory (ROM). The programs which are needed to start up
your computer (Ex: to boot the computer) are stored in ROM.
Figure 3.3 and 3.4 show RAM and ROM memory chips respectively.
16
Figure 3.3: Random Access Memory (RAM)
Chips
Figure 3.4: Read Only Memory (ROM)
Chips
3.3.4 Cache
Most of today‟s computers improve their processing times by using cache (pronounced cash).
Memory cache, also called a cache store or RAM cache, helps speed the processes of the
computer by storing frequently used instructions and data thus reducing the access time of data.
When the processor needs an instruction or data, it first searches in the cache.
Figure 3.5: Cache
3.4
Input Devices
A computer executes instructions and processes data into information and stores the information
for future use. Input devices are used to enter instructions and data into the computer.
3.4.1 What is Input?
Input is any data or instructions you enter to the memory of a computer. Once input is in
memory, the CPU can access it and process the input into output. There are four types of input
namely: data, programs, commands, and user responses.
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3.4.2 Data
Data is a collection of unorganized facts that can include words, numbers, pictures, sounds, and
videos. A computer manipulates and processes data into information, which is useful.
Note: Although technically speaking a single item of data should be called a datum, the term
data is commonly used and accepted as both the singular and plural form of the word.
3.4.3 Program
A program is a series of instructions that tells a computer how to perform the tasks necessary to
process data into information. Programs are kept on storage media such as a floppy disk (not
used now), hard disk, CD-ROM, or DVD-ROM. Programs respond to commands issued by the
user.
3.4.4 Command
A Command is an instruction given to a computer program. Commands can be issued by typing
keywords or pressing special keys on the keyboard. A keyword is a specific word, phrase, or
code that a program understands as an instruction. Some keyboards include keys that send a
command to a program when you press them. Instead of requiring you to remember keywords or
special keys, many programs allow you to issue commands by selecting menu choices or
graphical objects. For examples, programs that are menu driven provide menus as a means of
providing commands. Today, most programs have a graphical user interface (GUI) that uses
icons, buttons, and other graphical objects to issue commands. However, GUI is the most user
friendly way to issue commands.
3.4.5 User Response
A User Response is an instruction which is given by you to the computer by replying to a
question posed by a computer program. For example, Do you want to save the changes you
made? Based on the response given by the user, the program performs certain actions. In this
example, if the answer was „Yes’, then the program saves all changes you made to the file on the
storage device.
3.4.6 Input Devices
An Input Device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs,
commands, and user responses into a computer. Some of the commonly used input devices are
listed below.






Keyboard
Pointing devices
• Mouse
• Trackball
• Joystick
• Touchpad
• Light Pen
Scanners
Voice input systems
Web Cam
Bar code readers
18





Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
Scanner and Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
Magnetic stripe reader
Microphone
Sensors
Let us look at some of above input devices briefly with their images.
3.4.7 Keyboard
The keyboard is the main input device for most computers. It is a text based input device that
allows the user to input alphanumeric characters and some other special characters. The
keyboard is consisting of a set of keys mounted on a board. Each key or button acts as an
electronic switch corresponding to a symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires
pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence; other keys do not produce any
symbol, but instead affect the operation of the computer or the keyboard itself. Figure 3.6 shows
a typical keyboard and its main sets of keys.
Figure 3.6: Sets of keys in a typical keyboard
3.4.8 Mouse
The mouse functions as a pointing device by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its
supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of a small case, held under one of the user's
hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels",
which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations, or extra buttons or
features can add more control or dimensional input. The mouse's motion typically translates
into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a Graphical User
Interface. Furthermore, a mouse is an input device that allows the user to “point and click” or
“drag and drop”. Common functions are pointing (moving the cursor or arrow on the screen
by sliding the mouse on the mouse pad), clicking (using the left and right buttons) and
scrolling (hold down the left button while moving the mouse). Figure 3.7 shows a labeled
typical mouse used as a computer input device.
19
Right Mouse
button: Click to
bring up other
menus
Left Mouse button:
Click to move the
pointer to any
position on the
screen
Wheel: used to
scroll up/down
the pages
Figure 3.7: Typical mouse and the functions of its buttons and wheel
The Figures 3.8 and 3.9 show the input devices namely the joystick and light pen
Figure 3.8: Joystick
Figure 3.9: Using a Light Pen
3.4.9 Scanner
A scanner is a light-sensing input device that reads printed text and graphics and then translates
the pattern of light and dark colors into a digital signal that the computer can store and
manipulate. The resulting image can be of different qualities depending on the resolution of the
scanner. The Flat-bed scanner is the most popular scanner which is similar to a photo copy
machine except that it creates a file (softcopy) of the document instead of a paper copy
(hardcopy). The file that contains the scanned object can be stored on an external storage
device, displayed on the screen, printed, faxed, sent via e-mail, or included in another document.
Figure 3.10 shows a flat-bed scanner.
Figure 3.10: Flat-bed Scanners
20
3.4.10 Bar code reader
A bar code reader uses laser beams to read bar codes. Most items in shops, special in super
markets in Sri Lanka have a bar code printed or affixed on them. The Bar code is a trip of
vertical bars of varying widths that creates a unique reference for the particular item. Groups of
bars represent individual digits and most bar codes are made up of 12-13 digits. The last number
is a check digit and it is used to verify that the number has been scanned in correctly. The
computer applies a set of calculations to the individual digits and the answer should equal to the
last check digit. Bar code reader uses a visible red light to scan the bar code and it is
interpreted through a decoder. The reference is matched with the stock list in the computer
system to find the appropriate price. Sometimes, numbers are printed below the vertical stripes
which are to be used in cases the bar code reader fails to read the code. Figure 3.11 shows a bar
code reader while Figure 3.12 shows the appearance of a sample bar code.
Figure 3.11: Reading bar code using a
Hand-held Bar code reader
Figure 3.12: Sample Barcode of a product
3.4.11 Optical Character Recognition
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a mechanism to identify written or printed characters on
a source. When text documents are scanned, they are scanned and saved as pictures in the
computer. But the OCR software converts the pictures into actual characters/text so that the text
can be edited in exactly the same way as text that has been directly keyed in. Figure 3.13 shows
the steps of the process of converting the text document into recognized characters.
Figure 3.13: OCR processing
21
Following figures show some more input devices.
Figure 3.14: Magnetic Stripe
Reader
3.5
Figure 3.15: Microphone
for a PC
Figure 3.16: Web Camera
Output Devices
3.5.1 What is output?
Output is data that has been processed into a useful form called information. A computer
processes input into output. Computers generate several types of output, depending on the
hardware and software being used and the requirements of the user. You may choose to display
or view this output on a monitor, print it on a paper using a printer, or listen to it through
speakers or a headset. Accordingly the four common types of output are text, graphics, audio,
and video. A brief description on each of output type is given below.
Text
Text consists of characters that are used to create words, sentences and paragraphs. A character
can be a letter, number, punctuation mark, or any other symbol that requires one bite of computer
storage space.
Graphics
Graphics are digital representations of non-text information such as drawings, charts, pictures
and photographs. Graphics also can be animated, giving them the illusion of motion. Animations
are created by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence.
Many of today‟s software programs support graphics. For example, you can include a
photograph in a word processing document or create a chart of data in a spreadsheet program.
Some software packages are specifically designed to edit graphics.
Audio
Audio is Music, speech, or any other sound. You might have learnt at school that sound waves,
such as the human voice or music are analog. To store such sounds, a computer converts the
sounds from a continuous analog signal into a digital format. Most output devices require that
the computer converts the digital format back into analog signals.
22
Video
Video consists of images that are played back at speeds that give the appearance of full motion.
Video often is captured with a video input device such as video camera or VCR. Most video
signals are analog; however, most of the modern video devices record the video images digitally.
A video capture card converts an analog video signal into a digital signal that a computer can
understand. The digital signal then is stored on the computer‟s hard disk. Some output devices
accept the digital signal, while others require that the computer converts the digital signals back
into analog signals.
3.5.2 Output Devices
An output device is any computer component capable of conveying information to a user. Some
commonly used output devices are listed below.


Display devices
 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors
 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors / Flat-panel displays
 LED Monitors
 Gas plasma monitors
Printers
 Impact printers
- Daisy Wheel and Dot Matrix printers

Non-Impact Printers
- Ink Jet printers
- Thermal Dye Transfer printers
- Laser printers
 Plotters
 Audio Devices
 Speakers
 Headphones
You have already learnt about some of the above devices together with some images in the
previous session. Therefore, let us look at some general facts about these categories of output
devices.
Monitor
The monitor displays the output to the user visually. Therefore it is also called the Visual
Display Unit (VDU) or simply the screen. The monitor looks like a television, but they often
have higher resolutions than a normal television. Similar to televisions, the sizes of monitors
are varying and often expressed in diagonally measured distance in inches. The technology
used with monitors is expanding rapidly and there are two major types of monitors that differ
in the technology of visualizing the output to the user. They are Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
monitors, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Light Emitting Displays (LED).
The CRT monitor has more lines of dots per inch, higher the lines more amount of the
resolution. It creates the picture by number of rows or lines of the small tiny dots. For an
instance the resolution of 1024 x 768 will be sharper than 800 x 600 resolutions.
The LCD consists of two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between
23
them. When an electric current passed through the liquid crystal solution, crystals align so
that light cannot pass through them. It is like a shutter either allows light to pass through or
blocking the light.
The LED is the latest marketing innovation of display units. It looks similar to LCD and it is
also a flat panel display. LED means Light Emitting Diode and relates to the way the display
is illuminated. LED monitors still use the same Liquid Crystals as the previous LCD
displays. The way the backlight works however with the LED's will lead to a number of
improvements in the display.
Though CRT monitors are much cheaper than LCDs and LEDs, the CRTs consume more
power than others. Figure 3.17 and Figure 3.18 show images of CRT and LCD monitors
respectively.
Figure 3.17: CRT Monitor
Figure 3.18: LCD Monitor
Printer
A computer printer produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of
documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical/tangible print media such as paper or
transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local computer peripherals, and are
connected by a printer cable to a computer which serves as a document source. Some printers,
commonly known as network printers can serve as a hardcopy device to be shared and used by
any user among a group of users connected to the network. Individual printers are often
designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. There are several
types of printers categorized based on the applied technology of printing text/graphics on the
paper.
Ex:
 Impact printers (Ex. Daisy Wheel and Dot Matrix printers)
 Non-impact printers
o Ink Jet printers
o Thermal Dye Transfer printers
o Laser printers
Impact Printers
Any impact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a mechanism
against in an ink ribbon that physically contacts the papers. Because of the striking activity,
impact printers generally are noisy.
Many impact printers do not provide letter-quality print. Letter-Quality (LQ) output is a quality
of print acceptable for business letters. Many impact printers produce near letter-quality (NLQ)
24
print, which is slightly less clear than LQ. NLQ impact printers are used for jobs that require
only NLQ, such as printing of mailing labels, envelopes, or invoices.
Impact printers are also ideal for printing multipart forms because they easily can print through
many layers of paper. Finally, impact printers are used in many factories and retail counters as
they can survive in dusty environments, vibrations, and extreme temperatures.
Non-Impact Printers
A non-impact printer forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking
the paper. Some spray ink, while others use heat and pressure to create images. Since these
printers do not strike the paper, they are much quieter than the above impact printers.
See figures from 3.19 to 3.22 for images of the above different types of printers.
Figure 3.19: Ink Jet
Printer
Figure 3.20: Dot Matrix
Printer
Figure 3.21: Thermal
Printer
Figure 3.22: Some Laser Printers
Plotter
Plotters are special type of printers used to print graphical
output on paper. It interprets computer commands and
makes line drawings on paper using multicolored
automated pens. The plotter is capable of producing
graphs, drawings, charts, maps, illustrations etc. Plotters
are typically used in areas such as Computer Aided
Engineering (CAE) applications like CAD (Computer
Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided
Manufacturing).
Figure 3.23: Plotter
25
3.5.3 Input & Output Devices
Some type of hardware can act as both input and output devices. For an example, consider the
touch screen which is a type of monitor that displays text or images you can touch using your
figure tips. When you touch the screen, its special sensors detect the touch and the computer
recognizes the point/location on the screen where you touched. Touching different locations
determines different information to be displayed next or what action to be taken next. Thus this
touch screen (see Figure 3.24 below) can be considered as both input and output device.
Figure 3.24: Input data through a Touch Screen
3.6
Storage Devices
Storage refers to the media on which data, instructions, and information are kept, as well as the
devices that record and retrieve these items. In this section we will discuss about the storage
media and storage devices.
3.6.1 Memory versus Storage
It is important to understand the difference between the memory what we discussed under
section 3.3 and the Storage. Memory holds data and instructions temporarily while they are being
processed by the CPU. Storage, also called Secondary, Auxiliary storage, or Mass storage, holds
items such as data, instruction, and information for future use.
Think of storage as a filing cabinet used to hold file folders, and memory as the top of your desk.
When you need to work with a file, you remove it from the filing cabinet (storage) and place it
on your desk (memory). When you are finished with the file, you return it to the filing cabinet.
3.6.2 Storage
Storage is non-volatile which means that items in storage remains even when power is removed
from the computer. A storage medium is the physical material on which the items are kept. One
commonly used storage medium is a disk, which is round, flat piece of plastic or metal with a
magnetic coating on which items can be written. A storage device is the mechanism used to
record and retrieve items to and from a storage medium.
Storage devices can function as source of input and output. For example, each time a storage
device transfers data, instructions, and information from a storage medium into memory (a
process called Reading); it functions as an input source. When a storage device transfers these
items from memory to a storage medium (a process called Writing), it functions as an output
source.
26
The speed of a storage device is defined by its access time, which is the minimum time it takes
the device to locate a single item on the disk. Compared to memory, storage devices are slow.
The access time of memory devices are measured in milliseconds.
3.6.3 Storage Devices
Some of the commonly used storage devices are described below with their images. However,
you may already have some idea about them.
Floppy disks
A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of
thin, flexible floppy magnetic storage medium encased in a
rectangular plastic shell. Floppy disks are read and written by a
floppy disk drive.
Application
Any use where small files such as word processing, small spread
sheets and databases need to be moved from one computer to
another. Useful to backup small data files.
Figure 3.25: Floppy disk
Fixed hard disks
A hard disk drive is the device used to store large amounts of digital
information in computers and related equipment like iPods and
games consoles such as the Xbox 360 and PS3.
Hard disk drives are used to store operating systems, software and
working data.
These are suitable for any application which requires very fast
access to data for both reading and writing to. However, Hard disk
drives may not be suitable for applications which need portability.
Almost all computers used a fixed hard disc. Used for on-line and
real time processes requiring direct access. Used in file servers for
Figure 3.26: Fixed Hard Disk
Computer networks to store large amount of data.
Hard Disk drive which is often referred to as Hard Disk or Hard Drive is a device to store
and retrieve data in a computer. The hard drive can store important system files like the
operating system, program files and other data. Though HDDs were originally designed to be
used with computers nowadays the applications for HDDs have expanded beyond computers to
include digital video recorders, digital audio players, personal digital assistants, digital cameras
and video game consoles. HDD is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded
data. It is an electromagnetically charged surface or set of disks that record data in concentric
circles known as tracks. HDDs record data by magnetizing ferromagnetic material directionally,
to represent either a 0 or a 1 binary digit. They read the data back by detecting the magnetization
of the material. A typical HDD design consists of a spindle which holds one or more flat circular
disks called platters, onto which the data is recorded. The platters are made from a non-magnetic
27
material, usually aluminum alloy or glass, and are coated with a thin layer of magnetic material.
Figure 3.27 and 3.28 show some images of Hard Disk Drives.
Figure 3.27: Parts of Hard Disk Drive
Figure 3.28: Outer view of a Hard Disk Drive
Portable Hard Disks
Portable hard disk is an interesting and useful device
because you can carry data about all over the place and
transfer information, programs, pictures, etc. between
computers. Modern portable hard disks have a massive
capacity like 500GB.
Advantages:


Greatly improved data cargo carrying capacity.
(relative to the 1.44 Mb floppy disk)
You don't need to worry about the other person
having the same type of special cartridge drive as
yourself.
Disadvantages:


Figure 3.29: Portable Hard Disk
Hard drives have to be handled quite carefully, and when being transported should be
wrapped in something soft and put in a padded bag.
More expensive than other forms of removable media.
Application
Portable discs are used to store very large files which need transporting from one
computer to another and price is not an issue.
Magnetic tapes
Magnetic tape has been used for data storage for over 50 years.
When storing large amounts of data, tape can be substantially less
expensive than disk or other data storage options. Tape storage has
always been used with large computer systems. Modern usage is
primarily as a high capacity medium for backups and archives.
Drawbacks
Writing and retrieving data is slow. It uses serial access for reading
and writing.
Figure 3.30: Magnetic tapes
28
Application
Magnetic tapes are used for application which requires extremely large storage capacity where
speed of access is not an issue. It is commonly used for backups of file servers for computer
networks, in a variety of batch processing applications such as reading of bank cheques, payroll
processing and general stock control.
Optical backing storage media such as CDs and DVDs
Figure 3.31: Image of a Compact Disk




CDs tend to be used for large files (but smaller than 1 GB) which are too big for a floppy
disc to hold such as music and general animation.
DVDs are used to hold very large files (several GBs) such as movie films. Both CDs and
DVDs are portable i.e. they can be transported from one computer to another. Both can
be used to store computer data.
CD R/DVD R uses which require a single „burning‟ of data, e.g. CDs - recording of
music downloads from the Internet, recording of music from MP3 format, recording of
data for archiving or backup purposes. DVDs – recording of film movies and television
programs.
CD RW/DVD RW uses when require the updating of information and ability to record
over old data. Not suitable for music recording but is very useful for keeping generations
of files. DVDs have between five and ten times the capacity of CDs.
Solid state backing storage




These are the smallest form of memory available in the market today.
Widely used as removable storage.
They are stronger than other forms of storage.
Though expensive than other forms they can be easily written to and updated.
Memory sticks/Pen drives
USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, much
smaller than a floppy disk. Storage capacities typically range from
64 MB to 64 GB. USB flash drives offer potential advantages over
other portable storage devices, particularly the floppy disk.
They have a more compact shape, operate faster, hold much more
data, have a more durable design, and operate more reliably due to
their lack of moving parts. Flash drives are widely used to transport
files and backup data from computer to computer.
Figure 3.32: Pen drive
29
Flash memory cards
A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state
electronic flash memory data storage device used with
digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers,
telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other
electronics.
Nowadays, most new PCs have built-in slots for a variety of
memory cards; Memory Stick, Compact Flash, SD, etc.
Some digital gadgets support more than one memory card to
ensure compatibility.
3.7
Figure 3.33: Flash memory cards
The System Unit
With reference to Figure 2.3 above, the System Unit of the computer is the box-like casing
which contains the major electronic components that are responsible for the main functions
of the computer. It should be mentioned here that many people use to refer to this as the CPU
incorrectly. This erroneous reference may be due to CPU: The brain of the commuter being
that significant. However, the electronic devices such as CPU, memory, hard disk drive are
located inside the System Unit. In addition to the above parts, Motherboard, Floppy Disk
Drive, Power Supply unit, and CD-ROM Drive are the other major components that you
can find within the system unit. A brief description of each above component is given next.
Note: The system unit is also called the housing, case, computer chassis, or cabinet.
3.8
Motherboard
The motherboard is sometimes called the system board, planner board or main board. It is the
main circuit board of a computer. The motherboard contains several connectors for attaching
additional boards. Usually, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage
interfaces, serial/parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control
standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive.All of the basic
circuitry and components required for a computer to function are onboard the motherboard or are
connected with a cable. The most important component on a motherboard is the chipset. It often
consists of two components or chips known as the Northbridge and Southbridge, though they
may also be integrated into a single component. These chips determine, to an extent, the features
and capabilities of the motherboard.
See Figure 3.34 for a labelled image of a motherboard. It should be noted that the figure shows
the Asus P5N32-E SLI motherboard. All boards will be slightly different as far as which
components they have, and the locations of those components may differ, but they are fairly
close.
30
Note: You are advised to explore the circuitry components attached to the mother board with the
help of your lecturer or the instructor.
Figure 3.34: The components of a Motherboard
A. PCI Slot - This board has 2 PCI slots. These can be used for components such as Ethernet
cards, sound cards, and modems.
B. PCI-E 16x Slot - There are 2 of them on this motherboard diagram, both are blue. These
are used for your graphics card. With two of them onboard, you can run 2 graphics cards
in SLI. You would only need this if you are a gamer, or working with high end video/
graphics editing. These are the 16x speed versions, which are currently the fastest.
C. PCI-E 1x Slot - Single slot - In the PCI-E 1x generation, each lane (1x) carries 250 MB/s
compared to 133 MB/s for the PCI slots. These can be used for expansion cards such as
Sound Cards, or Ethernet Cards.
D. Northbridge - This is the Northbridge for this motherboard. This allows communication
between the CPU and the system memory and PCI-E slots.
E. ATX 12V 2X and 4 Pin Power Connection Power Connection - This is one of two power
connections that supply power to the motherboard. This connection will come from
your Power Supply.
F. CPU-Fan Connection - This is where your CPU fan will connect. Using this connection
over one from your power supply will allow the motherboard to control the speed of
your fan, based on the CPU temperature.
31
G. Socket - This is where your CPU will plug in. The orange bracket that is surrounding it is
used for high end heat sink-s. It helps to support the weight of the heat sink.
H. Memory Slots - These are the slots for your RAM. Most boards will have 4 slots, but
some will only have 2. The color coding you see on the motherboard diagram is used to
match up RAM for Dual-Channel. Using them this way will give your memory a speed boost.
I. ATX Power Connector - This is the second of two power connections. This is the main
power connection for the motherboard, and comes from the Power Supply.
J. IDE Connection - The IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) is the connection for your hard
drive or CD / DVD drive. Most drives today come with SATA connections, so you may not
use this.
K. Southbridge - This is the controller for components such as the PCI slots, onboard audio,
and USB connections.
L. SATA Connections - These are 4 of the 6 SATA connections on the motherboard. These
will be used for hard drives, and CD / DVD drives.
M. Front Panel Connections - this is where you will hook in the connections from your case.
These are mostly the different lights on your case, such as power on, hard drive activity
etc.
N. FDD Connection - The FDD is the Floppy Disk controller. If you have a floppy disk drive in
your computer, this is where you will hook it up.
O. External USB Connections - This is where you will plug in external USB connections for
your case or USB bracket.
P. CMOS battery - This is the motherboard's battery. This is used to allow the CMOS to
keep its settings.
3.9
Power Supply Unit
Power Supply Unit (PSU) is another very important unit found in the system unit. Usually we
connect the power code of the computer to the domestic mains supply. Therefore, PSU
converts Alternating Current (AC) from mains supply to Direct Current (DC) with the
required different voltages needed to power different components of the computer. Power
supplies have a certain power output specified in Watts, a standard power supply would
typically be able to deliver around 350 Watts. The more components like HDD, CD/DVD
drives, and cooling fans, are connected to your computer the greater the power required fro m
the power supply. See Figure 3.35 for an image of a typical power supply unit.
Figure 3.35: Power Supply Unit
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3.10 CD-ROM Drive
Most probably, you might have seen the Compact Disks (CDs) which are commonly used as
a storage media. The CD-ROM drive is a high capacity optical data storage device with a
removable disk, it writes data onto or reads data from a storage medium.
A CD-ROM drive may be connected to the computer via an IDE (ATA), SCSI, S-ATA,
Firewire, or USB interface or a proprietary interface. See Figure 3.36 for an image of a CDROM Drive.
Figure 3.36: CD-ROM Drive
3.11 Floppy Disk Drive
Floppy disks were used as a storage medium of which capacity is 1.44MB. However,
nowadays the floppy disks (or diskettes) are outdated and USB Flash Disk drives and card
readers have now come into play instead of floppy disks.
3.12 Card readers
Card reader is a data input device that can read data embedded in plastics cards which come
in several forms such as bar codes, magnetic strip, computer chip. This reader may act as a
memory card reader, smart card reader, magnetic card reader, or business card reader
depending on the card read by the unit.
Following Figure 3.38 shows the arrangement of the components inside the system unit.
However, it should be noted that there may be new components added with the advent of
technology in the PCs what you can find now.
Figure 3.37: Card reader
33
Figure 3.38: Components inside the System Unit
3.13 Connecting Peripheral Devices to the Computer
We have already dealt about the peripheral devices in previous sections. Here we are going to
see how we can connect these peripheral devices to your computer. Have you ever observed
the back panel of the CPU? If you see the back panel of the CPU carefully you will come to
know that there are several types of ports. They are in different colures and in different
shapes. These ports can be fixed with specific ports from the peripheral devices. Hence ports
can be considered as the interface in-between the computer and the peripheral devices. This
mechanism is much more similar to a lock and key mechanism.
3.13.1 Ports in Your Computer
Let‟s have a look at the available ports in a typical PC and the peripheral devices connected to
the computer (Figure 3.39).
Figure 3.39: Different Ports of a Computer
34
Figure 3.40: Identifying the different computer ports
35
You have seen the back panel of the CPU as a whole. Now let‟s take a look at each port
individually and it is certainly going to be interesting!
PS/2 Ports
PS/2 ports are simple and generally used as input ports to connect mice and keyboards with
the computer. The green PS/2 is for the mouse while the purple ports can be connected to a
keyboard. Commonly motherboards consist of these ports but this has become phased out
because of the usage USB ports to connect these devices. PS/2 ports have 6-pin
Figure 3.41: Images of PS/2 port
Parallel Port
This is used to connect the parallel devices to the computer. It is often called as Centronics
interface after the company that designed the original standard for parallel communication
between a computer and printer.
Today, the parallel port interface is scarcely used because of the rise of Universal Serial
Bus (USB) and FireWire (IEEE 1394) devices.
Figure 3.42: Images of Parallel ports
The commonly found parallel device is the printer. Parallel ports can have 25 connections.
Serial Port
Figure 3.43: Images of Serial ports
This is used to connect the serial devices to the computer. Serial port can have either 9
connections or 25 connections. Modem which is used to obtain the Internet connection is an
ideal example for serial device. This was common method of data transfer throughout the
history of the personal computers.
Network equipment (such as routers and switches) commonly use serial console for
configuration. Serial ports are still used in these areas as they are simple, cheap and their console
functions are highly standardized and widespread. A serial port requires very little supporting
software from the host system.
36
VGA Port
A Video Graphics Array (VGA) connector has 15 connectors in 3 rows. These 15 pins transmit
video signals based on colors and video synchronizing.
Figure 3.44: VGA port
This is used to connect the monitor to the motherboard.They give an extra way to maintain an
additional external monitor when using laptop. Using a VGA port is not too complicated, just
plug the cable in and turn on the monitor.
HDMI Port
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a compact audio/video interface to transfer
uncompressed video data and compressed/uncompressed digital audio data from a HDMIcompliant device to a computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio
device which is compatible with HDMI. The existing analog video standards have been
replaced with the arrival of HDMI.
Figure 3.45: HDMI port
Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port
The most widely used hardware interface for connecting peripherals to a computer. There are
typically at least two USB ports on laptops and four on desktop computers, while USB "hubs"
provide more connections (there are exceptions as well).
Figure 3.46: Different types of USB Ports
37
Figure 3.47: The basic USB trident loge; indicating support for USB 2.0
Fire wire Port
Firewire is a type of cabling technology for transferring data to and from digital devices at high
speed. Some professional digital cameras and memory card readers connect to the computer over
FireWire. FireWire card readers are commonly faster than those that connect via USB. They are
also known as IEEE 1394 or iLink. Although FireWire was invented by Apple Computer in 1995
it is now commonly used with Windows-based PCs.
FireWire is one of the fastest peripheral standards ever developed, which makes it great for use
with multimedia peripherals such as digital video cameras and other high-speed devices like the
latest hard disk drives and printers. It has the bandwidth of 400 megabits per second and the
latest machines include FireWire ports operate at around 800 megabits per second. FireWire is a
cross-platform implementation of the high-speed serial data bus which can handle up to 63 on
the same bus consisting of simplified cabling and hot swapping. When this port is in use, a little
monitoring light flickers.
Figure 3.48: Fire wire logo
3.14 Performance of a computer
You may be wondering why your computer is slow at times and there are other times when it is
fast in processing. This could be caused by a number of factors. They include: the speed of the
CPU, the space on the hard disk, the size of the RAM, the type of the graphics card, the speed of
the hard disk, if the computer is multitasking, the defragmenting files.
Note that, good computer performance may involve one or more of the following:






Short response time for a given piece of work
High throughput (rate of processing work)
Low utilization of computing resource(s)
High availability of the computing system or application
Fast (or highly compact) data compression and decompression
High bandwidth / short data transmission time
38
3.14.1 Factors affecting the Performance of computers
To increase the performance there are number of factors are effects including
 Performance of the Microprocessor
 Performance of the Hardware devices
 Performance of the Storage devices
 Performance of the Software
Performance of the Microprocessor
A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input,
processes it according to instructions stored in its memory. Performance of the Microprocessor is
depended on the several factors including;

Clock speed
The speed of the CPU is also known as the clock speed of the CPU. The clock speed of
the CPU is the frequency of which the processor executes instructions or the frequency
by which data is processed by the CPU. It is measured in millions of cycles per second or
megahertz (MHz). If the Clock speed of the CPU is fast then definitely the performance
of the computer will be affected positively, in other words the computer will carry out
processing functions at a faster pace.

Bus Speed
A bus transfers data between components inside a computer. For an example, the
processor is connected to the motherboard through the bus called, Front-side bus. The
more data a bus can handle at one time, the faster it allows information to travel. The
speed of the bus, measured in megahertz (MHz), refers to how much data can move
across the bus simultaneously.

Number of cores
The "core" in a processor is the microprocessor inside of the CPU. For example, if you
have an i7 CPU then you have 4 microprocessors inside of the CPU; this allows you to do
four things at once, as a microprocessor can only do one thing at a time.

Available features
Some latest technologies introduced over the processor technology have increased the
performance of the processor. For example, Turbo Boost Technology and the HyperThreading Technology
For an example, the following list gives some existing features available in the modern Intel i7
microprocessor which has increased its performance.





Cores 4
Threads 8
Clock Speed 3.4 GHz
Max Turbo Frequency 3.8 GHz
Intel® Smart Cache 8MB
Figure 3.49: Image of Intel i7
Microprocessor
39

Features
o Intel® Turbo Boost Technology
o Thermal Monitoring Technologies
o Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology etc.
Performance of the Hardware devices
Computer is a digital electronic device, consists of set of electronic circuits (Example
Motherboard) therefore, performance of the hardware devices are dependents on several factors
including



BUS Speed of the system
Performance of the available ports
Technology used to develop
The following figures show the physical architecture of the computer motherboard and the bus
system.
Figure 3.50: Architecture of the Motherboard
Figure 3.51: Bus system
Performance of the Storage devices
To increase the performance of the storage devices, storage system has been divided in to the
several units such as;



Primary Memory
Secondary Memory
Cache memory
Accordingly, the performance of the computer goes up if the collective memory (Primary,
secondary, and Cache) is high.
40
Figure 3.52: Storage system
Performance of the Software
Here, we mainly focus on the device drivers installed into your computer. You should make sure
that you have installed drivers recommended by the hardware vendor. You will learn more about
the computer software in the next session and you will find what Software Drivers are in that
session.
3.15 Self Assessment Questions
What is meant by the term “hardware device(s)”?
Briefly describe the four main categories of computer hardware.
What is CPU? Briefly explain the components of the CPU.
What is a microprocessor? Describe the factors which affect the performance of it.
What does the computer memory means? How is it measured?
Why does the computer need primary storage and secondary storage?
State the difference between volatile memory and non-volatile memory.
Explain the role of the cache memory in a computer.
Define the following devices.
a. Input devices
b. Output devices
3.10. Using suitable examples, describe the use of bar codes.
3.11. Briefly explain the functionality of the following display devices.
a. CRT Monitor
b. LCD Monitor
3.12. Suggest suitable devices for the following.
a. High quality printing
b. Quiet printing
c. Economical color printing
d. Economical printing of small quantities
e. High quality line drawing
3.13. Define the term BUS. Why are buses useful?
3.14. Name three ports that can be seen in a typical PC. Give an example of a device that can be
connected to the computer via each port.
3.15. State the factors which affect the performance of computers.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9.
41
Session 04
Computer Software
Aim:
This session aims to provide the basic ideas of Software to the Students.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:



4.1
Describe what software is
Classify computer software according to the usage of them
Give examples for each category of computer software
What is Software?
Software, also called a computer program or simply a program, is a series of instructions that
tells the hardware of a computer what to do. For example, some instructions direct the computer
to allow you to input data from the keyboard and store it in memory. Other instructions cause
data stored in memory to be used in calculations such as adding a series of numbers to obtain a
total.
Before a computer can perform or execute a program, the instructions in the program must be
loaded into the memory of the computer. Usually, they are loaded into memory from storage like
hard disk.
When you purchase a program, you will receive one or more CD-ROMs or a single DVD-ROM
on which the software is stored. To use the software, you often need to install the software on
the computer‟s hard disk. Sometimes, a program can be loaded in memory directly from a CDROM or a DVD-ROM so that you do not have to install it on the hard disk to use it.
When you buy a computer, it usually has some software already installed in its hard disk. Thus
you can use the computer as soon as you receive it. Software is the key to productive use of
computers. With the correct software, a computer can become a valuable tool.
4.2
Categories of Software
The following diagram (Figure 4.1) shows the basic categories of software. This section will give
you a description on each category of software together with some examples.
42
Computer
Software
System
Software
Operating
Systems
Utilty Software
Library
programs
Application
Software
General
Purpose
Special
Purpose
Bespoke
Programming
Language
Translaters
Figure 4.1: Classification of Computer Software
4.2.1 System Software
System software consists of the programs that control the operations of the computer and its
devices. Functions that system software performs include starting up the computer; opening,
executing, running, applications; storing, retrieving, and copying files; formatting disks;
reducing file sizes; and backing up the contents of a hard disk. Accordingly you can see that the
System Software will handle the smooth running of all the components of the computer as well
as providing general functionality for other programs to use, tools to speed up the computer,
tools to develop new software and programs to keep you safe from attacks.
As shown in the above figure 4.1 there are several types of system software. Next sections will
look at each type of system software together with examples.
Operating Systems (OS)
The Operating System contains instructions that co-ordinate all of the activities of hardware
devices of your computer. It also contains instructions that allow you to run any applications
software. One may define the Operating system as an interface between a user and all computer
resources.
When you start a computer, the operating system is loaded or copied into memory from the
computer hard disk. It remains in memory while the computer is sunning and allows you to
communicate with the computer and other software. A computer cannot function without an
operating system. It is an important component of the computer system, because it sets the
standards for the application programs that run on it. All programs must “talk to” the OS.
43
There are two main types of Operating Systems:
Single-user OS: A type of OS which allows only one user at a time. There can be single-user OS
either as single-user single-task or single-user multi-task. The Single-user single-task OS has
to deal with only one person at a time running only one application at a time. MS DOS is an
example for a single user single task OS.
Think of the OS of your Personal Computer. It is designed mainly with one user (i.e. you) in
mind but that only user: you can deal with many applications running at the same time. You may
word process a document with a word processing application like MS Word while listening to
music played in the windows media player in parallel. Or you might be answering the school
assignment while searching more facts on the internet while a suitable video is being
downloaded. This type of OSs is of single-user multi-task OS. An example of such OS is
Windows 95.
Multi-user OS: In some situations, we need to share the single computer among few users. So
the OS should be a multi-user where more than one user is logged on to the computer and uses it
at the same time. These multi users may work with remote desktop connections. Further, these
different users may need to run different applications at the same time. So the OS must support
multi-task facility as well. Obviously the computer should be a powerful one. Each user draws
on a big power of the computer in a shared way. This type of Multi –user multi-task OSs have to
manage some tasks as listed below:
-
Each user logged on to the system, their workspace and so on.
Allocate resources to the jobs they want to run.
Keep logs of how much processing time and resources they use
Work out the most efficient use of computer processing cycles
Maintain security
Following are some examples of such OS:



Windows XP, 7, 8 etc.
Unix
Linux (Ubuntu, Centos, Fedora etc.)
Desktop OS vs. Server OS
The OS can also be categorized as Desktop OS and Server OS depending on whether the OS is to
be installed in a desktop computer or a server. For example, the latest versions of the Windows
OS family can be categorized as follows:
Desktop OS: windows XP, windows 7, Windows 8
Server OS: Windows 2000Server, Windows 2005Server, Windows 2008Server
As most of you are using Desktop Personal Computers, following web article is extracted in
order to give you an overview on the different operating systems you may use.
Source: http://www.geek.com/desktop-computer-buyers-guide/operating-system/
44
Operating Systems for your Desktop PC
Following is a note extracted from the web regarding the OS and given for the reader for
additional facts about your OS
Recommended: Windows 7 Professional or alternative OS depending on your needs
Minimum: Windows 7 Home Premium
The operating system (OS) is the foundation of your computer’s software. Everything that
runs on the computer is based on this in one form or another and its stability and functionality
will determine what you can get out of the computer.
Currently there are three main options: Windows, Linux, and Apple’s OS X. They may serve the
same purpose, but they are too firmly established to say that one is better than the others.
Each has their own strengths and weaknesses and each will have unique appeal to different
buyers.
As important as this decision is, it is largely a moot issue because the vast majority of consumer
desktops sold run Windows. As of October 22, 2009 the current version is Windows 7, and it’s a
highly regarded update to the previous Windows Vista. Like it or not, 7 is going to be the only
version of Windows that ships on most new desktops.
Apple’s OS X (current version “Snow Leopard”) is also an excellent OS and it’s generally seen as
a great choice for most home users, ranging from the casual buyers to computer professionals.
While an excellent operating system it is only sold with Apple’s desktops (namely the iMac and
Mac Pro) so this guide might not be extremely helpful because those systems have limited
options available to them.
Some types of Linux are also fantastic for home users, but it is not something people generally
have experience with so it can be hard to recommend, unless if you have a close friend or
family member to help you get your on your feet. It also cannot run popular applications like
iTunes and Photoshop, so it can be an issue for some buyers. Linux is free and easy to run
though, so any computer you build/buy will be able to run it in a trial mode (via a Live CD or on
a USB key) without even having to install it. This is an ideal way to give it a try before
committing to it. Not many desktops ship with Linux so this will limit a buyer’s options as well.
As for Windows 7, it comes in a few different varieties. They won’t all be available in all areas
though. Ranging from the least to most expensive
This may look confusing but the vast majority of Windows buyers will be getting either Home
Premium or Professional, so the decision won’t be too hard. If you don’t know why you’d want
to get Professional then Home Premium will do the job nicely. Home Premium will be the right
fit almost all home users
45
4.2.2 Utility Software
Utility software or utility programs are some small programs which performs specific task,
usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. Most operating systems
include several utility programs. Also, you can buy them as stand-alone software that offer
improvements over the ones supplied with the OS. Following are some of the specific tasks done
by commonly used utility programs:









Viewing files
Compressing files
Diagnosing problems
Scanning disks
Defragmenting disks
Uninstalling software
Backing up files and disks
Checking for viruses
Displaying screen savers
Following figures show some of the user interfaces of the above utility programs.
Figure 4.2: Tune up Disk Cleaner
46
Figure 4 .3: AVAST Software Uninstall Utility
Figure 4.5: McAfee Antivirus Utility
Figure 4.4: WinZip file compressing utility
Figure 4.6: Disk Defragmenter utility
47
4.2.3 Library Programs
Library programs are collections of some pre-written codes or resources that are used to
develop other programs. For an example, you might have noticed that all Microsoft Programs
look like the same or have the same look and feel in the interfaces though the application differs.
The reason for this consistent look is the using of same graphical user interface libraries when
developing different applications by the Microsoft. Another classical example is, the computer
game developers often buy and use pre-done graphical user interface libraries and develop new
games as they need to save time and cost of entire development process. This will allow them to
quickly develop a good looking game that runs on the desired hardware. In w\Windows, you can
often identify library programs by their extension .dll (dynamic link library).
4.2.4 Programming Language Translators
You are already aware that a Program is a set of instructions written for performing a specific
task. These instructions are just like English words. We call that these programs are written in
programming languages that can be understood by human beings. These written programs are
called that Source codes. However, some programs run on a machine code that is executed
directly on computer architecture. Machine code is not easily read by humans and it is a long
series of bits (i.e. ones-1 and zeros-0). Therefore, the source code is to be converted into
machine code which is called an object program. This translation can be done by translator.
Simply, the translators translate source code into machine code. There are three approaches of
program translating:



Assembler
Interpreter
Compiler
Assembler:
An assembler translates the symbolic codes of programs of an assembly language into machine
language instructions (See Figure 4.7 below). The symbolic language is translated to the
machine code in the ratio of one is to one symbolic instructions to one machine code
instructions. Such types of languages are called low-level languages. The assembler programs
translate the low-level language to the machine code. The translation job is performed either
manually or with a program called assembler. In hand assembly, the programmer uses the set of
instructions supplied by the manufacturer. In this case, the hexadecimal code for the mnemonic
instruction is searched from the code sheet. This procedure is tedious and time-consuming.
Alternate solution to this is the use of assemblers. The program called assembler provides the
codes of the mnemonics. This process is fast and facilitates the user in developing the program
speedily.
Interpreter:
Figure 4.7: Assembler
Interpreters also come in the group of translators. It helps the user to execute the source program
with a few differences as compared to compilers. The source program is just like English
48
statements in both interpreters and compilers. The interpreter also generates object codes from
the source program. Interpreter reads the program line by line, whereas in compiler the entire
program is read by the compiler, which then generates the object codes. Interpreter directly
executes the program from its source code. Due to this, every time the source code should be
inputted to the interpreter. In other words, each line is converted into the object codes. It takes
very less time for execution because no intermediate object code is generated.
Compiler:
Compilers are the translators, which translate all the instructions of the program into machine
codes, which can be used again and again (See Figure 4.8 below). The source program is input to
the compiler. The object code is output for the secondary storage device. The entire program will
be read by the compiler first and generates the object code. However, in interpreter each line is
executed and object code is provided. M-BASIC is an example of an interpreter. High-level
languages such as C, C++ and Java compilers are employed. The compiler displays the list of
errors and warnings for the statements violating the syntax rules of the language. Compilers also
have the ability of linking subroutines of the program.
Figure 4.8: Compilers and Interpreters
4.3
Application Software
Re-call the classification of software given in Figure 4.1. Accordingly, the second major class of
Software is the Application Software. Application software consists of programs designed to
perform specific tasks of users. Application Software, also called a software application or an
application, can be used for the following purposes, among others:




As a productivity/business tool
To assist with graphics and multimedia projects
To support household activities, for personal business, or for education
To facilitate communications
A variety of application software is available that you can buy from software vendors in retail
stores or on the Web. A specific software product, such as Microsoft Word, often is called a
Software Package.
Based on the purposes as listed above, the application software is three-fold namely General
Purpose, Special purpose, and Bespoke. Let us look at each type of applications software briefly.
4.3.1 General Purpose Application Software
A general purpose application is also called „off-the-shelf‟ applications. These are the software
you use at home, university, or at work place to make you more effective and efficient while
performing daily activities. These include applications such as word processors, spreadsheets,
databases, desktop publishing packages, presentation packages, graphics packages, text editors,
etc. Following Table 4.1 gives example uses of different general purpose applications.
49
General Purpose Application
Example Uses
Word Processor
Writing reports, memos, letters to customers
Spreadsheet application
Keeping simple company accounts, calculating employee
payments, simple stock control systems, modeling
Database application
Keeping student data of a university, Keeping customer
records, sales records, appointments system
Desktop Publishing application Creating leaflets, posters, business cards, etc.
Presentation software
Creating presentations to be used for an audience of
customers/staff.
Graphics application
Manipulating images that can be used at home, university,
or a business
Web Design application
Creating personal or business web sites
Table 4.1: Uses of General Purpose Applications
Note: Within this course, you will learn deeply on one from each categories of Word Processor,
Spreadsheet application, Database application, and Presentation software as tabled
below.
General Purpose Application
Software covered within this course
Word Processor
Microsoft Word 2007
Spreadsheet application
Microsoft Excel 2007
Database application
Microsoft Access 2007
Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint 2007
Table 4.2: Application software covered in ICT Skills Course
4.3.2 Special Purpose Application Software
Special Purpose Application Software is the software created for execution of a single specific
task. Some examples are Chess game, calculator, camera application in your mobile phone which
allows you only to capture and share pictures, web browsers, media players, calendar programs.
4.3.3 Bespoke Application Software
Some organizations may feel that the general purpose software are not suitable for their task and
it does not exactly what they want or it does not tallying with the current system in the
organization. In this type of situation, they decide on designing and developing software
specifically for them. These softwares are also called as the „tailor-made software‟ or „Bespoke
software‟ as they are made to a specific user and customized for a specific task only. Following
are the advantages and disadvantages of bespoke software:
50
Advantages:



The organization will get the exact system that they need
The software will work exactly how they want it to work
The software will only have the features that they specifically need in their job or
business feeling them comfortable to use
Disadvantages:



It takes more time to develop such systems. The development duration several months or
years
Developmental cost is very high
Sometimes it is required to employ a team of people at different stages of the
development process such as analysts, programmers, testers, etc.
Following are some examples for bespoke software:
-
4.4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
Membership database (Insurance Industry)
Dispatch Systems (Factory/Processing Industries)
Sales order Systems (Newspaper Industries)
Invoicing System (Motor Industries)
Freelancer System (Newspaper Industries)
Calibrating Software (Pharmaceutical Industries)
Software that checks all medical devises to ensure that all are correctly calibrated
Educated Marketing database (Education)
Event Planning Database (Manages invitations, member registrations, and seminar
places)
Marketing Databases (territory management, telemarketing, direct mail campaigns,
analysis)
Sales Training Databases (Management reports of personal attainment, history, and team
performance)
Self Assessment Questions
What is Software?
Differentiate System software and Application software.
What are the responsibilities of Operating Systems?
Define the following with suitable examples.
a. Single–user OS
b. Multi-user OS
What are utility programs? Define some tasks performed by them.
What is meant by library programs?
What are program language translators? Briefly describe three translating approaches.
State the advantages and disadvantages of Bespoke Application Software.
51
Session 05
Computer Networks
Aim:
This session aims to develop a solid grasp of network by introducing the basic concepts.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:







5.1
Describe what a computer network is
Define the basic terminology: Nodes, Clients, Servers, and Hub with their roles in a
computer network
Classify the networks according to the scale
Describe what LAN, MAN, and WAN are
Classify the networks according to the topology
Identify the basic hardware used in networking computers
Describe what Internet, Intranet, and Extranet
What is a Computer Network?
Two or more independent computers connected together through a communication
media form a computer network. The computers are connected in a network to exchange
information and data. The computers connected in a network can also use resources of
other computers such as software packages and peripherals like modems, printers,
backup drives, or CD-ROM drives. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware
and computer software. Further, you do not need the same software package installed on
your machine, if your network has that software installed on one of the machines on the
network. In this sense, computer networks are clear means for sharing resources. This
makes the use of computer technology cost effective. Following Figure 5.1 shows a
typical network with four computers.
Figure 5.1: Typical computer network
52
5.2
Basic hardware and terminology in networks
If you explore more on computer networks, you will come across with a huge list of terminology
associated with networks. Let us look at the basic terminology used in the subject of computer
networks in brief. It is worth to note here that all networks are made up of basic hardware
building blocks to interconnect network nodes.
5.2.1 Node
Any device attached to the network capable of communicating with other network devices is
called a Node. A node can be a computer or some other device, such as a printer. Every node has
a unique network address, sometimes called a Data Link Control (DLC) address or Media
Access Control (MAC) address.
5.2.2 Client
A device or application that uses the services provided by a server is called a Client in the
network. A client may be a PC or a workstation on a network using services provided from the
network file server, or it may be that part of an application program that runs on the workstation
supported by additional software running on the server. One of the most familiar clients is the
Web browser.
5.2.3 Server
Any computer that makes access to files, printing, communications, and other services available
to users of the network is called a Server in the network. In large networks, a dedicated server
runs a special network operating system; in smaller installations, a non-dedicated server may run
a personal computer operating system with peer-to-peer networking software running on top.
A server typically has a more advanced processor, more memory, a larger cache, and more disk
storage than a single-user workstation. A server may also have several processors rather than just
one and may be dedicated to a specific support function such as printing, e-mail, or
communications. Many servers also have large power supplies, UPS (uninterruptible power
supply) support, and fault-tolerant features, such as RAID technology. On the Internet, a server
responds to requests from a client, usually a Web browser.
Following Figure 5.2 shows the client and server in a network.
Figure 5.2: Client and Server
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5.2.4 Hub
A device used to extend a network so that additional workstations can be attached. In some star
networks, a hub is the central controlling device. Hubs typically provide from 4 to 24
connections, allowing anything from 2 to 24 devices to communicate with one another.
Following Figure 5.3 shows the use of a hub in a Star network (You will learn what a star
network is in the latter part of this session) while the Figure shows an enlarged view of an 8-port
hub.
Figure 5.3: Hub in a Star network
Figure 5.4: 8-port Hub
5.2.5 IP Address
An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification (logical address) that is assigned to
devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication
between its nodes. Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are often displayed
in more human-readable notations, such as 192.168.100.1(for IPv4). The role of the IP address
has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where
it is. A route indicates how to get there."
5.2.6 Network interface cards
A network card, network adapter, or NIC
(network interface card) is a piece of computer
hardware designed to allow computers to
communicate over a computer network. It
provides physical access to a networking medium
and often provides a low-level addressing system
through the use of MAC addresses.
Figure 5.5: Network Interface Card
5.2.7 Repeaters
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher power level,
or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without
degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable which
runs longer than 100 meters.
54
5.2.8 Bridges
A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI
model. Bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC
addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address,
it will send traffic for that address only to that port. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports
except the one on which the broadcast was received.
5.2.9 Switches
A network switch is a computer networking device that links
network segments or network devices. The term commonly refers
to a multi-port network bridge that processes and routes data at the
data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that
additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3) and above
are often called layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.
Figure 5.6: Switch
5.2.10 Routers
A router is a networking device that forwards packets between
networks using information in protocol headers and forwarding
tables to determine the best next router for each packet. Routers
work at the Network Layer of the OSI model and the Internet
Layer of TCP/IP.
Figure 5.7: Router
5.3
Classifications of Computer Networks
Computer networks can be classified by considering following different aspects as the basis.
 The scale
 The connection method
 The functional relationship (Network Architectures)
 The network topology
The Table 5.1 given below classifies the computer networks according to the above different
basis.
The basis
Scale
Different categories
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Local Area Network (LAN)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN).
55
Connection method
Optical fiber
Ethernet
Wireless LAN
Home PNA
Functional
Relationship
(Architecture)
Active Networking
Client-server networking
Peer-to-peer (workgroup) architectures
Network topology
(Arrangement of
components)
Bus network topology
Star network topology
Ring network topology
Mesh network topology
Tree or Hierarchical topology
Table 5.1: Classifications of Computer Networks
5.3.1 Classification of computer networks by scale
According to the Table 5.1 above, the networks can be classified into six classes abbreviated as
PAN, LAN, MAN and GAN.
Personal Area Network (PAN)
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network that will be useful in communicating
computerizes devices such as telephones and PDAs. Mostly, the PAN is communicated through
wireless network technologies such as Wireless USB, Bluetooth, Z-Wave, and IrDA. You may
use PANs to communicate among the personal devices or you may connect even to higher level
networks or to the internet.
Figure 5.8: Personal Area Network
56
Local Area Network (LAN)
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a
home, office, or group of buildings. Ex: a school (See Figure 5.10 below). The defining
characteristics of LANs, in contrast to Wide Area Networks (WANs), include their much higher
data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication
lines. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of
computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and
media has resulted in worldwide propagation of LANs throughout business and educational
organizations. The Figure 5.9 below shows a LAN consisting of six computers/work stations.
Figure 5.9: Local Area Network (LAN)
Figure 5.10: LAN in a School
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Wide Area Network is defined as a group of computers and network devices connected across
large physical areas such as states or countries. Computers connected to a Wide Area Network
are often connected through the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased
lines or satellites. One may define a WAN as a collection of several LANs as depicted in Figure
5.11 below.
The largest WAN in existence is the Internet. (You will learn about Internet in a coming section).
Figure 5.11: Wide Area Network
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
MAN is a network that interconnect users with computer resources in a geographic area or
region larger than that covered by a local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered
by wide area network (WAN). Further a MAN is a network that connects two or more Local
Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of
the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. See Figure 5.12 below for a typical set up of a
MAN.
57
Figure 5.12: Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Figure 5.13: LAN, MAN, and WAN
5.3.2 Classifications of networks based on the topology
Network Topology is the schematic description how the arrangement of the network is
including the nodes, connecting lines, and other devices. As per the above Table 5.1, the
main network topologies are listed below.





