Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices

Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices
White Paper
Bradley Corrion
Naren Kumar
Manoj Punamia
Intel Corporation
Achieving PCI DSS
compliance when
managing retail
devices with
Intel® vPro™
technology
January 2013
328491
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 3
References ............................................................................................ 7
Intel® AMT Overview ............................................................................................... 7
Benefits for PCI DSS compliance environments .......................................... 8
Strong Role Based Access Control .................................................. 8
Account Authentication Options ..................................................... 9
System level and User level logging ............................................. 10
Monitoring Cardholder data environment with Alerting .................... 11
Monitoring Critical Software......................................................... 11
Inventory Management ............................................................... 12
Standards and Security ......................................................................... 12
Network Connectivity for PCI DSS Environment ....................................... 13
Wired Connectivity ..................................................................... 13
Wireless Connectivity ................................................................. 13
802.1x Support for Wired and Wireless ......................................... 13
Setup and Configuration of Intel AMT devices .......................................... 13
Default Password ....................................................................... 14
Using accounts with real user names ............................................ 14
Common Retail Remote Management Challenges ....................................................... 15
Remote Management with Segmented PCI DSS Environments ................... 17
Internet connected Store Locations (behind routers/NAT) ......................... 19
Air gapped or “Jump” Server ................................................................. 21
Third Party Managed Service Provider (IT Outsourcing) ............................ 23
Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 24
Acknowledgements .............................................................................. 25
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Introduction
This paper will show that using Intel® Active Management Technology
(Intel® AMT, a capability of Intel® vPro™ Technology) provides an effective
remote management solution for environments needing to comply with the
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requirements. The
paper will map Intel AMT capabilities back to the relative PCI DSS
requirements and provide some advice about using Intel AMT in common
retailer network topologies.
Confusion may arise when moving to structured management solutions such
as Intel AMT because it appears to create new PCI DSS challenges, when in
fact the implementation preparations are simply exposing latent PCI DSS
issues that have somehow missed consideration until this point. If an
implementation decision around a management solution appears to be
impacted by PCI DSS, an organization should first ask “how are the
organization’s tools processes avoiding the same problem today?” As an
example, if a debate is raging about whether a central command console is
pulled into PCI DSS scope by managing a particular point of sale network, ask
the question: who is providing management today to that network, and
where are they connecting from? Is today’s solution more or less desirable
than using a central command console with rigorous access controls, logging,
and auditing? The practical PCI DSS-related benefits of solutions such as Intel
AMT typically outweigh ad-hoc or limited feature management solutions.
More important than in-band vs out-of-band management is whether the
organization maintains compliance with the deployed tools and practices.
Figure 1 - The ultimate challenge is to maintain PCI DSS compliance while using
an effective remote management solution
Further compounding matters is the fact that Intel AMT is an Out of Band
(OOB) management solution, which means that the machine can be managed
even when the operating system is not running properly. There exists a false
impression that OOB management solutions create more PCI DSS challenges
than in-band solutions. The reality is that many organizations only discover
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
these challenges when they start seriously evaluating any structured
management solutions.
When moving to structured solutions an organization is likely originating from
one of two starting points:
1) They are already using remote management solutions and understand how
they impact their PCI compliance efforts, or
2) They are using remote management solutions and do not understand how
they impact their PCI compliance efforts.
In both cases reality dictates; someone, somewhere, is using some form of
remote management technology and the only difference is if the organization
has an adequate grasp of the PCI DSS impact.
One thing most managers do understand is that incentives, stated or implicit,
drive behaviors in their organizations. Task somebody with managing 10,000
point of sale computers and they will quickly deploy tools and automation to
create frictionless maintenance with a preference for easy addressability of all
devices under management. Task somebody with achieving and maintaining
PCI DSS compliance and they will push for a highly segmented, complex and
static network architecture that isolates card handling systems to ease
compliance activities. Combine those two incentives, and the organization
can get paralyzed trying to resolve the priorities. Combined with other
realities such as complicated store network connectivity, outsourced IT
services, and network diversity due to mergers and acquisitions, and PCI DSS
compliant remote management takes a backseat and is addressed instead
with insecure desktop sharing programs or other inappropriate solutions.
Another motivation of organizations tasked with maintaining PCI DSS
compliance is the reduction of scope, such that the organization can cleanly
declare computing resources “in scope” or “out of scope” for PCI DSS
compliance activities. The smaller the number of “in scope” systems, the
lower the workload and resources needed to achieve and maintain PCI
compliance. This is a well understood and measureable indicator, and as a
result most organizations strive to segment PCI DSS related networks into
separate domains, limit employee access, and reduce utility of the devices by
restricting network and internet connectivity. These actions fly directly in the
face of remote management solutions, which by design require remote
network connectivity, and often require non-automated interaction with the
device when remediating on a case-by-case basis. Enterprises with many
nodes under management typically centralize on command consoles which
help maintain trouble tickets, manage technical support activities, summarize
device status, and provide easy device connectivity.
