technical information manual

technical information manual
TECHNICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
Technical Support
At Polyflor, we realise that the performance of our products is dependent upon many factors and
that the floorcovering itself is only one of those factors. Correct subfloor preparation and dryness,
the workmanship of the installer, how the product is maintained and the selection of the correct
floorcovering are all equally important. Our objective is to support the customer, whether it is the
architect, the specifier, the contractor or the end user, by providing all the relevant information
necessary to ensure that the maximum benefit is gained from our products in use. This manual
forms part of that support, together with technically trained Sales Representatives, a knowledgeable
Customer Technical Services team and an installation training school.
If you have any queries regarding product selection, specification, installation, performance or
maintenance of any Polyflor products, then do not hesitate to contact us. Our aim is to resolve
problems prior to the installation of our products rather than have problems to resolve after they
are installed.
Polyflor Customer Technical Services
P: 1800 777 425
E: [email protected]
W: www.polyflor.com.au
1. Introduction
2. Preparation of subfloors
3. Installation of Homogeneous and Safety vinyl sheet
4. Installation of Homogeneous vinyl tiles
5. Installation of Heterogeneous vinyl sheet
6. Installation of Rubber sheet
7. Installation of Rubber tiles
8. Electro Static Dissipative (ESD) floorcoverings
9. Installation of vinyl Wallcoverings
10. Installation of Accessories
11. Inlaid designs and borders
12. Welding vinyl flooring
13. Adhesives
14. Tools and Equipment
15. Recommended finishes
16. Resistance to chemicals
17. Use area classifications
18. Operating service temperatures
19. Maintenance
At the date of issue, the data presented is correct.
However, Polyflor reserve the right to make changes which do not adversely affect performance or quality.
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1. Introduction
Australian Standards AS 1884-2012 provides detailed recommendations for the installation of sheet
and tile flooring on both new and existing floor constructions and is endorsed by Polyflor for the
installation of Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring.
This technical information manual is intended as a guide to all parties involved in the specification,
installation and maintenance of Polyflor vinyl floorcovering. It will not replace the skills of a trained
floor layer and Polyflor always recommends the use of reputable flooring contractors, whose
experience will prove invaluable at all stages of a project. Selecting a flooring contractor solely on
price can lead to a poor installation and a dissatisfied end user. A successful installation not only
depends on the skills of the floor layer but also on the planning of the project prior to installation.
Consultation between all parties concerned will eliminate problems and will ensure a successful
installation, which meets the design requirements within the allotted time scale.
1.1 PRODUCT SELECTION
Selection of the correct floorcovering is of paramount importance. Not only must the floorcovering
meet the designer’s initial performance specification but the product performance must be
sustainable for the anticipated life of the product, allowing for foreseeable actions such as general
wear and tear and regular maintenance. If you are unsure about the products compatibility please
contact Polyflor Technical Support.
Consideration at the initial specification stage must be given to the occupational usage of the
building and the building type. Particular attention must be paid to the type and density of traffic
(both pedestrian and wheeled), any special acoustical, electrical resistance or slip resistance
requirements, as well as reaction to chemicals and staining agents, and physical properties such as
resistance to point and rolling loads.
Should you wish to clarify any points regarding Polyflor contract flooring or accessories, then please
contact Polyflor. Our Technical Sales Team and Customer Technical Services Department can provide
advice on the suitability, performance and application of any of the Polyflor products.
1.1.1 Project pre-planning
One important consideration at the outset is the maintenance aspects of the floorcovering to be
installed. Floorcoverings with enhanced slip characteristics have a higher surface coefficient of
friction and requires different maintenance than a traditional smooth floorcovering. Colour also
plays a very important part and one should remember that light colours will show soiling more easily
and could require a more intensive maintenance programme than darker colours.
Having decided upon your floorcovering, it is essential that the product, together with its
accessories, are installed correctly within pre-defined time and budget constraints. To achieve this,
the tender documentation should include the maximum amount of information possible, such as:
1. Full details of the subfloor construction, especially on solid subfloors and any treatments or
additives. Include the expected dates for completion of each stage.
2. Full details of standard features such as welding, site formed coving or pre-formed coving. In
addition, it should include other features such as pattern or border detail and requirements such as
door trims, diminishing strips etc.
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3. Reference to any tests which must be carried out e.g. for moisture,
planeness/smoothness
screed strength and
4. Drawings showing the direction of decoration or where sheet must be laid in a particular direction.
5. A statement of the standard of workmanship required, clearly indicating items which will be
unacceptable at the handover inspection.
6. Full details of finishing requirements. These may include; removal and safe disposal of waste,
retention of flooring over a certain size, a construction clean, initial polish where applicable and
protection of the finished floor prior to customer handover.
By including this level of detail in the tender document, the flooring contractor is able to give an
accurate costing and advise on the length of time required to complete the work at that cost. Once
the tender is accepted, ideally discussions should be held to highlight any potential problems well in
advance and to ascertain the services required on site when the floorcovering is installed.
2. Preparation of subfloors
The quality of a finished installation can be very much dependent upon the preparation of the
subfloor and the attention paid to the recommendations made in various codes of practice and by
the manufacturers of the component parts. The information contained below is given as guidance,
based on many years of experience in this field.
It is important to avoid problems at the outset and as such if you are unsure of any of the
information listed below, we recommend that you contact the Polyflor Customer Technical Services
Department on 1800 77 425
2.1 NEW CONCRETE AND SCREED BASES
The most common cause of failure in these types of substrate is moisture, either as construction
moisture or the lack of an effective moisture barrier on direct to earth subfloors.
2.1.1 Damp proof membranes (DPMs)
All concrete bases, which are direct to earth, must have an effective damp proof membrane
incorporated within them. It should only be considered if the perimeter edges are continuous with
the DPC in the walls.
Protection of structures against water from the ground is described in the BCA and the various types
of DPM are described in the BCA together with their applications. Some DPMs contain volatile
components, which can, if not eliminated, adversely affect the adhesion of the floorcovering.
2.2 CONSTRUCTION MOISTURE
Prior to laying any Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring, it is essential that all free water, which can
affect adhesion, be allowed to evaporate from the base. The rate of drying is influenced by many
factors including design of the base, ambient temperature and humidity, concrete quality, amount of
construction water used, surface finish attained, use of special concrete additives and especially the
thickness of the base. Because of this variability, it is difficult to give exact drying out times .A base
150mm thick in monolithic construction, drying from one face only, can take upwards of twelve
months to dry sufficiently to take a floorcovering. If it is obvious at the planning stage that there will
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be insufficient drying time, then the situation should be discussed with Polyflor, who can offer
proven alternatives to suppress the construction moisture.
2.3 MOISTURE TESTING
Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring should only be laid on subfloors which do not suffer from rising
damp or hydrostatic pressure, and where the moisture level does not exceed 75% RH in accordance
with AS1884-2012
Relative humidity in-situ probe test carried out as per ASTM F2170, or Relative humidity surface
mounted insulated hood tests performed as per ASTM F2420 are the only methods of test
acceptable to Polyflor, and only readings taken over at least a 72 hour period should be considered
to represent the moisture content of the subfloor. Subfloors with a relative humidity in excess of
75% will invariably cause failure of the bond between the substrate and floorcovering. To remedy
such situations, the whole floorcovering will have to be removed, the subfloor treated to resolve the
moisture problem and a new floorcovering laid. In an occupied building, this can cause severe
disruption to the work routine.
To prevent these situations arising, Polyflor does not condone the practice of laying vinyl and rubber
floorcoverings on subfloors with moisture content readings above 75% RH and accepts no
responsibility for non-performance of Polyflor products in such instances.
2.4 EXISTING CONCRETE AND SCREED BASES
Existing concrete and as described in BCA, if laid directly to ground, must contain an effective DPM.
If one is not present or is suspect, a suitable surface DPM should be applied. Sand/cement screed
bases are not a suitable substrate for the installation of resilient floor coverings as defined in
AS1884-2012 section 3.3
In most instances, a cementicious smoothing compound of at least 3mm thickness must be applied
prior to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering. The smoothing underlayment supplier will provide
details on which product within their range must be used to suit the end use application and
subfloor construction, together with details of which primer should be used.
2.5 POWER FLOATED CONCRETE
Smooth dense concrete subfloors – such as those created by a power floated finish – can prove
difficult to bond to, due to the impervious nature of the surface. In such instances, the floor should
mechanically prepared by the use of a fit for purpose concrete grinder or shot blasted to remove
the top surface and then made good.
In most instances, a cementicious smoothing compound of at least 3mm thickness must be applied
prior to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering. Polyflor Australia will provide details on which
product within their range must be used to suit the end use application and subfloor construction,
together with details of which primer should be used.
Surface hardeners or curing agents should not be used with power floated concrete, as these can
also impair the adhesion of the floorcovering and should be mechanically removed as per AS18842012 section 3.1.1.5
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2.6 MAGNESITE / GRANWOOD FLOORS
Composition floors which are composed of magnesium oxychloride cement or polyvinyl
acetate/cement are highly absorbent. As such, if overlaid with an impervious material, they can
break down due to the effects of rising moisture, as the majority of these floors do not incorporate
an effective DPM. In all instances where the material is laid directly to ground, Polyflor recommend
that the screed be uplifted and re-laid incorporating an effective DPM.
2.7 TERRAZZO
Terrazzo has a dense hard surface, which is normally impervious. The floor must be sound and firmly
fixed and any loose or powdery material removed from the joints. The surface should be thoroughly
washed/degreased to remove any surface contaminants and any cracks cleaned out and filled with a
suitable resin bonded cement/sand mixture. The surface may also need some mechanical abrasion
to enable the smoothing underlayment to key to the surface.
In most instances, a cementicious smoothing compound of at least 3mm thickness must then be
applied prior to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering. Polyflor Australia will provide details on
which product within their range must be used to suit the end use application and subfloor
construction, together with details of which primer should be used.
2.8 QUARRY TILES/CERAMIC TILES
Heavily glazed surfaces are quite common with these types of flooring and tiles must be sound and
firmly fixed with all loose and powdery grout removed from the joints. Generally the tiles will require
mechanical abrasion of the surface in order to provide a key for the application of a smoothing
underlayment. The surface should be thoroughly washed/degreased to remove any surface
contaminants and then a cementicious smoothing compound of at least 3mm thickness must then
be applied prior to the installation of the vinyl floorcovering. Polyflor Australia will provide details
on which product within their range must be used to suit the end use application and subfloor
construction, together with details of which primer should be used.
Note: Slate tiles are not a suitable substrate for the installation of resilient flooring.
2.9 SYNTHETIC ANHYDRITE SCREEDS
This type of screed can be affected by laitance and moisture in the smoothing compound, resulting
in the loss of bond. As such, it may need mechanical removal and the application of a special primer.
We would always recommend that you discuss this application with your adhesive and
underlayment manufacturers. If a failure occurs, it is normally below the vinyl floorcovering and as
such Polyflor will not accept responsibility for failure.
2.10 EXPANSION JOINTS
Expansion joints are incorporated into buildings to permit movement without cracking. It is
important that these joints extend through the floorcovering.
Never lay Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring over expansion joints.
Proprietary expansion joint covers are available which blend with the floorcovering and disguise the
joint. Some are made of vinyl that incorporates a flexible portion and are welded to the abutting
vinyl to form an impervious layer. Other types are a combination of aluminium and PVC, which again
contains a flexible section.
Filling the expansion joint with sealant which is not specifically designed for expansion joint filling
or floor smoothing underlayment will lead to floor failure and is not recommended by Polyflor.
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2.11 TIMBER SUBSTRATES
New timber suspended floors should be constructed of either tongue and groove, plywood or
chipboard specifically manufactured for flooring. Spacing of the supportive joists should be in
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations in relation to the board’s thickness.
2.11.1 Chipboard/Particleboard
Resilient flooring shall not be adhered directly to particleboard subfloors. If the resilient flooring is to
be adhered, an underlay or underlayment shall be used as per AS1884-2012 3.2.6.5 Particleboard
subfloor
2.11.2 Plywood
Plywood should be grade “good one side” specification SP101 or equvilent. The boards should be
1200mm x 2400mm and of minimum thickness 15.5mm. The boards should be laid with the longer
side at right angles to the joists and the shorter side must have solid bearing on the joists. Fixing
should be carried out at 300mm centres with annular (ring-shanked) nails or lost head nails of length
at least 2 ½ times the thickness of the board or divergent staples. For joist centres up to 450mm,
15.5mm thick plywood can be used. For joist centres of 610mm, 18mm thick plywood should be
used as described in Section 2.12.6.
2.11.3 Wood blocks
Although many woodblock floors appear sound, even when overlaid with plywood, the application
of an impervious floorcovering on a direct to earth subfloor can cause expansion and lifting of the
base. Polyflor recommends that, in all cases, the woodblock floor be removed and the subfloor
brought up to the required standard to accept Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring.
2.11.4 General
All nail and screw heads must be below the surface of the board and any indentation filled with a
suitable flexible underlayment, as should the joints between any boards that have been used to
overlay the existing floor. The surface should be primed using a primer compatible with the
adhesive, as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer. The primer will minimise adhesive usage
and maintain the open time of the adhesive and prevent preferential absorption.
2.11.5 Existing wooden floors
Where a resilient floor covering is to be adhered unless the subfloor is substantially free from
grooves, ridges, gaps (exceeding 1 mm), holes and similar imperfections, an underlay or
underlayment shall be used.
Hardboard underlay is not considered suitable for use in wet areas. In these areas fibre cement
sheet shall be used and installed as per manufacturer’s instructions.
Underlay sheets shall be installed to manufacturer’s instructions using recommended fasteners and
fastener spacing.
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Existing wooden floors may have received a preservative treatment that will cause poor bonding,
due to a chemical interaction between the preservative and the adhesive. In such cases, they should
not be laid onto directly.
All loose boards should be firmly nailed to the joists and any worn or broken boards replaced. The
floor should be sanded to remove high spots and any hollows or cracks filled with a suitable flexible
underlayment.
The existing wooden floors should then be overlaid with an underlay meeting AS 2458 or
underlayment of 4mm or 6mm thickness. When using an underlay the boards should be laid with
staggered joints. The plywood should be fixed to the existing boards using 18mm long divergent
staples or 14 gauge screw nails of 25mm length. Both types of fixing should be at 100mm centres
along the edge of each sheet, with a fixing line 12mm from the edge and thereafter at 150mm
centres throughout the entire area of the sheet. Perimeter fixings must not be more than 18mm
from the board edges.
It should be noted that hardboard can suffer from extreme dimensional change when in contact
with water. To minimise this change, the hardboard should be wetted on the mesh side and left
overnight to dry, prior to fixing. Failure to wet the hardboard can result in buckling due to moisture
absorption from the water-based adhesive. Plywood and hardboard should be treated as described
in Section 2.11.2 prior to application of the floorcovering.
Note: This does not apply to wet areas, cementicious underlayments or CF sheeting must be used
in wet areas.
With suspended timber at ground level, it is of vital importance to obtain good ventilation below
the floor through the existence of airbricks. Without good ventilation, the application of an
impervious floorcovering could lead to dry rot in the structure beneath.
Most smoothing compounds are unsuitable for applying to timber bases due to the movement of
the base. Seek advice from the smoothing underlayment manufacturer for the correct grade of
product for your specific application.
2.12 OTHER SUBSTRATES
2.12.1 Metal bases
Metal bases are generally, but not exclusively, steel and can be contaminated with rust or
oxidisation, oil and grease. The surface should be thoroughly degreased and then abraded or wire
brushed to remove the rust or oxidisation. Any high spots may need to be ground off.
In most instances, but not where there is excessive vertical or lateral flexing or movement, a
cementicious smoothing compound of at least 3mm thickness must then be applied prior to the
installation of the vinyl floorcovering. Polyflor Australia will provide details on which product within
their range must be used to suit the end use application and subfloor construction, together with
details of which primer should be used.
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2.12.2 Painted or epoxy coated floors
Epoxy and polyurethane surface coatings should be removed, in order to ensure that no breakdown
of the sub-floor occurs after installation of the resilient floorcovering.
Painted floors will impair the adhesion of the resilient floorcovering and should be removed prior to
the application of the floorcovering. Mechanical methods such as grinding or blasting are the most
suitable methods for removing these coatings. However, where the paint proves difficult to remove,
the floor may need to be scabbled. If the epoxy coating is well bonded to the subfloor, it is possible
to apply the floorcovering after grinding or blasting. In both instances, the surface should then be
made good with a 3mm minimum coating of a suitable cementicious smoothing underlayment
applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, which may include the application
of a primer key coat.
2.12.3 Existing floorcoverings
Polyflor vinyl and rubber flooring should never be laid over existing floorcoverings and in such
instances where this is carried out, Polyflor accepts no responsibility for non-performance of its
products. As per AS1884-2012 3.2.3 Existing coverings and finishes
All existing floorcoverings must be uplifted and the complete removal of old adhesive from the
subfloor. Special care must be taken on very old floors, as some products – but not Polyflor –
contained asbestos. In these instances, contact Polyflor for further information.
A suitable 3mm thick floor smoothing underlayment should then be applied to the whole floor.