Bus
Star
Ring
Mesh
Tree/Hierarchical
Deep discussions on the topologies are beyond the level of this course unit. However,
brief descriptions on each topology and images of them are given below.
Bus Topology
Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus
of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all
devices. A single cable, the backbone, functions as a
shared communication medium that devices attach or
tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting
to communicate with another device on the network
sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other
devices see, but only the intended recipient actually
accepts and processes the message.
Figure 5.14: Bus topology
58
Star Topology
Many home networks use the star topology. A star
network features a central connection point called a
"hub node" that may be a network hub, switch or
router. Devices typically connect to the hub with
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet.
Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally
requires more cable, but a failure in any star network
cable will only take down one computer's network
access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however
the entire network also fails.)
Figure 5.15: Star topology
Ring Topology
In a ring network, every device has exactly two
neighbors for communication purposes. All messages
travel through a ring in the same direction (either
"clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any
cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the
entire network.
Figure 5.16: Ring topology
To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring
technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.
Mesh Topology
Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes.
Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages
sent on a mesh network can take any of several
possible paths from source to destination. (Recall
that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist,
messages can only travel in one direction.) Some
WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing.
Figure 5.17: Mesh topology
A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As
shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices
connect only indirectly to others.
Tree Topology
Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies
together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub
devices connect directly to the tree bus and each hub
functions as the root of a tree of devices. This bus/star
hybrid approach supports future expandability of the
network much better than a bus (limited in the number
of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a
star (limited by the number of hub connection points)
alone.
Figure 5.18: Tree topology
59
5.4
The Internet
As you are already aware, the Internet is the largest WAN in existence (See Figure 5.19 below).
It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and
government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic,
wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of
information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World
Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email.
With the dramatic rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications
highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic
institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and
commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic
resources to every corner of the planet.
Note: You will learn deeply on Internet under Session 22 in this course material.)
Figure 5.19: Internet: the largest WAN in existence
Did you know?

The foundation of the internet began in 1969, when the US Department of Defense created ARPAnet,
a project to allow military personnel to communicate with each other in an emergency.

By 2011, the number of internet users worldwide reached 2.2 billion—about one third of the world's
population.

To store all of the information on the internet, you would need over 1 billion DVDs or 200 million Bluray discs.
60
5.5
The Intranet and Extranet
5.5.1 The Intranet
You are already aware what the Internet is. Accordingly, the internet which is a worldwide
system can be accessed by any person or by any organization. Since it is a vast public
communication tool, some organizations were willing to maintain their own local network which
supports their employees or the members. The Intranets were developed as a solution to the
above requirement. However, the intranet also has almost all the services provided by the
Internet, but it is a private system. The access of an intranet is restricted to the authorized
members or people within the organization such that the authorized members need to log on with
a secure password.
More comprehensively, intranets are private networks based on Internet Technologies that are
located behind an organization‟s firewall. A Firewall is a set of technologies designed to protect
a private network from users on a public network. Some intranets provide access to the Internet
through a special server called a Proxy Server, designed to cache (to store for quick re-use)
frequently requested information to keep that information readily available. This type of proxy
server also provides tools for tracking and controlling access to networks.
An intranet can cover a LAN where only staff in the same building or region can use it. Or it can
run over a WAN where staff (authorized people) from around the world can log in.
What Intranets do
Intranets usually start by publishing web pages about the organization‟s events, health and safety
policies, and staff newsletters. Popular applications follow, such as forms to reclaim expenses or
request holidays. All these help eliminate paperwork and speed up workflows of the
organization.
As more features are added, this intranet can become essential to the operation of an
organization. It becomes a portal that provides access to all the things workers need.
A typical intranet may provide the services such as E-mail, File transfer, Real time chat, web
pages, video and audio streaming services. Each service requires at least one server to provide
the service. For example, the intranet of the Open University of Sri Lanka maintains two main
servers; a web server for the OUSL web site and a Moodle server for the service of delivery of
on-line courses.
Figure 5.20: Moodle Server
Advantages of an Intranet



Commercial or confidential data is kept secured within the organization.
E-mails remain private and may also be encrypted.
High bandwidth. No connection limits unlike the Internet
61


Reliable. The organization will have dedicated IT personnel to keep things running
smoothly.
Information specificity tailored to the organization or staff‟s needs can be published.
5.5.2 The Extranet
We can consider an Extranet as an extension to the Intranets what we described above. Because,
the extranets are again private networks that contains information related to the company and
accessible only for the members of the company BUT allowed for outside individuals as well
who have obtained the authority to access. Therefore, an extranet is partially accessible to
authorized outsiders.
An extranet can be configured (set up) either using a direct leased line linking all intranets or by
using a secured separate link created across the participants as a VPN (Virtual Private Network).
The latter method is more cost effective than the firs method.
Advantages of Extranets
 A cost effective method to share and trade information and all other data effectively at
any time to the authorized people (internal and external) such as the customers, partners,
investors, suppliers who are included within the built up extranet.
 A platform for companies to conduct business-to-business deals. Can assist in
strengthening relationships between two or more organizations.
 Useful when the staff of the company works outside the office, from their homes, or sales
sites so that they can still be in with the company network with the access permission.
5.6
Self Assessment Questions
5.1
5.2
5.3
Why do we need to connect computers?
What is a computer network?
Briefly describe the following network components.
a. Client
b. Server
c. Hub
d. Router
5.4 What are the differences between a Hub and a Switch?
5.5 What is the use of a MODEM?
5.6 Briefly describe the following categories of networks.
a. PAN
b. LAN
c. WAN
d. MAN
5.7 Briefly explain the classifications of networks according to the topology.
5.8 What is meant by Internet and Intranet? Why it is important to use intranet than internet?
5.9 What is the most suitable connection method for the following;
a. Computers within a laboratory.
b. Connect two computer laboratories.
5.10 List the advantages of having an Extranet for a company.
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Session 06
Usage of ICT& Environment for Computers
Aim:
This session aims to outline the uses of computers in the day to day life and
comprehensively model the environmental effects as well as the physical impacts.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:






Describe why the computers are used at places of work
Identify the different sectors where the concepts of ICT are used
Briefly describe what e-commerce, e-banking, and e-medicine are
Describe the nature of the environment of a computer based work area
Identify the health issues related to working with computers
Describe how to protect our environment by bad effects from computers
6.1
Computers at work
You might have not seen a place of work without a single computer in use. The computer has
become such essential equipment for almost all places of work no matter if it is a small scale or
large scale company. Computer literacy in varying extents has become an essential item under
the qualifications required for most of the job vacancies. However, the utilization of computers
may vary from place to place depending on the nature of the business they perform.
When we consider the both private and government sector places of work in Sri Lanka, following
can be considered as the typical uses of computers.





Managing data – keep track of data about customers, products, demographics and other
information important to the business, uses secured mechanisms for storages.
Maintain financial status – Keep track of the financial status of the company on an
annually, monthly or even day-to-day basis. Spreadsheet software is commonly used to
track expenditures, sales, and profit and losses. Accounting software provides a business
with even more assistance with financial matters, as it is used to do payroll, invoice
customers, prepare taxes and execute other essential functions. Companies can use their
computers to print checks for payroll and expenditures, and can form a direct link to the
company's bank account.
Communication–Uses e-mails, publishes information on web, keeps in touch with stake
holders via social networks, conference meetings avoids the need of physical availability
of participants of the meetings,
Networking- shares resources, common database of files accessible for authorized
members
Research work – Investigate new products, improve the quality of the existing products
through effective research
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


Audio and Video business presentation
Process simulations- The processes allows you to see effect of changes, without having to
actually make those changes to your processes, can use to maximize the overall
confidence with the proposed changes without implementing
Increase productivity through Industry specific software
Though the typical usage of computers at work has been summarized as above, there will be
many more answers to the question „What are the uses and advantages of computers in your
office?‟ depending on the nature of work handled within the company/office of the person. So it
is not a marvelous fact that most of the organizations move towards automating the tasks with the
help of modern computers.
6.2
Usage of ICT in different sectors
We looked at the usage of computers in a typical office in the previous section. It was quite
difficult to list of uses as it is vast. However, it can be clearly identify the sectors where ICT is
now used in the Sri Lanka and in the world, in general as listed below.
6.2.1 Potential Sectors with ICT usage
ICT can be potentially used in the following sectors. Note that the following list is given in
general but not specific to our country. Some of the sectors may be already familiar to you in
your everyday life.

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






Education
Heals care/medicine
Agriculture
Banking
Business/trade and commerce
Transport
Manufacturing
Travel and Tourism
Environment
Gender
Culture
Following sections will give a brief to some of the above sectors with respect to usage of ICT.
6.2.2 ICT in Education
The usage of concepts in ICT in the education sector also varies on its application such as,




ICT as a subject (i.e., computer studies)
ICT as a tool to support traditional subjects (i.e., computer-based learning, presentation,
research)
ICT as an administrative tool (i.e., education management information systems/EMIS)
ICT as a medium of knowledge exchange
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Accordingly, as a student who follows this course unit, you are dealt with the above first
category; ICT as a subject. However, you will be able to get more familiar to use the computer
for your studies not only this course unit but also the other courses you follow at OUSL by using
your computer as a tool to support your studies. This category is often referred to as e-learning.
We will be discussing deeply about e-learning in session 25 in this course material. However, the
following description is given as it is worth to get a brief idea on what e-learning is before
proceeding to the next sections.
E-Learning
As per a definition given in an international journey, e-learning, sometimes termed computerbased training (CBT), internet-based training (IBT) or web-based training (WBT), includes all
forms of electronically supported learning and teaching, including educational technology. The
information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific
media to implement the learning process. Accordingly you can see that the term e-Learning is
really just an umbrella term which covers a wide set of electronic educational applications and
processes.
Mostly, the electronic technology used here is the use of computers with the accessibility to the
internet. You will be able acquire and develop your knowledge so that you will be able to
demonstrate the particular topic learned which proves that it has positively influenced in your
behaviors. You may consider the OUMoodle (http://ousl.nodes.lk/) which is the Learning
Management System used in the Open University as a major learner support tool.
The advantages of e-learning with respect to both teaching and the learning parties can be
considered as;






Cost effective
Saves time without sacrificing quality
Minimizes travel cost
Can be accessed from anywhere any time in the world
Consistent course delivery
Individual instruction
6.2.3 ICT in Business/Trade and Commerce
Nowadays, the business IT specialist applies ICT in their organizations to achieve their
commercial objectives. It makes them be quick, cheap, and more attractive to the client of their
business. One of the major applications of ICT in businesses is the existence of industries where
buying and selling of products or services done through internet or other computer networks.
This area is called Electronic Commerce or E-commerce. You will learn what e-commerce is
deeply in session 25 of this material. However, again for your benefit, a brief description of ecommerce is given below before moving on to the next topic.
Online shopping and electronic payments can be considered as the most famous examples of ecommerce. In online shopping, the seller creates their sales outlet in the web while the buyer
brows and purchase products with mouse clicks. For an example, Amazon.com (See figure 6.1
below) is a famous online shopping destination where you will see the sale details of thousands
of goods and services.
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Figure 6.1: Interface of the Amazon shopping place (www.amazon.com)
Suppose that you need to buy a mobile phone online from amazon.com, there should be a
mechanism to make your payment online to the supplier. This mechanism is known as electronic
payments. Paying through your credit card is an example for an electronic payment. This type of
e-payments very effective and you do not need worry about the safety as the reliable shopping
destinations such as Amazon.com have taken sufficient safety measures.
6.2.4 ICT in Banking
Nowadays, for almost all operations in a bank are done with the help of the computers and the
internet or any other network. Basically, the banks store all their customers account details on
computers. This allows them to easily find out account information on their customers, and make
changes to their account balance easily, for things such as when money is put in and withdrawn
from the bank. Have you ever used an ATM card? Hopefully the answer is yes. Use of ATM
cards is one of the operations used in the banking sector with the ICT. You may know that you
can perform some of your banking activities without the physical movement into the bank. In
another words, you do your banking online. This facility is known as E-Banking.
You may visit https://www.commercialbk.com/comworks/default.asp (See figure 6.2 and 6.3
below) to access the online banking facility of the Commercial Bank of Ceylon PLC. You may
do banking with authorized access by logging to the site with your credentials.
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Figure 6.2: Online banking with Commercial
Bank PLC
Figure 6.3: Online Banking with Bank of
Ceylon
6.2.5 ICT in Medicine
ICT is used in many ways related to the Medicine sector. E-Medicine is one of such facility. EMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge database with a collection of thousands of
articles, images, videos which support you to browse and get knowledge in any matter related to
the medicine field such as details of diseases, drugs, medications, health news, first-aid guides,
etc. Further, you can get the answers for your own health care related question as well.
eMedicineHealth (http://www.emedicinehealth.com, see Figure 6.4 below) is an example for
such online medicine database. These knowledge databases usually get updated regularly to
provide an updated knowledge to the client.
Figure 6.4: Interface of an e-medicine database
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6.3
Health, Safety, and Environment for computers
Having read the previous sections of this session you might now have the feeling „what a vast
range of uses we get from out computers today‟. Computer, being such common equipment used
by people no matter a kid or an adult; did you ever think whether you are working in a good
computer based environment? Did you ever think that there are specific guide lines to use your
computer with respect to its physical environment? How many hours do you spend a day in front
of the computer? You might not thought of these types of questions before.
Following sections discuss about the computer based good working environment and the facts
that you need to keep in mind and obey as a computer user.
6.3.1 Work environment
It is essential to maintain your best possible work environment to ensure the health and the
productivity of all computer users. You may think that you have arranged the furniture and the
computer equipment correctly, but still it may give health issues arise if the working environment
is poor. Following are the physical aspects that you need to consider with respect to a good
working environment.







Working space
Location of workstations
Lighting
Decor
Atmospheric conditions
Noise
Housekeeping
A briefing of each above aspect is given below.
Working space
You must have enough space to perform your tasks safely and comfortably. The amount of
working space depends on the user, nature of work you do, and the devices and the furniture you
need to use. Everything should not be crowded. Sometimes, you get stressed or less productive
when the space is too compact. Therefore, you need to make sure that your work space gives you
a good comfortable posture and that you have easy access to and from the location of your
computer.
Location
It is important to think about the visual environment when locating your computer with other
peripherals. Here, the arrangement of lighting, the type of light fittings used, and the location of
the window are important to consider.

The office layout should be planned around the position of light fixtures to prevent walls
or partitions blocking or creating shadows over the work area.
 If the user is sitting near photocopiers and printers they may be distracted by noise and
the heat generated by the other machines and also may get disturbed by the people who
are coming often to operate those other machines.
 Make sure that you have an easy access to hardware and power points. Well positioned
power points can prevent use of multi-plug boards and extra cable lying.
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Lighting
You may use artificial to provide lighting, but it is better to go for a combination of natural and
artificial light. Some instances like using LCDs or if the user is an older person, then you may
require high level of lighting. Your lighting should be:
 Adjustable in direction and intensity level
 Does not produce excessive contrasts in different regions of your working area
 Does not result in glare or screen reflections at nearby users. Glare may cause visual
discomfort and may cause headaches as well as reduces the performance of the user.
Decor
Too much of dark colors can create contrasts in brightness so that additional lighting is needed.
As a general rule the ceiling should be brighter than walls and walls brighter than the floor.
Atmospheric conditions
It is a known fact that people react strongly when they think the air is stuffy, stale or polluted and
may express this as general dissatisfaction with the environment. So your working area should be
well ventilated and have a comfortable temperature. You may use air conditioners to satisfy this
condition.
Noise
Noise in your working area (may be generated from equipment, ringing phones, air
conditioners/fans, people work close by) can make communicating and concentrating difficult,
and may be leading to stresses. Generally, the more complex a task, the lower a user‟s tolerance
for noise is. So it is required assure that your work area is minimized with noise.
Housekeeping
Good housekeeping is promoting maintenance of good health and safety in your work place. So
the floors should be tidy and cleaned, environment should be dust free, and it is required to make
sure that the power cables do not present tripping hazards.
6.3.2 Computer related health problems
There are four potential health issues identified as associated with computer work. They are:




Physical discomfort, pain, or injury
Visual discomfort
Stress
Fatigue
These may often influence each other. Let us have a look at each issue separately.
Physical discomfort, pain, or injury
It may give several physical discomforts by working with computers. These may affect the parts
of your body like muscles, connective tissues, tendons, ligaments, joints, bony structures, the
blood supply, nerves and the skin.
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If you are physically affected or about to affect you may get one or more symptoms as listed
below.

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





Pain
Fatigue
Muscle discomfort
Stiffness
Burning sensations
Weakness
Numbness
Tingling
You may get these symptoms in different extents, and sometimes may get worsen gradually.
However, it is important to take corrective actions as soon as symptoms present. The small
changes you can make avoid bigger discomforts.
Following are two specifically identified health issues which come under the category described
above.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:
The Carpal Tunnel is an area on the palm side of the wrist bordered on one side by the carpal
bones and on the other by the Carpal Ligament, a fibrous band. This structure is quite rigid. If the
space in between the structure gets shrink, the structures within the tunnel gets an increasing
pressure. Repetitive movement at the wrist, as occurs with prolonged use of a computer keyboard
can lead to inflammation in the carpal tunnel and the resultant painful syndrome. Patients usually
feel pain in the forearm area as well as numbness in the affected hand in the thumb, index, long
and radial half of the ring finger. This numbness often occurs at night. The treatments vary from
wearing wrist splints, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgeries.
Neck and Back Pain:
Poor positioning of the keyboard and monitor in relation to the user can lead to discomfort of the
neck and back. The monitor screen should be at a level such that the user can easily see the
screen with the head held at a comfortable and neutral position. If the head has to be constantly
turned or tilted in order to see the screen, this will lead to chronic aches and pains in the neck
area. This along with any eye strain that occurs can lead to tension headaches. The chair or
keyboard stand should be adjusted so that when sitting with the hands resting on the keyboard,
the elbows should be slightly above the wrists. The chair should have firm lumbar support and it
is important that the individual maintain good posture to minimize back strain.
Visual discomforts
The symptoms such as sore eyes, red eyes, watery eyes, dry eyes, blurring of vision and
headaches may say that you are about to a vision problem due to computer work. So it is
required to take following precautions to avoid such health issues.


Adjustments to the work environment, such as lighting or window treatments to reduce
glare and minimize variations in light levels.
Reducing visual stress from computer work through, for example, the use of rest or
alternate task breaks throughout the workday, or frequently looking into the distance to
reduce focusing fatigue.
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



Adjustments to the work equipment, such as the location of the screen(s), keyboard,
mouse, paperwork and chair.
Adjustments to computer software, such as ensuring that the font, font size and screen
display settings meet the visual needs of the user.
Specific lenses to meet the unique demands of computer work, such as lenses that are
focused for the distance of the computer screen, lens designs that incorporate near and
intermediate focusing distances, and lens tints or coatings that may help to maximize
vision and comfort.
A programme of optometric vision therapy. Some computer users may experience
problems with eye focusing or eye coordination that cannot be adequately corrected with
lenses but may be correctable in other ways.
Stress
Stresses may cause due to problems at office or home. Some stresses are avoidable while
some are unavoidable. Following are some examples avoidable stresses as it is worth to
identify them as they can be avoided:



Working for too many hours each week
Working in a situation that is poorly set up for the work being done
No performance feedback or only adverse feedback
A good support both from outside work and in the work place may strengthen the computer
user‟s capacity to deal effectively with work stress. It is important to remember that for most
people work is good for health and wellbeing.
Fatigue
You may feel either physically, mentally, or emotionally fatigue due to bad computer use.
Common approaches for preventing fatigue and discomfort when using computers include
pauses, regular breaks, stretching and task variety, knowing deadlines and negotiate to get
achievable deadlines, break large tasks into small parts, have plans to achieve deadlines and
targets, etc.
6.3.3 Proper use of mouse, monitor, and key board
In addition to the little discussions made above on what we should do to prevent the health
issues, let us discuss more on prevention methods with respect to the devices you mostly use
such as the mouse, monitor, and the keyboard.
Mouse:

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


Place the mouse in an easy reach zone so that the shoulders and upper arms can be
relaxed and close to the body while operating the mouse.
Keep the wrist and hand in a neutral position, never bent.
Keep arm and hand in line (See Figure 6.5 below)
Use as little force as possible when clicking or dragging.
Use alternative devices on the market such as graphic tablets and pens, touchpad,
touch screens, and foots witch-operated mice.
Use mouse wrist supports to elevate the hand and wrist if feel better when using.
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Figure 6.5: Keep arm and hand in line
Monitor


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
Position the monitor so that you do not have to bend the neck up or down or twist the
neck sideways to view the screen.
The top of the display screen should be at or slightly below eye level and at about 18"
to 24" away from the face.
The angle of the screen should be easily visible.
Dark letters on a light background should be used to reduce eyestrain.
Adjust brightness and contrast.
Choose a monitor with good resolution for clarity of characters on the screen. The
screen refresh rate should be at least 60 Hertz to eliminate screen flicker.
The screen should be cleaned of dust frequently to ensure the image is sharp.
Keyboard




Place your keyboard at approximately elbow height with the surface at a comfortable
angle.
The hands and wrists should be held in a neutral position when typing: the wrists
should be straight and not be bent upward, downward or sideways. This position
places the least pressure on the tendons and nerves passing through the carpal tunnel.
The shoulders should be relaxed, the upper arms should hang comfortably down along
the sides of the body and the elbows should not be cocked out away from the body.
Wrist rests can be used to cushion and support wrists in breaks between typing based
on the recommendations of your doctor. However, they should not be used to support
wrists or hands while typing as this usually puts a bend in the wrist.
6.3.4 Reference postures
Following Figure 6.6 shows a range of acceptable postures that computer users may adopt as
starting positions to move in and around, but note that there is no uniquely correct posture
that would suit any user for an extended period of time.
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Sitting upright
Reward Tilt
Forward Tilt
Standing
Figure 6.6: Reference postures
6.4
Protecting environment
Sometimes, we may not think that usage of computers may be harmful to the
environment. But if you use the computer smarter, intelligently, and in moderation you
can prevent those harmful effects from your computer. Some of such good practices are
described below:
6.4.1 Go paperless
Printing every document sent to you not only uses up paper, but also ink and energy.
Instead of printing documents and filing them, try saving receipts and e-mails to your
hard drive using a PDF printer. This not only helps the environment, but can often be a
lot easier to keep track of than paper documents. Linux- and Mac-based systems come
with this option by default; Windows users can install a free program called PDF
Creator.
6.4.2 No Screen Saver
Screen savers are mostly an outdated concept and few modern monitors will "burn"
anymore. If your computer is set to use a screen saver, it is using electricity
unnecessarily. Consider instead setting your computer monitor to turn off after a set
period of time. This easily can be done in the same window where you configure your
screen saver.
6.4.3 Turn It Off
You don't need your computer on all the time. When you're not using it, turn it off. You
might ask the question from yourself don't want to close all your programs? You may
suspend the computer instead, which keeps everything open without the power usage. In
Windows this is done by clicking "Start," then "Shut Down," then "Suspend." Most
laptops will suspend if you close the lid.
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6.4.4 Use a Flash Drive
Blank CDs are a cheap and easy way to move data, but are largely disposable. If you
need to move files from one computer to another without using a network, consider using
a flash drive or external hard drive instead of disposable CDs. If you still prefer CDs,
consider buying re-writable discs. Reusing is always a good idea if you care about the
environment.
6.4.5 Fix Your Old Computer
Think it is time to buy a new computer? Think again. Many computers, especially with
Microsoft Windows, get slower as time goes on, but that has more to do with software
than hardware. Simply reinstalling the operating system can give what seems like an old,
slow computer a new lease on life. Still not fast enough? Installing more RAM is cheap,
impacts the environment less and might be all you need. Try this before buying a new
computer, which unnecessarily uses up resources and energy, not to mention your
money.
6.5
Self Assessment Questions
6.1 Using suitable examples, describe how computerization would help an organization
to perform more efficiently and effectively.
6.2 Briefly describe the following terms.
a. E-Commerce
b. E-Banking
c. E-Medicine
6.3 What are the advantages of e-learning with respect to both teaching and learning?
6.4 Briefly explain the nature of the environment that is preferable for a computer
based working area.
6.5 What are the four potential health issues associated with computer work? Give
examples.
6.6 Describe how to protect the environment by harmful effects of computers.
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Session 07
Information Security and Legal Regulations
Aim:
This session aims to give an idea of legal regulation that covers the information security.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:






7.1
Identify the types of computer threats that you may meet with the software
and hardware of your computers
Take safety precautions to minimize threats to your computer
Identify and solve privacy issues
Understand what copyright is
Avoid using computers illegally
Understand the other legal regulations related to computers
Introduction to Information Security
Information security is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, use,
disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction.
Wikipedia
In the other words, Computer Security is the protection of computing systems and the data they
store or access. Here, it is required to assure that your information are protected in terms of
Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability as illustrated in the Figure 7.1 below.
Figure 7.1: Information Security
7.1.1 Importance of Information Security
Information security plays a major role in your computing system, especially when the computer
is connected to the internet or any other network. Due to being attacked, an unprotected
computer can become infected or compromised within a few seconds after it is connected to the
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network. In the other hand it can be a case for the other computers which are available in its
network.
7.1.2 Possible attacks
Following is a list of attacks that may arise with your computer if not proper security measures
taken. In other words, following are the ways that your computer may behave due to being
hacked.









Record keystrokes and steal passwords.
Send spam and phishing emails.
Harvest and sell email addresses and passwords.
Access restricted or personal information on your computer or other systems that you
have access to.
Illegally distribute music, movies and software.
Distribute child pornography.
Infect other systems.
Hide programs that launch attacks on other computers.
Generate large volumes of traffic, slowing down the entire system.
7.1.3 Security measures
The following steps can be followed to prevent being attacked.
 Use good, cryptic passwords that can‟t be easily guessed. And keep your passwords secret.
 Make sure your computer‟s operating system and applications are protected with all
necessary security “patches” and updates.
 Make sure your computer is protected with up-to-date anti-virus and anti-spyware software.
 Don‟t click on unknown or unsolicited links or attachments, and don‟t download unknown
files or programs onto your computer.
 Remember that information and passwords sent via standard, unencrypted wireless are
especially easy for hackers to intercept.
 Look for “https” in the URL before you enter any sensitive information or a password
(The “s” stands for “secure”).
 Also avoid standard, unencrypted email and unencrypted Instant Messaging (IM) if you‟re
concerned about privacy.
7.1.4 Forms of software threats
In the previous section (Section 7.1.2) you learnt what type of attacks may arise with your
computer. We call that the cause of such attacks could be due to a Computer Virus, a Worm, or
any other form of other harmful program. Let us discuss more about such software threats with
some examples.
What is a computer virus?
We all get affected by viral infection deceases it is difficult to find a cure for a viral infections.
Computer virus is a harmful computer program developed by a person that disrupts operations of
a computer in various ways. It can be either malfunction of a program or set of programs, it can
be a program which generates e-mails in thousands, it can be a program that damages important
files such as documents beyond recovery, a program just simply destroys the files system of
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computer making it completely unusable or simply a harm less program which displays a
message in a taskbar or a title bar. Definitely you need to know that computer viruses do not
infect any human being.
The Creeper virus was first detected on ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet in the early
1970s. Creeper was an experimental self-replicating program written by Bob Thomas at BBN in
1971. Creeper copied itself to the remote system where the message, "I'm the creeper, catch me if
you can!" was displayed. The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper.
A program called "Rother J" was the first computer virus to appear "in the wild" that is, outside
the single computer or lab where it was created. Written in 1981 by Richard Skrenta, it attached
itself to the Apple DOS 3.3 operating system and spread via floppy disk. This virus was created
as a practical joke when Richard Skrenta was still in high school. It was injected in a game on a
floppy disk. On its 50th use the Elk Cloner virus would be activated, infecting the computer and
displaying a short poem beginning "Elk Cloner: The program with a personality."
Common virus types
There are several types of computer viruses existing and basically they can be classified
according to different categories. First two categories are resident viruses and nonresident
viruses.
Boot Sector Virus
This type of virus affects the boot sector of a floppy or hard disk. This is a crucial part of a disk,
in which information on the disk itself is stored together with a program that makes it possible to
boot (start) the computer from the disk.
Examples of boot viruses include: Polyboot.B, AntiEXE.
Worms
Worms do not require user actions to spread, they move from system to system over networks on
their own. It increases network traffic, CPU utilization of computer thereby making systems
slow. Worms can do nasty actions such as creating unnecessary files inside system folders, steal
information from user‟s computers and upload to web sites, provide unnecessary load in database
servers, infect files of selected file types like script files in web servers.
Examples: Confiker, PSWBugbear.B, Lovgate.F, Trile.C, Sobig.D, Mapson
Macro Viruses
Macro viruses infect documents created by Microsoft Office programs (Word, Excel,
PowerPoint and Access). Macro viruses infect to the files that are created using certain
applications or programs that contain macros. These mini-programs (MACROS) make it possible
to automate series of operations so that they are performed as a single action, thereby saving the
user from having to carry them out one by one. A valid macro performs useful job while illegal
macro might destroy important contents of a file when executed automatically.
Examples of macro viruses: Relax, Melissa.A, Bablas, O97M/Y2K.
The functionality of virus differs from one to another. Some will increase size of certain files
when infected. Some other viruses especially worms create files inside Windows or other folders
hiding their identity by naming them in irrelevant characters or with a name that is closer to a
required system file with hidden attributes. (e.g. lsass.exe is a valid system file whereas isass.exe
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is virus file). Some viruses employ polymorphic and an anti-stealth technology which prevents
them from identified and erased by virus catching programs called antivirus programs.
Other harmful programs
When people browse internet there are many web pages that displays a bogus question to user
saying that your computer is infected with some harmful program and do you wish to clean it
using their advertised program?. People are tempted to click on yes then the harmful program is
installed in the computer with user‟s permission. Then it will always nag the user to buy the
program or slows down the computer, prevent from browsing some other sites especially
antivirus (virus cleaning program) vendor‟s sites. These programs are called malware.
Common Methods of infection
Computer viruses can be infected using many methods. Before the popularity of computer
networks most of the computer viruses are written to spread through removable media like
floppies. Today most of the viruses being infected using removable media like thumb drives and
through networks and the Internet.
Today most of the computer viruses are designed to exploit some kind of an error (security hole)
or vulnerability of operating system or a program when it was programmed and try to sneak in to
computer system using the security hole.
Resident virus always runs on computers memory and runs automatically or trigged by an action
performed by user to infect or replicate itself to new locations or files. Nonresident viruses are
activated when user performs specific activity such as accessing floppy/removable media,
starting a specific program like Microsoft Word etc.
In a computer which is affected by a worm try to infect other computers through network.
Worms run automatically and scan network shares which are not password protected or having
weak passwords and try to infect the computer.
Trojan horses programs are distributed by some kind of fancy program such as screen saver
which is intended to do some other task. The danger of Trojan horse is that it tries to damage the
security of the computer from inside and open back door for other computer viruses to sneak in
to system.
Suspecting a Virus/malware present in your computer
There are several ways to find out that a computer virus or malware program is present in your
computer. One of the good symptoms is that your computer suddenly slows down after installing
a program downloaded from internet which gives you a good impression of that.
You can always press Ctrl, Alt and Delete and get the task manger by clicking on task manger
button of your computer if it is not displayed that means you are at a problem.
If you are able to get the task manager and in performance tab CPU usage is always reaching
100% without doing any useful task then you can suspect that some kind of virus or malware is
present in your computer.
If there are always nagging messages appearing and computer gets terribly slow down or does
unnecessary things like moving mouse automatically when you working with Microsoft Office
packages then you can suspect that a macro virus or some malware present.
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If you cannot eject your thumb drive without any document or program open from that thumb
drive, you are definitely infected with a virus. If you cannot see the folder options from windows
explorer or you cannot show the hidden files using folder options, you can suspect that a
computer virus might be present.
If you see that files are automatically created with unknown rubbish names it is a sign of virus
activity. If you cannot double click and access drives in My Computer it is also can be an activity
of a virus.
7.2
Hardware Threats
Though you manage and protect your data with proper use of software, your data may get lost or
damaged due to hardware problems. Really, Hardware is a common cause of data problems.
While you work, all of a sudden the power can fail, you can mistype, a repair technician can
accidently damages the data, or a magnets used closer to the PC without your knowledge can
damage disks. Likewise, hardware errors are of varying types and most of them are
unpredictable. But, some of them have solutions; unfortunately some do not. So, it is worth to
have a fair knowledge about the hardware threats to your PC and the solutions if any.
The following sections discuss the examples for possible hardware threats along with solutions,
if any.
7.2.1 Power Faults
Your PC may be busy writing data to the disk and in a sudden power may go out. Obviously, you
will be afraid if it lost your data. Your will be hurried to get know for sure if anything was
damages soon after the power is back. Usually, power faults can cause data problems,
particularly if they occur when data is being written to disk. Data in memory generally does not
get corrupted by power problems; it just gets erased if the problems are serious enough.
Some other similar power related problems are briefed below.
Brownout: Lower voltages at electrical outlets. Usually they are caused by an extraordinary
drain on the power system. Frequently you will see a brownout during a heat wave when more
people than normal have air conditioners on full. Sometimes these power shortages will be
“rolling” across the area giving everyone a temporary brownout. Maybe you‟ll get yours just as
that important file is being written to disk.
Voltage Spikes: Temporary voltage increases are fairly common. Large motors or circuit
breakers in industry can put them on the electrical line. Sudden losses (ex; a driver hits a power
pole) can causes spikes as the circuits balance. An appliance in your home can cause a spike,
particularly with older wiring. Lightning can put large spikes on power lines. And, the list goes
on. In addition to current backups and integrity information for your software and data files,
including a hardware voltage spike protection device between the wall and your computer
hardware (don‟t forget the printer and monitor) can be very helpful.
Frequency Shifts: While infrequent, if the line frequency varies from the normal 60 Hertz (or 50
Hertz in some countries), the power supply on the computer can be affected and this, in turn, can
reflect back into the computer causing data loss.
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Solution: Consider using a Combined Surge Protector (CSP) and Uninterruptible Power Supply
(UPS). See Figure 7.2 and 7.3 below for a CSP and UPS used for PCs respectively.
Figure 7.2: Combined Surge
Protector for a PC
Figure 7.3: Uninterruptable Power
Supply for a PC
7.2.2 Age
It is not an amazing thing that as computers age they tend to fails more often. Electronic
components are stressed over time as they heat up and cool down. Mechanical components
simply wear out. Some of these failures will be dramatic; something will just stop working.
Some, however, can be slow and not obvious. Unfortunately, it‟s not a question of “if”, but
“when” in regard to equipment failure.
Solution: Keep an eye on the specials after three to five years.
7.2.3 Incompatibilities
You can have hardware problems on a perfectly healthy PC if you have devices installed that do
not properly share interrupts. Sometimes problems are immediately obvious, other times they are
subtle and depend upon certain events to happen at just the wrong time, and then suddenly
strange things happen.
Solution: Make a really good backup before installing anything (hardware or software) so you
can revert the system back to a stable state which should something crop up.
7.2.4 Finger Faults
Your fingers may make mistakes when using the keyboard and the mouse and they are too
frequent cause of data corruption. This commonly happens when you are intending to delete or
replace one file but actually get another.
If you are using a laptop computer or a notebook, another finger fault problem arises with
touchpads below the space bar. It‟s very easy to brush the touchpad when you are typing away
and suddenly find yourself entering characters in a screen location very different from where you
were before you touched the pad.
Solution: Be careful and look up now and again to make certain your cursor is where you want
it.
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7.2.5 Malicious or Careless Damage
Someone may accidentally or purposely delete or change a file on your PC when you‟re not
around. If you don‟t keep your PC locked in a safe, then this is a risk. Sometimes, you may not
detect that something has happened to your data while you are not around. Most of this type of
damage is done unintentionally by someone you probably know. This person didn‟t mean to
cause trouble; they simply didn‟t know what they were doing when they used your PC. That may
be a person who is new to use computers.
Solution: Never run the computer as an administrative user and have guest accounts available for
others who use the computer. Keep up-to-date backups as well.
7.2.6 Data carriers
One possible source for computer infections is the Customer Engineer (CE), or repairman. When
a CE comes for a service call, they will almost always run a diagnostic program from CD. It‟s
very easy for these CDs to become infected and spread the infection to your computer. Sales
representatives showing demonstrations via CDs are also possibly spreading viruses. Always
check your system after other people have placed their data carriers such as CDs, Portable Hard
disks, and USB pen drives into it. (Better yet, if you can, check their disk with up-to-date antivirus software before anything is run.)
Solution: Insist on testing their CD/Pen drive/portable hard disk before use or make certain
they‟ve used an up-to-date anti-virus before coming to your location.
7.2.7 Magnetic Zaps
Computer data is generally stored as a series of magnetic changes on disks. While hard disks are
generally safe from most magnetic threats because they are encased within the computer
compartment, the older technology: floppy disks are highly vulnerable to magnets. You may be
happy that Floppy disks are not now in use with your PC.
The obvious threat would be to post a floppy disk to the refrigerator with a magnet. Some of the
more subtle sources of magnetism include:
Computer Monitor: Don‟t put floppy disks anywhere near the monitor; it generates a magnetic
field. (Generally applies to the older CRT displays.)
Telephone: When ringing, telephones (particularly older phones with a bell) generate a magnetic
field.
Solution: Stay away from magnets or sources of static of all kinds when working with a
computer.
Note: There are tools to assist in recovery from disk problems, but how do you know all the data
is OK? These tools do not always recover good copies of the original files. Active action
on your part before disaster strikes is your best defense. It’s best to have a good, current
backup and, for better protection, a complete up-to-date integrity-check map of everything
on your disk.
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7.3
Computer Related Privacy Issues
7.3.1 Exposure in browsing Web
Sometimes, you may think that you are unidentified an unexposed to other users when you
browse web sites. But there may be a possibility of leaving information about you left behind.
However, you can reduce the amount of such information that reveals about you to other users
by following some privacy policies. Next sections will discuss how to protect your privacy when
using Web.
7.3.2 Information that reveals you
The following information may be automatically sent to the web sites when you visit them.
IP address of your computer: the Internet Protocol address assigned to each computer on the
internet. It may be a static one which remains unchanged or it may be dynamic which changes
time to time as you access internet.
Domain name: the domain (division of internet) to which your user account associated with.
Software particulars: There is a possibility for an organization of identifying the operating
system used and the details of the web browser you use.
Details of pages visit: what pages and for how long you stay on a particular page, and the fact
whether you used a search engine to access that page can be identified
Other information: some non-critical information such as the web browsing pattern and some
critical information such as passwords saved in temporary memory also can be detected if the
web site uses cookies.
7.3.3 Limiting the information collection
You can follow the actions mentioned below in order to reduce the amount of information that
can be collect about you.
Pay special attention when supply personal data: If you don‟t trust any site, don‟t give your
personal data such as your credit card details, account details, passwords, etc.
Limiting cookies: the cookies can provide the store data about you to the attackers who access
your computer. You cannot limit it. But you can limit the use of cookies. Check and delete
cookies: All popular browsers let users view and delete cookies installed on their computer.
Methods vary by browser. For instance on Internet Explorer 8, go to the "Tools" menu, pull
down to "Internet Options" and under the "General" tab there are options for deleting some or all
cookies. There might be hundreds, so deleting all might be easiest. But the next time you visit a
favorite site, you may need to retype passwords or other login data previously stored
automatically by one of those cookies.
Adjust Browser Settings: Once you've deleted cookies, you can limit the installation of new
ones. Major browsers let you accept some cookies and block others. To maintain logins and
settings for sites you visit regularly, but limit tracking, block "third-party" cookies. Safari
automatically does this; other browsers must be set manually.
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Browse safely: If you see that the site you access is suspicious, then immediately leave the site.
Keep your virus definitions updated. Scan your computer for spyware.
7.3.4 Protecting your privacy
To protect your identity and prevent an attacker from easily accessing additional information
about you, you are required to avoid providing certain personal information such as your birth
date, your phone number, and social security number online. Further, the following help protect
your privacy.
Privacy Policy: You are advised to look for the privacy policy statement given in the sites
before you submit your information such as e-mail address, name, phone number, etc. Usually,
the privacy policy must state how the information they request are used and whether they are
going to distribute those data to other organizations, etc.
Encrypt the information provide: Many sites use SSL (Secure Socket Layer) certificate to
encrypt the information you provide to that site so that other attacker or an organization cannot
access your information collected by the site. If the „https:‟ is available in place of „http:‟ in the
URL of the site you visit together with the „lock‟ icon as shown below, that indicates that your
information will be encrypted at the time of providing them.
Work only with trusted companies: When you do business with some sites, you are required to
assure that you trust them. You may answer yourself to the facts such as whether the company is
a reputed, well established one, is it providing assurance on privacy of information provided, is
there legitimate contact information provided that enables you decide that the company is a
trusted one.
Avoid using primary e-mail address: When performing online submissions, use an additional
e-mail address in place of your primary e-mail address to avoid accumulation of spam or
unwanted messages.
Avoid using Debit Cards for online purchasing: Your Credit card usually give the protection
to some extents. However, the Debit cards do not give such protection and they deduct charges
immediately from your account. So, if an attacker obtains your debit card details, they will
completely use your money in the account even without giving you a time to realize it.
Use Options in providing information: You might have found that some options are there with
certain web sites to make your work easy without concerning your security. Prompting an option
to remember your password is an example for such instances and such options may make your
data readily available for the attackers. We can take the privacy settings given to your account in
social networks such as Face book as another example. You can restrict the other parties
accessing your data by setting the privacy options to reduce the risk of attackers.
7.4
Computer Related Legal Regulations in Sri Lanka
As a person who uses the computer and the internet, it is worth to get a considerable knowledge
in the legal aspects related to the computer using to be aware and prevent any illegal actions. The
83
following sessions will brief you about the premier organizations/projects developed in Sri
Lanka on this regard, the copyright law, and the data protection laws in the context of Sri Lankan
law.
7.4.1 ICT Policy formulation bodies in Sri Lanka
CINTEC
Having recognized the need of development of ICT by the government of Sri Lanka, the
CINTEC, “Computer and Information Technology Council of Sri Lanka” was established in
1984 to function directly under the president. Later it was renamed to “Council for Information
Technology” but retained the acronym CINTEC. Over the course of its history, it has assumed
more than one role in developing the IT industry, computer education, IT workforce etc.
CINTEC is considered as the predecessor of ICTA which is described next. Some of the
functions and duties of the council are listed below.




To advise the Minister on ICT development related matters such as formulation of
national policies, promotional strategies to use computers and applications in the country
to enable them capable in meeting modern technology challenges, ICT infrastructure
development, etc.
To promote and conduct research on all aspects of computer and information technology
To monitor development in computer and information technology and to adapt these
developments for use in Sri Lanka
To collect and disseminate information on computer and information technology and
related subjects, and to provide education to the public on such subjects
ICTA
The Information and Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) of Sri Lanka is the single
top body involved in ICT policy and direction for the nation. This body is wholly owned by
the Government of Sri Lanka and ICTA is the implementing organization of the e-Sri Lanka
Initiative. Major donors of ICTA including the World Bank will be funding a number of the
Agency‟s initiatives.
Some of the functions and duties of the ICTA are listed below.






Build the necessary infrastructure to connect villages and towns to the world
Create the enabling environment including the enactment of regulatory reform together
with the acceleration of enabling laws for e-government and e-commerce and promote
public - private partnerships
Develop human resources at multiple levels to support national development
Modernize the public sector and deliver citizen services through e-government constructs
Promote Sri Lanka as an ICT destination renowned for producing best-of-breed in niche
global markets through the use and adoption of technology and support public - private
partnerships in ICT service provision
Bridge the digital divide with applications aimed at poverty reduction and social
development
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7.4.2 Copyright and related laws
Copyright is developed to protect the rights of the authors, performers, producers and
broadcasters. Existence of such right contributes the cultural and economic development of
nations. It gives a value to the author as well and they provide a widespread affordable access to
their product‟s content to the public.
Need of avoiding copyright infringement
Any act violating the rights protected is called copyright infringement. Copyright is not only a
legal issue. If you use unauthorized file it may give security implications. To avoid the risk to
your computer you need to make sure that you have the permission to use any copyrighted
information, and only download authorized files.
Accessing internet and copyright infringement
When you use or distribute information without permission from the author you will be
performing actions causing copyright infringement. For an example you will be violating
copyright if you download music, including an image on your website, pirating software owned
by another person. So it is required to get know that you have the permission to do so.
Occasions where you have permission to use other‟s work
When you use web sites you might find some information such as an article, an application, a
chart, a video clip, etc. that you wish include into your web site or a document. Then you need to
search for information about permissions to use, download, redistribute, or reproduce. Most
websites have a "terms of use" page that explains how you are allowed to use information from
the site (see US-CERT's terms of use for an example). You can often find a link to this page in
the site's contact information or privacy policy, or at the bottom of the page that contains the
information you are interested in using.
There may be restrictions based on the purpose, method, and audience. You may also have to
adhere to specific conditions about how much information you are allowed to use or how their
formation is presented and attributed. If you can't locate the terms of use, or if it seems unclear,
contact the individual or organization that holds the copyright to ask permission.
Intellectual Property Act
The intellectual Property Act no. 36 2003 is an act to provide for the law relating to intellectual
property and for an efficient procedure for the registration, control and administration, set by the
Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. This act includes sections related
to the Copyright. So it is recommended to read the related sections of the act and you may refer
to act by following the link published by ICTA given below.
http://www.icta.lk/pdf/IntellectualPropertyActNo.36of2003(Sectionsr.pdf)
7.4.3 Data Protection Law in Sri Lanka
The legal protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal information
relating to them can be referred to as Data Protection. The Parliament of Sri Lanka has passed
several legislation that cover data protection. Following are some examples. However, Sri Lanka
needs more laws in the emerging new areas to attract new e-business throughout the world.
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ICTA has released some guidelines to be followed by government and private sector users
towards data protection.
Electronics Transactions Act
The Electronic Transaction Act was passed in 2006 (Act No. 19) and it became active on 01st
October 2007. This act enables to recognize and facilitate formation of contracts, the creation
and exchange of data messages, electronic documents, electronic records and other
communications in Electronic form in Sri Lanka. Further, this act also provides appointment of a
certification authority and accreditations of certification providers.
Computer Crimes Act
The Computer Crimes Act was passed into law in 2006 (Act No. 24) and it became effective on
15th July 2008. This act describes what Computer Crimes are and it provides the procedure for
the investigations and prevention of such computer crimes. This act introduced the criminal
implication regarding unauthorized access to a computer, computer program, data or information
and unauthorized use of a computer.
Other Sri Lankan legislation on ICT development
In addition to the acts described above following are some more acts passed by the Parliament of
Sri Lanka which have significant impact on the ICT development.





Information and Communication Technology Act No.27 of 2003
Evidence (Special Provisions) Act No.14 of 1995
Electronic Transactions Act No. 19 of 2006
Payment and Settlement Systems Act, No. 28 of 2005
Payment Devices Frauds Act No.30 of 2006
You may refer to more details on above acts by following the link below.
http://www.icta.l
7.5
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
Self Assessment Questions
What is meant by Information Security?
Explain the possible attacks that may arise with your computer and how to prevent them.
What is a computer virus?
Give two types of computer viruses with two examples for each type.
What is meant by malware?
Briefly explain the ways to find out that a computer virus or malware program is present in
your computer.
Discuss the examples for possible hardware threats to your computer along with solutions.
What are the functions and duties of following ICT policy formulation bodies in Sri Lanka?
a. CINTEC
b. ICTA
Name two acts passed by the parliament of Sri Lanka towards data protection.
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Session 8
Introduction to Windows 7
Aims:
The aim of this session is to introduce the learner to the Windows 7 operating system and get the
learner familiar to operate the computer through the Operating system Windows 7.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:



8.1
Describe about the Windows 7 Operating System
Identify and perform the basic operations in Windows 7
Organize and work with your files
What is Windows 7?
Windows 7 is a latest public release version of Microsoft Windows. Windows 7 was
released to manufacturing on July 2009. Windows Server 2008 R2 was released at the
same time. It is redesigned with Windows Shell with a new taskbar. Windows 7 includes
a number of new features, such as advances in touch and handwriting recognition,
support for virtual hard disks, improved performance on multi-core processors, improved
boot performance, Direct Access, and kernel improvements.
8.1.1 Versions of Windows 7
1. Starter is the smallest version of the windows 7. Actually it is less waiting, less clicking,
less hassle connecting to networks. Windows 7 Starter combines the latest in reliability and
responsiveness with the familiarity and compatibility of Windows.
2. Home Premium makes it easy to create a home network and share all of your favorite
photos, videos, and music. And you can watch shows for free when and where you want with
Internet TV on Windows Media Center.
3. Professional is a great choice for home and for business. Using Windows 7 professional,
You can run many Windows XP productivity programs in Windows XP Mode and recover
data easily with automatic backups to your home or business network. You can also connect
to company networks effortlessly and more securely with Domain Join. With all the exciting
entertainment features of Windows Home Premium.
4. Ultimate is the most versatile and powerful edition of Windows 7. It combines remarkable
ease-of-use with the entertainment features of Home Premium and the business capabilities
of Professional, including the ability to run many Windows XP productivity programs in
Windows XP Mode. For added security, you can encrypt your data with BitLocker and
BitLocker-To-Go. And for extra flexibility, you can work in any of 35 languages. Get it all
with Windows 7 Ultimate.
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8.1.2 System requirements
Windows 7 requires the following computer hardware:






32 Bit
A Processor of 1 GHz or faster 32-bit
(x86)
At least 1 GB of RAM memory
A hard disk with at least 16GB space
available
DirectX® 9 graphics processor with
WDDM or higher driver
A DVD drive from which to install
Windows.
A monitor, keyboard, and mouse or
other pointing device.