Unlike in-band management solutions which rely on software agents running
on the managed device, Intel AMT offers out-of-band remote access to
devices by utilizing a secure microcontroller embedded into many Intel
platforms and operates independently of the main computer processor. This
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
distinction proves valuable because the device can be remotely managed as
long as it is plugged into wall power and has network connectivity.
Regardless of whether the device is powered on or off, running or blue
screened, booted or paused at a BIOS prompt; a remote management
console can connect to the device, check status, take control of
keyboard/video/mouse, reboot it, power it on, modify BIOS settings, boot to
another O/S, and much more. Of course, with great power comes great
responsibility, and so Intel AMT offers fine grained account privileges,
authentication, logging and auditing to map the technology to the security
controls required by an organization. In general, out-of-band solutions
complement in-band management solutions by making overall device
management more comprehensive. Typically in-band solutions are used to
provide routine and recurring management when the OS is up and running,
and out-of-band is used when the OS is not running or the system is powered
off, such as break-fix situations that provide faster responses, reduce
unnecessary truck rolls, and decrease total cost of ownership.
From observed experience, retailers are often challenged with these PCI DSS
compliance requirements with respect to retail endpoint devices [1]:
•
PCI DSS Requirement 5: Use and regularly update anti-virus software
or programs. Normally this is a challenge when network topologies
make it challenging to push or pull .DAT file updates, or when
configuration management tools do not have access to systems to
monitor software versions for compliance.
•
PCI DSS Requirement 8: Assign a unique ID to each person with
remote access. Challenges of managing fleets of far flung devices
combined with large numbers of technicians create logistical problems
for maintaining uniqueness on remote platforms. Throw in outsourced
IT, vendor and service provider access and the problems keep
growing. Even enterprises with strong identity services get challenged
when storefront networks effectively prohibit the use of central
directory services, creating islands of devices without enterprise
authentication services.
•
PCI DSS Requirement 10: Tracking and monitoring access to network
resources and cardholder data. Between insufficient logging tools,
business practices which complicate unique accounts, network access
issues, and inadequate separation of roles, enterprises struggle to
show solid controls to meet this requirement.
A common theme in the above challenges is that complicated enterprise and
store networks create challenges in using the tools IT normally applies for
credential management, log collection, PKI services, and so on. While ideally
suited for managing fleets of devices under normal IT purview, Intel AMT
offers a number of capabilities that offer key benefits in these complicated
retail environments:
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
•
Auditing and Logging: Separation of administrator and audit roles,
along with the use of least privilege permit Intel AMT to track and log
all system activities such as remote access, configuration changes,
alerts, and system power events. Audit logs cannot be tampered with
by non-auditor users, and Intel AMT cannot be re-provisioning while
audit logging is enabled (preventing intentional log erasure). PCI
DSS Requirement 10 compliance will benefit greatly from these
features, and later this paper will demonstrate some automated
scripting solutions for collecting Intel AMT device audit and history
logs.
•
Granular user privilege and role management: Intel AMT offers a
number of platform capabilities, and these features can be selectively
enabled to support the rule of least privilege. Users can also be
mapped to Active Directory accounts where feasible.
•
Use of strong cryptographic capabilities where possible. Remote
connections and provisioning can be forced to use PKI/TLS for mutual
device authentication. Remote logins can use Kerberos or HTTP Digest
(with nonce and replay attack defenses) authentication.
•
Strong provisioning methods help organizations efficiently bring new
devices online and deter attackers from using the provisioning process
for their own benefit.
•
Watchdog timers and sensing of software execution can be used to
alert management consoles that something is amiss. For example,
Intel AMT can monitor when an A/V agent stops executing and inform
the IT staff.
•
Hardware Asset Lists allow a central monitoring console to query
individual asset and system details and whether the system is
currently powered on.
•
Third party data storage can be customized by an enterprise to store
enterprise-specific information in non-volatile memory on the
platform. Examples include storing peripheral information lists useful
for when the O/S has to be reinstalled, DAT file versions or other
software versions installed, certificates, O/S patches installed, or a
description of the physical location of the system. These can be pulled
and made available to a remote technician.
These features and more will be described in more detail throughout the
remainder of the document. Additionally, this paper will describe these
particularly problematic retail enterprise challenges and how to cope with
them:
•
6
“Air gapped” store servers. Some merchants use an air gap in their
store networks to prevent direct network connections from external
networks into the store network. While seemingly problematic for
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
remote management solutions, Intel AMT has configuration options
that can work within this requirement.