Failure to remove sufficient adhesive can lead to premature failure of the underlayment.
After uplifting existing floorcoverings laid on plywood and hardboard, used as fabricated underlays,
it is almost always necessary to replace the plywood or hardboard. After uplifting existing
floorcoverings laid on suspended chipboard or plywood subfloors, 4mm thick plywood should be
applied to the subfloor as described in Section 2.11.5
2.12.4 Access Panels
When access is no longer required beneath a floor and it is proposed for access panels to be
overlaid, provided the panels are sound and level, Polyflor would recommend that a minimum 6mm
SP101 Plywood is installed over the access panel and adequately fixed. A suitable smoothing
compound should then be used to fill any joints and hollows.
2.12.5 Subfloors
In common with the installation of any type of flooring, the subfloor should not only be in sound
condition, but also free of any contaminants, like oil, paint, preservative treatments or other forms
of marking, such as a paint, plaster and line marking paints.
Similarly, no markings should be applied to the back of heterogeneous flooring.
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3. Installation of Homogeneous and Safety vinyl sheet
On receipt of rolls, check that colours correspond to those ordered, that quantities are correct and
that there is no damage. In particular, check that rolls are from one batch, if that was requested on
the order. On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely secured in an upright position and stored,
together with the adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours before laying.
Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer or
see current literature for details.
To achieve best results, site conditions should be as described in As 1884. A working temperature of
between 18ºC and 26ºC is required for at least 24 hours prior to, and during, the laying period and
for 24 hours afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas should be of similar temperature, to
prevent thermally induced dimensional changes.
In installations where underfloor heating is used, this should be switched off from 48 hours prior to
installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should then be slowly brought back up to the working
temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC
should be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in conjunction with underfloor heating, creates
high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be
used.
The work area should now be prepared to receive the vinyl sheet flooring. Ensure that all other
trades have completed their work and removed all their equipment and materials. Remove all debris
and sweep or vacuum the whole floor area. Check the condition of the subfloor and make good as
necessary. Stone or power grind any cementicious subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges. Remove
any surface contaminants, which may affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior to laying. If
required by the contract, or if in doubt, check the moisture content of the subfloor and record the
results and method used. Good lighting is essential.
It is important to note that commencement of work is deemed by many as acceptance of the site
conditions as being suitable for laying floorcoverings.
3.1 LAYOUT OF VINYL SHEET
The architect may have provided a drawing showing the direction in which the material should be
laid. In this case, lay the vinyl sheet as directed. If the architect has left this to the discretion of the
flooring contractor, it is advisable to show at the tender stage in which direction the material will be
laid and state that your estimate is based on this. Always pay particular attention to where seams
will fall, avoiding such occurrences as seams in the centre of doorways. If large windows are
installed, minimise the effect of the joints by laying towards the window.
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3.2 SLABBING THE VINYL SHEET
Polyflor recommends that all Polyflor vinyl sheet flooring be rolled out face upward, taking care not
to damage the surface, and cut approximately to size. Allowance of at least 75mm should be made
at the ends for trimming in, the slabs should then be left overnight for 24 hours, to condition at a
minimum temperature of 18ºC.
3.3 FITTING THE FIRST LENGTH
3.3.1 Non-foam backed products
Place the first sheet in position next to the wall with the outer edge approximately 15mm from the
nearest point. Adjust the lie of the sheet so that the inner edge is parallel with the axis of the room
(Figure 1).
Depending upon the depth of the recesses, either a bar scriber or a pair of scribers should be used to
trace the profile of the wall. The scribers should be set to allow for the deepest recess or rake of the
wall. Holding the scribers vertically and square to the vinyl edge, trace the wall profile onto the face
of the sheet (Figure 2). With this method, all irregularities of the wall will be accurately reproduced
onto the surface of the vinyl sheet. If, because of the colour or decoration, the scribed line is difficult
to see, rub suitably contrasting chalk dust into the line to highlight it.
Ease the sheet away from the wall and, using a hook blade trimming knife, cut off the excess vinyl to
the scribed line. Slide the sheet back against the wall and check the fit, making any minor
adjustments as necessary.
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When satisfied that the fit on the first edge is correct, use a pencil to trace the opposite edge onto
the subfloor (line A-B in Figure 3). In the centre of the room, draw a line on both the vinyl and
subfloor square to the main axis of the sheet (line C-D in Figure 3).
Keeping the inner edge of the vinyl on line A-B, slide the sheet back to clear the wall at one end
of the room.
Set the scribers to the distance now between lines C and D (Figure 4). Trace the end wall profile and
cut to fit as described in preceding paragraphs.
Repeat for the other end of the sheet. Once completed, the whole sheet – when slid back
into position – should fit the wall profiles exactly.
Note: If fitting to set-in coving, the same principles apply but a reverse scriber must be used to
trace the toe onto the sheet. It is normal to free hand cut to the coving, allowing 12mm overlap
for final trimming in.
3.4 FITTING SUBSEQUENT LENGTHS
Place the second length parallel to the first length, with a maximum 25mm overlap along the
adjoining edges. On the opposite side, trace the edge along the whole length onto the subfloor. In
the middle, draw a line C-D at right angles to the main axis, as previously described.
Using the longitudinal line as a guide, slide back the sheet from the end wall and fit as described
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in Section 3.3.1. Repeat for the opposite end. Repeat the sequence for all remaining lengths. On the
final length, which abuts the opposite wall, fit as described for the first length (Section 3.3.1).
3.5 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS
Polyflor recommends that all Polyflor vinyl sheet floorcoverings are welded. Seam cutting, grooving
and heat welding are described in detail in Section 11.
Note: The seams should be cut before the adhesive is spread.
3.6 ADHERING THE VINYL SHEET
Prior to adhering the vinyl sheet, it is important to read and understand the adhesive manufacturer’s
instructions, recommendations and safety advice. You need to know the hazards and limitations of
the adhesive, especially the open time.
Never spread more adhesive than can be laid within the open time. Polyflor does not recommend
any method of adhesive application, such as rolling or spraying, which cannot guarantee the
spread rate.
3.6.1 Wet set adhesives
Wherever practical, start with central strips first, as these are usually easier, having fewer
recesses or awkward fittings.
A. Fold back the sheet to just over half its length, making sure the remaining half retains its position.
B. Spread the adhesive using a notched trowel of the correct size, as recommended by the adhesive
manufacturer. Maintain the correct size of notch at all times, recutting as necessary as work
progresses.
C. When the adhesive is ready to accept the floorcovering, roll the vinyl sheet back into place,
rubbing from the centre to the edge, taking care not to twist the roll or trap air bubbles.
D. Check that seams are without gaps and remove any excess adhesive.
E. Roll with a 68kg articulated floor roller, firstly in the short direction, then in the long. In corners
and other awkward areas, use a hand roller.
F. Repeat over the whole floor until all the sheets are adhered.
G. Roll the whole area thoroughly again, between one and four hours later.
3.6.2 Adhering foam-backed vinyl sheet
Trim the material to size ensuring that approximately 150mm excess remains along the length of the
material at both edges of the room. Spread the adhesive until 1 linear metre away from both edges
of the room, and place the vinyl into position. The vinyl can then be rolled.
Once this has been carried out the edges of the length of material can then be trimmed and bonded.
Further advice can be obtained from Polyflor Customer Technical Services Department.
3.6.3 Premature trafficking of newly laid floors
Early trafficking may disturb the adhesive bond and weaken it, resulting in the associated problems
of tracking, indentation, debonding, etc. After the vinyl sheet has been installed, only light foot
traffic should be allowed for at least 24 hours. Furniture etc. should only be returned after this time.
Where liable to be subject to heavy trafficking, the vinyl should be protected with hardboard or
plywood for at least 48 hours.
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3.6.4 Adhesives
As per AS 1884-2012 5.1.3 Polyflor recommend the adhesive shall be of a type appropriate to the
product being installed. The resilient floor covering manufacturer’s recommendations should be
followed so that the floor covering adheres permanently to the underlay or subfloor under the
conditions of service for which the floor was designed. The floor covering shall be laid and rolled
down in the manner recommended by the manufacturer.
Polyflor Australia only recommends the use of Hard Set adhesives. Adhesives with pressure sensitive
characteristics must not be used. Pressure sensitive adhesives are to be used only with VCT. They
have the advantage of very long open times but, because they are laid into dry, have the
disadvantage that the adhesive ridges are not flattened when the vinyl is rolled. To eliminate this
disadvantage, Polyflor recommends an alternative method of application:
A. Fold back all the sheets to just over half their length.
B. Spread the adhesive with the correct notch trowel. Maintain the correct size of notch at all times.
Then roll out the adhesive ridges with a long handled, short pile adhesive roller.
Note: To maintain the correct spread rate, the adhesive roller should be pre-wetted with adhesive.
This will prevent it taking adhesive from the floor.
C. Wrap the roller in a polyethylene bag and hang up when not in use. This will prevent it from drying
out. It also prevents flats being formed and avoids regular washing out and pre-wetting.
D. Place a length of 100mm wide polyethylene strip onto the edge of the adhesive adjacent to the
fold in the vinyl sheet (Figure 5). This will prevent the sheet sticking to the last 100mm of adhesive.
E. Roll the central sheet back into place along the longitudinal line, taking care not to twist the roll or
trap air bubbles. (A length of wide polyethylene strip can be rolled out on top of the adhesive to
enable it to be walked on. This can be helpful when fitting the first length up to the line. Roll it up
from the far end on completion.)
F. Fit all the other sheets, working outwards from the central sheet, as described previously .Take
extra care to ensure that seams are without gaps and remove any excess adhesive as work proceeds.
G. Fold back the second halves of the vinyl sheets and remove the polyethylene strip which was stuck
to the edge of the adhesive. Repeat sequence of adhering vinyl sheet as described previously.
H Roll thoroughly in both directions using a 68kg articulated floor roller. In corners and other
awkward areas, use a hand roller. Repeat again after 1 – 4 hours.
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3.7 PATTERN TEMPLATE METHOD
Areas which call for a considerable amount of fitting around obstacles, or which are too confined to
lay down a sheet for fitting by normal methods, can be dealt with by templating the floor in felt
paper.
Note: In new buildings, it may be worthwhile discussing installation with the main contractor who
may agree to fitting WCs, sinks, etc. after the vinyl has been laid.
A. Dry fit the area with felt paper, leaving a gap of 15mm to 20mm around obstructions and walls.
B. Draw around the fittings using a compass set at 25mm. Mark the template “This Side Up”.
C. Place the vinyl sheet in a larger area with the face uppermost. Place the template on top ensuring
the direction of decoration is correct. Secure the template firmly in position and, with a pair of
scribers set at 25mm, mark the position of all obstacles using the template as a guide.
D. Using a sharp vinyl trimming knife, cut the vinyl sheet to the scribed lines and fit into position.
Note: Do not use the felt paper template as an underlay.
3.8 SITE FORMED COVED SKIRTINGS
Polyflor fully flexible vinyl flooring, in conjunction with Polyflor Ejecta cove former (see also Section
9) can be used to create site formed coved skirting. In shower areas, for example, the vinyl sheet can
be extended up the wall and, when welded, will form a watertight base. Alternatively, in hospital
corridors or office complexes, a contrasting colour can be used for decoration or identification.
A. Adhere the sections of cove former using a contact adhesive. Use a mitre-block to accurately cut
internal and external corners and only adjust for length on straight cuts.
Note: The installation of Polyflor Ejecta vinyl flooring accessories using contact adhesives is
covered in detail in Section 9.
B. To prevent a difficult fit, and potential weak spot near doorways, cut away the back edge of the
cove former on a taper for 150mm so that there is minimal cove former near the doorway (Figure 6).
Heating the cove former will enable the shape to be formed but do not use a naked flame.
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3.8.1 Fitting with clip-in capping strip (type CS-N)
A. Draw a line on the walls around the room to the height the coving will reach.
B. Place the vinyl to the walls and then draw a line to the same height as previous. Using a
straight edge and sharp knife, trim off the excess.
C. Pull back the sheet from the walls. Fit the capping strip to the wall with contact adhesive so that
the top of the sheet will sit inside the cap.
D. Apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove former and up to the capping strip. Coat the back of
the vinyl with contact adhesive and leave both to dry.
E. When dry, push the vinyl into place and tuck the top edge into the capping strip (Figure 7). Roll
with a hand roller to ensure even contact.
3.8.2 Fitting with sit-on capping strip (Type CS)
A. Using a height gauge fitted with a pencil, draw a line on the walls around the room to the height
the coving will reach.
B. Apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove former and up to the pencil line on the wall. Coat
the back of the vinyl with contact adhesive and leave both to dry.
C. When dry, push the vinyl into place and roll with a hand roller to ensure even contact.
D. Reduce the height gauge to allow for the thickness of the floorcovering and adhesive. Draw a line
on the vinyl to the same height as previous. Using a straight edge and sharp knife, trim off the excess.
E. Using a piece of capping strip, mark where the strip overlaps the wall and vinyl sheet. Apply
contact adhesive between the lines and to the back of the capping strip. When dry, push into place
(Figure 8).
15
Note: Welded external corners are prone to breaking open due to damage from wheeled traffic.
To prevent this from occurring, all external joints must have an external full butterfly joint that
extends upwards at 45 degrees from the top of the cove former (Figure 9).
3.9 FITTING TO CERAMIC WALL TILES
For the junction between site formed coved skirting and ceramic wall tiles, Polyflor Ejecta CT strip
should be used. The flexible section is designed to accept ceramic tiles on one side and various
gauges of vinyl on the other. The Polyflor CT strip should be adhered using a contact adhesive as
recommended by Polyflor. The edge between the CT strip and the ceramic tiles should be grouted.
The Polyflor should be fitted into the bottom edge of the CT strip and adhered to the wall using a
contact adhesive as recommended by Polyflor. See also Section 14. A thin bead of mastic sealant
should be run along the underside edge of the CT strip and the Polyflor (Figure 10).
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4. Installation of Luxury Vinyl Tiles
The majority of installation failures are not caused by poor fitting but by the failure to condition the
vinyl tiles and planks prior to installation. The tiles and planks plus any other products such as
borders, feature strips, design strips, and adhesives should be conditioned for at least 24hours prior
to installation. Boxes of tiles/planks must be stacked less than 5 boxes high and tiles removed30
minutes before use. The room temperature should ideally be between 18 and 26°C but more
importantly should be constant and not varying by more than 2°C.
As extremes of temperature can occur between the day and the night times, it is essential that these
be avoided. South facing windows and all conservatory windows should be shaded to minimise
daytime fluctuations. Heating systems, which are thermostatically controlled should, when
necessary, be left on during the night to achieve a constant temperature similar to that of the
daytime.
The temperatures need to be maintained prior to, during and for at least 24 hours after the
installation is completed.
Complaints arising from the failure to correctly condition the tiles and planks, which result in
shrinkage or lipping, will not be accepted by Polyflor Ltd.
PRODUCT CONDITIONING
Critical product conditioning
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On receipt of tiles, check that colours correspond to those ordered, that quantities are correct and
there is no obvious damage. In particular, check that tiles are from one batch, if that was requested
on the order. On arrival at site, the tiles should be stored, together with the adhesive, at a minimum
temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours prior to laying.
Under normal conditions (outside temperature above 12ºC) the LVT should be off-loaded from the
pallet and stacked no more than five boxes high during the conditioning period. The stacks should be
arranged to allow the air to circulate around stack on all sides. In cold weather (outside temperature
below 12ºC) the boxes should be opened and the LVT spread out in the area where they are to be
installed. This will permit the tiles to acclimatise more quickly.
To achieve best results, site conditions should be as described in AS 1884. A working temperature of
between 18ºC and 26ºC is required for 24 hours prior to, and during, the laying period and for 24
hours afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas should be of similar temperature, to prevent
thermally induced dimensional changes. In installations where underfloor heating is used, this
should be switched off from 48 hours prior to installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should then
be brought slowly back up to the working temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of
withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC should be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in
conjunction with underfloor heating, creates high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved
epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be used.
The work area should now be prepared to receive the LVT. Ensure all other trades have completed
their work and removed all their equipment and materials. Remove all debris and sweep or vacuum
the whole floor area. Check the condition of the subfloor and make good as necessary. Stone or
power grind any cementicious subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface
contaminants that may affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again, prior to laying. If required, check
moisture content of the subfloor and record the results and method used. Good lighting is essential.
It is important to note that commencement of work is deemed by many as acceptance of the site
conditions as suitable for laying floorcoverings.
4.1 LAYOUT OF VINYL TILES
When installing planks, the centre line must be determined and checked to ensure good size cuts
will be fitted at the perimeter. Because it is not required that the planks are laid “in bond” in the
length, it is possible to begin tiling from an end wall, ensuring, prior to laying the first plank, that all
cuts are of an acceptable length (Min 150mm). Planks must be staggered to obtain a random finish,
but it is advisable to ensure that plank ends are not within 15cm of adjacent planks.