64 Bit
A Processor of 1 GHz or faster 64-bit
(x64)
At least 2 GB of RAM memory
A hard disk with at least 20GB space
available.
DirectX® 9 graphics processor with
WDDM or higher driver
A DVD drive from which to install
Windows.
A monitor, keyboard, and mouse or
other pointing device.
Table 8.1: Windows 7 Requirements
8.2
Installing Windows 7 into your PC
The Windows 7 Setup Wizard guides you step-by-step through the process of installing
Windows 7. When the installation is finished, you are ready to log on to Windows 7. Be aware
that your computer restarts several times during the installation process. Depending on the type
of installation you need to perform, either upgrade or clean, you will have to start the Windows 7
Setup Wizard in different ways. If you need an upgrade or clean install on a Windows version,
you simply start your computer and insert the Windows 7 installation DVD to start the Windows
7 setup Wizard. However, if you perform a clean install on a non-supported operating system or
a blank hard disk, you need to start your computer by inserting the Windows 7 installation DVD
into the DVD drive, which starts the Windows 7 setup Wizard. A clean install requires you to
select additional options as you step through the wizard, but the steps are basically the same.
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Insert the Windows 7 DVD into your DVD drive, and then start your computer.
Select the language and click Next
Click Install now
Click “I accept the license terms” and click Next
Click the custom installation methods
Select the disk partition you want to install Windows 7 and click Next (New setup is
installing windows 7 into your system)
7. Please wait for finish
8. Enter user name and a computer name and click Next
9. Type a password and click Next
10. Enter the product key and click Next
11. Click „Ask me later‟ and click next
12. Set the system date and time and click Next
13. Select the computer location as a Home network and Click Next
14. After installing windows 7, you can logon it.
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8.3
Basic Operations in Windows7
Let us have a look at the basic operations available with Windows 7. This knowledge will be
helpful to you to make working with your computer easy.
First, we will learn about some required fundamental skills before performing basic operations
available with your operating systems.
Keyboard Operations
There is an Enter key in your keyboard. The command „Enter‟ means you to press
the Enter key.
Escape:
Press the Esc key in your keyboard
Move:
To move left to right or up to down use the arrow keys
Control key: There is button labeled „Ctrl‟ you can press any keys with this ctrl key. Example
Ctrl + C means press ctrl key and C button in the same time or (First press Ctrl
then C but not reverse order)
Enter:
Mouse operations
Click:
The click operation means you can move the cursor in to a particular place and
press left button in your mouse
Double Click: Click the mouse left button twice quickly/consecutively
Right click: Click the right mouse button
Drag:
Move the courser with the left button
Drop:
After dragging from one place to another palace you can release the left button.
Log on to your computer
The process of starting a computer session is called logging on. When you start the computer,
Windows displays a Welcome screen containing links to each of the computer's active user
accounts. (If your computer is part of a domain, you will need to press Ctrl + Alt + Delete to
display the Welcome screen.) You select your user account and, if your account is password
protected, enter your password to log on to the computer. See Figure 8.1 below for the login
interface. When logging on to a computer which is part of a domain, you will always enter your
domain credentials.
Figure 8.1: Windows 7 Login Interface for a single user
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After a successful login, your desktop will be loaded. Figure 8.2 shows the screen layout of the
first user interface of the Windows 7. The Windows 7 system mainly contains three components
namely the desktop, start button, task bar & the system tray.
8.4
Windows 7 Interface
Let us have a look at the components of the Windows 7 Interface by means of the Figure 8.2
below.
6
8
1
7
2
5
3
4
Figure 8.2: Windows7 User Interface
Brief descriptions of each component are given below.
No
Name
Brief Description
1
2
3
4
Desktop
Start Menu
Task Bar
Notification area
5
6
Task Buttons
Desktop Icons
7
8
Shortcut Icons
Windows Gadgets
Work area on which you see your programs
Let you open programs available in your computer
Let you launch and monitor running programs
A portion of the taskbar that provides a temporary source for
notifications and status.
Currently opened programs/applications
Icons that belongs to and leads you to important parts of the
computer
Easy way to access programs
Popular mini-programs
Table 8.2: Components of Windows 7 User Interface
8.4.1 Desktop
Windows uses your screen as a desktop, a work area on which you see your programs. The main
purpose of the Desktop is to hold shortcut icons that will help you work efficiently. The Desktop
is really just a folder inside the Windows folder, so it can hold anything that any other folder can
hold. It can be decorated with interesting textures or pictures.
8.4.2 Start menu
Clicking on the Start Menu brings up a list of shortcuts to start your programs. An item with an
arrow at the right, such as Programs or All Programs, will open another list. There can be
several levels of such lists. The start menu lists commands and additional menus that list most of
the programs that you can run on your computer.
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Figure 8.3: Start menu
Windows 7 has a new way to access additional folders on the start menu. Instead of program
menus displaying to the right side of the Start menu, each subsequent menu you select, such as
the Accessories menu, displays on top of the previous folder.
8.4.3 Task bar
Across the bottom of the screen we see the Taskbar. Normally it is in view all the time. The
Taskbar's main job is to show what applications are currently running. The left end shows the
Start button. The middle section of the bar shows a button for each open application. The right
end holds the Notification area. Other toolbars, such as Quick Launch, Address, Links, Windows
Media Player, may also display on the Taskbar.
Figure 8.4: Task bar
8.4.4 Notification area
The notification area, or tray, at the far right of the Taskbar is used to show icons for programs
that are awake and hanging around in the background, like the clock, anti-virus, and scheduling
programs. Such an icon lets you know for sure that the program is ready to do its thing when it is
needed. Some icons mean that there is something for you to do, like view a new email message
or download/install a new update. This notification area is sometimes referred to as the system
tray as well.
Figure 8.5: Notification
area
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8.4.5 Task buttons
Task buttons are the buttons on the taskbar that represent each program that is running. If a
program displays more than one window, more than one task button may appear. Each task
button displays the icon for the program and as much of the program name as can fit. Click a
window's task button to select that window-that is, to make that window active. You can also
right-click a button to see the system menu, a menu of commands that you can give regarding
that window, including opening and closing the window. If the taskbar gets too full to fit task
buttons for all the open windows, Windows groups the buttons together, with one button for each
application.
Figure 8.6: Task bar
8.4.6 Desktop Icons
Some icons lead you to important parts of the computer. A number of others of this type may
show on your desktop, depending on what has been installed. For example, the My Computer,
Recycle Bin, and Network icon are the basic desktop icons that can be seen in your desktop.
8.4.7 Shortcut Icons
A shortcut points to the file that runs a program, like MS Word, or to a document, like the web
page Astronomy Picture of the Day. A shortcut can be placed wherever you want to put it - on
the Desktop, in a folder, in the Quick Launch area. A shortcut may have a small arrow at the
bottom left of the icon.
Figure 8.7: Shortcut icon
8.4.8 Windows Gadgets
Gadgets, the popular mini-programs introduced in Windows Vista, are now more flexible and
fun in Windows 7. Based on the feedback of the user, you can stick your gadgets anywhere on
the desktop. By default, Windows 7 ships with nine Windows Gadgets.
These include:
Calendar- A simple month, year, date, and day of week display in nonconfigurable orange. Nice touch: Click it and you'll see the full month view.
Clock-A decent clock with one major advantage over virtually every
downloadable clock gadget I've tried: You can set it to the time in any time
zone, not just the system time. Clock is configurable with 8 clock faces, some
of which are quite attractive.
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CPU Meter-This gadget features two simple analog-style dials measuring the
current CPU utilization and memory usage, respectively. Note that CPU Meter
is overly simple and can't differentiate between multiple CPUs or CPU cores.
Currency- A simple currency converter converts an amount of input currency
into target currency
Feed Headlines-This gadget is an RSS feed aggregator that links into the RSS
feeds you've subscribed to through Internet Explorer 7. It rotates through the
currently-unread feeds. If you click a headline, a pop-out window displays the
entire feed. Click the feed headline in the pop-out window, and the entire post
or article will be displayed in your default Web browser.
Picture Puzzle- A simple tile-based sliding puzzle game with 11 different images and timer.
Slide Show-A slideshow gadget that can be configured to display images in a
particular folder, with different transition types. A View button on the gadget
will open the currently displayed picture in Windows Photo Gallery.
Weather- A very handy and attractive weather gadget that can be configured
for any location worldwide.
Windows Media Center-The only new gadget in Windows 7, Media Center
provides a simple front-end to the Windows Media Center application. Click
any of its revolving set of links--Music, Pictures, Music + Pictures, Internet
TV, and many others--causes the appropriate experience to startup inside of
Windows Media Player.
8.5
Ending a Computing Session
To end a computing session, on the start menu, click the Shut down Options button to display a
list of ways you can pause or end your computing session. Windows 7 provides six options to
end sessions such as Switch user, logoff, lock, restart, sleep and shutdown as shown in the Figure
8.8 below.
Figure 8.8: Options to End a computing session
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Switch User
Allows you to change from the current user to another user without shutting down the computer,
Log Off
Allows you to log off from Windows and any network connections you have established.
Lock
Allows you to lock your computer so that users cannot access it, but it allows your programs to
continue running. This is handy if you are downloading a large file and you need to walk away
from your computer while it continues to download.
Restart
Shuts down Windows, and then reloads it (useful if your computer starts acting funny).
Sleep
Put the computer into a Sleep mode, which shuts down the hard drive and turns off the monitor
to conserve power consumption. Programs remain open and your documents are automatically
saved. When you awaken your computer, these devices turn back on.
Hibernate
Puts your computer into a power-saving mode that is similar to the Sleep mode, Hibernate is
available only if you use the advanced power settings in Windows.
Shut Down
Shuts down Windows, Windows displays a message when you can safely turn off the computer.
Don't turn off the computer until you see this message. Computers with advanced power
management shut off automatically.
8.6
Working with Windows Programs
A program is a software which you use to accomplish a specific task, such as word processing or
managing files on your computer. Windows comes with several small programs, called
Accessories that are extremely useful for completing basic tasks, such as creating a written
document or performing basic calculations. Windows 7 also provides a number of ways for you
to resolve some common problems. For example, you can use older programs (designed to run
on previous versions of Windows) on your Windows 7 computer by changing specific settings
using the Accessories menu. You can run commands from a text-based interface (called a
command line), and Windows provides an interface for quitting a program that has stopped
responding without turning off your computer and losing information in other programs. Other
special programs in Windows 7 are games. You can play games on your computer or with other
people over the internet.
8.6.1
Start a Windows program
The most common way to start a Windows program is to use the start menu, which provides easy
access to programs installed on your computer. Clicking the start button on the taskbar displays
the Start menu, which lists common and recently used programs and the all Programs submenu.
The figure 8.9 below shows the sub programs of the MS PowerPoint program which is a recently
used program. The All Programs submenu is the master list of every program on your computer.
If you start a program, such as your e-mail program, every time you start Windows, you can save
some time by adding the program to the Startup folder. When you‟re done working with a
program, you should exit, or close it, to conserve your computer‟s resources.
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Figure 8.9: Accessing recently used programs using start menu
8.6.2 Using Windows Accessories
Windows comes with several accessories, built-in programs that are extremely useful for
completing everyday tasks. One of the most useful features Windows offers is the ability to use
data created in one file in another file, even if the two files were created in different Windows
programs. To work with more than one program or file at a time, you simply need to open them
on your desktop. A program button on the taskbar represents any window that is open on the
desktop. When you want to switch from one open window to another, click the program button
on the taskbar. If you tile, or arrange open windows on the desktop so that they are visible, you
can switch among them simply by clicking in the window in which you want to work. The table
8.3 below lists some frequently used windows applications with a brief description on each.
Program
Description
Calculator
Internet Explorer
Notepad
Paint
Sound Recorder
Windows Calendar
Windows Contacts
Windows Defender
Performs arithmetic calculations
Displays Web (HTML) pages
Creates, edits, and displays text only documents
Creates and edits bitmap pictures
Creates and plays digital sound files
Manages appointments and tasks using personal calendars
Stores names, addresses, and other contact information
Helps protect your computer from spyware and other harmful
intruders
Windows DVD Maker
Burns pictures and videos to DVDs
Windows Fax and Scan Sends and receives faxes or scanned pictures and documents
Windows
Live Sends and receives instant messages to online contacts; you need
Messenger
to download the program
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Windows Mail
Windows Media Center
Windows Media Player
Windows
Meeting
Space
Windows Movie Maker
Windows Photo Gallery
WordPad
TT T
8.7
Provides e-mail, newsgroup, and directory services
Provides entertainment options for digital and on-demand media
Plays sound, music, and video
Provides an online place to share files, programs, or your desktop
Creates movies using audio and video files
Views, edits, organizes, and shares photos and videos
Creates, edits, and displays text, Rich Text Format, and Word
documents
Table 8.3: Common Windows Applications
Introduction to Windows 7 File System
8.7.1 The File System in general
A file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to
make it easy to find and access them. File systems may use a data storage device such as a hard
disk or CD-ROM and involve maintaining the physical location of the files. They might provide
access to data on a file server by acting as clients for a network protocol. There are two file
systems used by the windows such as FAT and NTFS (New Technology File System) file
systems.
The FAT (File Allocation Table) filing system, supported by all versions of Microsoft Windows,
was an evolution of that used in Microsoft's earlier operating system (MS-DOS which in turn
was based on 86-DOS). FAT ultimately traces its roots back to the short-lived M-DOS project
and standalone disk BASIC before it. Over the years various features have been added to it,
inspired by similar features found on file systems used by operating systems such as UNIX.
Older versions of the FAT file system (FAT12 and FAT16) had file name length limits, a limit
on the number of entries in the root directory of the file system and had restrictions on the
maximum size of FAT-formatted disks or partitions. Specifically, FAT12 and FAT16 had a limit
of 8 characters for the file name, and 3 characters for the extension. This is commonly referred to
as the 8.3 filename limit. VFAT, which was an extension to FAT12 and FAT16 introduced in
Windows NT 3.5 and subsequently included in Windows 95, allowed long file names (LFN).
FAT32 also addressed many of the limits in FAT12 and FAT16, but remains limited compared to
NTFS.
NTFS, introduced with the Windows NT operating system, allowed ACL-based permission
control. Hard links, multiple file streams, attribute indexing, quota tracking, compression and
mount-points for other file systems (called "junctions") are also supported, though not all these
features are well-documented.
Unlike many other operating systems, Windows uses a drive letter abstraction at the user level to
distinguish one disk or partition from another. For example, the path C:\WINDOWS represents a
directory WINDOWS on the partition represented by the letter C. The C drive is most commonly
used for the primary hard disk partition, on which Windows is usually installed and from which
it boots. This "tradition" has become so firmly ingrained that bugs came about in older versions
of Windows which made assumptions that the drive that the operating system was installed on
was C. The tradition of using "C" for the drive letter can be traced to MS-DOS, where the letters
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A and B were reserved for up to two floppy disk drives. Network drives may also be mapped to
drive letters.
8.7.2 The File Hierarchy and File management
File management is organizing and keeping track of files and folders, helping you stay
organized, so information is easily located. A folder is a container for storing programs and files,
similar to a folder in a file cabinet. As with a file cabinet, working with poorly managed files is
like looking for a needle in a haystack. It is frustrating and time-consuming to search through
irrelevant, misnamed, and out-of-date files to find the one you want. Windows 7 allows you to
organize folders and files in a file hierarchy, imitating the way you store paper documents in real
folders. Just as a file cabinet contains several folders, each containing related documents with
dividers grouping related folders together. So, the Windows file hierarchy allows you to organize
your files in folders, and then place folders in other folders. At the top of each hierarchy is the
name of the hard drive or main folder. This drive or folder contains several files and folders, and
each folder contains related files and folders. Please see figure 8.10 below for the File hierarchy
illustration.
Drive
Folder
File
File
File
File
Folder
Folder
File
File
….
Figure 8.10: File hierarchy
Note: You can explore the file structure of your computer as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click on Start
Select All programs
Select Accessories
Select Windows Explorer
8.7.3 What is a library?
Libraries are new in Windows 7. Libraries are where you go to manage your documents, music,
pictures, and other files. It is the location of your documents but more. You can browse your files
the same way you would in a folder or you can view your files arranged by properties like date
and type. In some ways, a library is similar to a folder. For example, when you open a library,
you'll see one or more files. However, unlike a folder, a library gathers files that are stored in
several locations. This is a subtle, but important, difference. Libraries don't actually store your
items. They monitor folders that contain your items, and let you access and arrange the items in
different ways. For instance, if you have music files in folders on your hard disk and on an
external drive, you can access all of your music files at once using the Music library.
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What happens if you delete a library or the items in a library?
If you delete a library, the library itself is moved to the Recycle Bin. The files and folders that
were accessible in the library are stored elsewhere and therefore aren't deleted. If you
accidentally delete one of the four default libraries (Documents, Music, Pictures, or Videos:
Please see figure 8.11 below), you can restore it to its original state in the navigation pane by
right-clicking Libraries and then clicking Restore default libraries. If you delete files or
folders from within a library, they're also deleted from their original locations. If you want to
remove an item from a library but not delete it from the location it's stored in, you should remove
the folder containing the item. When you remove a folder from a library, all the items in the
folder will be removed (but not deleted).
Figure 8.11: Libraries in Windows 7
8.7.4 The System Root in Windows 7
By default, the Windows operating system is installed in the C drive which is also called the
System Root. It mainly consists of three folders namely Windows folder, Program Files folder
and Users folder The Windows folder contains operating system files, Program files folder
contains installed programs and Users folder contains user profiles. Other folders and files are
user files that are stored by users. Note that it is harmful for the computer system to change the
above three folders. See Figure 8.12 below
32 Bit O/S
System Root
Figure 8.12: The system root folder in Windows 7
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8.7.5 Personal Areas in Windows 7
As you learnt above, the Windows 7 Operating System stores all user profiles (All user data) in
the Users folder in the system root drive (C :\) under the relevant user name. Following Figure
8.13 shows the User profile of the user named „Eranda‟ who is the administrator of that computer
system. It contains some data folders such as My Documents, My Music, Desktop, Favorites, etc.
these are the personal areas of the user administrator.
Figure 8.13: Admin User profile
Ex: If there is a user named DMCS, the desktop of the DMCS‟s path can be written as follows:
C:\Users\dmcs\Desktop
System root
User’s name
Note that, Administrator is the person who can manage your computer. If you are an
administrator then you can see the other users‟ profiles. Managing user accounts in windows 7 is
described in the next section.
Example: To see the user Saman‟s desktop, click Saman folder in the Users folder and then click
the Desktop.
If you wish to format your C drive and re-install the operating system please backup your user
profile. After installing the operating system please create user by same name and copy your
profile in to document and setting folder. It saves your all personal data without any change.
8.7.6 File naming conventions
File naming conventions may differ based on the Operating System (OS) family. Following
section discusses the file naming conventions used in windows OS and it is compared with the
MS DOS OS.
In the windows file naming mechanism you have two components to file name. That is name
part and extension part.
NAME.EXT
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Name part contains a descriptive name of the file and extension part shows what type of file it is.
Extension type also helps to specify the software that can be used to open the file.
In MSDOS operating system which is a command based operating system, the maximum number
of characters that can be used for file name is 8 and 3 for extension. Therefore we can say it is
8.3 file naming system used in MSDOS.
Visible numbers and alphabetical characters are allowed in file name. Special symbols (#,*,?, /,
space etc.) are not allowed for file name. The letter _ (underscore) is allowed to use in file
names. All file names are not case sensitive. For example, consider the names OSCAR, Oscar, and oscar
to be the same.
Therefore examples of valid and invalid filenames in MS DOS are,
Valid File Names
Lisa.do_
Invalid File Names
?mnd.exe
Reason For Invalidity
? is a special character
Priyal.dll
Kumar.xls
#mal.tx
Kiranthi_.txt
# is a special character
More than 8 characters for name
Sales.doc
Jinasena.tx
_desig.vbs
Junglebook.com
$mahan.com
Palitha P.yah
More than 8 characters for name
$ is a special character
Space is not allowed
Table 8.4- Valid & Invalid file names in MS DOS
Generally in windows you can give up to 255 characters including spaces to your file name.
Special characters are not allowed similar to MSDOS. For example valid file names in Windows
are,
Valid File names
Kiranthi_Disanayake.txt
Priyal perera.doc
Marketing
Strategy
Nov.xls
Sales Qty.doc
Jinasena.txt
_desig.vbs
Invalid File names
?mnd.exe
#mal.tx
Disa/perera.ppt
Reason For Invalidity
? is a special character
# is a special character
/ cannot be used in file name
^for design.com
$mahan.com
^ cannot be used in file name
$ is a special character
Table 8.5: Valid & Invalid file names in Windows
8.8
Storing and Managing Data
8.8.1 Basic File/Folder Operations in Windows 7
Organizing files/folders
As you learnt above, Windows 7 allows organizing your files and folders with your data in a
Drive other than the C: drive. The files/folders can be managed through the window you get
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when you explore a particular location. This window will be similar to the Windows Explorer.
Following Figure 8.14 shows the basic components/areas of your file exploring window.
Path to the
file/folder named
‘ICT Skills OUSL’
Back and Next buttons
to navigate within the
folders
Tool to
organize
files/folders
A file
Total no. of files
and folders
Sub folder
Click here to create
a new folder inside
‘ICT Skills OUSL’
Click here to change
the options of the
file/folder view
Ex: To see with
large/small icons,
Type here to search
any file/folder within
ICT Skills OUSL
‘Help’ on
Files/Folders
This is the ‘Detail’
view of file/folders
Figure 8.14: Basic areas in file exploring window
File/Folder Select operation
You can use mouse to select a single folder or file by clicking on it. If you want to select
multiple files which are close by one after another you can use mouse to encircle the files that
you want to select or press shift key and down or up arrows to select files in given direction.
Creating and Naming Folder
The keys to organizing files and folders effectively within a hierarchy are to store related items
together and to name folders informatively. Creating a new folder can help you organize and
keep track of files and other folders. In order to create a folder, you select the location where you
want the new folder, create the folder, and then lastly, name the folder. You should name each
folder meaningfully so that just by reading the folder‟s name you know its contents. After you
name a folder or file, you can rename it at any time.
Steps to follow:
1. Open the drive or folder where you want to create a folder.
2. Click New Folder button on the toolbar OR Right-click on a blank area of the window,
and then click New Folder.
3. With the New Folder name selected, type a new name.
4. Press Enter.
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Figure 8.15: Creating and naming a folder
Adding Properties and Tags to Files
When you create a file, Windows automatically adds properties to the files, such as name,
creation date, modified date, and size. These properties are important to Windows; however, they
may not be useful when you are searching for a file. You can add or modify common files
properties and create or modify custom tag properties (New!) to make it faster and easier to
locate files in the future. You can add or modify properties for most files. However, there are
some exceptions, such as plain text (.txt) or rich text format (.rtf) files. You can add or modify
properties using the details pane in an Explorer window (see figure 8.16 below), the details tab in
the properties dialog box, or in the Save As dialog box. If you want to remove some or all of the
property information in a file, you can quickly remove it using the properties dialog box.
Figure 8.16: Directly change properties of the file
Steps to follow:
1. Click the Start button, and then click Documents.
2. Click the file you want to add or modify properties.
3. In the details pane, click the tag you want to change, and then type the new tag. If the
Details pane is not available, right-click the file, click properties, click the Details tab.
When you are done, click Apply.
4. To add more than one tag, separate each entry with a semicolon.
5. To rate a file using the rating property; click the star that represents the rating you want to
give the file.
6. Click Save.
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Copying a File/Folder
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder you want to copy.
Select the files or folders you want to copy.
Click the Organize button on the toolbar, and then click Copy
Display the destination folder where you want to copy the files or folder.
Click the Organize button on the toolbar, and then click Paste.
Moving a File/Folder
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder you want to move.
Select the files or folders you want to move.
Click the Organize button on the toolbar, and then click Cut.
Display the destination folder where you want to move the files or folder.
Click the Organize button on the toolbar, and then click Paste.
Delete Files and Folders
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the files and folders you want to delete.
Click the Organize button on the toolbar, and then click Delete.
Click Yes to confirm the deletion and place the items in the Recycle Bin.
On the desktop, right-click the Recycle Bin icon, and then click Empty Recycle Bin.
(Note: Your computer permanently removes the items.)
Restore Files and Folders
Imagine that you deleted a file/folder by mistake. Don‟t worry! You can get it back from the
Recycle Bin into the original location where you had it, if you have not emptied the Recycle Bin.
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Double-click the Recycle Bin icon on the desktop.
Select the item or items you want to restore.
Click the Restore this item or Restore all items button on the toolbar.
The restored file(s) now will be available in the original location
Create a Shortcut to a File or Folder
Steps to follow:
1. Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder for which you want to create a
shortcut.
2. Right-click the file or folder, and then click Create Shortcut.
3. To change the shortcut‟s name, right-click the shortcut, click Rename from the shortcut
menu, type a new name, and then press Enter.
4. Drag the shortcut to the desired location.4
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Show or Hide Hidden Files and Folders
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Right-click the file or folder you want to hide or unhide, and then click Properties.
Go to the General Tab
Select or clear the Hidden check box under Attributes.
Click Apply
Select the option „Apply to this folder only‟ and confirm the above attribute change by
clicking OK
6. Click OK.
7. The files or folders appear transparent or hidden.
Figure 8.17: Show or hide folders
Compressing Files and Folders
You can compress files in special folders that use compressing software to decrease the size of
the files they contain. Compressed folders are useful for reducing the file size of one or more
large files, thus freeing disk space and reducing the time it takes to transfer files to another
computer over the Internet or network. A compressed folder is denoted by a zippered folder icon.
You can compress one or more files in a compressed folder by simply dragging them onto the
compressed folder icon. When a file is compressed, a copy is used in the compression, and the
original remains intact. You can uncompress, or extract a file from the compressed folder and
open it as you normally would, or you can open a file directly from the compressed folder by
double-clicking the Compressed File icon. When you open a file directly, Windows extracts the
file when it opens and compresses it again when it closes.
Steps to follow:
1. Select the files and folders you want to copy to a compressed folder.
2. Right-click one of the selected items, point to Send To, and then click Compressed
(Zipped) Folder.
3. To copy additional files or folders to the compressed folder, drag the files onto the
compressed folder.4
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1
Figure 8.18: Compress files and folders
Searching Files
Windows provides several ways to find files and folders. There isn't one best way to search. You
can use different methods for different situations.
Use the search box on the Start menu
You can use the search box on the Start menu to find files, folders, programs, and e-mail
messages stored on your computer.
To find an item using the Start menu:
1. Click Start button.
2. Type a word or part of a word in the Search box.
3. Search results will appear as soon as you start typing in the Search box.
Search results
Search Box
Figure 8.19: Use the search box on the start menu
As you type, items that match your text will appear on the Start menu. The search results are
based on text in the file name, text in the file, tags, and other file properties.
Note: When searching from the Start menu, only files that have been indexed will appear in
search results. Most files on your computer are indexed automatically.
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Use the search box in a folder or library
You're often likely to be looking for a file that you know is in a particular folder or library, such
as Documents or Pictures. Browsing for the file might mean looking through hundreds of files
and subfolders. To save time and effort, use the search box at the top of the open window.
Figure 8.20: Use the search box in a folder
The search box filters the current view based on text that you type. The search looks for text in
the file name and contents; and in the file properties, such as in tags. In a library, the search
includes all folders included in the library as well as subfolders within those folders.
To search for a file or folder by using the search box:

Type a word or part of a word in the search box.
As you type, the contents of the folder or library are filtered to reflect each successive character
you type. When you see the file that you want, stop typing.
8.9
Windows 7 User Accounts
Windows 7 provides two main types of user accounts such as administrator and standard. For a
domain network computer, different account types (administrator, standard user, and restricted
user) provide similar permissions as the ones on a shared or workgroup computer.
The Administrator account is for the person who needs to make changes to anything on the
computer as well as manage user accounts. An administrator can install programs and hardware,
make system-wide changes, access and read all non-personal files, create and delete user
accounts, change other people‟s accounts, change the own account name and type, change the
own picture, and create, change, or remove the own password.
The Standard user account is for the person who needs to manage personal files and run
programs. The standard user cannot install password for easy access and contains more
restrictions than the standard account.
The guest account is disabled by default and needs to be turned on. You can also create a user
group, which is a collection of user accounts that all have the same security rights. The most
common user groups are the standard user and administrator. A single account can be a member
of more than one group.
See Figure 8.21 below shows the main two types of user accounts: Standard user and
Administrator.
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Figure 8.21: Windows 7 User Accounts
8.10 The System Settings
8.10.1 The Control Panel
Windows 7 gives you the ability to customize your work environment (your computer‟s desktop
and other settings) to suit your personal needs and preferences. You can adjust most Windows
features through the Control Panel, a central location for changing Windows settings. From the
Control Panel you can access the individual programs for changing the properties, or
characteristics, of a specific element of your computer, such as the desktop, the taskbar, or the
Start menu. Each icon in the Control Panel represents an aspect of Windows that you can change
to fit your own working habits and personal needs. For example, you can use the Display icon to
change the background picture or color of the desktop, or the Taskbar and Start Menu icon to
customize the taskbar and Start menu. Some Control Panel settings are vital to how you work
(such as the Date and Time, or the Language settings) and others are purely aesthetic (such as the
background picture, or which screen saver you use). The Control Panel also includes icons to
setup user accounts and maintain security, and setup and manage local-area, wide-area, and
wireless networks. You can access printers and faxes, add and remove programs and
automatically update Windows. You can also work with hardware, such as a scanner, digital
camera, modem, audio and speakers, mouse, and keyboard.
Note: Changing system settings through the Control Panel are described in the next session.
8.10.2 The Control Panel in Category View
The control panel can be viewed in two ways namely in Small Icons,
in Large Icons, and by Category. In this course material we will be
mainly discussing the system settings that could be done through the
components of the control panel viewed by Category. Following are
the steps to view the control panel in category view and the Figure
8.21 illustrates the categories of the settings in Control Panel.
1. Click the Start button,
2. Click Control Panel.
3. In the View by options, select Category View.
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Figure 8.22: Control Panel category view2
8.11 Self Assessment Questions
8.1
Which versions/editions of Windows 7 have the following capabilities?
a. Create a HomeGroup
b. Support XP mode
c. Join a network domain
8.2 Which version of Windows 7 supports BitLocker? State the purpose of BitLocker feature.
8.3 What are the system requirements of Windows 7?
8.4 Briefly describe the six options available in Windows 7 to end a computing session.
8.5 Name the accessories available with windows 7 to perform the following tasks.
a. To display, create, and edit text only documents.
b. To create movies using audio/video files.
c. Help to protect your computer from spyware and other harmful intruders.
8.6 Briefly describe the purposes of following components of the Windows 7 interface?
a. Start Menu
b. Task Bar
c. Notification area
8.7 What are Windows Gadgets? Name five gadgets available in Windows 7.
8.8 What is a file system? Briefly describe the file system used by Windows 7.
8.9 What are Libraries? Name four default libraries available with Windows 7.
8.10 State the advantages of using compressed files.
8.11 State whether the following are either valid or invalid file names in Windows. Give reasons
if invalid.
a. My sample file1.txt
b. *Saman_1.docx
c. Intro_21/03/2013.pptx
d. 123_saman.png
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Session 9
Working with Windows 7
Aims:
The aim of this session is to explore the skill of the learner to manage the computer as per own
and standard requirements through the windows 7 Operating system.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:

Do the changes in the settings of your computer through the control panel options in
terms of System security User accounts and Family safety, Network and Internet,
Appearance and Personalization, Hardware and Sound, Clock/Language/Region,
Programs and Ease of Access.
Learn how to maintain your computer towards a better and last longer performance.

How to adjust your computer‟s settings
9.1
As you learnt in the latter part of the previous session, you can do the adjustments in your
computer‟s settings according to your wish. The category view of the control panel allows
you to do the adjustments in the settings of the following areas and each setting changes are
briefly described in the coming sections within this session.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
System and Security
User Accounts and Family Safety
Network and Internet
Appearance and Personalization
Hardware and Sound
Clock, Language, and Region
Programs
Ease of Access
9.1.1 System and Security
Through the category of System and Security in the Control panel, the user will be able to
perform the following tasks,





View and change security status.
Backup and restore file and system settings.
Update your computer.
View RAM and processor speed.
Check Firewall, and more.
109
Let us take the example of viewing RAM and Procesor speed. The steps to be follwed are
given below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Select System and Security.
Select View amount of RAM and Procesoor Speed under the topic System.
In the Window that you will meet next, the details of the RAM and Processor will be
displayed as follows:
Figure 9.1: Details of the RAM and Processor
9.1.2 User Accounts and Family Safety
Through the category of User Accounts and Family Safety in the Control panel, the user
will be able to perform the following tasks:


Change user accounts and settings, and passwords.
Set up parental control for users.
Let us take some example actions which are possible under
this category
Adding and Deleting a user account
Steps to follow:









Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Select User Accounts and Family safety icon.
Click User Accounts.
Click Manage another account.
Click Create a new account.
Type an account name.
Click the Administrator option, or click the Standard option based on the type of the user that
you are going to create an account for.
Click Create Account.
Click the Close button.
Change a User‟s Groups or Account Type
Steps to follow:


Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Select User Accounts and Family safety icon.
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





Click User Accounts.
If you want to change the data related to another account, click manage another
account, and then click the user‟s account name.
Click Change your account type or Change the account type.
Click an account type option.
Click Change account type.
Click the close button.
Change an Account Picture
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Select User Accounts and Family safety icon.
Click User Accounts.
If you want to change the picture of another account, click manage another account,
and then click the user‟s account name.
Click Change your picture or Change the picture.
Select the picture you want to have the picture of your account.
Click Change Picture, or click Browse for more pictures and select and double-click
the picture you want.
Click the Close button.
Create a Password
Steps to follow:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Select User Accounts and Family safety icon.
Click Create a password to your Account
Type a password, and then type it again.
Type a hint that reminds you of the password.
Click Create password.
Click the Close button.
9.1.3 Network and Internet
Through the category of Network and Internet in the Control panel, the user will be able to
perform the following tasks:



Check network status and change settings.
Set preferences for sharing files and computers.
Configure internet display and connection, and
more
9.1.4 Appearance and Personalization
Through the category of Appearance and Personalization in the Control panel, the user will
be able to perform the following tasks:
 Change the appearance of desktop items.
 Apply a theme or a screen saver to your computer.
 Customize the start menu and the task bar.
111


Change folder options.
Manage fonts installed in the computer.
Let us take some example actions which are possible under this category.
Change the desktop background
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click appearance and Personalization.
Click Personalization.
Click change desktop background.
Click the picture(s) in the given list of pictures, or click Browse to select a folder of
pictures saved in your computer.
Select the picture(s) from the loaded pictures from the browsed location.
Set the Picture location.
Set the picture change time if you selected several pictures to be appeared in your
desktop background.
Click Save Changes.
Change the Screen Resolution
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click appearance and Personalization.
Click Display.
Click Adjust Resolution from left pane.
Set the resolution from the drop down list you get under the resolution.
Set resolution here
Figure 9.2: Change the resolution
Change the Screen Saver
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click appearance and Personalization.
Click Personalization.
Click Change screen server.
Click the list arrow, and then select a screen saver.
Click settings.
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7. Set the options you want for the screen saver, and then click OK.
8. Click preview to see the screen saver in full-screen view, and then move your mouse to
end the preview.
9. Specify the time to wait until your computer starts the screen saver.
10. Select on resume, display logon screen check box.
11. Click Apply.
12. Click OK.9
Change the Desktop theme
The Desktop theme allows you to change the desktop background, window colour, sounds,
and screen saver all at once.
Steps to follow:
1. Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
2. Click appearance and Personalization.
3. Click Personalization (Or Right-click a blank area on the desktop, and then click
Personalize).
4. Click a theme from the listed themes.
Change the Taskbar and Start menu properties
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click appearance and Personalization.
Click Taskbar and Start menu.
Set the required changes from the Taskbar and Start menu window.
Click Apply.
Click OK.
Fonts in your computer
To preview, delete, show, and hide fonts installed in your computer use the steps given
below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click appearance and Personalization.
Click Fonts.
Right click on the selected font to be deleted/hidden/copied/previewed.
Select delete/hide/copy/preview.
9.1.5 Hardware and Sound
Through the category of Hardware and sound in the Control panel, the user will be able to
perform the following tasks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Add or remove printers and other hardware.
Change system sounds.
Play CDs automatically.
Conserve power.
Change Mouse settings.
Update device drivers, and more.
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Let us take some example actions which are possible under this category.
Add (install) a printer
You can install a printer into your computer as follows; the printer may be a local one to be
used only by your computer or it may be a networked on if it is to be used by many
computers connected in the network that your computer is connected to.
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Hardware and sound.
Click Devices and printers.
Click Add a printer.
Select whether you are going to add a local printer or a network, wireless, or Bluetooth
printer.
6. Click next.
7. Select the printer to be used from the list of existing ports or select, create a new port
and select the type of port.
8. Click next.
9. Now it is ready to install the printer driver software.
10. Select the printer from the listed printers.
11. To install the driver from the CD you have, click Have CD.
12. Insert the Manufacturer CD and follow the steps as prompted until the step of getting a
test page printed successfully from the new printer you added.
Changing the default printer
Though this topic does not come under the control panel topic, it is worth to get know how to
make a particular printer as the default printer among several printers installed into your
computer.
Note: The printer that you designate as the default destination for all print requests. If no printer
name is used, the default printer is used.
Steps to follow:
1. Click Start button.
2. Select Devices and Printers.
3. Select the printer to be made as the Default printer
among the available Printers and Faxes.
4. Right click on the selected printer.
5. Select “Set as Default”.
Change system sounds
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Hardware and sound.
Click sound.
Set the changes in the sound settings from the sounds tab in the sound window that
appears next as shown below.
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Figure 9.3: Changing the display sounds
Adjust system volume
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Hardware and sound.
Click Adjust system volume appearing under the sound.
Drag and drop the sound controller to the required level.
Adjust Mouse properties
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel
Click Hardware and sound.
Click Mouse appearing under the Devices and printers.
Set the mouse properties such as mouse button configuration, adjust double click
speed, set mouse pointer image, set mouse motion speed, etc. from the different tabs
available in the Mouse properties window.
Figure 9.4: Mouse properties
115
9.1.6 Clock, language, and Region
Through the category of Clock, language, and Region in the Control panel, the user will be
able to perform the following tasks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Change the Date, time and time zone of your computer
Change the language to use
The way numbers, currencies, dates, times are displayed
Change keyboard or other input methods
Install/uninstall language packages
Let us take some example actions which are possible under this category.
Change date and time
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Clock, language, and region.
Click Date and Time.
Select the date and Time tab.
Click change date and time.
Set the new date and time as you wish from the
following window that appears next.
Change the time zone
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Clock, language, and region.
Click Date and Time.
Select the date and Time tab.
Click change time zone.
Select the new time zone from the down arrow
list of the following window that appears next.
Install/Uninstall Language packages
When you have installed different language packages such as Sinhala, Tamil, etc. you will be
able to display text in your chosen language snd it will support speech and handwriting
recognition.
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Clock, language, and region.
Click Region and Language.
Select the Keyboard and Languages tab.
Click Install/Uninstall Languages.
Choose to install or uninstall languages.
If install, follow the next steps by identifying the
method to install saying whether you are going to
116
install the language by downloading from internet or by browsing the file saved in
your computer.
9.1.7 Programs
Through the category of Programs in the Control panel, the user will be able to perform the
following tasks:
 Uninstall programs or windows features
 Uninstall windows gadgets
 Get new programs from the network or online, and more
Before moving onto some example actions such as uninstalling programs under this
category, we will look at the reasons for deciding to uninstall a program or an application
from your computer first.
Reasons for uninstalling an application
There may be several reasons as listed below that lead you to decide to uninstall a particular
program from your computer.








Application being outdated.
You are not in a position to pay more if the application is a paid one.
Application does not function well/buggy/not working as intended.
You are done with using the application (ex. computer games, if you feel that you do
not need play it anymore, you may decide to remove it from your computer).
You don‟t feel safe with your application.
Your application is too big in size and you are in need of more space.
Your application doesn‟t have good reviews.
User refused to accept terms and conditions of the application.
Uninstalling an application
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Go to the Category view of Control Panel.
Click Programs.
Click Programs and Features.
Select uninstall a program listed under the above selection.
Select the application/program to be uninstalled/changed/or repaired from the listed
all programs installed in your computer.
6. Click the relevant command change/uninstall/repair.
(For an example, let us uninstall the „Madhura dictionary” application)
7. You will see that the uninstallation process in progress as follows,
Figure 9.5: uninstallation process of MADURA DICTIONARY
117
8. Then you will be prompted to the Install shield wizard and decide from this window
whether you really want to modify, repair, or remove that application.
9. Imagine that you want to remove it, the select the option remove.
10. Click Next.
Figure 9.6: Install Shield Wizard
11. Then confirm the file deletion by giving the answer to the next question as OK “Do
you want to completely remove the selected application and all of it components”.
12. The system will completely removes the application from your computer now.
9.1.8 Ease of Access
Through the category of Ease of Access in the Control panel, the user will be able to
perform the following tasks:


9.2
Adjust your computer settings for vision, hearing,
and mobility
Use speech recognition to control your computer
with voice command
Preventive Maintenance of Your Computer
9.2.1 What is Preventive Maintenance?
Under the section 3.14.1, you learnt several factors that may affect the performance of your
computer such as the speed of the processor, capacity of the hard disk, capacity of RAM etc.
However, not only those technical factors, a good maintenance of the computer will also affect
the performance of your computer. Let us discuss what this „Maintenance‟ is.
Preventive Maintenance (PM) is to serve the reliability of the equipment we use through careful
inspection, cleaning, and maintenance. Well maintained computer workstations will perform
better and last longer than those that are neglected. It also allows us to detect serious problems
that may arise with our computer before they occur and perhaps prevent system crashes and
reduce equipment down time. We can identify a list of such actions to be taken to take care of or
118
computer. Such actions usually need to be done periodically. It is recommended that you should
never really go more than 30 days without performing a solid PM on a personal computer.
Let us see the identified actions to be taken under PM.
9.2.2 PM Procedures
It is recommended to follow the following schedule (Table 9.1) to maintain your computer well.
The actions are categorized based on how frequently you need to attend on it.
Frequency
Daily
Monthly
On failure
Yearly
As required
Device/componen
t involved
System
Action
Hard disk
Create a backup if important changes were
done to data/programs
External cleaning
Recover lost clusters and de-fragment
Clean and check for stuck keys
Clean and check for wear
Clean, degauss, and adjust
Clean and dust
Do a diagnostic quick test
Install OS and software patches and update
Clean the pickup lens
Open and dust
Check chips for chip lift and reseat if
necessary
Test the backup battery
Clean contacts with contact cleaner and reseat
Record and backup CMOs setup configuration
Keep written record of hardware and software
configuration of PC system
Casing
Hard disk
Keyboard
Mouse
Monitor
Printer
System
System
CD ROM
Casing
Mainboard
CMOS
Adapter cards
CMOS
System
Run a virus scan of the memory and hard disk
Table 9.1: PC Maintenance Schedule
Some important procedures tabled above are described below.
9.2.3 Run a Virus scan
Update the virus scan and daily check for virus is more important to prevent your computer from
viruses.
Follow the steps below to update the virus scan.
1. Click the System tray and select the virus guard.
119
2. Check the status of your virus guard.
If it is not in the protected mode, update the virus guard.
Click here to Update
Click here to scan
Figure 9.7: Run a Virus scan
Scan your computer daily
To scan your computer use the following steps
1. Click the System tray and select the virus guard.
2. In the Home tab click Scan.
The Following figure shows the process of the virus scanning.
Figure 9.8: virus scanning
120
How to remove detected viruses from your PC
1. In the virus guard go to the History tab.
2. In the History tab, select the detected items.
Detected items
Click here to remove
Figure 9.9: Remove the detected viruses
9.2.4 Recover lost clusters and Defragmentation
To Defragment your Hard disk, perform the following steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
Right click on hard drive you need to defragment.
Click Properties.
In the properties Window select tool tab.
Then click defragment now.
121
Now defragment Window appears. Select the drive and Click defragment disk.
Figure 9.10: Defragmentation
9.2.5 Cleanup a Disk
To cleanup a selected disk, perform the following steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click the Start button, point to All Programs.
Click Accessories.
Click System Tools, and then click Disk Cleanup.
Select the files to clean (delete).
Figure 9.11: Disk Cleanup for C drive
5. To view the contents of a folder, click View Files, and then click the Close button.
6. Click OK, and then click Yes.
122
9.2.6 Install OS and software patches and update
To install software patches and updates, perform the following steps
1. Click the Start button, point to All Programs.
2. Click Windows update.
3. In the Windows update windows Click Turn on Automatic update.
4. Now system automatically searches for Windows updates.
9.3
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
Self Assessment Questions
List the tasks that a user can perform through the following categories of the control panel.
a. System and Security
e. Hardware and Sound
b. User Accounts and Family Safety
f. Clock, Language, and Region
c. Network and Internet
g. Programs
d. Appearance and Personalization
h. Ease of Access
What may be the reasons for uninstalling an application from your computer?
What are the benefits of disk cleanup?
Why is it import to scan your computer daily?
What is the importance of preventive maintenance of your computer?
What are the recommended maintenance schedules that can be performed monthly to
maintain the hard disk, key board, mouse, and monitor of your computer?
123
Session 10
Introduction to Word Processing and MS Office 2007
Aims:
Aim of this session is to introduce the user to the concept of an electronic word processing
package and to make the user proficient in the use of the Microsoft Office 2007.
Objectives:
Having studied this session you can get idea about:




What word processing is
What the available word processers are.
How to work with Keyboard to enhance the word processing skills.
How to improve your typing speed.
10.1 What is Word Processing?
Word processing is the creation of documents using a word processor. In computers, a word
processor is a computer application used for the production, including composition, editing,
formatting, and possibly printing of any sort of printable material. In general, word processor is a
type of stand-alone office machine which was popular in the 1970s and 80s, combining the
keyboard text-entry and printing functions. Type writers were commonly used in offices before
the computers came more popular as a word processing device. At present, these type writers are
out of date and all these functions of the type writers are done by the computer and word
processing applications. Figure 10.1 shows a manual type writer and an electronic type writer.
Figure 10.1: Manual typewriter and electronic typewriter
124
Computer based word processor is a computer software that can be used to word processing. At
present there are thousands of word processing packages available all over the world. Compared
to others Microsoft word, OpenOffice.org Writer, KWord and AbiWord are some of the popular
word processing packages. These packages contain their own characteristics and features. Some
common characteristics and features of the word processing packages are listed below.
10.1.1 Characteristics and features of Word processing software
There are some characteristics in word processing such as,
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Batch mailing, using a form letter template and an address database (mail merging)
Index of keywords and their page numbers
Table of contents with section titles and their page numbers
Table of figures with caption titles and their page numbers
Cross referencing with page numbers.
Bibliographical References
Maintain page numbers and footnote information
Auto Correct
Auto Complete
Styles and Formatting
Text Frames and Linking
Some popular word processing packages are briefly described below.
10.2 Existing word processing packages
There are several word processors available. These word processors can be categorized as
Free/open source software (FOSS), Commercial software, and Online Word Processors. Let us
look about each category.
10.2.1 Open source word processors
Open source software is free software which you can use freely. There are several Open sources
word processor; AbiWord, KWord, LyX, and OpenOffice.org Writer are most popular word
processors.
AbiWord
AbiWord is a free software word processor and it runs on Linux, Mac OS X (PowerPC),
Microsoft Windows, and other operating systems. AbiWord has a comprehensive language
database with multiple languages. It also has support for tables and footnotes, as well as a spell
checker and an advanced grammar checking system.
AbiWord is a package with several import/export filters, including HTML, Microsoft Word
(DOC), Office Open XML (DOCX)[2][3], OpenDocument (ODT) and Rich Text Format (RTF).
LaTeX is supported for export only. Plug-in filters are available to deal with many other formats,
notably WordPerfect documents. The native file format is .abw. You can freely download
AbiWord at http://www.abisource.com/download/
125
Figure 10.2: AbiWord Interface
KWord
KWord is a frame-based word-processing and desktop publishing application and it is capable of
creating, demanding and professional looking documents. KWord is a word processor based on
frames. This can be used to place components in precise locations, as with many professional
Desktop Publishing applications. KWord can also handle huge amounts of texts and allows you
to do professional markup with ease. It has special features such as;













Uses the standard ISO 26300 Open Document format.
Paragraph style sheets (borders, alignment, spacing, indentation, bullet points, tab stops,
page breaks, and font type, style, color and size), together with a stylist to edit, add,
remove and update styles (a number of predefined styles are provided)
A frame orientation, suitable for simple desktop publishing (DTP)
Numerous preset as well as custom page sizes
Multiple columns per page
Headers and footers (including different first page headers/footers)
Variables, such as page number, company name, user name, document summary, date
and time or a custom variable
Tables
Embedding of text frames, images and clip-art (.wmf and .svg files)
Chapter numbering
auto-generation of table of contents
auto-correction and spell checking
templates
You can freely download KWord on http://www.koffice.org/download/
126
Figure 10.3: KWord Interface
OpenOffice.org Writer
OpenOffice.org Writer is a word processor component of the OpenOffice.org software package.
Writer is a word processor similar to Microsoft Word and Corel's WordPerfect, with some of
their features. As with the entire OpenOffice.org suite, Writer can be used across a variety of
platforms, including Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, IRIX and Solaris. Writer
is a free software, which is released under the terms of GNU Lesser General Public License.
Writer is capable of opening and saving documents in a number of formats, including the OASIS
Open Document Format 1.1 (its default format), Microsoft Word's DOC, DOCX, RTF and
XHTML. Writer provides a number of features not present in Word, including the ability to
export to the PDF format natively. It also includes a word completion mechanism for predictive
writing that is not available in Microsoft Word as of June, 2008.
Features include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
AutoCorrect
AutoComplete
Styles and Formatting
Text Frames and Linking
Tables of Contents
Indexing
Bibliographical References
Illustrations
Tables
Though OpenOffice.org Writer has a spell checker, it lacks a built-in grammar checker,
which is available only as an extension since version 3.0.
Writer's mail merge functions, although substantially rewritten in 2.0, are still less
flexible than those of other word processors.
127
Figure 10.4: OpenOffice.org writer Interface
10.2.2 Commercial software
AppleWorks, Texmaker, Word Perfect, and Microsoft Word are some popular commercial word
processors. In this section we consider only the Microsoft word 2007.
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word is Microsoft's word processing software. It was first released in 1983 under the
name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix Systems. The latest releases are Word 2013 for Windows and
Word 2011 for Mac OS X. Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by .doc or
.docx file extension. Word has a built-in spell checker, thesaurus, dictionary and an Office
Assistant.
10.2.3 Online word processors
Online word processors are special type of word processors that can be run in online. This means
no needs any installation. You need to visit the website and use it. There are several online word
processors such as Zoho, gOffice, Writely, Ajax Write and ThinkFree. Zoho is one of the online
word processing package and you can use at http://www.zoho.com/
Figure 10.5: Online word Processor
Now you have some idea about what are the word processors available. Before starting the word
processing you are required to get an idea about followings.