•
Remote management behind NAT or firewalls where it is not possible
to punch through from external networks. This is often the case in
small stores, franchises, or vending environments.
•
Understanding how to support IT outsourcing (ITO): While this is not
uniquely challenging for Intel AMT, ITO and remote management is
always a problem.
References
[1] Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standard Requirements and
Security Assessment Procedures Version 2.0 October 2010
[2] PCI Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS) Version 2.0 August 2011
Information Supplement: PCI DSS Wireless Guidelines
[3] Advanced security Design Aspects of Intel® Active Management
Technology (Intel® AMT).
[4] Intel AMT SDK
[5] Intel® Setup and Configuration Software.
[6] Intel AMT Functionality to Realm Mapping
[7] Digest Master Password
Intel® AMT Overview
Intel® AMT is a capability embedded in Intel® vPro™ technology-based
platforms that enhances the ability of IT organizations or service providers to
manage retail systems. Intel AMT operates independently of the platform
processor and operating system, providing out-of-band management.
Remote management console applications can access Intel AMT securely,
even when the platform is turned off, as long as the platform is connected to
line power and to a network. While most mainstream consoles already
support Intel AMT directly, Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) can use the
Intel AMT SDK [4] to build applications which take advantage of these
features.
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Figure 2 - Simple Intel AMT setup
Management Console supporting
Intel AMT features
Switch
Intel vPro based POS
Benefits for PCI DSS compliance environments
Intel AMT addresses PCI DSS compliance concerns with capabilities not
addressed by in-band management tools alone. These enhanced capabilities
help IT managers flexibly define security policies meeting the practical needs
of organizations (such as employee role changes and complex network
topologies) which ultimately help the organization achieve and maintain PCI
DSS compliance.
Strong Role Based Access Control
PCI DSS Requirement 7 addresses the restricting access to cardholder data
by authorized personnel, systems, and processes as well as requiring the rule
of least privilege. Intel AMT meets these needs by providing a strong access
control list which can assign various device management tasks to authorized
users. Remote access and device management is not an “all or nothing”
activity, and Intel AMT allows the organization to map the actions to an
individual’s needs by role. This mapping is achieved by “Access Control
Lists”, and the mapped activities are called “Realms”.
Access Control Lists
The Intel AMT Access Control List (ACL) manages who has access to which
capabilities within the managed device. An ACL entry comprises a user ID and
a list of one or more realms (activities) to which a user has access.
There are two kinds of ACL entries based on their authentication method:
Kerberos and Digest. Kerberos entries use an Active Directory SID to identify
a user or a group of users. Digest entries use a username and password for
account identification. The simplest activation of Intel AMT enables a single
default user named “admin” with privilege set to all Intel AMT realms. The
admin user is always a Digest user. It is not recommended that the admin
role be used for day-to-day system management, but rather that the admin
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
role only manage the ACL entries to assign privileges and realms for those
that will provide routine maintenance. The admin user should not be used as
a shared account, and therefore the admin credentials should utilize strong
passwords. Additionally, in a subsequent section the paper describes how to
audit and track the actions of all accounts, including the admin account.
ACLs can be established during initial device provisioning, and updates to the
ACL can be managed either by managing roles in the Active Directory server,
or by using console tools and directly updating the ACL on the devices under
management.
Activities and Realms
Realms are the granular management activities assigned to an ACL entry.
Example realm titles include: Security Administration, Power Settings,
Remote Control, Secure Audit Log, etc. For a list of all realms supported by
Intel AMT, refer to the web page as listed in Reference [6].
Account Authentication Options
As mentioned in the Access Control List section, Intel AMT supports both
Digest and Kerberos authentication for user login. The authentication options
are discussed below.
Kerberos Authentication
Intel AMT provides for a standard, single-sign-on style of authentication by
utilizing Microsoft* Windows* Active Directory infrastructure, which manages
domain authentication based on the Kerberos protocol.
This authentication method eliminates the need for management applications
and consoles (including setup and configuration services) to manage unique
and strong username/password pairs for all Intel AMT systems. Instead, the
organization can extend standard methods and tools to manage deployed
fleets; users wanting to manage Intel AMT systems need only to authenticate
to the Windows domain to gain access to Intel AMT devices.
It is possible to define up to 32 Kerberos Security Identifiers (SID) and each
SID can represent an individual user or an Active Directory group.
Digest Authentication
Kerberos infrastructures are not always available or practical for some
merchant network topologies, and so Intel AMT supports HTTP Digest
Authentication based on RFC2617 for these cases.
While RFC2617 permits some basic (and weak) Digest authentications, Intel
AMT uses the advanced options to make the authentication as strong as the
RFC allows. The password is never sent to the managed system in the clear.
