MC68340 - NXP Semiconductors
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
µ MOTOROLA
MC68340
Integrated Processor with DMA
User’s Manual
©MOTOROLA INC., 1992
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
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PREFACE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The complete documentation package for the MC68340 consists of the MC68340UM/AD,
MC68340 Integrated Processor with DMA User’s Manual, M68000PM/AD, MC68000
Family Programmer’s Reference Manual, and the MC68340P/D, MC68340 Integrated
Processor with DMA Product Brief.
The MC68340 Integrated with DMA Processor User’s Manual describes the programming,
capabilities, registers, and operation of the MC68340; the MC68000 Family Programmer’s
Reference Manual provides instruction details for the MC68340; and the MC68340
Integrated Processor with DMA Product Brief provides a brief description of the MC68340
capabilities.
This user’s manual is organized as follows:
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Device Overview
Signal Descriptions
Bus Operation
System Integration Module
CPU32
DMA Controller Module
Serial Module
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10
Section 11
Section 12
Timer Modules
IEEE 1149.1 Test Access
Port
Applications
Electrical Characteristics
Ordering Information and
Mechanical Data
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FAX 512-891-8593
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to submit any questions and comments about this document. We welcome your
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SECTION 1:
OVERVIEW
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UM Rev 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paragraph
Number
Title
Page
Number
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Section 1
Device Overview
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.1.1
1.3.1.2
1.3.1.3
1.3.1.4
1.3.1.5
1.3.1.6
1.3.1.7
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
M68300 Family..................................................................................................1-2
Organization ..................................................................................................1-3
Advantages....................................................................................................1-3
Central Processor Unit..................................................................................... 1-3
CPU32 ............................................................................................................1-4
Background Debug Mode...........................................................................1-4
On-Chip Peripherals ........................................................................................1-5
System Integration Module.........................................................................1-5
External Bus Interface..............................................................................1-5
System Configuration and Protection...................................................1-6
Clock Synthesizer.....................................................................................1-6
Chip Select and Wait State Generation ...............................................1-6
Interrupt Handling.....................................................................................1-6
Discrete I/O Pins........................................................................................1-6
IEEE 1149.1 Test Access Port................................................................1-7
Direct Memory Access Module...................................................................1-7
Serial Module................................................................................................1-7
Timer Modules...............................................................................................1-8
Power Consumption Management................................................................1-8
Physical ..............................................................................................................1-9
Compact Disc-Interactive ................................................................................1-9
More Information...............................................................................................1-10
Section 2
Signal Descriptions
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
MOTOROLA
Signal Index.......................................................................................................2-2
Address Bus.......................................................................................................2-4
Address Bus (A23–A0) ................................................................................2-4
Address Bus (A31–A24)..............................................................................2-4
Data Bus (D15–D0)..........................................................................................2-4
Function Codes (FC3–FC0)............................................................................2-5
Chip Selects (CS3–CS0) ................................................................................2-5
Interrupt Request Level (IRQ7, IRQ6, IRQ5, IRQ3) ...................................2-6
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
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Paragraph
Number
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3
2.8.4
2.9
2.9.1
2.9.2
2.9.3
2.10
2.10.1
2.10.2
2.10.3
2.10.4
2.11
2.11.1
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.4
2.12
2.12.1
2.12.2
2.12.3
2.13
2.13.1
2.13.2
2.13.3
2.13.4
2.13.5
2.13.6
2.13.7
2.13.8
2.14
2.14.1
2.14.2
2.14.3
iv
Title
Page
Number
Bus Control Signals .........................................................................................2-6
Data and Size Acknowledge (DSACK1, DSACK0)................................2-6
Address Strobe (AS)....................................................................................2-6
Data Strobe (DS)...........................................................................................2-7
Transfer Size (SIZ1, SIZ0) ..........................................................................2-7
Read/Write (R/W)...........................................................................................2-7
Bus Arbitration Signals....................................................................................2-7
Bus Request (BR)..........................................................................................2-7
Bus Grant (BG)...............................................................................................2-7
Bus Grant Acknowledge (BGACK).............................................................2-7
Read-Modify-Write Cycle (RMC).................................................................2-8
Exception Control Signals ..............................................................................2-8
Reset (RESET)...............................................................................................2-8
Halt (HALT)....................................................................................................2-8
Bus Error (BERR)...........................................................................................2-8
Clock Signals ....................................................................................................2-8
System Clock (CLKOUT)............................................................................2-8
Crystal Oscillator (EXTAL, XTAL)...............................................................2-9
External Filter Capacitor (XFC) ..................................................................2-9
Clock Mode Select (MODCK).....................................................................2-9
Instrumentation and Emulation Signals .......................................................2-9
Instruction Fetch (IFETCH)..........................................................................2-9
Instruction Pipe (IPIPE)...............................................................................2-9
Breakpoint (BKPT)........................................................................................2-10
Freeze (FREEZE)..........................................................................................2-10
DMA Module Signals.......................................................................................2-10
DMA Request (DREQ2, DREQ1).................................................................2-10
DMA Acknowledge (DACK2, DACK1)......................................................2-10
DMA Done (DONE2, DONE1)......................................................................2-10
Serial Module Signals.....................................................................................2-11
Serial Crystal Oscillator (X2, X1) ...............................................................2-11
Serial External Clock Input (SCLK)...........................................................2-11
Receive Data (RxDA, RxDB).......................................................................2-11
Transmit Data (TxDA, TxDB).......................................................................2-11
Clear to Send (CTSA, CTSB).....................................................................2-11
Request to Send (RTSA, RTSB)................................................................2-11
Transmitter Ready (T≈RDYA).....................................................................2-11
Receiver Ready (R≈RDYA) .........................................................................2-12
Timer Signals ....................................................................................................2-12
Timer Gate (TGATE2, TGATE1)................................................................2-12
Timer Input (TIN2, TIN1) ..............................................................................2-12
Timer Output (TOUT2, TOUT1)...................................................................2-12
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Paragraph
Number
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
2.15
2.15.1
2.15.2
2.15.3
2.15.4
2.16
2.17
2.18
Title
Page
Number
Test Signals.......................................................................................................2-13
Test Clock (TCK)...........................................................................................2-13
Test Mode Select (TMS)..............................................................................2-13
Test Data In (TDI)..........................................................................................2-13
Test Data Out (TDO).....................................................................................2-13
Synthesizer Power (VCCSYN)..........................................................................2-13
System Power and Ground (VCC and GND)................................................2-13
Signal Summary...............................................................................................2-13
Section 3
Bus Operation
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.1.7.1
3.1.7.2
3.1.7.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.3.1
3.2.3.2
3.2.3.3
3.2.3.4
3.2.3.5
3.2.3.6
3.2.3.7
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
MOTOROLA
Bus Transfer Signals........................................................................................3-1
Bus Control Signals .....................................................................................3-2
Function Code Signals................................................................................3-3
Address Bus (A31–A0) ................................................................................3-4
Address Strobe (AS)....................................................................................3-4
Data Bus (D15–D0)......................................................................................3-4
Data Strobe (DS)...........................................................................................3-4
Bus Cycle Termination Signals..................................................................3-4
Data Transfer and Size Acknowledge Signals
(DSACK1 and DSACK0).....................................................................3-4
Bus Error (BERR).......................................................................................3-5
Autovector (AVEC)....................................................................................3-5
Data Transfer Mechanism...............................................................................3-5
Dynamic Bus Sizing.....................................................................................3-5
Misaligned Operands...................................................................................3-7
Operand Transfer Cases.............................................................................3-7
Byte Operand to 8-Bit Port, Odd or Even (A0 = X) ..............................3-7
Byte Operand to 16-Bit Port, Even (A0 = 0)..........................................3-8
Byte Operand to 16-Bit Port, Odd (A0 = 1) ...........................................3-9
Word Operand to 8-Bit Port, Aligned.....................................................3-9
Word Operand to 16-Bit Port, Aligned...................................................3-10
Long-word Operand to 8-Bit Port, Aligned...........................................3-10
Long-Word Operand to 16-Bit Port, Aligned........................................3-12
Bus Operation................................................................................................3-14
Synchronous Operation with DSACK≈.....................................................3-14
Fast Termination Cycles..............................................................................3-15
Data Transfer Cycles........................................................................................3-16
Read Cycle.....................................................................................................3-16
Write Cycle.....................................................................................................3-18
Read-Modify-Write Cycle.............................................................................3-19
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Paragraph
Number
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.4.1
3.4.4.2
3.4.4.3
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
3.7
Title
Page
Number
CPU Space Cycles........................................................................................... 3-21
Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle.................................................................3-22
LPSTOP Broadcast Cycle...........................................................................3-23
Module Base Address Register Access....................................................3-27
Interrupt Acknowledge Bus Cycles............................................................3-27
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle—Terminated Normally........................3-27
Autovector Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle .............................................3-29
Spurious Interrupt Cycle..........................................................................3-30
Bus Exception Control Cycles........................................................................3-32
Bus Errors.......................................................................................................3-34
Retry Operation .............................................................................................3-36
Halt Operation ...............................................................................................3-38
Double Bus Fault ..........................................................................................3-39
Bus Arbitration...................................................................................................3-40
Bus Request...................................................................................................3-43
Bus Grant........................................................................................................3-43
Bus Grant Acknowledge..............................................................................3-43
Bus Arbitration Control.................................................................................3-44
Show Cycles..................................................................................................3-44
Reset Operation ................................................................................................3-46
Section 4
System Integration Module
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3
4.2.2.4
4.2.2.5
4.2.2.6
4.2.2.6.1
4.2.2.6.2
4.2.2.7
4.2.3
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2
4.2.3.3
4.2.4
4.2.4.1
vi
Module Overview..............................................................................................4-1
Module Operation.............................................................................................4-2
Module Base Address Register Operation...............................................4-2
System Configuration and Protection Operation....................................4-3
System Configuration ..............................................................................4-5
Internal Bus Monitor .................................................................................4-6
Double Bus Fault Monitor........................................................................4-6
Spurious Interrupt Monitor ......................................................................4-6
Software Watchdog..................................................................................4-6
Periodic Interrupt Timer ...........................................................................4-7
Periodic Timer Period Calculation.....................................................4-8
Using the Periodic Timer as a Real-Time Clock .............................4-9
Simultaneous Interrupts by Sources in the SIM40.............................4-9
Clock Synthesizer Operation......................................................................4-9
Phase Comparator and Filter .................................................................4-11
Frequency Divider ....................................................................................4-12
Clock Control.............................................................................................4-13
Chip Select Operation .................................................................................4-13
Programmable Features..........................................................................4-14
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Paragraph
Number
4.2.4.2
4.2.5
4.2.5.1
4.2.5.2
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.2.1
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.3
4.3.2.4
4.3.2.5
4.3.2.6
4.3.2.7
4.3.2.8
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.4.1
4.3.4.2
4.3.4.3
4.3.5
4.3.5.1
4.3.5.2
4.3.5.3
4.3.5.4
4.3.5.5
4.3.5.6
4.3.5.7
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
Title
Page
Number
Global Chip Select Operation ................................................................4-14
External Bus Interface Operation...............................................................4-15
Port A...........................................................................................................4-15
Port B...........................................................................................................4-16
Low-Power Stop ...........................................................................................4-17
Freeze.............................................................................................................4-17
Programming Model.........................................................................................4-18
Module Base Address Register (MBAR)...................................................4-20
System Configuration and Protection Registers.....................................4-21
Module Configuration Register (MCR)..................................................4-21
Autovector Register (AVR).......................................................................4-23
Reset Status Register (RSR)...................................................................4-23
Software Interrupt Vector Register (SWIV)...........................................4-24
System Protection Control Register (SYPCR).....................................4-24
Periodic Interrupt Control Register (PICR) ...........................................4-26
Periodic Interrupt Timer Register (PITR)...............................................4-27
Software Service Register (SWSR) ......................................................4-28
Clock Synthesizer Control Register (SYNCR) ........................................4-28
Chip Select Registers ..................................................................................4-29
Base Address Registers ..........................................................................4-30
Address Mask Registers..........................................................................4-31
Chip Select Registers Programming Example....................................4-33
External Bus Interface Control....................................................................4-33
Port A Pin Assignment Register 1 (PPARA1).......................................4-33
Port A Pin Assignment Register 2 (PPARA2).......................................4-34
Port A Data Direction Register (DDRA).................................................4-34
Port A Data Register (PORTA)................................................................4-34
Port B Pin Assignment Register (PPARB) ............................................4-35
Port B Data Direction Register (DDRB).................................................4-35
Port B Data Register (PORTB, PORTB1) ..............................................4-35
MC68340 Initialization Sequence.................................................................4-36
Startup ............................................................................................................4-36
SIM40 Module Configuration .....................................................................4-36
SIM40 Example Configuration Code........................................................4-38
Section 5
CPU32
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
MOTOROLA
Overview.............................................................................................................5-1
Features..........................................................................................................5-2
Virtual Memory ..............................................................................................5-2
Loop Mode Instruction Execution ..............................................................5-3
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Paragraph
Number
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.7.1
5.1.7.2
5.1.8
5.1.9
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.1.1
5.3.1.1.1
5.3.1.1.2
5.3.1.2
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.3.1
5.3.3.2
5.3.3.3
5.3.3.4
5.3.3.5
5.3.3.6
5.3.3.7
5.3.3.8
5.3.3.9
5.3.3.10
5.3.4
5.3.4.1
5.3.4.2
5.3.4.3
5.3.4.4
5.3.4.5
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.2.1
5.4.2.2
viii
Title
Page
Number
Vector Base Register....................................................................................5-4
Exception Handling......................................................................................5-4
Addressing Modes........................................................................................5-5
Instruction Set................................................................................................5-5
Table Lookup and Interpolate Instructions...........................................5-7
Low-Power STOP Instruction .................................................................5-7
Processing States.........................................................................................5-7
Privilege States.............................................................................................5-7
Architecture Summary .....................................................................................5-8
Programming Model.....................................................................................5-8
Registers.........................................................................................................5-10
Instruction Set....................................................................................................5-11
M68000 Family Compatibility.....................................................................5-11
New Instructions........................................................................................5-11
Low-Power Stop (LPSTOP)................................................................5-11
Table Lookup and Interpolation (TBL)..............................................5-12
Unimplemented Instructions...................................................................5-12
Instruction Format and Notation.................................................................5-12
Instruction Summary ....................................................................................5-15
Condition Code Register.........................................................................5-20
Data Movement Instructions ...................................................................5-21
Integer Arithmetic Operations.................................................................5-22
Logic Instructions......................................................................................5-24
Shift and Rotate Instructions...................................................................5-24
Bit Manipulation Instructions...................................................................5-25
Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD) Instructions ..........................................5-26
Program Control Instructions..................................................................5-26
System Control Instructions....................................................................5-27
Condition Tests .........................................................................................5-29
Using the TBL Instructions ..........................................................................5-29
Table Example 1: Standard Usage.......................................................5-30
Table Example 2: Compressed Table ..................................................5-31
Table Example 3: 8-Bit Independent Variable ....................................5-32
Table Example 4: Maintaining Precision..............................................5-34
Table Example 5: Surface Interpolations.............................................5-36
Nested Subroutine Calls.............................................................................5-36
Pipeline Synchronization with the NOP Instruction................................5-36
Processing States.............................................................................................5-36
State Transitions...........................................................................................5-37
Privilege Levels.............................................................................................5-37
Supervisor Privilege Level......................................................................5-37
User Privilege Level.................................................................................5-39
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Paragraph
Number
5.4.2.3
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.1.1
5.5.1.2
5.5.1.3
5.5.1.4
5.5.2
5.5.2.1
5.5.2.2
5.5.2.3
5.5.2.4
5.5.2.5
5.5.2.6
5.5.2.7
5.5.2.8
5.5.2.9
5.5.2.10
5.5.2.11
5.5.2.12
5.5.3
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.1.1
5.5.3.1.2
5.5.3.1.3
5.5.3.1.4
5.5.3.2
5.5.3.2.1
5.5.3.2.2
5.5.3.2.3
5.5.3.2.4
5.5.3.2.5
5.5.3.2.6
5.5.3.2.7
5.5.4
5.5.4.1
5.5.4.2
5.5.4.3
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.1.1
5.6.1.2
MOTOROLA
Title
Page
Number
Changing Privilege Level........................................................................5-39
Exception Processing ......................................................................................5-39
Exception Vectors.........................................................................................5-40
Types of Exceptions .................................................................................5-41
Exception Processing Sequence ..........................................................5-41
Exception Stack Frame............................................................................5-42
Multiple Exceptions ..................................................................................5-42
Processing of Specific Exceptions ............................................................5-44
Reset ...........................................................................................................5-44
Bus Error.....................................................................................................5-46
Address Error.............................................................................................5-46
Instruction Traps........................................................................................5-47
Software Breakpoints...............................................................................5-47
Hardware Breakpoints.............................................................................5-48
Format Error...............................................................................................5-48
Illegal or Unimplemented Instructions ..................................................5-48
Privilege Violations...................................................................................5-49
Tracing........................................................................................................5-50
Interrupts.....................................................................................................5-51
Return from Exception..............................................................................5-52
Fault Recovery...............................................................................................5-53
Types of Faults ..........................................................................................5-55
Type I—Released Write Faults...........................................................5-55
Type II—Prefetch, Operand, RMW, and MOVEP Faults.................5-56
Type III—Faults During MOVEM Operand Transfer .......................5-57
Type IV—Faults During Exception Processing ...............................5-57
Correcting a Fault .....................................................................................5-57
Type I—Completing Released Writes via Software .......................5-57
Type I—Completing Released Writes via RTE................................5-57
Type II—Correcting Faults via RTE....................................................5-58
Type III—Correcting Faults via Software..........................................5-58
Type III—Correcting Faults by Conversion and Restart.................5-58
Type III—Correcting Faults via RTE...................................................5-59
Type IV—Correcting Faults via Software .........................................5-59
CPU32 Stack Frames ..................................................................................5-60
Four-Word Stack Frame ..........................................................................5-60
Six-Word Stack Frame.............................................................................5-60
Bus Error Stack Frame.............................................................................5-60
Development Support......................................................................................5-63
CPU32 Integrated Development Support................................................5-63
Background Debug Mode (BDM) Overview ........................................5-64
Deterministic Opcode Tracking Overview............................................5-64
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Number
5.6.1.3
5.6.2
5.6.2.1
5.6.2.2
5.6.2.2.1
5.6.2.2.2
5.6.2.2.3
5.6.2.3
5.6.2.4
5.6.2.5
5.6.2.5.1
5.6.2.5.2
5.6.2.5.3
5.6.2.6
5.6.2.7
5.6.2.7.1
5.6.2.7.2
5.6.2.8
5.6.2.8.1
5.6.2.8.2
5.6.2.8.3
5.6.2.8.4
5.6.2.8.5
5.6.2.8.6
5.6.2.8.7
5.6.2.8.8
5.6.2.8.9
5.6.2.8.10
5.6.2.8.11
5.6.2.8.12
5.6.2.8.13
5.6.2.8.14
5.6.2.8.15
5.6.2.8.16
5.6.3
5.6.3.1
5.6.3.2
5.6.3.3
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.1.1
5.7.1.2
x
Title
Page
Number
On-Chip Hardware Breakpoint Overview.............................................5-64
Background Debug Mode...........................................................................5-65
Enabling BDM ...........................................................................................5-65
BDM Sources ............................................................................................5-66
External BKPT Signal..........................................................................5-66
BGND Instruction ..................................................................................5-66
Double Bus Fault. .................................................................................5-66
Entering BDM ............................................................................................5-66
Command Execution................................................................................5-67
BDM Registers...........................................................................................5-67
Fault Address Register (FAR) .............................................................5-67
Return Program Counter (RPC) .........................................................5-67
Current Instruction Program Counter (PCC)....................................5-67
Returning from BDM.................................................................................5-68
Serial Interface..........................................................................................5-68
CPU Serial Logic..................................................................................5-69
Development System Serial Logic....................................................5-71
Command Set ...........................................................................................5-73
Command Format.................................................................................5-73
Command Sequence Diagram..........................................................5-74
Command Set Summary.....................................................................5-75
Read A/D Register (RAREG/RDREG)................................................5-76
Write A/D Register (WAREG/WDREG) ..............................................5-77
Read System Register (RSREG)........................................................5-77
Write System Register (WSREG).......................................................5-78
Read Memory Location (READ).........................................................5-79
Write Memory Location (WRITE)........................................................5-79
Dump Memory Block (DUMP). ...........................................................5-80
Fill Memory Block (FILL)......................................................................5-82
Resume Execution (GO)......................................................................5-83
Call User Code (CALL)........................................................................5-83
Reset Peripherals (RST)......................................................................5-85
No Operation (NOP).............................................................................5-85
Future Commands................................................................................5-86
Deterministic Opcode Tracking..................................................................5-86
Instruction Fetch (IFETCH)......................................................................5-86
Instruction Pipe (IPIPE)...........................................................................5-87
Opcode Tracking during Loop Mode ....................................................5-88
Instruction Execution Timing...........................................................................5-88
Resource Scheduling ..................................................................................5-88
Microsequencer ........................................................................................5-89
Instruction Pipeline...................................................................................5-89
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
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Paragraph
Number
5.7.1.3
5.7.1.3.1
5.7.1.3.2
5.7.1.3.3
5.7.1.4
5.7.1.5
5.7.1.6
5.7.1.7
5.7.2
5.7.2.1
5.7.2.2
5.7.2.3
5.7.3
5.7.3.1
5.7.3.2
5.7.3.3
5.7.3.4
5.7.3.5
5.7.3.6
5.7.3.7
5.7.3.8
5.7.3.9
5.7.3.10
5.7.3.11
5.7.3.12
5.7.3.13
5.7.3.14
Title
Page
Number
Bus Controller Resources .......................................................................5-89
Prefetch Controller................................................................................5-90
Write Pending Buffer. ...........................................................................5-90
Microbus Controller..............................................................................5-91
Instruction Execution Overlap.................................................................5-91
Effects of Wait States................................................................................5-92
Instruction Execution Time Calculation ................................................5-92
Effects of Negative Tails ..........................................................................5-93
Instruction Stream Timing Examples ........................................................5-94
Timing Example 1—Execution Overlap................................................5-94
Timing Example 2—Branch Instructions ..............................................5-95
Timing Example 3—Negative Tails.......................................................5-96
Instruction Timing Tables ............................................................................5-97
Fetch Effective Address ...........................................................................5-99
Calculate Effective Address....................................................................5-100
MOVE Instruction ......................................................................................5-101
Special-Purpose MOVE Instruction.......................................................5-101
Arithmetic/Logic Instructions...................................................................5-102
Immediate Arithmetic/Logic Instructions...............................................5-105
Binary-Coded Decimal and Extended Instructions ............................5-106
Single Operand Instructions...................................................................5-107
Shift/Rotate Instructions...........................................................................5-108
Bit Manipulation Instructions...................................................................5-109
Conditional Branch Instructions.............................................................5-110
Control Instructions...................................................................................5-111
Exception-Related Instructions and Operations..................................5-111
Save and Restore Operations................................................................5-111
Section 6
DMA Controller Module
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.1.1
6.3.1.2
6.3.2
6.3.2.1
MOTOROLA
DMA Module Overview....................................................................................6-2
DMA Module Signal Definitions.....................................................................6-4
DMA Request (DREQ≈)................................................................................6-4
DMA Acknowledge (DACK≈)......................................................................6-4
DMA Done (DONE≈).....................................................................................6-4
Transfer Request Generation .........................................................................6-4
Internal Request Generation.......................................................................6-4
Internal Request, Maximum Rate...........................................................6-5
Internal Request, Limited Rate ...............................................................6-5
External Request Generation .....................................................................6-5
External Burst Mode.................................................................................6-5
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Paragraph
Number
6.3.2.2
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.1.1
6.4.1.2
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
6.4.2.2
6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.2.1
6.6.2.2
6.6.3
6.6.3.1
6.6.3.2
6.6.3.3
6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.3
6.7.4
6.7.5
6.7.6
6.7.7
6.7.8
6.8
6.9
6.9.1
6.9.1.1
6.9.1.2
6.9.2
Title
Page
Number
External Cycle Steal Mode .....................................................................6-5
Data Transfer Modes........................................................................................6-6
Single-Address Mode..................................................................................6-6
Single-Address Read...............................................................................6-7
Single-Address Write...............................................................................6-9
Dual-Address Mode .....................................................................................6-12
Dual-Address Read..................................................................................6-12
Dual-Address Write ..................................................................................6-14
Bus Arbitration...................................................................................................6-18
DMA Channel Operation.................................................................................6-18
Channel Initialization and Startup.............................................................6-18
Data Transfers...............................................................................................6-19
Internal Request Transfers......................................................................6-19
External Request Transfers.....................................................................6-19
Channel Termination ...................................................................................6-20
Channel Termination ...............................................................................6-20
Interrupt Operation....................................................................................6-20
Fast Termination Option ..........................................................................6-20
Register Description.........................................................................................6-22
Module Configuration Register (MCR)......................................................6-23
Interrupt Register (INTR)..............................................................................6-26
Channel Control Register (CCR) ...............................................................6-26
Channel Status Register (CSR).................................................................6-30
Function Code Register (FCR) ...................................................................6-32
Source Address Register (SAR) ................................................................6-33
Destination Address Register (DAR).........................................................6-33
Byte Transfer Counter Register (BTC) ......................................................6-34
Data Packing .....................................................................................................6-35
DMA Channel Initialization Sequence .........................................................6-36
DMA Channel Configuration ......................................................................6-36
DMA Channel Operation in Single-Address Mode............................6-37
DMA Channel Operation in Dual-Address Mode ...............................6-37
DMA Channel Example Configuration Code ..........................................6-38
Section 7
Serial Module
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
xii
Module Overview..............................................................................................7-2
Serial Communication Channels A and B...............................................7-3
Baud Rate Generator Logic ........................................................................7-3
Internal Channel Control Logic..................................................................7-3
Interrupt Control Logic .................................................................................7-3
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Paragraph
Number
7.1.5
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6
7.2.7
7.2.8
7.2.8.1
7.2.8.2
7.2.9
7.2.9.1
7.2.9.2
7.2.10
7.2.11
7.2.12
7.2.12.1
7.2.12.2
7.2.13
7.2.13.1
7.2.13.2
7.2.13.3
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.2.1
7.3.2.2
7.3.2.3
7.3.3
7.3.3.1
7.3.3.2
7.3.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.5.1
7.3.5.2
7.3.5.3
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.1.1
MOTOROLA
Title
Page
Number
Comparison of Serial Module to MC68681.............................................7-4
Serial Module Signal Definitions................................................................... 7-4
Crystal Input or External Clock (X1) ..........................................................7-5
Crystal Output (X2) .......................................................................................7-5
External Input (SCLK)..................................................................................7-6
Channel A Transmitter Serial Data Output (TxDA).................................7-6
Channel A Receiver Serial Data Input (RxDA)........................................7-6
Channel B Transmitter Serial Data Output (TxDB).................................7-6
Channel B Receiver Serial Data Input (RxDB)........................................7-6
Channel A Request-To-Send (RTSA) ......................................................7-6
RTSA...........................................................................................................7-6
OP0..............................................................................................................7-6
Channel B Request-To-Send (RTSB).......................................................7-6
RTSB ...........................................................................................................7-7
OP1..............................................................................................................7-7
Channel A Clear-To-Send (CTSA) ...........................................................7-7
Channel B Clear-To-Send (CTSB)............................................................7-7
Channel A Transmitter Ready (T≈RDYA).................................................7-7
T≈RDYA......................................................................................................7-7
OP6..............................................................................................................7-7
Channel A Receiver Ready (R≈RDYA).....................................................7-7
R≈RDYA......................................................................................................7-7
FFULLA.......................................................................................................7-7
OP4..............................................................................................................7-7
Operation............................................................................................................7-8
Baud Rate Generator ...................................................................................7-8
Transmitter and Receiver Operating Modes............................................7-8
Transmitter .................................................................................................7-10
Receiver......................................................................................................7-11
FIFO Stack..................................................................................................7-12
Looping Modes .............................................................................................7-14
Automatic Echo Mode..............................................................................7-14
Local Loopback Mode .............................................................................7-14
Remote Loopback Mode .........................................................................7-14
Multidrop Mode .............................................................................................7-15
Bus Operation................................................................................................7-17
Read Cycles...............................................................................................7-17
Write Cycles...............................................................................................7-17
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycles................................................................7-17
Register Description and Programming .......................................................7-17
Register Description.....................................................................................7-17
Module Configuration Register (MCR)..................................................7-19
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Paragraph
Number
7.4.1.2
7.4.1.3
7.4.1.4
7.4.1.5
7.4.1.6
7.4.1.7
7.4.1.8
7.4.1.9
7.4.1.10
7.4.1.11
7.4.1.12
7.4.1.13
7.4.1.14
7.4.1.15
7.4.1.16
7.4.1.17
7.4.2
7.4.2.1
7.4.2.2
7.4.2.3
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
Title
Page
Number
Interrupt Level Register (ILR)..................................................................7-21
Interrupt Vector Register (IVR)................................................................7-21
Mode Register 1 (MR1)............................................................................7-22
Status Register (SR).................................................................................7-24
Clock-Select Register (CSR)..................................................................7-26
Command Register (CR) .........................................................................7-27
Receiver Buffer (RB).................................................................................7-30
Transmitter Buffer (TB).............................................................................7-30
Input Port Change Register (IPCR)........................................................7-31
Auxiliary Control Register (ACR)............................................................7-32
Interrupt Status Register (ISR)................................................................7-32
Interrupt Enable Register (IER)...............................................................7-34
Input Port (IP).............................................................................................7-35
Output Port Control Register (OPCR)....................................................7-35
Output Port Data Register (OP) ..............................................................7-37
Mode Register 2 (MR2)............................................................................7-37
Programming.................................................................................................7-40
Serial Module Initialization .....................................................................7-40
I/O Driver Example....................................................................................7-40
Interrupt Handling.....................................................................................7-40
Serial Module Initialization Sequence .........................................................7-46
Serial Module Configuration ......................................................................7-46
Serial Module Example Configuration Code ..........................................7-47
Section 8
Timer Modules
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.1.1
8.1.1.2
8.1.1.3
8.1.1.4
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
xiv
Module Overview..............................................................................................8-1
Timer and Counter Functions.....................................................................8-2
Prescaler and Counter.............................................................................8-2
Timeout Detection.....................................................................................8-2
Comparator................................................................................................8-2
Clock Selection Logic..............................................................................8-3
Internal Control Logic...................................................................................8-3
Interrupt Control Logic .................................................................................8-4
Timer Modules Signal Definitions .................................................................8-4
Timer Input (TIN1, TIN2) ..............................................................................8-5
Timer Gate (TGATE1, TGATE2)................................................................8-6
Timer Output (TOUT1, TOUT2)...................................................................8-6
Operating Modes ..............................................................................................8-6
Input Capture/Output Compare..................................................................8-6
Square-Wave Generator.............................................................................8-8
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Paragraph
Number
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.3.8
8.3.9
8.3.9.1
8.3.9.2
8.3.9.3
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7
8.4.8
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
Title
Page
Number
Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generator........................................8-9
Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generator.........................................8-10
Pulse-Width Measurement..........................................................................8-12
Period Measurement....................................................................................8-13
Event Count ...................................................................................................8-14
Timer Bypass.................................................................................................8-16
Bus Operation................................................................................................8-17
Read Cycles...............................................................................................8-17
Write Cycles...............................................................................................8-17
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycles................................................................8-17
Register Description.........................................................................................8-17
Module Configuration Register (MCR)......................................................8-18
Interrupt Register (IR) ...................................................................................8-20
Control Register (CR)...................................................................................8-20
Status Register (SR).....................................................................................8-23
Counter Register (CNTR) ............................................................................8-25
Preload 1 Register (PREL1)........................................................................ 8-25
Preload 2 Register (PREL2)........................................................................ 8-26
Compare Register (COM)............................................................................8-26
Timer Module Initialization Sequence..........................................................8-27
Timer Module Configuration.......................................................................8-27
Timer Module Example Configuration Code...........................................8-28
Section 9
IEEE 1149.1 Test Access Port
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3
9.4.4
9.5
9.6
Overview.............................................................................................................9-1
TAP Controller...................................................................................................9-2
Boundary Scan Register .................................................................................9-3
Instruction Register...........................................................................................9-9
EXTEST (000) ...............................................................................................9-10
SAMPLE/PRELOAD (001) ..........................................................................9-10
BYPASS (X1X, 101).....................................................................................9-11
HI-Z (100) .......................................................................................................9-11
MC68340 Restrictions......................................................................................9-11
Non-IEEE 1149.1 Operation...........................................................................9-12
Section 10
Applications
10.1
10.1.1
MOTOROLA
Minimum System Configuration...................................................................10-1
Processor Clock Circuitry..........................................................................10-1
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Paragraph
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10.1.2
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5
10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
Title
Page
Number
10.3
10.3.1
10.3.2
Reset Circuitry .............................................................................................10-3
SRAM Interface ...........................................................................................10-3
ROM Interface..............................................................................................10-4
Serial Interface............................................................................................10-4
Memory Interface Information.......................................................................10-5
Using an 8-Bit Boot ROM...........................................................................10-5
Access Time Calculations.........................................................................10-6
Calculating Frequency-Adjusted Output ................................................10-7
Interfacing an 8-Bit Device to 16-Bit Memory Using
Single-Address DMA Mode..................................................................10-10
Power Consumption Considerations..........................................................10-10
MC68340 Power Reduction at 5V ..........................................................10-11
MC68340V (3.3 V) .....................................................................................10-13
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
Section 11
Electrical Characteristics
Maximum Rating .............................................................................................11-1
Thermal Characteristics.................................................................................11-1
Power Considerations ...................................................................................11-2
AC Electrical Specification Definitions .......................................................11-2
DC Electrical Specifications .........................................................................11-5
AC Electrical Specifications Control Timing..............................................11-6
AC Timing Specifications..............................................................................11-8
DMA Module AC Electrical Specifications.................................................11-19
Timer Module Electrical Specifications ......................................................11-20
Serial Module Electrical Specifications......................................................11-22
IEEE 1149.1 Electrical Specifications.........................................................11-25
Section 12
Ordering Information and Mechanical Data
12.1
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
Standard MC68340 Ordering Information .................................................12-1
Pin Assignment ...............................................................................................12-2
144-Lead Ceramic Quad Flat Pack (FE Suffix).....................................12-2
145-Lead Plastic Pin Grid Array (RP Suffix) ..........................................12-4
Package Dimensions.....................................................................................12-6
FE Suffix .......................................................................................................12-6
RP Suffix.......................................................................................................12-7
Index
xvi
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure
Number
Title
Page
Number
1-1
Block Diagram.........................................................................................................1-1
2-1
Functional Signal Groups .....................................................................................2-1
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20
3-21
3-22
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-26
3-27
3-28
Input Sample Window............................................................................................3-2
MC68340 Interface to Various Port Sizes..........................................................3-7
Long-Word Operand Read Timing from 8-Bit Port............................................3-11
Long-Word Operand Write Timing to 8-Bit Port.................................................3-12
Long-Word and Word Read and Write Timing—16-Bit Port ...........................3-13
Fast Termination Timing........................................................................................3-15
Word Read Cycle Flowchart .................................................................................3-16
Word Write Cycle Flowchart..................................................................................3-18
Read-Modify-Write Cycle Timing .........................................................................3-19
CPU Space Address Encoding............................................................................3-21
Breakpoint Operation Flowchart ..........................................................................3-24
Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle Timing (Opcode Returned)..........................3-25
Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle Timing (Exception Signaled) ......................3-26
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle Flowchart.............................................................3-28
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle Timing ..................................................................3-29
Autovector Operation Timing................................................................................3-31
Bus Error without DSACK≈ ...................................................................................3-35
Late Bus Error with DSACK≈ ................................................................................3-36
Retry Sequence ......................................................................................................3-37
Late Retry Sequence .............................................................................................3-38
HALT Timing............................................................................................................3-39
Bus Arbitration Flowchart for Single Request....................................................3-41
Bus Arbitration Timing Diagram—Idle Bus Case..............................................3-42
Bus Arbitration Timing Diagram—Active Bus Case .........................................3-42
Bus Arbitration State Diagram..............................................................................3-45
Show Cycle Timing Diagram................................................................................3-46
Timing for External Devices Driving RESET ......................................................3-47
Power-Up Reset Timing Diagram........................................................................3-48
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
SIM40 Module Register Block..............................................................................4-3
System Configuration and Protection Function ................................................4-5
Software Watchdog Block Diagram ....................................................................4-7
Clock Block Diagram for Crystal Operation .......................................................4-10
MOTOROLA
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Figure
Number
Title
Page
Number
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
MC68340 Crystal Oscillator..................................................................................4-10
Clock Block Diagram for External Oscillator Operation...................................4-11
Full Interrupt Request Multiplexer........................................................................4-16
SIM40 Programming Model..................................................................................4-19
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-22
5-23
5-24
5-25
5-26
5-27
5-28
5-29
5-30
5-31
5-32
5-33
5-34
5-35
5-36
CPU32 Block Diagram...........................................................................................5-3
Loop Mode Instruction Sequence .......................................................................5-3
User Programming Model.....................................................................................5-9
Supervisor Programming Model Supplement ..................................................5-9
Status Register........................................................................................................5-10
Instruction Word General Format.........................................................................5-12
Table Example 1.....................................................................................................5-30
Table Example 2.....................................................................................................5-31
Table Example 3.....................................................................................................5-33
Exception Stack Frame..........................................................................................5-42
Reset Operation Flowchart....................................................................................5-45
Format $0—Four-Word Stack Frame..................................................................5-60
Format $2—Six-Word Stack Frame ....................................................................5-60
Internal Transfer Count Register..........................................................................5-61
Format $C—BERR Stack for Prefetches and Operands..................................5-62
Format $C—BERR Stack on MOVEM Operand................................................5-62
Format $C—Four- and Six-Word BERR Stack..................................................5-63
In-Circuit Emulator Configuration ........................................................................5-64
Bus State Analyzer Configuration .......................................................................5-64
BDM Block Diagram...............................................................................................5-65
BDM Command Execution Flowchart.................................................................5-68
Debug Serial I/O Block Diagram..........................................................................5-70
Serial Interface Timing Diagram..........................................................................5-71
BKPT Timing for Single Bus Cycle......................................................................5-72
BKPT Timing for Forcing BDM .............................................................................5-72
BKPT/DSCLK Logic Diagram ..............................................................................5-72
Command-Sequence Diagram............................................................................5-75
Functional Model of Instruction Pipeline ............................................................5-87
Instruction Pipeline Timing Diagram...................................................................5-88
Block Diagram of Independent Resources ........................................................5-90
Simultaneous Instruction Execution....................................................................5-91
Attributed Instruction Times...................................................................................5-92
Example 1—Instruction Stream ...........................................................................5-95
Example 2—Branch Taken...................................................................................5-95
Example 2—Branch Not Taken............................................................................5-96
Example 3—Branch Negative Tail ......................................................................5-96
xviii
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11/2/95
UM Rev 1
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure
Number
Title
Page
Number
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-12
6-13
6-14
6-15
6-16
DMA Block Diagram...............................................................................................6-1
Single-Address Transfers .....................................................................................6-3
Dual-Address Transfer...........................................................................................6-3
DMA External Connections to Serial Module....................................................6-6
Single-Address Read Timing (External Burst) ..................................................6-8
Single-Address Read Timing (Cycle Steal).......................................................6-9
Single-Address Write Timing (External Burst)...................................................6-10
Single-Address Write Timing (Cycle Steal).......................................................6-11
Dual-Address Read Timing (External Burst—Source Requesting)...............6-13
Dual-Address Read Timing (Cycle Steal—Source Requesting)...................6-14
Dual-Address Write Timing (External Burst—Destination Requesting)........6-16
Dual-Address Write Timing (Cycle Steal—Destination Requesting)............6-17
Fast Termination Option (Cycle Steal)................................................................6-21
Fast Termination Option (External Burst—Source Requesting) ....................6-22
DMA Module Programming Model......................................................................6-23
Packing and Unpacking of Operands.................................................................6-35
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
Simplified Block Diagram......................................................................................7-1
External and Internal Interface Signals ..............................................................7-5
Baud Rate Generator Block Diagram..................................................................7-8
Transmitter and Receiver Functional Diagram.................................................. 7-9
Transmitter Timing Diagram .................................................................................7-10
Receiver Timing Diagram......................................................................................7-12
Looping Modes Functional Diagram...................................................................7-15
Multidrop Mode Timing Diagram .........................................................................7-16
Serial Module Programming Model....................................................................7-19
Serial Module Programming Flowchart..............................................................7-41
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
Simplified Block Diagram......................................................................................8-1
Timer Functional Diagram.....................................................................................8-3
External and Internal Interface Signals ..............................................................8-5
Input Capture/Output Compare Mode.................................................................8-7
Square-Wave Generator Mode............................................................................8-8
Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generator Mode ......................................8-10
Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generator Mode........................................8-11
Pulse-Width Measurement Mode ........................................................................8-12
Period Measurement Mode ..................................................................................8-14
Event Count Mode..................................................................................................8-15
Timer Module Programming Model.....................................................................8-18
9-1
9-2
Test Access Port Block Diagram..........................................................................9-2
TAP Controller State Machine..............................................................................9-3
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OVERVIEW
Freescale
Inc. UM Rev.1.0
11/2/95
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued)
Figure
Number
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-7
9-8
9-9
Title
Page
Number
Output Latch Cell (O.Latch)...................................................................................9-7
Input Pin Cell (I.Pin)................................................................................................9-7
Active-High Output Control Cell (IO.Ctl1)...........................................................9-8
Active-Low Output Control Cell (IO.Ctl0)............................................................9-8
Bidirectional Data Cell (IO.Cell)...........................................................................9-9
General Arrangement for Bidirectional Pins......................................................9-9
Bypass Register ......................................................................................................9-11
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8
10-9
10-10
10-11
10-12
10-13
10-14
Minimum System Configuration Block Diagram.............................................10-1
Sample Crystal Circuit.........................................................................................10-2
Statek Corporation Crystal Circuit.....................................................................10-2
XFC and VCCSYN Capacitor Connections........................................................10-3
SRAM Interface .....................................................................................................10-3
ROM Interface........................................................................................................10-4
Serial Interface......................................................................................................10-5
External Circuitry for 8-Bit Boot ROM ................................................................10-5
8-Bit Boot ROM Timing.........................................................................................10-6
Access Time Computation Diagram..................................................................10-6
Signal Relationships to CLKOUT ......................................................................10-7
Signal Width Specifications................................................................................10-8
Skew between Two Outputs...............................................................................10-9
Circuitry for Interfacing 8-Bit Device to 16-Bit Memory in
Single-Address DMA Mode..............................................................................10-10
10-15 MC68340 Current vs. Activity at 5 V..................................................................10-11
10-16 MC68340 Current vs. Voltage/Temperature....................................................10-12
10-17 MC68340 Current vs. Clock Frequency at 5 V................................................10-12
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-7
11-8
11-9
11-10
11-11
11-12
11-13
11-14
11-15
xx
Drive Levels and Test Points for AC Specifications.......................................11-4
Read Cycle Timing Diagram...............................................................................11-11
Write Cycle Timing Diagram...............................................................................11-12
Fast Termination Read Cycle Timing Diagram ...............................................11-13
Fast Termination Write Cycle Timing Diagram................................................11-14
Bus Arbitation Timing—Active Bus Case .........................................................11-15
Bus Arbitration Timing—Idle Bus Case ............................................................11-16
Show Cycle Timing Diagram..............................................................................11-16
IACK Cycle Timing Diagram...............................................................................11-17
Background Debug Mode Serial Port Timing .................................................11-18
Background Debug Mode FREEZE Timing .....................................................11-18
DMA Signal Timing Diagram..............................................................................11-19
Timer Module Clock Signal Timing Diagram ..................................................11-20
Timer Module Signal Timing Diagram..............................................................11-21
Serial Module General Timing Diagram ..........................................................11-22
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UM Rev 1
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Concluded)
Figure
Number
Serial Module Asynchronous Mode Timing (X1)............................................11-23
Serial Module Asynchronous Mode Timing (SCLK–16X)............................11-23
Serial Module Synchronous Mode Timing Diagram .....................................11-23
Test Clock Input Timing Diagram.......................................................................11-25
Boundary Scan Timing Diagram .......................................................................11-26
Test Access Port Timing Diagram......................................................................11-26
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
11-16
11-17
11-18
11-19
11-20
11-21
Title
Page
Number
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11/2/95
LIST OF TABLES
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table
Number
Title
Page
Number
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
Signal Index.............................................................................................................2-2
Address Space Encoding .....................................................................................2-5
DSACK≈ Encoding.................................................................................................2-6
SIZx Signal Encoding............................................................................................2-7
Signal Summary.....................................................................................................2-14
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
SIZx Signal Encoding............................................................................................3-3
Address Space Encoding .....................................................................................3-3
DSACK≈ Encoding.................................................................................................3-5
DSACK≈, BERR, and HALT Assertion Results..................................................3-33
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
Clock Operating Modes.........................................................................................4-9
System Frequencies from 32.768-kHz Reference............................................4-13
Clock Control Signals............................................................................................4-13
Port A Pin Assignment Register ...........................................................................4-15
Port B Pin Assignment Register ...........................................................................4-16
SHENx Control Bits................................................................................................4-22
Deriving Software Watchdog Timeout................................................................4-25
BMTx Encoding.......................................................................................................4-26
PIRQL Encoding......................................................................................................4-26
DDx Encoding .........................................................................................................4-32
PSx Encoding..........................................................................................................4-32
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
Instruction Set..........................................................................................................5-6
Instruction Set Summary.......................................................................................5-16
Condition Code Computations.............................................................................5-20
Data Movement Operations..................................................................................5-21
Integer Arithmetic Operations...............................................................................5-23
Logic Operations.....................................................................................................5-24
Shift and Rotate Operations..................................................................................5-25
Bit Manipulation Operations .................................................................................5-25
Binary-Coded Decimal Operations .....................................................................5-26
Program Control Operations.................................................................................5-26
System Control Operations...................................................................................5-28
Condition Tests .......................................................................................................5-29
Standard Usage Entries........................................................................................5-30
Compressed Table Entries ...................................................................................5-32
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UM Rev 1
LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table
Number
Title
Page
Number
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-22
5-23
5-24
8-Bit Independent Variable Entries .....................................................................5-33
Exception Vector Assignments.............................................................................5-40
Exception Priority Groups......................................................................................5-43
Tracing Control........................................................................................................5-50
BDM Source Summary..........................................................................................5-67
Polling the BDM Entry Source..............................................................................5-68
CPU Generated Message Encoding...................................................................5-70
Size Field Encoding...............................................................................................5-74
BDM Command Summary....................................................................................5-77
Register Field for RSREG and WSREG..............................................................5-79
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
FRZx Control Bits ....................................................................................................6-24
SSIZEx Encoding ...................................................................................................6-28
DSIZEx Encoding ...................................................................................................6-29
REQx Encoding.......................................................................................................6-29
BBx Encoding and Bus Bandwidth......................................................................6-29
Address Space Encoding .....................................................................................6-32
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
7-10
FRZx Control Bits ....................................................................................................7-20
PMx and PT Control Bits........................................................................................7-23
B/Cx Control Bits.....................................................................................................7-24
RCSx Control Bits...................................................................................................7-26
TCSx Control Bits ...................................................................................................7-27
MISCx Control Bits .................................................................................................7-28
TCx Control Bits ......................................................................................................7-29
RCx Control Bits......................................................................................................7-30
CMx Control Bits .....................................................................................................7-38
SBx Control Bits......................................................................................................7-39
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
OCx Encoding .........................................................................................................8-17
FRZx Control Bits ....................................................................................................8-19
IEx Encoding............................................................................................................8-21
POTx Encoding .......................................................................................................8-22
MODEx Encoding ...................................................................................................8-22
OCx Encoding .........................................................................................................8-22
9-1
9-2
9-3
Boundary Scan Control Bits .................................................................................9-4
Boundary Scan Bit Definitions .............................................................................9-5
Instructions...............................................................................................................9-10
10-1
10-2
Memory Access Times at 16.78 MHz................................................................10-7
Typical Electrical Characteristics.......................................................................10-13
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SECTION 1
DEVICE OVERVIEW
The MC68340 is a high-performance 32-bit integrated processor with direct memory
access (DMA), combining an enhanced M68000-compatible processor, 32-bit DMA, and
other peripheral subsystems on a single integrated circuit. The MC68340 CPU32 delivers
32-bit CISC processor performance from a lower cost 16-bit memory system. The
combination of peripherals offered in the MC68340 can be found in a diverse range of
microprocessor-based systems, including embedded control and general computing.
Systems requiring very high-speed block transfers of data can especially benefit from the
MC68340.
The MC68340's high level of functional integration results in significant reductions in
component count, power consumption, board space, and cost while yielding much higher
system reliability and shorter design time. The 3.3-V MC68340V is particularly attractive to
applications requiring a very tight power budget. Complete code compatibility with the
MC68000 and MC68010 affords the designer access to a broad base of established realtime kernels, operating systems, languages, applications, and development tools—many
oriented towards embedded control.
SYSTEM
INTEGRATION
MODULE
(SIM40)
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
TWOCHANNEL
SERIAL
I/O
CPU32
68020– BASED
PROCESSOR
CHIP SELECTS
AND
WAIT STATES
CLOCK
SYNTHESIZER
INTERMODULE BUS
EXTERNAL
BUS
INTERFACE
BUS
ARBITRATION
TWO-CHANNEL DMA
CONTROLLER
TIMER
TIMER
IEEE TEST
Figure 1-1. Block Diagram
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
The primary features of the MC68340, illustrated in Figure 1-1, are as follows:
• High Functional Integration on a Single Piece of Silicon
• CPU32—MC68020-Derived 32-Bit Central Processor Unit
— Upward Object-Code Compatible with MC68000 and MC68010
— Additional MC68020 Instructions and Addressing Modes
— Unique Embedded Control Instructions
— Fast Two-Clock Register Instructions—10,045 Dhrystones
• Two-Channel Low-Latency DMA Controller for High-Speed Memory Transfers
— Single- or Dual-Address Transfers
— 32-Bit Addresses and Counters
— 8-, 16-, and 32-Bit Data Transfers
— 50 Mbyte/Sec Sustained Transfers (12.5 Mbyte/Sec Memory-to-Memory)
• Two-Channel Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (USART)
— Baud Rate Generators
— Modem Control
— MC68681/MC2681 Compatible
— 9.8 Mbits/Sec Maximum Transfer Rate
• Two Independent Counter/Timers
— 16-Bit Counter
— Up to 8-Bit Prescaler
— Multimode Operation
— 80-ns Resolution
• System Integration Module Incorporates Many Functions Typically Relegated to
External PALs, TTL, and ASIC, such as:
— System Configuration
— External Bus Interface
— System Protection
— Periodic Interrupt Timer
— Chip Select and Wait State Generation — Interrupt Response
— Clock Generation
— Bus Arbitration
— Dynamic Bus Sizing
— IEEE 1149.1 Boundary Scan (JTAG)
— Up to 16 Discrete I/O Lines
— Power-On Reset
• 32 Address Lines, 16 Data Lines
• Power Consumption Control
— Static HCMOS Technology Reduces Power in Normal Operation
— Low Voltage Operation at 3.3 V ±0.3 V (MC68340V only)
— Programmable Clock Generator Throttles Frequency
— Unused Peripherals Can Be Turned Off
— LPSTOP Provides an Idle State for Lowest Standby Current
• 0–16.78 MHz or 0–25.16 MHz Operation
• 144-Pin Ceramic Quad Flat Pack (CQFP) or 145-Pin Plastic Pin Grid Array (PGA)
As a low voltage part, the MC68340V can operate with a 3.3-V power supply. MC68340 is
used throughout this manual to refer to both the low voltage and standard 5-V parts since
both are functionally equivalent.
1.1 M68300 FAMILY
The MC68340 is one of a series of components in the M68300 family. Other members of
the family include the MC68302, MC68330, MC68331, MC68332, and MC68333.
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1.1.1 Organization
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The M68300 family of integrated processors and controllers is built on an M68000 core
processor, an on-chip bus, and a selection of intelligent peripherals appropriate for a set of
applications. The CPU32 is a powerful central processor with nearly the performance of
the MC68020. A system integration module incorporates the external bus interface and
many of the smaller circuits that typically surround a microprocessor for address decoding,
wait-state insertion, interrupt prioritization, clock generation, arbitration, watchdog timing,
and power-on reset timing.
Each member of the M68300 family is distinguished by its selection of peripherals.
Peripherals are chosen to address specific applications but are often useful in a wide
variety of applications. The peripherals may be highly sophisticated timing or protocol
engines that have their own processors, or they may be more traditional peripheral
functions, such as UARTs and timers. Since each major function is designed in a
standalone module, each module might be found in many different M68300 family parts.
Driver software written for a module on one M68300 part can be used to run the same
module that appears on another part.
1.1.2 Advantages
By incorporating so many major features into a single M68300 family chip, a system
designer can realize significant savings in design time, power consumption, cost, board
space, pin count, and programming. The equivalent functionality can easily require 20
separate components. Each component might have 16–64 pins, totaling over 350
connections. Most of these connections require interconnects or are duplications. Each
connection is a candidate for a bad solder joint or misrouted trace. Each component is
another part to qualify, purchase, inventory, and maintain. Each component requires a
share of the printed circuit board. Each component draws power—often to drive large
buffers to get the signal to another chip. The cumulative power consumption of all the
components must be available from the power supply. The signals between the CPU and
a peripheral might not be compatible nor run from the same clock, requiring time delays or
other special design considerations.
In a M68300 family component, the major functions and glue logic are all properly
connected internally, timed with the same clock, fully tested, and uniformly documented.
Power consumption stays well under a watt, and a special standby mode drops current
well under a milliamp during idle periods. Only essential signals are brought out to pins.
The primary package is the surface-mount quad flat pack for the smallest possible
footprint; pin grid arrays are also available.
1.2 CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT
The CPU32 is a powerful central processor that supervises system functions, makes
decisions, manipulates data, and directs I/O. A special debugging mode simplifies
processor emulation during system debug.
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1.2.1 CPU32
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The CPU32 is an M68000 family processor specially designed for use as a 32-bit core
processor and for operation over the intermodule bus (IMB). Designers used the
MC68020 as a model and included advances of the later M68000 family processors,
resulting in an instruction execution performance of 4 MIPS (VAX-equivalent) at 25.16
MHz.
The powerful and flexible M68000 architecture is the basis of the CPU32. MC68000
(including the MC68HC000 and the MC68EC000) and MC68010 user programs will run
unmodified on the CPU32. The programmer can use any of the eight 32-bit data registers
for fast manipulation of data and any of the eight 32-bit address registers for indexing data
in memory. The CPU32 can operate on data types of single bits, binary-coded decimal
(BCD) digits, and 8, 16, and 32 bits. Peripherals and data in memory can reside anywhere
in the 4-Gbyte linear address space. A supervisor operating mode protects system-level
resources from the more restricted user mode, allowing a true virtual environment to be
developed.
Flexible instructions for data movement, arithmetic functions, logical operations, shifts and
rotates, bit set and clear, conditional and unconditional program branches, and overall
system control are supported, including a fast 32 × 32 multiply and 32-bit conditional
branches. New instructions, such as table lookup and interpolate and low power stop,
support the specific requirements of embedded control applications. Many addressing
modes complement these instructions, including predecrement and postincrement, which
allow simple stack and queue maintenance and scaled indexed for efficient table
accesses. Data types and addressing modes are supported orthogonally by all data
operations and with all appropriate addressing modes. Position-independent code is easily
written.
The CPU32 is specially optimized to run with the MC68340's 16-bit data bus. Most
instructions execute in one-half the number of clocks compared to the original MC68000,
yielding an overall 1.6 times the performance of the same-speed MC68000 and measuring
10,045 Dhrystones/sec @ 25.16 MHz (6,742 Dhrystones/sec @ 16.78 MHz).
Like all M68000 family processors, the CPU32 recognizes interrupts of seven different
priority levels and allows the peripheral to vector the processor to the desired service
routine. Internal trap exceptions ensure proper instruction execution with good addresses
and data, allow operating system intervention in special situations, and permit instruction
tracing. Hardware signals can either terminate or rerun bad memory accesses before
instructions process data incorrectly.
The CPU32 offers the programmer full 32-bit data processing performance with complete
M68000 compatibility, yet with more compact code than is available with RISC
processors. The CPU32 is identical in all CPU32-based M68300 family products.
1.2.2 Background Debug Mode
A special operating mode is available in the CPU32 in which normal instruction execution
is suspended while special on-chip microcode performs the functions of a debugger.
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Commands are received over a dedicated, high-speed, full-duplex serial interface.
Commands allow the manual reading or writing of CPU32 registers, reading or writing of
external memory locations, and diversion to user-specified patch code. This background
debug mode permits a much simpler emulation environment while leaving the processor
chip in the target system, running its own debugging operations.
1.3 ON-CHIP PERIPHERALS
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
To improve total system throughput and reduce part count, board size, and cost of system
implementation, the M68300 family integrates on-chip, intelligent peripheral modules and
typical glue logic. These functions on the MC68340 include the SIM40, a DMA controller,
a serial module, and two timers.
The processor communicates with these modules over the on-chip intermodule bus (IMB).
This backbone of the chip is similar to traditional external buses with address, data, clock,
interrupt, arbitration, and handshake signals. Because bus masters (like the CPU32 and
DMA), peripherals, and the SIM40 are all on the chip, the IMB ensures that
communication between these modules is fully synchronized and that arbitration and
interrupts can be handled in parallel with data transfers, greatly improving system
performance. Internal accesses across the IMB may be monitored from outside of the
chip, if desired.
Each module operates independently. No direct connections between peripheral modules
are made inside the chip; however, external connections could, for instance, link a serial
output to a DMA control line. Modules and their registers are accessed in the memory
map of the CPU32 (and DMA) for easy access by general M68000 instructions and are
relocatable. Each module may be assigned its own interrupt level, response vector, and
arbitration priority. Since each module is a self-contained design and adheres to the IMB
interface specifications, the modules may appear on other M68300 family products,
retaining the investment in the software drivers for the module.
1.3.1 System Integration Module
The MC68340 SIM40 provides the external bus interface for both the CPU32 and the
DMA. It also eliminates much of the glue logic that typically supports the microprocessor
and its interface with the peripheral and memory system. The SIM40 provides
programmable circuits to perform address decoding and chip selects, wait-state insertion,
interrupt handling, clock generation, bus arbitration, watchdog timing, discrete I/O, and
power-on reset timing. A boundary scan test capability is also provided.
1.3.1.1 EXTERNAL BUS INTERFACE. The external bus interface (EBI) handles the
transfer of information between the internal CPU32 or DMA controller and memory,
peripherals, or other processing elements in the external address space. Based on the
MC68030 bus, the external bus provides up to 32 address lines and 16 data lines.
Address extensions identify each bus cycle as CPU32 or DMA initiated, supervisor or user
privilege level, and instruction or data access. The data bus allows dynamic sizing for 8- or
16-bit bus accesses (plus 32 bits for DMA). Synchronous transfers from the CPU32 or the
DMA can be made in as little as two clock cycles. Asynchronous transfers allow the
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memory system to signal the CPU32 or DMA when the transfer is complete and to note
the number of bits in the transfer. An external master can arbitrate for the bus using a
three-line handshaking interface.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
1.3.1.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND PROTECTION. The M68000 family of
processors is designed with the concept of providing maximum system safeguards.
System configuration and various monitors and timers are provided in the MC68340.
Power-on reset circuitry is a part of the SIM40. A bus monitor ensures that the system
does not lock up when there is no response to a memory access. The bus fault monitor
can reset the processor when a catastrophic bus failure occurs. Spurious interrupts are
detected and handled appropriately. A software watchdog can pull the processor out of an
infinite loop. An interrupt can be sent to the CPU32 with programmable regularity for
DRAM refresh, time-of-day clock, task switching, etc.
1.3.1.3 CLOCK SYNTHESIZER. The clock synthesizer generates the clock signals used
by all internal operations as well as a clock output used by external devices. The clock
synthesizer can operate with an inexpensive 32768-Hz watch crystal or an external
oscillator for reference, using an internal phase-locked loop and voltage-controlled
oscillator. At any time, software can select clock frequencies from 131 kHz to 16.78 MHz
or 25.16 MHz, favoring either low power consumption or high performance. Alternately, an
external clock can drive the clock signal directly at the operating frequency. With its fully
static HCMOS design, it is possible to completely stop the system clock without losing the
contents of the internal registers.
1.3.1.4 CHIP SELECT AND WAIT STATE GENERATION. Four programmable chip
selects provide signals to enable external memory and peripheral circuits, providing all
handshaking and timing signals with up to 175-ns access times with a 25-MHz system
clock (265 ns @ 16.78 MHz). Each chip select signal has an associated base address and
an address mask that determine the addressing characteristics of that chip select.
Address space and write protection can be selected for each. The block size can be
selected from 256 bytes up to 4 Gbytes in increments of 2 n. Accesses can be preselected
for either 8- or 16-bit transfers. Fast synchronous termination or up to three wait states
can be programmed, whether or not the chip select signals are used. External
handshakes can also signal the end of a bus transfer. A system can boot from reset out of
8-bit-wide memory, if desired.
1.3.1.5 INTERRUPT HANDLING. Seven input signals are provided to trigger an external
interrupt, one for each of the seven priority levels supported. Seven separate outputs can
indicate the priority level of the interrupt being serviced. An input can direct the processor
to a default service routine, if desired. Interrupts at each priority level can be
preprogrammed to go to the default service routine. For maximum flexibility, interrupts can
be vectored to the correct service routine by the interrupting device.
1.3.1.6 DISCRETE I/O PINS. When not used for other functions, 16 pins can be
programmed as discrete input or output lines. Additionally, in other peripheral modules,
pins for otherwise unused functions can often be used for general input/output.
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1.3.1.7 IEEE 1149.1 TEST ACCESS PORT. To aid in system diagnostics, the MC68340
includes dedicated user-accessible test logic that is fully compliant with the IEEE 1149.1
standard for boundary scan testability, often referred to as JTAG (Joint Test Action
Group).
1.3.2 Direct Memory Access Module
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The most distinguishing MC68340 characteristic is the high-speed 32-bit DMA controller,
used to quickly move large blocks of data between internal peripherals, external
peripherals, or memory without processor intervention. The DMA module consists of two,
independent, programmable channels. Each channel has separate request, acknowledge,
and done signals. Each channel can operate in a single-address or a dual-address (flyby)
mode.
In single-address mode, only one (the source or the destination) address is provided, and
a peripheral device such as a serial communications controller receives or supplies the
data. An external request must start a single-address transfer. In this mode, each channel
supports 32 bits of address and 8, 16, or 32 bits of data.
In dual-address mode, two bus transfers occur, one from a source device and the other to
a destination device. Dual-address transfers can be started by either an internal or
external request. In this mode, each channel supports 32 bits of address and 8 or 16 bits
of data (32 bits require external logic). The source and destination port size can be
selected independently; when they are different, the data will be packed or unpacked. An
8-bit disk interface can be read twice before the concatenated 16-bit result is passed into
memory.
Byte, word, and long-word counts up to 32 bits can be transferred. All addresses and
transfer counters are 32 bits. Addresses increment or remain constant, as programmed.
The DMA channels support two external request modes, burst transfer and cycle steal.
Internal requests can be programmed to occupy 25, 50, 75, or 100 percent of the data bus
bandwidth. Interrupts can be programmed to postpone DMA completion.
The DMA module can sustain a transfer rate of 12.5 Mbytes/sec in dual-address mode
and nearly 50 Mbytes/sec in single-address mode @ 25.16 MHz (8.4 and 33.3 Mbytes/sec
@ 16.78 MHz, respectively). The DMA controller arbitrates with the CPU32 for the bus in
parallel with existing bus cycles and is fully synchronized with the CPU32, eliminating all
delays normally associated with bus arbitration by allowing DMA bus cycles to butt
seamlessly with CPU bus cycles.
1.3.3 Serial Module
Most digital systems use serial I/O to communicate with host computers, operator
terminals, or remote devices. The MC68340 contains a two-channel, full-duplex USART.
An on-chip baud rate generator provides standard baud rates up to 76.8k baud
independently to each channel's receiver and transmitter. The module is functionally
equivalent to the MC68681/MC2681 DUART.
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Each communication channel is completely independent. Data formats can be 5, 6, 7, or 8
bits with even, odd, or no parity and stop bits up to 2 in 1/16 increments. Four-byte receive
buffers and two-byte transmit buffers minimize CPU service calls. A wide variety of error
detection and maskable interrupt capability is provided on each channel. Full-duplex,
autoecho loopback, local loopback, and remote loopback modes can be selected.
Multidrop applications are supported.
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A 3.6864-MHz crystal drives the baud rate generators. Each transmit and receive channel
can be programmed for a different baud rate, or an external 1 × and 16× clock input can be
selected. Full modem support is provided with separate request-to-send (RTS) and clearto-send (CTS) signals for each channel. One channel also provides service request
signals. The two serial ports can sustain rates of 9.8 Mbps with a 25-MHz system clock in
1× mode, 612 kbps in 16× mode (6.5 Mbps and 410 kbps @ 16.78 MHz).
1.3.4 Timer Modules
Timers and counters are used in a system to monitor elapsed time, generate waveforms,
measure signals, keep time-of-day clocks, initiate DRAM refresh cycles, count events, and
provide “time slices” to ensure that no task dominates the activity of the processor. A
counter that counts clock pulses makes a timer, which is most useful when it causes
certain actions to occur in response to reaching desired counts.
The MC68340 has two, identical, versatile, on-chip counter/timers as well as a simple
timer in the SIM40. These general-purpose counter/timers can be used for precisely timed
events without the errors to which software-based counters and timers are susceptible—
e.g., errors caused by dynamic memory refreshing, DMA cycle steals, and interrupt
servicing. The programmable timer operating modes are input capture, output compare,
square-wave generation, variable duty-cycle square-wave generation, variable-width
single-shot pulse generation, event counting, period measurement, and pulse-width
measurement.
Each timer consists of a 16-bit countdown counter with an 8-bit countdown prescaler for a
composite 24-bit resolution. The two timers can be externally cascaded for a maximum
count width of 48 bits. The counter/timer can be clocked by the internal system clock
generated by the SIM40 (÷2) or by an external clock input. Either the processor or external
stimuli can trigger the starting and stopping of the counter. When a counter reaches a
predetermined value, either an external output signal can be driven, or an interrupt can be
made to the CPU32. The finest resolution of the timer is 80 ns with a 25-MHz system
clock (125 ns @ 16.78 MHz).
1.4 POWER CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT
The MC68340 is very power efficient due to its advanced 0.8-µ HCMOS process
technology and its static logic design. The resulting power consumption is typically
900 mW in full operation @ 25 MHz (650 mW @ 16.78 MHz)—far less than the
comparable discrete component implementation the MC68340 can replace. For
applications employing reduced voltage operation, selection of the MC68340V, which
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requires only a 3.3-V power supply, reduces current consumption by 40–60% in all modes
of operation (as well as reducing noise emissions).
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The MC68340 has many additional methods of dynamically controlling power
consumption during operation. The frequency of operation can be lowered under software
control to reduce current consumption when performance is less critical. Idle internal
peripheral modules can be turned off to save power (5–10% each). Running a special low
power stop (LPSTOP) instruction shuts down the active circuits in the CPU and peripheral
modules, halting instruction execution. Power consumption in this standby mode is
reduced to about 350 µW. Processing and power consumption can be resumed by
resetting the part or by generating an interrupt with the SIM40's periodic interrupt timer.
1.5 PHYSICAL
The MC68340 is available as 0–16.78 MHz and 0–25.16 MHz, 0°C to +70°C and -40°C to
+85°C, and 5.0 V ±5% and 3.3 V ±0.3 supply voltages (reduced frequencies at 3.3 V) .
Thirty-two power and ground leads minimize ground bounce and ensure proper isolation
of different sections of the chip, including the clock oscillator. A 144 pins are used for
signals and power. The MC68340 is available in a gull-wing ceramic quad flat pack
(CQFP) with 25.6-mil (0.001-in) lead spacing or a 15 × 15 plastic pin grid array (PPGA)
with 0.1-in pin spacing.
1.6 COMPACT DISC-INTERACTIVE
The MC68340 was designed to meet the needs of many markets, including compact discinteractive (CD-I). CD-I is an emerging standard for a publishing medium that will bring
multimedia to a broad general audience—the consumer. CD-I players combine television
and stereo systems as output devices, with interactive control using a TV remote-controllike device to provide a multimedia experience selected from software “titles” contained in
compressed form on standard compact discs.
The highly integrated MC68340 is ideal as the central processor for CD-I players. It
provides the M68000 microprocessor code compatibility and DMA functions required by
the CD-I Green Book specification as well as many other useful on-chip functions for a
very cost-effective solution. The extra demands of full-motion video CD-I systems make
the best use of the MC68340 high performance. The MC68340 is CD-I compliant and has
been CD-I qualified. With its low voltage operation, the MC68340V is the only practical
choice for portable CD-I.
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1.7 MORE INFORMATION
The following table lists available documentation related to the MC68340:
Document Number
BR1114/D
MC68340/D
MC68340UM/AD
M68000PM/AD
AN1063/D
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
M68300 Integrated Processor Family
MC68340 Technical Summary
MC68340 User's Manual
M68000 Family Programmer's Reference Manual
DRAM Controller for the MC68340
Software Implementation of SPI on the MC68340
AN453
1-10
Document Name
BR573/D
M68340 Evaluation System Product Brief
BR729/D
The 68K Source
BR1407/D
3.3 Volt Logic and Interface Circuits
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SECTION 2
SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS
SCLK
X2
X1
BKPT/DSCLK
FREEZE
IPIPE/DSO
IFETCH/DSI
PORT A
TCK
TMS
TDI
TDO
A31/PORT A7/IACK7
A30/PORT A6/IACK6
A29/PORT A5/IACK5
A28/PORT A4/IACK4
A27/PORT A3/IACK3
A26/PORT A2/IACK2
A25/PORT A1/IACK1
A24/PORT A0
TWO-CHANNEL
SERIAL
I/O
CPU32
CORE
TEST
A23–A0
RxDA
TxDA
CTSA
RxDB
TxDB
CTSB
D15–D0
FC3–FC0
OUTPUT
PORT
SYSTEM
INTEGRATION
MODULE
BUS
ARBITRATION
TIMER
MODULE
CLKOUT
XFC
XTAL
TIMER
MODULE
TGATE2
TIN2
TOUT2
CLOCK
TWO-CHANNEL
DMA
CONTROLLER
PORT B
DREQ1
DACK1
DONE1
DREQ2
DACK2
DONE2
IRQ7/PORT B7
IRQ6/PORT B6
IRQ5/PORT B5
IRQ3/PORT B3
CS3/IRQ4/PORT B4
CS2/IRQ2/PORT B2
CS1/IRQ1/PORT B1
CS0/AVEC
MODCK/PORT B0
TxRDYA/OP6
RxRDYA/FFULLA/OP4
RTSB/OP1
RTSA/OP0
IMB
TIN1
TOUT1
BR
BG
BGACK
RMC
EXTERNAL
BUS
INTERFACE
TGATE1
RESET
BERR
HALT
AS
DS
R/W
SIZ1
SIZ0
DSACK1
DSACK0
EXTAL
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This section contains brief descriptions of the MC68340 input and output signals in their
functional groups as shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1. Functional Signal Groups
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2.1 SIGNAL INDEX
The input and output signals for the MC68340 are listed in Table 2-1. The name,
mnemonic, and brief functional description are presented. For more detail on each signal,
refer to the signal paragraph. Guaranteed timing specifications for the signals listed in
Table 2-1 can be found in Section 11 Electrical Characteristics.
Table 2-1. Signal Index
Signal Name
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Address Bus
Mnemonic
Function
A23–A0
Lower 24 bits of the address bus
Input/
Output
Out
Address Bus/Port A7–A0/
Interrupt Acknowledge
A31–A24
Upper eight bits of the address bus, parallel I/O port, or
interrupt acknowledge lines
Out/I/O/Out
Data Bus
D15–D0
The 16-bit data bus used to transfer byte or word data
I/O
Function Codes
FC3–FC0
Identify the processor state and the address space of the
current bus cycle
Out
Chip Select 3–1/
Interrupt Request Level/
Port B4, B2, B1
CS3–CS1
Enables peripherals at programmed addresses, interrupt
priority level to the CPU32, or parallel I/O port
Out/In/
I/O
Chip Select 0/Autovector
CS0
Enables peripherals at programmed addresses or
requests an automatic vector
Out/In
Bus Request
BR
Indicates that an external device requires bus mastership
Bus Grant
BG
Indicates that current bus cycle is complete and the
MC68340 has relinquished the bus
Out
BGACK
Indicates that an external device has assumed bus
mastership
In
Provides asynchronous data transfers and dynamic bus
sizing
In
Bus Grant Acknowledge
Data and Size
Acknowledge
DSACK1,
DSACK0
In
RMC
Identifies the bus cycle as part of an indivisible read modify-write operation
Out
Address Strobe
AS
Indicates that a valid address is on the address bus
Out
Data Strobe
DS
During a read cycle, DS indicates that an external device
should place valid data on the data bus. During a write
cycle, DS indicates that valid data is on the data bus.
Out
SIZ1, SIZ0
Indicates the number of bytes remaining to be transferred
for this cycle
Out
R/ W
Indicates the direction of data transfer on the bus
Out
IRQ7, IRQ6,
IRQ5, IRQ3
Provides an interrupt priority level to the CPU32 or
becomes a parallel I/O port
In/I/O
Read-Modify-Write Cycle
Size
Read/Write
Interrupt Request Level/
Port B7, B6, B5, B3
RESET
System reset
I/O
Halt
HALT
Suspends external bus activity
I/O
Bus Error
BERR
Indicates an invalid bus operation is being attempted
In
Reset
System Clock
Crystal Oscillator
External Filter Capacitor
2-2
CLKOUT
System clock out
EXTAL, XTAL
XFC
Connections for an external crystal or oscillator to the
internal oscillator circuit
Connection pin for an external capacitor to filter the circuit
of the phase-locked loop
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Out
In, Out
In
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Table 2-1. Signal Index (Continued)
Signal Name
Function
MODCK
Selects the source of the internal system clock upon reset
or becomes a parallel I/O port
In/I/O
Instruction Fetch/
Development Serial In
IFETCH/DSI
Indicates when the CPU32 is performing an instruction
word prefetch and when the instruction pipeline has been
flushed or provides background debug mode serial in
Out/In
Instruction Pipe/
Development Serial Out
IPIPE/DSO
Used to track movement of words through the instruction
pipeline or provides background debug mode serial out
Out/Out
Breakpoint/Development
Serial Clock
BKPT/DSCLK
Signals a hardware breakpoint to the CPU32 or provides
background debug mode serial clock
In/—
FREEZE
Indicates that the CPU32 has entered background debug
mode
Out
Out
Clock Mode Select/
Port B0
Freeze
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Input/
Output
Mnemonic
Transmit Data
TxDA, TxDB
Transmitter serial data output from the serial module
Clear-to-Send
CTSA, CTSB
Serial module clear-to-send inputs
Request-to-Send/
OP1, OP0
RTSB, RTSA
Channel request-to-send outputs or discrete outputs
Serial Crystal Oscillator
X1, X2
Connections for an external crystal to the serial module
internal oscillator circuit
Serial Clock
SCLK
External serial module clock input
Transmitter Ready/OP6
T≈RDYA
Indicates transmit buffer has a character or becomes a
parallel output
Receiver Ready/
FIFO Full/OP4
R≈RDYA
Indicates receive buffer has a character, the receiver
FIFO buffer is full or becomes a parallel output
DMA Request
DRE
Input that starts a DMA process
In
Out/Out
In
Out/Out
Out/Out/Out
In
Q2, DREQ1
DMA Acknowledge
DACK2,
DACK1
Output that signals an access during DMA
Out
DMA Done
DONE2,
DONE1
Bi-directional signal that indicates the last transfer
I/O
Timer Gate
TGATE2,
TGATE1
Counter enable input to timer
In
Timer Input
TIN2, TIN1
Time reference input to timer
In
TOUT2,
TOUT1
Output waveform from timer
Out
Timer Output
Test Clock
TCK
Provides a clock for IEEE 1149.1 test logic
In
Test Mode Select
TMS
Controls test mode operations
In
Test Data In
TDI
Shifts in instructions and test data
In
Test Data Out
TDO
Shifts out instructions and test data
Synchronizer Power
System Power Supply
and Ground
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VCCSYN
VCC , GND
Out
Quiet power supply to VCO; also used to control
synthesizer mode after reset.
—
Power supply and ground to the MC68340
—
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NOTE
The terms assert and negate are used throughout this section
to avoid confusion when dealing with a mixture of active-low
and active-high signals. The term assert or assertion indicates
that a signal is active or true, independent of the level
represented by a high or low voltage. The term negate or
negation indicates that a signal is inactive or false.
2.2 ADDRESS BUS
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The address bus signals are outputs that define the address of the byte (or the most
significant byte) to be transferred during a bus cycle. The MC68340 places the address on
the bus at the beginning of a bus cycle. The address is valid while AS is asserted.
The address bus consists of the following two groups. Refer to Section 3 Bus Operation
for information on the address bus and its relationship to bus operation.
2.2.1 Address Bus (A23–A0)
These three-state outputs (along with A31–A24) provide the address for the current bus
cycle, except in the CPU address space.
2.2.2 Address Bus (A31–A24)
These pins can be programmed as the most significant eight address bits, port A parallel
I/O, or interrupt acknowledge signals. These pins can be used for more than one of their
multiplexed functions as long as the external demultiplexing circuit properly resolves
interaction between the different functions.
A31–A24
These pins can function as the most significant eight address bits.
Port A7–A0
These eight pins can serve as a dedicated parallel I/O port. See Section 4 System
Integration Module for more information on programming these pins.
IACK7– IACK1
The MC68340 asserts one of these pins to indicate the level of an external interrupt
during an interrupt acknowledge cycle. Peripherals can use the IACK≈ signals instead
of monitoring the address bus and function codes to determine that an interrupt
acknowledge cycle is in progress and to obtain the current interrupt level.
2.3 DATA BUS (D15–D0)
This bidirectional, nonmultiplexed, parallel bus contains the data being transferred to or
from the MC68340. A read or write operation may transfer 8 or 16 bits of data (one or two
bytes) in one bus cycle. During a read cycle, the data is latched by the MC68340 on the
2-4
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last falling edge of the clock for that bus cycle. For a write cycle, all 16 bits of the data bus
are driven, regardless of the port width or operand size. The MC68340 places the data on
the data bus approximately one-half clock cycle after AS is asserted in a write cycle.
2.4 FUNCTION CODES (FC3–FC0)
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These signals are outputs that indicate one of 16 address spaces to which the address
applies. Fifteen of these spaces are designated as either user or supervisor, program or
data, and normal or direct memory access (DMA) spaces. One other address space is
designated as CPU space to allow the CPU32 to acquire specific control information not
normally associated with read or write bus cycles. The function code signals are valid
while AS is asserted. See Table 2-2 for more information.
Table 2-2. Address Space Encoding
Function Code Bits
3
2
1
0
Address Spaces
0
0
0
0
Reserved (Motorola)
0
0
0
1
User Data Space
0
0
1
0
User Program Space
0
0
1
1
Reserved (User )
0
1
0
0
Reserved (Motorola)
0
1
0
1
Supervisor Data Space
0
1
1
0
Supervisor Program Space
0
1
1
1
CPU Space
1
x
x
x
DMA Space
2.5 CHIP SELECTS (CS3–CS0)
These pins can be programmed to be chip select output signals, port B parallel I/O and
autovector input, or additional interrupt request lines. Refer to Section 4 System
Integration Module for more information on these signals.
CS3– CS0
The chip select output signals enable peripherals at programmed addresses. These
signals are inactive high (not high impedance) after reset. CS0 is the chip select for a
boot ROM containing the reset vector and initialization program. It functions as the boot
chip select immediately after reset.
IRQ4, IRQ2, IRQ1
Interrupt request lines are external interrupt lines to the CPU32. These additional
interrupt request lines are selected by the FIRQ bit in the module configuration register.
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Port B4, B2, B1, AVEC
This signal group functions as three bits of parallel I/O and the autovector input. AVEC
requests an automatic vector during an interrupt acknowledge cycle.
2.6 INTERRUPT REQUEST LEVEL (IRQ7, IRQ6, IRQ5, IRQ3)
These pins can be programmed to be either prioritized interrupt request lines or port B
parallel I/O.
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IRQ7, IRQ6, IRQ5, IRQ3
IRQ7 , the highest priority, is nonmaskable. IRQ6–IRQ1 are internally maskable
interrupts. Refer to Section 5 CPU32 for more information on interrupt request lines.
Port B7, B6, B5, B3
These pins can be used as port B parallel I/O. Refer to Section 4 System Integration
Module for more information on parallel I/O signals.
2.7 BUS CONTROL SIGNALS
These signals control the bus transfer operations of the MC68340. Refer to Section 3
Bus Operation for more information on these signals.
2.7.1 Data and Size Acknowledge ( DSACK1, DSACK0)
These two active-low input signals allow asynchronous data transfers and dynamic data
bus sizing between the MC68340 and external devices as listed in Table 2-3. During bus
cycles, external devices assert DSACK1 and/or DSACK0 as part of the bus protocol.
During a read cycle, this signals the MC68340 to terminate the bus cycle and to latch the
data. During a write cycle, this indicates that the external device has successfully stored
the data and that the cycle may terminate.
Table 2-3. DSACK≈ Encoding
DSACK
1
1
1
0
0
DSACK
0
1
0
1
0
Result
Insert Wait States in Current Bus Cycle
Complete Cycle—Data Bus Port Size Is 8 Bits
Complete Cycle—Data Bus Port Size Is 16 Bits
Reserved—Defaults to 16-Bit Port Size Can Be
Used for 32-Bit DMA Cycles
2.7.2 Address Strobe ( AS)
AS is an output timing signal that indicates the validity of both an address on the address
bus and many control signals. AS is asserted approximately one-half clock cycle after the
beginning of a bus cycle.
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2.7.3 Data Strobe (DS)
DS is an output timing signal that applies to the data bus. For a read cycle, the MC68340
asserts DS and AS simultaneously to signal the external device to place data on the bus.
For a write cycle, DS signals to the external device that the data to be written is valid. The
MC68340 asserts DS approximately one clock cycle after the assertion of AS during a
write cycle.
2.7.4 Transfer Size (SIZ1, SIZ0)
These output signals are driven by the bus master to indicate the number of operand
bytes remaining to be transferred in the current bus cycle as noted in Table 2-4.
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Table 2-4. SIZx Signal Encoding
SIZ1
SIZ0
Transfer Size
0
1
Byte
1
0
Word
1
1
Three Byte
0
0
Long Word
2.7.5 Read/Write (R/ W)
This active-high output signal is driven by the bus master to indicate the direction of a data
transfer on the bus. A logic one indicates a read from a slave device; a logic zero indicates
a write to a slave device.
2.8 BUS ARBITRATION SIGNALS
The following signals are the bus arbitration control signals used to determine the bus
master. Refer to Section 3 Bus Operation for more information on these signals.
2.8.1 Bus Request (BR)
This active-low input signal indicates that an external device needs to become the bus
master.
2.8.2 Bus Grant (BG)
Assertion of this active-low output signal indicates that the MC68340 has relinquished the
bus.
2.8.3 Bus Grant Acknowledge (BGACK)
Assertion of this active-low input indicates that an external device has become the bus
master.
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2.8.4 Read-Modify-Write Cycle (RMC)
This output signal identifies the bus cycle as part of an indivisible read-modify-write
operation. It remains asserted during all bus cycles of the read-modify-write operation to
indicate that bus ownership cannot be transferred.
2.9 EXCEPTION CONTROL SIGNALS
These signals are used by the MC68340 to recover from an exception.
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2.9.1 Reset ( RESET)
This active-low, open-drain, bidirectional signal is used to initiate a system reset. An
external reset signal (as well as a reset from the SIM40) resets the MC68340 and all
external devices. A reset signal from the CPU32 (asserted as part of the RESET
instruction) resets external devices; the internal state of the CPU32 is not affected. The
on-chip modules are reset, except for the SIM40. However, the module configuration
register for each on-chip module is not altered. When asserted by the MC68340, this
signal is guaranteed to be asserted for a minimum of 512 clock cycles. Refer to Section 3
Bus Operation for a description of bus reset operation and Section 5 CPU32 for
information about the reset exception.
2.9.2 Halt (HALT)
This active-low, open-drain, bidirectional signal is asserted to suspend external bus
activity, to request a retry when used with BERR, or to perform a single-step operation. As
an output, HALT indicates a double bus fault by the CPU32. Refer to Section 3 Bus
Operation for a description of the effects of HALT on bus operation.
2.9.3 Bus Error (BERR)
This active-low input signal indicates that an invalid bus operation is being attempted or,
when used with HALT, that the processor should retry the current cycle. Refer to Section
3 Bus Operation for a description of the effects of BERR on bus operation.
2.10 CLOCK SIGNALS
These signals are used by the MC68340 for controlling or generating the system clocks.
See Section 4 System Integration Module for more information on the various clocking
methods and frequencies.
2.10.1 System Clock (CLKOUT)
This output signal is the system clock output and is used as the bus timing reference by
external devices. CLKOUT can be varied in frequency or slowed in low power stop mode
to conserve power.
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2.10.2 Crystal Oscillator (EXTAL, XTAL)
These two pins are the connections for an external crystal to the internal oscillator circuit.
If an external oscillator is used, it should be connected to EXTAL, with XTAL left open.
2.10.3 External Filter Capacitor (XFC)
This pin is used to add an external capacitor to the filter circuit of the phase-locked loop.
The capacitor should be connected between XFC and VCCSYN.
2.10.4 Clock Mode Select (MODCK)
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This pin selects the source of the internal system clock during reset. After reset, it can be
programmed to be port B parallel I/O.
MODCK
The state of this active-high input signal during reset selects the source of the internal
system clock. If MODCK is high during reset, the internal voltage-controlled oscillator
(VCO) furnishes the system clock in crystal mode. If MODCK is low during reset, an
external clock source at the EXTAL pin furnishes the system clock output in external
clock mode.
Port B0
This pin can be used as a port B parallel I/O.
2.11 INSTRUMENTATION AND EMULATION SIGNALS
These signals are used for test or software debugging. See Section 5 CPU32 for more
information on these signals and background debug mode.
2.11.1 Instruction Fetch (IFETCH)
This pin functions as IFETCH in normal operation and as DSI in background debug mode.
IFETCH
This active-low output signal indicates when the CPU32 is performing an instruction
word prefetch and when the instruction pipeline has been flushed.
DSI
This development serial input signal helps to provide serial communications for
background debug mode.
2.11.2 Instruction Pipe (IPIPE)
This pin functions as IPIPE in normal operation and as DSO in background debug mode.
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IPIPE
This active-low output signal is used to track movement of words through the instruction
pipeline.
DSO
This development serial output signal helps to provide serial communications for
background debug mode.
2.11.3 Breakpoint (BKPT)
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This pin functions as BKPT in normal operation and as DSCLK in background debug
mode.
BKPT
This active-low input signal is used to signal a hardware breakpoint to the CPU32.
DSCLK
This development serial clock input helps to provide serial communications for
background debug mode.
2.11.4 Freeze (FREEZE)
Assertion of this active-high output signal indicates that the CPU32 has acknowledged a
breakpoint and has initiated background mode operation.
2.12 DMA MODULE SIGNALS
The following signals are used by the direct memory access (DMA) controller module to
provide external handshake for either a source or destination. See Section 6 DMA
Module for additional information on these signals.
2.12.1 DMA Request (DREQ2, DREQ1)
This active-low input is asserted by a peripheral device to request an operand transfer
between that peripheral and memory. The assertion of DREQ≈ starts the DMA process.
The assertion level in external burst mode is level sensitive; in external cycle steal mode,
it is falling-edge sensitive.
2.12.2 DMA Acknowledge (DACK2, DACK1)
This active-low output is asserted by the DMA to signal to a peripheral that an operand is
being transferred in response to a previous transfer request.
2.12.3 DMA Done (DONE2, DONE1)
This active-low bidirectional signal is asserted by the DMA or a peripheral device during
any DMA bus cycle to indicate that the last data transfer is being performed. DONE≈ is an
active input in any mode. As an output, it is only active in external request mode. An
external pullup resistor is required even during operation in the internal request mode.
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2.13 SERIAL MODULE SIGNALS
The following signals are used by the serial module for data and clock signals. See
Section 7 Serial Module for more information on these signals.
2.13.1 Serial Crystal Oscillator (X2, X1)
These pins furnish the connection to a crystal or external clock, which must be supplied
when using the baud rate generator. An external clock is connected to the X1 pin; X2 is
left floating.
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2.13.2 Serial External Clock Input (SCLK)
This input can be used as the external clock input for channel A or channel B, bypassing
the baud rate generator.
2.13.3 Receive Data (RxDA, RxDB)
These signals are the receiver serial data input for each channel. Data received on this
signal is sampled on the rising edge of the clock source, with the least significant bit
received first.
2.13.4 Transmit Data (TxDA, TxDB)
These signals are the transmitter serial data output for each channel. The output is held
high ('mark' condition) when the transmitter is disabled, idle, or operating in the local
loopback mode. Data is shifted out on this signal at the falling edge of the clock source,
with the least significant bit transmitted first.
2.13.5 Clear to Send (CTSA, CTSB)
These active-low signals can be programmed as the clear-to-send inputs for each
channel.
2.13.6 Request to Send (RTSA, RTSB)
These active-low signals can be programmed as request-to-send outputs or used as
discrete outputs.
RTSB, RTSA
When used for this function, these signals function as the request-to-send outputs.
OP1, OP0
When used for this function, these outputs are controlled by the value of bit 1 and bit 0,
respectively, in the output port data registers.
2.13.7 Transmitter Ready (T≈RDYA)
This active-low output can be programmed as the channel A transmitter ready status
indicator or used as a discrete output.
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T≈RDYA
When used for this function, this signal reflects the complement of the status of bit 2 of
the channel A status register. This signal can be used to control parallel data flow by
acting as an interrupt to indicate when the transmitter contains a character.
OP6
When used for this function, this output is controlled by bit 6 in the output port data
registers.
2.13.8 Receiver Ready (R≈RDYA)
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This active-low output signal can be programmed as the channel A receiver ready,
channel A FIFO full indicator, or a dedicated parallel output.
R≈RDYA
When used for this function, this signal reflects the complement of the status of bit 1 of
the interrupt status register. This signal can be used to control parallel data flow by
acting as an interrupt to indicate when the receiver contains a character.
FFULLA
When used for this function, this signal reflects the complement of the status of bit 1 of
the interrupt status register. This signal can be used to control parallel data flow by
acting as an interrupt to indicate when the receiver FIFO is full.
OP4
When used for this function, this output is controlled by bit 4 in the output port data
registers.
2.14 TIMER SIGNALS
The following external signals are used by the timer modules. See Section 8 Timer
Modules for additional information on these signals.
2.14.1 Timer Gate (TGATE2, TGATE1)
These active-low inputs can be programmed to enable and disable the counters and
prescalers. TGATE≈ can also be programmed as a simple input.
2.14.2 Timer Input (TIN2, TIN1)
These inputs can be programmed as clocks that cause events to occur in the counters
and prescalers.
2.14.3 Timer Output (TOUT2, TOUT1)
These outputs drive the various output waveforms generated by the timers.
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2.15 TEST SIGNALS
The following signals are used with the on-board test logic defined by the IEEE 1149.1
standard. See Section 9 IEEE 1149.1 Test Access Port for more information on the use
of these signals.
2.15.1 Test Clock (TCK)
This input provides a clock for on-board test logic defined by the IEEE 1149.1 standard.
2.15.2 Test Mode Select (TMS)
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This input controls test mode operations for on-board test logic defined by the IEEE
1149.1 standard.
2.15.3 Test Data In (TDI)
This input is used for serial test instructions and test data for on-board test logic defined
by the IEEE 1149.1 standard.
2.15.4 Test Data Out (TDO)
This output is used for serial test instructions and test data for on-board test logic defined
by the IEEE 1149.1 standard.
2.16 SYNTHESIZER POWER (V CCSYN )
This pin supplies a quiet power source to the VCO to provide greater frequency stability. It
is also used to control the synthesizer mode after reset. See Section 4 System
Integration Module for more information.
2.17 SYSTEM POWER AND GROUND (V CC AND GND)
These pins provide system power and ground to the MC68340. Multiple pins are provided
for adequate current capability. All power supply pins must have adequate bypass
capacitance for high-frequency noise suppression.
2.18 SIGNAL SUMMARY
Table 2-5 presents a summary of all the signals discussed in the preceding paragraphs.
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Table 2-5. Signal Summary
Signal Name
Mnemonic
Input/Output
A23–A0
Out
—
Yes
Address Bus Port A7–A0/
Interrupt Acknowledge
A31–A24
Out/I/O/Out
—/—/Low
Yes
Data Bus
D15–D0
I/O
—
Yes
Function Codes
FC3–FC0
Out
—
Yes
Chip Select 3/Interrupt Request
Level/Port B4, B2, B1
CS3–CS1
Out/In/I/O
Low/Low/—
No
CS0
Out/In
Low/Low
No
Bus Request
BR
In
Low
—
Bus Grant
BG
Out
Low
No
BGACK
In
Low
—
DSACK1,
DSACK0
In
Low
—
RMC
Out
Low
Yes
Address Strobe
AS
Out
Low
Yes
Data Strobe
DS
Out
Low
Yes
SIZ1, SIZ0
Out
—
Yes
R/ W
Out
High/Low
Yes
IRQ7, IRQ6,
IRQ5, IRQ3
In/I/O
Low/—
—
Reset
RESET
I/O
Low
No
Halt
HALT
I/O
Low
No
Bus Error
BERR
In
Low
—
CLKOUT
Out
—
No
EXTAL, XTAL
In, Out
—
—
XFC
In
—
—
MODCK
In/I/O
—/—
—
Instruction Fetch/
Development Serial In
IFETCH/DSI
Out/In
Low/—
No/—
Instruction Pipe/
Development Serial Out
IPIPE/DSO
Out/Out
Low/—
No/—
BKPT/DSCLK
In/In
Low/—
—/—
FREEZE
Out
High
No
RxDA, RxDB
In
—
—
Address Bus
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Chip Select 0/Autovector
Bus Grant Acknowledge
Data and Size Acknowledge
Read-Modify-Write Cycle
Size
Read/Write
Interrupt Request Level/
Port B7, B6, B5, B3
System Clock
Crystal Oscillator
External Filter Capacitor
Clock Mode Select/Port B0
Breakpoint/
Development Serial Clock
Freeze
Receive Data
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Table 2-5. Signal Summary (Continued)
Signal Name
Mnemonic
Input/Output
Active State
Three-State
Transmit Data
TxDA, TxDB
Out
—
No
Clear-to-Send
CTSA, CTSB
In
Low
—
Request-to-Send/
OP1, OP0
RTSB, RTSA
Out/Out
Low/—
No
SCLK
In
—
—
Transmitter Ready/OP6
T≈RDYA
Out/Out
Low/—
No
Receiver Ready/
FIFO Full/OP4
R≈RDYA
Out/Out/Out
Low/Low/—
No
DMA Request
DREQ2, DREQ1
In
Low
—
DMA Acknowledge
DACK2, DACK1
Out
Low
No
DMA Done
DONE2, DONE1
I/O
Low
No
Timer Gate
TGATE2,
TGATE1
In
Low
—
Timer Input
TIN2, TIN1
In
—
—
TOUT2, TOUT1
Out
—
Yes
Test Clock
TCK
In
—
—
Test Mode Select
TMS
In
High
—
TDI
In
High
—
TDO
Out
High
—
VCCSYN
–
—
—
VCC , GND
–
—
—
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Serial Clock
Timer Output
Test Data In
Test Data Out
Synchronizer Power
System Power Supply and
Return
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SECTION 3
BUS OPERATION
This section provides a functional description of the bus, the signals that control it, and the
bus cycles provided for data transfer operations. It also describes the error and halt
conditions, bus arbitration, and reset operation. Operation of the external bus is the same
whether the MC68340 or an external device is the bus master; the names and
descriptions of bus cycles are from the viewpoint of the bus master. For exact timing
specifications, refer to Section 11 Electrical Characteristics.