Good knowledge about Operating system and keyboard layout
Good typing speed
Creative mind.
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Rest of this session gives more about computer keyboard and some tips for improve your typing
speed. This will be very useful for you.
10.3 Improve your typing Skills
10.3.1 Keyboard and its‟ layout
Keyboard is an input device that can be used to input the data. The keyboard layout is a map
where the letters available in the keyboard. Figure 10.6 shows common English and Sinhala
computer key board layout, use in computer keyboard. In your normal keyboard contain function
keys, character keys, control keys etc. These keys are used to do a lot of works. If you have a
sound knowledge about keys then you can work without using a mouse. It will be actually faster
than normal working using mouse.
Figure 10.6: English and Sinhala Computer Keyboard layout
Function Keys
Function keys are avilable in front of the keybord. In this key layout there are 14 Function Keys
Such as Esc, F1, F2.. F13. These function keys are use to run Specific functions in your
Application. Example: F1 is used to show help, F2 is used to save your document etc.
Control Keys
There are three control keys such as Control key, Alt key and Shift key. The Control key is a
modifier. When pressed in conjunction with another key, will perform a special operation (for
example, Control-Alt-Delete).
Key combination
Ctrl+A
Ctrl+B
Ctrl+U
Ctrl+C
Ctrl+V
Ctrl+Esc
Microsoft Windows/KDE
Select all
Bold
Underline
Copy
Paste
Show start menu
Table 10.1: Special Operations
Alt key
The Alt key on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed
keys. The Alt key is a modifier key, used in a similar fashion to the Shift key. For example,
simply pressing "A" will type the letter a, but if you hold down either Alt key while pressing A,
the computer will perform an "Alt-A" function, which varies from program to program.
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Character keys
There are two types of character keys such as letters and symbols. Letters have their own
meaning. But there are several symbols. Table 10.2 shows some symbols and its meanings.
Symbol
~
`
!
@
#
$
%
°
^
&
*
(
)
_
+
=
{
}
[
]
|
\
/
§
:
;
"
'
<
>
,
.
?
Explanation
Tilde
Acute, Back quote, grave, grave accent, left quote, open quote
Exclamation mark, Exclamation point, or Bang
At or At symbol
Octothorpe, Number, Pound, sharp, or Hash
Dollar sign
Percent
Degree
Caret or Circumflex
Ampersand or And
Asterisk and sometimes referred to as "star".
Open parenthesis
Close parenthesis
Hyphen, Minus or Dash
Underscore
Plus
Equals
Open Brace
Close Brace
Open bracket
Close bracket
Pipe, Or, or Vertical bar
Backslash or Reverse Solidus
Forward slash, Solidus, Virgule, or Whack
Section
Colon
Semicolon
Quote, Quotation mark, or Inverted commas
Apostrophe or Single Quote
Less Than or Angle brackets
Greater Than or Angle brackets
Comma
Period, dot or Full Stop
Question Mark
Table10.2: Symbols
10.3.2 Working with Computer Keyboard
Now you are ready to work with the computer keyboard. It is required to improve following
skills.
 Basic knowledge about computer keyboard
 Improve your typing speed
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

Ability to work with English, Sinhala or Tamil key layout
Some basic idea about shortcut keys and other facilities
These skills are very important to work with word processing packages. As a first step there are
number of keyboard testing software available in the web. You can use these software and
improve your typing skills.
Example 1: Improve English typing speed by using Typing Master
Typing Master is a professional typing tutor that helps you to double your typing speed. You can
freely download typing Master in the following URL http://www.typingmaster.com/.This
program provides you to complete introduction about computer keyboard and how it work with
best performance.
Figure 10.7: Screen layout of the Typing Master
It is strongly recommended you to use these programs and try to improve your typing abilities.
Many people use two or three fingers to work with keyboard. It is important that try to use at
least four or six fingers to typing. Typing Master is good assisting software for you. (Try to
complete two three lessons to improve your typing ability using this program).
Example 2: Working with computer without using a mouse
Now keep your mouse away from your desk. Don‟t touch it, while finishing this lesson. Now try
to work with your computer without using a mouse. Try the following operations.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Open a program.
Close a program.
Copy or move some document.
Move to other applications.
Logoff your computer.
10.4 Introduction to MS Office 2007
10.4.1 What is Microsoft Office?
Microsoft Office is a software that consists of different applications that perform different
activities. This software package is developed from the Microsoft Corporation, which is
available for the computers with either the Microsoft Windows or Apple Mac OS X operating
systems. The windows based first office program was develop in 1990. The first version of
Office contained only Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. The current
versions are Office 2013 for Windows and Office 2011 for Mac OS. The windows based Office
2013 was launched on January 29, 2013. At present, it has introduced a number of programs
available with Microsoft Office packages. However, Microsoft word, Excel, PowerPoint and
Outlook Express are the common office programs.
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10.4.2 History of Office Versions
Since 1992 Microsoft provides set of office packages. The table 10.3 shows year and the release
name of the Office packages for Windows O/S.
Year
1992
Name
Office 3.0
1994
1996
1999
Office 4.0
Office 97
Office 2000
2001
Office XP
2003
Office 2003
Description
CD-ROM version: Word 2.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail
3.0
Word 6.0, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0
published on CD-ROM
Last version to support Windows 95, and last version that lacks
Product Activation
Last version to support Windows 98, ME and NT 4.0. Improved
support for working in restricted accounts under Windows
2000/XP.
Last version to support Windows 2000
2007
Office 2007
Broadly released alongside Windows Vista
2011
Office 2010
Introduced extended file formats
2013
Office 2013
Latest version to support Windows 8
Table 10.3: History of the Microsoft Office
In this course unit, we will be mainly working with MS Office 2007. Therefore, it is worth to
look at the features introduced / enhanced with MS Office 2007.
10.4.3 Microsoft Office 2007
The Microsoft Office 2007 system is the most recent version of Microsoft's
productivity suite. It was released to business customers on November 30,
2006 and was made available to retail customers on January 30, 2007
which was the same day of the formal launch to retail customers of
Windows Vista. Office 2007 contains a number of new features, new
applications and server-side tools.
Features
There are number of new features in Microsoft office 2007 namely User interface, Smart Art,
new File formats, User Assistance System, Collaboration features and Themes, Quick Styles etc.
Some of these features are described below.
New user interface: The new result-oriented User Interface (UI) is featured in the core
Microsoft Office applications: Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access and the item inspector are used
to create or edit individual items in Outlook. Also, the default font used in this edition. Some of
the new component are describes below.
Office 2007 button: The Office 2007 button, which is located on the top-left of the window. It
replaces the File menu (Office 2003) and provides access to functionality common across all
Office applications, including but not limited to Opening, Saving, Printing, and sharing a file.
Users can also choose colour schemes for the interface.
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Figure 10.8: Office button in Microsoft power point
Ribbon: The Ribbon is a panel that houses the command buttons and icons, organizes
commands as a set of Tabs, each grouping relevant commands. Each application has a different
set of tabs which expose the functionality that application offers.
Figure 10.9: The ribbon on PowerPoint 2007
Contextual Tabs: Some tabs, called Contextual Tabs, appear only when certain objects are
selected. Contextual Tabs expose functionality specific only to the object with focus.
Live Preview: Microsoft Office 2007 also introduces a feature called "Live Preview", which
temporarily applies formatting on the focused text or object, when any formatting button is
moused-over. The temporary formatting is removed when the mouse pointer is moved from the
button. This allows users to have a preview of how the option would affect the appearance of the
object, without actually applying it.
Mini Toolbar: The new "Mini Toolbar" is a type of context menu that is automatically shown
(by default) when text is selected. The purpose of this feature is to provide easy access to the
most-used formatting commands without requiring a right-mouse-button click as necessary in
older versions of the software.
New File formats: Microsoft Office uses a new file format, called Office Open XML, as the
default file format. Word documents (without macro extensions) are now saved using a .docx
extension rather than the traditional .doc extension. Word 2007 can also save documents in the
old format so that they will still be usable in previous versions of Word. Open XML is based on
XML and uses the ZIP file container. According to Microsoft, documents created in this format
are up to 75% smaller than the same documents saved with previous Microsoft Office file
formats, owing to data compression. Also it will support to export the Portable Document Format
(PDF) in Office 2007.
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User Assistance System: In Microsoft Office 2007, the “new help system” is the extensive use
of Super Tooltips which explains in about one paragraph what each function performs. Some of
them also use diagrams or pictures. These appear and disappear like normal tooltips, and replace
normal tooltips in many areas.
10.4.4 System requirements for Office 2007
Microsoft Office 2007 needs minimum of following system requirements,
1) Computer and processor: 500 megahertz (MHz) processor or higher
2) Memory: 256 megabyte (MB) RAM or higher
3) Hard disk: 1.5 gigabyte (GB); a portion of this disk space will be freed after installation
if the original download package is removed from the hard drive.
4) Drive: CD-ROM or DVD drive
5) Display: 1024x768 or higher resolution monitor
6) Operating system: Microsoft Windows(R) XP with Service Pack (SP), Windows Server
2003 with SP1, or later operating system
10.4.5 Programs Available in Office 2007
The 2007 Microsoft Office system is distributed in several editions summary of the each edition
is given below.
Edition
Packages
PowerPoint ,Word, Excel, OneNote
Outlook, Word, Excel
Outlook , Publisher, PowerPoint, Word,
Outlook, PowerPoint, Word, Excel, Access,
Publisher
Table 10.4: Several editions of Ms Office
10.5 Self Assessment Questions
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
What is a word processor?
What is the advantage of using a computer as a word processor than using a type writer?
What are the features and facilities commonly available in a word processor?
What are the differences between an online word processor and a Commercial word
processor?
How do you improve your typing speed? Explain briefly.
What are the new features introduced in Office 2007?
What are the new features introduced in Word 2007?
Briefly explain the system requirements to install office 2007.
“Microsoft Office is a commercial office package”. Justify the above statement.
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Session 11
Microsoft Word 2007
Aim:
To provide an introduction about Microsoft Office 2007
Objectives:
Having studied this session you will be able to get an idea about:



What Microsoft Office Word 2007 is
Word 2007 user interface
Working with word 2007
11.1 Getting started with Microsoft Office Word 2007
Microsoft Office Word 2007 is one of the most sophisticated word-processing programs
available today. With Word 2007, it is easier than ever to efficiently create a wide range of
business and personal documents, from the simplest letter to the most complex report. Word
includes many desktop publishing features that you can use to enhance the appearance of
documents so that they are appealing and easy to read. In this lesson, we will be discussing about
MS Word 2007 to make you familiarized with it.
11.1.1 Start Microsoft Office Word 2007
This section describes how to start Word 2007. There are different ways to start Word 2007. By
default, MS Office is installed in C:\Program files\ Microsoft Office and short cuts are available
in the start menu. To start Microsoft Word you can use the Start button as follows,
Click Start button → All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007
OR
Double Click the above MS WORD icon on any place
11.1.2 Create a new Word Document – Method 1
After starting MS Word as given above, you can create a new word document.
Click Start button → click New (New document window will be appeared)
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

Select the template : blank and recent
Select blank document and Click create
11.1.3 Create a new word document - Method 2
There is another method to create a new document.




Click the mouse cursor in the location where you want to create the new document.
Right click and get the short cut menu.
Select New.
Click Microsoft Office Word Document .
Shortcut menu
Figure 11.1: The Shortcut menu


A new Word document will be created for you without a specific name.
Rename/give a name for the created new word document.
Figure 11.2: Rename the created new document

To Open Word, double click on the WORD icon.
Now you can see the Microsoft Word 2007 user interface with a new document.
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11.2 Getting familiarized with the MSWord 2007 user interface
Before start working with Word 2007 you should be familiar with Microsoft Office 2007 user
Interface. Microsoft Word 2007 user interface is shown in figure 11.3. Word 2007 introduces
many new features and some of them were described in the previous session. However this
section gives some of the useful tips that will be used to work with MS word 2007. Now you
know that ribbon is the most useful tool which is available in the Office 2007 package and it
includes many development tools with groups together. The „Text area‟ is the area you can enter
your text. Figure 11.3 shows some common tools and objects available in the Word 2007 user
interface such as Office button, Quick Access tool bar, Ribbon, Title bar and status bar etc.
Control box
MS Word
Help
Text Area
Scroll bar
Figure 11.3: Microsoft word 2007 user interface
Control box
There are three buttons in the right top corner in your Word 2007 window. The minimize
button is used to minimize your window and maximize
button is used to maximize and close
button
is used to close your current window.
Microsoft Office button
The Microsoft Office button is newly introduced in Office 2007. It shows all the basic actions in
your Word 2007 window such as New, Open, Save, Close etc.
Using this New button you can create a new word document.
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Using this Open button you can open an existing word document.
Using this Save button you can save your document. The save as button can
be used to save your document as a new copy.
Using this Close button you can close the currently opened document without
closing the Microsoft Word 2007.
Using this exit word button you can exit from your word program.
The Ribbon
The Ribbon contains all the tools available in the Word 2007. By default, the ribbon is consisting
of seven tabs namely Home, Insert, Page layout, References, Mailings, Review, and View. You
can click on each tab. Then the Ribbon will be appeared with the tools available under the
selected tab. The Figure 11.4 below shows the Ribbon in Home tab.
Figure 11.4: Microsoft Word 2007 Ribbon – Home tab
11.3 Using MS Word Help
The MS Office suite provides assistance for using its all applications such as MS Word, Excel,
Access, PowerPoint, etc. with a comprehensive Help menu. In MS Word interface, right under
the three control buttons you can see the Help menu with the icon shown below.
Figure 11.5: Help Menu icon
Click on the above Help menu icon or press F1 key from the key board to open the Word Help
window. Figure 11.6 shows the Word Help window.
138
Type the key word
here to search for
help on that topic
Categories of
Help topics
Figure 11.6: Word Help window
Example: Imagine that you want to learn how to insert Page numbers into your document. So
you need to click on the help topic “Page Numbers” and then click on “Insert page numbers”.
Word Help will give you a very comprehensive description on how to insert page numbers with
some examples. From the same window, you can search for other related topics such as how to
remove page numbers, how to change the format of page numbers, etc. through the links given
there. See Figure 11.7.
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Description
on How to
insert page
numbers
Other related
topics on Page
Numbering
Figure 11.7: Word Help on "How to insert page numbers"
Start entering text into your blank document
This activity describes how to enter a text into your document. Type the following text on your
created document.
Useful Hints:





Type the Enter key to insert blank line within the two paragraphs.
Use the Space key to insert spaces between two words.
While you are entering data using the keyboard, use the Enter key only for inserting
paragraphs or to insert a new line.
Use the Space Key only for Single spaces such as separating two words.
Use the Tab key to set the position/indent of the text.
140
Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry,
as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware.
Most computer hardware is not seen by normal users. It is in embedded systems in
automobiles, microwave ovens, electrocardiograph machines, compact disc players,
and other devices. A typical personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a
tower shape (desktop) and the following parts:
Mother board
Processor
Memories
After entering the text into your Word document you must save your document. Otherwise the
inserted data can get lost. (However MS Office provides auto recovery and auto saving facilities
to save your document. But we encourage you to save your document then and there as you type
it or change it)
11.4 Some useful basic operations in MS Word
11.4.1 Changing the typing modes
When you type using the key board, there are two key inserting methods available namely Insert
mode and the Overtype mode .Identify the button named Insert in the key board. By using this
button, you can change these modes in previous word packages such as word 2000 word 2003
etc. However, Word 2007 removes these insert button action and introduces new methods. To
change these modes, you can perform the following steps.
Right-click the status bar and then click Overtype to display the Insert mode status at the left
end of the status bar.
Insert mode
status
Figure 11.8: Changing the typing mode by Overtype Mode
To change the Overtype mode again click on the insert button. Then it replaces the mode into
Overtype. When you click again on overtype then it changes into insert mode.
11.4.2 Show/ Hide non-printable characters
Non-printing characters such as Enter, Tab etc. are not visible in the document, to show/hide
these characters,
1. Click Home tab.
2. Point Paragraph group.
3. Click the Show/Hide button.
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11.4.3 Save your word document
To save your Word document, there are several methods.
1. Click Microsoft Office button.
2. Then Click Save.
OR Click save button In the Quick Access tool bar (see figure 11.9 below)
OR Press Ctrl + S Buttons.
3. Then the File Save as window will be appeared.
4. Select the location to save.
5. Enter a file name.
6. Click Save.
Save Button in the
quick access tool bar
Office Button
Save Option
Figure 11.9: Save a document
11.4.4 Close already opened word document and exit from Microsoft Word
To close your opened document, perform the following steps,
1. Click Office button.
2. Click Close.
To exit from Microsoft word;
1. Click Office button.
2. Click Exit button.
11.4.5 Opening an existing MS Word document
To open an existing known MS Word document, follow the steps given below;
1. Click Office button.
2. Click open (File opening window will be appeared)
In the File open window,
3. Find the location.
4. Select the file name.
5. Click Open.
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11.4.6 Displaying different views of a document
In Word, you can view a document in different ways such as print layout view, full screen
reading view and web outline view etc. A brief description on each view is given below.

Print Layout view: This view displays a document on the screen the way it will look when
printed. By using this view you can see some elements such as margins, page breaks, headers
and footers, and watermarks.

Full Screen Reading view: these view displays as much of the content of the document as
will fit on the screen at a size that is comfortable for reading. In this view, the Ribbon is
replaced by a single toolbar at the top of the screen with buttons that you can use to save and
print the document, access references and other tools, highlight text, and make comments.
You can also move from page to page and adjust the view.

Web Layout view: This view displays a document on the screen the way it will look when
viewed in a Web browser. You can see backgrounds, AutoShapes, and other effects. You can
also see how text wraps to fit the window and how graphics are positioned.

Outline view: This view displays the structure of a document as nested levels of headings
and body text, and provides tools for viewing and changing its hierarchy.

Draft view. This view displays the content of a document with a simplified layout so that
you can type and edit quickly. You cannot see layout elements such as headers and footers.
By using the layout viewer (Bottom right hand on your MS Word window layout viewer will be
appeared). You can change the document view as you need. Click each view and see the
difference. Figure 11.10 shows the different views.
Print layout
Out line view
Web layout
Draft view
Full Screen reading
Zoom in/ out and
level indicator
Figure 11.10 Different layouts
11.4.7 Previewing and printing a document
After you create your document you can get a print by using a printer installed into your
computer. To print your documents, perform the following steps;

Click the Microsoft Office Button, point to Print.
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Figure 11.11: Word 2007 Print options
There are three printing options available namely Print, Quick Print and print preview. Let us
see the differences among them briefly.
Print: if you click „Print‟ then the print dialog box will appear. (Screen shot in print dialog box
is given below; By using this dialog box you can select printer name, set number of copies and
set page range to print as you wish such as All : print all pages in your document Current: print
only the current page and Pages: range: 3 – 4 page range you wish to print. After selecting each
option click OK to print. Figure 11.12 shows print setup window.
Quick Print: you can directly print your document by using default print option. In this method
you can‟t see the print dialog box.
Print Preview: Here the window's title bar indicates that the preview of the document and the
Print Preview tab appears on the Ribbon.
Figure 11.12: Print setup window
144
Click here to close
print preview option
Figure 11.13: Preview of the document
By using Print preview you can preview your printout. Also it provides some facilities to change
your document as you wish.
You can exit from print preview option by clicking Close Print Preview button
11.4.8 Secure your document from others
You can encrypt your document so that others cannot access your document without the
password set by you. Use the following steps;
1. Click Office button.
2. Click Prepare.
3. Click Encrypt document.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Enter Encrypt password.
Re-enter the password to confirm.
Close your document.
Re-open the document.
(You are required to enter the password to open the document)
145
11.4.9 Save your document in a different file format
Microsoft word provides several file formats. You may try saving your document using all file
formats available with Office 2007.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click Office button.
Click Save As.
Enter file name „sample1‟.
Select save as type.
Click Save.
Following table shows file format and size of the sample files.
Figure 11.14: File format and Size of the sample size
When you work with windows office, following operations will useful to create the document
easily.
11.4.10 Show/Hide ruler
To Show/Hide ruler
1. Click View Tab.
2. Point out show/hide group.
3. Click ruler.
The Ruler will be useful to identify the current position of the document you work with and to
set the tab positions as you wish.
146
11.4.11 Insert a page break
To insert a page break,
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to the place where you want break the content into a new page.
Click Insert tab.
Select Pages group.
Click Page break.
The rest of the document will be available in a new page.
11.4.12 Insert date and time
To insert a date and time
1.
2.
3.
4.
Move the cursor where you want to insert the date/time.
Click Insert tab.
Select Text group.
Select Date and Time.
Having followed the basic operations now you are familiarized with MS word. The next session
will deeply discuss on creating Word documents.
11.5 Self Assessment Questions
11.1
11.2
11.3
Write down two possible ways of starting MS Word.
Name five features of the standard user interface of an office 2007 application.
Where do the facilities located together to open, close, and save documents in office
applications?
11.4 What is the purpose of having the “Help menu” in MS office applications? Which
function key will take you to the “Help” screen?
11.5 How could you secure your word document from other users? Write down the steps you
need to follow.
11.6 How could you save an existing document with a different name?
11.7 What is the difference between two options „Print‟ and „Quick Print‟ that you find when
taking a printout of your document?
11.8 Imagine that you place the insertion point in the middle of a paragraph and start typing,
but new text deletes the existing text. What could be the problem occurred here? How do
you fix it?
11.9 What is the default alignment on a MS Word document?
11.10 What do the red and green wavy lines under some words stand for?
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Session 12
Editing , Proofing, and Formating Text with MS Word 2007
Aims:
This session aims to give an idea of Editing, Proofing and Formating With MS Word 2007, to
the student.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:




Edit the text
Proof the text
Format the text and paragraphs
Format pages of a word document.
12.1 Editing, Proofing, and Formatting text
12.1.1 Editing your text in a document
In the previous session you created a simple text document. In this lesson we will discuss how to
edit proof and format the text document as you wish or as you require. Learning on Editing and
proofing is very important for compiling a document as it saves your time to create the document
and it increases the quality of your document.
Selecting a Text or Paragraph
Using Mouse: Double click on the text which you want to select or move the cursor while
pressing the left button
Using Keyboard: To select a text or paragraph by using keyboard move the cursor by using
arrow keys while pressing the shift button
Cut/Copy / Paste operations
To copy a selected text or paste a selected text you can use these tools.
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Cut the selected text
After selecting the text as described above, press Ctrl + X to cut the selected text
OR
Click on the Home tab, Clipboard group and click the cut icon
Copy the Selected text
After selecting the text press Ctrl + C to copy the selected text
OR
Click on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the copy icon
Paste the Selected text
Move the cursor where you want to paste the cut/copied text previously and press Ctrl + V to
paste the text
OR
Click on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the paste icon
Move text
To move texts from one place to another place use the following steps.
1. Select Text.
2. Cut selected text.
3. Click Paste.
Find and replacing a text
You can find or/and replace a given text throughout your document by using the following steps.
To find a word/text in your document,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click Home tab.
Point the Editing group.
Click the Find button.
Type the word you need to search for.
Click Find Next to find the detected words one by one.
149
Figure 12.1: Find and replace window
Same as finding the word, you can replace the word found by using replace tab.
Example: Find and replace a text
Using find and replace option replace the word “computer” with the word “PC” in the following
text.
Von Neumann introduced PC model with memory. This architecture is a PC
design model that uses a processing unit and a single separate storage structure
to hold both instructions and data. The modem digital PC uses this architecture
to implement. It contains
Memory unit
Central Processing Unit (processor)
Output devices (video terminal, printer, etc.)
Input devices (keyboard, mouse, etc.)
12.1.2 Proofing your text
Check Spelling and Grammar
To check spelling and grammar on the text of your document you can use the Proofing tool
available in Office 2007.


Create a new word Document.
Type the following sentence (it has some spelling mistakes).
A commputor is a man-made, programmable electronic machine that can store, retrieve,
and process data according to a given set of instructions.

Click Review panel.
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Figure 12.2: Review panel

Click Spelling & Grammar (Spelling and grammar correcting window will be appeared)
By using this tool you can automatically correct the spelling and grammar errors.
There are several options available for correcting the errors. Function of each button is given
below.






Ignore Once: you can ignore this word only at this position
Ignore All: ignore this word in all places
Change: change the selected word in the selected place only
Change All: change the selected word into the corrected word in all places
Auto correct: apply a suitable correction automatically
Add to Dictionary: you can add this word into word dictionary
Grammatical mistakes
or unknown words
shown in Green
Figure 12.3: Spelling and grammar correcting tool
Find the synonyms/antonyms for a selected word
You can find synonyms or antonym for a selected word as follows.
1. Select a word.
2. Right Click on your mouse.
3. Click synonyms.
A list of synonyms to the selected will be appeared. If you need, you may select any of them to
replace the selection with the synonym.
151
Figure 12.4: Finding the Synonyms
Translate the Selected word
You can translate a selected word into a different language by using following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the word to be translated.
Right Click on your mouse (Cursor is on the selected word)
Click Translate.
Select the translation language.
Translation pane will be appeared in the right hand side of your screen which gives
results of your translation.
12.1.3 Formatting your text
Change the style of a text
Word 2007 introduces a number of new features, as well as enhancements to existing features
that makes the process of formatting content effortless. And many common formatting buttons
are available on the Mini toolbar that appears when you point to the selected text. To change the
font style you can use the font group in a home tab or quick formatting menu. A tool available in
font group is given below.
Figure 12.5: Font group icons
Change the attributes of the font
Fonts are the type of letters in your document. Font is used to change the letters in your
document such as Sinhala, Tamil etc. Each font has several attributes such as name, size style
etc. to change these attributes you can follow the steps given below;
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Name and size: Each font has a name and the size. In word 2007 the default font is Calibri and
the default size is 12. To change the font name and size you can click two combo boxes in the
font group.
Font Style: Every font comes in a range of font styles. The most common are regular (or plain),
italic, bold, and bold italic. To change the font style you can use available tools such as Bold,
Italic and Underline etc.
Effects: Fonts can be enhanced by applying font effects, such as underlining, small capital letters
(small caps), or shadows. You can change this effect by clicking font dialog box launcher. Font
dialog box launcher and the font dialog box are shown below.
Figure 12.6: Font Dialog Box launcher
Figure 12.7: Font setting window
By ticking off each effect you can apply these effects to your text.
Change case
You can change the case of the text in a sentence so that your text into upper case, lower case or
other common capitalizations as follows




Select the text which you want to change the case.
Go to the Home tab.
Point to Font group.
Click the down arrow to open the available case conversions.
153
Figure 12.8: Changing the Case
Example: Let us change the case of the following sentence in available different case changes.
Then you will learn where to apply appropriate case changes.
Original Sentence
The Computer is a man-made Electronic machine.
Sentence case
The Computer is a man-made Electronic machine.
Lower case
the computer is a man-made electronic machine.
Upper case
THE COMPUTER IS A MAN-MADE ELECTRONIC MACHINE.
Capitalize each word
The Computer Is A Man-Made Electronic Machine.
Toggle case
tHEcOMPUTER IS A MAN-MADE eLECTRONIC MACHINE.
Change the font colour
Sometimes you need to change the font colour in your document. To change the font color of a
text, the following steps can be followed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the text.
Click Font colour tool in a font group (The colour selecting window appears).
Select a colour from the colour palate.
Click on the colour.
Figure 12.9: Font Colour changing Window
154
OR
5. Click More colours to select any colour you need to add. Then an enhanced colour
selecting window with a variety of shades and colours will appear. By using the colour
selecting window you can easily change the text colour or background colour. To change
the colour you have to click on any colour appeared in the window.
Select any colour to apply
Figure 12.10: Color selecting window
Change the highlight color
To change the text highlight colour in the selected text the following steps can be followed.
1. Select a text.
2. Click Highlight tool in a font group.
Clear the text formatting
To clear text format applied to any text;

Select a text.

Click Clear format tool (it sets text format into your default text format).
Character spacing
You can change the character space by clicking the Character spacing tab in font dialog box.
Figure 12.11: Character Spacing window
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By changing the value in the above dialog box check how you can set the character spacing by
yourself.
Example: Change the text format
Computer Modem
Computer
Modem is a device that encodes digital information over an
analog signal (such as a phone line or radio), and also decodes the analog
signal to recover the digital information. The most familiar example is a
typical computer modem that turns the digital 1s and 0s of a personal
computer into sounds that can be transmitted over the telephone lines. You
can have one Computer Modem that sends and receives information from the
Internet, or a pair of modems can communicate via the phone line to form a
closed network. Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they
can send in a given time, normally measured in bits per second, or "bps".
They can also be classified by Baud, the number of distinct symbols
transmitted per second.
12.2 Format a Paragraph
As you know, you can create a paragraph by typing text and then pressing the Enter key. Ex: the
text entered till you press the Enter key is identified as a single paragraph. The paragraph can be
a single word, a single sentence, or multiple sentences. You can change the appearance of a
paragraph by changing its alignment, its line spacing, and the space before and after it. You can
also put borders around it and shade its background. Collectively, the settings you use to vary the
appearance of a paragraph are called paragraph formatting. Tools available in a paragraph group
are shown below.
Figure 12.12: Tools in Paragraph
group
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Brief description of the each tool is given below.
12.2.1 Align text
You can align lines of a text in different locations across the page by using tab stops. The easiest
way to set tab stops is to use the horizontal ruler. By default, Word sets left-aligned tab stops
every 0.5 inch, as indicated by gray marks below this ruler. To set a custom tab stop, you start by
clicking the Tab button located at the left end of the ruler, until the desired tab appears.
Justify
Left align
Center align
Right align
Examples for text alignments
Left align
The computer is an electronic device, which operates under the direction of an operating system
by processing arithmetically and logically, accepting input and producing output. All computers
– desktop, workstations, mainframes, and super computers – have the same processing cycles:
input, process, and output.
Center Align
The computer is an electronic device, which operates under the direction of an operating system
by processing arithmetically and logically, accepting input and producing output. All computers
– desktop, workstations, mainframes, and super computers – have the same processing cycles:
input, process, and output.
Right Align
The computer is an electronic device, which operates under the direction of an operating system
by processing arithmetically and logically, accepting input and producing output. All computers
– desktop, workstations, mainframes, and super computers – have the same processing cycles:
input, process, and output.
Justify
The computer is an electronic device, which operates under the direction of an operating system
by processing arithmetically and logically, accepting input and producing output. All computers
– desktop, workstations, mainframes, and super computers – have the same processing cycles:
input, process, and output.
12.2.2 Set Line space between two line in a paragraph
To change the line spacing of the text, follow the steps given below.

Select line space icon




Select suitable line space OR Select line space options
Set After and before spaces that are needed
Then set line space as you wish: single, double 1.5 etc.
You can check what are the other tools provided in this window such as indentation.
157
Figure 12.13: Paragraph window
12.2.3 Drop Cap
To drop the first letter in a paragraph from the rest of the sentences as shown in the Figure
below, follow the steps given here.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Leave the cursor somewhere within the paragraph of which the first letter to be dropped.
Go to insert tab.
Under the Text group, select Drop Cap.
Give the options of the drop cap in the Drop cap window.
Click OK.
Figure 12.14: Drop Cap
window
158
12.2.4 Create a bulleted list
To create a bulleted list of items, perform the following steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click Bullet list icon (word automatically create a list)
Type the list items.
To add sub list press tab button.
To move to the top of the list press Backspace.
After enter all the list item press „Enter button‟ twice.
Change the bullet
To change the bullet of the list, perform the following operations.
1. Click the down Arrow of the bullet icon.
2. Select the other bullet icon from the window.
Define a new bullet
To create a new bullet list, perform the following options.



Click the down Arrow of the bullet icon.
Select a new bullet to change with.
Click define a new bullet if you need to create your own bullet.
Figure 12.15: Define a new bullet


Select a symbol or picture to set as a bullet.
Click OK.
12.2.5 Sorting a given list
To sort an entered list
1. Select the list.
2. Click sort button on the paragraph group
159
3. Select the order by selecting either Ascending or Descending.
Figure 12.16: Sort text window
The selected list will be sorted based on the alphabetical order of the characters.
12.2.6 Create a new numbered list
To create a new numbered list, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click Number list icon (word automatically create a list )
Type the list items.
To add sub list press tab button.
To move to the top of the list press Backspace.
After enter all the list item press „Enter button‟ twice.
Create a new number format for a numbered list
To create a new number format for a number list, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click down arrow of the Number list icon (word automatically creates a list )
Select Define new number format.
Select number format, Number style and alignment.
Click OK.
Figure 12.17: Number formatting window
12.2.7 Column setting
Though you usually type the text in a paragraph from one end to the other end of the page as a
single column, there are some instances where we want to divide the text in few columns
something similar to the way the news articles are given in newspapers. See figure 12.18 below.
160
Figure 12.18: Columns setting of a paragraph
Follow the steps below to make the content of your paragraph into two or three (or more)
columns.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the paragraph to be partitioned.
Go to the Page Layout tab.
Under the Page setup group, select the down arrow of the column tool.
Select the number of columns from the given diagrams.
Figure 12.19: Column tool
12.3 Page Formatting
Page formatting is a method to organize your document pages such as change your page margins
and page size etc. This section shows how to change your page margins and page size, how to
insert headers and footers, and how to add page numbers.
12.3.1 Format your documents using page setup window
Page setup is the best option to format your document as you need. To Start Page setup:


Click Page layout tab.
Click page setup icon.
Figure 12.20: Page set up
group
161
Now you can see page setup window. This window contains tree sub options such as set page
margins, set paper and set page layout.
12.3.2 Set Page Margins using page setup
To set your document‟s margin, click the margin tab. By using margin tab you can change
Margins, Orientation, and pages as well.
Margin: you can set Top, left, right and bottom margins. Gust need only type appropriate values.
Orientation: page orientation can be set as portrait or landscape.
Where can we apply these settings: Created page settings can be applied to whole document or
selected pages.
You can change page
margin in your document by
using this text boxes
Using this option you can apply
these settings to the whole
document or to selected pages
Using this option you
can change Numbers
of pages for as single
page such as Single,
double etc.
Figure 12.21: The page setup window
12.3.3 Set Page Size using Page Setup
To set the page size, click the paper tab in the page setup window. Then select a stranded page
size such as letter, A4, legal etc. Also you can change paper size manually. The figure 12.23
shows page selecting layout of the page setup. Also you can select paper source where it can
collected to print. If your printer has number of trays then you can select suitable tray to collect
papers. Also this setting can be applied to whole document or selected pages by selecting apply
to option.
Figure 12.22: Applying the setting
Using these boxes you can change
page sizes as you need or select
standard page sizes.
Figure 12.23: Paper Options in the page setup
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12.3.4 Set Page Layout by using Page Setup
One single page contains three areas such as text area, page header and the page footer. You
can set these areas by using layout option. You can set page header area and the page footer area.
Other area is automatically assigned to the text area. To change the area of the page header and
the footer click layout tab and set the header footer margin. Then you can set the vertical
alignment see the figure 12.24.
Set Area of the Header and
Footer of the page
Set the vertical alignment by
clicking here
Figure 12.24: layout options in the page setup
12.3.5 Set page borders by using Page Setup
You can insert page borders by using page setup. To insert page borders follow these steps


Click layout tab in the page setup.
Click borders.
Then border and shading window will be appeared (Figure 12.25)
Figure 12.25: Border and Shading window



Click Border settings such as Box, Shadow etc.
Select the border style or select the art type to fill your border.
Click OK.
163
Select the Art type to
fill the border with
Figure12.26: Selecting the Art type
Example: Format your document as follows.
Create a document by using the following page layout and save it as “mytemplate”





Page size - A4
Margins - left 25mm , right 30mm
Orientation- portrait
Set Vertical alignment as Top
Set a suitable page border
12.3.6 Insert Headers, Footers and Page Numbering
To insert Header
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click Insert Tab.
Click header in the Header & Footer group.
Select one of the built-in header formats.
Type your text to be appeared in the header area.
To insert Footer
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click Insert Tab.
Click Footer in the Header & Footer group.
Select one of the built-in Footer format.
Type your text.
To insert Page Number
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click Insert Tab.
Click Page Number in the Header & Footer group.
Select place where you want to put the page number.
Select the sample.
164
Example: Create a document with Header, Footer and Page Number
Create a document by using the following page layout and save it as “mytemplate2”


Page size A4
All margins expects left 25mm , left margins 30mm
Change the format of the Page Number
You can follow these steps to Format page number
1. Click Insert Tab.
2. Click page number in the Header and Footer group.
3. Click Format page number (Page number format window is appeared).
1
Figure 12.27 Page number formatting window
4. Select Number format [1].
5. If you want to start page number in any number then select “start at” and type the
number.
6. Click OK.
12.3.7 Insert a watermark
You can follow these steps to insert a watermark in to the page(s) of your document.
1. Click page layout tab.
2. Click watermark in the page background group.
3. Select one of the built-in watermarks.
To create a custom watermark
1. Click page layout tab.
2. Click watermark in the page background group.
165
3. Click custom watermark.
4. Select text watermark.
5. Select text language as English.
6. Type the text you need to display.
7. Set Font type and size as you wish.
8. Set the font color.
9. Click Apply.
10. Click OK.
Figure 12.28 Page number formatting window
Remove Watermark
You can follow these steps to remove watermark.
1. Click page layout tab.
2. Click watermark in the page background group.
3. Click remove watermark.
12.4 Self Assessment Questions
12.1
What are the shortcut keys that can be used to perform following activities?
a. Copy a selected text.
b. Cut a selected text.
c. Paste a selected text.
d. Save a document.
12.2 What is the purpose of having “Proofing Tool” in MS Word?
12.3 Name five changes that can be applied to fonts in MS Word?
12.4 What are the tools available for paragraph formatting?
12.5 What is the function of “Format Painter”?
12.6 What are the two things where the “Shift Key” can be used in typing?
12.7 How could you highlight text without using the mouse?
12.8 What is the purpose of having a header and footer in your document?
12.9 How many margins can be set for a page? What are them?
12.10 What are the options available under the „orientation‟ of a page?
166
Session 13
Working with Tables, Illustrations, and Mail Merge
Aim:
To provide an introduction to tables, pictures, clipart, shapes, SmartArt charts, and Mail Merge.
Objectives:
Having studied this lesson you will be able to get an idea about:






Working with tables
Working with pictures and clipart.
Creating images using shapes
Designing a charts using smart Art
Working with charts
Generate multiple copies of documents with mail merge facility.
13.1 Working with tables
Tables are used to format/summarize your data. Building block in a table is a cell. There can be
one or many cell in the table.
Column
Index No
Subject
Marks
PS2001
CSU1190
67
PS2002
CSU2289
45
PS2202
CSU2280
89
13.1.1 Creating a table


Figure 13.1: Specific areas of a
Table
Cell
ellCell
Row
Click Insert.
Click Table.
Figure 13.2: Insert Table Window
167

By using mouse Select number of rows and columns (while you selecting the row or
column sample format can be seen in the word document).
OR



Click Insert table.
Then type number of rows and columns in your table.
Enter data
Figure 13.3: Type number of rows and
columns
13.1.2 Format your table
After inserting a table you can easily format it. To format your table,
1. Click inside the table (In the ribbon you can see the table tools such as design and
layout).
Select the Table
styles
Click hear to set
shading color
Click hear to set
Table border
Figure 13.4: Format the table
2. Select the table style using tool bar.
3. Set table border and the shading colour.
13.1.3 Setting Text Alignment inside the table
There are one or more cell/cells in a table. Cell is a one box in a table you can align your text in a
cell. To align a text in a table cell


Click inside the cell or cells as you wish to set align.
Set layout tab in the menu (in the table tools).
Set cell size in
your table
To align text,
use these tools
Figure 13.5: Set text alignment
To change the
text direction
click here
168


Point out alignment group.
Click suitable alignment tool.
13.1.4 Insert a row/column to the existing table
After creating the table, there are some instances where you need to insert more columns/rows
other than what you specified at the time of creating it. Follow the steps given below.





Move the cursor inside a specific column/row.
Right click.
Point to Insert.
Select the option as required depending on the position where your cursor was at (See
figure below).
A new column/row will be inserted to the left/right or above/below of the current
column/row.
Figure 13.6: Inserting a column to the existing table
13.1.5 Delete a row/column to the existing table
Sometimes, you may want to delete an existing column/row from the table no matter whether it
contains text or not. Follow the steps given below.



Select the entire column/row using the mouse.
Right click (See figure below).
Select Delete Column/row.
Figure 13.7: Deleting a Column
13.2 Different types of Illustrations
Microsoft Office Word 2007 provides several facilities to work with image objects. This session
describes how to work with Office Illustrations such as pictures, clipart, shapes, SmartArt and
charts. Figure 13.8 shows Illustration tools of the word 2007.
169
Figure 13.8: Illustration tools
13.3 Working with Images
Image is a visual representation of an object, scene, person or abstraction produced on a surface.
These images are used to display visual things. This section describes how to work with images
in the word 2007.
13.3.1 Insert pictures into your document
To insert picture in to your document
13. Set cursor position where you want to insert a picture.
14. Click insert tab.
15. Click picture.
16. Select a picture.
17. Click insert button.
Figure 13.9: Inserting a Picture
As you select your picture, word shows the picture format tool bar. Using this tool bar you can
work with the picture very easily.
The Picture Format Tool bar
The Picture format tool bar provides various facilities to manage pictures. Using these tools you
can easily perform many picture operations such as change the picture size, picture style, picture
background, and add more effect to the picture etc. Some basic operations are describes below.
8
7
4
9
5
6
3
1
2
Figure 13.10: Picture formatting tools
No
1
2
Name
Height
Width
Description
Change the height of the picture
Change the width of the picture
170
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Crop
Style
Border
Effects
Shapes
Contrast
Brightness
Crop the picture
Change the style of the picture
Change the border of the picture
Change the effect of the picture
Insert the picture shape
Change the picture contrast
Change the picture brightness
Table 13.1: Formatting tools
Change the Picture size
To change the size of your selected picture follows the steps given below,



Click picture tools.
Set height of the picture in the size section.
Set width of the picture in the size section.
OR
1. Select the picture.
2. Click crop tool.
3. Resize the picture using mouse.
Change the Picture Style
To change the picture style,
1. Click picture tools.
2. Click on the suitable picture style.
Change the picture Border
To change the picture style,
1. Click picture tools.
2. Click picture border icon in the picture style group.
3. Select the themes colour OR click “more outline colours” to select more colours.
Change the picture effects
To change the picture effect, follow the steps given below.
1. Click picture tools.
2. Click picture effect icon in the picture style group.
3. Select the suitable effect.
Change the picture shape
To change the picture shape, follow the steps given below.
1. Click picture tools.
2. Click picture shape icon in the picture style group.
3. Select a shape.
171
Change the contrast of the picture
To change the picture contrast, follow the steps given below.
1. Click picture tools.
2. Click contrast icon on the picture adjust group.
3. Change the contrast.
Change the brightness of the picture
To change the picture brightness, follow the steps given below.
1. Click picture tools.
2. Click brightness icon on the picture adjust group.
3. Change the brightness.
13.4 Working with ClipArt
Clip art, in the graphic arts, refers to pre-made images used to illustrate any medium. This
section describes how to work with ClipArt.
13.4.1 Insert a ClipArt
To insert a clip art, perform the following operations,



Set cursor position where you want to insert a clip Art.
Click insert tab.
Click clip art (Clip art selection window will appear).
Figure 13.11 shows clip art selection window.
Enter here the key word
for what you want to
search
Where do you
want to search?
What type of file
you need to search?
Available clip arts
Figure 13.11: Clip Art Selection window

After selecting the clip art, click on the picture (Clip art will be inserted as a picture into
your document).
172
13.4.2 Insert clipart on Office Online
If you have the internet connectivity, you can insert more clip arts from online other than the
collection available in the MS Office clipart gallery. To insert a clip art online, perform the
following operations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Set cursor position where you want to insert a clip Art.
Click insert tab.
Click clip art (Clip art selection window will appear).
Click clip art on Office online (Office.com)
Select suitable clip art on the web.
Copy/save selected image.
Paste/insert into your word document.
13.5 Working with Shapes
MS office provides a huge collection of shapes categorized into different categories such as
lines, basic shapes, block arrows, Flow charts, callouts, Stars and Banners as shown below.
Figure 13.12: Shapes Window
13.5.1 Insert a shape
To insert a shape, perform the following operations,
1. Set cursor position where you want to insert a shape.
2. Click insert tab.
3. Click shapes.
Several types of shapes are available such as basic shapes, flowcharts, block arrows, start and
banners etc.
4. Select and click suitable shape that you want to install.
5. Now courser will be changed it into  sign then you can draw a shape by using a drag and
drop method.
When you select your shape, word activated the drawing format tool bar.
173
The Drawing format Tool
The drawing format tool bar provides various facilities to manage shapes. Using these tools you
can easily work with your shapes such as change the size of the shape, shape style, change shape
effect etc. Some basic operations describe below.
3
5
4
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
6
Figure 13.13: Shape formatting tools
Name
Height
Width
Insert
textbox
Style
effects
Shadow
1
2
Description
Change the height
Change the width
To insert new shapes
To insert new textbox
Change shape styles
Change the 3D effect
Insert the shadow effects
Table 13.2: Formatting tools
13.5.2 Change the size of the Shape
To change the shape size,
1. Click Drawing format tool
2. Set height of the shape.
3. Set width of the shape.
13.5.3 Insert a new shape
To insert a new shape,
1. Click Drawing format tool
2. Click on the suitable shape in the insert shape section.
3. Click on the document.
13.5.4 Add/Edit a text in a shape
To add/edit a text,
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select a shape.
Click drawing format tool.
Click edit text tool on the insert shape section
Type the test
174
Example: Creating a diagram.
Design the following diagram using suitable shapes
Input
Calculation
Database
Output
13.5.5 Create a group of shapes
To create a group using multiple shapes,
1. Select shapes.
2. Click drawing format tool.
3. Click group tool on the arrange section.
OR
1. Right click on the mouse.
2. Click grouping.
3. Click group.
Ungroup/Regroup created group
To ungroup/regroup
1. Select shapes (Already grouped).
2. Click drawing format tool.
3. Click ungroup/regroup tool on the arrange section.
OR
1. Right click on the mouse.
2. Click grouping.
3. Click group.
13.5.6 Insert 3D effect into a shape
To insert a 3D effect into a shape
1. Click drawing format tool.
2. Click 3D effect.
3. Select one of the available formats.
13.5.7 Insert Shadow effect into a shape
To insert a shadow effect into a shape
1. Click drawing format tool.
2. Click shadow effect.
175
3. Select one of the available effects.
4. Click on that.
Change the shadow effect into a shape
To change the shadow effect into a shape,
1. Click drawing format tool.
2. Click shadow effect.
3. Change the shadow effects.
13.5.8 Change the shape style
To change the shape style,
1. Click drawing format tool.
2. Click on the shape style.
13.5.9 Change the fill colour
To change the fill colour of the shape,
1. Click Drawing format tool
2. Click on the Shape fill tool.
3. Select the colour.
13.5.10 Change the shape
To change the existing shape with a different shape,
1. Click drawing format tool.
2. Click on the change shape tool.
3. Select another shape.
13.5.11 Change shape position
To change the shape position
1. Click Drawing format tool
2. Click position tool.
3. Select the suitable position.
13.5.12 Change the visible order of the shapes
To change the visible order of the shape,
1. Select a shape.
2. Click drawing format tool.
3. Click bring to front tool
OR
1. Select a shape.
2. Click drawing format tool.
3. Click send to back tool
176
13.6 Working with SmartArt
13.6.1 Insert a smart Art
To insert a SmartArt, perform the following operations,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set cursor position where you want to insert a SmartArt.
Click Insert tab.
Click SmartArt.
Select a type of the SmartArt.
Click OK.
Figure 13.14: SmartArt Selection window
Activity 01: Create a Simple diagram by using SmartArt
Create the following diagram by using SmartArt
Steps:
1. Set cursor position where you want to insert a SmartArt.
2. Click inset tab.
3. Click SmartArt.
177
4. Select a type as cycle
5. Type the text in the “Type your text here window”
13.6.2 Working with SmartArt tools
There are two type of SmartArt menu available in the Word 2007 namely Design and Format.
When you select the smart art tool, SmartArt tools are appeared.
The SmartArt Design tool
7
5
5
4
3
2
1
Figure 13.15: SmartArt Design tools
No
1
2
3
4
Name
Reset
style
Colours
layout
Description
Reset the graphics shapes
Change the SmartArt Style
Change the SmartArt colour
Change the SmartArt layout
178
5
6
7
Text pane
Order
Add
Insert new text pane
Change the graphics order
Add new shapes
Table 13.3: SmartArt design tools
Change the layout style of the SmartArt
To change the layout style in the SmartArt,
1. Click the SmartArt.
2. Click SmartArt design tool.
3. Click one of the layouts in the layout group.
Change the SmartArt Styles
To change the layout style in the SmartArt,
1. Click the SmartArt
2. Click SmartArt design tool
3. Click one of the SmartArt styles in the SmartArt styles group
Discard all the format changes
To discard all the format changes you have done, follow the steps given below:
1. Click the SmartArt.
2. Click SmartArt design tool.
3. Click reset graphics.
Show/ hide text pane of the SmartArt
To show or hide text pane,
1. Click the SmartArt.
2. Click SmartArt design tool.
3. Click text pane in the create graphics section.
Change the order of the design
To change the order of the design
1. Click the SmartArt.
2. Click SmartArt design tool.
3. Click “Right to left” tool in the create graphics section.
13.7 Working with Charts
13.7.1 Insert a chart into your document
To insert a chart to your document
1. Set cursor position where you want to insert a chart.
2. Click insert tab
3. Click chart (Insert chart window is appeared).
179
4. Select the type of the chart.
5. Click OK.
6. System automatically loads Microsoft Excel and display the sample chart.
15
10
Series 3
5
Series 2
0
Series 1
7. Enter the following data.
Index No
CHEMISTRY
PHYSICS
MATHS
AS001
4.3
0.3
1.6
As002
2.5
4.4
2.1
AS003
3.5
1.8
3.2
AS004
4.5
2.8
2.6
8. Close the Excel document.
Note: More about charts will be discussed under the Microsoft Excel 2007.
13.8 Insert a WordArt
To insert word Art, do following operations.
1. Set Cursor Position where you want to insert a text.
2. Click Insert tab.
3. Click Word Art.
There are several types of word Arts are available.
4. Select and click the suitable word Art.
5. „Edit word Art text‟ window will be appeared.
After Selecting the suitable font type and font size Enter/type your text that you want to
display in the given text box.
6. Click OK.
Figure 13.16: Edit word Art text window and the word Art
180
Now select your word Art, then Office shows word Art format tool bar in the ribbon. Using this
tool bar you can design your word easily.
The word Art Format tool bar
The word art format tool bar can be used to design your word Art text. This tool contains several
facilities such as change size, change text effects, text position word style etc.
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
Figure 13.17: Picture formatting tools
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Name
Edit text tool
Spacing
Style
Shadow effect
3D-Effects
Position
Text wrapping
Size
Description
Edit your word Art
Change the spacing between the letters of the text
Change the text style
Add shadow effect to the word art
Add 3D effect to the text
Change the word Art position
Change the way text wraps around the selected text
Change text size of the word Art
Table 13.4: Word Art formatting tool commands
13.9 Working with Text boxes
To insert Text box, perform the following operations,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Set cursor position where you want to insert a text.
Click insert tab.
Click Text Box (There are several types of built-in textbox types available).
Select and click the suitable text box.
Type the text.
Click OK.
This is a text box
After creating your text box select it. Then text box formatting window is appeared
181
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 13.18: Text box formatting tool commands
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Name
Draw text Box
Style
Shadow effects
3D-Effects
Position
Arrange text
Size
Description
Create a new text box
Change the text box style
Add shadow effect to the text box
Add 3D effect to the text box
Change the text box position
Change the text Arrangement
Change the text size
Table 13.5: Word Art formatting tool commands
Draw a text box
To create a new text box follow the steps given below



Click Draw text box tool.
Click the cursor where you want to insert a new text box.
Type the text.
13.10 Working with equations
When you want to insert some equations in to your document, you can use the equation tool. To
create a new equation,



Set cursor position where you want to insert the equation.
Click Inset tab.
Click
Now equation design tool appears in the ribbon
Figure 13.19: Equation design
toolequation editor to create any type of equations. Only you needs
Also several tools appear in the
click and type as you need.
Example 1: Create the following equations by using equation tool
182
Sample steps are as follows,
1. Put the cursor where you want to type the equation.
2. Click Insert tab and Click equation, you can see the place to type your equation.
Start to type your equation on the above box and type A.
Then click the script button and select the subscript pattern.
Figure 13.20: Selecting the subscript pattern
3. Type the value X on the big rectangle and type the 2 on the small rectangle. Then click
the right arrow key to exit the small rectangle. Then type + Sign.
4. Type other values as same.
5. Press Enter to exit the equation mode.
Example 2: Create the following equations by using equation mode
1.
2.
13.11 Inserting Symbols
To insert a symbol, perform the following operations,
1. Set cursor position where you want to insert a text.
2. Click insert tab.
183
3. Click Symbol.
4. Click the symbol.
OR
1. Click more symbols (Symbol window is appeared).
2. Select Symbol on the list.
3. Click insert (Change the Font and subset to search other symbol).
Figure 13.21: The insert symbol window
Create a shortcut key
To create a new shortcut key follow the steps given below,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click insert.
Click Symbols.
Select more symbols (Symbol window is appeared).
Select the symbol you want to use as a shortcut.
Press Shortcut Key.
Figure 13.22: Customize the insert symbol window
Insert a special character
To insert a special character, follow the steps given below,


Click insert.
Click Symbols.
184




Select more symbols (Symbol window is appeared).
Click the special character tab.
Select the character from list.
Click insert.
13.12 Word Templates
Templates are a special type of Microsoft Word document that can hold text, styles, macros,
keyboard shortcuts, custom toolbars and AutoText entries. A document created using a template
will have access to all of these features and so a large part of your development and document
creation job will be done for you.
13.12.1
Create a new word template
To create a new word template
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Create a new document
Do some on it (Change the page layout, enter header, Footer, page number etc.)
Click Save As.
Select word Template.
Enter file name.
Click Save.
13.12.2
Working with installed templates
To Work with installed templates,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click office button.
Click new (New document window is appeared).
Select installed template.
Select one of the install templates.
Click Create.
Figure 13.23: Create an install template using new document window
185
Activity 01: Create the following FAX document by using the installed templates.
Steps:





Click Office button.
Click New.
Select install templates in the new window.
Select the suitable document template.
Click Create.
Example: Working with Microsoft Office online templates
You can use hundreds of templates by using MS Office online templates. To do this, follow the
steps given below;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click Office button.
Click New.
Select online templates in the new document window.
Select the suitable document template.
Click Create.
13.13 Working with Mail Merge
Mail merge is a software function describing the production of multiple documents from a single
template form and a structured data source. This helps to create personalized letters and preaddressed envelopes or mailing labels for mass mailings from a word processing document
which contains fixed text, which will be the same in each output document, and variables, which
act as place holders that are replaced by text from the data source.
To start mail merge, perform the following steps,
1. Create a new word document.
2. Select Mailings tab on the ribbon.
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3. Click down Arrow of the Start mail merge icon.
Click Step by Step mail merge wizards (The mail merge wizard is appears)
Figure 13.24: Start Mail Merge icon
4. Select the working document type as letters. Then click next Starting document.
1
2
5. Select the starting document as current document.
2
2
6. Click Select recipient.
1
2
2
2
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7. Select type a new list and Click Create (Add new address list window is appeared).
8. Enter the following information on the list.
9. Click OK.
10. Click Next: Write on your letter.
11. Click more items (Insert message field window is appeared).
12. Go to the place where you want to insert data.
13. Select the item.
14. Click Insert.
No: «No» , «Name» , «Age» , Email: «Email_Address»
15. Click preview your letter.
16. Click Complete the merge.
17. Click Edit individual letter.
188
A001
Budditha Hettige
[email protected]
Dear Student,
Following Day Schools are postponed due to …
Figure 13.25: Merged Letter
Also, you can mail mage with Excel document or the MS Access database.
Note that, mail merge facilities are very useful facilities for the office members. Assume that,
you are a staff member of a particular company and you need to send 100 letters for a group of
applicants calling them for a particular interview. Using mail merge facility, you can create 100
letters in 5 minutes. Otherwise it takes five more hours.
13.14 Self Assessment Questions
What is the purpose of having a tab called “Table Tools”?
List five activities that the “Layout” tab allows you to do while working with tables.
Which keys can be used to move the cursor from one cell to the next in a table?
What are the tools available under “Illustrations”? State the functions of them?
What does the “Crop” tool do when formatting a picture?
What are the two search options that can be specified when using clipart?
When you select a shape, which tool bar is going to be activated automatically?
What is meant by the “text wrap”?
What is the purpose of having a tool called “WordArt” in Text formatting?
Which tab can be used to create a large capital letter at the beginning of the paragraph?
Which key on the keyboard could use to highlight all the pieces of a drawing, in order to
group them together?
13.12 Which page orientation you will select if you wish to print in wide format?
13.13 What is a Word Template? What is the file extension of a Word Template file?
13.14 What are the benefits that can be gained from using the mail merge facility?
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
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Session14
Introduction to MS Excel 2007
Aims:
This session aims to extend the student‟s knowledge and skills in Microsoft Excel to a high level.
Objectives:
Having studied this session you will be able to get an idea about:



The capabilities found in Excel 2007
Excel 2007 user interface
Working with Excel work books
14.1 Introduction
Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office Excel) is a spread sheet application written and distributed by
Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. A spreadsheet is a rectangular table (grid) of
information, often financial information. Excel has some features namely calculation, graphing
tools, pivot tables and a macro programming language called VBA (Visual Basic for
Applications). Excel is one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date.
Earlier version of Excel contained the program's more than 1,000 commands in a series of
menus, toolbars, task panes, and dialog boxes. And, as it turns out, there were some functions
that didn't appear by default on any of the menus or toolbars. In Excel 2007, there is only one
place to look for the tools you need to use it; the user interface Ribbon at the top of the program
window.
Table 14.1 summarizes some of the expanded data storage and other capabilities found in Excel
2007.
Description
Columns in a worksheet
Rows in a worksheet
Number of different colors allowed in a work book
Number of conditional format conditions applied to a cell
Number of sorting levels of a range or table
Number of items displayed in an AutoFilter list
Total number of characters displayed in a cell
Total number of characters per cell that Excel can print
Total number of unique cell styles in a workbook
Maximum length of a formula, in characters
Number of nested levels allowed in a formula
Maximum number of arguments in a formula
Number of characters that can be stored and displayed in a cell
Excel 2007
16,384
1,048,576
4.3 billion
Limited by available
memory
64
32,768
32,768
32,768
65,536
8,192
64
255
32,768
190
with a text format
Number of columns allowed in a PivotTable
Number of fields displayed in the PivotTable Field List task pane
16,384
16,384
Table 14.1: Capabilities found in Excel 2007
14.1.1 Start Excel 2007
To start using Microsoft Excel, there are various ways that you can use.
i. Click Start All Programs Microsoft Office Microsoft Office Excel 2007.
ii. If you are using My Computer or Windows Explorer, you can open the Program Files
folder in the C drive, then Microsoft Office, then Office, and double-click Excel.exe file
(Directly run the excel application).
iii. You can create an empty document on your desktop and use it to launch Microsoft Excel.
To do that, you would right-click an empty area on the desktop, position the mouse on
New Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet, type a name for the document, such as Time
Sheet, and press Enter twice.
iv. Double-clicking on any already created Excel file.
14.2 Microsoft Excel 2007 User Interface
Before start excel 2007 this is the best time to learn about office excel 2007 user interface. Figure
14.1 shows user interface of the excel 2007.
5
3
1
4
2
6
12
9
10
8
7
11
No
1
2
3
4
5
Figure 14.1: Excel 2007 user interface
Name
Office button
Quick Access tool bar
Work sheet title
Ribbon
Control keys (Close | resize | Minimize )
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6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Name box
A cell
Work sheet
Formula bar
Scroll bars
Status bar
Insert Function Button
Table 14.2: Major components of the Excel 2007 user interface
14.3 Working with workbooks
14.3.1 Create a new workbook (Method 1)
After starting MS Excel you need to create a new workbook to start working with MS Excel.
1. Click Office button → click New (New document creation window is appeared).
2. Select template: blank and recent.
3. Select blank work book and Click Create.
14.3.2 Create a new work book (Method 2)
There is another method to create a new work book.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click the mouse curser where you want to create the New document
Right click in the mouse and get short cut menu.
Select New.
Click Microsoft Office Excel work sheet.
Shortcut menu
5. Rename/give a name for the created new excel work sheet document.
192
6. To Open Excel, double click on the EXCEL icon.
The workbook can contain several work sheets. By default it has only three (3) work sheets
namely sheet1, sheet2 and shee3.
14.4 Working with a work sheet
Now you are ready to work with work sheets. In this section we will discuss how to delete,
rename, or create a new work sheet in a work book.
14.4.1 Delete a worksheet
To delete a worksheet, follow the steps given below;
1. Right click on the sheet tab which is to be deleted.
2. Click Delete on the shortcut menu.
Figure 14.2: Delete a worksheet
14.4.2 Rename an existing worksheet
To rename an existing a worksheet, follow the steps given below;
1. Right click on the sheet tab.
2. Click Rename on the shortcut menu.
3. Give a new name for the work sheet.
14.4.3 Insert a new work sheet
1. Right click on „Insert Work sheet‟ tab.
2. A new work sheet will be created for you. Rename the created worksheet with a name
you desire.
193
Example: Create a new data sheet.
Create a new work book named “mysample1” then rename sheet1 as „mysheet1‟. Enter the
following values into the „mysheet1‟.
Figure 14.3: Sample data for mysheet1
Entering the sequence January, February, March, and so on repeatedly can be handled by
copying and pasting the first occurrence of the sequence, but there's an easier way to do it: use
AutoFill.
14.5 Data entry techniques
The following table summarizes the existing data entry techniques.
Method
AutoFill
Fill Series
AutoComplete
Pick from Dropdown List
Action
Enter the first value in a recognized series and use the fill handle to extend
the series.
Enter the first two values in a series and use the fill handle to extend the
series.
Type the first few letters in a cell, and if a similar value exists in the same
column, Excel 2007 suggests the existing value.
Right-click a cell, and from the shortcut menu that appears, choose Pick
From Drop-down List. A list of existing values in the cell's column appears.
Click the value you want to enter into the cell.
Table 14.3: Data entry techniques
14.5.1 AutoFill option
To AutoFill, you enter the first element in a recognized series, grab the fill handle at the lowerright corner of the cell, and drag the fill handle until the series extends far enough to
accommodate your data.
194
Figure 14.4: AutoFill options
Click the Auto Fill Options button to display a list of several actions. Some options in the list are
summarized in the following table.
Option
Copy Cells
Fill Series
Fill
Formatting
Only
Fill Without
Formatting
Fill Days,
Weekdays,
etc.
Action
Copies the contents of the selected cells to the cells indicated by the Fill
operation.
Fills the cells indicated by the Fill operation with the next items in the series.
Copies the format of the selected cell to the cells indicated by the Fill
operation, but does not place any values in the target cells.
Fills the cells indicated by the Fill operation with the next items in the series,
but ignores any formatting applied to the source cells.
Changes according to the series you extend. For example, if you extend the
cells Wed, Thu, and Fri, Excel 2007 presents two options, Fill Days and Fill
Weekdays, and enables you to select which one you intended. If you do not use
a recognized sequence, the option does not appear.
Table 14.4: AutoFill Options
Example: Enter data by using Data entry techniques
Use a new worksheet “mysheet2” and enter the following
Figure 14.5: Sample data
195
14.6 Moving Data within a Workbook
You can move a cell in a lot of ways, but the most direct method is to click the cell to which you
want to move. Then your selected cell becomes an active cell(s). (The active cell is the cell that
is currently selected and open for editing). Then copy it and paste it elsewhere in the workbook.
The Paste Options button appears next to data you copy from a cell and paste into another cell.
Clicking the Paste Options button displays a list of actions that Excel 2007 can take regarding the
pasted cells.
Figure 14.6: Paste Option button
The options in the list are summarized in the following table.
Option
Use Destination
Theme
Match
Destination
Formatting
Keep Source
Formatting
Values Only
Values and
Number
Formatting
Values and
Source
Formatting
Keep Source
Column Widths
Formatting Only
Action
Pastes the contents of the Clipboard (which holds the last information
selected via Cut or Copy) into the target cells and formats the data using the
theme applied to the target workbook.
Pastes the contents of the Clipboard into the target cells and formats the
data using the existing format in the target cells, regardless of the
workbook's theme.
Pastes a column of cells into the target column; applies the format of the
copied column to the new column.
Pastes the values from the copied column into the destination column
without applying any formatting.
Pastes the contents of the Clipboard into the target cells, keeping any
numeric formats.
Pastes the contents of the Clipboard into the target cells, retaining all the
source cells' formatting.
Pastes the contents of the Clipboard into the target cells and resizes the
columns of the target cells to match the widths of the columns of the source
cells.
Applies the format of the source cells to the target cells, but does not copy
the contents of the source cells.
Table 14.5: Paste options
196
Example: Move Data on the workbook.
Steps to follow:
1. On the “mysheet1” worksheet, select cells A1:C8.
2. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Copy button. Excel 2007 copies the
contents of cells A1:C8 to the Clipboard.
3. On the tab bar, click the mysheet2 sheet tab. The „mysheet2‟ worksheet appears.
4. Select cell G5.
5. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Paste. Excel 2007 pastes the values into
cells G5:I12.
6. Click the Paste Options smart tag and then click Keep Source Formatting. Excel 2007
retains the cells' original formatting.
14.7 Defining data set as a Table
Excel has always enabled you to manage lists of data effectively, enabling you to sort your
worksheet data based on the values in one or more columns.
Example: Define a table
You will create a data table from existing data, add data to a table, add a Total row, change the
Total row's summary operation, and rename the table.
1. Select cell A1.
2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click Format as Table and then select a table style.
The Format as Table dialog box appears. Click Format as a table.
14.8 Some useful tips
Here, some operations are described which are identified as useful to work with Excel 2007 more
easily.
197
14.8.1 Displaying Different Views of an Excel sheet
In Excel 2007, you can view a document in three ways namely normal view, print view and
page break preview. By using the layout viewer (appearing next to the status bar, right bottom
on your MS Excel window) you can change Excel document view as you need. Click each view
and see the difference. The layout viewer is shown below.
Page layout
Normal layout
Page break preview
Figure 14.7: Different Views of an Excel sheet
14.8.2 Window Operations
By using MS Excel you can use/open more than one work books and you can work with several
windows simultaneously. Some window operations that will be useful when working with
windows are described below;
Figure 14.8: Multiple window operations
Switch to other Excel Document
Microsoft Excel 2007 supports multiple documents. Therefore you can use multiple Excel work
books in the same time. By default you can see only the active excel document and can easily
switch to other documents. To switch to other document
1. Click on the View tab on the Ribbon.
2. Point the Window group.
3. Click switch Windows
Close the current document window
Click the Close button, appearing at the right end of the Document window's title bar.
Maximize the window
Click the Maximize button, appearing at the right end of the Document window's title bar.
Freezing/Unfreezing panes
Imagine that you have entered data into your worksheet under different column headings and the
number of data rows entered is too high, such that it goes beyond the limit of a visible single
page. Obviously, to refer the data in lower rows you need to scroll down the page. When
scrolling down to the 2nd page and onwards, you will lose the titles appearing as the column
198
headings. So, it will be terrible for you to read the data in the rows as you can‟t see what the
meaning of that data under a particular column as the heading is not visible and you will have to
scroll up again to view the headings, come back to the row reading. Obviously this is a difficult
task for you.
In such cases, you can freeze the top row of the work sheet by keeping the top row visible while
scrolling through the rest of the work sheet. You can do the similar operation for the left most
columns as well such that it keeps both rows and columns visible while scrolling. Follow the
steps below to freeze or unfreeze the panes as explained above.



Go to the View tab.
Go to the Window group.
Select the option among Freeze panes, Freeze row, freeze column, or Unfreeze panes as
you wish.
14.9 Setting, Previewing, and Printing a document
14.9.1 Setting/Clearing printing area
Sometimes, though your worksheet is full of work done across the pages horizontally and
vertically you don‟t need to have the entire working in the printout. It will reduce the paper
wastage as well. In such situations you can set the printing area by covering a particular number
of rows and columns. Follow the steps given below.




Select the area to be printed by dragging and dropping the mouse over a rectangular area
across the rows and columns.
Go to the Page Layout tab.
Go to the Page Setup group.
Select the options under Print area by clicking the down arrow.
199
14.9.2 Previwing and Printing your work
After you create your Excel document you can get a print of it by using a printer. To print your
documents follow the steps given below;
1. Click the Microsoft Office Button, point to print.
Figure 14.9: Word 2007 Print options and printer setup window
There are three options available namely Print, Quick Print, and Print Preview
Print: if you click „Print‟ then the print dialog box will appear. (Screen shot in print dialog box
is given below) By using this dialog box you can select printer name, set number of copies and
set page range to print as you wish such as All : print all pages in your document Current: prints
only the current page and Pages: rage: 3 – 4 page range you wish to print. After selecting each
option click OK to print.
Figure 14.10: Print Dialog
Box
Quick Print: you can directly print your document by using default print option. In this method
you will not get the print dialog box as in the previous case.
Print Preview: Here the window's title bar indicates the preview of the document, and the print
preview tab appears on the Ribbon. The appearance of the document that will be in the printout
is displayed on the screen so that you can do the changes or give the command to proceed with
printing.
200
Click here to close
print preview window
Figure 14.11: Print preview window
By using print preview you can see a preview of your printout. Also it provides some facilities to
change your document as you wish. You can exit from print preview option by clicking Close
Print Preview button.
14.10 Self Assessment Questions
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
What are the advantages of using computerized Spreadsheets?
Define the following terms.
a. Spreadsheet
b. Worksheet
c. Workbook
Briefly explain the existing data entry techniques in MS Excel 2007.
What is meant by „Freezing panes‟ in an Excel work sheet?
How do you prevent other users making changes to your worksheet?
What is the feature that allows you to see, how your printed worksheet will looks like?
How do you print only a part of your Excel worksheet?
201
Session 15
Manupulating Data in MS Excel 2007
Aims:
To provide a knowledge and skill in performing calculations on the enterd data using fomulas
and basic functions available in MS Excel and sorting/filetring out required data from an excel
work sheet.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:




Insert fomulas by using arithmatics operations with contents of the cells.
Use the basic functions SUM, AVERAGE, MAX, MIN, IF, COUNTIF, etc.
Sort a given list of data into a given criteria.
Filter the required data from a data set satisfying a given condition(s).
15.1 Performing Calculations on Data
Microsoft® Office Excel® 2007 workbooks give you a handy place to store and organize your
data, but you can also do a lot more with your data in Office Excel 2007. One important task you
can perform is to calculate total, average, finding the minimum/maximum, etc. for the values in a
series of related cells.
In this session, you'll learn how to streamline references to groups of data on your worksheets
and how to create formulas.
15.1.1 Define and use cell range names in formulas
By using names, you can make your formulas much easier to understand and maintain. You can
define a name for a cell range, function, constant, or table. Once you adopt the practice of using
names in your workbook, you can easily update, audit, and manage these names.
1. Select the cell, range of cells, or nonadjacent selections that you want to name.
2. Click the Name box at the left end of the formula bar.
3. Type the name that you want to use to refer to your selection. Names can be up to 255
characters in length.
4. Press ENTER.
OR
1. Select the cell, range of cells, or nonadjacent selections that you want to name.
2. Right Click on the selection.
3. The New Name dialog box will be appeared. Type the name that you want to use to refer
to your selection.
4. Give comments (optional).
202
5. Click OK.
Figure 15.1: Define a new group name
15.2 Working with Excel Formulas
A formula is a set of instructions for performing a calculation. Excel enables you to create a very
wide range of formulas for performing whatever type of calculations you need. Each formula has
a cell reference and starts with the „=‟ (equal) sign.
To create a formula, you can perform the following steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select a cell where you want to display answer.
Click the formula bar.
Type„=‟ Sign.
Type the function.
Press Enter.
Example: This simple example shows how to add two numbers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Enter 34 in cell A2, and 56 in cell B2.
Select cell C2.
Type = (A2+B2).
Press Enter.
Formula bar with a function
Function button
Answer in a cell
Figure 15.2: Formula bar and cells
Excel displays the result in cell C2.
Note that, each formula has operand and operators. The operand in a formula specifies the data
you want to calculate. Operand may be,



A constant value (for example 23 + 14)
A cell address or address range
A work sheet function
203
Excel uses arithmetic operators, logical operators, reference operators and text operators as
tabled below.
Operator
Arithmetic Operators
+
*
/
%
^
Logical Operators
=
<>
>
>=
<
<=
Reference Operators
:
,
[space]
Text Operator
&
Explanation
Addition (A1+B1)
Subtraction (A1-B1)
Multiplication (A1*B1)
Division (A1/B1)
Percentage
Exponentiation
Equal to
Not equal to
Greater than
Greater than or equal to
Less than
Less than or equal to
Range of contiguous cell
Range of noncontiguous cell
The cell or range shared by two reference
concatenates
Table 15.1: Arithmetic operators in Excel 2007
Example: Working with formulas.
Open the workbook named „mybook‟ and use the „Results‟ data sheet. Then insert following
three data fields (see Figure 15.3).
1. Find the Total of the each 3 subjects.
2. Find the Average marks.
3. Add additional 5 marks for the each Average marks.
Figure 15.3: Formula bar and cells
204
15.2.1 Copying formulas
Sometimes when we enter a formula, we need to repeat the same formula for many different
cells. In the spreadsheet we can use the copy and paste command. The cell locations in the
formula are pasted relative to the position we Copy them from.
Cells information is copied from its relative position. In other words in the original cell (C1) the
equation was (A1+B1). When we paste the function it will look to the two cells to the left. So the
equation pasted into (C2) would be (A2+B2). And the equation pasted into (C3) would be
(A3+B3).
A
1
2
3
4
B
5
2
7
5
6
3
1
4
C
=A1+B1
=A2+B2
=A3+B3
=A4+B4
Often we have several cells that need the same formula (in relationship) to the location it is to be
typed into. There is a short cut that is called Fill Down. There are a number of ways to perform
this operation. One of the ways is to,
1. Select the cell that has the original formula.
2. Hold the mouse in right down corner in the cell (+).
3. Drag the cell box.
15.2.2 Absolute Positioning
Sometimes it is necessary to keep a certain position that is not relative to the new cell location.
This is possible by inserting a $ before the Column letter or a $ before the Row number (or both).
This is called Absolute Positioning.
A
B
C
5
6
=$A$1+$B$1
1
2
3
=$A$1+$B$1
2
7
1
=$A$1+$B$1
3
5
4
=$A$1+$B$1
4
If we were to fill down with this formula we would have the exact same formula in all of the
cells C1, C2, C3, and C4. The dollar signs lock the cell location to a FIXED position. When it is
copied and pasted it remains EXACTLY the same (no relative).
15.2.3 Paste your formula using “paste special” method
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the cell.
Copy the cell content.
Select the target cell.
Right click on mouse and select paste special on the shortcut menu.
(Now you can see the paste special window)
205
5. Using paste special window select what you need. For example, if you select „Values‟ the
paste operations gives pasting the values only. There will be no cell reference pasted.
I.e.: it will paste the values containing in the copied cells but not the formulas.
6. Click OK.
Figure 15.4: The paste special window
15.3 Working with Excel functions
A function is a small assignment that is performed to produce a result that can be reliably used
without caring as to how the function works or how it was created. Built-in functions in Excel
can be used to perform calculations on spreadsheet data. While most people use only those
functions specific to their needs, there are many functions such as SUM, COUNT, AVERAGE,
MAX, MIN, and the IF function that just about everyone uses.
To use a function in your spreadsheet, you can display its result in a cell. Because a cell is just a
box, ready to display anything.
Example: Get the Summation of a number list using a Formula.
SUM Function
Probably the most popular function in any spreadsheet is the SUM function. The Sum function
takes all of the values in each of the specified cells and gives the total value of them.
The syntax is as follows:
=SUM (first value, second value, etc.)
In the first and second spots you can enter any of the following (constant, cell, range of cells).
Note: Blank cells will return a value of zero to be added to the total.
Text cells cannot be added to a number and will produce an error.
206
More about SUM function
We will look at several different specific examples that show how the typical SUM function can
be used! Notice that in Cell A4 there is a TEXT entry. This has NO numeric value and cannot be
included in a total. Following table shows difference Method to use „SUM‟ function.
Function
=sum(A1:A3)
=sum(A1:A3,100)
=sum(A1:A4)
Cells
A1, A2, A3
A1, A2, A3 and 100
A1, A2, A5
Value
150
250
150
AVERAGE function
The Average function finds the average of the specified data. (Simplifies by add all the indicated
cells together and divide by the total number of cells.)
The syntax is as follows.
=AVERAGE (first value, second value, etc.)
Text fields and blank entries are not included in the calculations of the Average Function.
Following figure shows how average function is used to calculate the average value of the data
range E2: G2.
The MAX Function
The next function we discuss is Max (which stands for Maximum). This will return the largest
(maximum) value in the selected range of cells.
The syntax is as follows:
=MAX (first value, second value, etc.)
Blank entries and text entries are not included in the calculations of the Max Function.
The MIN Function
The next function we will discuss is Min (which stands for minimum). This will return the
smallest (Min) value in the selected range of cells. Blank & text entries are not included in the
calculations of the Min Function.
207
The syntax is as follows.
=MIN (first value, second value, etc.)
The COUNT Function
The next function we will discuss is Count. This will return the number of entries (actually
counts each cell that contains) in the selected range of cells. Blank and text entries are not
counted.
The syntax is as follows.
=COUNT (first value, second value, etc.)
IF Function
IF statement is used in Excel to do certain actions, only if something is true. For example, you
might want to print out the message "Pass” if marks >=40 in a particular result sheet. Otherwise,
you just want to print out "Fail"
The IF function lets you to take this kinds of value based decisions. This section will show you
couple of basic examples of how you can make use of the IF function. Syntax of the if function
can be described as follows;
The IF function has three parts:

The condition to be checked for satisfaction.
Ex: We will use C3> 40 in the example below. This is a comparison.
 What to be done if the condition checked is satisfied. i.e. the condition is true
 What to be done if the condition checked is not satisfied. i.e. the condition is false
Example: Create a function to print the message “PASS” under the column with the heading
“Results” if Marks is greater than 40. Else, print “FAIL”
=IF (C3>40,"PASS","FAIL")
Create an if function using Function Wizard
Excel has a built in wizard to help you make your own If functions.
1. Click function button (near the formula bar).
208
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Figure 15.5: Insert function wizard
Click OK.
(IF function wizard is appeared)
There are three places appear in the function wizard that are used to set logical test and the
true or false values.
Put C3 > 40 in logical test field.
Put “PASS” in to value if true field.
Put “FAIL” in to value if false field.
Then press OK to add if function.
Figure 15.6: Function Arguments selecting window
Example: Create an if function to calculate the grade based on the marks of a given subject
Mark
Mark >=75
Mark <75 & Mark >=60
Mark <60 & Mark >=55
Mark <55 & Mark >=40
Mark <40
Grade
A
B
C
S
F
209
To do this, you can use a nested if function. When we use one or more if functions inside another
if function, we call it as a nested If function.
=IF (A2>=75,"A", IF (A2>=60,"B", IF (A2>=55,"C", IF (A2>=40,"S","F”))))
15.3.1 Other functions available in Excel 2007
Though we learnt a few functions above, MS Excel has capability of using a vast collection of
functions categorized into different categories based on the functionality of them. You can see all
the functions available from the Formulas tab of the ribbon as shown below.
Figure 15.7: More Functions
15.3.2 Exploring more on functions
You can explore about the Functions available in MS Excel by using the Excel Help. The help
menu gives you the descriptions on each function together with good examples for you to learn
how to use them.
15.4 Sort and filter your data
When you work with a large data set, sometimes you might want to sort the records in a
particular order, in order to make your working easily. Or you may feel easy to locate a
particular data if the entire data set is sorted in a required order. Similarly, if the data set is quite
large, sometimes you may want to filter out some data from the entire set. Following sections
discuss how to Sort your data and how to Filter your data in MS Excel 2007.
15.4.1 Sorting your data
To sort your data, follow the steps given below.
1. Select your data set.
2. Select Data tab in the ribbon.
3. Point Sort & Filter group.
4. Click Sort.
210
Figure 15.8: Excel 2007 ribbon for Sort and Filter data
Example: Sort your data set according to the Marks obtained by the students such that the
student with the highest mark will come as the top row. (I.e. based on the Descending order of
the Mark)
Follow the steps given below:
1. Select the entire data set including the column headings such as No, Index No, Course
Code, and Marks
2. Go to the Home Tab.
3. Under the Editing group, click on the down arrow of Sort & Filter.
4. Select Custom Sort.
Sort window will be appeared as follows:
211
5. Select Mark from the Sort by list.
6. Select Largest to Smallest from the Order list.
7. Click Ok.
Your entire data set will be re-arranged as follows:
15.4.2 Filter your data
To filter your data, you can use the following steps,
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select your data set.
Select data tab in the ribbon.
Point sort and filter group.
Click Filter.
Example: filter you data set to display only who have obtained Marks greater than or equal to
75. Follow the steps given below:
1. Select the data set.
2. Click filter button in the sort and filter groups. Now you can see the column headings are
changed as follows.
3. Click the down arrow in the marks column as shown above.
4. Select number filters.
5. Select greater than or equal to (Now custom filter will be appeared as follows).
Figure15.9: Shortcut menu to filter data
212
6. Change the values as given below and click OK.
Figure 15.10: Custom Auto Filter Window
The output or the filtered data set will be displayed as follows. The other records will be hidden
temporarily. Or you may copy the entire data set into a different location and perform the
necessary filtering tasks if you need to compare the output with the original data set.
Figure 15:11: Filtered data set
Remove Filters in your data set
To remove the applied filters, perform the following steps:
1. Click the down arrow in the Marks Column.
2. Click Clear Filter from “Marks”.
Figure 15.12: Remove filter in the data set
213
15.5 Errors in cells
When you work with Microsoft Excel you will meet the following common sources of errors
appearing on the cells of your worksheet. Refer to the description given below to get an idea
what that error is and what to be done if the error occurs.
Error
######
#DIV/0
#NAME?
#REF!
#VALUE!
Description
There is nothing wrong with your formula; the cell simply isn't big enough to
display the result. Widen the column.
You are trying to divide by zero. Correct the divisor or If the divisor is a cell
reference, check to make sure the cell isn't empty.
There is a name in the formula that Excel doesn't recognize.
If you used a natural language name, check the spelling or If you typed in a
function, check the spelling or verify that the function exists or If you are
performing operations on text, enclose the text in double quotation marks.
A cell reference is not valid. Re-enter the formula.
The formula uses the wrong type of operand or argument. Check to see that
you're not performing math operations on labels or that arguments of
functions that need to numeric are not referring to cells containing labels.
Table 15.2: Common function Errors
15.6 Self Assessment Questions
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
What do you type first in an empty cell to start a formula?
What are the four different types of operators use in Excel 2007? Give examples for each
type.
What is the best way to display the result of a formula in another location on the
worksheet?
How could you rearrange the data in ascending or descending order?
The quality of a product of a company is defined based on the number of deficiencies
found in a sample of 100 products as given in the table below. Build a nested “IF”
functions to be used to find the Quality of the product.
Deficiencies per 100products
0
In between 1 and 5
In between 6 and 8
Greater than 9
15.6
Quality of the product
Excellent
Good
Satisfactory
Bad
What does it mean if the following errors are appearing in some cells of your work sheet?
How do you fix each error?
a. ######
b. #DIV/0
c. #NAME?
214
Session 16
Setting Document Appearance and working with Charts
Aims:
This lesson aims to give an idea on document appearance setting and will provide the basic ideas
on charts.
Objectives:
Having studied this session you will be able to:




Format the cells and the contents
Change the document appearance by applying themes
Create Charts for a given data set
Customize the features of charts
16.1 Changing Document Appearance
16.1.1 Format a cell by using cell formatting window
When you enter data into cells, the content will be displayed according to the default settings.
For an example, if you enter the data „015‟ in a cell, by default Excel will recognize it as a
numerical value and will be automatically displayed it as „15‟ by omitting the beginning zero and
it will be right aligned in the cell as shown below.
Figure 16.1: Default Excel appearance
Therefore, there will be instances where you need to format into special arrangements according
to the requirement. To format your cells, follow the steps given below:



Select a cell/ a range of cells.
Right click.
Select format cell.
Now, the Format Cells window will appear as follows.
215
Figure 16.2: Format Cells window
By using this window you can format any cell or selected cells more easily. The cells can be
formatted with respect to number formats, alignments, font, borders, fill, and protection of the
content of the cell(s) using the tabs in the window.
Example 1: Format your cell using a given number format
1. Select Number tab in the cell formatting window.
2. Select the category Currency.
3. Set decimal places as 2 and Symbol as $.
Figure 16.3: Available currency formats
Example 2: Align the content of the cell
You can align a cell text by clicking Alignment tab in a cell formatting window.
Figure 16.4: Aligning a cell text
216
To align the text in a cell, perform the following operations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the cell(s) of which the alignment is to be set.
Select Alignment tab in the cell format window.
Set text alignment as center.
Set text orientation as 90 Degrees (to align the text as shown in above A1 and A2 cells)
Press OK.
16.1.2 Change font effect in a cell
1. Select the cell(s) of which the font is to be formatted.
2. Select the font group in the home tab.
3. Change the font effect as you need with respect to the font type, font style, colour, size,
etc. You can preview the effects that you have applied under „preview‟ as shown in the
figure 16.5.
Set the
font size
here
Select the font
type here
Figure 16.5: Change the fonts
Example 3: Insert the following heading to your personal data sheet. Font size -16, Style- bold
and underline
16.1.3 Change Border of a cell/range of cells
1. Select the border group in a home tab.
2. Change the Border style effect as you need.
217
Select the type of
border here
Click here to Change
the border line style
Applied borders
can be previewed
here
Click here to
change the border
color
Click on any of the
buttons here to include
the given border
Figure 16.6: Change the border
Example: Add borders to the cell range as shown below.
Figure 16.7: Sample data
16.1.4 Change the fill style of a cell(s)
1. Select the Fill group in a home tab.
2. Change the Fill style effect as you need with respect to background color, pattern color if
the cell(s) are to be filled with a pattern, and the pattern style.
Figure 16.8: Cell Fill styles
218
16.1.5 Set row height
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the row.
Right click on it.
Select row height in the Shortcut menu.
Set the row height by typing the preferred value.
Press OK.
Figure 16.9: Row Height Window
16.1.6 Set the column width
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the Column.
Right click.
Select column width in the Shortcut menu.
Set column width by typing the preferred value.
Press OK.
Figure 16.10: Column Width Window
16.1.7 Merge two or more cells
Two or more cells can be merged together so that the combination will act as a single cell.
1. Select the cells you need to merge.
2. Right Click on the selection.
3. Click merge and center icon.
Figure 16.11: Merging cells
16.1.8 Change the cell style
Excel has defined a set of styles to be applied to cells in order to differentiate them among other
cells. A cell style is a defined set of formatting characteristics, such as fonts and font sizes,
number formats, cell borders, and cell shading. To prevent anyone from making changes to
specific cells, you can also use a cell style that locks cells.
To apply/change the cell styles, follow the steps given below,
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the cell(s).
Click home tab in the ribbon.
Click on the down arrow to get the drop down list in the styles group.
Select a cell style.
Figure 16.12: Cell styles in the home tab
219
Available cell
styles
Figure 16.13: Available Cells
16.2 Conditional formatting of cells
You can format a range of cells such that the required data cells are appeared in a different
manner according to the condition you specify. The Conditional Formatting facility helps you
to do this. Similarly you can highlight interesting cells, emphasize unusual values, and visualize
data in cells using Data Bars, Colour Scales and Icon Sets based on given criteria.
Example: Format the marks column of the above data set such that the marks which are above
the average of the entire group of students are filled with a different colour so that the best group
of students in the class can be identified at a glance.
Follow the steps below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Select the Marks column.
Go to the Home Tab.
Click down arrow of Conditional Formatting in the Styles group.
Select Top/Bottom Rules.
Select Above Average.
Select the color filling option under the „for the selected range with‟ in the next window.
Click OK.
The marks which are above the average of the class will be highlighted in a different
colour as shown below.
Figure 16.14: Selecting the condition preferred to format
220
Figure 16.15: Selecting the color filling option to apply
Figure 16.16: Conditionally formatted dataset
16.3 Applying Workbook Themes
The 2007 Microsoft Office system includes powerful new design tools that enable you to create
attractive, professional documents quickly. The Excel 2007 product team implemented the new
design capabilities by defining themes. By applying a theme, it will uniformly format all the text
and graphics in the work sheet. You will see a clear difference in the colour scheme used after
changing the theme.
To apply built-in themes into the worksheet, follow the steps given below



Click page layout tab in the ribbon.
Click Themes under the themes groups.
Select the built-in style.
Figure 16.17: Cell fills data
221
16.4 Working with Charts
MS Excel is the best application to learn about Charts. Charts are usually used to give an
illustration on the behavior of data at a glance, to the viewer, rather than reading the entire data
set to study the behavior. For an example, a column chart can be used to illustrate the Marks
obtained for Mathematics in the class. So that the student who is most good in Mathematics in
the class can be identified at a glance as it will be the column with the greatest height among all
other columns, which represent different marks obtained by different students in the class for
mathematics.
MS Excel provides facilities to draw the following types of charts. You are required to decide
which type will be most suitable to illustrate your data set depending on the nature of the data.











Column charts
Line charts
Bar charts
Pie charts
Area charts
Scatter charts
Stock
Surface
Radar
Bubble
Doughnut
Following sections discuss more about charts.
16.4.1 Create a Chart using Chart tool
Microsoft excel 2007 provides easy way to create charts that you need. To create a chart, follow
the steps given below steps.
1. Select the data set on which the chart to be drawn.
Name
Physics
Mathematics
Chemistry
A. F. Perera
45
67
89
A. C. Kumara
34
28
23
D.F Silva
23
48
45
N.M. Silva
56
72
76
S.K. Fernando
78
55
45
S.J. Gamage
93
84
66
K. N. Peris
42
93
45
R. S. Roza
37
67
76
S. J. Silva
84
53
38
H.B. Zoyza
56
87
95
2. Click Insert tab.
3. Click Chart.
4. Select the suitable chart type in a chart group and click on it.
222
Figure16.18: Graphs types
Now you can see the sample chart and there is a chart tool is active in the ribbon also graphs will
be displayed on your excel sheet. Now you can modify your charts.
16.4.2 Modify chart Layout
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select your chart.
Click design tab in a chart tool and click.
Click chart layout.
Select suitable chart layout.
Modify titles as you need.
Select your chart layout here
Figure16.19: Available Chart types
Example:
Change the chart title as “Mid-term test result”
Change the X axis title as “Student name”
Change the Y axis title as “Marks”
Your output will look like as follows:
223
Figure16.20: Sample output
16.4.3 Customize the appearance of a chart
Microsoft Excel 2007 provides easy way to customize charts as you need. To do this Excel 2007
provides 3 tools namely design, layout, and format tools.
16.4.4 The Chart design tool
The chart design tool can be used to change the data set layout and style in your data sheet. Brief
description of the each tool is listed below.
2
1
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 16.21: Chart Design tool
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Name
Chart Change tool
Save as template
tool
Switch
Row/column
Select Data
Quick layout
Style
Move Charts
Description
Change your chart type
Save your chart as a chart template
Change the Row / Column of the Chart
Change the data set of the chart
Change the chart layout
Change the Chart style
Move your chart as a new sheet or object in a given
sheet
Table 16.1: Tools available in the design tool
224
16.4.5 The Chart Layout tool
The chart layout tool contains number of tools to change the layout of your chart. Some useful
tools are listed below.
1
3
2
6
5
4
7
8
Figure 16.22: Chart Layout Tool
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Name
Current selection
Format selection
Insert
Labels
Axes
Plot Area
Trend line
Properties
Description
Change the selected area of the chart
Format the selected are of the Chart
Insert picture/shapes to your Chart
Change the label position and the style
Change the Axes of the chart
Change the Style of the plot area
Insert a Trend line into your chart
Change the properties of the chart
Table 16.2: Tools available in the Layout tool
16.4.6 The Chart Format tool
The chart format tool is use to format your chart.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 16.23: Chart format tool
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Name
Current selection
Format selection
Style
Shape effects tool
Shape fill
Quick style
Size
Description
Change the selected area of the chart
Format the selected are of the Chart
Change the chart style
Change the effects of the shape
Change the chart fill properties
Change the style of the chart quickly
Change the chart size
Table 16.3: Tools available in the Format tool
225
16.5 Self Assessment Questions
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
What is the use of Excel conditional formatting?
What is the purpose of applying a theme to a worksheet?
Suppose that you want to create your expense sheet for the last month and wants to view
the data in a graph. Which tool will you use to represent the data through a graph?
When creating the above expense sheet, what is the most suitable chart can be inserted to
show the portions spent on each expense in last month?
What are the available tools in Excel 2007 to customize charts?
226
Session 17
Introduction to Microsoft PowerPoint 2007
Aim:
To provide an overview of the Microsoft PowerPoint 2007
Objectives:
Having studied this session you will be able to get an idea of:




Introduction about MS PowerPoint 2007
Working with Microsoft PowerPoint 2007
Creating better presentations
Formatting presentations
17.1 Introduction
Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program developed by Microsoft. This is used to produce
professional-looking presentations. It is an application that comes with the Microsoft Office suit.
Microsoft PowerPoint runs on Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS computer operating systems.
Microsoft Power point 2007 introduced several new features. Some of these features are listed
below,









Get better results faster with a redesigned user interface.
Create powerful, dynamic SmartArt Diagrams.
Easily reuse content with Office PowerPoint 2007 slide libraries.
Communicate with users across platforms and devices.
Use custom layouts to assemble presentations more quickly.
Accelerate your review processes.
Dramatically modify shapes, text, and graphics with new tools and effects.
Add more security to your Office PowerPoint 2007 presentations.
Reduce your document sizes and improve damaged file recovery at the same time.
In addition to the MS PowerPoint, there are so many other presentation programs which are
computer software packages which can display information normally in the form of a slide show.
Apple Keynote, Corel Presentations, Google Docs (web-based), OpenOffice.org Impress (open
source), SlideRocket are some examples for them.
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17.2 Working with MS PowerPoint 2007
17.2.1 Starting MS PowerPoint 2007
Do you know how we can open Microsoft PowerPoint 2007? There are various ways to do this.
Let‟s have a look at some of the common ways used to launch Microsoft PowerPoint 2007




Click Start→All Programs→Microsoft Office→Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007
If you are using My Computer or Windows Explorer, you can open the Program Files
folder, then Microsoft Office, then Office, and double-click power point icon.
You can create an empty document on your desktop and use it to launch Microsoft power
point. To do that, you would right-click an empty area on the desktop, position the mouse
on New→Microsoft Office power point presentation, type a name for the document,
and press Enter twice.
Double-clicking the any power point file.
17.2.2 Creating a new presentation (Method 1)
After starting MS Power point, you need to create a new presentation.
Click Start button → Click New (New document creation windows will appear)
Figure 17.1: New document creation Window



Select the template: blank and recent.
Select blank presentation.
Click Create.
17.2.3 Creating a new presentation (Method 2)
In addition to the above method, you may follow the method given below as well to create a new
presentation file.
Go to the location where you want to create the presentation file (Ex. Inside the My PowerPoint
work folder in the E:\ drive)
1. Right click in the blank area of the location.
2. Select New.
3. Select MS PowerPoint presentation.
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Figure 17.2: Creating a new presentation
17.3 Getting Familiarized with MS Power point 2007 user Interface
1
2
3
6
4
5
Figure 17.3: Microsoft power point user interface
No
1
2
3
4
Name
Quick Access Tool
Bar
Ribbon
Tabs
Slide/Outline pane
5
6
Notes section
New Slide
Description
The standard quick access tool bar (can customize
its items)
The Standard ribbon for PowerPoint
Heading Tabs in the Ribbon
Shows slides one under the other with the content
outline
Section for adding speaker notes
Currently working slide selected from the slide pane
Table 17.1: MS PowerPoint User interface components
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17.4 Start your presentation
17.4.1 Starting with the first slide
In PowerPoint 2007 a Slide Layout named Title Slide always appears first. Assuming that the
presentation needs a title at the beginning the first slide, by default is called a Title Slide. The
title part in this slide appears as the main section of the screen.
Your screen will look like the image below.
Place your cursor in the “Click to add title” box and click the left mouse button to start inserting
the text in this formatted text box, we simply enter (type-in) the title:
Example: “Introduction to Computers” assuming that you are going to present about Computers
to a group of students in a class.
Now, click in the second box “Click to add sub-title” and type the sub title to your presentation:
Example:
Presented by: Ms. C.Y. Munasinghe
The Open University of Sri Lanka
17.4.2 Inserting a new slide
Now it‟s time to create the next slide in your presentation. To do this, we need to find the New
Slide button. At the top left of the screen, in the Home Tab you will see a New Slide “button”
which looks like the Figure 17.4.
Figure 17.4: Inserting a new Slide
Your new Slide 2 should look like the image below – even if you did not click the arrow.
The layout of the slides except the first one will look like the image shown below.
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Figure 17.5: Layout of the second slide
Example:
Now click “Click to add title” box and type: “Parts of a Computer”.
Click in the “Click to add text” box and type:
Processor (type Enter)
Motherboard (type Enter)
Hard Disk (type Enter)
RAM
Note that the items you type in the text area will be automatically displayed as a bulleted list.
The bullet can be customized as you wish. The Font properties also can be customized as you
wish. The steps will be same as what you followed to format your text in MS Word session.
17.4.3 Deleting a Slide
To delete a slide, right click on the slide from the slide navigation pane at the left side of your
screen and select Delete Slide.
Figure 17.6: Deleting a Slide
17.4.4 Open an existing presentation
To open existing presentation, you have several options.
Locate and double click on any power point presentation file to be opened.
OR
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Click the Microsoft Office Button and Open then select the power point presentation you
looked for then Click Open.
17.4.5 Change the slide view
There are several ways to display your presentations namely as normal view, slide sorter, notes
page and slide show. Brief description of the each view is given below.
Normal View
Slide sorter
view
Slide show View
Figure 17.7: Slide Views
Normal View
Gives you a view of the entire slide as well as the “mini-previews” of each slide in the left area.
This is the one we have been using so far.
Slide Sorter View
You can see small images of each slide. In this view you can left click-on a slide and, while
holding down the left mouse button, drag your slide to any position in your show that you
desire. This view assists you in arranging your slides in the order that you desire for your
presentation. This view is sort of like the old, round 35mm slide show trays where you pulledout and stuck-in slides, in the order you desired.
Slide Show view
Anytime you want to view your presentation, click-on this button. If you click on it now, you
will see how the slide, on which you are working, will look. Give it a try if you desire. When
you are finished looking at your slide, tap the Esc button/key in the top-left part of your
Keyboard. This will take you back to the View in which you were working.
Figure 17.8: Slide show buttons
17.4.6 Hiding the slides
Sometimes you might want a slide to be included in a presentation but not in the slide show. You
can hide the slide using the following steps.