Although many floor layers regard vinyl tiles as being easier to lay than vinyl sheet, the layout of the
LVT can be critical to the success of the installation. The regular form of tiles can accentuate
deviations in the building line, emphasising the need for detailed planning of the layout. Many floor
layers start in the main doorway, believing that the initial impression when entering a room is most
important. However, working from the centre of the room and loose laying tiles to check the layout
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will make the final appearance correct from any viewpoint. This is especially important where a
geometric design is incorporated into the floor.
4.2 MEASURING AND MARKING OUT
A. Measure the room to be laid in both directions, including any alcoves etc.
B. Mark a chalk centreline A-B, ensuring that it is square to the wall with the doorway.
C. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline A-B and check that no small strips will have to be laid at
the perimeter of the room. If small strips do result, move the centreline in either direction, keeping it
parallel to the line A-B, so that the perimeter tiles will only require a small piece cutting off.
D. Mark a chalk centreline C-D, ensuring that it is square to the line A-B. Check squareness with a
large square, trammels or geometrically.
E. Loose lay tiles away from the centrelines C-D and check that no small strips will have to be laid.
Adjust centreline C-D as described for A-B. In Figure 11, by moving the centreline C-D towards the
door, tile 6 would only require a small amount to be trimmed off, as would tile 8 on the opposite wall.
4.3 SPREADING THE ADHESIVE
ADHESIVE OPEN TIME
Polyflor Australia only recommends the use of the Kiesel Star 100, 100, or 120 adhesives
There are two things to consider when using water based adhesive. Firstly there is the waiting time
when the adhesive has been applied and has to be left to allow some of the moisture to evaporate
and become tacky enough to hold the tiles or planks. The type of adhesive used, the density of the
substrate and whether or not a primer has been applied first affect this time.
Secondly there is the open or working time when the adhesive remains tacky enough to enable the
floorcovering to be laid whilst remaining pliable enough to enable the notches to be flattened when
rolled. Failure to install the floorcovering within the stated open time can result in the grin through
of the adhesive ridges or the movement of tiles or planks, as they are not fully bonded. This is easily
checked when a failure occurs as there is little or no adhesive transfer to the back of the tile or
plank.
APPLICATION OF ADHESIVE
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If the subfloor is porous, it should be primed using a primer compatible with the adhesive, as
recommended by the adhesive manufacturer.
Polyflor Australia recommends the use of a V1 notch size trowel to be used to apply the adhesive.
This notch needs to be maintained during the application of the adhesive in order to ensure an even
coverage of adhesive that inturn ensures the claimed open time can be achieved. It is imperative
that you do not spread any more adhesive than can be laid into during the open time. Failure to do
so will result in late placement of the floorcovering and the problem described above.
It should be noted that Polyflor Ltd do not approve any methods of applications of adhesive such
as direct roller application or spraying that cannot guarantee the amount of adhesive applied.
The amount of adhesive that can be spread at any one time depends upon the prevailing site
conditions, such as temperature, humidity and through flow of air – all of which affect the open time
of the adhesive.
Adhesive manufacturers provide details of the open time, and their instructions should be followed.
Ideally, the floor area should be divided into workable sections, leaving the perimeter tile areas
unadhered until the main body of the floor has been laid.
REMOVAL OF EXCESS ADHESIVE
Ideally all excess adhesive should be removed as work proceeds. Water based adhesive can, before
it is dried, be easily removed using a damp cloth. For removal of specialist adhesives follow the
manufacturers guidelines. Dried adhesives are more difficult to remove and the majority should be
removed using a spatula without damaging the flooring. Once this is done, a proprietary cleaning
agent, as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer, can be used sparingly. Always test a trial
area first in an unnoticeable area, as many of the stronger cleaners contain solvents which can cause
staining and softening of the vinyl.
4.4 ADHERING THE MAIN FIELD OF TILES
The decoration of LVTs on some product ranges is randomly distributed and in marbled styles can be
heavier on some tiles than others. To prevent “heavy” and “light” areas, the tiles should be unboxed
and, if required, “shuffled”.
Once the adhesive is ready to accept the tiles, place the first tile at the starting point, which is the
intersection of the two centrelines. Press well down in the centre of the tile and then run a thumb
around the edge, ensuring that all air is expelled.
Place the next tile in position, alternating the direction of marbling and colour if necessary, and
proceed down the centreline, laying two tiles wide i.e. one tile either side of the centreline. It is
essential to keep the tiles exactly on the centreline.
Repeat the sequence along the centreline, at right angles to the first. Then, working from the
completed centrelines, finish the section, taking care that tile bond is maintained throughout. Any
excess adhesive should be removed as work proceeds. When a section has been laid, except for the
perimeter, it should be thoroughly rolled in both directions with a 68kg articulated floor roller.
Repeat for each section until the main field of tiles has been laid.
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4.5 CUTTING THE PERIMETER TILES
Three techniques are commonly used for cutting perimeter tiles. The choice is mainly dependent
upon the run out of the wall.
4.5.1 Overlapping Method
Used when there is little or no run out of the abutting wall.
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile laid, ensuring the colour is correct and the
decoration runs the correct way.
B. Place another full tile on top of the tile to be cut with its “top edge” against the wall or set-in
coved skirting (Figure 12).
C. Scribe a line onto the tile to be cut, using the “bottom edge” of the top tile as a guide.
D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into position and check the fit. Repeat along the whole
wall.
4.5.2 Scriber Method
Used when the wall run out is quite severe or when the wall profile cannot be picked up using a
straight edge.
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile laid, ensuring the colour is correct and the
decoration runs the correct way.
B. Set the bar scriber to the size of tile being laid.
C. Trace the profile of the wall onto the tile to be cut, ensuring the bar scriber is kept upright and
square to the edge of the tile.
D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into position and check the fit. Repeat along the whole
wall.
Note: Both the Overlapping and Scriber Methods can be used to fit around projections such as
door frames. Similarly, a template can be made or templating guide containing movable pins used
for awkward shapes.
4.6 ADHERING THE PERIMETER TILES
Once a wall edge has been fitted and loose laid, turn all the tiles inward so as not to lose their
position. Spread the adhesive right up to the edges. When the adhesive has lost sufficient moisture,
lay the perimeter tiles. Wipe up excess adhesive as work progresses. Roll well with a 68kg articulated
21
roller. Use a small hand roller in areas that are inaccessible. Repeat the process for all four walls.
Finally, the whole floor should be given a second rolling, approximately one to four hours later.
4.7 INSTALLING TILES IN LARGE AREAS
Maintaining a clearly defined straight line over long distances can be difficult and often leads to
inaccuracies. To eliminate this problem, an alternative technique is used when laying tiles in large
areas:
A. Establish the central starting point, as described previously, minimising small cuts on
perimeter tiles.
B. Lay the first pyramid of tiles from the centrelines, using the sequence shown in Figure 13. Ensure a
close bond is maintained at all times.
C. Repeat this sequence on the opposite side of the centreline shown as area 2 in Figure 14. Continue
working in larger and larger pyramids, as shown in Figure 14, until only the perimeter tiles require
fitting.
Note: Construction of a pyramid should always start at the centre of the baseline, working in the
same sequence as shown in Figure 13.
D. Fit the perimeter tiles as described in Section 4.5.
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5. Installation of Heterogeneous vinyl sheet
This section is intended for Polyflor heterogeneous sheet vinyl ranges with transparent wear
layer/print construction. In general, the installation procedure is the same as that detailed in
Section 3 and reference should be made to this section for in-depth advice. Included below are
details of how installation differs from homogeneous vinyl sheet, specifically in relation to
alignment of adjacent sheets and welding options.
5.1 ALIGNMENT OF DECORATION
This type of floorcovering features a print layer with a regular, repeat decoration (e.g. wood plank).
With wood effect designs, to maximise the final appearance of the installation and to ensure the
decorative effect is not lost, it is important that care is taken to align the plank decoration of each
adjacent sheet. All none wood effect designs within the Stone FX and Gallery FX Acoustic collections
MUST be reverse laid.
Once the adjacent sheets are aligned, the seam should be cut using one of the following methods:
Using a straight edge and keeping the utility knife upright, cut through both layers to ensure there is
a tight seam. With wood effect designs, the edge of the printed plank can be used in the lengthwise
direction as a guide. Once the seam is cut, discard the waste material and check the final
appearance.
Or
Using a straight edge and utility knife, cut off the selvage of the top sheet of the wood effect designs,
using the edge of the printed plank in the lengthwise direction as the guide. Discard the waste strip.
Then, using the cut edge as a guide, set a proprietary seam cutter to cut the lower sheet. Discard the
waste strip and check the final appearance.
Once the seams have been dry cut, the vinyl sheets can be adhered to the substrate. Fold back all
the sheets half way and apply an adhesive approved by Polyflor, following the adhesive
manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations.
Working from the centre of the room, fold the sheets back into their original position, using a rolling
motion to reduce the risk of trapping air. Using a 68kg roller starting in the width direction, roll the
floor to expel any air bubbles and ensure good contact with the adhesive, substrate and the back of
the sheet vinyl. Repeat in the lengthwise direction. Repeat the whole rolling process approximately 4
hours later.
5.2 WELDING THE SHEET
There are two methods of welding that are recommended for heterogeneous vinyl sheet
floorcoverings with a transparent wear layer/print construction.
5.2.1 Hot Welding
Once the adhesive is cured, normally after 24 hours, the seam can be grooved out. This can be done
either manually by using a hand groover or mechanically using a power grooving machine. The
23
groove should not be deeper than 2/3rds thickness of the wear layer for the U groove and 7/8ths
thickness for the V groove.
A. Remove all dust and debris prior to welding.
B. Using an appropriate vinyl weld rod, test the weld fusion on a scrap piece of the material. Once
you are happy with the heat settings and resultant weld, proceed to weld all the pre-grooved seams.
C. On completion, and whilst the weld is still warm, carry out the first trim. This should be carried out
using a cable guide and spatula knife.
D. The final trim should be carried out once the weld has completely cooled and should be done using
the spatula knife.
Note: The welding technique described will provide a very strong mechanical weld. Should you
require a much thinner line whilst at the same time providing a continuous surface, we suggest
that in these instances, and using the technique described, only the wear layer be grooved out.
This will result in a much narrower weld whilst still preventing ingress of dirt or moisture.
5.2.2 Cold Welding
Once the seam has been accurately cut, remembering that this type of welding should not be
considered as gap filling, the seam can be welded.
A. Cover the seam with masking tape or similar to prevent any excess welding liquid coming into
contact with the vinyl surface.
B. Cut through the tape at the seam, using a utility knife with a sharp blade. Apply the welding liquid
(Figure 15), as per the manufacturer’s instructions, ensuring both hands are controlling the tube.
Keep fingers away from the needle applicator.
C. After approximately 10 minutes and once the welding liquid has cured, the masking tape can then
be removed.
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Note: Any proud parts of the cured welding liquid can be left, as they will be removed with the
effects of maintenance and traffic.
5.3 SUBFLOORS
In common with the installation of any type of flooring, the subfloor should not only be in sound
condition, but also free of any contaminants, like oil, paint, preservative treatments or other forms
of marking, such as a permanent marker pen.
Similarly, no markings should be applied to the back of heterogeneous flooring.
5.3 WATERBASED CONTACT ADHESIVES
On Heterogeneous Polyflor only identify use of water based contacts such as Kiesel Okumal K5 for
these products, we do not approve use of solvent contacts.
6. Installation of Rubber sheet
On receipt of rolls, check that colours correspond to those ordered, that the quantities are correct
and that there is no damage. In particular, check that rolls are from one batch, if that was requested
on the order.
On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely secured in an upright position and stored, together with
the adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18°C for at least 24 hours before laying.
Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer or
see current literature for details.
To achieve best results, site conditions should be as described in AS 1884 A working temperature of
between 18°C and 26°C is required for at least 24 hours prior to, and during, the laying period and
for 24 hours afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas should be of similar temperature, to
prevent thermally induced dimensional changes.
In installations where underfloor heating is used, this should be switched off from 48 hours prior to
installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should then be slowly brought back up to the working
temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC
should be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in conjunction with underfloor heating, creates
high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be
used. See Polyflor recommended adhesive listings.
The work area should now be prepared to receive the rubber sheet flooring. Ensure that all other
trades have completed their work and removed all their equipment and materials. Remove all debris
and sweep or vacuum the whole floor area. Check the condition of the subfloor and make good as
necessary. Stone or power grind any cementicious subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges.
Remove any surface contaminants, which may affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior to
laying.
25
If required by the contract, or if in doubt, check the moisture content of the subfloor and record the
results and method used. Good lighting is essential.
It is important to note that commencement of work is deemed by many as acceptance of the site
conditions as being suitable for laying floorcoverings.
6.1 LAYOUT OF RUBBER SHEET
The architect may have provided a drawing showing the direction in which the material should be
laid. In this case, lay the rubber sheet as directed. If the architect has left this to the discretion of the
flooring contractor, it is advisable to show at the tender stage in which direction the material will be
laid and state that your estimate is based on this. Always pay particular attention to where seams
will fall, avoiding such occurrences as seams in the centre of doorways. If large windows are
installed, minimise the effect of the joints by laying towards the window.
6.2 SLABBING THE RUBBER SHEET
Polyflor recommends that all sheet rubber flooring be rolled out face upward, taking care not to
damage the surface, and cut approximately to size. Allowance of at least 75mm should be made at
the ends for trimming in. Ideally, the slabs should then be left overnight, and preferably for 24 hours,
to condition at a minimum temperature of 18ºC.
6.3 FITTING THE SHEET
Place the first sheet in position next to the wall with the outer edge approximately 15mm from the
nearest point. Adjust the lie of the sheet so that the inner edge is parallel with the axis of the room
(Figure 16).
Depending upon the depth of the recesses, either a bar scriber or a pair of scribers should be used to
trace the profile of the wall. The scribers should be set to allow for the deepest recess or rake of the
wall. Holding the scribers vertically and square to the rubber edge, trace the wall profile onto the
face of the sheet (Figure 17). With this method, all irregularities of the wall will be accurately
reproduced onto the surface of the rubber sheet. If, because of the colour or decoration, the scribed
line is difficult to see, rub suitably contrasting chalk dust into the line to highlight it.
26
Ease the sheet away from the wall and, using a hook blade trimming knife, cut off the excess rubber
to the scribed line. Slide the sheet back against the wall and check the fit, making any minor
adjustments as necessary. When satisfied that the fit on the first edge is correct, use a pencil to trace
the opposite edge onto the subfloor (line A-B in Figure 18). In the centre of the room, draw a line on
both the rubber and subfloor square to the main axis of the sheet (line C-D in Figure 18). Keeping the
inner edge of the rubber on line AB, slide the sheet back to clear the wall at one end of the room.
Set the scribers to the distance now between lines C and D (Figure 19). Trace the end wall profile
and cut to fit as described in preceding paragraphs.
Repeat for the other end of the sheet. Once completed, the whole sheet – when slid back into
position – should fit the wall profiles exactly.
27
Note: If fitting to set-in coving, the same principles apply but a reverse scriber must be used to
trace the toe onto the sheet. It is normal to free hand cut to the coving, allowing 12mm overlap
for final trimming in.
6.4 FITTING SUBSEQUENT LENGTHS
Place the second length parallel to the first length, with a maximum 25mm overlap along the
adjoining edges. On the opposite side, trace the edge along the whole length onto the subfloor. In
the middle, draw a line C-D at right angles to the main axis, as described previously.
Using the longitudinal line as a guide, slide back the sheet from the end wall and fit as described in
Section 6.3. Repeat for the opposite end. Repeat the sequence for all remaining lengths. On the final
length, which abuts the opposite wall, fit as described for the first length Section 6.3.
6.5 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS
If welding is necessary (see section 6.10), seam cutting, grooving and heat welding are described in
detail in Section 12.
Note: The seams should be cut before the adhesive is spread.
6.6 ADHERING THE SHEET
Prior to adhering the rubber sheet, it is important to read and understand the adhesive
manufacturer’s instructions, recommendations and safety advice. You need to know the hazards and
limitations of the adhesive, especially the open time.
Never spread more adhesive than can be laid within the open time.
Polyflor does not recommend any method of adhesive application, such as rolling or spraying,
which cannot guarantee the spread rate.
Wherever practical, start with central strips first, as these are usually easier, having fewer recesses
or awkward fittings.
A. Fold back the sheet to just over half its length, making sure the remaining half retains its position.
B. Spread the adhesive using a notched trowel of the correct size, as recommended by the adhesive
manufacturer. Maintain the correct size of notch at all times, recutting as necessary as work
progresses.
C. When the adhesive is ready to accept the floorcovering, roll the rubber sheet back into place,
taking care not to twist the roll or trap air bubbles.
D. Check that seams are without gaps and remove any excess adhesive.
E. Roll with a 68kg articulated floor roller, firstly in the short direction, then in the long. In corners
and other awkward areas, use a hand roller.