Rather a cryptographic hash is computed based on the username, password
and other parameters and is sent to the managed system to prevent replay
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
attacks. The cryptography method used in Intel AMT meets the strong
cryptography requirement in PCI DSS Requirement 3.4.
Depending on the Intel AMT version in the managed client, you can define up
to eleven digest users. The passwords defined must meet the criteria outlined
in the Intel AMT SDK [4].
Digest master password. As each Intel AMT system has a default admin user
with Digest authentication, the Intel AMT team has suggested a process for
managing fleets of deployed devices using a derived password technique
called “Digest Master Password”, or DMP. For more information on DMP,
refer to Reference [7].
System level and User level logging
Section 10 of the PCI DSS calls out system and user logging as a critical piece
of an organization’s security processes. Intel AMT technology provides a
powerful logging capability that captures high level system event information
such as boot sequence, OS hangs, and chassis intrusion, as well as
administrative logging that covers remote management history, password
attacks, and so on. The logging is separated into two types of log histories:
the system level event log (focusing more on platform events) and the audit
log (focusing more on the actions initiated by the management user).
Because management can occur when systems are powered on or powered
off, a platform level logging capability is required to record activities even if
the operating system is not running. Further, the audit log is critical to
monitoring the activities of even fully privileged administrator roles. There is
a risk that an administrator may be tempted to abuse their privileges, and so
Intel AMT can be configured to have an “Auditor” role such that even a fully
privileged admin cannot erase audit logs and histories. Further, Intel AMT
cannot be deactivated or re-provisioned if an auditor is defined, allowing an
organization to maintain checks and balances for the responsibilities of
system administrators. Finally, as mentioned below, there are automated
ways to periodically archive system logs into enterprise log management
servers.
Event Log
Once the Intel AMT system has been successfully configured, it will send out
events that are unfiltered (by default) indicating the successful booting of the
system covering BIOS execution – hardware initialization, successful
operating system boot and more. There are other events that Intel AMT
sends which require prior subscription such as OS Critical stop, boot error,
system firmware progress and much more. The event log will capture all of
these events and save a copy locally on a secure location in the flash which
only Intel AMT can read and write.
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Access Monitor (Audit log)
The optional Access Monitor feature enables an organization to create an
Auditor user to monitor activities performed on Intel AMT systems by users
and administrators. The Access Monitor feature is implemented with the
following conditions:
•
An independent Auditor user that cannot be changed or deleted by an
administrator
•
A configurable list of auditable events
•
A configurable list of alerts to send associated with the auditable
events
•
An interlock with administrators so that Intel AMT systems cannot be
unconfigured without cooperation from the Auditor
Intel AMT writes the configured events to the audit log. The Auditor and
others can review the audit log to detect break-in attempts, abuse of
privilege, or trace events to identify the root cause of various problems.
Backing up logs onto log server
Archiving logs maintained by Intel AMT is often a critical activity for
organizations to manage system health and security. Intel AMT logs can be
exported to different formats such as .TXT, .LOG or even .CSV for import into
external log servers as covered by PCI DSS Requirement 10.5.4.
For example solutions to export log files that can be imported to a log server,
visit the link
http://communities.intel.com/community/vproexpert/blog/2012/05/17/waysto-save-amt-log-data-using-powershell.
Monitoring Cardholder data environment with Alerting
Intel AMT offers alerting capabilities that send notices over Out of Band
connections to remote management consoles, and these alerts can be used to
monitor access to the cardholder data environment. Alerts can be sent based
on detection of brute force Intel AMT password attacks as well as upon
chassis intrusion1.
Monitoring Critical Software
Intel AMT offers watchdog timers to monitor the operation of critical software
components in the operating system. Typically this capability, called “Agent
Presence” is used to monitor if someone has disabled anti-virus protections or
other security related tasks. This can be used to help meet PCI DSS
1
These capabilities need sensors installed on the motherboard.
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Requirement 5.2 which requires the latest anti-virus software is running.
Intel AMT agent presence has the ability to detect abnormal exit of anti-virus
software and notify remote administrator via Intel AMT alerting. After the
notification has been received, the administrator can connect to the remote
device and remediate the problem.
Inventory Management
A configured Intel AMT system will provide on-demand hardware asset
information such as the type of the CPU, hard disk information, physical
memory and other information. This information can be archived in a
centralized database or retrieved irrespective of the power state or the
system. If desired, detection of physical tampering of the hardware could be
tracked by reviewing the current hardware and comparing with the last
known good asset information. PCI DSS Requirement 9.9.1 indicates to
maintain inventory logs of all media. This capability would be beneficial to
track easily removable items such as individual hard disk drives.