Go to “Slide” tab in the pane which contains „Slides‟ and „Outline‟.
Right-click the slide you want to hide and click „Hide Slide‟.
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Figure 17.9:Hiding the slides
You will be able to see a hidden mark in the hidden slides as indicated in the image below.
Figure 17.10: Hidden Mark
To show the slide which you have hidden earlier, right click and select „Hide Slide‟ again.
17.5 Adding more components to the slides
Let us start out with an example slide presentation to discuss more on components that can be
added into your slide.
17.5.1 Adding text and images in a single slide
Example: Insert a new slide into your presentation by Clicking on the New Slide tool and
selecting Two Content as the layout of the slide to be inserted as shown below.
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Figure 17.11: New slide with Two Content layout
1. Click in the top text box, Click to add title and type: Processor types
2. Click in the left Text or Content Box , Click to add text and type:
Intel (tap Enter)
Intel Celeron (tap Enter)
AMD
Click here to add Smart Art
Click here to add Charts
Click here to add Tables
Click here to add
text
Click here to add picture
Click here to insert
a media clip
Click here to add Clip Art
Figure 17.12: Components of the Slide
234
3. Click in the right text box - Click insert picture from file.
Figure 17.13: Insert picture from file
4. Select a suitable picture saved in your computer and press insert. Now your Slide will
appear like this.
Figure 17.14: A sample completed slide
17.5.2 Adding hyperlinks
In PowerPoint, hyperlink is used to connect one slide with another slide in the same presentation
or a slide in another presentation, an e-mail address, a Web page or a file.
You can create a hyperlink from text or from an object, such as a picture, graph, shape or
WordArt.
1. Select the text or an object that you want to hyperlink.
2. Click Hyperlink in the Links group of the insert menu.
3. Give the location of the document or website in the address field.
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Figure 17.15: Selecting the location
4. Click OK.
If the colour of the text has changed to blue and underlined then it means that it has worked
creating the link. Double check it by clicking the link.
17.6 Formatting Presentations
In this section, we will briefly describe some operations that can be used to format your
presentation slides such as modifying the fonts and change the background.
17.6.1 Inserting a text box
Text is the main part of your presentation. It represents anything of your presentation. You can
use textbox to represent the text.
Click Insert menu on the ribbon and click Text box on the Text group.
Figure 17.16: Insert a Text box
Place cursor to where you need to insert a new text box and type some text.
Note: You can format your inserted Text Box as similar to the steps you followed at MS Word.
236
17.6.2 Insert WordArt
To insert a WordArt, follow the steps given below.
1. Click WordArt icon in the text group of the insert menu.
2. Select suitable WordArt type and click.
3. Type some text.
Figure 17.17: Insert a WordArt
Note: Formatting the fonts and paragraphs will be similar to what we have learnt in Ms Word.
Further, you can follow the same methods we have used in Ms Word, when working with
bullets and numbered lists. Refer to the relevant sections we learnt under MS Word.
17.6.3 Insert a Footer and Slide numbers
To insert a footer and slide numbers, follow the steps given below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click Header and Footer icon in the text group.
Click (tick off) Slide number and footer check boxes in the Header and Footer window.
Add some text in to footer area such as „Introduction to MS Power point‟.
Click Apply or “Apply to All”.
Note: You can insert Date and Time too to your slides using the above dialog box.
Figure 17.18: Insert header and footer window
17.7 Formatting backgrounds and layout
The background is the colour, texture, pattern, or image that is applied to the entire slide (or
slide master), on which everything else sits. It's important to understand the distinction between a
background and a background graphic because even though most themes contain both, they are
set up differently, and making the change you want to the overall appearance of your slides often
involves changing both.
237
To Change the background, follow the steps given below,
1. Right click on the any slide (Shortcut menu will be appeared).
2. Click Format background (Format background window will be appeared).
You have two ways to fill your slide background, such as fill effect of picture. To add colour
effect select fill and change the background colour as you wish.
Figure 17.19: Format Background
Figure 17.20: Background selection Window
3. If you need to apply this effect on the all slide click Apply to all otherwise click Close.
In order to change the background style we can use two methods.
17.7.1 Change the background style using Ribbon
On the right side of the Design Tab/Ribbon you‟ll see a Background Styles choice. Click the
down arrow to the right of Background Styles. The menu screen on the right will appear.
238
Figure 17.21: Select a Background style
17.7.1 Change the background using Format Background menu
Right click on the selected slide and click Format Background in the shortcut menu.
The Format Background menu screen will appear. Notice that there are several choices: Solid
fill, Gradient fill, and Picture or texture fill. Click and try out each.
17.7.2 Change the Slide Layout
When you change the layout, it will change the type and/or positioning of the placeholders on it.
To switch a slide to a different layout, follow these steps:
1. Select the slide(s) to affect.
2. On the Home tab, click Layout. A menu of layouts appears.
3. Click on the desired layout.
17.8 Applying Themes
The structure of the slide including the background colours, artworks, fonts, text positions, etc.
will vary depending on the Theme you have applied in to your slide(s). For those who are
familiar with previous versions of PowerPoint, Themes are similar to the Design Templates. For
those using PowerPoint for the first time, we‟ll show you how to use Design Templates on
individual slides, or on all of the slides in your presentation. If you are not on the Design
Tab/Ribbon, click the Design Tab. You will see the Themes Group.
Figure 17.22: Themes Group
17.8.1 Insert Themes in to all slides
Click the Design Tab. You will see the Themes Group, select suitable themes and click on the
selected themes.
239
17.8.2 Insert Themes in to Selected Slides
Click the Design Tab. You will see the Themes Group, select suitable themes and right click on
the selected themes. Click Apply to Selected Slides in the shortcut menu.
Figure 17.23: Insert Themes to selected slides
17.9 Using Slide Master
Let's review the relationship one more time between slide masters and themes. A theme is a set
of formatting spaces. Themes are not applied directly to slides-they are applied to slide masters,
which are then in turn applied to slides. The slide masters exist within the presentation file itself.
You can change them by applying different themes, but they are essentially "built in" to the
presentation file. When you change to a different theme for all of the slides in the presentation,
your slide master changes its appearance. You can manage the changes to be done for the
appearance of all slides using the Slide Master View. As long as all of the slides in the
presentation use the same theme, you need only one slide master. However, if you apply a
different theme to some of your slides, you need another master, because a master can have only
one theme applied to it at a time. PowerPoint automatically creates the additional master(s) for
you, and they are all available for editing in Slide Master View.
If you later reapply a single theme to all of the slides in the presentation, you do not need
multiple masters anymore, so the unused one is automatically deleted. In addition to all this
automatic creation and deletion of slide masters, you can also manually create and delete slide
masters on your own. Any slide masters that you create manually are automatically preserved,
even if they aren't always in use. You must manually delete them if you don't want them
anymore. In the following sections, you will learn how to create and change slide masters
manually.
17.9.1
Creating a Slide Master
To create/change slide master, follow the steps given below,
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click View.
Click Slide master (Slide master view will be appeared).
Click insert Slide master/ Edit the slide master.
Click Close master view.
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17.9.2
Slide Master Tools
There are several tools available in the slide master view. Brief description of each tool is given
bellow.
3
2
1
5
4
6
7
8
9
Figure 17.24: Tools available in the Slide master
No
1
2
3
Name
Insert Slide master
Insert layout
Insert placeholder
4
5
6
Insert title and footers
Themes
Edit themes
7
8
9
Background style
Page setup
Close Master view
Description
To insert slide master click here
To insert new layout click here
To insert place holder click here there are several
types such as continents, text, picture, smart Art etc.
Click here to insert title and footer
Click here to insert new themes
Click here to edit themes such as colors, Fonts and
effects
Click here to change background style
Click here to change the page setup
Click here to close slide master view
Table 17.2: Tools available in the Master View
17.9.3 Working with slide masters
The easiest way to make the same change to all slides or slides that use a specific layout is to
change the slide master, also called the master slide. For example, imagine that you like a
theme, but want to change a specific design element of the theme. You may want a different
bullet style, slide titles that are center-aligned instead of left-aligned, or an accent line under
each slide title. You can quickly make these changes and more by modifying the slide master.
Slide Master View
To View the Slide Master:


Select the View tab.
Click the Slide Master View command in the Presentation Views group.
The slide
slides are
task pane
you want
slide.
master view appears similar to normal view; however, in slide master view master
displayed in the task pane rather than actual slides. The first thumbnail image in the
on the left is the slide master that controls all the slides (See Figure 17.25 below). If
to make a change to all the slides in a presentation, you can do so by changing this
241
Slide master that
controls all slides
Slide Master
Task Pane
Figure 17.25: Slide Master View
Changing all slides via slide master
Any change that you can make to a slide in normal view can be made to the slide master
so the change will be reflected on all the slides in the presentation. The following
examples will show how you can make these changes, and move from the Slide Master
tab to other tabs on the Ribbon while the presentation remains in slide master view.
To Insert a Picture on All Slides
1. Select the View tab.
2. Click the Slide Master View command in the Presentation Views group. The Slide
Master tab will appear.
3. Select the slide master for all the slides, if it is not currently selected.
4. Select the Insert tab.
5. Click the Picture command in the Illustrations group. The Insert Picture dialog box will
appear.
6. Locate the picture file on the computer.
7. Select the picture file.
8. Click Insert. The picture will appear on the slide master.
9. Position the picture as you wish.
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Figure 17.26: Changing Slides via Slide Master View
10. Click the Slide Show View or Normal View command at the bottom of the window to
exit slide master.
11. View and see the changes in the presentation slides.
(You will see that the picture has been inserted into all slides in the same location)
Note: Similarly, you can do the changes with the text, images or any other component in the
slides using the slide master as described above.
Making Changes to Specific Layouts
In addition to changing design elements on all slides, you can change design elements on slides
that use a specific layout. For example, you can apply different formatting to the Title and
Content or Section Header layouts. By customizing specific slide layouts, you have more control
over the slides and the presentation, as a whole.
17.10 Self Assessment Questions
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
What is PowerPoint? State the use of it.
State five new features introduced in MS PowerPoint 2007.
What are the available views to display the PowerPoint presentations? Briefly describe
them.
Which view is used to create and edit slides in MS PowerPoint?
In PowerPoint, what is the use of hyperlinks?
How could you insert the date and time into your slides?
Describe the relationship between the slide masters and themes in PowerPoint?
How could you make a logo to appear on every slide in a presentation?
What is the default file extension for MS PowerPoint 2007 files?
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Session 18
Advanced Features and Delivering Your Presentation
Aim:
To make your presentation more attractive with advanced features of MS PowerPoint and to deal
on how to present your show to an audience with supporting printed material.
Objectives:
Having studied this session, the student will be able to get an idea about:






Working with images, clipart, and smart arts
Working with Audio and video clips
Working with multimedia
Adding animations to your presentation
Delivering the presentation
Printing the slides
18.1 Working with Graphics, Images and Clips
Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 provides several facilities to work with image objects. This
session describes more on how to work with pictures, cliparts, shapes, SmartArt, and charts. You
already saw that these items can be added through the tools provided with the Slide layout that
you added newly into your show. However, the similar work can be done by using the group
“Illustrations” appearing under the PowerPoint ribbon.
2
3
4
5
6
1
Figure 18.1: Illustrations group
Item
No.
1
2
3
4
Description
Functionality
Picture
Clip Art
Insert a picture from a file
Insert a Clip Art into the document, including drawings,
movies, sounds, or stock photography to illustrate a specific
concept
Create or edit a presentation based on a set of pictures
Insert ready-made shapes, such as rectangles and circles,
arrows, lines, flowchart symbols, and callouts.
Photo Album
Shapes
244
5
Smart Art
6
Chart
Insert SmartArt graphics range from graphical lists and process
diagrams to more complex graphics, such as Venn diagrams
and organization charts.
Insert a chart to illustrate and compare data.
Table 18.1: Illustration group
18.1.1 Insert Pictures into your slide
To insert a picture in to your slide,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set cursor position to where you want to insert a picture.
Click insert tab.
Click picture.
Select a picture.
Click insert button.
Figure 18.2: Picture icon in illustration group
As you select your picture, (i.e. click on the picture) then you will be able to see that the picture
format tool bar is activated. Using this tool bar you can do modifications to the picture very
easily. Please re-call what you have learnt under images under the MS Word sessions.
18.1.2 Insert a Picture from Clip Art gallery
To insert a picture from Clip Art follow the steps below:
1. Click New Slide Button.
2. Click ClipArt picture in the new slide
Figure 18.3: Clip Art picture in New slide
3. Now ClipArt selection windows will be appeared.
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Figure 18.4: Clip Art selection Window
4.
5.
6.
7.
Set the select in as all collection.
Set result should be, all media file types.
Then Click Go button.
After showing the all clips select one of them, click on it.
Note: The inserted picture/clip art can be modified as similar to what you learn under the MS
Word sessions. Please refer back to the relevant sections.
18.1.3 Insert a Smart Art
Same as Microsoft word 2007 you can insert a Smart Art into your presentation. To Insert a
SmartArt, perform the following operations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Set cursor position where you want to insert a SmartArt.
Click inset tab.
Click SmartArt.
Select a type of the SmartArt.
Click OK.
Type the text.
Click OK.
Figure 18.5: Insert SmartArt
Note: The inserted SmartArt can be modified as similar to what you learn under the MS Word
sessions. Please refer back to the relevant sections
.
246
18.1.4 Insert a Table into your presentation
Tables are used to categorize data from many views. To insert table to your presentation, follow
the steps given below,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Create a new slide.
Click the table in the new slide.
Insert numbers of columns and rows.
Click OK.
Enter data as you need.
Select the table style from Design – table style.
Click OK.
Figure 18.6: Insert Table
18.2 Working with Multimedia
PowerPoint creates complete multimedia presentations, which means that not only you can
include pictures and sounds but also movies and animations. In this section, you'll learn how to
select the appropriate video type, how to insert clips, and how to control when they are played.
18.2.1 Different Types of Videos
The following sections discuss the types of videos that PowerPoint supports.
Animated GIFs
As you may already know, GIF is a file format for static graphics files. One of the advantages of
it over other graphic file formats is that you can create animated versions. These are not really
videos in the traditional sense; they are a collection of still graphics stored in a single file under
one name. You cannot control the animation of an animated GIF through PowerPoint, nor can
you set it up to repeat a certain number of times. That information is contained within the GIF
file itself. PowerPoint simply reads that information and plays the GIF accordingly.
Live-Action Videos
Now you learn about the "real videos." Recorded videos have a live origin. Someone went out
with a video camera and pointed at something in the world. You can get live-action videos from
the Internet, but in most cases for business presentations you will want to record it yourself with
a camera to suit your purpose.
Video File Formats
PowerPoint can accept videos with the following file formats:


Motion Picture Experts Group (.mpg, .mpeg, .m1v, .mp2, .mpa, and .mpe)
Microsoft streaming format (.asf and .asx)
247



Microsoft Windows Media Video (.wmv)
Audio Video Interleave (.avi)
QuickTime (.mov or .qt) versions 1 and 2.x
18.2.2 Insert a Movie Clip
You can insert a clip file in several ways.
If you need to insert video clip or audio clip into your presentation follow the steps given below.
1. Click insert tab.
2. Click Movie icon in the Media Clips groups.
Figure 18.7: Movie icon
3. Select a Movie file and click OK.
Figure 18.8: Movie File Start Option
4. Click the Movie file start option (Automatically or when click).
5. Set the place of the movie clip.
Note that, same as a movie clip, sound clips can also insert into user presentation. Click the
sound clip icon and insert a sound file into your presentation. Before you insert any file you must
save each file into your presentation folder.
Text box
Clip file
Slide
Click here to change
the clip size
Figure 18.9: Slide of the presentation
248
You can insert a clip file in several ways.
Insert a movie file using insert Media method
1. Click insert.
2. Click Object.
Figure 18.10: Insert Object Window
3. Select the object type as Windows media player.
4. Select a file.
5. Click insert.
18.3 Inserting Sound and Narration
There are several ways to add audio to your PowerPoint presentation. In this session, we are
going to explain about some of these ways in brief.
Click on the Sound button which is in the Insert ribbon.
Figure 18.11: Sound button in the Insert Ribbon
If you want to insert a sound file which is saved in your computer you can give the location of
the file after selecting „Sound from file‟.
If you want to insert a file from the Clip Organizer, click on „Sound from Clip Organizer‟. This
is similar to „clip art‟ which is used to include images.
In addition you can insert an audio track from a CD and also can include recorded narrations.
249
Let‟s see how we can include narrations in a presentation.
When you record a narration, you run through the presentation and record on each slide. You can
pause and resume recording.
1. In Normal view, select the slide that you want to start the recording.
2. On the Slide Show tab, in the Set Up group, click Record Narration.
3. Click Set Microphone Level, follow the directions to set your microphone level, and then
click OK.
4. Do one of the following:
- To embed the narration, click OK.
- To link the narration, select the Link narrations in check box, click Browse, click a
folder in the list, and then click Select.
18.4 Delivering Presentations
18.4.1 Using animations
In PowerPoint, animation is the way that individual objects enter or exit into/from a slide. On a
slide with no animations set, all of the objects on the slide simply appear at the same time when
you display it. For an example, in a bulleted list, you can apply animation to the slide so that the
bulleted points fly in from the left, one at a time, and the graphic drops down from the top
afterward.
A transition is another kind of animation. A transition refers to the entry or exit of the entire
slide, rather than of an individual object on the slide.
Here are some ideas for using animation effectively in your presentations:



Animate parts of a chart so that the data appears one series at a time. This technique
works well if you want to talk about each series separately.
Set up questions and answers on a slide so that the question appears first, and then, when
you click the question, the answer appears.
Dim each bullet point when the next one comes into view, so that you are, in effect,
highlighting the current one.
18.4.2 Animation tools
There are various tools available for the animation tab. Please refer to the table next to the image
below for the descriptions of each component in the Animation Tools.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
18.12: The animation tools
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No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Name
Preview
Custom animation
Transition
Sound
Speed
Mouse on click
Automatically after
Description
Click here to preview the animation
To add new custom animations
To add the slide transition
Click here to insert sound file
Click here to change the animation speed
Set Animation effect apply after the mouse click
Set Animation effect apply after the given time period
Table 18.2: Animation tools
18.4.3 Add Slide transition
This section describes how to create a slide transition. You can add Animation to the slides using
Slide transition.
Animation effect can be added to your presentation for transition slides.
Steps to follow:
1. Go to the slide you need to add effect.
2. Click Animation tab and select Transition to This Slide group.
3. Select the transition in the transition groups after previewing each.
Figure 18.13: Transition to This Slide group
4. Set a sound into the slide transition if you wish.
5. Select a sound from the available sounds.
Figure 18.14: Select a Sound
OR
1. Select the other sounds. Select a suitable sound file.
2. Set transition speed as Slow, Medium, or Fast.
Figure 18.15: Set transition Speed
3. Set transition option either as On Mouse Click if you need to appear the next slide upon
your mouse click or Automatically after if you need to appear the next slide
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automatically after a particular time such as 05 seconds after the previous slide
automatically without waiting for your manual mouse click.
Figure 18.16: Set transition Option
18.5 Animating Objects of your slide
In a slide of your presentation, there are several objects included such as text, images, shapes,
video clips, etc. You can animate each object as you wish. Following sections describe you the
available types of animations that you can apply to the selected object in a slide, how to apply
animations, and how to customize them as you wish.
18.5.1 Types of Animations
There are four categories of animation effects. Each effect has a specific purpose, as well as a
different icon colour:




Entrance (green): The item's appearance on the slide is animated. Either it does not
appear right away when the rest of the slide appears, or it appears in some unusual way
(such as flying or fading), or both.
Emphasis (yellow): The item is already on the slide, and is modified in some way. For
example, it may shrink, grow, wiggle, or change color.
Exit (red): The item disappears from the slide before the slide itself disappears, and you
can specify that it does so in some unusual way.
Motion Paths (gray): The item moves on the slide according to a preset path.
18.5.2 Adding Animation effects for an object or an object group
To add animation effect for an object, follow the steps given below;
1. Select the object.
2. Click Add effect button in the Custom Animation windows.
3. Among the four types of animations given based on the effect namely Entrance,
Emphasis, Exit and Motion Path, Click Entrance.
4. Select the Entrance effect you wish.
Figure 18.17: Adding animation
5. Change the Start position as on click if the animation to be activated on clicking the
mouse.
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6. Set the Direction as Horizontal.
7. Set the Motion speed as very fast.
Figure 18.18: Change Start position, Direction and Motion Speed

Start position: There are three options such as on click (Add effect after the mouse
click), with previous (play effect with the previous effect), after previous (to play effect
after a given time)

Direction: There are two directions Horizontal or vertical.

Speed: Speed may be slow, medium, fast etc.
18.5.3 Custom Animation in depth
The Custom animation gives you full control over how the objects on your slides are animated.
You can not only choose from the full range of animation effects for each object, but you can
also specify in what order the objects appear and what sound is associated with their appearance.
A good way to learn about custom animation is to start with an animation preset and analyzes it
in the Custom Animation pane to see how it works. Consider the following example.
1. Select a slide that contains a title and at least two bullet points.
2. Click the Custom Animation button on the Animations tab to display the Custom
Animation pane, as shown in below.
Figure 18.19: Custom Animation Path
3. Select the object that you want to animate.
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4. In the pane, click Add Effect. A menu appears, containing four categories of effects:
Entrance, Emphasis, Exit, or Motion Paths. This example uses an Entrance effect.
5. A submenu appears, containing effects for that category. Select one of these effects, as
shown in below.
Figure 18.20: Select one effect
Select one of the animation effects. After selecting the effect, your custom animation windows
will be appeared as follows.
Figure 18.21: Custom animation Window
You can change start option, direction and speed of the animation. In the Start section, there
are three options such as



With Previous: Runs the animation simultaneously with any previous animations on the
slide. For example, you can set up two different objects to animate at the same time by
setting the second of the two objects to With Previous.
After Previous: Runs the animation immediately after the previous animation that is on
the slide ends. If there is no previous animation, PowerPoint treats the appearance of the
slide as the previous event and runs the animation immediately after the slide appears.
On Click: Runs the animation when a user clicks the mouse. This is useful when you
want to build a slide item-by-item with each click, or for an exit effect.
Changing to a Different Animation Effect
If you change your mind about an animation for an object, you do not have to remove the
animation and reapply it; you can simply change it. To change to a different animation for an
object, follow the steps given below:
1. Display the Custom Animation pane.
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2. Select the animation effect from the pane-not on the slide-and then click the Change
button. The same menus appear as when you originally applied the effect.
3. Select a different animation. You can either choose from the menus or select More
Effects to display the dialog box that contains the full selection of effects.
Besides choosing a different animation effect, you can also fine-tune its settings at any time,
such as changing its speed or other properties.
4. Click OK.
18.5.4 Setting Animation Timing
You can adjust the timing settings for an animation. Timing refers to the speed of the effect, the
delay before it starts, and how many times it should repeat, if any.
To set timing for a custom animation effect, follow the steps given below:
1. On the Custom Animation pane, click the effect whose timing you want to set. A down
arrow appears to the right of the effect.
2. Click the down arrow and choose Timing. A dialog box appears, with the Timing tab
displayed,
Figure 18.22: Setting Animation Timing
3. You can choose from the following settings to control the animation timing:




Start is the same as the Start setting in the Custom Animation pane.
Delay refers to the amount of delay between the beginning or end of the previous
animation and the start of the current animation. For example, if you set the
animation effect to After Previous, the delay is the number of seconds between the
end of the previous event and the beginning of the animation. If you set the
animation effect to With Previous, the delay is the number of seconds between the
beginning of the previous event and the beginning of the animation. By default, the
delay is set to zero.
Speed is the overall speed of the animation. This is the same setting as in the Speed
drop-down list in the Custom Animation pane. The choices range from Very Fast
(0.5 seconds) to Very Slow (5 seconds). Unlike in the Custom Animation pane, the
number of seconds associated with each choice appears on the Timing tab.
Repeat is the number of times that the animation should repeat. The default setting
is none. You would rarely set a text animation to repeat because this makes it
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

harder for the audience to read (although this effect is useful when you want a
graphic to flash until the end of the slide).
Rewind when done playing pertains mostly to video clips; this setting is available
for animation effects, but you will not see much difference between the on and off
settings.
Triggers enable you to set up an animation to occur when the user clicks a
particular object. This object does not necessarily have to be the object that is being
animated.
4. Click OK when you are done. Then test the new animation settings by clicking Play or
Slide Show in the Custom Animation pane.
18.6 Adding Action effects
You can set some objects in your slide such as a text or a shape which will take you to a totally
different section such as a different slide in the same presentation slides, or to a web page, or to a
word document, etc. upon clicking on that object. We call that we set an action to the given
object.
To add an action effect, follow the steps given below,


Select the text or object that you need to add action.
Click insert – Action (The Action setting window will be appeared).
18.23: The Action settings window



Select Hyperlink to and choose the slide name to activate.
OR
Select Run program if you need to run a given program.
After selecting the action click OK.
Example: Insert an action button with the caption “Play video” in a slide such that it will open a
video clip when you click on the action button.
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Action button: When
you click on /Mouse
over this button, it will
play a video clip on ‘How
computer functions’
18.7 Getting prepared for a Live Presentation
You can practice using PowerPoint's slide-show controls before you go to a live presentation. It
is more useful for you. Following sub sections discuss about the things that you should be
thorough on before presenting your slide show to an audience.
18.7.1 Starting and Ending a Show
To start a show, do any of the following:




Click the Slide Show View button in the bottom-right corner of the screen.
On the View tab, click Slide Show.
Press F5.
Press Shift+F5.
These methods are not all exactly alike. For example, if you click the Slide Show View button in
the bottom-right corner, or press Shift+F5, the first slide to appear is the currently selected one
in PowerPoint. If you click the Slide Show button on the View tab or press F5, it starts with the
first slide in the presentation, regardless of which slide was selected.
To end the show, do any of the following:


Right-click and choose End Show.
Press Esc, − (minus), or Ctrl+Break.
If you want to temporarily pause the show while you have a discussion, you can blank the screen
by pressing W or, (comma) for a white screen, or B or „.‟(Period) for a black screen. To resume
the show, press any key.
18.7.2 Using the On-screen Show Controls
When you display a slide show, the mouse pointer and show controls are hidden. To make them
appear, you can move the mouse. When you do this, very faint buttons appear in the bottom-left
corner of the slide show.
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Figure 18.24: On-screen Show Control buttons
You can toggle the pointer and these buttons on and off by pressing A or = (equals). Ctrl+H hide
the pointer and buttons. When you toggle this feature on, the following buttons appear:



Back, the leftmost button, takes you back to the previous slide, or to the previous
animation event if the present slide contains animation.
Pen, next to Back, opens a menu for controlling the appearance of the pen or pointer.
Slide, which displays a box icon, opens a menu for navigating between slides. You can
also open the navigation menu, shown in bellow.
Figure 18.25: Navigation Menu

Forward, the rightmost button moves you to the next slide. Normally, you can just click
to go to the next slide, but if you are using the pen (covered later in this chapter), then
clicking it causes it to draw, rather than advance the presentation. In such a situation, you
can use the Forward button.
18.7.3 Moving from Slide to Slide
The simplest way to move through a presentation is to move to the next slide. To do so, you can
use any of these methods:




Press any of these keys: N, Spacebar, right arrow, down arrow, Enter, or Page Down.
Click the left-mouse button.
Right-click and then choose Next.
Click the right-pointing arrow button in the bottom-left corner of the slide.
If you have animated any elements on a slide, these methods advance the animation, and do not
necessarily move to the next slide. For example, if you have animated your bulleted list so that
the bullets appear one at a time, then any of the actions in this list make the next bullet appear,
rather than making the next slide appear. Only after all of the objects on the current slide have
displayed does PowerPoint advance to the next slide. If you need immediately advance to the
next slide, you can use the on- screen show controls.
To come back to the previous slide, use any of these methods:



Press any of these keys: P, Backspace, left arrow, up arrow, or Page Up.
Click the left-pointing arrow button on the bottom-left corner of the slide.
Right-click and then choose Previous.
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You can also go back to the last slide that you viewed. To do this, right-click and choose last
viewed. Although you would think that the last slide viewed would be the same as the previous
slide, this is not always the case.
18.7.4 Jumping to Specific Slides
There are several ways to jump to a particular slide rather going from one slide to the next slide
as usual. One of the easiest ways is to select the slide by its title. To do so, follow these steps:
1. During the slide show, right-click to display the shortcut menu.
2. Select Go to Slide. A submenu appears, listing the titles of all of the slides in the
presentation, as shown in bellow. Parentheses around the slide numbers indicate hidden
slides.
Figure 18.26: Submenu with titles of slides
3. Click the slide title to which you want to jump.
18.7.5 Blanking the Screen
Sometimes during a live presentation there may be a delay. Whether it is a chatty audience
member with a complicated question, a fire drill, or just an intermission, you will have to pause
playing the show. If you have set the slides for manual transition, then whatever the slide you
stopped will remains on the screen until you resume. However, you may not want this. For
example, it may be distracting to the audience, especially if pause is to allow someone to get up
and speak in front of the screen. A solution is to turn the screen into a blank expanse of black or
white. To do this, type W or a comma (for white) or B or a period (for black), to return to the
presentation, you can press the same key, or press any key on the keyboard.
18.7.6 Using the On-Screen Pen
A certain point may become really important during presenting a slide so that you want to
emphasize it. In this case, you can circle it or underline it with the pen cursor.
You can choose your pen colour as follows:
1. Move the mouse or press A to make the buttons appear.
2. Click the Pointers button (the one that looks like a pen). A menu appears.
3. Select Ink Colour and then click the colour you want, as shown in below.
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Figure 18.27: Select Ink colour
You can turn on the type of pen that you want, as follows:
1. Click the Pointers button again.
2. Click the type of pen that you want:
o Ballpoint: A thin line
o Felt Tip Pen: A thicker line
o Highlighter: A thick, semi-transparent line
You can also turn on the default pen type (Felt Tip) by pressing Ctrl+P, and then return to the
arrow again by pressing Ctrl+A or Esc.
After enabling a pen just drag-and-draw on the slide to mark something, you should practice
drawing lines, arrows, and other shapes using the pen as described above because it takes a while
to master.
18.8 Using Custom Shows
Many slide shows have a linear flow: First you show slide one, and then slide two, and so on,
until you have completed the entire presentation. This format is suitable for situations where you
are presenting clear-cut information with few variables, such as a presentation about a new
insurance plan for a group of employees. However, when the situation becomes more complex, a
single-path slide show may not suffice. This is especially true when you are presenting a slide
show to convince a critical message to a group of decision makers; you want to predict their
questions and needs for more information and have many backup slides, or even entire backup
slide shows that are prepared additionally to be used in case.
18.8.1 Ideas for Using Custom Shows
Here are some ideas to start how and why you might want to include some custom shows in your
presentation files:

Avoiding duplication: If you have several shows that use about 50 percent of the same
slides and 50 percent different ones, then you can create all of the shows as custom shows
within a single presentation file. This way, the presentations can share the 50 percent of the
slides that they have in common.
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


Managing change: By creating a single presentation file with custom shows, you make it
easy to manage changes. If any change will occur in your company that will affect any of
the common slides, then making the change once in your presentation file will
automatically makes the change to each of the custom shows immediately.
Overcoming objections: You can anticipate your client objections to your sales pitch and
prepare several custom shows, each of which addresses to a particular objection. Then,
whatever the reason your potential customer gives you for not buying your product, you
have a counteractive argument in hand.
Covering your backside: If you think that you may be asked for specific figures or other
information during a speech, you can have this information ready in a custom show (or on
a few simple hidden slides, if there is not a lot of information) to display if needed. No
more going through the embarrassment of saying, "I'm not sure, but let me get back to you
on that."
18.8.2 Creating Custom Shows
To create a custom show, first create all of the slides that should go into it. Start with all of the
slides in the main presentation. Then follow these steps:
1. On the Slide Show tab, click Custom Slide Show, and then click Custom Shows. The
Custom Shows dialog box opens.
2. Click New. The Define Custom Show dialog box opens.
3. Type a name for your custom show in the Slide Show Name text box, replacing the
default name.
4. In the Slides in Presentation pane, click the first slide that you want to appear in the
custom show.
5. Click Add to copy the slides to the Slides in Custom Show.
Figure 18.28: Choose a format for sending the presentation to Word
6. When you are finished building your custom show, click OK. The new show will appear
in the Custom Shows dialog box.
7. To test your custom show, click the Show button. Otherwise, click Close to close the
Custom Shows dialog box.
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18.8.3 Editing Custom Shows
You can manage your custom shows from the Custom Shows dialog box, the same place in
which you created them. This includes editing, deleting, or making a copy of a show. To change
which slides appear in a custom show and in what order, follow these steps:
1. On the Slide Show tab, click Custom Slide Show and then click Custom Shows. The
Custom Shows dialog box appears.
2. If you have more than one custom show, then click the one that you want to edit.
3. Click Edit. The Define Custom Show dialog box reappears.
4. Add or remove slides, as needed. To add a slide, select it in the left pane and click Add.
To remove a slide, select it in the right pane and click Remove.
5. Rearrange slides as needed with the up-and down-arrow buttons.
6. Click OK. PowerPoint saves your changes.
7. Click Close to close the Custom Shows dialog box.
18.8.4 Copying Custom Shows
A good way to create several similar custom shows is to create the first one and then copy it.
You can then make small changes to the copies as necessary. To copy a custom show, follow
these steps:
1. On the Slide Show tab, click Custom Slide Show and then click Custom Shows. The
Custom Shows dialog box appears.
2. If you have more than one custom show, then select the show that you want to copy.
3. Click Copy. A copy of the show appears in the dialog box. The filename includes the
words Copy of so that you can distinguish it from the original.
4. Edit the copy; change its name and content.
5. When you are finished, click Close to close the Custom Shows dialog box.
18.8.5 Deleting Custom Shows
It is not necessary to delete a custom show when you do not want it anymore; it does not do any
harm remaining in your presentation. Because custom shows do not display unless you call for
them, you can simply choose not to display it. However, if you want to make your presentation
more orderly, you can delete a custom show that no longer wants. Follow these steps:
1. On the Slide Show tab, click Custom Slide Show and then click Custom Shows. The
Custom Shows dialog box appears.
2. Select the show that you want to delete.
3. Click Remove. The show disappears from the list.
4. Click Close to close the Custom Shows dialog box.
18.8.6 Displaying a Custom Show
To start your presentation with a custom show, on the Slide Show tab, click Custom Slide Show
and then click the name of the custom show on the drop-down menu. The custom show runs.
You can also call up the custom show at any time during your main presentation. There are two
ways to do this: you can navigate to the custom show with PowerPoint's regular presentation
controls, or you can create a hyperlink to the custom show on your slide.
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Navigating to a Custom Show
During a presentation, you can jump to any of your custom shows by following these steps:
1. Open the shortcut menu in Slide Show view by right-clicking or by clicking the
navigation button.
2. Choose Custom Show and then select the custom show that you want. The custom show
starts.
When you start a custom show, you are no longer in the main presentation. To verify this, open
the shortcut menu again, choose Go to Slide, and check out the list of slides. This list shows only
the slides that belong to the custom show.
Navigating Back to the Main Show
To return to the main show, follow these steps:
1. Press Ctrl+S to open the All Slides dialog box.
2. Open the Show drop-down list and choose All Slides.
3. Select the slide that you want to go to. You can choose one from all of the slides in the
entire presentation.
4. Click Go To.
Creating a Hyperlink to a Custom Show
Hyperlinks are hot links that you place on your slides. When you click a hyperlink, the current
display jumps to some other location.
One way to gain quick access to your custom shows in a presentation is to create hyperlinks for
them on certain key slides that act as jumping-points. You can insert a text hyperlink into any
text box, and its text becomes the marker that you click to jump to a different location related to
the text. You can create hyperlinks on slides that display custom shows.
Follow these steps:
1. If you are attaching the hyperlink to another object or some text, then first select the
object or text.
2. On the Insert tab, click Hyperlink. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box appears.
3. Click the Place in This Document icon along the left side of the screen.
4. In the Select a Place in This Document pane, scroll down to the Custom Shows list.
5. Click the custom show that you want to jump to with this hyperlink, as shown in below.
Figure 18.29: Create a Hyperlink to custom slide show
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1. If you want to return to the same spot that you left in the main presentation after viewing
this custom show, then select the Show and Return check box. If you do not select this
option, the presentation will simply end when the custom show ends.
2. If you want to specify a ScreenTip for the hyperlink, click the ScreenTip button to create
one.
3. Click OK.
18.9 Saving your Presentation
When making a presentation you might want to do some other work or you might want to have a
break in the middle. To come back and start from where you have left, you need to save your
file. Now let us have a look at the way to save your work and how you can retrieve your file
later.
Figure 18.30 Save as window

You have the small save diskette
in the Quick Access Toolbar click it.
OR

Click Office button  Save.
18.10 Protecting a file with a password
If a presentation consists of any sensitive or confidential data, you can encrypt the file and
protect it with a password. Encryption is a type of "scrambling" done to the file so that nobody
can see it, either from within PowerPoint or with any other type of file-browsing utility.
To manage a file's passwords and other security settings, follow the steps given below:
1. Save the file as you normally would from the Save As dialog box.
2. Click Tools, and choose General Options. The General Options dialog box opens.
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Figure 18.31: General Options Dialog box
If you want an Open password, enter it in the “Password to Open” box.
If you want a Modify password, enter it in the “Password to Modify” box.
Click OK.
If you specified a password in step 3, a confirmation box appears for it. Retype the same
password and then click OK.
7. If you specified a password in step 4, a confirmation box appears for it. Retype the same
password and click OK.
8. Continue saving normally.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What is the difference between “Password to Open” and “Password to Modify”?
“Password to Open” means that the person who wants to open the document should enter the
password. Once you open the document you can edit and read the document without any
problem.
“Password to Modify” is that the way to protect a document by only giving permission to read
the document, but to make changes in a document one should know the Modify password.
18.10.1
Saving a Presentation in Other Formats
Click the Microsoft Office Button and the menu on the right will appear. Notice that we
purposely moved our cursor over Save As and it would turn into orange. On the right side of the
menu screen under “Save a copy of the document” you can see various options to save a
document.
You have several new choices for saving your presentation.
PowerPoint Presentation – saves your presentation as an .XML (Extensible Markup Language)
file. This is a new saving format that creates a smaller file size. However, this file type is not
compatible with older versions of Power Point. So, if you share your XML presentation with
someone they will have to download a Compatibility Pack. They will see a message similar to
the one below when they try to open this file.
Microsoft added new file formats to Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint 2007 to reduce the
size of the file, improve security and also to enhance the integration with external sources. This
Compatibility Pack works with files created by Office 2010 and the Office 2007.
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Figure 18.32: Sample message box
If you click “Yes” – it should be taken you to a Microsoft Compatibility Page site for this
download.
“The presentation they see may not look exactly like the one you created if it contains features
from PowerPoint 2007 that they don‟t have. But they can open, edit, and save it in the format for
PowerPoint 2007.” (2007 Microsoft Office Preview webpage)
PowerPoint 97-2003 Presentation– as indicated, this choice is totally compatible with older
versions of PowerPoint.
PDF or XPS – You can now save your presentations as PDF Files!
Example: Saving as a web page
1. Click on the office button.
2. Select „Save as‟ and „Other formats‟.
Figure 18.33: Save in another format
3. Select „Web Page‟ in „Save as type‟ and give a suitable name for the file.
Figure 18.34: Save as a web page
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4. Click „Save‟.
Now you can open the file using your browser simply by giving the location of the file.
18.11 Printing your slides
MS PowerPoint gives a number of ways that will change the appearance of the document when a
printout is taken. Following sections describe them briefly.
18.11.1 Creating Handouts
To create handouts, you simply decide on a layout (a number of slides per page) and then choose
that layout from the Print dialog box as you print.
Figure 18.35: Handout creating options
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click print on the Office button.
Click print (Print dialog window is appeared).
Change „print what‟ as Handouts.
Set Slide per page as 1 – 9.
1: Places a single slide vertically and horizontally "centered" on the page.
2: Prints two big slides on each page. This layout is good for slides that have a lot of fine
print and small details or for situations where you are not confident that the reproduction
quality will be good. There is nothing more frustrating for an audience than not being
able to read the handouts!
3: Makes the slides much smaller-less than one-half the size of the ones in the two-slide
layout. But you get a nice bonus with this layout: lines to the side of each slide for notetaking. This layout works well for presentations where the slides are big and simple, and
the speaker is providing a lot of extra information that isn't on the slides. The audience
members can write the extra information in the note-taking space provided.
4: Uses the same size slides as the three-slide layout, but they are spaced out two-by-two
without note-taking lines. However, there is still plenty of room above and below each
slide, so the audience members still have lots of room to take notes.
5: Uses slides the same size as the three-slide and four-slide layouts, but crams more
slides on the page will reduce the space that can be used to take notes. This layout is
good for presentation with big, simple slides where the audience does not need to take
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notes. If you are not sure whether the audience will benefit at all from handouts being
distributed, consider whether this layout would be a good compromise. This format also
saves paper, which might be an issue if you need to make hundreds of copies.
6: Makes the slides very tiny, almost like a Slide Sorter view, so that you can see nine at
a time. This layout makes them very hard to read unless the slide text is extremely
simple. I don't recommend this layout in most cases, because the audience really will not
get much out of such handouts.
5. Mark any desired check boxes at the bottom of the dialog box:
Scale to Fit Paper: Enlarges the slides to the maximum size they can be and still fit on
the layout.
Frame Slides: Draws a black border around each slide image. Useful for slides being
printed with white backgrounds.
Print Comments: Prints any comments that you have inserted with the Comments
feature in PowerPoint.
Print Hidden Slides: Includes hidden slides in the printout. This option is not available
if you don't have any hidden slides in your presentation.
High Quality: Optimizes the appearance of the printout in small ways, such as allowing
text shadows to be print.
6. Click OK.
18.11.2
Creating Speaker Notes
Speaker notes are like handouts, but for you, the presenter. Only one printout format is available
for them: the Notes Pages layout. It contains a slide on the top half (the same size as in the twoslides-per-page handout) with a blank space below it to take notes by the presenter.
You can type your notes for a slide in Normal view (in the notes pane), or in Notes Page view
(View tab click „Notes Page‟ under „presentation views group‟). The latter shows the page
more or less as it will look how it will be when you print your notes pages; this can help if you
need to gauge how much text will fit on the printed page.
Figure 18.36: Notes creating options
Steps to follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click the Office button.
Click print on the Office Button.
Change print what as Notes pages.
Click OK.
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18.11.3
Printing Outline
If text is the main part of your presentation, you might prefer to print an outline instead of minislides. You can use the outline for speaker notes, audience handouts, or both. To print the text
from Outline view, follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click the Office button.
Click print on the Office Button.
Change print what as Outline.
Click OK.
Note that, the outline will not contain text such that you've typed in manually placed text boxes
or any other non-text information, such as tables, charts, and so on.
18.11.4
Exporting Handouts or Notes Pages to Word
One of the drawbacks in PowerPoint is that the notes and handouts pages are not fully
formattable. There is a lot you can't do without them-such as set margins, or change the sizes of
the slide images for handouts. To get around this, you will have to create your handouts in
Microsoft Word.
To send your presentation to Word, follow these steps:
1. Click on the office button.
2. Click the publish.
3. Click Create Handouts in Microsoft Office Word. The Send to Microsoft Office
Word dialog box appears.
Figure 18.37: Choose a format for sending the presentation to Word.
4. Choose one of the formats. You can send to Word in a variety of formats. Some formats
are more appropriate for handouts, others for speaker notes. Here are some suggestions:
For Handouts
For Speaker Notes
Blank Lines Next to Slides
Notes Next to Slides
Blank Lines Below Slides
Notes Below Slides
Outline Only
Outline Only
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5. If you want to maintain a link between the PowerPoint file and the Word file, choose
Paste Link. Otherwise, select Past. If you maintain a link, then the changes you make to
the PowerPoint file are reflected in the Word file.
6. Click OK.
18.11.5
Create a Package for a CD
This is a really nice feature in PowerPoint 2007. It enables to save your PowerPoint 2007
presentation in a CD and take it anywhere to present. And when you take the presentation with
you, you won‟t need PowerPoint 2007 to show the presentation! When the CD is created it
includes a PowerPoint viewer that will show your CD, regardless of the computer which you are
using!
To use this feature, click the Microsoft Office button and move your cursor over Publish. On
the right side of the menu screen click Package for CD. See Figure 18.38.
Figure 18.38: Select Package for CD
The Package for CD menu screen will appear (See Figure 18.39). Package for a CD will create
a folder either on your computer or copy the folder directly to a CD (if your CD creation
program allows for this).
Figure 18.39: Package for CD dialog box
The first thing we have to do is give a name for our folder and type-it in the Name the CD: area
on the Package CD menu.
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We chose “Presentation CD” (as seen in figure 18.39). Next, we decided to save this folder in C:
drive. Then, we chose Copy to Folder… in the menu screen. When we clicked on Copy to
Folder… the Copy to Folder menu screen appeared.
The name of our Folder is shown in the Folder name: area (created in the previous menu
screen). We chose to save the Folder to C: hard disk drive, so we typed C:\ in the Location:
area. You can also choose the Browse button so that you can “browse” any drive on your
computer to save the Folder. When you have made your selections, click OK.
After you click OK, your computer will “run” for a few minutes and then return to the Package
for CD menu screen. When this occurs, simply click the Close button and the menu screen will
disappears.
You may see the Microsoft Office PowerPoint screen below. If you do click Yes.
Then go to the drive on which you saved your folder, you will see a folder icon having the same
name which we used. You can either double-click quickly on the folder to open it, or you can
right click on the folder and select Open.
When your folder opens, you are able to see the files created by PowerPoint Package for CD;
(see figure 18.40). If you go to another computer which has PowerPoint 2007, How to make
presentation2.ppt, the sample power point file that we copied into the CD in this example will be
available for you. If the computer does not have PowerPoint 2007, you can use the
PPTVIEW.EXE file to show your presentation.
Figure 18.40: Files created by PowerPoint package for CD
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18.12 Self Assessment Questions
18.1
18.2
What is GIF? What are the advantages of GIF over other graphic file formats?
In PowerPoint, what are animations? Name four categories of animation effects.
Briefly describe the purposes of them.
18.3 What is meant by “transition” in PowerPoint?
18.4 Explain the three ways of starting an animation in custom animation window.
18.5 Write down four possible ways to start a slide show.
18.6 Write down two possible ways to end a slide show.
18.7 What are “on-screen show control” buttons? Briefly explain the functionality of
them.
18.8 How do you move from one slide to next slide in a PowerPoint presentation?
18.9 How do you come back to the previous slide in a PowerPoint presentation?
18.10 Briefly explain why you might want to include “Custom Shows” in your
presentation files.
18.11 Briefly describe the importance of creating hyperlinks on slides in a PowerPoint
presentation.
18.12 What is the importance of creating Speaker Notes in PowerPoint?
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Session 19
Introduction to Databases and Microsoft Access 2007
Aim:
To provide an overview about Database Management Systems(DBMS) and introduce you to one
of DBMS: MS Access 2007
Objectives:
Having studied this session, you will be able to get an idea about:





What a database is
What a Database Management System is
Microsoft Access 2007
Creating a database using MS Access
Working with MS Access databases
19.1 Introduction to Databases
A database is a structured collection of records or data. A computer database is a kind of
software to organize the storage of data. Databases help you organize this related information in
a logical fashion for easy access and retrieval. To develop a database, there are several models
used such as Hierarchical model, Network model, Relational model, Object-Oriented model etc.
Though discussing about these models in details is beyond the level of this course unit, for the
sake of completion, some models are briefed below.
19.1.1 Hierarchical model
In a hierarchical model, data is organized into an inverted tree-like structure. This structure
arranges the various data elements in a hierarchy and helps to establish logical relationships
among data elements of multiple files. Each unit in the model is a record which is also known as
a node. Each record has a single parent.
Figure 19.1: Hierarchical Model
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19.1.2 Network model
The network model tends to store records with links to other records. Each record in the database
can have multiple parents, i.e., the relationships among data elements can have a many to many
relationships. So this model is an expansion to the hierarchical structure, allowing many-to-many
relationships in a tree-like structure that allows multiple parents.
The network model provides greater advantage than the hierarchical model in that it promotes
greater flexibility and data accessibility.
Figure 19.2: Network Model
19.1.3 Relational model
The relational model for the database management is a database model based on relations. The
basic data structure of the relational model is a table where information about a particular entity
(say, a student) is represented in columns and rows. The columns enumerate the various
attributes (i.e. characteristics) of an entity (e.g. student name, address, registration _number).
The rows (also called records) represent instances of an entity (e.g. specific student).
We will be following the relational database model within this course and designing and using
such databases will be covered within the next two sessions.
19.1.4 Object –Oriented model
In this Model we have to discuss the functionality of the object oriented Programming. It takes
more than storage of programming language objects. It provides full-featured database
programming capability, while containing native language compatibility. It adds the database
functionality to object programming languages. This approach is the analogical of the application
and database development into a constant data model and language environment. Applications
require less code, use more natural data modeling, and code bases are easier to maintain. Object
developers can write complete database applications with a decent amount of additional effort.
But object-oriented databases are more expensive to develop.
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19.2 Database Management System
A Database Management System (DBMS) is computer software designed for the purpose of
managing databases based on a variety of data models. A DBMS is a complex set of software
programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database.
DBMS are categorized according to their data structures or types, sometime DBMS is also
known as a Database Manager. Data management tasks fall into one of four general categories
as given below:




Entering data into the database.
Housekeeping tasks such as updating data, deleting obsolete records, and backing up the
database.
Sorting the data: arranging or re-arranging the database‟s records.
Obtaining subsets of data.
There are several advantages in DBMS such as reduced data redundancy and inconsistency,
enhanced data integrity, improved security etc.
19.3 Basic terminology in Databases
These terms are used often in Database Management Systems, so you need to become familiar
with them before using the database management system, MS Access in this session. A brief and
a simple description on some basic terms are given below.
19.3.1 Database
A database is an organized collection of the related information.
19.3.2 Object
An object is a component in the database such as a table, query, form, report, or macro, etc.
19.3.3 Table
A table is a group of related data organized in fields (columns) and records (rows) on a datasheet.
By using a common field in two tables, the data can be combined. Many tables can be stored in a
single database.
19.3.4 Field
A field is a column on a datasheet and defines a data type for a set of values in a table. For a
mailing list table might include fields for first name, last name, address, city, and telephone
number.
19.3.5 Record
A record is a row on a datasheet and do fields define a set of values. In a mailing list table, each
record would contain the data for one person as specified by the intersecting fields.
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Let‟s see some of the above items in the following table.
Table/Entity name: Employee
A Field
Primary Key = EmployeeID
Employee ID
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
Name
Mala Perera
Kamal Perera
Sanath Mahawela
Gayan Weerahewa
Leela Wijetunga
Kolitha Gallege
Sarani Perera
Gayan Peris
Gunapala Desilva
Kamal Perera
Sex
Female
Male
Male
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Address
Joined Date
Colombo
Colombo
Matara
Galle
Ambilipitiya
Galle
Matara
Panadura
Panadura
Meegama
05-04-00
04-01-05
07-07-99
04-09-00
16-04-08
09-09-10
08-04-08
04-04-06
07-07-01
11-03-09
A Record
Figure 19.3: Table ‘Employee’
19.3.6 Primary key
A primary key is used to uniquely identify each row in a table. It can either be a part of the actual
record itself, or it can be an artificial field (one that has nothing to do with the actual record). A
primary key can consist of one or more fields on a table. When multiple fields are used as a
primary key, they are called as a composite key.
19.3.7 Foreign key
A foreign key is a field (or fields) that points to the primary key of another table. The purpose of
the foreign key is to ensure referential integrity of the data.
19.3.8 Relationships
Two tables/entities in a database may relate to each other using one or more common attribute.
There are three types of relationships among tables namely, One-to-one, one-to-many, many-tomany.
One to one relationship
Table A has a relationship to table B in that each entry in A has one and only one corresponding
entry in B.
For an example, think of a university database which maintains tables of data related to a
University. This database may contain tables as follows:
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Table/Entity
Description
Attributes
name
Lecturer
Stores data related to all lecturers of the Lecturer ID, Name, Sex,
university
Faculty joined, Date joined
Faculty
Stores data related to all faculties in the Faulty ID, Name, Location,
University
Dean ID, Year established
Student
Stores data related to all students in the Student ID, Name, Age,
University
Courses follow
Dean
Stores data related to all Deans of the Dean ID, Name, Faculty ID,
University
Table 19.1: Tables in the University Database
Consider the two entities, Faculty and the Dean in the above university database. The data item
comes under the attribute Dean ID of the Science faculty is found in only one place of the Dean
table under the attribute Dean ID. In other words, the table Faculty has one and only one
corresponding entry in table Dean. In simple words, one faculty has only one Dean and one dean
is holding the deanship in only one faculty. Therefore, we say that the relationship between the
two entities Faculty and Dean is of type One-to-one. This relationship can be illustrated by a
diagram as follows.
Figure 19.4: One-to-one relationship
One-to-Many relationship
Table A has a relationship to table B such that many entries in B can refer to one entry in A.
Consider the above University database. Think of the relationship between the two entities
Faculty and Lecturer. Each faculty may have many lecturers but each lecturer is joined only in
one faculty. Therefore, we say that the relationship between the two entities Faculty and Lecturer
is of type One-to-many. This relationship can be illustrated by a diagram as follows.
Figure 19.5: One-to-Many Relationship
Many-to-Many relationship
Table A has a relationship to table B such that many entries to A can map to many entries in B.
Consider the above University database. Think of the relationship between the two entities
Lecturer and Student. Each lecturer teaches many students and each student is taught by many
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lecturers. Therefore, we say that the relationship between the two entities Lecturer and Student is
of type Many-to-many. This relationship can be illustrated by a diagram as follows.
Figure 19.6: Many-to-Many Relationship
19.4 Different Database Management Applications
There are several different database management applications which are not only meant for
entering and retrieving information but also they facilitate simultaneous updates and queries
from multiple users.
Some of the database management applications are listed below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Oracle
MySQL/ SQL Server
Microsoft Access
IBM DB2
Sybase
19.5 Introduction to Microsoft Access 2007
Microsoft Office Access is a relational database management system which is a production from
Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user
interface and software development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office 2007 suit.
19.5.1 Start Microsoft Access
1. Click Start ->All programs ->Microsoft Office ->Microsoft Office Access 2007
OR
2. Double click the icon shown below found in any location (an Access file will be created
on that location).
Figure 19.7: Microsoft Office Access 2007 icon
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19.5.2 Create a new database
After opening Access, you will be presented with the window shown below. Select Blank
Database in the New Blank Database category. Enter the database file name and select the path
where you want to save your database and click Create.
Figure 19.8: Select Database type
Figure 19.9: Create a Database
19.5.3 User interface of MS Access 2007
By default, Microsoft Access starts with the following user interface.
Title bar
Office button
Ribbon with Home
Tab selected
Quick Access
tool bar
Navigation Pane
to navigate
among all objects:
Tables, Queries,
Forms, Reports,
etc.
Document window
Figure 19.10: Microsoft Access 2007 user interface
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19.5.4 Opening an Existing Database
When you start Access without opening a database, you will see the Getting Started with
Microsoft Office Access window. To open an existing database, follow the steps given below.
1. Open Microsoft Access 2007.
2. Select Local Templates.
3. Select one of the local template categories.
Figure 19.11: Local Templates
For an example, we can use “Students” template.
4. Give a file name.
5. Click Create.
19.5.5 Closing an Existing Database
To close the already opened data base:
1. Make sure that you have saved all changes done.
2. Click Office button.
3. Click Close database.
19.5.6 Objects available in Access 2007
You can create tables, forms, reports, queries, macros, and modules in a Microsoft Access 2007
database. Some of the objects that will be discussing deeply within this course material are
briefed below.
Tables: Tables are the core database objects. Their purpose is to store information. The purpose
of every other database object is to interact in some manner with one or more tables.
Queries: Queries are database objects that locate specific information stored in a table and allow
you to view and manipulate the results. The results of a query can be used as the basis for forms,
reports, and data access pages.
Reports: A database object used to display table information in a formatted, easily accessible
manner, either on the screen or on paper. It can include items from multiple tables and queries,
values calculated from information in the database, and formatting elements such as headers,
footers, titles, and headings.
Forms: A form is a way to pass data into your Access tables.
280
19.6 Exploring Tables
Every Access object has two or more views. For tables, the two most common views are the
Datasheet view, in which you can see and modify the table's data, and the Design view, in which
you can see and modify the table's structure.
19.6.1 Open a table in Datasheet view
To open a table in datasheet view, follow the steps given below,
1. Either double-click its name in the Navigation Pane, or right-click its name.
2. Click Open.
Figure 19.12: Table in Datasheet view
19.6.2 Open a table in Design view
To open a table in Design view:
1. Go to the Left navigation pane and right click on the name of the table to be opened.
2. Click „Design view‟.
After an object is opened, you can switch between views by clicking one of the View icons in the
lower-right corner of the program window, or by clicking the View arrow in the Views group on
the Home tab, and then selecting a view from the list. If you simply click the View button Access
switches between different views in a logical manner as it is not opting the user to select the
required view‟. If the current view is not the Design view, it switches to Design view. If you
click it again, the table switches to Datasheet view. When other database objects are active,
clicking the View switches between views in a similar manner.
Data Sheet view
Design view
Pivot Table view
Pivot Chart view
view
Figure 19.13: Design view of Student table
Note: More descriptive details on working with tables are given in the next session (Session 20).
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19.7 Exploring Queries
You can locate specific information stored in a table, or in multiple tables, by creating a query
specifying the parameters of the information you want to find.
19.7.1 Opening a Query
To open a Query,
1. In the Navigation Pane, click Queries (The database window displays all the queries that
have been saved as part of this database).
2. Right-click the selected query, and then click Open.
Figure 19.14: Opening a Query
19.7.2 Open a Query in design view
To open a Query in design view,
1. In the Navigation Pane, Right click Queries.
2. Click design view.
Figure 19.15: Design View of a Query
Note: More descriptive details on working with Queries are given in the next session (Session20)
19.8 Exploring Forms
A form is essentially a window containing controls that either display information to people or
accept information that people enter. Access provides a collection of standard Windows controls,
such as labels, text boxes, option buttons, and check boxes. With a little ingenuity, you can
create forms that look and work much like the dialog boxes in all Windows applications.
A form acts as a friendly interface for a table. Through a form, you can display and edit the
records of the underlying table, or create new records. As with tables and queries, you can
display forms in several views.
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The three most common views are:



Form view, in which you enter data.
Datasheet view, which looks essentially like a table.
Design view, in which you work with the elements of the form to refine the way it looks
and works.
19.8.1 Opening a Form
To open a Form, select a Form and Right Click on the mouse and then Click Open.
Figure 19.16: Opening a Form
19.8.2 Open a Form in design view
To open a Form, select a form and Right Click on the mouse and then Click Design view.
Figure 19.17: Design view of a Form
Note: More descriptive details on working with Forms are given in the Session 21.
19.9 Exploring Reports
The different sections of a report such as header, footer, details, titles... can be formatted as you
wish such that the report gives your information taken from table(s) in a more readable and
attractive manner.
You can look at reports in four views:




Design View, in which you can manipulate the design of a report in the same way that
you manipulate a form.
Report View, where you can scroll through the information in the report without the
page breaks inserted when it is printed.
Print Preview, in which you see your report exactly as it will look when printed.
Layout View, which displays the data in the report (similar to Print Preview) but enables
you to edit the layout.
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19.9.1 Opening a Report in the Layout view
To open a Report, select a report and right click on the mouse then click open.
Figure 19.18: Opening a Report
Note: More descriptive details on working with Reports are given in the Session 21.
19.10 Save your database in other formats
Microsoft 2007 basically supports with three database formats such as Access 2007 database
format, Access 2002-2003 database format, and Access 2000 database format.
To save Access database in other formats, follow the steps given below:
1. Click Office button.
2. Click Save As.
3. Select the suitable access database file format and Click.
Figure 19.19: Save Database in another format
19.11 Encrypt with a password
You can secure your database by Encrypting with a password. Follow the steps given below.
1. Click Database tools.
2. Click Encrypt password (Set Database Password window will be appeared).
Figure 19.20: Set Database Password
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3. Enter your password twice (the latter is to confirm your entry).
4. Click OK.
19.12 Decrypt the database
Once you encrypted your database, you can decrypt it by following the steps given below.
1. Open your database as exclusive mode.
2. Click Database tools.
3. Click Decrypt database (Unset Database Password window will be appeared as shown
here).
Figure 19.21: Decrypt Password
4. Enter your password.
5. Click OK.
19.13 Self Assessment Questions
19.1
19.2
What is a Database? Briefly describe the four types of database models.
Briefly describe the following key components of relational database model.
a. Entity
b. Attribute
c. Relationship
19.3 What is Database Management System (DBMS)? State the advantages of it.
19.4 Give five examples for Database Management applications.
19.5 What is MS-Access? Briefly describe the objects available in MS-Access 2007.
19.6 What are the differences between a form and a report in MS Access?
19.7 When working with tables, what is the purpose of having “Datasheet view” and
the “Design view”?
19.8 Define the following terms.
a. Primary key
b. Foreign key
19.9 Using suitable examples, define the possible types of relationships between two
tables or entities in a database?
19.10 What is the difference between the “Print Preview” and “Layout view” of an
Access report?
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Session 20
Working with Tables and Queries
Aim:
Aim of this session is to provide an introduction about database tables and queries.
Objectives:
Having studied this session you will be able to:








Get know the data types supported by Access 2007
Create a table using the design view
Work with tables
Import data from other sources
Understand what Queries are
Create a query using the query wizard
Create a query using the Query design tool
Learn what SQL statements of queries are
20.1 Creating Tables
As you are already aware, the tables are the grid like structures that store information in a
database similar to the way an Excel worksheet stores information in a workbook. Access
provides different ways to create a table.
20.1.1 Creating table – method 1
There is a tool with an icon of a “Table” under the create tab. Double-click on the “Table” icon
to create a table. You can start creating your table by using either datasheet view or design view.
20.1.2 Creating table – method 2
To create a table by using entering data, follow the steps given below;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Click Create.
Click table.
Select datasheet view in a view group.
Enter data into the cells.
Click the Save button.
Give a table name.
Click OK.
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Enter the following data and save your table as student.
No
1
2
3
4
5
Name
A.C. Abesinghe
F. R. Silva
Z. K. Gamage
D.D.R. Fenando
S. T. K. Gunasekara
Index No
AS23001
AS23002
AS23003
AS23004
AS23005
20.1.3 Create table in Design view
This is the most common way of creating a table. To create a table using the design view,
perform the following steps,
1. Click Create in the ribbon.
2. Click table (automatically a sample table is created with name table X; X is reference to
a number).
Figure 20.1: Table icon
3. Right click on the table heading (Short cut menu will be appeared).
4. Select and click the design view.
Figure 20.2: Design view on Short cut Menu
5. Give a name to your table (This example uses „results‟) and Click OK.
Figure 20.3: Save As dialog box
6. Then Table Design view will be appeared.
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Design view contains three columns namely field name, data type and description as shown
below.
Figure 20.4: Design view of the table
Field name
This is the Name of the data field. By default it gives the field names as Field1, Field 2… for the
first table. Note that, there is a good convention that you may follow to identify the field name,
which is to insert first three letters in the table name and add the field name after that. Original
name of the field starts with the capital letter and do not use any space between two words.
Example: for the fields of the table named „Student‟ the field names shall be as follows:
Student name: stuName
Student Age: stuAge
Data types
Before creating a table you must get a clear idea about the fields and the data types of the fields
of your table.
Data Type of a particular field is the type of the values that will be entered into that field. There
are various data types available in the Access database system. Following table gives you an idea
of them.
Data Type
Example
Description
Text
Saman Kumara
Memo
A lengthy
Paragraph in text
format
A type of text that stores up to 64,000 characters.
12334
Any number can be stored.
Number
The default type, text type allows any combination of
letters and numbers up to a maximum of 255 characters
per field record
288
Date/Time
28.11.2005
A date, time, or combination of both.
Currency
Rs, $
Monetary values that can be set up to automatically
include a dollar sign ($) and correct decimal and comma
positions
Auto
Number
566060606
When a new record is created, Access will
automatically assign a unique integer to the record in
this field. From the General options, select Increment if
the numbers should be assigned in order or random if
any random number should be chosen. Since every
record in a datasheet must include at least one field that
distinguishes it from all others, this is a useful data type
to use if the existing data will not produce such values.
Yes/No
yes
Use this option for True/False, Yes/No, On/Off, or other
values that must be only one of two.
OLE
Objects
Hyperlink
An OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) object is a
sound, picture, or other object such as a Word document
or Excel spreadsheet that is created in another program.
Use this data type to embed an OLE object or link to the
object in the database.
A hyperlink will link to an Internet or Intranet site, or
another location in the database. The data consists of up
to four parts each separated by the pound sign (#):
Table 20.1: MS Access 2007 data types
Example: Using the design view, create a table named „tblEmpDetails‟ that store the following
information.