28
F. Repeat over the whole floor until all the sheets are adhered.
G. Roll the whole area thoroughly again, between one and four hours later.
6.7 PREMATURE TRAFFICKING OF NEWLY LAID FLOORS
Early trafficking may disturb the adhesive bond and weaken it, resulting in the associated problems
of tracking, indentation, debonding etc. After the rubber sheet has been installed, only light foot
traffic should be allowed for at least 24 hours. Where liable to be subject to heavy trafficking, the
rubber should be protected with hardboard, plywood or a proprietary protector for at least 48
hours. Ensure that if there is any printing on the protector, it is not left in contact with the rubber
surface as it can stain.
6.8 PATTERN TEMPLATE METHOD
Areas which call for a considerable amount of fitting around obstacles, or which are too confined to
lay down a sheet for fitting by normal methods, can be dealt with by templating the floor in felt
paper.
Note: In new buildings, it may be worthwhile discussing installation with the main contractor who
may agree to fitting WCs, sinks, etc. after the rubber has been laid.
A. Dry fit the area with felt paper, leaving a gap of 15mm to 20mm around obstructions.
B. Draw around the fittings using a compass set at 25mm. Mark the template “This Side Up”.
C. Place the rubber sheet in a larger area with the face uppermost. Place the template on top
ensuring the direction of decoration is correct. Secure the template firmly in position and, with a pair
of scribers set at 25mm, mark the position of all obstacles using the template as a guide.
D. Using a sharp trimming knife, cut the rubber sheet to the scribed lines and fit into position.
Do not use the felt paper template as an underlay.
6.9 SITE FORMED COVED SKIRTING
Polyflor sheet rubber flooring, in conjunction with a rubber cove, can be used to create site formed
coved skirting. In hospital corridors or office complexes etc, a contrasting colour can be used for
decoration or identification.
A. Adhere the sections of cove former using a contact adhesive.
B. Use a mitre-block to accurately cut internal and external corners. Only adjust for length on straight
cuts.
C. To prevent a difficult fit, and potential weak spot near doorways, cut away the back edge of the
cove former on a taper for 150mm so that there is minimal cove former near the doorway. Warming
the cove former may help enable the shape to be formed but do not use a naked flame.
6.10 WELDING OF RUBBER SHEET
Welding of rubber sheet is not a prerequisite in most installations. However where there is heavy
wet cleaning or where due to hygiene requirements a continuous smooth surface is demanded, the
joints should be heat welded using the recommended weld rod.
29
7. Installation of Rubber tiles
On receipt of tiles, check that colours correspond to those ordered, that quantities are correct and
there is no obvious damage. In particular check that tiles are from one batch, if that was requested
on the order. On arrival at site, the tiles should be stored, together with the adhesive, at a minimum
temperature of 18ºC for at least 24 hours before laying. The tiles should be off-loaded from the
pallet and stacked no more than five boxes high during the conditioning period.
Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer or
see current literature for details.
To achieve best results, site conditions should be as described in AS 1884. A working temperature of
between 18ºC and 26ºC is required for 24 hours prior to, and during, the laying period and for 24
hours afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas should be of similar temperature, to prevent
thermally induced dimensional changes.
In installations where underfloor heating is used, this should be switched off from 48 hours prior to
installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should then be brought slowly back up to the working
temperature, a maximum of 27ºC. Adhesives capable of withstanding temperatures up to 27ºC
should be used. Where direct sunlight, sometimes in conjunction with underfloor heating, creates
high surface temperatures on the floor, an approved epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be
used.
The work area should now be prepared to receive the rubber tiles. Ensure all other trades have
completed their work and removed all their equipment and materials. Remove all debris and sweep
or vacuum the whole floor area. Check the condition of the subfloor and make good as necessary.
Stone or power grind any cementicious subfloor to remove any “nibs” or ridges. Remove any surface
contaminants that may affect adhesion. Sweep or vacuum again prior to laying. If required, check
the moisture content of the subfloor and record the results and method used. Good lighting is
essential.
It is important to note that commencement of work is deemed by many as acceptance of the site
conditions as being suitable for laying floorcoverings.
7.1 LAYOUT OF RUBBER TILES
Although many floor layers regard tiles as being easier to lay than sheet, the layout of the tiles can
be critical to the success of the installation. The regular form of tiles, especially when laid in
contrasting colours, can accentuate deviations in the building line, emphasising the need for detailed
planning of the layout. Many floor layers start in the main doorway, believing that the initial
impression when entering a room is most important. However, working from the centre of the room
and loose laying tiles to check the layout will make the final appearance correct from any viewpoint.
This is especially important where a geometric design is incorporated into the floor.
7.2 MEASURING AND MARKING OUT
A. Measure the room to be laid in both directions, including any alcoves etc.
B. Mark a chalk centreline A-B ensuring that it is square to the wall with the doorway.
C. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline A-B and check that no small strips will have to be laid at
the perimeter of the room. If small strips do result, move the centreline in either direction, keeping it
parallel to the line A-B, so that the perimeter tiles will only require a small piece cutting off.
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D. Mark a chalk centreline C-D, ensuring that it is square to the line A-B. Check squareness with a
large square, trammels or geometrically.
E. Loose lay tiles away from the centreline C-D and check that no small strips will have to be laid.
Adjust centreline C-D as described for A-B. In Figure 20, by moving the centreline C-D towards the
door, tile 6 would only require a small amount to be trimmed off, as would tile 8 on the opposite wall.
7.3 SPREADING THE ADHESIVE
If the subfloor is porous, it should be primed using a primer compatible with the adhesive, as
recommended by the adhesive manufacturer.
The amount of adhesive that can be spread at any one time depends upon the prevailing site
conditions, such as temperature, humidity and throughflow of air – all of which affect the open time
of the adhesive.
Adhesive manufacturers provide details of the open time, and their instructions should be
followed. Ideally, the floor area should be divided into workable sections, leaving the perimeter tile
areas unadhered until the main body of the floor has been laid.
7.4 ADHERING THE MAIN FIELD OF TILES
Ensure the backs of the tiles are free from dust prior to laying. This can be done whilst waiting for
the adhesive to “go off”. Once the adhesive is ready to accept the tiles, place the first tile at the
starting point, which is the intersection of the two centrelines. Press well down in the centre of the
tile and then run a thumb around the edge, ensuring all air is expelled.
Place the next tile in position, alternating the colour if necessary, and proceed down the centreline,
laying two tiles wide i.e. one tile either side of the centreline. It is essential to keep the tiles exactly
on the centreline.
When using “high tack” adhesives such as contact adhesive, take care not to twist or distort the
tile whilst laying. If the tile is stretched, its dimensional stability will eventually return it to its
original shape and the adhesive bond will be broken.
Repeat the sequence along the centreline at right angles to the first. Then, working from the
completed centrelines, finish the section taking care that tile bond is maintained throughout. Any
excess adhesive should be removed as work proceeds. When a section has been laid, except for the
perimeter, it should be thoroughly rolled in both directions with a 68kg articulated floor roller.
Repeat for each section until the main field of tiles has been laid.
7.5 CUTTING THE PERIMETER TILE
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Two techniques are commonly used for cutting perimeter tiles. The choice is mainly dependent upon
the run out of the wall.
7.5.1 Overlapping Method
Used when there is little or no run out of the abutting wall.
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile laid, ensuring the colour is correct.
B. Place another full tile on top of the tile to be cut with its “top edge” against the wall (Figure 21).
C. Scribe a line onto the tile to be cut, using the “bottom edge” of the top as a guide.
D. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into position and check the fit. Repeat along the
whole wall.
7.5.2 Scriber Method
Used when the wall run out is quite severe or when the wall profile cannot be picked up using a
straight edge.
A. Place the tile to be cut exactly over the last tile laid ensuring the colour is correct.
B. Set the bar scriber to the size of the tile being laid.
C. Trace the profile of the wall onto the tile to be cut, ensuring the bar scriber is kept upright and
square to the edge of the tile. Cut the tile to the scribed line, loose lay into position and check the fit.
Repeat along the whole wall.
Note: Both the overlapping and scriber methods can be used to fit around projections such as door
frames. Similarly, a template can be made or templating guide containing movable pins used for
awkward shapes.
7.6 ADHERING THE PERIMETER TILES
Once a wall edge has been fitted and loose laid, turn all the tiles inward so as not to lose their
position. Spread the adhesive right up to the edges. When the adhesive has lost sufficient moisture,
lay the perimeter tiles. Wipe up excess adhesive as work progresses. Roll well with a 68kg articulated
roller. Use a small hand roller in areas that are inaccessible. Repeat the process for all four walls.
Finally, the whole floor should be given a second rolling, approximately one to four hours later.
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7.7 INSTALLING TILES IN LARGE AREAS
The procedure for laying Rubber Tiles in large areas is identical to that for laying vinyl tiles, as
described in Section 4.7.
8. Electro Static Dissipative (ESD) floorcoverings
The Polyflor ESD family of vinyl floorcoverings consists of products which are designed to meet
specific resistance requirements. The terminology used to describe the various categories was
changed in 1999, as the IEC brought together the various electronics industries to ensure that the
same terminology is used by all parties.
Antistatic
These products do not accumulate static charges above 2.0 KV and are classified as ‘Antistatic’ when
tested to EN1815. For specialist application where there is a requirement to dissipate the charge,
see Polyflor ESD product ranges.
Static Dissipative (SD)
These products when tested to the test methods identified in our literature have a resistance to
earth between 1 x 106 and 1 x 109 ohms.
Electrostatic Conductive (EC)
These products when tested to the test methods identified in our literature have a resistance to
earth between 5 x 104 and 1 x 106 ohms.
Polyflor Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF)
These products when tested to the test methods identified in our literature have a resistance to
earth between zero and 5 x 104 ohms.
8.1 SPECIFYING THE CORRECT PRODUCT
The Polyflor ESD family of products is designed to minimise or eliminate the risk of Electro Static
Discharge (ESD) and it is essential that the correct product be selected for the intended application.
An electrical performance specification must be identified at the outset. This will not only stipulate
the maximum and minimum electrical resistance requirements of the installed floor, but will also
identify the method of test, the electrodes to be used, the method of measurement and the testing
environment.
From this information, the correct Polyflor ESD product can be identified, taking into account both
the electrical performance and the method of installation. Whenever specifying a Polyflor ESD vinyl
floorcovering, Polyflor strongly recommends that you discuss your requirements with our Customer
Technical Services Department. They will advise on which products are best suited for the particular
application, and where no specifıcation has been identified, will advise on the specifications used in
similar installations/industries.
8.2 ISOLATION OF SUBFLOOR
The electrical conductivity of a solid subfloor can vary greatly, and as a result the installed floor may
have resistances lower than the minimum stated in the specification. Cementicious underlayments
provide an isolating barrier of known resistance beneath the vinyl floorcovering. Polyflor
recommends that all solid subfloors should be covered with a cementicious underlayment which
must be at least 3mm thick. The choice of underlayment is dependent upon the end use location,
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and consideration should be given to such properties as point load resistance and protein content.
The underlayment should be allowed to dry prior to the application of the floorcovering.
Polyflor accepts no responsibility for non-conformance due to the resistance of the installed floor
being below the minimum specified, if an isolating barrier has not been used.
Note: Suspended timber subfloors are not conductive and do not require an isolating barrier.
8.3 CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES
Polyflor recommends the use of Kiesel Megastar L conductive adhesive for all Static Control
floorcoverings and Polyflor contact adhesive for earthing strips. If alternative adhesives are used,
they must be recommended by the adhesive manufacturer and approved by Polyflor.
Note: Access panels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, both in design, materials used and
electrical performance specification. We recommend in these instances that you discuss your
individual requirements with your panel supplier or alternatively with our Customer Technical
Services Department.
8.4 CONDUCTANCE TO EARTH
Installing an earthing system is a prerequisite for ESD floors. This gives the end user the option to
test to earth should there be a requirement at a later stage. Secondly, it improves the conductance
of the installed floor to a known earth via a controlled path.
The choice of material used for the earthing system can be brass, copper or stainless steel and
should be nominally 50mm wide and 0.1mm thick. However, the width is only important for the
“Conductive” floorcovering.
When an earthing system is installed, Polyflor recommends the use of at least two connections to
earth, the second as a security back-up should the first be disconnected or damaged. Connection of
the earthing system to the building earth is normally carried out by a qualified electrician and not
the flooring contractor.
8.4.1 Polyflor Static Dissipative (SD) Floorcoverings
The earth strip is laid 150mm from one side of the room, in the same direction as the vinyl sheets
are to be laid. This strip is connected to a known earth (Figure 22).
A second strip is laid at 90º to the first, 150mm from the edge and running across the full width of
the room. Further strips are laid at 20 metre intervals as determined by the size of the room.
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8.4.2 Polyflor Electrostatic Conductive (EC) Floorcoverings
A length of earth strip is adhered to the isolating underlayment and connected to a known earth.
The strip need only extend along the floor for 150mm (Figure 23).
8.4.3 Conductive ROF
With this type of flooring, an earthing grid of the correct size strip (50mm wide, 0.1mm thick) is
essential. The strips should be laid to form 600mm2 grids across the floor, the perimeter strips being
150mm from the wall (Figure 24). At an appropriate point the strip should be connected to a known
earth. It is important that the layout of the grid is confirmed with the end user as there are
variations in the requirement for some military specifications.
8.5 INSTALLATION METHODS
The basic techniques for installation of Polyflor ESD floorcoverings are the same as described for
standard vinyl sheet and tile in Sections 3 and 4 respectively. However, there are a number of
important differences:
8.5.1 ESD Vinyl Sheet
Polyflor ESD vinyl sheet should be installed by the double drop method. This is because the
conductive adhesive contains carbon, which results in low tack.
Once the adhesive has been spread, the vinyl sheet is laid into it and pressed all over to ensure an
even transfer of adhesive. The vinyl sheet is then folded back and left until the adhesive becomes
tacky. When the adhesive is tacky, the vinyl sheet should be accurately re-laid, ensuring it does not
twist or trap air bubbles. Seams must be without gaps and any excess adhesive should be removed
as work proceeds. The vinyl sheet is then rolled with a 68kg articulated floor roller in the short
direction fırst, then the long, and the rolling repeated between one and four hours later.
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8.5.2 ESD Vinyl Tiles
Polyflor ESD vinyl tiles are installed by the same method as standard vinyl tiles – the single stick
method. The grid layout for static control tiles is the same as for sheet vinyl, as described previously.
Note: ESD vinyl tiles must always be heat welded. See Section 11.
8.6 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS
Special precautions must be taken with the following products:
8.6.1 Electrostatic Conductive (EC) Floorcoverings
Pipes or metal projections (e.g. metal gullies, door spring plates etc.) must be insulated from the EC
floorcovering and free from conductive adhesive. The following method of installation is
recommended.
The EC floorcovering should be cut 50mm short of any pipe or metal fixture. This infill area should be
laid with a suitably coloured standard Polyflor sheet vinyl, adhered with a non-conductive adhesive.
This infill piece should then be welded to the ESD floorcovering with a standard weld rod.
8.6.2 Conductive Floorcovering
Polyflor Conductive does not provide protection from a short circuit on a 240/250 volt mains.
Where this material is installed, all electrical equipment and switches must be located outside the
building. No portable electrical tools should be used inside, unless earth leakage circuit breakers
are fitted to the switchgear.
8.7 HEAT WELDING
All Polyflor ESD floorcovering installations (excluding access panels) must be heat welded. Ideally,
the floor should be left for a minimum of 24 hours before welding the joints. This will prevent
adhesive bubbling up into the seams when heat is applied. For details of heat welding, see Section
11.
Note: Conductive welding rod is not a requirement with Polyflor ESD floorcoverings.
8.8 TEST METHODS
Worldwide, there are a great many test methods for electrical grade floorcoverings and, with rapid
developments in the electrical and electronic industries, standards are constantly being reviewed. To
ensure that the floor is tested to the latest specification, it is suggested that the architect or specifier
should obtain a copy of the test method and requirements from the local office of the National
Standards Authority. It should then be attached to the specification prior to the ordering of materials
and installation of the floor. If a test method is not specified, the following procedure is
recommended and approved by Polyflor.
8.8.1 Test Procedure (IEC 61340 -4-1)
The electrical testing of the floor must be carried out with an insulation tester, operating at 100 volts
D.C.
8.8.2 Test Electrodes (BSIEC 61340 -4-1)
The electrode consists of a brass cylinder 65mm in diameter, weighing approximately 2.5 kg. A screw
connector attaches the test lead to the top surface of the cylinder. On the underside is attached a
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round rubber pad – of 5mm thickness and 65 mm in diameter – which has been covered with thin
metal foil (Figure 25).
8.8.3 Test Conditioning
It is essential to condition the floor prior to testing. The floor should be cleaned (see Section 18.10)
at least 24 hours before testing, and then conditioned for 24 hours at 40-60% RH and 20-25°C.
Note: The relative humidity and temperature are only critical for Polyflor Static Dissipative
floorcoverings.
8.8.4 Test Method (IEC 61340 -4-1)
One electrode should be placed on the floor. The second connection should be made to the earth
point, the resistance being measured between the electrode and a known earth. One test should be
made for every 2 square metres of flooring. The test may not be reliable if made within 24 hours of
the flooring being laid or cleaned.