The MC68340 architecture supports byte, word, and long-word operands allowing access
to 8- and 16-bit data ports through the use of asynchronous cycles controlled by the
SIZ1/SIZ0 outputs and DSACK1/DSACK0 inputs. The MC68340 requires word and longword operands to be located in memory on word boundaries. The only type of transfer that
can be performed to an odd address is a single-byte transfer, referred to as an odd-byte
transfer. For an 8-bit port, multiple bus cycles may be required for an operand transfer due
to either misalignment or a word or long-word operand.
3.1 BUS TRANSFER SIGNALS
The bus transfers information between the MC68340 and external memory or a peripheral
device. External devices can accept or provide 8 bits or 16 bits in parallel and must follow
the handshake protocol described in this section. The maximum number of bits accepted
or provided during a bus transfer is defined as the port width. The MC68340 contains an
address bus that specifies the address for the transfer and a data bus that transfers the
data. Control signals indicate the beginning and type of the cycle as well as the address
space and size of the transfer. The selected device then controls the length of the cycle
with the signal(s) used to terminate the cycle. Strobe signals, one for the address bus and
another for the data bus, indicate the validity of the address and provide timing information
for the data. Both asynchronous and synchronous operation is possible for any port width.
In asynchronous operation, the bus and control input signals are internally synchronized to
the MC68340 clock, introducing a delay. This delay is the time required for the MC68340
to sample an input signal, synchronize the input to the internal clocks, and determine
whether it is high or low. In synchronous mode, the bus and control input signals must be
timed to setup and hold times. Since no synchronization is needed, bus cycles can be
completed in three clock cycles in this mode. Additionally, using the fast-termination option
of the chip select signals, two-clock operation is possible.
Furthermore, for all inputs, the MC68340 latches the level of the input during a sample
window around the falling edge of the clock signal. This window is illustrated in Figure 3-1,
where t su and t h are the input setup and hold times, respectively. To ensure that an input
signal is recognized on a specific falling edge of the clock, that input must be stable during
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the sample window. If an input makes a transition during the window time period, the level
recognized by the MC68340 is not predictable; however, the MC68340 always resolves
the latched level to either a logic high or low before using it. In addition to meeting input
setup and hold times for deterministic operation, all input signals must obey the protocols
described in this section.
t su
th
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CLKOUT
EXT
SAMPLE WINDOW
Figure 3-1. Input Sample Window
NOTE
The terms assert and negate are used throughout this section
to avoid confusion when dealing with a mixture of active-low
and active-high signals. The term assert or assertion indicates
that a signal is active or true independent of the level
represented by a high or low voltage. The term negate or
negation indicates that a signal is inactive or false.
3.1.1 Bus Control Signals
The MC68340 initiates a bus cycle by driving the A31–A0, SIZx, FCx, and R/W outputs. At
the beginning of a bus cycle, SIZ1 and SIZ0 are driven with FC3–FC0. SIZ1 and SIZ0
indicate the number of bytes remaining to be transferred during an operand cycle
(consisting of one or more bus cycles). Table 3-1 lists the encoding of the SIZx signal.
These signals are valid while AS is asserted. The R/ W signal determines the direction of
the transfer during a bus cycle. Driven at the beginning of a bus cycle, R/ W is valid while
AS is asserted. R/W only transitions when a write cycle is preceded by a read cycle or
vice versa. The signal may remain low for consecutive write cycles. The RMC signal is
asserted at the beginning of the first bus cycle of a read-modify-write operation and
remains asserted until completion of the final bus cycle of the operation.
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Table 3-1. SIZx Signal Encoding
SIZ1
SIZ0
Transfer Size
0
1
Byte
1
0
Word
1
1
Three Bytes
0
0
Long Word
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3.1.2 Function Code Signals
FC3–FC0 are outputs that indicate one of 16 address spaces to which the address
applies. Fifteen of these spaces are designated as either user or supervisor, program or
data, and normal or direct memory access (DMA) spaces. One other address space is
designated as CPU space to allow the CPU32 to acquire specific control information not
normally associated with read or write bus cycles. FC3–FC0 are valid while AS is
asserted.
Function codes (see Table 3-2) can be considered as extensions of the 32-bit address
that can provide up to 16 different 4-Gbyte address spaces. Function codes are
automatically generated by the CPU32 to select address spaces for data and program at
both user and supervisor privilege levels, a CPU address space for processor functions,
and an alternate master address space. User programs access only their own program
and data areas to increase protection of system integrity and can be restricted from
accessing other information. The S-bit in the CPU32 status register is set for supervisor
accesses and cleared for user accesses to provide differentiation. Refer to 3.4 CPU
Space Cycles for more information.
Table 3-2. Address Space Encoding
Function Code Bits
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3
2
1
0
Address Spaces
0
0
0
0
Reserved (Motorola)
0
0
0
1
User Data Space
0
0
1
0
User Program Space
0
0
1
1
Reserved (User )
0
1
0
0
Reserved (Motorola)
0
1
0
1
Supervisor Data Space
0
1
1
0
Supervisor Program Space
0
1
1
1
CPU Space
1
x
x
x
DMA Space
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3.1.3 Address Bus (A31–A0)
These signals are outputs that define the address of the byte (or the most significant byte)
to be transferred during a bus cycle. The MC68340 places the address on the bus at the
beginning of a bus cycle. The address is valid while AS is asserted.
3.1.4 Address Strobe ( AS)
This output timing signal indicates the validity of many control signals and the address on
the address bus. AS is asserted approximately one-half clock cycle after the beginning of
a bus cycle.
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3.1.5 Data Bus (D15–D0)
This bidirectional, nonmultiplexed, parallel bus contains the data being transferred to or
from the MC68340. A read or write operation may transfer 8 or 16 bits of data (one or two
bytes) in one bus cycle. During a read cycle, the data is latched by the MC68340 on the
last falling edge of the clock for that bus cycle. For a write cycle, all 16 bits of the data bus
are driven, regardless of the port width or operand size. The MC68340 places the data on
the data bus approximately one-half clock cycle after AS is asserted in a write cycle.
3.1.6 Data Strobe (DS)
DS is an output timing signal that applies to the data bus. For a read cycle, the MC68340
asserts DS and AS simultaneously to signal the external device to place data on the bus.
For a write cycle, DS signals to the external device that the data to be written is valid. The
MC68340 asserts DS approximately one clock cycle after the assertion of AS during a
write cycle.
3.1.7 Bus Cycle Termination Signals
The following signals can terminate a bus cycle.
3.1.7.1 DATA TRANSFER AND SIZE ACKNOWLEDGE SIGNALS ( DSACK1 AND
DSACK0). During bus cycles, external devices assert DSACK1 and/or DSACK0 as part
of the bus protocol. During a read cycle, this signals the MC68340 to terminate the bus
cycle and to latch the data. During a write cycle, this indicates that the external device has
successfully stored the data and that the cycle may terminate. These signals also indicate
to the MC68340 the size of the port for the bus cycle just completed (see Table 3-3). Refer
to 3.3.1 Read Cycle for timing relationships of DSACK1 and DSACK0.
Additionally, the system integration module (SIM40) chip select address mask register can
be programmed to internally generate DSACK1 and DSACK0 for external accesses,
eliminating logic required to generate these signals. However, if external DSACK≈ signals
are returned earlier than indicated by the DD bits in the chip select address mask register,
the cycle will terminate sooner than programmed. Refer to Section 4 System Integration
Module for additional information. The SIM40 can alternatively be programmed to
generate a fast termination cycle, providing a two-cycle external access. Refer to 3.2.6
Fast Termination Cycles for additional information on these cycles.
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3.1.7.2 BUS ERROR (BERR). This signal is also a bus cycle termination indicator and
can be used in the absence of DSACK≈ to indicate a bus error condition. BERR can also
be asserted in conjunction with DSACK≈ to indicate a bus error condition, provided it
meets the appropriate timing described in this section and in Section 11 Electrical
Characteristics. Additionally, BERR and HALT can be asserted together to indicate a
retry termination. Refer to 3.5 Bus Exception Control Cycles for additional information
on the use of these signals.
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The internal bus monitor can be used to generate an internal bus error signal for internal
and internal-to-external transfers. If the bus cycles of an external bus master are to be
monitored, external BERR generation must be provided since the internal bus error
monitor has no information about transfers initiated by an external bus master.
3.1.7.3 AUTOVECTOR (AVEC ).This signal can be used to terminate interrupt
acknowledge cycles, indicating that the MC68340 should internally generate a vector
(autovector) number to locate an interrupt handler routine. AVEC can be generated either
externally or internally by the SIM40 (see Section 4 System Integration Module for
additional information). AVEC is ignored during all other bus cycles.
3.2 DATA TRANSFER MECHANISM
The MC68340 supports byte, word, and long-word operands, allowing access to 8- and
16-bit data ports through the use of asynchronous cycles controlled by DSACK1 and
DSACK0 . The MC68340 also supports byte, word, and long-word operands, allowing
access to 8- and 16-bit data ports through the use of synchronous cycles controlled by the
fast termination capability of the SIM40.
3.2.1 Dynamic Bus Sizing
The MC68340 dynamically interprets the port size of the addressed device during each
bus cycle, allowing operand transfers to or from 8- and 16-bit ports. During an operand
transfer cycle, the slave device signals its port size (byte or word) and indicates
completion of the bus cycle to the MC68340 through the use of the DSACK≈ inputs. Refer
to Table 3-3 for DSACK≈ encoding.
Table 3-3. DSACK≈ Encoding
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DSACK1
DSACK0
1
(Negated)
1
(Negated)
Insert Wait States in Current Bus Cycle
1
(Negated)
0
(Asserted)
Complete Cycle—Data Bus Port Size Is 8 Bits
0
(Asserted)
1
(Negated)
Complete Cycle—Data Bus Port Size Is 16 Bits
0
(Asserted)
0
(Asserted)
Reserved—Defaults to 16-Bit Port Size Can Be
Used for 32-Bit DMA cycles
Result
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For example, if the MC68340 is executing an instruction that reads a long-word operand
from a 16-bit port, the MC68340 latches the 16 bits of valid data and runs another bus
cycle to obtain the other 16 bits. The operation from an 8-bit port is similar, but requires
four read cycles. The addressed device uses DSACK≈ to indicate the port width. For
instance, a 16-bit device always returns DSACK≈ for a 16-bit port (regardless of whether
the bus cycle is a byte or word operation).
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Dynamic bus sizing requires that the portion of the data bus used for a transfer to or from
a particular port size be fixed. A 16-bit port must reside on data bus bits 15–0, and an 8-bit
port must reside on data bus bits 15–8. This requirement minimizes the number of bus
cycles needed to transfer data to 8- and 16-bit ports and ensures that the MC68340
correctly transfers valid data.
The MC68340 always attempts to transfer the maximum amount of data on all bus cycles;
for a word operation, it always assumes that the port is 16 bits wide when beginning the
bus cycle. The bytes of operands are designated as shown in Figure 3-2. The most
significant byte of a long-word operand is OP0, and OP3 is the least significant byte. The
two bytes of a word-length operand are OP0 (most significant) and OP1. The single byte
of a byte-length operand is OP0. These designations are used in the figures and
descriptions that follow.
Figure 3-2 shows the required organization of data ports on the MC68340 bus for both
8- and 16-bit devices. The four bytes shown in Figure 3-2 are connected through the
internal data bus and data multiplexer to the external data bus. The data multiplexer
establishes the necessary connections for different combinations of address and data
sizes. The multiplexer takes the two bytes of the 16-bit bus and routes them to their
required positions. The positioning of bytes is determined by the SIZ1/SIZ0 and A0
outputs. The SIZ1/SIZ0 outputs indicate the number of bytes to be transferred during the
current bus cycle (see Table 3-1). The number of bytes transferred during a read or write
bus cycle is equal to or less than the size indicated by the SIZ1/SIZ0 outputs, depending
on port width. For example, during the first bus cycle of a long-word transfer to a word
port, the size outputs indicate that four bytes are to be transferred although only two bytes
are moved on that bus cycle.
The address line A0 also affects the operation of the data multiplexer. During an operand
transfer, A31–A1 indicate the word base address of that portion of the operand to be
accessed, and A0 indicates the byte offset from the base (i.e., either odd or even byte).
Figure 3-2 lists the bytes required on the data bus for read cycles. The entries shown as
OPn are portions of the requested operand that are read or written during that bus cycle
and are defined by SIZ1/SIZ0 and A0 for the bus cycle.
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OPERAND
OP0
OP1
OP0
31
OP3
OP2
OP1
OP0
OP2
OP1
OP0
23
15
7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Case
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
Transfer Case
Byte to Byte
Byte to Word (Even)
Byte to Word (Odd)
Word to Byte (Aligned)
Word to Word (Aligned)
Long Word to Byte (Aligned)
Long Word to Word (Aligned)
SIZ1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
SIZ0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
A0
X
0
1
0
0
0
0
DSACK1 DSACK0
1
0
0
X
0
X
1
0
0
X
1
0
0
X
0
Data Bus
D8 D7
D0
(OP0)
OP0
(OP0)
OP0
(OP0)
OP0
(OP1)
OP0
OP1
OP0
(OP1)
OP0
OP0
OP1
D15
NOTES:
1. Operands in parentheses are ignored by the MC68340 during read cycles.
2. A 3-byte to byte transfer does occur as the second byte transfer of a long-word to byte port transfer.
Figure 3-2. MC68340 Interface to Various Port Sizes
3.2.2 Misaligned Operands
In this architecture, the basic operand size is 16 bits. Operand misalignment refers to
whether an operand is aligned on a word boundary or overlaps the word boundary,
determined by address line A0. When A0 is low, the address is even and is a word and
byte boundary. When A0 is high, the address is odd and is a byte boundary only. A byte
operand is properly aligned at any address; a word or long-word operand is misaligned at
an odd address.
At most, each bus cycle can transfer a word of data aligned on a word boundary. If the
MC68340 transfers a long-word operand over a 16-bit port, the most significant operand
word is transferred on the first bus cycle, and the least significant operand word is
transferred on a following bus cycle.
The CPU32 restricts all operands (both data and instructions) to be aligned. That is, word
and long-word operands must be located on a word or long-word boundary, respectively.
The only type of transfer that can be performed to an odd address is a single-byte
transfer, referred to as an odd-byte transfer. If a misaligned access is attempted, the
CPU32 generates an address error exception, and enters exception processing. Refer to
Section 5 CPU32 for more information on exception processing.
3.2.3 Operand Transfer Cases
The following cases are examples of the allowable alignments of operands to ports.
3.2.3.1 BYTE OPERAND TO 8-BIT PORT, ODD OR EVEN (A0 = X). The MC68340
drives the address bus with the desired address and the SIZx pins to indicate a singlebyte operand.
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BYTE OPERAND
OP0
0
7
DATA BUS
CYCLE 1
D15
D8 D7
D0
OP0
(OP0)
SIZ1
0
SIZ0
1
A0
X
DSACK1 DSACK0
1
0
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For a read operation, the slave responds by placing data on bits 15–8 of the data bus,
asserting DSACK0 and negating DSACK1 to indicate an 8-bit port. The MC68340 then
reads the operand byte from bits 15–8 and ignores bits 7–0.
For a write operation, the MC68340 drives the single-byte operand on both bytes of the
data bus because it does not know the port size until the DSACK≈ signals are read. The
slave device reads the byte operand from bits 15–8 and places the operand in the
specified location. The slave then asserts DSACK0 to terminate the bus cycle.
3.2.3.2 BYTE OPERAND TO 16-BIT PORT, EVEN (A0 = 0). The MC68340 drives the
address bus with the desired address and the SIZx pins to indicate a single-byte operand.
BYTE OPERAND
OP0
0
7
DATA BUS
CYCLE 1
D15
OP0
D8 D7
D0
(OP0)
SIZ1
0
SIZ0
1
A0
0
DSACK1 DSACK0
0
X
For a read operation, the slave responds by placing data on bits 15–8 of the data bus and
asserting DSACK1 to indicate a 16-bit port. The MC68340 then reads the operand byte
from bits 15–8 and ignores bits 7–0.
For a write operation, the MC68340 drives the single-byte operand on both bytes of the
data bus because it does not know the port size until the DSACK≈ signals are read. The
slave device reads the operand from bits 15–8 of the data bus and uses the address to
place the operand in the specified location. The slave then asserts DSACK1 to terminate
the bus cycle.
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3.2.3.3 BYTE OPERAND TO 16-BIT PORT, ODD (A0 = 1). The MC68340 drives the
address bus with the desired address and the SIZx pins to indicate a single-byte operand.
BYTE OPERAND
OP0
0
7
DATA BUS
CYCLE 1
D15
D8 D7
D0
(OP0)
OP0
SIZ1
0
SIZ0
1
A0
1
DSACK1 DSACK0
0
X
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For a read operation, the slave responds by placing data on bits 7–0 of the data bus and
asserting DSACK1 to indicate a 16-bit port. The MC68340 then reads the operand byte
from bits 7–0 and ignores bits 15–8.
For a write operation, the MC68340 drives the single-byte operand on both bytes of the
data bus because it does not know the port size until the DSACK≈ signals are read. The
slave device reads the operand from bits 7–0 of the data bus and uses the address to
place the operand in the specified location. The slave then asserts DSACK1 to terminate
the bus cycle.
3.2.3.4 WORD OPERAND TO 8-BIT PORT, ALIGNED. The MC68340 drives the address
bus with the desired address and the SIZx pins to indicate a word operand.
WORD OPERAND
OP0
15
OP1
87
0
DATA BUS
D15
D8 D7
D0
(OP1)
OP0
CYCLE 1
(OP1)
OP1
CYCLE 2
SIZ1
1
0
SIZ0
0
1
A0
0
1
DSACK1 DSACK0
1
0
1
0
For a read operation, the slave responds by placing the most significant byte of the
operand on bits 15–8 of the data bus and asserting DSACK0 to indicate an 8-bit port. The
MC68340 reads the most significant byte of the operand from bits 15–8 and ignores bits
7–0. The MC68340 then decrements the transfer size counter, increments the address,
and reads the least significant byte of the operand from bits 15–8 of the data bus.
For a write operation, the MC68340 drives the word operand on bits 15–0 of the data bus.
The slave device then reads the most significant byte of the operand from bits 15–8 of the
data bus and asserts DSACK0 to indicate that it received the data but is an 8-bit port.
The MC68340 then decrements the transfer size counter, increments the address, and
writes the least significant byte of the operand to bits 15–8 of the data bus.
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3.2.3.5 WORD OPERAND TO 16-BIT PORT, ALIGNED. The MC68340 drives the
address bus with the desired address and the size pins to indicate a word operand.
WORD OPERAND
OP0
OP1
15
0
D15
D8 D7
D0
DATA BUS
CYCLE 1
OP0
OP1
SIZ1
1
SIZ0
0
A0
0
DSACK1 DSACK0
0
X
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For a read operation, the slave responds by placing the data on bits 15–0 of the data bus
and asserting DSACK1 to indicate a 16-bit port. When DSACK1 is asserted, the
MC68340 reads the data on the data bus and terminates the cycle.
For a write operation, the MC68340 drives the word operand on bits 15–0 of the data bus.
The slave device then reads the entire operand from bits 15–0 of the data bus and asserts
DSACK1 to terminate the bus cycle.
3.2.3.6 LONG-WORD OPERAND TO 8-BIT PORT, ALIGNED. The MC68340 drives the
address bus with the desired address and the SIZx pins to indicate a long-word operand.
OP0
LONG-WORD OPERAND
31
DATA BUS
D15
CYCLE 1
CYCLE 2
CYCLE 3
CYCLE 4
OP1
23
OP0
OP1
OP2
OP3
D8 D7
D0
(OP1)
(OP1)
(OP3)
(OP3)
OP2
15
OP3
7
SIZ1
0
1
1
0
0
SIZ0
0
1
0
1
A0
0
1
0
1
DSACK1 DSACK0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
For a read operation, shown in Figure 3-3, the slave responds by placing the most
significant byte of the operand on bits 15–8 of the data bus and asserting DSACK0 to
indicate an 8-bit port. The MC68340 reads the most significant byte of the operand (byte
0) from bits 15–8 and ignores bits 7–0. The MC68340 then decrements the transfer size
counter, increments the address, initiates a new cycle, and reads byte 1 of the operand
from bits 15–8 of the data bus. The MC68340 repeats the process of decrementing the
transfer size counter, incrementing the address, initiating a new cycle, and reading a byte
to transfer the remaining two bytes.
For a write operation, shown in Figure 3-4, the MC68340 drives the two most significant
bytes of the operand on bits 15–0 of the data bus. The slave device then reads only the
most significant byte of the operand (byte 0) from bits 15–8 of the data bus and asserts
DSACK0 to indicate reception and an 8-bit port. The MC68340 then decrements the
transfer size counter, increments the address, and writes byte 1 of the operand to bits
15–8 of the data bus. The MC68340 continues to decrement the transfer size counter,
increment the address, and write a byte to transfer the remaining two bytes to the slave
device.
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S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CLKOUT
A31–A0
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FC3–FC0
R/W
AS
DS
SIZ0
4 BYTES
3 BYTES
2 BYTES
1 BYTE
SIZ1
DSACK0
DSACK1
OP0
D15–D8
OP1
OP3
OP2
D7–D0
BYTE
READ
BYTE
BYTE
READ
READ
LONG-WORD OPERAND READ FROM 8-BIT BUS
BYTE
READ
Figure 3-3. Long-Word Operand Read Timing from 8-Bit Port
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S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
R/W
AS
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DS
SIZ0
3 BYTES
4 BYTES
1 BYTE
2 BYTES
SIZ1
DSACK0
DSACK1
D15–D8
OP0
OP1
OP2
OP3
D7–D0
(OP1)
(OP1)
(OP3)
(OP3)
WRITE
WRITE
WRITE
WRITE
LONG-WORD OPERAND WRITE TO 8-BIT BUS
Figure 3-4. Long-Word Operand Write Timing to 8-Bit Port
3.2.3.7 LONG-WORD OPERAND TO 16-BIT PORT, ALIGNED. Figure 3-5 shows both
long-word and word read and write timing to a 16-bit port.
LONG-WORD OPERAND
OP0
31
D15
DATA BUS
CYCLE 1
CYCLE 2
3-12
OP1
OP2
23
15
D8 D7
OP0
OP2
D0
OP1
OP3
OP3
7
0
SIZ1
0
1
SIZ0
0
0
A0
0
0
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DSACK1 DSACK0
0
X
0
X
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S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
S0
S4
S2
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
R/W
AS
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DS
SIZ0
2 BYTES
4 BYTES
2 BYTES
4 BYTES
2 BYTES
2 BYTES
SIZ1
DSACK0
DSACK1
D15–D8
OP0
OP2
OP0
OP0
OP2
OP0
D7–D0
OP1
OP3
OP1
OP1
OP3
OP1
LONG WORD READ
FROM 16-BIT BUS
WORD READ
FROM 16-BIT BUS
LONG WORD WRITE TO
16-BIT BUS
WORD
WRITE TO
16-BIT BUS
Figure 3-5. Long-Word and Word Read and Write Timing—16-Bit Port
The MC68340 drives the address bus with the desired address and drives the SIZx pins to
indicate a long-word operand. For a read operation, the slave responds by placing the two
most significant bytes of the operand on bits 15–0 of the data bus and asserting DSACK1
to indicate a 16-bit port. The MC68340 reads the two most significant bytes of the operand
(bytes 0 and 1) from bits 15–0. The MC68340 then decrements the transfer size counter
by 2, increments the address by 2, initiates a new cycle, and reads bytes 2 and 3 of the
operand from bits 15–0 of the data bus.
For a write operation, the MC68340 drives the two most significant bytes of the operand
on bits 15–0 of the data bus. The slave device then reads the two most significant bytes of
the operand (bytes 0 and 1) from bits 15–0 of the data bus and asserts DSACK1 to
indicate reception and a 16-bit port. The MC68340 then decrements the transfer size
counter by 2, increments the address by 2, and writes bytes 2 and 3 of the operand to bits
15–0 of the data bus.
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3.2.4 Bus Operation
The MC68340 bus is asynchronous, allowing external devices connected to the bus to
operate at clock frequencies different from the clock for the MC68340. Bus operation uses
the handshake lines (AS, DS, DSACK1/DSACK0, BERR, and HALT ) to control data
transfers. AS signals a valid address on the address bus, and DS is used as a condition
for valid data on a write cycle. Decoding the SIZx outputs and lower address line A0
provides strobes that select the active portion of the data bus. The slave device (memory
or peripheral) responds by placing the requested data on the correct portion of the data
bus for a read cycle or by latching the data on a write cycle; the slave asserts the
DSACK1/DSACK0 combination that corresponds to the port size to terminate the cycle.
Alternatively, the SIM40 can be programmed to assert the DSACK1/ DSACK0 combination
internally and respond for the slave. If no slave responds or the access is invalid, external
control logic may assert BERR to abort the bus cycle or BERR with HALT to retry the bus
cycle.
DSACK≈ can be asserted before the data from a slave device is valid on a read cycle.
The length of time that DSACK≈ may precede data must not exceed a specified value in
any asynchronous system to ensure that valid data is latched into the MC68340. (See
Section 11 Electrical Characteristics for timing parameters.) Note that no maximum
time is specified from the assertion of AS to the assertion of DSACK≈ . Although the
MC68340 can transfer data in a minimum of three clock cycles when the cycle is
terminated with DSACK≈ , the MC68340 inserts wait cycles in clock-period increments
until DSACK≈ is recognized. BERR and/or HALT can be asserted after DSACK≈ is
asserted. BERR and or HALT must be asserted within the time specified after DSACK≈ is
asserted in any asynchronous system. If this maximum delay time is violated, the
MC68340 may exhibit erratic behavior.
3.2.5 Synchronous Operation with DSACK≈
Although cycles terminated with DSACK≈ are classified as asynchronous, cycles
terminated with DSACK≈ can also operate synchronously in that signals are interpreted
relative to clock edges. The devices that use these cycles must synchronize the response
to the MC68340 clock (CLKOUT) to be synchronous. Since the devices terminate bus
cycles with DSACK≈, the dynamic bus sizing capabilities of the MC68340 are available.
The minimum cycle time for these cycles is also three clocks. To support systems that use
the system clock to generate DSACK≈ and other asynchronous inputs, the asynchronous
input setup time and the asynchronous input hold time are given. If the setup and hold
times are met for the assertion or negation of a signal such as DSACK≈, the MC68340 is
guaranteed to recognize that signal level on that specific falling edge of the system clock.
If the assertion of DSACK≈ is recognized on a particular falling edge of the clock, valid
data is latched into the MC68340 (for a read cycle) on the next falling clock edge if the
data meets the data setup time. In this case, the parameter for asynchronous operation
can be ignored. The timing parameters are described in Section 11 Electrical
Characteristics.
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If a system asserts DSACK≈ for the required window around the falling edge of S2 and
obeys the proper bus protocol by maintaining DSACK≈ (and/or BERR/ HALT) until and
throughout the clock edge that negates AS (with the appropriate asynchronous input hold
time), no wait states are inserted. The bus cycle runs at its maximum speed for bus cycles
terminated with DSACK≈ (three clocks per cycle). When BERR (or BERR and HALT) is
asserted after DSACK≈, BERR (and HALT) must meet the appropriate setup time prior to
the falling clock edge one clock cycle after DSACK≈ is recognized. This setup time is
critical, and the MC68340 may exhibit erratic behavior if it is violated. When operating
synchronously, the data-in setup and hold times for synchronous cycles may be used
instead of the timing requirements for data relative to DS.
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3.2.6 Fast Termination Cycles
With an external device that has a fast access time, the chip select circuit fast termination
enable (FTE) can provide a two-clock external bus transfer. Since the chip select circuits
are driven from the system clock, the bus cycle termination is inherently synchronized with
the system clock. Refer to Section 4 System Integration Module for more information on
chip selects.When fast termination is selected, the DD bits of the corresponding address
mask register are overridden. Fast termination can only be used with zero wait states. To
use the fast termination option, an external device should be fast enough to have data
ready, within the specified setup time, by the falling edge of S4. Figure 3-6 shows the
DSACK≈ timing for a read with two wait states, followed by a fast termination read and
write. When using the fast termination option, DS is asserted only in a read cycle, not in a
write cycle.
S0 S1 S2 S3 SW SW* SW SW* S4 S5 S0 S1 S4 S5 S0 S1 S4 S5 S0
CLKOUT
AS
DS
R/W
DSACKx
D15–D0
TWO WAIT STATES IN READ
FAST
TERMINATION
READ
FAST
TERMINATION
WRITE
* DSACKx only internally asserted for fast termination cycles.
Figure 3-6. Fast Termination Timing
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3.3 DATA TRANSFER CYCLES
The transfer of data between the MC68340 and other devices involves the following
signals:
• Address Bus A31–A0
• Data Bus D15–D0
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• Control Signals
The address bus and data bus are parallel, nonmultiplexed buses. The bus master moves
data on the bus by issuing control signals, and the bus uses a handshake protocol to
ensure correct movement of the data. In all bus cycles, the bus master is responsible for
de-skewing all signals it issues at both the start and end of the cycle. In addition, the bus
master is responsible for de-skewing the acknowledge and data signals from the slave
devices. The following paragraphs define read, write, and read-modify-write cycle
operations. Each bus cycle is defined as a succession of states that apply to the bus
operation. These states are different from the MC68340 states described for the CPU32.
The clock cycles used in the descriptions and timing diagrams of data transfer cycles are
independent of the clock frequency. Bus operations are described in terms of external bus
states.
3.3.1 Read Cycle
During a read cycle, the MC68340 receives data from a memory or peripheral device. If
the instruction specifies a long-word or word operation, the MC68340 attempts to read two
bytes at once. For a byte operation, the MC68340 reads one byte. The section of the data
bus from which each byte is read depends on the operand size, address signal A0, and
the port size. Refer to 3.2.1 Dynamic Bus Sizing and 3.2.2 Misaligned Operands for
more information. Figure 3-7 is a flowchart of a word read cycle.
SLAVE
BUS MASTER
ADDRESS DEVICE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
SET R/W TO READ
DRIVE ADDRESS ON A31–A0
DRIVE FUNCTION CODE ON FC3–FC0
DRIVE SIZE PINS FOR OPERAND SIZE
ASSERT AS AND DS
ACQUIRE DATA
PRESENT DATA
1. DECODE ADDRESS
2. PLACE DATA ON D15–D0
3. DRIVE DSACKx SIGNALS
1. LATCH DATA
2. NEGATE AS AND DS
START NEXT CYCLE
TERMINATE CYCLE
1. REMOVE DATA FROM D15–D0
2. NEGATE DSACKx
Figure 3-7. Word Read Cycle Flowchart
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State 0—The read cycle starts in state 0 (S0). During S0, the MC68340 places a valid
address on A31–A0 and valid function codes on FC3–FC0. The function codes select the
address space for the cycle. The MC68340 drives R/ W high for a read cycle. SIZ1/SIZ0
become valid, indicating the number of bytes requested for transfer.
State 1—One-half clock later, in state 1 (S1), the MC68340 asserts AS indicating a valid
address on the address bus. The MC68340 also asserts DS during S1. The selected
device uses R/ W, SIZ1 or SIZ0, A0, and DS to place its information on the data bus. One
or both of the bytes (D15–D8 and D7–D0) are selected by SIZ1/SIZ0 and A0.
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State 2—As long as at least one of the DSACK≈ signals is recognized on the falling edge
of S2 (meeting the asynchronous input setup time requirement), data is latched on the
falling edge of S4, and the cycle terminates.
State 3—If DSACK≈ is not recognized by the start of state 3 (S3), the MC68340 inserts
wait states instead of proceeding to states 4 and 5. To ensure that wait states are
inserted, both DSACK1 and DSACK0 must remain negated throughout the asynchronous
input setup and hold times around the end of S2. If wait states are added, the MC68340
continues to sample DSACK≈ on the falling edges of the clock until one is recognized.
State 4—At the falling edge of state 4 (S4), the MC68340 latches the incoming data and
samples DSACK≈ to get the port size.
State 5—The MC68340 negates AS and DS during state 5 (S5). It holds the address valid
during S5 to provide address hold time for memory systems. R/ W , SIZ1 and SIZ0, and
FC3–FC0 also remain valid throughout S5. The external device keeps its data and
DSACK≈ signals asserted until it detects the negation of AS or DS (whichever it detects
first). The device must remove its data and negate DSACK≈ within approximately one
clock period after sensing the negation of AS or DS . DSACK≈ signals that remain
asserted beyond this limit may be prematurely detected for the next bus cycle.
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3.3.2 Write Cycle
During a write cycle, the MC68340 transfers data to memory or a peripheral device. Figure
3-8 is a flowchart of a word write cycle.
BUS MASTER
SLAVE
ADDRESS DEVICE
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
SET R/W TO WRITE
DRIVE ADDRESS ON A31–A0
DRIVE FUNCTION CODE ON FC3–FC0
DRIVE SIZE PINS FOR OPERAND SIZE
ASSERT AS
PLACE DATA ON D15–D0
ASSERT DS
TERMINATE OUTPUT TRANSFER
ACCEPT DATA
1. DECODE ADDRESS
2. LATCH DATA FROM D15–D0
3. ASSERT DSACKx SIGNALS
1. NEGATE DS AND AS
2. REMOVE DATA FROM D15–D0
TERMINATE CYCLE
1. NEGATE DSACKx
START NEXT CYCLE
Figure 3-8. Word Write Cycle Flowchart
State 0—The write cycle starts in S0. During S0, the MC68340 places a valid address on
A31–A0 and valid function codes on FC3–FC0. The function codes select the address
space for the cycle. The MC68340 drives R/W low for a write cycle. SIZ1/SIZ0 become
valid, indicating the number of bytes to be transferred.
State 1—One-half clock later during S1, the MC68340 asserts AS, indicating a valid
address on the address bus.
State 2—During S2, the MC68340 places the data to be written onto D15–D0, and
samples DSACK≈ at the end of S2.
State 3—The MC68340 asserts DS during S3, indicating that data is stable on the data
bus. As long as at least one of the DSACK≈ signals is recognized by the end of S2
(meeting the asynchronous input setup time requirement), the cycle terminates one clock
later. If DSACK≈ is not recognized by the start of S3, the MC68340 inserts wait states
instead of proceeding to S4 and S5. To ensure that wait states are inserted, both
DSACK1 and DSACK0 must remain negated throughout the asynchronous input setup
and hold times around the end of S2. If wait states are added, the MC68340 continues to
sample DSACK≈ on the falling edges of the clock until one is recognized. The selected
device uses R/W, SIZ1/SIZ0, and A0 to latch data from the appropriate byte(s) of D15–D8
and D7–D0. SIZ1/SIZ0 and A0 select the bytes of the data bus. If it has not already done
so, the device asserts DSACK≈ to signal that it has successfully stored the data.
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State 4—The MC68340 issues no new control signals during S4.
State 5—The MC68340 negates AS and DS during S5. It holds the address and data valid
during S5 to provide address hold time for memory systems. R/ W, SIZ1/SIZ0, and FC3–
FC0 also remain valid throughout S5. The external device must keep DSACK≈ asserted
until it detects the negation of AS or DS (whichever it detects first). The device must
negate DSACK≈ within approximately one clock period after sensing the negation of AS
or DS . DSACK≈ signals that remain asserted beyond this limit may be prematurely
detected for the next bus cycle.
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3.3.3 Read-Modify-Write Cycle
The read-modify-write cycle performs a read, conditionally modifies the data in the
arithmetic logic unit, and may write the data out to memory. In the MC68340, this
operation is indivisible, providing semaphore capabilities for multiprocessor systems.
During the entire read-modify-write sequence, the MC68340 asserts RMC to indicate that
an indivisible operation is occurring. The MC68340 does not issue a BG signal in response
to a BR signal during this operation. Figure 3-9 is an example of a functional timing
diagram of a read-modify-write instruction specified in terms of clock periods.
S0
S2
S0
S4
S2
S4
S0
CLK OUT
A31–A30
FC3–FC0
SIZ1–SIZ0
R/W
RMC
AS
DS
DSACKx
D15–D0
READ
WRITE
INDIVISIBLE
CYCLE
Figure 3-9. Read-Modify-Write Cycle Timing
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State 0—The MC68340 asserts RMC in S0 to identify a read-modify-write cycle. The
MC68340 places a valid address on A31–A0 and valid function codes on FC3–FC0. The
function codes select the address space for the operation. SIZ1/SIZ0 become valid in S0
to indicate the operand size. The MC68340 drives R/W high for the read cycle.
State 1—One-half clock later during S1, the MC68340 asserts AS indicating a valid
address on the address bus. The MC68340 also asserts DS during S1.
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State 2—The selected device uses R/W, SIZ1/SIZ0, A0, and DS to place information on
the data bus. Either or both of the bytes (D15–D8 and D7–D0) are selected by SIZ1/SIZ0
and A0. Concurrently, the selected device may assert DSACK≈.
State 3—As long as at least one of the DSACK≈ signals is recognized by the end of S2
(meeting the asynchronous input setup time requirement), data is latched on the next
falling edge of the clock, and the cycle terminates. If DSACK≈ is not recognized by the
start of S3, the MC68340 inserts wait states instead of proceeding to S4 and S5. To
ensure that wait states are inserted, both DSACK1 and DSACK0 must remain negated
throughout the asynchronous input setup and hold times around the end of S2. If wait
states are added, the MC68340 continues to sample the DSACK≈ signals on the falling
edges of the clock until one is recognized.
State 4—At the end of S4, the MC68340 latches the incoming data.
State 5—The MC68340 negates AS and DS during S5. If more than one read cycle is
required to read in the operand(s), S0–S5 are repeated for each read cycle. When
finished reading, the MC68340 holds the address, R/W, and FC3–FC0 valid in preparation
for the write portion of the cycle. The external device keeps its data and DSACK≈ signals
asserted until it detects the negation of AS or DS (whichever it detects first). The device
must remove the data and negate DSACK≈ within approximately one clock period after
sensing the negation of AS or DS. DSACK≈ signals that remain asserted beyond this limit
may be prematurely detected for the next portion of the operation.
Idle States—The MC68340 does not assert any new control signals during the idle states,
but it may internally begin the modify portion of the cycle at this time. S0–S5 are omitted if
no write cycle is required. If a write cycle is required, R/W remains in the read mode until
S0 to prevent bus conflicts with the preceding read portion of the cycle; the data bus is not
driven until S2.
State 0—The MC68340 drives R/ W low for a write cycle. Depending on the write operation
to be performed, the address lines may change during S0.
State 1—In S1, the MC68340 asserts AS, indicating a valid address on the address bus.
State 2—During S2, the MC68340 places the data to be written onto D15–D0.
State 3—The MC68340 asserts DS during S3, indicating stable data on the data bus. As
long as at least one of the DSACK≈ signals is recognized by the end of S2 (meeting the
asynchronous input setup time requirement), the cycle terminates one clock later. If
DSACK≈ is not recognized by the start of S3, the MC68340 inserts wait states instead of
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proceeding to S4 and S5. To ensure that wait states are inserted, both DSACK1 and
DSACK0 must remain negated throughout the asynchronous input setup and hold times
around the end of S2. If wait states are added, the MC68340 continues to sample
DSACK≈ on the falling edges of the clock until one is recognized. The selected device
uses R/ W, DS, SIZ1/SIZ0, and A0 to latch data from the appropriate section(s) of D15–D8
and D7–D0. SIZ1/SIZ0 and A0 select the data bus sections. If it has not already done so,
the device asserts DSACK≈ when it has successfully stored the data.
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State 4—The MC68340 issues no new control signals during S4.
State 5—The MC68340 negates AS and DS during S5. It holds the address and data valid
during S5 to provide address hold time for memory systems. R/ W and FC3–FC0 also
remain valid throughout S5. If more than one write cycle is required, states S0–S5 are
repeated for each write cycle. The external device keeps DSACK≈ asserted until it detects
the negation of AS or DS (whichever it detects first). The device must remove its data and
negate DSACK≈ within approximately one clock period after sensing the negation of AS
or DS.
3.4 CPU SPACE CYCLES
FC3–FC0 select user and supervisor program and data areas. The area selected by FC3–
FC0 = $7 is classified as the CPU space. The breakpoint acknowledge, LPSTOP
broadcast, module base address register access, and interrupt acknowledge cycles
described in the following paragraphs use CPU space. The CPU space type, which is
encoded on A19–A16 during a CPU space operation, indicates the function that the
MC68340 is performing. On the MC68340, four of the encodings are implemented as
shown in Figure 3-10. All unused values are reserved by Motorola for additional CPU
space types.
CPU SPACE CYCLES
FUNCTION
CODE
BREAKPOINT
ACKNOWLEDGE
LOW-POWER
STOP BROADCAST
MODULE BASE
ADDRESS
REGISTER ACCESS
INTERRUPT
ACKNOWLEDGE
ADDRESS BUS
3
0
0 1 1 1
19
16
0
31
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BKPT# T 0
3
0
0 1 1 1
19
16
0
31
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
3
0
0 1 1 1
31
19
0
16
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3
31
0
19
16
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LEVEL 1
0
0 1 1 1
CPU SPACE
TYPE FIELD
Figure 3-10. CPU Space Address Encoding
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3.4.1 Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle
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The breakpoint acknowledge cycle allows external hardware to insert an instruction
directly into the instruction pipeline as the program executes. The breakpoint acknowledge
cycle is generated by the execution of a breakpoint instruction (BKPT) or the assertion of
the BKPT pin. The T-bit state (shown in Figure 3-10) differentiates a software breakpoint
cycle (T = 0) from a hardware breakpoint cycle (T = 1).
When a BKPT instruction is executed (software breakpoint), the MC68340 performs a
word read from CPU space, type 0, at an address corresponding to the breakpoint number
(bits [2–0] of the BKPT opcode) on A4–A2, and the T-bit (A1) is cleared. If this bus cycle is
terminated with BERR (i.e., no instruction word is available), the MC68340 then performs
illegal instruction exception processing. If the bus cycle is terminated by DSACK≈ , the
MC68340 uses the data on D15–D0 (for 16-bit ports) or two reads from D15–D8 (for 8-bit
ports) to replace the BKPT instruction in the internal instruction pipeline and then begins
execution of that instruction.
When the CPU32 acknowledges a BKPT pin assertion (hardware breakpoint) with
background mode disabled, the CPU32 performs a word read from CPU space, type 0, at
an address corresponding to all ones on A4–A2 (BKPT#7), and the T-bit (A1) is set. If this
bus cycle is terminated by BERR, the MC68340 performs hardware breakpoint exception
processing. If this bus cycle is terminated by DSACK≈, the MC68340 ignores data on the
data bus and continues execution of the next instruction.
NOTE
The BKPT pin is sampled on the same clock phase as data
and is latched with data as it enters the CPU32 pipeline. If
BKPT is asserted for only one bus cycle and a pipeline flush
occurs before BKPT is detected by the CPU32, BKPT is
ignored. To ensure detection of BKPT by the CPU32, BKPT
can be asserted until a breakpoint acknowledge cycle is
recognized.
The breakpoint operation flowchart is shown in Figure 3-11. Figures 3-12 and 3-13 show
the timing diagrams for the breakpoint acknowledge cycle with instruction opcodes
supplied on the cycle and with an exception signaled, respectively.
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3.4.2 LPSTOP Broadcast Cycle
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The low power stop (LPSTOP) broadcast cycle is generated by the CPU32 executing the
LPSTOP instruction. Since the external bus interface must get a copy of the interrupt
mask level from the CPU32, the CPU32 performs a CPU space type 3 write with the mask
level encoded on the data bus, as shown in the following figure. The CPU space type 3
cycle waits for the bus to be available, and is shown externally to indicate to external
devices that the MC68340 is going into LPSTOP mode. If an external device requires
additional time to prepare for entry into LPSTOP mode, entry can be delayed by asserting
HALT. The SIM40 provides internal DSACK≈ response to this cycle. For more information
on how the SIM40 responds to LPSTOP mode, see Section 4 System Integration
Module.
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
I2
I1
I0
I2–I0—Interrupt Mask Level
The interrupt mask level is encoded on bits 2–0 of the data bus during an LPSTOP
broadcast.
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BREAKPOINT OPERATION FLOW
EXTERNAL DEVICE
PROCESSOR
ACKNOWLEDGE BREAKPOINT
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IF BREAKPOINT INSTRUCTION EXECUTED:
1. SET R/W TO READ
2. SET FUNCTION CODE TO CPU SPACE
3. PLACE CPU SPACE TYPE 0 ON A19–A16
4. PLACE BREAKPOINT NUMBER ON A2–A4
5. CLEAR T-BIT (A1)
6. SET SIZE TO WORD
7. ASSERT AS AND DS
IF BKPT PIN ASSERTED:
1. SET R/W TO READ
2. SET FUNCTION CODE TO CPU SPACE
3. PLACE CPU SPACE TYPE 0 ON A19–A16
4. PLACE ALL ONE'S ON A4–A2
5. SET T-BIT (A-1) TO ONE
6. SET SIZE TO WORD
7. ASSERT AS AND DS
IF BREAKPOINT INSTRUCTION EXECUTED AND
DSACKx IS ASSERTED:
1. LATCH DATA
2. NEGATE AS AND DS
3. GO TO (A)
IF BKPT PIN ASSERTED AND DSACKx IS ASSERTED:
1. NEGATE AS AND DS
2. GO TO (A)
IF BERR ASSERTED:
1. NEGATE AS AND DS
2. GO TO (B)
(A)
IF BREAKPOINT INSTRUCTION EXECUTED:
1. PLACE REPLACEMENT OPCODE ON DATA BUS
2. ASSERT DSACKx
-OR1. ASSERT BERR TO INITIATE EXCEPTION PROCESSING
IF BKPT PIN ASSERTED:
1. ASSERT DSACKx
-OR1. ASSERT BERR TO INITIATE EXCEPTION PROCESSING
(B)
1. NEGATE DSACKx or BERR
IF BREAKPOINT INSTRUCTION EXECUTED:
1. PLACE LATCHED DATA IN INSTRUCTION PIPELINE
2. CONTINUE PROCESSING
IF BKPT PIN ASSERTED:
1. CONTINUE PROCESSING
IF BREAKPOINT INSTRUCTION EXECUTED:
1. INITIATE ILLEGAL INSTRUCTION PROCESSING
IF BKPT PIN ASSERTED:
1. INITIATE HARDWARE BREAKPOINT PROCESSING
Figure 3-11. Breakpoint Operation Flowchart
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S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S0
CLKOUT
A31–A20
A19–A16
BREAKPOINT ENCODING (0000)
A4–A1
BREAKPOINT NUMBER/T-BIT
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A15–A5,A0
FC3–FC0
CPU SPACE
SIZ0
SIZ1
AS
DS
R/W
DSACKx
D7–D0
D15–D8
BERR
HALT
BKPT
BREAKPOINT
OCCURS
READ
BREAKPOINT
ACKNOWLEDGE
INSTRUCTION WORD FETCH
FETCHED
INSTRUCTION
EXECUTION
Figure 3-12. Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle Timing (Opcode Returned)
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S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S0
CLKOUT
A31–A20
BREAKPOINT ENCODING (0000)
A19–A16
BREAKPOINT NUMBER/T-BIT
A4–A1
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A15–A5, A0
FC3–FC0
CPU SPACE
SIZ0
SIZ1
AS
DS
R/W
DSACKx
D7–D0
D15–D8
BERR
HALT
BKPT
BREAKPOINT
OCCURS
READ
BREAKPOINT
ACKNOWLEDGE
BUS ERROR ASSERTED
EXCEPTION
STACKING
Figure 3-13. Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle Timing (Exception Signaled)
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3.4.3 Module Base Address Register Access
All internal module registers, including the SIM40, occupy a single 4-Kbyte block that is
relocatable along 4-Kbyte boundaries. The location is fixed by writing the desired base
address of the SIM40 block to the module base address register using the MOVES
instruction. The module base address register is only accessible in CPU space at address
$0003FF00. The SFC or DFC register must indicate CPU space (FC3–FC0 = $7), using
the MOVEC instruction, before accessing the module base address register. Refer to
Section 4 System Integration Module for additional information on the module base
address register.
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3.4.4 Interrupt Acknowledge Bus Cycles
The CPU32 makes an interrupt pending in three cases. The first case occurs when a
peripheral device signals the CPU32 (with IRQ7–IRQ1) that the device requires service
and the internally synchronized value on these signals indicates a higher priority than the
interrupt mask in the status register. The second case occurs when a transition has
occurred in the case of a level 7 interrupt. A recognized level 7 interrupt must be removed
for one clock cycle before a second level 7 can be recognized. The third case occurs if,
upon returning from servicing a level 7 interrupt, the request level stays at 7 and the
processor mask level changes from 7 to a lower level, a second level 7 is recognized. The
CPU32 takes an interrupt exception for a pending interrupt within one instruction boundary
(after processing any other pending exception with a higher priority). The following
paragraphs describe the types of interrupt acknowledge bus cycles that can be executed
as part of interrupt exception processing.
3.4.4.1 INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE CYCLE—TERMINATED NORMALLY. When the
CPU32 processes an interrupt exception, it performs an interrupt acknowledge cycle to
obtain the number of the vector that contains the starting location of the interrupt service
routine. Some interrupting devices have programmable vector registers that contain the
interrupt vectors for the routines they use. The following paragraphs describe the interrupt
acknowledge cycle for these devices. Other interrupting conditions or devices that cannot
supply a vector number will use the autovector cycle described in 3.4.4.2 Autovector
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle.
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The interrupt acknowledge cycle is a read cycle. It differs from the read cycle described in
3.3.1 Read Cycle in that it accesses the CPU address space. Specifically, the differences
are as follows:
1. FC3–FC0 are set to $7 (FC3/FC2/FC1/FC0 = 0111) for CPU address space.
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2. A3, A2, and A1 are set to the interrupt request level, and the IACK≈ strobe
corresponding to the current interrupt level is asserted. (Either the function codes
and address signals or the IACK≈ strobes can be monitored to determine that an
interrupt acknowledge cycle is in progress and the current interrupt level.)
3. The CPU32 space type field (A19–A16) is set to $F (interrupt acknowledge).
4. Other address signals (A31–A20, A15–A4, and A0) are set to one.
5. The SIZ0/SIZ1 and R/ W signals are driven to indicate a single-byte read cycle.
The responding device places the vector number on the least significant byte
of its data port (for an 8-bit port, the vector number must be on D15–D8; for a
16-bit port, the vector must be on D7–D0) during the interrupt acknowledge cycle.
The cycle is then terminated normally with DSACK≈.
Figure 3-14 is a flowchart of the interrupt acknowledge cycle; Figure 3-15 shows the
timing for an interrupt acknowledge cycle terminated with DSACK≈.
INTERRUPTING DEVICE
MC68340
REQUEST INTERRUPT
GRANT INTERRUPT
1. SYNCHRONIZE IRQ7–IRQ1
2. COMPARE IRQ1–IRQ7 TO MASK LEVEL AND
WAIT FOR INSTRUCTION TO COMPLETE
3. PLACE INTERRUPT LEVEL ON A3–A1;
TYPE FIELD (A19–A16) = $F
4. SET R/W TO READ
5. SET FC3–FC0 TO 0111
6. DRIVE SIZE PINS TO INDICATE A ONE-BYTE
TRANSFER
7. ASSERT AS AND DS
8. ASSERT THE CORRESPONDING IACKx STROBE.
PROVIDE VECTOR NUMBER
1. PLACE VECTOR NUMBER ON LEAST
SIGNIFICANT BYTE OF DATA BUS
2. ASSERT DSACKx (OR AVEC IF NO VECTOR
NUMBER)
ACQUIRE VECTOR NUMBER
RELEASE
1. LATCH VECTOR NUMBER
2. NEGATE DS AND AS
1. NEGATE DSACKx
START NEXT CYCLE
Figure 3-14. Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle Flowchart
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S0
S2
S4
S0
0–2 CLOCKS*
S1 S2
S4
S0
S2
CLKOUT
A31–A4
A3–A1
INTERRUPT LEVEL
A0
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FC3–FC0
CPU SPACE
SIZ0
1 BYTE
SIZ1
R/W
AS
DS
VECTOR FROM 16-BIT PORT
DSACKx
VECTOR FROM 8-BIT PORT
D7–D0
D15–D8
IRQ7–IRQ1
IACK7–IACK1
READ
CYCLE
WRITE
STACK
INTERNAL
ARBITRATION
IACK CYCLE
*Internal Arbitration may take between 0–2 clock cycles.
Figure 3-15. Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle Timing
3.4.4.2 AUTOVECTOR INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE CYCLE. When the interrupting
device cannot supply a vector number, it requests an automatically generated vector
(autovector). Instead of placing a vector number on the data bus and asserting DSACK≈,
the device asserts AVEC to terminate the cycle. If the DSACK≈ signals are asserted
during an interrupt acknowledge cycle terminated by AVEC, the DSACK≈ signals and
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data will be ignored if AVEC is asserted before or at the same time as the DSACK≈
signals. The vector number supplied in an autovector operation is derived from the
interrupt level of the current interrupt. When AVEC is asserted instead of DSACK≈ during
an interrupt acknowledge cycle, the MC68340 ignores the state of the data bus and
internally generates the vector number (the sum of the interrupt level plus 24 ($18)).
AVEC is multiplexed with CS0. The FIRQ bit in the SIM40 module configuration register
controls whether the AVEC /CS0 pin is used as an autovector input or as CS0 (refer to
Section 4 System Integration Module for additional information). AVEC is only sampled
during an interrupt acknowledge cycle. During all other cycles, AVEC is ignored.
Additionally, AVEC can be internally generated for external devices by programming the
autovector register. Seven distinct autovectors can be used, corresponding to the seven
levels of interrupt available with signals IRQ7–IRQ1. Figure 3-16 shows the timing for an
autovector operation.
3.4.4.3 SPURIOUS INTERRUPT CYCLE. Requested interrupts, whether internal or
external, are arbitrated internally. When no internal module (including the SIM40, which
responds for external requests) responds during an interrupt acknowledge cycle by
arbitrating for the interrupt acknowledge cycle internally, the spurious interrupt monitor
generates an internal bus error signal to terminate the vector acquisition. The MC68340
automatically generates the spurious interrupt vector number (24) instead of the interrupt
vector number in this case. When an external device does not respond to an interrupt
acknowledge cycle with AVEC or DSACK≈ , a bus monitor must assert BERR , which
results in the CPU32 taking the spurious interrupt vector. If HALT is also asserted, the
MC68340 retries the interrupt acknowledge cycle instead of using the spurious interrupt
vector.
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S0
S2
S4
S0
0–2 CLOCKS*
S1 S2
S4
S0
S2
CLKOUT
A31–A4
A3–A1
INTERRUPT LEVEL
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A0
FC3–FC0
CPU SPACE
SIZ0
1 BYTE
SIZ1
R/W
AS
DS
DSACKx
D15–D0
AVEC
IRQ7–IRQ1
IACK7–IACK1
CYCLE
READ
WRITE
STACK
INTERNAL
ARBITRATION
IACK
CYCLE
* Internal Arbitration may take between 0–2 clocks.
Figure 3-16. Autovector Operation Timing
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3.5 BUS EXCEPTION CONTROL CYCLES
The bus architecture requires assertion of DSACK≈ from an external device to signal that
a bus cycle is complete. Neither DSACK≈ nor AVEC is asserted in the following cases:
• DSACK≈/AVEC is programmed to respond internally.
• The external device does not respond.
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• Various other application-dependent errors occur.
The MC68340 provides BERR when no device responds by asserting DSACK≈ / AVEC
within an appropriate period of time after the MC68340 asserts AS . This mechanism
allows the cycle to terminate and the MC68340 to enter exception processing for the error
condition. HALT is also used for bus exception control. This signal can be asserted by an
external device for debugging purposes to cause single bus cycle operation, or, in
combination with BERR, a retry of a bus cycle in error. To properly control termination of a
bus cycle for a retry or a bus error condition, DSACK≈, BERR, and HALT can be asserted
and negated with the rising edge of the MC68340 clock. This assures that when two
signals are asserted simultaneously, the required setup and hold time for both is met for
the same falling edge of the MC68340 clock. This or an equivalent precaution should be
designed into the external circuitry to provide these signals. Alternatively, the internal bus
monitor could be used. The acceptable bus cycle terminations for asynchronous cycles
are summarized in relation to DSACK≈ assertion as follows (case numbers refer to Table
3-4):
• Normal Termination: DSACK≈ is asserted; BERR and HALT remain negated (case 1).
• Halt Termination: HALT is asserted at the same time as or before DSACKx, and
BERR remains negated (case 2).
• Bus Error Termination: BERR is asserted in lieu of, at the same time as, or before
DSACK≈ (case 3) or after DSACK≈ (case 4), and HALT remains negated; BERR is
negated at the same time as or after DSACK≈.
• Retry Termination: HALT and BERR are asserted in lieu of, at the same time as, or
before DSACK≈ (case 5) or after DSACK≈ (case 6); BERR is negated at the same
time as or after DSACK≈, and HALT may be negated at the same time as or after
BERR.
Table 3-4 lists various combinations of control signal sequences and the resulting bus
cycle terminations. To ensure predictable operation, BERR and HALT should be negated
according to the specifications given in Section 11 Electrical Characteristics. DSACK≈
BERR, and HALT may be negated after AS. If DSACK≈ or BERR remain asserted into S2
of the next bus cycle, that cycle may be terminated prematurely.
EXAMPLE A: A system uses a bus monitor timer to terminate accesses to an unpopulated
address space. The timer asserts BERR after timeout (case 3).
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EXAMPLE B: A system uses error detection and correction on RAM contents. The
designer may:
1. Delay DSACK≈ until data is verified and assert BERR and HALT simultaneously to
indicate to the MC68340 to automatically retry the error cycle (case 5), or if data is
valid, assert DSACK≈ (case 1).
2. Delay DSACK≈ until data is verified and assert BERR with or without DSACK≈ if
data is in error (case 3). This initiates exception processing for software handling of
the condition.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3. Return DSACK≈ prior to data verification; if data is invalid, BERR is asserted on the
next clock cycle (case 4). This initiates exception processing for software handling of
the condition.
4. Return DSACK≈ prior to data verification; if data is invalid, assert BERR and HALT
on the next clock cycle (case 6). The memory controller can then correct the RAM
prior to or during the automatic retry.
Table 3-4. DSACK≈, BERR, and HALT Assertion Results
Asserted on Rising
Edge of State
Case
Num
Control
Signal
N
N+2
1
DSACK≈
BERR
HALT
A
NA
NA
S
NA
X
Normal cycle terminate and continue.
2
DSACK≈
BERR
HALT
A
NA
A/S
S
NA
S
Normal cycle terminate and halt; continue
when HALT negated.
3
DSACK≈
BERR
HALT
NA/A
A
NA
X
S
X
Terminate and take bus error exception,
possibly deferred.
4
DSACK≈
BERR
HALT
A
NA
NA
X
A
NA
Terminate and take bus error exception,
possibly deferred.
5
DSACK≈
BERR
HALT
NA/A
A
A/S
X
S
S
Terminate and retry when HALT negated.
6
DSACK≈
BERR
HALT
A
NA
NA
X
A
A
Terminate and retry when HALT negated.
NOTES:
N —
A —
NA —
X —
S —
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Result
Number of the current even bus state (e.g., S2, S4, etc.)
Signal is asserted in this bus state
Signal is not asserted in this state
Don't care
Signal was asserted in previous state and remains asserted in this state
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3.5.1 Bus Errors
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BERR can be used to abort the bus cycle and the instruction being executed. BERR takes
precedence over DSACK≈ provided it meets the timing constraints described in Section
11 Electrical Characteristics. If BERR does not meet these constraints, it may cause
unpredictable operation of the MC68340. If BERR remains asserted into the next bus
cycle, it may cause incorrect operation of that cycle. When BERR is issued to terminate a
bus cycle, the MC68340 can enter exception processing immediately following the bus
cycle, or it can defer processing the exception.
The instruction prefetch mechanism requests instruction words from the bus controller
before it is ready to execute them. If a bus error occurs on an instruction fetch, the
MC68340 does not take the exception until it attempts to use that instruction word. Should
an intervening instruction cause a branch or should a task switch occur, the bus error
exception does not occur. The bus error condition is recognized during a bus cycle in any
of the following cases:
• DSACK≈ and HALT are negated, and BERR is asserted.
• HALT and BERR are negated, and DSACK≈ is asserted. BERR is then asserted
within one clock cycle ( HALT remains negated).
• BERR and HALT are asserted simultaneously, indicating a retry.
When the MC68340 recognizes a bus error condition, it terminates the current bus cycle in
the normal way. Figure 3-17 shows the timing of a bus error for the case in which
DSACK≈ is not asserted. Figure 3-18 shows the timing for a bus error that is asserted
after DSACK≈. Exceptions are taken in both cases. Refer to Section 5 CPU32 for details
of bus error exception processing.
In the second case, in which BERR is asserted after DSACK≈ is asserted, BERR must be
asserted within the time specified for purely asynchronous operation, or it must be
asserted and remain stable during the sample window around the next falling edge of the
clock after DSACK≈ is recognized. If BERR is not stable at this time, the MC68340 may
exhibit erratic behavior. BERR has priority over DSACK≈ . In this case, data may be
present on the bus, but it may not be valid. This sequence can be used by systems that
have memory error detection and correction logic and by external cache memories.
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S0
S2
SW
SW
S4
S0
S2
S4
CLKOUT
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A31–A0
FC3–FC0
R/W
AS
DS
DSACKx
D15–D0
BERR
READ CYCLE WITH BUS
ERROR
INTERNAL
PROCESSING
STACK
WRITE
Figure 3-17. Bus Error without DSACK≈
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S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
R/W
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AS
DS
DSACKx
D15–D0
BERR
WRITE
CYCLE
INTERNAL
PROCESSING
STACK
WRITE
Figure 3-18. Late Bus Error with DSACK≈
3.5.2 Retry Operation
When both BERR and HALT are asserted by an external device during a bus cycle, the
MC68340 enters the retry sequence shown in Figure 3-19. A delayed retry, which is
similar to the delayed BERR signal described previously, can also occur (see Figure 3-20).
The MC68340 terminates the bus cycle, places the control signals in their inactive state,
and does not begin another bus cycle until the BERR and HALT signals are negated by
external logic. After a synchronization delay, the MC68340 retries the previous cycle using
the same access information (address, function code, size, etc.). BERR should be negated
before S2 of the retried cycle to ensure correct operation of the retried cycle.
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S0
S2
SW
SW
S4
S0
S2
S4
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
R/W
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AS
DS
DSACKx
D15–D0
DATA
IGNORED
BERR
HALT
READ CYCLE WITH
RETRY
HALT
READ RERUN
Figure 3-19. Retry Sequence
The MC68340 retries any read or write cycle of a read-modify-write operation separately;
RMC remains asserted during the entire retry sequence. Asserting BR along with BERR
and HALT provides a relinquish and retry operation. The MC68340 does not relinquish the
bus during a read-modify-write operation. Any device that requires the MC68340 to give
up the bus and retry a bus cycle during a read-modify-write cycle must assert only BERR
and BR (HALT must not be included). The bus error handler software should examine the
read-modify-write bit in the special status word (see Section 5 CPU32) and take the
appropriate action to resolve this type of fault when it occurs.
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S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
R/W
AS
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DS
DSACKx
D15–D10
BERR
HALT
WRITE
CYCLE
HALT
WRITE
RERUN
Figure 3-20. Late Retry Sequence
3.5.3 Halt Operation
When HALT is asserted and BERR is not asserted, the MC68340 halts external bus
activity at the next bus cycle boundary (see Figure 3-21). HALT by itself does not
terminate a bus cycle. Negating and reasserting HALT in accordance with the correct
timing requirements provides a single-step (bus cycle to bus cycle) operation. Since HALT
affects external bus cycles only, a program that does not require use of the external bus
may continue executing. The single-cycle mode allows the user to proceed through (and
debug) external MC68340 operations, one bus cycle at a time. Since the occurrence of a
bus error while HALT is asserted causes a retry operation, the user must anticipate retry
cycles while debugging in the single-cycle mode. The single-step operation and the
software trace capability allow the system debugger to trace single bus cycles, single
instructions, or changes in program flow.
When the MC68340 completes a bus cycle with HALT asserted, D15–D0 is placed in the
high-impedance state, and bus control signals are negated (not high-impedance state);
the A31–A0, FCx, SIZx, and R/W signals remain in the same state. The halt operation has
no effect on bus arbitration (see 3.6 Bus Arbitration). When bus arbitration occurs while
the MC68340 is halted, the address and control signals are also placed in the highimpedance state. Once bus mastership is returned to the MC68340, if HALT is still
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asserted, the A31–A0, FCx, SIZx, and R/ W signals are again driven to their previous
states. The MC68340 does not service interrupt requests while it is halted.
S0
S2
S0
S4
S2
S4
S0
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
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R/W
AS
DS
DSACKx
D15–D10
HALT
BR
BG
BGACK
READ
HALT
(ARBITRATION PERMITTED
WHILE THE PROCESSOR IS
HALTED)
READ
Figure 3-21. HALT Timing
3.5.4 Double Bus Fault
A double bus fault results when a bus error or an address error occurs during the
exception processing sequence for any of the following:
• A previous bus error
• A previous address error
• A reset
For example, the MC68340 attempts to stack several words containing information about
the state of the machine while processing a bus error exception. If a bus error exception
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occurs during the stacking operation, the second error is considered a double bus fault.
When a double bus fault occurs, the MC68340 halts and asserts HALT. Only a reset
operation can restart a halted MC68340. However, bus arbitration can still occur (see 3.6
Bus Arbitration). A second bus error or address error that occurs after exception
processing has completed (during the execution of the exception handler routine or later)
does not cause a double bus fault. A bus cycle that is retried does not constitute a bus
error or contribute to a double bus fault. The MC68340 continues to retry the same bus
cycle as long as the external hardware requests it.
Reset can also be generated internally by the halt monitor (see Section 5 CPU32).
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3.6 BUS ARBITRATION
The bus design of the MC68340 provides for a single bus master at any one time, either
the MC68340 or an external device. One or more of the external devices on the bus can
have the capability of becoming bus master for the external bus, but not the MC68340
internal bus. Bus arbitration is the protocol by which an external device becomes bus
master; the bus controller in the MC68340 manages the bus arbitration signals so that the
MC68340 has the lowest priority. External devices that need to obtain the bus must assert
the bus arbitration signals in the sequences described in the following paragraphs.
Systems having several devices that can become bus master require external circuitry to
assign priorities to the devices so that, when two or more external devices attempt to
become bus master at the same time, the one having the highest priority becomes bus
master first. The sequence of the protocol is as follows:
1. An external device asserts BR.
2. The MC68340 asserts BG to indicate that the bus is available.
3. The external device asserts BGACK to indicate that it has assumed bus mastership.
NOTE
The MC68340 does not place CS3–CS0 in a high-impedance
state after reset or when the bus is granted to an external
master.
BR may be issued any time during a bus cycle or between cycles. BG is asserted in
response to BR. To guarantee operand coherency, BG is only asserted at the end of an
operand transfer. Additionally, BG is not asserted until the end of a read-modify-write
operation (when RMC is negated) in response to a BR signal. When the requesting device
receives BG and more than one external device can be bus master, the requesting device
should begin whatever arbitration is required. When the external device assumes bus
mastership, it asserts BGACK and maintains BGACK during the entire bus cycle (or
cycles) for which it is bus master. The following conditions must be met for an external
device to assume mastership of the bus through the normal bus arbitration procedure: 1) it
must have received BG through the arbitration process, and 2) BGACK must be inactive,
indicating that no other bus master has claimed ownership of the bus.
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Figure 3-22 is a flowchart showing bus arbitration for a single device. This technique
allows processing of bus requests during data transfer cycles. Refer to Figures 3-23 and
3-24 for bus arbitration timing diagrams.
BR is negated at the time that BGACK is asserted. This type of operation applies to a
system consisting of the MC68340 and one device capable of bus mastership. In a system
having a number of devices capable of bus mastership, BR from each device can be wireORed to the MC68340. In such a system, more than one bus request could be asserted
simultaneously. BG is negated a few clock cycles after the transition of BGACK. However,
if bus requests are still pending after the negation of BG, the MC68340 asserts another BG
within a few clock cycles after it was negated. This additional assertion of BG allows
external arbitration circuitry to select the next bus master before the current bus master
has finished using the bus. The following paragraphs provide additional information about
the three steps in the arbitration process. Bus arbitration requests are recognized during
normal processing, HALT assertion, and a CPU32 halt caused by a double bus fault.
PROCESSOR
REQUESTING DEVICE
REQUEST THE BUS
GRANT BUS ARBITRATION
1. ASSERT BR
1. ASSERT BG
ACKNOWLEDGE BUS MASTERSHIP
TERMINATE ARBITRATION
1. NEGATE BG (AND WAIT FOR
BGACK TO BE NEGATED)
1. EXTERNAL ARBITRATION DETERMINES
NEXT BUS MASTER
2. NEXT BUS MASTER WAITS FOR BGACK
TO BE NEGATED
3. NEXT BUS MASTER ASSERTS BGACK
TO BECOME NEW MASTER
4. BUS MASTER NEGATES BR
OPERATE AS BUS MASTER
1. PERFORM DATA TRANSFERS (READ AND
WRITE CYCLES) ACCORDING TO THE
SAME RULES THE PROCESSOR USES
RELEASE BUS MASTERSHIP
RE-ARBITRATE OR RESUME
PROCESSOR OPERATION
1. NEGATE BGACK
Figure 3-22. Bus Arbitration Flowchart for Single Request
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CLKOUT
A31–A0
D15–D0
AS
BR
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BG
BGACK
Figure 3-23. Bus Arbitration Timing Diagram—Idle Bus Case
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
CLKOUT
A31–A0
D15–D0
AS
DS
R/W
DSACK0,
DSACK1
BR
BG
BGACK
Figure 3-24. Bus Arbitration Timing Diagram—Active Bus Case
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3.6.1 Bus Request
External devices capable of becoming bus masters request the bus by asserting BR. This
signal can be wire-ORed to indicate to the MC68340 that some external device requires
control of the bus. The MC68340 is effectively at a lower bus priority level than the
external device and relinquishes the bus after it has completed the current bus cycle (if
one has started). If no BGACK is received while the BR is active, the MC68340 remains
bus master once BR is negated. This prevents unnecessary interference with ordinary
processing if the arbitration circuitry inadvertently responds to noise or if an external
device determines that it no longer requires use of the bus before it has been granted
mastership.
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3.6.2 Bus Grant
The MC68340 supports operand coherency; thus, if an operand transfer requires multiple
bus cycles, the MC68340 does not release the bus until the entire transfer is complete.
Therefore, assertion of BG is subject to the following constraints:
• The minimum time for BG assertion after BR is asserted depends on internal
synchronization (see Section 11 Electrical Characteristics).
• During an external operand transfer, the MC68340 does not assert BG until after
the last cycle of the transfer (determined by SIZx and DSACK≈).
• During an external operand transfer, the MC68340 does not assert BG as long as
RMC is asserted.
• If the show cycle bits SHEN1–SHEN0 = 01, the MC68340 does not assert BG to
an external master.
Externally, the BG signal can be routed through a daisy-chained network or a priorityencoded network. The MC68340 is not affected by the method of arbitration as long as the
protocol is obeyed.
3.6.3 Bus Grant Acknowledge
An external device cannot request and be granted the external bus while another device is
the active bus master. A device that asserts BGACK remains the bus master until it
negates BGACK . BGACK should not be negated until all required bus cycles are
completed. Bus mastership is terminated at the negation of BGACK.
Once an external device receives the bus and asserts BGACK, it should negate BR. If BR
remains asserted after BGACK is asserted, the MC68340 assumes that another device is
requesting the bus and prepares to issue another BG.
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3.6.4 Bus Arbitration Control
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The bus arbitration control unit in the MC68340 is implemented with a finite state machine.
As discussed previously, all asynchronous inputs to the MC68340 are internally
synchronized in a maximum of two cycles of the clock. As shown in Figure 3-25 input
signals labeled R and A are internally synchronized versions of B R and BGACK
respectively. The BG output is labeled G, and the internal high-impedance control signal is
labeled T. If T is true, the address, data, and control buses are placed in the highimpedance state after the next rising edge following the negation of AS and RMC . All
signals are shown in positive logic (active high) regardless of their true active voltage
level. The state machine shown in Figure 3-25 does not have a state 1 or state 4.
State changes occur on the next rising edge of the clock after the internal signal is valid.
The BG signal transitions on the falling edge of the clock after a state is reached during
which G changes. The bus control signals (controlled by T) are driven by the MC68340
immediately following a state change, when bus mastership is returned to the MC68340.
State 0, in which G and T are both negated, is the state of the bus arbiter while the
MC68340 is bus master. R and A keep the arbiter in state 0 as long as they are both
negated.
The MC68340 does not allow arbitration of the external bus during the RMC sequence.
For the duration of this sequence, the MC68340 ignores the BR input. If mastership of the
bus is required during an RMC operation, BERR must be used to abort the RMC sequence.
3.6.5 Show Cycles
The MC68340 can perform data transfers with its internal modules without using the
external bus, but, when debugging, it is desirable to have address and data information
appear on the external bus. These external bus cycles, called show cycles, are
distinguished by the fact that AS is not asserted externally. DS is used to signal address
strobe timing in show cycles.
After reset, show cycles are disabled and must be enabled by writing to the SHEN bits in
the module configuration register (see 4.3.2.1 Module Configuration Register (MCR)).
When show cycles are disabled, the A31–A0, FCx, SIZx, and R/ W signals continue to
reflect internal bus activity. However, AS and DS are not asserted externally, and the
external data bus remains in a high-impedance state. When show cycles are enabled, DS
indicates address strobe timing and the external data bus contains data. The following
paragraphs are a state-by-state description of show cycles, and Figure 3-26 illustrates a
show cycle timing diagram. Refer to Section 11 Electrical Characteristics for specific
timing information.
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RA + B
GTV
AB
STATE 0
RA
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RAB
RA
G TV
RA
STATE 3
R+A
G TV
STATE 2
R A +A
G TV
R
R
STATE 5
RA
G TV
RA
STATE 6
RA
R - BUS REQUEST
A - BUS GRANT ACKNOWLEDGE
B - BUS CYCLE IN PROGRESS
G - BUS GRANT
T - THREE-STATE SIGNAL TO BUS CONTROL
V - BUS AVAILABLE TO BUS CONTROL
Figure 3-25. Bus Arbitration State Diagram
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State 0—During state 0, the A31–A0 and FCx become valid, R/ W is driven to indicate a
show read or write cycle, and the SIZx pins indicate the number of bytes to transfer.
During a read, the addressed peripheral is driving the data bus, and the user must take
care to avoid bus conflicts.
State 41—One-half clock cycle later, DS (rather than AS ) is asserted to indicate that
address information is valid.
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State 42—No action occurs in state 42. The bus controller remains in state 42 (wait states
will be inserted) until the internal read cycle is complete.
State 43—When DS is negated, show data is valid on the next falling edge of the system
clock. The external data bus drivers are enabled so that data becomes valid on the
external bus as soon as it is available on the internal bus.
State 0—The A31–A0, FCx, R/W , and SIZx pins change to begin the next cycle. Data
from the preceding cycle is valid through state 0.
S0
S41
S42
S43
S0
S1
S2
CLKOUT
A31–A0,
FC2–FC0,
SIZ1–SIZ0
R/W
AS, CS
DS
D15–D0
BKPT
SHOW CYCLE
START OF EXTERNAL CYCLE
Figure 3-26. Show Cycle Timing Diagram
3.7 RESET OPERATION
The MC68340 has reset control logic to determine the cause of reset, synchronize it if
necessary, and assert the appropriate reset lines. The reset control logic can
independently drive three different lines:
1. EXTRST (external reset) drives the external RESET pin.
2. CLKRST (clock reset) resets the clock module.
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3. INTRST (internal reset) goes to all other internal circuits.
Synchronous reset sources are not asserted until the end of the current bus cycle,
whether or not RMC is asserted. The internal bus monitor is automatically enabled for
synchronous resets; therefore, if the current bus cycle does not terminate normally, the
bus monitor terminates it. Only single-byte or word transfers are guaranteed valid for
synchronous resets. An external or clock reset is a synchronous reset source.
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Asynchronous reset sources indicate a catastrophic failure, and the reset controller logic
immediately resets the system. Resetting the MC68340 causes any bus cycle in progress
to terminate as if DSACK≈ or BERR had been asserted. In addition, the MC68340
appropriately initializes registers for a reset exception. Asynchronous reset sources
include power-up, software watchdog, double bus fault resets, and execution of the
RESET instruction.
If an external device drives RESET low, RESET should be asserted for at least 590 clock
periods to ensure that the MC68340 resets. The reset control logic holds reset asserted
internally until the external RESET is released. When the reset control logic detects that
external RESET is no longer being driven, it drives both internal and external reset low for
an additional 512 cycles to guarantee this length of reset to the entire system. Figure 3-27
shows the RESET timing.
1 CLOCK
RESET
590 CLOCK
512 CLOCK
PULLED EXTERNAL
DRIVEN BY MC68340
Figure 3-27. Timing for External Devices Driving RESET
If reset is asserted from any other source, the reset control logic asserts RESET for 328
input clock periods plus 512 output clock periods, and until the source of reset is negated.
After any internal reset occurs, a 14-cycle rise time is allowed before testing for the
presence of an external reset. If no external reset is detected, the CPU32 begins its vector
fetch.
Figure 3-28 is a timing diagram of the power-up reset operation, showing the relationships
between RESET, V CC , and bus signals. During the reset period, the entire bus threestates except for non-three-statable signals, which are driven to their inactive state. Once
RESET negates, all control signals are driven to their inactive state, the data bus is in read
mode, and the address bus is driven. After this, the first bus cycle for RESET exception
processing begins.
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CLKOUT
VCO
LOCK
VCC
328 ×
TCLKIN
512 ×
TCLKOUT
≤ 14 CLOCKS
RESET
BUS
CYCLES
ADDRESS AND
CONTROL SIGNALS
THREE-STATED
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BUS STATE
UNKNOWN
1
2
3
4
NOTES:
1. Internal start-up time.
2. SSP read here.
3. PC read here.
4. First instruction fetched here.
Figure 3-28. Power-Up Reset Timing Diagram
When a RESET instruction is executed, the MC68340 drives the RESET signal for 512
clock cycles. The SIM40 registers and the module control registers in each internal
peripheral module (DMA, timers, and serial modules) are not affected. All other peripheral
module registers are reset the same as for a hardware reset. The external devices
connected to the RESET signal are reset at the completion of the RESET instruction.
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SECTION 4
SYSTEM INTEGRATION MODULE
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The MC68340 system integration module (SIM40) consists of several functions that
control the system start-up, initialization, configuration, and the external bus with a
minimum of external devices. It also provides the IEEE 1149.1 boundary scan capabilities.
The SIM40 includes the following functions:
• System Configuration and Protection
• Clock Synthesizer
• Chip Selects and Wait States
• External Bus Interface
• Bus Arbitration
• Dynamic Bus Sizing
• IEEE 1149.1 Test Access Port
4.1 MODULE OVERVIEW
The SIM40 is essentially identical to the SIM implemented in the MC68330. The SIM40
has similar features to the SIM in the MC68331, MC68332, and MC68333. The periodic
interrupt timer, double bus fault monitor, software watchdog, internal bus monitor, and
spurious interrupt monitor are identical. However, many of the other features in the SIM's
differ in their use and details.
The system configuration and protection function controls system configuration and
provides various monitors and timers, including the internal bus monitor, double bus fault
monitor, spurious interrupt monitor, software watchdog timer, and the periodic interrupt
timer.
The clock synthesizer generates the clock signals used by the SIM40 and the other onchip modules, as well as CLKOUT used by external devices.
The programmable chip select function provides four chip select signals that can enable
external memory and peripheral circuits, providing all handshaking and timing signals.
Each chip select signal has an associated base address register and an address mask
register that contain the programmable characteristics of that chip select. Up to three wait
states can be programmed by setting bits in the address mask register.
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The external bus interface (EBI) handles the transfer of information between the internal
CPU32 and memory, peripherals, or other processing elements in the external address
space. See Section 3 Bus Operation for further information.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The MC68340 dynamically interprets the port size of an addressed device during each
bus cycle, allowing operand transfers to or from 8-, 16-, and 32-bit ports. The device
signals its port size and indicates completion of the bus cycle through the use of the
DSACK≈ inputs. Dynamic bus sizing allows a programmer to write code that is not buswidth specific. For a discussion on dynamic bus sizing, see Section 3 Bus Operation.
The MC68340 includes dedicated user-accessible test logic that is fully compliant with the
IEEE 1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary Scan Architecture . Problems
associated with testing high-density circuit boards have led to the development of this
standard under the sponsorship of the IEEE Test Technology Committee and Joint Test
Action Group (JTAG). The MC68340 implementation supports circuit-board test strategies
based on this standard. Refer to Section 9 IEEE 1149.1 Test Access Port for additional
information.
4.2 MODULE OPERATION
The following paragraphs describe the operation of the module base address register,
system configuration and protection, clock synthesizer, chip select functions, and the
external bus interface.
NOTE
The terms assert and negate are used throughout this section
to avoid confusion when dealing with a mixture of active-low
and active-high signals. The term assert or assertion indicates
that a signal is active or true independent of the level
represented by a high or low voltage. The term negate or
negation indicates that a signal is inactive or false.
4.2.1 Module Base Address Register Operation
The module base address register (MBAR) controls the location of all internal module
registers (see 4.3.1 Module Base Address Register (MBAR)). The address stored in this
register is the base address (starting location) for all internal registers. All internal module
registers are contained in a single 4-Kbyte block (see Figure 4-1) that is relocatable along
4-Kbyte boundaries.
The location of the internal registers is fixed by writing the desired base address of the
4-Kbyte block to the MBAR using the MOVES instruction to address $0003FF00 in CPU
space. The source function code (SFC) and destination function code (DFC) registers
contain the address space values (FC3–FC0) for the read or write operand of the MOVES
instruction (see Section 5 CPU32 or M68000PM/AD, Programmer’s Reference Manual ).
Therefore, the SFC or DFC register must indicate CPU space (FC3–FC0 = $7), using the
MOVEC instruction, before accessing MBAR. The offset from the base address is shown
above each register diagram.
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$FFFFFFFF
$XXXXXFFF
MC68340
RELOCATABLE
MODULE
BLOCK
$FFF
$7BF
DMA
$780
$721
$XXXXX000
SERIAL PORTS
$700
.
$67F
TIMER MODULES
$600
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
$07F
SIM 40
$000
MBAR
($0003FF00
FC=0111)
RAM
(TYPICAL)
$00000000
NOTE: $XXXXX is the value contained in the MBAR bits BA31-BA12.
Figure 4-1. SIM40 Module Register Block
4.2.2 System Configuration and Protection Operation
The SIM40 allows the user to control certain features of system configuration by writing
bits in the module configuration register (MCR). This register also contains read-only
status bits that show the state of the SIM40.
All M68000 family members are designed to provide maximum system safeguards. As an
extension of the family, the MC68340 promotes the same basic concepts of safeguarded
design present in all M68000 members. In addition, many functions that normally must be
provided by external circuits are incorporated in this device. The following features are
provided in the system configuration and protection function:
SIM40 Module Configuration
The SIM40 allows the user to configure the system to the particular requirements. The
functions include control of FREEZE and show cycle operation, the function of the CS≈
signals, the access privilege of the supervisor/user registers, the level of interrupt
arbitration, and automatic vectoring for external interrupts.
Reset Status
The reset status register provides the user with information on the cause of the most
recent reset. The possible causes of reset include: external, power-up, software
watchdog, double bus fault, loss of clock, and RESET instruction.
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Internal Bus Monitor
The SIM40 provides an internal bus monitor to monitor the DSACK≈ response time for
all internal bus accesses. An option allows the monitoring of external bus accesses. For
external bus accesses, four selectable response times are provided to allow for
variations in response speed of memory and peripherals used in the system. A bus
error signal is asserted internally if the DSACK≈ response limit is exceeded. BERR is
not asserted externally. This monitor can be disabled for external bus cycles only.
Double Bus Fault Monitor
The double bus fault monitor causes a reset to occur if the internal HALT is asserted by
the CPU32, indicating a double bus fault. A double bus fault results when a bus or
address error occurs during the exception processing sequence for a previous bus or
address error, a reset, or while the CPU32 is loading information from a bus error stack
frame during an RTE instruction. This function can be disabled. See Section 3 Bus
Operation for more information.
Spurious Interrupt Monitor
If no interrupt arbitration occurs during an interrupt acknowledge (IACK) cycle, the bus
error signal is asserted internally. This function cannot be disabled.
Software Watchdog
The software watchdog asserts reset or a level 7 interrupt (as selected by the system
protection and control register) if the software fails to service the software watchdog for
a designated period of time (i.e., because it is trapped in a loop or lost). There are eight
selectable timeout periods. This function can be disabled.
Periodic Interrupt Timer
The SIM40 provides a timer to generate periodic interrupts. The periodic interrupt time
period can vary from 122 µs to 15.94 s (with a 32.768-kHz crystal used to generate the
system clock). This function can be disabled.
Figure 4-2 shows a block diagram of the system configuration and protection function.
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MODULE
CONFIGURATION
RESET
STATUS
DOUBLE BUS
FAULT MONITOR
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
BUS
MONITOR
HALT
RESET
REQUEST
BERR
SPURIOUS
INTERRUPT MONITOR
SOFTWARE
WATCHDOG
CLOCK
29
PRESCALER
PERIODIC
INTERRUPT TIMER
SOFTWARE
RESET
REQUEST or
IRQ7
IRQ7-IRQ1
Figure 4-2. System Configuration and Protection Function
4.2.2.1 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION. Aspects of the system configuration are controlled
by the MCR and the autovector register (AVR).
The configuration of port B is controlled by the combination of the FIRQ bit in the MCR
and the port B pin assignment register (PPARB). Port B pins can function as dedicated I/O
lines, chip selects, interrupts, or autovector input.
For debug purposes, internal bus accesses can be shown on the external bus. This
function is called show cycles. The SHEN1, SHEN0 bits in the MCR control show cycles.
Bus arbitration can be either enabled or disabled during show cycles.
Arbitration for servicing interrupts is controlled by the value programmed into the interrupt
arbitration (IARB) field of the MCR. Each module that generates interrupts, including the
SIM40, has an IARB field. The value of the IARB field allows arbitration during an IACK
cycle among modules that simultaneously generate the same interrupt level. No two
modules should share the same IARB value. The IARB must contain a value other than $0
for all modules that can generate interrupts; interrupts with IARB = 0 are discarded as
extraneous. The SIM40 arbitrates for both its own interrupts and externally generated
interrupts.
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There are eight arbitration levels for access to the intermodule bus (IMB). The SIM40 is
fixed at the highest level (above the programmable level 7), and the CPU32 is fixed at the
lowest level (below level 0). The direct memory access (DMA) module is the only other
module that can become bus master and arbitrate for the bus. It must be initialized with a
level other than 0 or 7.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The AVR contains bits that correspond to external interrupt levels that require an
autovector response. The SIM40 supports up to seven discrete external interrupt
requests. If the bit corresponding to an interrupt level is set in the AVR, the SIM40 returns
an autovector in response to the IACK cycle servicing that external interrupt request.
Otherwise, external circuitry must either return an interrupt vector or assert the external
AVEC signal.
4.2.2.2 INTERNAL BUS MONITOR. The internal bus monitor continually checks for the
bus cycle termination response time by checking the DSACK≈, BERR, and HALT status or
the AVEC status during an IACK cycle. The monitor initiates a bus error if the response
time is excessive. The bus monitor feature cannot be disabled for internal accesses to an
internal module. The internal bus monitor cannot check the DSACK≈ response on the
external bus unless the MC68340 is the bus master. The BME bit in the system protection
control register (SYPCR) enables the internal bus monitor for internal-to-external bus
cycles. If the system contains external bus masters whose bus cycles must be monitored,
an external bus monitor must be implemented. In this case, the internal-to-external bus
monitor option must be disabled.
The bus cycle termination response time is measured in clock cycles, and the maximumallowable response time is programmable. The bus monitor response time period ranges
from 8 to 64 system clocks (see Table 4-8). These options are provided to allow for
different response times of peripherals that might be used in the system.
4.2.2.3 DOUBLE BUS FAULT MONITOR. A double bus fault is caused by a bus error or
address error during the exception processing sequence. The double bus fault monitor
responds to an assertion of HALT on the internal bus. Refer to Section 3 Bus Operation
for more information. The DBF bit in the reset status register (RSR) indicates that the last
reset was caused by the double bus fault monitor. The double bus fault monitor reset can
be enabled by the DBFE bit in the SYPCR.
4.2.2.4 SPURIOUS INTERRUPT MONITOR. The spurious interrupt monitor issues BERR
if no interrupt arbitration occurs during an IACK cycle. Normally, during an IACK cycle,
one or more internal modules recognize that the CPU32 is responding to interrupt
request(s) and arbitrate for the privilege of returning a vector or asserting AVEC . (The
SIM40 reports and arbitrates for externally generated interrupts.) This feature cannot be
disabled.
4.2.2.5 SOFTWARE WATCHDOG. The SIM40 provides a software watchdog option to
prevent system lock-up in case the software becomes trapped in loops with no controlled
exit. Once enabled by the SWE bit in the SYPCR, the software watchdog requires a
special service sequence to be executed on a periodic basis. If this periodic servicing
action does not occur, the software watchdog times out and issues a reset or a level 7
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interrupt (as programmed by the SWRI bit in the SYPCR). The address of the interrupt
service routine for the software watchdog interrupt is stored in the software interrupt vector
register (SWIV). Figure 4-3 shows a block diagram of the software watchdog as well as
the clock control circuits for the periodic interrupt timer.
The watchdog clock rate is determined by the SWP bit in the periodic interrupt timer
register (PITR) and the SWT bits in the SYPCR. See Table 4-7 for a list of watchdog
timeout periods.
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The software watchdog service sequence consists of the following steps: 1) write $55 to
the software service register (SWSR) and 2) write $AA to the SWSR. Both writes must
occur in the order listed prior to the watchdog timeout, but any number of instructions or
accesses to the SWSR can be executed between the two writes.
PITR
SWP
PTP
FREEZE
EXTAL
CLOCK
DISABLE
PRESCALER (2 9 )
CLOCK
MUX
PITCLK
.
.4
PIT
INTERRUPT
MODULUS COUNTER
PRECLK
RESET
SWCLK
15 STAGE DIVIDER CHAIN (215 )
LPSTOP
29
2 11
213
215
Figure 4-3. Software Watchdog Block Diagram
4.2.2.6 PERIODIC INTERRUPT TIMER. The periodic interrupt timer consists of an 8-bit
modulus counter that is loaded with the value contained in the PITR (see Figure
4-3). The modulus counter is clocked by a signal derived from the EXTAL input pin unless
an external frequency source is used. When an external frequency source is used
(MODCK low during reset), the default state of the prescaler control bits (SWP and PTP)
in the PITR is changed to enable both prescalers.
Either clock source (EXTAL or EXTAL ÷ 512) is divided by 4 before driving the modulus
counter (PITCLK). When the modulus counter value reaches zero, an interrupt is
generated. The level of the generated interrupt is programmed into the PIRQL bits in the
periodic interrupt control register (PICR). During the IACK cycle, the SIM40 places the
periodic interrupt vector, programmed into the PIV bits in the PICR, onto the internal bus.
The value of bits 7–0 in the PITR is then loaded again into the modulus counter, and the
counting process starts over. If a new value is written to the PITR, this value is loaded into
the modulus counter when the current count is completed.
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4.2.2.6.1 Periodic Timer Period Calculation. The period of the periodic timer can be
calculated using the following equation:
periodic interrupt timer period
=
PITR count value
EXTAL frequency/prescaler value
22
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Solving the equation using a crystal frequency of 32.768-kHz with the prescaler disabled
gives:
periodic interrupt timer period
=
periodic interrupt timer period
=
PITR count value
32768/1
22
PITR count value
8192
This gives a range from 122 µs, with a PITR value of $01 (00000001 binary), to 31.128
ms, with a PITR value of $FF (11111111 binary).
Solving the equation with the prescaler enabled (PTP=1 in the PITR) gives the following
values:
periodic interrupt timer period
=
periodic interrupt timer period
=
PITR count value
32768/512
22
PITR count value
16
This gives a range from 62.5 ms, with a PITR value of $01, to 15.94 s, with a PITR value
of $FF.
For fast calculation of periodic timer period using a 32.768-kHz crystal, the following
equations can be used:
With prescaler disabled:
programmable interrupt timer period
=
PITR (122 µs)
=
PITR (62.5 ms)
With prescaler enabled:
programmable interrupt timer period
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4.2.2.6.2 Using the Periodic Timer as a Real-Time Clock. The periodic interrupt timer
can be used as a real-time clock interrupt by setting it up to generate an interrupt with a
one-second period. Rearranging the periodic timer period equation to solve for the desired
count value:
PITR count value
=
(PIT period) (EXTAL frequency)
(Prescaler value) (2 2)
PITR count value
=
(1) (32768)
(512) (2 2)
PITR count value
=
16 (decimal)
Therefore, when using a 32.768-kHz crystal, the PITR should be loaded with a value of
$10 with the prescaler enabled to generate interrupts at a one-second rate.