On the software side, Intel AMT provides access to 192KB space of NVRAM
access to authorized users via applications supporting Intel AMT. This space
can be used to store any critical information from the host operating system.
The information can then be read locally or remotely even in out of band
mode and enables a wide range of retail use cases and can be useful with PCI
DSS compliance. For example, tools could write the version number of the
latest anti-virus .DAT file to the NVRAM space, and later all systems could be
scanned to identify out of date installations.
Standards and Security
Intel AMT was designed keeping security at the core of the architecture.
While Intel AMT is thought of as a hardware platform capability, Intel AMT
also includes firmware and software components such as application, services
and drivers to support the capabilities described above. The software and
firmware components of Intel AMT follow best in industry coding standards,
change control process as defined by SDL. As a result, Intel AMT software
components meet and exceed the PCI DSS Requirement 6.5.
Intel AMT has the option to secure network communications with Transport
Layer Security (TLS). This protocol prevents man-in-the-middle class of
attacks by providing communication security and privacy between two endpoints over the internet and intranets. Network communications use the
standard IANA ports 16992-16995 to communicate with Intel AMT capable
platforms over Ethernet LAN or WIFI. Organizations can configure Intel AMT
in the PCI DSS environment with TLS enabled to address PCI-DSS
Requirement 4.1.
For details on the security of the following areas, refer to the security white
paper [3]:
•
12
Securing the Intel Management Engine Firmware storage and update
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
•
Isolation of Intel Management Engine Code Execution
•
Secure setup and configuration of the systems
•
Remote Network Interface authentication - HTTP Digest or Kerberos
authentication based
•
Securing an Intel AMT connection using TLS certificates.
Network Connectivity for PCI DSS Environment
The Intel AMT system can communicate with an external entity such as
management console via Ethernet LAN, i.e., wired or using Wireless LAN in
Out-of-band mode in a standard secure way and as a result meeting PCI DSS
Requirement 4.1. The following subsections will review in brief:
Wired Connectivity
In mainstream computing devices, all network traffic normally passes through
the system’s Ethernet controller to reach the respective operating system.
But Intel AMT traffic is routed directly to Intel AMT firmware in the chipset
without passing through the operating system.
Wireless Connectivity
On supported platforms Intel AMT traffic can pass through the wireless LAN in
out-of-band mode and requires WPA or WPA2 to secure the communication.
In a PCI DSS environment, Intel AMT devices configured to operate in
wireless LAN is strongly recommended to use WPA2 security option.
802.1x Support for Wired and Wireless
Intel AMT meets and exceeds the PCI DSS requirement of ensuring wireless
network transmission use industry best practice as stated in subsection 4.1.1.
Intel AMT supports 802.1x with EAP over both wireless and wired network
connections in out-of-band mode.
Setup and Configuration of Intel AMT devices
Setup and configuration is the process that initializes Intel AMT features on a
computing device and makes the device accessible to remote management
applications. Intel AMT devices, by default, are delivered in an un-configured
state. Configuration is required to populate various settings such as network
parameters, individual feature enablement, access control lists,
authentication, and remote network accessibility.
There are multiple supported methods for individual device setup and
configuration, ranging from high touch to zero touch, and with various
security aspects. We recommend using the method titled “Remote
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Configuration (PKI)” with TLS encryption which offers a zero-touch
configuration while maintaining the security that PCI DSS requires.
The whitepaper in Reference [3] covers different ways to setup and configure
Intel AMT under the section “Provisioning the System”.
Software tools to configure Intel AMT in different methods can be downloaded
from the website in Reference [5].
Default Password
Consistent with PCI DSS Requirement 2.1, Intel AMT mandates changing of
the factory default password during the configuration process.
Using accounts with real user names
PCI DSS requires that user accounts be allocated to individual users rather
than generic shared accounts (for user accountability). As Intel AMT devices
ship with an “admin” account, a few extra steps should be taken to adhere to
the PCI DSS requirements.
The recommended approach to creating unique user accounts for Intel AMT
devices is outlined below:
1. Using the default admin account, create properly named user accounts
with admin privileges (as well as any other accounts with limited
privileges) identified by the individual’s name. For example the
recommended way to create a new user is “Joe.Smith” user versus a
generic user name such as “level1_helpdesk”. It is up to the
organization to decide on the normal distribution of privileges and
realms, but typically at least one user retains full administrative
privileges (to insure that the system remains manageable should the
user account be removed).
2. Reduce the privileges of the default admin account as much as the
system allows.
3. Change the default admin account password to a very strong, random
password which is unique to each device, ideally using the maximum
password length supported.
4. The intent of this step is to ensure that the generic admin account is
never to be used again, and only named accounts are used moving
forward. To achieve this, either permanently destroy the newly
assigned password (effectively disabling the default admin account),
or securely store the password in a safe location, and where access to
the location is auditable. This is a non-trivial decision, and if an
organization chooses to retain the password in some form, the
organization should demonstrate how it is preventing the general use
of the password and the default admin account.