8.8.5 Testing to a Grid
The procedure of always testing the same points “on a grid” is not recommended. The whole floor
should meet the specifıcation, not just selected points. To ensure continual performance of the
whole floor, it should be periodically tested at random points.
8.8.6 Test Results
Polyflor ESD floorcoverings are manufactured to specific levels of conductance and are tested, prior
to despatch, in laboratory conditions. On-site testing not only takes into account the floorcovering
but also the adhesive, the subfloor and the environment. When installed and tested in accordance
with the instructions laid down by Polyflor and detailed in this manual, the electrical resistance
should be as follows:
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8.9 STATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
In many instances, a Polyflor ESD floorcovering is sufficient to give the necessary control, but in
highly static-sensitive areas, additional precautions may be necessary.
These include:
Dissipative clothing and footwear
Wrist and heel straps
Special work stations
Dissipative packaging and sealing
Ionisers and humidity controllers
9. Installation of vinyl Wallcoverings
On receipt of rolls, check that colours correspond to those ordered, that quantities are correct and
that there is no damage. In particular, check that rolls are from one batch, if that was requested on
the order. On arrival at site, the rolls should be safely secured in an upright position and stored,
together with the adhesive, at a minimum temperature of 18°C for at least 24 hours before laying.
Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive manufacturer or see
current literature for details.
To achieve best results, site conditions should be as described in AS 1884. A working temperature of
between 18°C and 26°C is required for at least 24 hours prior to, and during, the laying period and
for 24 hours afterwards. Conditioning areas and laying areas should be of similar temperature, to
prevent thermally induced dimensional changes.
9.1 PREPARATION
The wall surface must be smooth, sound, clean and dry. All paint, oil, grease, excessive dust and any
other contaminants liable to impair adhesion must be removed, prior to application of the wallcladding. Plaster and plasterboard are ideal substrates.
Note: In order to achieve a Class ‘O’ fire rating as defined in the UK Building Regulations for vinyl
to walls and ceilings, the substrate should be either bare plaster or plasterboard composition.
9.2 INSTALLATION
A. Prime the areas of plastered wall with a primer, as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer,
and allow to dry completely.
B. Mark the first vertical line on the wall using a plumb line. Use only pencil for marking the wall and
vinyl.
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C. Cut the Polyclad to size, allowing a small amount for cutting in.
D. Apply a recommended contact adhesive 150mm wide at the top edge of the wall, adjacent to the
ceiling and corresponding to all pressure points, such as external and internal angles and coved
radiuses.
E. Prior to placing the vinyl into position, and to give extra support, it will be necessary to apply a
recommended contact adhesive to the back of the vinyl, approximately 150mm deep at the top edge,
and corresponding to the pressure points, such as external and internal angles and coved radiuses.
Allow to become touch dry before applying Polyclad.
F. Roll up the vinyl with the face innermost, and with the decoration running either vertically or
horizontally, dependent on the size of roll, wall and application preference.
G. Spread a further coat of recommended adhesive as directed by the adhesive manufacturer, to the
prepared wall surface.
H. When ready, and working to the vertical line on the wall, apply the vinyl to the line, ensuring there
are no ripples or run-outs.
I. Roll the entire area using a flooring grade hand roller, from the centre outwards, to exclude air. A
second rolling will be necessary.
9.3 SUGGESTED INSTALLATION METHOD
9.3.1 External angles
A. To enable the wall-cladding to be formed around external corners, it may be necessary to fit and
adhere ‘Polyflor Ejecta EFA75’ cornercap profile to all external corners.
B. Fit and adhere the EFA75 cornercap profile to all external corners. Use a recommended contact
adhesive to secure the EFA75, and press firmly.
C. When all the cornercap profile is fixed, apply contact adhesive to the surface and to 150mm either
side of the corner edge. Allow to become touch dry before applying Polyclad.
D. Apply contact adhesive to the corresponding area on the back of the Polyclad and allow to go
touch dry before installing.
9.3.2 Internal angles
A. To enable the wall-cladding to be formed around internal corners, it may be necessary to fit and
adhere ‘Polyflor Ejecta’ cove former to all internal corners.
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B. Fit and adhere the cove former to internal corners and at the junction of the ceiling and top of the
wall. Use a recommended contact adhesive,and press firmly. First, fit the mitres in the corners, and at
the junction of the ceiling and top of the wall. For ease of use, short lengths of approximately 300mm
are recommended.
C. When all corners are completed, fit and adhere the longer straight lengths, using the same
method. When all the cove former is fixed, apply contact adhesive to the face of the cove former and
150mm either side of the corner edge. Allow to become touch dry before applying the Polyclad.
D. Apply contact adhesive to the corresponding area on the back of the Polyclad and allow to go
touch dry before installing.
Note: Do not attempt to take large pieces of wall-cladding around corners. The walls may not be
vertical or square, and can cause a runoff or possible rucking of the vinyl at the next seam. In these
instances, work to 150mm around the corner.
For information regarding adhesives, contact Polyflor Customer Technical Services.
10. Installation of Accessories
The Polyflor Ejecta ranges of flooring accessories are PVC extrusions designed for use with most vinyl
floorcoverings, especially the Polyflor and Polysafe ranges. The Ejecta range includes set-in coved
skirtings, sit-on coved skirtings, cove former, capping strip and CT strip as well as the weld rods
covered in Section 12.
On arrival at site, the accessories should be checked, stored and conditioned, together with the
adhesive, as described for vinyl flooring.
Note: Inflammable adhesives require special storage conditions. Contact the adhesive
manufacturer or see current literature for details.
10.1 PREPARATION
Ensure that all surfaces are firm, dry and free of dust, grease and oil. Fair faced brickwork or
blockwork should have a cementitous skim coat applied, as this provides a smooth, firm surface of
known porosity which will minimise adhesive usage and improve adhesion. Alternatively, 4mm thick
plywood can be cut into appropriate width strips and then nailed to the blockwork to provide a
smooth surface onto which the skirting can be fitted.
All painted surfaces must be stripped back and wire brushed to remove all traces of paint.
40
Always read carefully and observe the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions. Pay particular
attention to use of solvent-based adhesives, especially regarding ventilation and possible sources
of ignition.
10.2 MARKING OUT
Accurate marking out is essential to minimise adhesive usage and to prevent excess adhesive
spoiling decorations. Marking out may be done by a variety of methods including scribers, height
gauges and section templates. All fitting work must be carried out accurately prior to application of
adhesive, as movement afterwards is restricted. Adjustments for length should always be made on
straight joints – never on mitred sections – unless the length of the wall does not permit this.
When using sit-on coved skirtings around external corners, a joint can be avoided by grooving out
some of the material from the back using an Exacto cutter, and then warming the coving with a hot
air gun. It should be noted that the toe will be curved rather than right angled when the coved
skirting is installed.
10.3 ADHESIVE APPLICATION
Two adhesive systems are approved for use with Polyflor Ejecta vinyl flooring accessories:
10.3.1 System One
For use in well ventilated areas where there is no risk of ignition of the organic vapours.
This system is based upon a solution of polychloroprene rubber in organic solvents.(solvent based
contact adhesive)
Application is as follows:
A. If the surface is slightly porous, apply a suitable primer and leave to dry for 24 hours.
B. Then, apply adhesive equally to the section and to the surface to which it will be attached, using a
paint brush or paint roller. Leave until the adhesive is dry to the touch.
As a guide, adhesive coverage should be approximately 5 litres per 100 metres on 100mm high
Ejecta section, dependent upon the porosity of the surface and the thickness of applied coats.
10.3.2 System Two
Especially recommended where organic solvent vapours must be avoided.
This system relies on water-based adhesives being applied respectively to the section and the
surface.
Application is as follows:
A. Apply the water-based acrylic adhesive contact adhesive to the surface to which the section will be
attached, using a fine notched spreader, paint brush or paint roller Leave until dry.
B. Apply a thin film of water-based adhesive to the Ejecta section using a paint brush or roller. Leave
until dry.
As a guide, adhesive coverage should be approximately 2.5 litres of water-based acrylic and per 100
metres of 100mm high Ejecta section, dependent upon the porosity of the surface and the thickness
of applied coats.
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10.4 ADHERING THE ACCESSORIES
When the adhesive is dry to the touch, press the section firmly against the other surface, placing it
accurately first time. The section should not be removed or subjected to lateral force if good
adhesion is to be assured. Set-in coved skirtings are applied before the floor finish is laid and sit-on
coved skirtings are applied after the floor finish is laid.
11. Inlaid designs and borders
Polyflor Expressions inlaid motifs and border designs are manufactured under strictly controlled
conditions to produce the close-fitting pieces which make up the design. To duplicate the closefitting on site, it is important to ensure the design is correctly conditioned prior to laying.
The Polyflor Expressions design should be removed from its packaging and laid on a flat surface and
conditioned, together with the rolls of vinyl or vinyl tiles and water-based adhesive, at a
temperature of at least 18°C (64°F) for a minimum of 24 hours prior to and during installation, and at
least 24 hours afterwards.
11.1 WELDING – DRY AREAS
Welding is not a standard requirement of Polyflor Expressions and should only be carried out on the
most simple of designs such as squares, circles, etc.
Where border designs are to be incorporated into the floor, consideration as to whether welding
would affect the definition of the border lines, thus affecting the finished appearance, should be
given.
11.2 WELDING – WET AREAS
Where motifs/designs are to be laid into wet areas, either an approved epoxy resin or polyurethane
adhesive should be used, or the motifs/designs welded after consideration of the effect on the
finished appearance.
11.3 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR MOTIFS WITH A RECTANGULAR OUTER FRAME
A. As normal practice, slab the lengths and fit and loose lay the main area.
B. Place the Polyflor Expressions motif into position on top of the loose laid material and secure with
masking tape to prevent movement.
C. Trace the top and right hand side of the rectangular edge frame with a knife and remove the
motif. Also trace a diagonal line from the start point to the finish point, forming a triangle. Cut
through and remove triangle waste.
D. Reposition the motif so that it butts up tightly to the two newly cut edges. The two remaining
sides can now be traced and cut through.
Note 1: By cutting in the rectangle in two stages, a tighter joint will result.
Note 2: Always trace and cut through in one direction for best results.
E. Adhere the motif using a correctly notched trowel and approved adhesive, and roll with a 68kg
roller.
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F. Remove clear film from the face of the motif and remove any adhesive traces. Any minor
adjustments to the motif should be made whilst the adhesive is wet.
G. Fold back the main length(s) away from the motif, and adhere as above. Ensure when placingthe
material into the adhesive that the joint(s) abutting the motif are tight, and roll with a 68kg roller.
H. Turn back the other half of the length and adhere and roll as before.
11.4 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR MOTIFS/DESIGNS WITHOUT A RECTANGULAR OUTER
FRAME
Where the motif is a simple outline, it is possible to produce an acceptable appearance by carefully
tracing and cutting around the outer edge. The following procedure should be adopted. For intricate
outlines, an outside rectangular frame should be incorporated.
A. As normal practice, slab the lengths and fit and loose lay the main area.
B. Place the Polyflor Expressions motif into position on top of the loose laid material and secure with
masking tape to prevent movement.
C. Turn back the clear adhesive film approximately 25mm away from the outside edge of the motif
and carefully trace around half of the motif shape. Remove the motif and cut a straight line from
starting point to finishing point. Cut through and remove this waste half piece.
D. Reposition the motif so that it butts up tightly to the newly cut edge and secure with masking tape
to prevent movement.
E. Carefully trace around the other half of the motif and cut through.
Note: Always trace and cut through in one direction for best results.
F. Adhere the motif using a correctly notched trowel and approved adhesive, and roll with a 68kg
roller.
G. Remove clear film from the face of the motif and remove any adhesive traces. Any minor
adjustments to the motif should be made whilst the adhesive is still wet.
H. Fold back the main length(s) away from the motif and adhere as above. Ensure when placing the
material into the adhesive that the joint(s) abutting the motif are tight, and roll with a 68kg roller.
I. Turn back the other half of length and adhere and roll as before.
Polyflor Expressions designs are maintained in the same manner as the surrounding Polyflor vinyl
floorcovering. (Full details are given in Section 18 of this manual).
11.5 INSTALLATION OF BORDERS
A. Measure and mark the subfloor, using chalk lines to correspond with the required border positions.
Measure the main lengths required to fit inside the border, allowing approximately 25mm overlap.
B. Lay out the material so that it is overlapping the inner edge of the border chalk line.
C. Snap the chalk line over the top of the material to correspond with the inner border lines.
D. Using a knife and straight edge, carefully trace along the chalk lines and cut and remove the
25mm surplus. The material can now be folded back and adhered, taking care to retain a straight line
around all outside edges. The area must then be rolled.
43
E. The border pieces now require positioning up to the newly-cut straight edges, and adhering. The
clear film on the face of the border design should then be removed and any minor adjustments to the
border made whilst the adhesive is wet. The border can then be rolled.
F. The outer margin can now be fitted and adhered to the finished border.
12. Welding vinyl flooring
Polyflor strongly recommends that all Polyflor vinyl sheet floorings are welded, this includes the
internal and external joints when the vinyl sheet is site cove formed. Most specifications make
welding mandatory, since it prevents ingress of dirt and bacteria into seams and provides a floor
surface which is impermeable to water. However, welding will only aid maintenance of high
standards of hygiene if it is executed correctly.
The guidelines provided below should be followed carefully, since short cuts taken in welding create
potential problems with seam failures.
12.1 HEAT WELDING
Heat welding of vinyl floorcoverings has been used successfully for many years and employs the
technique of heating both the vinyl flooring and the vinyl welding rod to a suffıcient temperature to
melt and fuse them together.
The procedure is the same for both sheet and tile installation with the exception that the edge of the
tiles do not require cutting in prior to grooving.
12.2 CORRECT TOOLS
Having the correct tools in good condition is a prerequisite of good heat welding. The tools required
are dependent upon preferred methods but as a guide the following are suggested:
2 metre rigid straight edge
Straight and hook bladed knives
Grooving tools – manual and powered
Welding equipment – manual and automatic
Spatula • Trimming guide
Exacto trimming tools • Under scriber
Feed roller • Chalk line
Wire brush • Seam cutters
See also Section 14.
12.3 CUTTING IN THE SEAMS
Factory edges should never be butted together but should be overlapped and cut by one of the
following methods:
12.3.1 Using Seam Cutters
Set the first cutter to the thickness of vinyl sheet. Using the factory edge as a guide, trim off 6mm
along the length. Where it is not possible to use the seam cutter against the wall, or in other areas of
restricted access, use a straight edge and straight bladed knife held squarely to the floor.
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Set the second cutter to the thickness of vinyl sheet. Using the edge previously cut on the top sheet
as a guide, cut through the bottom sheet. Remove the scrap piece of material.
12.3.2 Using an Under Scriber
Prior to overlapping the vinyl sheet, trim off the factory edge on the bottom sheet. This is best done
by striking a chalk line, then – using a utility knife and straight edge – cut through and remove the
scrap piece.
Overlap the top sheet and then trace the bottom edge onto the top sheet with correctly set under
scribers. To highlight the scribed line, rub some chalk dust into the surface. Trim the top sheet to the
scribed line.
12.4 GROOVING THE SEAMS
Strike a chalk line along the overlap. Using a utility knife and straight edge, double cut the joint
through both layers of material, ensuring that the knife blade is held squarely to the floor.
Prior to welding, some of the material must be removed from the seam, creating a groove that will
accept the vinyl welding rod. Two shapes of groove can be cut:
1. A “U” shape – which leaves a semi-circular groove in the vinyl. This should extend into the vinyl for
2/3 of its thickness, up to a maximum of 2mm.
2. A “V” shape – which leaves a 60º triangular groove in the vinyl. This should extend into the vinyl
for 7/8 of its thickness.
Note: The ‘V’ shaped groove has proven particularly suitable for embossed versions of Polysafe
vinyl sheet floorcovering. The groove on Heterogeneous, Acoustic and Sports flooring should only
be cut in the vinyl wear layer. It should never be cut through to the PVC foam backing.
12.4.1 Manual Grooving
Place the centre of the grooving tool over the centre of the seam. Bring up the straight edge to
touch the side of the cutter, and align the straight edge, maintaining an even distance from the seam
(Figure 28).
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Pulling the tool towards you, groove to the required depth. Move the straight edge as required and
repeat until the whole seam is grooved. Sweep well to remove any dust and trimmings from the
groove.
12.4.2 Powered Grooving
Set the blade to the correct depth of cut. Align the guides with the cut seam. Press the cutter in to
the full depth of cut and then push forward following the cut seam. Use hand tools
to complete grooves next to walls, skirtings, etc. Sweep well to remove any dust and trimmings
from the groove.
Never use a powered grooving machine with a standard blade on Polyflor safety vinyl sheet
floorcovering. The silicon carbide and aluminium oxide particles will destroy the blade.
12.5 WELDING THE SEAMS
If wet set adhesive has been used, it is important, before commencing heat welding, to ensure
that the adhesive has set sufficiently to prevent it bubbling up when heat is applied.
If bubbling up occurs, it will adversely affect seam strength.
Prior to commencing welding:
A. Ensure the speedweld attachment is free of debris by cleaning with a wire brush.
B. Pre-heat the welding gun (setting 3 - 6 on a variable setting gun), ensuring that the nozzle is
pointing upwards during this pre-heat period.