4.2.2.7 SIMULTANEOUS INTERRUPTS BY SOURCES IN THE SIM40. If multiple
interrupt sources at the same interrupt level are simultaneously asserted in the SIM40, it
will prioritize and service the interrupts in the following order: 1) software watchdog, 2)
periodic interrupt timer, and 3) external interrupts.
4.2.3 Clock Synthesizer Operation
The clock synthesizer can operate with either an external crystal or an external oscillator
for reference, using the internal phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator
(VCO), or an external clock can directly drive the clock signal at the operating frequency.
The four modes of clock operation are listed in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1. Clock Operating Modes
Mode
Description
MODCK
Reset
Value
VCCSYN
Operating
Value
Crystal Mode
External crystal or oscillator used with the on-chip PLL and VCO to
generate a system clock and CLKOUT of programmable rates.
5V
5V
External Clock
Mode without PLL
The desired operating frequency is driven into EXTAL resulting in a
system clock and CLKOUT of the same frequency, not tightly coupled.
0V
0V
External Clock
Mode with PLL
The desired operating frequency is driven into EXTAL, resulting in a
system clock and CLKOUT of the same frequency, with a tight skew
between input and output signals.
0V
5V
Limp Mode
Upon input signal loss for either clock mode using the PLL, operation
continues at approximately one-half operating speed (affected by the
value of the X-bit in the SYNCR).
X
5V
In crystal mode (see Figure 4-4), the clock synthesizer can operate from the on-chip PLL
and VCO, using a parallel resonant crystal connected between the EXTAL and XTAL pins,
or an external oscillator connected to EXTAL as a reference frequency source. The
oscillator circuit is shown in Figure 4-5. A 32.768-kHz watch crystal provides an
inexpensive reference, but the reference crystal or external oscillator frequency can be
any frequency in the range specified in Section 11 Electrical Characteristics. When
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using crystal mode, the system clock frequency is programmable (using the W, X, and Y
bits in the SYNCR) over the range specified in Section 11 Electrical Characteristics
(see Table 4-2.).
VDDSYN
XFC 1
330 K
20 pF
20 pF
0.1 µF
20 M
EXTAL
XTAL
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR
0.1 µF
V DDSYN
XFC PIN
LOW-PASS
FILTER
PHASE
COMPARATOR
0.01 µF
MUX
1
VCO
CLKOUT
÷2
÷64
MUX
1
MODULUS
DIVIDER
0
SEL
0
÷4
÷8
0
X
SEL
6
0
$3F
FEEDBACK DIVIDER
Y
W
NOTE 1: Must be low-leakage capacitor.
Figure 4-4. Clock Block Diagram for Crystal Operation
60 kΩ
XTAL
EXTAL
.
60 kΩ
Figure 4-5. MC68340 Crystal Oscillator
A separate power pin (VCCSYN ) is used to allow the clock circuits to run with the rest of
the device powered down and to provide increased noise immunity for the clock circuits.
The source for VCCSYN should be a quiet power supply with adequate external bypass
capacitors placed as close as possible to the VCCSYN pin to ensure a stable operating
frequency. Figure 4-4 shows typical values for the bypass and PLL external capacitors.
The crystal manufacturer's documentation should be consulted for specific
recommendations for external components.
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To use an external clock source (see Figure 4-6), the operating clock frequency can be
driven directly into the EXTAL pin (the XTAL pin must be left floating for this case). This
approach results in a system clock and CLKOUT that are the same as the input signal
frequency, but not tightly coupled to it. To enable this mode, MODCK must be held low
during reset, and VCCSYN held at 0 V while the chip is in operation.
VCCSYN
XFC 1
0.1 µF
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
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EXTAL
XTAL
CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR
XFC PIN
PHASE
COMPARATOR
VCCSYN
LOW-PASS
FILTER
.01 µF
VCO
FEEDBACK
DIVIDER
2
CLKOUT
CLOCK CONTROL
SYSTEM
CLOCK
NOTES:
1. Must be low-leakage capacitor.
2. External mode uses this path only.
Figure 4-6. Clock Block Diagram for External Oscillator Operation
Alternatively, an external clock signal can be directly driven into EXTAL (with XTAL left
floating) using the on-chip PLL. This configuration results in an internal clock and
CLKOUT signal of the same frequency as the input signal, with a tight skew between the
external clock and the internal clock and CLKOUT signals. To enable this mode, MODCK
must be held low during reset, and V CCSYN should be connected to a quiet 5-V source.
If an input signal loss for either of the clock modes utilizing the PLL occurs, chip operation
can continue in limp mode with the VCO running at approximately one-half the operating
speed (affected by the value of the X-bit in the SYNCR), using an internal voltage
reference. The SLIMP bit in the SYNCR indicates that a loss of input signal reference has
been detected. The RSTEN bit in the SYNCR controls whether an input signal loss causes
a system reset or causes the device to operate in limp mode. The SLOCK bit in the
SYNCR indicates when the VCO has locked onto the desired frequency or if an external
clock is being used.
4.2.3.1 PHASE COMPARATOR AND FILTER. The phase comparator takes the output of
the frequency divider and compares it to an external input signal reference. The result of
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this compare is low-pass filtered and used to control the VCO. The comparator also
detects when the external crystal or oscillator stops running to initiate the limp mode for
the system clock.
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The PLL requires an external low-leakage filter capacitor, typically in the range from 0.01
to 0.1 µF, connected between the XFC and VCCSYN pins. The XFC capacitor should
provide 50-MΩ insulation but should not be electrolytic. Smaller values of the external filter
capacitor provide a faster response time for the PLL, and larger values provide greater
frequency stability. For external clock mode without PLL, the XFC pin can be left open.
4.2.3.2 FREQUENCY DIVIDER. The frequency divider circuits divide the VCO frequency
down to the reference frequency for the phase comparator. The frequency divider consists
of 1) a 2-bit prescaler controlled by the W-bit in the SYNCR and 2) a 6-bit modulo
downcounter controlled by the Y-bits in the SYNCR.
Several factors are important to the design of the system clock. The resulting system clock
frequency must be within the limits specified for the device. The frequency of the system
clock is given by the following equation:
FSYSTEM = FCRYSTAL [2(2+2W+X) ] × (Y+1)
The maximum VCO frequency limit must also be observed. The VCO frequency is given
by the following equation:
FVCO = FSYSTEM [2(2–X)]
Since clearing the X-bit causes the VCO to run at twice the system frequency, the VCO
upper frequency limit must be considered when programming the SYNCR. Both the
system clock and VCO frequency limits are given in Section 11 Electrical
Characteristics. Table 4-2 lists some frequencies available from various combinations of
SYNCR bits with a reference frequency of 32.768-KHz.
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Table 4-2. System Frequencies from 32.768-kHz Reference
Y
W = 0; X = 0
W = 0; X = 1
W = 1; X = 0
W = 1; X = 1
000000
131
262
524
1049
000101
786
1573
3146
6291
001010
1442
2884
5767
11534
001111
2097
4194
8389
16777
010100
2753
5505
11010
22020
011001
3408
6816
13631
–
011111
4194
8389
16777
–
100011
4719
9437
18874
–
101000
5374
10748
21496
–
101101
6029
12059
24117
–
110010
6685
13369
–
–
110111
7340
14680
–
–
111100
7995
15991
–
–
111111
8389
16777
–
–
NOTE: System frequencies are in kHz.
4.2.3.3 CLOCK CONTROL. The clock control circuits determine the source used for both
internal and external clocks during special circumstances, such as low-power stop
(LPSTOP) execution.
Table 4-3 summarizes the clock activity during LPSTOP in crystal mode operation. Any
clock in the off state is held low. The STEXT and STSIM bits in the SYNCR control clock
activity during LPSTOP. Refer to 4.2.6 Low-Power Stop for additional information.
Table 4-3. Clock Control Signals
Control Bits
Clock Outputs
STSIM
STEXT
SIMCLK
CLKOUT
0
0
EXTAL
Off
0
1
EXTAL
EXTAL
1
0
VCO
Off
1
1
VCO
VCO
NOTE: SIMCLK runs the periodic interrupt RESET and
IRQ≈ pin synchronizers in LPSTOP mode.
4.2.4 Chip Select Operation
Typical microprocessor systems require external hardware to provide select signals to
external memory and peripherals. The MC68340 integrates these functions on chip to
provide the cost, speed, and reliability benefits of a higher level of integration. The chip
select function contains register pairs for each external chip select signal. The pair
consists of a base address register and an address mask register that define the
characteristics of a single chip select. The register pair provides flexibility for a wide
variety of chip select functions.
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4.2.4.1 PROGRAMMABLE FEATURES. The chip select function supports the following
programmable features:
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Four Programmable Chip Select Circuits
All four chip select circuits are independently programmable from the same list of
selectable features. Each chip select circuit has an individual base address register and
address mask register that contain the programmed characteristics of that chip select.
The base address register selects the starting address for the address block in 256-byte
increments. The address mask register specifies the size of the address block range.
The base address register V-bit indicates that the register information for that chip
select is valid. A global chip select ( CS0) allows address decode for a boot ROM before
system initialization occurs.
Variable Block Sizes
The block size, starting from the specified base address, can vary in size from 256
bytes up to 4 Gbytes in 2n increments. The specified base address must be on a
multiple of the the block size. The block size is specified in the address mask register.
Both 8- and 16-Bit Ports Supported
The 8-bit ports are accessible on both odd and even addresses when connected to data
bus bits 15–8; the 16-bit ports can be accessed as odd bytes, even bytes, or even
words. The port size is specified by the PS bits in the address mask register.
Write Protect Capability
The WP bit in each base address register can restrict write access to its range of
addresses.
Fast Termination Option
Programming the FTE bit in the base address register for the fast termination option
causes the chip select to terminate the cycle by asserting the internal DSACK≈ early,
providing a two-cycle external access.
Internal DSACK≈ Generation for External Accesses with Programmable Wait States
DSACK≈ can be generated internally with up to three wait states for a particular device
using the DD bits in the address mask register.
Full 32-Bit Address Decode with Address Space Checking
The FC bits in the base address register and FCM bits in the address mask register are
used to select address spaces for which the chip selects will be asserted.
4.2.4.2 GLOBAL CHIP SELECT OPERATION. Global chip select operation allows
address decode for a boot ROM before system initialization occurs. CS0 is the global chip
select output, and its operation differs from the other external chip select outputs following
reset. When the CPU32 begins fetching after reset, CS0 is asserted for every address
until the V-bit is set in the CS0 base address register.
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NOTE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
If an access matches multiple chip selects, the lowest
numbered chip select will have priority. For example, if CS0
and CS2 "overlap" for a certain range, CS0 will assert when
accessing the "overlapped" address range, and CS2 will not.
Global chip select provides a 16-bit port with three wait states, which allows a boot ROM
to be located in any address space and still provide the stack pointer and program counter
values at $00000000 and $00000004, respectively. Global chip select does not provide
write protection and responds to all function codes. While CS0 is a global chip select, no
other chip select (CS1, CS2, CS3 ) can be used. CS0 operates in this manner until the
V-bit is set in the CS0 base address register, which will then allow the use of CS3–CS1.
Provided the desired address range is first loaded into the CS0 base address register,
CS0 can be programmed to continue decode for a range of addresses after the V-bit is
set, After the V-bit is set for CS0, global chip select can only be restarted with a system
reset.
A system can use an 8-bit boot ROM if an external 8-bit DSACK≈ that responds in two or
less wait states is generated. The 8-bit DSACK≈ must respond in two or less wait states
so that the global chip select, which responds with three wait states, will not be used. See
Section 10 Applications for a detailed discussion.
4.2.5 External Bus Interface Operation
This section describes port A and port B functions. Refer to Section 3 Bus Operation for
more information about the EBI.
4.2.5.1 PORT A. Port A pins can be independently programmed to function as either
addresses A31–A24, discrete I/O pins, or IACKx pins. The port A pin assignment
registers (PPARA1 and PPARA2) control the function of the port A pins as listed in Table
4-4. Upon reset, port A is configured as input pins. If the system uses these signals as
addresses, pulldowns should be put on these signals to avoid indeterminate values until
the port A registers can be programmed.
Table 4-4. Port A Pin Assignment Register
Pin Function
Signal
MOTOROLA
PPARA1 = 0
PPARA1 = 1
PPARA1 = 0
PPARA2 = 0
PPARA2 = X
PPARA2 = 1
A31
A31
PORT A7
IACK7
A30
A30
PORT A6
IACK6
A29
A29
PORT A5
IACK5
A28
A28
PORT A4
IACK4
A27
A27
PORT A3
IACK3
A26
A26
PORT A2
IACK2
A25
A25
PORT A1
IACK1
A24
A24
PORT A0
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4.2.5.2 PORT B. Port B pins can be independently programmed to function as chip
selects, IRQ ≈ and MODCK pins, or discrete I/O pins. These pins are multiplexed as
shown in Figure 4-7. Selection of a pin function is accomplished by a combination of the
port B pin assignment register (PPARB) and the FIRQ bit of the MCR. See Table 4-5 for
port B combinations. By changing the value of the FIRQ bit and the corresponding bits in
the PPARB for a particular signal, the port B pins can be configured for different pin
functions. Upon reset, port B is configured as MODCK, IRQ7, IRQ6, IRQ5, IRQ3, and
CS3–CS0.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
INTERRUPT
PORT
LOGIC
MODCK/PORT B0
IRQ7/PORT B7
IRQ6/PORT B6
IRQ5/PORT B5
IRQ3/PORT B3
IRQ4/PORT B4
IRQ2/PORT B2
IRQ1/PORT B1
CS3/IRQ4/PORT B4
CS2/IRQ2/PORT B2
AVEC
FULL IRQ
MUX
CHIPSELECT
MODULE
CS1/IRQ1/PORT B1
CS0/AVEC
CS3
CS2
CS1
CS0
FIRQ
Figure 4-7. Full Interrupt Request Multiplexer
Table 4-5. Port B Pin Assignment Register
Pin Function
Signal
FIRQ = 0
FIRQ = 0
FIRQ = 1
FIRQ = 1
PPARB = 0
PPARB = 1
PPARB = 0
PPARB = 1
IRQ7
PORTB7
IRQ7
PORTB7
IRQ7
IRQ6
PORTB6
IRQ6
PORTB6
IRQ6
IRQ5
PORTB5
IRQ5
PORTB5
IRQ5
IRQ3
PORTB3
IRQ3
PORTB3
IRQ3
CS3
CS3
CS3
PORTB4
IRQ4
CS2
CS2
CS2
PORTB2
IRQ2
CS1
CS1
CS1
PORTB1
IRQ1
CS0
CS0
CS0
AVEC
AVEC
MODCK
PORTB0
MODCK
PORTB0
MODCK
NOTE: MODCK has no function after reset.
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The number of wait states programmed into the internal wait state generation logic by a
chip select can be used even though the pin is not used as a C S ≈ signal. The
programmed number of wait states in the CS≈ signal applies to the port B pins configured
as IRQ≈ or I/O pins. This is done by programming the chip select with the number of wait
states to be added, as though it were to be used. The DD1/DD0 and PS1/PS0 bits in the
chip select address mask register must be set to add the desired number of wait states
(the V-bit in the module base address register should be set).
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
4.2.6 Low-Power Stop
Executing the LPSTOP instruction provides reduced power consumption when the
MC68340 is idle; only the SIM40 remains active. Operation of the SIM40 clock and
CLKOUT during LPSTOP is controlled by the STSIM and STEXT bits in the SYNCR (see
Table 4-3). LPSTOP disables the clock to the software watchdog in the low state. The
software watchdog remains stopped until the LPSTOP mode ends; it begins to run again
on the next rising clock edge.
NOTE
When the CPU32 executes the STOP instruction (as opposed
to LPSTOP), the software watchdog continues to run. If the
software watchdog is enabled, it issues a reset or interrupt
when timeout occurs.
The periodic interrupt timer does not respond to an LPSTOP instruction; thus, it can be
used to exit LPSTOP as long as the interrupt request level is higher than the CPU32
interrupt mask level. To stop the periodic interrupt timer while in LPSTOP, the PITR must
be loaded with a zero value before LPSTOP is executed. The bus monitor, double bus
fault monitor, and spurious interrupt monitor are all inactive during LPSTOP.
The STP bit in the MCR of each on-chip module (DMA, timers, and serial modules) should
be set prior to executing the LPSTOP instruction. Setting the STP bit stops all clocks
within each of the modules, except for the clock from the IMB. The clock from the IMB
remains active to allow the CPU32 access to the MCR of each module. The system clock
stops on the low phase of the clock and remains stopped until the STP bit is cleared by
the CPU32 or until reset. For more information, see the description of the MCR STP bit for
each module.
If an external device requires additional time to prepare for entry into LPSTOP mode,
entry can be delayed by asserting HALT (see 3.4.2 LPSTOP Broadcast Cycle ).
4.2.7 Freeze
FREEZE is asserted by the CPU32 if a breakpoint is encountered with background mode
enabled. Refer to Section 5 CPU32 for more information on the background mode. When
FREEZE is asserted, the double bus fault monitor and spurious interrupt monitor continue
to operate normally. However, the software watchdog, the periodic interrupt timer and the
internal bus monitor will be affected. When FREEZE is asserted, setting the FRZ1 bit in
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the MCR disables the software watchdog and periodic interrupt timer, and setting the
FRZ0 bit in the MCR disables the bus monitor.
4.3 PROGRAMMING MODEL
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure 4-8 is a programming model (register map) of all registers in the SIM40. For more
information about a particular register, refer to the description of the module or function
indicated in the right column. The ADDR (address) column indicates the offset of the
register from the address stored in the module base address register. The FC (function
code) column indicates whether a register is restricted to supervisor access (S) or
programmable to exist in either supervisor or user space (S/U).
For the registers discussed in the following pages, the number in the upper right-hand
corner indicates the offset of the register from the address stored in the module base
address register. The numbers on the top line of the register represent the bit position in
the register. The second line contains the mnemonic for the bit. The numbers below the
register represent the bit values after a hardware reset. The access privilege is indicated
in the lower right-hand corner.
NOTE:
A CPU32 RESET instruction will not affect any of the SIM40
registers.
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ADDR
FC
000
S
15
8 7
0
MODULE CONFIGURATION REGISTER (MCR)
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
004
S
006
S
CLOCK SYNTHESIZER CONTROL REGISTER (SYNCR)
AUTOVECTOR REGISTER (AVR)
RESET STATUS REGISTER (RSR)
CLOCK
SYSTEM
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PROTECTION
010
S/U
012
S/U
014
S
016
S
018
RESERVED
PORT A DATA (PORTA)
EBI
RESERVED
PORT A DATA DIRECTION (DDRA)
EBI
RESERVED
PORT A PIN ASSIGNMENT 1 (PPRA1)
EBI
RESERVED
PORT A PIN ASSIGNMENT 2 (PPRA2)
EBI
S/U
RESERVED
PORT B DATA (PORTB)
EBI
01A
S/U
RESERVED
PORT B DATA (PORTB1)
EBI
01C
S/U
RESERVED
PORT B DATA DIRECTION (DDRB)
EBI
01E
S
RESERVED
PORT B PIN ASSIGNMENT (PPARB)
EBI
020
S
SW INTERRUPT VECTOR (SWIV)
SYSTEM PROTECTION CONTROL
(SYPCR)
PROTECTION
SYSTEM
022
S
PERIODIC INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER (PICR)
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
024
S
PERIODIC INTERRUPT TIMING REGISTER (PITR)
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
026
S
RESERVED
SOFTWARE SERVICE (SWSR)
SYSTEM
PROTECTION
040
S
ADDRESS MASK 1 CS0
CHIP SELECT
042
S
ADDRESS MASK 2 CS0
CHIP SELECT
044
S
BASE ADDRESS 1 CS0
CHIP SELECT
046
S
BASE ADDRESS 2 CS0
CHIP SELECT
048
S
ADDRESS MASK 1 CS1
CHIP SELECT
04A
S
ADDRESS MASK 2 CS1
CHIP SELECT
04C
S
BASE ADDRESS 1 CS1
CHIP SELECT
04E
S
BASE ADDRESS 2 CS1
CHIP SELECT
050
S
ADDRESS MASK 1 CS2
CHIP SELECT
052
S
ADDRESS MASK 2 CS2
CHIP SELECT
054
S
BASE ADDRESS 1 CS2
CHIP SELECT
056
S
BASE ADDRESS 2 CS2
CHIP SELECT
058
S
ADDRESS MASK 1 CS3
CHIP SELECT
05A
S
ADDRESS MASK 2 CS3
CHIP SELECT
05C
S
BASE ADDRESS 1 CS3
CHIP SELECT
05E
S
BASE ADDRESS 2 CS3
CHIP SELECT
Figure 4-8. SIM40 Programming Model
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4.3.1 Module Base Address Register (MBAR)
MBAR 1
$0003FF00
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
BA31
BA30
BA29
BA28
BA27
BA26
BA25
BA24
BA23
BA22
BA21
BA20
BA19
IBA18
BA17
BA16
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CPU Space Only
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MBAR 2
$0003FF02
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BA15
BA14
BA13
BA12
0
0
AS8
AS7
AS6
AS5
AS4
AS3
AS2
AS1
AS0
V
RESET
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CPU Space Only
BA31–BA12—Base Address Bits 31–12
The base address field is the upper 20 bits of the MBAR that provides for block starting
locations in increments of 4-Kbytes.
Bits 11, 10—Reserved
AS8–AS0—Address Space Bits 8–0
The address space field allows particular address spaces to be masked, placing the 4K
module block into a particular address space(s). If an address space is masked, an
access to the register block location in that address space becomes an external access.
The module block is not accessed. The address space bits are as follows:
AS8—mask DMA Space
address space (FC3–FC0 = 1xxx)
AS7—mask CPU Space
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0111)
AS6—mask Supervisor Program
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0110)
AS5—mask Supervisor Data
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0101)
AS4—mask Reserved [Motorola]
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0100)
AS3—mask Reserved [User]
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0011)
AS2—mask User Program
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0010)
AS1—mask User Data
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0001)
AS0—mask Reserved [Motorola]
address space (FC3–FC0 = 0000)
For each address space bit:
1 = Mask this address space from the internal module selection. The bus cycle goes
external.
0 = Decode for the internal module block.
V—Valid Bit
This bit indicates when the contents of the MBAR are valid. The base address value is
not used; therefore, all internal module registers are not accessible until the V-bit is set.
1 = Contents are valid.
0 = Contents are not valid.
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NOTE
An access to this register does not affect external space since
the cycle is not run externally.
Example code for accessing the MBAR is as follows:
Register D0 will contain the value of MBAR. MBAR can be read using the following code:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MOVE.L
MOVEC.L
LEA.L
MOVES.L
#7,D0
D0,SFC
$0003FF00,A0
(A0),D0
load D0 with the CPU space function code
load SFC to indicate CPU space
load A0 with the address of MBAR
load D0 with the contents of MBAR
Address $0003FF00 in CPU space (MBAR) will be loaded with the value $FFFFF001.
This value will set the base address of the internal registers to $FFFFF. MBAR can be
written to using the following code:
MOVE.L
MOVEC.L
LEA.L
MOVE.L
MOVES.L
#7,D0
D0,DFC
$0003FF00,A0
#$FFFFF001,D0
D0,(A0)
load D0 with the CPU space function code
load DFC to indicate CPU space
load A0 with the address of MBAR
load D0 with the value to be written into MBAR
write the value contained in D0 into MBAR
4.3.2 System Configuration and Protection Registers
The following paragraphs provide descriptions of the system configuration and protection
registers.
4.3.2.1 MODULE CONFIGURATION REGISTER (MCR). The MCR, which controls the
SIM40 configuration, can be read or written at any time.
MCR
$000
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
FRZ1
FRZ0
FIRQ
0
0
SHEN1
SHEN0
SUPV
0
0
0
IARB3
IARB2
IARB1
IARB0
RESET:
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Supervisor Only
Bits 15, 11, 10, 6–4—Reserved
FRZ1—Freeze Software Enable
1 = When FREEZE is asserted, the software watchdog and periodic interrupt timer
counters are disabled, preventing interrupts from occurring during software
debug.
0 = When FREEZE is asserted, the software watchdog and periodic interrupt timer
counters continue to run. See 4.2.7 Freeze for more information.
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FRZ0—Freeze Bus Monitor Enable
1 = When FREEZE is asserted, the bus monitor is disabled.
0 = When FREEZE is asserted, the bus monitor continues to operate as
programmed.
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FIRQ—Full Interrupt Request Mode
1 = Configures port B for seven interrupt request lines, autovector, and no external
chip selects.
0 = Configures port B for four interrupt request lines and four external chip selects.
See Table 4-5 for pin function selection.
SHEN1, SHEN0—Show Cycle Enable
These two control bits determine what the EBI does with the external bus during internal
transfer operations (see Table 4-6). A show cycle allows internal transfers to be
externally monitored. The address, data, and control signals (except for AS) are driven
externally. DS is used to signal address strobe timing for show cycles. Data is valid on
the next falling clock edge after DS is negated. However, data is not driven externally,
and AS and DS are not asserted externally for internal accesses unless show cycles
are enabled.
If external bus arbitration is disabled, the EBI will not recognize an external bus request
until arbitration is enabled again. To prevent bus conflicts, external peripherals must not
attempt to initiate cycles during show cycles with arbitration disabled.
Table 4-6. SHENx Control Bits
SHEN1
SHEN0
ACTION
0
0
Show cycles disabled, external arbitration enabled
0
1
Show cycles enabled, external arbitration disabled
1
X
Show cycles enabled, external arbitration enabled
SUPV—Supervisor/User Data Space
The SUPV bit defines the SIM40 registers as either supervisor data space or user
(unrestricted) data space.
1 = The SIM40 registers defined as supervisor/user are restricted to supervisor data
access (FC3–FC0 = $5). An attempted user-space write is ignored and returns
BERR.
0 = The SIM40 registers defined as supervisor/user data are unrestricted (FC2 is a
don't care).
IARB3–IARB0—Interrupt Arbitration Bits 3–0
These bits are used to arbitrate for the bus in the case that two or more modules
simultaneously generate an interrupt at the same priority level. No two modules can
share the same IARB value. The reset value of IARB is $F, allowing the SIM40 to
arbitrate during an IACK cycle immediately after reset. The system software should
initialize the IARB field to a value from $F (highest priority) to $1 (lowest priority). A
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value of $0 prevents arbitration and causes all SIM40 interrupts, including external
interrupts, to be discarded as extraneous.
4.3.2.2 AUTOVECTOR REGISTER (AVR). The AVR contains bits that correspond to
external interrupt levels that require an autovector response. Setting a bit allows the
SIM40 to assert an internal AVEC during the IACK cycle in response to the specified
interrupt request level. This register can be read and written at any time.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
AVR
$006
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AV7
AV6
AV5
AV4
AV3
AV2
AV1
0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
NOTE:
The IARB field in the MCR must contain a value other than $0
for the SIM40 to autovector for external interrupts.
4.3.2.3 RESET STATUS REGISTER (RSR). The RSR contains a bit for each reset source
to the SIM40. A set bit indicates the last type of reset that occurred, and only one bit can
be set in the register. The RSR is updated by the reset control logic when the SIM40
comes out of reset. This register can be read at any time; a write has no effect. For more
information, see Section 3 Bus Operation.
RSR
$007
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EXT
POW
SW
DBF
0
LOC
SYS
0
Supervisor Only
EXT—External Reset
1 = The last reset was caused by an external signal driving RESET.
POW—Power-Up Reset
1 = The last reset was caused by the power-up reset circuit.
SW—Software Watchdog Reset
1 = The last reset was caused by the software watchdog circuit.
DBF—Double Bus Fault Monitor Reset
1 = The last reset was caused by the double bus fault monitor.
Bits 3, 0—Reserved
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LOC—Loss of Clock Reset
1 = The last reset was caused by a loss of frequency reference to the clock
synthesizer. This reset can only occur if the RSTEN bit in the SYNCR is set and
the VCO is enabled.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SYS—System Reset
1 = The last reset was caused by the CPU32 executing a RESET instruction. The
system reset does not load a reset vector or affect any internal CPU32 registers,
SIM40 configuration registers, or the MCR in each internal peripheral module
(DMA, timers, and serial modules). It will, however, reset external devices and all
other registers in the peripheral modules.
4.3.2.4 SOFTWARE INTERRUPT VECTOR REGISTER (SWIV). The SWIV contains the
8-bit vector that is returned by the SIM40 during an IACK cycle in response to an interrupt
generated by the software watchdog. This register can be read or written at any time. This
register is set to the uninitialized vector, $0F, at reset.
SWIV
$020
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SWIV7
SWIV6
SWIV5
SWIV4
SWIV3
SWIV2
SWIV1
SWIV0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Supervisor Only
4.3.2.5 SYSTEM PROTECTION CONTROL REGISTER (SYPCR). The SYPCR controls
the system monitors, the prescaler for the software watchdog, and the bus monitor timing.
This register can be read at any time, but can be written only once after reset.
SYPCR
$021
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SWE
SWRI
SWT1
SWT0
DBFE
BME
BMT1
BMT0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
SWE—Software Watchdog Enable
1 = Software watchdog is enabled.
0 = Software watchdog is disabled.
See 4.2.2.5 Software Watchdog for more information.
SWRI—Software Watchdog Reset/Interrupt Select
1 = Software watchdog causes a system reset.
0 = Software watchdog causes a level 7 interrupt to the CPU32.
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SWT1, SWT0—Software Watchdog Timing
These bits, along with the SWP bit in the PITR, control the divide ratio used to establish
the timeout period for the software watchdog. The software watchdog timeout period is
given by the following formula:
divide count
EXTAL frequency
The software watchdog timeout period, listed in Table 4-7, gives the formula to derive the
software watchdog timeout for any clock frequency. The timeout periods are listed for a
32.768-kHz crystal used with the VCO and for a 16.777-MHz external oscillator.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 4-7. Deriving Software Watchdog Timeout
SWP
SWT1
SWT0
Software Timeout Period
32.768-kHz
Crystal Period
16.777-MHz External
Clock Period
0
0
0
29/EXTAL Input Frequency
15.6 ms
30 µs
62.5 ms
122 µs
0
0
1
211 /EXTAL Input Frequency
0
1
0
213 /EXTAL Input Frequency
250 ms
488 µs
0
1
1
215 /EXTAL Input Frequency
1s
1.95 ms
0
218 /EXTAL Input Frequency
8s
15.6 ms
32 s
62.5 ms
1
0
1
0
1
220 /EXTAL Input Frequency
1
1
0
222 /EXTAL Input Frequency
128 s
250 ms
1
1
1
224 /EXTAL Input Frequency
512 s
1s
NOTE:
When the SWP and SWT bits are modified to select a software timeout other than the default, the
software service sequence ($55 followed by $AA written to the software service register) must be
performed before the new timeout period takes effect. Refer to 4.2.2.5 Software Watchdog for
more information.
DBFE—Double Bus Fault Monitor Enable
1 = Enable double bus fault monitor function.
0 = Disable double bus fault monitor function.
For more information, see 4.2.2.3 Double Bus Fault Monitor and Section 5 CPU32.
BME—Bus Monitor External Enable
1 = Enable bus monitor function for an internal-to-external bus cycle.
0 = Disable bus monitor function for an internal-to-external bus cycle.
For more information see 4.2.2.2 Internal Bus Monitor.
BMT1, BMT0—Bus Monitor Timing
These bits select the timeout period for the bus monitor (see Table 4-8). Upon reset, the
bus monitor is set to 64 system clocks.
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Table 4-8. BMTx Encoding
BMT1
BMT0
0
0
64 system clocks (CLKOUT)
Bus Monitor Timeout Period
0
1
32 system clocks
1
0
16 system clocks
1
1
8 system clocks
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
4.3.2.6 PERIODIC INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER (PICR). The PICR contains the
interrupt level and the vector number for the periodic interrupt request. This register can
be read or written at any time. Bits 15–11 are unimplemented and always return zero; a
write to these bits has no effect.
PICR
$022
15
14
13
12
11
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
10
9
8
PIRQL2 PIRQL1 PIRQL0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PIV7
PIV6
PIV5
PIV4
PIV3
PIV2
PIV1
PIV0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Supervisor Only
Bits 15–11—Reserved
PIRQL2–PIRQL0—Periodic Interrupt Request Level
These bits contain the periodic interrupt request level. Table 4-9 lists which interrupt
request level is asserted during an IACK cycle when a periodic interrupt is generated.
The periodic timer continues to run when the interrupt is disabled.
Table 4-9. PIRQL Encoding
PIRQL2
PIRQL1
PIRQL0
Interrupt Request Level
0
0
0
Periodic Interrupt Disabled
0
0
1
Interrupt Request Level 1
0
1
0
Interrupt Request Level 2
0
1
1
Interrupt Request Level 3
1
0
0
Interrupt Request Level 4
1
0
1
Interrupt Request Level 5
1
1
0
Interrupt Request Level 6
1
1
1
Interrupt Request Level 7
NOTE:
Use caution with a level 7 interrupt encoding due to the
SIM40's interrupt servicing order. See 4.2.2.7 Simultaneous
Interrupts by Sources in the SIM40 for the servicing order.
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PIV7–PIV0—Periodic Interrupt Vector Bits 7–0
These bits contain the value of the vector generated during an IACK cycle in response
to an interrupt from the periodic timer. When the SIM40 responds to the IACK cycle, the
periodic interrupt vector from the PICR is placed on the bus. This vector number is
multiplied by four to form the vector offset, which is added to the vector base register to
obtain the address of the vector.
4.3.2.7 PERIODIC INTERRUPT TIMER REGISTER (PITR). The PITR contains control for
prescaling the software watchdog and periodic timer as well as the count value for the
periodic timer. This register can be read or written at any time. Bits 15–10 are not
implemented and always return zero when read. A write does not affect these bits.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PITR
$024
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SWP
PTP
PITR7
PITR6
PITR5
PITR4
PITR3
PITR2
PITR1
PITR0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
0
MODCK MODCK
Supervisor Only
Bits 15–10—Reserved
SWP—Software Watchdog Prescale
This bit controls the software watchdog clock source as shown in 4.3.2.5 System
Protection Control Register (SYPCR).
1 = Software watchdog clock prescaled by a value of 512.
0 = Software watchdog clock not prescaled.
The SWP reset value is the inverse of the MODCK bit state on the rising edge of reset.
PTP—Periodic Timer Prescaler Control
This bit contains the prescaler control for the periodic timer.
1 = Periodic timer clock prescaled by a value of 512.
0 = Periodic timer clock not prescaled.
The PTP reset value is the inverse of the MODCK bit state on the rising edge of reset.
PITR7–PITR0—Periodic Interrupt Timer Register Bits 7–0
The remaining bits of the PITR contain the count value for the periodic timer. A zero
value turns off the periodic timer.
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4.3.2.8 SOFTWARE SERVICE REGISTER (SWSR). The SWSR is the location to which
the software watchdog servicing sequence is written. The software watchdog can be
enabled or disabled by the SWE bit in the SYPCR. SWSR can be written at any time, but
returns all zeros when read.
SWSR
7
$027
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SWSR7 SWSR6 SWSR5 SWSR4 SWSR3 SWSR2 SWSR1 SWSR0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
4.3.3 Clock Synthesizer Control Register (SYNCR)
The SYNCR can be read or written only in supervisor mode. The reset state of SYNCR
produces an operating frequency of 8.39 MHz when the PLL is referenced to a 32.768kHz reference signal. The system frequency is controlled by the frequency control bits in
the upper byte of the SYNCR as follows:
FSYSTEM = FCRYSTAL [2(2+2W+X) ] × (Y+1)
SYNCR
$004
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
W
X
Y5
Y4
Y3
Y2
Y1
Y0
RSVD
0
0
RESET:
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
4
3
SLIMP SLOCK
U
U = Unaffected by reset
U
2
1
0
RSTEN
STSIM
STEXT
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
W—Frequency Control Bit
This bit controls the prescaler tap in the synthesizer feedback loop. Setting the bit
increases the VCO speed by a factor of 4, requiring a time delay for the VCO to relock
(see equation for determining system frequency).
X—Frequency Control Bit
This bit controls a divide-by-two prescaler, which is not in the synthesizer feedback
loop. Setting the bit doubles the system clock speed without changing the VCO speed,
as specified in the equation for determining system frequency; therefore, no delay is
incurred to relock the VCO.
Y5–Y0—Frequency Control Bits
The Y-bits, with a value from 0–63, control the modulus downcounter in the synthesizer
feedback loop, causing it to divide by the value of Y+1 (see the equation for determining
system frequency). Changing these bits requires a time delay for the VCO to relock.
Bits 7–5—Reserved
Bit 7 is reserved for factory testing.
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SLIMP—Limp Mode
1 = A loss of input signal reference has been detected, and the VCO is running at
approximately one-half the maximum speed (affected by the X-bit ), determined
from an internal voltage reference.
0 = External input signal frequency is at VCO reference.
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SLOCK—Synthesizer Lock
1 = VCO has locked onto the desired frequency (or system clock is driven
externally).
0 = VCO is enabled, but has not yet locked.
RSTEN—Reset Enable
1 = Loss of input signal causes a system reset.
0 = Loss of input signal causes the VCO to operate at a nominal speed without
external reference (limp mode), and the device continues to operate at that
speed.
STSIM—Stop Mode System Integration Clock
1 = When LPSTOP is executed, the SIM40 clock is driven from the VCO.
0 = When LPSTOP is executed, the SIM40 clock is driven from an external crystal or
oscillator, and the VCO is turned off to conserve power.
STEXT—Stop Mode External Clock
1 = When the LPSTOP instruction is executed, the external clock pin (CLKOUT) is
driven from the SIM40 clock as determined by the STSIM bit.
0 = When the LPSTOP instruction is executed, the external clock (CLKOUT) is held
low to conserve power. No external clock will be driven in LPSTOP mode.
4.3.4 Chip Select Registers
The following paragraphs provide descriptions of the registers in the chip select function,
and an example of how to program the registers. The chip select registers cannot be used
until the V-bit in the MBAR is set.
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4.3.4.1 BASE ADDRESS REGISTERS. There are four 32-bit base address registers in
the chip select function, one for each chip select signal.
Base Address 1
$044, $04C, $054, $05C
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
BA31
BA30
BA29
BA28
BA27
BA26
BA25
BA24
BA23
BA22
BA21
BA20
BA19
BA18
BA17
BA16
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Supervisor Only
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Base Address 2
$046, $04E, $056, $05E
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
BA15
BA14
BA13
BA12
BA11
BA10
BA9
BA8
BFC3
BFC2
BFC1
BFC0
WP
FTE
NCS
V
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
0
0
U = Unaffected by reset
Supervisor Only
BA31–BA8—Base Address Bits 31–8
The base address field, the upper 24 bits of each base address register, selects the
starting address for the chip select. The specified base address must be on a multiple of
the selected block size. The corresponding bits, AM31–AM8, in the address mask
register define the size of the block for the chip select. The base address field (and the
base function code field) is compared to the address on the address bus to determine if
a chip select should be generated.
BFC3–BFC0—Base Function Code Bits 3–0
The value programmed into this field causes a chip select to be asserted for a certain
address space type. There are nine function code address spaces (see Section 3 Bus
Operation) specified as either user or supervisor, program or data, CPU, and DMA.
These bits should be used to allow access to one type of address space. If access to
more than one type of address space is desired, the FCMx bits should be used in
addition to the BFCx bits. To prevent access to CPU space, set the NCS bit.
WP—Write Protect
This bit can restrict write accesses to the address range in a base address register. An
attempt to write to the range of addresses specified in a base address register that has
this bit set returns BERR.
1 = Only read accesses are allowed.
0 = Either read or write accesses are allowed.
FTE—Fast-Termination Enable
This bit causes the cycle to terminate early with an internal DSACK≈, giving a fast twoclock external access. When clear, all external cycles are at least three clocks. If fast
termination is enabled, the DD bits of the corresponding address mask register are
overridden (see Section 3 Bus Operation).
1 = Fast termination cycle enabled (termination determined by PS bits).
0 = Fast termination cycle disabled (termination determined by DD and PS bits).
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NCS—No CPU Space
This bit specifies whether or not a chip select will assert on a CPU space access cycle
(FC3–FC0 = $7 or $F). If both supervisor data and program accesses are desired, while
ignoring CPU space accesses, then this bit should be set. The NCS bit is cleared at
reset.
1 = Suppress the chip select on a CPU space access.
0 = Assert the chip select on a CPU space access.
V—Valid Bit
This bit indicates that the contents of its base address register and address mask
register pair are valid. The programmed chip selects do not assert until the V-bit is set.
A reset clears the V-bit in each base address register, but does not change any other
bits in the base address and address mask registers ( CS0 is a special case, see 4.2.4.2
Global Chip Select Operation).
1 = Contents are valid.
0 = Contents are not valid.
4.3.4.2 ADDRESS MASK REGISTERS. There are four 32-bit address mask registers in
the chip select function, one for each chip select signal.
Address Mask 1
$040, $048, $050, $058
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
AM31
AM30
AM29
AM28
AM27
AM26
AM25
AM24
AM23
AM22
AM21
AM20
AM19
AM18
AM17
AM16
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Supervisor Only
Address Mask 2
$042, $04A, $052, $05A
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AM15
AM14
AM13
AM12
AM11
AM10
AM9
AM8
FCM3
FCM2
FCM1
FCM0
DD1
DD0
PS1
PS0
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U = Unaffected by reset
Supervisor Only
AM31–AM8—Address Mask Bits 31–8
The address mask field, the upper 24 bits of each address mask register, defines the
chip select block size. The block size is equal to 2n , where n = (number of bits set in
the address mask field) + 8.
Any set bit masks the corresponding base address register bit (the base address
register bit becomes a don’t care). By masking the address bits independently, external
devices of different size address ranges can be used. Address mask bits can be set or
cleared in any order in the field, allowing a resource to reside in more than one area of
the address map. This field can be read or written at any time.
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FCM3–FCM0—Function Code Mask Bits 3–0
This field can be used to mask certain function code bits, allowing more than one
address space type to be assigned to a chip select. Any set bit masks the
corresponding function code bit.
DD1, DD0—DSACK Delay Bits 1 and 0
This field determines the number of wait states added before an internal DSACK≈ is
returned for that entry. Table 4-10 lists the encoding for the DD bits.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE:
The port size field must be programmed for an internal
DSACK ≈ response and the FTE bit in the base address
register must be cleared for the DDx bits to have significance.
If external DSACK≈ signals are returned earlier than indicated
by the DDx bits, the cycle will terminate sooner than
programmed. See 4.2.5.2 PORT B for a discussion on using
the internal DSACK≈ generation without using the CS≈ signal.
Table 4-10. DDx Encoding
DD1
DD0
Response
0
0
Zero Wait State
0
1
One Wait State
1
0
Two Wait States
1
1
Three Wait States
PS1, PS0—Port Size Bits 1 and 0
This field determines whether a given chip select responds with DSACK≈ and, if so,
what port size is returned. Table 4-11 lists the encoding for the PSx bits.
Table 4-11. PSx Encoding
PS1
PS0
Mode
0
0
Reserved*
0
1
16-Bit Port
1
0
8-Bit Port
1
1
External DSACK≈ Response
*Use only for 32-bit DMA transfers.
To use the external DSACK≈ response, PS1–PS0 = 11 should be selected to suppress
internal DSACK≈ generation. The DDx bits then have no significance.
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4.3.4.3 CHIP SELECT REGISTERS PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE. The following listing is
an example of programming a chip select at starting address $00040000, for a block size
of 256 Kbytes, accessing supervisor and user data spaces with a 16-bit port requiring two
wait states. There will be no write protection, no fast termination, and no CPU space
accesses.
base address 1 = $0004
base address 2 = $0013
address mask 1 = $0003
address mask 2 = $FF49
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE
If an access matches multiple chip selects, the lowest
numbered chip select will have priority. For example, if CS0
and CS2 "overlap" for a certain range, CS0 will assert when
accessing the "overlapped" address range, and CS2 will not.
4.3.5 External Bus Interface Control
The following paragraphs describe the registers that control the I/O pins used with the
EBI. Refer to the Section 3 Bus Operation for more information about the EBI. For a list
of pin numbers used with port A and port B, see the pinout diagram in Section 12
Ordering Information and Mechanical Data. Section 2 Signal Descriptions shows a
block diagram of the port control circuits.
4.3.5.1 PORT A PIN ASSIGNMENT REGISTER 1 (PPARA1). PPARA1 selects between
an address and discrete I/O function for the port A pins. Any set bit defines the
corresponding pin to be an I/O pin, controlled by the port A data and data direction
registers. Any cleared bit defines the corresponding pin to be an address bit as defined in
the following register diagram. Bits set in this register override the configuration setting of
PPARA2. The $FF reset value of PPARA1 configures it as an input port. This register can
be read or written at any time.
PPARA1
$015
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PRTA7
(A31)
PRTA6
(A30)
PRTA5
(A29)
PRTA4
(A28)
PRTA3
(A27)
PRTA2
(A26)
PRTA1
(A25)
PRTA0
(A24)
RESET:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Supervisor Only
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4.3.5.2 PORT A PIN ASSIGNMENT REGISTER 2 (PPARA2). PPARA2 selects between
an address and IACK≈ function for the port A pins. Any set bit defines the corresponding
pin to be an IACK ≈ output pin. Any cleared bit defines the corresponding pin to be an
address bit as defined in the register diagram. Any set bits in PPARA1 override the
configuration set in PPARA2. Bit 0 has no function in this register because there is no
level 0 interrupt. This register can be read or written at any time.
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PPARA2
$017
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IACK7
(A31)
IACK6
(A30)
IACK5
(A29)
IACK4
(A28)
IACK3
(A27)
IACK2
(A26)
IACK1
(A25)
0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
The IACK ≈ signals are asserted if a bit in PPARA2 is set and the CPU32 services an
external interrupt at the corresponding level. IACK ≈ signals have the same timing as
address strobes.
NOTE:
Upon reset, port A is configured as an input port.
4.3.5.3 PORT A DATA DIRECTION REGISTER (DDRA). DDRA controls the direction of
the pin drivers when the pins are configured as I/O. Any set bit configures the
corresponding pin as an output. Any cleared bit configures the corresponding pin as an
input. This register affects only pins configured as discrete I/O. This register can be read
or written at any time.
DDRA
$013
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DD7
DD6
DD5
DD4
DD3
DD2
DD1
DD0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor/User
4.3.5.4 PORT A DATA REGISTER (PORTA). PORTA affects only pins configured as
discrete I/O. A write to PORTA is stored in the internal data latch, and if any port A pin is
configured as an output, the value stored for that bit is driven on the pin. A read of PORTA
returns the value at the pin only if the pin is configured as discrete input. Otherwise, the
value read is the value stored in the internal data latch. This register can be read or written
at any time.
PORTA
$011
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P7
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
P0
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Supervisor/User
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4.3.5.5 PORT B PIN ASSIGNMENT REGISTER (PPARB). PPARB controls the function
of each port B pin. Any set bit defines the corresponding pin to be an IRQ≈ input or CS≈
as defined in Table 4-5. Any cleared bit defines the corresponding pin to be a discrete I/O
pin (or CS ≈ if the FIRQ bit of the MCR is zero) controlled by the port B data and data
direction registers. The MODCK signal has no function after reset. PPARB is configured to
all ones at reset to provide for MODCK, IRQ7, IRQ6, IRQ5, IRQ3, and CS3– CS0. This
register can be read or written at any time.
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PPARB
$01F
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PPARB7
(IRQ7)
PPARB6
(IRQ6)
PPARB5
(IRQ5)
PPARB4
(IRQ4)
PPARB3
(IRQ3)
PPARB2
(IRQ2)
PPARB1
(IRQ1)
PPARB0
(MODCK)
RESET:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Supervisor Only
4.3.5.6 PORT B DATA DIRECTION REGISTER (DDRB). DDRB controls the direction of
the pin drivers when the pins are configured as I/O. Any set bit configures the
corresponding pin as an output; any cleared bit configures the corresponding pin as an
input. This register affects only pins configured as discrete I/O. This register can be read
or written at any time.
DDRB
$01D
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DD7
DD6
DD5
DD4
DD3
DD2
DD1
DD0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor/User
4.3.5.7 PORT B DATA REGISTER (PORTB, PORTB1). This is a single register that can
be accessed at two different addresses. This register affects only those pins configured as
discrete I/O. A write is stored in the internal data latch, and if any port B pin is configured
as an output, the value stored for that bit is driven on the pin. A read of this register
returns the value stored in the register only if the pin is configured as a discrete output.
Otherwise, the value read is the value of the pin. This register can be read or written at
any time.
PORTB, PORTB1
$019, 01B
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P7
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
P0
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Supervisor/User
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4.4 MC68340 INITIALIZATION SEQUENCE
The following paragraphs discuss a suggested method for initializing the MC68340 after
power-up.
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4.4.1 Startup
RESET is asserted by the MC68340 during the time in which V CC is ramping up, the VCO
is locking onto the frequency, and the MC68340 is going through the reset operation. After
RESET is negated, four bus cycles are run, with global CS0 being asserted to fetch the
32-bit supervisor stack pointer (SSP) and the 32-bit program counter (PC) from the boot
ROM. Until programmed differently, CS0 is a global, 16-bit-wide, three-wait-state chip
select. CS0 can be programmed to continue decode for a range of addresses after the
V-bit is set, provided the desired address range is first loaded into the CS0 base address
register. After the V-bit is set for CS0 , global chip select can only be restarted with a
system reset.
After the SSP and the PC are fetched, the module base address register (MBAR) should
be initialized, and the MBAR V-bit should be set (CPU space address $0003FF00) with
the desired base address for the internal modules.
4.4.2 SIM40 Module Configuration
The order of the following SIM40 register initializations is not important; however, time can
be saved by initializing the SYNCR first to quickly increase to the desired processor
operating frequency. The module base address register must be initialized prior to any of
following steps.
Clock Synthesizer Control Register (SYNCR):
• Set frequency control bits (W, X, Y) to specify frequency.
• Select action taken during loss of crystal (RSTEN bit): activate a system reset or
operate in limp mode.
• Select system clock and CLKOUT during LPSTOP (STSIM and STEXT bits).
Module Configuration Register (MCR)
• If using the software watchdog, periodic interrupt timer, and/or the bus monitor, select
action taken when FREEZE is asserted (FRZx bits).
• Select port B configuration (FIRQ bit). Note that this bit is used in combination with
the bits in the PPARB to program the function of the port B pins.
• Select the access privilege for the supervisor/user registers (SUPV bit).
• Select the interrupt arbitration level for the SIM40 (IARBx bits).
Autovector Register (AVR)
• Select the desired external interrupt levels for internal autovectoring.
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System Protection Control Register (SYPCR) (Note that this register can only be written
once after reset.)
• Enable the software watchdog, if desired (SWE bit).
• If the watchdog is enabled, select whether a system reset or a level 7 interrupt is
desired at timeout (SWRI bit).
• If the watchdog is enabled, select the timeout period (SWTx bits).
• Enable the double bus fault monitor, if desired (DBFE bit).
• Enable the external bus monitor, if desired (BME bit).
• Select timeout period for bus monitor (BMTx bits).
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Software Watchdog Interrupt Vector Register (SWIV)
• If using the software watchdog, program the vector number for a software watchdog
interrupt.
Periodic Interrupt Timer Register (PITR)
• If using the software watchdog, select whether or not to prescale (SWP bit).
• If using the periodic interrupt timer, select whether or not to prescale (PTP bit).
• Program the count value for the periodic timer, or program a zero value to turn off the
periodic timer (PITRx bits).
Periodic Interrupt Control Register (PICR)
• If using the periodic timer, program the desired interrupt level for the periodic interrupt
timer (PIRQLx bits).
• If using the periodic timer, program the vector number for a periodic timer interrupt.
Chip Select Base Address and Address Mask Registers
• Initialize and set the V-bits in the necessary chip select base address and address
mask registers. Following this step, other system resources requiring the CS≈ signals
can be accessed. Care must be exercised when changing the address for CS0. The
address of the instruction following the MOVE instruction to the CS0 base address
register must match the value of the PC at that time. CS0 must be taken out of global
chip select mode by setting the V-bit in the base address register before CS3–CS1
can be used.
Port A and B Registers
• Program the desired function of the port A signals (PPARA1 and PPARA2 registers).
• Program the desired function of the port B signals (PPARB register).
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4.4.3 SIM40 Example Configuration Code
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The following code is an example configuration sequence for the SIM40 module.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic SIM40 register initialization example code:
* This code is used to initialize the MC68340's internal SIM40 registers,
* providing basic functions for operation.
* It includes chip select programming for external devices.
* This code would be programmed beginning at offset $0 into ROM which is
* relocated to address $60000 by the initialization code.
* The SSP_VEC and RST_VEC vectors used to initialize the system stack
* pointer and initial PC, respectively, are located at offset $0 after
* reset.
***************************************************************************
* equates
***************************************************************************
SSP_INIT
EQU $10000
Stack pointer initial value - top of RAM
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 Default Module Base address value
****************************************
* SIM40 register offsets from MBAR base address
MCR
EQU $00
SYNCR
EQU $04
SYPCR
EQU $21
CSAM0
EQU $40
CSBAR0
EQU $44
CSAM1
EQU $48
CSBAR1
EQU $4c
CSAM2
EQU $50
CSBAR2
EQU $54
CSAM3
EQU $58
CSBAR3
EQU $5c
***************************************************************************
* Reset vectors
* These two vectors should be located at addresses $0 and $4 after a processor
* hardware reset.
***************************************************************************
ORG $60000
SSP_VEC DC.L SSP_INIT
Supervisor stack pointer - initial value
RST_VEC DC.L INIT340
Reset vector pointing to initialization code
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***************************************************************************
* Initialization code
***************************************************************************
* Start Chip Select Initialization:
INIT340
MOVE.W
#$2700,SR
Init SR - interrupts masked
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***************************************************************************
* Set up default module base address value
MOVEQ.L #7,D0
MBAR is in CPU space
MOVEC.L D0,DFC
load DFC to indicate CPU space
MOVE.L
#MODBASE+1,D0
Set address/valid bit
MOVES.L
D0,MBAR
write to MBAR
***************************************************************************
* Set up system protection register:
* Software watchdog disabled, double bus fault monitor disabled, bus
* monitor BERR after 16 clocks.
MOVE.B
#6,SYPCR+MODBASE
***************************************************************************
* Clock synthesizer control register:
* Switch from 8.3 to 16.7 MHZ
MOVE.W
#$7F00,SYNCR+MODBASE
X-bit doubles the default speed
***************************************************************************
* Module configuration register:
* When FREEZE is asserted, software watchdog and periodic interrupt timer
* are disabled, bus monitor is enabled. Port B = 4 IRQs, 4 chip selects.
* Show Cycles enabled, external arbitration enabled. Supervisor/user
* SIM registers unrestricted, Interrupt Arbitration at priority $F
MOVE.W
#$420F,MCR+MODBASE
***************************************************************************
* Now, set up Address masks and base addresses for the chip selects:
LEA
CSAM0+MODBASE,A0 Point to CS0 addr. mask location.
MOVEQ
#7,D
Set up a loop counter.
LEA
CSAM0$,A1
Point to addr mask memory location.
LOOP MOVE.L
(A1)+,(A0)+
Init. addr mask and base addr reg
DBRA
D0,LOOP
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***************************************************************************
* Data table for chip select initialization
***************************************************************************
* CS0 - EPROM - 00060000-0007ffff, 3-wait states, 16-bit term., write protect
CSAM0$
DC.L $0001FFFD
CSBAR0$
DC.L $00060009
* CS1 - RAM - 00000000-0000ffff, fast termination
CSAM1$
DC.L $0000FFF0
CSBAR1$
DC.L $00000005
* CS2 - external device - 00FFE8xx, external termination
CSAM2$
DC.L $000000F3
CSBAR2$
DC.L $00FFE801
* CS3 - secondary memory - 00000000-0003ffff, 3-wait states, 16-bit term.
CSAM3$
DC.L $0003FFFD
CSBAR3$
DC.L $00000001
***************************************************************************
END
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SECTION 5
CPU32
The CPU32, the first-generation instruction processing module of the M68300 family, is
based on the industry-standard MC68000 core processor. It has many features of the
MC68010 and MC68020 as well as unique features suited for high-performance processor
applications. The CPU32 provides a significant performance increase over the MC68000
CPU, yet maintains source-code and binary-code compatibility with the M68000 family.
5.1 OVERVIEW
The CPU32 is designed to interface to the intermodule bus (IMB), allowing interaction with
other IMB submodules. In this manner, integrated processors can be developed that
contain useful peripherals on chip. This integration provides high-speed accesses among
the IMB submodules, increasing system performance.
Another advantage of the CPU32 is low power consumption. The CPU32 is implemented
in high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (HCMOS) technology, providing
low power use during normal operation. During periods of inactivity, the LPSTOP
instruction can be executed, shutting down the CPU32 and other IMB modules, greatly
reducing power consumption.
Ease of programming is an important consideration when using an integrated processor.
The CPU32 instruction format reflects a predominate register-memory interaction
philosophy. All data resources are available to all operations that require them. The
programming model includes eight multifunction data registers and seven general-purpose
addressing registers. The data registers readily support 8-bit (byte), 16-bit (word), and 32bit (long-word) operand lengths for all operations. Address manipulation is supported by
word and long-word operations. Although the program counter (PC) and stack pointers
(SP) are special-purpose registers, they are also available for most data addressing
activities. Ease of program checking and diagnosis is enhanced by trace and trap
capabilities at the instruction level.
As processor applications become more complex and programs become larger, high-level
language (HLL) will become the system designer's choice in programming languages.
HLL aids in the rapid development of complex algorithms with less error and is readily
portable. The CPU32 instruction set will efficiently support HLL.
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5.1.1 Features
Features of the CPU32 are as follows:
• Fully Upward Object-Code Compatible with M68000 Family
• Virtual Memory Implementation
• Loop Mode of Instruction Execution
• Fast Multiply, Divide, and Shift Instructions
• Fast Bus Interface with Dynamic Bus Port Sizing
• Improved Exception Handling for Embedded Control Applications
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• Additional Addressing Modes
— Scaled Index
— Address Register Indirect with Base Displacement and Index
— Expanded PC Relative Modes
— 32-Bit Branch Displacements
• Instruction Set Additions
— High-Precision Multiply and Divide
— Trap On Condition Codes
— Upper and Lower Bounds Checking
• Enhanced Breakpoint Instruction
• Trace on Change of Flow
• Table Lookup and Interpolate Instruction
• LPSTOP Instruction
• Hardware BKPT Signal, Background Mode
• Fully Static Implementation
A block diagram of the CPU32 is shown in Figure 5-1. The major blocks depicted operate
in a highly independent fashion that maximizes concurrences of operation while managing
the essential synchronization of instruction execution and bus operation. The bus
controller loads instructions from the data bus into the decode unit. The sequencer and
control unit provide overall chip control, managing the internal buses, registers, and
functions of the execution unit.
5.1.2 Virtual Memory
A system that supports virtual memory has a limited amount of high-speed physical
memory that can be accessed directly by the processor and maintains an image of a
much larger virtual memory on a secondary storage device. When the processor attempts
to access a location in the virtual memory map that is not resident in physical memory, a
page fault occurs. The access to that location is temporarily suspended while the
necessary data is fetched from secondary storage and placed in physical memory. The
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CPU32 uses instruction restart, which requires that only a small portion of the internal
machine state be saved. After correcting the page fault, the machine state is restored, and
the instruction is refetched and restarted. This process is completely transparent to the
application program.
SEQUENCER
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CONTROL
UNIT
DATA BUS
ADDRESS
BUS
INSTRUCTION
PREFETCH
AND
DECODE
16
BUS
CONTROL
EXECUTION
UNIT
BUS CONTROL
32
Figure 5-1. CPU32 Block Diagram
5.1.3 Loop Mode Instruction Execution
The CPU32 has several features that provide efficient execution of program loops. One of
these features is the DBcc looping primitive instruction. To increase the performance of
the CPU32, a loop mode has been added to the processor. The loop mode is used by any
single-word instruction that does not change the program flow. Loop mode is implemented
in conjunction with the DBcc instruction. Figure 5-2 shows the required form of an
instruction loop for the processor to enter loop mode.
ONE-WORD INSTRUCTION
DBcc
DBcc DISPLACEMENT
$FFFC = 4
Figure 5-2. Loop Mode Instruction Sequence
The loop mode is entered when the DBcc instruction is executed and the loop
displacement is –4. Once in loop mode, the processor performs only the data cycles
associated with the instruction and suppresses all instruction fetches. The termination
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condition and count are checked after each execution of the data operations of the looped
instruction. The CPU32 automatically exits the loop mode on interrupts or other
exceptions.
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5.1.4 Vector Base Register
The vector base register (VBR) contains the base address of the 1024-byte exception
vector table, which consists of 256 exception vectors. Exception vectors contain the
memory addresses of routines that begin execution at the completion of exception
processing. These routines perform a series of operations appropriate for the
corresponding exceptions. Because the exception vectors contain memory addresses,
each consists of one long word, except for the reset vector. The reset vector consists of
two long words: the address used to initialize the supervisor stack pointer (SSP) and the
address used to initialize the PC.
The address of an interrupt exception vector is derived from an 8-bit vector number and
the VBR. The vector numbers for some exceptions are obtained from an external device;
other numbers are supplied automatically by the processor. The processor multiplies the
vector number by 4 to calculate the vector offset, which is added to the VBR. The sum is
the memory address of the vector. All exception vectors are located in supervisor data
space, except the reset vector, which is located in supervisor program space. Only the
initial reset vector is fixed in the processor's memory map; once initialization is complete,
there are no fixed assignments. Since the VBR provides the base address of the vector
table, the vector table can be located anywhere in memory; it can even be dynamically
relocated for each task that is executed by an operating system. Refer to 5.5 Exception
Processing for additional details.
31
0
VECTOR BASE REGISTER (VBR)
5.1.5 Exception Handling
The processing of an exception occurs in four steps, with variations for different exception
causes. During the first step, a temporary internal copy of the status register (SR) is made,
and the SR is set for exception processing. During the second step, the exception vector
is determined. During the third step, the current processor context is saved. During the
fourth step, a new context is obtained, and the processor then proceeds with instruction
processing.
Exception processing saves the most volatile portion of the current context by pushing it
on the supervisor stack. This context is organized in a format called the exception stack
frame. This information always includes the SR and PC context of the processor when the
exception occurred. To support generic handlers, the processor places the vector offset in
the exception stack frame. The processor also marks the frame with a frame format. The
format field allows the return-from-exception (RTE) instruction to identify what information
is on the stack so that it may be properly restored.
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5.1.6 Addressing Modes
Addressing in the CPU32 is register oriented. Most instructions allow the results of the
specified operation to be placed either in a register or directly in memory; this flexibility
eliminates the need for extra instructions to store register contents in memory.
The seven basic addressing modes are as follows:
• Register Direct
• Register Indirect
• Register Indirect with Index
• Program Counter Indirect with Displacement
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• Program Counter Indirect with Index
• Absolute
• Immediate
Included in the register indirect addressing modes are the capabilities to postincrement,
predecrement, and offset. The PC relative mode also has index and offset capabilities. In
addition to these addressing modes, many instructions implicitly specify the use of the SR,
SP and/or PC. Addressing is explained fully in the M68000PM/AD, M68000 Family
Programmer’s Reference Manual .
5.1.7 Instruction Set
The instruction set of the CPU32 is very similar to that of the MC68020 (see Table 5-1).
Two new instructions have been added to facilitate embedded control applications:
LPSTOP and table lookup and interpolate (TBL). The following M68020 instructions are
not implemented on the CPU32:
BFxxx
— Bit Field Instructions (BFCHG, BFCLR, BFEXTS, BFEXTU,
BFFFO, BFINS, BFSET, BFTST)
CALLM, RTM — Call Module, Return Module
CAS, CAS2
— Compare and Set (Read-Modify-Write Instructions)
cpxxx
— Coprocessor Instructions (cpBcc, cpDBcc, cpGEN, cpRESTORE,
cpSAVE, cpScc, cpTRAPcc)
PACK, UNPK — Pack, Unpack BCD Instructions
The CPU32 traps on unimplemented instructions or illegal effective addressing modes,
allowing user-supplied code to emulate unimplemented capabilities or to define specialpurpose functions. However, Motorola reserves the right to use all currently
unimplemented instruction operation codes for future M68000 core enhancements.
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Table 5-1. Instruction Set
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Mnemonic
ABCD
ADD
ADDA
ADDI
ADDQ
AND
ANDI
ASL
ASR
Bcc
BCHG
BCLR
BGND
BKPT
BRA
BSET
BSR
BTST
CHK
CHK2
CLR
CMP
CMPA
CMPI
CMPM
CMP2
DBcc
DIVS, DIVSL
DIVU, DIVUL
EOR
EORI
EXG
EXT, EXTB
ILLEGAL
JMP
JSR
LEA
LINK
LPSTOP
LSL, LSR
MOVE
5-6
Description
Mnemonic
Add Decimal with Extend
Add
Add Address
Add Immediate
Add Quick
Logical AND
Logical AND Immediate
Arithmetic Shift Left
Arithmetic Shift Right
Branch Conditionally (16 Tests)
Bit Test and Change
Bit Test and Clear
Enter Background Mode
Breakpoint
Branch Always
Bit Test and Set
Branch to Subroutine
Bit Test
Check Register against Bounds
Check Register against Upper and
Lower Bounds
Clear Operand
Compare
Compare Address
Compare Immediate
Compare Memory
Compare Register against Upper
and Lower Bounds
Test Condition, Decrement and
Branch (16 Tests)
Signed Divide
Unsigned Divide
Logical Exclusive OR
Logical Exclusive OR Immediate
Exchange Registers
Sign Extend
Take Illegal Instruction Trap
Jump
Jump to Subroutine
Load Effective Address
Link and Allocate
Low-Power Stop
Logical Shift Left and Right
Move
MOVEA
MOVE CCR
MOVE SR
MOVE USP
MOVEC
MOVEM
MOVEP
MOVEQ
MOVES
MULS
MULU
NBCD
NEG
NEGX
NOP
NOT
OR
ORI
PEA
RESET
ROL, ROR
ROXL, ROXR
RTD
RTE
RTR
RTS
SBCD
Scc
STOP
SUB
SUBA
SUBI
SUBQ
SUBX
SWAP
TAS
TBLS, TBLSN
Description
Move Address
Move Condition Code Register
Move to/from Status Register
Move User Stack Pointer
Move Control Register
Move Multiple Registers
Move Peripheral Data
Move Quick
Move Alternate Address Space
Signed Multiply
Unsigned Multiply
Negate Decimal with Extend
Negate
Negate with Extend
No Operation
Ones Complement
Logical Inclusive OR
Logical Inclusive OR Immediate
Push Effective Address
Reset External Devices
Rotate Left and Right
Rotate with Extend Left and Right
Return and Deallocate
Return from Exception
Return and Restore
Return from Subroutine
Subtract Decimal with Extend
Set Conditionally
Stop
Subtract
Subtract Address
Subtract Immediate
Subtract Quick
Subtract with Extend
Swap Data Register Halves
Test and Set Operand
Table Lookup and Interpolate,
Signed
TBLU, TBLUN Table Lookup and Interpolate,
Unsigned
TRAPcc
Trap Conditionally (16 Tests)
TRAPV
Trap on Overflow
TST
Test
UNLK
Unlink
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5.1.7.1 TABLE LOOKUP AND INTERPOLATE INSTRUCTIONS. To maximize
throughput for real-time applications, reference data is often “particulated” and stored in
memory for quick access. The storage of each data point would require an inordinate
amount of memory. The table instruction requires only a sample of data points stored in
the array, thus reducing memory requirements. Intermediate values are recovered with
this instruction via linear interpolation. The results may be rounded by a round-to-nearest
algorithm.
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5.1.7.2 LOW-POWER STOP INSTRUCTION. In applications where power consumption is
a consideration, the CPU32 forces the device into a low-power standby mode when
immediate processing is not required. The low-power stop mode is entered by executing
the LPSTOP instruction. The processor will remain in this mode until a user-specified (or
higher) interrupt level or reset occurs.
5.1.8 Processing States
The processor is always in one of four processing states: normal, exception, halted, or
background. The normal processing state is that associated with instruction execution; the
bus is used to fetch instructions and operands and to store results. The exception
processing state is associated with interrupts, trap instructions, tracing, and other
exception conditions. The exception may be internally generated explicitly by an
instruction or by an unusual condition arising during the execution of an instruction.
Externally, exception processing can be forced by an interrupt, a bus error, or a reset. The
halted processing state is an indication of catastrophic hardware failure. For example, if
during the exception processing of a bus error another bus error occurs, the processor
assumes that the system is unusable and halts. The background processing state is
initiated by breakpoints, execution of special instructions, or a double bus fault.
Background processing allows interactive debugging of the system via a simple serial
interface. Refer to 5.4 Processing States for details.
5.1.9 Privilege States
The processor operates at one of two levels of privilege—supervisor or user. The
supervisor level has higher privileges than the user level. Not all instructions are permitted
to execute in the lower privileged user level, but all instructions are available at the
supervisor level. This scheme allows the supervisor to protect system resources from
uncontrolled access. The processor uses the privilege level indicated by the S-bit in the
SR to select either the user or supervisor privilege level and either the user stack pointer
(USP) or SSP for stack operations.
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5.2 ARCHITECTURE SUMMARY
The CPU32 is upward source- and object-code compatible with the MC68000 and
MC68010. It is downward source- and object-code compatible with the MC68020. Within
the M68000 family, architectural differences are limited to the supervisory operating state.
User state programs can be executed unchanged on upward-compatible devices.
The major CPU32 features are as follows:
• 32-Bit Internal Data Path and Arithmetic Hardware
• 32-Bit Address Bus Supported by 32-Bit Calculations
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• Rich Instruction Set
• Eight 32-Bit General-Purpose Data Registers
• Seven 32-Bit General-Purpose Address Registers
• Separate User and Supervisor Stack Pointers
• Separate User and Supervisor State Address Spaces
• Separate Program and Data Address Spaces
• Many Data Types
• Flexible Addressing Modes
• Full Interrupt Processing
• Expansion Capability
5.2.1 Programming Model
The CPU32 programming model consists of two groups of registers that correspond to the
user and supervisor privilege levels. User programs can only use the registers of the user
model. The supervisor programming model, which supplements the user programming
model, is used by CPU32 system programmers who wish to protect sensitive operating
system functions. The supervisor model is identical to that of MC68010 and later
processors.
The CPU32 has eight 32-bit data registers, seven 32-bit address registers, a 32-bit PC,
separate 32-bit SSP and USP, a 16-bit SR, two alternate function code registers, and a
32-bit VBR (see Figures 5-3 and 5-4).
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31
16
15
8
7
0
D0
D1
D2
D3
DATA REGISTERS
D4
D5
D6
D7
31
16
15
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A0
A1
A2
A3
ADDRESS REGISTERS
A4
A5
A6
31
16
15
0
A7
(USP)
31
USER STACK POINTER
0
15
8
7
PC
PROGRAM COUNTER
CCR
CONDITION CODE
REGISTER
0
0
Figure 5-3. User Programming Model
31
16
15
15
0
8
7
SUPERVISOR STACK
POINTER
SR
STATUS REGISTER
PC
PROGRAM COUNTER
SFC
ALTERNATE FUNCTION
CODE REGISTERS
0
(CCR)
31
31
A7' (SSP)
0
3
2
0
DFC
Figure 5-4. Supervisor Programming Model Supplement
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5.2.2 Registers
Registers D7–D0 are used as data registers for bit, byte (8-bit), word (16-bit), long-word
(32-bit), and quad-word (64-bit) operations. Registers A6 to A0 and the USP and SSP are
address registers that may be used as software SPs or base address registers. Register
A7 (shown as A7 and A7' in Figures 5-3 and 5-4) is a register designation that applies to
the USP in the user privilege level and to the SSP in the supervisor privilege level. In
addition, address registers may be used for word and long-word operations. All of the 16
general-purpose registers (D7–D0, A7–A0) may be used as index registers.
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The PC contains the address of the next instruction to be executed by the CPU32. During
instruction execution and exception processing, the processor automatically increments
the contents of the PC or places a new value in the PC, as appropriate.
The SR (see Figure 5-5) contains condition codes, an interrupt priority mask (three bits),
and three control bits. Condition codes reflect the results of a previous operation. The
codes are contained in the low byte (CCR) of the SR. The interrupt priority mask
determines the level of priority an interrupt must have to be acknowledged. The control
bits determine trace mode and privilege level. At user privilege level, only the CCR is
available. At supervisor privilege level, software can access the full SR.
The VBR contains the base address of the exception vector table in memory. The
displacement of an exception vector is added to the value in this register to access the
vector table.
Alternate source and destination function code registers (SFC and DFC) contain 3-bit
function codes. The CPU32 generates a function code each time it accesses an address.
Specific codes are assigned to each type of access. The codes can be used to select
eight dedicated 4-Gbyte address spaces. The MOVEC instruction can use registers SFC
and DFC to specify the function code of a memory address.
USER BYTE
(CONDITION CODE REGISTER)
SYSTEM BYTE
15
T1
14
T0
13
S
12
0
TRACE
ENABLE
11
0
10
I2
9
I1
8
I0
7
0
6
0
5
0
INTERRUPT
PRIORITY MASK
4
X
3
N
2
Z
1
V
0
C
EXTEND
NEGATIVE
ZERO
SUPERVISOR/USER
STATE
OVERFLOW
CARRY
Figure 5-5. Status Register
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5.3 INSTRUCTION SET
The following paragaphs describe the set of instructions provided in the CPU32 and
demonstrate their use. Descriptions of the instruction format and the operands used by
instructions are included. After a summary of the instructions by category, a detailed
description of each instruction is listed in alphabetical order. Complete programming
information is provided, as well as a description of condition code computation and an
instruction format summary.
The CPU32 instructions include machine functions for all the following operations:
• Data Movement
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• Arithmetic Operations
• Logical Operations
• Shifts and Rotates
• Bit Manipulation
• Conditionals and Branches
• System Control
The large instruction set encompasses a complete range of capabilities and, combined
with the enhanced addressing modes, provides a flexible base for program development.
5.3.1 M68000 Family Compatibility
It is the philosophy of the M68000 Family that all user-mode programs can execute
unchanged on a more advanced processor and that supervisor-mode programs and
exception handlers should require only minimal alteration.
The CPU32 can be thought of as an intermediate member of the M68000 family. Object
code from an MC68000 or MC68010 may be executed on the CPU32, and many of the
instruction and addressing mode extensions of the MC68020 are also supported.
5.3.1.1 NEW INSTRUCTIONS. Two instructions have been added to the M68000
instruction set for use in embedded control applications: LPSTOP and table lookup and
interpolation (TBL).
5.3.1.1.1 Low-Power Stop (LPSTOP). In applications where power consumption is a
consideration, the CPU32 can force the device into a low-power standby mode when
immediate processing is not required. The low-power mode is entered by executing the
LPSTOP instruction. The processor remains in this mode until a user-specified or higher
level interrupt or a reset occurs.
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5.3.1.1.2 Table Lookup and Interpolation (TBL). To maximize throughput for real-time
applications, reference data is often precalculated and stored in memory for quick access.
The storage of sufficient data points can require an inordinate amount of memory. The
TBL instruction uses linear interpolation to recover intermediate values from a sample of
data points, and thus conserves memory.
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When the TBL instruction is executed, the CPU32 looks up two table entries bounding the
desired result and performs a linear interpolation between them. Byte, word, and longword operand sizes are supported. The result can be rounded according to a round-tonearest algorithm or returned unrounded along with the fractional portion of the calculated
result (byte and word results only). This extra precision can be used to reduce cumulative
error in complex calculations. See 5.3.4 Using the TBL Instructions for examples.
5.3.1.2 UNIMPLEMENTED INSTRUCTIONS. The ability to trap on unimplemented
instructions allows user-supplied code to emulate unimplemented capabilities or to define
special-purpose functions. However, Motorola reserves the right to use all currently
unimplemented instruction operation codes for future M68000 enhancements. See 5.5.2.8
Illegal or Unimplemented Instructions for more details.
5.3.2 Instruction Format and Notation
All instructions consist of at least one word. Some instructions can have as many as
seven words, as shown in Figure 5-6. The first word of the instruction, called the operation
word, specifies instruction length and the operation to be performed. The remaining
words, called extension words, further specify the instruction and operands. These words
may be immediate operands, extensions to the effective address mode specified in the
operation word, branch displacements, bit number, special register specifications, trap
operands, or argument counts.
15
0
OPERATION WORD
(ONE WORD, SPECIFIES OPERATION AND MODES)
SPECIAL OPERAND SPECIFIERS
(IF ANY, ONE OR TWO WORDS)
IMMEDIATE OPERAND OR SOURCE ADDRESS
EXTENSION
(IF ANY, ONE TO THREE WORDS)
DESTINATION EFFECTIVE ADDRESS EXTENSION
(IF ANY, ONE TO THREE WORDS)
Figure 5-6. Instruction Word General Format
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Besides the operation code, which specifies the function to be performed, an instruction
defines the location of every operand for the function. Instructions specify an operand
location in one of three ways:
• Register Specification
A register field of the instruction contains the number of
the register.
• Effective Address
An effective address field of the instruction contains
address mode information.
• Implicit Reference
The definition of an instruction implies the use of
specific registers.
The register field within an instruction specifies the register to be used. Other fields within
the instruction specify whether the register is an address or data register and how it is to
be used. The M68000PM/AD, M68000 Family Programmer’s Reference Manual , contains
detailed register information.
Except where noted, the following notation is used in this section:
Data
Immediate data from an instruction
Destination Destination contents
Source
Source contents
Vector
Location of exception vector
An
Any address register (A7–A0)
Ax, Ay
Address registers used in computation
Dn
Any data register (D7–D0)
Rc
Control register (VBR, SFC, DFC)
Rn
Any address or data register
Dh, Dl
Data registers, high- and low-order 32 bits of product
Dr, Dq
Data registers, division remainder, division quotient
Dx, Dy
Data registers, used in computation
Dym, Dyn
Data registers, table interpolation values
Xn
Index register
[An]
Address extension
cc
Condition code
d#
Displacement
Example: d16 is a 16-bit displacement
〈ea〉
Effective address
#〈data〉
Immediate data; a literal integer
label
Assembly program label
list
List of registers
Example: D3–D0
[...]
Bits of an operand
Examples: [7] is bit 7; [31:24] are bits 31–24
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(...)
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CCR
PC
SP
SR
SSP
USP
FC
DFC
SFC
+
–
/
×
=
≠
>
≥
<
≤
Λ
V
⊕
~
BCD
LSW
MSW
{R/W}
Contents of a referenced location
Example: (Rn) refers to the contents of Rn
Condition code register (lower byte of SR)
X—extend bit
N—negative bit
Z—zero bit
V—overflow bit
C—carry bit
Program counter
Active stack pointer
Status register
Supervisor stack pointer
User stack pointer
Function code
Destination function code register
Source function code register
Arithmetic addition or postincrement
Arithmetic subtraction or predecrement
Arithmetic division or conjunction symbol
Arithmetic multiplication
Equal to
Not equal to
Greater than
Greater than or equal to
Less than
Less than or equal to
Logical AND
Logical OR
Logical exclusive OR
Invert; operand is logically complemented
Binary-coded decimal, indicated by subscript
Example: Source10 is a BCD source operand.
Least significant word
Most significant word
Read/write indicator
In a description of an operation, a destination operand is placed to the right of source
operands and is indicated by an arrow (⇒).
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5.3.3 Instruction Summary
The instructions form a set of tools to perform the following operations:
Data movement
Bit manipulation
Integer arithmetic
Binary-coded decimal arithmetic
Logic
Program control
Shift and rotate
System control
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The complete range of instruction capabilities combined with the addressing modes
described previously provide flexibility for program development. All CPU32 instructions
are summarized in Table 5-2.
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Table 5-2. Instruction Set Summary
Opcode
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Syntax
Source 10 + Destination10 + X ⇒ Destination
ABCD Dy,Dx
ABCD –(Ay),–(Ax)
ADD
Source + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADD 〈ea〉,Dn
ADD Dn,〈ea〉
ADDA
Source + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDA 〈ea〉,An
ADDI
Immediate Data + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDI #〈data〉,〈 ea〉
ADDQ
Immediate Data + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDQ # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
ADDX
Source + Destination + X ⇒ Destination
ADDX Dy,Dx
ADDX –(Ay),–(Ax)
AND
Source Λ Destination ⇒ Destination
AND 〈ea〉, Dn
AND Dn,〈ea〉
ANDI
Immediate Data Λ Destination ⇒ Destination
ANDI #〈data〉,〈 ea〉
Source Λ CCR ⇒ CCR
ANDI #〈data〉,CCR
If supervisor state
the Source Λ SR ⇒ SR
else TRAP
ANDI #〈data〉,SR
Destination Shifted by 〈 count〉 ⇒ Destination
ASd Dx,Dy
ASd # 〈data 〉,Dy
ASd 〈ea〉
If (condition true) then PC + d ⇒ PC
Bcc 〈label〉
BCHG
~(〈number 〉 of Destination) ⇒ Z;
~(〈number 〉 of Destination) ⇒ 〈bit number〉 of
Destination
BCHG Dn,〈ea〉
BCHG # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
BCLR
~(〈number 〉 of Destination) ⇒ Z;
0 ⇒ 〈bit number〉 of Destination
BCLR Dn, 〈ea〉
BCLR # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
BGND
If (background mode enabled) then
enter background mode
else Format/Vector offset ⇒ –(SSP)
PC ⇒ –(SSP)
SR ⇒ –(SSP)
(Vector) ⇒ PC
BGND
BKPT
Run breakpoint acknowledge cycle;
TRAP as illegal instruction
BKPT #〈 data〉
BRA
PC + d ⇒ PC
BRA 〈label〉
BSET
~(〈number 〉 of Destination) ⇒ Z;
1 ⇒ 〈bit number〉 of Destination
BSET Dn,〈 ea〉
BSET #〈 data〉,〈 ea〉
BSR
SP – 4 ⇒ SP; PC ⇒ (SP); PC + d ⇒ PC
BSR 〈label〉
BTST
– (〈number 〉 of Destination) ⇒ Z;
BTST Dn, 〈ea〉
BTST # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
CHK
If Dn < 0 or Dn > Source then TRAP
CHK 〈ea〉,Dn
CHK2
If Rn < lower bound or
If Rn > upper bound
then TRAP
CHK2 〈ea〉,Rn
0 ⇒ Destination
CLR 〈ea〉
ABCD
ANDI to CCR
ANDI to SR
ASL,ASR
Bcc
CLR
Destination — Source ⇒ cc
CMP 〈ea〉,Dn
CMPA
Destination — Source
CMPA 〈ea〉,An
CMPI
Destination — Immediate Data
CMPI # 〈data〉,〈 ea〉
Destination — Source ⇒ cc
CMPM (Ay)+,(Ax)+
CMP
CMPM
5-16
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Table 5-2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
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Opcode
Operation
Syntax
CMP2
Compare Rn < lower-bound or
Rn > upper-bound
and Set Condition Codes
CMP2 〈ea〉,Rn
DBcc
If condition false then (Dn – 1 ⇒ Dn;
If Dn ≠ –1 then PC + d ⇒ PC)
DBcc Dn,〈 label〉
DIVS
DIVSL
Destination/Source ⇒ Destination
DIVS.W 〈ea〉,Dn
DIVS.L 〈 ea〉,Dq
DIVS.L 〈 ea〉,Dr:Dq
DIVSL.L 〈 ea〉,Dr:Dq
32/16 ⇒ 16r:16q
32/32 ⇒ 32q
64/32 ⇒ 32r:32q
32/32 ⇒ 32r:32q
DIVU
DIVUL
Destination/Source ⇒ Destination
DIVU.W 〈ea〉,Dn
DIVU.L 〈ea〉,Dq
DIVU.L 〈ea〉,Dr:Dq
DIVUL.L 〈ea〉,Dr:Dq
32/16 ⇒ 16r:16q
32/32 ⇒ 32q
64/32 ⇒ 32r:32q
32/32 ⇒ 32r:32q
EOR
Source ⊕ Destination ⇒ Destination
EOR Dn,〈 ea〉
EORI
Immediate Data ⊕ Destination ⇒ Destination
EORI # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
Source ⊕ CCR ⇒ CCR
EORI # 〈data 〉,CCR
EORI
to SR
If supervisor state
the Source ⊕ SR ⇒ SR
else TRAP
EORI # 〈data 〉,SR
EXG
Rx ⇔ Ry
EXG Dx,Dy
EXG Ax,Ay
EXG Dx,Ay
EXG Ay,Dx
EXT
EXTB
Destination Sign-Extended ⇒ Destination
EXT.W Dn
EXT.L Dn
EXTB.L Dn
LLEGAL
SSP – 2 ⇒ SSP; Vector Offset ⇒ (SSP);
SSP – 4 ⇒ SSP; PC ⇒ (SSP);
SSp – 2 ⇒ SSP; SR ⇒ (SSP);
Illegal Instruction Vector Address ⇒ PC
ILLEGAL
EORI
to CCR
JMP
Destination Address ⇒ PC
JMP 〈ea〉
JSR
SP–4 ⇒ SP; PC ⇒ (SP)
Destination Address ⇒ PC
JSR 〈ea〉
extend byte to word
extend word to long word
extend byte to long word
LEA
〈ea〉 ⇒ An
LEA 〈ea〉,An
LINK
SP – 4 ⇒ SP; An ⇒ (SP)
SP ⇒ An, SP + d ⇒ SP
LINK An,#〈 displacement〉
LPSTOP
If supervisor state
Immediate Data ⇒ SR
Interrupt Mask ⇒ External Bus Interface (EBI)
STOP
else TRAP
LPSTOP #〈 data〉
LSL,LSR
Destination Shifted by 〈 count〉 ⇒ Destination
LSd1 Dx,Dy
LSd1 # 〈data 〉,Dy
LSd1 〈ea〉
MOVE
Source ⇒ Destination
MOVE 〈ea〉,〈ea〉
MOVEA
Source ⇒ Destination
MOVEA 〈 ea〉,An
CCR ⇒ Destination
MOVE CCR, 〈ea〉
MOVE from
CCR
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Table 5-2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
Opcode
Operation
Syntax
Source ⇒ CCR
MOVE 〈ea〉,CCR
MOVE from SR
If supervisor state
then SR ⇒ Destination
else TRAP
MOVE SR,〈 ea〉
MOVE to SR
If supervisor state
then Source ⇒ SR
else TRAP
MOVE 〈ea〉,SR
MOVE USP
If supervisor state
then USP ⇒ An or An ⇒ USP
else TRAP
MOVE USP,An
MOVE An,USP
MOVEC
If supervisor state
then Rc ⇒ Rn or Rn ⇒ Rc
else TRAP
MOVEC Rc,Rn
MOVEC Rn,Rc
MOVEM
Registers ⇒ Destination
Source ⇒ Registers
MOVEM register list,〈 ea〉
MOVEM 〈ea〉,register list
MOVEP
Source ⇒ Destination
MOVEP Dx,(d,Ay)
MOVEP (d,Ay),Dx
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MOVE to CCR
MOVEQ
Immediate Data ⇒ Destination
MOVEQ #〈 data〉,Dn
MOVES
If supervisor state
then Rn ⇒ Destination [DFC] or Source
[SFC] ⇒Rn
else TRAP
MOVES Rn,〈 ea〉
MOVES 〈 ea〉,Rn
MULS
Source × Destination ⇒ Destination
MULS.W 〈ea〉,Dn
MULS.L 〈 ea〉,Dl
MULS.L 〈 ea〉,Dh:Dl
16 × 16 ⇒ 32
32 × 32 ⇒ 32
32 × 32 ⇒ 64
MULU
Source × Destination ⇒ Destination
MULU.W 〈ea〉,Dn
MULU.L 〈ea〉,Dl
MULU.L 〈ea〉,Dh:Dl
16 × 16 ⇒ 32
32 × 32 ⇒ 32
32 × 32 ⇒ 64
NBCD
0 – (Destination10) – X ⇒ Destination
NBCD 〈ea〉
0 – (Destination) ⇒ Destination
NEG 〈ea〉
NEG
0 – (Destination) – X ⇒ Destination
NEGX 〈ea〉
NOP
None
NOP
NOT
~Destination ⇒ Destination
NOT 〈ea〉
OR
Source V Destination ⇒ Destination
OR 〈ea〉,Dn
OR Dn, 〈ea〉
ORI
Immediate Data V Destination ⇒ Destination
ORI # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
Source V CCR ⇒ CCR
ORI # 〈data 〉,CCR
ORI to SR
If supervisor state
then Source V SR ⇒ SR
else TRAP
ORI # 〈data 〉,SR
PEA
Sp – 4 ⇒ SP; 〈ea〉 ⇒ (SP)
PEA 〈ea〉
If supervisor state
then Assert RESET
else TRAP
RESET
Destination Rotated by 〈count 〉⇒ Destination
ROd 1 Rx,Dy
ROd 1 # 〈data 〉,Dy
ROd 1 〈ea〉
NEGX
ORI to CCR
RESET
ROL,ROR
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Table 5-2. Instruction Set Summary (Concluded)
Opcode
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ROXL,ROXR
Operation
Syntax
Destination Rotated with X by 〈count〉 ⇒ Destination ROXd 1 Rx,Dy
ROXd 1 # 〈data 〉,Dy
ROXd 1 〈ea〉
RTD
(SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 + d ⇒ SP
RTD # 〈displacement〉
RTE
If supervisor state
the (SP) ⇒ SR; SP + 2 ⇒ SP; (SP) ⇒ PC;
SP + 4 ⇒ SP;
restore state and deallocate stack according to (SP)
else TRAP
RTE
RTR
(SP) ⇒ CCR; SP + 2 ⇒ SP;
(SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 ⇒ SP
RTR
RTS
(SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 ⇒ SP
RTS
Destination10 – Source 10 – X ⇒ Destination
SBCD Dx,Dy
SBCD –(Ax),–(Ay)
If Condition True
then 1s ⇒ Destination
else 0s ⇒ Destination
Scc 〈ea〉
STOP
If supervisor state
then Immediate Data ⇒ SR; STOP
else TRAP
STOP #〈 data〉
SUB
Destination – Source ⇒ Destination
SUB 〈ea〉,Dn
SUB Dn,〈 ea〉
SBCD
Scc
SUBA
Destination – Source ⇒ Destination
SUBA 〈ea〉,An
SUBI
Destination – Immediate Data ⇒ Destination
SUBI # 〈data 〉,〈ea〉
SUBQ
Destination – Immediate Data ⇒ Destination
SUBQ #〈 data〉,〈ea〉
SUBX
Destination – Source – X ⇒ Destination
SUBX Dx,Dy
SUBX –(Ax),–(Ay)
SWAP
Register [31:16] ⇔ Register [15:0]
SWAP Dn
Destination Tested ⇒ Condition Codes;
1 ⇒ bit 7 of Destination
TAS 〈ea〉
ENTRY(n) + {(ENTRY(n + 1) – ENTRY(n)) *
Dx[7:0]} / 256 ⇒ Dx
TBLS.〈size〉 〈ea〉, Dx
TBLS.〈size〉 Dym:Dyn, Dx
ENTRY(n) × 256 + {(ENTRY(n + 1) – ENTRY(n)) *
Dx [7:0]} ⇒ Dx
TBLSN. 〈size〉 〈ea〉,Dx
TBLSN. 〈size〉 Dym:Dyn, Dx
ENTRY(n) + {(ENTRY(n + 1) – ENTRY(n)) *
Dx[7:0]} / 256 ⇒ Dx
TBLU. 〈size〉 〈ea〉,Dx
TBLU. 〈size〉 Dym:Dyn, Dx
TBLUN
ENTRY(n) • 256 + {(ENTRY(n + 1) – ENTRY(n)) •
Dx[7:0]} ⇒ Dx
TBLUN. 〈size〉 〈ea〉,Dx
TBLUN. 〈size〉 Dym:Dyn,Dx
TRAP
SSP – 2 ⇒ SSP; Format/Offset ⇒ (SSP);
SSP – 4 ⇒ SSP; PC ⇒ (SSP); SSP – 2 ⇒ SSP;
SR ⇒ (SSP); Vector Address ⇒ PC
TRAP # 〈vector 〉
TRAPcc
If cc then TRAP
TRAPcc
TRAPcc.W #〈 data 〉
TRAPcc.L #〈 data〉
TRAPV
If V then TRAP
TRAPV
Destination Tested ⇒ Condition Codes
TST 〈ea〉
TAS
TBLS
TBLSN
TBLU
TST
UNLK
An ⇒ SP; (SP) ⇒ An; SP + 4 ⇒ SP
NOTE 1: d is direction, L or R.
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5.3.3.1 CONDITION CODE REGISTER. The CCR portion of the SR contains five bits that
indicate the result of a processor operation. Table 5-3 lists the effect of each instruction on
these bits. The carry bit and the multiprecision extend bit are separate in the M68000
Family to simplify programming techniques that use them. Refer to Table 5-7 as an
example.
Table 5-3. Condition Code Computations
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Operations
5-20
X
N
Z
V
C
ABCD
*
U
?
U
?
C = Decimal Carry
Z = Z Λ R∂Λ ... Λ R0
ADD, ADDI, ADDQ
*
*
*
?
?
V = Sm Λ Dm Λ R∂ V S∂ Λ D∂ Λ Rm
C = Sm Λ Dm V R∂ Λ Dm V Sm Λ R∂
ADDX
*
*
?
?
?
V = Sm Λ Dm Λ R∂ V S∂ Λ D∂ Λ Rm
C = Sm Λ Dm V R∂ Λ Dm V Sm Λ R∂
Z = Z Λ R∂ Λ ... Λ R0
AND, ANDI, EOR, EORI,
MOVEQ, MOVE, OR,
ORI, CLR, EXT, NOT,
TAS, TST
—
*
*
0
0
CHK
—
*
U
U
U
CHK2, CMP2
—
U
?
U
?
Z = (R = LB) V (R = UB)
C = (LB < UB) Λ (IR < LB) V (R > UB) V
(UB < LB) Λ (R > UB) Λ (R < LB)
SUB, SUBI, SUBQ
*
*
*
?
?
V = S∂ Λ Dm Λ R∂ V Sm Λ D∂ Λ Rm
C = Sm Λ D∂ V Rm Λ D∂ V Sm Λ Rm
SUBX
*
*
?
?
?
V = S∂ Λ Dm Λ R∂ V Sm Λ D∂ Λ Rm
C = Sm Λ D∂ V Rm Λ D∂ V Sm Λ Rm
Z = Z Λ R∂ Λ ... Λ R0
CMP, CMPI, CMPM
—
*
*
?
?
V = S∂ Λ Dm Λ R∂ V Sm Λ D∂ Λ Rm
C = Sm Λ D∂ V Rm Λ D∂ V Sm Λ Rm
DIVS, DIVU
—
*
*
?
0
V = Division Overflow
MULS, MULU
—
*
*
?
0
V = Multiplication Overflow
SBCD, NBCD
*
U
?