Employee ID
Employee Name
Address
Date of birth
Age
Department
Salary
Create the fields, enter the field name, data type, description and set properties of the data type as
follows.
Note: Please follow the instructions of your teacher at the hands on practical sessions to get a
good idea on setting field properties.
289
Field Name:
Data Type:
Description:
Properties:
EmpName (do not use space between two words)
Text
Employee name.
there are so many properties. But you may change field size into 50
Field Name:
Data Type:
Description:
Properties:
EmpAddres
Text
Employee address.
field size -70
Field Name:
Data Type:
Description:
Properties:
EmpAge
Number
Age of an Employee
Field size -integer
Default value -0, Decimal places - 0
Field Name:
Data Type:
Description:
Properties:
EmpID
Number
Employee ID
Field size -long integer
Default value - 0 Decimal places -0
Set the EmpID field as a Primary key. To create a primary key follow the steps given below.
1. Select EmpID filed.
2. Click right button of the mouse and.
3. Click primary key.
Now save your table name “tblEmpDetails”. Enter five sample values.
20.1.4 Delete a Table
To delete a created table, follow the steps given below (To delete the Student table).
1. Select the table that you need to delete.
2. Right click on the table.
3. Click Delete.
4. Then system asks you to confirm action “do you want delete the table student”.
5. Click YES.
Figure 20.5: Delete Table
290
Figure 20.6: Confirm action
20.1.5 Create another table
Imagine that you have a table named tblEmpDetails created in the database named “ABC
Holdings”. Create a new table named tblEmpWorks with the fields EmpID, Date, Work and
Num of Hours (use the table design view).
Now you have two tables namely, tblEmpDetails and tblEmpWorks. Add some suitable records
for the above two tables.
20.2 Creating Relationships between two tables
Now you have two tables (tblEmpDetails and tblEmpWorks) to create a relationship between
them.
Please recall that there are three types of relationships namely one-to-one, one-to-many and
many-to-many.
To create a relationship between two tables follow the steps given below;
1. Click Relationships icon in the Database tools tab
2. “Show table” window will be appeared.
Figure 20.7: Relationship icon
Figure 20.8: Show Table Window
291
3. Add the two (or more) tables to be related by selecting the table name and then clicking
the Add button.
4. Click Close.
Figure 20.9: Edit relationships window
Select “EmpID” field in the tblEmpDetails table, drag and drop into EmpID field in the
tblEmpWorks table. Now “Edit Relationship” Window will be appeared as shown below.
Figure 20.10: Edit Relationships Window
5. Click Join Type.
6. Select the join type 3 and click OK.
Figure 20.11: Edit relationship
292
To create different types of Relationships follow the steps given below;
7. Click Join types.
8. Select the suitable relationship type.
9. Click OK.
10. Select „Enforce referential integrity‟ option.
11. Click Create.
Figure 20.12: Relationship
20.2.1 Relationship design tool
Relationship design tool is used to manipulate the relationships built.
1
3
4
5
2
Figure 20.13: Relationship design tool
No
1
2
3
4
5
Name
Edit Relationship
Relationship Report
Show Table
Hide Table
Close
Description
Click here to edit relationship types
Click here to create a relationship report
Click here to the „show table‟ window to
add/delete tables to the relationships
Click here to hide table
Close relationship window
Table 20.2: Relationship design tools
20.3
Modifying your tables
20.3.1 Delete Records from a table
Microsoft Access 2007 provides easy way to delete a record (s) in your table. You just need to,
1. Right Click the Row.
2. Click Delete.
293
Note: When the tables are inter-related using Relationships, Access will check for effect of
deleting a record from a table to maintain the required relationship. If deletion affects
the relationship, it will block you deleting such records.
Figure 20.14: Delete Record
20.3.2 Insert a new field
To insert a new data field, follow the steps given below.
1. Right Click on a column.
2. Click Insert Column.
Figure 20.15: Inserting Column
20.3.3 Rename a Column/field
To rename an existing column, follow the steps given below.
1. Right Click the Column to be renamed.
2. Click Rename Column.
Figure 20.16: Rename Column
20.3.4 Delete a column/field
To delete an existing column, follow the steps given below.
1. Right Click the column to be deleted.
2. Click Delete column.
Figure 20.17: Delete Column
Note: Access will block you deleting the Primary key of the table.
294
20.4 Queries
Queries select records from one or more tables in a database. So they can be viewed, analyzed,
and sorted on a common datasheet. The resulting collection of records, called a dynaset
(dynamic subset), is saved as a database object and can therefore be easily used in the future. The
query will be updated whenever the original tables are updated. There are several types of
queries. They are: select queries that extract data from tables based on specified values, find
duplicate queries that display records with duplicate values for one or more of the specified
fields, and find unmatched queries display records from one table that do not have
corresponding values in a second table.
There are two methods to create a query,
1. Create a query by using wizard
2. Create a query in design view
20.4.1 Create a Query using Wizard
Follow these steps to create a new simple query by using Query Wizards.
Example: Create a Simple query to display Index Number and name of the student. It is assumed
that there is a table named „personalData‟ created with some data in it.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Select Create tab in the ribbon.
Select Other group.
Click Query wizard.
Select Simple Query Wizard and Click OK.
In the Simple Query wizard select the table „personal Data‟.
Select the fields „Index No‟ and „Name‟.
Click next.
Add a name to the query.
Click Finish.
Figure 20.18: New Query Window
295
Click here to select
the table you need to
consider for
answering the query
Figure 20.19: Simple Query Wizard
Figure 20.20: Query wizards
Then the following will be displayed as the query output.
Figure 20.21: Query Output
20.4.2 Create a Query using design view
Before you start creating a query using query design view, do some minor modifications into
your personalData table. Add a new data field named “Age” into personalData table.
Example: Create a query (Using design view) to display name and age of the students, whose
age is greater than 32 years.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Create Tab in the ribbon.
Select Other Group.
Click Query Design (Query design view is appeared).
Add PersonalData table to the Query from the Show Table window.
5. Click Close.
296
The “Query design tool” contains five fields for designing a query namely field, table, short,
show, and criteria
Field
Table
Sort
Show
Criteria
Field in your table/ tables
Table/tables in your data base
sort order (ascending/ descending)
Show this record
How data are selected/conditions to be satisfied to get the required
output.
Add fields from the tables to the new query by double-clicking the field name in the table boxes
or selecting the field from the Field: and Table: drop-down menus on the query form. Specify
sort orders if necessary.
1. Create two columns for student name and student age. Then type „>35‟ in the criteria
section of the student age field.
2. Click Run in the Result group.
Figure 20.22: Quick Design Tool
Figure 20.23: Create and run a query using query design tool
Figure 20.24: Query Output
297
20.4.3 More about criteria sections in the Query design tool
The criteria section is the most useful section in query designing. If you need to create an
advance query, you need to add more on criteria section. More details about criteria section is
given below.
Example with
wildcard/
Operator
? Street
43th *
<100
>=1
<>"FL"
Between 1 and
10
Is Null
Is Not Null
Like "a*"
>0 And <=10
"Saman" Or
"Kamal
Explanation
The question mark is a wildcard that takes the place of a single letter.
The asterisk is the wildcard that represents a number of characters.
Value is less than 100
Value should be greater than or equal to 1
Not equal to FL
Numbers between 1 and 10
Finds records with no value
or all records that have a value
All words beginning with "a"
All numbers greater than 0 and less than 10
Value should be equal to either Saman or Kamal
Table 20.3: Query Wildcards and Expression Operators
20.4.4 Creating advance queries by using query design tool
Consider the two tables Student and Result. The student table contains student‟s name and index
number. The result table contains Index No, Course Code, and Mark. Create above two tables
into your access database. Then create a suitable relationship between these two tables.
Index NO
Name
AS2009125
Perera A. B.
AS2009126
Gamage S. I.
AS2009127
Hettige B. L.
AS2009128
Namalage S. M. L.D
AS2009129
Fernando S. N. I.
AS2009130
AS2009131
AS2009132
AS2009133
AS2009134
AS2009135
AS2009136
Silva K. A.
Silva S. H.
Samarasinghe S. G.
Samaraweera F. J.
Sumanasekara D. J.
weerasinge W. F.
Gunawardene J. D.
Table 20.4: Student table
Index NO
AS2009132
AS2009126
AS2009128
AS2009125
AS2009135
AS2009134
AS2009127
AS2009136
AS2009129
AS2009131
AS2009130
AS2009133
Course Code
CSU 1140
CSU 1140
CSU 1140
CSU 1140
CSU 1140
CSU 1140
CSU 1141
CSU 1141
CSU 1141
CSU 1141
CSU 1141
CSU 1141
Marks
12
23
32
34
37
45
56
57
67
78
89
94
Table 20.5: Result table
298
Task 1: Create a simple query to display the Student name and marks obtained for the subject
CSU1140.
Figure 20.25: Query design tool
Figure 20.26: Query Output
Task 2: Add another section to the above query to display the name and the marks of the
students who have got more than 40 marks. The required design of the query should be as
follows:
Figure 20.27: Query Design Tool
20.4.5 Viewing the SQL statements of created queries
Note that, normally Queries are developed by using Structured Query Language (SQL). To
develop more advance queries, programmers are required to have a sound knowledge in SQL. To
see the SQL code for your query, follow the steps given below.
1. Click down Arrow of the view results group.
2. Select SQL view.
299
SQL code of the
above query
Figure 20.28: SQL view
Note: Describing details on SQL statements is beyond the scope of this course. However, if you
are interested, please refer to SQL statements more.
20.5 Self Assessment Questions
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
What is meant by data types? List five available data types in MS Access 2007.
What are the different ways to create a table in an Access database?
What is meant by the „default value‟ of a field in an Access table?
What is a Dynaset?
Name some object operations that a user must know when working with databases?
What does SQL stands for? Describe the importance of SQL.
What are the available methods to create a query?
Briefly describe the purpose of following types of queries.
a. Select queries
b. Find duplicate queries
c. Find unmatched queries
300
Session 21
Working with Forms and Reports
Aim:
To provide an introduction about forms and reports in MS Access 2007
Objectives:
Having studied this session you will be able to get an idea about:





What a form is and its usage
How to create a form by using wizard
The form controls
How to create a form by using design view
What reports are and their usages
21.1 Working with Forms
Forms are used to display the data stored in tables/queries in a visual environment. By using the
forms you can add, edit or delete records in a table easily.
There are two ways to create a form:


Create form by using wizard
Create form in design view
21.1.1 Create a form by using Form Wizard
This example shows how to create a form for personalData table by using wizard.
To create a form by using wizard, follow the steps given below,
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click Create.
Select More Forms in the form group.
Click Form Wizard (The form wizard will be appeared).
Select the table personalData.
Click >> button to select all fields from the selected table (i.e. personalData)
Click Next.
Figure 21.1: Form Wizard under More Forms
301
Select the table
here
Click here to select
all fields
Figure 21.2: Create a form using wizard
7. Select the layout as columnar.
8. Click Next.
9. Select the form style as Access 2007.
10. Click Next.
11. Add the form title as “Student Details”.
12. Click Finish.
Figure 21.3: Select the form layout
Figure 21.4: Select the form style
302
Figure 21.5: Add a title to the form
Sample output of the form is given below.
Figure 21.6: Output of the form
21.1.2 Control Buttons in a form
There is a control box in the bottom of the form that is used to work with records accessed by the
form. The operations available with this Control box are shown below.
Go to the Last
record
Go to the previous
Record
Go to the First
record
Current record
and number of
records
Search a record
Insert a new record
Go to the
next Record
Figure 21.7: Control Box
303
21.1.3 Form views
Forms can be viewed in three ways namely as Form view, layout view and design view. To
change the view of your currently viewed form;
1. Right Click on the form.
2. Select the view.
Figure 21.8: Select view
21.1.4 Create a form by using the Design View
In Microsoft Access 2007, you can create default form for each table very easily. To create a
default form you needed only to click “create” icon on the ribbon and select “forms”. However,
Microsoft Accesses provides the design view to create a form as you wish by customizing its
features. You can use the form design view to create more advanced forms. The following
section describes how to create a form by using design view.
To create a form by using design view, follow the steps given below:
1. Click Create.
2. Click Form design in form group.
Figure 21.9: Form Design Window
A form contains five sections. They are Form header, Page Header, Detail section, Page Footer
and the Form Footer. You can show/hide these sections by Right click on the form and Select
Page header/Footer or Form Header/Footer.
304
Figure 21.10: Show/ Hide sections
Access provides facilities to manipulate the form created in design view. The form design tool
available in the ribbon is used to change such features of the created form. There are several
controls available in this tool such as Textbox, label, button etc. you can place each control into
your form as you wish. Some form controls available in the design tool are listed below.
1
2
3
5
4
6
8
7
12
9
10
13
11
14
15
Figure 21.11: Form Design Tool
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Name
Logo
Title
Page Numbers
Date and Time
Text box
Label
button
Combo box
Option Group
Image
Hyper link
List box
Option button
Attachment
ActiveX control
Description/usage
To insert a logo to the form
To insert a form title
To insert page number into your form
To insert date and time
To insert a textbox
To insert a label
To insert a button
To insert a combo box
To insert a group of options as a single unit
To insert an image
To insert a Hyper link
To insert a list box
To insert an option button
To insert an attachment
To insert an active X control
Table 21.1: Form controls
Some of the commonly used form controls are described below.
Add a Label into a form
Labels are used to display messages such as form title, caption of the data fields, etc. To insert a
label, follow the steps given below.
1. Click label icon in the form controls.
305
2. Click on the form (where you want to place the label).
3. Type the text.
Figure 21.12: Label
4. Change the fonts and styles as you wish.
5. Change the position of the label, if required.
Add a textbox into a form
Text box are used to display values in the data fields. To insert a text box follow the steps given
below,
1. Click Textbox icon in the form controls.
2. Click on the form (where you want to insert a text box).
Figure 21.13: Textbox
3. Click property sheet on the tool bar.
4. Change the control source on the data tab.
Figure 21.14: Change Control Source
OR
1. Go to the location where you want to insert a text box.
2. Click property sheet on the tool bar as shown here.
3. Double Click on the required field in the Field list window that will appear on the right
hand side of your screen as shown in the sample below.
306
Add a Combo box into a form
Combo boxes are used to choose a value from a drop down list. To insert a combo box, follow
the steps given below.
Note: On the Design tab, in the Controls group, ensure that Use Control Wizards is not selected.
1. Click Combo box icon in the form controls.
2. Click on the form (where you want to place the combo box)
Figure 21.15: Combo Box
Now you need to bind your data source into a data field. This example shows how to bind data
into a combo box. Assume that, PesonalData table contains personal information about persons.
Now we‟ll bind the name field into a combo box.
3. Change the row source type as table/query.
4. Select the table name (PersonalData where your list of items is saved as a field named
„Name‟) in the drop down list given under the row source.
5. Click browser button
in the row source (A message box will be appeared).
Figure 21.16: Microsoft Office Access Message Box
6. Click Yes (Query builder will be appeared).
7. In the Query builder, select the field as name and the table as personalData and tick off
the show section.
Simply, drag and drop the field name from the table to the Field of the query design are as
shown below
Figure 21.17: Query Builder
8. Click Close.
307
Figure 21.18: Access Message Box
9. Click Yes.
10. Right click on the form.
11. Change the view as form view.
Figure 21.19: Combo Box
Now your combo box will be appeared as above.
Add a Combo box into a form to display „Male/Female‟ option
To insert a combo box of two value choice, follow the steps given below.
1. Click Combo box icon in the form controls.
2. Click on the form (where you want to place the combo box).
Figure 21.20: Combo Box
3. Change the row source type as Value List.
4. Click browse button in the row source (Edit list items window will be appeared).
Figure 21.21: Edit List Item Window
308
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Type the values as „Male‟ and „Female‟
Select the default value as “Male”
Click OK.
Right click on the form.
Change the view as form view.
Now your combo box will be appeared as above.
Note: Similar to the combo box, you can easily insert a list box into your form.
Insert an ActiveX control
To insert an ActiveX control, follow the steps given below.
1. Click ActiveX control icon in the form controls (Insert ActiveX control window will be
appeared).
2. Select the control from list (in this example, we use the windows media player).
3. Click OK.
Figure 21.22: Insert Active X control Window
4. Place the control where you want show it.
5. In the property sheet, Click the browse button of the Custom property available under
the Other tab. (Media player property window will be appeared)
6. Browse for the media file (File name or URL).
7. Click OK.
8. Right click on the form.
9. Change the view as form view.
10. Press the play button of the media player to play the file you inserted.
309
Insert date and time
To insert date and time into a preferred location of your form, follow the steps given below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Move to the location where you want to have the date and time.
Click date and time icon on the form controls.
Click include date
Click include time
Choose the date/time format you prefer.
Click OK.
Insert Page number
If your form goes for more than a single page, to insert page numbers into your form, follow the
steps given below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the form you want to insert page numbers.
Click insert page number icon on the form controls.
Select the page number format as you wish.
Click OK.
21.1.5 Format your form
After creating a form you can further format your form as you wish. To do this, you need to view
your form in layout view or design view.
Format your form by using Auto format wizard
You can create your form with various formats. There are several built-in formats available in
Access 2007. You can use these formats by using Auto-Format tool.
1. Select the form you want to format.
2. Click the down arrow of Auto Format wizard icon on the auto format group appearing
under the Arrange tab of Form Design Tool and select Auto Format Wizard (Auto
format window will be appeared).
Figure 21.23: Auto Format Wizard
310
3. Select one of the auto format layouts.
4. Click OK.
Format your form by using Form formatting tools
Access 2007 provides form formatting tools to format your form easily. There are several tools
available in the arrange group.
Figure 21.24: Arrange Group
Change the tab order
To change the tab order of the form, follow the steps given below:
1. Select the form whose tab order to be changed.
2. Click the tab order icon in the control layout group appearing under the Arrange Tab
of Form Design Tools as shown below (Tab order window will be appeared).
(Tab order window will be appeared as shown below)
3. Change the tab order as you prefer.
4. Click OK.
Figure 21.25: Tab Order Window
311
Change the control size by using Size to fit tool
To change the control size and position by using size to fit tool, follow the steps given below:
1. Select the form control.
2. Click size to fit tool appearing under the Size group of the Arrange tab of the Form
Design Tools.
Number format
To change the format of the number used in the form, follow the steps given below:
1. Select the form control.
2. Go to the Form Layout view to make the form layout tools available in the ribbon.
3. Select the number format in the formatting group (Standard, General, Number, Currency
etc.) under the Format tab of the Form Layout tools.
4. Click the number format (currency, percent or comma format).
5. Increase or decrease decimal places as you wish.
Figure 21.26: Format Number
21.2 Working with Reports
A report is used to format and organize the data to be presented. Usually the report gives the
printable layout to the data you consider. Most database management systems include a report
writer that enables you to design and generate reports. The Microsoft Access 2007 provides
reasonable report facilities to you.
As mentioned above, the reports will organize and group the information available in a table(s)
or query (ies) and provide a way to print the data in a database. There are two options to design a
report in MS Access 2007.
1. Create report by using wizard.
2. Create report in design view.
These methods are described below.
21.2.1 Create a report using Report wizard
To create a report by using wizard, perform the following steps. In this example we create a
backup by using “personalData” table, which is created previously.
1. Click Report Wizard under the reports group of the Create tab. Now you can see the
report wizard window.
312
Figure 21.27: Report wizard in Report group
2. In the Report Wizard, select the fields that you want to display in the report. In this
example, we select all the fields in the “personalData” table. Then Click Next.
Figure 21.28: Report wizard window
3. Now wizard asks about any grouping levels in your dataset. Click Next (thinking that no
additional grouping is needed for this data set)
Figure 21.29: Report wizard window-Grouping report contents
4. Select the fields on which the content is to be sorted in the report. (ex. Index No)
313
Select a field to sort
Figure 21.30: Wizard window- Sorting report content
5. Select the output layout and page orientation of your report. Then Click next
Figure 21.31: Wizard report window
6. Select a suitable style for your report and Click Next.
Figure 21.32: Wizard report window
314
7. Give a title for the report and Click Finish.
Figure 21.33: Wizard report window
Your report output will be displayed as follows;
Figure 21.34: Sample Output of a created report
In the above example we created a report to display records of an existing table. Also you can
create a report to display data on your created queries. The following example shows how to
create a report for an existing query by using wizard.
21.2.2 Create a report for a created query by using wizard
To create a report for a created query by using wizard, perform the following steps.
1. Double click the query.
2. Click Report Wizard in report group.
3. Select the query and select the fields that you want to add to the report. Then Click next.
Figure 21.35: Wizard report window
315
All other steps will be same as the previous example that we did to create a report for a table.
Note that, by using wizard you can create a report easily. However, you can use only the given
formats. By using the design view you can design a report freely as you wish.
21.2.3 Create a Report by using Design View
To create a report by using report design view, perform the following steps. First, click report
design icon on the report group.
Figure 21.36: Report Design Icon
Following figure shows the user interface of the report design view. In a report, there are few
sections such as report header, report footer, page header, page footer, group header group footer
and the details section. By default it appears only the page header, detail, and the page footer
sections.
Figure 21.37: User interface of the report design
When you start to design the report, the report designing tools will be activated on the ribbon.
21.2.4 Report Design Tools
Before going to start report designing this is the best time to learn about report designing tools.
316
Page setup tool
Before start report designing you must need to do a page setup using this tool.
Click here to change
the size of your report
Click here to change the
Change the Orientation
Click here to change
the Report margins
Click here to open normal
page setup window
Figure 21.38: Page Setup tools
21.2.5 Report design window
There are several tools and keys available for report designing.
Click here to change
the View
Select the text and
format it as you wish
Figure 21.39: Report Design Tools
Change into different Views
There are four views available namely Report view, Print preview, Layout view and Design
view. The report view shows output of your report. Print preview shows how your report will be
appeared in the printed hardcopy. The layout view shows the layout of your report. And design
view provides the facilities to customize and design your report.
To change the view of your report, you just need to click on the preferred view.
Figure 21.40: Available views
317
21.2.6 Working with report controls
There are several tools and keys available for report designing. Access provides facilities to
create report in design view. Now you can see design tool in the ribbon. Similar to the tools
available for the forms, there are several controls available for reports such as Textbox, label,
button etc. You can insert each control into your report.
Figure 21.41: Controls group in the Design Ribbon
21.2.7 Create a report by using design view
The following example shows how to create a report by using report design view. Now we
create a simple report for the personalData table. To do this, follow the steps given below,
1. Open a new report by using design view.
2. Open a property sheet in the report change the selection type as “report”
3. Select the record source as Personal data.
4. Add following three labels into the page header section.
5. Add a textbox field to the details section as shown below.
318
6. In the property sheet, under the Data tab, change the control source as Name.
Now Textbox will be changed as Name.
7. Same as the step 6 add another text box in to details section and change the control,
source as Year.
8. Save your report.
9. Change the view of your report. Now you can see the output of your report as similar to
the one given below.
21.2.8 Working with more report controls
The following steps show how to work with more report control components.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Create new two tables named “result” and “attendance” in the database.
Crete the relationship between the “Personal data” table and the “result” table.
Create a query to show the Name, Course Code, and Marks.
Create a report by using design view using the following steps




Insert two labels to display “Result sheet” and the name of the department.
Create three labels in the Page Header section to show the captions “Name”, “Course
Code” and the “Marks”.
Create three text boxes to display Name, Course Code and Marks in the details
section.
Add Date and Time and Page Numbers into the Page Footer section.
319
Figure 21.42: Sample report format
Now you are ready to add additional calculated information in to your report such as Total
marks, Min, Max or Average. To do this, there is a tool available in the Grouping & Totals
section.
Figure 21.43: Grouping & Totals group
5. Select the mark field in the details section in the report.
6. Click the Totals tool and select the sum (Automatically the field will be added to the
report footer area).
7. Add a label into the page footer and set the caption as Total marks.
8. Save your report.
9. Change the view and see the output.
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Figure 21.44: Sample report design view
Figure 21.45: Sample report in the report view
21.3 Formatting Reports
21.3.1 Format your report by using Auto format wizard
You can create your report with various formats. There are several built-in formats available in
Access 2007. You can use these formats by using Auto-Format tool.
1. Select the report you want to format.
2. Click Auto Format wizard icon on the auto format group (Auto format window will be
appeared)
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3. Select one of the auto format layouts.
4. Click OK.
21.4 Self Assessment Questions
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
What are the available ways to create a new form in MS Access 2007?
State the importance of control buttons in the control box of a form?
What are the available form views in MS Access 2007? Briefly describe them.
What is the use of form design window?
State the use of following controls in forms.
a. Labels
b. Text box
c. Combo Box
Briefly describe the use of reports in MS Access. What are the ways of designing a
report?
Why is the Report Design view important?
What are the different sections of a report? Briefly describe them.
What is the purpose of having Auto format wizard when working with reports?
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Session 22
Introduction to the Internet
Aims:
Introduce Internet to the student.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:



Define what Internet is
List facilities/benefits of Internet
Describe the ways to connect to Internet
22.1 The Internet: an introduction
Each day the number of Internet users is increasing rapidly and the Internet has indeed become
an integral part of our day-to-day life. The Internet can be compared to an Aladdin‟s magic lamp
which fulfills your requirements. If you are new to the Internet then it‟s time to get your hands
dirty and learn how you can use the Internet and get things done within seconds.
Let‟s see some interesting quotes on Internet by some well known personalities:
The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow.
Bill Gates
The Internet could be a very positive step towards education, organization and participation in
meaningful society.
Noam Chomsky
A lot of things you want to do as part of daily life can now be done over the Internet.
Marc Andreessen
Whether you are a novice Internet user or an expert in handling the Internet services
efficiently, this would be an interesting learning experience.
22.1.1 What is Internet?
The Internet,




is a global system of interconnected computer networks
is a network of networks
uses the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide
is a product with no owner
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Having considered the above key features, the Internet can be defined as the network of
networks which is interconnected with millions of computers all over the world including
small domestic computers, academic, business and government networks. Internet connects
these different computers using TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the abbreviation for Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol.
Note: TCP/IP
TCP/IP is the communication protocol for the Internet. TCP/IP defines the rule which
computers must follow to communicate with each other over the internet. Even though
TCP/IP uses several protocols the two main protocols are TCP and IP.
In other words, The Internet also can be described as massive data storage which is accessible
to anyone at any time which carries various information and services, such as electronic mail,
online chat, file transfer and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide
Web (WWW). Apart from these, there are some special features which are worth knowing
regarding the internet. Do you know who owns the Internet? The answer is that the Internet has
no owner. Another key fact is that the Internet is Multimedia-based and retrieving information
and giving information is cheap and fast. To accomplish these tasks, the Internet has large
number of servers.
To clearly understand the operations of the Internet, it‟s essential to know the concept of
client/server. You have already learnt about this terminology under the session on „Computer
Networks” within this course material. A client is an application or system that requests a service
from a server or access a service made available by a server. Apparently you may guess the
functionalities of the server from this. A server is a computer system which responds to the
requests made by the clients. Figure 22.1 shows the interaction between a client and a server.
Figure 22.1 Client - Server interaction
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Although normally clients and servers communicate over a computer network, there are some
conditions where the client and the server reside in the same system. A client does not share any
of its resources instead it requests a server‟s content or service function. Thus millions of clients
are connected to the servers to acquire these services. The transmission between the clients and
servers takes place by a digital networking communication method called “Packet switching”.
All the data which are to be transferred, regardless of its content, structure and type is grouped
into blocks called packets. A communication protocol called Internet Protocol (IP) is used for
relaying these network packets across the Internet.
Therefore in short, we can say that the internet is a client-server system which transmits data by
packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP).
22.1.2 The history of the Internet
"Great things are not done by impulse, but by a series of small things brought together."
Gogh, Vincent Van.
Do you know that the Internet has a fascinating story behind it? Let's look at some of the key
events which took place in the history of the Internet.
In the 1960s computers were situated in different locations and the information stored in one
computer that could not be retrieved from a computer which is in another location. Sharing data
amongst different Universities was considered as a tedious task by the scientists and some
researchers who were involved in researches from different locations. In the late 1960s, some of
the far-sighted experts in the U.S. Department of Defense predicted that this could be a serious
problem if they encounter a natural disaster or an enemy attack in a particular location. They
initiated a project named ARPANET with the intention of establishing a computer network
nationally, so that they could withstand any destruction in a particular location because they can
easily retrieve the data from other locations.
ARPANET served as a test-bed for the new networking technologies. The primary goal of this
project was to create a computer network with multiple paths using telephone lines. The next
thing which was taken into consideration was that to allow people to share the resources in their
computers from remote locations.
ARPANET started with connecting the computer systems and databases of most business
institutions, schools and Government organizations from faraway places. Starting with only a
handful of users ARPANET expanded rapidly and spread widely. A host is similar to a network
server and it provides services to all the computers which are connected to it. At the beginning
there were four primary host computers. The number of hosts increased and this lead to a rapid
growth in the usage of the ARPANET. In 1973, people began to use ARPANET in Europe and
the usage of this networkgrew even faster. The National Science Foundation joined the project in
the mid-1980s expecting that the supercomputers‟ users can use ARPANET to obtain access.
They discovered that the existing network could not handle the load and created a new network
with higher capacity as a counterpart to the ARPANET. This led to a concept called the Internet.
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The connection between ARPANET, NSF net and other network were collectively called as the
“networked network” – being internetworked and the name the Internet derived from this
concept.
The system which was initiated to survive the nuclear war evolved itself to cater individuals who
use computers from home and of course to the business. This brought an astounding expansion in
the usage of the Internet. Today we see online advertisements, online order processing, online
buying and these have not only made our lives easy going but also had improved the quality of
living to a greater extent.
22.1.3 Differences between Internet and World Wide Web
Although the Internet and www are blend with each other and we tend to use these two words
interchangeably in day to day life, they are technically different from each other.
Let‟s imagine that we go to a restaurant to have a lunch. Usually every restaurant has a
popular dish which is popular and unique only to that particular restaurant. Sometimes we call
that restaurant by the dish name instead of the actual name of it .Wondering how is this related
to the Internet and the www! Let‟s see the following explanations.
Figure 22.2: The Internet Hotel
Internet Protocols
Internet
Protocol
Refers to
Description
Internet
Services
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol
A protocol for sending email messages between
servers
Email
POP3
Post Office Protocol
version 3
Used by local e-mail clients to
retrieve e-mail from a remote
server over a TCP/IP
connection
email
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
This is used to transfer files
from one host to another host
over a TCP-based network,
such as the Internet.
Transferring
files
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HTTP
Hyper Text Transfer
Protocol
Defines how messages are
formatted and transmitted,
and what actions Web
servers and browsers should
take in response to the wide
range of commands.
World Wide
Web(www)
HTTPS
Hyper Text Transfer
Protocol Secure
Provides authentication of
the web site and associated
web server and protects
against man-in-the-middle
attacks.
World Wide
Web(www)
VoIP
Voice over Internet
Protocol
This enables people to use
the Internet as the
transmission medium for
telephone calls.
Online
chat(there are
exceptions)
Table 22.1: The Internet Protocols
The Internet uses a variety of languages to transmit information from one place to the other.
These languages are called protocols. Using these protocols we can acquire the services from
the Internet. Each protocol has a specific functionality and www is considered to be the largest
service acquired amongst the services provided by the Internet. If we take the above analogy
in the hotel, we have seen in many hotels that even though there are so many dishes available,
only one of these dishes will be popular. Likewise although there are so many services
available in the Internet the most popular dish on the menu is www.
Internet is an interconnection of computer networks all around the world. In other words, it is
the hardware which forms the physical layer to these connections is what we refer to as the
Internet. Hence, the Internet comprises of network of computers, fiber-optic cables, copper
wires and wireless networks. But www is the software which is used to access the information
from the Internet. It consists of files, folders and the documents which are stored in different
computers. Now it is crystal clear to you that the www depends on the Internet to work.
22.1.4 Introducing the Internet buzz words
World Wide Web
WWW is a part of the Internet which functions using HTML. WWW operates under a protocol
called HTTP.
Browser
A browser is a computer software which can be used to view documents on the Internet. Web
browsers interpret HTML code and display images and text.
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Search Engine
Search engine is an automated web-site which is programmed to search specified keywords and
give the websites and Internet based documents as a result.
Client
A computer which is capable of receiving the information from the server in the Internet is called
a client. A home PC is an ideal example for this.
Server
Client computers download files in the Internet from the Server. These servers are directly linked
to the internet and consist of a lot of documents.
Domain
The Domain is the top level identification string for a particular server (yahoo.com). There are
various types of domains. It can be categorized using one or more extensions.
URL
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. This is a standard address format that constitutes a
reference to an Internet resource. Each URL starts with a protocol followed by a colon followed
by two slashes.
URLs are case sensitive and do not contain any spaces. URLs or web addresses can be broken
down into various components Access protocol, Service, Server, Domain and the country.
The structure of the URL is shown in the figure below.
Figure 22.3: Structure of the URL
There are several domains available in the web such as:






edu = education institute
com = commercial enterprise
gov = government
org = organization
net = network provider
mil = military
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FTP
FTP is a standard Internet protocol which refers to the File Transfer Protocol. Using this protocol
we can transfer files from one computer to the other via Internet. This is the simplest way to
exchange files between computers on the Internet. FTP is an application protocol that uses the
Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator
to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. It's also commonly used to
download programs and other files to your computer from other servers.
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/
HTML
HTML is the abbreviation for Hyper Text Markup Language. The web pages are called hypertext
documents because when you click a word or a picture which is hyper linked you can go to
another location. From there you can jump to another webpage. This is made possible because
HTML allows the document‟s author to embed hyperlinks.
HTTP
HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. HTTP (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and
other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. When the browser user enters file requests by
either "opening" a Web file (typing in a Uniform Resource Locator or URL) or clicking on a
hypertext link, the browser builds an HTTP request and sends it to the Internet Protocol address
(IP address) indicated by the URL. The HTTP daemon in the destination server machine receives
the request and sends back the requested file or files associated with the request.
Example URL: http://www.yahoo.com
HTTPS
HTTPS stands for “Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure”. This means that the data transferred
electronically is encrypted and cannot be accessed by unauthorized people. HTTPS provides
authentication of the web-site and related web server which is interacting with thus protecting
against Man-in-the middle attacks.
22.2 Identifying facilities/benefits of Internet
The Internet provides a wide spectrum of services which supports us in many ways. We‟ll
discuss these facilities in detail now. The Internet not only enables you to look at the
documents and images but also you may listen to sound files and watch videos. You are not
limited to a small circle of facilities like obtaining information from the massive collection of
data but you can go beyond that and publish your own creations and others will be able to
acquire those without any problem. Hence transferring files from one place to other had made
things easier for those who live in geographically dispersed locations. This kind of global
distribution of the Internet is certainly an advantage for international communication.
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Now let‟s have a brief look at the different facilities available in Internet.
22.2.1 WWW
You don‟t have to go to the library situated miles away and exhausted. The Internet had
brought a revolution in accessing information. Accessing the information is made simple and
easy, now. By surfing the web browser users can acquire the necessary information quickly
and accurately.
22.2.2 E-mail
This is one the most frequently used Internet services. A mail can be sent by directly typing
the e-mail message using the keyboard or by attaching the files in the disk. E-mail system is
included in most Main frames, Mini computers and computer networks. Refer Session 24 for
further details.
22.2.3 Chat
Users can send and respond to messages in real time that is there is no waiting period between
sending and receiving messages as in e-mail. Usually this communication takes place within
two people, but there can be groups as well.
22.2.4 Telnet
Telnet is a network protocol which provides a bidirectional interactive text oriented
communication facility. You will be able to control the server and interact with the other
servers on the network. A telnet session is commenced by logging into a server using a
username and password. This is well known to control Web servers remotely.
22.2.5 VoIP
This is the abbreviation for Voice over Internet Protocol. VoIP systems allow voice data to
travel over the Internet thus by-passing the regular telephone service.
Now let‟s have a look at some benefits of Internet in detail.
One of the main benefits of the Internet is that the communication is made easy. Not only has
it facilitated human interaction to become simple but also it has improved the quality of
communication to a greater extent. Sending emails, chatting, sending SMS through the
Internet and the usage of VoIP are some of the services provided by the Internet to upgrade
the quality communication.
Next benefit is the availability of an immense knowledgebase. Searching relevant information
is made easy by using www, News group and discussion groups.
File transferring using the FTP and advertising are some other well-known benefits.
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22.3 Connecting to the Internet
Internet which is accessed by many people and businesses has now become the aspiration in
the commercial world. People have enhanced facilities like they can work while they are at
home. So it is apparent that the Internet had made things simple.
If you are willing to enjoy the facilities in the Internet the first thing you need to do is that you
need to have an Internet connection. There are several ways to obtain access to the Internet.
The way by which the users connect to the Internet is called the Internet Access. Are you keen
to know the different methods to connect to the Internet? Let‟s discuss about them.
22.3.1 Dial-up Connections
Basic dial-up packages are used in some businesses. Several Internet Service Providers (ISP)
provide access to the Internet and they charge a fixed amount for such a service. This is
appropriate when we need the Internet access for a longer period.
Let‟s see how we connect to the Internet in a Dial-up connection.
Figure 22.4: Dial-up internet Connection
We can access Internet by using a modem and a telephone line. This type of Internet access
method is common in homes and small businesses. We can easily create this connection by
setting up an inexpensive account. Hence this type of connection saves money. More than that
by using the dial-up connection we can save a lot of time, and it‟s quiet convenient. Inadition
dial-up connections provides new services to the users.
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22.3.2 Landline
Figure 22.5: Landline
This is also called as mainline or fixed line. The data is transferred through the solid medium
either through a metal wire or optic fiber. This has a significant difference from the mobile
cellular service. In a cellular line the medium used is air but the landline uses a solid medium.
Landline has some advantages when compared to a mobile cellular line. Landline cost less
than the mobile cellular line. Furthermore, landline has a better voice quality. We can use this
in the areas where we do not have the cellular service or where we need no mobility. Since the
landline cannot be interrupted without physical access, this is considered to be a more secure
mode of communication.
22.3.3 T-lines
T-lines are telephone lines comprised of either fiber optic or copper wires that offer 24
individual channels. Each of these channels supports data and voice transmissions at speed of
64Kbits per second.
Some of the telephone companies offer some of these lines called fractional T-1 access.
22.3.4 Wi-Fi
Figure 22.6: The Wi-Fi technology
Wi-Fi is a technology where we can exchange data wirelessly using radio waves. This
technology band is owned by the Wi-Fi alliance.
Let‟s have a look at some of the common applications of Wi-Fi.
Most of these applications are carried out using smart phones. Internet, playing games, VoIP
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phone access, and network connectivity for televisions, digital audio player, cameras and
DVD players are good examples for such applications.




Internet
VoIP phone access
gaming
network connectivity for consumer electronics (Televisions, DVD players and digital
cameras)
22.3.5 Satellite
Figure 22.7: Satellite
Satellite is a specialized wireless receiver or a transmitter. Satellite is launched by a rocket and
placed in an orbit around the earth. Since this has a higher communication rate, it is
expensive. Satellites can be used to forecast the weather conditions, to telecast TV
programmes and broadcast radio programmes especially amateur radio programmes, Internet
communications. We are all well aware of the uses of Global Positioning System (GPS). A
GPS Satellite is used by a variety of people. The different uses of GPS are aiding in
navigation for general aviation, surveying, providing emergency roadside assistance for
automobiles and also for some recreational activities. Most sophisticated system of GPS is
that it shows your position in the street map. The following figure shows an application of
GPS, a vehicle tracking system.
Figure 22.8: GPS Vehicle Tracking System
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22.3.6 Cell phones
Mobile phone is a long way electronic communication mechanism. There are lots of facilities
made available in a mobile phone. We can send text messages which are called SMS. We can
also send photos and videos using MMS. In addition using packet switching we can access
Internet and enjoy the facilities provided by the Internet such as email and search information.
You might have heard or used mobile phones with 2G, 3G, and 4G technologies. We can use
these phones to access the Internet. Mobile phones using 2G (Second Generation) technology
for data connection do not have an inbuilt modem. 3G which is more advanced finds
application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access,
video calls and mobile TV. Some phones have a built-in dongle (using 3.2/7.2 HSPDA
technology) and you can find some basic functionalities of a computer in such phones. In
addition recent advancements in the mobile technology have made life easier. Today‟s mobile
phones can have data connection with several other devices only by turning the phone into a
portable Wi-Fi hotspot.
The following table summarizes the different methods of Internet connectivity discussed
above.
Method
Advantage
Dial-up
Connecti
ons



Low cost
Safety
Availability
Landline


Low cost

more secure mode of
communication



High speed
Flexible
Can be installed
wherever a land line
telephone can be
installed
T-lines
better voice quality
Disadvantage




Slow in speed
Unstable
Need a phone line
Phone will be engaged
when using the Internet
 Can only be used in
fixed locations

T-1 lines for a single
business would be very
costly.
Best suited
for
Places where
Internet access
is needed for a
longer period
Areas where
we do not
have the
cellular
service or
where we need
no mobility
Businesses that
require a lot of
phone time,
Internet
activity and
general
uploading and
downloading.
334
Wi-Fi

No need for wires
 Very

Satellite


Cell
phones


convenient
to
access since it can be
accessed from any place.
Connecting to Wi-Fi is
easy (Simply by turning
on Wi-Fi)


Available virtually
everywhere in the
regional serving area Coverage over a large
geographical area
Can be cheaper over long
distances

Instant Access
everywhere
Portable






Quality is greatly
influenced by the
environment
limited radius of action
Places where
the wiring is
not possible or
even
unacceptable.
Sensitive to the heavy
rainy day
Huge initial cost
Noise and interference
Propagation delay
A remote
location which does
not have
terrestrial
Internet access
or the quality
of access
available, is
poor and
unreliable.
Those who
travel around
and for
personal
usage.
Lack of security
Small screen size
Incompatibility of
some web-sites
Table 22.2: Methods of internet Connectivity
22.4 Self Assessment Questions
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
What is the Internet? Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of the internet.
Briefly explain the interaction between a client and a server.
What is meant by „Packet switching‟?
Briefly explain the functionality of TCP/IP.
What is meant by an „internet protocol‟? Briefly describe five of them.
Define the following terms.
a. Browser
b. Domain
c. URL
22.7 Briefly describe four facilities provided by the Internet.
22.8 What type of telecommunications hardware allow you to access the internet?
22.9 Briefly describe the Wi-Fi technology.
22.10 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using satellite as a method of internet
connectivity?
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Session 23
Web Browsers & Search Engines
Aim:
Aim is to give a brief idea on Web Browsers and Search Engines.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:


Use a web browser to surf the Internet.
Use search engines to find information on the Internet.
23.1 Web Browsers
You might have used web browsers like Internet explorer, Google chrome, Mozilla Firefox
and Netscape Navigator etc. to browse the Internet. A web browser is a software application
which is enabled to find hypertext documents and is used for retrieving, presenting and
traversing information in the World Wide Web. This application is stored in your computer‟s
hard disk. Although the web browsers with graphical user interface are popular among the
general public it is important to keep in mind that there are many text-based Web browsers
too, which are used in non-graphical operating systems.
The important feature of the Web is that they are created in a format known as hypertext
which enables them to be linked together. A large collection of data including text files,
pictures, sounds, movies and more can be accommodated by this Hypertext system.
Before launching your web browser you need to connect to the Internet. When you have
established the Internet connection, follow these steps to launch your browser.
1. Click the Start button on the Windows taskbar. You will see the start menu unveiled.
2. Click All Programs.
3. Click Internet Explorer or any other browser name installed in your computer.
23.1.1 Introducing different web browsers
Let‟s see some examples of web browsers. See Figure 23.1 given below.
Figure 23.1: Common Web Browsers
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Although there are different types of web browsers they have one functionality in common,
they all transfer hypertext. Browsers consist of a toolbar which comprises of various
functions. Some of these functions are listed below.