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Common Retail Remote Management
Challenges
This section describes how to use Intel AMT remote management
challenging retail infrastructures that are commonly seen . These
have posed manageability challenges for merchants and they are
here to illustrate how Intel AMT can be successfully introduced to
DSS compliance and improve device remote manageability.
within some
scenarios
presented
improve PCI
Figure 3 – Everything is in scope
Retailer Internal IT
Internal IT Helpdesk
with Intel AMT
Infrastructure Components
Switch
AD
DNS
·
·
VPN server
(Layer 2 Tunnel)
Intel AMT
Provision Server
VPN server
(Layer 2 Tunnel)
Switch
DHCP
CA
Store Intel AMT Profiles
Store Intel AMT devices
Internet
Retailer Store(s)
POS VLAN
Intel vPro based
POS
Intel vPro based
KIOSK
Non-Credit Card Trans Device
15
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
The figure represents retail networks that include internal IT helpdesk and
other systems including credit card processing systems under a flat structure
without any network segmentation intended to isolate PCI DSS systems or
network traffic. The internal IT helpdesk communicates to geographically
dispersed retail store locations over the internet using a secure VPN (Layer 2
tunnel) connection, and the devices in the retail stores are directly
addressable from anywhere in the network.
As PCI DSS scope is often determined by the connectivity of PCI DSS affected
systems, and the perceived challenge is the question of whether a centralized
management help desk spreads PCI DSS scope to other, previously out-ofscope managed devices. This is the classic example described in the
introduction, and the response is to treat the Intel AMT enabled console with
the same scope considerations as in-band management solutions already
being used for software updates and anti-virus .DAT file pushes. This is an
organizational decision, but the PCI DSS compliance is improved by utilizing
an Intel AMT enabled help desk’s role based access controls. Others may
choose to install a parallel help desk which is dedicated to in-scope PCI DSS
devices, and maintains a clear separation of roles for PCI and non-PCI
devices.
After Intel AMT is deployed, the organization will be able to realize these
benefits to aid in ongoing PCI DSS compliance:
16
•
Remote management using secure TLS connection and optimally using
mutual authentication.
•
Well defined role based access controls with privileges assigned to
individual users based on business need to know.
•
Better system level tracking and user level tracking via Intel AMT
event log and access monitors.
•
Integration with directory services such as Microsoft* Active Directory
to ease the process of user management.
•
Maintaining software and hardware compliance via Intel AMT asset
tracking capabilities
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Remote Management with Segmented PCI DSS
Environments
Figure 4 - Remote Management with Segmented PCI DSS Environments
Retailer Internal IT
Infrastructure Components
Internal IT Helpdesk
with Intel AMT
Switch
AD
DNS
·
·
VPN server
(layer 2 Tunnel)
DHCP
CA
Store Intel AMT Profiles
Store Intel AMT devices
Intel AMT
Provision Server
Internet
VPN server
(layer 2 Tunnel)
Retailer Store(s)
Router with ACLs
POS VLAN
Intel vPro based
POS
Intel vPro
based KIOSK
Store VLAN
Switch
Non-Credit Card Trans Devices
Intel vPro
based KIOSK
This illustrative example represents retail infrastructures with devices
processing credit cards that are logically isolated from the store and
enterprise networks. As a result of the network isolation, the PCI DSS scope
is reduced, which is a key motivation for organizations trying to maintain PCI
DSS compliance.
17
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
A retailer can address isolation in two ways in an attempt to reduce the PCI
DSS scope. The first approach is to build an infrastructure for in-scope
devices and build another infrastructure with out-of-scope. While this is
possible, for some retailers this may not be practical.
The second approach is to maintain one infrastructure with in-scope and outof-scope devices. But any remote access to the in-scope devices is to be
challenged with two-factor authentication.
In this scenario, the store routers (or firewalls) have been configured with
appropriate role based access controls which will limit, if not prohibit, remote
access to systems processing credit cards. Additionally as seen in Figure 4, a
credit card processing kiosk is connected over a private Wi-Fi network.
First, connectivity is required for a help desk to manage the PCI DSS scoped
devices. As in scenario 1, the responsibility of managing help desk technician
privilege and access control will be shifted to the help desk administrators,
just as they perform for all other management activities. That leaves the
Intel AMT deployment challenge primarily as a connectivity issue: allowing
help desk network access while maintaining the desired network
segmentation.