U
?
C = Decimal Borrow
Z = Z Λ R∂ Λ ... Λ R0
NEG
*
*
*
?
?
V = Dm Λ Rm
C = Dm V Rm
NEGX
*
*
?
?
?
V = Dm Λ Rm
C = Dm V Rm
Z = Z Λ R∂ Λ ... Λ R0
ASL
*
*
*
?
?
V = Dm Λ (D∂ – 1 V ... V D∂ – r ) V D∂ Λ
(Dm–1 V ... + Dm – r)
C = D∂ – r + 1
ASL (r = 0)
—
*
*
0
0
LSL, ROXL
*
*
*
0
?
LSR (r = 0)
—
*
*
0
0
ROXL (r = 0)
—
*
*
0
?
C=X
C = Dm – r + 1
ROL
—
*
*
0
?
ROL (r = 0)
—
*
*
0
0
ASR, LSR, ROXR
*
*
*
0
?
ASR, LSR (r = 0)
—
*
*
0
0
ROXR (r = 0)
—
*
*
0
?
Special Definition
C = Dm – r + 1
C = Dr – 1
C=X
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Table 5-3. Condition Code Computations (Continued)
X
N
Z
V
C
ROR
Operations
—
∗
∗
0
?
ROR (r = 0)
—
∗
∗
0
0
Special Definition
C = Dr – 1
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NOTE : The following notations apply to this table only.
—
=
Not affected
Sm
=
Source operand MSB
U
=
Undefined
Dm
=
Destination operand MSB
?
=
See special definition
Rm
=
Result operand MSB
∗
=
General case
R
=
Register tested
X
=
C
n
=
Bit Number
N
=
Rm
r
=
Shift count
Z
=
LB
=
Lower bound
Λ
=
Upper bound
=
UB
Rm
=
V
Rm Λ ... Λ R0
Boolean AND
Boolean OR
=
NOT Rm
5.3.3.2 DATA MOVEMENT INSTRUCTIONS. The MOVE instruction is the basic means of
transferring and storing address and data. MOVE instructions transfer byte, word, and
long-word operands from memory to memory, memory to register, register to memory,
and register to register. Address movement instructions (MOVE or MOVEA) transfer word
and long-word operands and ensure that only valid address manipulations are executed.
In addition to the general MOVE instructions, there are several special data movement
instructions—move multiple registers (MOVEM), move peripheral data (MOVEP), move
quick (MOVEQ), exchange registers (EXG), load effective address (LEA), push effective
address (PEA), link stack (LINK), and unlink stack (UNLK). Table 5-4 is a summary of the
data movement operations.
Table 5-4. Data Movement Operations
Instruction
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
EXG
Rn, Rn
32
Rn ⇒ Rn
LEA
〈ea〉, An
32
〈ea〉 ⇒ An
LINK
An, #〈d〉
16, 32
Operation
SP – 4 ⇒ SP, An ⇒ (SP); SP ⇒ An, SP + d ⇒ SP
MOVE
〈ea〉, 〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
Source ⇒ Destination
MOVEA
〈ea〉, An
16, 32 ⇒ 32
Source ⇒ Destination
MOVEM
list, 〈ea〉
〈ea〉, list
16, 32
16, 32 ⇒ 32
Listed registers ⇒ Destination
Source ⇒ Listed registers
MOVEP
Dn, (d16, An)
16, 32
Dn [31:24] ⇒ (An + d); Dn [23:16] ⇒ (An + d + 2);
Dn [15:8] ⇒ (An + d + 4); Dn [7:0] ⇒ (An + d + 6)
(An + d) ⇒ Dn [31:24]; (An + d + 2) ⇒ Dn [23:16];
(An + d + 4) ⇒ Dn [15:8]; (An + d + 6) ⇒ Dn [7:0]
Immediate Data ⇒ Destination
(d 16, An), Dn
MOVEQ
#〈data〉, Dn
8 ⇒ 32
PEA
〈ea〉
32
SP – 4 ⇒ SP; 〈ea〉 ⇒ SP
UNLK
An
32
An ⇒ SP; (SP) ⇒ An, SP + 4 ⇒ SP
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5.3.3.3 INTEGER ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS. The arithmetic operations include the
four basic operations of add (ADD), subtract (SUB), multiply (MUL), and divide (DIV) as
well as arithmetic compare (CMP, CMPM, CMP2), clear (CLR), and negate (NEG). The
instruction set includes ADD, CMP, and SUB instructions for both address and data
operations with all operand sizes valid for data operations. Address operands consist of
16 or 32 bits. The clear and negate instructions apply to all sizes of data operands.
Signed and unsigned MUL and DIV instructions include:
• Word multiply to produce a long-word product
• Long-word multiply to produce a long-word or quad-word product
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• Division of a long-word dividend by a word divisor (word quotient and word
remainder)
• Division of a long-word or quad-word dividend by a long-word divisor (long-word
quotient and long-word remainder)
A set of extended instructions provides multiprecision and mixed-size arithmetic. These
instructions are add extended (ADDX), subtract extended (SUBX), sign extend (EXT), and
negate binary with extend (NEGX). Refer to Table 5-5 for a summary of the integer
arithmetic operations.
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Table 5-5. Integer Arithmetic Operations
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
ADD
Dn, 〈ea〉
〈ea〉, Dn
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
Source + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDA
〈ea〉, An
16, 32
Source + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDI
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Immediate Data + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDQ
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Immediate Data + Destination ⇒ Destination
ADDX
Dn, Dn
– (An), – (An)
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
Source + Destination + X ⇒ Destination
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Instruction
Operation
CLR
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
0 ⇒ Destination
CMP
〈ea〉, Dn
8, 16, 32
(Destination – Source), CCR shows results
CMPA
〈ea〉, An
16, 32
(Destination – Source), CCR shows results
CMPI
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
CMPM
(An) +, (An) +
8, 16, 32
(Destination – Source), CCR shows results
CMP2
〈ea〉, Rn
8, 16, 32
Lower bound ≤ Rn ≤ Upper Bound, CCR shows
results
DIVS/DIVU
〈ea〉, Dn
〈ea〉, Dr:Dq
〈ea〉, Dq
〈ea〉, Dr:Dq
32/16 ⇒ 16:16
64/32 ⇒ 32:32
32/32 ⇒ 32
32/32 ⇒ 32:32
EXT
Dn
Dn
8 ⇒ 16
16 ⇒ 32
Sign Extended Destination ⇒ Destination
EXTB
Dn
8 ⇒ 32
Sign Extended Destination ⇒ Destination
MULS/MULU
〈ea〉, Dn
〈ea〉, Dl
〈ea〉, Dh:Dl
16 × 16 ⇒ 32
32 × 32 ⇒ 32
32 × 32 ⇒ 64
DIVSL/DIVUL
(Destination – Immediate Data), CCR shows results
Destination/Source ⇒ Destination (signed or
unsigned)
Source × Destination ⇒ Destination (signed or
unsigned)
NEG
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
0 – Destination ⇒ Destination
NEGX
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
0 – Destination – X ⇒ Destination
SUB
〈ea〉, Dn
Dn, 〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
Destination – Source ⇒ Destination
SUBA
〈ea〉, An
16, 32
Destination – Source ⇒ Destination
SUBI
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Destination – Immediate Data ⇒ Destination
SUBQ
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Destination – Immediate Data ⇒ Destination
SUBX
Dn, Dn
– (An), – (An)
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
Destination – Source – X ⇒ Destination
TBLS/TBLU
〈ea〉, Dn
Dym:Dyn, Dn
8, 16, 32
Dyn – Dym ⇒ Temp
(Temp × Dn [7:0]) ⇒ Temp
(Dym × 256) + Temp ⇒ Dn
TBLSN/TBLUN
〈ea〉, Dn
Dym:Dyn, Dn
8, 16, 32
Dyn – Dym ⇒ Temp
(Temp × Dn [7:0]) / 256 ⇒ Temp
Dym + Temp ⇒ Dn
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5.3.3.4 LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS. The logical operation instructions (AND, OR, EOR, and
NOT) perform logical operations with all sizes of integer data operands. A similar set of
immediate instructions (ANDI, ORI, and EORI) provide these logical operations with all
sizes of immediate data. The test (TST) instruction arithmetically compares the operand
with zero, placing the result in the CCR. Table 5-6 summarizes the logical operations.
Table 5-6. Logic Operations
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
AND
〈ea〉, Dn
Dn, 〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
Source Λ Destination ⇒ Destination
ANDI
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Immediate Data Λ Destination ⇒ Destination
EOR
Dn, 〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
Source ⊕ Destination ⇒ Destination
EORI
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Immediate Data ⊕ Destination ⇒ Destination
NOT
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
Destination ⇒ Destination
OR
〈ea〉, Dn
Dn, 〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
Source V Destination ⇒ Destination
ORI
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 16, 32
Immediate Data V Destination ⇒ Destination
TST
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
Source – 0, to set condition codes
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Instruction
Operation
5.3.3.5 SHIFT AND ROTATE INSTRUCTIONS. The arithmetic shift instructions, ASR and
ASL, and logical shift instructions, LSR and LSL, provide shift operations in both
directions. The ROR, ROL, ROXR, and ROXL instructions perform rotate (circular shift)
operations, with and without the extend bit. All shift and rotate operations can be
performed on either registers or memory.
Register shift and rotate operations shift all operand sizes. The shift count may be
specified in the instruction operation word (to shift from 1 to 8 places) or in a register
(modulo 64 shift count).
Memory shift and rotate operations shift word-length operands one bit position only. The
SWAP instruction exchanges the 16-bit halves of a register. Performance of shift/rotate
instructions is enhanced so that use of the ROR and ROL instructions with a shift count of
eight allows fast byte swapping. Table 5-7 is a summary of the shift and rotate operations.
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Table 5-7. Shift and Rotate Operations
Instruction
ASL
ASR
LSL
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LSR
ROL
ROR
ROXL
ROXR
SWAP
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn, Dn
#〈data〉, Dn
〈ea〉
8, 16, 32
8, 16, 32
16
Dn
16
Operation
X/C
0
X/C
0
X/C
0
X/C
C
C
C
X
X
C
MSW
LSW
5.3.3.6 BIT MANIPULATION INSTRUCTIONS. Bit manipulation operations are
accomplished using the following instructions: bit test (BTST), bit test and set (BSET), bit
test and clear (BCLR), and bit test and change (BCHG). All bit manipulation operations
can be performed on either registers or memory. The bit number is specified as immediate
data or in a data register. Register operands are 32 bits long, and memory operands are 8
bits long. Table 5-8 is a summary of bit manipulation instructions.
Table 5-8. Bit Manipulation Operations
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
BCHG
Dn, 〈ea〉
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 32
8, 32
~(〈bit number 〉 of destination) ⇒ Z ⇒ bit of
destination
BCLR
Dn, 〈ea〉
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 32
8, 32
~(〈bit number 〉 of destination) ⇒ Z; 0 ⇒ bit of
destination
BSET
Dn, 〈ea〉
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 32
8, 32
~(〈bit number 〉 of destination) ⇒ Z; 1 ⇒ bit of
destination
BTST
Dn, 〈ea〉
#〈data〉, 〈 ea〉
8, 32
8, 32
~(〈 bit number 〉 of destination) ⇒ Z
Instruction
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5.3.3.7 BINARY-CODED DECIMAL (BCD) INSTRUCTIONS. Five instructions support
operations on BCD numbers. The arithmetic operations on packed BCD numbers are add
decimal with extend (ABCD), subtract decimal with extend (SBCD), and negate decimal
with extend (NBCD). Table 5-9 is a summary of the BCD operations.
Table 5-9. Binary-Coded Decimal Operations
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
ABCD
Dn, Dn
– (An), – (An)
8
8
Source 10 + Destination10 + X ⇒ Destination
NBCD
〈ea〉
8
8
0 – Destination10 – X ⇒ Destination
SBCD
Dn, Dn
– (An), – (An)
8
8
Destination10 – Source10 – X ⇒ Destination
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Instruction
Operation
5.3.3.8 PROGRAM CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS. A set of subroutine call and return
instructions and conditional and unconditional branch instructions perform program control
operations. Table 5-10 summarizes these instructions.
Table 5-10. Program Control Operations
Instruction
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
Bcc
〈label〉
8, 16, 32
If condition true, then PC + d ⇒ PC
DBcc
Dn , 〈label〉
16
If condition false, then Dn – 1 ⇒ PC;
if Dn ≠ (– 1), then PC + d ⇒ PC
Scc
〈ea〉
8
If condition true, then destination bits are set to 1;
else destination bits are cleared to 0
BRA
〈label〉
8, 16, 32
PC + d ⇒ PC
BSR
〈label〉
8, 16, 32
SP – 4 ⇒ SP; PC ⇒ (SP); PC + d ⇒ PC
JMP
〈ea〉
none
Destination ⇒ PC
JSR
〈ea〉
none
SP – 4 ⇒ SP; PC ⇒ (SP); destination ⇒ PC
NOP
none
none
PC + 2 ⇒ PC
Operation
Conditional
Unconditional
Returns
5-26
(SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 + d ⇒ SP
RTD
#〈d〉
16
RTR
none
none
(SP) ⇒ CCR; SP + 2 ⇒ SP; (SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 ⇒
SP
RTS
none
none
(SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 ⇒ SP
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To specify conditions for change in program control, condition codes must be substituted
for the letters "cc" in conditional program control opcodes. Condition test mnemonics are
given below. Refer to 5.3.3.10 Condition Tests for detailed information on condition
codes.
CC —
Carry clear
LS —
Low or same
CS —
Carry set
LT —
Less than
EQ —
Equal
MI —
Minus
F
False*
NE —
Not equal
GE —
Greater or equal
PL —
Plus
GT —
Greater than
T
True
HI
High
VC —
Overflow clear
Less or equal
VS —
Overflow set
—
—
LE —
—
*Not applicable to the Bcc instruction
5.3.3.9 SYSTEM CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS. Privileged instructions, trapping
instructions, and instructions that use or modify the CCR provide system control
operations. All of these instructions cause the processor to flush the instruction pipeline.
Table 5-11 summarizes the instructions. The preceding list of condition tests also applies
to the TRAPcc instruction. Refer to 5.3.3.10 Condition Tests for detailed information on
condition codes.
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Table 5-11. System Control Operations
Instruction
Operand
Syntax
Operand Size
Operation
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Privileged
ANDI
#〈data〉, SR
16
Immediate Data Λ SR ⇒ SR
EORI
#〈data〉, SR
16
Immediate Data ⊕ SR ⇒ SR
MOVE
〈ea〉, SR
SR, 〈ea〉
16
16
Source ⇒ SR
SR ⇒ Destination
MOVEA
USP, An
An, USP
32
32
USP ⇒ An
An ⇒ USP
MOVEC
Rc, Rn
Rn, Rc
32
32
Rc ⇒ Rn
Rn ⇒ Rc
MOVES
Rn, 〈ea〉
〈ea〉, Rn
8, 16, 32
Rn ⇒ Destination using DFC
Source using SFC ⇒ Rn
ORI
#〈data〉, SR
16
Immediate Data V SR ⇒ SR
RESET
none
none
Assert RESET line
RTE
none
none
(SP) ⇒ SR; SP + 2 ⇒ SP; (SP) ⇒ PC; SP + 4 ⇒
SP; restore stack according to format
STOP
#〈data〉
16
LPSTOP
#〈data〉
none
Immediate Data ⇒ SR; STOP
Immediate Data ⇒ SR; interrupt mask ⇒ EBI;
STOP
Trap Generating
BKPT
#〈data〉
none
If breakpoint cycle acknowledged, then execute
returned operation word, else trap as illegal
instruction.
BGND
none
none
If background mode enabled, then enter background
mode, else format/vector offset ⇒ – (SSP);
PC ⇒ – (SSP); SR ⇒ – (SSP); (vector) ⇒ PC
CHK
〈ea〉, Dn
16, 32
CHK2
〈ea〉, Rn
8, 16, 32
ILLEGAL
none
none
SSP – 2 ⇒ SSP; vector offset ⇒ (SSP);
SSP – 4 ⇒ SSP; PC ⇒ (SSP);
SSP – 2 ⇒ SSP; SR ⇒ (SSP);
llegal instruction vector address ⇒ PC
TRAP
#〈data〉
none
SSP – 2 ⇒ SSP; format/vector offset ⇒ (SSP);
SSP – 4 ⇒ SSP; PC ⇒ (SSP); SR ⇒ (SSP);
vector address ⇒ PC
TRAPcc
none
#〈data〉
none
16, 32
TRAPV
none
none
If Dn < 0 or Dn < (ea), then CHK exception
If Rn < lower bound or Rn > upper bound, then
CHK exception
If cc true, then TRAP exception
If V set, then overflow TRAP exception
Condition Code Register
5-28
ANDI
#〈data〉, CCR
8
Immediate Data Λ CCR ⇒ CCR
EORI
#〈data〉, CCR
8
Immediate Data ⊕ CCR ⇒ CCR
MOVE
〈ea〉, CCR
CCR, 〈ea〉
16
16
Source ⇒ CCR
CCR ⇒ Destination
ORI
#〈data〉, CCR
8
Immediate Data V CCR ⇒ CCR
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5.3.3.10 CONDITION TESTS. Conditional program control instructions and the TRAPcc
instruction execute on the basis of condition tests. A condition test is the evaluation of a
logical expression related to the state of the CCR bits. If the result is 1, the condition is
true. If the result is 0, the condition is false. For example, the T condition is always true,
and the EQ condition is true only if the Z-bit condition code is true. Table 5-12 lists each
condition test.
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Table 5-12. Condition Tests
Mnemonic
Condition
Encoding
Test
T
True
0000
1
F*
False
0001
0
HI
High
0010
C•Z
LS
Low or Same
0011
C+Z
CC
Carry Clear
0100
C
CS
Carry Set
0101
C
NE
Not Equal
0110
Z
EQ
Equal
0111
Z
VC
Overflow Clear
1000
V
VS
Overflow Set
1001
V
PL
Plus
1010
N
MI
Minus
1011
N
GE
Greater or Equal
1100
N • V + N• V
LT
Less Than
1101
N • V+ N•V
GT
Greater Than
1110
N • V • Z+ N • V • Z
LE
Less or Equal
* Not available for the Bcc instruction.
• = Boolean AND
+ = Boolean OR
N = Boolean NOT
1111
Z + N • V+ N • V
5.3.4 Using the TBL Instructions
There are four TBL instructions. TBLS returns a signed, rounded byte, word, or long-word
result. TBLSN returns a signed, unrounded byte, word, or long-word result. TBLU returns
an unsigned, rounded byte, word, or long-word result. TBLUN returns an unsigned,
unrounded byte, word, or long-word result. All four instructions support two types of
interpolation data: an n-element table stored in memory and a two-element range stored in
a pair of data registers. The latter form provides a means of performing surface (3D)
interpolation between two previously calculated linear interpolations.
The following examples show how to compress tables and use fewer interpolation levels
between table entries. Example 1 (see Figure 5-7) demonstrates TBL for a 257-entry
table, allowing up to 256 interpolation levels between entries. Example 2 (see Figure 5-8)
reduces table length for the same data to four entries. Example 3 (see Figure 5-9)
demonstrates use of an 8-bit independent variable with an instruction.
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Two additional examples show how TBLSN can reduce cumulative error when multiple
table lookup and interpolation operations are used in a calculation. Example 4
demonstrates addition of the results of three table interpolations. Example 5 illustrates use
of TBLSN in surface interpolation.
5.3.4.1 TABLE EXAMPLE 1: STANDARD USAGE. The table consists of 257 word
entries. As shown in Figure 5-7, the function is linear within the range 32768 ≤ X ≤ 49152.
Table entries within this range are as given in Table 5-13 .
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Table 5-13. Standard Usage Entries
Entry Number
X Value
Y Value
128*
32768
1311
162
41472
1659
163
41728
1669
164
41984
1679
165
42240
1690
192*
49152
1966
*These values are the end points of the range.
All entries between these points fall on the line.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Y
16384
32768
49152
65536
X
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Figure 5-7. Table Example 1
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The table instruction is executed with the following bit pattern in Dx:
31
16
NOT USED
15
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table Entry Offset ⇒ Dx [8:15] = $A3 = 163
Interpolation Fraction ⇒ Dx [0:7] = $80 = 128
Using this information, the table instruction calculates dependent variable Y:
5.3.4.2 TABLE EXAMPLE 2: COMPRESSED TABLE. In Example 2 (see Figure 5-8), the
data from Example 1 has been compressed by limiting the maximum value of the
independent variable. Instead of the range 0 ≤ X = 65535, X is limited to 0 ≤ X ≤ 1023.
The table has been compressed to only five entries, but up to 256 levels of interpolation
are allowed between entries.
Y
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
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Y = 1669 + (128 (1679 – 1669)) / 256 = 1674
256
512
786
1024
X
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Figure 5-8. Table Example 2
NOTE
Extreme table compression with many levels of interpolation is
possible only with highly linear functions. The table entries
within the range of interest are listed in Table 5-14.
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Table 5-14. Compressed Table Entries
Entry Number
X Value
Y Value
2
512
1311
3
786
1966
Since the table is reduced from 257 to 5 entries, independent variable X must be scaled
appropriately. In this case the scaling factor is 64, and the scaling is done by a single
instruction:
LSR.W #6,Dx
Thus, Dx now contains the following bit pattern:
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31
16
NOT USED
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
Table Entry Offset ⇒ Dx [8:15] = $02 = 2
Interpolation Fraction ⇒ Dx [0:7] = $8E = 142
Using this information, the table instruction calculates dependent variable Y:
Y = 1331 + (142 (1966 – 1311)) / 256 = 1674
The function chosen for Examples 1 and 2 is linear between data points. If another
function had been been used, interpolated values might not have been identical.
5.3.4.3 TABLE EXAMPLE 3: 8-BIT INDEPENDENT VARIABLE. This example shows
how to use a table instruction within an interpolation subroutine. Independent variable X is
calculated as an 8-bit value, allowing 16 levels of interpolation on a 17-entry table. X is
passed to the subroutine, which returns an 8-bit result. The subroutine uses the data listed
in Table 5-15, based on the function shown in Figure 5-9.
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INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
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Y
2048
1024
4096
3072
X
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Figure 5-9. Table Example 3
Table 5-15. 8-Bit Independent
Variable Entries
X
(Subroutine)
X
(Instruction)
Y
0
0
0
1
256
16
2
512
32
3
768
48
4
1024
64
5
1280
80
6
1536
96
7
1792
112
8
2048
128
9
2304
112
10
2560
96
11
2816
80
12
3072
64
13
3328
48
14
3584
32
15
3840
16
16
4096
0
The first column is the value passed to the subroutine, the second column is the value
expected by the table instruction, and the third column is the result returned by the
subroutine.
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The following value has been calculated for independent variable X:
31
16
NOT USED
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
Since X is an 8-bit value, the upper four bits are used as a table offset and the lower four
bits are used as an interpolation fraction. The following results are obtained from the
subroutine:
Table Entry Offset ⇒ Dx [4:7] = $B = 11
Interpolation Fraction ⇒ Dx [0:3] = $D = 13
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Thus, Y is calculated as follows:
Y = 80 + (13 (64 – 80)) / 16 = 67
If the 8-bit value for X were used directly by the table instruction, interpolation would be
incorrectly performed between entries 0 and 1. Data must be shifted to the left four places
before use:
LSL.W #4, Dx
The new range for X is 0 ≤ X ≤ 4096; however, since a left shift fills the least significant
digits of the word with zeros, the interpolation fraction can only have one of 16 values.
After the shift operation, Dx contains the following value:
31
16
NOT USED
15
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
Execution of the table instruction using the new value in Dx yields:
Table Entry Offset ⇒ Dx [8:15] = $0B = 11
Interpolation Fraction ⇒ Dx [0:7] = $D0 = 208
Thus, Y is calculated as follows:
Y = 80 + (208 (64 – 80)) / 256 = 67
5.3.4.4 TABLE EXAMPLE 4: MAINTAINING PRECISION. In this example, three TBL
operations are performed and the results are summed. The calculation is done once with
the result of each TBL rounded before addition and once with only the final result rounded.
Assume that the result of the three interpolations are as follows (a ".'' indicates the binary
radix point).
5-34
TBL # 1
0010 0000 . 0111 0000
TBL# 2
0011 1111 . 0111 0000
TBL # 3
0000 0001 . 0111 0000
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First, the results of each TBL are rounded with the TBLS round-to-nearest-even algorithm.
The following values would be returned by TBLS:
TBL # 1
TBL # 2
TBL # 3
0010 0000 .
0011 1111 .
0000 0001 .
Summing, the following result is obtained:
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0010
0011
0000
0110
0000 .
1111 .
0001 .
0000 .
Now, using the same TBL results, the sum is first calculated and then rounded according
to the same algorithm:
0010
0011
0000
0110
0000 . 0111
1111 . 0111
0001 . 0111
0001 . 0101
0000
0000
0000
0000
Rounding yields:
0110 0001 .
The second result is preferred. The following code sequence illustrates how addition of a
series of table interpolations can be performed without loss of precision in the intermediate
results:
L0:
TBLSN.B
TBLSN.B
TBLSN.B
ADD.L
ADD.L
ASR.L
BCC.B
ADDQ.B
L1: . . .
MOTOROLA
〈ea〉, Dx
〈ea〉, Dx
〈ea〉, Dl
Dx, Dm
Dm, Dl
#8, Dl
L1
#1, Dl
Long addition avoids problems with carry
Move radix point
Fraction MSB in carry
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5.3.4.5 Table Example 5: Surface Interpolations. The various forms of table can be
used to perform surface (3D) TBLs. However, since the calculation must be split into a
series of 2D TBLs, the possibility of losing precision in the intermediate results is possible.
The following code sequence, incorporating both TBLS and TBLSN, eliminates this
possibility.
L0:
MOVE.W
TBLSN.B
TBLSN.B
TBLS.W
ASR.L
BCC.B
ADDQ.B
L1: . . .
Dx, Dl
〈ea〉, Dx
〈ea〉, Dl
Dx:Dl, Dm
#8, Dm
L1
#1, Dl
Copy entry number and fraction number
Surface interpolation, with round
Read just the result
No round necessary
Half round up
Before execution of this code sequence, Dx must contain fraction and entry numbers for
the two TBL, and Dm must contain the fraction for surface interpolation. The 〈ea〉 fields in
the TBLSN instructions point to consecutive columns in a 3D table. The TBLS size
parameter must be word if the TBLSN size parameter is byte, and must be long word if
TBLSN is word. Increased size is necessary because a larger number of significant digits
is needed to accommodate the scaled fractional results of the 2D TBL.
5.3.5 Nested Subroutine Calls
The LINK instruction pushes an address onto the stack, saves the stack address at which
the address is stored, and reserves an area of the stack for use. Using this instruction in a
series of subroutine calls will generate a linked list of stack frames.
The UNLK instruction removes a stack frame from the end of the list by loading an
address into the SP and pulling the value at that address from the stack. When the
instruction operand is the address of the link address at the bottom of a stack frame, the
effect is to remove the stack frame from both the stack and the linked list.
5.3.6 Pipeline Synchronization with the NOP Instruction
Although the no operation (NOP) instruction performs no visible operation, it does force
synchronization of the instruction pipeline, since all previous instructions must complete
execution before the NOP begins.
5.4 PROCESSING STATES
This section describes the processing states of the CPU32. It includes a functional
description of the bits in the supervisor portion of the SR and an overview of actions taken
by the processor in response to exception conditions.
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5.4.1 State Transitions
The processor is in normal, background, or exception state unless halted.
When the processor fetches instructions and operands or executes instructions, it is in the
normal processing state. The stopped condition, which the processor enters when a
STOP or LPSTOP instruction is executed, is a variation of the normal state in which no
further bus cycles are generated.
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Background state is an alternate operational mode used for system debugging. Refer to
5.6 Development Support for more information.
Exception processing refers specifically to the transition from normal processing of a
program to normal processing of system routines, interrupt routines, and other exception
handlers. Exception processing includes the stack operations, the exception vector fetch,
and the filling of the instruction pipeline caused by an exception. Exception processing
ends when execution of an exception handler routine begins. Refer to 5.5 Exception
Processing for comprehensive information.
A catastrophic system failure occurs if the processor detects a bus error or generates an
address error while in the exception processing state. This type of failure halts the
processor. For example, if a bus error occurs during exception processing caused by a
bus error, the CPU32 assumes that the system is not operational and halts.
The halted condition should not be confused with the stopped condition. After the
processor executes a STOP or LPSTOP instruction, execution of instructions can resume
when a trace, interrupt, or reset exception occurs.
5.4.2 Privilege Levels
To protect system resources, the processor can operate with either of two levels of
access—user or supervisor. Supervisor level is more privileged than user level. All
instructions are available at the supervisor level, but execution of some instructions is not
permitted at the user level. There are separate SPs for each level. The S-bit in the SR
indicates privilege level and determines which SP is used for stack operations. The
processor identifies each bus access (supervisor or user mode) via function codes to
enforce supervisor and user access levels.
In a typical system, most programs execute at the user level. User programs can access
only their own code and data areas and are restricted from accessing other information.
The operating system executes at the supervisor privilege level, has access to all
resources, performs the overhead tasks for the user level programs, and coordinates their
activities.
5.4.2.1 SUPERVISOR PRIVILEGE LEVEL. If the S-bit in the SR is set, supervisor
privilege level applies, and all instructions are executable. The bus cycles generated for
instructions executed in supervisor level are normally classified as supervisor references,
and the values of the function codes on FC2–FC0 refer to supervisor address spaces.
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All exception processing is performed at the supervisor level. All bus cycles generated
during exception processing are supervisor references, and all stack accesses use the
SSP.
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Instructions that have important system effects can only be executed at supervisor level.
For instance, user programs are not permitted to execute STOP, LPSTOP, or RESET
instructions. To prevent a user program from gaining privileged access, except in a
controlled manner, instructions that can alter the S-bit in the SR are privileged. The TRAP
#n instruction provides controlled user access to operating system services.
5.4.2.2 USER PRIVILEGE LEVEL. If the S-bit in the SR is cleared, the processor
executes instructions at the user privilege level. The bus cycles for an instruction executed
at the user privilege level are classified as user references, and the values of the function
codes on FC2–FC0 specify user address spaces. While the processor is at the user level,
implicit references to the system SP and explicit references to address register seven (A7)
refer to the USP.
5.4.2.3 CHANGING PRIVILEGE LEVEL. To change from user privilege level to
supervisor privilege level, a condition that causes exception processing must occur. When
exception processing begins, the current values in the SR, including the S-bit, are saved
on the supervisor stack, and then the S-bit is set to enable supervisory access. Execution
continues at supervisor privilege level until exception processing is complete.
To return to user access level, a system routine must execute one of the following
instructions: MOVE to SR, ANDI to SR, EORI to SR, ORI to SR, or RTE. These
instructions execute only at supervisor privilege level and can modify the S-bit of the SR.
After these instructions execute, the instruction pipeline is flushed, then refilled from the
appropriate address space.
The RTE instruction causes a return to a program that was executing when an exception
occurred. When RTE is executed, the exception stack frame saved on the supervisor
stack can be restored in either of two ways.
If the frame was generated by an interrupt, breakpoint, trap, or instruction exception, the
SR and PC are restored to the values saved on the supervisor stack, and execution
resumes at the restored PC address, with access level determined by the S-bit of the
restored SR.
If the frame was generated by a bus error or an address error exception, the entire
processor state is restored from the stack.
5.5 EXCEPTION PROCESSING
An exception is a special condition that preempts normal processing. Exception
processing is the transition from normal mode program execution to execution of a routine
that deals with an exception. The following paragraphs discuss system resources related
to exception handling, exception processing sequence, and specific features of individual
exception processing routines.
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5.5.1 Exception Vectors
An exception vector is the address of a routine that handles an exception. The VBR
contains the base address of a 1024-byte exception vector table, which consists of 256
exception vectors. Sixty-four vectors are defined by the processor, and 192 vectors are
reserved for user definition as interrupt vectors. Except for the reset vector which is two
long words, each vector in the table is one long word. Refer to Table 5-16 for information
on vector assignment.
Table 5-16. Exception Vector Assignments
Vector Offset
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Vector Number
Dec
Hex
Space
Assignment
0
0
000
SP
Reset: Initial Stack Pointer
1
4
004
SP
Reset: Initial Program Counter
2
8
008
SD
Bus Error
3
12
00C
SD
Address Error
4
16
010
SD
Illegal Instruction
5
20
014
SD
Zero Division
6
24
018
SD
CHK, CHK2 Instructions
7
28
01C
SD
TRAPcc, TRAPV Instructions
8
32
020
SD
Privilege Violation
9
36
024
SD
Trace
10
40
028
SD
Line 1010 Emulator
11
44
02C
SD
Line 1111 Emulator
12
48
030
SD
Hardware Breakpoint
13
52
034
SD
(Reserved for Coprocessor Protocol Violation)
14
56
038
SD
Format Error
15
60
03C
SD
Uninitialized Interrupt
16–23
64
92
040
05C
SD
(Unassigned, Reserved)
—
24
96
060
SD
Spurious Interrupt
25
100
064
SD
Level 1 Interrupt Autovector
26
104
068
SD
Level 2 Interrupt Autovector
27
108
06C
SD
Level 3 Interrupt Autovector
28
112
070
SD
Level 4 Interrupt Autovector
29
116
074
SD
Level 5 Interrupt Autovector
30
120
078
SD
Level 6 Interrupt Autovector
31
124
07C
SD
Level 7 Interrupt Autovector
32–47
128
188
080
0BC
SD
Trap Instruction Vectors (0–15)
—
48–58
192
232
0C0
0E8
SD
(Reserved for Coprocessor)
—
59–63
236
252
0EC
0FC
SD
(Unassigned, Reserved)
256
1020
100
3FC
SD
64–255
MOTOROLA
—
User-Defined Vectors (192)
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CAUTION
Because there is no protection on the 64 processor-defined
vectors, external devices can access vectors reserved for
internal purposes. This practice is strongly discouraged.
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All exception vectors, except the reset vector, are located in supervisor data space. The
reset vector is located in supervisor program space. Only the initial reset vector is fixed in
the processor memory map. When initialization is complete, there are no fixed
assignments. Since the VBR stores the vector table base address, the table can be
located anywhere in memory. It can also be dynamically relocated for each task executed
by an operating system.
Each vector is assigned an 8-bit number. Vector numbers for some exceptions are
obtained from an external device; others are supplied by the processor. The processor
multiplies the vector number by 4 to calculate vector offset, then adds the offset to the
contents of the VBR. The sum is the memory address of the vector.
5.5.1.1 TYPES OF EXCEPTIONS. An exception can be caused by internal or external
events.
An internal exception can be generated by an instruction or by an error. The TRAP,
TRAPcc, TRAPV, BKPT, CHK, CHK2, RTE, and DIV instructions can cause exceptions
during normal execution. Illegal instructions, instruction fetches from odd addresses, word
or long-word operand accesses from odd addresses, and privilege violations also cause
internal exceptions.
Sources of external exception include interrupts, breakpoints, bus errors, and reset
requests. Interrupts are peripheral device requests for processor action. Breakpoints are
used to support development equipment. Bus error and reset are used for access control
and processor restart.
5.5.1.2 EXCEPTION PROCESSING SEQUENCE. For all exceptions other than a reset
exception, exception processing occurs in the following sequence. Refer to 5.5.2.1 Reset
for details of reset processing.
As exception processing begins, the processor makes an internal copy of the SR. After
the copy is made, the processor state bits in the SR are changed—the S-bit is set,
establishing supervisor access level, and bits T1 and T0 are cleared, disabling tracing. For
reset and interrupt exceptions, the interrupt priority mask is also updated.
Next, the exception number is obtained. For interrupts, the number is fetched from CPU
space $F (the bus cycle is an interrupt acknowledge). For all other exceptions, internal
logic provides a vector number.
Next, current processor status is saved. An exception stack frame is created and placed
on the supervisor stack. All stack frames contain copies of the SR and the PC for use by
RTE. The type of exception and the context in which the exception occurs determine what
other information is stored in the stack frame.
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Finally, the processor prepares to resume normal execution of instructions. The exception
vector offset is determined by multiplying the vector number by 4, and the offset is added
to the contents of the VBR to determine displacement into the exception vector table. The
exception vector is loaded into the PC. If no other exception is pending, the processor will
resume normal execution at the new address in the PC.
The exception stack frame always includes the contents of SR and PC at the time the
exception occurred. To support generic handlers, the processor also places the vector
offset in the exception stack frame and marks the frame with a format code. The format
field allows an RTE instruction to identify stack information so that it can be properly
restored.
The general form of the exception stack frame is illustrated in Figure 5-10. Although some
formats are peculiar to a particular M68000 Family processor, format 0000 is always legal
and always indicates that only the first four words of a frame are present. See 5.5.4
CPU32 Stack Frames for a complete discussion of exception stack frames.
15
0
SP
STATUS REGISTER
PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
FORMAT
VECTOR OFFSET
OTHER PROCESSOR STATE INFORMATION,
DEPENDING ON EXCEPTION
(0, 2, OR 8 WORDS)
STACKING ORDER
HIGHER ADDRESSES
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5.5.1.3 EXCEPTION STACK FRAME. During exception processing, the most volatile
portion of the current context is saved on the top of the supervisor stack. This context is
organized in a format called the exception stack frame.
Figure 5-10. Exception Stack Frame
5.5.1.4 MULTIPLE EXCEPTIONS. Each exception has been assigned a priority based on
its relative importance to system operation. Priority assignments are shown in Table 5-17.
Group 0 exceptions have the highest priorities; group 4 exceptions have the lowest
priorities. Exception processing for exceptions that occur simultaneously is done by
priority, from highest to lowest.
It is important to be aware of the difference between exception processing mode and
execution of an exception handler. Each exception has an assigned vector that points to
an associated handler routine. Exception processing includes steps described in 5.5.1.2
Exception Processing Sequence, but does not include execution of handler routines,
which is done in normal mode.
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When the CPU32 completes exception processing, it is ready to begin either exception
processing for a pending exception or execution of a handler routine. Priority assignment
governs the order in which exception processing occurs, not the order in which exception
handlers are executed.
Table 5-17. Exception Priority Groups
Group/
Priority
0
Characteristics
Reset
Aborts all processing (instruction or
exception); does not save old context.
Address Error
Bus Error
Suspends processing (instruction or
exception); saves internal context.
2
BKPT#n, CHK, CHK2,
Division by Zero, RTE,
TRAP#n, TRAPcc, TRAPV
Exception processing is a part of
instruction execution.
3
Illegal Instruction, Line A,
Unimplemented Line F,
Privilege Violation
Exception processing begins before
instruction execution.
Trace
Hardware Breakpoint
Interrupt
Exception processing begins when current
instruction or previous exception
processing is complete.
1.1
1.2
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Exception and
Relative Priority
4.1
4.2
4.3
As a general rule, when simultaneous exceptions occur, the handler routines for lower
priority exceptions are executed before the handler routines for higher priority exceptions.
For example, consider the arrival of an interrupt during execution of a TRAP instruction,
while tracing is enabled. Trap exception processing (2) is done first, followed immediately
by exception processing for the trace (4.1), and then by exception processing for the
interrupt (4.3). Each exception places a new context on the stack. When the processor
resumes normal instruction execution, it is vectored to the interrupt handler, which returns
to the trace handler that returns to the trap handler.
There are special cases to which the general rule does not apply. The reset exception will
always be the first exception handled since reset clears all other exceptions. It is also
possible for high-priority exception processing to begin before low-priority exception
processing is complete. For example, if a bus error occurs during trace exception
processing, the bus error will be processed and handled before trace exception
processing is completed.
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5.5.2 Processing of Specific Exceptions
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The following paragraphs provide details concerning sources of specific exceptions, how
each arises, and how each is processed.
5.5.2.1 RESET. Assertion of RESET by external hardware or assertion of the internal
RESET signal by an internal module causes a reset exception. The reset exception has
the highest priority of any exception. Reset is used for system initialization and for
recovery from catastrophic failure. The reset exception aborts any processing in progress
when it is recognized, and that processing cannot be recovered. Reset performs the
following operations:
1. Clears T0 and T1 in the SR to disable tracing
2. Sets the S-bit in the SR to establish supervisor privilege
3. Sets the interrupt priority mask to the highest priority level (%111)
4. Initializes the VBR to zero ($00000000)
5.
6.
7.
8.
Generates a vector number to reference the reset exception vector
Loads the first long word of the vector into the interrupt SP
Loads the second long word of the vector into the PC
Fetches and initiates decode of the first instruction to be executed
Figure 5-11 is a flowchart of the reset exception
After initial instruction prefetches, normal program execution begins at the address in the
PC. The reset exception does not save the value of either the PC or the SR.
If a bus error or address error occurs during reset exception processing sequence, a
double bus fault occurs, the processor halts, and the HALT signal is asserted to indicate
the halted condition.
Execution of the RESET instruction does not cause a reset exception nor does it affect
any internal CPU register. The SIM40 registers and the MCR in each internal peripheral
module (DMA, timers, and serial modules) are not affected. All other internal peripheral
module registers are reset the same as for a hardware reset. The external devices
connected to the RESET signal are reset at the completion of the RESET instruction.
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ENTRY
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1
0
$7
$0
➧S
➧ T0,T1
➧ I2:I0
➧ VBR
.✎
FETCH VECTOR # 0
OTHERWISE
SP ➧ (VECTOR # 0)
BUS ERROR
FETCH VECTOR # 1
OTHERWISE
PC
BUS ERROR
➧ (VECTOR # 1)
PREFETCH 3 WORDS
OTHERWISE BEGIN
INSTRUCTION
EXECUTION
BUS ERROR/
ADDRESS
ERROR
(DOUBLE BUS FAULT)
ASSERT HALT
EXIT
EXIT
Figure 5-11. Reset Operation Flowchart
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5.5.2.2 BUS ERROR. A bus error exception occurs when an assertion of the BERR signal
is acknowledged. The BERR signal can be asserted by one of three sources:
1. External logic by assertion of the BERR input pin
2. Direct assertion of the internal BERR signal by an internal module
3. Direct assertion of the internal BERR signal by the on-chip hardware watchdog
after detecting a no-response condition
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Bus error exception processing begins when the processor attempts to use information
from an aborted bus cycle.
When the aborted bus cycle is an instruction prefetch, the processor will not initiate
exception processing unless the prefetched information is used. For example, if a branch
instruction flushes an aborted prefetch, that word is not accessed, and no exception
occurs.
When the aborted bus cycle is a data access, the processor initiates exception processing
immediately, except in the case of released operand writes. Released write bus errors are
delayed until the next instruction boundary or until another operand access is attempted.
Exception processing for bus error exceptions follows the regular sequence, but context
preservation is more involved than for other exceptions because a bus exception can be
initiated while an instruction is executing. Several bus error stack format organizations are
utilized to provide additional information regarding the nature of the fault.
First, any register altered by a faulted-instruction EA calculation is restored to its initial
value. Then a special status word (SSW) is placed on the stack. The SSW contains
specific information about the aborted access—size, type of access (read or write), bus
cycle type, and function code. Finally, fault address, bus error exception vector number,
PC value, and a copy of the SR are saved.
If a bus error occurs during exception processing for a bus error, an address error, a reset,
or while the processor is loading stack information during RTE execution, the processor
halts. This simplifies isolation of catastrophic system failure by preventing processor
interaction with stacks and memory. Only assertion of RESET can restart a halted
processor.
5.5.2.3 ADDRESS ERROR. Address error exceptions occur when the processor attempts
to access an instruction, word operand, or long-word operand at an odd address. The
effect is much the same as an internally generated bus error. The exception processing
sequence is the same as that for bus error, except that the vector number refers to the
address error exception vector.
Address error exception processing begins when the processor attempts to use
information from the aborted bus cycle. If the aborted cycle is a data space access,
exception processing begins when the processor attempts to use the data, except in the
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case of a released operand write. Released write exceptions are delayed until the next
instruction boundary or attempted operand access.
An address exception on a branch to an odd address is delayed until the PC is changed.
No exception occurs if the branch is not taken. In this case, the fault address and return
PC value placed in the exception stack frame are the odd address, and the current
instruction PC points to the instruction that caused the exception.
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If an address error occurs during exception processing for a bus error, another address
error, or a reset, the processor halts.
5.5.2.4 INSTRUCTION TRAPS. Traps are exceptions caused by instructions. They arise
from either processor recognition of abnormal conditions during instruction execution or
from use of specific trapping instructions. Traps are generally used to handle abnormal
conditions that arise in control routines.
The TRAP instruction, which always forces an exception, is useful for implementing
system calls for user programs. The TRAPcc, TRAPV, CHK, and CHK2 instructions force
exceptions when a program detects a run-time error. The DIVS and DIVU instructions
force an exception if a division operation is attempted with a divisor of zero.
Exception processing for traps follows the regular sequence. If tracing is enabled when an
instruction that causes a trap begins execution, a trace exception will be generated by the
instruction, but the trap handler routine will not be traced (the trap exception will be
processed first, then the trace exception).
The vector number for the TRAP instruction is internally generated—part of the number
comes from the instruction itself. The trap vector number, PC value, and a copy of the SR
are saved on the supervisor stack. The saved PC value is the address of the instruction
that follows the instruction that generated the trap. For all instruction traps other than
TRAP, a pointer to the instruction causing the trap is also saved in the fifth and sixth
words of the exception stack frame.
5.5.2.5 SOFTWARE BREAKPOINTS. To support hardware emulation, the CPU32 must
provide a means of inserting breakpoints into target code and of announcing when a
breakpoint is reached.
The MC68000 and MC68008 can detect an illegal instruction inserted at a breakpoint
when the processor fetches from the illegal instruction exception vector location. Since the
VBR on the CPU32 allows relocation of exception vectors, the exception vector address is
not a reliable indication of a breakpoint. CPU32 breakpoint support is provided by
extending the function of a set of illegal instructions ($4848–$484F).
When a breakpoint instruction is executed, the CPU32 performs a read from CPU space
$0, at a location corresponding to the breakpoint number. If this bus cycle is terminated by
BERR, the processor performs illegal instruction exception processing. If the bus cycle is
terminated by DSACK≈, the processor uses the data returned to replace the breakpoint in
the instruction pipeline and begins execution of that instruction. See Section 3 Bus
Operation for a description of CPU space operations.
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5.5.2.6 HARDWARE BREAKPOINTS. The CPU32 recognizes hardware breakpoint
requests. Hardware breakpoint requests do not force immediate exception processing, but
are left pending. An instruction breakpoint is not made pending until the instruction
corresponding to the request is executed.
A pending breakpoint can be acknowledged between instructions or at the end of
exception processing. To acknowledge a breakpoint, the CPU performs a read from CPU
space $0 at location $1E (see Section 3 Bus Operation).
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If the bus cycle terminates normally, instruction execution continues with the next
instruction, as if no breakpoint request occurred. If the bus cycle is terminated by BERR,
the CPU begins exception processing. Data returned during this bus cycle is ignored.
Exception processing follows the regular sequence. Vector number 12 (offset $30) is
internally generated. The PC of the currently executing instruction, the PC of the next
instruction to execute, and a copy of the SR are saved on the supervisor stack.
5.5.2.7 FORMAT ERROR. The processor checks certain data values for control
operations. The validity of the stack format code and, in the case of a bus cycle fault
format, the version number of the processor that generated the frame are checked during
execution of the RTE instruction. This check ensures that the program does not make
erroneous assumptions about information in the stack frame.
If the format of the control data is improper, the processor generates a format error
exception. This exception saves a four-word format exception frame and then vectors
through vector table entry number 14. The stacked PC is the address of the RTE
instruction that discovered the format error.
5.5.2.8 ILLEGAL OR UNIMPLEMENTED INSTRUCTIONS. An instruction is illegal if it
contains a word bit pattern that does not correspond to the bit pattern of the first word of a
legal CPU32 instruction, if it is a MOVEC instruction that contains an undefined register
specification field in the first extension word, or if it contains an indexed addressing mode
extension word with bits 5–4 = 00 or bits 3–0 ≠ 0000.
If an illegal instruction is fetched during instruction execution, an illegal instruction
exception occurs. This facility allows the operating system to detect program errors or to
emulate instructions in software.
Word patterns with bits 15–12 = 1010 (referred to as A-line opcodes) are unimplemented
instructions. A separate exception vector (vector 10, offset $28) is given to unimplemented
instructions to permit efficient emulation.
Word patterns with bits 15–12 = 1111 (referred to as F-line opcodes) are used for M68000
family instruction set extensions. They can generate an unimplemented instruction
exception caused by the first extension word of the instruction or by the addressing mode
extension word. A separate F-line emulation vector (vector 11, offset $2C) is used for the
exception vector.
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All unimplemented instructions are reserved for use by Motorola for enhancements and
extensions to the basic M68000 architecture. Opcode pattern $4AFC is defined to be
illegal on all M68000 family members. Those customers requiring the use of an
unimplemented opcode for synthesis of "custom instructions," operating system calls, etc.,
should use this opcode.
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Exception processing for illegal and unimplemented instructions is similar to that for traps.
The instruction is fetched and decoding is attempted. When the processor determines that
execution of an illegal instruction is being attempted, exception processing begins. No
registers are altered.
Exception processing follows the regular sequence. The vector number is generated to
refer to the illegal instruction vector or in the case of an unimplemented instruction, to the
corresponding emulation vector. The illegal instruction vector number, current PC, and a
copy of the SR are saved on the supervisor stack, with the saved value of the PC being
the address of the illegal or unimplemented instruction.
5.5.2.9 PRIVILEGE VIOLATIONS. To provide system security, certain instructions can be
executed only at the supervisor access level. An attempt to execute one of these
instructions at the user level will cause an exception. The privileged exceptions are as
follows:
• AND Immediate to SR
• EOR Immediate to SR
• LPSTOP
• MOVE from SR
• MOVE to SR
• MOVE USP
• MOVEC
• MOVES
• OR Immediate to SR
• RESET
• RTE
• STOP
Exception processing for privilege violations is nearly identical to that for illegal
instructions. The instruction is fetched and decoded. If the processor determines that a
privilege violation has occurred, exception processing begins before instruction execution.
Exception processing follows the regular sequence. The vector number (8) is generated to
reference the privilege violation vector. Privilege violation vector offset, current PC, and
SR are saved on the supervisor stack. The saved PC value is the address of the first word
of the instruction causing the privilege violation.
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5.5.2.10 TRACING. To aid in program development, M68000 processors include a facility
to allow tracing of instruction execution. CPU32 tracing also has the ability to trap on
changes in program flow. In trace mode, a trace exception is generated after each
instruction executes, allowing a debugging program to monitor the execution of a program
under test. The T1 and T0 bits in the supervisor portion of the SR are used to control
tracing.
When T1–T0 = 00, tracing is disabled, and instruction execution proceeds normally (see
Table 5-18).
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Table 5-18. Tracing Control
T1
T0
0
0
Tracing Function
No tracing
0
1
Trace on change of flow
1
0
Trace on instruction execution
1
1
Undefined; reserved
When T1–T0 = 01 at the beginning of instruction execution, a trace exception will be
generated if the PC changes sequence during execution. All branches, jumps, subroutine
calls, returns, and SR manipulations can be traced in this way. No exception occurs if a
branch is not taken.
When T1–T0 = 10 at the beginning of instruction execution, a trace exception will be
generated when execution is complete. If the instruction is not executed, either because
an interrupt is taken or because the instruction is illegal, unimplemented, or privileged, an
exception is not generated.
At the present time, T1–T0 = 11 is an undefined condition. It is reserved by Motorola for
future use.
Exception processing for trace starts at the end of normal processing for the traced
instruction and before the start of the next instruction. Exception processing follows the
regular sequence; tracing is disabled so that the trace exception itself is not traced. A
vector number is generated to reference the trace exception vector. The address of the
instruction that caused the trace exception, the trace exception vector offset, the current
PC, and a copy of the SR are saved on the supervisor stack. The saved value of the PC is
the address of the next instruction to be executed.
A trace exception can be viewed as an extension to the function of any instruction. If a
trace exception is generated by an instruction, the execution of that instruction is not
complete until the trace exception processing associated with it is also complete.
If an instruction is aborted by a bus error or address error exception, trace exception
processing is deferred until the suspended instruction is restarted and completed
normally. An RTE from a bus error or address error will not be traced because of the
possibility of continuing the instruction from the fault.
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If an instruction is executed and an interrupt is pending on completion, the trace exception
is processed before the interrupt exception.
If an instruction forces an exception, the forced exception is processed before the trace
exception.
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If an instruction is executed and a breakpoint is pending upon completion of the
instruction, the trace exception is processed before the breakpoint.
If an attempt is made to execute an illegal, unimplemented, or privileged instruction while
tracing is enabled, no trace exception will occur because the instruction is not executed.
This is particularly important to an emulation routine that performs an instruction function,
adjusts the stacked PC to beyond the unimplemented instruction, and then returns. The
SR on the stack must be checked to determine if tracing is on before the return is
executed. If tracing is on, trace exception processing must be emulated so that the trace
exception handler can account for the emulated instruction.
Tracing also affects normal operation of the STOP and LPSTOP instructions. If either
instruction begins execution with T1 set, a trace exception will be taken after the
instruction loads the SR. Upon return from the trace handler routine, execution will
continue with the instruction following STOP (LPSTOP), and the processor will not enter
the stopped condition.
5.5.2.11 INTERRUPTS. There are seven levels of interrupt priority and 192 assignable
interrupt vectors within each exception vector table. Careful use of multiple vector tables
and hardware chaining will permit a virtually unlimited number of peripherals to interrupt
the processor.
Interrupt recognition and subsequent processing are based on internal interrupt request
signals ( IRQ7 – IRQ1 ) and the current priority set in SR priority mask I2–I0. Interrupt
request level zero (IRQ7– IRQ1 negated) indicates that no service is requested. When an
interrupt of level one through six is requested via IRQ6– IRQ1, the processor compares
the request level with the interrupt mask to determine whether the interrupt should be
processed. Interrupt requests are inhibited for all priority levels less than or equal to the
current priority. Level seven interrupts are nonmaskable.
IRQ7– IRQ1 are synchronized and debounced by input circuitry on consecutive rising
edges of the processor clock. To be valid, an interrupt request must be held constant for
at least two consecutive clock periods.
Interrupt requests do not force immediate exception processing, but are left pending. A
pending interrupt is detected between instructions or at the end of exception processing—
all interrupt requests must be held asserted until they are acknowledged by the CPU. If
the priority of the interrupt is greater than the current priority level, exception processing
begins.
Exception processing occurs as follows. First, the processor makes an internal copy of the
SR. After the copy is made, the processor state bits in the SR are changed—the S-bit is
set, establishing supervisor access level, and bits T1 and T0 are cleared, disabling
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tracing. Priority level is then set to the level of the interrupt, and the processor fetches a
vector number from the interrupting device (CPU space $F). The fetch bus cycle is
classified as an interrupt acknowledge, and the encoded level number of the interrupt is
placed on the address bus.
If an interrupting device requests automatic vectoring, the processor generates a vector
number (25 to 31) determined by the interrupt level number.
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If the response to the interrupt acknowledge bus cycle is a bus error, the interrupt is taken
to be spurious, and the spurious interrupt vector number (24) is generated.
The exception vector number, PC, and SR are saved on the supervisor stack. The saved
value of the PC is the address of the instruction that would have executed if the interrupt
had not occurred.
Priority level 7 interrupt is a special case. Level 7 interrupts are nonmaskable interrupts
(NMI). Level 7 requests are transition sensitive to eliminate redundant servicing and
resultant stack overflow. Transition sensitive means that the level 7 input must change
state before the CPU will detect an interrupt.
An NMI is generated each time the interrupt request level changes to level 7 (regardless
of priority mask value), and each time the priority mask changes from 7 to a lower number
while the request level remains at 7.
Many M68000 peripherals provide for programmable interrupt vector numbers to be used
in the system interrupt request/acknowledge mechanism. If the vector number is not
initialized after reset and if the peripheral must acknowledge an interrupt request, the
peripheral should return the uninitialized interrupt vector number (15).
See Section 3 Bus Operation for detailed information on interrupt acknowledge cycles.
5.5.2.12 RETURN FROM EXCEPTION. When exception stacking operations for all
pending exceptions are complete, the processor begins execution of the handler for the
last exception processed. After the exception handler has executed, the processor must
restore the system context in existence prior to the exception. The RTE instruction is
designed to accomplish this task.
When RTE is executed, the processor examines the stack frame on top of the supervisor
stack to determine if it is valid and determines what type of context restoration must be
performed. See 5.5.4 CPU32 Stack Frames for a description of stack frames.
For a normal four-word frame, the processor updates the SR and PC with data pulled from
the stack, increments the SSP by 8, and resumes normal instruction execution. For a sixword frame, the SR and PC are updated from the stack, the active SSP is incremented by
12, and normal instruction execution resumes.
For a bus fault frame, the format value on the stack is first checked for validity. In addition,
the version number on the stack must match the version number of the processor that is
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attempting to read the stack frame. The version number is located in the most significant
byte (bits 15–8) of the internal register word at location SP + $14 in the stack frame. The
validity check ensures that stack frame data will be properly interpreted in multiprocessor
systems.
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If a frame is invalid, a format error exception is taken. If it is inaccessible, a bus error
exception is taken. Otherwise, the processor reads the entire frame into the proper
internal registers, de-allocates the stack (12 words), and resumes normal processing. Bus
error frames for faults during exception processing require the RTE instruction to rewrite
the faulted stack frame. If an error occurs during any of the bus cycles required by rewrite,
the processor halts.
If a format error occurs during RTE execution, the processor creates a normal four-word
fault stack frame below the frame that it was attempting to use. If a bus error occurs, a
bus-error stack frame will be created. The faulty stack frame remains intact, so that it may
be examined and repaired by an exception handler or used by a different type of
processor (e.g., MC68010, MC68020, or future M68000 processor) in a multiprocessor
system.
5.5.3 Fault Recovery
There are four phases of recovery from a fault: recognizing the fault, saving the processor
state, repairing the fault (if possible), and restoring the processor state. Saving and
restoring the processor state are described in the following paragraphs.
The stack contents are identified by the special status word (SSW). In addition to
identifying the fault type represented by the stack frame, the SSW contains the internal
processor state corresponding to the fault.
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
TP
MV
0
TR
B1
B0
RR
RM
IN
RW
LG
4
3
SIZ
2
1
0
FUNC
TP—BERR frame type
MV—MOVEM in progress
TR—Trace pending
B1—Breakpoint channel 1 pending
B0—Breakpoint channel 0 pending
RR—Rerun write cycle after RTE
RM—Faulted cycle was read-modify-write
IN—Instruction/other
RW—Read/write of faulted bus cycle
LG—Original operand size was long word
SIZ—Remaining size of faulted bus cycle
FUNC—Function code of faulted bus cycle
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The TP field defines the class of the faulted bus operation. Two bus error exception
frame types are defined. One is for faults on prefetch and operand accesses, and the
other is for faults during exception frame stacking:
0 = Operand or prefetch bus fault
1 = Exception processing bus fault
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MV is set when the operand transfer portion of the MOVEM instruction is in progress at
the time of a bus fault. If a prefetch bus fault occurs while prefetching the MOVEM
opcode and extension word, both the MV and IN bits will be set.
0 = MOVEM was not in progress when fault occurred
1 = MOVEM was in progress when fault occurred
TR indicates that a trace exception was pending when a bus error exception was
processed. The instruction that generated the trace will not be restarted upon return
from the exception handler. This includes MOVEM and released write bus errors
indicated by the assertion of either MV or RR in the SSW.
0 = Trace not pending
1 = Trace pending
B1 indicates that a breakpoint exception was pending on channel 1 (external breakpoint
source) when a bus error exception was processed. Pending breakpoint status is
stacked, regardless of the type of bus error exception.
0 = Breakpoint not pending
1 = Breakpoint pending
B0 indicates that a breakpoint exception was pending on channel 0 (internal breakpoint
source) when the bus error exception was processed. Pending breakpoint status is
stacked, regardless of the type of bus error exception.
0 = Breakpoint not pending
1 = Breakpoint pending
RR will be set if the faulted bus cycle was a released write. A released write is one that
is overlapped. If the write is completed (rerun) in the exception handler, the RR bit
should be cleared before executing RTE. The bus cycle will be rerun if the RR bit is set
upon return from the exception handler.
0 = Faulted cycle was read, RMW, or unreleased write
1 = Faulted cycle was a released write
Faulted RMW bus cycles set the RM bit. RM is ignored during unstacking.
0 = Faulted cycle was non-RMW cycle
1 = Faulted cycle was either the read or write of an RMW cycle
Instruction prefetch faults are distinguished from operand (both read and write) faults by
the IN bit. If IN is cleared, the error was on an operand cycle; if IN is set, the error was
on an instruction prefetch. IN is ignored during unstacking.
0 = Operand
1 = Prefetch
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Read and write bus cycles are distinguished by the RW bit. Read bus cycles will set this
bit, and write bus cycles will clear it. RW is reloaded into the bus controller if the RR bit
is set during unstacking.
0 = Faulted cycle was an operand write
1 = Faulted cycle was a prefetch or operand read
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The LG bit indicates an original operand size of long word. LG is cleared if the original
operand was a byte or word—SIZ will indicate original (and remaining) size. LG is set if
the original was a long word—SIZ will indicate the remaining size at the time of fault. LG
is ignored during unstacking.
0 = Original operand size was byte or word
1 = Original operand size was long word
The SSW SIZ field shows operand size remaining when a fault was detected. This field
does not indicate the initial size of the operand, nor does it necessarily indicate the
proper status of a dynamically sized bus cycle. Dynamic sizing occurs on the external
bus and is transparent to the CPU. Byte size is shown only when the original operand
was a byte. The field is reloaded into the bus controller if the RR bit is set during
unstacking. The SIZ field is encoded as follows:
00—Long word
01—Byte
10—Word
11—Unused, reserved
The function code for the faulted cycle is stacked in the FUNC field of the SSW, which is
a copy of FC2–FC0 for the faulted bus cycle. This field is reloaded into the bus
controller if the RR bit is set during unstacking. All unused bits are stacked as zeros and
are ignored during unstacking. Further discussion of the SSW is included in 5.5.3.1
Types of Faults.
5.5.3.1 TYPES OF FAULTS. An efficient implementation of instruction restart dictates that
faults on some bus cycles be treated differently than faults on other bus cycles. The
CPU32 defines four fault types: released write faults, faults during exception processing,
faults during MOVEM operand transfer, and faults on any other bus cycle.
5.5.3.1.1 Type I—Released Write Faults. CPU32 instruction pipelining can cause a final
instruction write to overlap the execution of a following instruction. A write that is
overlapped is called a released write. A released write fault occurs when a bus error or
some other fault occurs on the released write.
Released write faults are taken at the next instruction boundary. The stacked PC is that of
the next unexecuted instruction. If a subsequent instruction attempts an operand access
while a released write fault is pending, the instruction is aborted and the write fault is
acknowledged. This action prevents stale data from being used by the instruction.
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The SSW for a released write fault contains the following bit pattern:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
0
0
0
TR
B1
B0
1
0
0
0
LG
4
3
2
SIZ
0
FUNC
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TR, B1, and B0 are set if the corresponding exception is pending when the bus error
exception is taken. Status regarding the faulted bus cycle is reflected in the LG, SIZ, and
FUNC fields.
The remainder of the stack contains the PC of the next unexecuted instruction, the current
SR, the address of the faulted memory location, and the contents of the data buffer that
was to be written to memory. This data is written on the stack in the format depicted in
Figure 5-15. When a released write fault exception handler executes, the machine will
complete the faulted write and then continue executing instructions wherever the PC
indicates.
5.5.3.1.2 Type II—Prefetch, Operand, RMW, and MOVEP Faults. The majority of bus
error exceptions are included in this category—all instruction prefetches, all operand
reads, all RMW cycles, and all operand accesses resulting from execution of MOVEP
(except the last write of a MOVEP Rn,〈ea〉 or the last write of MOVEM, which are type I
faults). The TAS, MOVEP, and MOVEM instructions account for all operand writes not
considered released.
All type II faults cause an immediate exception that aborts the current instruction. Any
registers that were altered as the result of an EA calculation (i.e., postincrement or
predecrement) are restored prior to processing the bus cycle fault.
The SSW for faults in this category contains the following bit pattern:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
0
0
0
0
B1
B0
0
RM
IN
RW
LG
4
3
SIZ
2
0
FUNC
The trace pending bit is always cleared, since the instruction will be restarted upon return
from the handler. Saving a pending exception on the stack causes a trace exception to be
taken prior to restarting the instruction. If the exception handler does not alter the stacked
SR trace bits, the trace is requeued when the instruction is started.
The breakpoint pending bits are stacked in the SSW, even though the instruction is
restarted upon return from the handler. This avoids problems with bus state analyzer
equipment that has been programmed to breakpoint only the first access to a specific
location or to count accesses to that location. If this response is not desired, the exception
handler can clear the bits before return. The RM, IN, RW, LG, FUNC, and SIZ fields all
reflect the type of bus cycle that caused the fault. If the bus cycle was an RMW, the RM bit
will be set, and the RW bit will show whether the fault was on a read or write.
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5.5.3.1.3 Type III—Faults During MOVEM Operand Transfer. Bus faults that occur as a
result of MOVEM operand transfer are classified as type III faults. MOVEM instruction
prefetch faults are type II faults.
Type III faults cause an immediate exception that aborts the current instruction. None of
the registers altered during execution of the faulted instruction are restored prior to
execution of the fault handler. This includes any register predecremented as a result of the
effective address calculation or any register overwritten during instruction execution. Since
postincremented registers are not updated until the end of an instruction, the register
retains its pre-instruction value unless overwritten by operand movement.
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The SSW for faults in this category contains the following bit pattern:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
0
1
0
TR
B1
B0
RR
0
IN
RW
LG
4
3
2
SIZ
0
FUNC
MV is set, indicating that MOVEM should be continued from the point where the fault
occurred upon return from the exception handler. TR, B1, and B0 are set if a
corresponding exception is pending when the bus error exception is taken. IN is set if a
bus fault occurs while prefetching an opcode or an extension word during instruction
restart. RW, LG, SIZ, and FUNC all reflect the type of bus cycle that caused the fault. All
write faults have the RR bit set to indicate that the write should be rerun upon return from
the exception handler.
The remainder of the stack frame contains sufficient information to continue MOVEM with
operand transfer following a faulted transfer. The address of the next operand to be
transferred, incremented or decremented by operand size, is stored in the faulted address
location ($08). The stacked transfer counter is set to 16 minus the number of transfers
attempted (including the faulted cycle). Refer to Figure 5-12 for the stacking format.
5.5.3.1.4 Type IV—Faults During Exception Processing. The fourth type of fault occurs
during exception processing. If this exception is a second address or bus error, the
machine halts in the double bus fault condition. However, if the exception is one that
causes a four- or six-word stack frame to be written, a bus cycle fault frame is written
below the faulted exception stack frame.
The SSW for a fault within an exception contains the following bit pattern:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
1
0
0
TR
B1
B0
0
0
0
1
LG
4
3
SIZ
2
0
FUNC
TR, B1, and B0 are set if a corresponding exception is pending when the bus error
exception is taken.
The contents of the faulted exception stack frame are included in the bus fault stack
frame. The pre-exception SR and the format/vector word of the faulted frame are stacked.
The type of exception can be determined from the format/vector word. If the faulted
exception stack frame contains six words, the PC of the instruction that caused the initial
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exception is also stacked. This data is placed on the stack in the format shown in Figure
5-13. The return address from the initial exception is stacked for RTE .
5.5.3.2 CORRECTING A FAULT. There are two ways to complete a faulted released write
bus cycle. The first is to use a software handler. The second is to rerun the bus cycle via
RTE.
Type II fault handlers must terminate with RTE, but specific requirements must also be
met before an instruction is restarted.
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There are three varieties of type III operand fault recovery. The first is completion of an
instruction in software. The second is conversion to type II with restart via RTE. The third
is continuation from the fault via RTE.
5.5.3.2.1 Type I—Completing Released Writes via Software. To complete a bus cycle
in software, a handler must first read the SSW function code field to determine the
appropriate address space, access the fault address pointer on the stack, and then
transfer data from the stacked image of the output buffer to the fault address.
Because the CPU32 has a 16-bit internal data bus, long operands require two bus
accesses. A fault during the second access of a long operand causes the LG bit in the
SSW to be set. The SIZ field indicates remaining operand size. If operand coherency is
important, the complete operand must be rewritten. After a long operand is rewritten, the
RR bit must be cleared. Failure to clear the RR bit can cause the RTE instruction to rerun
the bus cycle. Following rewrite, it is not necessary to adjust the PC (or other stack
contents) before executing RTE.
5.5.3.2.2 Type I—Completing Released Writes via RTE. An exception handler can use
the RTE instruction to complete a faulted bus cycle. When RTE executes, the fault
address, data output buffer, PC, and SR are restored from the stack. Any pending
breakpoint or trace exceptions, as indicated by TR, B1, and B0 in the stacked SSW, are
requeued during SSW restoration. The RR bit in the SSW is checked during the
unstacking operation; if it is set, the RW, FUNC, and SIZ fields are restored and the
released write cycle is rerun.
To maintain long-word operand coherence, stack contents must be adjusted prior to RTE
execution. The fault address must be decremented by 2 if LG is set and SIZ indicates a
remaining byte or word. SIZ must be set to long. All other fields should be left unchanged.
The bus controller uses the modified fault address and SIZ field to rerun the complete
released write cycle.
Manipulating the stacked SSW can cause unpredictable results because RTE checks only
the RR bit to determine if a bus cycle must be rerun. Inadvertent alteration of the control
bits could cause the bus cycle to be a read instead of a write or could cause access to a
different address space than the original bus cycle. If the rerun bus cycle is a read,
returned data will be ignored.
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5.5.3.2.3 Type II—Correcting Faults via RTE. Instructions aborted because of a type II
fault are restarted upon return from the exception handler. A fault handler must establish
safe restart conditions. If a fault is caused by a nonresident page in a demand-paged
virtual memory configuration, the fault address must be read from the stack, and the
appropriate page retrieved. An RTE instruction terminates the exception handler. After
unstacking the machine state, the instruction is refetched and restarted.
5.5.3.2.4 Type III—Correcting Faults via Software. Sufficient information is contained in
the stack frame to complete MOVEM in software. After the cause of the fault is corrected,
the faulted bus cycle must be rerun. Perform the following procedures to complete an
instruction through software:
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A. Setup for Rerun
Read the MOVEM opcode and extension from locations pointed to by stackframe PC and
PC + 2. The EA need not be recalculated since the next operand address is saved in the
stack frame. However, the opcode EA field must be examined to determine how to update
the address register and PC when the instruction is complete.
Adjust the mask to account for operands already transferred. Subtract the stacked
operand transfer count from 16 to obtain the number of operands transferred. Scan the
mask using this count value. Each time a set bit is found, clear it and decrement the
counter. When the count is zero, the mask is ready for use.
Adjust the operand address. If the predecrement addressing mode is in effect, subtract the
operand size from the stacked value; otherwise, add the operand size to the stacked
value.
B. Rerun Instruction
Scan the mask for set bits. Read/write the selected register from/to the operand address
as each bit is found.
As each operand is transferred, clear the mask bit and increment (decrement) the operand
address. When all bits in the mask are cleared, all operands have been transferred.
If the addressing mode is predecrement or postincrement, update the register to complete
the execution of the instruction.
If TR is set in the stacked SSW, create a six-word stack frame and execute the trace
handler. If either B1 or B0 is set in the SSW, create another six-word stack frame and
execute the hardware breakpoint handler.
De-allocate the stack and return control to the faulted program.
5.5.3.2.5 Type III—Correcting Faults by Conversion and Restart. In some situations it
may be necessary to rerun all the operand transfers for a faulted instruction rather than
continue from a faulted operand. Clearing the MV bit in the stacked SSW converts a type
III fault into a type II fault. Consequently, MOVEM, like all other type II
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exceptions, will be restarted upon return from the exception handler. When a fault occurs
after an operand has transferred, that transfer is not "undone". However, these memory
locations are accessed a second time when the instruction is restarted. If a register used
in an EA calculation is overwritten before a fault occurs, an incorrect EA is calculated upon
instruction restart.
5.5.3.2.6 Type III—Correcting Faults via RTE. The preferred method of MOVEM bus
fault recovery is to correct the cause of the fault and then execute an RTE instruction
without altering the stack contents.
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The RTE recognizes that MOVEM was in progress when a fault occurred, restores the
appropriate machine state, refetches the instruction, repeats the faulted transfer, and
continues the instruction.
MOVEM is the only instruction continued upon return from an exception handler. Although
the instruction is refetched, the EA is not recalculated, and the mask is rescanned the
same number of times as before the fault; modifying the code prior to RTE can cause
unexpected results.
5.5.3.2.7 Type IV—Correcting Faults via Software. Bus error exceptions can occur
during exception processing while the processor is fetching an exception vector or while it
is stacking. The same stack frame and SSW are used in both cases, but each has a
distinct fault address. The stacked faulted exception format/vector word identifies the type
of faulted exception and the contents of the remainder of the frame. A fault address
corresponding to the vector specified in the stacked format/vector word indicates that the
processor could not obtain the address of the exception handler.
A bus error exception handler should execute RTE after correcting a fault. RTE restores
the internal machine state, fetches the address of the original exception handler, recreates
the original exception stack frame, and resumes execution at the exception handler
address.
If the fault is intractable, the exception handler should rewrite the faulted exception stack
frame at SP + $14 + $06 and then jump directly to the original exception handler. The
stack frame can be generated from the information in the bus error frame: the preexception SR (SP + $0C), the format/vector word (SP + $0E), and, if the frame being
written is a six-word frame, the PC of the instruction causing the exception (SP + $10).
The return PC value is available at SP + $02.
A stacked fault address equal to the current SP may indicate that, although the first
exception received a bus error while stacking, the bus error exception stacking
successfully completed. This occurrence is extremely improbable, but the CPU32
supports recovery from it. Once the exception handler determines that the fault has been
corrected, recovery can proceed as described previously. If the fault cannot be corrected,
move the supervisor stack to another area of memory, copy all valid stack frames to the
new stack, create a faulted exception frame on top of the stack, and resume execution at
the exception handler address.
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5.5.4 CPU32 Stack Frames
The CPU32 generates three different stack frames: four-word frames, six-word frames,
and twelve-word bus error frames.
5.5.4.1 FOUR-WORD STACK FRAME. This stack frame is created by interrupt, format
error, TRAP #n, illegal instruction, A-line and F-line emulator trap, and privilege violation
exceptions. Depending on the exception type, the PC value is either the address of the
next instruction to be executed or the address of the instruction that caused the exception
(see Figure 5-12).
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15
0
SP ⇒
STATUS REGISTER
+$02
PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$06
0
0
0
0
VECTOR OFFSET
Figure 5-12. Format $0—Four-Word Stack Frame
5.5.4.2 SIX-WORD STACK FRAME. This stack frame (see Figure 5-13) is created by
instruction-related traps, which include CHK, CHK2, TRAPcc, TRAPV, and divide-by-zero,
and by trace exceptions. The faulted instruction PC value is the address of the instruction
that caused the exception. The next PC value (the address to which RTE returns) is the
address of the next instruction to be executed.
15
0
SP ⇒
STATUS REGISTER
+$02
NEXT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
NEXT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$06
+$08
0
0
1
0
VECTOR OFFSET
FAULTED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
FAULTED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
Figure 5-13. Format $2—Six-Word Stack Frame
Hardware breakpoints also utilize this format. The faulted instruction PC value is the
address of the instruction executing when the breakpoint was sensed. Usually this is the
address of the instruction that caused the breakpoint, but, because released writes can
overlap following instructions, the faulted instruction PC may point to an instruction
following the instruction that caused the breakpoint. The address to which RTE returns is
the address of the next instruction to be executed.
5.5.4.3 BUS ERROR STACK FRAME. This stack frame is created when a bus cycle fault
is detected. The CPU32 bus error stack frame differs significantly from the equivalent
stack frames of other M68000 Family members. The only internal machine state required
in the CPU32 stack frame is the bus controller state at the time of the error and a single
register.
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Bus operation in progress at the time of a fault is conveyed by the SSW.
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
TP
MV
0
TR
B1
B0
RR
RM
IN
RW
LG
3
SIZ
2
1
0
FUNC
The bus error stack frame is 12 words in length. There are three variations of the frame,
each distinguished by different values in the SSW TP and MV fields.
An internal transfer count register appears at location SP + $14 in all bus error stack
frames. The register contains an 8-bit microcode revision number, and, for type III faults,
an 8-bit transfer count. Register format is shown in Figure 5-14.
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15
8 7
MICROCODE REVISION NUMBER
0
TRANSFER COUNT
Figure 5-14. Internal Transfer Count Register
The microcode revision number is checked before a bus error stack frame is restored via
RTE. In a multiprocessor system, this check ensures that a processor using stacked
information is at the same revision level as the processor that created it.
The transfer count is ignored unless the MV bit in the stacked SSW is set. If the MV bit is
set, the least significant byte of the internal register is reloaded into the MOVEM transfer
counter during RTE execution.
For faults occurring during normal instruction execution (both prefetches and non-MOVEM
operand accesses) SSW TP, MV = 00. Stack frame format is shown in Figure 5-15.
Faults that occur during the operand portion of the MOVEM instruction are identified by
SSW TP, MV = 01. Stack frame format is shown in Figure 5-16.
When a bus error occurs during exception processing, SSW TP, MV = 10. The frame
shown in Figure 5-17 is written below the faulting frame. Stacking begins at the address
pointed to by SP – 6 (SP value is the value before initial stacking on the faulted frame).
The frame can have either four or six words, depending on the type of error. Four-word
stack frames do not include the faulted instruction PC (the internal transfer count register
is located at SP + $10 and the SSW is located at SP + $12).
The fault address of a dynamically sized bus cycle is the address of the upper byte,
regardless of the byte that caused the error.
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15
0
SP ⇒
STATUS REGISTER
+$02
RETURN PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
RETURN PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$06
1
1
0
0
+$08
VECTOR OFFSET
FAULTED ADDRESS HIGH
FAULTED ADDRESS LOW
+$0C
DBUF HIGH
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DBUF LOW
+$10
CURRENT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
CURRENT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$14
+$16
INTERNAL TRANSFER COUNT REGISTER
0
0
SPECIAL STATUS WORD
Figure 5-15. Format $C—BERR Stack for Prefetches and Operands
15
0
SP ⇒
STATUS REGISTER
+$02
RETURN PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
RETURN PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$06
1
1
+$08
0
0
VECTOR OFFSET
FAULTED ADDRESS HIGH
FAULTED ADDRESS LOW
+$0C
DBUF HIGH
DBUF LOW
+$10
CURRENT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
CURRENT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$14
+$16
INTERNAL TRANSFER COUNT REGISTER
0
1
SPECIAL STATUS WORD
Figure 5-16. Format $C—BERR Stack on MOVEM Operand
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15
0
SP ⇒
STATUS REGISTER
+$02
NEXT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
NEXT INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
+$06
1
1
0
0
VECTOR OFFSET
+$08
FAULTED ADDRESS HIGH
FAULTED ADDRESS LOW
+$0C
PRE-EXCEPTION STATUS REGISTER
FAULTED EXCEPTION FORMAT/VECTOR WORD
+$10
FAULTED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH (SIX WORD FRAME ONLY)
FAULTED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM COUNTER LOW (SIX WORD FRAME ONLY)
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+$14
+$16
INTERNAL TRANSFER COUNT REGISTER
1
0
SPECIAL STATUS WORD
Figure 5-17. Format $C—Four- and Six-Word BERR Stack
5.6 DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
All M68000 family members have the following special features that facilitate applications
development.
Trace on Instruction Execution—All M68000 processors include an instruction-byinstruction tracing facility to aid in program development. The MC68020, MC68030, and
CPU32 can also trace those instructions that change program flow. In trace mode, an
exception is generated after each instruction is executed, allowing a debugger program to
monitor execution of a program under test. See 5.5.2.10 Tracing for more information.
Breakpoint Instruction—An emulator can insert software breakpoints into target code to
indicate when a breakpoint occurs. On the MC68010, MC68020, MC68030, and CPU32,
this function is provided via illegal instructions ($4848–$484F) that serve as breakpoint
instructions. See 5.5.2.5 Software Breakpoints for more information.
Unimplemented Instruction Emulation—When an attempt is made to execute an illegal
instruction, an illegal instruction exception occurs. Unimplemented instructions (F-line, Aline) utilize separate exception vectors to permit efficient emulation of unimplemented
instructions in software. See 5.5.2.8 Illegal or Unimplemented Instructions for more
information.
5.6.1 CPU32 Integrated Development Support
In addition to standard MC68000 family capabilities, the CPU32 has features to support
advanced integrated system development. These features include background debug
mode, deterministic opcode tracking, hardware breakpoints, and internal visibility in a
single-chip environment.
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5.6.1.1 BACKGROUND DEBUG MODE (BDM) OVERVIEW. Microprocessor systems
generally provide a debugger, implemented in software, for system analysis at the lowest
level. The BDM on the CPU32 is unique because the debugger is implemented in CPU
microcode.
BDM incorporates a full set of debug options—registers can be viewed and/or altered,
memory can be read or written, and test features can be invoked.
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A resident debugger simplifies implementation of an in-circuit emulator. In a common
setup (see Figure 5-18), emulator hardware replaces the target system processor. A
complex, expensive pod-and-cable interface provides a communication path between
target system and emulator.
IN-CIRCUIT
EMULATOR
TARGET
SYSTEM
TARGET
MCU
.. .
Figure 5-18. In-Circuit Emulator Configuration
By contrast, an integrated debugger supports use of a bus state analyzer (BSA) for incircuit emulation. The processor remains in the target system (see Figure 5-19), and the
interface is simplified. The BSA monitors target processor operation and the on-chip
debugger controls the operating environment. Emulation is much closer to target
hardware; thus, many interfacing problems (i.e., limitations on high-frequency operation,
AC and DC parametric mismatches, and restrictions on cable length) are minimized.
TARGET
SYSTEM
TARGET
MCU
BUS STATE
ANALYZER
.
Figure 5-19. Bus State Analyzer Configuration
5.6.1.2 DETERMINISTIC OPCODE TRACKING OVERVIEW. CPU32 function code
outputs are augmented by two supplementary signals that monitor the instruction pipeline.
The IFETCH output signal identifies bus cycles in which data is loaded into the pipeline
and signals pipeline flushes. The IPIPE output signal indicates when each mid-instruction
pipeline advance occurs and when instruction execution begins. These signals allow a
BSA to synchronize with instruction stream activity. Refer to 5.6.3 Deterministic Opcode
Tracking for complete information.
5.6.1.3 ON-CHIP HARDWARE BREAKPOINT OVERVIEW. An external breakpoint input
and an on-chip hardware breakpoint capability permit breakpoint trap on any
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memory access. Off-chip address comparators will not detect breakpoints on internal
accesses unless show cycles are enabled. Breakpoints on prefetched instructions, which
are flushed from the pipeline before execution, are not acknowledged, but operand
breakpoints are always acknowledged. Acknowledged breakpoints can initiate either
exception processing or BDM. See 5.5.2.6 Hardware Breakpoints for more information.
5.6.2 Background Debug Mode
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BDM is an alternate CPU32 operating mode. During BDM, normal instruction execution is
suspended, and special microcode performs debugging functions under external control.
Figure 5-20 is a BDM block diagram.
BDM can be initiated in several ways—by externally generated breakpoints, by internal
peripheral breakpoints, by the background instruction (BGND), or by catastrophic
exception conditions. While in BDM, the CPU32 ceases to fetch instructions via the
parallel bus and communicates with the development system via a dedicated, high-speed,
SPI-type serial command interface.
SERIAL
INTERFACE
IPIPE/DSO
MICROCODE
SEQUENCER
IFETCH/DSI
IRC
IRB
IR
BERR
BERR
BERR
BKPT
BKPT
BKPT
BKPT/DSCLK
BUS
CONTROL
DATA BUS
BERR
FREEZE
. . ...
EXECUTION
UNIT
ADDRESS BUS
Figure 5-20. BDM Block Diagram
5.6.2.1 ENABLING BDM. Accidentally entering BDM in a nondevelopment environment
could lock up the CPU32 since the serial command interface would probably not be
available. For this reason, BDM is enabled during reset via the BKPT signal.
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BDM operation is enabled when BKPT is asserted (low) at the rising edge of RESET. BDM
remains enabled until the next system reset. A high BKPT on the trailing edge of RESET
disables BDM. BKPT is relatched on each rising transition of RESET . BKPT is
synchronized internally and must be held low for at least two clock cycles prior to negation
of RESET.
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BDM enable logic must be designed with special care. If hold time on BKPT (after the
trailing edge of RESET) extends into the first bus cycle following reset, this bus cycle could
be tagged with a breakpoint. Refer to Section 3 Bus Operation for timing information.
5.6.2.2 BDM SOURCES. When BDM is enabled, any of several sources can cause the
transition from normal mode to BDM. These sources include external BKPT hardware, the
BGND instruction, a double bus fault, and internal peripheral breakpoints. If BDM is not
enabled when an exception condition occurs, the exception is processed normally. Table
5-19 summarizes the processing of each source for both enabled and disabled cases. As
depicted in the table, the BKPT instruction never causes a transition into BDM.
Table 5-19. BDM Source Summary
Source
BDM Enabled
BDM Disabled
BKPT
Background
Breakpoint Exception
Double Bus Fault
Background
Halted
BGND Instruction
Background
Illegal Instruction
BKPT Instruction
Opcode Substitution/
Illegal Instruction
Opcode Substitution/
Illegal Instruction
5.6.2.2.1 External BKPT Signal. Once enabled, BDM is initiated whenever assertion of
BKPT is acknowledged. If BDM is disabled, a breakpoint exception (vector $0C) is
acknowledged. The BKPT input has the same timing relationship to the data strobe trailing
edge as does read cycle data. There is no breakpoint acknowledge bus cycle when BDM
is entered.
5.6.2.2.2 BGND Instruction. An illegal instruction, $4AFA, is reserved for use by
development tools. The CPU32 defines $4AFA (BGND) to be a BDM entry point when
BDM is enabled. If BDM is disabled, an illegal instruction trap is acknowledged. Illegal
instruction traps are discussed in 5.5.2.8 Illegal or Unimplemented Instructions.
5.6.2.2.3 Double Bus Fault. The CPU32 normally treats a double bus fault (two bus faults
in succession) as a catastrophic system error and halts. When this condition occurs during
initial system debug (a fault in the reset logic), further debugging is impossible until the
problem is corrected. In BDM, the fault can be temporarily bypassed so that its origin can
be isolated and eliminated.
5.6.2.3 ENTERING BDM. When the processor detects a BKPT or a double bus fault or
decodes a BGND instruction, it suspends instruction execution and asserts the FREEZE
output. FREEZE assertion is the first indication that the processor has entered BDM. Once
FREEZE has been asserted, the CPU enables the serial communication hardware and
awaits a command.
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The CPU writes a unique value indicating the source of BDM transition into temporary
register A (ATEMP) as part of the process of entering BDM. A user can poll ATEMP and
determine the source (see Table 5-20) by issuing a read system register command
(RSREG). ATEMP is used in most debugger commands for temporary storage—it is
imperative that the RSREG command be the first command issued after transition into
BDM.
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Table 5-20. Polling the BDM Entry Source
Source
ATEMP 31–16
ATEMP 15–0
Double Bus Fault
SSW*
$FFFF
BGND Instruction
$0000
$0001
Hardware Breakpoint
$0000
$0000
*SSW is described in detail in 5.5.3 Fault Recovery.
A double bus fault during initial SP/PC fetch sequence is distinguished by a value of
$FFFFFFFF in the current instruction PC. At no other time will the processor write an odd
value into this register.
5.6.2.4 COMMAND EXECUTION. Figure 5-21 summarizes BDM command execution.
Commands consist of one 16-bit operation word and can include one or more 16-bit
extension words. Each incoming word is read as it is assembled by the serial interface.
The microcode routine corresponding to a command is executed as soon as the command
is complete. Result operands are loaded into the output shift register to be shifted out as
the next command is read. This process is repeated for each command until the CPU
returns to normal operating mode.
5.6.2.5 BDM REGISTERS. BDM processing uses three special-purpose registers to track
program context during development. A description of each register follows.
5.6.2.5.1 Fault Address Register (FAR). The FAR contains the address of the faulting
bus cycle immediately following a bus or address error. This address remains available
until overwritten by a subsequent bus cycle. Following a double bus fault, the FAR
contains the address of the last bus cycle. The address of the first fault (if one occurred) is
not visible to the user.
5.6.2.5.2 Return Program Counter (RPC). The RPC points to the location where fetching
will commence after transition from BDM to normal mode. This register should be
accessed to change the flow of a program under development. Changing the RPC to an
odd value will cause an address error when normal mode prefetching begins.
5.6.2.5.3 Current Instruction Program Counter (PCC). The PCC holds a pointer to the
first word of the last instruction executed prior to transition into BDM. Due to instruction
pipelining, the instruction pointed to may not be the instruction which caused the
transition. An example is a breakpoint on a released write. The bus cycle may overlap as
many as two subsequent instructions before stalling the instruction sequencer. A BKPT
asserted during this cycle will not be acknowledged until the end of the instruction
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executing at completion of the bus cycle. PCC will contain $00000001 if BDM is entered
via a double bus fault immediately out of reset.
CPU32 ACTIVITY
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM ACTIVITY
.
ENTER (BDM)
• ASSERT FREEZE SIGNAL
• WAIT FOR COMMAND
SEND INITIAL COMMAND
• LOAD COMMAND REGISTER
• ENABLE SHIFT CLOCK
• SHIFT OUT 17 BITS
• DISABLE SHIFT CLOCK
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EXECUTE COMMAND
• LOAD: NOT READY/ RESPONSE
• PERFORM COMMAND
• STORE RESULTS
READ RESULTS/NEW COMMAND
• LOAD COMMAND REGISTER
• ENABLE SHIFT CLOCK
• SHIFT IN/OUT 17 BITS
• DISABLE SHIFT CLOCK
• READ RESULT REGISTER
IF RESULTS =
"NOT READY"
YES
NO
CONTINUE
Figure 5-21. BDM Command Execution Flowchart
5.6.2.6 RETURNING FROM BDM. BDM is terminated when a resume execution (GO) or
call user code (CALL) command is received. Both GO and CALL flush the instruction
pipeline and prefetch instructions from the location pointed to by the RPC.
The return PC and the memory space referred to by the SR SUPV bit reflect any changes
made during BDM. FREEZE is negated prior to initiating the first prefetch. Upon negation
of FREEZE, the serial subsystem is disabled, and the signals revert to IPIPE and IFETCH
functionality.
5.6.2.7 SERIAL INTERFACE. Communication with the CPU32 during BDM occurs via a
dedicated serial interface, which shares pins with other development features. The BKPT
signal becomes the DSCLK; DSI is received on IFETCH , and DSO is transmitted on
IPIPE.
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The serial interface uses a full-duplex synchronous protocol similar to the serial peripheral
interface (SPI) protocol. The development system serves as the master of the serial link
since it is responsible for the generation of DSCLK. If DSCLK is derived from the CPU32
system clock, development system serial logic is unhindered by the operating frequency of
the target processor. Operable frequency range of the serial clock is from DC to one-half
the processor system clock frequency.
The serial interface operates in full-duplex mode—i.e., data is transmitted and received
simultaneously by both master and slave devices. In general, data transitions occur on the
falling edge of DSCLK and are stable by the following rising edge of DSCLK. Data is
transmitted MSB first and is latched on the rising edge of DSCLK.
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The serial data word is 17 bits wide—16 data bits and a status/control (S/C) bit.
16
15
0
S/C
DATA FIELD
Bit 16 indicates the status of CPU-generated messages as shown in Table 5-21.
Table 5-21. CPU Generated Message Encoding
Encoding
Data
Message Type
0
xxxx
Valid Data Transfer
0
FFFF
Command Complete; Status OK
1
0000
Not Ready with Response; Come Again
1
0001
BERR Terminated Bus Cycle; Data Invalid
1
FFFF
Illegal Command
Command and data transfers initiated by the development system should clear bit 16. The
current implementation ignores this bit; however, Motorola reserves the right to use this bit
for future enhancements.
5.6.2.7.1 CPU Serial Logic. CPU serial logic, shown in the left-hand portion of Figure 522, consists of transmit and receive shift registers and of control logic that includes
synchronization, serial clock generation circuitry, and a received bit counter.
Both DSCLK and DSI are synchronized to on-chip clocks, thereby minimizing the chance
of propagating metastable states into the serial state machine. Data is sampled during the
high phase of CLKOUT. At the falling edge of CLKOUT, the sampled value is made
available to internal logic. If there is no synchronization between CPU32 and development
system hardware, the minimum hold time on DSI with respect to DSCLK is one full period
of CLKOUT.
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CPU
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER BUS
DATA
16
16
0
.
RCV DATA LATCH
SERIAL IN
PARALLEL OUT
COMMAND LATCH
DSI
PARALLEL IN
SERIAL OUT
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DSO
SERIAL IN
PARALLEL OUT
PARALLEL IN
SERIAL OUT
16
STATUS
RESULT LATCH
EXECUTION
UNIT
16
STATUS
SYNCHRONIZE
MICROSEQUENCER
CONTROL
LOGIC
DSCLK
DATA
CONTROL
LOGIC
SERIAL
CLOCK
Figure 5-22. Debug Serial I/O Block Diagram
The serial state machine begins a sequence of events based on the rising edge of the
synchronized DSCLK (see Figure 5-23). Synchronized serial data is transferred to the
input shift register, and the received bit counter is decremented. One-half clock period
later, the output shift register is updated, bringing the next output bit to the DSO signal.
DSO changes relative to the rising edge of DSCLK and does not necessarily remain
stable until the falling edge of DSCLK.
One clock period after the synchronized DSCLK has been seen internally, the updated
counter value is checked. If the counter has reached zero, the receive data latch is
updated from the input shift register. At this same time, the output shift register is reloaded
with the “not ready/come again” response. Once the receive data latch has been loaded,
the CPU is released to act on the new data. Response data overwrites the “not ready”
response when the CPU has completed the current operation.
Data written into the output shift register appears immediately on the DSO signal. In
general, this action changes the state of the signal from a high (“not ready” response
status bit) to a low (valid data status bit) logic level. However, this level change only
occurs if the command completes successfully. Error conditions overwrite the “not ready”
response with the appropriate response that also has the status bit set.
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CLKOUT
FREEZE
DSCLK
DSI
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SAMPLE
WINDOW
INTERNAL
SYNCHRONIZED
DSCLK
INTERNAL
SYNCHRONIZED
DSI
DSO
.
CLKOUT
Figure 5-23. Serial Interface Timing Diagram
A user can use the state change on DSO to signal hardware that the next serial transfer
may begin. A timeout of sufficient length to trap error conditions that do not change the
state of DSO should also be incorporated into the design. Hardware interlocks in the CPU
prevent result data from corrupting serial transfers in progress.