Book mark your favorite webpage for future reference.
The first page of a web-site is called Home page. You‟ll be able to go back to the
home page while you are in some other page of that web-site.
Print the required information from the web.
Check the sites we have visited using History.
Now let us see how you can install the browser. We are going to show you Mozilla Firefox
installation procedure here. You can try out installing other browsers based on the experience
you gain here.
Check the system requirements to check whether your machine is compatible with the
features in the browser. You can check the system requirements in the Firefox website.
The System requirement for Firefox 20 is given below. We have only included the requirements
needed in a Windows operating system. If you are using any other operating system please visit
the following web link:
http://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/20.0/system-requirements/
Windows Operating Systems





Windows XP SP2
Windows Server 2003 SP1
Windows Vista
Windows 7
Windows 8
Please note that while the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows Vista and Windows 7 can be
used to run Firefox 20, only 32-bit builds of Firefox 20 are supported at this time.
Recommended Hardware



Pentium 4 or newer processor that supports SSE2
512MB of RAM
200MB of hard drive space
Now it is time to learn how we can install Mozilla Firefox to your computer.
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Step 1: Visit the Firefox Download Page at http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/ in any browser
(such as Microsoft Internet Explorer).
Figure 23.2: Firefox Download Page
Step 2: Click the download button as indicated in figure 23.2 and the setup file will begin to
download to your computer. Once the download completes, it is recommended that you exit all
your running programs before running the installation.
Step 3: Double-click the file to start the Firefox install wizard and click Run (See Figure 23.3).
Figure 23.3: Firefox install wizard
Firefox setup will be downloaded to a temporary folder as shown in the Figure 23.4.
Figure 23.4: downloading Firefox setup
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Figure 23.5: Internet Explorer- Security Warning Window
Step 4: A welcome screen appears. Click Next to continue.
Figure 23.6: Welcome Screen
Step 5: Read the License agreement and click on “I accept the terms in the License
agreement” and click “Next”.
Figure 23.7: License Agreement
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Step 6: The Setup Type screen appears. A "Standard" setup is selected by default (using the
custom option is only recommended for experienced users).
Figure 23.8: Selection of Firefox setup type
Firefox will now be installed.
Figure 23.9: Installation of Firefox
Step 7: Click on Finish. Now you will be able to see a Firefox shortcut button on your desktop.
Click on that and check whether it works.
Figure 23.10: Completing the Firefox setup
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23.2 User Interfaces of Web Browsers
Most of the web browsers have common user interface elements. The following figure (Figure
23.11) shows you the common interface of Mozilla Firefox. The important components are
labeled and each labeled component is briefly described in Table 23.1 below.
1
2
8
3
4
5
6
7
9
Figure 23.11: User interface of Firefox
No
Name
1
2
Menus
Browse Buttons
3
Toolbars
4
Location Bar
Description
Provide various commands for using Firefox.
Used when browsing the web. These include Back, Forward,
Refresh, Stop, and Home buttons.
Used for navigation and bookmarking, among many other
functions.
Text box for typing the URL of a web page.
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5
6
Edit Bookmark
Tools
Search Box
Enable you to remove, name, move, or tag a bookmark.
7
Tabbed Pages
8
9
Status Bar
Main Content Pane
Text box for typing a search term, with a menu of search engines to
select from.
Allow you to open multiple web pages at the same time and switch
between them by clicking on a tab.
Shows the current status of the web page, such as security alerts.
Shows the currently displayed web page.
Table 23.1: Important components of Firefox Interface
We are now going to look at some elements of well-known browsers.
23.2.1 Internet Explorer
Internet explorer is one of the commonly used web browsers. It has a friendly user interface.
See the following Figure 23.12. Search facilities are improved and you can search by clicking
on the search icon on the Toolbar.
Figure 23.12: User interface of Internet Explorer
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Let‟s see the following table to identify the functionality of each icon in the main menu.
Menu item
File
Edit
View
Favorites
Tools
Help
Description
The properties of the web pages can be opened, saved or printed using this
icon.
Cut, copy, paste, undo and find icons are included in this.
The different ways in which the website can be viewed are included inside
this.
You can include the websites you visit regularly in the Favorites and return
to those sites regularly.
You can view the sites you have visited using History. Furthermore you
have filtering certain sites. Popup blockers and Internet option enhances the
security risk and gives more added facilities.
Provides online support to those who are new to Internet Explorer.
Table 23.2: Functions of icons
23.2.2 Mozilla Firefox
This is an open source software. Different sites can be opened simultaneously in different
tabs. Additionally users can reopen the closed browser windows. This capability is called the
session storage.
Figure 23.13: Mozilla- Home
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23.2.3 Google Chrome
Figure 23.14: Google Chrome
23.2.4 Saving the contents opened from the web browser
When browsing the Internet you might want to save some files in your computer. Let‟s see
how we can save a web page with its‟ content so that you can refer to that later on.
To save web page in Mozilla Firefox:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click on File.
Select “Save Page As”.
Give the location where you want to save the particular file.
Click on Save.
To save web page in Internet Explorer
1. Click on File
(Note: If the File menu is not visible in the version of IE you use, just press the ‘Alt’ key to view
it. To permanently enable it now click in the VIEW option and choose toolbars menu bar).
2. Select “Save Page”.
3. Give the location where you want to save the particular file.
4. Click on Save.
23.2.5 Downloading different contents from the Internet
We can browse images, audio files, video files and even more. Now let‟s see how we are
going to download these different types of files from the Internet.
Some of the commonly downloaded file types are mentioned below.
1. A text document – tutorial, application form for a job/examination
2. A Software
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3. An audio – eg: music, speech
4. A video file – eg: movie, a TV programme
How to download a Text Document?
As a student you might want to download text documents like tutorials or assignments from a
web-site. People from different sectors use text documents by downloading the documents
from the Internet. These documents vary from a .txt format which merely consists of text, to
pdf format which comprises of images. Suppose you are a B.Sc. student of OUSL and you
want to download the Programme Guide for BSc Degree programme offered by the Faculty of
Natural Sciences. This is available in the Faculty of Natural Sciences page in the Open
University web-site. Let‟s see how we can do this.
As shown in Figure 23.15, first go to the relevant page where you can find the text document.
Figure 23.15: Locating the required text file
When you place the cursor on the hyperlink you will see a hand sign. This indicates that if you
click on it you will be linked to another webpage. Click on the text “Programme Guide 20122013” to open the text document. You will see the following web-page as shown in Figure
23.16. Click on “Save a Copy”. This is pointed by the arrow at the bottom.
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Save a Copy
Figure 23.16: The required text file will be opened with the relevant reader software
Then you need to give the location in your computer, where you want to save it and click
“Save” (Figure 23.17).
Figure 23.17: Saving a copy of the downloaded file
How to download a Software file?
Software can be downloaded and installed from the web. There are so many open source
software. Aren‟t you interested to know how we can download software and install it in your
computer?
Downloading software is so much similar to downloading a text file. After downloading a file
you have to install it to start its performance. The installation process might vary for different
software. You need to pay attention to the instructions and proceed with it according to your
requirement.
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We will show you how to download and install software, by using an example. AVG antivirus
software is freely downloadable and it prevents the computers from harmful virus attacks.
Before starting to download any software, prepare your computer to carry out the installation
by reading the installation guide carefully. The official web-site of AVG is shown in figure
23.18. You can download the software by clicking the “Download” button.
Figure 23.18: AVG Official web-site
Figure 23.19: Downloading a Software
After that the installer file will start to download. When it is fully downloaded locate the
installer file and double click on it to open. Authorize the installer by clicking “Yes” or
“Run”. Read the instructions and tailor the software according to your requirements.
In a similar way we can download music files, animations and video files and save them in the
preffered location in your computer.
Firefox Download Manager
To begin with, the download manager organizes downloads into active and completed ones,
which makes it easier to browse files and control transfers. The tiny buttons on the right "Pause",
"Retry" and "Cancel" enables the user to pause the download, download it again when necessary
and terminate download respectively (See Figure 23.20).
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Play
Cancel
Figure 23.20: Downloading in progress
Retry
Figure 23.21: Cancelled files at Downloading process
After installing double click on the file to open it. (Figure 23.22)
Double
click on
this to
open
the file
Figure 23.22: Opening a successfully downloaded file
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23.3 Search Engines
Search engines, as its name implies, search and present a list of web-sites which are closely
connected to the key word in which we were seeking. There are so many search engines in the
web. We are going to see some of the popular search engines now.
23.3.1 Introducing different search engines
Google (www.google.com / www.google.lk)
Google is a popular search engine. There are a lot of improved features in it. As you can see in
the Figure 23.23 given below, searching is made easy by categorizing type of document you are
searching. If you are searching for an image of a computer, you can click on the images and type
the key word and get the images you desire so quickly. You do not have to view each and every
document and waste your time on searching. You can even search a specific file using the
advanced features. This would save your precious time and money.
Figure 23.23: Interface of Google Search Engine
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Yahoo (www.yahoo.com)
Figure 23.24: Interface of Yahoo Search Engine
Altavista (www.altavista.com)
Figure 23.25: Interface of AltaVista Search Engine
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Ask (www.ask.com)
Figure 23.26: Interface of Ask.com
Bing (www.bing.com)
Figure 23.27: Interface of Bing Search Engine
23.3.2 Finding information using search engines
We have dealt with some of the search engines in the previous section. We are going to use
Google search engine to demonstrate how you can find information using search engines.
Step 1: Type www.google.lk in the address bar and search. The Google home page given in
figure 23.23 will appear.
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Step 2: Type the key words you want to find. Suppose you want to know how to play chess,
so all what you need to do is you have to type “How to play chess” and click “Google
Search” or click the search button.
Figure 23.28: Searching information with the keywords typed
Step 3: Now you can see the list of hyperlinks related to the keywords. Select the most
suitable one. You can search specifically for images and maps by clicking on “Images” and
“maps” respectively from the top.
23.3.3 Searching more efficiently in Google
You might know some of the techniques to search efficiently. But there are some others which
are lesser-known, and others are known but not often used.
Now it is time to learn more about, or be reminded of, some of the best ways to get exactly what
you're looking for, and quickly.
1. Either/or
Google normally searches for pages that contain all the words you type in the search box, but if
you want pages that have one term or another (or both), use the OR operator -- or use the "|"
symbol.(Ex: Information | Technology.) this would search either information or technology or
both words together.
2. Quotes
If you want to search for an exact phrase, use quotes. [Information "communication technology"]
will only find that exact phrase. This will find pages that contain the word information and the
exact phrase "communication technology ".
3. Not
If you don't want a term or phrase, use the "-" symbol. Suppose you want to search information
about Mars which is one of the planets and you do not want to mix it up with Mars chocolate,
type as follows [Mars-chocolate] will return pages that contain only information regarding the
planet Mars (Note: Put a space before the minus sign but do not put a sign between the minus
sign and the word or phrase you want excluded).
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4. Similar terms
Use the "~" symbol to return similar terms. [~flower -rose] will get you pages that contain
"flowers" but not "rose".
You can even use this as a mean of include as in this example:
Suppose you directly want to access Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
webpage in the Open University web site. Although you know the URL of the Open University,
you do not know the exact URL. What you can do is, type
www.ou.ac.lk~Mathematics and computer Science
Then see what happens. Yes, you will be directly given the web pages relevant to the Department
of Mathematics and Computer Science. Without wasting time by clicking links to access a
particular page, isn‟t it easy to type the keywords in a website and search for it?
5. Wildcard
Google treats the asterisk (*) as a placeholder for 1 or more words – it can also be referred to as a
single or multiple word wildcard operator, because Google treats the asterisk as a placeholder for
any unknown term(s) for which it tries to find the best match(es).Google “fills in the blanks”
wherever there is an asterisk.
Here is an example:
You need to browse all the Power point presentations regarding the history of the Internet. You
can type,
“Internet History” * .ppt
in the search bar. Now you can see all the links to the Power point presentations related to the
history of the Internet
6. Advanced search
If you can't remember any of these operators, you can always use Google's advanced search.
Click on “Advanced Search” to use the advanced search options. (Figure 23.29)
Figure 23.29: Advanced Search in Google
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You can use these options to optimize your search. (See Figure 23.30 below)
Figure 23.30: Advanced Search options
For further details regarding the Google Advanced Search
http://www.googleguide.com/sharpening_queries.html
Other than these there are some more features too to make searching an easy task. Try out the
things we have studied and search and find out the other techniques which can be used to make
your search more effective and efficient.
23.4 Browser Customization
23.4.1 Setting up a Homepage
The webpage that the browser loads when first opened is referred to as the homepage. You can
set your homepage to whatever webpage you like. But when the homepage you use is the
website you use on a regular basis, you can save quiet a lot of time. Here we are going to show
how you can set your home page in Mozilla Firefox. Try out and see how this can be done in
other web browsers such as Google chrome, Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
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Suppose you want to have www.google.lk as your home page in Mozilla Firefox. Follow the
steps below:
1. Open Firefox, and click on Tools->Options.
2. Go to “General” tab and type http://www.google.lk/ (You can use any URL you like to be
the home page to visit)
3. Click OK.
Now you will be able to see this web site whenever you open up the browser (Mozilla Firefox).
Steps to set-up home page in Internet Explorer
1. Open the web browser.
2. Select tools.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Click on Internet Options.
Select General button.
Insert the URL.
Click Apply.
Click OK.
23.4.2 How to set up a Proxy for Firefox 3?
Setting up a proxy for Firefox is pretty simple. Follow the procedure as mentioned below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open Firefox, and click on ToolsOptions.
Go to the Advanced Tab.
Under the „Advanced‟ tab section, click on Network.
Then under the “Connection” section, click „Settings‟ button – see Figure 23.31
Figure 23.31: Configure Browser Proxy
5. Click on the “Manual Proxy Configuration” button in the „connection setting‟ dialog box
as shown in Figure 23.32 below.
6. Now copy/paste the proxy address and port in their respective sections.
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Figure 23.32: Connection Setting Dialog Box
7. Click „OK‟.
23.4.3 Changing the „Content‟ in Options
The Content tab contains settings that allow you to change how Firefox handles certain content
on the internet. The only setting required on this tab is the Enable JavaScript option. This
setting must be enabled in order for MLS Listings (and other websites in general) to work
properly. Not having this setting enabled may cause problems.
If you are concerned about enabling JavaScript for security reasons, consider changing the
settings in the Advanced… consider the advanced Java Script Settings available as shown in
Figure 23.33 below.. Firefox allows you to disable some of the actions that JavaScript can
perform.
Figure 23.33: Changing Content
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Hope you enjoyed in trying out these activities. Are you curious to know more services
available in the Internet? If yes, is your answer the next session would provide details of
more facilities available in the Internet.
23.5 Self Assessment Questions
23.1
23.2
23.3
What are Web Browsers? List five commonly used web browsers.
What do you call the first page of a web site?
Before installing a browser how can you confirm whether your machine is compatible
with the features in that browser?
23.4 State the use of following components in the user interface of a web browser.
a. Location Bar
b. Search Box
c. Main content Pane
23.5 When installing a web browser in your PC, what is the difference between two setup
types called „standard setup‟ and „custom setup‟?
23.6 What are Search Engines? Name three commonly used search engines.
23.7 How can you search for an exact phrase in Google?
23.8 What is the use of “Advance Search” in Google?
23.9 What is the function of wildcard operator when searching for information in Google?
23.10 What is the difference between “No proxy configurations” and “Manual proxy
configuration” in connection setting dialog box of the internet options of your
browser?
23.11 What is the purpose of having the “content” tab in internet options of your browser?
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Session 24
Introduction to the E-mail
Aim:
This session aims to provide an introduction to the e-mail.
Objectives:
Having studied this session the student will be able to:


Create and use an e-mail account
Describe the security and risks involved in Internet
24.1 E-mail
In the previous session we dealt with one of the most important usage of the Internet. We are
going to discuss another here. It is all about the Electronic Mail or simply e-mail.
24.1.1 Snail mail Vs. E-mail
Before going into details about e-mails let us have a glance about what actually happens in a
regular postal mail.
Only the relevant
person can
access
Anyone can
send
Figure 24.1: Snail mail Vs. E-mail
Anybody can post letters to a particular person if they know his/her postal address. But only
the relevant who belongs to that particular address will receive the mail. We call such a postal
mail as „snail mail‟ because it usually takes several days or even weeks to reach the specified
location. Since the technology has advanced rapidly and we expect things to happen with a
single click, the electronic mail is the choice of the most.
A person can exchange his/her messages digitally through e-mail. E-mail has so many
similarities with the postal mail. Similar to a postal mail, e-mail too can be sent from anyone
but the mail will be received by the person who owns a particular e-mail address. Of course,
you would have used e-mail to convey messages to a person living in another part of the
world. Let‟s discuss this in detail.
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24.1.2 How e-mail works in brief
The mails you send will be temporarily saved in your mail server. Email servers accept,
forward, deliver, and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be
online simultaneously; they need connect only to an e-mail server, to send or receive messages.
Mail server is also used to mean a computer acting as a Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) that is
running the appropriate software.
Sender
Mail Server
Internet
Receiver
Figure 24.2: Email operations across the Internet
Let us see a real world analogy to understand the basics of this connectivity. We have not
dealt the process in deep details here since it would be beyond the scope of this course.
Suppose Amali wants to send a mail to Sanath. Amali sends the mail to the MTA which is
also can be referred to the Mail Server. Then the message is routed from server to server
through the Internet. At last, Sanath receives the message from the Mail Server and reads it
(See Figure 24.3 below).
SMTP
Amali
MTA
POP3/IMAP
Sanath
MTA
Figure 24.3: Flow of the E-mail through the Internet
24.2 More about E-mailing concepts
24.2.1 E-mail clients
An email client is a computer program used to access and manage a user's email. It is also
referred to as an e-mail reader or a Mail user Agent (MUA). It can refer to any system capable
of accessing the user's email mailbox, regardless of it being a mail user agent, a relaying server,
or a human typing on a terminal. In addition, a web application that provides message
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management, composition, and reception functions of emails is also sometimes considered an
email client, but more commonly referred to as webmail.
Examples for some popular locally installed email clients:







Microsoft Outlook
IBM Lotus Notes
Pegasus Mail
Mozilla's Thunderbird
KMail in the Kontact suite
Evolution
Apple Inc.'s Mail.
Examples for some popular web-based email clients:






Gmail
Yahoo!
Mail
mail.com
Lycos mail
Outlook.com
Many internet service providers provide a webmail client as part of the email service included in
their internet service package.
24.2.2 The SMTP Server
When we send an email, our computer connects to our email service‟s mail server. A server is a
centralized computer which manages a specific type of service. An email server for instance,
handles emails. The email server responsible for sending emails is called the SMTP (Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol) server. One SMTP server can pass on the mail to another SMTP server
and relay it to the destination through several hops.
Every email has the sender‟s address (e.g. [email protected]) and the recipient‟s in the To
Field (e.g. [email protected]). When an email is sent, the email client connects to the
SMTP server of the sender‟s email service (e.g. mailserver.sendermail.com). The client transmits
the address of the sender, the address of the recipient and the content of the message.
The SMTP server goes to work at locating the whereabouts of the recipient. Using the recipient‟s
mail ID (i.e. [email protected]) it locates the domain name – e.g.recipientmail.com.
Note: If the recipient‟s mail ID had the same domain name as the sender, then the process would
be simpler. The SMTP server would have transferred the mail to its local outgoing mail server
(POP3 or IMAP).
Each domain name represents a unique Web address, called an Internet protocol (IP) address.
Think of it as postal addresses of the internet. The link between domain names to their IP
addresses is stored in the Domain Name Registry. The SMTP server then contacts the server
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where the registry is kept (The DNS Server). The DNS server sends back the address to the
SMTP server.
The SMTP server then proceeds to hand over the email to the SMTP server of the recipient‟s
email service (let‟s call it mailserver.recipientmail.com). This SMTP server checks and confirms
that the mail addressed to re[email protected] belongs to it and hands it over to its
counterpart, the POP3 server (or the IMAP server).
24.2.3 The POP3 Server
Post Office Protocol (POP3) servers are the servers that do the job of receiving mails. The
number ‘3’ is the version number of the protocol in use. POP3 servers have mail accounts (our
email IDs). Each mail account is mapped to a username-password combination. Once the
message is handed over to the POP3 server, it is kept and stored in the mail account till the
recipient logs in and checks the mail.
24.2.4 The IMAP Server
An email client connects to the POP3 server and tells it to allow download of the email. Once
downloaded to the local machine, POP3 mailboxes do not retain a copy of the email. Thus, you
cannot check your emails from another PC as it has already been downloaded. To tack this
difficulty, IMAP was introduced. IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol version) simply
retains a copy of the emails on the server. This allows you to access your e-mail from any
location with an internet connection.
The Following Table 24.1 differentiates POP from IMAP in terms of their advantages and
disadvantages.
POP
Advantage
Disadvantage
 Local Storage.
 Single Computer and Client.
When not connected, the user can still access
and read downloaded email.
Despite the "leave-mail-onserver" enhancements of newer
POP servers and clients, POP is
primarily designed for use with
a single email client on a single
computer. When implemented,
the "leave-mail-on-server
"feature forces the downloading
of the same emails multiple
times, taking huge bandwidth,
server resources and client disk
space on multiple machines.
 Server Saving.
POP frees server disk space because it
downloads emails and attachments then deletes
them from the server.
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IMAP
 Multiple Client Support.
Messages can be viewed on any computer with
an IMAP client.
 Server Intensive.
Consumes server CPU and disk
resources.
 Public and group folders.
Because they are on the server everyone can see
and use them.
 Configurability.
It has dozens of options based on all three mail
delivery models
Table 24.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of POP and IMAP
24.3
Different e-mailing methods
First of all it is essential to know the anatomy of an email message. Basically email contains 2
parts: the header and the body.
In order to have a better understanding about the emails, let‟s take a real life example. If you
want to send a letter to someone what will you do? Firstly, you‟ll be writing the letter and then
put it into an envelope. Then you‟ll write the recipient‟s name and address on the envelope,
and then post it. The letter you write can be compared to the body and the envelope is
comparable to the header.
Sending an email is very much similar to this scenario but really with more advantages. You
don‟t need a pen and a paper anymore. Documents are exchanged swiftly without any delays.
But you need a computer, internet connectivity and an email account and the recipient‟s email
address to send an email.
We have already learnt that an email has two parts namely a header and a body. Let‟s discuss
this in detail with the help of the following figure which shows a typical layout of an email.
Figure 24.4: Layout of an e-mail
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We think that a clear understanding about the types of the header is very worthwhile. So let‟s
see the different headers you need to be concerned about.

To: This of course is obvious to all. Yes, it contains the email address of the person to
whom you are sending the mail.

From: This contains the senders email address. Since most of the email clients fill the
senders email address in this field automatically, we need not have to worry much
about this field.

Subject: In the subject field you are expected to write a short description about the
message you are going to write.

CC: This refers to the Carbon Copy where you send mails to a main person and
include the email addresses of all the others here.

BCC: BCC stands for Blind Carbon Copy. This is like what we have discussed in the
CC but the main difference is that the name of the recipient would not appear in the
message.

Attachments: You attach a complete document in this field.
You‟ll be simply typing your message in the body of your email. It is possible to change the
colour and the type of the text you have typed. In addition you may include emoticons in the
body of the email.
24.4 Need of Email etiquettes
Do you know that similar to dining etiquette, we need to follow some etiquette when sending
emails which is important especially in business purposes.
'By requiring employees to use appropriate, businesslike language in all electronic
communications, employers can limit their liability risks and improve the overall effectiveness of
the organization's e-mail and Internet copy in the process'
- 'Writing Effective E-mail', by Nancy Flynn and Tom Flynn
Let‟s have a look at the important email etiquettes which you can follow. The following table
24.2 shows the email etiquette and the reason for doing so.
Etiquette
Reason
1. Message should be concise and to the
point.
Reading a long mail will give a boring
experience to the reader and it will be a
de-motivating fact too.
2. Be polite and courteous as you would
be face-to-face.
3. Avoid writing in CAPITALS.
Typing in capital letters is considered
as SCREAMING and it is offensive.
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4. The subject should be meaningful.
If it is a short description of the mail
you are writing then it will give a brief
idea to the reader.
5. In order to make it clear break-up
your mails into paragraphs.
Small chunks are better understood by
the human brain than long paragraphs.
6. Make it more personal.
It will draw more attention from the
reader.
7. Before sending your mail read your
mail again and again.
Because there is a chance for
improvement always, isn‟t it?
8. Make sure whether the reader to
whom you are sending the mail will
understand the abbreviations and
emoticons you have used.
Abbreviations like BTW (By the way)
and LOL (Laugh Out Loud) are
certainly easier for you to type but
sometimes it might be difficult for the
person who is reading it.
Table 24.2: Email etiquettes
24.5 Using emails
24.5.1 Email address
An Email address has 3 parts in it. If we type an email address, it will be in the following
format.
Eg:
[email protected]
1
2
3
1:-The first part identifies the user. Usually case sensitive.
2:- The @ sign which comes in between
3:- The third part refers to the computer which stores mail for user. Not case sensitive.
24.5.2 Creating a free e-mail account
Creating an email account is a simple procedure and this can be done within few minutes. As an
example let us see how to create a yahoo mail account. Follow the steps given below.
Step 1: open your web browser (ex. Mozilla Firefox) and log on to the Yahoo web site
(www.yahoo.com)
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Step 2: Click on Sign-up indicated by the arrow in the figure below.
Step 3: Enter the details in the allotted cages.
Step 4: After entering the details, click on “Create my account”.
Step 5: Now select two secret questions and answer them.
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In case if you lose your password you can use these questions to login to your account with a
new password. Make sure that the password is memorable.
Step 6: Type the code which is displayed in the cage provided as shown in the figure below.
Then click on “Done”.
Step 7: Now click on “Get Started”.
Step 8: Now you have created an e-mail account successfully. You can see your user name
appearing in the top right hand corner. See the circled area in the figure below.
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Click on Mail
Note: If you are interested in creating a Gmail account, please follow the link below:
http://www.wikihow.com/Create-a-Gmail-Account
24.5.3 Receiving e-mail
First click on the Inbox to view the e-mails and click on each subject to open and view the
mail in full. Let‟s use an example for this. Once you create a new email account you will be
able to see a welcome message in your inbox. Click on that to read the massage, as shown in
Figure 24.5 below.
Click here to
read the
email in full
Figure 24.5: First ever email to your Inbox
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24.5.4 Sending e-mail
Please follow the steps below to send a basic email.
1. You can see a button called “Compose” at the left hand-side after the Inbox. Please
locate the exact location of „compose‟ as shown by a „hand sign‟ in Figure 24.6 below.
You need to click on it to send mails. You will see the web-page shown in Figure 24.7
next.
Figure 24.6: Compose Button
2. Type the email address of recipient.
3. Type the title/subject of your mail.
4. Type the entire content of the mail in the body section. You can make it lengthy as you
wish.
5. Make sure that everything is ok and Click on send button
2
5
3
4
Figure 24.7: Composing email
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Activity:
Ask your friend to send a message to you. Check your Inbox and send a reply to
your friend by clicking on Reply as shown below.
Similarly forward the same message received from your friend to another friend by
clicking on Forward button.
Reply
Forward
24.5.5 Sending/receiving attachments
In addition to the basic content you type on the body of the email, you can attach a file along
with your email. This file can be of any format allowed by the particular e-mail client and the
size of the attachment will also be limited by the e-mail client. For an example, the Gmail
does not allow sending executable files (.exe files) as attachments as a security measure to
prevent potential viruses, also currently the maximum file size that can be attached with a
Gmail is 25 MB.
Follow the steps below to send attachments:
1. Click on the “attach” button as shown below or drag and drop the files to be attached
into that.
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2. Select the file to be attached with the mail by locating the file correctly and click on
“Open” button.
3. You will see the selected file gets attached within few seconds or minutes. This
depends on the capacity and the speed of the Internet connection. Finally you can send
your mail along with the attachments by clicking on “send” button.
Number of
attachments
Size of the
attachment
Attached file
24.5.6 Set up an Address Book Group for List Mailing in Yahoo
Do you send emails to more than one recipient often? Are the recipients often the same? Then
there is a more effective way to handle your tasks. Let us discuss how we can create a group for
list mailing from existing contacts in Yahoo:
1. Follow the Addresses link in the Yahoo! Mail Classic navigation bar.
2. Tick the checkboxes next to the address book entries you want to become members of
your mailing list.
3. Make sure Send Email is selected in the toolbar listing possible actions.
4. Click OK.
5. Under Add Contacts to a List, select Add contacts to a new list:
6. Enter a list name.
7. Click Compose.
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Yahoo! Mail Classic automatically sets up a new mailing list containing the selected address
book entries.
With your groups set up and populated, you can now send messages to all members easily and
quickly.
To add contacts to a contact group:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sign in to Yahoo! Mail.
Click the Contacts tab.
Check the box next to a contact to select it.
Click Assign to Lists.
Check the box next to one or more lists.
Click Done.
24.6 Security and risk in Internet
We are well aware that people all around the world enjoy the benefits of the Internet. We can
never reject the fact that our lives are made easy by the Internet because we have all been
given access to information and we can obtain information which we want from anywhere in
the world. Communication is made very easy not only among individuals but also amongst
groups. Internet had paved a way to a new era in the business world by making commercial
transactions simple and swift.
Although there are numerous benefits of the Internet there are also a handful of issues
associated with the Internet. The issues associated with the Internet are not only a problem
which is talked in terms for technical ground it has to be considered as a legal, social and
cultural problem between different countries. Different countries take different actions to
encounter this problem.
Pornography, defamation and spam are regarded as the three common issues encountered by
the professionals as well as the beginners of Internet users. Every country is governed by
certain laws and legislations which are unique to that particular country. An act which is
legitimate in one country can be considered as an offence in another country. Since internet
crosses the national boundaries it is not abide by the law of one particular country. So this
increases the chances of materials which violates the law and order of a country, to flow easily
into the country. The Internet Service Providers play a key role in addressing these issues. We
have to look at the problems in different legal systems in order to address the major issues
related to implementation of law in spite of accessing.
24.6.1 Security settings in web browsers/e-mail client software
Let‟s see how you can change your security settings in your web browser. We assume that you
are using Mozilla Firefox as your browser. Follow the steps below:
1. Click on the Tools menu.
2. Click on Options.
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3. Select Security Tab.
4. Change the security settings according to your usage and at the end click “OK”.
24.6.2 Taking precautions when using the Internet
Similar to any other resource, the Internet too can be misused or it even can bring harmful
contents to your computer disabling the functionality of your computer partially or
completely. We always know an old proverb which says that “Prevention is better than cure”.
So we are going to look at taking precautionary methods to a safe use of Internet.

The first basic precaution a user should take is to back up the important files. This will
not prevent a security incident or hardware failure or the data stored on your computer
would probably be lost if the machine was stolen or destroyed by fire, but it may reduce
the impact to a greater extent.

You need to have the updated anti-virus software in your computer and you have to
scan your computer, frequently. Moreover it is essential to scan the files you download
from the Internet.

Having a good password for the access controls to their network is considered to be more
important. Unlike backing up files, this action may prevent a security incident.
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
Other types of information traveling across the Internet are sensitive user identifications,
and files whose content is sensitive to the user. Users should take one of two precautions,
either encrypt the information or don't send it across the Internet. Sensitive user
identifications such as address, phone number, personal data, and perhaps most sensitive
of all, credit card numbers should not be sent across the Internet unless they are encrypted
at the source before sending it to the Internet. For example if you are sending a sensitive
document containing personal information or sensitive work related information such as a
newly set examination paper, ensure whether this information is kept confidential, then it
must either be encrypted, or sent some other way.
24.7 Self Assessment Questions
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.9
24.10
24.11
24.12
24.13
24.14
What is a „mail server‟? Describe how to send an e-mail between two people.
What is an e-mail client? Name two types of e-mail clients with examples.
Define the following terms.
a.
SMTP
b.
DNS Server
What are the advantages of POP sever and IMAP server?
When sending an e-mail what is the difference between CC and BCC?
How can you attach a document to your e-mail?
List three e-mail etiquettes and give reasons for doing them.
What are the three parts of an e-mail address?
When creating an e-mail account what is the purpose of typing a given code in the cage
provided?
What is the purpose of “inbox” in an e-mail account?
Which button is used to send a copy of a received e-mail to someone else?
What is the purpose of having two buttons call “Reply” and “Reply All” in e-mail
account?
When writing an email, contacts can be added from your address book or contact list or
their email address can be typed out. Give reasons for adding a contact is better than
typing out their address.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using e-mail.
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Session 25
Current and Future Trends in the Internet
Aim:
To provide an introduction about e-commerce and e-learning, identify the benefits and the future
trends of the Internet
Objectives:
Having studied this you will be able to:




Define what e-commerce is
Describe the direct benefits of e-commerce and provide suitable examples
Describe what e-learning is and the advantages of it
Understand what would be the future trends of the Internet
25.1 Introduction
We are living in an era where we use computers to do major tasks quickly which took hours
to complete a couple of decades ago. Paper driven processes are replaced by electronic
means. Above all, the global access to information has made a revolution in all sectors.
Information is enriched and customized to serve target groups.
Here we are going to discuss about these current developments and the future trends of the
Internet.
Today, almost everything is reengineered into electronic means. The revolution in the Internet
had made an immense impact not only in our day-to-day life but also in the business process and
the learning environment. Businesses are transformed into e-businesses; learning is transformed
into e-learning etc. Because of this transformation, there is a significant change in the way we do
things. We are not doing different things but we are doing things in a different way, which is
more efficient and effective, aren‟t we?
Now, let us see how we can use E-commerce and make our lives easy.
25.2 Introduction to E-commerce
Electronic commerce or E-commerce is a type of industry. This consists of buying and selling
of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer
networks. The quality of business transactions has improved with the usage of
telecommunications and data processing technology.
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Before explaining what E-commerce is in detail, let us see some simple examples of how Ecommerce is being used.





Individual purchasing books on the Internet.
Tourist booking a hotel room from another country over the Internet.
An organization buying computers using the seller‟s interactive online system.
A firm buying office supplies through an online auction.
An individual transferring money from his account to his friend‟s account using Internet
banking.
Here are some E-commerce technologies used by most of the business organizations.








Mobile commerce
Electronic funds transfer
Supply chain management
Internet marketing
Online transaction processing
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
Inventory management systems
Automated data collection systems. etc.
Does e-commerce only mean buying and selling of goods and services
over the Internet?
No. It‟s not limited to mere handling of business transactions. The e-commerce includes
a larger functionality consisting of a complete system of services which supports the
sales processes and provides total account management.
Modern E-commerce usually uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's
life-cycle. It may also make use of a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices,
social media, and telephones as well.
E-commerce is commonly considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It mainly consist the
data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions. If you want to start
up a business, E-commerce would be useful to carry out your transactions in an effective and
efficient way. Let us examine some of the benefits of e-commerce both for the buyer and seller.
25.3
The benefits of e-commerce
It is apparent that there are numerous advantages of using E-commerce. Because of the
technological breakthrough the web had reached millions of people quicker when compared to
television, radio and telephone. Here, we are going to discuss some benefits of E-commerce to
the business worlds and to the consumers as well.
Some benefits of e-commerce are listed below.
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Benefits to the Business organization/seller:





Improved Productivity
Streamlined Business Processes
Opportunities for New Businesses
Global market place
Low start-up and running cost
Benefits to the customer/buyer:


24/7 trading
Search facilities
Benefits to both:


Cost Savings
Better Customer Service
Let us see the above benefits in detail.
Improved Productivity
By using E-commerce we can save a great deal of time. We can create, transfer and process a
business transaction easily using the electronic medium. Quite a lot of time that was spent in
entering and re-entering the data in the earlier decades is minimized. Human errors and
redundancy are eliminated which has led to an accurate data retrieval in quick time, ultimately
resulting in high productivity.
Cost Savings
Since we can communicate efficiently and since the time taken between the submissions of a
program for execution is quicker, it‟ll be cost effective. Moreover, the businesses can reach out
the market so easily and this would also cut down the cost to a great extent. The transaction cost
too had plummeted down because of the usage of e-commerce.
Streamlined Business Processes
Most businesses have taken a step to reach the ultimate goal by using the maximum benefits
from e-commerce. This can be achieved mainly by adapting the internal business processes and
back end legacy systems.
Better Customer Service
Customers can communicate with the seller efficiently. They can go through the details of the
product and choose the better options which suit their requirement from home itself. On the other
hand, the seller is also benefitted by marketing the product and providing a better customer
service online which is much easier than dealing the customers directly in a busy business
environment.
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Opportunities for New Businesses
Since the business over the Internet reaches the customers in the global arena, there will be better
opportunities for the business to expand and establish themselves amongst a wide range of
customers.
Global market place
The E-commerce web-site serves as a global market place because people tend to buy the
products not only from different parts of the country but also from different parts of the world.
24/7 trading
You can purchase items at any time. Only what you have to do is to place an order and the
product will be delivered to your home within a couple of days/week. This will be beneficial to
those who are working because they can buy products from home or wherever they are and
during whenever they want. Moreover, a person from Sri Lanka can buy a product from America
without any trouble. You can purchase from anywhere around the world and during anytime you
want.
Low start-up and running cost
You do not have to open a shop. Instead, all you have to do is to buy servers to build and
maintain your web-site online. This will cost less than the money that you would pay for rent
when you have a shop. Furthermore, it is not necessary to have a huge staff to maintain the
website. As a whole, it costs less than running a shop.
Search facilities
Most of the E-commerce web-sites have an efficient search facility where you can find the
required product without spending much time.
As shown in figure 25.1, there are numerous other benefits that can be gained by using Ecommerce.
Figure 25.1: Benefits of E-commerce
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25.4 Types of Electronic Commerce
The most common participants in e-commerce are the businesses, consumers and the
government. Based on the nature of the participants e-commerce can be subdivided into the
following:







B2C – Business to Consumer
B2B – Business to Business
B2G – Business to Government
C2C – Consumer to Consumer
C2B – Consumer to Business
G2G – Government to Government
G2C, G2B, C2G etc.
Let us discuss the four major types in detail.
25.4.1 B2C – Business to Consumer
B2C can be described as the business between companies and the consumers. Since the
revolution of e-transformation unfolded, consumer-business interaction was limited to a great
extent. In the past, consumers contacted the information officer to acquire business information.
But now this process has changed. Consumers as well as the information officer could gather
business information via the Internet. Consumers when they want to buy a product or a service
they can do it over an electronic network. This makes the business process much easier.
We all know that there is a sudden explosion in the number of Internet users in the past few
years. Profits making companies thought of utilizing this opportunity to market and sell their
products. The business process in B2C is shown in figure 25.2.
Figure 25.2: Business to Customer E-Commerce (B2C)
Here are some examples of B2C
(a) Dell selling a laptop to a person in Sri Lanka
(b) Amazon selling books to a person in Colombo (figure 25.3)
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Amazon is one of the largest booksellers, joining the top ranks among the other leading
bookstores, in a short period of time. You can view large numbers of books, along with the extra
information, such as readers' comments. Although, there are a millions of books included in the
web-site, the books are not stored in the warehouse physically. This also can be called as
“Virtual Bookshop”.
Figure 25.3: Amazon website (B2C)
A few E-commerce websites which are popular in Sri Lanka are listed below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
iBuy.lk
Tradenet.lk (B2B and C2C trading portal)
myTrader.lk
WoW.lk
Ikman.lk
www.echannelling.com
www.sarasavi.lk
www.me.lk
Anything.lk (Figure 25.4) etc.
Figure 25.4: Anything.lk page
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A brief Note on E-banking
E-banking includes Internet banking mobile banking etc. E-banking offers value added
services that you do not normally enjoy at the banking counters. Most of the popular banks
in Sri Lanka have introduced many fascinating facilities to their customers. Online access
to any of the account, transfer of funds to the customer‟s own accounts or to the preferred
accounts of other Sri Lankan banks, ability to bank online especially when they hold a
joint account, balance inquiry, inquiry about cheque book or request for new cheque book
or stop payments online, acquire visa card settlements, transactions and balances, Interest
& exchange rates and the ability to make payments of utility bills/scheduling bill payment
and transfers on future dates are some of such facilities offered by the banks.
25.4.2 C2B – Consumer to Business
Consumer-to-Business (C2B) is a business model in which consumers create value, and firms
consume this value created by consumers. This is also called as a reverse auction or demand
collection model. Here the buyers are enabled to claim their own prices generating a demand
and the websites in turn gather bids and then offers the bids to the participating sellers.
Let‟s look into the electronic commerce business model, in which consumers offer products and
services to companies and the companies pay them. Doesn‟t it look like the reversal model to the
traditional business model where companies offer goods and services to consumers (business-toconsumer - B2C)?
The following figure 25.5 shows an example of C2B website – Priceline.com.
Figure 25.5: Priceline website (C2B)
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25.4.3 B2B – Business to Business
In this category, the companies do business with each other such as manufacturers selling to
distributors and wholesalers selling to retailers. Pricing is based on quantity of order and is often
negotiable.
Figure 25.6 shows the process of B2B.
Figure 25.6: Business to Business (B2B)
Figure (25.7) shows an example of B2B website.
Figure 25.7: Cisco website (B2B)
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25.4.4 C2C – Consumer to Consumer
In this category, consumer sells directly to another consumer. E-bay is one good example for
such kind of web. You can see this category if a consumer, who purchases jewelry, wants to sell
to another consumer via the Web. The following figure depicts the process of C2C.
Figure 25.8: Customer to Customer E-Commerce (C2C)
Following are some examples for C2C websites.
1. www.ebay.com
„ebay‟ is like a world's online marketplace; a place for buyers and sellers to come together and
trade almost anything. A seller can list any item on eBay. In an online auction, the bidding opens
at a price the seller specifies and remains on eBay for a certain number of days. Buyers then
place bids on the item. At the end, the buyer with the highest bid wins.
Figure 25.9: ebay website (C2C)
2. www.ikman.lk
ikman.lk is a website where you can buy and sell almost everything. The best deals are often
done with people who live in your own city or in your own street. Buying and selling local
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products to the local consumers is made easy. Further, ikman.lk has a wide selection of popular
second hand items all over Sri Lanka, which makes it easy to find exactly what you are looking
for. So if you're looking for a car, mobile phone, house, computer or maybe a pet, you will find
the best deal on ikman.lk.
.
Figure 25.10: ikman.lk website (C2C)
Are there any differences between e-business and e-commerce or can these two terms
be used interchangeably?
Although these two terms are often used synonymously, e-business covers a broader area
which involves business processes covering the entire value chain namely electronic
purchasing and supply chain management, processing orders electronically, handling
customer service, and cooperating with business partners.
Figure 25.11: E-commerce as a sub-se t of e-business
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25.5 Basic Functions in the E-Commerce Site
Here we are going to look at some features commonly seen in the e-commerce web-site taking
Dell as an example.
Catalog Display
Businesses use the product catalog to display and order products in the e-commerce website.
Products can be shown in a block view or list view, from which you can navigate to the product
details.

Block View(B2C)
The block view format displays a detailed upfront presentation of catalog products. The
block view displays more information about a product at first glance for the customer
than the list view does. For example, you can display basic eye-catcher texts and
hyperlinks about product details, in the block view.

List Views (B2B and B2C)
The list view format displays products in the catalog in a list in the B2B and the B2C
Web sites.
Let us assume that you want to buy a laptop from Dell for your personal use. So you need to
know the configuration of the laptops and you have to compare them with your requirements and
you can go for a machine which is within your budget. Here is how you can view such details.
1. Go to www.dell.com (Figure 25.12)
Figure 25.12: DELL website (B2C)
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2. Browse the details and the configuration of the laptops by clicking on “For Home” and then
selecting “Laptops and Ultra books” and clicking on “View details” as shown below.
Click here
Figure 25.13: DELL Catalog Display in block view
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3. If you want to buy you can select it and personalize it and follow the instructions to buy. See
the image given below.
Click here
Click here
Shopping Cart
A shopping cart is a piece of e-commerce software on a web server that allows visitors to a web
site to select items for eventual purchase.
Shopping cart which is also named as the shopping bag or shopping basket keeps track of the
items you have selected and allows customers to view the content of it, add new items or remove
items. To order an item you need to simply click on that item. The required details of the item
(price, product number, other identifying information) are stored automatically in the cart. It is
also possible to remove the unwanted items by unselecting the items before completing the
transaction. When you are ready to conclude the shopping session, click of a button executes the
purchase transaction. Then it displays a screen that asks shipping and billing information and that
confirm the order. Some shopping cart software allows you to fill a shopping cart with
purchases, put the cart in virtual storage, and come back days later to confirm and pay for the
purchases. (Figure 25.14)
Figure 25.14: Typical shopping basket/Shopping Cart page
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Transaction Processing
By clicking a checkout button the transaction processing occurs when the shopper proceeds to
the virtual checkout counter. This is the most complex part of the online sale. The e-commerce
performs the calculations like volume discounts, sales tax, and shipping cost at the transaction
processing stage. One of the important things is, at the checkout the customer‟s Web browser
and the seller‟s Web server switch into a secure state of the communication. Other calculation
complications such as provisions for coupons, special promotions, and time-sensitive offers can
be happen at this stage. Some shopping cart software designed for small and midsize companies
provide connections to accounting software so that Web sales can be entered simultaneously in
the company‟s accounting system.
25.6 What is e-learning?
When you hear the word e-learning what comes first into your mind? You might be thinking of
an online learning process or a web-based learning. But e-learning comprises of distributed
learning, network or web-based learning.
Since the letter “e” stands for electronic, e-learning activities occur by electronic means. This can
be performed by individuals or groups, working online or offline.
There are plentiful value added services in the Internet. They are also called as the high level
services. All these services run on top of the basic protocols. E-learning is also a value added
service which contributes a lot to the education. E-learning can be described as any form of
technology enhanced learning mechanism.
E-leaning had paved a path to an easier way of teaching and learning. In the modern world
people give priority to jobs and don‟t have much time to spend on education. Moreover, people
tend to choose their courses depending on their limited budgets. So the ultimate goal of elearning is to overcome the limitations such as time, distance and resources. Thus the knowledge
and skills are transferred via Internet, intranet, extranet, audio or video tape CD-ROM or even it
can be a satellite TV. The content can contain a text document, an image file or it can be an
animation, audio or video. It can be a self-paced learning or it can be led by an instructor. As you
can see there are different types of e-learning methods and we are going to talk about this in the
next topic.
25.6.1 Types of e-learning
E-learning can be applied partially or in some occasions education is completely based on it. In
blended learning face-to-face classroom sessions are combined along with the computer
mediated activities. In contrast there are instances where the learning process absolutely relies on
electronic means. Such systems are supportive in non-face-to-face distant based education.
E-learning can be categorized based on some criteria. Some of such criteria are listed below:


Underlying pedagogical assumptions
Content model employed
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

Size
Distribution and level of network
E-learning has evolved in many ways in order to support a variety of users‟ needs. We can
classify the types of e-learning as follows:
1. Traditional e-learning
2. Rapid e-learning
a. Asynchronous
b. Synchronous
1. Traditional e-learning
Traditional e-learning is described as a content which consists of an in-depth knowledge with a
great preparation and probably produced by an expert.
2. Rapid e-learning
This is classified into two.
a. Synchronous
In this type of e-learning, learner and the instructor have a set time where they have the internet
classroom. During this prescribed time, the students log in and they can contact and discuss
problems related to the subject.
b. Asynchronous
The content is based on one aspect which is liable to change. Users can log in whenever they
want to do so and can access information any time. Some of the examples of asynchronous elearning are CDs, DVDs, Networks, Intranet and Internet.
25.6.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of e-learning
It is apparent that e-learning has innumerous advantages not only to the learner but also to the
teacher. Let‟s discuss some of these advantages now.
If we consider a student, e-learning is very flexible, convenient and more interactive. E-learning
is accessible from anywhere, during anytime and to anyone. This sort of availability is an added
advantage to the learners who are working. Furthermore, the E-learning materials make the
visualization easy and aid in delivering a better understanding. In the teacher‟s perspective
updating the contents is made easier. If there is a change in the content he/she can modify it
immediately and changes will appear in all course contents all around the world. Both the learner
and the teacher need not have to spend time and money on travelling. Instead they can access
Internet from home and learn in a hassle-free environment.
Although e-learning provides countless advantages, it has some disadvantages as well. It is
difficult to customize the course contents according to the learners‟ requirement in e-learning.
Besides it requires an infrastructure to acquire the materials and carry out operations facilitated
by E-learning.
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25.6.3 Traditional Classroom learning Vs. E-learning
Shall we compare a traditional classroom learning and E-learning to get a better understanding?
It is going to be interesting for sure!
Even though there are more advanced interactive animations and videos encompassed in the Elearning activity some are of the opinion that there is no personal touch as in a classroom.
In a classroom learning the teacher will pay an individual attention towards each student. This
would motivate the students to a greater extent. Teachers too can observe the students‟ reaction
and assume whether they have understood what they have learnt. Students can get into groups
and do their activities as a team. Working in teams increases student engagement and this
collective work of committed individuals would ultimately give a completely different
experience to the students.
On the other hand, in a classroom there can be only limited participants and this requires a space
and regular time table.
25.7 Introduction to E-Government
E-Government is the digital interaction among the Government, citizens, and the commercial
institutions. We can say that E-Government is a generalized term for state sector
computerization. Information technology is applied to different public institutions with the
intention of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of their service.
Legislature, judiciary and administration are some of the public services which can be upgraded
using ICT. This would add quality to the service to the general citizens, government agencies
and businesses.
Some of the examples of e-government websites in Sri Lanka are listed below:



Department of Examinations – Sri Lanka: http://www.doenets.lk/exam/
Sri Lanka Railways: http://www.railway.gov.lk/
Government Information Center: http://www.gic.gov.lk/gic/
E-Sri Lanka

The Information and Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) of Sri Lanka is
the single apex body involved in ICT policy in the nation. This is owned by the
Government of Sri Lanka and this organization is intended to use ICT as a powerful
source to enhance economical and social advancement in Sri Lanka by reengineering the way the government thinks and works. ICTA is transforming the
nation to e-Sri Lanka. As a step towards its goal ICTA had developed a website for
Government Information Center (http://www.gic.gov.lk/gic/).
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25.8 Introduction to E-entertainment
If we see the websites worldwide there is a huge demand for entertainment services by almost all
age groups. This urge for innovative ideas for the purpose of entertainment had resulted in
flourishing abilities and creativity. What is more, this is considered to be one of the largest
industries online, internationally.
We have mentioned some online entertainments below which would take new dimensions:






Online Radio
Online TV
Online movies
Computer games
Online News
Online magazines
25.9 Future of Internet
As mentioned in the previous section, definitely, the e-entertainment is taking a new dimension
rapidly in the internet. In addition to that there are some other concepts which initiate and evolve
in the near future with the emergence of latest internet technologies. However, predicting of
internet is not an easy task. But for the sake of your knowledge and for the completion of this
session some identified future trends in the internet as per the sources available on the web are
extracted for you as follows.
Source: http://readwrite.com/2007/09/05/10_future_web_trends
25.9.1 Top Ten Future Trends- The Internet by 2020
Take a minute to remember how different life was in 1991. If you wanted to call a friend you
would have to use a landline, because mobile technology was still many years away from hitting
the mainstream. If you wanted to send a written message to relatives overseas you would have to
use the post office. It will be quite a while before domain names like hotmail become
synonymous with email technology. So much has changed in the last 20 years, but how will the
world be different in 2020?
You can guarantee that the most innovative and revolutionary changes will take place in the
digital sector. So what will the internet look like in 2020?
1. More Centralized
We can see this trend developing at the present moment. Facebook, Google and Microsoft are
becoming incredibly powerful on the internet. Every few months we hear the same story –
Microsoft has bought Skype, Google has acquired YouTube; and there is little sign of these
digital giants slowing down.
2. More Open Source Development
In response to the growing influence of the big digital firms, open source technology is expected
to rapidly increase as small-time developers become more and more sophisticated. Expect to see
hundreds of high quality open source software suites on the market by 2020.
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3. The Internet Will Be Faster and Cheaper
Expect to see broadband rates decrease in the near future. Web hosting and dedicated
servers will be much cheaper as well.
4. Writing and Reading
On a more personal level, the influence of the internet by 2020 is expected to dramatically
change the way we read and write. Gone are the days of lengthy essay-like blog entries – a more
likely scenario is that shorthand will begin to dominate the online sphere. Twitter users are very
familiar with this phenomenon.
5. Lack of Online Anonymity
Because of the growing influence of hackers and websites like Wikileaks, it is likely that by
2020 the internet will be much more closely monitored.
6. More Wired Applications
By 2020, it is expected that almost every device will be wired to the internet – from microwaves
to sofas. Furthermore, more applications will be specifically designed to be net friendly.
7. Personal ID Number
With growing security concerns regarding online behavior, many security analysts predict that
by 2020 some nations will have implemented a personal ID number for online users.
8. Mobile Internet
Mobile internet technology is very new, but many feel that by 2020 it will be the most popular
way to browse the web. Many sites will be specifically catered towards mobile devices.
9. More Processes Will Move Online
Although you can do your grocery shopping online, many people still prefer to buy their
groceries in person. This is expected to change by 2020, with more internet savvy customers
choosing to utilize online processes.
10. Cloud Computing
Cloud computing has only just hit the mainstream with the recent release of Apple‟s iCloud. By
2020 you can expect that millions of internet users will store all of their non-vital information on
the cloud.
The future is never easy to predict, but current trends are all pointing to a 2020 that is more
connected but more centralized.
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25.10 Self Assessment Questions
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.7
25.8
25.9
25.10
25.11
Define „e-commerce‟. What are the benefits of using e-commerce?
Briefly describe four types of consumer oriented applications of e-commerce.
To which e-commerce model that the Amazon.com belongs?
What is a product catalog? Differentiate Block View and List View.
Briefly describe the use of „shopping cart‟ with respect to e-commerce.
What is meant by „traditional e-learning‟?
Briefly describe the two categories of „rapid e-learning‟.
State the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.
Using suitable examples, briefly explain the concept of „e-government‟.
What is meant by „cloud computing‟?
Explain the application of e-commerce in following fields
a. Banking
b. Entertainment
c. Shopping
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