This is achieved through 1) two-factor authentication to firewall permissions
2) permitting the standard IANA ports 16992-16995 through the store
firewalls (but still private via the VPN tunnel to corporate), 3) using TLS
connections to avoid communication observation, and 4) using mutual
authentication to avoid man in the middle attacks. The two-factor
authentication can be done by using two of the three authentication methods
in addition to a unique username:
•
Something you know, such as a password or passphrase
•
Something you have, such as a token device or smart card
•
Something you are, such as a biometric
Further, for the wireless devices, be sure to enable the supported 802.1x for
strong encryption and authentication. The combination of these actions
should allow an organization to “trust, but verify:” trust that the network
isolation and management access is achieved, while using the other stated
benefits of Intel AMT such as audit logging to monitor for undesired activities.
After Intel AMT is deployed, the organization will be able to realize these
benefits to aid in ongoing PCI DSS compliance:
18
•
Remote management using secure TLS connection and optimally using
mutual authentication.
•
Well defined role based access controls with privileges assigned to
individual users based on business need to know.
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
•
Better system level tracking and user level tracking via Intel AMT
event log and access monitors through central log collection.
•
Integration with directory services such as Microsoft Active Directory
to ease the process of user management
•
Maintaining software and hardware compliance via Intel AMT asset
tracking capabilities
Internet connected Store Locations (behind
routers/NAT)
Figure 5 - Internet connected Store Locations (behind routers/NAT)
Retailer Corporate
Headquarter
Infrastructure Components
Internal IT Helpdesk
with Intel AMT
AD
Management
Console
DNS
DHCP
Router
with ACL
CA
Intel AMT
Provision Server
Intel vPro Gateway
In DMZ
Internet
Retailer Store(s)
Router/Firewall
POS VLAN
Intel vPro based
POS
Intel vPro based
KIOSK
Store VLAN
Switch
Non Credit Card Trans Devices
19
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
This figure represents the retail infrastructure where the devices under
management are remotely located behind firewalls or routers and are not
directly addressable by the central management console.
This infrastructure does not have site-to-site VPN tunnels between the
corporate networks and the retail stores and to compensate uses an Intel
vPro technology based Gateway sitting in the enterprise DMZ to receive
connections coming from managed devices in retail stores. Optionally, there
could be multiple Intel vPro technology based Gateway servers installed in
the DMZ to handle multiple retail store locations if desired.
In this usage, remote management sessions are always initiated by the Intel
vPro technology based system to the Intel vPro technology based Gateway
located in the DMZ, which allows the devices to navigate through firewalls or
NAT to reach the Intel vPro technology based Gateway (via standard ports
such as 80, 8080 ..). Alerts and scheduled device initiated connections are
handled automatically, but help desk driven tasks need to be queued or
coordinated with the expectation that the device may not be currently
connected.
The devices can initiate a connection to the Intel vPro technology based
Gateway in three ways:
(a) User initiated on demand – from the BIOS interface or from an Intel
AMT supported application running on the device.
(b) Alert initiated – Connections can be automatically established when an
Intel AMT alert is triggered. See section titled “Monitoring Cardholder
data environment with Alerting” for more information about AMT
alerts.
(c) Scheduled Maintenance – connections can be established at a defined
interval.
Once the Intel vPro technology based system establishes a connection to the
Intel vPro technology based Gateway, the help desk can be notified about the
active connection. At that point, helpdesk personnel would want to connect to
the Intel vPro technology based system and perform the desired
management actions, but the helpdesk user should be authenticated via twofactor authentication before being granted access to the device. Capable
consoles could automate these actions to notify specific technicians or alert
on specific devices that need attention. The device will remain connected
indefinitely but can be configured to time out due to inactivity.
20
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Air gapped or “Jump” Server
Figure 6 - Air gapped or “Jump” Server
Retailer Corporate
Headquarter
Infrastructure Components
Internal IT Helpdesk
with Intel AMT
AD
DNS
Management
Console
DHCP
Router
with ACL
CA
Intel AMT
Provision Server
Intel vPro Gateway
In DMZ
Internet
Retailer Store(s)
Intel vPro based Jump
Server
With Management Console
POS VLAN
Intel vPro based
POS
Intel vPro based
KIOSK
Store VLAN
Switch
Non Credit Card Trans Devices
Like the previous scenario, the devices under management are remotely
located behind firewalls or routers and are not directly addressable by the
central management console. Unlike the previous scenario, these devices do
not have direct networked access to the internet and are isolated behind an
“air gap” or “jump server”. Access to the devices requires first accessing the
jump server, and then accessing the device under management.