5.6.2.7.2 Development System Serial Logic. The development system, as the master of
the serial data link, must supply the serial clock. However, normal and BDM operations
could interact if the clock generator is not properly designed.
Breakpoint requests are made by asserting BKPT to the low state in either of two ways.
The primary method is to assert BKPT during a single bus cycle for which an exception is
desired. Another method is to assert BKPT , then continue to assert it until the CPU32
responds by asserting FREEZE. This method is useful for forcing a transition into BDM
when the bus is not being monitored. Each method requires a slightly different serial logic
design to avoid spurious serial clocks.
Figure 5-24 represents the timing required for asserting BKPT during a single bus cycle.
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SHIFT_CLK
FORCE_BGND
BKPT_TAG
BKPT
. . .... .. . . . . .. . . . .
FREEZE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure 5-24. BKPT Timing for Single Bus Cycle
Figure 5-25 depicts the timing of the BKPT/FREEZE method. In both cases, the serial
clock is left high after the final shift of each transfer. This technique eliminates the
possibility of accidentally tagging the prefetch initiated at the conclusion of a BDM session.
As mentioned previously, all timing within the CPU is derived from the rising edge of the
clock; the falling edge is effectively ignored.
SHIFT_CLK
FORCE_BGND
BKPT_TAG
BKPT
. . .... .. . . . . .. . . . .. .
FREEZE
Figure 5-25. BKPT Timing for Forcing BDM
Figure 5-26 represents a sample circuit providing for both BKPT assertion methods. As
the name implies, FORCE_BGND is used to force a transition into BDM by the assertion
of BKPT. FORCE_BGND can be a short pulse or can remain asserted until FREEZE is
asserted. Once asserted, the set-reset latch holds BKPT low until the first SHIFT_CLK is
applied.
BKPT_TAG
SHIFT_CLK
...
BKPT/DSCLK
S1
RESET
FORCE_BGND
Q
S2
R
Q
Figure 5-26. BKPT/DSCLK Logic Diagram
BKPT_TAG should be timed to the bus cycles since it is not latched. If extended past the
assertion of FREEZE, the negation of BKPT_TAG appears to the CPU32 as the first
DSCLK.
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DSCLK, the gated serial clock, is normally high, but it pulses low for each bit to be
transferred. At the end of the seventeenth clock period, it remains high until the start of the
next transmission. Clock frequency is implementation dependent and may range from DC
to the maximum specified frequency. Although performance considerations might dictate a
hardware implementation, software solutions can be used provided serial bus timing is
maintained.
5.6.2.8 COMMAND SET. The following paragraphs describe the command set available in
BDM.
5.6.2.8.1 Command Format. The following standard bit format is utilized by all BDM
commands.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
15
10
OPERATION
9
8
0
R/W
7
6
OP SIZE
5
4
3
0
0
A/D
2
0
REGISTER
EXTENSION WORD(S)
Bits 15–0—Operation Field
The operation field specifies the commands. This 6-bit field provides for a maximum of
64 unique commands.
R/W Field
The R/W field specifies the direction of operand transfer. When the bit is set, the
transfer is from CPU to development system. When the bit is cleared, data is written to
the CPU or to memory from the development system.
Operand Size
For sized operations, this field specifies the operand data size. All addresses are
expressed as 32-bit absolute values. The size field is encoded as listed in Table 5-22.
Table 5-22. Size Field Encoding
Encoding
Operand Size
00
Byte
01
Word
10
Long
11
Reserved
Address/Data (A/D) Field
The A/D field is used by commands that operate on address and data registers. It
determines whether the register field specifies a data or address register. One indicates
an address register; zero indicates a data register. For other commands, this field may
be interpreted differently.
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Register Field:
In most commands, this field specifies the register number for operations performed on
an address or data register.
Extension Word(s) (as required):
At this time, no command requires an extension word to specify fully the operation to be
performed, but some commands require extension words for addresses or immediate
data. Addresses require two extension words because only absolute long addressing is
permitted. Immediate data can be either one or two words in length—byte and word
data each require a single extension word, long-word data requires two words. Both
operands and addresses are transferred most significant word first.
5.6.2.8.2 Command Sequence Diagram. A command sequence diagram (see Figure 527) illustrates the serial bus traffic for each command. Each bubble in the diagram
represents a single 17-bit transfer across the bus. The top half in each diagram
corresponds to the data transmitted by the development system to the CPU; the bottom
half corresponds to the data returned by the CPU in response to the development system
commands. Command and result transactions are overlapped to minimize latency.
The cycle in which the command is issued contains the development system command
mnemonic (in this example, read memory location). During the same cycle, the CPU
responds with either the lowest order results of the previous command or with a command
complete status (if no results were required).
During the second cycle, the development system supplies the high-order 16 bits of the
memory address. The CPU returns a "not ready" response unless the received command
was decoded as unimplemented, in which case the response data is the illegal command
encoding. If an illegal command response occurs, the development system should
retransmit the command.
NOTE
The “not ready” response can be ignored unless a memory bus
cycle is in progress. Otherwise, the CPU can accept a new
serial transfer with eight system clock periods.
In the third cycle, the development system supplies the low-order 16 bits of a memory
address. The CPU always returns the “not ready” response in this cycle. At the completion
of the third cycle, the CPU initiates a memory read operation. Any serial transfers that
begin while the memory access is in progress return the “not ready” response.
Results are returned in the two serial transfer cycles following the completion of memory
access. The data transmitted to the CPU during the final transfer is the opcode for the
following command. Should a memory access generate either a bus or address error, an
error status is returned in place of the result data.
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COMMANDS TRANSMITTED TO THE CPU32
COMMAND CODE TRANSMITTED DURING THIS CYCLE
HIGH-ORDER 16 BITS OF MEMORY ADDRESS
LOW-ORDER 16 BITS OF MEMORY ADDRESS
NONSERIAL-RELATED ACTIVITY
SEQUENCE TAKEN IF
OPERATION HAS NOT
COMPLETED
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
READ (LONG)
???
MS ADDR
"NOT READY"
LS ADDR
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
READ
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT
COMMAND
CODE
XXX
XXX
MS RESULT
NEXT CMD
LS RESULT
XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
DATA UNUSED FROM
THIS TRANSFER
SEQUENCE TAKEN IF BUS ERROR
OR ADDRESS ERROR OCCURS ON
MEMORY ACCESS
SEQUENCE TAKEN IF
ILLEGAL COMMAND
IS RECEIVED BY CPU32
RESULTS FROM PREVIOUS COMMAND
HIGH- AND LOW-ORDER
16 BITS OF RESULT
. . .... .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. .
RESPONSES FROM THE CPU
Figure 5-27. Command-Sequence Diagram
5.6.2.8.3 Command Set Summary. The BDM command set is summarized in Table 5-23.
Subsequent paragraphs contain detailed descriptions of each command.
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Table 5-23. BDM Command Summary
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Command
Mnemonic
Description
Read A/D Register
Read the selected address or data register and return the results
via the serial interface.
RAREG/RDREG
Write A/D Register
WAREG/WDREG The data operand is written to the specified address or data
register.
Read System Register
RSREG
The specified system control register is read. All registers that can
be read in supervisor mode can be read in BDM.
Write System Register
WSREG
The operand data is written into the specified system control
register.
Read Memory Location
READ
Read the sized data at the memory location specified by the longword address. The SFC register determines the address space
accessed.
Write Memory Location
WRITE
Write the operand data to the memory location specified by the
long-word address. The DFC register determines the address
space accessed.
Dump Memory Block
DUMP
Used in conjunction with the READ command to dump large blocks
of memory. An initial READ is executed to set up the starting
address of the block and to retrieve the first result. Subsequent
operands are retrieved with the DUMP command.
Fill Memory Block
FILL
Used in conjunction with the WRITE command to fill large blocks of
memory. An initial WRITE is executed to set up the starting
address of the block and to supply the first operand. Subsequent
operands are written with the FILL command.
Resume Execution
GO
The pipeline is flushed and refilled before resuming instruction
execution at the return PC.
Call User Code
CALL
Current PC is stacked at the location of the current SP. Instruction
execution begins at user patch code.
Reset Peripherals
RST
Asserts RESET for 512 clock cycles. The CPU is not reset by this
command. Synonymous with the CPU RESET instruction.
No Operation
NOP
NOP performs no operation and may be used as a null command.
5.6.2.8.4 Read A/D Register (RAREG/RDREG). Read the selected address or data
register and return the results via the serial interface.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
A/D
2
1
0
REGISTER
Command Sequence:
RDREG/RAREG
???
XXX
MS RESULT
NEXT CMD
LS RESULT
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
None
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Result Data:
The contents of the selected register are returned as a long-word value. The data is
returned most significant word first.
5.6.2.8.5 Write A/D Register (WAREG/WDREG). The operand (long-word) data is written
to the specified address or data register. All 32 bits of the register are altered by the write.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
A/D
2
0
REGISTER
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Command Sequence:
WDREG/WAREG
???
MS DATA
"NOT READY"
LS DATA
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
Operand Data:
Long-word data is written into the specified address or data register. The data is
supplied most significant word first.
Result Data:
Command complete status ($0FFFF) is returned when register write is complete.
5.6.2.8.6 Read System Register (RSREG). The specified system control register is read.
All registers that can be read in supervisor mode can be read in BDM. Several internal
temporary registers are also accessible.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
0
REGISTER
Command Sequence:
RSREG
???
XXX
MS RESULT
NEXT CMD
LS RESULT
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
None
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Result Data:
Always returns 32 bits of data, regardless of the size of the register being read. If the
register is less than 32 bits, the result is returned zero extended.
Register Field:
The system control register is specified by the register field (see Table 5-24).
Table 5-24. Register Field for RSREG and WSREG
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
System Register
Select Code
Return Program Counter (RPC)
0000
Current Instruction Program Counter (PCC)
0001
Status Register (SR)
1011
User Stack Pointer (USP)
1100
Supervisor Stack Pointer (SSP)
1101
Source Function Code Register (SFC)
1110
Destination Function Code Register (DFC)
1111
Temporary Register A (ATEMP)
1000
Fault Address Register (FAR)
1001
Vector Base Register (VBR)
1010
5.6.2.8.7 Write System Register (WSREG). Operand data is written into the specified
system control register. All registers that can be written in supervisor mode can be written
in BDM. Several internal temporary registers are also accessible.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
0
REGISTER
Command Sequence:
WSREG
???
MS DATA
"NOT READY"
LS DATA
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
Operand Data:
The data to be written into the register is always supplied as a 32-bit long word. If the
register is less than 32 bits, the least significant word is used.
Result Data:
“Command complete” status is returned when register write is complete.
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Register Field:
The system control register is specified by the register field (see Table 5-24). The FAR
is a read-only register—any write to it is ignored.
5.6.2.8.8 Read Memory Location (READ). Read the sized data at the memory location
specified by the long-word address. Only absolute addressing is supported. The SFC
register determines the address space accessed. Valid data sizes include byte, word, or
long word.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
OP SIZE
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Command Sequence:
READ (B/W)
???
MS ADDR
"NOT READY"
LS ADDR
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
READ
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
RESULT
XXX
BERR/AERR
READ (LONG)
???
MS ADDR
"NOT READY"
LS ADDR
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
READ
MEMORY
LOCATION
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
XXX
"NOT READY"
XXX
MS RESULT
NEXT CMD
LS RESULT
XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
The single operand is the long-word address of the requested memory location.
Result Data:
The requested data is returned as either a word or long word. Byte data is returned in
the least significant byte of a word result, with the upper byte cleared. Word results
return 16 bits of significant data; long-word results return 32 bits.
A successful read operation returns data bit 16 cleared. If a bus or address error is
encountered, the returned data is $10001.
5.6.2.8.9 Write Memory Location (WRITE). Write the operand data to the memory
location specified by the long-word address. The DFC register determines the address
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space accessed. Only absolute addressing is supported. Valid data sizes include byte,
word, and long word.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
OP SIZE
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Command Sequence:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
WRITE (B/W)
???
MS ADDR
"NOT READY"
LS ADDR
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
DATA
"NOT READY"
WRITE
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
"NOT READY"
XXX CMD
NEXT
"CMD COMPLETE"
XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
WRITE (LONG)
???
MS ADDR
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
LS ADDR
"NOT READY"
MS DATA
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
LS DATA
"NOT READY"
WRITE
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT
XXX CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
Two operands are required for this instruction. The first operand is a long-word absolute
address that specifies a location to which the operand data is to be written. The second
operand is the data. Byte data is transmitted as a 16-bit word, justified in the least
significant byte; 16- and 32-bit operands are transmitted as 16 and 32 bits, respectively.
Result Data:
Successful write operations return a status of $0FFFF. Bus or address errors on the
write cycle are indicated by the assertion of bit 16 in the status message and by a data
pattern of $0001.
5.6.2.8.10 Dump Memory Block (DUMP). DUMP is used in conjunction with the READ
command to dump large blocks of memory. An initial READ is executed to set up the
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starting address of the block and to retrieve the first result. Subsequent operands are
retrieved with the DUMP command. The initial address is incremented by the operand size
(1, 2, or 4) and saved in a temporary register. Subsequent DUMP commands use this
address, increment it by the current operand size, and store the updated address back in
the temporary register.
NOTE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The DUMP command does not check for a valid address in the
temporary register—DUMP is a valid command only when
preceded by another DUMP or by a READ command.
Otherwise, the results are undefined. The NOP command can
be used for intercommand padding without corrupting the
address pointer.
The size field is examined each time a DUMP command is given, allowing the operand
size to be altered dynamically.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
OP SIZE
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Command Sequence:
DUMP (LONG)
???
READ
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
RESULT
DUMP (LONG)
???
READ
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
MS RESULT
MOTOROLA
NEXT CMR
LS RESULT
XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
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Operand Data:
None
Result Data:
Requested data is returned as either a word or long word. Byte data is returned in the
least significant byte of a word result. Word results return 16 bits of significant data;
long-word results return 32 bits. Status of the read operation is returned as in the READ
command: $0xxxx for success, $10001 for bus or address errors.
5.6.2.8.11 Fill Memory Block (FILL). FILL is used in conjunction with the WRITE
command to fill large blocks of memory. An initial WRITE is executed to set up the starting
address of the block and to supply the first operand. Subsequent operands are written
with the FILL command. The initial address is incremented by the operand size (1, 2, or 4)
and is saved in a temporary register. Subsequent FILL commands use this address,
increment it by the current operand size, and store the updated address back in the
temporary register.
NOTE
The FILL command does not check for a valid address in the
temporary register—FILL is a valid command only when
preceded by another FILL or by a WRITE command.
Otherwise, the results are undefined. The NOP command can
be used for intercommand padding without corrupting the
address pointer.
The size field is examined each time a FILL command is given, allowing the operand size
to be altered dynamically.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
OP SIZE
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6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Command Sequence:
FILL (B/W)
???
WRITE
MEMORY
LOCATION
LS DATA
"NOT READY"
MS DATA
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
XXX
BERR/AERR
FILL (LONG)
???
DATA
"NOT READY"
WRITE
MEMORY
LOCATION
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
XXX
"NOT READY"
NEXT CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
XXX
BERR/AERR
Operand Data:
A single operand is data to be written to the memory location. Byte data is transmitted
as a 16-bit word, justified in the least significant byte; 16- and 32-bit operands are
transmitted as 16 and 32 bits, respectively.
Result Data:
Status is returned as in the WRITE command: $0FFFF for a successful operation and
$10001 for a bus or address error during write.
5.6.2.8.12 Resume Execution (GO). The pipeline is flushed and refilled before normal
instruction execution is resumed. Prefetching begins at the return PC and current privilege
level. If either the PC or SR is altered during BDM, the updated value of these registers is
used when prefetching commences.
NOTE
The processor exits BDM when a bus error or address error
occurs on the first instruction prefetch from the new PC—the
error is trapped as a normal mode exception. The stacked
value of the current PC may not be valid in this case,
depending on the state of the machine prior to entering BDM.
For address error, the PC does not reflect the true return PC.
Instead, the stacked fault address is the (odd) return PC.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Command Sequence:
GO
???
NORMAL
MODE
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
None
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Result Data:
None
5.6.2.8.13 Call User Code (CALL). This instruction provides a convenient way to patch
user code. The return PC is stacked at the location pointed to by the current SP. The
stacked PC serves as a return address to be restored by the RTS command that
terminates the patch routine. After stacking is complete, the 32-bit operand data is loaded
into the PC. The pipeline is flushed and refilled from the location pointed to by the new
PC, BDM is exited, and normal mode instruction execution begins.
NOTE
If a bus error or address error occurs during return address
stacking, the CPU returns an error status via the serial
interface and remains in BDM.
If a bus error or address error occurs on the first instruction
prefetch from the new PC, the processor exits BDM and the
error is trapped as a normal mode exception. The stacked
value of the current PC may not be valid in this case,
depending on the state of the machine prior to entering BDM.
For address error, the PC does not reflect the true return PC.
Instead, the stacked fault address is the (odd) return PC.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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Command Sequence:
CALL
???
MS ADDR
"NOT READY"
LS ADDR
"NOT READY"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
STACK
RETURN PC
FREEZE
NEGATED
PREFETCH
STARTED
NORMAL
MODE
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XXX
BERR/AERR
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
The 32-bit operand data is the starting location of the patch routine, which is the initial
PC upon exiting BDM.
Result Data:
None
As an example, consider the following code segment. It outputs a character from the
MC68340 serial module channel A.
CHKSTAT:
MOVE.B
BNE.B
MOVE.B
SRA,D0
CHKSTAT
TBA,OUTPUT
Move serial status to D0
Loop until condition true
Transmit character
MISSING:
ANDI.B
RTS
#3,D0
Check for TxEMP flag
BDM and the CALL command can be used to patch the code as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Breakpoint user program at CHKSTAT
Enter BDM
Execute CALL command to MISSING
Exit BDM
Execute MISSING code
Return to user program
5.6.2.8.14 Reset Peripherals (RST). RST asserts RESET for 512 clock cycles. The CPU
is not reset by this command. This command is synonymous with the CPU RESET
instruction.
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Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Command Sequence:
RESET
???
ASSERT
RESET
XXX
"NOT READY"
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NEXT CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
None
Result Data:
The “command complete” response ($0FFFF) is loaded into the serial shifter after
negation of RESET.
5.6.2.8.15 No Operation (NOP). NOP performs no operation and may be used as a null
command where required.
Command Format:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Command Sequence:
NOP
???
NEXT CMD
"CMD COMPLETE"
XXX
"ILLEGAL"
NEXT CMD
"NOT READY"
Operand Data:
None
Result Data:
The “command complete” response ($0FFFF) is returned during the next shift
operation.
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5.6.2.8.16 Future Commands. Unassigned command opcodes are reserved by Motorola
for future expansion. All unused formats within any revision level will perform a NOP and
return the ILLEGAL command response.
5.6.3 Deterministic Opcode Tracking
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The CPU32 utilizes deterministic opcode tracking to trace program execution. Two
signals, IPIPE and IFETCH, provide all information required to analyze instruction pipeline
operation.
5.6.3.1 INSTRUCTION FETCH (IFETCH ) . IFETCH indicates which bus cycles are
accessing data to fill the instruction pipeline. IFETCH is pulse-width modulated to
multiplex two indications on a single pin. Asserted for a single clock cycle, IFETCH
indicates that the data from the current bus cycle is to be routed to the instruction pipeline.
IFETCH held low for two clock cycles indicates that the instruction pipeline has been
flushed. The data from the bus cycle is used to begin filling the empty pipeline. Both user
and supervisor mode fetches are signaled by IFETCH.
Proper tracking of bus cycles via IFETCH on a fast bus requires a simple state machine.
On a two-clock bus, IFETCH may signal a pipeline flush with associated prefetch followed
immediately by a second prefetch. That is, IFETCH remains asserted for three clocks, two
clocks indicating the flush/fetch and a third clock signaling the second fetch. These two
operations are easily discerned if the tracking logic samples IFETCH on the two rising
edges of CLKOUT, which follow the AS ( DS during show cycles) falling edge. Three-clock
and slower bus cycles allow time for negation of the signal between consecutive
indications and do not experience this operation.
5.6.3.2 INSTRUCTION PIPE (IPIPE ) . The internal instruction pipeline can be modeled as
a three-stage FIFO (see Figure 5-28). Stage A is an input buffer—data can be used out of
stages B and C. IPIPE signals advances of instructions in the pipeline.
Instruction register A (IRA) holds incoming words as they are prefetched. No decoding
takes place in the buffer. Instruction register B (IRB) provides initial decoding of the
opcode and decoding of extension words; it is a source of immediate data. Instruction
register C (IRC) supplies residual opcode decoding during instruction execution.
DATA
BUS
I
I
I
R
R
R
A
B
C
EXTENSION
WORDS
OPCODES
RESIDUAL
.
Figure 5-28. Functional Model of Instruction Pipeline
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Assertion of IPIPE for a single clock cycle indicates the use of data from IRB. Regardless
of the presence of valid data in IRA, the contents of IRB are invalidated when IPIPE is
asserted. If IRA contains valid data, the data is copied into IRB (IRA ⇒ IRB), and the IRB
stage is revalidated.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Assertion of IPIPE for two clock cycles indicates the start of a new instruction and
subsequent replacement of data in IRC. This action causes a full advance of the pipeline
(IRB ⇒ IRC and IRA ⇒ IRB). IRA is refilled during the next instruction fetch bus cycle.
Data loaded into IRA propagates automatically through subsequent empty pipeline stages.
Signals that show the progress of instructions through IRB and IRC are necessary to
accurately monitor pipeline operation. These signals are provided by IRA and IRB validity
bits. When a pipeline advance occurs, the validity bit of the stage being loaded is set, and
the validity bit of the stage supplying the data is negated.
Because instruction execution is not timed to bus activity, IPIPE is synchronized with the
system clock, not the bus. Figure 5-29 illustrates the timing in relation to the system clock.
IR
IR
IR
IRB
IR
IRC
IR
IRB
.. .
IR
IR
IR
IRC
CLKOUT
IPIPE
EXTENSION
WORD USED
INSTRUCTION
START
EXTENSION
WORD USED
INSTRUCTION
START
Figure 5-29. Instruction Pipeline Timing Diagram
IPIPE should be sampled on the falling edge of the clock. The assertion of IPIPE for a
single cycle after one or more cycles of negation indicates use of the data in IRB (advance
of IRA into IRB). Assertion for two clock cycles indicates that a new instruction has started
(IRB ⇒ IRC and IRA ⇒ IRB transfers have occurred). Loading IRC always indicates that
an instruction is beginning execution—the opcode is loaded into IRC by the transfer.
In some cases, instructions using immediate addressing begin executing and initiate a
second pipeline advance simultaneously at the same time. IPIPE will not be negated
between the two indications, which implies the need for a state machine to track the state
of IPIPE. The state machine can be resynchronized during periods of inactivity on the
signal.
5.6.3.3 OPCODE TRACKING DURING LOOP MODE. IPIPE and IFETCH continue to
work normally during loop mode. IFETCH indicates all instruction fetches up through the
point that data begins recirculating within the instruction pipeline. IPIPE continues to
signal the start of instructions and the use of extension words even though data is being
recirculated internally. IFETCH returns to normal operation with the first fetch after exiting
loop mode.
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5.7 INSTRUCTION EXECUTION TIMING
This section describes the instruction execution timing of the CPU32. External clock
cycles are used to provide accurate execution and operation timing guidelines, but not
exact timing for every possible circumstance. This approach is used because exact
execution time for an instruction or operation depends on concurrence of independently
scheduled resources, on memory speeds, and on other variables.
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An assembly language programmer or compiler writer can use the information in this
section to predict the performance of the CPU32. Additionally, timing for exception
processing is included so that designers of multitasking or real-time systems can predict
task-switch overhead, maximum interrupt latency, and similar timing parameters.
Instruction timing is given in clock cycles to eliminate clock frequency dependency.
5.7.1 Resource Scheduling
The CPU32 contains several independently scheduled resources. The organization of
these resources within the CPU32 is shown in Figure 5-30. Some variation in instruction
execution timing results from concurrent resource utilization. Because resource
scheduling is not directly related to instruction boundaries, it is impossible to make an
accurate prediction of the time required to complete an instruction without knowing the
entire context within which the instruction is executing.
5.7.1.1 MICROSEQUENCER. The microsequencer either executes microinstructions or
awaits completion of accesses necessary to continue microcode execution. The
microsequencer supervises the bus controller, instruction execution, and internal
processor operations such as calculation of EA and setting of condition codes. It also
initiates instruction word prefetches after a change of flow and controls validation of
instruction words in the instruction pipeline.
5.7.1.2 INSTRUCTION PIPELINE. The CPU32 contains a two-word instruction pipeline
where instruction opcodes are decoded. Each stage of the pipeline is initially filled under
microsequencer control and subsequently refilled by the prefetch controller as it empties.
Stage A of the instruction pipeline is a buffer. Prefetches completed on the bus before
stage B empties are temporarily stored in this buffer. Instruction words (instruction
operation words and all extension words) are decoded at stage B. Residual decoding and
execution occur in stage C.
Each pipeline stage has an associated status bit that shows whether the word in that
stage was loaded with data from a bus cycle that terminated abnormally.
5.7.1.3 BUS CONTROLLER RESOURCES. The bus controller consists of the instruction
prefetch controller, the write pending buffer, and the microbus controller. These three
resources transact all reads, writes, and instruction prefetches required for instruction
execution.
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The bus controller and microsequencer operate concurrently. The bus controller can
perform a read or write or schedule a prefetch while the microsequencer controls EA
calculation or sets condition codes.
The microsequencer can also request a bus cycle that the bus controller cannot perform
immediately. When this happens, the bus cycle is queued, and the bus controller runs the
cycle when the current cycle is complete.
INSTRUCTION PIPELINE
MICROSEQUENCER AND CONTROL
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
STAGE
B
STAGE
C
CONTROL STORE
CONTROL LOGIC
EXECUTION UNIT
PROGRAM
COUNTER
SECTION
DATA
SECTION
WRITE-PENDING
BUFFER
DATA
BUS
PREFETCH
CONTROLLER
ADDRESS
BUS
MICROBUS
CONTROLLER
BUS CONTROL
SIGNALS
Figure 5-30. Block Diagram of Independent Resources
5.7.1.3.1 Prefetch Controller. The instruction prefetch controller receives an initial
request from the microsequencer to initiate prefetching at a given address. Subsequent
prefetches are initiated by the prefetch controller whenever a pipeline stage is invalidated,
either through instruction completion or through use of extension words. Prefetch occurs
as soon as the bus is free of operand accesses previously requested by the
microsequencer. Additional state information permits the controller to inhibit prefetch
requests when a change in instruction flow (e.g., a jump or branch instruction) is
anticipated.
In a typical program, 10 to 25 percent of the instructions cause a change of flow. Each
time a change occurs, the instruction pipeline must be flushed and refilled from the new
instruction stream. If instruction prefetches, rather than operand accesses, were given
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priority, many instruction words would be flushed unused, and necessary operand cycles
would be delayed. To maximize available bus bandwidth, the CPU32 will schedule a
prefetch only when the next instruction is not a change-of-flow instruction and when there
is room in the pipeline for the prefetch.
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5.7.1.3.2 Write Pending Buffer. The CPU32 incorporates a single-operand write pending
buffer. The buffer permits the microsequencer to continue execution after a request for a
write cycle is queued in the bus controller. The time needed for a write at the end of an
instruction can overlap the head cycle time for the following instruction, thus reducing
overall execution time. Interlocks prevent the microsequencer from overwriting the buffer.
5.7.1.3.3 Microbus Controller. The microbus controller performs bus cycles issued by
the microsequencer. Operand accesses always have priority over instruction prefetches.
Word and byte operands are accessed in a single CPU-initiated bus cycle, although the
external bus interface may be required to initiate a second cycle when a word operand is
sent to a byte-sized external port. Long operands are accessed in two bus cycles, most
significant word first.
The instruction pipeline is capable of recognizing instructions that cause a change of flow.
It informs the bus controller when a change of flow is imminent, and the bus controller
refrains from starting prefetches that would be discarded due to the change of flow.
5.7.1.4 INSTRUCTION EXECUTION OVERLAP. Overlap is the time, measured in clock
cycles, that an instruction executes concurrently with the previous instruction. As shown in
Figure 5-31, portions of instructions A and B execute simultaneously, reducing total
execution time. Because portions of instructions B and C also overlap, overall execution
time for all three instructions is also reduced.
Each instruction contributes to the total overlap time. The portion of execution time at the
end of instruction A that can overlap the beginning of instruction B is called the tail of
instruction A. The portion of execution time at the beginning of instruction B that can
overlap the end of instruction A is called the head of instruction B. The total overlap time
between instructions A and B is the smaller tail of A and the head of B.
INSTRUCTION A
INSTRUCTION B
INSTRUCTION C
OVERLAP
OVERLAP
Figure 5-31. Simultaneous Instruction Execution
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The execution time attributed to instructions A, B, and C after considering the overlap is
illustrated in Figure 5-32. The overlap time is attributed to the execution time of the
completing instruction. The following equation shows the method for calculating the
overlap time:
Overlap = min (Tail N, HeadN+1 )
INSTRUCTION A
INSTRUCTION B
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INSTRUCTION C
OVERLAP
PERIOD
OVERLAP
PERIOD
(ABSORBED BY
INSTRUCTION A)
(ABSORBED BY
INSTRUCTION B)
Figure 5-32. Attributed Instruction Times
5.7.1.5 EFFECTS OF WAIT STATES. The CPU32 access time for on-chip peripherals is
two clocks. While two-clock external accesses are possible when the bus is operated in a
synchronous mode, a typical external memory speed is three or more clocks.
All instruction times listed in this section are for word access only (unless an explicit
exception is given), and are based on the assumption that both instruction fetches and
operand cycles are to a two-clock memory. Any time a long access is made, time for the
additional bus cycle(s) must be added to the overall execution time. Wait states due to
slow external memory must be added to the access time for each bus cycle.
A typical application has a mixture of bus speeds—program execution from an off-chip
ROM, accesses to on-chip peripherals, storage of variables in slow off-chip RAM, and
accesses to external peripherals with speeds ranging from moderate to very slow. To
arrive at an accurate instruction time calculation, each bus access must be individually
considered. Many instructions have a head cycle count, which can overlap the cycles of
an operand fetch to slower memory started by a previous instruction. In these cases, an
increase in access time has no effect on the total execution time of the pair of instructions.
To trace instruction execution time by monitoring the external bus, note that the order of
operand accesses for a particular instruction sequence is always the same provided bus
speed is unchanged and the interleaving of instruction prefetches with operands within
each sequence is identical.
5.7.1.6 INSTRUCTION EXECUTION TIME CALCULATION. The overall execution time
for an instruction depends on the amount of overlap with previous and subsequent
instructions. To calculate an instruction time estimate, the entire code sequence must be
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analyzed. To derive the actual instruction execution times for an instruction sequence, the
instruction times listed in the tables must be adjusted to account for overlap.
The formula for this calculation is as follows:
C1 − min (T1 , H2 ) + C 2 − min (T2 , H3 ) + C 3 − min (T3 , H4 ) + .. .. .
where:
CN is the number of cycles listed for instruction N
TN is the tail time for instruction N
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HN is the head time for instruction N
min (T N, HM) is the minimum of parameters T N and HM
The number of cycles for the instruction (CN) can include one or two EA calculations in
addition to the raw number in the cycles column. In these cases, calculate overall
instruction time as if it were for multiple instructions, using the following equation:
〈CEA〉 − min (T EA, HOP) + C OP
where:
〈CEA〉 is the instruction’s EA time
COP is the instruction’s operation time
TEA is the EA’s tail time
HOP is the instruction operation’s head time
min (T N, HM) is the minimum of parameters T N and HM
The overall head for the instruction is the head for the EA, and the overall tail for the
instruction is the tail for the operation. Therefore, the actual equation for execution time
becomes:
COP1 − min (TOP1 , HEA2 ) + 〈CEA〉2 − min (TEA2 , HOP2 ) + C OP2 − min (TOP2 , HEA3 ) + . . .
Every instruction must prefetch to replace itself in the instruction pipe. Usually, these
prefetches occur during or after an instruction. A prefetch is permitted to begin in the first
clock of any indexed EA mode operation.
Additionally, a prefetch for an instruction is permitted to begin two clocks before the end of
an instruction provided the bus is not being used. If the bus is being used, then the
prefetch occurs at the next available time when the bus would otherwise be idle.
5.7.1.7 EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE TAILS. When the CPU32 changes instruction flow, the
instruction decode pipeline must begin refilling before instruction execution can resume.
Refilling forces a two-clock idle period at the end of the change-of-flow instruction. This
idle period can be used to prefetch an additional word on the new instruction path.
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Because of the stipulation that each instruction must prefetch to replace itself, the concept
of negative tails has been introduced to account for these free clocks on the bus.
On a two-clock bus, it is not necessary to adjust instruction timing to account for the
potential extra prefetch. The cycle times of the microsequencer and bus are matched, and
no additional benefit or penalty is obtained. In the instruction execution time equations, a
zero should be used instead of a negative number.
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Negative tails are used to adjust for slower fetches on slower buses. Normally, increasing
the length of prefetch bus cycles directly affects the cycle count and tail values found in
the tables.
In the following equations, negative tail values are used to negate the effects of a slower
bus. The equations are generalized, however, so that they may be used on any speed bus
with any tail value.
NEW_TAIL = OLD_TAIL + (NEW_CLOCK – 2)
IF ((NEW_CLOCK – 4) >0) THEN
NEW_CYCLE = OLD_CYCLE + (NEW_CLOCK -2) + (NEW_CLOCK – 4)
ELSE
NEW_CYCLE = OLD_CYCLE + (NEW _CLOCK – 2)
where:
NEW_TAIL/NEW_CYCLE
OLD_TAIL/OLD_CYCLE
NEW_CLOCK
is the adjusted tail/cycle at the slower speed
is the value listed in the instruction timing tables
is the number of clocks per cycle at the slower speed
Note that many instructions listed as having negative tails are change-of-flow instructions
and that the bus speed used in the calculation is that of the new instruction stream.
5.7.2 Instruction Stream Timing Examples
The following programming examples provide a detailed examination of timing effects. In
all examples, the memory access is from external synchronous memory, the bus is idle,
and the instruction pipeline is full at the start.
5.7.2.1 TIMING EXAMPLE 1—EXECUTION OVERLAP. Figure 5-33 illustrates execution
overlap caused by the bus controller's completion of bus cycles while the sequencer is
calculating the next EA. One clock is saved between instructions since that is the
minimum time of the individual head and tail numbers.
Instructions
MOVE.W
ADDQ.W
CLR.W
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
CLOCK
1 PREFETCH
BUS
CONTROLLER
WRITE
FOR 1
INSTRUCTION
CONTROLLER
MOVE A1,(AO)+
EXECUTION
TIME
READ
FOR 2
EA FETCH
ADDQ
2 PREFETCH
WRITE
FOR 2
ADDQ
TO <EA>
MOVE.W A1,(AO)+
3 PREFETCH
EA CALC
CLR
3 PREFETCH
WRITE
FOR 3
CLR
<EA>
CLR.W $30(A1)
ADDQ.W #1,(AO)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure 5-33. Example 1—Instruction Stream
5.7.2.2 TIMING EXAMPLE 2—BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS. Example 2 shows what
happens when a branch instruction is executed for both the taken and not-taken cases.
(see Figures 5-34 and 5-35). The instruction stream is for a simple limit check with the
variable already in a data register.
Instructions
MOVEQ
CMP.L
BLE.B
MOVE.L
1
2
3
4
5
6
#7, D1
D1, D0
NEXT
D1, (A0)
7
8
9
0
1
2
4
3
CLOCK
BUS
CONTROLLER
1 PREFETCH
2 PREFETCH
INSTRUCTION
CONTROLLER
MOVEQ
CMP
EXECUTION
TIME
MOVEQ
#7,D1
CMP
D1,D0
OFFSET
CALC
PREFETCH
PREFETCH
TAKEN
TAKEN
PREFETCH
TAKEN
WRITE
FOR 3
NEXT
INST.
BLE.B NOT TAKEN
Figure 5-34. Example 2—Branch Taken
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
4
3
CLOCK
BUS
CONTROLLER
1 PREFETCH
2 PREFETCH
INSTRUCTION
CONTROLLER
MOVEQ
CMP
EXECUTION
TIME
MOVEQ
#7,D1
CMP
D1,D0
OFFSET
CALC
3 PREFETCH
4 PREFETCH
NOT
TAKEN
MOVE TO
(A0)
BLE.B NOT TAKEN
WRITE
FOR 4
WRITE
FOR 4
MOVE.L D1,(AO)
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Figure 5-35. Example 2—Branch Not Taken
5.7.2.3 TIMING EXAMPLE 3—NEGATIVE TAILS. This example (see Figure 5-36) shows
how to use negative tail figures for branches and other change-of-flow instructions. In this
example, bus speed is assumed to be four clocks per access. Instruction three is at the
branch destination.
Although the CPU32 has a two-word instruction pipeline, internal delay causes minimum
branch instruction time to be three bus cycles. The negative tail is a reminder that an extra
two clocks are available for prefetching a third word on a fast bus; on a slower bus, there
is no extra time for the third word.
Instructions
MOVEQ
BRA.W
MOVE.L
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
#7, D1
FARAWAY
D1, D0
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
CLOCK
BUS
CONTROLLER
INSTRUCTION
CONTROLLER
EXECUTION
TIME
BRANCH OFFSET
MOVEQ
MOVEQ #7,D1
FETCH MOVE.L
OFFSET
CALC
TAKEN
FETCH NEXT
INSTRUCTION
TAKEN
BRA.W FARAWAY
PREFETCH
MOVE
TO D0
MOVE.L D1,D0
Figure 5-36. Example 3—Branch Negative Tail
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Example 3 illustrates three different aspects of instruction time calculation:
1. The branch instruction does not attempt to prefetch beyond the minimum number of
words needed for itself.
2. The negative tail allows execution to begin sooner than a three-word pipeline would
allow.
3. There is a one-clock delay due to late arrival of the displacement at the CPU.
Only changes of flow require negative tail calculation, but the concept can be generalized
to any instruction—only two words are required to be in the pipeline, but up to three words
may be present. When there is an opportunity for an extra prefetch, it is made. A prefetch
to replace an instruction can begin ahead of the instruction, resulting in a faster processor.
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5.7.3 Instruction Timing Tables
The following assumptions apply to the times shown in the subsequent tables.
—A 16-bit data bus is used for all memory accesses.
—Memory access times are based on two clock bus cycles with no wait states.
—The instruction pipeline is full at the beginning of the instruction and is refilled by
the end of the instruction.
Three values are listed for each instruction and addressing mode:
Head:
The number of cycles available at the beginning of an instruction to complete a
previous instruction write or to perform a prefetch.
Tail:
The number of cycles an instruction uses to complete a write.
Cycles: Four numbers per entry, three contained in parentheses. The outer number is the
minimum number of cycles required for the instruction to complete. Numbers
within the parentheses represent the number of bus accesses performed by the
instruction. The first number is the number of operand read accesses performed
by the instruction. The second number is the number of instruction fetches
performed by the instruction, including all prefetches that keep the instruction and
the instruction pipeline filled. The third number is the number of write accesses
performed by the instruction.
As an example, consider an ADD.L (12, A3, D7.W ∗ 4), D2 instruction.
Paragraph 5.7.3.5 Arithmetic/Logic Instructions shows that the instruction has a head =
0, a tail = 0, and cycles = 2 (0/1/0). However, in indexed, address register indirect
addressing mode, additional time is required to fetch the EA. Paragraph 5.7.3.1 Fetch
Effective Address gives addressing mode data. For (d 8 , An, Xn.Sz ∗ Scale), head = 4,
tail = 2, cycles = 8 (2/1/0). Because this example is for a long access and the fetch EA
table lists data for word accesses, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of cycles
(“X” in table notation) to obtain head = 4, tail = 4, cycles = 10 (2/1/0).
Assuming that no trailing write exists from the previous instruction, EA calculation requires
six clocks. Replacement fetch for the EA occurs during these six clocks, leaving a head of
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four. If there is no time in the head to perform a prefetch due to a previous trailing write,
then additional time to perform the prefetches must be allotted in the middle of the
instruction or after the tail.
8 (2 /1 /0)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TOTAL NUMBER OF CLOCKS
NUMBER OF READ CYCLES
NUMBER OF INSTRUCTION ACCESS CYCLES
NUMBER OF WRITE CYCLES
The total number of clocks for bus activity is as follows:
(2 Reads × 2 Clocks/Read) + (1 Instruction Access × 2 Clocks/Access) +
(0 Writes × 2 Clocks/Write) = 6 Clocks of Bus Activity
The number of internal clocks (not overlapped by bus activity) is as follows:
10 Clocks Total − 6 Clocks Bus Activity = 4 Internal Clocks
Memory read requires two bus cycles at two clocks each. This read time, implied in the tail
figure for the EA, cannot be overlapped with the instruction because the instruction has a
head of zero. An additional two clocks are required for the ADD instruction itself. The total
is 6 + 4 + 2 = 12 clocks. If bus cycles take more time (i.e., the memory is off-chip), add an
appropriate number of clocks to each memory access.
The instruction sequence MOVE.L D0, (A0) followed by LSL.L #7, D2 provides an
example of overlapped execution. The MOVE instruction has a head of zero and a tail of
four because it is a long write. The LSL instruction has a head of four. The trailing write
from the MOVE overlaps the LSL head completely. Thus, the two-instruction sequence
has a head of zero and a tail of zero, and a total execution of 8 rather than 12 clocks.
General observations regarding calculation of execution time are as follows:
• Any time the number of bus cycles is listed as "X", substitute a value of one for byte
and word cycles and a value of two for long cycles. For long bus cycles, usually add a
value of two to the tail.
• The time calculated for an instruction on a three-clock (or longer) bus is usually longer
than the actual execution time. All times shown are for two-clock bus cycles.
• If the previous instruction has a negative tail, then a prefetch for the current
instruction can begin during the execution of that previous instruction.
• Certain instructions requiring an immediate extension word (immediate word EA,
absolute word EA, address register indirect with displacement EA, conditional
branches with word offsets, bit operations, LPSTOP, TBL, MOVEM, MOVEC,
MOVES, MOVEP, MUL.L, DIV.L, CHK2, CMP2, and DBcc) are not permitted to begin
until the extension word has been in the instruction pipeline for at least one cycle.
This does not apply to long offsets or displacements.
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5.7.3.1 FETCH EFFECTIVE ADDRESS. The fetch EA table indicates the number of clock
periods needed for the processor to calculate and fetch the specified EA. The total
number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses
(r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock
reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
Notes
Dn
–
–
0(0/0/0)
–
An
–
–
0(0/0/0)
–
(An)
1
1
3(X/0/0)
1
(An) +
1
1
3(X/0/0)
1
−(An)
2
2
4(X/0/0)
1
(d 16 ,An) or (d16 ,PC)
1
3
5(X/1/0)
1,3
(xxx).W
1
3
5(X/1/0)
1
(xxx).L
1
5
7(X/2/0)
1
#〈data〉.B
1
1
3(0/1/0)
1
#〈data〉.W
1
1
3(0/1/0)
1
#〈data〉.L
1
3
5(0/2/0)
1
(d 8,An,Xn.Sz × Sc) or (d8,PC,Xn.Sz × Sc)
4
2
8(X/1/0)
1,2,3,4
(0) (All Suppressed)
2
2
6(X/1/0)
1,4
(d 16 )
1
3
7(X/2/0)
1,4
(d 32 )
1
5
9(X/3/0)
1,4
(An)
1
1
5(X/1/0)
1,2,4
(Xm.Sz × Sc)
4
2
8(X/1/0)
1,2,4
(An,Xm.Sz × Sc)
4
2
8(X/1/0)
1,2,3,4
(d 16 ,An) or (d16 ,PC)
1
3
7(X/2/0)
1,3,4
(d 32 ,An) or (d32 ,PC)
1
5
9(X/3/0)
1,3,4
(d 16 ,An,Xm) or (d16 ,PC,Xm)
2
2
8(X/2/0)
1,3,4
(d 32 ,An,Xm) or (d32 ,PC,Xm)
1
3
9(X/3/0)
1,3,4
(d 16 ,An,Xm.Sz × Sc) or (d16 ,PC,Xm.Sz × Sc)
2
2
8(X/2/0)
1,2,3,4
(d 32 ,An,Xm.Sz × Sc) or (d32 ,PC,Xm.Sz × Sc)
1
3
9(X/3/0)
1,2,3,4
X = There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long-word operands.
For long-word bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of cycles.
NOTES:
1. The read of the EA and replacement fetches overlap the head of the operation by the amount
specified in the tail.
2. Size and scale of the index register do not affect execution time.
3. The PC may be substituted for the base address register An.
4. When adjusting the prefetch time for slower buses, extra clocks may be subtracted from the
head until the head reaches zero, at which time additional clocks must be added to both the tail
and cycle counts.
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5.7.3.2 CALCULATE EFFECTIVE ADDRESS. The calculate EA table indicates the
number of clock periods needed for the processor to calculate a specified EA. The timing
is equivalent to fetch EA except there is no read cycle. The tail and cycle time are reduced
by the amount of time the read would occupy. The total number of clock cycles is outside
the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total clock
cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Instruction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Head
Tail
Cycles
Notes
Dn
–
–
0(0/0/0)
–
An
–
–
0(0/0/0)
–
(An)
1
0
2(0/0/0)
–
(An) +
1
0
2(0/0/0)
–
−(An)
2
0
2(0/0/0)
–
(d 16 ,An) or (d16 ,PC)
1
1
3(0/1/0)
1,3
(xxx).W
1
1
3(0/1/0)
1
(xxx).L
1
3
5(0/2/0)
1
(d 8,An,Xn.Sz × Sc) or (d 8,PC,Xn.Sz × Sc)
4
0
6(0/1/0)
2,3,4
(0) (All Suppressed)
2
0
4(0/1/0)
4
(d 16 )
1
1
5(0/2/0)
1,4
(d 32 )
1
3
7(0/3/0)
1,4
(An)
1
0
4(0/1/0)
4
(Xm.Sz × Sc)
4
0
6(0/1/0)
2,4
(An,Xm.Sz × Sc)
4
0
6(0/1/0)
2,4
(d 16 ,An) or (d16 ,PC)
1
1
5(0/2/0)
1,3,4
(d 32 ,An) or (d32 ,PC)
1
3
7(0/3/0)
1,3,4
(d 16 ,An,Xm) or (d16 ,PC,Xm)
2
0
6(0/2/0)
3,4
(d 32 ,An,Xm) or (d32 ,PC,Xm)
1
1
7(0/3/0)
1,3,4
(d 16 ,An,Xm.Sz × Sc) or (d16 ,PC,Xm.Sz × Sc)
2
0
6(0/2/0)
2,3,4
(d 32 ,An,Xm.Sz × Sc) or (d32 ,PC,Xm.Sz × Sc)
1
1
7(0/3/0)
1,2,3,4
X = There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long operands.
For long bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of cycles.
NOTES:
1. Replacement fetches overlap the head of the operation by the amount specified in the tail.
2. Size and scale of the index register do not affect execution time.
3. The PC may be substituted for the base address register An.
4. When adjusting the prefetch time for slower buses, extra clocks may be subtracted from the
head until the head reaches zero, at which time additional clocks must be added to both the tail
and cycle counts.
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5.7.3.3 MOVE INSTRUCTION. The MOVE instruction table indicates the number of clock
periods needed for the processor to calculate the destination EA and to perform a MOVE
or MOVEA instruction. For entries with CEA or FEA, refer to the appropriate table to
calculate that portion of the instruction time.
Destination EAs are divided by their formats (see 5.3.4.4 Effective Address Encoding
Summary). The total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers
inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data
assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
When using this table, begin at the top and move downward. Use the first entry that
matches both source and destination addressing modes.
Head
Tail
Cycles
MOVE
Rn, Rn
Instruction
0
0
2(0/1/0)
MOVE
〈FEA〉, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
MOVE
Rn, (Am)
0
2
4(0/1/x)
MOVE
Rn, (Am) +
1
1
5(0/1/x)
MOVE
Rn, −(Am)
2
2
6(0/1/x)
MOVE
Rn, 〈CEA 〉
1
3
5(0/1/x)
MOVE
〈FEA〉, (An)
2
2
6(0/1/x)
MOVE
〈FEA〉, (An) +
2
2
6(0/1/x)
MOVE
〈FEA〉, −(An)
2
2
6(0/1/x)
MOVE
#, 〈CEA〉
2
2
6(0/1/x) ∗
MOVE
〈CEA〉, 〈FEA 〉
2
2
6(0/1/x)
X = There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long-word
operands. For long-word bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of cycles.
∗ = An # fetch EA time must be added for this instruction: 〈 FEA 〉 +〈CEA〉 + 〈 OPER〉
NOTE: For instructions not explicitly listed, use the MOVE 〈CEA 〉, 〈FEA〉 entry. The source
EA is calculated by the calculate EA table, and the destination EA is calculated by
the fetch EA table, even though the bus cycle is for the source EA.
5.7.3.4 SPECIAL-PURPOSE MOVE INSTRUCTION. The special-purpose MOVE
instruction table indicates the number of clock periods needed for the processor to fetch,
calculate, and perform the special-purpose MOVE operation on control registers or a
specified EA. Footnotes indicate when to account for the appropriate EA times. The total
number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses
(r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock
reads and writes.
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Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
EXG
Rn, Rm
2
0
4(0/1/0)
MOVEC
Cr, Rn
10
0
14(0/2/0)
MOVEC
Rn, Cr
12
0
14-16(0/1/0)
MOVE
CCR, Dn
2
0
4(0/1/0)
MOVE
CCR, 〈CEA 〉
0
2
4(0/1/1)
MOVE
Dn, CCR
2
0
4(0/1/0)
MOVE
〈FEA〉, CCR
0
0
4(0/1/0)
MOVE
SR, Dn
2
0
4(0/1/0)
MOVE
SR, 〈CEA 〉
0
2
4(0/1/1)
MOVE
Dn, SR
4
−2
10(0/3/0)
MOVE
〈FEA〉, SR
0
−2
10(0/3/0)
MOVEM.W
〈CEA〉, RL
1
0
8 + n × 4 (n + 1, 2, 0) ∗
MOVEM.W
RL, 〈CEA 〉
1
0
8 + n × 4 (0, 2, n) ∗
MOVEM.L
〈CEA〉, RL
1
0
12 + n × 4(2n + 2, 2, 0)
MOVEM.L
RL, 〈CEA 〉
1
2
10 + n × 4 (0, 2, 2n)
MOVEP.W
Dn, (d16 , An)
2
0
10(0/2/2)
MOVEP.W
(d 16 , An), Dn
1
2
11(2/2/0)
MOVEP.L
Dn, (d16 , An)
2
0
14(0/2/4)
MOVEP.L
(d 16 , An), Dn
1
2
19(4/2/0)
MOVES (Save)
〈CEA〉, Rn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
MOVES (Op)
〈CEA〉, Rn
7
1
11(X/1/0)
MOVES (Save)
Rn, 〈CEA 〉
1
1
3(0/1/0)
MOVES (Op)
Rn, 〈CEA 〉
9
2
12(0/1/X)
MOVE
USP, An
0
0
2(0/1/0)
MOVE
An, USP
0
0
2(0/1/0)
SWAP
Dn
4
0
6(0/1/0)
X = There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long
operands. For long bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of
cycles.
∗ = Each bus cycle may take up to four clocks without increasing total execution time.
Cr = Control registers USP, VBR, SFC, and DFC
n = Number of registers to transfer
RL = Register List
< = Maximum time (certain data or mode combinations may execute faster).
NOTE: The MOVES instruction has an additional save step which other instructions do not
have. To calculate the total instruction time, calculate the save, the EA, and the
operation execution times, and combine in the order listed, using the equations
given in 5.7.1.6 Instruction Execution Time Calculation.
5.7.3.5 ARITHMETIC/LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS. The arithmetic/logic instruction table
indicates the number of clock periods needed to perform the specified arithmetic/logical
instruction using the specified addressing mode. Footnotes indicate when to account for
the appropriate EA times. The total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses.
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The numbers inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All
timing data assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Instruction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Head
Tail
Cycles
ADD(A)
Rn, Rm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
ADD(A)
〈FEA〉, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
ADD
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
AND
Dn, Dm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
AND
〈FEA〉, Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
AND
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
EOR
Dn, Dm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
EOR
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
OR
Dn, Dm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
OR
〈FEA〉, Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
OR
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
SUB(A)
Rn, Rm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
SUB(A)
〈FEA〉, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
SUB
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
CMP(A)
Rn, Rm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
CMP(A)
〈FEA〉, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
CMP2 (Save) *
〈FEA〉, Rn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
CMP2 (Op)
〈FEA〉, Rn
2
0
16-18(X/1/0)
MUL(su).W
〈FEA〉, Dn
0
0
26(0/1/0)
MUL(su).L (Save) * 〈FEA〉, Dn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
MUL(su).L (Op)
〈FEA〉, Dl
2
0
46-52(0/1/0)
MUL(su).L (Op)
〈FEA〉, Dn:Dl
2
0
46(0/1/0)
DIVU.W
〈FEA〉, Dn
0
0
32(0/1/0)
DIVS.W
〈FEA〉, Dn
0
0
42(0/1/0)
DIVU.L (Save)*
〈FEA〉, Dn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
DIVU.L (Op)
〈FEA〉, Dn
2
0
<46(0/1/0)
DIVS.L (Save) *
〈FEA〉, Dn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
DIVS.L (Op)
〈FEA〉, Dn
2
0
<62(0/1/0)
TBL(su)
Dn:Dm, Dp
26
0
28-30(0/2/0)
TBL(su) (Save) *
〈CEA〉, Dn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
TBL(su) (Op)
〈CEA〉, Dn
6
0
33-35(2X/1/0)
TBLSN
Dn:Dm, Dp
30
0
30-34(0/2/0)
TBLSN (Save)*
〈CEA〉, Dn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
TBLSN (Op)
〈CEA〉, Dn
6
0
35-39(2X/1/0)
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Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
TBLUN
Dn:Dm, Dp
30
0
34-40(0/2/0)
TBLUN (Save)*
〈CEA〉, Dn
1
1
3(0/1/0)
TBLUN (Op)
〈CEA〉, Dn
6
0
39-45(2X/1/0)
X
= There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long
operands. For long bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of
cycles.
<
= Maximum time (certain data or mode combinations may execute faster).
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
su = The execution time is identical for signed or unsigned operands.
*These instructions have an additional save operation that other instructions do not have. To
calculate total instruction time, calculate save, 〈 ea〉, and operation execution times, then
combine in the order shown, using equations in 5.7.1.6 Instruction Execution Time
Calculations. A save operation is not run for long-word divide and multiply instructions
when 〈FEA〉 = Dn,
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5.7.3.6 IMMEDIATE ARITHMETIC/LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS. The immediate
arithmetic/logic instruction table indicates the number of clock periods needed for the
processor to fetch the source immediate data value and to perform the specified
arithmetic/logic instruction using the specified addressing mode. Footnotes indicate when
to account for the appropriate fetch effective or fetch immediate EA times. The total
number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses
(r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock
reads and writes.
Instruction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Head
Tail
Cycles
MOVEQ
#, Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
ADDQ
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
ADDQ
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
SUBQ
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
SUBQ
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
ADDI
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)∗
ADDI
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x) ∗
ANDI
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)∗
ANDI
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x) ∗
EORI
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)∗
EORI
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x) ∗
ORI
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)∗
ORI
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x) ∗
SUBI
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)∗
SUBI
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x) ∗
CMPI
#, Rn
0
0
2(0/1/0)∗
CMPI
#, 〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x) ∗
X =
There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for longword operands. For long-word bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the
number of cycles.
∗ =
An # fetch EA time must be added for this instruction: 〈FEA〉 +〈FEA 〉 + 〈OPER〉
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5.7.3.7 BINARY-CODED DECIMAL AND EXTENDED INSTRUCTIONS. The BCD and
extended instruction table indicates the number of clock periods needed for the processor
to perform the specified operation using the specified addressing mode. No additional
tables are needed to calculate total effective execution time for these instructions. The
total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses
(r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock
reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
5-106
Head
Tail
Cycles
ABCD
Dn, Dm
2
0
4(0/1/0)
ABCD
−(An), −(Am)
2
2
12(2/1/1)
SBCD
Dn, Dm
2
0
4(0/1/0)
SBCD
−(An), −(Am)
2
2
12(2/1/1)
ADDX
Dn, Dm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
ADDX
−(An), −(Am)
2
2
10(2/1/1)
SUBX
Dn, Dm
0
0
2(0/1/0)
SUBX
−(An), −(Am)
2
2
10(2/1/1)
CMPM
(An)+, (Am)+
1
0
8(2/1/0)
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5.7.3.8 SINGLE OPERAND INSTRUCTIONS. The single operand instruction table
indicates the number of clock periods needed for the processor to perform the specified
operation using the specified addressing mode. The total number of clock cycles is
outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total
clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
CLR
Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
CLR
〈CEA〉
0
2
4(0/1/x)
NEG
Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
NEG
〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
NEGX
Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
NEGX
〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
NOT
Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
NOT
〈FEA〉
0
3
5(0/1/x)
EXT
Dn
0
0
2(0/1/0)
NBCD
Dn
2
0
4(0/1/0)
NBCD
〈FEA〉
0
2
6(0/1/1)
Scc
Dn
2
0
4(0/1/0)
Scc
〈CEA〉
2
2
6(0/1/1)
TAS
Dn
4
0
6(0/1/0)
TAS
〈CEA〉
1
0
10(0/1/1)
TST
〈FEA〉
0
0
2(0/1/0)
X = There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long-word
operands. For long-word bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of
cycles.
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5.7.3.9 SHIFT/ROTATE INSTRUCTIONS. The shift/rotate instruction table indicates the
number of clock periods needed for the processor to perform the specified operation on
the given addressing mode. Footnotes indicate when to account for the appropriate EA
times. The number of bits shifted does not affect the execution time, unless noted. The
total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses
(r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock
reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
Note
−2
0
(0/1/0)
1
LSd
Dn, Dm
LSd
#, Dm
4
0
6(0/1/0)
—
LSd
〈FEA〉
0
2
6(0/1/1)
—
ASd
Dn, Dm
−2
0
(0/1/0)
1
ASd
#, Dm
4
0
6(0/1/0)
—
ASd
〈FEA〉
0
2
6(0/1/1)
—
ROd
Dn, Dm
−2
0
(0/1/0)
1
ROd
#, Dm
4
0
6(0/1/0)
—
ROd
〈FEA〉
0
2
6(0/1/1)
—
ROXd
Dn, Dm
−2
0
(0/1/0)
2
ROXd
#, Dm
−2
0
(0/1/0)
3
ROXd
〈FEA〉
0
2
6(0/1/1)
—
d = Direction (left or right)
NOTES:
1. Head and cycle times can be derived from the following table or calculated as follows:
Max (3 + (n/4) + mod(n,4) + mod (((n/4) + mod (n,4) + 1,2), 6)
2. Head and cycle times are calculated as follows: (count ≤ 63): max (3 + n + mod (n + 1,2), 6).
3. Head and cycle times are calculated as follows: (count ≤ 8): max (2 + n + mod (n,2), 6).
Clocks
5-108
Shift Counts
6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
8
7
10
11
13
14
16
17
20
10
15
18
19
21
22
24
25
28
12
23
26
27
29
30
32
33
36
14
31
34
35
37
38
40
41
44
16
39
42
43
45
46
48
49
52
18
47
50
51
53
54
56
57
60
20
55
58
59
61
62
22
63
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5.7.3.10 BIT MANIPULATION INSTRUCTIONS. The bit manipulation instruction table
indicates the number of clock periods needed for the processor to perform the specified
operation on the given addressing mode. The total number of clock cycles is outside the
parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle
number. All timing data assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
BCHG
#, Dn
2
0
6(0/2/0)∗
BCHG
Dn, Dm
4
0
6(0/1/0)
BCHG
#, 〈FEA〉
1
2
8(0/2/1)∗
BCHG
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
2
2
8(0/1/1)
BCLR
#, Dn
2
0
6(0/2/0)∗
BCLR
Dn, Dm
4
0
6(0/1/0)
BCLR
#, 〈FEA〉
1
2
8(0/2/1)∗
BCLR
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
2
2
8(0/1/1)
BSET
#, Dn
2
0
6(0/2/0)∗
BSET
Dn, Dm
4
0
6(0/1/0)
BSET
#, 〈FEA〉
1
2
8(0/2/1)∗
BSET
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
2
2
8(0/1/1)
BTST
#, Dn
2
0
4(0/2/0)∗
BTST
Dn, Dm
2
0
4(0/1/0)
BTST
#, 〈FEA〉
1
0
4(0/2/0)∗
BTST
Dn, 〈FEA 〉
2
0
8(0/1/0)
∗ = An # fetch EA time must be added for this instruction: 〈 FEA 〉 + 〈FEA 〉 + 〈OPER 〉
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5.7.3.11 CONDITIONAL BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS. The conditional branch instruction
table indicates the number of clock periods needed for the processor to perform the
specified branch on the given branch size, with complete execution times given. No
additional tables are needed to calculate total effective execution time for these
instructions. The total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers
inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data
assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
Bcc
(taken)
2
−2
8(0/2/0)
Bcc.B
(not taken)
2
0
4(0/1/0)
Bcc.W
(not taken)
0
0
4(0/2/0)
Bcc.L
(not taken)
0
0
6(0/3/1)
DBcc
(T, not taken)
1
1
4(0/2/0)
DBcc
(F, −1, not taken)
2
0
6(0/2/0)
DBcc
(F, not −1, taken)
6
−2
10(0/2/0)
DBcc
(T, not taken)
4
0
6(0/1/0)∗
DBcc
(F, −1, not taken)
6
0
8(0/1/0)∗
DBcc
(F, not −1, taken)
6
0
10(0/0/0)∗
∗ = In loop mode
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5.7.3.12 CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS. The control instruction table indicates the number
of clock periods needed for the processor to perform the specified operation on the given
addressing mode. Footnotes indicate when to account for the appropriate EA times. The
total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses
(r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock
reads and writes.
Instruction
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Head
Tail
Cycles
ANDI
#, SR
0
−2
12(0/2/0)
EORI
#, SR
0
−2
12(0/2/0)
ORI
#, SR
0
−2
12(0/2/0)
ANDI
#, CCR
2
0
6(0/2/0)
EORI
#, CCR
2
0
6(0/2/0)
ORI
#, CCR
2
0
6(0/2/0)
BSR.B
3
−2
13(0/2/2)
BSR.W
3
−2
13(0/2/2)
BSR.L
1
−2
13(0/2/2)
CHK
〈FEA〉, Dn (no ex)
2
0
8(0/1/0)
CHK
〈FEA〉, Dn (ex)
2
−2
42(2/2/6)
CHK2 (Save)
〈FEA〉, Dn (no ex)
1
1
3(0/1/0)
CHK2 (Op)
〈FEA〉, Dn (no ex)
2
0
18(X/0/0)
CHK2 (Save)
〈FEA〉, Dn (ex)
1
1
3(0/1/0)
CHK2 (Op)
〈FEA〉, Dn (ex)
2
−2
52(X + 2/1/6)
JMP
〈CEA〉
0
−2
6(0/2/0)
JSR
〈CEA〉
3
−2
13(0/2/2)
LEA
〈CEA〉, An
0
0
2(0/1/0)
LINK.W
An, #
2
0
10(0/2/2)
LINK.L
An, #
0
0
10(0/3/2)
0
0
2(0/1/0)
NOP
PEA
〈CEA〉
0
0
8(0/1/2)
RTD
#
1
−2
12(2/2/0)
RTR
1
−2
14(3/2/0)
RTS
1
−2
12(2/2/0)
1
0
9(2/1/0)
UNLK
An
X = There is one bus cycle for byte and word operands and two bus cycles for long-word
operands. For long-word bus cycles, add two clocks to the tail and to the number of
cycles.
NOTE: The CHK2 instruction involves a save step which other instructions do not have. To
calculate the total instruction time, calculate the save, the EA, and the operation
execution times, and combine in the order listed using the equations given in 5.7.1.6
Instruction Execution Time Calculation.
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5.7.3.13 EXCEPTION-RELATED INSTRUCTIONS AND OPERATIONS. The exceptionrelated instructions and operations table indicates the number of clock periods needed for
the processor to perform the specified exception-related actions. No additional tables are
needed to calculate total effective execution time for these instructions. The total number
of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers inside parentheses (r/p/w) are
included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data assumes two-clock reads and
writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
BKPT (Acknowledged)
0
0
14(1/0/0)
BKPT (Bus Error)
0
−2
35(3/2/4)
Breakpoint (Acknowledged)
0
0
10(1/0/0)
Breakpoint (Bus Error)
0
−2
42(3/2/6)
Interrupt
0
−2
30(3/2/4)∗
RESET
0
0
518(0/1/0)
STOP
2
0
12(0/1/0)
LPSTOP
3
−2
25(0/3/1)
Divide-by-Zero
0
−2
36(2/2/6)
Trace
0
−2
36(2/2/6)
TRAP #
4
−2
29(2/2/4)
ILLEGAL
0
−2
25(2/2/4)
A-line
0
−2
25(2/2/4)
F-line (First word illegal)
0
−2
25(2/2/4)
F-line (Second word illegal) ea = Rn
1
−2
31(2/3/4)
F-line (Second word illegal) ea ≠ Rn (Save)
1
1
3(0/1/0)
F-line (Second word illegal) ea ≠ Rn (Op)
4
−2
29(2/2/4)
Privileged
0
−2
25(2/2/4)
TRAPcc (trap)
2
−2
38(2/2/6)
TRAPcc (no trap)
2
0
4(0/1/0)
TRAPcc.W (trap)
2
−2
38(2/2/6)
TRAPcc.W (no trap)
0
0
4(0/2/0)
TRAPcc.L (trap)
0
−2
38(2/2/6)
TRAPcc.L (no trap)
0
0
6(0/3/0)
TRAPV (trap)
2
−2
38(2/2/6)
TRAPV (no trap)
2
0
4(0/1/0)
∗ = Minimum interrupt acknowledge cycle time is assumed to be three clocks.
NOTE: The F-line (second word illegal) operation involves a save step which other
operations do not have. To calculate the total operation time, calculate the save, the
calculate EA, and the operation execution times, and combine in the order
listed, using the equations given in 5.7.1.6 Instruction Execution Time
Calculation.
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5.7.3.14 SAVE AND RESTORE OPERATIONS. The save and restore operations table
indicates the number of clock periods needed for the processor to perform the specified
state save or return from exception. Complete execution times and stack length are given.
No additional tables are needed to calculate total effective execution time for these
instructions. The total number of clock cycles is outside the parentheses. The numbers
inside parentheses (r/p/w) are included in the total clock cycle number. All timing data
assumes two-clock reads and writes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Instruction
Head
Tail
Cycles
BERR on instruction
0
−2
<58(2/2/12)
BERR on exception
0
−2
48(2/2/12)
RTE (four-word frame)
1
−2
24(4/2/0)
RTE (six-word frame)
1
−2
26(4/2/0)
RTE (BERR on instruction)
1
−2
50(12/12/Y)
RTE (BERR on four-word frame)
1
−2
66(10/2/4)
RTE (BERR on six-word frame)
1
−2
70(12/2/6)
< = Maximum time is indicated (certain data or mode combinations execute faster).
Y = If a bus error occurred during a write cycle, the cycle is rerun by the RTE.
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SECTION 6
DMA CONTROLLER MODULE
The direct memory access (DMA) controller module provides for high-speed transfer
capability to/from an external peripheral or for memory-to-memory data transfer. The DMA
module, shown in Figure 6-1, provides two channels that allow byte, word, or long-word
operand transfers. These transfers can be either single or dual address and to either onor off-chip devices. The DMA contains the following features:
• Two, Independent, Fully Programmable DMA Channels
• Single-Address Transfers with 32-Bit Address and 32-Bit Data Capability
• Dual-Address Transfers with 32-Bit Address and 16-Bit Data Capability
• Two 32-Bit Transfer Counters
• Four 32-Bit Address Pointers That Can Increment or Remain Constant
• Operand Packing and Unpacking for Dual-Address Transfers
• Supports All Bus-Termination Modes
• Provides Two-Clock-Cycle Internal Module Access
• Provides Two-Clock-Cycle External Access Using MC68340 Chip Selects
• Provides Full DMA Handshake for Burst Transfers and Cycle Steal
INTERRUPT
ARBITRATION
DMA CHANNEL 1
DMA
HANDSHAKE
SIGNALS
DMA CHANNEL 2
DMA
HANDSHAKE
SIGNALS
SLAVE BIU
I
M
B
MASTER BIU
BUS
ARBITRATION
.
Figure 6-1. DMA Block Diagram
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6.1 DMA MODULE OVERVIEW
The main purpose of the DMA controller module is to transfer data at very high rates,
usually much faster than the CPU32 under software control can handle. The term DMA is
used to refer to the ability of a peripheral device to access memory in a system in the
same manner as a microprocessor does. DMA operations can greatly increase overall
system performance.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The MC68340 DMA module consists of two, independent, programmable channels. The
term DMA is used throughout this section to reference either channel 1 or channel 2 since
the two are functionally equivalent. Each channel has independent request, acknowledge,
and done signals. However, both channels cannot own the bus at the same time.
Therefore, it is impossible to implicitly address both DMA channels at the same time. The
MC68340 on-chip peripherals do not support the single-address transfer mode.
DMA requests may be internally generated by the channel or externally generated by a
device. For an internal request, the amount of bus bandwidth allocated for the DMA can
be programmed. The DMA channels support two external request modes: burst mode and
cycle steal mode.
The DMA controller supports single- and dual-address transfers. In single-address mode,
a channel supports 32 bits of address and 32 bits of data. Only an external request can be
used to start a transfer in the single-address mode. The DMA provides address and
control signals during a single-address transfer. The requesting device either sends or
receives data to or from the specified address (see Figure 6-2). In dual-address mode, a
channel supports 32 bits of address and 16 bits of data. The dual-address transfers can
be started by either the internal request mode or by an external device using the request
signal. In this mode, two bus transfers occur, one from a source device and the other to a
destination device (see Figure 6-3). In dual-address mode, operands are packed or
unpacked according to port sizes and addresses.
Any operation involving the DMA will follow the same basic steps: channel initialization,
data transfer, and channel termination. In the channel initialization step, the DMA channel
registers are loaded with control information, address pointers, and a byte transfer count.
The channel is then started. During the data transfer step, the DMA accepts requests for
operand transfers and provides addressing and bus control for the transfers. The channel
termination step occurs after operation is complete. The channel indicates the status of
the operation in the channel status register.
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DMA
DMA
PERIPHERAL
PERIPHERAL
MEMORY
.
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DMA
PERIPHERAL
MEMORY
Figure 6-2. Single-Address Transfers
MEMORY
DMA
MEMORY
...
Figure 6-3. Dual-Address Transfer
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6.2 DMA MODULE SIGNAL DEFINITIONS
This section contains a brief description of the DMA module signals used to provide
handshake control for either a source or destination external device.
NOTE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The terms assertion and negation are used throughout this
section to avoid confusion when dealing with a mixture of
active-low and active-high signals. The term assert or assertion
indicates that a signal is active or true, independent of the level
represented by a high or low voltage. The term negate or
negation indicates that a signal is inactive or false.
6.2.1 DMA Request ( DREQ≈)
This active-low input is asserted by a peripheral device to request an operand transfer
between that peripheral and memory. The assertion of DREQ≈ starts the DMA process.
The assertion level in external burst mode is level sensitive; in external cycle steal mode,
it is falling-edge sensitive.
6.2.2 DMA Acknowledge ( DACK≈)
This active-low output is asserted by the DMA to signal to a peripheral that an operand is
being transferred in response to a previous transfer request.
6.2.3 DMA Done (DONE≈)
This active-low bidirectional signal is asserted by the DMA or a peripheral device during
any DMA bus cycle to indicate that the last data transfer is being performed. DONE≈ is an
active input in any mode. As an output, DONE≈ is only active in external request mode. An
external pullup resistor is required even if operating only in the internal request mode.
6.3 TRANSFER REQUEST GENERATION
The DMA channel supports two types of request generation methods: internal and
external. Internally generated requests can be programmed to limit the amount of bus
utilization. Externally generated requests can be either burst mode or cycle steal mode.
The request generation method used for the channel is programmed by the channel
control register (CCR) in the REQ field.
6.3.1 Internal Request Generation
Internal requests are accessed in two clocks by the intermodule bus (IMB). The channel is
started as soon as the STR bit in the CCR is set. The channel immediately requests the
bus and begins transferring data. Only internal requests can limit the amount of bus
utilization. The percentage of the bandwidth that the DMA channel can use during a
transfer can be selected by the CCR BB field.
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6.3.1.1 INTERNAL REQUEST, MAXIMUM RATE. Internal generation using 100% of the
internal bus always has a transfer request pending for the channel until the transfer is
complete. As soon as the channel is started, the DMA will arbitrate for the internal bus and
begin to transfer data when it becomes bus master. If no exceptions occur, all operands in
the data block will be transferred in one burst so that the DMA will use 100% of the
available bus bandwidth.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
6.3.1.2 INTERNAL REQUEST, LIMITED RATE. To guarantee that the DMA will not use
all of the available bus bandwidth during a transfer, internal requests can be generated
according to the amount of bus bandwidth allocated to the DMA. There are three
programmed constants in the CCR used to monitor the bus activity and allow the DMA to
use a percentage of the bus bandwidth. Options are 25%, 50%, and 75% of 1024 clock
periods. See Table 6-5 for more information.
6.3.2 External Request Generation
To control the transfer of operands to or from memory in an orderly manner, a peripheral
device uses the DREQ≈ input signal to request service. If the channel is programmed for
external request and the CCR STR bit is set, an external request ( DREQ≈) signal must be
asserted before the channel requests the bus and begins a transfer. The DMA supports
external burst mode and external cycle steal mode.
The generation of the request from the source or destination is specified by the ECO bit of
the CCR. The external requests can be for either single- or dual-address transfers.
6.3.2.1 EXTERNAL BURST MODE. For external devices that require very high data
transfer rates, the burst request mode allows the DMA channel to use all of the bus
bandwidth under control of the external device. In burst mode, the DREQ≈ input to the
DMA is level sensitive and is sampled at certain points to determine when a valid request
is asserted by the device. The device requests service by asserting DREQ≈ and leaving it
asserted. In response, the DMA arbitrates for the bus and performs an operand transfer.
During each operand transfer, the DMA asserts DMA acknowledge (DACK≈) to indicate to
the device that a request is being serviced. DACK≈ is asserted on the cycle of either the
source or destination device, depending on which one generated the request as
programmed by the CCR ECO bit.
To allow more than one transfer to be recognized, DREQ≈ must meet the asynchronous
setup and hold times while DACK≈ is asserted in the DMA bus cycle. Upon completion of
a request, DREQ≈ should be held asserted (bursting) into the following DMA bus cycle to
allow another transfer to occur. The recognized request will immediately be serviced. If
DREQ≈ is negated before DACK≈ is asserted, a new request is not recognized, and the
DMA channel releases ownership of the bus.
6.3.2.2 EXTERNAL CYCLE STEAL MODE. For external devices that generate a pulsed
signal for each operand to be transferred, the cycle steal request mode uses the DREQ≈
signal as a falling-edge-sensitive input. The DREQ≈ pulse generated by the device must
be asserted during two consecutive falling edges of the clock to be recognized as valid.
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Therefore, if a peripheral generates it asynchronously, it must be at least two clock
periods long.
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The DMA channel responds to cycle steal requests the same as all other requests.
However, if subsequent DREQ≈ pulses are generated before DACK≈ is asserted in
response to each request, they are ignored. If DREQ≈ is asserted after the DMA channel
asserts DACK≈ for the previous request but before DACK≈ is negated, then the new
request is serviced before bus ownership is released. If a new request is not generated by
the time DACK≈ is negated, the bus is released.
6.3.2.3 EXTERNAL REQUEST WITH OTHER MODULES. The DMA controller can be
externally connected to the serial module and used in conjunction with the serial module
to send or receive data. The DMA takes the place of a separate service routine for
accessing or storing data that is sent or received by the serial module. Using the DMA
also lowers the CPU32 overhead required to handle the data transferred by the serial
module. Figure 6-4 shows the external connections required for using the DMA with the
serial module.
DMA MODULE
SERIAL MODULE
.. .
DREQ1
TxRDYA
DREQ2
RxRDYA
Figure 6-4. DMA External Connections to Serial Module
For serial receive, the DMA reads data from the serial receive buffer (RB) register (when
the serial module has filled the buffer on input) and writes data to memory. For serial
transmit, the DMA reads data from memory and writes data to the serial transmit buffer
(TB) register. Only dual-address mode can be used with the serial module. The MC68340
on-chip peripherals do not support single-address transfers.
The timer modules can be used with the DMA in a similar manner. By connecting TOUTx
to DREQ≈, the timer can request a DMA transfer.
6.4 DATA TRANSFER MODES
The DMA channel supports single- and dual-address transfers. The single-address
transfer mode consists of one DMA bus cycle, which allows either a read or a write cycle
to occur. The dual-address transfer mode consists of a source operand read and a
destination operand write. Two DMA bus cycles are executed for the dual-address mode:
a DMA read cycle and a DMA write cycle.
6.4.1 Single-Address Mode
The single-address DMA bus cycle allows data to be transferred directly between a device
and memory without going through the DMA. In this mode, the operand transfer takes
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place in one bus cycle, where only the memory is explicitly addressed. The DMA bus
cycle may be either a read or a write cycle. The DMA provides the address and control
signals required for the operation. The requesting device either sends or receives data to
or from the specified address. Only external requests can be used to start a transfer when
the single-address mode is selected. An external device uses DREQ≈ to request a
transfer.
Each DMA channel can be independently programmed to provide single-address
transfers. The CCR ECO bit controls whether a source read or a destination write cycle
occurs on the data bus. If the ECO bit is set, the external handshake signals are used with
the source operand and a single-address source read occurs. If the ECO bit is cleared,
the external handshake signals are used with the destination operand, and a singleaddress destination write occurs. The channel can be programmed to operate in either
burst transfer mode or cycle steal mode. See 6.7 Register Description for more
information.
If external 32-bit devices and a 32-bit bus are used with the MC68340, the DMA can
control 32-bit transfers between devices that use the 32-bit bus in single-address mode
only. External logic is required to complete a 32-bit (long-word) transfer. If both byte and
word devices are used on an external bus, then an external multiplexer must be used to
correctly transfer data. The SIZx and A0 signals can be used to control this external
multiplexer.
6.4.1.1 SINGLE-ADDRESS READ. During the single-address source (read) cycle, the
DMA controls the transfer of data from memory to a device. The memory selected by the
address specified in the source address register (SAR), the source function codes in the
function code register (FCR), and the source size in the CCR provides the data and
control signals on the data bus. This bus cycle operates like a normal read bus cycle. The
DMA control signals (DACK≈ and DONE≈) are asserted in the source (read) cycle. See
Figures 6-5 and 6-6 for timing diagrams single-address read for external burst and cycle
steal modes.
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DMA READ
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
DMA READ
S4
S0
S2
CPU CYCLE
S4
S0
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
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SIZ1–SIZ0
AS
DS
R/W
D15–D0
DSACKx
DREQx
DONEx
(INPUT)
.....
DACKx
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
NOTE:
1. Timing to generate more than one DMA request.
2. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
3. DREQx must be asserted while DACKx is asserted and meet the setup and hold times for
more than one DMA transfer to be recognized.
Figure 6-5. Single-Address Read Timing (External Burst)
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S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
DMA READ
Figure 6-6. Single-Address Read Timing (Cycle Steal)
NOTE:
1. DREQx must be active for two consecutive clocks for a DMA request to be recognized.
2. To cause another DMA transfer, DREQx is asserted after DACKx is asserted and before DACKx is negated.
3. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
DACKx
DONEx
(INPUT)
DREQx
DSACKx
D15–D0
R/W
DS
AS
SIZ1–SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
CLKOUT
S0
CPU CYCLE
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S4
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
6.4.1.2 SINGLE-ADDRESS WRITE. During the single-address destination (write) cycle,
the DMA controls the transfer of data from a device to memory. The data is written to
memory selected by the address specified in the destination address register (DAR), the
destination function codes in the FCR, and the size in the CCR. The destination (write)
DMA bus cycle has timing identical to a write bus cycle. The DMA control signals (DACK≈
and DONE≈ ) are asserted in the destination (write) cycle. See Figures 6-7 and 6-8 for
timing diagrams of single-address write for external burst and cycle steal modes.
DMA WRITE
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
S4
S0
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CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
SIZ1-SIZ0
AS
DS
R/W
D15–D0
DSACKx
DREQx
DONEx
(INPUT)
.
DACKx
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
NOTE:
1. Timing to generate more than one DMA request.
2. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
2. DREQx must be asserted while DACKx is asserted, and meet the setup and hold times for
more than one DMA transfer to be recognized.
Figure 6-7. Single-Address Write Timing (External Burst)
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S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
Figure 6-8. Single-Address Write Timing (Cycle Steal)
S4
DMA WRITE
NOTE:
1. DREQx must be active for two consecutive clocks for a DMA request to be recognized.
2. To cause another DMA transfer, DREQx is asserted after DACKx is asserted and before DACKx is negated.
3. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the destination (write) DMA cycle.
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
DACKx
DONEx
(INPUT)
DREQx
DSACKx
D15–D0
R/W
DS
AS
SIZ1-SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
CLKOUT
S0
CPU CYCLE
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6.4.2 Dual-Address Mode
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The dual-address DMA bus cycle transfers data between a device or memory and the
DMA internal holding register (DHR). In this mode, any operand transfer takes place in
two DMA bus cycles, one where a device is addressed and one where memory is
addressed. The data transferred during a dual-address operation is either read from the
data bus into the DHR or written from the DHR to the data bus.
Each DMA channel can each be programmed to operate in the dual-address transfer
mode. In this mode, the operand is read from the source address specified in the SAR and
placed in the DHR. The operand read may take up to four bus cycles to complete because
of differences in operand sizes of the source and destination. The operand is then written
to the address specified in the DAR. This transfer may also be up to four bus cycles long.
In this manner, various combinations of peripheral, memory, and operand sizes may be
used. See 6.7 Register Description for more information.
The dual-address transfers can be started by either the internal request mode or by an
external device using the DREQ≈ input signal. When the external device uses DREQ≈, the
channel can be programmed to operate in either burst transfer mode or cycle steal mode.
6.4.2.1 DUAL-ADDRESS READ. During the dual-address read cycle, the DMA reads data
from a device or memory into the internal DHR. The device or memory is selected by the
address specified in the SAR, the source function codes in the FCR, and the source size
in the CCR. Data is read from the memory or peripheral and placed in the DHR when the
bus cycle is terminated. When the complete operand has been read, the SAR is
incremented by 0, 1, 2, or 4, according to the size and increment information specified by
the SSIZE and SAPI bits of the CCR. The DMA control signals (DACK≈ and DONE≈) are
asserted in the source (read) cycle when the source device makes a request. See Figures
6-9 and 6-10 for timing diagrams of dual-address read for external burst and cycle steal
modes.
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S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
CPU CYCLE
Figure 6-9. Dual-Address Read Timing (External Burst–Source Requesting)
NOTE:
1. Timing to generate more than one DMA transfer.
2. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
3. DREQx must be asserted while DACKx is asserted and meet the setup and hold times for more than one DMA transfer to be recognized.
4. DONEx (input) can be asserted in either the read or write DMA bus cycle to indicate that the next DMA transfer will be the last one.
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
DACKx
DONEx
(INPUT)
DREQx
DSACKx
D15–D0
R/W
DS
AS
SIZ1–SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
CLKOUT
S0
CPU CYCLE
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S4
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S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
Figure 6-10. Dual-Address Read Timing (Cycle Steal–Source Requesting)
NOTE
1. DREQx must be active for two consecutive clocks for a DMA request to be recognized.
2. To cause another DMA transfer, the DREQx is asserted after DACKx is asserted and before DACKx is negated.
3. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
4. DONEx (input) can be asserted in either the read or write DMA bus cycle to indicate that the next DMA transfer will be the last one.
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
DACKx
DONEx
(INPUT)
DREQx
DSACKx
D15–D0
R/W
DS
AS
SIZ1–SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
CLKOUT
S0
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S2
S4
DMA WRITE
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6.4.2.2 DUAL-ADDRESS WRITE. During the dual-address write cycle, the DMA writes
data to a device or memory from the internal DHR. The data in the DHR is written to the
device or memory selected by the address in the DAR, the destination function codes in
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the FCR, and the size in the CCR. When the complete operand is written, the DAR is
incremented by 0, 1, 2, or 4, according to the increment and size information specified by
the DAPI and DSIZE bits of the CCR, and the byte transfer count register (BTC) is
decremented by the number of bytes transferred. If the BTC is equal to zero and there
were no errors, the CSR DONE bit is set, and the DONE≈ signal for the DMA handshake
is asserted. The DMA control signals (DACK≈ and DONE≈) are asserted in the destination
(write) cycle when the destination device makes a request. See Figures 6-11 and 6-12 for
timing diagrams of dual-address write for external burst and cycle steal modes.
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S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
CPU CYCLE
Figure 6-11. Dual-Address Write Timing (External Burst–Destination Requesting)
NOTE:
1. Timing to generate more than one DMA transfer.
2. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the destination (write) DMA cycle.
3. DREQx must be asserted while DACKx is asserted and meet the setup and hold times for more than one DMA transfer to be recognized.
4. DONEx (input) can be asserted in either the read or write DMA bus cycle to indicate that the next DMA transfer will be the last one.
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
DACKx
DONEx
(INPUT)
DREQx
DSACKx
D15–D0
R/W
DS
AS
SIZ1–SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
CLKOUT
S0
CPU CYCLE
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S4
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S2
S4
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S2
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
Figure 6-12. Dual-Address Write Timing (Cycle Steal–Destination Requesting)
S2
S4
DMA WRITE
NOTE:
1. DREQx must be active for two consecutive clocks for a DMA request to be recognized.
2. To cause another DMA transfer, DREQx is asserted after DACKx is asserted and before DACKx is negated.
3. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the destination (write) DMA cycle.
4. DONEx (Input) can be asserted in either the read or write DMA bus cycle to indicate that the next DMA transfer will be the last one.
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
DACKx
DONEx
(INPUT)
DREQx
DSACKx
D15–D0
R/W
DS
AS
SIZ1–SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
CLKOUT
S0
CPU CYCLE
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6.5 BUS ARBITRATION
The DMA controller module uses the M68000 bus arbitration protocol to request bus
mastership for DMA transfers. Each channel arbitrates for the bus independently. The
source (read) DMA bus cycle has timing identical to a read bus cycle. The destination
(write) DMA bus cycle has timing identical to a write bus cycle. However, the DMA
channel transfers are unique in one respect—FC3 can be asserted during the source
operand bus cycle and remain asserted until the end of the destination operand bus cycle.
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For internal request generation as soon as the CCR STR bit is set, the DMA channel
arbitrates for the bus and begins to transfer data when it becomes bus master. For
external request generation, the STR bit must be set and a DREQ≈ signal must be
asserted before the channel arbitrates for the bus and begins a transfer.
6.6 DMA CHANNEL OPERATION
The following paragraphs describe the programmable channel functions available for the
DMA channel, the data transfer operations, and behavior during cycle termination. This
description applies to both channels.
Any DMA channel operation adheres to the following basic sequence:
1. Channel Initialization and Startup—The channel registers are initialized. The channel
is then started by setting the CCR STR bit. The first operand transfer request (either
internally or externally generated) is recognized.
2. Data Transfer—After a channel is started, it transfers one operand in response to
each request until an entire data block is transferred.
3. Channel Termination—The channel can terminate by normal completion or from an
error. The channel status register (CSR) indicates the status of the operation.
6.6.1 Channel Initialization and Startup
Before starting a block transfer operation, the channel registers must be initialized with
information describing the channel configuration, request generation method, and data
block. This initialization is accomplished by programming the appropriate information into
the channel registers.
The SAR is loaded with the source (read) address. If the transfer is from a peripheral
device to memory, the source address is the location of the peripheral data register. If the
transfer is from memory to a peripheral device or memory to memory, the source address
is the starting address of the data block. This address may be any byte address. In the
single-address mode with the destination (write) device requesting mode of operation, this
register is not used.
The DAR should contain the destination (write) address. If the transfer is from a peripheral
device to memory or memory to memory, the DAR is loaded with the starting address of
the data block to be written. If the transfer is from memory to a peripheral device, the DAR
is loaded with the address of the peripheral data register. This address may be any byte
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address. In the single-address mode with the source (read) device requesting mode of
operation, this register is not used.
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The manner in which the SAR and DAR change after each cycle depends upon the values
in the CCR SSIZE and DSIZE fields and SAPI and DAPI bits, and the starting address in
the SAR and DAR. If programmed to increment, the increment value is 1, 2, or 4 for byte,
word, or long-word operands, respectively. If the address register is programmed to
remain unchanged (no count), the register is not incremented after the operand transfer.
The SAR and DAR are incremented if a bus error terminates the transfer. Therefore,
either the SAR or the DAR contain the next address after the one that caused the bus
error.
The BTC must be loaded with the number of byte transfers that are to occur. This register
is decremented by 1, 2, or 4 at the end of each transfer. The FCR must be loaded with the
source and destination function codes. Although these function codes may not be used in
the address decode for the memory or peripheral, they are provided if needed. The CSR
must be cleared for channel startup.
Once the channel has been initialized, it is started by writing a one to the STR bit in the
CCR. Programming the channel for internal request causes the channel to request the bus
and start transferring data immediately. If the channel is programmed for external request,
DREQ≈ must be asserted before the channel requests the bus. The DREQ≈ input is
ignored until the channel is started, since the channel does not recognize transfer
requests until it is active.
If any fields in the CCR are modified while the channel is active, that change is effective
immediately. To avoid any problems with changing the setup for the DMA channel, a zero
should be written to the STR bit in the CCR to halt the DMA channel at the end of the
current bus cycle.
6.6.2 Data Transfers
Each operand transfer requires from one to five bus cycles to complete. Once a bus
request is recognized and the operand transfer begins, both the source (read) cycle
and/or the destination (write) cycle occur before a new bus request may be honored, even
if the new bus request is of higher priority.
6.6.2.1 INTERNAL REQUEST TRANSFERS. Internally generated request transfers are
accessed as two-clock bus cycles. (The IMB can access on-chip peripherals in two
clocks.) The percentage of bus bandwidth utilization can be limited for internal request
transfers.
6.6.2.2 EXTERNAL REQUEST TRANSFERS. In single-address mode, only one bus cycle
is run for each request. Since the operand size must be equal to the device port size in
single-address mode, the number of normally terminated bus cycles executed during a
transfer operation is always equal to the value programmed into the corresponding size
field of the CCR. The sequencing of the address bus follows the programming of the CCR
and address register (SAR or DAR) for the channel.
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Each operand transfer in dual-address mode requires from two to five bus cycles in
response to each operand transfer request. If the source and destination operands are the
same size, two cycles will transfer the complete operand. If the source and destination
operands are different sizes, the number of cycles will vary. If the source is a long-word
and the destination is a byte, there would be one bus cycle for the read and four bus
cycles for the write. Once the DMA channel has started a dual-address operand transfer, it
must complete that transfer before releasing ownership of the bus or servicing a request
for another channel of equal or higher priority, unless one of the bus cycles is terminated
with a bus error during the transfer.
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6.6.3 Channel Termination
The channel can terminate by normal completion or from an error. The status of a DMA
operation can be determined by reading the CSR. The DMA channel can also interrupt the
processor to inform it of errors, normal transfer completion, or breakpoints. The fast
termination option can also be used to provide a two-clock access for external requests.
6.6.3.1 CHANNEL TERMINATION. The channel operation can be terminated for several
reasons: the BTC is decremented to zero, a peripheral device asserts DONE≈ during an
operand transfer, the STR bit is cleared in the CCR, a bus cycle is terminated with a bus
error, or a reset occurs.
6.6.3.2 INTERRUPT OPERATION. Interrupts can be generated by error termination of a
bus cycle or by normal channel completion. Specifically, if the CCR interrupt error (INTE)
bit is set and a bus error on source (CCR BES) bit, bus error on destination (CCR BED)
bit, or configuration error (CCR CONF) bit is set, the CCR IRQ bit is set. In this case,
clearing the INTE, BES, BED, or CONF bits causes the IRQ bit to be cleared. If the
interrupt normal (CCR INTN) bit is set and the CCR DONE bit is set, the IRQ bit is set. In
this case, clearing the INTN or the DONE bit causes the IRQ bit to be cleared. If the
interrupt breakpoint (CCR INTB) and the CSR BRKP bits are set, the IRQ bit is set.
Clearing INTB or BRKP clears IRQ.
6.6.3.3 FAST TERMINATION OPTION. Using the system integration module (SIM40) chip
select logic, the fast termination option (Figure 6-13) can be employed to give a fast bus
access of two clock cycles rather than the standard three-cycle access time for external
requests. The fast termination option is described in Section 3 Bus Operation and
Section 4 System Integration Module.
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CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
DMA READ
S4
S0
S4
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
.. .. .. ...... .. .. .
S0
S2
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
SIZ1–SIZ0
AS
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DS
R/W
D15–D0
DSACKx
DREQx
DACKx
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
NOTE:
1. To cause another DMA transfer, DREQx is asserted after DACKx is asserted and before
DACKx is negated.
2. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
Figure 6-13. Fast Termination Option (Cycle Steal)
If the fast termination option is used with external burst request mode (Figure 6-14), an
extra DMA cycle may result on every burst transfer. Normally, DREQ≈ is negated when
DACK≈ is returned. In the burst mode with fast termination selected, a new cycle starts
even if DREQ≈ is negated simultaneously with DACK≈ assertion.
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CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
S4
DMA READ
S0
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S4
DMA READ
CPU CYCLE
S0
S2
... .
S4
S0
S4
DMA WRITE
S0
S4
S0
CLKOUT
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
SIZ1–SIZ0
AS
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DS
R/W
D15–D0
DSACKx
DREQx
DACKx
DONEx
(OUTPUT)
NOTE
1. To cause another DMA transfer, the DREQx is asserted after DACKx is asserted and before DACKx is negated.
2. DACKx and DONEx (DMA control signals) are asserted in the source (read) DMA cycle.
Figure 6-14. Fast Termination Option (External Burst–Source Requesting)
6.7 REGISTER DESCRIPTION
The following paragraphs contain a detailed description of each register and its specific
function. Figure 6-15 is a programmer's model (register map) of all registers in the DMA
module. Each channel has an independent set of registers. For more information about a
particular register, refer to the individual register description. The ADDRESS column
indicates the offset of the register from the base address of the DMA channel. The FC
column designation of S indicates that register access is restricted to supervisor only. A
designation of S/U indicates that access is governed by the SUPV bit in the module
configuration register (MCR).