C. Try out the welding rod on a scrap of material to ensure the temperature is correct and that fusion
is taking place. Adjust accordingly.
When you are satisfied that the temperature is correct, you can proceed to weld the joint:
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D. Place the welding rod into the speedweld aperture. Starting as close as possible to the end of the
room, press the welding rod down into the groove with the speedweld attachment, the toe of which
should be parallel to the vinyl surface. Pull the gun towards you whilst maintaining the downward
pressure (Figure 29). Ensure the gun is kept square to the floor. With your spare hand, alternately
check the weld security and that the welding rod is feeding freely.
E. Typically, you would start welding from the edge of the room towards the centre. At this stage,
pull the gun away from the groove and cut off the welding rod. Using a spatula knife, trim off the
excess welding rod and cut a tapering “V”, approximately 25mm long, into the existing weld (Figure
30). Commence welding as before, from the opposite end of the room. Run out the weld into the precut “V” and cut off the excess welding rod.
It is important to ensure a constant rate of welding. Moving slowly will “burn” the vinyl and
moving quickly will not fuse the welding rod. The finished width of the weld may also vary and
detract from the appearance.
12.6 TRIMMING THE WELD
Prior to commencing, it is advisable to stone or hone the trimming spatula knife on one side only.
This keen edge will make trimming easier and minimise the risk of “digging in”. Trimming of the weld
must be carried out in two stages. Failure to follow this procedure will result in dished welds which
are prone to dirt pickup.
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A. Place the trimming guide over the welding rod. Insert the spatula knife into the two lugs with the
honed edge uppermost. Push the knife forward and trim off the top layer of welding rod (Figure 31).
This can be done whilst the weld is still warm. Trimming the weld speeds up the cooling time.
B. When the remaining weld has cooled to room temperature, the excess weld should be trimmed.
The spatula knife, again honed edge uppermost, is used without the trimming guide. Keep as shallow
an angle as possible between blade and floor to avoid the risk of “digging in” (Figure 32).
Note: Polyflor foam backed vinyl sheet flooring is liable to compression and sometimes, even after
the final trim, the weld is proud of the floor. In this case, use an Exacto cutter with a large circular
blade to scrape away any high spots.
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12.7 GLAZING THE WELD
Should a glazed finish be required this can be achieved with the speedweld attachment removed but
still on the same heat setting, play the gun nozzle over the trimmed weld. Repeat over the whole
length of the weld, keeping the gun moving constantly to prevent burning.
13. Adhesives
The following information is provided for guidance. The recommendations and instructions of the
adhesive manufacturer must, in all cases, be followed. Only adhesives recommended by the Polyflor
Technical Department and are approved as suitable, should be used. Polyflor does not make any
warranties regarding the approved adhesives, or assume that other manufacturers’ adhesives would
not prove satisfactory. Correct handling of adhesives is recommended at all times. The Health And
Safety At Work Act 1974 should be observed and, if applicable, The Highly Flammable Liquid And
Liquefied Petroleum Gases Regulations. Any hazards indicated by the adhesive manufacturer should
be assessed and precautions taken as directed in the Control Of Substances Hazardous To Health
legislation.
13.1 INITIAL PREPARATION
Prior to the application of the floorcovering, it should be ensured that the substrate is sound, dry
and free from dust. The relative humidity of solid, cementicious subfloors should be at a maximum
of 75% relative humidity when measured over at least a 72 hour period, as described in AS 1884.
Smooth, dense surfaces such as power floated concrete should be mechanically treated to provide
sufficient porosity. Existing floorcoverings should be completely removed, together with the majority
of the adhesive, and the resulting surface should be free from dust, grease, paint, plaster or any
other contamination that may hinder adhesion. In most instances, it is beneficial to apply a
smoothing underlayment, at least 3mm thick, to smooth out any local irregularities, nullify the
effects of any adhesive residue and provide a surface of known porosity.
To achieve a sound bond between the floorcovering material and the substrate, it is essential that
these recommendations are followed.
13.2 PRIMING THE SUBFLOOR
On porous sand/cement, concrete and all timber subfloors, it is essential that a primer be used. The
use of a primer ensures an even porosity, minimises the amount of adhesive used and provides a
longer open time of the adhesive. The primer used should be compatible with the subfloor and the
adhesive, and be as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer.
13.3 APPLICATION OF ADHESIVE
It is strongly recommended that all adhesives are conditioned at a minimum temperature of 18°C for
at least 24 hours prior to, and then during, the laying period. The adhesive must be applied using a
notched trowel of the correct size notch, which must be maintained during the adhesive application
stage. The adhesive manufacturer provides details of the notch size to suit the adhesive and the
application.
Polyflor does not recommend any method of adhesive application, such as spraying, which cannot
guarantee the spread rate.
13.4 OPEN TIME OF ADHESIVES
Open times, as recommended by the relevant manufacturer must be observed at all times.
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Do not spread more adhesive than can be laid into during the open time of the adhesive.
13.5 REMOVING EXCESS ADHESIVE
As good working practice, excess adhesive should be removed as work progresses. Wet, water-based
adhesives are easily removed with a clean, damp cloth. Dried water-based adhesives and solventbased adhesives should be removed with a minimum amount of solvent cleanser, as recommended
by the adhesive manufacturer. Excessive use of these cleansers can cause discolouration and
softening of the vinyl surface.
13.6 ROLLING THE FLOOR
Once the floorcovering has been laid, the material should be rolled immediately with a 68kg
articulated floor roller, working initially in the widthways direction, if it is sheet material. This rolling
ensures good contact between the substrate, adhesive and floorcovering, expels any trapped air,
and flattens the adhesive ridges to prevent shadow through once the floor becomes trafficked.
The floorcovering should be rolled again, one to four hours later, to ensure the contact between the
materials is maintained.
13.7 PROTECTION FROM RADIATED HEAT SOURCES
The Polysafe range of floorcoverings is often used in situations where excessive heat causes
problems with the floorcovering and the adhesive. It is impractical to give specific details, as
equipment such as ovens and kilns vary in design and height above the flooring material.
Where the conditions may cause a problem, we would recommend the use of metal oven trays that
deflect the heat away from the floor, and an adhesive suitable for these conditions, such as an epoxy
or polyurethane. If you are unsure, we recommend that you discuss the application with our
Customer Technical Services team.
13.8 APPROVED ADHESIVES
There are many different types of adhesive available in the marketplace, and the suitability for use
with the range of Polyflor products depends upon a number of factors. The formulation of the
adhesive, the formulation of the floorcovering, the site conditions and the in-use conditions all affect
the selection. The Technical Department of Polyflor checks the compatibility between the adhesive
and the floorcoverings. Polyflor Australia recommend the use of Kiesel adhesives.
14. Tools & Equipment
As in all trades, a skilled floor layer should have at his disposal a basic set of tools that should be
clean and in good condition.
The specific choice of tools is dependent upon the individual floor layer’s preferences, the size of
installation and the amount of preparation required.
The following tools should be considered as part of the basic kit for the operations indicated.
14.1 MARKING OUT & FITTING
Rule
Chalk line and chalk
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Bar or long scriber
Dividers or short scribers
Pencil and compass
Various trimming knives
Recess scriber
Straight edge
Pencils
14.2 INSTALLATION
Adhesive trowels
68kg articulated roller
Triangular file
Hand roller
14.3 HEAT WELDING
Grooving tools
Spatula trimming knife
Trimming guide
Hot welding gun
Speedweld nozzle
Oilstone
14.4 PREPARATION
Long handled broom
Hand brush
Dust pan
Hygrometer
Screeding trowel
Grind stone
Electric drill (slow speed) and rotary paddle
14.5 MISCELLANEOUS
Claw hammer
Hacksaw
Electric drill
Mastic gun
14.6 SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Knee pads
Face mask
Screwdriver
Handsaw
Various twist drills
Safety goggles
Circuit breaker
14.7 OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT
The following equipment is not essential but will greatly assist the floor layer, especially on larger
installations.
Powered stripper
Automatic welding machine
Powered groover
Vacuum cleaner
Transformer
Floor grinder
Extension lead
14.8 SPECIALIST TOOLS
In addition to the basic tools, there is a range of specialist tools which are designed for specific tasks
such as coving, feature work, walls and repairs. Some of the more common tools are listed, together
with a brief description of their usage.
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52
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15. Recommended finishes
There are no short cuts to optimum performance with the installation of any flooring. That is why an
overview should be taken of each project so that the finishing details are considered right from the
start of the project. It also means that all parties are aware of their individual areas of responsibility.
There is no question that the final details contribute so much to an impressive finish for the floor.
These include relatively minor details such as awkward corners, internal or external mitres, the
junction where different floorcoverings meet and finishing details around drains and other
accessories. They make up only a small proportion of the total floor, yet they often make up most of
an architect’s snag list.
A Polyflor installation must focus on these important details and also take into account all aspects of
the location. We believe that the floor must not only look good, but also perform well, so that it is
impermeable, hygienic and safe.
15.1 DRAINAGE
The location of drains is important. As far as possible, they should be away from sources of vibration
(to reduce movement) and from beams, columns and walls (to make leak detection easier).
Obviously, they should be close to the main spillage sources, when direct outlets from spillage
sources are not possible.
The floor gradient into the drain depends on the process, traffic volume and the surface texture of
the floorcovering. The drains used should be built to permit examination, cleaning and repair
without these operations causing damage to the floor.
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15.1.1 Shower Drains
Only drains which have been specifically designed for use with sheet vinyl floorings should be
considered. Most of these drains have clamping rings, which ensure the watertight security which is
essential where hygiene and safety are of primary importance. It is important to remember to keep
joins in vinyl a minimum of 200mm from the drain.
These clamping rings ensure that the Polysafe floorcovering is held securely in position and they
prevent the ingress of water that could adversely affect the adhesion at this critical point.
15.1.2 Drainage channels and gulleys
Again, only drainage channels and gulleys which incorporate vinyl clamping and locking systems into
their design should be considered.
15.2 CONSTRUCTION JOINT COVERS
Correct treatment at expansion joints is also essential if the floor is going to last and perform in a
safe and hygienic manner. We recommend that expansion joints are covered using either a PVC
expansion joint cover, or a cover with a PVC insert, so that the flooring can be thermally welded to
the cover (Figure 35).
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On no account must the Polyflor or Polysafe be taken straight over the expansion joint. This will
lead to failure.
15.3 EDGE TRIMS
In many of the areas where Polyflor is installed, other types of floorcovering will also be used. The
junction between the Polyflor flooring and these other types of floorcovering is a potential weak
point, if not treated properly. Correct installation minimises problems such as water leakage and trip
hazard.
15.3.1 Polyflor or Polysafe with ceramic or quarry floor tiles
In installations where the edge of the vinyl comes into contact with ceramic or quarry tiles, it is
important that a watertight joint is achieved at the junction. Aluminium edge trims with PVC inserts
are ideal for this purpose. They facilitate installation and the PVC insert allows for a welded joint
between the edge trim and the Polyflor floorcovering.
15.4 POLYFLOR WITH CARPET
It is important that the junction between Polyflor and carpet is clearly visible and that any trip
hazard is minimised by using edging strips. A variety of edging strips are available for this junction.
The relevant manufacturers can supply further advice on installation and use of these types of trims.
15.4.1 Bevelled and diminishing strips
Bevelled or diminishing strips should be used at all exposed edges of Polyflor vinyl floorings to
minimise trip hazards.
The bevelled strip should be butted tightly to the exposed edge of the Polyflor vinyl flooring. The
bevelled strip should be fixed using a contact adhesive and the joint may be thermally welded.
15.5 ACCESS AND MANHOLE COVERS
It is important that access covers are used which facilitate either the welding of the Polyflor vinyl
flooring to the cover and frame or where the Polyflor vinyl flooring can be clamped into place. Both
these solutions result in a watertight, hygienic and safe joint.
15.6 SKIRTINGS AND OTHER FINISHES
Polyflor supplies a wide range of PVC profiles which are ideal for use with the Polyflor range of
products. In most installations, we would recommend that the Polyflor vinyl flooring is either sitecoved up the wall, or a “set in” coved skirting is used which can be welded to the Polyflor vinyl
flooring.
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15.6.1 Site coving
For the junction between site-coved Polyflor vinyl flooring and ceramic wall tiles, Polyflor Ejecta CT
strip (Figure 36 and 37) provides the ideal solution.
The flexible section is designed to accept ceramic wall tiles on one side and the various gauges of
Polyflor on the other.
15.6.2 Set-in coved skirtings
Where it is impractical or where it is not cost effective to use the site-coved method of installation,
the Polyflor Ejecta set-in skirting (Figure 38) is a viable alternative. Very similar to the sit-on type
skirting in appearance, the set in skirting has a 50mm toe which is adhered to the subfloor and
allows the main field of sheet vinyl to be welded to it.
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15.7 SIT-ON SKIRTINGS
Sit-on skirting (Figure 39) generally tend only to be used in conjunction with tiled floors to provide a
finish around the perimeter of the room. The sit-on skirting is adhered to the walls and the toe of
the skirting sits on top of the floor; it is not welded. If requested suitable mastic sealant can be used
beneath the toe of the skirting.
15.8 MASTIC SEALANT FINISH
When specified suitable silicon mastics can be used as a finish around the perimeter of a room. This
is provided a water tight finish is not required and all parties are in agreement as to this type of
finish.
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16. Resistance to chemicals
16.1 POLYFLOR VINYL FLOORING
Polyflor and Polysafe vinyl floorcoverings show an above average resistance to mild and dilute acids,
alkalis, soaps and detergents. Petrol and strong acids are not harmful, provided any spillage is
cleaned off immediately.
Ketones, chlorinated solvents, acetone and similar solvents should not be allowed to come into
contact with Polyflor vinyl flooring. However, if this should happen, the effect can be minimised by
removing the spillage immediately and leaving any solvent residue to evaporate, prior to allowing
any foot traffic.
Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings are suitable for use in all areas where most chemicals are used and
there is only risk of accidental spillage. However, some chemicals contain very strong dyes, which,
even after a short period of contact, will stain the vinyl flooring. In areas where these types of
chemicals are used, it is suggested that an appropriate dark colour be selected to minimise the
staining effect. The following tables summarise the general chemical resistance of Polyflor vinyl
flooring (see footnote for brief description of test procedure). Where specific chemicals are used –
for instance in a photographic laboratory – a set of chemical resistance charts is available on
request. These charts show the resistance to a range of specific chemicals by shade for each Polyflor
product, and will prove helpful in selecting colours which are least affected by specific chemicals.
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Note: Polyflor test for resistance to chemicals is evaluated over a 24 hour contact period at a room
temperature of 21ºC, followed by rinsing with cold water. Polyflor believes this simulates the
worst situation where spillages are not removed immediately and are only cleaned by normal
maintenance. Some stains can be removed by abrading with a nylon pad during maintenance. A
metallised emulsion floor polish can be used as a sacrificial layer for protecting the floor against
staining.
16.2 POLYFLOR RUBBER FLOORCOVERINGS
Polyflor Rubber floorcoverings have average resistance to mild and dilute acids, alkalis, soaps and
detergents. Prolonged exposure to petrol, oils, greases and fats will cause softening and swelling.
Polyflor Rubber floorcoverings are unsuitable for garage workshops or food preparation areas, but
are suitable for areas where spillage is infrequent. Occasional, accidental spillages, which are
removed immediately, do not normally damage the flooring. A comprehensive guide to chemical
effects and staining by product shade is available on request.
16.3 REACTION TO RUBBER
Antioxidants used in the manufacture of rubber can cause staining. Non-rubber traffic mats are
recommended, as are tyre trays for car showrooms, etc. Using black or dark brown floorcoverings
will not prevent staining but will disguise it. Lighter coloured rubber can also be specified for
appliance feet, trolley wheels etc.
16.4 ALCO-BASED HAND GELS
Polyflor homogeneous PUR, heterogeneous PUR and Polysafe safety flooring ranges are compatible
for use with the most commonly used alco-based hand gels. Some alco-based hand gels contain a
high concentration of ethanol and to discuss their compatibility with other Polyflor floorcoverings,
contact Customer Technical Services.
17. Use area classifications
Selecting a floorcovering that will satisfy the actual or expected service requirements is essential if a
product is to perform up to the end user’s expectations. With so much product information now
available, it is hardly surprising that selection can sometimes be difficult.
Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings, for example, are manufactured in a range of thicknesses, with differing
levels of filler and constructions, to suit a variety of applications. In addition, some vinyl floorings
have specialist features such as acoustical, static control or slip-resisting properties. These are the
variables from just one manufacturer!
So in order to help the end user and/or the building designer make an informed choice, the majority
of Polyflor products now show the European use area classifications and the Agrément ratings. The
Use Area Classifications can only be claimed if the products meet the requirements of the
performance criteria that have been laid down. The Agrément rating is awarded by one of the
national Agrément assessment bodies and only after an independent assessment of the product,
both in laboratory conditions and on-site use.