The recommended solution is to use an AMT enabled jump server that
maintains a persistent connection to the Intel vPro technology based Gateway
in the DMZ, so that the helpdesk can achieve immediate access on demand to
21
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
the jump server (as in the previous scenario, two-factor authentication should
be used when accessing devices situated in-scope). Once logged into the
jump server via Intel AMT KVM, the technician then connects to the targeted
Intel AMT device from the jump server. This last step can be a manual
process, or can be automated by using a locally installed, simplified
management console (for example, the Intel® Manageability Reference
Console). Alternately, the devices could be managed directly via their
embedded management web server using strong Digest authentication.
Either way, the jump server assumes the role of the store’s local
management console responsible for managing the store’s connected
devices; the jump server utilizes Intel AMT capabilities on the smaller store
scale just as the capabilities would map to the larger enterprise needs.
22
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Third Party Managed Service Provider (IT
Outsourcing)
Figure 7 - Third Party Managed Service Provider (IT Outsourcing)
Retailer Corporate
Headquarter
ITO (External)
External Help desk
user
Infrastructure Components
WebInterface
(https port 443/
http port 80)
AD
DNS
DHCP
CA
Internet
Router
with ACL
VPN Connection
(Layer 2 Tunnel)
Intel AMT
Provision Server
Gateway
Internet
VPN Connection
(Layer 2 Tunnel)
Retailer Store(s)
POS VLAN
Intel vPro based
POS
Intel vPro based
KIOSK
Store VLAN
Switch
Non credit card Trans Devices
The scenario represents an environment where a third party managed service
provider is delivering the device management and help desk services. There
is some debate among PCI professionals whether the third party is considered
simply a contingent work force, or truly a service provider as referenced in
PCI DSS Requirement 12.8. Intel AMT is able to function with this as well as
to support the controls required for these situations. For purposes of the
discussion, the scenario reflects the more difficult situation of a “true” service
provider.
23
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
In this scenario, the merchant’s infrastructure is maintained entirely within
the merchant’s property, including networking assets, servers, and the actual
remote management console. The third party IT help desk personnel are
located external to the network, and will log into the merchant’s management
console via web access from the merchant’s infrastructure. The merchant
retains administrative rights to the management console, and creates the
account roles and permissions for the external help desk personnel. Those
accounts need to be created with the same role based access controls in the
same manner as internal resources, and their actions would be tracked via
the normal console and Intel AMT device logging capabilities.
In Figure 7, the management console is running on the “gateway” server,
from which helpdesk personnel can access the PCI scoped devices. It is
recommended to place the gateway in front of a router which can provide
another layer of access controls for the devices under management.
PCI DSS controls unique to third party service providers can be applied to the
web connectivity of the ITO. Standard practices such as opening access
windows on demand or using two-factor authentication can be utilized to
control ITO access to the enterprise network, and then the normal access
controls and auditing of the command console can provide oversight for when
technicians are connected and performing their duties.
Conclusion
Merchant IT organizations are grappling with two competing priorities. They
need to maintain PCI DSS compliance, and they need to efficiently manage
hundreds or thousands of remote devices. Not to mention that new devices
are always being added, and those devices may have different form factors,
support requirements, and transactional security needs.
Intel® Active Management Technology can deliver on both priorities, and
likely helps an organization exceed compliance requirements while supporting
the device uptime metrics today’s merchants require.
For any questions check with your equipment sales representative or read
more about Intel AMT details in the reference. Most major retail OEMs offer
Intel AMT-enabled cash registers, kiosks, self-service checkouts, digital
signage, and office computing devices. There’s even a possibility your
enterprise has already been deploying Intel AMT capable devices.
The Intel® Embedded Design Center provides qualified developers with webbased access to technical resources. Access Intel Confidential design
materials, step-by step guidance, application reference solutions, training,
Intel’s tool loaner program, and connect with an e-help desk and the
embedded community. Design Fast. Design Smart. Get started today.
http://www.intel.com/p/en_US/embedded.
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Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Todd Aument and Walter Conway of 403 Labs
for their reviews and feedback on this paper.
Authors
Brad Corrion is a Platform Architect with the Intelligent Systems Group
at Intel Corporation.
Naren Kumar is a Solutions Architect with the Intelligent Systems
Group at Intel Corporation.
Manoj Punamia is a Platform Architect with the Sales and Marketing
Group at Intel Corporation.
Acronyms
ACL
Access Control List
AD
Active Directory
AMT Intel® Active Management Technology
API
Application Program Interface
CA
Certificate Authority
DNS Domain Name Service
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
ISV
Independent Software Vendor
ITO
IT Outsourcing
NAT Network Address Table
OOB Out-Of-Band
PCI DSS Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard
POS Point Of Sale
SDL Software Development Lifecycle
SID
Security Identifier
SOL Serial Over LAN
TCO Total Cost Of Ownership
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TLS
Transport Layer Security
VPN Virtual Private Network
25
Achieving PCI DSS compliance when managing retail devices with Intel® vPro™ technology
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