Unimplemented memory locations return logic zero when accessed. All registers support
both byte and word transfers.
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ADDRESS
FC
CH1
CH2
15
8
7
780
7A0
S
MODULE CONFIGURATION REGISTER (MCR)
782
7A2
S
RESERVED
784
7A4
S
INTERRUPT REGISTER
786
7A6
S/U
RESERVED
788
7A8
S/U
78A
7AA
S/U
78C
7AC
S/U
SOURCE ADDRESS REGISTER MSBs
78E
7AE
S/U
SOURCE ADDRESS REGISTER LSBs
790
7B0
S/U
DESTINATION ADDRESS REGISTER MSBs
792
7B2
S/U
DESTINATION ADDRESS REGISTER LSBs
794
7B4
S/U
BYTE TRANSFER COUNTER MSBs
796
7B6
S/U
BYTE TRANSFER COUNTER LSBs
798
7B8
S/U
RESERVED
79A
7BA
S/U
RESERVED
79C
7BC
S/U
RESERVED
79E
7BE
S/U
RESERVED
0
CHANNEL CONTROL REGISTER
CHANNEL STATUS REGISTER
FUNCTION CODE REGISTER
Figure 6-15. DMA Module Programming Model
In the registers discussed in the following paragraphs, the numbers in the upper righthand corner indicate the offset of the register from the base address specified by the
module base address register (MBAR) in the SIM40. The first number is the offset for
channel 1; the second number is the offset for channel 2. The numbers above the register
represent the bit position in the register. The register contains the mnemonic for the bit.
The value of these bits after a hardware reset is shown below the register. The access
privilege is shown in the lower right-hand corner.
NOTE
A CPU32 RESET instruction will not affect the MCR but will
reset all other registers in the DMA module as though a
hardware reset occurred. The term DMA is used to reference
either channel 1 or channel 2, since the two are functionally
equivalent.
6.7.1 Module Configuration Register (MCR)
The MCR controls the DMA channel configuration. Each DMA channel has an MCR. This
register can be either read or written when the channel is enabled and is in the supervisor
state. The MCR is not affected by a CPU32 RESET instruction.
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MCR1, MCR2
$780, $7A0
15
14
13
12
11
STP
FRZ1
FRZ0
SE
0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
10
9
8
ISM
0
7
6
SUPV
0
0
1
5
4
3
2
MAID
0
0
1
0
0
0
IARB
0
0
0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Supervisor Only
STP—Stop Bit
1 = Setting the STP bit stops all clocks within the DMA module except for the clock
from the IMB. The clock from the IMB remains active to allow the CPU32 access
to the MCR. The clock stops on the low phase of the clock and remains stopped
until the STP bit is cleared by the CPU32 or a hardware reset. Accesses to DMA
module registers while in stop mode produce a bus error. The DMA module
should be disabled in a known state before setting the STP bit. The STP bit
should be set prior to executing the LPSTOP instruction to reduce overall power
consumption.
0 = The channel operates in normal mode.
NOTE
The DMA module uses only one STP bit for both channels. A
read or write to either MCR accesses the same STP control bit.
FRZ1, FRZ0—Freeze
These bits determine the action taken when the FREEZE signal is asserted on the IMB
when the CPU32 has entered background debug mode. The DMA module negates BR
and keeps it negated until FREEZE is negated or reset. Table 6-1 lists the action taken
for each bit combination.
Table 6-1. FRZx Control Bits
FRZ1
FRZ0
Action
0
0
Ignore FREEZE
0
1
Reserved
1
0
Freeze on Boundary*
1
1
Reserved
*The boundary is defined as any bus cycle by
the DMA module.
NOTE
The DMA module uses only one set of FRZx bits for both
channels. A read or write to either MCR accesses the same
FRZx control bits.
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SE—Single-Address Enable
This bit is implemented for future MC683xx family compatibility.
1 = In single-address mode, the external data bus is driven during a DMA transfer.
0 = In single-address mode, the external data bus remains in a high-impedance state
during a DMA transfer (used for intermodule DMA).
In dual-address mode, the SE bit has no effect.
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Bit 11—Reserved
ISM2–ISM0—Interrupt Service Mask
These bits contain the interrupt service mask level for the channel. When the interrupt
service level on the IMB is greater than the interrupt service mask level, the DMA
vacates the bus and negates BR until the interrupt service level is less than or equal to
the interrupt service mask level.
NOTE
When the CPU32 status register (SR) interrupt priority mask
bits I2–I0 are at a higher level than the DMA ISM bits, the DMA
channel will not start. The channel will begin operation when
the level of the SR I2–I0 bits is less than or equal to the level of
the DMA ISM bits.
SUPV—Supervisor/User
The value of this bit has no effect on registers permanently defined as supervisor-only
access.
1 = The DMA channel registers defined as supervisor/user reside in supervisor data
space and are only accessible from supervisor programs.
0 = The DMA channel registers defined as supervisor/user reside in user data space
and are accessible from either supervisor or user programs.
MAID—Master Arbitration ID
These bits establish bus arbitration priority level among modules that have the capability
of becoming bus master. For the MC68340, the MAID bits are used to arbitrate between
DMA channel 1 and channel 2. If both channels are programmed with the same MAID
level, channel 1 will have priority. These bits are implemented for future MC683xx
Family compatibility. In the MC68340, only the SIM and the DMA can be bus masters.
However, future versions of the MC683xx Family may incorporate other modules that
may also be bus masters. For these devices, the MAID bits will be required. For the
MAID bits, zero is the lowest priority and seven is the highest priority.
IARB — Interrupt Arbitration ID
Each module that generates interrupts has an IARB field. These bits are used to
arbitrate for the bus in the case that two or more modules simultaneously generate an
interrupt at the same priority level. No two modules can share the same IARB value.
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The reset value of the IARB field is $0, which prevents the DMA module from arbitrating
during the interrupt acknowledge cycle. The system software should initialize the IARB
field to a value from $F (highest priority) to $1 (lowest priority).
NOTE
The DMA module uses only one set of IARB bits for both
channels. A read or write to either MCR accesses the same
IARB control bits.
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6.7.2 Interrupt Register (INTR)
The INTR contains the priority level for the channel interrupt request and the 8-bit vector
number of the interrupt. The register can be read or written to at any time while in
supervisor mode and while the DMA module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is
cleared).
INTR1, INTR2
$784, $7A4
15
14
13
12
11
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
INTL
0
0
3
2
1
0
1
1
1
1
INTV
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
Bits 15–11—Reserved
INTL—Interrupt Level Bits
Each module that can generate interrupts has an interrupt level field. The interrupt level
field contains the priority level of the interrupt for its associated channel. The priority
level encoded in these bits is sent to the CPU32 on the appropriate IRQ≈ signal. The
CPU32 uses this value to determine servicing priority. See Section 5 CPU32 for more
information.
INTV—Interrupt Vector Bits
Each module that can generate interrupts has an interrupt vector field. The interrupt
vector field contains the vector number of the interrupt for its associated channel. This
8-bit number indicates the offset from the base of the vector table where the address of
the exception handler for the specified interrupt is located. The INTV field is reset to
$0F, which indicates an uninitialized interrupt condition. See Section 5 CPU32 for more
information.
6.7.3 Channel Control Register (CCR)
The CCR controls the configuration of the DMA channel. This register is accessible in
either supervisor or user space. The CCR can always be read or written to when the DMA
module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
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CCR1, CCR2
$788, $7A8
15
14
13
12
11
10
INTB
INTN
INTE
ECO
SAPI
DAPI
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
9
8
7
SSIZE
U
6
5
DSIZE
U
U
4
REQ
U
U
2
BB
U
U = Unaffected by reset
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3
U
U
1
0
S/D
STR
U
0
Supervisor/User
INTB—Interrupt Breakpoint
Setting the interrupt breakpoint bit sets the BRKP bit in the CSR. The logic AND of INTB
and BRKP generates an interrupt request.
1 = Enables an IRQ≈ when a breakpoint is recognized and the channel is the bus
master.
0 = Does not enable an IRQ≈ when a breakpoint is recognized and the channel is
the bus master.
INTN—Interrupt Normal
1 = Enables an IRQ≈ when the channel finishes a transfer without an error condition
(CSR DONE bit is set).
0 = Does not enable an IRQ≈ when the channel finishes a transfer without an error
condition.
INTE—Interrupt Error
1 = Enables an IRQ≈ when the channel encounters an error on source read (CSR
BES bit is set), destination write (CSR BED bit is set), or configuration for
channel setup (CSR CONF bit is set).
0 = Does not enable an IRQ≈ when the channel encounters an error on source read,
destination write, or configuration for channel setup.
ECO—External Control Option
If request generation is programmed to be internal (REQ bits = 00), this bit has no
effect.
Single-Address Mode—This bit defines the direction of transfer.
1 = If request generation is programmed to be external (REQ = 1x), the requesting
device receives the data (read from memory), and the control signals ( DREQ≈,
DACK≈, and DONE≈) are used by the requesting device to write data during the
source (read) portion of the transfer.
0 = If request generation is programmed to be external (REQ = 1x), the requesting
device provides the data (write to memory), and the control signals ( DREQ≈,
DACK≈, and DONE≈) are used by the requesting device to provide data during
the destination (write) portion of the transfer.
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Dual-Address Mode—This bit defines which device generates requests.
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1 = If request generation is programmed to be external (REQ = 1x), the source
device generates the request, and the control signals ( DREQ≈, DACK≈, and
DONE≈) are part of the source (read) portion of the transfer.
0 = If request generation is programmed to be external (REQ = 1x), the destination
device generates the request, and the control signals ( DREQ≈, DACK≈, and
DONE≈) are part of the destination (write) portion of the transfer.
SAPI—Source Address Pointer Increment
1 = The SAR is incremented by 1, 2, or 4 after each transfer, according to the source
size. The address that is written into the SAR points to a memory block and is
incremented to complete the data transfer.
0 = The SAR is not incremented during operand transfer. The address that is written
into the SAR points to a peripheral device and is used for the complete data
transfer.
DAPI—Destination Address Pointer Increment
1 = The DAR is incremented by 1, 2, or 4 after each transfer, according to the source
size. The address that is written into the DAR points to a memory block and is
incremented to complete the data transfer.
0 = The DAR is not incremented during operand transfer. The address that is written
into the DAR points to a peripheral device and is used for the complete data
transfer.
SSIZE—Source Size Control Field
This field controls the size of the source (read) bus cycle that the DMA channel is
running. Table 6-2 defines these bits.
Table 6-2. SSIZEx Encoding
Bit 9
Bit 8
Definition
0
0
Long Word*
0
1
Byte
1
0
Word
1
1
Not Used
*External logic is required to complete a longword transfer.
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DSIZE—Destination Size Control Field
This field controls the size of the destination (write) bus cycle that the DMA channel is
running. Table 6-3 defines these bits.
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Table 6-3. DSIZEx Encoding
Bit 7
Bit 6
Definition
0
0
Long Word*
0
1
Byte
1
0
Word
1
1
Not Used
*External logic is required to complete a longword transfer.
REQ—Request Generation Field
This field controls the mode of operation the DMA channel uses to make an operand
transfer request. Table 6-4 defines these bits.
Table 6-4. REQx Encoding
Bit 5
Bit 4
Definition
0
0
Internal Request at Programmable Rate
0
1
Reserved
1
0
External Request Burst Transfer Mode
1
1
External Request Cycle Steal
BB—Bus Bandwidth Field
This field controls the percentage of 1024 clock periods of the IMB that the DMA
channel can use during internal requests only. Table 6-5 defines these bits.
Table 6-5. BBx Encoding and Bus Bandwidth
REQ Field
MOTOROLA
BB Field
Bus Bandwidth
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Definition
(Clock Periods)
0
0
0
0
25%
256
0
0
0
1
50%
512
0
0
1
0
75%
768
0
0
1
1
100%
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S/D—Single-/Dual-Address Transfer
1 = The DMA channel runs single-address transfers from a peripheral to memory or
from memory to a peripheral. The destination holding register is not used for
these transfers because the data is transferred directly into the destination
location. The MC68340 on-chip peripherals do not support single-address
transfers.
0 = The DMA channel runs dual-address transfers.
STR—Start
This bit is cleared by a hardware/software reset, writing a logic zero, or setting one of
the following CSR bits: DONE, BES, BED, CONF, or BRKP. The STR bit cannot be set
when the CSR IRQ bit is set. The DMA channel cannot be started until the CSR DONE,
BES, BED, CONF, and BRKP bits are cleared.
Internal Request Mode:
1 = The DMA transfer starts as soon as this bit is set.
0 = The DMA transfer can be stopped by clearing this bit.
External Request Mode:
1 = Setting this bit allows the DMA to start the transfer when a DREQ≈ input is
received from an external device.
0 = The DMA transfer can be stopped by clearing this bit.
NOTE
If any fields in the CCR are modified while the channel is
active, that change is effective immediately. To avoid any
problems with changing the setup for the DMA channel, a zero
should be written to the STR bit in the CCR to halt the DMA
channel at the end of the current bus cycle.
6.7.4 Channel Status Register (CSR)
The CSR contains the channel status information. This register is accessible in either
supervisor or user space. The CSR can always be read or written to when the DMA
module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
CSR1, CSR2
$78A, $7AA
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IRQ
DONE
BES
BED
CONF
BRKP
0
0
RESET
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor/User
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IRQ—Interrupt Request
This bit is the logical OR of the DONE, BES, BED, CONF, and BRKP bits and is cleared
when they are all cleared. IRQ is positioned to allow conditional testing as a signed
binary integer. The state of this bit is not affected by the interrupt enable bits in the
CCR. The STR bit in the CCR cannot be set when this bit is set; all error status bits,
except the BRKP bit, must be cleared before the STR bit can be set.
1 = An interrupt condition has occurred.
0 = An interrupt condition has not occurred.
DONE—DMA Done
1 = The DMA channel has terminated normally.
0 = The DMA channel has not terminated normally. This bit is cleared by writing a
logic one or by a hardware reset. Writing a zero has no effect.
BES—Bus Error on Source
1 = The DMA channel has terminated with a bus error during the read bus cycle.
0 = The DMA channel has not terminated with a bus error during the read bus cycle.
This bit is cleared by writing a logic one or by a hardware reset. Writing a zero
has no effect.
BED—Bus Error on Destination
1 = The DMA channel has terminated with a bus error during the write bus cycle.
0 = The DMA channel has not terminated with a bus error during the write bus cycle.
This bit is cleared by writing a logic one or by a hardware reset. Writing a zero
has no effect.
CONF—Configuration Error
A configuration error results when either the SAR or the DAR contains an address that
does not match the port size specified in the CCR and the BTC register does not match
the larger port size or is zero.
1 = The CCR STR bit is set, and a configuration error is present.
0 = The CCR STR bit is set, and no configuration error exists. This bit is cleared by
writing a logic one or by a hardware reset. Writing a zero has no effect.
BRKP—Breakpoint
1 = The breakpoint signal was set during a DMA transfer.
0 = The breakpoint signal was not set during a DMA transfer. This bit is cleared by
writing a logic one or by a hardware reset. Writing a zero has no effect.
Bits 1, 0—Reserved
NOTE
The CSR is cleared by writing $7C to its location. The DMA
channel cannot be started until the CSR DONE, BES, BED,
CONF and BRKP bits are cleared.
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6.7.5 Function Code Register (FCR)
The FCR contains the source and destination function codes for the channel. This register
is accessible in either supervisor or user space. The FCR can always be read or written to
when the DMA module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
FCR1, FCR2
7
6
$78B, $7AB
5
4
3
2
SFC
RESET:
U
U
0
U
U
DFC
U
U
U
U = Unaffected by reset.
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1
U
Supervisor/User
SFC—Source Function Code Field
This field can be used to specify the source access to a certain address space type.
The source function code bits are defined in Table 6-6.
DFC—Destination Function Code Field
This field can be used to specify the destination access to a certain address space type.
The destination function code bits are defined in Table 6-6.
Table 6-6. Address Space Encoding
Function Code Bits
3
2
1
0
Address Spaces
0
0
0
0
Reserved (Motorola)
0
0
0
1
User Data Space
0
0
1
0
User Program Space
0
0
1
1
Reserved (User)
0
1
0
0
Reserved (Motorola)
0
1
0
1
Supervisor Data Space
0
1
1
0
Supervisor Program
Space
0
1
1
1
CPU Space
1
x
x
x
DMA Space
NOTE
Although FC3 can be set for DMA transfers to distinguish the
source or destination space from other data or program
spaces, it is not required to be set. Since the CPU32 currently
has only 3-bit SFC and DFC capability, it cannot emulate
FC3 = 1 at this time. However, it is recommended that FC3 be
set to one to distinguish DMA or CPU access during debug.
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6.7.6 Source Address Register (SAR)
The SAR is a 32-bit register that contains the address of the source operand used by the
DMA to access memory or peripheral registers. This register is accessible in either
supervisor or user space. The SAR can always be read or written to when the DMA
module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
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SAR1, SAR2
$78C, $7AC
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
A31
A30
A29
A28
A27
A26
A25
A24
A23
A22
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
A16
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U = Unaffected by reset
Supervisor/User
During the DMA read cycle, the SAR drives the address on the address bus. This register
can be programmed to increment (CCR SAPI bit set) or remain constant (CCR SAPI bit
cleared) after each operand transfer.
The register is incremented using unsigned arithmetic and will roll over if overflow occurs.
For example, if the register contains $FFFFFFFF and is incremented by 1, it will roll over
to $00000000. This register is incremented by 1, 2, or 4, depending on the size of the
operand and the memory starting address. If the operand size is byte, then the register is
always incremented by 1. If the operand size is word and the starting address is evenword aligned, then the register is incremented by 2. If the operand size is long word and
the address is even-word aligned, then the register is incremented by 4. The SAR value
must be aligned to an even-word boundary if the transfer size is word or long word;
otherwise, the CSR CONF bit is set, and the transfer does not occur.
When read, this register always contains the next source address. If a bus error
terminates the transfer, this register contains the next source address that would have
been run had the error not occurred.
6.7.7 Destination Address Register (DAR)
The DAR is a 32-bit register that contains the address of the destination operand used by
the DMA to write to memory or peripheral registers. This register is accessible in either
supervisor or user space. The DAR can always be read or written to when the DMA
module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
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DAR1, DAR2
$790, $7B0
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
A31
A30
A29
A28
A27
A26
A25
A24
A23
A22
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
A16
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
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U = Unaffected by reset
Supervisor/User
During the DMA write cycle, this register drives the address on the address bus. This
register can be programmed to increment (CCR DAPI bit set) or remain constant (CCR
DAPI bit cleared) after each operand transfer.
The register is incremented using unsigned arithmetic and will roll over if overflow occurs.
For example, if a register contains $FFFFFFFF and is incremented by 1, it will roll over to
$00000000. This register can be incremented by 1, 2, or 4, depending on the size of the
operand and the starting address. If the operand size is byte, the register is always
incremented by 1. If the operand size is word and the starting address is even-word
aligned, the register is incremented by 2. If the operand size is long word and the address
is even-word aligned, the register is incremented by 4. The DAR value must be aligned to
an even-word boundary if the transfer size is word or long word; otherwise, the CSR
CONF bit is set, and the transfer does not occur.
When read, this register always contains the next destination address. If a bus error
terminates the transfer, this register contains the next destination address that would have
been run had the error not occurred.
6.7.8 Byte Transfer Counter Register (BTC)
The BTC is a 32-bit register that contains the number of bytes left to transfer in a given
block. This register is accessible in either supervisor or user space. The BTC can always
be read or written to when the DMA module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is
cleared).
BTC1, BTC2
$794, $7B4
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
A31
A30
A29
A28
A27
A26
A25
A24
A23
A22
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
A16
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
RESET:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U = Unaffected by reset
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This register is decremented by 1, 2, or 4 for each successful operand transfer from
source to destination locations. When the BTC decrements to zero and no error has
occurred, the CSR DONE bit is set. In the external request mode, the DONE≈ handshake
line is also asserted when the BTC is decremented to zero.
If the operand size is byte, then the register is always decremented by 1. If the operand
size is word and the starting count is even word, the register is decremented by 2. If the
operand size is word and the byte count is not a multiple of 2, the CSR CONF bit is set,
and a transfer does not occur. If the operand size is long word and the count is even long
word, then the register is decremented by 4. If the operand size is long word and the byte
count is not a multiple of 4, the CSR CONF bit is set, and a transfer does not occur. If the
STR bit is set with a zero count in the BTC, the CONF bit is set, and the STR bit is
cleared.
When read, this register always contains the count for the next access. If a bus error
terminates the transfer, this register contains the count for the next access that would
have been run had the error not occurred.
6.8 DATA PACKING
The internal DHR is a 32-bit register that can serve as a buffer register for the data being
transferred during dual-address DMA cycles. No address is specified since this register
can not be addressed by the programmer. The DHR allows the data to be packed and
unpacked by the DMA during the dual-address transfer. For example, if the source
operand size is byte and the destination operand size is word, then two-byte read cycles
occur, followed by a one-word write cycle (see Figure 6-16). The two bytes of data are
buffered in the DHR until the destination (write) word cycle occurs. The DHR allows for
packing and unpacking of operands for the following sizes: bytes to words, bytes to long
words, words to long words, words to bytes, long words to bytes, and long words to words.
SOURCE/DESTINATION
DESTINATION/SOURCE
.. ..... ..... ..... ... .
BYTE0
BYTE0
BYTE1
BYTE0
BYTE1
BYTE2
BYTE3
BYTE0
BYTE1
BYTE2
BYTE3
BYTE1
BYTE0
BYTE1
BYTE2
BYTE3
BYTE0
BYTE1
BYTE2
BYTE3
Figure 6-16. Packing and Unpacking of Operands
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For normal transfers aligned with the size and address, only two bus cycles are required
for each transfer: a read from the source and a write to the destination.
6.9 DMA CHANNEL INITIALIZATION SEQUENCE
The following paragraphs describe DMA channel initialization and operation. If the DMA
capability of the MC68340 is being used, the initialization steps should be performed
during the part initialization sequence. The mode operation steps should be performed to
start a DMA transfer. The DONE≈ pin requires an external pullup resistor even if operating
only in the internal request mode.
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6.9.1 DMA Channel Configuration
The following steps can be accomplished in any order when initializing the DMA channel.
These steps need to be performed for each channel used.
Module Configuration Register (MCR)
• Clear the stop bit (STP) for normal operation. (Only one STP bit exists for both
channels.)
• Select whether to respond to or ignore FREEZE (FRZx bits). (Only one set of FRZx
bits exits for both channels.)
• If desired, enable the external data bus operation in single-address mode (SE bit).
• Program the interrupt service mask to set the level below which interrupts are ignored
during a DMA transfer (ISM bits). The channel will begin operation when the level of
the CPU32 SR I2-I0 bits is less than or equal to the level of the DMA ISM bits.
• Select the access privilege for the supervisor/user registers (SUPV bit).
• Program the master arbitration ID (MAID) to establish priority on the IMB between
both DMA channels. Note that the two DMA channels should have distinct MAIDs if
both channels are being used. (If they are programmed the same, channel 1 has
priority.)
• Select the interrupt arbitration level for the DMA channel (IARB bits). (Only one set of
IARB bits exits for both channels.)
Interrupt Register (INTR)
• Program the interrupt priority level for the channel interrupt (INTL bits).
• Program the vector number for the channel interrupt (INTV bits).
Channel Control Register (CCR)
• If desired, enable the interrupt when breakpoint is recognized and the channel is the
bus master (INTB bit).
• If desired, enable the interrupt when done without an error condition (INTN bit).
• If desired, enable the interrupt when the channel encounters an error (INTE bit).
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• Select the direction of transfer if in single-address mode (ECO bit), or select which
device generates requests if in dual-address mode.
6.9.1.1 DMA CHANNEL OPERATION IN SINGLE-ADDRESS MODE. The following steps
are required to begin a DMA transfer in single-address mode.
Channel Control Register (CCR)
• Write a zero to the start bit (STR) to prevent the channel from starting the transfer
prematurely.
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• Select the amount by which to increment the source address for a read cycle (SAPI
bit) or the destination address for a write cycle (DAPI bit).
• Define the transfer size by selecting the source size for a read cycle (SSIZE field) or
by selecting the destination size for a write cycle (DSIZE field).
• Select external burst request mode or external cycle steal request mode (REQ field).
• Set the S/D bit for signal-address transfer.
Channel Status Register (CSR)
• Clear the CSR by writing $7C into it. The DMA cannot be started until the DONE, BES,
BED, CONF, and BRKP bits are cleared.
Function Code Register (FCR)
• Encode the source function code for a read cycle or the destination function code for a
write cycle.
Address Register (SAR or DAR)
• Write the source address for a read cycle or the destination address for a write cycle.
Byte Transfer Counter (BTC)
• Encode the number of bytes to be transferred.
Channel Control Register (CCR)
• Write a one to the start bit (STR) to allow the transfer to begin.
6.9.1.2 DMA CHANNEL OPERATION IN DUAL-ADDRESS MODE. The following steps
are required to begin a DMA transfer in dual-address mode.
Channel Control Register (CCR)
• Write a zero to the start bit (STR) to prevent the channel from starting the transfer
prematurely.
• Select the amount by which to increment the source and destination addresses (SAPI
and DAPI bits).
• Select the source and destination sizes (SSIZE and DSIZE fields).
• Select internal request, external burst request mode, or external cycle steal request
mode (REQ field).
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• If using internal request, select the amount of bus bandwidth to be used by the DMA
(BB field).
• Clear the S/D bit for dual-address transfer.
Channel Status Register (CSR)
• Clear the CSR by writing $7C into it. The DMA cannot be started until the DONE,
BES, BED, CONF, and BRKP bits are cleared.
Function Code Register (FCR)
• Encode the source and destination function codes.
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Address Registers (SAR and DAR)
• Write the source and destination addresses.
Byte Transfer Counter (BTC)
• Encode the number of bytes to be transferred.
Channel Control Register (CCR)
• Write a one to the start bit (STR) to allow the transfer to begin.
6.9.2 DMA Channel Example Configuration Code
The following are examples of configuration sequences for a DMA channel in single- and
dual-addressing modes.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic DMA channel register initialization example code.
* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal DMA channel
* registers, providing basic functions for operation.
* The code sets up channel 1 for external burst request generation,
* single-address mode, long word size transfers.
* Control signals are asserted on the DMA read cycle.
***************************************************************************
Example 1: External Burst Request Generation, Single-Address Transfers.
***************************************************************************
* SIM40 equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
***************************************************************************
* DMA Channel 1 equates
DMACH1
EQU $780
Offset from MBAR for channel 1 regs
DMAMCR1 EQU $0
MCR for channel 1
* Channel 1 register offsets from channel 1 base address
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DMAINT1
DMACCR1
DMACSR1
DMAFCR1
DMASAR1
DMADAR1
DMABTC1
SARADD
NUMBYTE
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
$4
$8
$A
$B
$C
$10
$14
$10000
$C
interrupt register channel 1
control register channel 1
status register channel 1
function code register channel 1
source address register channel 1
destination address register channel 1
byte transfer count register channel 1
source address
number of bytes to transfer
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize DMA Channel 1
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+DMACH1,A0 Pointer to channel 1
* Initialize DMA channel 1 MCR
* Normal Operation, ignore FREEZE, single-address mode. ISM field at 2. Make
* sure CPU32 SR I2-I0 bits are less than or equal to ISM bits for channel startup.
* Supervisor/user reg. unrestricted, MAID field at 7. IARB priority at 1.
MOVE.W
#$1271,(A0)
* Clear channel control reg.
* Clear STR (start) bit to prevent the channel from starting a transfer early.
CLR.W
DMACCR1(A0)
* Initialize interrupt reg.
* Interrupt priority at 7, interrupt vector at $42.
MOVE.W
#$0742,DMAINT1(A0)
* Initialize channel status reg.
* Clear the DONE, BES, BED, CONF and BRKP bits to allow channel to startup.
MOVE.B
#$7C,DMACSR1(A0)
* Initialize function code reg.
* DMA space, user data space for source.
MOVE.B
#$99,DMAFCR1(A0)
* Initialize source operand address
* Source address is equal to $10000.
MOVE.L
SARADD,DMASAR1(A0)
* Initialize the byte transfer count reg.
* The number of bytes to be transferred is $C or 3 long words
MOVE.L
NUMBYTE,DMABTC1(A0)
* Channel control reg. init. and Start DMA transfers
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* No interrupts are enabled, source (read) cycle. Increment source
* address, source size is long word, REQ is external burst request.
* Single-address mode, start the DMA transfers.
MOVE.W
#$1823,DMACCR1(A0)
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***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
Example 2: Internal Request Generation, Memory to Memory Transfers.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic DMA channel register initialization example code.
* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal DMA channel
* registers, providing basic functions for operation.
* The code sets up channel 1 for internal request generation
* memory to memory transfers.
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* SIM40 equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
***************************************************************************
* DMA Channel 1 equates
DMACH1
EQU $780
Offset from MBAR for channel 1 regs
DMAMCR1 EQU $0
MCR for channel 1
* Channel 1 register offsets from channel 1 base address
DMAINT1
EQU $4
interrupt register channel 1
DMACCR1 EQU $8
control register channel 1
DMACSR1 EQU $A
status register channel 1
DMAFCR1 EQU $B
function code register channel 1
DMASAR1 EQU $C
source address register channel 1
DMADAR1 EQU $10
destination address register channel 1
DMABTC1 EQU $14
byte transfer count register channel 1
SARADD
EQU $6000
source address
DARADD
EQU $8000
destination address
NUMBYTE EQU $E
number of bytes to transfer
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize DMA Channel 1
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+DMACH1,A0 Pointer to channel 1
* Initialize DMA channel 1 MCR
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* Normal Operation, ignore FREEZE, dual-address mode. ISM field at 3. Make
* sure CPU32 SR I2-I0 bits are less than or equal to ISM bits for channel startup.
* Supervisor/user reg. unrestricted, MAID field at 3. IARB priority at 4.
MOVE.W
#$0334,(A0)
* Clear channel control reg.
* Clear STR (start) bit to prevent the channel from starting a transfer early.
CLR.W
DMACCR1(A0)
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* Initialize interrupt reg.
* Interrupt priority at 7, interrupt vector at $42.
MOVE.W
#$0742,DMAINT1(A0)
* Initialize channel status reg.
* Clear the DONE, BES, BED, CONF and BRKP bits to allow channel to startup.
MOVE.B
#$7C,DMACSR1(A0)
* Initialize function code reg.
* DMA space, supervisor data space for source and destination.
MOVE.B
#$DD,DMAFCR1(A0)
* Initialize source operand address
* Source address is equal to $6000.
MOVE.L
SARADD,DMASAR1(A0)
* Initialize destination operand address
* Destination address is equal to $8000.
MOVE.L
DARADD,DMADAR1(A0)
* Initialize the byte transfer count reg.
* The number of bytes to be transferred is $E or 7 words
MOVE.L
NUMBYTE,DMABTC1(A0)
* Channel control reg. init. and Start DMA transfers
* No interrupts are enabled, destination (write) cycle. Increment source and
* destination addresses,source size is word, destination size is word.
* REQ is internal. 100% of bus bandwidth, dual-address transfers,
* start the DMA transfers.
MOVE.W
#$0E8D,DMACCR1(A0)
***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
Example 3: Internal Request Generation, Memory Block Initialization.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic DMA channel register initialization example code.
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* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal DMA channel
* registers, providing basic functions for operation.
* The code sets up channel 1 for internal request generation
* to perform a memory block initialization for 100 bytes.
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* SIM40 equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
***************************************************************************
* DMA Channel 1 equates
DMACH1
EQU $780
Offset from MBAR for channel 1 regs
DMAMCR1 EQU $0
MCR for channel 1
* Channel 1 register offsets from channel 1 base address
DMAINT1
EQU $4
interrupt register channel 1
DMACCR1 EQU $8
control register channel 1
DMACSR1 EQU $A
status register channel 1
DMAFCR1 EQU $B
function code register channel 1
DMASAR1 EQU $C
source address register channel 1
DMADAR1 EQU $10
destination address register channel 1
DMABTC1 EQU $14
byte transfer count register channel 1
SARADD
EQU $6000
source address
DARADD
EQU $8000
destination address
NUMBYTE EQU $64
number of bytes to transfer
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize DMA Channel 1
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+DMACH1,A0 Pointer to channel 1
* Initialize DMA channel 1 MCR
* Normal Operation, ignore FREEZE, dual-address mode. ISM field at 3. Make
* sure CPU32 SR I2-I0 bits are less than or equal to ISM bits for channel
* startup.Supervisor/user reg. unrestricted, MAID field at 3.
* IARB priority at 4.
MOVE.W
#$0334,(A0)
* Clear channel control reg.
* Clear STR (start) bit to prevent the channel from starting a transfer early.
CLR.W
DMACCR1(A0)
* Initialize interrupt reg.
* Interrupt priority at 7, interrupt vector at $42.
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MOVE.W
#$0742,DMAINT1(A0)
* Initialize channel status reg.
* Clear the DONE, BES, BED, CONF and BRKP bits to allow channel to startup.
MOVE.B
#$7C,DMACSR1(A0)
* Initialize function code reg.
* DMA space, supervisor data space for source and destination.
MOVE.B
#$DD,DMAFCR1(A0)
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* Initialize source operand address
* Source address is equal to $6000.
MOVE.L
SARADD,DMASAR1(A0)
* Initialize destination operand address
* Destination address is equal to $8000.
MOVE.L
DARADD,DMADAR1(A0)
* Initialize the byte transfer count register
* The number of bytes to be transferred is $64 or 50 words
MOVE.L
NUMBYTE,DMABTC1(A0)
* Channel control reg. init. and Start DMA transfers
* No interrupts are enabled, destination (write) cycle.
* Source address is not incremented. Increment the destination address.
* Source size is word, destination size is word. REQ is internal.
* 100% of bus bandwidth, dual-address transfers, start the DMA transfers.
MOVE.W
#$068D,DMACCR1(A0)
***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
Example 4: Cycle Steal Request Generation, Dual-Address Transfers.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic DMA channel register initialization example code.
* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal DMA channel
* registers, providing basic functions for operation.
* The code sets up channel 1 for external cycle steal request generation,
* dual-address transfers. DMA 16-bit wide data from an odd address to an
* even address. Control signals are asserted on the DMA read cycle.
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* SIM40 equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
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***************************************************************************
* DMA Channel 1 equates
DMACH1
EQU $780
Offset from MBAR for channel 1 regs
DMAMCR1 EQU $0
MCR for channel 1
* Channel 1 register offsets from channel 1 base address
DMAINT1
EQU $4
interrupt register channel 1
DMACCR1 EQU $8
control register channel 1
DMACSR1 EQU $A
status register channel 1
DMAFCR1 EQU $B
function code register channel 1
DMASAR1 EQU $C
source address register channel 1
DMADAR1 EQU $10
destination address register channel 1
DMABTC1 EQU $14
byte transfer count register channel 1
SARADD
EQU $6001
source address is an ODD address
DARADD
EQU $10000
destination address is and EVEN address
NUMBYTE EQU $14
number of bytes to transfer
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize DMA Channel 1
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+DMACH1,A0 Pointer to channel 1
* Initialize DMA channel 1 MCR
* Normal Operation, ignore FREEZE, dual-address mode. ISM field at 0. Make
* CPU32 SR I2-I0 bits are less than or equal to ISM bits for channel startup.
* Supervisor/user reg. unrestricted, MAID field at 4. IARB priority at 8.
MOVE.W
#$00C8,(A0)
* Clear channel control reg.
* Clear STR (start) bit to prevent the channel from starting a transfer early.
CLR.W
DMACCR1(A0)
* Initialize interrupt reg.
* Interrupt priority at 7, interrupt vector at $42.
MOVE.W
#$0742,DMAINT1(A0)
* Initialize channel status reg.
* Clear the DONE, BES, BED, CONF and BRKP bits to allow channel to startup.
MOVE.B
#$7C,DMACSR1(A0)
* Initialize function code reg.
* DMA space, supervisor data space for source and destination.
MOVE.B
#$DD,DMAFCR1(A0)
* Initialize source operand address
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* Source address is equal to $6001, and odd address.
MOVE.L
SARADD,DMASAR1(A0)
* Initialize destination operand address
* Destination address is equal to $10000, and even address.
MOVE.L
DARADD,DMADAR1(A0)
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* Initialize the byte transfer count register
* The number of bytes to be transferred is $14 or 20 bytes
MOVE.L
NUMBYTE,DMABTC1(A0)
* Channel control reg. init. and Start DMA transfers
* No interrupts are enabled, source (read) cycle.
* Increment the source and destination addresses.
* Source size is byte, destination size is word. REQ is external cycle steal.
* dual-address transfers, start the DMA transfers.
MOVE.W
#$1DB1,DMACCR1(A0)
***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
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SECTION 7
SERIAL MODULE
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The MC68340 serial module is a dual universal asynchronous/synchronous
receiver/transmitter that interfaces directly to the CPU32 processor via the intermodule
bus (IMB). The serial module, shown in Figure 7-1, consists of the following major
functional areas:
• Two Independent Serial Communication Channels (A and B)
• Baud Rate Generator Logic
• Internal Channel Control Logic
• Interrupt Control Logic
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
CHANNELS A AND B
BAUD RATE
GENERATOR LOGIC
CTSA
RTSA
RxDA
TxDA
RxRDYA
TxRDYA
CTSB
RTSB
RxDB
TxDB
..... ..... .
X1
X2
SCLK
INTERNAL CHANNEL
CONTROL LOGIC
INTERRUPT CONTROL
LOGIC
Figure 7-1. Simplified Block Diagram
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7.1 MODULE OVERVIEW
Features of the serial module are as follows:
• Two, Independent, Full-Duplex Asynchronous/Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter
Channels
• Maximum Data Transfer Rate:
—1× mode: 3 Mbps @ 8.39 MHz CLKOUT, 9.8 Mbps @25 MHz CLKOUT
—16× mode: 188 kbps @ 8.39 MHz CLKOUT, 612 kbps @25 MHz CLKOUT
• Quadruple-Buffered Receiver
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• Double-Buffered Transmitter
• Independently Programmable Baud Rate for Each Receiver and Transmitter
Selectable from:
—19 Fixed Rates: 50 to 76.8k Baud
—External 1× Clock or 16× Clock
• Programmable Data Format:
—Five to Eight Data Bits Plus Parity
—Odd, Even, No Parity, or Force Parity
—Nine-Sixteenths to Two Stop Bits Programmable in One-Sixteenth Bit Increments
• Programmable Channel Modes:
—Normal (Full Duplex)
—Automatic Echo
—Local Loopback
—Remote Loopback
• Automatic Wakeup Mode for Multidrop Applications
• Seven Maskable Interrupt Conditions
• Parity, Framing, and Overrun Error Detection
• False-Start Bit Detection
• Line-Break Detection and Generation
• Detection of Breaks Originating in the Middle of a Character
• Start/End Break Interrupt/Status
• On-Chip Crystal Oscillator
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7.1.1 Serial Communication Channels A and B
Each communication channel provides a full-duplex asynchronous/synchronous receiver
and transmitter using an operating frequency independently selected from a baud rate
generator or an external clock input.
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The transmitter accepts parallel data from the IMB, converts it to a serial bit stream,
inserts the appropriate start, stop, and optional parity bits, then outputs a composite serial
data stream on the channel transmitter serial data output (TxDx). Refer to 7.3.2.1
Transmitter for additional information.
The receiver accepts serial data on the channel receiver serial data input (RxDx), converts
it to parallel format, checks for a start bit, stop bit, parity (if any), or break condition, and
transfers the assembled character onto the IMB during read operations. Refer to 7.3.2.2
Receiver for additional information.
7.1.2 Baud Rate Generator Logic
The crystal oscillator operates directly from a 3.6864-MHz crystal connected across the
X1 input and the X2 output or from an external clock of the same frequency connected to
X1. The clock serves as the basic timing reference for the baud rate generator and other
internal circuits.
The baud rate generator operates from the oscillator or external TTL clock input and is
capable of generating 19 commonly used data communication baud rates ranging from 50
to 76.8k by producing internal clock outputs at 16 times the actual baud rate. Refer to 7.2
Serial Module Signal Definitions and 7.3.1 Baud Rate Generator for additional
information.
The external clock input (SCLK), which bypasses the baud rate generator, provides a
synchronous clock mode of operation when used as a divide-by-1 clock and an
asynchronous clock mode when used as a divide-by-16 clock. The external clock input
allows the user to use SCLK as the only clock source for the serial module if multiple baud
rates are not required.
7.1.3 Internal Channel Control Logic
The serial module receives operation commands from the host and, in turn, issues
appropriate operation signals to the internal serial module control logic. This mechanism
allows the registers within the module to be accessed and various commands to be
performed. Refer to 7.4 Register Description and Programming for additional
information.
7.1.4 Interrupt Control Logic
Seven interrupt request (IRQ7–IRQ1) signals are provided to notify the CPU32 that an
interrupt has occurred. These interrupts are described in 7.4 Register Description and
Programming. The interrupt status register (ISR) is read by the CPU32 to determine all
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currently active interrupt conditions. The interrupt enable register (IER) is programmable
to mask any events that can cause an interrupt.
7.1.5 Comparison of Serial Module to MC68681
The serial module is code compatible with the MC68681 with some modifications. The
following paragraphs describe the differences.
The programming model is slightly altered. The supervisor/user block in the MC68340
closely follows the MC68681. The supervisor-only block has the following changes:
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• The interrupt vector register is moved from supervisor/user to supervisor only at a
new address.
• MR2A and MR2B are moved from a hidden address location to a location at the
bottom of the programming model.
The timer/counter is eliminated as well as all associated command and status registers.
Only certain output port pins are available.
There are no IP pins on the MC68340.
RxRTS and TxRTS are more automated on the MC68340.
The XTAL_RDY bit in the ISR should be polled until it is cleared to prevent an unstable
frequency from being applied to the baud rate generator. The following code is an
example:
if (XTAL_RDY==0)
begin
write CSR
end
else
begin
wait
jump loop
end
7.2 SERIAL MODULE SIGNAL DEFINITIONS
The following paragraphs contain a brief description of the serial module signals. Figure 72 shows both the external and internal signal groups.
NOTE
The terms assertion and negation are used throughout this
section to avoid confusion when dealing with a mixture of
active-low and active-high signals. The term assert or assertion
indicates that a signal is active or true, independent of the level
represented by a high or low voltage. The term negate or
negation indicates that a signal is inactive or false.
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ADDRESS BUS
IMB
INTERFACE
SIGNALS
X1
CONTROL
DATA
DATA BUS
MUX
S
E
R
I
A
L
BAUD RATE
GENERATOR
LOGIC
X2
SCLK
CHANNEL A
D7–D0
M
O
D
U
L
E
FOUR-CHARACTER
RECEIVE BUFFER
RxDA
TWO-CHARACTER
TRANSMIT BUFFER
TxDA
RTSA
I
N
T
E
R
N
A
L
B
U
S
CTSA
TxRDYA
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE SIGNALS
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DATA BUS
D15–D0
INTERNAL
CONTROL
LOGIC
RxRDYA
..... ..... . ..
CHANNEL B
FOUR-CHARACTER
RECEIVE BUFFER
RxDB
TWO-CHARACTER
TRANSMIT BUFFER
TxDB
RTSB
CTSB
Figure 7-2. External and Internal Interface Signals
7.2.1 Crystal Input or External Clock (X1)
This input is one of two connections to a crystal or a single connection to an external
clock. A crystal or an external clock signal, at 3.6864 MHz, must be supplied when using
the baud rate generator. If a crystal is used, a capacitor of approximately 10 pF should be
connected from this signal to ground. If this input is not used, it must be connected to VCC
or GND. Refer to Section 10 Applications for an example of a clock driver circuit.
7.2.2 Crystal Output (X2)
This output is the additional connection to a crystal. If a crystal is used, a capacitor of
approximately 5 pF should be connected from this signal to ground. If an external TTLlevel clock is used on X1, the X2 output must be left open. Refer to Section 10
Applications for an example of a clock driver circuit.
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7.2.3 External Input (SCLK)
This input can be used as the clock input for channel A and/or channel B and is
programmable in the clock-select registers (CSR). When used as the receiver clock,
received data is sampled on the rising edge of the clock. When used as the transmitter
clock, data is output on the falling edge of the clock. If this input is not used, it must be
connected to VCC or GND.
7.2.4 Channel A Transmitter Serial Data Output (TxDA)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This signal is the transmitter serial data output for channel A. The output is held high
('mark' condition) when the transmitter is disabled, idle, or operating in the local loopback
mode. Data is shifted out on this signal on the falling edge of the clock source, with the
least significant bit transmitted first.
7.2.5 Channel A Receiver Serial Data Input (RxDA)
This signal is the receiver serial data input for channel A. Data received on this signal is
sampled on the rising edge of the clock source, with the least significant bit received first.
7.2.6 Channel B Transmitter Serial Data Output (TxDB)
This signal is the transmitter serial data output for channel B. The output is held high
('mark' condition) when the transmitter is disabled, idle, or operating in the local loopback
mode. Data is shifted out on this signal at the falling edge of the clock source, with the
least significant bit transmitted first.
7.2.7 Channel B Receiver Serial Data Input (RxDB)
This signal is the receiver serial data input for channel B. Data on this signal is sampled
on the rising edge of the clock source, with the least significant bit received first.
7.2.8 Channel A Request-To-Send ( RTSA)
This active-low output signal is programmable as the channel A request-to-send or as a
dedicated parallel output.
7.2.8.1 RTSA . When used for this function, this signal can be programmed to be
automatically negated and asserted by either the receiver or transmitter. When connected
to the clear-to-send ( CTS≈) input of a transmitter, this signal can be used to control serial
data flow.
7.2.8.2 OP0. When used for this function, this output is controlled by bit 0 in the output
port data register (OP).
7.2.9 Channel B Request-To-Send ( RTSB)
This active-low output signal is programmable as the channel B request-to-send or as a
dedicated parallel output.
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7.2.9.1 RTSB . When used for this function, this signal can be programmed to be
automatically negated and asserted by either the receiver or transmitter. When connected
to the CTS≈ input of a transmitter, this signal can be used to control serial data flow.
7.2.9.2 OP1. When used for this function, this output is controlled by bit 1 in the OP.
7.2.10 Channel A Clear-To-Send (CTSA)
This active-low input is the channel A clear-to-send.
7.2.11 Channel B Clear-To-Send (CTSB)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This active-low input is the channel B clear-to-send.
7.2.12 Channel A Transmitter Ready (T≈RDYA)
This active-low output signal is programmable as the channel A transmitter ready or as a
dedicated parallel output, and cannot be masked by the interrupt enable register (IER).
7.2.12.1 T≈RDYA. When used for this function, this signal reflects the complement of the
status of bit 2 of the channel A status register (SRA). This signal can be used to control
parallel data flow by acting as an interrupt to indicate when the transmitter contains a
character.
7.2.12.2 OP6. When used for this function, this output is controlled by bit 6 in the OP.
7.2.13 Channel A Receiver Ready ( R≈RDYA)
This active-low output signal is programmable as the channel A receiver ready, channel A
FIFO full indicator, or a dedicated parallel output, and cannot be masked by the IER.
7.2.13.1 R≈RDYA. When used for this function, this signal reflects the complement of the
status of bit 1 of the ISR. This signal can be used to control parallel data flow by acting as
an interrupt to indicate when the receiver contains a character.
7.2.13.2 FFULLA. When used for this function, this signal reflects the complement of the
status of bit 1 of the ISR. This signal can be used to control parallel data flow by acting as
an interrupt to indicate when the receiver FIFO is full.
7.2.13.3 OP4. When used for this function, this output is controlled by bit 4 in the OP.
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7.3 OPERATION
The following paragraphs describe the operation of the baud rate generator, transmitter
and receiver, and other functional operating modes of the serial module.
7.3.1 Baud Rate Generator
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The baud rate generator consists of a crystal oscillator, baud rate generator, and clock
selectors (see Figure 7-3). The crystal oscillator operates directly from a 3.6864-MHz
crystal or from an external clock of the same frequency. The SCLK input bypasses the
baud rate generator and provides a synchronous clock mode of operation when used as a
divide-by-1 clock and an asynchronous clock mode when used as a divide-by-16 clock.
The clock is selected by programming the clock-select register (CSR) for each channel.
BAUD RATE
GENERATOR LOGIC
CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
..... ..... . ... .
X1
BAUD RATE
GENERATOR
X2
SCLK
CLOCK
SELECTORS
Figure 7-3. Baud Rate Generator Block Diagram
7.3.2 Transmitter and Receiver Operating Modes
The functional block diagram of the transmitter and receiver, including command and
operating registers, is shown in Figure 7-4. The paragraphs that follow contain
descriptions for both these functions in reference to this diagram. For detailed register
information, refer to 7.4 Register Description and Programming.
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CHANNEL A
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
COMMAND REGISTER (CRA)
W
MODE REGISTER A (MR1A)
R/W
MODE REGISTER B (MR2A)
R/W
STATUS REGISTER (SRA)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TRANSMIT
BUFFER (TBA)
(2 REGISTERS)
R
TRANSMIT HOLDING REGISTER
W
TxDA
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
RECEIVER HOLDING REGISTER 1
FIFO
R
RECEIVER HOLDING REGISTER 2
RECEIVE
BUFFER (RBA)
(4 REGISTERS)
RECEIVER HOLDING REGISTER 3
RxDA
RECEIVER SHIFT REGISTER
CHANNEL B
COMMAND REGISTER (CRB)
TRANSMIT
BUFFER (TBB)
(2 REGISTERS)
W
MODE REGISTER 1 (MR1B)
R/W
MODE REGISTER 2 (MR2B)
R/W
STATUS REGISTER (SRB)
R
TRANSMIT HOLDING REGISTER
W
TxDB
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
RECEIVER HOLDING REGISTER 1
R
FIFO
RECEIVER HOLDING REGISTER 2
RECEIVE
BUFFER (RBB)
(4 REGISTERS)
RECEIVER HOLDING REGISTER 3
RECEIVER SHIFT REGISTER
RxDB
NOTE:
R/W = READ/WRITE
R = READ
W = WRITE
..... ..... . ... . . .
Figure 7-4. Transmitter and Receiver Functional Diagram
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7.3.2.1 TRANSMITTER. The transmitters are enabled through their respective command
registers (CR) located within the serial module. The serial module signals the CPU32
when it is ready to accept a character by setting the transmitter-ready bit (TxRDY) in the
channel's status register (SR). Functional timing information for the transmitter is shown in
Figure 7-5.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The transmitter converts parallel data from the CPU32 to a serial bit stream on TxDx. It
automatically sends a start bit followed by the programmed number of data bits, an
optional parity bit, and the programmed number of stop bits. The least significant bit is
sent first. Data is shifted from the transmitter output on the falling edge of the clock
source.
C1 IN
TRANSMISSION
TxDx
C1
C2
C3
C4
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
C1
C2
C3
START
BREAK
C4
STOP
BREAK
C5
NOT
TRANSMITTED
C6
BREAK
C6
TRANSMITTER
ENABLED
TxRDY
(SR2)
CS
CTS1
RTS 2
MANUALLY ASSERTED
BY BIT- SET COMMAND
MANUALLY
ASSERTED
NOTES:
1. TIMING SHOWN FOR MR2(4) = 1
2. TIMING SHOWN FOR MR2(5) = 1
3. C N = TRANSMIT CHARACTER
4. W = WRITE
Figure 7-5. Transmitter Timing Diagram
Following transmission of the stop bits, if a new character is not available in the transmitter
holding register, the TxDx output remains high ('mark' condition), and the transmitter
empty bit (TxEMP) in the SR is set. Transmission resumes and the TxEMP bit is cleared
when the CPU32 loads a new character into the transmitter buffer (TB). If a disable
command is sent to the transmitter, it continues operating until the character in the
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transmit shift register, if any, is completely sent out. If the transmitter is reset through a
software command, operation ceases immediately (refer to 7.4.1.7 Command Register
(CR)). The transmitter is re-enabled through the CR to resume operation after a disable or
software reset.
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If clear-to-send operation is enabled, CTS≈ must be asserted for the character to be
transmitted. If CTS≈ is negated in the middle of a transmission, the character in the shift
register is transmitted, and TxDx remains in the 'mark' state until CTS≈ is asserted again.
If the transmitter is forced to send a continuous low condition by issuing a send break
command, the state of CTS≈ is ignored by the transmitter.
The transmitter can be programmed to automatically negate request-to-send (RTS≈)
outputs upon completion of a message transmission. If the transmitter is programmed to
operate in this mode, RTS≈ must be manually asserted before a message is transmitted.
In applications in which the transmitter is disabled after transmission is complete and
RTS≈ is appropriately programmed, RTS≈ is negated one bit time after the character in
the shift register is completely transmitted. The transmitter must be manually re-enabled
by reasserting RTS≈ before the next message is to be sent.
7.3.2.2 RECEIVER. The receivers are enabled through their respective CRs located within
the serial module. Functional timing information for the receiver is shown in Figure 7-6.
The receiver looks for a high-to-low (mark-to-space) transition of the start bit on RxDx.
When a transition is detected, the state of RxDx is sampled each 16× clock for eight
clocks, starting one-half clock after the transition (asynchronous operation) or at the next
rising edge of the bit time clock (synchronous operation). If RxDx is sampled high, the
start bit is invalid, and the search for the valid start bit begins again. If RxDx is still low, a
valid start bit is assumed, and the receiver continues to sample the input at one-bit time
intervals, at the theoretical center of the bit, until the proper number of data bits and parity,
if any, is assembled and one stop bit is detected. Data on the RxDx input is sampled on
the rising edge of the programmed clock source. The least significant bit is received first.
The data is then transferred to a receiver holding register, and the RxRDY bit in the
appropriate SR is set. If the character length is less than eight bits, the most significant
unused bits in the receiver holding register are cleared.
After the stop bit is detected, the receiver immediately looks for the next start bit.
However, if a nonzero character is received without a stop bit (framing error) and RxDx
remains low for one-half of the bit period after the stop bit is sampled, the receiver
operates as if a new start bit is detected. The parity error (PE), framing error (FE), overrun
error (OE), and received break (RB) conditions (if any) set error and break flags in the
appropriate SR at the received character boundary and are valid only when the RxRDY bit
in the SR is set.
If a break condition is detected (RxDx is low for the entire character including the stop bit),
a character of all zeros is loaded into the receiver holding register, and the RB and
RxRDY bits in the SR are set. The RxDx signal must return to a high condition for at least
one-half bit time before a search for the next start bit begins.
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RxD
C2
C1
C3
C4
C5
C6
C8
C7
C6, C7, C8 ARE LOST
RECEIVER
ENABLED
RxRDY
(SR0)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
FFULL
(SR1)
RxRDYA
CS
R
R
R R
R R R R
STATUS DATA STATUS DATA STATUS DATA
STATUS DATA
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
LOST
OVERRUN
(SR4)
1
RTS
RESET BY COMMAND
OPR(0) = 1
NOTES:
1. Timing shown for MR1(7) = 1
2. Timing shown for OPCR(4) = 1 and MR1(6) = 0
3. R = Read
4. CN = Received Character
Figure 7-6. Receiver Timing Diagram
The receiver detects the beginning of a break in the middle of a character if the break
persists through the next character time. When the break begins in the middle of a
character, the receiver places the damaged character in the receiver first-in-first-out
(FIFO) stack and sets the corresponding error conditions and RxRDY bit in the SR. Then,
if the break persists until the next character time, the receiver places an all-zero character
into the receiver FIFO and sets the corresponding RB and RxRDY bits in the SR.
7.3.2.3 FIFO STACK. The FIFO stack is used in each channel's receiver buffer logic. The
stack consists of three receiver holding registers. The receive buffer consists of the FIFO
and a receiver shift register connected to the RxDx (refer to Figure 7-4). Data is
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assembled in the receiver shift register and loaded into the top empty receiver holding
register position of the FIFO. Thus, data flowing from the receiver to the CPU32 is
quadruple buffered.
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In addition to the data byte, three status bits, PE, FE, and RB, are appended to each data
character in the FIFO; OE is not appended. By programming the ERR bit in the channel's
mode register (MR1), status is provided in character or block modes.
The RxRDY bit in the SR is set whenever one or more characters are available to be read
by the CPU32. A read of the receiver buffer produces an output of data from the top of the
FIFO stack. After the read cycle, the data at the top of the FIFO stack and its associated
status bits are 'popped', and new data can be added at the bottom of the stack by the
receiver shift register. The FIFO-full status bit (FFULL) is set if all three stack positions are
filled with data. Either the RxRDY or FFULL bit can be selected to cause an interrupt.
In the character mode, status provided in the SR is given on a character-by-character
basis and thus applies only to the character at the top of the FIFO. In the block mode, the
status provided in the SR is the logical OR of all characters coming to the top of the FIFO
stack since the last reset error command. A continuous logical OR function of the
corresponding status bits is produced in the SR as each character reaches the top of the
FIFO stack. The block mode is useful in applications where the software overhead of
checking each character's error cannot be tolerated. In this mode, entire messages are
received, and only one data integrity check is performed at the end of the message. This
mode allows a data-reception speed advantage, but does have a disadvantage since
each character is not individually checked for error conditions by software. If an error
occurs within the message, the error is not recognized until the final check is performed,
and no indication exists as to which character in the message is at fault.
In either mode, reading the SR does not affect the FIFO. The FIFO is 'popped' only when
the receive buffer is read. The SR should be read prior to reading the receive buffer. If all
three of the FIFO's receiver holding registers are full when a new character is received,
the new character is held in the receiver shift register until a FIFO position is available. If
an additional character is received during this state, the contents of the FIFO are not
affected. However, the character previously in the receiver shift register is lost, and the OE
bit in the SR is set when the receiver detects the start bit of the new overrunning
character.
To support control flow capability, the receiver can be programmed to automatically
negate and assert RTS≈ . When in this mode, RTS≈ is automatically negated by the
receiver when a valid start bit is detected and the FIFO stack is full. When a FIFO position
becomes available, RTS≈ is asserted by the receiver. Using this mode of operation,
overrun errors are prevented by connecting the R T S ≈ to the CTS≈ input of the
transmitting device.
If the FIFO stack contains characters and the receiver is disabled, the characters in the
FIFO can still be read by the CPU32. If the receiver is reset, the FIFO stack and all
receiver status bits, corresponding output ports, and interrupt request are reset. No
additional characters are received until the receiver is re-enabled.
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7.3.3 Looping Modes
Each serial module channel can be configured to operate in various looping modes as
shown in Figure 7-7. These modes are useful for local and remote system diagnostic
functions. The modes are described in the following paragraphs with further information
available in 7.4 Register Description and Programming.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The channel's transmitter and receiver should both be disabled when switching between
modes. The selected mode is activated immediately upon mode selection, regardless of
whether a character is being received or transmitted.
7.3.3.1 AUTOMATIC ECHO MODE. In this mode, the channel automatically retransmits
the received data on a bit-by-bit basis. The local CPU32-to-receiver communication
continues normally, but the CPU32-to-transmitter link is disabled. While in this mode,
received data is clocked on the receiver clock and retransmitted on TxDx. The receiver
must be enabled, but the transmitter need not be enabled.
Since the transmitter is not active, the SR TxEMP and TxRDY bits are inactive, and data
is transmitted as it is received. Received parity is checked, but not recalculated for
transmission. Character framing is also checked, but stop bits are transmitted as received.
A received break is echoed as received until the next valid start bit is detected.
7.3.3.2 LOCAL LOOPBACK MODE. In this mode, TxDx is internally connected to RxDx.
This mode is useful for testing the operation of a local serial module channel by sending
data to the transmitter and checking data assembled by the receiver. In this manner,
correct channel operations can be assured. Also, both transmitter and CPU32-to-receiver
communications continue normally in this mode. While in this mode, the RxDx input data
is ignored, the TxDx is held marking, and the receiver is clocked by the transmitter clock.
The transmitter must be enabled, but the receiver need not be enabled.
7.3.3.3 REMOTE LOOPBACK MODE. In this mode, the channel automatically transmits
received data on the TxDx output on a bit-by-bit basis. The local CPU32-to-transmitter link
is disabled. This mode is useful in testing receiver and transmitter operation of a remote
channel. While in this mode, the receiver clock is used for the transmitter.
Since the receiver is not active, received data cannot be read by the CPU32, and the error
status conditions are inactive. Received parity is not checked and is not recalculated for
transmission. Stop bits are transmitted as received. A received break is echoed as
received until the next valid start bit is detected.
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RxDx
INPUT
Rx
CPU
DISABLED
Tx
DISABLED
TxDx
OUTPUT
(a) Automatic Echo
Rx
DISABLED
RxDx
INPUT
DISABLED
TxDx
OUTPUT
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
CPU
Tx
(b) Local Loopback
DISABLED
Rx
DISABLED
RxDx
INPUT
DISABLED
Tx
DISABLED
TxDx
OUTPUT
CPU
(c) Remote Loopback
Figure 7-7. Looping Modes Functional Diagram
7.3.4 Multidrop Mode
A channel can be programmed to operate in a wakeup mode for multidrop or
multiprocessor applications. Functional timing information for the multidrop mode is shown
in Figure 7-8. The mode is selected by setting bits 3 and 4 in mode register 1 (MR1). This
mode of operation allows the master station to be connected to several slave stations
(maximum of 256). In this mode, the master transmits an address character followed by a
block of data characters targeted for one of the slave stations. The slave stations have
their channel receivers disabled. However, they continuously monitor the data stream sent
out by the master station. When an address character is sent by the master, the slave
receiver channel notifies its respective CPU by setting the RxRDY bit in the SR and
generating an interrupt (if programmed to do so). Each slave station CPU then compares
the received address to its station address and enables its receiver if it wishes to receive
the subsequent data characters or block of data from the master station. Slave stations
not addressed continue to monitor the data stream for the next address character. Data
fields in the data stream are separated by an address character. After a slave receives a
block of data, the slave station's CPU disables the receiver and initiates the process
again.
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RxD
C2
C1
C3
C4
C5
C6
C8
C7
C6, C7, C8 ARE LOST
RECEIVER
ENABLED
RxRDY
(SR0)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
FFULL
(SR1)
RxRDYA
CS
R
R
R R
R R R R
STATUS DATA STATUS DATA STATUS DATA
STATUS DATA
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
LOST
OVERRUN
(SR4)
1
RTS
RESET BY COMMAND
OPR(0) = 1
NOTES:
1. Timing shown for MR1(7) = 1
2. Timing shown for OPCR(4) = 1 and MR1(6) = 0
3. R = Read
4. CN = Received Character
Figure 7-8. Multidrop Mode Timing Diagram
A transmitted character from the master station consists of a start bit, a programmed
number of data bits, an address/data (A/D) bit flag, and a programmed number of stop
bits. The A/D bit identifies the type of character being transmitted to the slave station. The
character is interpreted as an address character if the A/D bit is set or as a data character
if the A/D bit is cleared. The polarity of the A/D bit is selected by programming bit 2 of the
MR1. The MR1 should be programmed before enabling the transmitter and loading the
corresponding data bits into the transmit buffer.
In multidrop mode, the receiver continuously monitors the received data stream,
regardless of whether it is enabled or disabled. If the receiver is disabled, it sets the
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RxRDY bit and loads the character into the receiver holding register FIFO stack provided
the received A/D bit is a one (address tag). The character is discarded if the received A/D
bit is a zero (data tag). If the receiver is enabled, all received characters are transferred to
the CPU32 via the receiver holding register stack during read operations.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
In either case, the data bits are loaded into the data portion of the stack while the A/D bit
is loaded into the status portion of the stack normally used for a parity error (SR bit 5).
Framing error, overrun error, and break detection operate normally. The A/D bit takes the
place of the parity bit; therefore, parity is neither calculated nor checked. Messages in this
mode may still contain error detection and correction information. One way to provide
error detection, if 8-bit characters are not required, is to use software to calculate parity
and append it to the 5-, 6-, or 7-bit character.
7.3.5 Bus Operation
This section describes the operation of the IMB during read, write, and interrupt
acknowledge cycles to the serial module. All serial module registers must be accessed as
bytes.
7.3.5.1 READ CYCLES. The serial module is accessed by the CPU32 with no wait states.
The serial module responds to byte reads. Reserved registers return logic zero during
reads.
7.3.5.2 WRITE CYCLES. The serial module is accessed by the CPU32 with no wait
states. The serial module responds to byte writes. Write cycles to read-only registers and
reserved registers complete in a normal manner without exception processing; however,
the data is ignored.
7.3.5.3 INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE CYCLES. The serial module is capable of
arbitrating for interrupt servicing and supplying the interrupt vector when it has
successfully won arbitration. The vector number must be provided if interrupt servicing is
necessary; thus, the interrupt vector register (IVR) must be initialized. If the IVR is not
initialized, a spurious interrupt exception will be taken if interrupts are generated.
7.4 REGISTER DESCRIPTION AND PROGRAMMING
This section contains a detailed description of each register and its specific function as
well as flowcharts of basic serial module programming.
7.4.1 Register Description
The operation of the serial module is controlled by writing control bytes into the
appropriate registers. A list of serial module registers and their associated addresses are
shown in Figure 7-9. The mode, status, command, and clock-select registers are
duplicated for each channel to provide independent operation and control.
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NOTE
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All serial module registers are only accessible as bytes. The
contents of the mode registers (MR1 and MR2), clock-select
register (CSR), and the auxiliary control register (ACR) bit 7
should only be changed after the receiver/transmitter is issued
a software RESET command—i.e., channel operation must be
disabled. Care should also be taken if the register contents are
changed during receiver/transmitter operations, as undesirable
results may be produced.
In the registers discussed in the following pages, the numbers in the upper right-hand
corner indicate the offset of the register from the base address specified in the module
base address register (MBAR) in the SIM40. The numbers above the register description
represent the bit position in the register. The register description contains the mnemonic
for the bit. The values shown below the register description are the values of those
register bits after a hardware reset. A value of U indicates that the bit value is unaffected
by reset. The read/write status and the access privilege are shown in the last line.
NOTE
A CPU32 RESET instruction will not affect the MCR, but will
reset all the other serial module registers as though a
hardware reset had occurred. The module is enabled when the
STP bit in the MCR is cleared. The module is disabled when
the STP bit in the MCR is set.
7-18
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Address
Register Read (R/W = 1)
Register Write (R/W = 0)
700
FC
S1
MCR (HIGH BYTE)
MCR (HIGH BYTE)
701
S
702
S
MCR (LOW BYTE)
DO NOT ACCESS3
MCR (LOW BYTE)
DO NOT ACCESS3
703
S
DO NOT ACCESS3
DO NOT ACCESS3
704
S
INTERRUPT LEVEL (ILR)
NTERRUPT LEVEL (ILR)
705
S
INTERRUPT VECTOR (IVR)
INTERRUPT VECTOR (IVR)
710
S/U2
MODE REGISTER 1A (MR1A)
MODE REGISTER 1A (MR1A)
711
S/U
S/U
STATUS REGISTER A (SRA)
DO NOT ACCESS3
CLOCK-SELECT REGISTER A (CSRA)
712
713
S/U
RECEIVER BUFFER A (RBA)
TRANSMITTER BUFFER A (TBA)
714
S/U
INPUT PORT CHANGE REGISTER (IPCR)
AUXILIARY CONTROL REGISTER (ACR)
715
S/U
716
S/U
INTERRUPT STATUS REGISTER (ISR)
DO NOT ACCESS3
INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER (IER)
DO NOT ACCESS3
717
S/U
DO NOT ACCESS3
DO NOT ACCESS3
718
S/U
MODE REGISTER 1B (MR1B)
MODE REGISTER 1B (MR1B)
719
S/U
S/U
STATUS REGISTER B (SRB)
DO NOT ACCESS3
CLOCK-SELECT REGISTER B (CSRB)
71A
71B
S/U
71C
S/U
RECEIVER BUFFER B (RBB)
DO NOT ACCESS3
TRANSMITTER BUFFER B (TBB)
DO NOT ACCESS3
71D
S/U
71E
S/U
INPUT PORT REGISTER (IP)
DO NOT ACCESS3
OUTPUT PORT CONTROL REGISTER (OPCR)
OUTPUT PORT (OP)4 BIT SET
71F
S/U
DO NOT ACCESS3
OUTPUT PORT (OP)4 BIT RESET
720
S/U
MODE REGISTER 2A (MR2A)
MODE REGISTER 2A (MR2A)
721
S/U
MODE REGISTER 2B (MR2B)
MODE REGISTER 2B (MR2B)
COMMAND REGISTER A (CRA)
COMMAND REGISTER B (CRB)
NOTES:
1. S = Register permanently defined as supervisor-only access
2. S/U = Register programmable as either supervisor or user access
3. A read or write to these locations currently has no effect.
4. Address-triggered commands
Figure 7-9. Serial Module Programming Model
7.4.1.1 MODULE CONFIGURATION REGISTER (MCR). The MCR controls the serial
module configuration. This register can be either read or written when the module is
enabled and is in the supervisor state. The MCR is not affected by a CPU32 RESET
instruction. Only the MCR can be accessed when the module is disabled (i.e., the STP bit
in the MCR is set).
MCR
$700
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
STP
FRZ1
FRZ0
ICCS
0
0
0
0
SUPV
0
0
0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Read/Write
MOTOROLA
3
2
1
0
0
0
IARB
0
0
Supervisor Only
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STP—Stop Mode Bit
1 = The serial module will be disabled. Setting the STP bit stops all clocks within the
serial module (including the crystal or external clock and SCLK), except for the
clock from the IMB. The clock from the IMB remains active to allow CPU32
access to the MCR. The clock stops on the low phase of the clock and remains
stopped until the STP bit is cleared by the CPU32 or a hardware reset. Accesses
to serial module registers while in stop mode produce a bus error. The serial
module should be disabled in a known state prior to setting the STP bit;
otherwise, unpredictable results may occur. The STP bit should be set prior to
executing the LPSTOP instruction to reduce overall power consumption.
0 = The serial module is enabled and will operate in normal mode. When STP = 0,
make sure the external crystal is stable (XTAL_RDY bit (bit 3) of the interrupt
status register (ISR) is zero) before continuing.
NOTE
The serial module should be disabled (i.e., the STP bit in the
MCR is set) before executing the LPSTOP instruction to obtain
the lowest power consumption. The X1/X2 oscillator will
continue to run during LPSTOP if STP = 0.
FRZ1–FRZ0—Freeze
These bits determine the action taken when the FREEZE signal is asserted on the IMB
when the CPU32 has entered background debug mode. Table 7-1 lists the action taken
for each combination of bits.
Table 7-1. FRZx Control Bits
FRZ1
FRZ0
0
0
Ignore FREEZE
Action
0
1
Reserved (FREEZE Ignored)
1
0
Freeze on Character Boundary
1
1
Freeze on Character Boundary
If FREEZE is asserted, channel A and channel B freeze independently of each other.
The transmitter and receiver freeze at character boundaries. The transmitter does not
freeze in the send break mode. Communications can be lost if the channel is not
programmed to support flow control. See Section 5 CPU32 for more information on
FREEZE.
ICCS—Input Capture Clock Select
1 = Selects SCLK as the clear-to-send input capture clock for both channels. Clearto-send operation is enabled by setting bit 4 in MR2. The data is captured on the
CTS≈ pins on the rising edge of the clock.
0 = The crystal clock is the clear-to-send input capture clock for both channels.
7-20
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Bits 11–8, 6–4—Reserved
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SUPV—Supervisor/User
The value of this bit has no affect on registers permanently defined as supervisor only.
1 = The serial module registers, which are defined as supervisor or user, reside in
supervisor data space and are only accessible from supervisor programs.
0 = The serial module registers, which are defined as supervisor or user, reside in
user data space and are accessible from either supervisor or user programs.
IARB3–IARB0—Interrupt Arbitration Bits
Each module that generates interrupts has an IARB field. These bits are used to
arbitrate for the bus in the case that two or more modules simultaneously generate an
interrupt at the same priority level. No two modules can share the same IARB value.
The reset value of the IARB field is $0, which prevents this module from arbitrating
during the interrupt acknowledge cycle. The system software should initialize the IARB
field to a value from $F (highest priority) to $1 (lowest priority).
7.4.1.2 INTERRUPT LEVEL REGISTER (ILR). The ILR contains the priority level for the
serial module interrupt request. When the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the
MCR is cleared), this register can be read or written to at any time while in supervisor
mode.
ILR
$704
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
IL2
IL1
IL0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Supervisor Only
Bits 7–3—Reserved
IL2–IL0—Interrupt Level Bits
Each module that can generate interrupts has an interrupt level field. The priority level
encoded in these bits is sent to the CPU32 on the appropriate IRQ≈ signal. The CPU32
uses this value to determine servicing priority. The hardware reset value of $00 will not
generate any interrupts. See Section 5 CPU32 for more information.
7.4.1.3 INTERRUPT VECTOR REGISTER (IVR). The IVR contains the 8-bit vector
number of the interrupt. When the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is
cleared), this register can be read or written to at any time while in supervisor mode.
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IVR
$705
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IVR7
IVR6
IVR5
IVR4
IVR3
IVR2
IVR1
IVR0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Read /Write
Supervisor Only
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
IVR7–IVR0—Interrupt Vector Bits
Each module that generates interrupts has an interrupt vector field. This 8-bit number
indicates the offset from the base of the vector table where the address of the exception
handler for the specified interrupt is located. The IVR is reset to $0F, which indicates an
uninitialized interrupt condition. See Section 5 CPU32 for more information.
7.4.1.4 MODE REGISTER 1 (MR1). MR1 controls some of the serial module
configuration. This register can be read or written at any time when the serial module is
enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
MR1A, MR1B
$710, $718
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RxRTS
R/F
ERR
PM1
PM0
PT
B/C1
B/C0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Supervisor/User
RxRTS—Receiver Request-to-Send Control
1 = Upon receipt of a valid start bit, RTS≈ is negated if the channel's FIFO is full.
RTS≈ is reasserted when the FIFO has an empty position available.
0 = RTS≈ is asserted by setting bit 1 or 0 in the OP and negated by clearing bit 1 or
0 in the OP.
This feature can be used for flow control to prevent overrun in the receiver by using the
RTS≈ output to control the CTS≈ input of the transmitting device. If both the receiver
and transmitter are programmed for RTS control, RTS control will be disabled for both
since this configuration is incorrect. See 7.4.1.17 Mode Register 2 for information on
programming the transmitter RTS≈ control.
R/F—Receiver-Ready Select
1 = Bit 5 for channel B and bit 1 for channel A in the ISR reflect the channel FIFO full
status. These ISR bits are set when the receiver FIFO is full and are cleared
when a position is available in the FIFO.
0 = Bit 5 for channel B and bit 1 for channel A in the ISR reflect the channel receiverready status. These ISR bits are set when a character has been received and are
cleared when the CPU32 reads the receive buffer.
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ERR—Error Mode
This bit controls the meaning of the three FIFO status bits (RB, FE, and PE) in the SR
for the channel.
1 = Block mode—The values in the channel SR are the accumulation (i.e., the logical
OR) of the status for all characters coming to the top of the FIFO since the last
reset error status command for the channel was issued. Refer to 7.4.1.7
Command Register (CR) for more information on serial module commands.
0 = Character mode—The values in the channel SR reflect the status of the
character at the top of the FIFO.
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NOTE
ERR = 0 must be used to get the correct A/D flag information
when in multidrop mode.
PM1–PM0—Parity Mode
These bits encode the type of parity used for the channel (see Table 7-2). The parity bit
is added to the transmitted character, and the receiver performs a parity check on
incoming data. These bits can alternatively select multidrop mode for the channel.
PT—Parity Type
This bit selects the parity type if parity is programmed by the parity mode bits, and if
multidrop mode is selected, it configures the transmitter for data character transmission
or address character transmission. Table 7-2 lists the parity mode and type or the
multidrop mode for each combination of the parity mode and the parity type bits.
Table 7-2. PMx and PT Control Bits
PM1
PM0
Parity Mode
PT
Parity Type
0
0
With Parity
0
Even Parity
0
0
With Parity
1
Odd Parity
0
1
Force Parity
0
Low Parity
0
1
Force Parity
1
High Parity
1
0
No Parity
X
No Parity
1
1
Multidrop Mode
0
Data Character
1
1
Multidrop Mode
1
Address Character
B/C1–B/C0—Bits per Character
These bits select the number of data bits per character to be transmitted. The character
length listed in Table 7-3 does not include start, parity, or stop bits.
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Table 7-3. B/Cx Control Bits
B/C1
B/C0
Bits/Character
0
0
Five Bits
0
1
Six Bits
1
0
Seven Bits
1
1
Eight Bits
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7.4.1.5 STATUS REGISTER (SR). The SR indicates the status of the characters in the
FIFO and the status of the channel transmitter and receiver. This register can only be read
when the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
SRA, SRB
$711, $719
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RB
FE
PE
OE
TxEMP
TxRDY
FFULL
RxRDY
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read Only
Supervisor/User
RB—Received Break
1 = An all-zero character of the programmed length has been received without a stop
bit. The RB bit is only valid when the RxRDY bit is set. Only a single FIFO
position is occupied when a break is received. Further entries to the FIFO are
inhibited until the channel RxDx returns to the high state for at least one-half bit
time, which is equal to two successive edges of the internal or external 1× clock
or 16 successive edges of the external 16× clock.
The received break circuit detects breaks that originate in the middle of a
received character. However, if a break begins in the middle of a character, it
must persist until the end of the next detected character time.
0 = No break has been received.
FE—Framing Error
1 = A stop bit was not detected when the corresponding data character in the FIFO
was received. The stop-bit check is made in the middle of the first stop-bit
position. The bit is valid only when the RxRDY bit is set.
0 = No framing error has occurred.
PE—Parity Error
1 = When the with parity or force parity mode is programmed in the MR1, the
corresponding character in the FIFO was received with incorrect parity. When the
multidrop mode is programmed, this bit stores the received A/D bit. This bit is
valid only when the RxRDY bit is set.
0 = No parity error has occurred.
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OE—Overrun Error
1 = One or more characters in the received data stream have been lost. This bit is
set upon receipt of a new character when the FIFO is full and a character is
already in the shift register waiting for an empty FIFO position. When this occurs,
the character in the receiver shift register and its break detect, framing error
status, and parity error, if any, are lost. This bit is cleared by the reset error status
command in the CR.
0 = No overrun has occurred.
TxEMP—Transmitter Empty
1 = The channel transmitter has underrun (both the transmitter holding register and
transmitter shift registers are empty). This bit is set after transmission of the last
stop bit of a character if there are no characters in the transmitter holding register
awaiting transmission.
0 = The transmitter buffer is not empty. The transmitter holding register is loaded by
the CPU32, or the transmitter is disabled. The transmitter is enabled/disabled by
programming the TCx bits in the CR.
TxRDY—Transmitter Ready
This bit is duplicated in the ISR; bit 0 for channel A and bit 4 for channel B.
1 = The transmitter holding register is empty and ready to be loaded with a character.
This bit is set when the character is transferred to the transmitter shift register.
This bit is also set when the transmitter is first enabled. Characters loaded into
the transmitter holding register while the transmitter is disabled are not
transmitted and are lost.
0 = The transmitter holding register was loaded by the CPU32, or the transmitter is
disabled.
FFULL—FIFO Full
1 = A character was transferred from the receiver shift register to the receiver FIFO
and the transfer caused the FIFO to become full (all three FIFO holding register
positions are occupied).
0 = The CPU32 has read the receiver buffer and one or more FIFO positions are
available. Note that if there is a character in the receiver shift register because
the FIFO is full, this character will be moved into the FIFO when a position is
available, and the FIFO will remain full.
RxRDY—Receiver Ready
1 = A character has been received and is waiting in the FIFO to be read by the
CPU32. This bit is set when a character is transferred from the receiver shift
register to the FIFO.
0 = The CPU32 has read the receiver buffer, and no characters remain in the FIFO
after this read.
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7.4.1.6 CLOCK-SELECT REGISTER (CSR). The CSR selects the baud rate clock for the
channel receiver and transmitter. This register can only be written when the serial module
is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
NOTE
This register should only be written after the external crystal is
stable (XTAL_RDY bit of the ISR is zero).
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
CSRA, CSRB
$711, $719
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RCS3
RCS2
RCS1
RCS0
TCS3
TCS2
TCS1
TCS0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write Only
Supervisor/User
RCS3–RCS0—Receiver Clock Select
These bits select the baud rate clock for the channel receiver from a set of baud rates
listed in Table 7-4. The baud rate set selected depends upon the auxiliary control
register (ACR) bit 7. Set 1 is selected if ACR bit 7 = 0, and set 2 is selected if ACR bit
7 = 1. The receiver clock is always 16 times the baud rate shown in this list, except
when SCLK is used.
Table 7-4. RCSx Control Bits
7-26
RCS3
RCS2
RCS1
RCS0
Set 1
Set 2
0
0
0
0
50
75
0
0
0
1
110
110
0
0
1
0
134.5
134.5
0
0
1
1
200
150
0
1
0
0
300
300
0
1
0
1
600
600
0
1
1
0
1200
1200
0
1
1
1
1050
2000
1
0
0
0
2400
2400
1
0
0
1
4800
4800
1
0
1
0
7200
1800
1
0
1
1
9600
9600
1
1
0
0
38.4k
19.2k
1
1
0
1
76.8k
38.4k
1
1
1
0
SCLK/16
SCLK/16
1
1
1
1
SCLK/1
SCLK/1
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TCS3–TCS0—Transmitter Clock Select
These bits select the baud rate clock for the channel transmitter from a set of baud rates
listed in Table 7-5. The baud rate set selected depends upon ACR bit 7. Set 1 is
selected if ACR bit 7 = 0, and set 2 is selected if ACR bit 7 = 1. The transmitter clock is
always 16 times the baud rate shown in this list, except when SCLK is used.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 7-5. TCSx Control Bits
TCS3
TCS2
TCS1
TCS0
Set 1
Set 2
0
0
0
0
50
75
0
0
0
1
110
110
0
0
1
0
134.5
134.5
0
0
1
1
200
150
0
1
0
0
300
300
0
1
0
1
600
600
0
1
1
0
1200
1200
0
1
1
1
1050
2000
1
0
0
0
2400
2400
1
0
0
1
4800
4800
1
0
1
0
7200
1800
1
0
1
1
9600
9600
1
1
0
0
38.4k
19.2k
1
1
0
1
76.8k
38.4k
1
1
1
0
SCLK/16
SCLK/16
1
1
1
1
SCLK/1
SCLK/1
7.4.1.7 COMMAND REGISTER (CR). The CR is used to supply commands to the
channel. Multiple commands can be specified in a single write to the CR if the commands
are not conflicting—e.g., reset transmitter and enable transmitter commands cannot be
specified in a single command. This register can only be written when the serial module is
enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
CRA, CRB
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MISC3
MISC2
MISC1
MISC0
TC1
TC0
RC1
RC0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write Only
MOTOROLA
$712, $71A
7
Supervisor/User
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MISC3–MISC0—Miscellaneous Commands
These bits select a single command as listed in Table 7-6.
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Table 7-6. MISCx Control Bits
MISC3
MISC2
MISC1
MISC0
Command
0
0
0
0
No Command
0
0
0
1
No Command
0
0
1
0
Reset Receiver
0
0
1
1
Reset Transmitter
0
1
0
0
Reset Error Status
0
1
0
1
Reset Break-Change
Interrupt
0
1
1
0
Start Break
0
1
1
1
Stop Break
1
0
0
0
Assert RTS
1
0
0
1
Negate RTS
1
0
1
0
No Command
1
0
1
1
No Command
1
1
0
0
No Command
1
1
0
1
No Command
1
1
1
0
No Command
1
1
1
1
No Command
Reset Receiver—The reset receiver command resets the channel receiver. The receiver
is immediately disabled, the FFULL and RxRDY bits in the SR are cleared, and the
receiver FIFO pointer is reinitialized. All other registers are unaltered. This command
should be used in lieu of the receiver disable command whenever the receiver
configuration is changed because it places the receiver in a known state.
Reset Transmitter—The reset transmitter command resets the channel transmitter. The
transmitter is immediately disabled, and the TxEMP and TxRDY bits in the SR are
cleared. All other registers are unaltered. This command should be used in lieu of the
transmitter disable command whenever the transmitter configuration is changed
because it places the transmitter in a known state.
Reset Error Status—The reset error status command clears the channel's RB, FE, PE,
and OE bits (in the SR). This command is also used in the block mode to clear all error
bits after a data block is received.
Reset Break-Change Interrupt—The reset break-change interrupt command clears the
delta break (DBx) bits in the ISR.
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Start Break—The start break command forces the channel's TxDx low. If the transmitter
is empty, the start of the break conditions can be delayed up to one bit time. If the
transmitter is active, the break begins when transmission of the character is complete. If
a character is in the transmitter shift register, the start of the break is delayed until the
character is transmitted. If the transmitter holding register has a character, that
character is transmitted after the break. The transmitter must be enabled for this
command to be accepted. The state of the CTS≈ input is ignored for this command.
Stop Break—The stop break command causes the channel's TxDx to go high (mark)
within two bit times. Characters stored in the transmitter buffer, if any, are transmitted.
Assert RTS—The assert RTS command forces the channel's RTS≈ output low.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Negate RTS—The negate RTS command forces the channel's RTS≈ output high.
TC1–TC0—Transmitter Commands
These bits select a single command as listed in Table 7-7.
Table 7-7. TCx Control Bits
TC1
TC0
Command
0
0
No Action Taken
0
1
Enable Transmitter
1
0
Disable Transmitter
1
1
Do Not Use
No Action Taken—The no action taken command causes the transmitter to stay in its
current mode. If the transmitter is enabled, it remains enabled; if disabled, it remains
disabled.
Transmitter Enable—The transmitter enable command enables operation of the
channel's transmitter. The TxEMP and TxRDY bits in the SR are also set. If the
transmitter is already enabled, this command has no effect.
Transmitter Disable—The transmitter disable command terminates transmitter operation
and clears the TxEMP and TxRDY bits in the SR. However, if a character is being
transmitted when the transmitter is disabled, the transmission of the character is
completed before the transmitter becomes inactive. If the transmitter is already
disabled, this command has no effect.
Do Not Use—Do not use this bit combination because the result is indeterminate.
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RC1–RC0—Receiver Commands
These bits select a single command as listed in Table 7-8.
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Table 7-8. RCx Control Bits
RC1
RC0
Command
0
0
No Action Taken
0
1
Enable Receiver
1
0
Disable Receiver
1
1
Do Not Use
No Action Taken—The no action taken command causes the receiver to stay in its
current mode. If the receiver is enabled, it remains enabled; if disabled, it remains
disabled.
Receiver Enable—The receiver enable command enables operation of the channel's
receiver. If the serial module is not in multidrop mode, this command also forces the
receiver into the search-for-start-bit state. If the receiver is already enabled, this
command has no effect.
Receiver Disable—The receiver disable command disables the receiver immediately.
Any character being received is lost. The command has no effect on the receiver status
bits or any other control register. If the serial module is programmed to operate in the
local loopback mode or multidrop mode, the receiver operates even though this
command is selected. If the receiver is already disabled, this command has no effect.
Do Not Use—Do not use this bit combination because the result is indeterminate.
7.4.1.8 RECEIVER BUFFER (RB). The receiver buffer contains three receiver holding
registers and a serial shift register. The channel's RxDx pin is connected to the serial shift
register. The holding registers act as a FIFO. The CPU32 reads from the top of the stack
while the receiver shifts and updates from the bottom of the stack when the shift register
has been filled (see Figure 7-4). This register can only be read when the serial module is
enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
RBA, RBB
$713, $71B
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read Only
Supervisor/User
RB7–RB0—These bits contain the character in the receiver buffer.
7.4.1.9 TRANSMITTER BUFFER (TB). The transmitter buffer consists of two registers,
the transmitter holding register and the transmitter shift register (see Figure 7-4). The
holding register accepts characters from the bus master if the TxRDY bit in the channel's
SR is set. A write to the transmitter buffer clears the TxRDY bit, inhibiting any more
7-30
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characters until the shift register is ready to accept more data. When the shift register is
empty, it checks to see if the holding register has a valid character to be sent (TxRDY bit
cleared). If there is a valid character, the shift register loads the character and reasserts
the TxRDY bit in the channel's SR. Writes to the transmitter buffer when the channel's SR
TxRDY bit is clear and when the transmitter is disabled have no effect on the transmitter
buffer. This register can only be written when the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP
bit in the MCR is cleared).
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TBA, TBB
$713, $71B
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TB7
TB6
TB5
TB4
TB3
TB2
TB1
TB0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write Only
Supervisor/User
TB7–TB0—These bits contain the character in the transmitter buffer.
7.4.1.10 INPUT PORT CHANGE REGISTER (IPCR). The IPCR shows the current state
and the change-of-state for the CTSA and CTSB pins. This register can only be read
when the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
IPCR
$714
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
COSB
COSA
0
0
CTSB
CTSA
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
U
Read Only
Supervisor/User
Bits 7, 6, 3, 2—Reserved
COSB, COSA—Change-of-State
1 = A change-of-state (high-to-low or low-to-high transition), lasting longer than 25–
50 µs when using a crystal as the sampling clock or longer than one or two
periods when using SCLK, has occurred at the corresponding CTS≈ input (MCR
ICCS bit controls selection of the sampling clock for clear-to-send operation).
When these bits are set, the ACR can be programmed to generate an interrupt to
the CPU32.
0 = The CPU32 has read the IPCR. No change-of-state has occurred. A read of the
IPCR also clears the ISR COS bit.
CTSB, CTSA—Current State
Starting two serial clock periods after reset, the CTS≈ bits reflect the state of the CTS≈
pins. If a CTS≈ pin is detected as asserted at that time, the associated COSx bit will be
set, which will initiate an interrupt if the corresponding IECx bit of the ACR register is
enabled.
1 = The current state of the respective CTS≈ input is negated.
0 = The current state of the respective CTS≈ input is asserted.
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7.4.1.11 AUXILIARY CONTROL REGISTER (ACR). The ACR selects which baud rate is
used and controls the handshake of the transmitter/receiver. This register can only be
written when the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
ACR
$714
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
BRG
0
0
0
0
0
IECB
IECA
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Write Only
Supervisor/User
BRG—Baud Rate Generator Set Select
1 = Set 2 of the available baud rates is selected.
0 = Set 1 of the available baud rates is selected. Refer to 7.4.1.6 Clock-Select
Register (CSR) for more information on the baud rates.
IECB, IECA—Input Enable Control
1 = ISR bit 7 will be set and an interrupt will be generated when the corresponding bit
in the IPCR (COSB or COSA) is set by an external transition on the channel's
CTS≈ input (if bit 7 of the interrupt enable register (IER) is set to enable
interrupts).
0 = Setting the corresponding bit in the IPCR has no effect on ISR bit 7.
7.4.1.12 INTERRUPT STATUS REGISTER (ISR). The ISR provides status for all potential
interrupt sources. The contents of this register are masked by the IER. If a flag in the ISR
is set and the corresponding bit in IER is also set, the IRQ≈ output is asserted. If the
corresponding bit in the IER is cleared, the state of the bit in the ISR has no effect on the
output. This register can only be read when the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit
in the MCR is cleared).
NOTE
The IER does not mask reading of the ISR. True status is
provided regardless of the contents of IER. The contents of
ISR are cleared when the serial module is reset.
ISR
$715
7
6
COS
DBB
RESET:
0
0
5
4
3
RxRDYB TxRDYB XTAL_
RDY
0
Read Only
0
1
2
DBA
1
0
RxRDYA TxRDYA
0
0
0
Supervisor/User
COS—Change-of-State
1 = A change-of-state has occurred at one of the CTS≈ inputs and has been
selected to cause an interrupt by programming bit 1 and/or bit 0 of the ACR.
0 = The CPU32 has read the IPCR.
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DBB—Delta Break B
1 = The channel B receiver has detected the beginning or end of a received break.
0 = The CPU32 has issued a channel B reset break-change interrupt command.
Refer to 7.4.1.7 Command Register (CR) for more information on the reset
break-change interrupt command.
RxRDYB—Channel B Receiver Ready or FIFO Full
The function of this bit is programmed by MR1B bit 6.
1 = If programmed as receiver ready, a character has been received in channel B
and is waiting in the receiver buffer FIFO. If programmed as FIFO full, a
character has been transferred from the receiver shift register to the FIFO, and
the transfer has caused the channel B FIFO to become full (all three positions
are occupied).
0 = If programmed as receiver ready, the CPU32 has read the receiver buffer. After
this read, if more characters are still in the FIFO, the bit is set again after the
FIFO is 'popped'. If programmed as FIFO full, the CPU32 has read the receiver
buffer. If a character is waiting in the receiver shift register because the FIFO is
full, the bit will be set again when the waiting character is loaded into the FIFO.
TxRDYB—Channel B Transmitter Ready
This bit is the duplication of the TxRDY bit in SRB.
1 = The transmitter holding register is empty and ready to be loaded with a character.
This bit is set when the character is transferred to the transmitter shift register.
This bit is also set when the transmitter is first enabled. Characters loaded into
the transmitter holding register while the transmitter is disabled are not
transmitted.
0 = The transmitter holding register was loaded by the CPU32, or the transmitter is
disabled.
XTAL_RDY—Serial Clock Running
This bit is always read as a zero when the X1 clock is running. This bit cannot be
enabled to generate an interrupt.
1 = This bit is set at reset.
0 = This bit is cleared after the baud rate generator is stable. The CSR should not be
accessed until this bit is zero.
DBA—Delta Break A
1 = The channel A receiver has detected the beginning or end of a received break.
0 = The CPU32 has issued a channel A reset break-change interrupt command.
Refer to 7.4.1.7 Command Register (CR) for more information on the reset
break-change interrupt command.
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RxRDYA—Channel A Receiver Ready or FIFO Full
The function of this bit is programmed by MR1A bit 6.
1 = If programmed as receiver ready, a character has been received in channel A
and is waiting in the receiver buffer FIFO. If programmed as FIFO full, a
character has been transferred from the receiver shift register to the FIFO, and
the transfer has caused the channel A FIFO to become full (all three positions
are occupied).
0 = If programmed as receiver ready, the CPU32 has read the receiver buffer. After
this read, if more characters are still in the FIFO, the bit is set again after the
FIFO is 'popped'. If programmed as FIFO full, the CPU32 has read the receiver
buffer. If a character is waiting in the receiver shift register because the FIFO is
full, the bit will be set again when the waiting character is loaded into the FIFO.
TxRDYA—Channel A Transmitter Ready
This bit is the duplication of the TxRDY bit in SRA.
1 = The transmitter holding register is empty and ready to be loaded with a character.
This bit is set when the character is transferred to the transmitter shift register.
This bit is also set when the transmitter is first enabled. Characters loaded into
the transmitter holding register while the transmitter is disabled are not
transmitted.