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A basic understanding of both systems is useful when making decisions on suitability of products. A
general guide to both systems follows:
17.1 EUROPEAN CLASSIFICATION EN 685
This European Norm describes the various levels of use area, the relevant icons and typical
applications. These typical applications may vary from country to country as room usage varies and
some applications may require a higher rated product.
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The European system has three specific use categories, with sub-divisions based on type and
intensity of traffic (see the above chart.)
Individual EN product specifications detail the performance and physical criteria that a product must
meet to achieve the classification – and products can meet the criteria of all three groups. When a
higher classification number is claimed, the product will meet all the requirements of the lower
classes in that group.
The individual EN product specifications allow for products of different filler levels and abrasion
resistance and define minimum overall and wear layer thickness for each classification.
Homogeneous products, being 100% wear layer, are classified using the minimum wear layer
thickness and the overall thickness. Compared to an heterogeneous product of the same
classification which would give a typical life expectancy of 10 years, a ‘P’ abrasion group
homogenous product has twice as much useful life and as such the life expectancy would be
20 years in a class 34/43 use area.
17.2 AGRÉMENT SYSTEM
The Agrément system, which originated in France, has been in use for many years. The ratings were
based on four key physical properties. The results which the product achieved against a test criteria
in each category gave it the overall rating. (The higher the number, the better the performance.)
The overall performance was then quoted as a UPEC rating and this system is still recognised today
in France. In 1987, the scheme for floorcoverings was revised, but still retained the basic concepts
that made the scheme so useful. The revision, carried out in conjunction with the European
floorcovering manufacturers, made the overall scheme simpler. As all vinyl floorcoverings achieved a
C2 rating when tested, it was felt unnecessary to include this and the new system concentrated on
the U, P and E ratings.
The new scheme was termed the GWS system, with G being the general classification ranging from 1
to 5 and being a combination of the previous U and P ratings. W indicates that the product can
tolerate wet cleaning but not standing water. WS indicates the product can tolerate standing water
by having the joints welded. The W and S replace the previous E rating.
A comparison of both ratings is as follows:
G1 is equivalent to U2 P2
G2 is equivalent to U2+P2
G3 is equivalent to U3 P2
G4 is equivalent to U3 P3
G5 is equivalent to U4 P3
No W rating is equivalent to E1
W rating is equivalent to E2
WS rating is equivalent to E3
The Agrément bodies produce a comprehensive listing of typical use areas, which are too numerous
to list here, together with the product rating required. Contact Polyflor or their overseas agents for
the address of the local national body that can provide this information.
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17.3 EUROPEAN NORMS
European Norms – or “EN”s – are aimed at harmonising industry standards throughout the European
Union and EFTA countries, and have now replaced the old British Standards relating to
floorcoverings.
The standards are:
EN 649 covering homogeneous and heterogeneous vinyls and replacing BS 3261A.
EN 650 covering jute or polyester backed vinyls.
EN 651 covering homogeneous and heterogeneous vinyls on PVC foam, and replacing BS 5085.
EN 652 covering vinyl flooring with a cork based backing.
EN 653 covering expanded PVC flooring such as cushion vinyls.
EN 654 covering semi-flexible PVC tiles, and replacing BS 3260.
EN 655 for PVC tiles with a base of agglomerated cork and a PVC wear layer.
The relevant ENs which apply to Polyflor vinyl floorcoverings are 649, 651 and 654.
Under EN 649, products are given an abrasion group rating. There are two test methods accepted for
abrasion which have an established correlation; EN 660 Parts 1 and 2. Either can be used to establish
the abrasion category.
The ratings are expressed as T,P, M and F. These groups were chosen with reference to the already
well established Agrément system, and relate to the idea of a notional 10-year life expectancy in a
given use area. The initials come from the French: Transparent, Pas or Peu chargé, Moyen chargé
and Fortement chargé, and basically relate to the amount of filler (chargé) used in a formulation.
EN 649 defines the performance criteria which products must meet in order to claim Use Area
Classification under EN 685, as discussed in Section 17.1.
In addition to the vinyl specification, new specifications for rubber flooring have now been
published. They are:
EN 1817 Homogeneous and heterogeneous rubber flooring.
EN 1816 Homogeneous and heterogeneous rubber flooring with foam backing.
EN 12199 Homogeneous and heterogeneous relief rubber flooring.
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18. Operating service temperature
The full range of Polyflor and Polysafe sheet vinyl floorcoverings can be used under a wide range of
service temperatures.
Maximum upper temperature 60°C (140°F)
Minimum lower temperature -20°C (-4°F)
Use in such extreme conditions is dependent upon the correct selection of adhesive. Guidance
should be sought from the adhesive manufacturer for approval of the adhesive at the expected
temperatures. Typically, an approved two-part epoxy or polyurethane adhesive should be used in
the main field, and a contact adhesive for vertical applications.
It is important that the materials be conditioned and installed at normal room temperatures:
18°C (65°F). The material should be fully adhered to the substrate, taking care to ensure that there
are no unsupported voids beneath the vinyl. In these types of installation, and where site coving is
specifıed, then a pencil cove should be used, and not one with a cove former. All joints should be hot
welded 24 hours after installation and before the installation is taken to the service temperature.
Both Polyflor and Polysafe ranges can withstand occasional sudden changes in temperature caused
by short-term contact with hot water and steam. Long-term or regular contact should be avoided.
Where there is a possibility of regular contact with liquid gases, which are extremely cold, the
constant expansion and contraction of the vinyl may cause premature failure. In these instances, it
can be beneficial to have a second piece of vinyl loose laid on top of the floor, to protect it. Should
this become damaged, it can be easily and economically replaced.
18.1 UNDERFLOOR HEATING
All the Polyflor and Polysafe vinyl product ranges can be installed over underfloor heating. In
installations where underfloor heating is used, this should be switched off from 48 hours prior to
installation until 48 hours afterwards. It should then be slowly brought back up to the working
temperature, a maximum of 27°C. Adhesives capable of withstanding temperatures up to 27°C
should be used.
Please note: It is recommended that underfloor heating systems are commissioned prior to the
flooring being installed to ensure the heating system is operating correctly. The above installation
procedure should then be followed.
18.2 AREAS SUBJECTED TO PROLONGED SUNLIGHT
Large, sun-facing windows (especially where under-floor heating is in use) and conservatories can
experience problems due to high daytime temperatures and low night-time temperatures. In these
instances, it is necessary to ensure that an even day and night temperature is maintained during the
laying period and until the adhesive reaches its full bond strength, which is normally three days. To
ensure the best results, shade all windows, turn off any underfloor heating, provide background
heating at 18°C and select an epoxy or polyurethane grade adhesive. Condition the tiles correctly
prior to installation. Polyflor will not accept responsibility for any expansion or shrinkage problems,
which may result from changes in temperature during the period when the adhesive is reaching full
bond strength.
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All Polyflor floor coverings are designed for internal usage only. We cannot guarantee the
performance of any of our floor coverings in external environments.
19. Maintenance
19.1 INTRODUCTION TO MAINTENANCE
19.1.1 Why is floorcare necessary?
Floorcoverings are selected for many reasons including their colour, design and sometimes specialist
properties such as static control or slip resistance. Without regular maintenance, dust and soiling
would soon build up, making the colour and design indistinguishable and the specialist properties
practically useless. Dirt and soiling can also harbour bacteria, making the floorcovering a health
hazard e.g. in hospitals or food processing areas. Dust and grit underfoot can also act as an abrasive,
which, if left uncontrolled, would shorten the life of a floorcovering, causing premature
replacement. Regular and well planned maintenance keeps the floorcovering in pristine condition
and can enhance the original appearance. Maintenance can also reduce wear and ultimately
improve the life expectancy of the floorcovering.
19.1.2 What is maintenance?
Maintenance means many things to many people. To some, it is an army of operatives using modern
powered machines working to a comprehensive maintenance programme. To others, it is someone
who comes in three evenings a week to dust and mop the floors. In each case, the requirement for
cleanliness and gloss can be completely different.
It is this variability in what is considered normal that makes it impracticable in this manual to give
precise maintenance instructions to suit specific end user locations. The instructions given are
intended to be used as a guide. They are based on general experience using established methods
and cleaning materials. Polyflor recommends that the instructions are followed initially and, as
traffic patterns become established, the frequency is tailored to suit.
19.1.3 Tailored Maintenance
Reducing maintenance costs is not difficult; what takes much more skill is reducing these costs
without cutting the effectiveness of the maintenance system. By tailoring a maintenance
programme, real savings can be made without compromising standards of appearance, hygiene and
cleanliness.
A tailored maintenance programme is simple to apply, with the effort (and thus the cost),
concentrated where each location demands. This produces definite savings and considerable return
on a floorcovering investment.
Certain Polyflor ranges benefit from enhanced formulations in relation to maintenance. The PUR or
Supratec+ families provide long term maintenance benefits. The PU family facilitates a reduction in
the intensity of the construction clean and provides the foundation for the ongoing maintenance
regime.
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In our experience, a tailored maintenance approach is the best solution for all types of
floorcoverings.
19.1.4 The Polyflor in-depth approach
We begin by looking at the many variables which have a part to play in maintenance. These include
floor location, type and quantity of traffic, and the existence or otherwise of dirt
barriers. Armed with this information, a solution which gives real savings without affecting the
floor’s appearance, hygiene or cleanliness can be developed.
19.2 POINTS TO CONSIDER
Before establishing a maintenance programme, there are some points which should be considered,
as they can affect the method and frequency – and hence the cost – of maintenance.
19.2.1 Dirt Barrier Systems
Evidence from a wide range of studies indicates that up to 80% of all dirt, grit and moisture is carried
into a building by the people using it. One of the easiest ways to reduce maintenance costs must
therefore be to reduce the amount of dirt, grit and moisture they bring in. Not only would this cut
the cost of its removal, but it would also cause less abrasive action on the floorcovering, which in
turn would ensure a longer useful life. With less moisture, there would also be less potential for
slipping.
Unfortunately, notices asking people to thoroughly wipe their feet rarely work. What is needed is an
effective “passive” dirt barrier system. At first, these systems can seem expensive but the savings
they provide over the long term are substantial.
An effective dirt barrier system has both scraping and absorbing qualities and is sufficiently large to
perform these actions on both feet during normal walking – hence “passive”. Dirt barrier systems
should be considered early in the specification stage. They should not be an afterthought, when
there are rarely sufficient funds or space to do the job properly.
19.2.2 The Ideal Dirt Barrier
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Note: To maintain the effectiveness of dirt barrier systems, they must be cleaned regularly,
otherwise they can actually increase the soil intake by creating a “soil reservoir” at the entrance to
the building.
19.3 ASSESSING THE LOCATION
As mentioned earlier, by tailoring the maintenance programme, real and achievable savings can be
made without compromising standards of appearance, hygiene and cleanliness. The first part of this
process is to break down areas to be cleaned into a series of independent locations. Each location
should then be assessed before a particular maintenance regime is employed.
This should provide a clear indication as to where the effort and therefore the cost should best be
applied.
These assessments should be reviewed periodically, to ensure that standards are to the level
expected by the client and that cost savings are being achieved wherever this is possible.
19.3.1 Points to consider
The assessment should consider the following points:
LOCATION
Position of the location in the building. Entrance areas and receptions will require more intensive,
frequent cleaning than upper floor, low circulation corridors.
SOILING
Type of soiling which is likely to be found in the location. Dirt and grit from an outside car park will
require a different treatment from chemical spillage in a laboratory.
CLIENT EXPECTATIONS
The expectation of the client for that particular location plays an important part. Obviously, if a high
shine is required, the maintenance regime must be able to provide this.
TRAFFIC
Traffic types, density and frequency in the given location. The type of footwear used by children in
school corridors provides a different situation from that where soft soled trainers or pumps are used
in the school sports hall.
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TYPE OF CLEANING EQUIPMENT
Manual methods can be time consuming in large areas and may be incompatible with the frequency
requirement. However, large machines used in confined spaces can take longer than manual
methods.
COLOUR OF FLOORCOVERING
In general, light colours show soiling more easily, dark colours show loss of gloss more easily. Mid
range colours will give a balance between the two extremes.
PREVAILING WEATHER
In icy conditions, grit and salt are sometimes used outside building entrances. In dry conditions, dust
and sand can also be found outside buildings. In both instances, soiling and abrasion can be
accelerated if effective measures are not taken to prevent them being trafficked into the building.
19.3.2 The Assessment should establish the following:
1. The type of cleaning needed
2. The frequency of cleaning
3. The cleaning products and equipment needed
4. The level of labour required
5. The time to be allocated
19.4 INDIVIDUAL PRODUCT MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
As the Polyflor product portfolio has developed, the maintenance procedures have become specific
to generic types which are:
Smooth products with PUR (polyurethane reinforcement)
Smooth products with PU (polyurethane surface treatment)
Smooth products without PUR or PU
Polysafe products with PUR enhanced formulation
Polysafe products without PUR
ESD ranges where no polish should be applied
Rubber floorcoverings
The general maintenance procedures are listed in the subsequent pages. We also provide hard
copies (on request) or electronic copies (through the web site) of individual floorcare procedures, to
guide the end user or maintenance staff.
19.5 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYLS WITH PUR
The Polyflor PUR family of products incorporates a polyurethane reinforcement, which protects the
floorcovering by resisting soiling and scuffing. Combined with the superior closed surface finish, this
enhanced protection allows the use of a polish-free maintenance regime. This protection ensures
that the intensity of the maintenance and overall cleaning costs are significantly reduced.
The following maintenance instructions aredesigned to maximise the benefits of the PUR, resulting
in lower maintenance costs, without compromising the long-term appearance of your floorcovering.
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19.5.1 Initial construction clean
A. Remove all loose debris.
B. Ensure that all traces of adhesive are removed from the surface of the floorcovering.
C. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and grit.
D. Damp mop with a neutral detergent.
E. If required, dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad.
19.5.2 Routine maintenance
The following recommendations are provided as a guideline, and the frequency can be changed to
optimise the appearance.
DAILY
Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and loose dirt. If required, spot mop to remove stubborn
marks, with a neutral cleanser.
WEEKLY
Assess the appearance of the floor. Undertake the following as required:
Light scuffing – dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad.
or
Heavier scuffing – spray clean using a floor maintainer and 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with
a suitable clean pad.
19.5.3 Periodic Maintenance
A. Assess the appearance of the floor. If the floor has dirt build–up, machine scrub with a scrubber
dryer (approx. 165 rpm) fitted with a suitable clean pad, using a neutral or alkaline detergent,as
appropriate.
B. Rinse thoroughly and allow to dry.
C. Dry buff to restore finish.
19.5.4 Additional Information:
1. The maintenance regime requires the installation of an effective barrier matting system.
2. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as per the manufacturers’ instructions.
3. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
4. Fit protective feet to table and chair legs, to prevent scratching.
5. These maintenance instructions are intended for the PUR family of floorcoverings, which have a
polyurethane reinforcement.
For other Polyflor products, reference should be made to the relevant section or to their specific
floorcare sheets.
6. In most instances, the above maintenance regime will be sufficient to ensure your floorcovering
retains the optimum appearance. However where there is no mechanical means of maintaining the
floor, or should you wish to provide extra protection in heavily trafficked areas, a metallised floor
polish should be applied. Details of the procedure to be used can be found under the Standard Vinyl
with PU section.
7. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
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19.6 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYL WITH PU
Polyflor smooth vinyl ‘PU’ floorcoverings incorporate a polyurethane surface treatment, which
protects the floorcovering by resisting soiling and scuffing. This protection facilitates a reduction in
the intensity of the construction clean and provides the foundation for the ongoing maintenance
regime. This easier cleanability offers maintenance cost savings when compared with non-treated
materials.
The following maintenance instructions are designed to minimise the cost factor, without
compromising the long-term appearance of your floorcovering.
19.6.1 Initial construction clean
A. Remove all loose debris.
B. Ensure that all traces of adhesive are removed from the surface of the floorcovering.
C. Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and grit.
D. Damp mop with a neutral detergent.
E. If required, dry buff with a 1000 rpm plus rotary machine fitted with a suitable clean pad.
19.6.2 Routine maintenance
The following recommendations are provided as a guideline, and the frequencies can be
changed to optimise the appearance.
DAILY
Mop sweep or vacuum to remove dust and loose dirt. If required, spot clean to remove stubborn
marks with a neutral cleanser. If required, dry buff to restore finish.
WEEKLY/MONTHLY
Assess the appearance of the floor. If required, scrub with a scrubber dryer fitted with suitable pads,
and using neutral cleanser (pH 7 to 9). If required, dry buff to restore finish.
19.6.3 Application of a floor dressing
The Polyurethane surface treatment will provide initial protection for the floorcovering. However, an
application of a metallised polish may be required eventually to provide extra protection. The level
and intensity of traffic and soiling will determine how soon the polish will have to be applied. For
polish free maintenance, see the Polyflor PUR range of products. For polish application, please
follow details of the procedure below.
A. Using an applicator and tray, or Kentucky mop with wringer and bucket, the first coat should be
applied thinly and evenly across the floor, to within 200mm of the skirtings. It should then be left to
dry. This normally takes approximately thirty minutes, depending on the ambient conditions and the
thickness of the coating.