0 = The transmitter holding register was loaded by the CPU32, or the transmitter is
disabled.
7.4.1.13 INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER (IER). The IER selects the corresponding bits
in the ISR that cause an interrupt output ( IRQ≈). If one of the bits in the ISR is set and the
corresponding bit in the IER is also set, the IRQ≈ output is asserted. If the corresponding
bit in the IER is zero, the state of the bit in the ISR has no effect on the IRQ≈ output. The
IER does not mask the reading of the ISR. The ISR XTAL_RDY bit cannot be enabled to
generate an interrupt. This register can only be written when the serial module is enabled
(i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
IER
$715
7
6
COS
DBB
RESET:
0
0
5
4
RxRDYB TxRDYB
0
Write Only
0
3
2
0
DBA
0
0
1
0
RxRDYA TxRDYA
0
0
Supervisor/User
COS—Change-of-State
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
DBB—Delta Break B
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
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RxRDYB—Channel B Receiver Ready or FIFO full
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
TxRDYB—Channel B Transmitter Ready
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
Bit 3—Reserved
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DBA—Delta Break A
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
RxRDYA—Channel A Receiver Ready or FIFO full
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
TxRDYA—Channel A Transmitter Ready
1 = Enable interrupt
0 = Disable interrupt
7.4.1.14 INPUT PORT (IP). The IP register shows the current state of the CTS≈ inputs.
This register can only be read when the serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the
MCR is cleared).
IP
$71D
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTSB
CTSA
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
U
Read Only
Supervisor/User
CTSB, CTSA—Current State
1 = The current state of the respective CTS≈ input is negated.
0 = The current state of the respective CTS≈ input is asserted.
The information contained in these bits is latched and reflects the state of the input pins
at the time that the IP is read.
NOTE
These bits have the same function and value of the IPCR bits 1
and 0.
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7.4.1.15 OUTPUT PORT CONTROL REGISTER (OPCR). The OPCR individually
configures four bits of the 8-bit parallel OP for general-purpose use or as an auxiliary
function serving the communication channels. This register can only be written when the
serial module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
OPCR
7
$71D
6
5
4
OP7
OP6
OP5
OP4
T≈RDYB T≈RDYA R≈RDYB R≈RDYA
RESET:
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
OP3
OP2
OP1
RTSB
OP0
RTSA
0
0
0
0
Write Only
Supervisor/User
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
NOTE
OP bits 7, 5, 3, and 2 are not pinned out on the MC68340; thus
changing bits 7, 5, 3, and 2 of this register has no effect.
OP6—Output Port 6/ T≈RDYA
1 = The OP6/T≈RDYA pin functions as the transmitter-ready signal for channel A.
The signal reflects the complement of the value of bit 2 of the SRA; thus,
T≈RDYA is a logic zero when the transmitter is ready.
0 = The OP6/T≈RDYA pin functions as a dedicated output. The signal reflects the
complement of the value of bit 6 of the OP.
OP4—Output Port 4/ R≈RDYA
1 = The OP4/R≈RDYA pin functions as the FIFO-full or receiver-ready signal for
channel A (depending on the value of bit 6 of MR1A). The signal reflects the
complement of the value of ISR bit 1; thus, R≈RDYA is a logic zero when the
receiver is ready.
0 = The OP4/R≈RDYA pin functions as a dedicated output. The signal reflects the
complement of the value of bit 4 of the OP.
OP1—Output Port 1/ RTSB
1 = The OP1/RTSB pin functions as the ready-to-send signal for channel B. The
signal is asserted and negated according to the configuration programmed by
RxRTS bit 7 in the MR1B for the receiver and TxRTS bit 5 in the MR2B for the
transmitter.
0 = The OP1/RTSB pin functions as a dedicated output. The signal reflects the
complement of the value of bit 1 of the OP.
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OP0—Output Port 0/ RTSA
1 = The OP0/RTSA pin functions as the ready-to-send signal for channel A. The
signal is asserted and negated according to the configuration programmed by
RxRTS bit 7 in the MR1A for the receiver and TxRTS bit 5 in the MR2A for the
transmitter.
0 = The OP0/RTSA pin functions as a dedicated output. The signal reflects the
complement of the value of bit 0 of the OP.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
7.4.1.16 OUTPUT PORT DATA REGISTER (OP). The bits in the OP register are set by
performing a bit set command (writing to offset $71E) and are cleared by performing a bit
reset command (writing to offset $71F). This register can only be written when the serial
module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
Bit Set
OP
$71E
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OP7
OP6
OP5
OP4
OP3
OP2
OP1
OP0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write Only
Supervisor/User
NOTE
OP bits 7, 5, 3, and 2 are not pinned out on the MC68340;
thus, changing these bits has no effect.
OP6, OP4, OP1, OP0—Output Port Parallel Outputs
1 = These bits can be set by writing a one to the bit position(s) at this address.
0 = These bits are not affected by writing a zero to this address.
Bit Reset
OP
$71F
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OP7
OP6
OP5
OP4
OP3
OP2
OP1
OP0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Write Only
Supervisor/User
NOTE
OP bits 7, 5, 3, and 2 are not pinned out on the MC68340;
thus, changing these bits has no effect.
OP6, OP4, OP1, OP0—Output Port Parallel Outputs
1 = These bits can be cleared by writing a one to the bit position(s) at this address.
0 = These bits are not affected by writing a zero to this address.
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7.4.1.17 MODE REGISTER 2 (MR2). MR2 controls some of the serial module
configuration. This register can be read or written at any time the serial module is enabled
(i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
MR2A, MR2B
$720, $721
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CM1
CM0
TxRTS
TxCTS
SB3
SB2
SB1
SB0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Read/Write
Supervisor/User
CM1–CM0—Channel Mode
These bits select a channel mode as listed in Table 7-9. See 7.3.3 Looping Modes for
more information on the individual modes.
Table 7-9. CMx Control Bits
CM1
CM0
Mode
0
0
Normal
0
1
Automatic Echo
1
0
Local Loopback
1
1
Remote Loopback
TxRTS—Transmitter Ready-to-Send
This bit controls the negation of the RTSA or RTSB signals. The output is normally
asserted by setting OP0 or OP1 and negated by clearing OP0 or OP1 (see 7.4.1.15
Output Port Control Register (OPCR)).
1 = In applications where the transmitter is disabled after transmission is complete,
setting this bit causes the particular OP bit to be cleared automatically one bit
time after the characters, if any, in the channel transmit shift register and the
transmitter holding register are completely transmitted, including the programmed
number of stop bits. This feature is used to automatically terminate transmission
of a message. If both the receiver and the transmitter in the same channel are
programmed for RTS control, RTS control is disabled for both since this is an
incorrect configuration.
0 = Clearing this bit has no effect on the transmitter RTS≈.
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TxCTS—Transmitter Clear-to-Send
1 = Enables clear-to-send operation. The transmitter checks the state of the CTS≈
input each time it is ready to send a character. If CTS≈ is asserted, the character
is transmitted. If CTS≈ is negated, the channel TxDx remains in the high state,
and the transmission is delayed until CTS≈ is asserted. Changes in CTS≈ while
a character is being transmitted do not affect transmission of that character. If
both TxCTS and TxRTS are enabled, TxCTS controls the operation of the
transmitter.
0 = The CTS≈ has no effect on the transmitter.
SB3–SB0—Stop-Bit Length Control
These bits select the length of the stop bit appended to the transmitted character as
listed in Table 7-10. Stop-bit lengths of nine-sixteenth to two bits, in increments of onesixteenth bit, are programmable for character lengths of six, seven, and eight bits. For a
character length of five bits, one and one-sixteenth to two bits are programmable in
increments of one-sixteenth bit. In all cases, the receiver only checks for a high
condition at the center of the first stop-bit position—i.e., one bit time after the last data
bit or after the parity bit, if parity is enabled.
If an external 1× clock is used for the transmitter, MR2 bit 3 = 0 selects one stop bit, and
MR2 bit 3 = 1 selects two stop bits for transmission.
Table 7-10. SBx Control Bits
MOTOROLA
SB3
SB2
SB1
SB0
Length 6-8 Bits
Length 5 Bits
0
0
0
0
0.563
1.063
0
0
0
1
0.625
1.125
0
0
1
0
0.688
1.188
0
0
1
1
0.750
1.250
0
1
0
0
0.813
1.313
0
1
0
1
0.875
1.375
0
1
1
0
0.938
1.438
0
1
1
1
1.000
1.500
1
0
0
0
1.563
1.563
1
0
0
1
1.625
1.625
1
0
1
0
1.688
1.688
1
0
1
1
1.750
1.750
1
1
0
0
1.813
1.813
1
1
0
1
1.875
1.875
1
1
1
0
1.938
1.938
1
1
1
1
2.000
2.000
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7.4.2 Programming
The basic interface software flowchart required for operation of the serial module is shown
in Figure 7-10. The routines are divided into three categories:
• Serial Module Initialization
• I/O Driver
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
• Interrupt Handling
7.4.2.1 SERIAL MODULE INITIALIZATION. The serial module initialization routines
consist of SINIT and CHCHK. SINIT is called at system initialization time to check channel
A and channel B operation. Before SINIT is called, the calling routine allocates two words
on the system stack. Upon return to the calling routine, SINIT passes information on the
system stack to reflect the status of the channels. If SINIT finds no errors in either channel
A or channel B, the respective receivers and transmitters are enabled. The CHCHK
routine performs the actual channel checks as called from the SINIT routine. When called,
SINIT places the specified channel in the local loopback mode and checks for the
following errors:
• Transmitter Never Ready
• Receiver Never Ready
• Parity Error
• Incorrect Character Received
7.4.2.2 I/O DRIVER EXAMPLE. The I/O driver routines consist of INCH, OUTCH, and
POUTCH. INCH is the terminal input character routine and gets a character from the
channel A receiver and places it in the lower byte of register D0. OUTCH is used to send
the character in the lower byte of register D0 to the channel A transmitter. POUTCH sends
the character in the lower byte of D0 to the channel B transmitter.
7.4.2.3 INTERRUPT HANDLING. The interrupt handling routine consists of SIRQ, which
is executed after the serial module generates an interrupt caused by a channel A changein-break (beginning of a break). SIRQ then clears the interrupt source, waits for the next
change-in-break interrupt (end of break), clears the interrupt source again, then returns
from exception processing to the system monitor.
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SERIAL MODULE
ENABLA
SINIT
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
INITIATE:
CHANNEL A
CHANNEL B
INTERRUPTS
ANY
ERRORS IN
CHANNEL A
?
Y
N
CHK1
POINT TO CHANNEL A
ENABLE CHANNEL
A'S RECEIVER
CALL CHCHK
ASSERT CHANNEL A
REQUEST TO SEND
ENABLB
SAVE CHANNEL A
STATUS
CHK2
POINT TO CHANNEL B
ANY
ERRORS IN
CHANNEL B
?
Y
N
CALL CHCHK
ENABLE CHANNEL
B'S TRANSMITTER
SINITR
SAVE CHANNEL B
STATUS
RETURN
Figure 7-10. Serial Module Programming Flowchart (1 of 5)
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CHCHK
CHCHK
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PLACE CHANNEL IN
LOCAL LOOPBACK
MODE
ENABLE CHANNEL'S
TRANSMITTER CLEAR
CHANNEL
STATUS WORD
TxCHK
N
IS
TRANSMITTER
READY
?
Y
WAITED
TOO LONG
?
Y
SET TRANSMITTERNEVER-READY FLAG
N
SNDCHR
SEND CHARACTER
TO TRANSMITTER
RxCHK
N
HAS
RECEIVER
RECEIVED
CHARACTER
?
N
WAITED
TOO LONG
?
Y
SET RECEIVERNEVER-READY FLAG
Y
A
B
Figure 7-10. Serial Module Programming Flowchart (2 of 5)
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A
B
FRCHK
RSTCHN
HAVE
FRAMING ERROR
?
N
Y
DISABLE CHANNEL'S
TRANSMITTER
RESTORE CHANNEL
TO ORIGINAL MODE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SET FRAMING
ERROR FLAG
PRCHK
RETURN
HAVE
PARITY ERROR
?
N
Y
SET PARITY
ERROR FLAG
A
CHRCHK
GET CHARACTER
FROM RECEIVER
SAME
AS CHARACTER
TRANSMITTED
?
Y
N
SET INCORRECT
CHARACTER FLAG
B
Figure 7-10. Serial Module Programming Flowchart (3 of 5)
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SIRQ
INCH
ABRKI
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
WAS
IRQx CAUSED
BY BEGINNING
OF A BREAK
?
N
DOES
CHANNEL A
RECEIVER HAVE A
CHARACTER
?
Y
N
Y
CLEAR CHANGE-INBREAK STATUS BIT
PLACE CHARACTER
IN D0
ABRKI1
HAS
END-OF-BREAK
IRQx ARRIVED
YET
?
RETURN
N
Y
CLEAR CHANGE-INBREAK STATUS BIT
REMOVE BREAK
CHARACTER FROM
RECEIVER FIFO
REPLACE RETURN
ADDRESS ON SYSTEM
STACK AND MONITOR
WARM START ADDRESS
SIRQR
RTE
Figure 7-10. Serial Module Programming Flowchart (4 of 5)
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OUTCH
POUCH
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
IS
CHANNEL A
TRANSMITTER
READY
?
N
IS
CHANNEL B
TRANSMITTER
READY
?
Y
N
Y
SEND CHARACTER
IN D0 TO CHANNEL
B TRANSMITTER
SEND CHARACTER
IN D0 TO CHANNEL A
TRANSMITTER
WAS
CHARACTER A
CARRIAGE
RETURN
?
N
Y
OUTCHI
IS
CHANNEL A
TRANSMITTER
READY
?
N
WAS
CHARACTER A
CARRIAGE
RETURN
?
Y
POUCHI
IS
CHANNEL B
TRANSMITTER
READY
?
N
N
Y
Y
SEND A LINE
FEED CHARACTER TO
CHANNEL A
TRANSMITTER
SEND A LINE
FEED CHARACTER TO
CHANNEL B
TRANSMITTER
OUTCHR
POUTCHR
RETURN
RETURN
Figure 7-10. Serial Module Programming Flowchart (5 of 5)
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7.5 SERIAL MODULE INITIALIZATION SEQUENCE
The following paragraphs discuss a suggested method for initializing the serial module.
7.5.1 Serial Module Configuration
If the serial capability of the MC68340 is being used, the following steps are required to
properly initialize the serial module.
NOTE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The serial module registers can only be accessed by byte operations.
Command Register (CR)
• Reset the receiver and transmitter for each channel.
The following steps program both channels:
Module Configuration Register (MCR)
• Initialize the stop bit (STP) for normal operation.
• Select whether to respond to or ignore FREEZE (FRZx bits).
• Select the input capture clock (ICCS bit).
• Select the access privilege for the supervisor/user registers (SUPV bit).
• Select the interrupt arbitration level for the serial module (IARBx bits).
Interrupt Vector Register (IVR)
• Program the vector number for a serial module interrupt.
Interrupt Level Register (ILR)
• Program the interrupt priority level for a serial module interrupt.
Interrupt Enable Register (IER)
• Enable the desired interrupt sources.
Auxiliary Control Register (ACR)
• Select baud rate set (BRG bit).
• Initialize the input enable control (IEC bits).
Output Port Control Register (OPCR)
• Select the function of the output port pins.
Interrupt Status Register (ISR)
• The XTAL_RDY bit should be polled until it is cleared to ensure that an unstable
crystal input is not applied to the baud rate generator.
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The following steps are channel specific:
Clock Select Register (CSR)
• Select the receiver and transmitter clock.
Mode Register 1 (MR1)
• If desired, program operation of receiver ready-to-send (RxRTS bit).
• Select receiver-ready or FIFO-full notification (R/F bit).
• Select character or block error mode (ERR bit).
• Select parity mode and type (PM and PT bits).
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
• Select number of bits per character (B/Cx bits).
Mode Register 2 (MR2)
• Select the mode of channel operation (CMx bits).
• If desired, program operation of transmitter ready-to-send (TxRTS bit).
• If desired, program operation of clear-to-send (TxCTS bit).
• Select stop-bit length (SBx bits).
Command Register (CR)
• Enable the receiver and transmitter.
7.5.2 Serial Module Example Configuration Code
The following code is an example of a configuration sequence for the serial module.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic serial module register initialization example code.
* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal serial module registers,
* providing basic functions for operation.
* It sets up serial channel A for communication with a 9600 baud terminal.
* Note: All serial module registers must be accessed as bytes.
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
***************************************************************
* Serial module equates
SERIAL
EQU $700
Offset from MBAR for serial module regs
MCRH
EQU $0
serial MCR high byte
MCRL
EQU $1
serial MCR low byte
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* Serial register offsets from serial base address
MR1A
EQU
$10
Mode register 1 A
MR2A
EQU
$20
Mode register 2 A
SRA
EQU
$11
Status register A
CSRA
EQU
$11
Clock select reg A
CRA
EQU
$12
Command reg A
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
ACR
OPCR
OP_BS
OP_BR
EQU
EQU
EQU
EQU
$14
$1D
$1E
$1F
Auxiliary control reg
Output port control reg
Output port bit set (write 1 to set)
Output port bit reset (write 1 to clear)
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize Serial channel A
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+SERIAL,A0 Pointer to serial channel A
* Module configuration register:
* Enable serial module for normal operation, ignore FREEZE, select the
* crystal clock. Supervisor/user serial registers unrestricted.
* Interrupt arbitration at priority $02.
MOVE.B
#$00,MCRH(A0)
MOVE.B
#$02,MCRL(A0)
* WAIT FOR TRANSMITTER EMPTY (OR TIMEOUT)
MOVE.W
#$2000,D0
init loop counter
XBMTWAIT EQU *
BTST
#3,SRA(A0)
TX empty in status reg?
NOP
DBNE
D0,XBMTWAIT
loop until set or timeout
* NEGATE RTSA SIGNAL OUTPUT
MOVE.B
#0,OPCR(A0)
MOVE.B
#$01,OP_BR(A0)
make OP0-7 general purpose
clear RTSA/OP0 output
* RESET RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER
MOVE.B
#$20,CRA(A0)
MOVE.B
#$30,CRA(A0)
Issue reset receiver command
Issue reset transmitter command
* SET BAUD RATE SET 2
MOVE.B
#$80,ACR(A0)
* MODE REGISTER 1
MOVE.B
#$93,MR1A(A0)
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* MODE REGISTER 2
MOVE.B
#$07,MR2A(A0)
Normal, 1 stop bit
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
* SET UP BAUD RATE FOR PORT IN CLOCK SELECT REGISTER
MOVE.B
#$BB,CSRA(A0)
Set 9600 baud for RX and TX
* SET RTSA ACTIVE
MOVE.B
#$01,OP_BS(A0)
set RTSA/OP0 output
* ENABLE PORT
MOVE.B
Reset error status, enable RX & TX
#$45,CRA(A0)
***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
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SECTION 8
TIMER MODULES
Each MC68340 timer module contains a counter/timer (timer 1 and timer 2) as shown in
Figure 8-1. Each timer interfaces directly to the CPU32 via the intermodule bus (IMB).
Each timer consists of the following major areas:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
• A General-Purpose Counter/Timer
• Internal Control Logic
• Interrupt Control Logic
TIMER 1
TIMER 2
TIN2
TIN1
TOUT1
TIMER 1
TIMER 2
TOUT2
TGATE2
TGATE1
INTERRUPT
CONTROL
LOGIC
INTERRUPT
CONTROL
LOGIC
IMB
INTERFACE
IMB
INTERFACE
Figure 8-1. Simplified Block Diagram
8.1 MODULE OVERVIEW
Each timer module consists of the following functional features:
• Versatile General-Purpose Timer
• 8-Bit Prescaler/16-Bit Counter
• Timers Can Be Externally Cascaded for a Maximum Count Width of 48 Bits
• Programmable Timer Modes:
— Input Capture/Output Compare
— Square-Wave Generation
— Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generation
— Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generation
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— Pulse-Width Measurement
— Period Measurement
— Event Counting
• Seven Maskable Interrupt Conditions Based on Programmable Events
8.1.1 Timer and Counter Functions
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The term 'timer' is used to reference either timer 1 or timer 2, since the two are functionally
equivalent.
The timer can perform virtually any application traditionally assigned to timers and
counters. The timer can be used to generate timed events that are independent of the
timing errors to which real-time programmed microprocessors are susceptible—for
example, those of dynamic memory refreshing, DMA cycle steals, and interrupt servicing.
The timer has several functional areas: an 8-bit countdown prescaler, a 16-bit
downcounter, timeout logic, compare logic, and clock selection logic. Figure 8-2 shows a
functional diagram of the timer module.
8.1.1.1 PRESCALER AND COUNTER. The counter can be driven directly by the selected
clock or the prescaler output. Both the counter and prescaler are updated on the falling
edge of the clock. During reset, the prescaler is set to $FF, and the counter is set to
$0000. The counter is loaded with a programmed value on the first falling edge of the
counter clock after the timer is enabled and again when a timeout occurs (counter reaches
$0000). The prescaler and counter can be used as one 24-bit counter by enabling the
prescaler and selecting the divide-by-256 prescaler output. Refer to 8.4 Register
Description for additional information on how to program the timer.
8.1.1.2 TIMEOUT DETECTION. Timeout is achieved when all 16 stages of the counter
transition to zero, a counter value of $0000. Timeout is a defined counter event which
triggers specific actions depending upon the programmed mode of operation. Refer to 8.3
Operating Modes for descriptions of the individual modes.
8.1.1.3 COMPARATOR. The comparator block compares the value in the 16-bit compare
register (COM) with the output of the 16-bit counter. When an exact match is detected,
bits in the status register (SR) are set to indicate this condition. When in the input
capture/output compare mode, a match is a defined counter event that can affect the
output of the timer (TOUTx). Refer to 8.3.1 Input Capture/Output Compare for additional
information on this mode.
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TIMER
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
MODULE CONFIGURATION REGISTER
INTERRUPT REGISTER
CONTROL REGISTER
STATUS REGISTER
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PRELOAD 1 REGISTER
I
M
B
(SYSTEM CLOCK)
CLOCK
CLOCK
LOGIC
PRELOAD 2 REGISTER
16-BIT
COUNTER
MUX
COUNTER
CLOCK
TIN
TGATE
SELECTED
CLOCK
MUX
COUNTER REGISTER
COMPARE REGISTER
8-BIT
PRESCALER
TIMEOUT
TOUT
16-BIT
COMPARATOR
Figure 8-2. Timer Functional Diagram
8.1.1.4 CLOCK SELECTION LOGIC. The clock selection logic consists of two
multiplexers that select the clocks applied to the prescaler and counter. The first
multiplexer (labeled clock logic in Figure 8-2) selects between the clock input to the timer
(TINx) or one-half the frequency of the system clock (CLKOUT). This output of the first
multiplexer (called selected clock) is applied to both the 8-bit prescaler and the second
multiplexer. The second multiplexer selects the clock for the 16-bit counter, which is either
the selected clock or the 8-bit prescaler output.
8.1.2 Internal Control Logic
The timer receives operation commands on the IMB and, in turn, issues appropriate
operation signals to the internal timer control logic. This mechanism allows the timer
registers to be accessed and programmed. Refer to 8.4 Register Description for
additional information.
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8.1.3 Interrupt Control Logic
Each timer provides seven interrupt request outputs (IRQ7– IRQ1) to notify the CPU32
that an interrupt has occurred. The interrupts are described in 8.4 Register Description.
Bits in the SR indicate all currently active interrupt conditions. The interrupt enable (IE)
bits in the control register (CR) are programmable to mask any events that may cause an
interrupt.
8.2 TIMER MODULES SIGNAL DEFINITIONS
This section contains a brief description of the timer module signals (see Figure 8-3).
NOTE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The terms assertion and negation are used throughout this
section to avoid confusion when dealing with a mixture of
active-low and active-high signals. The term assert or assertion
indicates that a signal is active or true independent of the level
represented by a high or low voltage. The term negate or
negation indicates that a signal is inactive or false.
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TIMER 1
TIN1
CLOCK
LOGIC
TGATE1
PRESCALER
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
SIGNALS
COUNTER
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
OUTPUT
CONTROL
TOUT1
INTERRUPT
CONTROL
I
M
B
TIMER 2
TIN2
CLOCK
LOGIC
TGATE2
PRESCALER
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
SIGNALS
COUNTER
OUTPUT
CONTROL
TOUT2
INTERRUPT
CONTROL
Figure 8-3. External and Internal Interface Signals
8.2.1 Timer Input (TIN1, TIN2)
This input can be programmed to be the clock that causes events to occur in the counter
and prescaler. TINx is internally synchronized to the system clock to guarantee that a valid
TINx level is recognized. Additionally, the high and low levels of TINx must each be stable
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for at least one system clock period plus the sum of the setup and hold times for TINx.
Refer to Section 11 Electrical Characteristics, for additional information.
8.2.2 Timer Gate ( TGATE1, TGATE2)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This active-low input can be programmed to enable and disable the counter and prescaler.
TGATE≈ may also be programmed to be a simple input. For more information on the
modes of operation, refer to 8.3 OPERATING MODES. To guarantee that the timer
recognizes a valid level on TGATE≈, the signal is synchronized with the system clock.
Additionally, the high and low levels of this input must each be stable for at least one
system clock period plus the sum of the setup and hold times for TGATE≈ . Refer to
Section 11 Electrical Characteristics, for additional information.
8.2.3 Timer Output (TOUT1, TOUT2)
This output drives the various output waveforms generated by the timer. The initial level
and transitions can be programmed by the output control (OC) bits in the CR.
8.3 OPERATING MODES
The following paragraphs contain a detailed description of each timer operation mode and
of the IMB operation during accesses to the timer. Changing the contents of the CR
should only be attempted when the timer is disabled (the software reset (SWR) bit in the
CR is cleared). Changing the CR while the timer is running may produce unpredictable
results.
8.3.1 Input Capture/Output Compare
This mode has the capability of capturing a counter value by holding the value in the
counter register (CNTR). Additionally, this mode can provide compare information via
TOUTx to indicate when the counter has reached the compare value. This mode can be
used for square-wave generation, pulse-width modulation, or periodic interrupt generation.
This mode can be selected by programming the operation mode bits (MODEx) in the CR
to 000.
The timer is enabled when the counter prescaler enable (CPE) and SWRx bits in the CR
are set. Once enabled, the counter enable (ON) bit in the SR is set, and the next falling
edge of the counter clock causes the counter to be loaded with the value in the preload 1
register (PREL1).
The TGATE≈ signal functions differently in this mode than it does in the other modes.
TGATE≈ does not enable or disable the counter/prescaler input clock; instead, it is used
to disable shadowing. Normally, the counter is decremented on the falling edge of the
counter clock, and the CNTR is updated on the next rising edge of the system clock; thus,
the CNTR shadows the actual value of the counter. The timer gate interrupt (TG) bit in the
SR must be cleared for shadowing to occur. TGATE≈ is used to set the TG bit and disable
shadowing. If the timing gate is enabled (TGE bit of the CR is set), the TG bit is set by the
rising edge of TGATE≈. Shadowing is disabled until the TG bit is cleared by writing a one
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to its location in the SR. See Figure 8-4 for a depiction of this mode. If the timing gate is
disabled (CR TGE bit is cleared), TGATE≈ has no effect on the operation of the timer;
thus the input capture function is inoperative. At all times, the TGATE≈ level bit (TGL) in
the SR reflects the level of the TGATE≈ signal.
COUNTER
CLOCK
COUNTER
COUNTER
REGISTER
0
0
0
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
8
8
7
7
0
0
0
0
8
8
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
8
8
8
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TGATE
TG SET
TG CLEARED
TG SET
TOUT
ENABLE
TC SET
TIMEOUT
TC SET
Modex Bits in Control Register = 000
Preload 1 Register = 8
Compare Register = 7
TGE Bit of Status Register = 1
TG Bit in Status Register Initially = 0
OCx Bits in Control Register = 10
Figure 8-4. Input Capture/Output Compare Mode
Since the counter is not affected by TGATE≈ , it continues to decrement on the falling
edge of the counter clock and load from the PREL1 at timeout, regardless of the value of
TGATE≈.
When the counter counts down to the value contained in the COM, this condition is
reflected by setting the timer compare (TC) and compare (COM) bits in the SR. TOUTx
responds as selected by the OCx bits in the CR. The output level (OUT) bit in the SR
reflects the value on TOUTx. Shadowing does not affect this operation.
If the counter counts down to $0000, a timeout is detected, causing the SR timeout
interrupt (TO) bit to be set and the SR COM bit to be cleared. On the next falling edge of
the counter clock after the timeout is detected, the value in PREL1 is again loaded into the
counter. TOUTx responds as selected by the CR OCx bits.
A square-wave generator can be implemented by programming the CR OCx bits to toggle
mode. The value in the COM should be one-half the value in PREL1 to cause an event to
happen twice in the countdown.
This mode can be used as a pulse-width modulator by programming the CR OCx bits to
zero mode or one mode. The value in the PREL1 specifies the frequency, and the COM
determines the pulse width. The pulse widths can be changed by writing a new value to
the COM.
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Periodic interrupt generation can be accomplished by enabling the TO, TG, and/or TC bits
in the SR to generate interrupts by programming the IE bits of the CR. When enabled, the
programmed IRQ≈ signal is asserted whenever the specified bits are set.
TOUTx signal transitions can be controlled by writing new values into the COM. Caution
must be exercised when accessing the COM. If it were to be accessed simultaneously by
the compare logic and by a write, the old compare value may actually get compared to the
counter value.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
8.3.2 Square-Wave Generator
This mode can be used for generating both square-wave output and periodic interrupts.
The square wave is generated by counting down from the value in the PREL1 to timeout
(counter value of $0000). TOUTx changes state on each timeout as programmed. This
mode can be selected by programming the CR MODEx bits to 001.
The timer is enabled by setting the SWR and CPE bits in the CR and, if TGATE≈ is
programmed to control the enabling and disabling of the counter (TGE bit set in the CR),
then asserting TGATE≈. When the timer is enabled, the ON bit in the SR is set. On the
next falling edge of the counter clock, the counter is loaded with the value stored in the
PREL1 (N). With each successive falling edge of the counter clock, the counter
decrements. The time between enabling the timer and the first timeout can range from N
to N + 1 periods. When TGATE≈ is used to enable the timer, the enabling of the timer is
asynchronous; however, if timing is carefully considered, the time to the first timeout can
be known. For additional details on timing, see Section 11 Electrical Characteristics.
TOUTx behaves as a square wave when the OCx bits of the CR are programmed for
toggle mode. A timeout occurs every N + 1 periods (allowing for the zero cycle), resulting
in a change of state on TOUTx (see Figure 8-5). The SR OUT bit reflects the level of
TOUTx. If this mode is used to generate periodic interrupts, TOUTx may be enabled if a
square wave is also desired.
COUNTER
CLOCK
COUNTER
TOUT
0
0
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
3
N+1
TIMEOUT
1
0
3
N+1
N: N + 1
ENABLE
2
TIMEOUT
TIMEOUT
MODEx Bits in Control Register = 001
Preload 1 Register = N = 3
OCx Bits in Control Register = 01
Figure 8-5. Square-Wave Generator Mode
If TGATE≈ is negated when it is enabled to control the timer (TGE = 1), the prescaler and
counter are disabled. Additionally, the SR TG bit is set, indicating that TGATE≈ was
negated. The SR ON bit is cleared, indicating that the timer is disabled. If TGATE≈ is
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reasserted, the timer is re-enabled and begins counting from the value attained when
TGATE≈ was negated. The SR ON bit is set again.
If TGATE≈ is disabled (TGE = 0), TGATE≈ has no effect on the operation of the timer. In
this case, the counter begins counting on the falling edge of the counter clock immediately
after the SWR and CPE bits in the CR are set. The TG bit of the SR cannot be set. At all
times, TGL in the SR reflects the level of TGATE≈.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
If the counter counts down to the value stored in the COM register, then the COM and TC
bits in the SR are set. The counter continues counting down to timeout. At this time, the
SR TO bit is set, and the SR COM bit is cleared. The next falling edge of the counter clock
after timeout causes the value in PREL1 to be loaded back into the counter, and the
counter begins counting down from this value.
The period of the square-wave generator can be changed dynamically by writing a new
value into the PREL1. Caution must be used because, if PREL1 is accessed
simultaneously by the counting logic and a CPU32 write, the old PREL1 value may
actually get loaded into the counter at timeout.
Periodic interrupt generation can be accomplished by enabling the TO, TG, and/or TC bits
in the SR to generate interrupts by programming the CR IE bits. When enabled, the
programmed IRQ≈ signal is asserted whenever the specified bits are set.
8.3.3 Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generator
In this mode, both the PREL1 and PREL2 registers are used to generate a square wave
with virtually any duty cycle. The square wave is generated by counting down from the
value in the PREL1 to timeout (count value $0000), then loading that value from PREL2
and again counting down to timeout. When this second timeout occurs, the value from
PREL1 is loaded into the counter, and the cycle repeats. TOUTx can be programmed to
change state with every timeout, thus generating a variable duty-cycle square wave. This
mode can be selected by programming the MODE bits in the CR to 010.
The timer is enabled by setting both the SWR and CPE bits in the CR and, if TGATE≈ is
enabled (CR TGE bit is set), then asserting TGATE≈. When the timer is enabled, the ON
bit in the SR is set. On the next falling edge of the counter clock, the counter is loaded
with the value stored in the PREL1 register (N1). With each successive falling edge of the
counter clock, the counter decrements. The time between enabling the timer and the first
timeout can range from N1 to N1+1 periods. When TGATE≈ is used to enable the timer,
the enabling of the timer is asynchronous; however, if timing is carefully considered, the
time to the first timeout can be known. For additional details on timing, see the Section 11
Electrical Characteristics.
If the counter counts down to the value stored in the COM register, the COM and timer
compare interrupt (TC) bits in the SR are set. The counter continues counting down to
timeout. At this time, the TO bit in the SR is set, and the COM bit is cleared. The next
falling edge of the counter clock after timeout causes the value in PREL2 (N2) to be
loaded into the counter, and the counter begins counting down from this value. Each
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successive timeout causes the counter to be loaded alternately with the values from
PREL1 and PREL2.
TOUTx behaves as a variable duty-cycle square wave when the CR OC bits are
programmed for toggle mode. The second timeout occurs after N2 + 1 periods (allowing
for the zero cycle), resulting in a change of state on TOUTx. The third timeout occurs after
N1 + 1 periods, resulting in a change of state on TOUTx, and so on (see Figure 8-6). The
OUT bit in the SR reflects the level of TOUTx.
COUNTER
CLOCK
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
COUNTER
TOUT
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
4
N2 + 1
N1: N1 + 1
ENABLE
2
TIMEOUT
3
2
1
0
1
0
N2 + 1
N1 + 1
TIMEOUT
2
TIMEOUT
TIMEOUT
MODEx Bits in Control Register = 010
Preload 1 Register = N1 = 4
Preload 2 Register = N2 = 2
OCx Bits in Control Register = 01
Figure 8-6. Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generator Mode
If TGATE≈ is negated when it is enabled (TGE = 1), the prescaler and counter are
disabled. Additionally, the TG bit of the SR is set, indicating that TGATE≈ was negated.
The ON bit of the SR is cleared, indicating that the timer is disabled. If TGATE≈ is
reasserted, the timer is re-enabled and begins counting from the value attained when
TGATE≈ was negated. The ON bit is set again.
If TGATE≈ is not enabled (TGE = 0), TGATE≈ has no effect on the operation of the timer.
In this case, the counter would begin counting on the falling edge of the counter clock
immediately after the SWR and CPE bits in the CR are set. The SR TG bit cannot be set.
At all times, the TGL bit in the SR reflects the level of TGATE≈.
The duty cycle of the waveform generated on TOUTx can be dynamically changed by
writing new values into PREL1 and/or PREL2. If PREL1 or PREL2 is being accessed
simultaneously by the counter logic and a CPU32 write, the old preload value may actually
get loaded into the counter at timeout. If at timeout, the counting logic was accessing
PREL2 and the CPU32 was writing to PREL1 (or visa versa), there would be no
unexpected results.
8.3.4 Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generator
This mode is used to produce a one-time pulse that has a delay controlled by the value
stored in PREL1 and a duration controlled by the value stored in PREL2. With TOUTx
programmed to change state, this sequence creates a single pulse of variable width. This
mode can be selected by programming the CR MODE bits to 011.
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The timer is enabled by setting both the SWR and CPE bits in the CR and, if TGATE≈ is
enabled (TGE bit in the CR is set), then asserting TGATE≈. When the timer is enabled,
the ON bit in the SR is set. On the next falling edge of the counter clock, the counter is
loaded with the value stored in the PREL1 register (N1). With each successive falling
edge of the counter clock, the counter decrements. The time between enabling the timer
and the first timeout can range from N1 to N1 + 1 periods. When TGATE≈ is used to
enable the counter, the enabling of the timer is asynchronous; however, if timing is
carefully considered, the time to the first timeout can be known. For additional details on
timing, see Section 11 Electrical Characteristics.
If the counter counts down to the value stored in the COM, the COM and TC bits in the SR
are set. The counter continues counting down to timeout. At this time, the SR TO bit is set
and the SR COM bit is cleared. The next falling edge of the counter clock after timeout
causes the value in PREL2 (N2) to be loaded into the counter, and the counter begins
counting down from this value. After the second timeout, the selected clock is held high,
disabling the prescaler and counter. Additionally, the SR ON and COM bits are cleared.
TOUTx behaves as a variable-width pulse when the OCx bits of the CR are programmed
for toggle mode. TOUTx is a logic zero between the time that the timer is enabled and the
first timeout. When this event occurs, TOUTx transitions to a logic one. The second
timeout occurs after N2 + 1 periods (allowing for the zero cycle), resulting in TOUTx
returning to a logic zero (see Figure 8-7). The OUT bit in the SR reflects the level of
TOUTx.
COUNTER
CLOCK
COUNTER 0
0
TOUT
2
1
0
5
3
2
1
0
N2 + 1
N1: N1 + 1
ENABLE
4
TIMEOUT
TIMEOUT
MODEx Bits in Control Register = 011
Preload 1 Register = N1 = 2
Preload 2 Register = N2 = 5
OCx bits in Control Register = 01
Figure 8-7. Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generator Mode
If TGATE≈ is negated when it is enabled (TGE = 1), the prescaler and counter are
disabled. Additionally, the SR TG bit is set, indicating that TGATE≈ was negated. The SR
ON bit is cleared, indicating that the timer is disabled. If TGATE≈ is reasserted, the timer
is re-enabled and begins counting from the value attained when TGATE≈ was negated.
The ON bit is set again.
If TGATE≈ is not enabled (TGE = 0), TGATE≈ has no effect on the operation of the timer.
In this case, the counter would begin counting on the falling edge of the counter clock
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immediately after the SWR and CPE bits in the CR are set. The SR TG bit cannot be set.
At all times, the TGL bit in the SR reflects the level of TGATE≈.
The width of the pulse generated on TOUTx (the value in PREL2) can be changed while
the counter is counting down from the value in PREL1. Caution must be used because, if
PREL2 is accessed simultaneously by the counting logic and a CPU32 write, the old
PREL2 value may actually get loaded into the counter at timeout.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
8.3.5 Pulse-Width Measurement
This mode is used to count the clock cycles during a particular event (see Figure 8-8). The
event is defined by the assertion and negation of TGATE≈. When TGATE≈ is asserted,
the counter begins counting down from $FFFF. When TGATE≈ is negated, the counter
stops counting and holds the value at which it stopped. Further assertions and negations
of TGATE≈ have no effect on the counter. This mode can be selected by programming
the CR MODEx bits to 100.
The timer is enabled by setting the SWR, CPE, and TGE bits in the CR. Asserting
TGATE≈ starts the counter. When the timer is enabled, the SR ON bit is set. On the next
falling edge of the counter clock, the counter is loaded with the value $FFFF. With each
successive falling edge of the counter clock, the counter decrements. The PREL1 and
PREL2 registers are not used in this mode.
When TGATE≈ is negated, the SR TG bit is set, the ON bit is negated, and the prescaler
and counter are disabled. Subsequent transitions on TGATE≈ do not re-enable the
counter. The TGL bit in the SR reflects the level of TGATE≈ at all times.
COUNTER
CLOCK
COUNTER
0
f
f
f
f
TGATE
f
f
f
e
f
f
f
d
f
f
f
c
f
f
f
b
f
f
f
b
MEASURED PULSE
ENABLE
START
COUNTING
STOP
COUNTING
NO EFFECT
MODEx Bits in Control Register = 100
TGE Bit of Control Register = 1
Figure 8-8. Pulse-Width Measurement Mode
If the counter counts down to the value stored in the COM register, the COM and TC bits
in the SR are set. If the counter counts down to $0000, a timeout is detected. This sets the
SR TO, and the clears the COM bit. At timeout, the next falling edge of the counter clock
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causes the counter to reload with $FFFF. TOUTx transitions at timeout or is disabled as
programmed by the CR OCx bits. The SR OUT bit reflects the level on TOUTx.
To determine the number of cycles counted, the value in the CNTR must be read,
inverted, and incremented by 1 (the first count is $FFFF which, in effect, includes a count
of zero). The counter counts in a true 216 fashion. For measuring pulses of even greater
duration, the value in the POx bits in the SR is readable and can be thought of as an
extension of the least significant bits in the CNTR.
NOTE
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Once the timer has been enabled, do not clear the SR TG bit
until the pulse has been measured and TGATE≈ has been
negated.
8.3.6 Period Measurement
This mode is used to count the period of a particular event. The event is defined by the
assertion, negation, and subsequent reassertion of TGATE≈. When TGATE≈ is asserted,
the counter begins counting down from $FFFF. The negation of TGATE≈ has no effect on
the counter. When TGATE≈ is reasserted, the counter stops counting and holds the value
at which it stopped. Further assertions and negations of TGATE≈ have no effect on the
counter. This mode can be selected by programming the CR MODEx bits to 101.
The timer is enabled by setting the SWR, CPE, and the TGE bits in the CR. The assertion
of TGATE≈ starts the counter. When the timer is enabled, the SR ON bit is set. On the
next falling edge of the counter clock, the counter is loaded with the value of $FFFF. With
each successive falling edge of the counter clock, the counter decrements. The PREL1
and PREL2 registers are not used in this mode.
The first negation of TGATE≈ is ignored, but on the second assertion of TGATE≈, the SR
TG bit is set, the SR ON bit is negated, and the prescaler and counter are disabled.
Subsequent transitions on TGATE≈ do not re-enable the counter. See Figure 8-9 for a
depiction of this mode. The SR TGL bit reflects the level of TGATE≈ at all times.
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COUNTER
CLOCK
COUNTER
0
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
e
f
f
f
d
f
f
f
c
f
f
f
b
f
f
f
a
f
f
f
9
f
f
f
9
TGATE
ENABLE
PERIOD MEASURED
START
COUNTING
STOP
COUNTING
NO EFFECT
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MODEx Bits in Control Register = 101
TGE Bit of Control Register = 1
Figure 8-9. Period Measurement Mode
If the counter counts down to the value stored in the COM register, the COM and TC bits
in the SR are set. If the counter counts down to $0000, a timeout is detected. This sets the
SR TO bit, and clears the SR COM bit. At timeout, the next falling edge of the counter
clock reloads the counter with $FFFF. TOUTx transitions at timeout or is disabled as
programmed by the OCx bits of the CR, and the OUT bit in the SR reflects the level on
TOUTx.
To determine the number of cycles counted, the value in the CNTR must be read,
inverted, and incremented by 1 (the first count is $FFFF which, in effect, includes a count
of zero). The counter counts in a true 216 fashion. For measuring pulses of even greater
duration, the value in the POx bits in the SR are readable and can be thought of as an
extension of the least significant bits in the CNTR.
NOTE
Once the timer has been enabled, do not clear the SR TG bit
until the pulse has been measured and TGATE≈ has been
negated.
8.3.7 Event Count
This mode is used to count events by interpreting the falling edges of the counter clock as
events (see Figure 8-10). These events may be external or internal to the chip—for
example, counting the number of system clock cycles required to execute a sequence of
instructions. As another example, by connecting AS to TINx, the number of bus cycles to
complete a sequence of instructions could be counted. This mode can be selected by
programming the CR MODEx bits to 110.
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COUNTER
CLOCK
COUNTER
0
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
e
f
f
f
d
f
f
f
c
f
f
f
b
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
e
TGATE
ENABLE
TG BIT SET
TIMEOUT
TO BIT SET
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MODEx Bits in Control Register = 110
TGE Bit of the Control Register = 1
Figure 8-10. Event Count Mode
The timer is enabled by setting the SWR and CPE bits in the CR and, if TGATE≈ is
enabled (TGE bit of the CR is set), then asserting TGATE≈. When the timer is enabled,
the SR ON bit is set. On the next falling edge of the counter clock, the counter is loaded
with the value of $FFFF. With each successive falling edge of the counter clock, the
counter decrements. The PREL1 and PREL2 registers are not used in this mode.
If TGATE≈ is not enabled (CR TGE bit is cleared), then TGATE≈ does not start or stop
the timer or affect the TG bit of the SR. In this case, the counter would begin counting on
the falling edge of the counter clock immediately after the SWR and CPE bits in the CR
are set.
If TGATE≈ is enabled (CR TGE bit is set), then the assertion of TGATE≈ starts the
counter. The negation of TGATE≈ disables the counter, sets the SR TG bit, and clears the
ON bit in the SR. If TGATE≈ is reasserted, the timer resumes counting from where it was
stopped, and the ON bit is set again. Further assertions and negations of TGATE≈ have
the same effect. The TGL bit in the SR reflects the level of TGATE≈ at all times.
If the counter counts down to the value stored in the COM register, the COM and TC bits
in the SR are set. If the counter counts down to $0000, a timeout is detected. This event
sets the TO in the SR and clears the COM bit. At timeout, the next falling edge of the
counter clock reloads the counter with $FFFF. TOUTx transitions at timeout or is disabled
as programmed by the CR OC bits. The SR OUT bit reflects the level on TOUTx.
To determine the number of cycles counted, the value in the CNTR must be read,
inverted, and incremented by 1 (the first count is $FFFF which, in effect, includes a count
of zero). The counter counts in a true 216 fashion. For measuring pulses of even greater
duration, the value in the POx bits in the SR are readable and can be thought of as an
extension of the least significant bits in the CNTR.
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8.3.8 Timer Bypass
In this mode, the counter and prescaler cannot be enabled. However TGATE≈ and
TOUTx can be used for I/O. This mode can be selected by programming the CR MODE
bits to 111.
TGATE≈ can be used as a simple input port when the CR is configured as follows:
CR
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
SWR
IE2
IE1
IE0
TGE
PCLK
CPE
CLK
POT2
POT1
POT0
X
X
1
X
X
X
X
4
3
2
MODE2 MODE1 MODE0
1
0
OC1
OC0
X
X
TGATE≈ AS A SIMPLE INPUT
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
X
X
0
X
1
1
1
X-Don’t care
When TGATE≈ is asserted, the SR ON bit is set. When TGATE≈ is negated, the ON bit is
cleared. The value of the TGL bit in the SR reflects the level of TGATE≈. TGATE≈ can
also be used as an input port that generates interrupts on a low-to-high transition of
TGATE≈ when the CR is configured as follows:
CR
15
14
13
12
11
SWR
IE2
IE1
IE0
TGE
10
9
8
7
6
5
PCLK
CPE
CLK
POT2
POT1
POT0
X
1
X
X
X
X
4
3
2
MODE2 MODE1 MODE0
1
0
OC1
OC0
X
X
TGATE≈ AS AN INPUT/INTERRUPT
X
X
1
X
1
1
1
1
When TGATE≈ is negated, the SR TG bit is set, and the programmed IRQx signal is
asserted to the CPU32. The TG bit can only be cleared by writing a one to this bit position.
The value of the SR TGL bit reflects the level of TGATE≈.
Additionally, TOUTx can be used as a simple output port when the CR is configured as
follows:
CR
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
SWR
IE2
IE1
IE0
TGE
PCLK
CPE
CLK
POT2
POT1
POT0
X
X
1
X
X
X
X
4
3
2
MODE2 MODE1 MODE0
1
0
OC1
OC0
OC1
OC0
TGATE≈ AS A SIMPLE OUTPUT
0
X
X
X
1
1
1
SWR must be a zero to change the value of TOUTx. Changing the value of the CR OCx
bits determines the level of TOUTx as shown in Table 8-1.
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Table 8-1. OCx Encoding
OC1
OC0
TOUTx
0
0
Hi-Z
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
A read of the SR while in this mode always shows the TO, TC, and COM bits cleared, and
the PO bits as $FF. The SR OUT bit always indicates the level on the TOUTx pin.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
8.3.9 Bus Operation
The following paragraphs describe the operation of the IMB during read, write, and
interrupt acknowledge cycles to the timer.
8.3.9.1 READ CYCLES. The timer is accessed with no wait states. The timer responds to
byte, word, and long-word reads, and 16 bits of valid data are returned. Read cycles from
reserved registers return logic zero.
8.3.9.2 WRITE CYCLES. The timer is accessed with no wait states. The timer responds to
byte, word, and long-word writes. Write cycles to read-only registers and bits as well as
reserved registers complete in a normal manner without exception processing; however,
the data is ignored.
8.3.9.3 INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE CYCLES. The timer is capable of arbitrating for
interrupt servicing and supplying the interrupt vector when it has successfully won
arbitration. The vector number must be provided if interrupt servicing is necessary; thus,
the interrupt register (IR) must be initialized. If the IR is not initialized, a spurious interrupt
exception will be taken if interrupt servicing is necessary.
8.4 REGISTER DESCRIPTION
The following paragraphs contain a detailed description of each register and its specific
function. The operation of the timer is controlled by writing control words into the
appropriate registers. Timer registers and their associated addresses are listed in Figure
8-11. For more information about a particular register, refer to the individual register
description. The ADDR column indicates the offset of the register from the base address
of the timer. An FC column designation of S indicates that register access is restricted to
supervisor only. A designation of S/U indicates that access is governed by the SUPV bit in
the module configuration register (MCR).
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TIMER 1
TIMER 2
FC
15
0
$600
$640
S
MODULE CONFIGURATION REGISTER (MCR)
$602
$642
S
RESERVED
$604
$644
S
INTERRUPT REGISTER (IR)
$606
$646
S/U
CONTROL REGISTER (CR)
$608
$648
S/U
STATUS/PRESCALER REGISTER (SR)
$60A
$64A
S/U
COUNTER REGISTER (CNTR)
$60C
$64C
S/U
PRELOAD 1 REGISTER (PREL1)
$60E
$64E
S/U
PRELOAD 2 REGISTER (PREL2)
$610
$650
S/U
COMPARE REGISTER (COM)
$612-$63F
$652-$67F
S/U
RESERVED
Figure 8-11. Timer Module Programming Model
In the registers discussed in the following paragraphs, the numbers in the upper righthand corner indicate the offset of the register from the base address specified by the
module base address register (MBAR) in the SIM40. The first number is the offset for
timer 1; the second number is the offset for timer 2. The numbers on the top line of the
register represent the bit position in the register. The register contains the mnemonic for
the bit. The value of these bits after a hardware reset is shown below the register. The
access privilege is shown in the lower right-hand corner.
NOTE
A CPU32 RESET instruction will not affect the MCR, but will
reset all other registers in the timer modules as though a
hardware reset occurred.
The term 'timer' is used to reference either timer 1 or timer 2, since the two are functionally
equivalent.
8.4.1 Module Configuration Register (MCR)
The MCR controls the timer module configuration. This register can be either read or
written when the module is enabled and is in the supervisor state. The MCR is not
affected by a CPU32 RESET instruction.
MCR
$600, $640
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STP
FRZ1
FRZ0
0
0
0
0
0
SUPV
0
0
0
IARB3
IARB2
IARB1
IARB0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor Only
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STP—Stop bit
1 = Setting the STP bit stops all clocks within the timer module except for the clock
from the IMB. The clock from the IMB remains active to allow the CPU32 access
to the MCR. The clock stops on the low phase of the clock and remains stopped
until the STP bit is cleared by the CPU32 or a hardware reset. Accesses to timer
module registers while in stop mode produce a bus error. The timer module
should be disabled in a known state prior to setting the STP bit; otherwise,
unpredictable results may occur. The STP bit should be set prior to executing the
LPSTOP instruction to reduce overall power consumption.
0 = The timer operates in normal mode.
FRZ1, FRZ0—Freeze
These bits determine the action taken when the FREEZE signal is asserted on the IMB,
when the CPU32 has entered background debug mode. Table 8-2 lists the action taken
for each bit combination.
Table 8-2. FRZx Control Bits
FRZ1
FRZ0
ACTION
0
0
Ignore FREEZE
0
1
Reserved (FREEZE ignored)
1
0
Execution Freeze
1
1
Execution Freeze
Bits 12–8, 6–4—Reserved
SUPV—Supervisor/User
The value of this bit has no effect on registers permanently defined as supervisor-only
access.
1 = The timer registers defined as supervisor/user reside in supervisor data space
and are only accessible from supervisor programs.
0 = The timer registers defined as supervisor/user reside in user data space and are
accessible from either supervisor or user programs.
IARB3–IARB0—Interrupt Arbitration Bits
Each module that generates interrupts has an IARB field. These bits are used to
arbitrate for the bus in the case that two or more modules simultaneously generate an
interrupt at the same priority level. No two modules can share the same IARB value.
(Timer 1 and timer 2 should be programmed with different values if both are used.) The
reset value of the IARB field is $0, which prevents this module from arbitrating during
the interrupt acknowledge cycle. The system software should initialize the IARB field to
a value from $F (highest priority) to $1 (lowest priority).
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8.4.2 Interrupt Register (IR)
The IR contains the priority level for the timer interrupt request and the 8-bit vector number
of the interrupt. The register can be read or written to at any time while in supervisor mode
and while the timer module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
IR
$604, $644
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
IL2
IL1
IL0
IVR7
IVR6
IVR5
IVR4
IVR3
IVR2
IVR1
IVR0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Supervisor Only
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Bits 15–11—Reserved
IL2–IL0—Interrupt Level Bits
Each module that can generate interrupts has an interrupt level field. The priority level
encoded in these bits is sent to the CPU32 on the appropriate IRQ≈ signal. The CPU32
uses this value to determine servicing priority. See Section 5 CPU32 for more
information.
IV7–IV0—Interrupt Vector Bits
Each module that can generate interrupts has an interrupt vector (IV) field. This 8-bit
number indicates the offset from the base of the vector table where the address of the
exception handler for the specified interrupt is located. The IV field is reset to $0F,
which indicates an uninitialized interrupt condition. See Section 5 CPU32 for more
information.
8.4.3 Control Register (CR)
The CR controls the operation of the timer. The register can always be read or written
when the timer module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared). Changing the
contents of the CR should only be attempted when the timer is disabled (the SWR bit in
the CR is cleared). Changing the CR while the timer is running may produce unpredictable
results.
CR
$606, $646
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
SWR
IE2
IE1
IE0
TGE
PCLK
CPE
CLK
POT2
POT1
POT0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
2
MODE2 MODE1 MODE0
0
0
0
1
0
OC1
OC0
0
0
Supervisor/User
SWR—Software Reset
1 = Removes the software reset.
0 = A software reset is performed by first clearing this bit and then clearing the TO,
TG, and TC bits in the SR. The prescaler is loaded with $FF, the counter is set to
$0000, and the SR COM bit is cleared. When this bit is zero, the timer is
disabled.
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IE2–IE0—Interrupt Enable
These bits determine which sources of interrupts, TO, TG, and TC, are enabled to
generate an interrupt request to the CPU32. Table 8-3 lists which interrupts are enabled
for all bit combinations.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 8-3. IEx Encoding
IE2
IE1
IE0
Enabled Interrupts
0
0
0
Polling Mode (No Interrupts Enabled)
0
0
1
TC Enabled
0
1
0
TG Enabled
0
1
1
TG and TC Enabled
1
0
0
TO Enabled
1
0
1
TO and TC Enabled
1
1
0
TO and TG Enabled
1
1
1
TO, TG, and TC Enabled
TGE—Timing Gate Enable
1 = The TGATE≈ signal is enabled to control the enabling and disabling of the
prescaler and counter, except in the input capture/output compare mode (see
8.3.1 Input Capture/Output Compare).
0 = The TGATE≈ signal has no effect on the timer operation.
PCLK—Prescaler Clock Select
This bit selects which clock is used for the counter clock.
1 = The counter is decremented by the prescaler output tap as selected by the POT
field in the CR.
0 = The counter is decremented by the selected clock.
The prescaler continues to decrement regardless of how PCLK is set.
CPE—Counter Prescaler Enable
1 = The selected clock is enabled. If the TGE bit is set, then TGATE≈ must also be
asserted (except in the input capture/output compare mode).
0 = The selected clock is held high, halting the prescaler and counter.
CLK—Clock
1 = The selected clock is taken from the TINx input.
0 = The selected clock is one-half the system clock's frequency.
The TOUTx of one timer can be fed externally into the TINx input of the other timer,
resulting in a 32-bit counter if the prescalers are not used and a 48-bit counter if they
are used.
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POT2–POT0—Prescaler Output Tap
If PCLK is set, these bits encode which of the prescaler's output taps act as the counter
clock. A division of the selected clock is applied to the counter as listed in Table 8-4.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Table 8-4. POT Encoding
Division of
Selected Clock
POT2
POT1
POT0
0
0
1
Divide by 2
0
1
0
Divide by 4
0
1
1
Divide by 8
1
0
0
Divide by 16
1
0
1
Divide by 32
1
1
0
Divide by 64
1
1
1
Divide by 128
0
0
0
Divide by 256
MODE2–MODE0—Operation Mode
These bits select one of the eight modes of operation for the timer as listed in Table 8-5.
Refer to 8.3 Operating Modes for more information on the individual modes.
Table 8-5. MODEx Encoding
MODE2
MODE1
MODE0
OPERATION MODE
0
0
0
Input Capture/Output Compare
0
0
1
Square-Wave Generator
0
1
0
Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generator
0
1
1
Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generator
1
0
0
Pulse-Width Measurement
1
0
1
Period Measurement
1
1
0
Event Count
1
1
1
Timer Bypass (Simple Test Mode)
OC1–OC0—Output Control
These bits select the conditions under which TOUTx changes (see Table 8-6). These
bits may have a different effect when in the input capture/output compare mode.
Caution should be used when modifying the OC bits near timer events.
Table 8-6. OCx Encoding
8-22
OC1
OC0
TOUTx MODE
0
0
Disabled
0
1
Toggle Mode
1
0
Zero Mode
1
1
One Mode
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Disabled—TOUTx is disabled and three-stated.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Toggle Mode—If the timer is disabled (SWR = 0) when this encoding is programmed,
TOUTx is immediately set to zero. If the timer is enabled (SWR = 1), timeout events
(counter reaches $0000) toggle TOUTx. In the input capture/output compare mode,
TOUTx is immediately set to zero if the timer is disabled (SWR = 0). If the timer is
enabled (SWR = 1), timer compare events toggle TOUTx. (Timer compare events occur
when the counter reaches the value stored in the COM.)
Zero Mode—If the timer is disabled (SWR = 0) when this encoding is programmed,
TOUTx is immediately set to zero. If the timer is enabled (SWR = 1), TOUTx will be set
to zero at the next timeout. In the input capture/output compare mode, TOUTx is
immediately set to zero if the timer is disabled (SWR = 0). If the timer is enabled (SWR
= 1), TOUTx will be set to zero at timeouts and set to one at timer compare events. If
the COM is $0000, TOUTx will be set to zero at the timeout/timer compare event.
One Mode—If the timer is disabled (SWR = 0) when this encoding is programmed,
TOUTx is immediately set to one. If the timer is enabled (SWR = 1), TOUTx will be set
to one at the next timeout. In the input capture/output compare mode, TOUTx is
immediately set to one if the timer is disabled (SWR = 0). If the timer is enabled (SWR =
1), TOUTx will be set to one at timeouts and set to zero at timer compare events. If the
COM is $0000, TOUTx will be set to one at the timeout/timer compare event.
8.4.4 Status Register (SR)
The SR contains timer status information as well as the state of the prescaler. This
register is updated on the rising edge of the system clock when a read of its location is not
in progress, allowing the most current information to be contained in this register. The
register can be read, and the TO, TG, and TC bits can be written when the timer module is
enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is cleared).
SR
$608, $648
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IRQ
TO
TG
TC
TGL
ON
OUT
COM
PO7
PO6
PO5
PO4
PO3
PO2
PO1
PO0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
RESET ( TGATE≈ NEGATED):
0
0
0
0
RESET ( TGATE≈ ASSERTED):
0
0
0
0
Supervisor/User
IRQ—Interrupt Request bit
The positioning of this bit in the most significant location in this register allows it it be
conditionally tested as if it were a signed binary integer.
1 = An interrupt condition has occurred. This bit is the logical OR of the enabled TO,
TG, and TC interrupt bits.
0 = The bit(s) that caused the interrupt condition has been cleared. If an IRQ≈ signal
has been asserted, it is negated when this bit is cleared.
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TO—Timeout Interrupt
1 = The counter has transitioned from $0001 to $0000, and the counter has rolled
over. This bit does not affect the programmed IRQ≈ signal if the IE2 bit in the CR
is cleared.
0 = This bit is cleared by the timer whenever the RESET signal is asserted on the
IMB, regardless of the mode of operation. This bit may also be cleared by writing
a one to it. Writing a zero to this bit does not alter its contents. This bit is not
affected by disabling the timer (SWR = 0).
TG—Timer Gate Interrupt
1 = This bit is set whenever the CR TGE bit is set and the TGATE≈ signal
transitions in the manner to which the particular mode of operation responds.
Refer to 8.3 Operating Modes for more details. This bit does not affect the
programmed IRQ≈ signal if the IE1 bit in the CR is cleared.
0 = This bit is cleared by the timer whenever the RESET signal is asserted on the
IMB, regardless of the mode of operation. This bit may also be cleared by writing
a one to it. Writing a zero to this bit does not alter its contents. This bit is not
affected by disabling the timer (SWR = 0).
TC—Timer Compare Interrupt
1 = This bit is set when the counter transitions (off a clock/event falling edge) to the
value in the COM. This bit does not affect the programmed IRQ≈ signal if the IE0
bit in the CR is cleared.
0 = This bit is cleared by the timer whenever the RESET signal is asserted on the
IMB, regardless of the mode of operation. This bit may also be cleared by writing
a one to it. Writing a zero to this bit does not alter its contents. This bit is not
affected by disabling the timer (SWR = 0).
TGL—TGATE≈ Level
1 = The TGATE≈ signal is negated.
0 = The TGATE≈ signal is asserted.
ON—Counter Enabled
1 = This bit is set whenever the SWR and CPE bits are set in the CR. If the CR TGE
bit is set, TGATE≈ must also be asserted (except in the input capture/output
compare mode) since this signal then controls the enabling and disabling of the
counter. If all these conditions are met, the counter is enabled and begins
counting down.
0 = The counter is not enabled and does not begin counting down.
OUT—Output Level
1 = TOUTx is a logic one.
0 = TOUTx is a logic zero, or the pin is three-stated.
COM—Compare Bit
This bit is used to indicate when the counter output value is at or between the value in
the COM and $0000 (timeout).
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1 = This bit is set when the counter output equals the value in the COM.
0 = This bit is cleared when a timeout occurs, the COM register is accessed (read or
write), the timer is reset with the SWR bit, or the RESET signal is asserted on the
IMB. This bit is cleared regardless of the state of the TC bit.
This bit can be used to indicate when a write to the PREL1 or PREL2 registers will not
cause a problem during a counter reload at timeout. To ensure that the write to the
PREL register is recognized at timeout, the latency between the read of the COM bit
and the write to the PREL register must be considered.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
PO7–PO0—Prescaler Output
These bits show the levels on each of the eight output taps of the prescaler. These
values are updated every time that the system clock goes high and a read cycle of this
byte in the SR is not in progress.
8.4.5 Counter Register (CNTR)
The CNTR reflects the value of the counter. This value can be reliably read at any time
since it is updated on every rising edge of the system clock (except in the input
capture/output compare mode) when a read of the register is not in progress. This readonly register can be read when the timer module is enabled (i.e. the STP bit in the MCR is
cleared).
CNTR
$60A, $64A
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CNT15
CNT14
CNT13
CNT12
CNT11
CNT10
CNT9
CNT8
CNT7
CNT6
CNT5
CNT4
CNT3
CNT2
CNT1
CNT0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RESET:
0
Supervisor/User
All 24 bits of the prescaler and the counter may be obtained by one long-word read at the
address of the SR, since the CNTR is contiguous to it. Any changes in the prescaler value
due to the two cycles necessary to perform a long-word read should be considered. If this
latency presents a problem, the TGATE≈ signal may be used to disable the decrement
function while the reads are occurring.
8.4.6 Preload 1 Register (PREL1)
The PREL1 stores a value that is loaded into the counter in some modes of operation.
This value is loaded into the counter on the first falling edge of the counter clock after the
counter is enabled. This register can be be read and written when the timer module is
enabled (i.e. the STP bit in the MCR is cleared). However, a write to this register must be
completed before timeout for the new value to be reliably loaded into the counter.
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PREL1
15
$60C, $64C
14
13
12
11
10
PR1-15 PR1-14 PR1-13 PR1-12 PR1-11 PR1-10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PR1-9
PR1-8
PR1-7
PR1-6
PR1-5
PR1-4
PR1-3
PR1-2
PR1-1
PR1-0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
RESET:
1
1
1
1
1
1
Supervisor/User
For some modes of operation, this register is also used to reload the counter one falling
clock edge after a timeout occurs. Refer to 8.3 Operating Modes for more information on
the individual modes.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
8.4.7 Preload 2 Register (PREL2)
PREL2 is used in addition to PREL1 in the variable duty-cycle square-wave generator and
variable-width single-shot pulse generator modes. When in either of these modes, the
value in PREL1 is loaded into the counter on the first falling edge of the counter clock after
the counter is enabled. After timeout, the value in PREL2 is loaded into the counter. This
register can be be read and written when the timer module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in
the MCR is cleared). However, a write to this register must be completed before timeout
for the new value to be reliably loaded into the counter.
PREL2
15
$60E, $64E
14
13
12
11
10
PR2-15 PR2-14 PR2-13 PR2-12 PR2-11 PR2-10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PR2-9
PR2-8
PR2-7
PR2-6
PR2-5
PR2-4
PR2-3
PR2-2
PR2-1
PR2-0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
RESET:
1
1
1
1
1
1
Supervisor/User
8.4.8 Compare Register (COM)
The COM can be used in any mode. When the 16-bit counter reaches the value in the
COM, the TC and COM bits in the SR are set. In the input capture/output compare mode,
a compare event can be programmed to set, clear, or toggle TOUTx. The register can be
be read and written when the timer module is enabled (i.e., the STP bit in the MCR is
cleared).
COM
15
$610, $650
14
13
12
11
10
COM15 COM14 COM13 COM12 COM11 COM10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
COM9
COM8
COM7
COM6
COM5
COM4
COM3
COM2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
COM1
0
COM0
RESET:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Supervisor/User
The COM can be used to produce an interrupt when the SR TC bit has been enabled to
produce an interrupt and the counter counts down to a preselected value. The COM can
also be used to indicate that the timer is approaching timeout.
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Caution must be exercised when accessing the COM. If it were to be accessed
simultaneously by the compare logic and by a write, the old compare value may get
compared to the counter value.
8.5 TIMER MODULE INITIALIZATION SEQUENCE
The following paragraphs discuss a suggested method for initializing the timer module.
Since both timers are functionally equivalent, only one timer module will be referenced.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
8.5.1 Timer Module Configuration
If the timer capability of the MC68340 is being used, the following steps should be
followed to initialize a timer module properly. Note that this sequence must be done for
each timer module used.
Control Register (CR)
• Clear the SWR bit to disable the timer.
Status Register (SR)
• Clear the TO, TG, and TG bits to reset the interrupts.
Module Configuration Register (MCR)
• Initialize the STP for normal operation.
• Select whether to respond to or ignore FREEZE (FRZx bits).
• Select the access privilege for the supervisor/user registers (SUPV bit).
• Select the interrupt arbitration level for the timer module (IARBx bits).
Interrupt Register (IR)
• Program the interrupt priority level for the timer interrupts (ILx bits).
• Program the interrupt vector number for the timer interrupts (IVx bits).
Preload Registers (PREL1 and PREL2)
• If required, initialize the preload registers for mode of operation.
Compare Register (COM)
• If desired, initialize the compare register.
The following steps begin operation:
Control Register (CR)
• Set the SWR bit to enable the timer.
• Enable the desired interrupts (IEx bits).
• Enable TGATE if required for mode of operation (TGE bit).
• Select the prescaler clock (PCLK bit).
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• Enable the counter prescaler (CPE bit).
• Select the selected clock (CLK bit).
• If the PCLK bit is set, select the POTx bits.
• Select the mode of operation (MODEx bits).
• Select the operation of TOUT (OCx bits).
8.5.2 Timer Module Example Configuration Code
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
The following code is an example of a configuration sequence for the timer module.
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic timer module register initialization example code.
* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal timer module
* registers, providing basic functions for operation.
* It sets up timer1 for square wave generation.
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
***************************************************************************
* Timer1 module equates
TIMER1
EQU $600
Offset from MBAR for timer1 module regs
MCR1
EQU $0
MCR for timer1
* Timer1 register offsets from timer1 base address
IR1
EQU
$604
interrupt register timer1
CR1
EQU
$606
control register timer1
SR1
EQU
$608
status register timer1
CNTR1
EQU
$60A
counter register timer1
PRLD11 EQU
$60C
preload register 1 timer1
COM1
EQU
$610
compare register timer1
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize Timer1
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+TIMER1,A0 Pointer to timer1 module
* Disable timer1
CLR.W
CR1(A0)
* Clear the TO, TG, and TC bits
CLR.W
SR1(A0)
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* Module configuration register:
* Timer1 module is set for normal operation, ignore FREEZE.
* Supervisor/user timer1 registers unrestricted.
* Interrupt arbitration at priority $03.
MOVE.W
#$0003,MCR1(A0)
* Initialize timer1 interrupt level to 2 and vector to $0F
MOVE.W
#$020F,IR1(A0)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
* Initialize preload 1 to 3
MOVE.W
#$0003,PRLD11(A0)
* Initialize the compare register to 0
CLR.W
COM1(A0)
* Control register 1:
* Enable timer1, no interrupts are enabled, TGATE signal has no effect.
* Use the selected clock for the counter clock, and enable it.
* Selected clock is 1/2 system's freq. Square-wave generation, toggle TOUT.
MOVE.W
#$8205,CR1(A0)
***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* MC68340 basic timer module register initialization example code.
* This code is used to initialize the 68340's internal timer module
* registers, providing basic functions for operation.
* It sets up timer1 for pulse-width measurement. In this mode, the number
* of clock cycles during a particular event are counted. The event is
* defined by the assertion and negation of TGATE.
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* equates
***************************************************************************
MBAR
EQU $0003FF00 Address of SIM40 Module Base Address Reg.
MODBASE EQU $FFFFF000 SIM40 MBAR address value
***************************************************************************
* Timer1 module equates
TIMER1
EQU $600
Offset from MBAR for timer1 module regs
MCR1
EQU $0
MCR for timer1
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* Timer1 register offsets from timer1 base address
IR1
EQU $604
interrupt register timer1
CR1
EQU $606
control register timer1
SR1
EQU $608
status register timer1
CNTR1
EQU $60A
counter register timer1
COM1
EQU $610
compare register timer1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
***************************************************************************
***************************************************************************
* Initialize Timer1
***************************************************************************
LEA MODBASE+TIMER1,A0 Pointer to timer1 module
* Disable timer1
CLR.W
CR1(A0)
* Allow TGATE to negate and assert so that an accurate count will result.
* If SR1 TGL bit=1, continue looping. TGATE is negated.
LOOP1
BTST.B
#$3,SR1(A0)
BNE.B
LOOP1
* If TGL bit=0, continue looping. TGATE is asserted.
LOOP2
BTST.B
#$3,SR1(A0)
BEQ.B
LOOP2
* Ready to initialize timer1, TGATE is negated.
* Module configuration register:
* Timer1 module is set for normal operation, ignore FREEZE.
* Supervisor/user timer1 registers unrestricted.
* Interrupt arbitration at priority $03.
MOVE.W
#$0003,MCR1(A0)
* Initialize timer1 interrupt level to 2 and vector to $0F
MOVE.W
#$020F,IR1(A0)
* Initialize the compare register to 0
CLR.W
COM1(A0)
* Clear the SR1 TG bit (by writing a 1) to use as a flag
MOVE.B
#$20,SR1(A0)
* Control register 1:
* Enable timer1, no interrupts are enabled, TGATE signal used to control
* the counter. Use the selected clock for the counter clock, and enable it.
* Selected clock is 1/2 system's freq. Pulse-width measurement,
* disable TOUT.
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MOVE.W
#$8A10,CR1(A0)
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* If SR TG bit=0, continue looping TGATE is asserted,
* else TG=1 indicating TGATE was negated. When TG=1, counting is stopped.
LOOP3
BTST.B
#$5,SR1(A0)
BEQ.B
LOOP3
* Counting is complete. To determine the number of cycles counted, the value
* in CNTR1 must be read, inverted, and incremented by 1.
MOVE.W
CNTR1(A0),D0
NOT.W
D0
ADDQ.W
#$1,DO
* D0 contains the number of cycles counted.
***************************************************************************
END
***************************************************************************
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SECTION 9
IEEE 1149.1 TEST ACCESS PORT
The MC68340 includes dedicated user-accessible test logic that is fully compatible with
the IEEE 1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary Scan Architecture. Problems
associated with testing high-density circuit boards have led to development of this
proposed standard under the sponsorship of the Test Technology Committee of IEEE and
the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG). The MC68340 implementation supports circuit-board
test strategies based on this standard.
The test logic includes a test access port (TAP) consisting of four dedicated signal pins, a
16-state controller, an instruction register, and two test data registers. A boundary scan
register links all device signal pins into a single shift register. The test logic, implemented
using static logic design, is independent of the device system logic. The MC68340
implementation provides the following capabilities:
a. Perform boundary scan operations to test circuit-board electrical continuity
b. Sample the MC68340 system pins during operation and transparently shift
out the result in the boundary scan register
c. Bypass the MC68340 for a given circuit-board test by effectively reducing the
boundary scan register to a single bit
d. Disable the output drive to pins during circuit-board testing
NOTE
Certain precautions must be observed to ensure that the IEEE
1149.1 test logic does not interfere with nontest operation. See
9.6 Non-IEEE 1149.1 Operation for details.
9.1 OVERVIEW
NOTE
This description is not intended to be used without the
supporting IEEE 1149.1 document.
The discussion includes those items required by the standard and provides additional
information specific to the MC68340 implementation. For internal details and applications
of the standard, refer to the IEEE 1149.1 document.
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An overview of the MC68340 implementation of IEEE 1149.1 is shown in Figure 9-1. The
MC68340 implementation includes a 16-state controller, a 3-bit instruction register, and
two test registers (a 1-bit bypass register and a 132-bit boundary scan register). This
implementation includes a dedicated TAP consisting of the following signals:
a test clock input to synchronize the test logic
a test mode select input (with an internal pullup resistor) that is sampled on
the rising edge of TCK to sequence the TAP controller's state machine
TDI — a test data input (with an internal pullup resistor) that is sampled on the
rising edge of TCK.
TDO — a three-state test data output that is actively driven in the shift-IR and shiftDR controller states. TDO changes on the falling edge of TCK.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TCK —
TMS —
TEST DATA REGISTERS
132
0
BOUNDARY SCAN REGISTER
(133 BITS)
M
U
X
TDI
BYPASS
DECODER
2
0
M
U
X
TDO
3-BIT INSTRUCTION REGISTER
TMS
TCK
TAP
CTLR
Figure 9-1. Test Access Port Block Diagram
9.2 TAP CONTROLLER
The TAP controller is responsible for interpreting the sequence of logical values on the
TMS signal. It is a synchronous state machine that controls the operation of the JTAG
logic. The state machine is shown in Figure 9-2; the value shown adjacent to each arc
represents the value of the TMS signal sampled on the rising edge of the TCK signal. For
a description of the TAP controller states, please refer to the IEEE 1149.1 document.
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1
TEST LOGIC
RESET
0
1
0
SELECT-DR_SCAN
RUN-TEST/IDLE
1
1
SELECT-IR_SCAN
0
1
0
1
CAPTURE-DR
CAPTURE-IR
0
0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SHIFT-DR
SHIFT-IR
0
1
1
EXIT1-DR
1
EXIT1-IR
0
0
PAUSE-DR
0
PAUSE-IR
EXIT2-DR
0
1
1
0
0
0
EXIT2-IR
1
1
UPDATE -IR
UPDATE-DR
1
1
0
0
Figure 9-2. TAP Controller State Machine
9.3 BOUNDARY SCAN REGISTER
The MC68340 IEEE 1149.1 implementation has a 132-bit boundary scan register. This
register contains bits for all device signal and clock pins and associated control signals.
The XTAL, X2, and XFC pins are associated with analog signals and are not included in
the boundary scan register.
All MC68340 bidirectional pins, except the open-drain I/O pins (DONE1, DONE2, HALT,
and RESET), have a single register bit for pin data and an associated control bit in the
boundary scan register. All open drain I/O pins have two register bits, input and output, for
pin data and no associated control bit. To ensure proper operation, the open-drain pins
require external pullups. Twenty-three control bits in the boundary scan register define the
output enable signal for associated groups of bidirectional and three-state pins. The
control bits and their bit positions are listed in Table 9-1.
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Table 9-1. Boundary Scan Control Bits
Name
Bit Number
Name
Bit Number
Name
Bit Number
tout2.ctl
29
cs0.ctl
66
ab28.ctl
95
irq7.ctl
52
ab.ctl
83
ab29.ctl
97
irq6.ctl
54
berr.ctl
84
ab30.ctl
99
irq5.ctl
56
db.ctl
85
ab31.ctl
101
cs3.ctl
58
ab24.ctl
87
modck.ctl
122
irq3.ctl
60
ab25.ctl
89
ifetch.ctl
125
cs2.ctl
62
ab26.ctl
91
tout1.ctl
130
cs1.ctl
64
ab27.ctl
93
Boundary scan bit definitions are shown in Table 9-2. The first column in Table 9-2 defines
the bit's ordinal position in the boundary scan register. The shift register bit nearest TDO
(i.e., first to be shifted out) is defined as bit 0; the last bit to be shifted out is 131.
The second column references one of the five MC68340 cell types depicted in Figures
9-3–9-7, which describe the cell structure for each type.
The third column lists the pin name for all pin-related bits or defines the name of
bidirectional control register bits. The active level of the control bits (i.e., output driver on)
is defined by the last digit of the cell type listed for each control bit. For example, the
active-high level for irq7.ctl (bit 52) is logic zero since the cell type is IO.Ctl0. The active
level for ab.ctl (bit 83) is logic one, since the cell type is IO.Ctl1. IO.Ctl0 (see Figure 9-6)
differs from IO.Ctl1 (see Figure 9-5) by an inverter in the output enable path.
The fourth column lists the pin type: TS-Output indicates a three-state output pin, I/O
indicates a bidirectional pin, and OD-I/O denotes an open-drain bidirectional pin. An opendrain output pin has two states: off (high impedance) and logic zero.
The last column indicates the associated boundary scan register control bit for
bidirectional, three-state, and open-drain output pins.
Bidirectional pins include a single scan bit for data (IO.Cell) as depicted in Figure 9-7.
These bits are controlled by one of the two bits shown in Figures 9-5 and 9-6. The value of
the control bit determines whether the bidirectional pin is an input or an output. One or
more bidirectional data bits can be serially connected to a control bit as shown in Figure 98. Note that, when sampling the bidirectional data bits, the bit data can be interpreted only
after examining the IO control bit to determine pin direction.
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Table 9-2. Boundary Scan Bit Definitions
Bit
Num
Cell Type
Pin/Cell
Name
Pin
Type
Output
CTL Cell
Bit
Num
Cell Type
Pin/Cell
Name
Pin
Type
Output
CTL Cell
0
IO.Cell
FC3
I/O*
ab.ctl
35
O.Latch
R≈RDYA
Output
—
1
IO.Cell
FC2
I/O*
ab.ctl
36
O.Latch
T≈RDYA
Output
—
2
IO.Cell
FC1
I/O*
ab.ctl
37
I.Pin
RxDB
Input
—
3
IO.Cell
FC0
I/O*
ab.ctl
38
O.Latch
TxDB
Output
—
4
IO.Cell
A23
I/O*
ab.ctl
39
O.Latch
RTSB
Output
—
5
IO.Cell
A22
I/O*
ab.ctl
40
I.Pin
CTSB
Input
—
6
IO.Cell
A21
I/O*
ab.ctl
41
I.Pin
SCLK
Input
—
7
IO.Cell
A20
I/O*
ab.ctl
42
I.Pin
X1
Input
—
8
IO.Cell
A19
I/O*
ab.ctl
43
I.Pin
DREQ1
Input
—
9
IO.Cell
A18
I/O*
ab.ctl
44
O.Latch
DACK1
Output
—
10
IO.Cell
A17
I/O*
ab.ctl
45
O.Latch
DONE1
OD-I/O
—
11
IO.Cell
A16
I/O*
ab.ctl
46
I.Pin
DONE1
OD-I/O
—
12
IO.Cell
A15
I/O*
ab.ctl
47
I.Pin
DREQ2
Input
—
13
IO.Cell
A14
I/O*
ab.ctl
48
O.Latch
DACK2
Output
—
14
IO.Cell
A13
I/O*
ab.ctl
49
O.Latch
DONE2
OD-I/O
—
15
IO.Cell
A12
I/O*
ab.ctl
50
I.Pin
DONE2
OD-I/O
—
16
IO.Cell
A11
I/O*
ab.ctl
51
IO.Cell
IRQ7
I/O
irq7.ctl
17
IO.Cell
A10
I/O*
ab.ctl
52
IO.Ctl0
irq7.ctl
—
—
18
IO.Cell
A9
I/O*
ab.ctl
53
IO.Cell
IRQ6
I/O
irq6.ctl
19
IO.Cell
A8
I/O*
ab.ctl
54
IO.Ctl0
irq6.ctl
—
—
20
IO.Cell
A7
I/O*
ab.ctl
55
IO.Cell
IRQ5
I/O
irq5.ctl
21
IO.Cell
A6
I/O*
ab.ctl
56
IO.Ctl0
irq5.ctl
—
—
22
IO.Cell
A5
I/O*
ab.ctl
57
IO.Cell
CS3
I/O
cs3.ctl
23
IO.Cell
A4
I/O*
ab.ctl
58
IO.Ctl0
cs3.ctl
—
—
24
IO.Cell
A3
I/O*
ab.ctl
59
IO.Cell
IRQ3
I/O
irq3.ctl
25
IO.Cell
A2
I/O*
ab.ctl
60
IO.Ctl0
irq3.ctl
—
—
26
IO.Cell
A1
I/O*
ab.ctl
61
IO.Cell
CS2
I/O
cs2.ctl
27
I.Pin
TGATE2
Input
—
62
IO.Ctl0
cs2.ctl
—
—
28
O.Latch
TOUT2
TS-Output
tout2.ctl
63
IO.Cell
CS1
I/O
cs1.ctl
29
IO.Ctl0
tout2.ctl
—
—
64
IO.Ctl0
cs1.ctl
—
—
30
I.Pin
TIN2
Input
—
65
IO.Cell
CS0
I/O
cs0.ctl
31
I.Pin
RxDA
Input
—
66
IO.Ctl0
cs0.ctl
—
—
32
O.Latch
TxDA
Output
—
67
IO.Cell
D0
I/O
db.ctl
33
O.Latch
RTSA
Output
—
68
IO.Cell
D1
I/O
db.ctl
34
I.Pin
CTSA
Input
—
69
IO.Cell
D2
I/O
db.ctl
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Table 9-2. Boundary Scan Bit Definitions (Continued)
Bit
Num
Cell Type
Pin/Cell
Name
Pin
Type
Output
CTL Cell
Bit
Num
Cell Type
Pin/Cell
Name
Pin
Type
Output
CTL Cell
70
IO.Cell
D3
I/O
db.ctl
101
IO.Ctl0
ab31.ctl
—
—
71
IO.Cell
D4
I/O
db.ctl
102
IO.Cell
A0
I/O*
ab.ctl
72
IO.Cell
D5
I/O
db.ctl
103
IO.Cell
DSACK0
I/O**
berr.ctl
73
IO.Cell
D6
I/O
db.ctl
104
IO.Cell
DSACK1
I/O**
berr.ctl
74
IO.Cell
D7
I/O
db.ctl
105
IO.Cell
RMC
I/O*
ab.ctl
75
IO.Cell
D8
I/O
db.ctl
106
IO.Cell
R/ W
I/O*
ab.ctl
76
IO.Cell
D9
I/O
db.ctl
107
IO.Cell
SIZ1
I/O*
ab.ctl
77
IO.Cell
D10
I/O
db.ctl
108
IO.Cell
SIZ0
I/O*
ab.ctl
78
IO.Cell
D11
I/O
db.ctl
109
IO.Cell
DS
I/O*
ab.ctl
79
IO.Cell
D12
I/O
db.ctl
110
IO.Cell
AS
I/O*
ab.ctl
80
IO.Cell
D13
I/O
db.ctl
111
I.Pin
BGACK
Input
—
81
IO.Cell
D14
I/O
db.ctl
112
O.Latch
BG
Output
—
82
IO.Cell
D15
I/O
db.ctl
113
I.Pin
BR
Input
—
83
IO.Ctl1
ab.ctl
—
—
114
IO.Cell
BERR
I/O**
berr.ctl
84
IO.Ctl0
berr.ctl
—
—
115
O.Latch
HALT
OD-I/O
—
85
IO.Ctl1
db.ctl
—
—
116
I.Pin
HALT
OD-I/O
—
86
IO.Cell
A24
I/O
ab24.ctl
117
O.Latch
RESET
OD-I/O
—
87
IO.Ctl0
ab24.ctl
—
—
118
I.Pin
RESET
OD-I/O
—
88
IO.Cell
A25
I/O
ab25.ctl
119
O.Latch
CLKOUT
Output
—
89
IO.Ctl0
ab25.ctl
—
—
120
I.Pin
EXTAL
Input
—
90
IO.Cell
A26
I/O
ab26.ctl
121
IO.Cell
MODCK
I/O
modck.ctl
91
IO.Ctl0
ab26.ctl
—
—
122
IO.Ctl0
modck.ctl
—
—
92
IO.Cell
A27
I/O
ab27.ctl
123
O.Latch
IPIPE
Output
—
93
IO.Ctl0
ab27.ctl
—
—
124
IO.Cell
IFETCH
I/O*
ifetch.ctl
94
IO.Cell
A28
I/O
ab28.ctl
125
IO.Ctl0
ifetch.ctl
—
—
95
IO.Ctl0
ab28.ctl
—
—
126
I.Pin
BKPT
Input
—
96
IO.Cell
A29
I/O
ab29.ctl
127
O.Latch
FREEZE
Output
—
97
IO.Ctl0
ab29.ctl
—
—
128
I.Pin
TIN1
Input
—
98
IO.Cell
A30
I/O
ab30.ctl
129
O.Latch
TOUT1
TS-Output
tout1.ctl
99
IO.Ctl0
ab30.ctl
—
—
130
IO.Ctl0
tout1.ctl
—
—
100
IO.Cell
A31
I/O
ab31.ctl
131
I.Pin
TGATE1
Input
—
NOTES:
The noted pins are implemented differently than defined in the signal definition description:
*
Input during Motorola factory test
** Output during Motorola factory test
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1 – EXTEST
0 – OTHERWISE
TO NEXT
CELL
SHIFT DR
G1
DATA FROM
SYSTEM
LOGIC
1
TO OUTPUT
BUFFER
MUX
1
G1
1
1D
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
MUX
1
1D
C1
C1
FROM
LAST
CELL
CLOCK DR
UPDATE DR
Figure 9-3. Output Latch Cell (O.Latch)
1 – EXTEST
0 – OTHERWISE
TO NEXT
CELL
G1
INPUT
PIN
1
MUX
1
G1
1
1D
1D
C1
C1
UPDATE DR
MUX
1
CLOCK DR
FROM LAST
CELL
SHIFT DR
Figure 9-4. Input Pin Cell (I.Pin)
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1 – EXTEST
0 – OTHERWISE
TO NEXT
CELL
G1
OUTPUT
CONTROL
FROM
SYSTEM
LOGIC
1
TO OUTPUT
ENABLE
(1 = DRIVE)
MUX
1
G1
1
1D
MUX
1
1D
C1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C1
R
SHIFT DR
CLOCK DR
FROM
LAST
CELL
RESET
UPDATE DR
Figure 9-5. Active-High Output Control Cell (IO.Ctl1)
1 – EXTEST
0 – OTHERWISE
OUTPUT
CONTROL
FROM
SYSTEM
LOGIC
TO NEXT
CELL
FIG. 9-4
G1
1
TO OUTPUT
ENABLE
(1 = DRIVE)
MUX
1
G1
1
1D
MUX
1
1D
C1
C1
R
SHIFT DR
FROM
LAST
CELL
CLOCK DR
RESET
UPDATE DR
Figure 9-6. Active-Low Output Control Cell (IO.Ctl0)
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1 – EXTEST
0 – OTHERWISE
TO NEXT
CELL
SHIFT DR
G1
OUTPUT
FROM
SYSTEM
LOGIC
TO OUTPUT
DRIVER
1
MUX
1
G1
G1
1
1
MUX
1D
MUX
1
1
1D
C1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
C1
FROM OUTPUT
ENABLE
FROM PIN
FROM LAST
CELL
CLOCK DR
UPDATE DR
Figure 9-7. Bidirectional Data Cell (IO.Cell)
TO NEXT CELL
IO.CTL0
OR
IO.CTL1
OUTPUT
ENABLE
*
EN
I/O
PIN
OUTPUT
DATA
IO.CELL
INPUT
DATA
FROM LAST CELL
TO NEXT
BIDIRECTIONAL
PIN
NOTE: More than one lO.Cell could be serially connected and controlled by a single IO.Ctlx cell.
Figure 9-8. General Arrangement for Bidirectional Pins
9.4 INSTRUCTION REGISTER
The MC68340 IEEE 1149.1 implementation includes the three mandatory public
instructions (EXTEST, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, and BYPASS), but does not support any of
the optional public instructions defined by IEEE 1149.1. One additional public instruction
(HI-Z) provides the capability for disabling all device output drivers. The MC68340
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includes a 3-bit instruction register without parity, consisting of a shift register with three
parallel outputs. Data is transferred from the shift register to the parallel outputs during the
update-IR controller state. The three bits are used to decode the four unique instructions
listed in Table 9-3.
The parallel output of the instruction register is reset to all ones in the test-logic-reset
controller state. Note that this preset state is equivalent to the BYPASS instruction.
Table 9-3. Instructions
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Code
Instruction
B2
B1
B0
0
0
0
EXTEST
0
0
1
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
X
1
X
BYPASS
1
0
0
HI-Z
1
0
1
BYPASS
During the capture-IR controller state, the parallel inputs to the instruction shift register are
loaded with the standard 2-bit binary value (01) into the two least significant bits and the
loss-of-crystal (LOC) status signal into bit 2. The parallel outputs, however, remain
unchanged by this action since an update-IR signal is required to modify them.
The LOC status bit of the instruction register indicates whether an internal clock is
detected when operating with a crystal clock source. The LOC bit is clear when a clock is
detected and set when it is not. The LOC bit is always clear when an external clock is
used. The LOC bit can be used to detect faulty connectivity when a crystal is used to clock
the device.
9.4.1 EXTEST (000)
The external test (EXTEST) instruction selects the 132-bit boundary scan register.
EXTEST asserts internal reset for the MC68340 system logic to force a predictable benign
internal state while performing external boundary scan operations.
By using the TAP, the register is capable of a) scanning user-defined values into the
output buffers, b) capturing values presented to input pins, c) controlling the direction of
bidirectional pins, and d) controlling the output drive of three-state output pins. For more
details on the function and uses of EXTEST, please refer to the IEEE 1149.1 document.
9.4.2 SAMPLE/PRELOAD (001)
The SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction selects the 132-bit boundary scan register and
provides two separate functions. First, it provides a means to obtain a snapshot of system
data and control signals. The snapshot occurs on the rising edge of TCK in the captureDR controller state. The data can be observed by shifting it transparently through the
boundary scan register.
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NOTE
Since there is no internal synchronization between the IEEE
1149.1 clock (TCK) and the system clock (CLKOUT), the user
must provide some form of external synchronization to achieve
meaningful results.
The second function of SAMPLE/PRELOAD is to initialize the boundary scan register
output bits prior to selection of EXTEST. This initialization ensures that known data will
appear on the outputs when entering the EXTEST instruction.
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9.4.3 BYPASS (X1X, 101)
The BYPASS instruction selects the single-bit bypass register as shown in Figure 9-9.
This creates a shift-register path from TDI to the bypass register and, finally, to TDO,
circumventing the 132-bit boundary scan register. This instruction is used to enhance test
efficiency when a component other than the MC68340 becomes the device under test.
SHIFT DR
G1
0
1
FROM TDI
1
1D
MUX
C1
TO TDO
CLOCK DR
Figure 9-9. Bypass Register
When the bypass register is selected by the current instruction, the shift-register stage is
set to a logic zero on the rising edge of TCK in the capture-DR controller state. Therefore,
the first bit to be shifted out after selecting the bypass register will always be a logic zero.
9.4.4 HI-Z (100)
The HI-Z instruction is not included in the IEEE 1149.1 standard. It is provided as a
manufacturer’s optional public instruction to prevent having to backdrive the output pins
during circuit-board testing. When HI-Z is invoked, all output drivers, including the twostate drivers, are turned off (i.e., high impedance). The instruction selects the bypass
register.
9.5 MC68340 RESTRICTIONS
The control afforded by the output enable signals using the boundary scan register and
the EXTEST instruction requires a compatible circuit-board test environment to avoid
device-destructive configurations. The user must avoid situations in which the MC68340
output drivers are enabled into actively driven networks. Overdriving the TDO driver when
it is active is not recommended.
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The MC68340 includes on-chip circuitry to detect the initial application of power to the
device. Power-on reset (POR), the output of this circuitry, is used to reset both the system
and IEEE 1149.1 logic. The purpose for applying POR to the IEEE 1149.1 circuitry is to
avoid the possibility of bus contention during power-on. The time required to complete
device power-on is power-supply dependent. However, the IEEE 1149.1 TAP controller
remains in the test-logic-reset state while POR is asserted. The TAP controller does not
respond to user commands until POR is negated.
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The MC68340 features a low-power stop mode that uses a CPU instruction called
LPSTOP. The interaction of the IEEE 1149.1 interface with LPSTOP mode is as follows:
1. Leaving the TAP controller test-logic-reset state negates the ability to achieve
minimal power consumption, but does not otherwise affect device functionality.