B. When the first coat is dry, a second coat should be applied at right angles to the direction of the
first. Subsequent coats should be applied at right angles, and the final coat should be applied right up
to the skirting.
Two to three thin coats are usually sufficient to provide excellent resistance to abrasion, scuffing and
removal of black heel marking. However, be guided by your own periodic assessments for the
particular location.
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In order to minimise costs, subsequent polish applications may be applied only to traffic paths.
Periodically – generally every six months – assess the appearance of the floor. If there is an
unacceptable build-up of polish, this should be stripped and reapplied, as per the instructions above.
19.6.4 Additional Information:
1. The maintenance regime requires the installation of an effective barrier matting system.
2. Cleaners and detergents should be diluted as per the manufacturers’ instructions.
3. These maintenance instructions are intended for the Polyflor ‘PU’ family, which incorporates a
polyurethane surface treatment. For other Polyflor products, reference should be made to the
relevant section or to their specific floorcare sheets.
4. For further guidance, contact Polyflor Customer Technical Services.
5. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
6. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
19.7 STANDARD SMOOTH VINYL RANGES WITHOUT PU OR PUR
19.7.1 Initial construction clean
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to remove dust, grit and debris.
B. For light soiling, damp mop the floor with a neutral cleanser diluted to the manufacturer’s
instructions.
or
For heavy soiling, apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to
the floor and leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 to 350 rpm rotary
machine fitted with a scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up the slurry with a wet
vacuum. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to
dry thoroughly.
19.7.2 Application of a floor dressing
A. Ensure that there is a good key between the floor dressing and the surface of the flooring,
scrubbing the floor if required.
B. Either of the following methods can be used:
EMULSION POLISH.
Apply two or three thin coats of emulsion polish in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions,
with either a proprietary polish applicator or Kentucky mop wrung out to prevent over-application of
polish. The polish should be applied up to 150mm from the edges of the room, and subsequent coats
should be applied at 90º to the previous one. The final coat should be applied right up to the edges of
the room.
or
SPRAY CLEAN/POLISH.
The floor maintainer should be used undiluted for the first 2–3 applications, to enable a protective
film to be developed as quickly as possible and, thereafter, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
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Note: To provide adequate protection in high traffic areas, it can be more effective to apply an
emulsion polish, rather than spray clean/ polish. Where a high shine finish is undesirable, a matt
finish polish should be used.
19.7.3 Routine maintenance
The frequency of each of the operations is dependent upon the type and intensity of traffic.
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to remove dust and loose dirt.
B. Spot mop frequently. Stubborn black marks can be removed by using the centre disc of a scrubbing
pad and a small amount of undiluted alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of the shoe and
rub – this gives greater pressure. Rinse the area well with clean warm water and leave to dry.
C. Depending upon the end user requirement and the equipment available, one of the following
methods should be used:
Using floor maintainer, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor and leave to dry. If a
shine is required, the floor should be buffed with a 500 to 2000 rpm rotary machine fitted with a
suitable pad.
or
Using floor maintainer, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, spray a fine mist onto the floor.
Using a 165 to 500 rpm rotary machine and suitable spray cleaning pad, buff the floor to the desired
shine. The dirt is picked up in the pad, which should be thoroughly cleaned after use. Failure to do so
will result in a shiny, dirty floor.
or
Using a neutral or germicidal cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor
and allow to dry completely. Using a 500 to 2000 rpm rotary machine, buff the floor to the desired
level of shine.
Note: When high speed burnishing, it is important that the machine is kept constantly moving.
This avoids excessive heat build-up on the floor. As an additional precaution, we advise that a
spray of clean water is used, to help lubricate the pad.
19.7.4 Removal of a floor dressing
An unsightly build-up of polish should be avoided. The polish should be removed regularly - the
interval between application and removal depends on the wear conditions and the number of polish
layers (normally six months in heavy traffic areas.) Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
19.7.5 Additional Information
1. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
2. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
19.8 POLYSAFE RANGES WITH PUR
The following maintenance instructions are Designed to minimise the cost factor, while ensuring
that your floorcovering retains the optimum appearance and performance. The PUR system reduces
the intensity of cleaning and the use of chemicals, which helps minimise the effect on the
environment, without compromising such key elements as hygiene and underfoot safety.
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19.8.1 Construction clean
PUR is designed to resist soiling, which ensures that – even after transportation, installation and the
period prior to handover – the intensity of construction clean can be significantly reduced. This will
have a beneficial impact on the initial costs.
A. Remove all loose debris.
B. Remove surface dust and grit by sweeping or vacuuming.
C. Apply a solution of neutral cleanser (or alkaline cleanser, dependent upon the level of soiling),
diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, with a spray over the section to be cleaned. Leave for
sufficient time to react with the soiling.
D. Pick up the solution with a clean microfiber mop, using a continuous side-to-side motion. When
the mop head becomes loaded, it will start streaking the floor. At this point, the dirty mop head
should be removed and placed into a laundry bag and a clean mop head fitted. The cycle should then
be repeated until the whole floor is completed.
E. The dirty mop heads should then be laundered in preparation for reuse.
Note: If the floor has been heavily scuffed, it may be necessary to use a Doodle bug or similar tool
fitted with a suitable pad to remove the scuff marks
19.8.2 Daily maintenance
A. Remove surface dust and grit by sweeping or vacuuming.
B. Apply a solution of neutral cleanser (or alkaline cleanser, dependent upon the level of grease or
oily contaminates), diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, with a spray over the section to be
cleaned. Leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling.
C. Pick up the solution with a clean microfiber mop, using a continuous side-to-side motion. When the
mop head becomes loaded, it will start streaking the floor. At this point, the dirty mop head should
be removed and placed into a laundry bag and a clean mop head fitted. The cycle should then be
repeated until the whole floor is completed.
D. The dirty mop heads should then be laundered, in preparation for reuse.
19.8.3 Additional Information
1. This maintenance procedure has been designed to optimise the benefits of the Supratec+ system –
the latest in proven cleaning technology. The maximum benefits are derived from this system by
carrying out this quick and simple procedure on a daily basis, and by using clean equipment each
time, to maximise dirt pick-up and eliminate streaking.
2. More traditional cleaning methods can be used: full details are available from Polyflor.
3. A floor dressing or maintainer containing polish should not be applied to Polysafe ranges with
Supratec+, as this may impair the slip resistance. If in doubt, consult our Customer Technical Services
staff.
4. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
5. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
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19.9 POLYSAFE RANGES WITHOUT PUR
19.9.1 Construction clean
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor to remove dust, grit and debris.
B. Apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor and
leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling.
C. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted with a rotary scrubbing brush or, if necessary, a scrubbing
pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up the slurry with a wet vacuum.
D. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to dry
thoroughly.
For small areas, where there is no suitable scrubbing machine available, a deck scrubber should be
used in conjunction with a wet vacuum or mop and bucket system. Dilution rates above the
manufacturer’s minimum recommendations may be necessary for very heavy soiling.
For Polysafe Hydro, the scrubbing pad should be replaced with a rotary scrubbing brush or a
cylindrical type scrubbing machine.
19.9.2 Ongoing maintenance
For ongoing maintenance, the frequency of each of the operations is dependent upon the type and
intensity of traffic and the appearance expectations and should be adjusted to suit.
19.9.3 Standard surface finish
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to remove dust and loose dirt.
B. Spot mop regularly. Stubborn black marks can be removed by using the centre disc of a scrubbing
pad and a small amount of undiluted alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of the shoe and
rub – this gives greater pressure. Rinse the area well with clean warm water and leave to dry.
C. Apply a solution of neutral or alkaline cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the
floor and leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted
with a rotary scrubbing brush or, if necessary, a scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick
up the slurry with a wet vacuum. Rinse thoroughly with clean, warm water, pick up with a wet
vacuum and leave to dry thoroughly.
19.9.4 Hydro embossed surface finish
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum to remove dust and loose dirt.
B. Spot scrub regularly with a deck scrubber.
C. Apply a solution of neutral or alkaline cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the
floor and leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 rpm rotary machine fitted
with a bristle brush or a cylindrical machine or deck scrubber, scrub the floor and pick up the slurry
with a wet vacuum. Rinse thoroughly with clean, warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and allow
to dry thoroughly.
19.9.5 Additional Information
1. A floor dressing should not be applied to Polysafe floorcoverings, as this may impair the slip
resistance. If in doubt, consult our Customer Technical Services staff.
2. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
3. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
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19.10 THE ESD FAMILY
The ESD family of vinyl floorcoverings are designed to prevent damage to processes, equipment or
people by conducting static charges away at a rate that prevents damage.
In order to ensure the ESD features work effectively, it is important that the instructions provided
are followed. Failure to do so could render the ESD system ineffective.
19.10.1 Construction clean
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor, to remove dust, grit and debris.
B. For light soiling, damp mop the floor with a neutral cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s
instructions.
or
For heavy soiling, apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to
the floor and leave for sufficient time to react with the soiling. Using a 165 to 350 rpm rotary
machine fitted with a scrubbing pad, machine scrub the floor and then pick up the slurry with a wet
vacuum. Rinse the floor thoroughly with clean warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum and leave to
dry thoroughly.
19.10.2 Application of a Floor Dressing
Normal, commercially available polishes should not be applied to Polyflor ESD products, as they will
inhibit the conductive properties.
Polishes described as ’antistatic‘ are classified by a different standard from that of the floorcovering,
and should be treated as a standard polish in static control terms. Consequently, they should not be
applied.
Conductive polishes which are approved by Polyflor can be applied in strict accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions. Prior to application of a floor dressing, ensure that the floor is
thoroughly scrubbed. This will ensure that there is a good key between the dressing and the surface
of the flooring. Always discuss with our Technical Services staff before applying a conductive polish.
19.10.3 Regular maintenance
The frequency of each of the operations is dependent upon the type and intensity of traffic.
A. Sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum, to remove dust and loose dirt.
B. Spot mop frequently. Stubborn black marks can be removed by using the centre disc of a scrubbing
pad and a small amount of undiluted alkaline cleanser. Place the disc under the sole of the shoe and
rub – this gives greater pressure. Rinse the area well with clean warm water and allow to dry.
C. Depending upon the end user requirement and the equipment available, one of the following
methods should be used:
Using an alkaline or germicidal cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, spray a fine mist
onto the floor. Using a 165 to 500 rpm rotary machine and suitable spray cleaning pad, buff the floor
to the desired shine. The dirt is picked up in the pad, which should be thoroughly cleaned after use.
Failure to do so will result in a shiny, dirty floor.
or
Using an alkaline or germicidal cleanser, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, mop the floor
and allow to dry completely. Using a 500 to 2000 rpm rotary machine, buff the floor to the desired
level of shine.
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NOTE : When high speed burnishing, it is important that the machine is kept constantly moving.
This avoids excessive heat build-up on the floor. As an additional precaution, we advise that a
spray of clean water is used to help lubricate the pad.
19.10.4 Additional Information
1. Always ensure mops and pads are kept especially for the static control areas, to prevent a possible
transfer of polish.
2. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
3. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
19.11 RUBBER FLOORCOVERINGS
19.11.1 Construction clean
After installation, wait 48 hours before proceeding with the construction/intensive clean.
A. Sweep or dry vacuum the floor to remove dust, grit and debris.
B. Apply a solution of alkaline cleanser, diluted as per the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor
and leave for at least 5 minutes (or longer if manufacturer recommends) to react before proceeding.
C. Using a 150/175 rpm rotary machine fitted with fibre or nylon brushes, machine scrub the floor
and then pick up the slurry with a mop or wet vacuum. The floor should then be rinsed with clean
water and allowed to dry.
19.11.2 Application of a floor dressing
A. Prior to the application of a floor dressing, ensure that the floor is completely stripped, clean and
free from any contaminants. This will ensure that there is a good key between the dressing and the
surface of the floor.
B. Apply two or three thin coats of emulsion polish, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions, with either a proprietary polish applicator or Kentucky mop wrung out to prevent over
application of polish. The polish should be applied up to 150mm from the edges of the room, and
subsequent coats should be applied at 90° to the previous one. The final coat should be applied right
up to the edges of the room.
19.11.3 Routine maintenance
For ongoing maintenance, the frequency of each of the operations should be adjusted to suit the
appearance expectations and the type and intensity of traffic.
A. Sweep or dry vacuum daily, to remove dust and loose dirt.
B. Spot mop frequently. Rinse the area with clean warm water and allow to dry.
C. As required (normally at least once per week) mop the floor using a floor maintainer, diluted as per
the manufacturer’s instructions, and leave to dry. If a shine is required, the floor should be buffed
with a low-speed machine, typically 150/500 rpm, fitted with suitable fibre or nylon brushes.
Regular buffing of the floorcovering will enhance its appearance.
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19.11.4 Removal of a floor dressing
An unsightly build-up of polish should be avoided. The polish should be removed regularly; the
interval between application and removal depends on the wear conditions and the number of polish
layers. (Normally, six months in heavy traffic areas.)
A. Apply a solution of emulsion polish stripper, diluted to the manufacturer’s instructions, to the floor
and leave for approximately 15 minutes.
B. Machine scrub with a 150/175 rpm machine fitted with a scrubbing brush, and then remove slurry
with a wet vacuum. Thoroughly rinse the floor with clean warm water, pick up with a wet vacuum
and allow to dry completely. The cycle of polish application and routine maintenance should then be
repeated.
19.11.5 Additional Information
1. Always follow the Health and Safety guidance provided.
2. Regular cleaning is more beneficial to the floorcovering and more cost-effective than occasional
heavy cleaning.
19.12 TIPS, HINTS AND PROBLEM SOLVING
The main objective of the tailored maintenance programme is to provide cost savings without any
compromise in cleanliness and hygiene. Bearing this in mind, the most important tip is to regularly
assess the various locations and be flexible about the maintenance employed in them. If the floor in
a particular location needs more attention, then ensure that it gets it sooner rather than later. If
some areas seem over-maintained (with polish build-up, perhaps, in the non-trafficked areas), then
pull back the maintenance level, but always monitor the situation to ensure that it remains within
control. In addition, there are certain precautions which can be taken.
19.12.1 Asphalt and Tarmacadam
Where asphalt or tarmacadam is present immediately outside an entrance and there is not a
sufficient dirt barrier system in place, use non-rubber traffic mats at least two paces wide. Staining
of the floor may occur if traffic mats are not used.
19.12.2 Gravel Paths and Roadways
Traffic mats should also be considered when gravel paths or roadways are immediately outside an
entrance. Mats must always be cleaned frequently.
19.12.3 Rubber Matts / Tyres, etc.
Antioxidants used in the manufacture of rubber can cause staining. Some rubber Matts used in
kitchens when exposed to water, detergent and animal fats will break down and cause staining. Nonrubber traffic mats are recommended, as are tyre trays for car showrooms. Using black or dark
brown floorcoverings will not prevent staining but will disguise it. Lighter coloured rubber can also
be specified for appliance feet, trolley wheels etc.
19.12.4 Scratches
Prevention is the first step to protecting vinyl flooring from scratches:
1. Use mats at external doorways to reduce the trafficking of grit, dust and water into the building.
2. Furniture can cause scratches to a vinyl floor, therefore appropriate protection (felt pads, etc.)
should be attached to the feet of tables and chair legs etc.
3. Keeping pets nails well clipped will reduce the likelihood of scratching from pets.
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19.12.5 Points to Note
1. Regular light maintenance is more cost effective than periodic heavy maintenance and more
beneficial to the floorcovering.
2. Always sweep, mop sweep or dry vacuum the floor regularly.
3. Always use clean equipment – dirty equipment only redistributes the dirt.
4. Do not mix cleaning products from different manufacturers –they may not be compatible.
5. Always remove any spillage immediately. Always remove excess water. It is not only dangerous
but, on unwelded tile floors, the water can attack the adhesive and break the bond.
6. Do not use products containing pine gel or phenolic acid on Polyflor vinyl flooring. These can soften
the vinyl surface and increase the possibility of scuffing. Shrinkage of the vinyl can also occur in the
long term.
7. Never apply a floor dressing which cannot easily be removed – such as polyurethane or acrylic
sealers – unless approved by Polyflor.
8. Never deviate from the manufacturer’s recommended dilution rates.
9. Always take precautions to prevent dark rubber from coming into contact with the flooring. If this
cannot be avoided, select darker colours of floorcovering.
10. Never use black nylon carborundum abrasive pads on the flooring.
11. Only use water based floor maintenance products.
18.12.6 Problem Solving
It is our experience that most floorcare complaints arise from a general comment that the floor is
not as clean as expected. The most common reason is usually that the maintenance method being
applied is not compatible with the type and level of traffic found. The table below contains more
specific problems with their causes and our recommended actions.
19.13 HEALTH AND SAFETY
When using cleaning machines, polishes and chemicals, always follow the health and safety advice
given by the relevant manufacturers.
When maintaining floors, wherever possible cordon off the area. This is much safer and will ensure
that the job can be completed quicker.
Always use warning signs to advise that cleaning is in progress, especially in heavily trafficked areas
and where wet cleaning methods are used.
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