2. The TCK input is not blocked in LPSTOP mode. To consume minimal power, the
TCK input should be externally connected to V CC or ground.
3. The TMS and TDI pins include on-chip pullup resistors. In LPSTOP mode, these two
pins should remain either unconnected or connected to VCC to achieve minimal
power consumption.
9.6 NON-IEEE 1149.1 OPERATION
In non-IEEE 1149.1 operation, there are two constraints. First, the TCK input does not
include an internal pullup resistor and should be pulled up externally to preclude mid-level
inputs. The second constraint is to ensure that the IEEE 1149.1 test logic is kept
transparent to the system logic by forcing the TAP controller into the test-logic-reset state,
using either of two methods. During power-on, POR forces the TAP controller into this
state. Alternatively, sampling TMS as a logic one for five consecutive TCK rising edges
also forces the TAP controller into this state. If TMS either remains unconnected or is
connected to VCC , then the TAP controller cannot leave the test-logic-reset state,
regardless of the state of TCK.
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SECTION 10
APPLICATIONS
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This section provides guidelines for using the MC68340. Minimum system-configuration
requirements and memory interface information are discussed.
10.1 MINIMUM SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
One of the powerful features of the MC68340 is the small number of external components
needed to create an entire system. The information contained in the following paragraphs
details a simple high-performance MC68340 system (see Figure 10-1). This system
configuration features the following hardware:
• Processor Clock Circuitry
• Reset Circuitry
• SRAM Interface
• ROM Interface
• Serial Interface
CLOCK
CIRCUITRY
SRAM
MC68340
SERIAL
INTERFACE
ROM
Figure 10-1. Minimum System Configuration Block Diagram
10.1.1 Processor Clock Circuitry
The MC68340 has an on-chip clock synthesizer that can operate from an on-chip phaselocked loop (PLL) and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The clock synthesizer uses
an external crystal connected between the EXTAL and XTAL pins as a reference
frequency source. Figure 10-2 shows a typical circuit using an inexpensive 32.768-kHz
watch crystal. The 20-M resistor connected between the EXTAL and XTAL pins provides
biasing for a faster oscillator startup time. The crystal manufacturer's documentation
should be consulted for specific recommendations on external component values.
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330 k
4.7 pF
XTAL
MC68340
20 M
32.768 kHz
EXTAL
10 pF
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Figure 10-2. Sample Crystal Circuit
The circuit shown in Figure 10-3 is the typical circuit recommended by Statek Corporation,
for 32768 kHz crystal, part number CX-IV. It is recommended to start with these values,
but parameter values may need to be adjusted to compensate for variables in layout.
470 k
10 pF
XTAL
MC68340
22 M
32.768 kHz
EXTAL
20 pF
Figure 10-3. Statek Corporation Crystal Circuit
A separate power pin (V CCSYN ) is used to allow the clock circuits to operate with the rest
of the device powered down and to provide increased noise immunity for the clock circuits.
The source for V CCSYN should be a quiet power supply, and external bypass capacitors
(see Figure 10-4) should be placed as close as possible to the V CCSYN pin to ensure a
stable operating frequency.
Additionally, the PLL requires that an external low-leakage filter capacitor, typically in the
range of 0.01 to 0.1 µF, be connected between the XFC and VCCSYN pins. The XFC
capacitor should provide 50-MΩ insulation but should not be electrolytic. For external
clock mode without PLL, the XFC pin can be left open. Smaller values of the external filter
capacitor provide a faster response time for the PLL, and larger values provide greater
frequency stability. Figure 10-4 depicts examples of both an external filter capacitor and
bypass capacitors for V CCSYN .
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VCCSYN
VCCSYN
0.1 µF 1
MC68340
0.1 µF
0.01 µF
XFC
NOTE 1: Must be a low-leakage capacitor.
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Figure 10-4. XFC and V CCSYN Capacitor Connections
10.1.2 Reset Circuitry
Because it is optional, reset circuitry is not shown in Figure 10-1. The MC68340 holds
itself in reset after power-up and asserts RESET to the rest of the system. If an external
reset pushbutton switch is desired, an external reset circuit is easily constructed by using
open-collector cross-coupled NAND gates to debounce the output from the switch.
10.1.3 SRAM Interface
The SRAM interface is very simple when the programmable chip selects are used.
External circuitry to decode address information and circuitry to return data and size
acknowledge (DSACK≈) is not required. However, external ICs are required to provide
write enables for the high and low bytes of data.
A15-A1
SIZ0
A0
AS
UWE
.
...
MCM6206-35
MC68340
LWE
...
.
...
MCM6206-35
R/W
R/W
CE
CE
E
..
R/W
D15-D0
.
D7-D0
CS
..
E
...
..
.
..
D15-D8
Figure 10-5. SRAM Interface
The SRAM interface shown in Figure 10-5 is a two-clock interface at 16.78-MHz operating
frequency. The MCM6206C-35 memories provide an access time of 15 ns when the chip
enable (E) input is low. If buffers are required to reduce signal loading or if slower and less
expensive memories are desired, a three-clock cycle can be used. In the circuit shown in
Figure 10-5, additional memories can be used provided the MC68340 specification for
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load capacitance on the chip-select (CS≈) signal is not exceeded. (Address buffers may
be needed, however.)
10.1.4 ROM Interface
Using the programmable chip selects creates a very straightforward ROM interface. As
shown in Figure 10-6, no external circuitry is needed. Care must be used, however, not to
overload the address bus. Address buffers may be required to ensure that the total system
input capacitance on the address signals does not exceed the CL specification.
MC68340
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A16–A1
16-BIT
ROM
D15–D0
CS0
CE
CE
Figure 10-6. ROM Interface
10.1.5 Serial Interface
The necessary circuitry to create an RS-232 interface with the MC68340 includes an
external crystal and an RS-232 receiver/driver (see Figure 10-7). The resistor and
capacitor values shown are typical; the crystal manufacturer's documentation should be
consulted for specific recommendations on external component values. The circuit shown
does not include modem support (ready-to-send (RTS) and clear-to-send (CTS) are not
shown); however, these signals can be connected to the receiver/driver and to the
connector in a similar manner as the connections for TxDx and RxDx.
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15 pF
X1
3.6864 MHz
X2
RxDx
R
TxDx
RS 232
CONNECTOR
5 pF
MC68340
Rx1
Tx1
T
MC145407
VCC
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
10 µF
10 µ F
C1+
C2+
C1-
C1-
VSS
C2+
GND
C2-
10 µF
10 µ F
Figure 10-7. Serial Interface
10.2 MEMORY INTERFACE INFORMATION
The following paragraphs contain information on using an 8-bit boot ROM, performing
access time calculations, calculating frequency-adjusted outputs, and interfacing an 8-bit
device to 16-bit memory using the DMA channel single-address mode.
10.2.1 Using an 8-Bit Boot ROM
Upon power-up, the MC68340 uses CS0 to begin operation. CS0 is a three-wait-state, 16bit chip select, until otherwise programmed. If an 8-bit ROM is desired, external circuitry
can be added to return an 8-bit DSACK≈ in two wait states (see Figure 10-8).
'393
CLKOUT
CS0
CP
MR
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
DSACK0
Figure 10-8. External Circuitry for 8-Bit Boot ROM
The `393 is a falling edge-triggered counter; thus, CS0 is stable during the time in which it
is being clocked. CS0 acts as the asynchronous reset—i.e., when it is asserted, the `393
is allowed to count. The falling edge of S2 provides the first counting edge. Q1 does not
transition on this falling edge, but transitions to a logic one on the subsequent edge.
DSACK0 is Q1 inverted; thus, on the next falling edge, DSACK0 is seen as asserted,
indicating an 8-bit port. When CS0 is negated, Q1 is again held in reset and DSACK0 is
negated. The timing diagram in Figure 10-9 illustrates this operation.
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S0
S1
S2
SW
SW
SW
SW
S3
S4
S5
S0
S1
S2
CLKOUT
CS0
Q1
DSACK0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure 10-9. 8-bit Boot ROM Timing
10.2.2 Access Time Calculations
The two time paths that are critical in an MC68340 application using the CS≈ signals are
shown in Figure 10-10. The first path is the time from address valid to when data must be
available to the processor; the second path is the time from CS≈ asserted to when data
must be available to the processor.
S0
S1
S4
S5
S0
CLKOUT
t6
A31–A0
t9
CS
t CSDV
t 27
D15–D0
t ADV
Figure 10-10. Access Time Computation Diagram
As shown in the diagram, an equation for the address access time, t ADV , can be
developed as follows:
tADV = t cyc(N c – 0.5) – t s9 – t s27
where:
tcyc = system CLKOUT period
Nc = number of clocks per bus cycle
ts6 = CLKOUT high to address valid = 30 ns maximum at 16.78 MHz
ts27 = data-in valid to CLKOUT low setup = 5 ns minimum at 16.78 MHz
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An equation for the chip select access time, tCSDV, can be developed as follows:
tCSDV = t cyc(N c – 1) – t s9 – ts27
where:
tcyc = system clock period
Nc = number of clocks per access
ts9 = CLKOUT low to CS≈ asserted = 30 ns maximum at 16.78 MHz
ts27 = data-in valid to CLKOUT low setup = 5 ns minimum at 16.78 MHz
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Using these equations, the memory access times at 16.78 MHz are shown in Table 10-1.
See Section 11 Electrical Characteristics for more timing information.
Table 10-1. Memory Access Times at 16.78 MHz
Access Time
N=2
N=3
N=4
N=5
N=6
t ADV
54 ns
114 ns
173 ns
233 ns
292 ns
t CSDV
24 ns
84 ns
143 ns
203 ns
263 ns
The values can be used to determine how many clock cycles an access will take, given
the access time of the memory devices and any delays through buffers or external logic
that may be needed.
10.2.3 Calculating Frequency-Adjusted Output
The general relationship between the CLKOUT and most input and output signals is
shown in Figure 10-11. Most outputs transition off of a falling edge of CLKOUT, but the
same principle applies to those outputs that transition off of a rising edge.
CLKOUT
td
OUTPUTS
t su
th
ASYNCHRONOUS
INPUTS
Figure 10-11. Signal Relationships to CLKOUT
For outputs that are referenced to a clock edge, the propagation delay (td ) does not
change as the frequency changes. For instance, specification 6 in the electrical
characteristics, shown in Section 11 Electrical Characteristics, shows that address,
function code, and size information is valid 3 to 30 ns after the rising edge of S0. This
specification does not change even if the device frequency is less than 16.78 MHz.
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Additionally, the relationship between the asynchronous inputs and the clock edge, as
shown in Figure 10-11, does not change as frequency changes.
A second type of specification indicates the minimum amount of time a signal will be
asserted. This type of specification is illustrated in Figure 10-12.
T/2
N
CLKOUT
td
OUTPUT
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
tw
Figure 10-12. Signal Width Specifications
The method for calculating a frequency-adjusted tw is as follows:
tw' = tw + N (T f'/2 – T f/2) + (T f'/2 – t d)
where:
tw' = the frequency-adjusted signal width
tw = the signal width at 16.78 MHz
N = the number of full one-half clock periods in tw
Tf'/2 = one-half the new clock period
Tf/2 = one-half the clock period at full speed
td = the propagation time from the clock edge
The following calculation uses a 16.78-MHz part, specification 14, AS width asserted, at
12.5 MHz as an example:
tw = 100 ns
N=3
Tf'/2 = 80/2 = 40 ns
Tf/2 = 60/2 = 30 ns
td = 30 ns maximum
therefore:
tw' = 100 + 3(40 – 30) + (40 – 30) = 140 ns
The third type of specification used is a skew between two outputs (see Figure 10-13).
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T/2
CLKOUT
td1
OUTPUT1
t d2
OUTPUT2
ts
Figure 10-13. Skew between Two Outputs
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The method for calculating a frequency-adjusted ts is as follows:
ts' = ts + N (T f'/2 – T f/2) + (T f'/2 – td1)
where:
ts' = the frequency-adjusted skew
ts = the skew at full speed
N = the number of full one-half clock periods in ts, if any
Tf'/2 = one-half the new clock period
Tf/2 = one-half the clock period at full speed
td1 = the propagation time for the first output from the clock edge
The following calculation uses a 16.78-MHz port, specification 21, R/ W high to A S
asserted, at 8 MHz as an example:
ts = 15 ns minimum
N=0
Tf'/2 = 125/2 = 62.5 ns
Tf/2 = 60/2 = 30 ns
td1 = 30 ns maximum
therefore:
ts' = 15 + 0(62.5 – 30) + (62.5 – 30) = 47.5 ns minimum
In this manner, new specifications for lower frequencies can be derived for an MC68340.
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10.2.4 Interfacing an 8-Bit Device to 16-Bit Memory Using SingleAddress DMA Mode
One of the requirements of single-address mode is that the source and destination must
be the same port size. However, the MC68340 can perform direct memory accesses in
single-address mode between an 8-bit device and 16-bit memory. The port size must be
specified as 8 bits, and some external logic is required as shown in Figure 10-14.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DEVICE
MC68340
D15-D8
R/W
A0
SIZ1
SIZ0
T/R
B
MEMORY
74F245
OE
A
D7-D0
Figure 10-14. Circuitry for Interfacing 8-Bit Device to
16-Bit Memory in Single-Address DMA Mode
During even-byte accesses, the data is transferred directly on D15–D8. However, during
odd-byte accesses, the data must be routed on D15–D8 for the 8-bit device and on D7–
D0 for the 16-bit memory.
10.3 POWER CONSUMPTION CONSIDERATIONS
The MC68340 can be designed into low-power applications that involve high-performance
processing capability (32-bits), high functional density, small size, portable capability, and
battery operation.
The MC68340 fits into the following types of applications:
• "Palmtop" Computers
• Telephony
— Stylus Input
— Cordless Phones
— Voice Input
— Cellular Phones
— Image Input
• CD-I, CD-ROM
• Transaction Tracking
• Defense Industry
— Car Rental
— Guidance Systems
— Cargo
— Tracking Systems
— Courier
• Data Entry
— Handheld
• Instruments
• Bar Code Scanners
• Handheld Games
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10.3.1 MC68340 Power Reduction at 5V
The following figures show how different variables affect typical power consumption at
5 V. Figure 10-15 shows how system activity affects current drain. Figure 10-16 shows
how voltage affects current drain at some typical operating temperatures. Figure 10-17
shows how system clock frequency affects current drain.
120
Typical values
32KHz xtal
16.78 MHz
24 ° C
93
81
I cc (mA)
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90
73
66
60
62
42
30
.06
0
INITIALIZATION
MAX
CURRENT
SERIAL
OFF
+TIMER 1
OFF
+TIMER 2
OFF
+DMA
OFF
+LPSTOP
Figure 10-15. MC68340 Current vs. Activity at 5 V
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120
0° C
24° C
100
100° C
Icc (mA)
Typical values
32KHz xtal
16.78 MHz
peak current
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80
60
4
5.5
5
VCC (V)
Figure 10-16. MC68340 Current vs. Voltage/Temperature
120
Icc (mA)
90
Typical values
32KHz xtal
peak current
24° C
60
30
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Clock Frequency (MHz)
Figure 10-17. MC68340 Current vs. Clock Frequency at 5 V
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10.3.2 MC68340V (3.3 V)
The MC68340V can operate with a 3.3-V power supply for significant power savings. The
formula for power dissipation is
Pd ≈ V2 × f + dc
Table 10-2 shows typical electrical characteristics for both the MC68340 and MC68340V.
Table 10-2. Typical Electrical Characteristics
Parameter
MC68340 (5.0 V)
MC68340V (3.3 V)
0–16.78 MHz
0–25 MHz
0–8.39 MHz
0–16.78 MHz
Typical Current (16 MHz)
95 mA
TBD
Typical Current (8 MHz)
55 mA
30 mA
Standby Current
60 µA
25 µA
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Clock Frequency
Running at 3.3 V saves 66% of the power consumption.
The 3.3 V operation provides the following user advantages:
Advantage
Benefit
Lower Supply Voltage
Fewer Batteries
Fewer Batteries
Less Weight
Smaller Size
Lower Current Drain
Extended Battery Life
Less Heat Generated
No Fan
No Fan Noise
Less EMF Radiation
Easier FCC Certification
Less Crosstalk
Closer PCB Traces
High Functional Integration
All-In-One 3.3 V Part:
Processor
Peripherals
Glue Logic
These advantages result in a much more portable system.
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SECTION 11
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
This section contains detailed information on power considerations, DC/AC electrical
characteristics, and AC timing specifications of the MC68340. Refer to Section 12
Ordering Information and Mechanical Data for specific part numbers corresponding to
voltage, frequency, and temperature ratings.
11.1 MAXIMUM RATINGS
Rating
Supply Voltage 1, 2
Input Voltage1, 2
Operating Temperature Range
Symbol
Value
Unit
VCC
Vin
–0.3 to +6.5
V
–0.3 to +6.5
V
TA
0 to 70
or
–40 to +85
°C
Storage Temperature Range
Tstg
–55 to +150
°C
NOTES:
1. Permanent damage can occur if maximum ratings are exceeded. Exposure
to voltages or currents in excess of recommended values affects device
reliability. Device modules may not operate normally while being exposed to
electrical extremes.
2. Although sections of the device contain circuitry to protect against damage
from high static voltages or electrical fields, take normal precautions to
avoid exposure to voltages higher than maximum-rated voltages.
This device contains protective
circuitry against damage due to
high static voltages or electrical
fields; however, it is advised that
normal precautions be taken to
avoid application of any voltages
higher than maximum-rated
voltages to this high-impedance
circuit. Reliability of operation is
enhanced if unused inputs are
tied to an appropriate logic
voltage level (e.g., either GND
or V CC ).
The following ratings define a range of conditions in which the device will operate without
being damaged. However, sections of the device may not operate normally while being
exposed to the electrical extremes.
11.2 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristic
Symbol
Thermal Resistance—Junction to Case
θJC
Ceramic 144-Pin QFP
Thermal Resistance—Junction to Ambient
Plastic 145-Pin PGA
* Estimated
MOTOROLA
Unit
°C/W
6
TBD
Plastic 145-Pin PGA
Ceramic 144-Pin QFP
Value
θJA
°C/W
33
27*
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11.3 POWER CONSIDERATIONS
The average chip-junction temperature, TJ, in °C can be obtained from:
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TJ = T A + (PD • θJA)
(1)
where:
TA
= Ambient Temperature, °C
θJA
= Package Thermal Resistance, Junction-to-Ambient, °C/W
PD
= PINT + PI/O
PINT = ICC x VCC, Watts—Chip Internal Power
PI/O = Power Dissipation on Input and Output Pins—User Determined
For most applications, P I/O < PINT and can be neglected.
An approximate relationship between P D and T J (if P I/O is neglected) is:
PD = K ÷ (TJ + 273°C)
Solving Equations (1) and (2) for K gives:
K = P D • (TA + 273°C) + θ JA • P D2
where K is a constant pertaining to the particular part. K can be determined from equation
(3) by measuring P D (at thermal equilibrium) for a known TA. Using this value of K, the
values of PD and T J can be obtained by solving Equations (1) and (2) iteratively for any
value of T A.
11.4 AC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION DEFINITIONS
The AC specifications presented consist of output delays, input setup and hold times, and
signal skew times. All signals are specified relative to an appropriate edge of the clock and
possibly to one or more other signals.
The measurement of the AC specifications is defined by the waveforms shown in Figure
11-1. To test the parameters guaranteed by Motorola, inputs must be driven to the voltage
levels specified in the figure. Outputs are specified with minimum and/or maximum limits,
as appropriate, and are measured as shown. Inputs are specified with minimum setup and
hold times and are measured as shown. Finally, the measurement for signal-to-signal
specifications are shown.
Note that the testing levels used to verify conformance to the AC specifications do not
affect the guaranteed DC operation of the device as specified in the DC electrical
characteristics.
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The MC68340V low voltage parts can operate up to 8.39 MHz or 16.78 MHz with a 3.3 V
±0.3 V supply. Separate part numbers are used to distinguish the operation of the parts
according to the supply voltage. Refer to Section 12 Ordering Information and
Mechanical Data for the part numbering schemes. MC68340 is used throughout this
section to refer to the 16.78- or 25.16-MHz parts at 5.0 V ±5%. MC68340V is used
throughout this section to refer to the 8.39- or 16.78-MHz parts at 3.3 V ±0.3 V.
NOTE
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The electrical specifications in this section for the MC68340
25.16 MHz at 5.0 V ±5% and the 3.3 V ±0.3 V specifications for
both the 8.39- and 16.78-MHz parts are preliminary.
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2.0 V
2.0 V
CLKOUT
0.8 V
0.8 V
A
B
OUTPUTS(1)
VALID
OUTPUT n
2.0 V
2.0 V
0.8 V
0.8 V
VALID
OUTPUT
A
n+1
B
VALID
OUTPUT n
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OUTPUTS(2)
C
2.0 V
INPUTS(3)
0.8 V
2.0 V
2.0 V
0.8 V
0.8 V
VALID
OUTPUT n+1
D
2.0 V
VALID
INPUT
0.8 V
C
2.0 V
INPUTS(4)
0.8 V
D
VALID
INPUT
2.0 V
0.8 V
DRIVE
TO 2.4 V
DRIVE
TO 0.5 V
2.0 V
ALL SIGNALS(5)
0.8 V
E
F
2.0 V
0.8 V
NOTES:
1. This output timing is applicable to all parameters specified relative to the rising edge of the clock.
2. This output timing is applicable to all parameters specified relative to the falling edge of the clock.
3. This input timing is applicable to all parameters specified relative to the rising edge of the clock.
4. This input timing is applicable to all parameters specified relative to the falling edge of the clock.
5. This timing is applicable to all parameters specified relative to the assertion/negation of another signal.
LEGEND:
A. Maximum output delay specification.
B. Minimum output hold time.
C. Minimum input setup time specification.
D. Minimum input hold time specification.
E. Signal valid to signal valid specification (maximum or minimum).
F. Signal valid to signal invalid specification (maximum or minimum).
Figure 11-1. Drive Levels and Test Points for AC Specifications
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11.5 DC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (See notes (a), (b), (c), and (d) corresponding to part
operation, GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see numbered notes)
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
VIH
VIL
2.0
VCC
0.8
V
GND
V
Input High Voltage (except clock)
Input Low Voltage
Clock Input High Voltage
Undershoot
VIHC
—
0.7 * (V CC )
—
VCC +0.3
–0.8
I in
I OZ
–2.5
2.5
µA
–20
20
µA
IL
–0.015
0.2
mA
IH
–0.015
0.2
mA
VOH
2.4
—
V
VOL
—
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Input Leakage Current (All Input Only Pins) Vin = VCC or GND
Hi-Z (Off-State) Leakage Current (All Noncrystal Outputs and I/O Pins)
Vin = 0.5/2.4 V1
Signal Low Input Current
VIL = 0.8 V
Signal High Input Current
VIH = 2.0 V
V
TMS, TDI
TMS, TDI
Output High Voltage1, 2
I OH = –0.8 mA, V CC = 4.75 V
All Noncrystal Outputs except HALT, RESET, DONE2, DONE1
Output Low Voltage1
I OL = 2.0 mA
I OL = 3.2 mA
I OL = 5.3 mA
I OL = 15.3 mA
V
CLKOUT, FREEZE, IPIPE, IFETCH
A23–A0, D15–D0, FC3–FC0, SIZ1, SIZ0
All Other Output Only and Group 2 I/O Pins
HALT, RESET
Total Supply Current at 5 V +5% @ 16.78 MHz
RUN3
LPSTOP (VCO Off)
Power Dissipation at 5 V +5% @ 16.78 MHz4
Total Supply Current at 3.3 V + 0.3 V @ 8.39 MHz
RUN5
LPSTOP (VCO Off)
Power Dissipation at 3.3 V +0.3 V @ 8.39 MHz 6
V
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
—
I CC
SICC
PD
—
180
500
mA
µA
945
mW
TBD
TBD
mA
µA
TBD
mW
—
I CC
SICC
PD
—
Cin
—
Input Capacitance 7
All Input-Only Pins
All I/O Pins
pF
10
20
Load Capacitance 7
CL
—
100
pF
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts TA = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1. Input-Only Pins: BERR, BG, BKPT, BR, CTSB, CTSA, DREQ2, DREQ1, DSACK1, DSACK0, EXTAL, RxDB,
RxDA, SCLK, TCK, TDI, TGATE2, TGATE1, TIN2, TIN1, TMS
Output-Only Pins: A23–A0, AS, BG, CLKOUT, DACK2, DACK1, DS, FC3–FC0, FREEZE, IFETCH, IPIPE,
RMC, RTSB, RTSA, R/ W, R≈RDYA, SIZ1, SIZ0, TDO, TOUT2, TOUT1, TxDB, TxDA, T≈RDYA
Input/Output Pins:
Group 1: D15–D0
Group 2: A31–A24, CS3–CS0, DONE2, DONE1, IRQ7, IRQ5, IRQ3, MODCK
Group 3: HALT, RESET
2. VOH specification for HALT, RESET, DONE2, and DONE1 is not applicable because they are open-drain pins.
3. Supply current measured with system clock frequency of 16.78 MHz @ 5.25 V.
4. Power dissipation measured with a system clock frequency of 16.78 MHz, all modules active.
5. Supply current measured with system clock frequency of 8.39 MHz @ 3.6 V.
6. Power dissipation measured with a system clock frequency of 8.39 MHz, all modules active.
7. Capacitance is periodically sampled rather than 100% tested.
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11.6 AC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS CONTROL TIMING (See notes (a), (b),
(c), and (d) corresponding to part operation, GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see numbered notes)
3.3 V
3.3 V or 5.0 V
8.39 MHz
Num.
Characteristic
System Frequency1
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
f sys
dc
8.39
dc
16.78
dc
25.16
MHz
f XTAL
25
50
25
50
25
50
kHz
On-Chip VCO System Frequency
f sys
0.13
8.39
0.13
16.78
0.13
25.16
MHz
On-Chip VCO Frequency Range
f VCO
0.1
16.78
0.1
33.5
0.1
50.3
MHz
f sys
0
8
0
16
0
25
MHz
t rc
—
20
—
20
—
20
ms
—
—
—
—
—
—
–1
f sys /2
f sys
+1
–1
f sys /2
f sys
+1
%
External Clock Operation
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
25.16 MHz
Symbol
Crystal Frequency
PLL Start-up Time2
Limp Mode Clock Frequency 3
f limp
SYNCR X-bit = 0
SYNCR X-bit = 1
CLKOUT stability 4
15
16.78 MHz
5.0 V
CLKOUT Period in Crystal Mode
kHz
∆CLK
–1
f sys /2
f sys
+1
t cyc
119.2
—
59.6
—
40
—
ns
1B6
External Clock Input Period
t EXTcyc
125
—
62.5
—
40
—
ns
1C 7
External Clock Input Period with PLL
t EXTcyc
125
—
62.5
—
40
—
ns
2,3 8
CLKOUT Pulse Width in Crystal Mode
t CW
56
—
28
—
19
—
ns
2B, 3B9 CLKOUT Pulse Width in External Mode
t EXTCW
56
—
28
—
18
—
ns
CLKOUT Pulse Width in External w/PLL
Mode
t EXTCW
62.5
—
31
—
20
—
ns
t Crf
—
10
—
5
—
4
ns
2C,
3C 10
4,5
CLKOUT Rise and Fall Times
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts T A = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1. All internal registers retain data at 0 Hz.
2. Assumes that a stable VCCSYN is applied, that an external filter capacitor with a value of 0.1 µF is attached to
the XFC pin, and that the crystal oscillator is stable. Lock time is measured from power-up to RESET release.
This specification also applies to the period required for PLL lock after changing the W and Y frequency control
bits in the synthesizer control register (SYNCR) while the PLL is running, and to the period required for the clock
to lock after LPSTOP.
3. Determined by the initial control voltage applied to the on-chip VCO. The X-bit in the SYNCR controls a divideby-two scaler on the system clock output.
4. CLKOUT stability is the average deviation from programmed frequency measured at maximum f sys .
Measurement is made with a stable external clock input applied using the PLL.
5. All crystal mode clock specifications are based on using a 32.768-kHz crystal for the input.
6. When using the external clock input mode (MODCK reset value = 0 V), the minimum allowable t EXTcyc period
will be reduced when the duty cycle of the signal applied to EXTAL exceeds 5% tolerance. The relationship
between external clock input duty cycle and minimum t EXTcyc is expressed:
Minimum tEXTcyc period = minimum tEXTCW / (50% – external clock input duty cycle tolerance).
Minimum external clock low and high times are based on a 45% duty cycle.
7. When using the external clock input mode with the PLL (MODCK reset value = 0 V), the external clock input duty
cycle can be at minimum 20% to produce a CLKOUT with a 50% duty cycle.
8. For crystal mode operation, the minimum CLKOUT pulse width is based on a 47% duty cycle.
9. For external clock mode operation, the minimum CLKOUT pulse width is based on a 45% duty cycle, with a 50%
duty cycle input clock.
11-6
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
10. For external clock w/PLL mode operation, the minimum CLKOUT pulse width is based on a 50% duty cycle.
11. For external clock mode, there is a 10–40 ns skew between the input clock signal and the output CLKOUT signal
from the MC68340. Clock skew is measured from the rising edges of the clock signals.
12. For external clock mode w/PLL, there is a 5 ns skew between the input clock signal and the output CLKOUT
signal from the MC68340. Clock skew is measured from the rising edges of the clock signals.
MOTOROLA
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11-7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
11.7 AC TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (See notes (a), (b), (c), and (d) corresponding to part operation,
GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see numbered notes; see Figures 11-2–11-11)
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Num.
3.3 V
3.3 V or
5.0 V
5.0 V
8.39 MHz
16.78 MHz
25.16 MHz
Min
Min
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
6
CLKOUT High to Address, FC, SIZ, RMC Valid
60
0
30
0
20
ns
CLKOUT High to Address, Data, FC, SIZ, RMC
High Impedance
t CHAV
t CHAZx
0
7
0
120
0
60
0
40
ns
8
CLKOUT High to Address, FC, SIZ, RMC
Invalid
t CHAZn
0
—
0
—
0
—
ns
99
CLKOUT Low to AS, DS, CS, IFETCH, IPIPE,
IACK≈ Asserted
t CLSA
3
60
3
30
3
20
ns
AS to DS or CS Asserted (Read)
t STSA
–30
30
–15
15
–6
6
ns
11
Address, FC, SIZ, RMC Valid to AS, CS (and
DS Read) Asserted
t AVSA
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
12
CLKOUT Low to AS, DS, CS, IFETCH,
IPIPE, IACK≈ Negated
t CLSN
3
60
3
30
3
20
ns
13
AS, DS, CS, IACK≈ Negated to Address, FC,
SIZ Invalid (Address Hold)
t SNAI
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
14
AS, CS (and DS Read) Width Asserted
t SWA
t SWAW
200
—
100
—
70
—
ns
90
—
45
—
30
—
ns
t SWDW
80
—
40
—
30
—
ns
t SN
80
—
40
—
30
—
ns
9A2
14A
DS Width Asserted (Write)
14B
AS, CS, IACK≈ (and DS Read) Width Asserted
(Fast Termination Cycle)
153
AS, DS, CS Width Negated
Max
Max
Max
Unit
16
CLKOUT High to AS, DS, R/ W High Impedance
t CHSZ
—
120
—
60
—
40
ns
17
AS, DS, CS Negated to R/W High
t SNRN
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
18
CLKOUT High to R/W High
60
0
30
0
20
ns
CLKOUT High to R/W Low
t CHRH
t CHRL
0
20
219
0
60
0
30
0
20
ns
R/ W High to AS, CS Asserted
t RAAA
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
R/ W Low to DS Asserted (Write)
t RASA
140
—
70
—
47
—
ns
23
CLKOUT High to Data-Out Valid
60
—
30
—
20
ns
Data-Out Valid to Negating Edge of AS, CS,
(Fast Termination Write)
t CHDO
t DVASN
—
24
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
25
DS, CS, Negated to Data-Out Invalid (Data-Out
Hold)
t SNDOI
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
26
Data-Out Valid to DS Asserted (Write)
t DVSA
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
27
Data-In Valid to CLKOUT Low (Data Setup)
t DICL
t BELCL
10
—
5
—
5
—
ns
40
—
20
—
10
—
ns
22
27A
Late BERR, HALT, BKPT Asserted to CLKOUT
Low (Setup Time)
28
AS, DS Negated to DSACK≈, BERR, HALT
Negated
t SNDN
0
160
0
80
0
50
ns
294
DS, CS Negated to Data-In Invalid (Data-In
Hold)
t SNDI
0
—
0
—
0
—
ns
29A4
DS, CS Negated to Data-In High Impedance
t SHDI
—
120
—
60
—
40
ns
11-8
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
11.7 AC TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
3.3 V
5.0 V
8.39 MHz
16.78 MHz
25.16 MHz
Symbol
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
CLKOUT Low to Data-In Invalid (Fast
Termination Hold)
t CLDI
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
CLKOUT Low to Data-In High Impendance
t CLDH
—
180
—
90
—
60
ns
DSACK≈ Asserted to Data-In Valid
t DADI
—
100
—
50
—
32
ns
DSACK≈ Asserted to DSACK≈ Valid (Skew)
t DADV
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
32
HALT and RESET Input Transition Time
400
—
200
—
140
ns
CLKOUT Low to BG Asserted
t HRrf
t CLBA
—
33
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
34
356
CLKOUT Low to BG Negated
t CLBN
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
BR Asserted to BG Asserted (RMC Not
Asserted)
t BRAGA
1
—
1
—
1
—
CLKOUT
37
BGACK Asserted to BG Negated
t GAGN
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
2.5
CLKOUT
39
BG Width Negated
t GH
2
—
2
—
2
—
CLKOUT
39A
BG Width Asserted
t GA
t RWA
1
—
1
—
1
—
CLKOUT
300
—
150
—
100
—
ns
t RWAS
180
—
90
—
60
—
ns
Num.
304
30A4
315
31A
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3.3 V or
5.0 V
46
46A
Characteristic
R/ W Width Asserted (Write or Read)
R/ W Width Asserted (Fast Termination Write or
Read)
47A8
Asynchronous Input Setup Time
t AIST
15
—
8, 5
—
5
—
ns
47B
485,7
Asynchronous Input Hold Time
t AIHT
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
DSACK≈ Asserted to BERR, HALT Asserted
t DABA
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
53
Data-Out Hold from CLKOUT High
t DOCH
0
—
0
—
0
—
ns
54
CLKOUT High to Data-Out High Impedance
t CHDH
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
55
R/ W Asserted to Data Bus Impedance Change
t RADC
80
—
40
—
25
—
ns
56
RESET Pulse Width (Reset Instruction)
t HRPW
512
—
512
—
512
—
CLKOUT
56A
RESET Pulse Width (Input from External
Device)
t RPWI
590
—
590
—
590
—
CLKOUT
57
BERR Negated to HALT Negated (Rerun)
t BNHN
0
—
0
—
0
—
ns
70
CLKOUT Low to Data Bus Driven (Show Cycle)
60
0
30
0
20
ns
Data Setup Time to CLKOUT Low (Show
Cycle)
t SCLDD
t SCLDS
0
71
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
72
Data Hold from CLKOUT Low (Show Cycle)
t SCLDH
20
—
10
—
6
—
ns
80
DSI Input Setup Time
t DSISU
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
81
DSI Input Hold Time
t DSIH
20
—
10
—
6
—
ns
82
DSCLK Setup Time
t DSCSU
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
83
DSCLK Hold Time
t DSCH
20
—
10
—
6
—
ns
84
DSO Delay Time
t DSOD
—
t cyc
+ 50
—
t cyc
+ 25
—
t cyc
+ 16
ns
MOTOROLA
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11-9
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
11.7 AC TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (Continued)
3.3 V
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Num.
Characteristic
3.3 V or
5.0 V
5.0 V
8.39 MHz
16.78 MHz
25.16 MHz
Symbol
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
t DSCCYC
2
—
2
—
2
—
CLKOUT
0
100
0
50
0
35
ns
85
DSCLK Cycle
86
CLKOUT High to FREEZE Asserted
t FRZA
87
CLKOUT High to FREEZE Negated
t FRZN
0
100
0
50
0
35
ns
88
CLKOUT High to IFETCH High Impedance
t IFZ
0
100
0
50
0
35
ns
89
CLKOUT High to IFETCH Valid
t IF
0
100
0
50
0
35
ns
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts T A = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1. All AC timing is shown with respect to 0.8 V and 2.0 V levels unless otherwise noted.
2. This number can be reduced to 5 ns if strobes have equal loads.
3. If multiple chip selects are used, the CS width negated (#15) applies to the time from the negation of a heavily
loaded chip select to the assertion of a lightly loaded chip select.
4. These hold times are specified with respect to DS or CS on asynchronous reads and with respect to CLKOUT on
fast termination reads. The user is free to use either hold time for fast termination reads.
5. If the asynchronous setup time (#47) requirements are satisfied, the DSACK≈ low to data setup time (#31) and
DSACK≈ low to BERR low setup time (#48) can be ignored. The data must only satisfy the data-in to CLKOUT
low setup time (#27) for the following clock cycle: BERR must only satisfy the late BERR low to CLKOUT low
setup time (#27A) for the following clock cycle.
6. To ensure coherency during every operand transfer, BG will not be asserted in response to BR until after cycles
of the current operand transfer are complete and RMC is negated.
7. In the absence of DSACK≈, BERR is an asynchronous input using the asynchronous setup time (#47).
8. Specification #47A for 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3V will be 8 ns.
9. During interrupt acknowledge cycles up to two wait states may be inserted by the processor between states S0
and S1.
11-10
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S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
CLKOUT
6
8
SIZ1–SIZ0
FC3–FC0
A31–A0
RMC
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
11
14
AS
12
9
13
DS
9A
CS
18
21
20
R/W
46
28
47A
DSACK0
DSACK1
29
31
D15–D0
29A
27
BERR
48
27A
HALT
9
12
12
IFETCH
47A
47B
ASYNCHRONOUS
INPUTS
27A
BKPT
NOTE: All timing is shown with respect to 0.8V and 2.0V levels.
Figure 11-2. Read Cycle Timing Diagram
MOTOROLA
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11-11
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
S1
S0
S3
S2
S4
S5
CLKOUT
6
8
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
SIZ1–SIZ0
11
15
14
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
AS
9
12
9
13
DS
CS
20
14A
22
17
R/W
46
DSACK0
28
47A
DSACK1
25
55
53
D15–D0
23
54
26
BERR
48
27A
HALT
BKPT
NOTE: All timing is shown with respect to 0.8-V and 2.0-V levels.
Figure 11-3. Write Cycle Timing Diagram
11-12
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
S0
S1
S4
S5
S0
CLKOUT
8
6
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
SIZ1–SIZ0
9
14B
AS
12
DS
CS
18
R/W
46A
27
30
D15–D0
27A
30A
BKPT
Figure 11-4. Fast Termination Read Cycle Timing Diagram
MOTOROLA
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11-13
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
S0
S4
S1
S5
S0
CLKOUT
8
6
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
A31–A0
FC3–FC0
SIZ1–SIZ0
12
AS
9
14B
DS
CS
20
46A
R/W
23
24
18
D15-D0
27A
25
BKPT
Figure 11-5. Fast Termination Write Cycle Timing Diagram
11-14
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
CLKOUT
A31–A0
7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
D15–D0
AS
16
DS
R/W
DSACK0
DSACK1
47A
BR
35
39A
BG
33
34
BGACK
37
Figure 11-6. Bus Arbitation Timing—Active Bus Case
MOTOROLA
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11-15
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
CLKOUT
A31–A0
D15–D0
AS
47A
47A
BR
37
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
35
BG
33
47A
34
BGACK
Figure 11-7. Bus Arbitration Timing—Idle Bus Case
S41
S0
S42
S43
S1
S0
S2
CLKOUT
8
6
A31–A0
18
R/W
20
AS
12
15
9
DS
70
72
71
D15–D0
27A
BKPT
SHOW CYCLE
START OF EXTERNAL CYCLE
Figure 11-8. Show Cycle Timing Diagram
11-16
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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0–2 CLOCKS *
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
CLKOUT
6
8
SIZ1–SIZ0
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
FC3–FC0
A31–A0,
11
14
AS
13
9
12
DS
9A
IACKx
18
20
21
R/W
46
31A
28
DSACK0
47A
DSACK1
31
29
D15-D0
29A
27
* Up to two wait states may be inserted by the processor between states S0 and S1.
Figure 11-9. IACK Cycle Timing Diagram
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11-17
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
CLKOUT
FREEZE
83
82
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
BKPT/DSCLK
85
81
80
IFETCH/DSI
84
IPIPE/DSO
Figure 11-10. Background Debug Mode Serial Port Timing
CLKOUT
86
FREEZE
87
IFETCH/DSI
88
89
Figure 11-11. Background Debug Mode FREEZE Timing
11-18
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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11.8 DMA MODULE AC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(See notes (a), (b), (c), and
(d) corresponding to part operation, GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see Figure 11-12)
3.3 V
3.3 V or 5.0 V
8.39 MHz
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Num.
Characteristic
5.0 V
16.78 MHz
25.16 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
1
CLKOUT Low to AS, DACK, DONE Asserted
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
2
CLKOUT Low to AS, DACK Negated
—
60
—
30
—
20
ns
3
DREQ≈ Asserted to AS Asserted (for DMA Bus
Cycle)
41
Asynchronous Input Setup Time to CLKOUT
Low
15
—
8, 5
—
5
—
ns
5
Asynchronous Input Hold Time from CLKOUT
Low
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
6
AS to DACK Assertion Skew
-30
30
–15
15
–10
10
ns
7
DACK to DONE Assertion Skew
-30
30
–15
15
–8
8
ns
8
AS, DACK, DONE Width Asserted
200
—
100
—
70
—
ns
80
—
40
—
28
—
ns
8A
AS, DACK, DONE Width Asserted (Fast
Termination Cycle)
3t cyc + tAIST + tCLSA
ns
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts T A = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1. Specification #4 for 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V will be 8 ns.
CPU_CYCLE
(DMA REQUEST)
S0
S1
S2
DMA_CYCLE
S4
S3
S5
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
CLKOUT
4
5
1
DONE (INPUT)
DREQ
6
3
8
AS
1
2
DACK
7
DONE
(OUTPUT)
1
Figure 11-12. DMA Signal Timing Diagram
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11-19
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
11.9 TIMER MODULE ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(See notes (a), (b), (c), and (d)
corresponding to part operation, GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see Figures 11-13 and 11-14)
3.3 V
3.3 V or 5.0 V
8.39 MHz
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Num.
Characteristic
16.78 MHz
5.0 V
25MHz
Symbol
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
t cyc
119.2
—
59.6
—
40
—
ns
1
CLKOUT Period in Crystal Mode
2
Clock Rise and Fall Time
t rf
—
20
—
10
—
5
ns
3
TIN/ TGATE High or Low Time, Minimum
Pulse Width
—
t cyc +40
—
t cyc +20
—
t cyc +12
—
ns
41
Asynchronous Input Setup Time to
CLKOUT Low
—
15
—
8, 5
—
5
—
ns
5
Asynchronous Input Hold Time from
CLKOUT Low
—
30
—
15
—
8
—
ns
6
Asynchronous Input Setup Time to
CLKOUT High
—
10
—
5
—
3
—
ns
7
Asynchronous Input Hold Time from
CLKOUT High
—
30
—
15
—
8
—
ns
8
CLKOUT High to TOUT Valid
t TO
3
60
3
30
3
20
ns
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts T A = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1. Specification #4 for 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V will be 8 ns.
1
CLKOUT
2
2
TIN
TGATE
3
3
Figure 11-13. Timer Module Clock Signal Timing Diagram
11-20
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
CLKOUT
5
4
TIN
6
7
TGATE
8
TOUT
Figure 11-14. Timer Module Signal Timing Diagram
MOTOROLA
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11-21
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
11.10 SERIAL MODULE ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (See notes (a), (b), (c), and
(d) corresponding to part operation, GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see numbered notes; see Figures 11-15–11-18)
Num.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
1
Characteristic
3.3 V
3.3 V or
5.0 V
5.0 V
8.39 MHz
16.78 MHz
25.16 MHz
Symbol
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
CLKOUT Cycle Time
t cyc
119.2
—
59.6
—
40
—
ns
t rf
t CS
—
20
—
10
—
5
ns
15
—
8, 5
—
5
—
ns
30
—
15
—
8
—
ns
2
Clock Rise or Fall Time
32
Clock Input (X1 or SCLK ) Synchronizer Setup
Time
4
Clock Input (X1 or SCLK ) Synchronizer Hold
Time
t CH
5
TxD Data Valid from CLKOUT High
t VLD
0.5 t cyc
Max
6
X1 Cycle Time
7
X1 High or Low Time
t X1
t X1HL
Min
8
SCLK High or Low Time, Asynchronous (16x)
Mode
t AHL
2.25 t cyc
0.55 t cyc + 0.75(tCS + t CH )
t cyc + t CS + t CH
91
SCLK High Time, Synchronous (1x) Mode
t SH
t cyc (Gx) + tCS (Gx) + tCH (Gx)
Min
10
SCLK Low Time, Synchronous (1x) Mode
t SL
Min
11
TxD Data Valid from SCLK Low, Synchronous
(1x) Mode
tT × D
greater of
({1.5tcyc (Tx) + t CS (Tx) + t VLD (Tx)} +
0.5tcyc (Rx) + t CS (Rx) + t CH (Rx)})
or
t SH
1.5tcyc (Tx) +
t CS (Tx) + t VLD (Tx)
12
RxD Setup Time to SCLK High, Synchronous
(1x) Mode
tR × S
0.5tcyc (Rx) + t CS (Rx) + t CH (Rx)
Min
13
RxD Hold Time from SCLK High, Synchronous
(1x) Mode
tR × H
0.5tcyc (Rx) + t CS (Rx) + t CH (Rx)
Min
Min
Min
Max
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts T A = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1. Asynchronous operation numbers take into account a receiver and transmitter operating at different clock
frequencies. (Rx) refers to receiver value. (Tx) refers to transmitter value. (Gx) refers to the value that is greater,
either receiver or transmitter.
2. Specification #3 for 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V will be 8 ns.
1
CLKOUT
5
TxD
Figure 11-15. Serial Module General Timing Diagram
11-22
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6
X1
2
2
7
7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Figure 11-16. Serial Module Asynchronous Mode Timing (X1)
2
2
SCLK (16x)
8
8
Figure 11-17. Serial Module Asynchronous Mode Timing (SCLK–16X)
10
9
2
2
SCLK (1x)
11
TxD
13
12
RxD
Figure 11-18. Serial Module Synchronous Mode Timing Diagram
MOTOROLA
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11-23
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
11.11 IEEE 1149.1 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS ( See notes (a), (b), (c), and (d)
corresponding to part operation, GND = 0 Vdc, TA = 0 to 70°C; see Figures 11-19–11-21)
Num.
Characteristic
3.3 V or
5.0 V
5.0 V
8.39 MHz
16.78 MHz
25.16 MHz
Min
Max
TCK Frequency of Operation
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
3.3 V
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
0
8.39
0
16.78
0
25
MHz
119.2
—
59.6
—
40
—
ns
TCK Clock Pulse Width Measured at 1.5 V
56
—
28
—
18
—
ns
3
TCK Rise and Fall Times
0
10
0
5
0
3
ns
6
Boundary Scan Input Data Setup Time
32
—
16
—
10
—
ns
7
Boundary Scan Input Data Hold Time
52
—
26
—
18
—
ns
8
TCK Low to Output Data Valid
0
80
0
40
0
26
ns
9
TCK Low to Output High Impedance
0
120
0
60
0
40
ns
10
TMS, TDI Data Setup Time
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
11
TMS, TDI Data Hold Time
30
—
15
—
10
—
ns
12
TCK Low to TDO Data Valid
0
50
0
25
0
16
ns
13
TCK Low to TDO High Impedance
0
50
0
25
0
16
ns
1
TCK Cycle Time in Crystal Mode
2
NOTES:
(a) The electrical specifications in this document for both the 8.39 and 16.78 MHz @ 3.3 V ±0.3 V are preliminary,
and apply only to the appropriate MC68340V low voltage part.
(b) The 16.78-MHz specifications apply to the MC68340 @ 5.0 V ±5% operation.
(c) The 25.16 MHz @ 5.0 V ±5% electrical specifications are preliminary.
(d) For extended temperature parts T A = –40 to +85°C. These specifications are preliminary.
1
2
2
VIH
TCK
VIL
3
3
Figure 11-19. Test Clock Input Timing Diagram
11-24
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TCK
VIH
VIL
7
6
DATA
INPUTS
INPUT DATA VALID
8
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
DATA
OUTPUTS
OUTPUT DATA VALID
9
DATA
OUTPUTS
8
DATA
OUTPUTS
OUTPUT DATA VALID
Figure 11-20. Boundary Scan Timing Diagram
VIH
TCLK
VIL
10
TDI
TMS
11
INPUT DATA VALID
12
TDO
OUTPUT DATA VALID
13
TDO
12
TDO
OUTPUT DATA VALID
Figure 11-21. Test Access Port Timing Diagram
MOTOROLA
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11-25
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
SECTION 12
ORDERING INFORMATION AND MECHANICAL DATA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
This section contains ordering information, pin assignments and package dimensions of
the MC68340.
12.1 STANDARD MC68340 ORDERING INFORMATION
Supply
Voltage
Package Type
Frequency (MHz)
Temperature
Order Number
5.0 V
Ceramic Quad Flat Pack
FE Suffix
0 – 16.78
0 – 16.78
0 – 25
0°C to +70°C
–40°C to +85°C
0°C to +70°C
MC68340FE16
MC68340CFE16
MC68340FE25
5.0 V
Plastic Pin Grid Array
RP Suffix
0 – 16.78
0 – 16.78
0 – 25
0°C to +70°C
–40°C to +85°C
0°C to +70°C
MC68340RP16
MC68340CRP16
MC68340RP25
3.3 V
Ceramic Quad Flat Pack
FE Suffix
0 – 8.39
0 – 8.39
0 – 16.78
0°C to +70°C
–40°C to +85°C
0°C to +70°C
MC68340FE8V
MC68340CFE8V
MC68340FE16V
3.3 V
Plastic Pin Grid Array
RP Suffix
0 – 8.39
0 – 8.39
0 – 16.78
0°C to +70°C
–40°C to +85°C
0°C to +70°C
MC68340RP8V
MC68340CRP8V
MC68340RP16V
MOTOROLA
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12-1
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
12.2 PIN ASSIGNMEN — CERAMIC SURFACE MOUNT
RMC
R/W
D1
109
108
127 126
144
1
D0
D3
D2
D4
GND
VCC
D5
D7
D6
D9
D8
D11
D10
D12
GND
VCC
D13
GND
D15
D14
A25
A24
A26
VCC
A27
A28
GND
A30
A29
DSACK0
A0
A31
VCC
DSACK1
GND
12.2.1 144-Lead Ceramic Quad Flat Pack (FE Suffix)
CS0
CS1
SIZ1
CS2
IRQ3
DS
CS3
AS
GND
BGACK
BG
VCC
IRQ5
BR
IRQ6
BERR
IRQ7
HALT
DONE2
RESET
DACK2
GND
DREQ2
CLKOUT
VCC
DACK1
DONE1
XFC
DREQ1
VCC
X1
EXTAL
18
VCCSYN
19
TOP VIEW
MC68340
91
GND
90
VCC
XTAL
X2
SCLK
GND
MODCK
CTSB
VCC
RTSB
IPIPE
TxDB
IFETCH
RxDB
BKPT
RxRDYA
FREEZE
TxRDYA
TIN1
CTSA
TOUT1
RTSA
GND
TGATE1
TCK
TMS
VCC
TxDA
TDI
RxDA
TDO
TIN2
.
VCC
TOUT2
12-2
73
72
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A2
A3
GND
A4
VCC
A6
A5
A7
A8
A9
A10
GND
A11
VCC
A12
A13
A14
GND
A15
A16
GND
A17
VCC
A19
A18
A20
A22
A21
A23
FC0
VCC
GND
FC1
54 55
TGATE2
A1
36
37
FC2
GND
FC3
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
SIZ0
MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
The VCC and GND pins are separated into groups to help electrically isolate the output
drivers for different functions of the MC68340. These groups are shown in the following
table for the FE suffix package.
Pin Group — FE Suffix
VCC
GND
41, 50, 59, 68, 134
42, 51, 60, 69, 135
113, 123
114, 124
15, 17, 35, 143
13, 21, 36, 144
78, 90, 102
79, 91, 103
Oscillator
19
—
Internal Only
23
55, 126
Address Bus, Function Codes
Data Bus
AS, BG, CLKOUT, DS, FREEZE, HALT, IFETCH, IPIPE,
MODCK, RESET, RMC, R/ W, SIZ≈, TDO, TOUT1,
Internal Logic
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
CS≈, DACK≈, DONE≈, IRQ≈, RTS≈, R≈RDYA,
TOUT2, TxDx, T≈RDYA, Internal Logic
MOTOROLA
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12-3
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
12.2.2 145-Lead Plastic Pin Grid Array (RP Suffix)
Q
FC1
FC3
TDI
TCK
TIN1
FREEZE
IPIPE MODCK EXTAL
XFC
RESET BERR
BR
AS
SIZ1
A23
FC2
TDO
TMS
TOUT1
BKPT
DS
R/W
RMC
A22
FC0
GND
VCC
A20
GND
VCC
VCC
A0
A3O
A18
A19
A21
A31
A29
A28
A16
A17
VCC
GND
VCC
A27
A14
A15
GND
A25
A24
A26
GND
D14
D15
P
V CC
XTAL
VCC CLKOUT HALT
BGACK
N
TGATE1 IFETCH
GND
VCCSYN V CC
.
GND
BG
SIZ0
GND DSACK1 DSACK0
M
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
L
K
J
BOTTOM
VIEW
H
A12
A13
GND
A11
GND
VCC
GND
D12
D13
A10
A9
A8
VCC
D11
D10
A7
A6
A5
D7
D8
D9
A4
VCC
GND
NC
GND
D5
D6
A3
A2
TGATE2
V CC
A1
TOUT2
TxDA
TIN2
RxDA
1
2
G
F
E
D
C
GND
TxDB
V CC
GND
X2
X1
DACK1
IRQ7
GND
CS2
D1
VCC
D4
DONE1 DONE2
VCC
CS3
CS1
D0
D3
SCLK DREQ1 DREQ2 DACK2
IRQ6
IRQ5
IRQ3
CS0
D2
11
12
13
14
15
B
RTSA TxRDYA RTSB
A
12-4
CTSA RxRDYA RxDB
3
4
5
CTSB
6
7
8
9
10
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
The V CC and GND pins are separated into groups to help electrically isolate the different
output drivers of the MC68340. These groups are shown in the following table for the RP
suffix package.
Pin Group — RP Suffix
VCC
GND
D2, G3, K3, K14, M3
D3, G2, J3, K13, M2
C14, F13
D13, G13
AS, BG, CLKOUT, DS, FREEZE, HALT, IFETCH, IPIPE,
MODCK, RESET, RMC, R/ W, SIZx, TDO, TOUT1, Internal
Logic
M13, N4, N9, P9
N3, N7, N10, N13
CS≈, DACK≈, DONE≈, IRQ≈, RTS≈, R≈RDYA, TOUT2,
TxDx, T≈RDYA, Internal Logic
B11, C4, C7
C5, C8, C11
Oscillator
N8
—
Internal Only
P7
H3, H13
Address Bus, Function Codes
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Data Bus
MOTOROLA
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12-5
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
12.3 PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
12.3.1 FE Suffix
X
FE SUFFIX PACKAG
CERAMIC QFP
CASE 863A-01
PIN ONE INDEN
A/B
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
TOP VIEW
TRIMMED, FORMED DISCRET
SHOWING DATUM FEATUR
Z
R
K
Q
S
Z
Y
S
S
0.50M T X Y
C
M
J
M
W
∩ 0.10144X
T
SEATING PLANE
H
D 144X
G
ZS
0.20M T X-Y
0.20M T Z S X-Y S
S/V
SIDE VIEW
GULL WING LEAD CONFIGURA
MILLIMETE
DIM MIN
MAX
A
25.84 27.70
B
25.84 27.70
4.31
3.55
C
0.22
0.41
D
0.65 BS
G
0.25
0.88
H
0.13
0.25
J
0.65
0.95
K
0°
8°
M
0.325 BS
Q
12-6
INCHE
MIN
MAX
1.017 1.09
1.017 1.09
0.140 0.170
0.009 0.016
0.0256 BS
0.010 0.035
0.005 0.010
0.026 0.037
0°
8°
0.0128 BS
0.20 T X-Y
Z S
0.20S T Z S X-Y S
NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI Y14.5M
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: MILLIMETERS
3. DIM A AND B DEFINE MAXIMUM CERAMIC BODY DIMEN
INCLUDING GLASS PROTRUSION AND MISMATCH OF CE
BODY TOP AND BOTTOM.
4. DATUM PLANE -W- IS LOCATED AT THE UNDERSIDE O
WHERE LEADS EXIT PACKAGE BODY.
5. DATUMS X-Y AND Z TO BE DETERMINED WHERE CENT
EXIT PACKAGE BODY AT DATUM -W-.
6. DIM S AND V TO BE DETERMINED AT SEATING PLANE
7. DIM A AND B TO BE DETERMINED AT DATUM PLANE -
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
12.3.2 RP Suffix
V
145 PIN PGA
CASE NO. 768E-01
C
Q
P
N
M
L
K
J
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
T
D
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
G
S
A
B
PIN
A-1
G
BOTTOM
VIEW
1
L
V
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
M 145 PL
K
MILLIMETERS
INCHES
DIM
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
A
39.37
39.88
1.570
B
C
D
39.37
22.75
22.75
39.88
22.97
1.550
1.550
0.895
0.905
0.905
22.97
0.895
1.570
G
K
2.54 BASIC
2.92
3.43
0.100 BASIC
0.115
0.135
L
M
S
V
1.02
1.52
0.43
0.55
4.32
4.95
35.56 BASIC
0.040
0.060
0.017
0.022
0.170
0.195
1.400 BASIC
MOTOROLA
.. . . .
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12-7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
INDEX
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
— A —
BB Bits, 6-4, 6-29, 6-38
BDM Sources, 5-66
BED Bit, 6-27, 6-27, 6-30–6-31, 6-37
A-Line Instructions, 5-47
BERR Signal, 5-45–5-47
A/D
BES
Bit, 6-20, 6-31, 6-37
Bit, 7-15–7-16, 7-23
BFC Bits, 4-30
Field, 5-73
BGND Instruction, 5-66
Register, 5-76–5-77
Binary-Coded Decimal
A0 Signal, 3-6–3-13
Extended Instructions Timing Table, 5-106
Access Time Calculations, 10-6
Instructions, 5-26
Address
Bit Manipulation Instructions, 5-25
Access Time, 10-6
Timing Table, 5-109
Bus Signals, 2-4, 3-4, 3-16
Bit
Set/Reset Command, 7-37
Error Exception, 3-7, 3-39, 5-42–5-43, 5-45–5-46
Bits per Character, 7-23
Mask Register Example, 4-33
BKPT Signal, 5-65–5-66, 5-68, 5-71–5-72
Mask Registers, 4-31, 4-37
BKPT_TAG, 5-72
Registers, 5-10, 5-13
Block Mode, 7-13, 7-23
Space Bits, 4-20
BME Bit, 4-6, 4-25, 4-37
Space Block Size, 4-2, 4-3, 4-14
BMT Bits, 4-25–4-26, 4-37
Spaces, 2-5, 3-3–3-4, 4-2, 4-20, 4-30–4-31, 6-32
Strobe Signal, 2-6, 3-2, 3-4, 3-14–3-21, 3-44, 3-46, Boot ROM, 4-14–4-15, 4-36
Boundary Scan
4-22
Bit Definitions, 9-4
with Postincrement, 5-14
Register, 9-1–9-3
with Predecrement, 5-14
Break Condition, 7-11
Advantages, 10-13
Breakpoint Acknowledge Cycle
Alternate Function Code Registers, 5-10
Operation, 3-22
Applications Profile, 10-10
Flowchart, 3-24
Arithmetic/Logical Instruction Timing Table, 5-102–
Timing, Opcode Returned, 3-25
5-104
Timing, Exception Signaled, 3-26
Assert RTS Command, 7-28–7-29
Breakpoint Exception, 5-42, 5-46–5-47, 5-53
Asynchronous
Breakpoint Instruction, 3-22, 5-28, 5-40, 5-42,
Inputs, 3-1–3-2, 3-14–3-15, 3-44
5-46, 5-63, 5-94, 5-97
Operation, 3-14
Breakpoint
Signal, 2-10, 3-22, 3-24, 6-31
Setup and Hold Times, 3-2, 3-15, 3-18–3-21,10-7
BRG Bit, 7-32, 7-46
ATEMP Register, 5-67
BRKP Bit, 6-20, 6-27, 6-31, 6-37–6-38
Automatic Echo Modes, 7-14, 7-38
Burst Mode Transfers, 6-5
Autovector
Bus
Operation Timing, 3-31
Arbitration
Register, 4-5, 4-6, 4-23
Operation, 3-40, 3-41–3-45
Signal, 2-6, 3-5, 3-29, 3-32, 4-6
Flowchart, 3-41
Auxiliary Control Register, 7-18, 7-26–7-27, 7-32, 7-46
Interaction with Show Cycles, 3-44
Control, 3-44
State Diagram 3-45
— B —
Bandwidth, 6-4–6-5, 6-29
Controller Operation, 5-89–5-90
B Bits, 5-56, 5-57–5-58
Cycle Termination Response Time, 4-6, 4-30, 4-32
B/C Bits, 7-23–7-24, 7-47
Cycle Termination, 3-34–3-36, 3-47
Background Debug Mode, 5-64–5-65, 5-94
Cycle, 3-2
Command Execution, 5-67
Error Exception, 5-45
Command Summary, 5-75–5-76
Error Signal, 2-8, 3-5, 3-14–3-15, 3-22, 3-24, 3-30,
Serial Interface, 5-68–5-69
3-32–3-37, 3-44, 4-4, 4-6, 4-22, 4-30
Background Processing State, 5-7, 5-37, 5-64–5-73,
Error Stack Frame, 5-60–5-63
5-95–5-101
Errors
Base Address Bits, 4-20
Types, 3-34
Base Address Registers, 4-14, 4-30, 4-33, 4-37
Timing, without DSACK≈, 3-35
Battery Operation, 10-10
Timing, Late Bus Error, 3-36
Baud Rate
Resulting in Double Bus Faults, 3-39
Clock, 7-2, 7-26–7-27
Generator, 7-3, 7-8
MOTOROLA
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During DMA Transfers, 6-18, 6-20, 6-31,
6-33–6-35
Grant Acknowledge Signal, 3-40–3-44
Request Signal, 2-7, 3-37, 3-40–3-44, 6-25
State Diagram, 3-45
Bypass Register, 9-11
Byte
Transfer Counter, 6-15, 6-19–6-20, 6-34–6-35,
6-37–6-38
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
— C —
Calculate Effective Address Instruction Timing Table,
5-100
Calculating Frequency Adjusted Output, 10-7,–10-9
CALL Command, 5-68, 5-84–5-85
CD-I, 1-9, 10-11
CD-ROM, 10-11
Cell Types, 9-4
Output Latch Diagram, 9-7
Input Pin Diagram, 9-7
Active-High Output Control Diagram, 9-8
Active-Low Output Control Diagram, 9-8
Bidirectional Data Diagram, 9-9
Change of Flow, 5-91, 5-94
Changing
Privilege Levels, 5-38
Timer Modes, 8-6
Channel
Control Register, 6-4–6-5, 6-18–6-20, 6-26,
6-30, 6-36–6-37
Mode, 7-38
Status Register, 6-18, 6-20, 6-30, 6-37–6-38
Character Mode, 7-13, 7-23
Chip-Select 0 Signal, 3-30, 4-14–4-16, 4-33, 4-36,
10-5
Chip Select, 4-1, 4-13–4-15, 4-29
Access Time, 10-6–10-7
Overlapped, 4-15, 4-33
Programming Example, 4-33
Registers, 4-29
Signals, 2-5, 4-15–4-17, 10-4, 10-6–10-7
Clear to Send Signal, 2-11
CLK Bit, 8-21, 8-27
CLKOUT Signal, 2-8, 4-1, 4-9, 4-11, 4-13, 4-17, 5-69,
8-3, 9-11
Clock
Operating Modes, 4-9–4-12
Select Register, 7-8, 7-18, 7-26–7-27, 7-33, 7-47
Synthesizer Control Register, 4-10–4-11, 4-13,
4-28, 4-36,
Synthesizer, 4-1, 4-9
CM Bits, 7-38
Code Compatibility, 5-8, 5-11
COM Bit, 8-7–8-9, 8-12, 8-24–8-25, 8-27
Command
Format, 5-73–5-74
Register, 7-10–7-11, 7-23, 7-27, 7-46–7-47
Sequence Diagram, 5-74–5-75
Index-2
Compare Register, 8-2, 8-12, 8-26–8-27
Compressed Tables, 5-31–5-32
Condition Code Register, 5-10, 5-14, 5-20–5-21
Condition Codes, 5-10, 5-26–5-27
Condition Test Instructions, 5-20–5-21, 5-29
Conditional Branch Instruction Timing Table, 5-110
CONF Bit, 6-20, 6-30–6-31, 6-37–6-38
Configuration Code (Modules)
SIM40, 4-38–4-40
DMA, 6-38–6-45
Serial, 7-47–4-49
Timer, 8-28–8-31
Control Instruction Timing Table, 5-111
Control Register, 8-4, 8-20–8-23
COS Bit, 7-31–7-32, 7-34
Counter
Clock, 8-3
Events, 8-2
Register, 8-6–8-7, 8-13–8-14, 8-25
CPE Bit, 8-6, 8-8, 8-21, 8-24, 8-28
CPU Space, 3-3, 3-21–3-23, 3-28
Address Encoding, 3-21
CPU32
Block Diagram, 5-3
Privilege Levels, 5-7, 5-37–5-38
Processing States, 5-7, 5-36–5-37
Programming Model, 5-8–5-9
Serial Logic, 5-71–5-73
Stack Frames, 5-60–5-63
Crystal Oscillator, 4-9–4-10, 4-29
CTS
Bits, 7-31, 7-35
Operation, 7-11
CTSx Signal, 7-6–7-7, 7-11, 7-13, 7-20, 7-22, 7-29,
7-31–7-32, 7-35, 7-39
Current Drain, 10-11
Typical Operation Data, 10-12–10-13
Current Instruction Program Counter, 5-67–5-68
Cycle Steal Transfers, 6-5–6-6
Cycle Termination, 3-1
— D —
DAPI Bits, 6-19, 6-28, 6-37
Data
Bus Signals, 2-4, 3-2, 3-16
Holding Register, 6-12, 6-15
Misalignment, 5-45–5-46
Movement Instructions, 5-21
Port Organization, 3-5–3-7
Registers, 5-10
Strobe Signal, 2-7, 3-4, 3-17–3-21, 3-44–3-46, 4-22
Transfer and Size Acknowledge Signals, 2-6, 3-5,
3-8–3-15, 3-17–3-23, 3-28–3-30, 3-32–3-36, 4-2,
4-4, 4-6, 4-14–4-15, 4-32,
Transfer Capabilities, 3-5, 3-8–3-15
DBA Bit, 7-33, 7-35
DBB Bit, 7-33, 7-34
DBcc Instruction, 5-3
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DBF Bit, 4-6, 4-23
DBFE Bit, 4-6, 4-25, 4-37
DD Bits, 4-14, 4-17, 4-32
Destination Address Register, 6-15, 6-18–6-19, 6-28,
6-33–6-34, 6-37–6-38
Deterministic Opcode Tracking, 5-64, 5-87–5-88
DFC Bits, 6-32
Differences between MC68020 Instruction Set and
MC68340 Instruction Set, 5-5
DIV Instructions,
DMA
Acknowledge Signals, 2-10, 6-4–6-7, 6-10, 6-12,
6-15
Capabilities, 6-1
Channel
Initialization, 6-18–6-19, 6-36
Operation Sequence, 6-18–6-21
Termination, 6-18, 6-20–6-21
Done Signals, 2-10, 6-4, 6-7, 6-10, 6-12, 6-15
Programming Model, 6-23
Programming Sequence, 6-18
Request Signals, 2-10, 6-4–6-7, 6-18–6-19, 6-21
Timing
Single-Address Read (External Burst), 6-8
Single-Address Read (Cycle Steal), 6-9
Single-Address Write (External Burst), 6-10
Single-Address Write (Cycle Steal), 6-11
Dual-Address Read (External Burst—Source
Requesting), 6-13
Dual-Address Read (Cycle Steal—Source
Requesting), 6-14
Dual-Address Write (External Burst—Destination
Requesting), 6-16
Dual-Address Write (Cycle Steal—Destination
Requesting), 6-17
Fast Termination (Cycle Steal), 6-21
Fast Termination (External Burst Source
Requesting), 6-22
Transfer Type, 3-5
Transfers, Control of Bus, 6-6, 6-18
Transfers, 32 Bits, 6-2, 6-7, 6-35
Documentation, 1-10
DONE Bit, 6-15, 6-20, 6-27, 6-31, 6-37–6-38, 6-30
Double Bus Fault, 3-39, 3-41, 5-43, 5-66
Monitor, 3-40, 4-1, 4-4, 4-6, 4-23, 4-37
DSACK
Encoding, 3-5
Signals, 4-2, 4-4, 4-6, 4-14, 4-32, 10-5
DSCLK Signal, 5-69–5-71
DSI Signal, 5-69, 5-71
DSIZE Bits, 6-15, 6-29, 6-37
DSO Signal, 5-69, 5-71
Dual-Address
Destination Write, 6-15
Mode, 6-12, 6-28, 6-37
Source Read, 6-12
Transfer, 6-3
Dump Memory Block Command, 5-80–5-81
Dynamic Bus Sizing, 3-5, 3-14
MOTOROLA
— E —
Early Bus Error, 3-34
EBI, 4-2, 4-22, 4-33
ECO Bit, 6-7, 6-27–6-28, 6-37
Effects of Wait States on Instruction Timing, 5-92
Electrical Characteristics, 11-1
AC Electrical Specifications
Definitions, 11-2, 11-4
Control Timing, 11-6–11-7
Timing Specifications, 11-8–11-10
Timing Diagram, 11-11–11-18
DMA Module Specifications, 11-19
DMA Timing Diagram, 11-19
Timer Module Specifications, 11-20
Timer Module Timing Diagrams, 11-20–11-21
Serial Module Specifications, 11-22
Serial Module Timing Diagrams, 11-22–11-23
IEEE 1149.1 Specifications, 11-24
IEEE 1149.1 Timing Diagrams, 11-24–11-25
Typical Characteristics, 10-11
DC Electrical Specifications, 11-5
ERR Bit, 7-13, 7-23, 7-47
Error Status, Serial, 7-13
Event Counting, 8-14–8-15
Exception
Handler, 5-42, 5-51, 5-57, 5-59, 5-56
Priorities, 5-41–5-42
Processing, 3-32, 5-4, 5-38, 5-61
Faults, 5-54–5-59
Sequence, 5-40–5-41
State, 5-7, 5-38, 5-40–5-41
Stack Frame, 5-4,
Vectors, 5-39–5-40
Exception-Related Instructions and Operands Timing
Table, 5-112
EXTAL Pin, 2-9, 4-7, 4-9–4-11, 10-21
External
Bus Interface, 4-2
Bus Master, 3-4, 3-16, 3-40–3-44, 4-6
DMA Request, 6-2, 6-5–6-6, 6-19–6-20, 6-29–6-30
Exceptions, 5-40
Reset, 10-3
— F —
F-Line Instructions, 5-47
Fast Termination Timing, 3-15
Operation, 3-4, 3-15, 4-14, 4-30, 4-33
DMA Transfers, 6-20
Fault
Address Register, 5-67
Correction, 5-57–5-59
Recovery, 5-52
Types, 5-54–5-55, 5-57–5-59, 5-83–5-86
FC Bits, 4-2
FCM Bits, 4-32
FE Bit, 7-13, 7-24, 7-28
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Fetch Effective Address Instruction Timing Table, 5-99
FFULL Bit, 7-25
FFULLA Signal, 7-7
Fill Memory Block Command, 5-82
FIRQ Bit, 4-5, 4-16, 4-22, 4-35–4-36
FORCE_BGND, 5-72
Format Error Exception, 5-47, 5-52
Four-Word Stack Frame, 5-51, 5-60
Framing Error, 7-11, 7-24
Freeze Operation, 4-17, 6-24, 7-20, 8-19
FREEZE Signal, 2-10, 4-3, 4-17, 4-22–4-23, 4-36,
5-66–5-68, 5-71–5-72
Frequency Adjusted Signal
Skew, 10-9
Width, 10-8
Frequency Divider, 4-12
FRZ Bits, 4-17–4-18, 4-21–4-22, 4-36, 6-24, 7-20,
7-46, 8-19, 8-27,
FTE Bit, 4-14, 4-30
Full Format Instruction Word,
Function Code, 3, 6-18, 6-32
Encoding, 2-5, 3-3
Register, 6-7, 6-10, 6-12, 6-15, 6-32, 6-38, 6-37
Signals, 2-5, 3-2, 3-17
— G —
Global Chip Select, 4-14–4-15, 4-36
GO Command, 5-68, 5-83–5-84
— H —
Halt
Operation, 3-38, 3-39, 3-41
Signal, 2-8, 3-4, 3-13–3-15, 3-30, 3-32–3-38,
4-4, 4-6, 4-17
Halted Processing State,
Halted Processor Causes, 3-40
Hardware Breakpoints, 5-60, 5-64–5-65
— I —
IACK Signals, 4-15, 4-34
IARB Bits, 4-5, 4-22, 4-36, 6-25–6-26, 6-36,
7-21, 7-46, 8-19, 8-27
ICCS Bit, 7-20, 7-46
IE Bits, 8-4, 8-8–8-9, 8-21, 8-27
IEC Bits, 7-32, 7-46
IEEE 1149.1, 4-2, 9-1
Capabilities, 9-1, 9-4
Implementation, 9-2
Block Diagram, 9-2
Instruction Encoding, 9-10
Control Bits, 9-4
Restrictions, 9-11
IFETCH Signal, 5-64, 5-68–5-69, 5-87–5-88
Index-4
IL Bits, 7-21, 7-46, 8-20, 8-27
IMB, 6-19, 7-1, 8-1
Immediate Arithmetic/Logical Instruction Timing
Table, 5-105
IN Bit, 5-53, 5-56, 5-61
Input Port, 7-35
Change Register, 7-31
Instruction
Cycles, 5-97
Execution Overlap, 5-91–5-92, 5-94–5-95
Execution Time Calculation, 5-92–5-93
Fetch Signal, 2-19
Heads, 5-91–5-94, 5-97
Pipe Signal, 2-10
Pipeline Operation, 5-89–5-90, 5-93
Register, 9-9–9-10
Stream Timing Examples, 5-94–5-97
Tails, 5-91–5-94, 5-97
Timing Table Overview, 5-97–5-98
INTB Bit, 6-20, 6-27, 6-36
INTE Bit, 6-20, 6-27, 6-36
Integer Arithmetic Operations, 5-46–5-47
Internal
Autovector, 3-4, 3-29, 4-23, 4-36
Bus Arbitration, 6-18
Bus Masters, 4-6, 6-25
Bus Monitor, 3-4, 3-32, 4-4, 4-6, 4-17
Data Multiplexer, 3-7
DMA Request, 6-2, 6-4, 6-5
DSACK signals, 3-5, 3-13–3-14, 3-28, 4-2, 4-4,
4-14–4-15, 4-32
Exceptions, 5-66
Interrupt
Acknowledge Arbitration, 4-6, 6-25–6-26, 7-17
Acknowledge Cycle Types, 3-27
Autovector, 3-29
Autovector, Timing, 3-31
Flowchart, 3-28
Terminated Normally, 3-27, 4-7
Timing, 3-29
Acknowledge Cycle, 3-27
Acknowledge Signals, 3-29
Arbitration, 4-5–4-6, 7-21
Enable Register, 7-4, 7-34, 7-46
Exception, 5-68–5-69
Level Register, 7-21, 7-46
Register, 6-26, 8-20, 8-27
Request Signals, 2-5–2-6, 3-27–3-28, 6-26, 7-3,
7-21, 7-34, 8-4, 8-8, 8-9, 8-20
Status Register, 7-4, 7-22, 7-32, 7-34, 7-46
Vector Register, 7-4, 7-17, 7-21, 7-46
INTL Bits, 6-26, 6-36
INTN Bit, 6-27, 6-36
INTV Bits, 6-26, 6-36
IPIPE Signal, 5-87–5-88, 5-64, 5-68–5-69
IRQ Bit, 6-20, 6-31, 8-23
ISM Bits, 6-25, 6-36
IVR Bits, 7-22, 8-20, 8-27
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— J —
— N —
JTAG, 4-2
NCS Bit, 4-31
Negate RTS Command, 7-29
Negative Tails, 5-93–5-94
No Operation Command, 5-86
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— L —
Late Bus Error, 3-34
LG Bit, 5-56–5-57
Limp Mode, 4-19, 4-29
Local Loopback Mode, 7-14, 7-38
Location of Modules, 4-2–4-3, 4-20
Logical Instructions, 4-48
Long-Word
Read
8-Bit Port, Timing, 3-11
16-Bit Port, Timing, 3-13
Write
8-Bit Port, Timing, 3-12
16-Bit Port, Timing, 3-13
Looping Modes, 7-14–7-15
Loss of Input Signal, 4-9, 4-11, 4-29
Low Power Stop
Mode, 3-23, 4-13, 4-17, 4-29, 10-12
Low-Voltage, 10-10, 10-11
LPSTOP Cycle, 3-23
— O —
OC Bits, 8-6–8-8, 8-10, 8-22, 8-28
OE Bit, 7-13, 7-25, 7-28
ON Bit, 8-6, 8-8, 8-11, 8-24
One Mode, 8-23
OP0, 7-6, 7-36–7-38
OP1, 7-7, 7-36–7-38
OP4, 7-7, 7-36–7-37
OP6, 7-7, 7-36–7-37
Opcode Tracking in Loop Mode, 5-88
Operand
Faults, 5-56, 5-58, 5-61
Misalignment, 3-7
Size Field, 5-73
Operation Field, 5-73
Ordering Information, 12-1
OUT Bit, 8-7–8-8, 8-10, 8-24
Output Port
Control Register, 7-36, 7-46
Data Register, 7-6–7-7, 7-22, 7-37
Overrun Error, 7-11, 7-25
— M —
MAID Bits, 6-25, 6-36
Master Station, 7-15
Maximum Rating, 11-1
MC68681, 7-4
Memory
Access Times, 10-7
Interfacing, 10-5, 10-10
Memory-to-Memory Transfer, 6-1, 6-3, 6-5
Microbus Controller, 5-89, 5-91
Microsequencer Operation, 5-89–5-90
Misaligned Operands, 3-7
MISC Bits, 7-28
MODCK Signal, 2-9, 4-7, 4-35
MODE Bits, 8-6, 8-8–8-10, 8-12–8-14, 8-16, 8-22,
8-28
Mode Register 1, 7-13, 7-16–7-17, 7-22, 7-34, 7-47
Mode Register 2, 7-4, 7-17, 7-38, 7-47
Module Base Address Register, 4-2, 4-20, 4-36
Access, 3-27
Module
Configuration Register, 4-21, 4-36, 6-23, 7-19,
7-46, 8-18, 8-27
Locations, 4-3, 4-5
MOVE Instruction Timing Table, 5-101–5-102
MOVEM
Faults, 5-56, 5-58–5-59, 5-61
MOVEP Faults, 5-55–5-56
Multidrop Mode, 7-15–7-16, 7-23
Timing, 7-16
Multiprocessor Systems, 5-61
MOTOROLA
— P —
Package Dimensions, 12-6–12-7
Package Types, 1-9, 12-1–12-2, 12-4
Parity
Error, 7-11, 7-24
Mode, 7-23
Type, 7-23
PCLK Bit, 8-21, 8-22, 8-27
PE Bit, 7-11, 7-13, 7-24, 7-28
Period Measurement, 8-13
Periodic Interrupt
Control Register, 4-7, 4-26, 4-37
Generation, 8-6, 8-8, 8-9
Timer Register, 4-7, 4-27, 4-37
Timer, 4-1, 4-4, 4-7, 4-9, 4-17
Periodic Timer Period Calculation, 4-8
Phase Comparator, 4-11–4-12
Phase-Locked Loop, 4-9–4-12, 10-1–10-2
Pin Group, 12-3, 12-5
PIRQL Bits, 4-7, 4-26, 4-37
PITR Bits, 4-27, 4-37
PIV Bits, 4-26
PM Bits, 7-23, 7-47
PO Bits, 8-25
Port A
Data Direction Register, 4-34
Data Register, 4-34
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Pin Assignment Register 1, 4-15, 4-33, 4-37
Pin Assignment Register 2, 4-15, 4-34, 4-37
Pins
Functions, 4-15
Assignment Encoding, 4-15, 4-34
Port B
Configuration, 4-5, 4-16
Data Direction Register, 4-35
Data Register, 4-35
Functions, 4-16
Pin Assignment Register, 4-16, 4-35, 4-37
Pins
Functions, 2-6, 2-9, 4-16
Pin Assignment Encoding, 4-16, 4-35
Port Size, 4-14, 6-31
Port Width, 3-1, 3-7
POT Bits, 8-22, 8-28
Power Considerations, 11-2
Power Consumption, 1-8–1-9, 10-11
Power Dissipation, 10-11
Prefetch Controller, 5-90–5-91
Prefetch Faults, 5-55–5-58, 5-62
Preload Register 1, 8-6–8-13, 8-25–8-27
Preload Register 2, 8-10–8-11, 8-13, 8-26–8-27
Privilege Violations, 5-48
Processor Clock Circuitry, 10-1–10-2
Program Control Instructions, 5-26–5-27
Program Counter, 5-6, 5-67–5-68
Programming Model
CPU32, 5-8–5-9
DMA, 6-23
Serial, 7-19
SIM40, 4-19
Timer, 8-18
Propagation Delays, 10-7
PS Bits, 4-14, 4-32
PT Bit, 7-23, 7-47
PTP Bit, 4-7, 4-27, 4-37
Pulse-Width Measurement, 8-12–8-13
Pulse-Width Modulation, 8-6–8-7
— R —
R/F Bit, 7-22, 7-47
R/W Field, 5-73
RB Bit, 7-13, 7-24, 7-30
RC Bits, 7-30
RCS Bits, 7-26
Read
A/D Register Command, 5-76–5-77
Cycle Word Read, Flowchart, 3-16
Memory Location Command, 5-79–5-80
Modify Write Cycle, 5-53
Modify Write Faults, 5-55–5-56, 5-58
System Register Command, 5-67, 5-77–5-78
Read-Modify-Write Cycle Timing, 3-19
Retry Operation, 3-36
Interruption, 3-36, 3-43
Operation, 3-4
Index-6
Read-Modify-Write Signal, 2-8, 3-19–3-21, 3-40,
3-42–3-43, 3-45
Read/Write Signal, 2-7, 3-2
Real-Time Clock, 4-9
Receive Data Signal, 2-11
Received Break, 7-11, 7-24, 7-33
Receiver, 7-9, 7-11
Baud Rates, 7-26
Buffer, 7-11–7-12, 7-25, 7-30
Disable Command, 7-30
Enable Command, 7-30
FIFO, 7-12–7-13, 7-17, 7-22–7-23, 7-25, 7-33–7-34
Holding Registers, 7-9, 7-11
Ready Signal, 2-12
Shift Register, 7-9, 7-12
Timing, 7-12
Register
Field, 5-74
Indirect Addressing Mode, 5-5
Released Write, 5-57
Remote Loopback Mode, 7-14, 7-38
REQ Bits, 6-27, 6-29, 6-37
Request to Send Signal, 2-11
Reset
Break-Change Interrupt, 7-28
Effect on DMA Transfers, 6-20
Error Status Command, 7-28
Exception, 5-43–5-44
Instruction, 5-85
Peripherals Command, 5-85–5-86
Operation, 3-45, 3-46
Receiver Command, 7-28
Signal, 2-8, 3-45–3-48, 5-66
Status Register, 4-3, 4-23
Types, 3-45
Timing, 3-47
Transmitter Command, 7-28
Values for Counter and Prescaler, 8-2
Vector, 5-4
RESET Signal, 3-45–3-48, 5-43
Retry Bus Cycle Operation, 3-32, 3-34–3-35
Timing, 3-37
Timing, Late Retry, 3-38
Return From Exception, 5-51–5-52
Return Program Counter, 5-67–5-68
Returning From Background Mode, 5-68
RM Bit, 5-53
ROM Interface, 10-3
RR Bit, 5-53
RS-232 Interface, 10-4–10-5
RSTEN Bit, 4-29
RTE Instruction, 5-57–5-59, 5-61
RTS Operation, 7-11, 7-22
RTSA Signal, 7-6, 7-37
RTSB Signal, 7-6, 7-36
RTS≈ Signal, 7-11, 7-13, 7-22, 7-29, 7-38
RW Bit, 5-54
RxDx Signal, 7-6, 7-11, 7-14, 7-24
RxRDA Bit, 7-11, 7-13, 7-15, 7-24, 7-25
RxRDYA Bit, 7-34–7-35
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R≈RDYA Signal, 7-7, 7-36
RxRDYB Bit, 7-33, 7-35
RxRTS Bit, 7-22, 7-47
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— S —
S/D Bit, 6-30, 6-37
SAPI Bits, 6-12, 6-19, 6-28, 6-37
Save and Restore Operations Timing Table, 5-113
SB Bits, 7-39, 7-47
SCLK Signal, 7-3, 7-6, 7-8, 7-20
SE Bit, 6-25, 6-36
Selected Clock, 8-3, 8-21
Serial
Clock Signal, 2-11
Command Control, 7-27
Communication Overview, 7-3
Compatibility with MC68681, 7-4
Crystal Oscillator, 7-3, 7-5
Diagnostic Functions, 7-14
Initialization, 7-46–7-49
Interface Timing, 5-68–5-71
Interface, 10-4–10-5
Maximum Data Transfer Rate, 7-2
Module Capabilities, 7-2
Module Programming Model, 7-19
Module Programming, 7-40
State Machine, 5-69–5-71
SFC Bits, 6-32
Shadowing, 8-6–8-7
SHEN Bits, 4-5, 4-22
Shift and Rotate
Instructions, 5-24–5-25
Instruction Timing Table, 5-108
Show Cycles, 4-3, 4-22
Operation, 3-42–3-43, 3-45
Signal Relationships to CLKOUT, 10-7
Signal Widths, 10-8
SIM40
Configuration, 4-3
Programming Model, 4-19
Simultaneous Interrupts, 4-9
Single Address
Mode, 6-2, 6-6–6-7, 6-10, 6-19, 6-27, 6-37
Source Read, 6-7–6-8
Source Write, 6-10–6-11
Single Operand Instruction Timing Table, 5-107
Single Step Operation, 3-36
Six-Word Stack Frame, 5-52, 5-60
SIZ Bits, 5-56–5-57, 5-73
Size
Signal Encoding, 2-7, 3-3
Signals, 2-7, 3-3, 3-5–3-7
Skew Between Outputs, 10-9
Slave Station, 7-15
SLIMP Bit, 4-11, 4-29
SLOCK, 4-11, 4-29
Software
Breakpoints, 5-53–5-54
MOTOROLA
Interrupt Vector Register, 4-7, 4-24, 4-36
Operation, 4-4, 4-6, 4-17, 4-27
Service Register, 4-7, 4-28
Service Routine, 4-7, 4-25
Timeout, 4-25
Watchdog, 4-1, 4-4, 4-6
Watchdog Clock Rate, 4-7
Source Address Register, 6-7, 6-12, 6-18–6-19,
6-28, 6-33, 6-37, 6-38
Special Status Word, 5-45, 5-52
Special-Purpose MOVE Instruction Timing Table,
5-101–5-102
Spurious Interrupt, 3-29
Monitor, 4-1, 4-4, 4-6, 4-17,
Square-Wave Generation, 8-6, 8-8–8-9
SRAM Interface, 10-3
SSIZE Bits, 6-12, 6-19, 6-29, 6-37
Stack
Frames, 5-60–5-63
Pointer, 5-60–5-63
Start Break Command, 7-29
Status Register, 5-57, 5-59–5-60, 5-62–5-63, 7-10,
7-11, 7-24, 8-2, 8-4, 8-23–8-25
STEXT Bit, 4-13, 4-17, 4-29, 4-36
Stop Bit, 7-11
Length, 7-39
Stop Break Command, 7-29
STOP Instruction, 4-17
Stop Module Operation, 6-24, 7-20, 8-19
Stopped Processing State, 5-37
STP Bit, 4-17, 6-24, 6-36, 7-20, 7-46, 8-19,
STR Bit, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-19, 6-30, 6-35, 6-37–6-38
STSIM Bit, 4-13, 4-17, 4-29, 4-36
Supervisor Privilege Level, 3-3
SUPV Bit, 4-22, 6-22, 6-25, 6-36, 7-21, 7-46, 8-19,
8-27
Surface Interpolation with Tables, 5-29–5-36
SW Bit, 4-23
SWE Bit, 4-6, 4=24, 4-37
SWP Bit, 4-7, 4-25, 4-27, 4-37
SWR Bit, 8-6, 8-8, 8-13, 8-20, 8-27
SWRI Bit, 4-7, 4-24, 4-37
SWT Bits, 4-7, 4-25, 4-37
Synchronous
Accesses, 3-4
Operation, 3-14
System
Clock, 8-3
Configuration and Protection, 4-1, 4-3, 4-6
Control Instructions, 5-27–5-28
Protection and Control Register, 4-6, 4-24, 4-37
— T —
Table Lookup and Interpolate Instructions, 5-7,
5-12, 5-29–5-36
TAP Controller, 9-2–9-3
TC Bits, 8-7, 8-24
TCK Signal, 2-13, 9-2, 9-11, 9-12
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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Index-7
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
TCS Bits, 7-27
TDI Signal, 2-13, 9-2
TDO Signal, 2-13, 9-2, 9-4
Test Access Port, 9-1
TG Bit, 8-6, 8-8, 8-23–8-24, 8-27
TGE Bit, 8-8–8-11, 8-15, 8-24, 8-27
TGL Bit, 8-7, 8-24
Thermal Characteristics, 11-1
Three Point Three Volts, 10-11
Timeout, 8-2, 8-7–8-9, 8-12, 8-15
Timer
Bypass, 8-16
Clock Selection Logic, 8-3
Compare Function, 8-2, 8-6–8-9, 8-11–8-12, 8-14,
8-15, 8-25
Counter, 8-2
Counting Function, 8-13, 8-15
Gate Signal, 2-12, 8-6, 8-7–8-16, 8-21, 8-24–8-25
Input Signal, 2-12, 8-2, 8-5–8-17
Interrupt Operation, 8-4, 8-17, 8-19, 8-21,
8-23–8-24, 8-27
Output Signal, 2-12, 8-2, 8-5–8-17
Prescaler, 8-2–8-3, 8-21
Programming Model, 8-28
Uses, 8-2
Using to Compare Values, 8-6–8-8
TMS Signal, 2-13, 9-2
TO Bit, 8-8–8-9, 8-23–8-24, 8-27
Toggle Mode, 8-23
TP Bit, 5-61
TR Bit, 5-56, 5-58, 5-61
Trace
Exception, 5-57
Modes, 5-10
on Instruction Execution, 5-63
Tracing, 5-56–5-58
Control Bits Encoding, 5-53
Transfer Cases, 3-5
Mechanism, 3-5, 3-16–3-18
Transition to Background Mode, 5-65–5-68
Transmit
Data Signal, 2-11
Shift Register, 7-9, 7-11
Transmitter, 7-10–7-11
Baud Rates, 7-27
Buffer, 7-9–7-10, 7-25, 7-30–7-31
Disable Command, 7-29
Enable Command, 7-29
Holding Register, 7-9–7-10, 7-25, 7-33
Ready Signal, 2-11
Timing, 7-10
TRAP Instruction, 5-46
Two-Clock Bus Cycles, 10-3
TxCTS Bit, 7-39, 7-47
TxDx Signal, 7-3, 7-6, 7-10, 7-14, 7-29
TxEMP Bit, 7-10, 7-25, 7-28
TxRDY Bit, 7-10, 7-25, 7-28, 7-31
TxRDYA Bit, 7-34–7-35
TxRDYA Signal, 7-7, 7-36
TxRDYB Bit, 7-33, 7-35
Index-8
TxRTS Bit, 7-38, 7-47
Types of DMA Interrupts, 6-20
— U —
Unimplemented Instructions, 5-12
Emulation, 5-74
Exception, 5-48, 5-50
UNLK Instruction, 5-36
Use of Chip Selects, 4-15, 10-3–10-4
User
Privilege Level, 5-7, 5-37–5-38, 5-48
Using
8-Bit Boot ROM, 10-5
TGATE as an Input Port, 8-16
Table Lookup and Interpolate Instructions, 5-7, 5-12,
5-20–5-35
TOUT as an Output Port, 8-16–8-17
— V —
V Bit, 4-14–4-15, 4-20, 4-31, 4-36
Variable Duty-Cycle Square-Wave Generator, 8-9–8-10
Variable-Width Single-Shot Pulse Generator, 8-10–8-12
VCCSYN, 2-13, 4-9–4-11, 10-2–10-3
Vector Base Register, 5-4, 5-10, 5-39–5-41, 5-43
Vector Numbers, 5-34–5-40
Virtual Memory, 5-2
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator, 4-9–4-12, 4-28–4-29,
10-1–10-2
— W —
W Bit, 4-10, 4-12–4-13, 4-28, 4-36
Wait States, 3-14, 3-16–3-20, 4-1, 4-14–4-15, 4-17,
4-32
Wakeup Mode, 7-15
Word Operands, 5-12
WP Bit, 4-14
Write
A/D Register Command, 5-77–5-79
Cycle Word, Flowchart, 3-18
Memory Location Command, 5-79–5-80
System Register Command, 5-78–5-79
Write-Pending Buffer, 5-91
— X —
X Bit, 4-9, 4-11–4-13, 4-28, 4-36
X1 Signal, 2-11, 7-5
X2 Signal, 2-11, 7-5
XFC Pin, 2-9, 4-12, 10-2–10-3
XTAL Pin, 2-9, 4-9–4-11, 10-1–10-2
XTAL_RDY Bit, 7-4, 7-26, 7-33–7-34, 7-46
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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MOTOROLA
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
— Y —
Y Bits, 4-12–4-13, 4-28, 4-36
— Z —
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc...
Zero Mode, 8-23
MOTOROLA
MC68340 USER’S MANUAL
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Go to: www.freescale.com
Index-9
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